WorldWideScience

Sample records for miccosukee gooseberry ribes

  1. Controlling powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa) with potassium bicarbonate and risk of phytotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) severely infects young shoots, stems and fruits of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa). Environmental friendly and biological control measures are being sought throughout the world. Especially in organic currant growing effective control measures are needed,

  2. Use of potassium bicarbonate (Armicarb) on the control of powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Kanne, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca mors-uvae) severely infects young shoots, stems and fruits of gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa). Environmental friendly and biological control measures are being sought throughout the world. Especially in organic gooseberry growing effective control measures are needed,

  3. Biology and pathology of Ribes and their implications for management of white pine blister rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J. Zambino

    2010-01-01

    Ribes (currants and gooseberries) are telial hosts for the introduced and invasive white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola. Knowledge of wild and introduced Ribes helps us understand the epidemiology of blister rust on its aecial hosts, white pines, and develop disease control and management strategies. Ribes differ by species in their contribution to...

  4. Ribe Jernindustri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Rostgaard

    Internetpræsentation om Ribe Jernindustris historie lavet sammen med historie- og informationsvidenskabsstuderende ved Syddansk Universitet......Internetpræsentation om Ribe Jernindustris historie lavet sammen med historie- og informationsvidenskabsstuderende ved Syddansk Universitet...

  5. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: a review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian W. Geils; Kim E. Hummer; Richard S. Hunt

    2010-01-01

    For over a century, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) has linked white pines (Strobus) with currants and gooseberries (Ribes) in a complex and serious disease epidemic in Asia, Europe, and North America. Because of ongoing changes in climate, societal demands for forests and their amenities, and scientific advances in genetics and proteomics, our current...

  6. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /2006 S 4,00. Printed in Uganda. All rights reserved O2006, African Crop Science Society. SHORT COMMINICATION. EFFECT OF GIBBERRELLIC ACID ON GROWTH AND FRUIT YIELD OF. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY.

  7. Middelalderlige ringspænder fra Ribe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søvsø, Mette Højmark

    2005-01-01

    I middelalderen var ringspændets funktion at lukke kjortelens halsslids. Indtil nu er der fundet 16 af disse spænder ved udgravninger i Ribe by. Spænderne er en del af en fælleseuropæisk mode, der strækker sig fra slutningen af 1100-tallet til ind i 1400-tallet. I Danmark kendes de fra 1200-tallet...

  8. Micropropagation of Rubus and Ribes spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Ewa; Jagła, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is the most appropriate method for large-scale production of Rubus and Ribes spp. The proliferation rate of Rubus spp. differs in shoot tips and nodal segments. The culture media used for raspberry and blackberry propagation are MS-based supplemented with different combination and ratio of plant growth regulators, depending on the stage of culture. The initiation medium containing 0.4 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA is used to stabilize shoot cultures. In multiplication media, concentration of cytokinin is doubled. In vitro rooting of shoots is achieved on media supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) IBA. Ribes spp. cultures are initiated from shoot tips, meristem, or dormant buds on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA, 0.5 mg L(-1) IBA, and 0.1 mg L(-1) GA(3.) After stabilization of shoot cultures in 3-4-week time, shoot multiplication is carried out on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA. Shoots 2 cm long are cultured to rooting on a medium amended with 2.0 mg L(-1) IBA and 5.0 mg L(-1) IAA. Rooted plantlets are transferred to universal peat substrate and acclimatized in the greenhouse.

  9. Control of Dieback, Caused by Eutypa lata, in Red Currant (Ribes rubrum) and Gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa) in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Wenneker, M.; Steeg, van der, P.A.H.; Vink, P.; Brouwershaven, van, I.R.; Raak, van, M.

    2012-01-01

    Over decades, growers in the Netherlands have problems with a disease that causes dying branches and stem cankers in red currant. For many years it was assumed that this disease was related to fungi such as Nectria cinnabarina, Phomopsis spp. and the insect Synanthedon tipuliformis. However, recently it was found by Applied Plant Research and the Plant Protection Service that the causal organism is the fungus Eutypa lata. The disease is considered of major economic importance, especially as r...

  10. Control of Dieback, Caused by Eutypa lata, in Red Currant (Ribes rubrum) and Gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Steeg, van der P.A.H.; Vink, P.; Brouwershaven, van I.R.; Raak, van M.

    2012-01-01

    Over decades, growers in the Netherlands have problems with a disease that causes dying branches and stem cankers in red currant. For many years it was assumed that this disease was related to fungi such as Nectria cinnabarina, Phomopsis spp. and the insect Synanthedon tipuliformis. However,

  11. Wood anatomy of Ribes magellanicum (Grossulariaceae Anatomía de la madera de Ribes magellanicum (Grossulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto R. Pujana

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Wood anatomy description of Ribes magellanicum Poir. is given including specimens of its two subspecies. This is the first detailed secondary xylem study of a species included in the South and Central American subgenus Parilla Jancz. Wood anatomy of R. magellanicum shows the following typical anatomical features cited for northern hemisphere Ribes L.: small vessels, rays of two distinct sizes and scalariform perforation plates.Se describe la anatomía de la madera de Ribes magellanicum Poir. incluyendo especimenes de sus dos subespecies. Es la primera descripción detallada del xilema secundario de una especie del subgénero de Centro y Sudamérica Parilla Jancz. La anatomía de R. magellanicum muestra las características típicas citadas para las Ribes L. del hemisferio norte: vasos pequeños, radios de dos tamaños distintos y placas de perforación escalariformes.

  12. Genetic background of resistance to gall mite in Ribes species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Mazeikiene

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to gall mite is an important genetic trait of Ribes. P and Ce genes, responsible for gall mite resistance, were established in Ribes species and interspecific hybrids using molecular markers. Resistance in R. americanum is determined by P gene and in R. sanguineum by Ce gene. Both molecular markers were absent in R. dikuscha genome. Molecular markers related to P and Ce genes were identified in the genome of R. aureum. Resistance to gall mite in the field conditions in R. nigrum x R. americanum, R. nigrum x R. aureum and R. nigrum x R. sanguineum F3 hybrids fitted an expected Mendelian segregation ratio of 1:1, 3:1 and 1:1, respectively. 75.0% of hybrids with a pyramidal resistance to gall mite carrying markers related to Ce and P genes were obtained in the cross combination R. nigrum x R. aureum and will be included in the future breeding programs.

  13. Utvrđivanje prisustva histamina u uzorcima ribe

    OpenAIRE

    Smajlović, Ahmed; Baković, Asima; Mujezinović, Indira; Muminović, Mehmed; Smajlović, Muhamed; Kapetanović, Osman; Hadžijusufović, Senada

    2008-01-01

    Histamin je biogeni amin koji u namirnicama bogatim proteinima nastaje razlaganjem aminokiseline histidina. Ovo razlaganje je uzrokovano rastom određenih vrsta bakterija. Komercijalni uzorci ribe iz uvoza analizirani su na prisustvo i količinu histamina ELISA testom (RIDASCREEN® Histamin). Dobiveni rezultati bi trebali predstavljati osnovu za uvođenje stalne kontrole prisustva histamina u namirnicama koje su bogate proteinima (riba, sir, mlijeko, meso) i vinu, te tako osigurati prevenciju otr...

  14. Health-promoting compounds in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, Mary Luz; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud; Boekel, van Tiny

    2016-01-01

    Background The fruit of Physalis peruviana L., known as Cape Gooseberry (CG) is a source of a variety of compounds with potential health benefits. Therefore, CG has been subject of scientific and commercial interest. Scope and approach This review paper evaluates changes of such health-promoting

  15. 76 FR 78231 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis... fresh Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. We solicited comments on the...

  16. Glycosidically bound flavor compounds of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, H; Knapp, H; Winterhalter, P; Duque, C

    2001-04-01

    The bound volatile fraction of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruit harvested in Colombia has been examined by HRGC and HRGC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysis using a nonselective pectinase (Rohapect D5L). Forty bound volatiles could be identified, with 21 of them being reported for the first time in cape gooseberry. After preparative isolation of the glycosidic precursors on XAD-2 resin, purification by multilayer coil countercurrent chromatography and HPLC of the peracetylated glycosides were carried out. Structure elucidation by NMR, ESI-MS/MS, and optical rotation enabled the identification of (1S,2S)-1-phenylpropane-1,2-diol 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and p-menth-4(8)-ene-1,2-diol 1-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2). Both glycosides have been identified for the first time in nature. They could be considered as immediate precursors of 1-phenylpropane-1,2-diol and p-menth-4(8)-ene-1,2-diol, typical volatiles found in the fruit of cape gooseberry.

  17. 78 FR 49972 - Importation of Cape Gooseberry From Colombia Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... (Physalis peruviana) from Colombia is authorized for importation into the United States if the commodity is... added to read as follows: Sec. 319.56-60 Cape gooseberry from Colombia. Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) may be imported into the United States from Colombia in accordance with the conditions described...

  18. Evaluating the effect of storage conditions on the shelf life of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, Mary Luz; Dekker, Matthijs; Boekel, van Tiny; Verkerk, Ruud

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is the fruit of the plant Physalis peruviana L. and has gained commercial and scientific interest for its contents of health-promoting compounds. An integral approach to estimate shelf life of cape gooseberry was conducted taking into account physicochemical, microbiological and

  19. Misaligned Preferences And Perceptions On Quality Attributes Of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis Peruviana L) Supply Chain Actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, M.L.; Linnemann, A.R.; Pascucci, S.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L) is the second most exported fruit in Colombia. The market has grown in the last years due to the interest of consumers in this exotic, good appearance and nutritious fruit. Although, Cape Gooseberry is promising in various aspects, the supply chain still

  20. Hydroxyester disaccharides from fruits of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Humberto; Duque, Carmenza; Knapp, Holger; Winterhalter, Peter

    2002-02-01

    The 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside of ethyl 3-hydroxyoctanoate and the diastereomeric 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosides of (3R) and (3S)-butyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, respectively, were isolated by chromatographic methods from fruits of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) harvested in Colombia. Their structures were identified by ESI-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. The three glycoconjugates can be considered as immediate precursors of ethyl 3-hydroxyoctanoate and butyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, which are important aroma volatiles found in the fruit.

  1. Characterization of the genome of a novel ilarvirus naturally infecting Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-García, Yuliana M; Jaramillo-Mesa, Helena; Toro-Fernández, Luisa F; Marín-Montoya, Mauricio; Gutiérrez, Pablo A

    2018-06-01

    As part of an initiative to characterize viruses infecting Cape gooseberry in the province of Antioquia (Colombia), we report the genome sequence of a new member of the genus Ilarvirus (family Bromoviridae). This virus was identified in a Cape gooseberry plot in the municipality of Marinilla in a mixed infection with potato virus Y (PVY) as part of high-throughput sequencing initiative. Results were confirmed by nested RT-PCR and DAS-ELISA. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Cape gooseberry ilarvirus is a new member of subgroup 1 and it is most closely related to ageratum latent virus (AgLV). The name "Cape gooseberry ilarvirus 1" (CGIV-1) is proposed for this new ilarvirus.

  2. Anatomic Aspects of Formation and Growth of the Cape Gooseberry Fruit Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernando Mazorra

    2006-01-01

    confirmed that anatomically the Cape gooseberry fruits, ecotipo Colombia, and ruderal type are similar, which demonstrates the absence of appreciable anatomical changes that explain the greater size of the fruits of ecotipo Colombia.

  3. 76 FR 49726 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.), with husks, to be imported from Chile into the... with the importation into the continental United States of fresh Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. Based on this analysis, we concluded that the application of one or...

  4. Association analysis for disease resistance to Fusarium oxysporum in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A; Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E; González, Carolina; Fernández-Pozo, Noé; Mueller, Lukas A; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2016-03-18

    Vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum is the most important disease in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in Colombia. The development of resistant cultivars is considered one of the most cost-effective means to reduce the impact of this disease. In order to do so, it is necessary to provide breeders with molecular markers and promising germplasm for introgression of different resistance loci as part of breeding schemes. Here we described an association mapping study in cape gooseberry with the goal to: (i) select promising materials for use in plant breeding and (ii) identify SNPs associated with the cape gooseberry resistance response to the F. oxysporum pathogen under greenhouse conditions, as potential markers for cape gooseberry breeding. We found a total of 21 accessions with different resistance responses within a diversity panel of 100 cape gooseberry accessions. A total of 60,663 SNPs were also identified within the same panel by means of GBS (Genotyping By Sequencing). Model-based population structure and neighbor-joining analyses showed three populations comprising the cape gooseberry panel. After correction for population structure and kinship, we identified SNPs markers associated with the resistance response against F. oxysporum. The identification of markers was based on common tags using the reference genomes of tomato and potato as well as the root/stem transcriptome of cape gooseberry. By comparing their location with the tomato genome, 16 SNPs were found in genes involved in defense/resistance response to pathogens, likewise when compared with the genome of potato, 12 markers were related. The work presented herein provides the first association mapping study in cape gooseberry showing both the identification of promising accessions with resistance response phenotypes and the identification of a set of SNP markers mapped to defense/resistance response genes of reference genomes. Thus, the work also provides new knowledge on candidate

  5. [Parasite eggs identified in material from archaeological excavations in Ribe (the viking age) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, P; Jorgensen, R J

    1977-06-01

    Eggs of Fasciola hepatica, Ascaris sp., Taenia sp., and Trichuris sp. have been demonstrated in archaeological excavations from the early viking period (750--800 A.D.) in Ribe, the oldest urban society of Denmark. The origin of the faecal material is discussed. The parasitological examinations are continued and extended.

  6. Development of the Northern European Ribes core collection based on a microsatellite (SSR) marker diversity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonius, Kristiina; Karhu, S.; Kaldmäe, H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to support the selection process of the most valuable currant and gooseberry accessions cultivated in Northern Europe, in order to establish a decentralized core collection and, following the selection, to ensure sufficient genetic diversity in the selected collection....... Molecular analyses of the material from nine project partners were run at seven different laboratories. The results were first analysed for each partner separately, and then combined to ensure sufficient genetic diversity in the core collection....

  7. Thermal stability of phytochemicals, HMF and antioxidant activity in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, Mary Luz; Verkerk, Ruud; Boekel, van Tiny; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is a fruit recognised for having relevant contents of health-promoting compounds. Changes in the content of phytochemicals (ascorbic acid, β-carotene, catechin and epicatechin), hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and antioxidant activity of this fruit were studied at various temperatures

  8. In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic potential of gold and silver nanoparticles prepared using Embelia ribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayalan, Manikandan; Denison, Michael Immanuel Jesse; L, Anitha Jegadeeshwari; Krishnan, Kathiravan; N, Nagendra Gandhi

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the green synthesis of gold (GNPs) and silver (SNPs) nanoparticles has gained great interest among chemists and researchers. The present study reports an eco-friendly, cost-effective, rapid and easy method for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using the seed extract of Embelia ribes (SEEr) as capping and reducing agent. The synthesised GNPs and SNPs were characterised using the following techniques: UV-vis spectroscopy, DLS, HR-TEM, FT-IR and XRD. The free radical scavenging potential of GNPs and SNPs was measured by DPPH assay and Phosphomolybdenum assay. Further, the antimicrobial activity against two micro-organisms were tested using disc diffusion method and cytotoxicity of GNPs and SNPs was determined against MCF-7 cell lines at different concentrations by MTT assay. Both the GNPs and SNPs prepared from E. ribes comparatively showed promising results thereby proving their clinical importance.

  9. Anthocyanins, phenolics, and antioxidant capacity in diverse small fruits: vaccinium, rubus, and ribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Richard A; Hummer, Kim E; Finn, Chad E; Frei, Balz; Wrolstad, Ronald E

    2002-01-30

    Fruits from 107 genotypes of Vaccinium L., Rubus L., and Ribes L., were analyzed for total anthocyanins (ACY), total phenolics (TPH), and antioxidant capacities as determined by oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Fruit size was highly correlated (r = 0.84) with ACY within Vaccinium corymbosum L., but was not correlated to ACY across eight other Vaccinium species, or within 27 blackberry hybrids. Certain Vaccinium and Ribes fruits with pigmented flesh were lower in ACY, TPH, ORAC, and FRAP compared to those values in berries with nonpigmented flesh. ORAC values ranged from 19 to 131 micromol Trolox equivalents/g in Vaccinium, from 13 to 146 in Rubus, and from 17 to 116 in Ribes. Though ACY may indicate TPH, the range observed in ACY/TPH ratios precludes prediction of ACY from TPH and vice versa for a single genotype. In general, TPH was more highly correlated to antioxidant capacity than ACY was. This study demonstrates the wide diversity of phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacities within and across three genera of small fruit.

  10. Detection of the polyphenolic components in[i] Ribes nigrum[/i] L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica BUTNARIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The blackcurrant ([i]Ribes nigrum [/i]L. is a species of native currant which contains a lot of polyphenolic antioxidants which is used medicinally and has a fundamental role in the maintenance health. Materials, methods and objective. Ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry and ultraviolet range high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were used to characterize the polyphenolic content of common Ribes nigrum collected in the western part of the Banat Region in Romania. Results. UV–visible spectrophotometry was a reliable tool for identifying the phenolic compounds class. Polyphenols calibration curves from the methanolic extracts showed a good linearity (r2>0.984 within test ranges and generated a well–designed absorption band with a local maximum at 273.2 nm band, which can be attributed to thr electronic transition of the n–p* type. Chromatographic separation and analysis of the methanol extract was useful for the structural epigallocatechin (EGC and epigallocatechin–3–gallate (EGCG characterization of primary antioxidant compounds. Conclusions. The new, slightly modified, chromatographic system can serve for the development of a quantitative assessment methodology of epigallocatechin and epigallocatechin–3–gallate compounds, as well as for the comparative characterisation mand standardisation of the dominant polyphenolic components in [i]Ribes nigrum[/i] using EGC and EGCG standards.

  11. Functional conservation of the Drosophila gooseberry gene and its evolutionary alleles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available The Drosophila Pax gene gooseberry (gsb is required for development of the larval cuticle and CNS, survival to adulthood, and male fertility. These functions can be rescued in gsb mutants by two gsb evolutionary alleles, gsb-Prd and gsb-Pax3, which express the Drosophila Paired and mouse Pax3 proteins under the control of gooseberry cis-regulatory region. Therefore, both Paired and Pax3 proteins have conserved all the Gsb functions that are required for survival of embryos to fertile adults, despite the divergent primary sequences in their C-terminal halves. As gsb-Prd and gsb-Pax3 uncover a gsb function involved in male fertility, construction of evolutionary alleles may provide a powerful strategy to dissect hitherto unknown gene functions. Our results provide further evidence for the essential role of cis-regulatory regions in the functional diversification of duplicated genes during evolution.

  12. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for the Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana

    OpenAIRE

    Simbaqueba, Jaime; S?nchez, Pilar; Sanchez, Erika; N??ez Zarantes, Victor Manuel; Chacon, Maria Isabel; Barrero, Luz Stella; Mari?o-Ram?rez, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Physalis peruviana, commonly known as Cape gooseberry, is an Andean Solanaceae fruit with high nutritional value and interesting medicinal properties. In the present study we report the development and characterization of microsatellite loci from a P. peruviana commercial Colombian genotype. We identified 932 imperfect and 201 perfect Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) loci in untranslated regions (UTRs) and 304 imperfect and 83 perfect SSR loci in coding regions from the assembled Physalis peruvi...

  13. Enzymatic extraction of star gooseberry (Phyllanthus acidus) juice with high antioxidant level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loan, Do Thi Thanh; Tra, Tran Thi Thu; Nguyet, Ton Nu Minh; Man, Le Van Viet

    2017-09-01

    Ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds are main antioxidants in star gooseberry (Phyllanthus acidus) fruit. In this study, Pectinex Ultra SP-L preparation with pectinase activity was used in the extraction of star gooseberry juice. The effects of pectinase concentration and biocatalytic time on the content of ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the fruit juice were firstly investigated. Response surface methodology was then used to optimize the conditions of enzymatic extraction for maximizing the antioxidant activity of the star gooseberry juice. The optimal pectinase concentration and biocatalytic time were 19 polygalacturonase units per 100g pulp dry weight and 67 min, respectively under which the maximal antioxidant activity achieved 5595±6 µmol Trolox equivalent per 100g juice dry weight. On the basis of kinetic model of second-order extraction, the extraction rate constant of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds in the enzymatic extraction increased approximately 21% and 157%, respectively in comparison with that in the conventional extraction. Application of pectinase preparation to the fruit juice extraction was therefore potential for improvement in antioxidant level of the product.

  14. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Karent; Osorio, Edison

    2016-04-15

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is an exotic fruit highly valued, however it is a very rich source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In this study, Cape gooseberry PPO was isolated and biochemically characterized. The enzyme was extracted and purified using acetone and aqueous two-phase systems. The data indicated that PPO had the highest substrate affinity for chlorogenic acid, 4-methylcatechol and catechol. Chlorogenic acid was the most suitable substrate (Km=0.56±0.07 mM and Vmax=53.15±2.03 UPPO mL(-1) min(-1)). The optimal pH values were 5.5 for catechol and 4-methylcatechol and 5.0 for chlorogenic acid. Optimal temperatures were 40°C for catechol, 25°C for 4-methylcatechol and 20°C for chlorogenic acid. In inhibition tests, the most potent inhibitor was found to be ascorbic acid followed by L-cysteine and quercetin. This study shows possible treatments that can be implemented during the processing of Cape gooseberry fruits to prevent browning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermodynamic Properties, Sorption Isotherms and Glass Transition Temperature of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption and desorption isotherms of fresh and dried Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. were determined at three temperatures (20, 40 and 60 °C using a gravimetric technique. The data obtained were fitted to several models including Guggenheim-Anderson- De Boer (GAB, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET, Henderson, Caurie, Smith, Oswin, Halsey and Iglesias-Chirife. A non-linear least square regression analysis was used to evaluate the models. The Iglesias-Chirife model fitted best the experimental data. Isosteric heat of sorption was also determined from the equilibrium sorption data using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and was found to decrease exponentially with increasing moisture content. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory was applied to the sorption isotherms and indicated an enthalpy-controlled sorption process. Glass transition temperature (Tg of Cape gooseberry was also determined by differential scanning calorimetry and modelled as a function of moisture content with the Gordon-Taylor, the Roos and the Khalloufi models, which proved to be excellent tools for predicting glass transition of Cape gooseberry.

  16. Antioxidant activity and phenolic profiles of the wild currant Ribes magellanicum from Chilean and Argentinean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Schulz, Ayla; Ladio, Ana; Theoduloz, Cristina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-07-01

    The Patagonian currant Ribes magellanicum is highly valued due to its pleasant flavor and sweet taste. The aim of this study was to characterize its constituents and to assess their antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. For the fruit phenolic-enriched extract (PEE), total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and antioxidant activity (DPPH, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC)) were determined. Argentinean samples presented better activity in the DPPH and FRAP assays. Best cytoprotection against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in AGS cells was found in one Argentinean sample at 500 μg mL(-1) (65.7%). HPLC MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of 59 constituents, including eight anthocyanins, 11 conjugates of caffeic-, ferulic-, and coumaric acid, and 38 flavonoids, most of them quercetin and kaempferol derivatives. Argentinean samples showed a more complex pattern of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA), and flavonoids. Cyanidin rhamnoside hexoside and cyanidin hexoside were the main anthocyanins, accounting for 35 and 55% for the Argentinean and 60 and 27% for the ripe Chilean fruits. HCA content was about three times higher in Argentinean samples. The phenolic profiles of Chilean and Argentinean Ribes magellanicum show remarkable differences in chemical composition with higher HCA and flavonoid content in Argentinean samples.

  17. Integrative Bioinformatic Analysis of Transcriptomic Data Identifies Conserved Molecular Pathways Underlying Ionizing Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects (RIBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos Yeles

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE encompass a number of effects with potential for a plethora of damages in adjacent non-irradiated tissue. The cascade of molecular events is initiated in response to the exposure to ionizing radiation (IR, something that may occur during diagnostic or therapeutic medical applications. In order to better investigate these complex response mechanisms, we employed a unified framework integrating statistical microarray analysis, signal normalization, and translational bioinformatics functional analysis techniques. This approach was applied to several microarray datasets from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO related to RIBE. The analysis produced lists of differentially expressed genes, contrasting bystander and irradiated samples versus sham-irradiated controls. Furthermore, comparative molecular analysis through BioInfoMiner, which integrates advanced statistical enrichment and prioritization methodologies, revealed discrete biological processes, at the cellular level. For example, the negative regulation of growth, cellular response to Zn2+-Cd2+, and Wnt and NIK/NF-kappaB signaling, thus refining the description of the phenotypic landscape of RIBE. Our results provide a more solid understanding of RIBE cell-specific response patterns, especially in the case of high-LET radiations, like α-particles and carbon-ions.

  18. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Ribes inerme in north-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. R. Vogler; B. W. Geils; K. Coats

    2017-01-01

    Cronartium ribicola Fisch. has not been found infecting any of the five-needle white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) in Utah, despite being established on both white pine and Ribes hosts in the other 10 western states, defined as those west of the 102° meridian.

  19. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black current juice press residues (Ribes nigrum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    Enzymatic release of phenolic compounds from pomace remaining from black currant (Ribes nigrum) juice production was examined. Treatment with each of the commercial pectinolytic enzyme preparations Grindamyl pectinase, Macer8 FJ, Macer8 R, and Pectinex BE, as well as treatment with Novozym 89 pro...... pomace extracts all exerted a pronounced antioxidant activity against human LDL oxidation in vitro when tested at equimolar phenol concentrations of 7.5-10 muM....... protease, significantly increased plant cell wall breakdown of the pomace. Each of the tested enzyme preparations except Grindamyl pectinase also significantly enhanced the amount of phenols extracted from the pomace. Macer8 FJ and Macer8 R decreased the extraction yields of anthocyanins, whereas Pectinex...

  20. Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L processing alternatives for the profit of the fruits unsuitable for the marketing fresh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana María Castro Sánchez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of unsuitable fruits for marketing in fresh, represents an area with great economic potential. In the regions of Colombia where is produced cape gooseberry it is necessary to consider and develop processing alternatives of this fruit, because the losses in harvest and postharvest of gooseberry in the country, can reach up to 45% of the total production. In this research, it was developed pulp, jam and nectar of cape gooseberry ecotype Colombia with cracked and soft fruits, from Ventaquemada and Cienega, municipalities of the department of Boyaca. The results of this research have applications for the producing regions of cape gooseberry in Colombia that suffer from loss of fruit by cracking and softening. There were three formulations of each by-product, by varying the content of pulp in the final product and the physiochemical characterization, microbiological and sensorial. Finally, it was calculated the cost of each most accepted by-product by the panel. The results showed that at a microbiological l and physic-chemical level, the sub-products meet the regulations. At sensory level, the most widely accepted pulp pasteurized with sugar, the most accepted nectar was the formulation with 20% of pulp and the most widely accepted jam was the formulation with 50% of pulp. The cost to process 1 kg of fruit was 3,11 USD for pulp, 3,36 USD for nectar and 3,66 USD for jam.

  1. Effect of ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene on the postharvest behavior of cape gooseberry fruits (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguera-López, Helber E; Espinal-Ruiz, Mauricio; Zacarías, Lorenzo; Herrera, Aníbal O

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruits are highly perishable berries that exhibit a climacteric respiratory behavior. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethylene and the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene on the postharvest behavior of cape gooseberry fruits (ecotype Colombia). Fruits were treated with ethylene, in an ethephon application (1000 µL L -1 ), and pretreated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1 µL L -1 ), 1-methylcyclopropene+ethylene, and results compared with a control without application. Subsequently, the fruits were maintained at room temperature (20 ℃, 75% RH) for up to 11 days. The pretreatment of the cape gooseberry fruits with 1-methylcyclopropene delayed most of the ripening-associated parameters, with a reduction in the respiration rate and ethylene production, skin color development, total soluble solids, total carotenoid content, loss of firmness, loss of total titratable acidity and emission of volatile compounds such as ethyl octanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl decanoate, and hexyl decanoate. Conversely, application of ethephon accelerated most of these physiological changes and also overcame most of the effects prevented by the ethylene action inhibitor. Altogether, the results supported the idea of a climacteric-like behavior for cape gooseberry fruits and pointing out that the pretreatment with 1-methylcyclopropene may be a promising and efficient postharvest treatment to delay maturity and extend the postharvest period. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Development and Quality Evaluation of Ready to Serve (RTS Beverage from Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hemalatha

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a process for the development of ready to serve (RTS beverages from enzyme liquefied (pectinase Cape gooseberry juice with additives and preservatives. Storage stability of the RTS beverage at both refrigerated temperature (LT: 4 ± 1 °C and room temperature (RT: 27 ± 2 °C were evaluated for 90 days for microbial, sensorial and physicochemical quality parameters. The stability of RTS beverage stored at LT (4 ± 1 °C was excellent with a retention of the primary quality attributes ascorbic acid (15.44 mg/100 mL, total phenolic content (15.50 mg GAE/100 mL, total carotene (1.07 mg/100 mL, β-carotene (0.78 mg/100 mL, high viscosity (30.29 cp, and with high sensory scores of the product (8.3 up to 90 days as compared to the overall acceptability (6.5 of RT stored RTS for 60 days. Additionally, both the LT and RT stored RTS beverages had microbial counts within the permissible limits. Therefore, both beverages were safe to consume at the end of storage duration. In conclusion, the RTS beverage developed from Cape gooseberry could be served as functional health drink alternative to synthetic soft drinks due to its unique features (high nutritive values, high organoleptic values and high stability of the product.

  3. Characterization of the mechanical properties of the cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Javier Llanos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is the world’s leading producer of the cape gooseberry and it is a crop of great importance due to its high demand in the international market. The fruit, the part that is sold, is an ovoid-shaped, juicy berry, and its harvest starts when the fruit is orange-colored and the cap surrounding the fruit is yellowcolored. This labor is done manually. During this phase of collection, subsequent handling and transport to the places of packaging and marketing, the fruit is subjected to multiple loads which may deteriorate it in different ways, resulting in significant product losses. Rheological tests of unidirectional compression, punctures, and cuts at the peduncle were performed in order to characterize the mechanical response of the fruit to the type of forces exerted at harvest and post-harvest handling. It was found that the fruit’s firmness in unidirectional compression in the axial direction, with a ripeness grade of four, was 38.6 N, while the force required to separate the fruit from the peduncle was 15.1 N. The mechanical behavior of the cape gooseberry corresponds to a viscoelastic, anisotropic, highly variable material

  4. Evaluation of Two Fitting Methods Applied for Thin-Layer Drying of Cape Gooseberry Fruits

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    Erkan Karacabey

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drying data of cape gooseberry was used to compare two fitting methods: namely 2-step and 1-step methods. Literature data was also used to confirm the results. To demonstrate the applicability of these methods, two primary models (Page, Two-term-exponential were selected. Linear equation was used as secondary model. As well-known from the previous modelling studies on drying, 2-step method required at least two regressions: One is primary model and one is secondary (if you have only one environmental condition such as temperature. On the other hand, one regression was enough for 1-step method. Although previous studies on kinetic modelling of drying of foods were based on 2-step method, this study indicated that 1-step method may also be a good alternative with some advantages such as drawing an informative figure and reducing time of calculations.

  5. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the Cape gooseberry Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbaqueba, Jaime; Sánchez, Pilar; Sanchez, Erika; Núñez Zarantes, Victor Manuel; Chacon, Maria Isabel; Barrero, Luz Stella; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Physalis peruviana, commonly known as Cape gooseberry, is an Andean Solanaceae fruit with high nutritional value and interesting medicinal properties. In the present study we report the development and characterization of microsatellite loci from a P. peruviana commercial Colombian genotype. We identified 932 imperfect and 201 perfect Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) loci in untranslated regions (UTRs) and 304 imperfect and 83 perfect SSR loci in coding regions from the assembled Physalis peruviana leaf transcriptome. The UTR SSR loci were used for the development of 162 primers for amplification. The efficiency of these primers was tested via PCR in a panel of seven P. peruviana accessions including Colombia, Kenya and Ecuador ecotypes and one closely related species Physalis floridana. We obtained an amplification rate of 83% and a polymorphic rate of 22%. Here we report the first P. peruviana specific microsatellite set, a valuable tool for a wide variety of applications, including functional diversity, conservation and improvement of the species.

  6. Equilibrium and kinetic study on chromium (VI removal from simulated waste water using gooseberry seeds as a novel biosorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aravind

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gooseberry seed (Phyllanthus acidus was used as an adsorbent to determine its feasibility for the removal of Cr(VI. Various parameters such as pH, temperature, contact time, initial metal concentration and adsorbent dosage were investigated to determine the biosorption performance. Equilibrium was attained within 60 minutes and maximum removal of 96% was achieved under the optimum conditions at pH 2. The adsorption phenomenon demonstrated here was monolayer represented by Langmuir isotherm with R2 value of 0.992 and the Langmuir constants k and q0 was found to be 0.0061 (L/mg and 19.23 (mg/g. The adsorption system obeyed Pseudo second order kinetics with R2 value of 0.999. The results of the present study indicated that gooseberry seed powder can be employed as adsorbent for the effective removal of hexavalent chromium economically.

  7. Changes in ABA, IAA and JA levels during calyx, fruit and leaves development in cape gooseberry plants (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Flórez, F; López-Cristoffanini, C; Jáuregui, O; Melgarejo, L M; López-Carbonell, M

    2017-06-01

    Changes in abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) content in developing calyx, fruits and leaves of Physalis peruviana L. plants were analysed. Plant hormones have been widely studied for their roles in the regulation of various aspects related to plant development and, in particular, into their action during development and ripening of fleshly fruits. The obtained evidences suggest that the functions of these hormones are no restricted to a particular development stage, and more than one hormone is involved in controlling various aspects of plant development. Our results will contribute to understand the role of these hormones during growth and development of calyx, fruits and leaves in cape gooseberry plants. This work offers a good, quickly and efficiently protocol to extract and quantify simultaneously ABA, IAA and JA in different tissues of cape gooseberry plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of drying temperature on dietary fibre, rehydration properties, texture and microstructure of Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zura-Bravo, Liliana; Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto; Martinez-Monzó, Javier; Quispe-Fuentes, Issis; Puente, Luis; Di Scala, Karina

    2015-04-01

    The effects of air drying temperature on dietary fibre, texture and microstructure of the Cape gooseberry fruits during convective dehydration in the range of 50-90 ºC were investigated. The ratio of insoluble dietary fibre to soluble dietary fibre was higher than 7:1 for all dehydrated samples. At 50 ºC tissue structure damage was evidenced leading to the maximum water holding capacity (47.4 ± 2.8 g retained water/100 g water) and the lowest rehydration ratio (1.15 ± 0.06 g absorbed water/g d.m.). Texture analysis showed effects of drying temperatures on TPA parameters. Changes in microstructure tissue were also observed at the studied drying temperatures. Hot air drying technology leads not only to fruit preservation but also increases and adds value to Cape gooseberry, an asset to develop new functional products.

  9. The influence of drying on the physiological quality of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. fruits added with active components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudy Ana Cabrera Ordoñez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrated products added with active components (AC represent a healthy alternative for modern consumer. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of drying process conditions on the physiological quality attributes of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. impregnated under vacuum with AC and dehydrated. A factorial design was performed with two independent variables, 2 levels per variable (temperature: 50 and 60ºC, air velocity: 2.0 and 3.0 m.s-1 and three replicates per drying condition. In fact, cape gooseberry fruits were previously impregnated under vacuum with an emulsion containing calcium and vitamins B9, C, D3 and E, which were subjected to dehydration until a water activity of approximately 0.6. In addition, drying rate curves presented in all cases two periods of decreasing speed. An increase of drying temperature decreases the processing time, presenting a greater AC degradation, while the air velocity offers a non-significant effect. The treatment which have allowed an AC better retention and low processing times was 60° C and 2 m.s-1, reaching levels of 204.8 ± 10.5 mg, 137.0 ± 34.7 μg, 13.6 ± 0.9 mg, 2.2± 0.6 μg, 7.0±1.2 mg for calcium and vitamins B9, C, D3 and E, respectively per 50 g serving of dehydrated cape gooseberry. An integration of the vacuum impregnation process with conventional air-drying, represents an effective technological alternative, which confers a higher added value to cape gooseberry fruit.

  10. Texture, Color, and Sensory Features of Low-Sugar Gooseberry Jams Enriched with Plant Ingredients with Prohealth Properties

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    Anna Banaś

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate texture, color, and sensory parameters of low-sugar gooseberry jams with added black chokeberry, elderberry, Japanese quince, flax seeds, wheat germ, and inulin. The jams were stored at two temperatures of 10°C and 20°C. The highest gel strength (Fe was recorded in the jams with wheat germ (2.75 N, flax seeds (2.74 N, and inulin (1.95 N. The brightest color L⁎ was noted in the gooseberry jams enriched with flax seeds and wheat germ, while the darkest color was noted in those with added black chokeberry and elderberry fruit. In the sensory evaluation, the gooseberry jam without plant ingredients, along with the products enriched with black chokeberry, elderberry, and inulin, scored high at almost 5 on a 5-point scale. The remaining jams had scores of 4.4–4.8 points. Cool storage of jams had a better effect on color and texture, while sensory features were affected to a lesser degree.

  11. Protective effect of embelin from Embelia ribes Burm. against transient global ischemia-induced brain damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thippeswamy, B S; Nagakannan, P; Shivasharan, B D; Mahendran, S; Veerapur, V P; Badami, S

    2011-11-01

    Embelia ribes is being used in Indian traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of mental disorders and as brain tonic. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of embelin from E. ribes on global ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury in rats. Transient global ischemia was induced by occluding bilateral common carotid arteries for 30 min followed by 24-h reperfusion. Neurological functions were measured using sensorimotor tests. Ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury was assessed by cerebral infarct area, biochemical and histopathological examination. Pretreatment of embelin (25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased locomotor activity and hanging latency time and decreased beam walking latency when compared with ischemic control. The treatment also reduced significantly the lipid peroxidation and increased the total thiol content and glutathione-S-transferase activity in brain homogenates. The decreased cerebral infarction area in embelin-treated groups and histopathological observations confirmed the above findings. These observations suggested that embelin is a neuroprotective agent and may prove to be useful adjunct in the treatment of stroke.

  12. Enhancing the functional properties and nutritional quality of ice cream with processed amla (Indian gooseberry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Rajpreet Kaur; Bajwa, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Amla (Indian gooseberry) and its processed products are rich source of vitamin C, phenols, dietary fibre and antioxidants. In contrast, ice cream is a poor source of these phytochemicals and antioxidants; therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to enhance the functional properties and nutritional quality of ice cream with the incorporation of processed amla. Ice cream was prepared using amla shreds, pulp, preserve and candy at 5 to 20 % and powder at 0.5 to 2.0 % levels in ice cream mix prior to freezing. Inclusion of amla products at augmented levels resulted in significant changes in physico-chemical properties and phytochemical content of ice cream. The total solids decreased on addition of shreds and pulp and increased with preserve, candy and powder in ice cream at increasing levels. The functional constituents i.e. fibre, total phenols, tannins, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity increased with greater level of inclusion. Incorporation of processed amla raised the melting resistance of ice cream and decreased the overrun. The samples with 5 % shreds and pulp, 10 % preserve and candy and 0.5 % powder were found to have highest overall acceptability scores. Inclusion of amla in all the forms i.e. shreds, pulp, preserve, candy and powder enhanced the functional properties and nutritional value of ice cream.

  13. Analgesic Effect of Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Fruit Extracts on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis fruit, also known as “Amla” is one of the oldest edible fruits known in India. It has also traditionally been used to treat inflammation, and as an analgesic to treat wounds. However, experimental evidence for the analgesic effects of E. officinalis has been lacking. The present study investigated whether E. officinalis extracts exhibit analgesic effects in the plantar incision (PI and spared nerve injury (SNI pain-model rats. We evaluated the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT using von Frey filaments, and pain-related behavior was determined after surgery based on ultrasonic vocalization (USV. The group treated with E. officinalis extracts at 300 mg/kg had significantly increased MWT values at 6 h and 24 h after the PI, and had a significantly reduced number of 22–27-kHz USVs at 6 h and 24 h after PI. Moreover, after 15 days of continuous treatment with E. officinalis extracts, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Thus, E. officinalis extracts have potential analgesic effects in both postoperative and neuropathic pain models in vivo.

  14. The Beneficial Effect of Cape Gooseberry Juice on Carbon Tetrachloride- Induced Neuronal Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Olayan, Ebtesam M; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Omer, Sawsan A; Shata, Mohamed T M; Kassab, Rami B; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-01-01

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) belongs to the Solanaceae family. Physalis has many medicinal properties however, the beneficial effect of physalis in protecting against neurotoxins has not yet been evaluated. This experimental study investigated the protective effect of physalis juice against the oxidative damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in the rat brain. The degrees of protection by physalis in brain tissues were evaluated by determining the brain levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase), after CCl4) induction in the presence or absence of physalis. Adult male albino Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, Group I served as the control group, Group II was intraperitoneally treated with 2 ml CCl4)/kg bwt for 12 weeks, Group III was supplemented with physalis juice via the drinking water for 12 weeks, Group IV was supplemented with physalis juice and was intraperitoneally injected weekly with CCl4). Treatment with CCl4) was significantly associated with a disturbance in the oxidative status in the brain tissues; this was marked by a significant (pphysalis along with CCl4) juice significantly (pphysalis juice supplemention inhibited apoptosis, as indicated by the increase of Bcl-2 immunoreactivity in brain tissue. Our results suggest that physalis juice could be effective in preventing neurotoxicity and the neuroprotective effect of physalis might be mediated via antioxidant and anti-apoptosis activities.

  15. Imbibition and percentage of germination of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. seeds under NaCl stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Diego

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    In Colombia cape gooseberry is often grown on salt affected soils. The present study evaluated the effect of increasing NaCl concentrations on imbibition and percentage of germination of ‘Colombia’ ecotype cape gooseberry seeds. Under controlled laboratory conditions (25/20°C day/night temperature, 80% relative humidity, and a 12 hour photoperiod, the seeds were subjected to 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM NaCl concentrations (corresponding to respective electrical conductivity levels of 0.8, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, and 12.2 dS m-1, during an evaluation period of 299 hours. A significantly lower imbibition level, expressed as 35% of the fresh weight accumulated by the control seeds, was observed in the 120 mM NaCl treatment. At the end of the experiment, respective germination percentages of 97.6% and 96.4% were recorded in the salt-free seeds and in those exposed to 30 mM NaCl. In contrast, only 62.5% of those seeds treated with 120 mM NaCl germinated. Root malformations such as lack of elongation were observed in the highest NaCl concentration treatment. Regarding its germination process, cape gooseberry can be classified as moderately tolerant to sodium. In effect, after 299 h of treatment, there was no statistical difference in imbibition level or percentage of germination between the 0, 30 and 60 mM NaCl treatments.

  16. Анализ признаков селекционного материала Ribes nigrum, Ribes rubrum, grossularia reclinata, созданного на основе метода автополиплоидии

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Игорь БУЧЕНКОВ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A group of autotetraploids of black currant (Ribes nigrum, red currant (Ribes rubrum and gooseberry (Grossularia reclinata have been studied. The comparison of the characteristics of autotetraploid forms with diploid cultivars shown that the autotetraploids are characterized by a new set of morphological, anatomical and biological traits inherent to this level of ploidy. Despite the fact that the reaction of each trait to the doubling of the chromosomes number is determined by the specific genotype of each variety, there is a clear parallelism in the variability of the same traits in different species of the family Grossulariaceae Dumort. The obtained data indicate that the doubling of the chromosomes number of diploid varieties leads to increased resistance of the autotetraploid forms to pathogens and also to an increased amount of the vitamin C in the fruits. Реферат. Изучен фонд автотетраплоидов смородины черной (Ribes nigrum, смородины красной (Ribes rubrum и крыжовника (Grossularia reclinata. В результате анализа признаков автотетраплоидных форм в сравнении с диплоидными сортами установлено, что автотетраплоиды характеризуются новой совокупностью морфологических, анатомических и биологических признаков, присущих данному уровню плоидности. Несмотря на то, что реакция каждого признака на удвоение числа хромосом детерминируется спецификой генотипа каждого сорта, наблюдается четкий параллелизм в изменчивости одних и тех же признаков у разных видов

  17. Cape Gooseberry [Physalis peruviana L.] Calyces Ameliorate TNBS Acid-induced Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jenny; Ocampo, Yanet; Franco, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Physalis peruviana [cape gooseberry] is highly appreciated for its commercial value. The Colombian ecotype is in great demand in the international market, particularly for the unique morphological characteristics of the calyx, which has extended use as a traditional herbal remedy in Colombia because of its anti-inflammatory properties. In this work, the anti-inflammatory activity of the total ethereal extract of Physalis peruviana calyces was evaluated in preventive and therapeutic protocols in a TNBS acid-induced colitis rat model. Colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of TNBS. An evaluation of macroscopic and histopathological parameters in colonic tissue was performed, along with the determination of myeloperoxidase enzyme activity, cytokine levels and gene expression. Additionally, effects on nitric oxide release by lipopolysaccharide [LPS]-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the scavenging activity of DPPH and ABTS free radicals were determined. The treatment with the Physalis peruviana extract produced a significant improvement in the colonic tissue at both macroscopic and histological levels. IL-1β and TNF-α production was reduced by the extract in both experimental approaches. The groups treated with Physalis peruviana showed a tendency to MUC2 up-regulation and down-regulation of COX-2, iNOS, NLRP3, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 expression. Nitric oxide release in RAW264.7 macrophages was significantly inhibited. The Physalis peruviana extract showed intestinal anti-inflammatory activity in the TNBS-induced colitis model, placing this species' calyx, a natural derivative, as a promising source of metabolites that could be used in treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Association Study Reveals Novel Genes Related to Yield and Quality of Fruit in Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

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    Francy L. García-Arias

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Association mapping has been proposed as an efficient approach to assist plant breeding programs to investigate the genetic basis of agronomic traits. In this study, we evaluated 18 traits related to yield, (FWP, NF, FWI, and FWII, fruit size-shape (FP, FA, MW, WMH, MH, HMW, DI, FSI, FSII, OVO, OBO, and fruit quality (FIR, CF, and SST, in a diverse collection of 100 accessions of Physalis peruviana including wild, landraces, and anther culture derived lines. We identified seven accessions with suitable traits: fruit weight per plant (FWP > 7,000 g/plant and cracked fruits (CF < 4%, to be used as parents in cape gooseberry breeding program. In addition, the accessions were also characterized using Genotyping By Sequencing (GBS. We discovered 27,982 and 36,142 informative SNP markers based on the alignment against the two cape gooseberry references transcriptomes. Besides, 30,344 SNPs were identified based on alignment to the tomato reference genome. Genetic structure analysis showed that the population could be divided into two or three sub-groups, corresponding to landraces-anther culture and wild accessions for K = 2 and wild, landraces, and anther culture plants for K = 3. Association analysis was carried out using a Mixed Linear Model (MLM and 34 SNP markers were significantly associated. These results reveal the basis of the genetic control of important agronomic traits and may facilitate marker-based breeding in P. peruviana.

  19. Effect of calcium chloride and refrigeration on the quality and organoleptic characteristics of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Giovanni Alvarez Herrera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The gooseberry is one of the exotic fruit species most important in Colombia. Calcium has been shown to be important for quality maintenance in fruits and vegetables, as it prevents a number of physiological disorders reinforce the cell walls and stabilize cellular membranes. With the aim to increase the fruit calcium concentration, a completely randomized design with four treatments was performed: a control and three applications of CaCl2 (0.5%, 1% and 2%, with four replicates, for a total of 16 experimental units (EU. The fruit was collected at maturity stage 6 according to the standard Icontec NTC 4580, completely healthy and homogeneous. The fruit was subsequently stored at 21 ± 1 ° C (RH 45%. The application of calcium in the gooseberry fruits decreased mass loss, firmness and ATT. Calcium treated fruit showed an increase in SST. In contrast, the treatments did not affect color. The doses of CaCl2 tested delayed ripening and prevented fruit deterioration.

  20. Salt stress and exogenous silicon influence physiological and anatomical features of in vitro-grown cape gooseberry

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    Renata Alves Lara Silva Rezende

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Salt stress is one of several major abiotic stresses that affect plant growth and development, and there are many evidences that silicon can ameliorate the injuries caused by high salinity. This study presents the results of an assay concerning: (1 the effect of in vitro NaCl-induced salt stress in cape gooseberry plants and (2 the possible mitigating effect of silicon in saline conditions. For that, nodal segments were inoculated in Murashige and Skoog (MS medium under salinity (0.5 and 1.0% NaCl with different silicic acid concentrations (0, 0.5 and 1.0g L-1. Phytotechnical characteristics, photosynthetic pigments content, and leaf anatomy were evaluated after 30 days. Shoot length, root length, number of leaves and buds, fresh and dry weight, pigment content, stomatal density and leaf blade thickness were drastically reduced by increased salt level. The supply of silicon (1.0g L-1 has successfully mitigated the effect of salinity at 0.5% NaCl for chlorophyll, carotenoids, stomatal density and leaf blade thickness. When salt stress was about 1.0%, Si was not effective anymore. In conclusion, we affirmed that, in in vitro conditions, salt stress is harmful for cape gooseberry plants and the addition of silicon showed effective in mitigating the saline effects of some features.

  1. Influence of cultivar and ripening time on bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties in Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Karent; Sepulveda-Ortega, Stella; Lara-Guzman, Oscar; Navas-Arboleda, Alejandro A; Osorio, Edison

    2015-05-01

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is an exotic fruit highly valued for its organoleptic properties and bioactive compounds. Considering that the presence of phenolics and ascorbic acid could contribute to its functional capacity, it is important to investigate the quality parameters, bioactive contents and functional properties with respect to genotype and ripening time. In this study the genotype effect was evaluated in 15 cultivars for two different harvest times. Changes during maturation were recorded in two commercial cultivars within seven levels of maturity. Multivariate statistical analysis suggested that phenolic content and ORAC value were mainly affected by harvest time and that ascorbic acid content and DPPH level were mainly affected by genotype. In addition, acidity, phenolic content, ORAC value and inhibition of LDL oxidation decreased with maturity, but soluble solids content, ascorbic acid content, β-carotene content and DPPH-scavenging activity were higher in mature fruits. The phenolic content, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant properties of Cape gooseberry fruit were strongly affected by cultivar, harvest time and maturity state. Consequently, the harvest time must be scheduled carefully to gain the highest proportion of bioactive compounds according to the specific cultivar and the environment where it is grown. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Juodojo serbento (Ribes nigrum L.) vaistinės augalinės žaliavos fenolinių junginių ir antioksidantinio aktyvumo tyrimas.

    OpenAIRE

    Elijošiutė, Edita

    2016-01-01

    Black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) – a common garden medicinal plant of Grossulariaceae family. It accumulates biologically active substances – phenolic compounds, which mainly consist of flavonoids. Black currant raw materials increases urine output, sweating, inhibits inflammation, slows dow the development of bacteria and germs. The leaves have traditionally been used for arthritis, the berries have many vitamins. Leaves recently recognized as medicinal plant raw material and was included in...

  3. RIBE at an inter-organismic level: A study on genotoxic effects in Daphnia magna exposed to waterborne uranium and a uranium mine effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, P; Lourenço, J; Carvalho, F P; Oliveira, J; Malta, M; Mendo, S; Pereira, R

    2018-05-01

    The induction of RIBE (Radiation Induced Bystander Effect) is a non-target effect of low radiation doses that has already been verified at an inter-organismic level in fish and small mammals. Although the theoretical impact in the field of environmental risk assessment (ERA) is possible, there is a gap of knowledge regarding this phenomenon in invertebrate groups and following environmentally relevant exposures. To understand if RIBE should be considered for ERA of radionuclide-rich wastewaters, we exposed Daphnia magna (uranium mine effluent for 48 h, and to a matching dose of waterborne uranium (55.3 μg L -1 ). Then the exposed organisms were placed (24 and 48 h) in a clean medium together with non-exposed neonates. The DNA damage observed for the non-exposed organisms was statistically significant after the 24 h cohabitation for both uranium (neonates p = 0.002; 5 d-old daphnids p = uranium mine effluent exposure (only for neonates p = 0.042). After 48 h cohabitation significant results were obtained only for uranium exposure (neonates p = 0.017; 5 d-old daphnids p = 0.013). Although there may be some variability associated to age and exposure duration, the significant DNA damage detected in non-exposed organisms clearly reveals the occurrence of RIBE in D. magna. The data obtained and here presented are a valuable contribution for the discussion about the relevance of RIBE for environmental risk assessment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. On the performance of topobathymetric LiDAR in shallow water environments: the Ribe Vesterå river and the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergely, Aron; Andersen, Mikkel S.; Teglbrænder-Bjergkvist, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    on an app. 7 km reach of the Ribe Vesterå river and in a 5 km x 10 km section of the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea using the airborne hydrographic laser scanner RIEGL® VQR-820-G. Prior to the surveys three geometrically defined objects (steel frames with dimensions of 0.8 m x 0.8 m x 0.25 m...

  5. The application of sensitizers from red frangipani flowers and star gooseberry leaves in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaz Dhafina, Wan; Salleh, Hasiah; Zalani Daud, Muhamad; Ali, Nora’aini

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays natural based dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been in research field attention due to its advantages over other type of dyes such as low-cost, low-toxicity, completely biodegradable and abundance of resources. Natural dyes can be produced via the simple extraction method of pigments from plant parts such as flower, fruits, leaves, tuber etc. In this feature article, the natural dyes which composed of anthocyanin pigment from red frangipani flowers and chlorophyll from star gooseberry leaves were applied in zinc oxide, (ZnO) based-DSSC. The ZnO photoanode of the DSSCs sample were sensitized in each dye with different duration. It was observed that DSSCs which has chlorophyll pigment as dye had better performance with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.007%.

  6. Complete genome sequence of an isolate of Potato virus X (PVX) infecting Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Pablo A; Alzate, Juan F; Montoya, Mauricio Marín

    2015-06-01

    Transcriptome analysis of a Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) plant with leaf symptoms of a mild yellow mosaic typical of a viral disease revealed an infection with Potato virus X (PVX). The genome sequence of the PVX-Physalis isolate comprises 6435 nt and exhibits higher sequence similarity to members of the Eurasian group of PVX (~95 %) than to the American group (~77 %). Genome organization is similar to other PVX isolates with five open reading frames coding for proteins RdRp, TGBp1, TGBp2, TGBp3, and CP. 5' and 3' untranslated regions revealed all regulatory motifs typically found in PVX isolates. The PVX-Physalis genome is the only complete sequence available for a Potexvirus in Colombia and is a new addition to the restricted number of available sequences of PVX isolates infecting plant species different to potato.

  7. Improved production of tannase by Klebsiella pneumoniae using Indian gooseberry leaves under submerged fermentation using Taguchi approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Singh, Amrinder; Beniwal, Vikas; Salar, Raj Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Tannase (tannin acyl hydrolase E.C 3.1.1.20) is an inducible, largely extracellular enzyme that causes the hydrolysis of ester and depside bonds present in various substrates. Large scale industrial application of this enzyme is very limited owing to its high production costs. In the present study, cost effective production of tannase by Klebsiella pneumoniae KP715242 was studied under submerged fermentation using different tannin rich agro-residues like Indian gooseberry leaves (Phyllanthus emblica), Black plum leaves (Syzygium cumini), Eucalyptus leaves (Eucalyptus glogus) and Babul leaves (Acacia nilotica). Among all agro-residues, Indian gooseberry leaves were found to be the best substrate for tannase production under submerged fermentation. Sequential optimization approach using Taguchi orthogonal array screening and response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the fermentation variables in order to enhance the enzyme production. Eleven medium components were screened primarily by Taguchi orthogonal array design to identify the most contributing factors towards the enzyme production. The four most significant contributing variables affecting tannase production were found to be pH (23.62 %), tannin extract (20.70 %), temperature (20.33 %) and incubation time (14.99 %). These factors were further optimized with central composite design using response surface methodology. Maximum tannase production was observed at 5.52 pH, 39.72 °C temperature, 91.82 h of incubation time and 2.17 % tannin content. The enzyme activity was enhanced by 1.26 fold under these optimized conditions. The present study emphasizes the use of agro-residues as a potential substrate with an aim to lower down the input costs for tannase production so that the enzyme could be used proficiently for commercial purposes.

  8. Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) juice as a modulator agent for hepatocellular carcinoma-linked apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Serag, Hanaa M; Qadir, Makwan S; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2017-10-01

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) fruit is highly nutritious with high content of health-promoting compounds including minerals, phenolic compounds, as well as vitamins A and C. Physalis peruviana fruits were used as mutagenic, antispasmodic, anticoagulant, and antileucemis agents. The objective of the present work was to study the role of cape gooseberry juice (CG) as a natural modulator agent for adverse aspects associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The results recorded that HCC rats had a significant disturbance in blood indices. An elevation in serum level of the inflammatory (TNF-ά, CRP, and Argenase), hepatic apoptotic markers (P53, Bax, and Caspase 3) and a reduction of Blc2% were recorded in HCC rats. The results exhibited the significant disturbance and arrest in hepatic cell cycle (% of M1: SubG1 phase, M2: G0/1 phase of diploid cycle, M3: S phase, and M4: G2/M phase) as well as liver cell viability status in HCC rats. Numerous histopathological alterations were detected in hepatic tissues of HCC rats such as inflammation, damage of hepatocytes, dilated congested central vein with degenerated endothelial cells and congested blood sinusoids in addition to collagen fibers in hepatocytes and central vein indicating hepatic fibrosis. The tested parameters were little improved upon treatment of HCC rats with Adriamycin (ADR, Doxorubicin is a generic name of a drug). HCC rats received CG showed an improvement in all tested parameters. The effects of CG were through down regulation of p53 expression and up-regulation of Bcl2 domain protected hepatic structure from extensive damage. CG plus ADR exhibited an enhanced antitumor impact in HCC and this combination might have an important value in the treatment of HCC. CG was more effective than ADR, and it has a remarkable role in the management of hepatic disorders besides its success as a chemo-sensitizer for ADR treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  9. Behavior in yield and quality of 54 cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. accessions from north-eastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera M. Axel M.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    This study evaluated the performance in production and fruit quality of 54 accessions of cape gooseberry collected from plants that were cultivated, feral and indeterminate from the north-east. The experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design with four replicates per accession in a greenhouse. We estimated the germination percentage (GP for 30 seeds per accession and with a random sampling of 20 fruits at 120 days after the beginning of harvest (dah, weight of the fruit with calyx (CFW, percentage of cracked fruit (CF, number of fruits per plant (NFP and yield (Y, were determined and at 105 dah total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, maturity ratio (MR = TSS/TTA, pH and ascorbic acid (AA were evaluated. Significant differences were observed in GP, Y and CFW with the highest values recorded at 91.23%, 6.17 kg/ plant and 5.68 g, respectively. For the variables TSS and CF, feral materials showed the highest values with 14.7°Brix and 23.93%, respectively. The results suggest the presence of significant variability in the Cape gooseberry germplasm analyzed that can be incorporated into future conservation and breeding programs.

  10. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of air-dried cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. at different ripeness stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Narváez-Cuenca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Because the use of drying at high temperatures might negatively affect the functional properties of fruits, the effect of air-drying at 60°C on the total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant capacity (AOC of cape gooseberry fruit was evaluated at three ripeness stages. The AOC was evaluated with 2,2'-azino-bis(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS , ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and beta-carotene-linoleate assays. The TPC and AOC increased in the fresh fruit as the ripeness stage increased. The TPC increased from 401.8±19.8 to 569.3±22.3 mg GA E/100 g dry weight (DW. The AOC values obtained with ABTS in the fresh fruit (ranging from 79.4±4.5 to 132.7±12.9 mumol trolox/g fruit DW were comparable to those obtained with FRAP (ranging from 82.9±16.3 to 153.9±31.7 mumol trolox/g fruit DW. The values assessed with DPPH ranged from 21.0±3.2 to 34.1±5.1 mumol trolox/g fruit DW. The beta-carotene-linoleate assay gave values ranging from 5.8±1.1 to 12.7±2.0 mumol a-tocoferol/g fruit DW. Air-drying the cape gooseberry fruit had a small influence on the TPC. The air-dried fruit had AOC values ranging from 27 to 164% of the value of the fresh fruit. While the ABTS assay produced higher values in the air-dried fruit than in the fresh fruit, the FRAP, DPPH, and beta-carotene-linoleate assays resulted in lower values in the air-dried fruit.

  11. Black Currant (Ribes nigrum L. and Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. Fruit Juices Inhibit Adhesion of Asaia spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Antolak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of high-polyphenolic black currant (Ribes nigrum L. and bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. juices against bacterial strains Asaia lannensis and Asaia bogorensis isolated as spoilage of commercial soft drinks. The composition of fruit juices was evaluated using chromatographic techniques HPLC and LC-MS. The adhesion to glass, polystyrene, and polyethylene terephthalate in two different culture media was evaluated by luminometry and the plate count method. The major anthocyanins in the V. myrtillus were petunidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and delphinidin-3-glucoside, while in R. nigrum delphinidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside were detected. The LC-MS analysis showed presence of anthocyanins (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and malvidin derivatives, phenolic acids (chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids, flavonols (quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside, and flavanols (procyanidin B2 and procyanidin type A2. Additionally, in the bilberry juice A type procyanidin trimer was detected. The adhesion of Asaia spp. cells depended on the type of medium, carbon sources, and the type of abiotic surfaces. We noted that the adhesion was significantly stronger in minimal medium containing sucrose. The addition of bilberry and black currant juices notably reduced bacterial growth as well as cell adhesion to polyethylene terephthalate surfaces.

  12. Biomolecules and Natural Medicine Preparations: Analysis of New Sources of Bioactive Compounds from Ribes and Rubus spp. Buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Donno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that plants are important sources for the preparation of natural remedies as they contain many biologically active compounds. In particular, polyphenols, terpenic compounds, organic acids, and vitamins are the most widely occurring groups of phytochemicals. Some endemic species may be used for the production of herbal preparations containing phytochemicals with significant bioactivity, as antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory capacities, and health benefits. Blackberry sprouts and blackcurrant buds are known to contain appreciable levels of bioactive compounds, including flavonols, phenolic acids, monoterpenes, vitamin C, and catechins, with several clinical effects. The aim of this research was to perform an analytical study of blackcurrant and blackberry bud-preparations, in order to identify and quantify the main biomarkers, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint to evaluate the single botanical class contribution to total phytocomplex and relative bioactivity, using a High Performance Liquid Chromatograph−Diode Array Detector; the same analyses were performed both on the University laboratory and commercial preparations. Different chromatographic methods were used to determine concentrations of biomolecules in the preparations, allowing for quantification of statistically significant differences in their bioactive compound content both in the case of Ribes nigrum and Rubus cultivated varieties at different harvest stages. In blackcurrant bud-extracts the most important class was organic acids (50.98% followed by monoterpenes (14.05%, while in blackberry preparations the main bioactive classes were catechins (50.06% and organic acids (27.34%. Chemical, pharmaceutical and agronomic-environmental knowledge could be important for obtaining label certifications for the valorization of specific genotypes, with high clinical and pharmaceutical value: this study allowed to develop an effective tool for the natural

  13. Biomolecules and Natural Medicine Preparations: Analysis of New Sources of Bioactive Compounds from Ribes and Rubus spp. Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donno, Dario; Mellano, Maria Gabriella; Cerutti, Alessandro Kim; Beccaro, Gabriele Loris

    2016-02-05

    It is well known that plants are important sources for the preparation of natural remedies as they contain many biologically active compounds. In particular, polyphenols, terpenic compounds, organic acids, and vitamins are the most widely occurring groups of phytochemicals. Some endemic species may be used for the production of herbal preparations containing phytochemicals with significant bioactivity, as antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory capacities, and health benefits. Blackberry sprouts and blackcurrant buds are known to contain appreciable levels of bioactive compounds, including flavonols, phenolic acids, monoterpenes, vitamin C, and catechins, with several clinical effects. The aim of this research was to perform an analytical study of blackcurrant and blackberry bud-preparations, in order to identify and quantify the main biomarkers, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint to evaluate the single botanical class contribution to total phytocomplex and relative bioactivity, using a High Performance Liquid Chromatograph-Diode Array Detector; the same analyses were performed both on the University laboratory and commercial preparations. Different chromatographic methods were used to determine concentrations of biomolecules in the preparations, allowing for quantification of statistically significant differences in their bioactive compound content both in the case of Ribes nigrum and Rubus cultivated varieties at different harvest stages. In blackcurrant bud-extracts the most important class was organic acids (50.98%) followed by monoterpenes (14.05%), while in blackberry preparations the main bioactive classes were catechins (50.06%) and organic acids (27.34%). Chemical, pharmaceutical and agronomic-environmental knowledge could be important for obtaining label certifications for the valorization of specific genotypes, with high clinical and pharmaceutical value: this study allowed to develop an effective tool for the natural preparation quality

  14. Variaciones sobre el modelo psicológico de salud biológica de Ribes: justificación y desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Piña López, Julio Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    Con base en la propuesta interconductual de Kantor, en este trabajo se presentan algunas variaciones sobre el modelo psicológico de salud biológica de Ribes. Tanto por la lógica que le subyace como por las características de los elementos que lo conforman, se trata de un modelo de campo y multifactorial que pone especial énfasis en la interacción de un conjunto de variables psicológicas de tipo histórico y situacional, que probabilizan la práctica de los comportamientos instrumentales de prev...

  15. Sistemas de tutoramento e épocas de transplante de physalis Periods replanting and training systems of cape-gooseberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Simone Madruga Lima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A physalis (Physalis peruviana é uma pequena fruta com grandes potencialidades, que, associadas ao seu ciclo curto e às propriedades nutracêuticas, apresenta possibilidade de alto retorno econômico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o sistema de tutoramento e a época de transplante mais adequados para o crescimento e a produção de frutos de P. peruviana nas condições edafoclimáticas do sul do Rio Grande do Sul. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em Pelotas, RS, na safra de 2007/2008. O transplante de mudas de physalis foi realizado em duas épocas (época 1, 21/11/2007 e época 2 15/01/2008, sendo as plantas tutoradas em quatro sistemas de condução (sistema "V" invertido, sistema triangular, sistema vertical com bambu e sistema vertical com fitilho, semelhantes aos utilizados na cultura do tomateiro. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos casualizados, com três repetições, sendo cada um representado por dez plantas. Os tratamentos formaram um fatorial 2x4 (épocas de transplante x sistemas de tutoramento. As variáveis analisadas foram: incremento do comprimento e da área da seção do ramo principal, área da seção do ramo principal, produtividade e eficiência produtiva. Foi evidenciado que a primeira época de transplante associada aos sistemas de tutoramento "V" invertido e triangular proporciona melhor desempenho agronômico das plantas de physalis.The cape-gooseberry (Physalis peruviana is a small fruit with great potentialities that whether associated to its short cycle and nutraceutical properties it shows high economical return. The work aimed to evaluate the best training system and replant period to plant growth, production and fruit quality of P. peruviana under edaphoclimatic at conditions of southern Rio Grande do Sul. The trial was carried out in Pelotas, RS, in 2007/2008 crop. Transplanting seedlings cape-gooseberry was conducted in two seasons Plant replanting was done in two periods (period 1, 21

  16. Control of nerve cord formation by Engrailed and Gooseberry-Neuro: A multi-step, coordinated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneaud, Nathalie; Layalle, Sophie; Colomb, Sophie; Jourdan, Christophe; Ghysen, Alain; Severac, Dany; Dantec, Christelle; Nègre, Nicolas; Maschat, Florence

    2017-12-15

    One way to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the construction of a nervous system is to identify the downstream effectors of major regulatory proteins. We previously showed that Engrailed (EN) and Gooseberry-Neuro (GsbN) transcription factors act in partnership to drive the formation of posterior commissures in the central nervous system of Drosophila. In this report, we identified genes regulated by both EN and GsbN through chromatin immunoprecipitation ("ChIP on chip") and transcriptome experiments, combined to a genetic screen relied to the gene dose titration method. The genomic-scale approaches allowed us to define 175 potential targets of EN-GsbN regulation. We chose a subset of these genes to examine ventral nerve cord (VNC) defects and found that half of the mutated targets show clear VNC phenotypes when doubly heterozygous with en or gsbn mutations, or when homozygous. This strategy revealed new groups of genes never described for their implication in the construction of the nerve cord. Their identification suggests that, to construct the nerve cord, EN-GsbN may act at three levels, in: (i) sequential control of the attractive-repulsive signaling that ensures contralateral projection of the commissural axons, (ii) temporal control of the translation of some mRNAs, (iii) regulation of the capability of glial cells to act as commissural guideposts for developing axons. These results illustrate how an early, coordinated transcriptional control may orchestrate the various mechanisms involved in the formation of stereotyped neuronal networks. They also validate the overall strategy to identify genes that play crucial role in axonal pathfinding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of Volatile Components of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. Grown in Turkey by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yilmaztekin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components in cape gooseberry fruit at ripe stage were collected using headspace-solid phase microextraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three solid phase microextraction fiber coatings (DVB/CAR/PDMS, CAR/PDMS, and PDMS/DVB were tested for evaluation of volatile compounds. DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber showed a strong extraction capacity for volatile compounds and produced the best result in case of total peak areas. A total of 133 volatile compounds were identified in fruit pulp; among them 1-hexanol (6.86%, eucalyptol (6.66%, ethyl butanoate (6.47%, ethyl octanoate (4.01%, ethyl decanoate (3.39%, 4-terpineol (3.27%, and 2-methyl-1-butanol (3.10% were the major components in the sample extracts.

  18. Analysis of volatile components of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) grown in Turkey by HS-SPME and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaztekin, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Volatile components in cape gooseberry fruit at ripe stage were collected using headspace-solid phase microextraction, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three solid phase microextraction fiber coatings (DVB/CAR/PDMS, CAR/PDMS, and PDMS/DVB) were tested for evaluation of volatile compounds. DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber showed a strong extraction capacity for volatile compounds and produced the best result in case of total peak areas. A total of 133 volatile compounds were identified in fruit pulp; among them 1-hexanol (6.86%), eucalyptol (6.66%), ethyl butanoate (6.47%), ethyl octanoate (4.01%), ethyl decanoate (3.39%), 4-terpineol (3.27%), and 2-methyl-1-butanol (3.10%) were the major components in the sample extracts.

  19. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer and separation of effector recognition from effector function revealed by analysis of effector genes shared between cape-gooseberry- and tomato-infecting formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbaqueba, Jaime; Catanzariti, Ann-Maree; González, Carolina; Jones, David A

    2018-05-22

    RNAseq reads from cape-gooseberry plants (Physalis peruviana) infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. physali (Foph) were mapped against the lineage-specific transcriptome of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) to look for putative effector genes. Homologues of Fol SIX1 (designated SIX1a and SIX1b), SIX7, SIX10, SIX12, SIX15 and Ave1 were identified. The near identity of the Foph and Fol SIX7, SIX10 and SIX12 genes and their intergenic regions suggest that this gene cluster may have undergone recent lateral transfer. Foph SIX1a and SIX1b were tested for their ability to complement a SIX1 knockout mutant of Fol. This mutant has reduced pathogenicity on susceptible tomato plants, but is able to infect otherwise resistant tomato plants carrying the I-3 gene for Fusarium wilt resistance (SIX1 corresponds to Avr3). Neither, SIX1a nor SIX1b could restore full pathogenicity on susceptible tomato plants, suggesting that any role they may play in pathogenicity is likely to be specific to cape gooseberry. SIX1b, but not SIX1a, was able to restore avirulence on tomato plants carrying I-3. These findings separate the recognition of SIX1 from its role as an effector and suggest direct recognition by I-3. A hypervariable region of SIX1 undergoing diversifying selection within the F. oxysporum species complex is likely to play an important role in SIX1 recognition. These findings also indicate that I-3 could potentially be deployed as a transgene in cape gooseberry to protect this emerging crop from Foph. Alternatively, cape gooseberry germplasm could be explored for I-3 homologues capable of providing resistance to Foph. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Colonic fermentation of polyphenols from Chilean currants (Ribes spp.) and its effect on antioxidant capacity and metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Edwards, Alberto; Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2018-08-30

    The Chilean wild currants Ribes magellanicum and R. punctatum are a good source of polyphenols. Polyphenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs) from both species were submitted to in vitro colonic fermentation to assess the changes in phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity and inhibition of metabolic syndrome-associated enzymes. The phenolic profiles of the fermented samples showed significant changes after 24 h incubation. Nine metabolites, derived from the microbial fermentation, were tentatively identified, including dihydrocaffeic acid, dihydrocaffeoyl-, dihydroferuloylquinic acid, 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)propan-2-ol (3,4-diHPP-2-ol), among others. The content of anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids was most affected by simulated colonic conditions, with a loss of 71-92% and 90-100% after 24 h incubation, respectively. The highest antioxidant capacity values (ORAC) were reached after 8 h incubation. The inhibitory activity against the enzyme α-glucosidase was maintained after the fermentation process. Our results show that simulated colonic fermentation exerts significant changes on the polyphenolic composition of these berries, modifying their health-promoting properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Restoration of Gooseberry Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long

    2000-01-01

    Grazing exclusion and channel modifications were used to restore wet meadows along a stream on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. The efforts are reestablishing functional processes to promote long-term restoration of wetland health and species conservation.

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to anthocyanins from Ribes nigrum L. and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark (ID 2750) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to anthocyanins from Ribes nigrum L. and improvement of visual adaptation to the dark. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States...... or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is anthocyanins from Ribes nigrum L. The Panel considers that anthocyanins from Ribes nigrum L. are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “eye health”. The target population is assumed to be the general...... population. In the context of the proposed wordings, the Panel assumes that the claimed effect refers to an improvement of visual adaptation to the dark. The Panel considers that improvement of visual adaptation to the dark is a beneficial physiological effect. No human studies were provided from which...

  3. Evaluation of an edible coating based whey protein and beeswax on the physical and chemical quality of gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Osorio Mora

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It was developed and optimized an edible coating based whey protein concentrate and beeswax. An experimental design 32 was used, this was evaluated by response surface methodology, it was obtained that the optimal formulation with a concentration of 15% beeswax and 10% whey protein, reduced by 35.49% weight loss of the fruit with respect to weight loss of control treatments. The optimal treatment was characterized and evaluated on the physicochemical properties of the gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. in two storage conditions: environment (17- 2 ºC y HR: 69% and cooling (4 -2 ºC y HR: 66%. The results for the 15th day evaluation indicated a decrease in the percentage of weight loss, in storage environment and cooling (36.20% and 41.50% respectively. Control treatments decreased acidity in storage environment and cooling 3.88% and 4.92% respectively, compared to coating treatments. pH have not significantly change with any treatment. The coating prevent reduction of soluble solids 3.76% to environmental conditions and 2.27% to cooling conditions. For maturity index were not any significant changes between control treatments and coating treatments, in both conditions. The firmness remained without any significant changes except treatment environment uncoated, this presented a loss of firmness of 12.04% compared to the treatment environment coated. The respiration rate indicates a climacteric peak at day 8th for environment and at day 10th for cooling. For some properties, the cooling treatment uncoated and environment treatment coated have not any significant changes whereby the coating application can be an alternative to the cooling.

  4. Operationally defined species characterization and bioaccessibility evaluation of cobalt, copper and selenium in Cape gooseberry (Physalis Peruviana L.) by SEC-ICP MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszek, Justyna; Ruzik, Lena

    2016-03-01

    allows confirming the presence of vitamin B12 and probably selenomethionine in the fraction bioaccessible by human body (obtained during enzymatic extraction). It should be noted that the presence of small seleno-compounds in Cape gooseberry was performed for the first time. The results show that the combination of SEC and ICP MS could provide a simple method for separating of soluble element species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. FRUTOS DE UCHUVA (PHYSALIS PERUVIANA L. ECOTIPO ‘COLOMBIA’ MÍNIMAMENTE PROCESADOS, ADICIONADOS CON MICROORGANISMOS PROBIÓTICOS UTILIZANDO LA INGENIERÍA DE MATRICES MINIMALLY PROCESSED CAPE GOOSEBERRY FRUITS (PHYSALIS PERUVIANA L. ‘COLOMBIAN’ ECOTYPE, ADDED WITH PROBIOTIC MICROORGANISMS USING THE MATRIX ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Tatiana Marin Arango

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de alimentos con microorganismos probióticos se ha incrementado en los últimos años debido a los beneficios saludables que estos proporcionan. El desarrollo de nuevos alimentos con probióticos diferentes a los productos lácteos, representa un reto para los investigadores y la industria. El presente estudio desarrolló a nivel piloto frutos de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. mínimamente procesados con microorganismos probióticos, combinando el efecto benéfico de la cepa comercial Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 con la aplicación de la Ingeniería de Matrices como metodología de obtención de alimentos funcionales. Se utiliza como líquido de impregnación una solución de glucosa al 14% p/p, con concentración inicial de inóculo de 5 en la escala de McFarland (1,5 x 109 UFC/mL. Las uchuvas recién impregnadas alcanzaron conteos de células viables de 1,95 ± 0,28 x 10(9 UFC/100 g de uchuva fresca (9,28 ± 0,06 x 109 ciclos log UFC/100 g uchuva fresca y a los 15 días de almacenamiento a 4 ºC los conteos de células viables fueron de 2,20 ± 0,59 x 10(9 UFC/100 g de uchuva fresca. (9,32 ± 0,14 x 109 ciclos log UFC/100 g uchuva fresca. Estos niveles de concentración de microorganismos probióticos en la uchuva son similares a los encontrados en los productos lácteos, como el yogurt, helados, quesos, entre otros.Food consumption with probiotic microorganisms has been increased in the last years due to its healthy benefits that they provide. The development of new food with probiotics apart from dairy products represents a challenge for both researchers and industry. The present study developed at pilot level cape gooseberry fruits (Physalis peruviana L. minimally processed with microorganisms probiotics, combining the beneficent effect of the strain commercial Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 with the application of the matrix Engineering as methodology to obtain functional foods. As liquid of impregnation a solution of glucose at

  6. White pine blister rust in the interior Mountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Dave Conklin; Brian Geils; Jim Hoffman; Marcus Jackson; William Jacobi; Holly Kearns; Anna Schoettle

    2010-01-01

    White pine blister rust is an exotic, invasive disease of white, stone, and foxtail pines (also referred to as white pines or five-needle pines) in the genus Pinus and subgenus Strobus (Price and others 1998). Cronartium ribicola, the fungus that causes WPBR, requires an alternate host - currants and gooseberries in the genus Ribes and species of Pedicularis...

  7. Caracterización morfológica de cuarenta y seis accesiones de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L., en Antioquia (Colombia Morphologic characterization of forty six accessions of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L., in Antioquia (Colombia

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    Ofelia Trillos González

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La uchuva, Physalis peruviana L., crece como planta silvestre en las zonas tropicales altas de América, estando el centro de origen y diversificación en los Andes Suramericanos, principalmente de Colombia, Perú y Ecuador. Se realizó la caracterización morfológica de 46 accesiones de uchuva provenientes del Banco de Germoplasma de la nación Colombiana, a cargo de La Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuarias, CORPOICA, en el Centro de Investigación La Selva, ubicado en la vereda Llanogrande del municipio de Rionegro (Antioquia, Colombia. Los genotipos de uchuva se sembraron utilizando un diseño látice siete por siete simple desbalanceado duplicado. Las accesiones se ubicaron en parcelas constituidas por cinco plantas, de las cuales se evaluaron las tres plantas centrales de las dos replicaciones y cinco estructuras por planta. Se empleó un listado de 69 descriptores, 40 de ellos cualitativos y 29 cuantitativos, 56 de los cuales (81,16% fueron útiles en la diferenciación de las accesiones. Para las variables cualitativas se estimaron los coeficientes de disimilaridad de Gower, que fluctuaron desde 0 a 0,20; y para las variables cuantitativas se estimaron los valores de distancia Euclediana, que fluctuaron entre 0,25 y 1,22.Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L grows wild in tropical areas of South America. The Centre of origin and diversity is located at the Andean zone between Colombia, Peru and Ecuador. This work is about morphological characterization of forty six accessions of Cape gooseberry from a Germplasm Bank of the Colombian Nation at the Experimental Station of "La Selva" located at Rionegro (Antioquia, Colombia. The experimental design used was a lattice seven by seven simple unbalanced and duplicated. Each accession was planted at rows with five plants and five structures of tree plants of each row were evaluated. Sixty eight morphological descriptors were used and 56 of them (81,16% were useful to accessions

  8. Efecto de la temperatura de la Rizosfera sobre la distribución de la materia seca en uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. Effect of rizosphere temperature on the dry matter distribution in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

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    Fischer Gerhard

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available En el hábitat natural de la uchuva en Colombia (de 1.600 a 2.800 msnm la temperatura edáfica varía de acuerdo con los
    factores climatológicos determinados por la altitud y por el manejo que se le de al suelo y al cultivo. Para estudiar el efecto de la temperatura en la rizosfera sobre la distribución
    de la materia seca en la uchuva y encontrar mecanismos de adaptación al altiplano colombiano, se cultivaron durante 11 semanas los ecotipos 'Colombia' y 'Sudáfrica' con temperaturas edáficas de 8, 15, 22 y 29°C bajo invernadero en Berlín, Alemania. Se utilizaron macetas plásticas de 2,5 L de capacidad y arena de cuarzo como substrato. Con el
    aumento de la temperatura en la rizosfera creció la producción de biomasa hasta un máximo a 22 y 29°C dependiendo del órgano de la planta y del ecotipo. La mayor acumulación de materia seca la obtuvo 'Colombia' a 29°C y 'Sudáfrica' a 22°C. Con 8°C de temperatura radical las plantas produjeron poca masa seca radical y foliar, mientras la materia de los frutos disminuyó en menor proporción, debido posiblemente a mecanismos de adaptación a los suelos fríos del altiplano. Los 22°C fomentaron más el crecimiento de las ramas principales, mientras las laterales tuvieron su óptimo a 29°C, posiblemente debido a un efecto hormonal. La mayor acumulación de materia seca en raíces,
    hojas y frutos del ecotipo 'Colombia' a 29°C se puede interpretar como una adaptación a los suelos calientes de las laderas expuestas al sol.
    In the natu ral habitat of cape gooseberry in Colombia, on sites from 1.600 to 2.800 m.a.s.l., soil temperature is affected by c1imatologicfactors, which are determined by the altitud and cultural and soil management practices. In order to study the effect of rizosphere temperature on the distribution of dry matter in the cape gooseberry plant and to find mecanisms of adaptation to the Colombian highland conditions, during 11 weeks 'Colombia' and

  9. Rædsler fra Ribe og omegn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Antropologen Donald E. Brown samlede i sin bog Human Universals (1991) de adfærdsmæssige, kognitive, sproglige og samfundsmæssige træk, som er blevet fundet i samtlige kulturer i verden, og som må forstås i lyset af menneskets biologi. Blandt disse adskillige hundrede træk findes narrative. I et ...

  10. EVALUACIÓN SENSORIAL DE FRESA (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. Y UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L. FORTIFICADAS CON VITAMINA E SENSORY EVALUATION OF STRAWBERRY (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. AND CAPE GOOSEBERRY (Physalis peruviana L. FORTIFIED WITH VITAMIN E

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    Ana María Restrepo Duque

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de tecnologías como la impregnación al vacío (IV, permite ofrecer al consumidor frutos mínimamente procesados, con alto valor nutricional y calidad sensorial similar al producto fresco. En esta investigación se presenta la evaluación sensorial de fresas y uchuvas fortificadas con vitamina E en función de atributos como: intensidad del color, sabor ácido, sabor dulce, sensación grasa, dureza, jugosidad y aceptación global. La evaluación sensorial se realizó para cada fruto mediante pruebas descriptivas escalares de 9 bloques, donde el control (fruto fresco fue posicionado en el centro y los jueces evaluaron el grado de intensidad del atributo en comparación con el control. El proceso de IV mejoró la calidad sensorial de los frutos recién impregnados en términos de sabor y aceptación global. Estas muestras fueron evaluadas como más jugosas, más dulces y menos ácidas que las muestras frescas.The development of technologies such as vacuum impregnation (VI, allows the consumer fruits to offer minimally processed, with high nutritional value and similar sensorial quality to the fresh product. In this investigation the sensorial evaluation of strawberries and cape gooseberry fortified with vitamin E is presented in function of attributes like: intensity of the color, sour flavor, sweet flavor, fatty sensation, hardness, juiciness and global acceptance. The sensorial evaluation was carried out for each fruit by means of scalar descriptive tests of 9 blocks, where the control (fresh fruit was positioned in the central part and the judges evaluated the grade of intensity of the attribute in comparison with the control. The process of VI improved the sensorial quality of the fruits recently impregnated in terms of flavor and global acceptance. These samples were evaluated as juicier, sweeter and less acidic that the fresh samples.

  11. Estabilidad Fisicoquímica y Funcional de Uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. Impregnada a Vacío con Calcio y Vitaminas B9, D y E, Durante el Almacenamiento Refrigerado / Phisicochemical and Functional Stability of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. Vacuu

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    Peña Correa Ruth Fabiola

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Debido a la creciente demanda de alimentossaludables, la industria alimentaria está mejorando el valornutritivo de estos, modificando su composición nutricional.Las frutas tropicales son ampliamente aceptadas por losconsumidores y a la vez representan una alternativa ideal para la obtención de alimentos funcionales a través de la incorporación de vitaminas y minerales. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar, en el transcurso del tiempo, variaciones en las propiedades fisicoquímicas, el contenido de vitaminas (C, B9, D y E y calcio, y la capacidad antioxidante (Folin, DPPH• y ABTS•+, de un producto de uchuva mínimamente procesado, fortificado por la técnica de impregnación a vacío (IV. Los resultados indican que una porción de 200 g de uchuva fortificada aporta el 81,6%; 72,3%; 38,9% y 50,2% de los valores diarios de referencia (VDR respectivos de las vitaminas B9, C, D y E, y el 15,4% de los de calcio. Durante el almacenamiento se encontró disminución de la concentración de las vitaminas B9 y E. Un comportamiento similar al de la vitamina E se presentó en la capacidad antioxidante (CA medida en la fracción liposoluble. La incorporación de componentes fisiológicamente activos en el interior de la estructura de las uchuvas mediante la técnica de IV, le confieren a la fruta mejores propiedades antioxidantes yfuncionales respecto a las uchuvas frescas. / Abstract. Due to the increasing demand of healthy foods, the food industry is improving the nutritional value of these by changing their nutritional composition. Tropical fruits are widelyaccepted by consumers and are an ideal alternative for obtaining functional foods through the addition of vitamins and minerals. The aim of this study was to evaluate, over time, variations in the physicochemical properties, vitamins (C, B9, D and E and calcium, and the antioxidant capacity (Folin, DPPH• and ABTS•+, in a cape gooseberry minimally processed product, fortified by

  12. PROPAGACIÓN DE UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L. MEDIANTE DIFERENTES TIPOS DE ESQUEJES Y SUSTRATOS PROPAGATION OF CAPE GOOSEBERRY (Physalis peruviana L. USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF CUTTINGS AND SUBSTRATES

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    Francisco José López Acosta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de contribuir al conocimiento sobre la propagación asexual de uchuva, se estableció este experimento cuyo objetivo fue evaluar el uso de esquejes obtenidos de diferentes partes de la planta: del tercio alto, medio y bajo de la rama productiva, de hoja y de hoja con yema axilar. Se determinaron las características del enraizamiento (longitud, peso de materia fresca y seca de raíces, y algunos cambios de magnitud de los esquejes (peso de materia fresca del esqueje y longitud del brote axilar durante un período de la fase vegetativa del cultivo. Los esquejes ( 16 cm de longitud, 2 nudos, con un par de hojas en el nudo superior fueron establecidos en diferentes sustratos: arena; suelo:cascarilla de arroz (1:1 v/v y arena:suelo:cascarilla de arroz (1:1:1 v/v y mantenidos en condiciones de alta humedad relativa (90% y temperatura media de 24ºC. Los resultados demostraron diferencias estadísticas entre tipo de esqueje; siendo los del tercio alto, los que obtuvieron mayor longitud radical, mayor peso de materia fresca y seca de raíces y mayor porcentaje de enraizamiento. En cuanto a los sustratos, se encontró que las mejores condiciones para enraizamiento se presentaron en la arena, donde se obtuvieron plántulas con el porcentaje de enraizamiento más alto, sin embargo, las diferencias significativas solo se presentaron entre longitud de raíz y del brote axilar.In order to contribute to the knowledge of the asexual propagation of cape gooseberry, this study was established with the aim to evaluate the use of cuttings from different plant parts: first third (apical shoot part, medium and basal third of the productive shoot; leaf solely and leaf with axillary bud. The characteristics of rooting were identified (length, fresh and dry weight of roots, and some changes of cutting’s magnitude (fresh weight of the cutting, length of the axillary sprout during the vegetative growth cycle. The cuttings ( 16 cm long, 2 nodes, with a pair

  13. Global Marketing of Indigenous Culture: Discovering Native America with Lee Tiger and the Florida Miccosukee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedman, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous scholars such as Seminole/Shawnee historian, Donald Fixico, drew attention to the lack of academic literature about the proactive, planned, and strategic actions of indigenous peoples. Most histories portray indigenous peoples as responding, accommodating, and assimilating to non-Indians and the US government. This article highlights…

  14. Influence of fruit maturity and calyx drying on cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana l., stored at 18°C Influencia de la madurez del fruto y del secado del cáliz en uchuva (Physalis peruviana l., almacenada a 18°C

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    Moreno Paola

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Cape gooseberry fruits at the maturity stages 3 (yellow greenish or 5 (yellow orange and with calyx drying for 6 hours at 18 or 24ºC, were stored at the temperature of 18ºC and 85 % relative humidity for 20 days, to evaluate physical-chemical and physiological changes. The cape gooseberry, a climacteric fruit, presented the maximum of respiration between 6 and 8 days of storage. The 6th day of storage seems to be crucial due to the very high metabolism and the maximum contents of sugars and acids on this day. Soluble solids tended to increase and the titratable acids went to diminish. The fruit's sugar content was characterized by a major concentration of sucrose, followed by glucose and fructose. While the citric acid showed its highest level at the sixth storage day that of the tartaric acid increased constantly up to 18 days. The fruit maturity stage 3 is that which best conserved the sugars and organic acids evaluated. The maturity index influenced more than calyx drying the postharvest behavior of cape gooseberry. Calyx drying at 24ºC caused the highest climacteric peak and originated the highest loss of fresh weight in fruits harvested at maturity index 5.

    Key words: Physalis peruviana; respiration; climacteric fruit; Brix degrees; organic acids; sugars.

    Frutos de uchuva en estados de madurez 3 (amarillo verdoso ó 5 (amarillo naranja y con secado del cáliz durante seis horas a 18 y 24ºC, se almacenaron a temperatura ambiente (18ºC y humedad relativa del 75% durante 20 días, con el fin de evaluar cambios físico-químicos y fisiológicos. La uchuva, fruto climatérico, presentó el máximo de respiración entre los 6 y 8 días de almacenamiento. El día 6 de almacenamiento parece ser crucial debido al metabolismo muy elevado y los contenidos más altos de azúcares y ácidos. Los sólidos solubles totales tendieron a aumentar, la acidez titulable a disminuir. El contenido de azúcares se caracterizó por

  15. EVALUACIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS AISLADOS DE GALLINAZA POR SU POTENCIAL PARA EL BIOCONTROL DE FUSARIUM (F. OXYSPORUM EN PLÁNTULAS DE UCHUVA (PHYSALIS PERUVIANA EVALUATION OF MICROORGANISMS INSOLATED FROM HEN MANURE FOR THEIR POTENCIAL AS BIOCONTROL AGENTS OF FUSARIUM (F. OXYSPORUM IN GOOSEBERRY (PHYSALIS PERUVIANA SEEDLINGS

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    Jorge Enrique Rodríguez Amézquita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, las pérdidas económicas ocasionadas por Fusarium oxysporum en el cultivo de uchuva son considerables. Se evaluaron hongos y bacterias aislados de 2 fuentes de gallinaza, su potencial como agentes de biocontrol de este patógeno. La evaluación se realizó en cajas de Petri con PDA para lo cual se colocó en el centro de las mismas, un disco de 5 mm de diámetro colonizado por el patógeno y a 3 cm del centro, sobre los ejes horizontal y vertical, cada uno de los aislamientos de la gallinaza. Los aislamientos que mostraron antagonismo fueron posteriormente evaluados in vitro por su capacidad de restringir el crecimiento y esporulación de F. oxysporum. Cada uno de los aislamientos que mostró el mayor potencial antagónico fue inoculado simultáneamente con el patógeno en plántulas de uchuva y evaluado por sus efectos en contra de la incidencia de la enfermedad y la muerte de las plántulas. Los resultados indicaron que de los 39 microorganismos aislados de la gallinaza pura, 6 mostraron antagonismo contra F. oxysporum y entre ellos los más efectivos para restringir in vitro su crecimiento y esporulación fueron los hongos H2 y H6 y las bacterias B17 y B19. Las bacterias B17 y B19 resultaron ser las más efectivas en reducir no sólo la incidencia sino también la muerte de plántulas ocasionada por el patógeno. Según los resultados de la identificación, los hongos H2 y H6 pertenecen a los géneros Geotrichum sp. y Trichoderma sp, respectivamente y las bacterias B17 y B19 al género Bacillus.In Colombia, economic losses due to attack of Fusarium oxysporum in the gooseberry plantation are considerable. Fungi and bacteria isolated from 2 hen manure sources were evaluated for their potential as biological control agents of this pathogen. The evaluation was conducted in Petri dishes containing PDA by placing a 5 mm diameter disk, colonized by this pathogen, in the center of the plates and at 3 cm from the center, over the

  16. Características físico-químicas de physalis em diferentes colorações do cálice e sistemas de condução Chemical characteristics of cape-gooseberry fruits in different sepal colors and training systems

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    Cláudia Simone Madruga Lima

    2009-12-01

    conjunto de características físico-químicas, em ambos os sistemas de condução avaliados.A species that is being introduced in the plantations of small fruits is the cape-gooseberry. The Solanaceae is considered a rugged plant that is difficult to maintain its upright stems; its fruits are in a glass that protects against insects, birds, and adverse conditions. This objective of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of Physalis peruviana fruits according to different sepal colors and the used training systems. The fruits were harvested and classified in five different sepal color groups: 1 (green, 2 (green-yellowish, 3 (yellow-greenish, 4 (yellow, 5 (yellow-brownish; and two training system groups: inverted "v" and triangular. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme 5x2 (sepal colors x drive systems. The experimental unit was composed of ten fruits, with each treatment repeated three times. The data were submitted to variance analysis (ANOVA by applying the Tukey test at a 5% level of probability of error for the comparison of the means. The appraised variables were: fruit, sepals and total fresh mass, diameter, firmness, epidermis color, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, the TSS/TTA ratio and pH. The triangular training system associated with yellow and yellowbrownish sepals resulted, respectively, in fruits with more SST and better TSS/TTA ratio. The highest mass and diameter values were obtained in cape-gooseberry fruits with yellow-brownish sepals, while the highest total mass was reached when sepals had yellow color. For sepals mass, the largest responses were obtained with the green sepals. From this physicochemical characterization we can conclude that cape-gooseberry picked g from the third color phase (yellow-greenish present the best physiochemical characteristics in both assessed training systems.

  17. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: integration and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Hunt; B. W. Geils; K. E. Hummer

    2010-01-01

    The preceding articles in this series review the history, biology and management of white pine blister rust in North America, Europe and eastern Asia. In this integration, we connect and discuss seven recurring themes important for understanding and managing epidemics of Cronartium ribicola in the white pines (five-needle pines in subgenus Strobus). Information and...

  18. Caracterizacion morfológica de 24 accesiones de uchuva del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira Morphologic characterization of 24 accessions of Cape gooseberry from the National University at Palmira's  campus  germplasm bank

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    Martha Liliana Bonilla Betancourt

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron 24 accesiones de uchuva Physalis peruviana L. de la colección de trabajo de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira, mediante 27 descriptores morfológicos (10 cualitativos y 17 cuantitativos. Se analizó la correspondencia múltiple (ACM y clasificación jerárquica ascendente para variables cualitativas y de componentes principales (ACP para variables cuantitativas. en el ACM tres ejes explicaron el 65.64% de la variabilidad; el primero con 38.53% reunió las variables color de máculas, color de anteras, color de la baya madura y color de semilla y la clasificación jerárquica generó tres grupos. Los dos primeros ejes del ACP explicaron 32.04% y 17.02% de la variación. el mayor aporte a la variabilidad fue dado por peso del fruto, tamaño transversal y longitudinal del fruto, peso de semilla húmeda y seca, número de semillas y contenido de sólidos solubles. La clasificación jerárquica determinó la conformación de cinco grupos. Se identificaron 5 materiales con potencialidades para el procesamiento, mercado y programas de mejoramiento por poseer alto peso del fruto, bajo número de semillas y valor alto de grados Brix.24 accessions of Cape gooseberry Physalis peruviana L. from the National University of Colombia at Palmira's campus work collection were characterized using 27 morphologic descriptors (10 qualitative and 17 quantitative. Two different analyses were made, the multiple correspondence analyses (MCA and the ascendant hierarchy classification for qualitative variables and the principal component analysis (PCA for quantitative variables. The results showed that 65.64% of variability was explained with three axes in the MCA. The first axe with 38.53% contained the variables colour of petals, anthers, berry ripped and seeds. The hierarchy classification generated three groups. The two first axes in ACP analysis explained 32.04% and 17.02% of the variation. In addition , the highest variability was

  19. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of 18 Introductions of Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana L. collection of the University of Nariño Caracterización Morfológica y Molecular de 18 Introducciones de Uchuva Physalis peruviana L. de la Colección de la Universidad de Nariño

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    Anjuly Tatiana Morillo Paz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen cape gooseberry introductions from the collection of Nariño's University were characterized through morphological and molecular RAM markers. For the morphological characterization were used 10 plants of each entry. Through the principal component analysis (PCA was found that 81.75 % of the total variability of the study population, regarding quantitative variables, is represented by three main components, defined by characteristics related to fruit and seed. The qualitative multiple correspondence analysis (MCA indicated that 61,51% of the total variability was explained by five factors, defined mainly by traits related to the flower and calyx. The classification analysis (CA based on morphological characterization, grouped introductions by total soluble solids and length of calyx. In the molecular characterization 66 polymorphic loci were found with bands of 500 to 3,000 bp. The value of heterozygosity for the 18 introductions was 0.44. Based on the Nei genetic distance criterion, it was found the less genetic distance (0.095 between A-34 and Sylvania, the largest genetic distance (1.42 occurred between Ecotype Colombia and Peru. Clusters of morphological and molecular characterization are mismatched, probably because phenotypical and genotypical characteristics, studied are governed by different factors.Fueron caracterizadas morfológica y molecularmente con marcadores RAM, 18 introducciones de uchuva de la colección de la Universidad de Nariño. Para la caracterización morfológica se sembraron 10 plantas de cada introducción. A través del análisis de componentes principales (ACP se determinó que el 81,75% de la variabilidad total de la población estudiada, respecto a las variables cuantitativas, está representada por tres componentes principales, definidos por características relacionadas con el fruto y la semilla. En cuanto a las cualitativas, el análisis de correspondencias múltiples (ACM indica que el 61,51% de la

  20. Base temperature and simulation model for nodes appearance in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. Temperatura base e modelo de simulação da aparição de nós em plantas de fisalis(Physalis peruviana L.

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    Melba Ruth Salazar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Data was analyzed on development of the solanaceen fruit crop Cape gooseberry to evaluate how well a classical thermal time model could describe node appearance in different environments. The data used in the analysis were obtained from experiments conducted in Colombia in open fields and greenhouse condition at two locations with different climate. An empirical, non linear segmented model was used to estimate the base temperature and to parameterize the model for simulation of node appearance vs. time. The base temperature (Tb used to calculate the thermal time (TT, ºCd for node appearance was estimated to be 6.29 ºC. The slope of the first linear segment was 0.023 nodes per TT and 0.008 for the second linear segment. The time at which the slope of node apperance changed was 1039.5 ºCd after transplanting, determined from a statistical analysis of model for the first segment. When these coefficients were used to predict node appearance at all locations, the model successfully fit the observed data (RSME=2.1, especially for the first segment where node appearance was more homogeneous than the second segment. More nodes were produced by plants grown under greenhouse conditions and minimum and maximum rates of node appearance rates were also higher.Dados analisados durante o desenvolvimento de fisalis, espécie frutífera da família das solanáceas, foram usados para avaliar a aparição de nós em diferentes condições ambientais através de um modelo clássico termal de tempo. Os dados usados na análise foram obtidos de experimentos conduzidos em dois locais, com clima diferente, em campos abertos e em condições de estufa, na Colômbia. O modelo não-linear empírico segmentado foi usado para estimar a temperatura-base, e para estabelecer os parâmetros do modelo da simulação da aparição de nós em função do tempo. A temperatura-base (Tb usada para calcular o tempo termal (TT, ºCd para a aparição de nós foi 6,29 ºC. A inclina

  1. Morphologic characterization of 24 accessions of Cape gooseberry from the National University campus Palmira's germplasm bank Caracterización morfológica de 24 accesiones de uchuva del banco de germoplasma de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Flórez Jaime Eduardo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available 24 accessions of Cape gooseberry Physalis peruviana L. from The National University of Colombia campus Palmira's work collection were characterized using 27 morphologic descriptors (10 qualitative and 17 quantitative. Two different analyses were made, the multiple correspondence analyses (ACM and the ascendant hierarchy classification for qualitative variables and the principal component analysis (ACP for quantitative variables. The results showed that 65.64% of variability was explained with three axes in the ACM. The first axe with 38.53% contained the variables colour of petals, anthers, berry ripped and seeds. The hierarchy classification generated three groups. The two first axes in ACP analysis explained 32.04% and 17.02% of the variation. Besides, the highest variability was supported by different characteristics such as fruit weight, transversal and longitudinal size of fruit, dry and wet seed weight, seeds number and soluble solids content and also the hierarchy classification showed five groups. Furthermore, it was possible to establish five materials with potential to be processed, traded and improved because of the high weight fruit, low number of seeds and high Brix grades.Key words: Qualitative and quantitative descriptors; Multiple Correspondence Analysis (ACM; Principal Components Analysis (ACP.Se caracterizaron 24 accesiones de uchuva Physalis peruviana L. de la colección de trabajo de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira, mediante 27 descriptores morfológicos (10 cualitativos y 17 cuantitativos. Se analizó la correspondencia múltiple (ACM y clasificación jerárquica ascendente para variables cualitativas y de componentes principales (ACP

  2. Radiation induced mutants in cape-gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Roy, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Dry seeds of Physalis peruviana (n=24) were irradiated with different doses of gamma-rays. The M 1 plants were grown to maturity and their seeds collected and sown separately for M 2 generation. Mutants were isolated from M 2 seedlings and plants. Mutant characters obtained were virido-albino chlorophyllous, high yielding, small leaf and fruit, semi-sterile and curly leaf type etc. The high yielding and small leaf and fruit mutants bred true in M 3 and M 4 generation reproducing the characters of the M 2 generation. (author)

  3. Cambio de los carbohidratos en el fruto de la uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. durante su desarrollo en relación al cáliz y las hojas Developmental changes of carbohydrates in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. fruits in relation to the calyx and the leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Gerhard

    1997-12-01

    áliz. Se supone que el cáliz juega un papel dominante en la producción y en la translocación de carbohidratos, principalmente de la sacarosa. Con su eliminación, el desarrollo del fruto es más demorado, lo cual se indica por los contenidos mayores de almidón. Así, el cáliz tiene, no solamente, una función protectora, sino que también, es una fuente importante para los asimilados, especialmente en la etapa temprana del
    crecimiento del fruto. La disminución en el contenido de sacarosa en las hojas a partir de la mitad del desarrollo del fruto podría ser debida a una mayor translocación desde la hoja al fruto.
    Glucose, fructose, sucrose and starch were analyzed in fruits, calyx and the two next leaves during fruit development of cape gooseberry under glasshouse conditions in Berlin-Germany. Calyx was eliminated completely or half-sided vertically 5, 25 and 45 days past fruit set (PFS. Fruits growing completely without calyx slowed down their
    growth rates significantly from 10-15days PFS on. Fruits with half-sided calyx or with a complete removal of the calyx after 25 and 45 days grew unaffectedly. Higher increment rates of all carbohydrates were measured during the first 10-20 days of fruít development in fruits and calyx. Both organs showed higher sucrose concentrations as compared to the other carbohydrates and sucrose rose sharply from 20-30 days PFS in fruits and from 40-50 days in calyx. Glucose and fructose content rose in a lower scale than sucrose and both had very
    similar increase patterns in the fruit. Starch decreased in fruit and calyx from 10-20 days PFS until harvest (60 days continuously. Leaf starch content was highest of the measured carbohydrates and followed a Gauss curve pattern type during fruit growth. Leaf sucrose decreased after 40 days PFS, probably due to an increased translocation to the fruit. 47.2 % of total dry matter in mature fruits were carbohydrates, whereas in calyx and leaves the percentages were 5.7 and 7

  4. Cicca disticha L. Syn. C. AcidaMerr. (English: Gooseberry-tree ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -size tree, which is often cultivatedfor itsfruits. Older branches show large scars where foliage branches ... Fruit is a depressed globose berry, lobed with fleshy outer and hard inner portions. The fleshy edible part of the fruit is sour and is pickled.

  5. Morphologic characterization of forty six accessions of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), in Antioquia (Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Trillos González, Ofelia; Cotes Torres, José Miguel; Medina Cano, Clara Inés; Lobo Arias, Mario; Navas Arboleda, Alejandro Alberto

    2008-01-01

    La uchuva, Physalis peruviana L., crece como planta silvestre en las zonas tropicales altas de América, estando el centro de origen y diversificación en los Andes Suramericanos, principalmente de Colombia, Perú y Ecuador. Se realizó la caracterización morfológica de 46 accesiones de uchuva provenientes del Banco de Germoplasma de la nación Colombiana, a cargo de La Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuarias, CORPOICA, en el Centro de Investigación La Selva, ubicado en la vereda Lla...

  6. Renoprotective Effect of Egyptian Cape Gooseberry Fruit (Physalis peruviana L. against Acute Renal Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiaa Ali Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the renoprotective effect of Physalis peruviana L. extract (PPE on acute renal injury in rats. Adult male rats (n=36 were divided into six groups that were fed with basal diet throughout the experiment (33 days. The first group was normal group, the second and the third groups were administered orally with 100 and 150 mg PPE/kg body weight (BW respectively, the fourth group was injected intraperitoneally with 5 mg/kg BW cisplatin once on the 28th day to induced ARI, and the fifth and sixth groups were treated like the second and the third groups and were injected with cisplatin on the 28th day. Many bioactive compounds were found in PPE. PPE did not cause any changes in the second and third groups compared to normal control group. Administration of PPE prior to cisplatin injection caused significant reduction in relative kidney weight, serum creatinine, urea, blood urea nitrogen, and significant increments in body weight, feed intake, total protein, albumin, and total globulin compared to cisplatin group. Pretreatment with PPE improved kidney histology and diminished the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and enhanced other antioxidant enzymes in kidney homogenate compared to cisplatin group.

  7. Sexual reproduction of the cape gooseberry Biología reproductiva de la uchuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Flórez Jaime Eduardo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to determine the time of pollen and stigma ripening and to establish the kind of pollination in Physalis. This research was conducted in the Botana Farm at the University of Nariño, Colombia (2820 m a s l, 13 ° C, pluvial precipitation of 800 mm / year and relative humidity of 82%. P. peruviana took 37 days to anthesis, which took place between 7:00 and 10:00 am. In 85% of the flowers the first anther dehiscent was the day after the opening of the flower. The pollen grains showed 97% of viability to 35 days. Pollen matured before anthesis and stigma was receptive before the opening of the flower. Both, pollen and the pistil matured to 35 days of development, two days before anthesis; receptivity of the pistil was filed two days prior to anthesis, a phenomenon that restricts the self. The absence of vectors influenced pollination of P. peruviana. In emasculate flowers and subjected to self-pollination is introduced low fruit and seed formation, there was a differential response in pollination among samples inside the greenhouse. P. peruviana showed mixed pollination with 54% of cross-pollination.Key words: Physalis peruviana; anthesis; self-pollination; cross-pollination.Los objetivos del trabajo fueron determinar la época de maduración del polen y del estigma y establecer el tipo de polinización de la uchuva en condiciones de invernadero con cinco genotipos de uchuva. La investigación se realizó en la Granja Botana de la Universidad de Nariño (2.820 msnm, 13°C, precipitación de 800 mm/año y humedad relativa de 82%. P. peruviana tomó 37 días para la apertura floral, la cual se efectuó entre las 7:00 a.m. y las 10:00 a.m. En el 85% de las flores la primera antera fue dehiscente al día siguiente de la apertura floral. Los granos de polen tuvieron 97% de viabilidad a los 35 días. El polen maduró antes de la antesis y el estigma fue receptivo antes de la apertura de la flor. Tanto el polen como el pistilo maduraron a los 35 días de desarrollo, dos días antes de la apertura floral; la receptividad del pistilo se presentó dos días antes de la antesis, fenómeno que restringe la autopolinización. En invernadero, la ausencia de vectores influyó en la polinización de P. peruviana. En flores emasculadas y sometidas a libre polinización se presentó baja formación de frutos y semillas, existió respuesta diferencial a la polinización dentro del invernadero entre las muestras evaluadas. P. peruviana presentó polinización mixta con 54% de polinización cruzada.Palabras claves: Physalis peruviana; antesis; apertura floral; autopolinización; polinización cruzada.

  8. Renoprotective effect of Egyptian cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) against acute renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Lamiaa Ali

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the renoprotective effect of Physalis peruviana L. extract (PPE) on acute renal injury in rats. Adult male rats (n = 36) were divided into six groups that were fed with basal diet throughout the experiment (33 days). The first group was normal group, the second and the third groups were administered orally with 100 and 150 mg PPE/kg body weight (BW) respectively, the fourth group was injected intraperitoneally with 5 mg/kg BW cisplatin once on the 28th day to induced ARI, and the fifth and sixth groups were treated like the second and the third groups and were injected with cisplatin on the 28th day. Many bioactive compounds were found in PPE. PPE did not cause any changes in the second and third groups compared to normal control group. Administration of PPE prior to cisplatin injection caused significant reduction in relative kidney weight, serum creatinine, urea, blood urea nitrogen, and significant increments in body weight, feed intake, total protein, albumin, and total globulin compared to cisplatin group. Pretreatment with PPE improved kidney histology and diminished the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and enhanced other antioxidant enzymes in kidney homogenate compared to cisplatin group.

  9. Non-Ribes alternate hosts of white pine blister rust: What this discovery means to whitebark pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul J. Zambino; Bryce A. Richardson; Geral I. McDonald; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook. Kim

    2006-01-01

    From early to present-day outbreaks, white pine blister rust caused by the fungus Cronartium ribicola, in combination with mountain pine beetle outbreaks and fire exclusion has caused ecosystem-wide effects for all five-needled pines (McDonald and Hoff 2001). To be successful, efforts to restore whitebark pine will require sound management decisions that incorporate an...

  10. Migration Monitoring of Blackcurrant Gall Mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis Westw. from Buds to Leaves on Several Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowski Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The blackcurrant gall mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis is the most important pest of blackcurrant crops. Over recent years withdrawal from plant protection programmes of chemical products (endosulfan and amitraz used for the control of this pest in Poland, has led to an observed increase in population numbers. In 2013, fenpiroxymate (Ortus 05 SC became registered for control of this pest. It is deemed best that chemical protection should be used during the migration period; when big gall mites emerge from buds in search of new buds. The studies were carried out in a plantation of blackcurrants during 2011-2013. The assessment of migration of the blackcurrant gall mite was carried out on the cultivars ‘Ben Hope’, ‘Ben Alde’r, ‘Ojeby’n and ‘Ruben’. Every year, from selected cultivars buds were collected. They were then placed on blackcurrant leaves within Petri dishes. After one, three and five days of placing buds on the leaves, the estimated number of eriophyid mites on the leaves was calculated. The data has shown a very useful method for monitoring blackcurrant gall mite, which can be used in calculating the treatment dates for this pest. Also, the data has shown that differences in the periods of migration of the mite are dependent on the cultivar and time of flowering. Among the cultivars observed the least susceptible to colonization by the blackcurrant gall mite was a Polish cultivar ‘Ruben’, while the most susceptible cultivar was ‘Ben Hope’.

  11. Incidensen af børnediabetes i Danmark. En prospektiv registrering i Fyns, Ribe, Sønderjyllands og Vejle amter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Kreutzfeld, J C; Lund, E B

    1997-01-01

    been an increase of about 20-25% in the incidence during the last 20 years. Our study stresses the importance of a continuous registration of new cases of childhood diabetes in Denmark, thereby providing clues for further aetiological studies as well as providing reference values for the planning...

  12. Berry fruits: compositional elements, biochemical activities, and the impact of their intake on human health, performance, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    An overwhelming body of research has now firmly established that the dietary intake of berry fruits has a positive and profound impact on human health, performance, and disease. Berry fruits, which are commercially cultivated and commonly consumed in fresh and processed forms in North America, include blackberry ( Rubus spp.), black raspberry ( Rubus occidentalis), blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum), cranberry (i.e., the American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, distinct from the European cranberry, V. oxycoccus), red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus) and strawberry ( Fragaria x ananassa). Other berry fruits, which are lesser known but consumed in the traditional diets of North American tribal communities, include chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana), highbush cranberry ( Viburnum trilobum), serviceberry ( Amelanchier alnifolia), and silver buffaloberry ( Shepherdia argentea). In addition, berry fruits such as arctic bramble ( Rubus articus), bilberries ( Vaccinuim myrtillus; also known as bog whortleberries), black currant ( Ribes nigrum), boysenberries ( Rubus spp.), cloudberries ( Rubus chamaemorus), crowberries ( Empetrum nigrum, E. hermaphroditum), elderberries ( Sambucus spp.), gooseberry ( Ribes uva-crispa), lingonberries ( Vaccinium vitis-idaea), loganberry ( Rubus loganobaccus), marionberries ( Rubus spp.), Rowan berries ( Sorbus spp.), and sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides), are also popularly consumed in other parts of the world. Recently, there has also been a surge in the consumption of exotic "berry-type" fruits such as the pomegranate ( Punica granatum), goji berries ( Lycium barbarum; also known as wolfberry), mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana), the Brazilian açaí berry ( Euterpe oleraceae), and the Chilean maqui berry ( Aristotelia chilensis). Given the wide consumption of berry fruits and their potential impact on human health and disease, conferences and symposia that target the latest scientific research (and, of equal importance, the dissemination of

  13. Intransience of functional components and distinctive properties of amla (Indian gooseberry) ice cream during short-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Rajpreet Kaur; Bajwa, Usha

    2018-05-01

    Inclusion of processed amla have been found to enhance the functional properties and nutritional value of ice cream by augmenting the fiber content, total phenols, tannins, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity. The present investigation assessed the changes in these constituents, color values (L, a* and b*), melting rate, sensory scores and microbiological quality of ice cream containing amla shreds, pulp, preserve, candy and powder during 60 days' storage at - 18 to - 20 °C. The total solids increased slightly whereas the antioxidant activity, total phenols, ascorbic acid and tannins decreased on storage. The L values declined whereas a* and b* values amplified, the rate of change being highest in candy containing sample followed by preserve. The first drip time of all the samples increased whereas melting rate decreased. The overall acceptability scores declined non significantly. Standard plate count of all the ice cream samples decreased significantly whereas yeast and molds were not detected throughout the storage. The psychrophiles were not spotted up to 30 days, thereafter, a small increase was observed.

  14. Association Study Reveals Novel Genes Related to Yield and Quality of Fruit in Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arias, Francy L; Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A; Núñez Zarantes, Victor M

    2018-01-01

    Association mapping has been proposed as an efficient approach to assist plant breeding programs to investigate the genetic basis of agronomic traits. In this study, we evaluated 18 traits related to yield, (FWP, NF, FWI, and FWII), fruit size-shape (FP, FA, MW, WMH, MH, HMW, DI, FSI, FSII, OVO, OBO), and fruit quality (FIR, CF, and SST), in a diverse collection of 100 accessions of Physalis peruviana including wild, landraces, and anther culture derived lines. We identified seven accessions with suitable traits: fruit weight per plant (FWP) > 7,000 g/plant and cracked fruits (CF) peruviana .

  15. Production and characterization of distilled alcoholic beverages obtained by solid-state fermentation of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) and black currant (Ribes nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso González, Elisa; Torrado Agrasar, Ana; Pastrana Castro, Lorenzo M; Orriols Fernández, Ignacio; Pérez Guerra, Nelson

    2010-02-24

    The present study was conducted to appraise the potential of black mulberry and black currant to be used as fermentation substrates for producing alcoholic beverages obtained by distillation of the fruits previously fermented with Sacchromyces cerevisiae IFI83. In the two distillates obtained, the volatile compounds that can pose health hazards are within the limits of acceptability fixed by the European Council (Regulation 110/2008) for fruit spirits. However, the amount of volatile substances in the black currant distillate (121.1 g/hL absolute alcohol (aa)) was lower than the minimum limit (200 g/hL aa) fixed by the aforementioned regulation. The mean volatile composition of both distillates was different from other alcoholic beverages such as four commercial Galician orujo spirits, Portuguese bagaceiras, and two distillates obtained from fermented whey and blackberry. The results obtained showed the feasibility for obtaining distillates from fermented black mulberry and black currant, which have their own distinctive characteristics.

  16. Establecimiento de una colección de trabajo de uchuva del suroccidente colombiano Establishment of a Cape gooseberry working collection collected in the colombian southwest zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Liliana Bonilla Betancourt

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Physalis peruviana L. es una especie frutícola promisoria para la zona andina colombiana; sin embargo, no ha sido un recurso genético prioritario de conservación. En el estudio se estableció una colección de trabajo registrada en una base de datos computarizada de 222 accesiones recolectadas en los departamentos de Nariño, Valle del Cauca, Cauca, Caldas, Quindío y Cundinamarca que representan la variabilidad existente de cultivariedades nativas y espontáneas. Las semillas del material recolectado se encuentran en el cuarto frío del Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira. Esta colección contribuye a la conservación y al estudio de la diversidad de esta especie y a la disponibilidad de una base genética para futuros programas de selección y mejoramiento genético.Physalis peruviana L. is a promissory fruit specie for the Colombian Andean zone, however, it has not been a priority for genetic resource conservation. In this study a working collection of 222 accessions collected in the states of Nariño, Valle del Cauca, Cauca, Caldas, Quindío and Cundinamarca of Colombia was established and registered in a computational data base. It represent the variability present of native and spontaneous varieties. Seeds of the collected materials are available in cold room in the Experimental Center of The National University of Colombia at Palmira’s campus. This collection contributes to the conservation and genetic diversity studies of this specie. In addition its contributes to implement breeding programs.

  17. Establishing of a Cape gooseberry working collection collected in the colombian southwest zone Establecimiento de una colección de trabajo de uchuva del suroccidente colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa Piedrahíta Katherine

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Physalis peruviana L. is a promissory fruit specie for the Andean Colombian zone, however, it has not been a priority genetic resource for conservation. In this study a working collection of 222 accessions collected in the states of Nariño, Valle del Cauca, Cauca, Caldas, Quindío and Cundinamarca of Colombia was established and registered in a computational data base. It represent the variability present of native and spontaneous varieties. Seeds of the collected materials are available in cold room in the Experimental Centre of The National University of Colombia campus Palmira. This collection contributes to the conservation and genetic diversity studies in this specie, besides for implementing selection and breeding programs..Key words: Physalis peruviana ; Solanaceae; genetic diversity; germplasm bank.Physalis peruviana L. es una especie frutícola promisoria para la zona andina colombiana; sin embargo, no ha sido un recurso genético prioritario de conservación. En el estudio se estableció una colección de trabajo registrada en una base de datos computarizada de 222 accesiones recolectadas en los departamentos de Nariño, Valle del Cauca, Cauca, Caldas, Quindío y Cundinamarca que representan la variabilidad existente de cultivariedades nativas y espontáneas. Las semillas del material recolectado se encuentran en el cuarto frío del Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira. Esta colección contribuye a la conservación y al estudio de la diversidad de esta especie y a la disponibilidad de una base genética para futuros programas de selección y mejoramiento genético.Palabras claves: Physalis peruviana; Solanaceae; diversidad genética; Banco de germoplasma.

  18. Comparison of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in QU-DB Cells after Acute and Fractionated Irradiation: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Kamran Samani, Roghayeh; Mohebbi, Shokoufeh

    2016-01-01

    Radiation effects induced in non-irradiated cells are termed radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). The present study intends to examine the RIBE response of QU-DB bystander cells to first, second and third radiation fractions and compare their cumulative outcome with an equal, single acute dose. This experimental study irradiated three groups of target cells for one, two and three times with(60)Co gamma rays. One hour after irradiation, we transferred their culture media to non-irradiated (bystander) cells. We used the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay to evaluate RIBE response in the bystander cells. The numbers of micronuclei generated in bystander cells were determined. RIBE response to single acute doses increased up to 4 Gy, then decreased, and finally at the 8 Gy dose disappeared. The second and third fractions induced RIBE in bystander cells, except when RIBE reached to the maximum level at the first fraction. We split the 4 Gy acute dose into two fractions, which decreased the RIBE response. However, fractionation of 6 Gy (into two fractions of 3 Gy or three fractions of 2 Gy) had no effect on RIBE response. When we split the 8 Gy acute dose into two fractions we observed RIBE, which had disappeared following the single 8 Gy dose. The impact of dose fractionation on RIBE induced in QU-DB cells de- pended on the RIBE dose-response relationship. Where RIBE increased proportion- ally with the dose, fractionation reduced the RIBE response. In contrast, at high dos- es where RIBE decreased proportionally with the dose, fractionation either did not change RIBE (at 6 Gy) or increased it (at 8 Gy).

  19. EVALUACIÓN DE LAS PROPIEDADES TERMODINÁMICAS DE SORCIÓN DE LA UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L.) SORÇÃO TERMODINÁMICA AVALIAÇÃO DAS PROPRIEDADES GOOSEBERRY CAPE (Physalis peruviana L.) SORPTION THERMODYNAMICS PROPERTIES EVALUATION OF THE CAPE GOOSEBERRY (Physalis peruviana L.)

    OpenAIRE

    FARID B. CORTÉS; ANDRÉS BETANCOURT; BENJAMIN ROJANO; VERONICA LÓPEZ; ERIKA ARENAS

    2012-01-01

    El equilibrio de sorción de agua a diferentes temperaturas (25, 35, 50 y 60°C) en un rango de humedad relativa, de 0.10 a 0.85, se determinó para la uchuva usando un método gravimétrico estático. El calor isostérico y la energía libre de Gibbs se calcularon desde el equilibrio de sorción. Los modelos de GAB, BET, SMITH, el modificado de Halsey, el modificado Chung-Pfost, el modificado de Oswin y el modificado de Henderson fueron probados para ajustar los datos experimentales. El modelo GAB fu...

  20. EVALUACIÓN DE LAS PROPIEDADES TERMODINÁMICAS DE SORCIÓN DE LA UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L. SORÇÃO TERMODINÁMICA AVALIAÇÃO DAS PROPRIEDADES GOOSEBERRY CAPE (Physalis peruviana L. SORPTION THERMODYNAMICS PROPERTIES EVALUATION OF THE CAPE GOOSEBERRY (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARID B. CORTÉS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El equilibrio de sorción de agua a diferentes temperaturas (25, 35, 50 y 60°C en un rango de humedad relativa, de 0.10 a 0.85, se determinó para la uchuva usando un método gravimétrico estático. El calor isostérico y la energía libre de Gibbs se calcularon desde el equilibrio de sorción. Los modelos de GAB, BET, SMITH, el modificado de Halsey, el modificado Chung-Pfost, el modificado de Oswin y el modificado de Henderson fueron probados para ajustar los datos experimentales. El modelo GAB fue el más adecuado para describir las curvas de sorción. Los valores de contenido de humedad de la monocapa para la sorción a diferentes temperaturas fueron calculados usando el modelo BET. El calor isostérico decrece con el incremento en el contenido de humedad, mientras que la energía libre de Gibbs incrementa.O equilíbrio de sorção de água em diferentes temperaturas (25, 35, 35 e 60° C em uma faixa de umidade relativa, entre 0,10 e 0,85, foi determinada utilizando um método estático gravimétrico. Isostérico de calor e energia livre de Gibbs foram calculados a partir do equilíbrio de sorção. Os modelos de GAB, BET, SMITH, o Halsey modificado, modificado Chung-Pfost na Oswin modificado e Henderson modificado foram testados para ajuste dos dados experimentais. O modelo GAB é o mais adequado para descrever as curvas de adsorção. Os valores de umidade para a adsorção em monocamada em diferentes temperaturas foram calculadas utilizando o modelo de BET. calor isostérico diminui com o aumento da umidade, enquanto o aumento da energia livre de Gibbs.The equilibrium sorption of water at different temperatures (25, 35, 50 and 60°C at a relative humidity range, from 0.10 to 0.85, was determined using a static gravimetric method. Isosteric heat and Gibbs free energy were calculated from the sorption equilibrium. The models of GAB, BET, SMITH, the modified Hasley, modified Chung-Pfost on the modified Oswin and Henderson was tested to fit the experimental data. The GAB model is most appropriate to describe the sorption curves. The moisture content values for the monolayer adsorption at different temperatures were calculated using the BET model. Isosteric heat decreases with increasing moisture energy increases.

  1. Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, V.W.Y.; Wong, M.Y.P.; Cheng, S.H.; Yu, K.N.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the influence of a low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) liberated from tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium (II) (CORM-3) on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in vivo between embryos of the zebrafish was studied. RIBE was assessed through the number of apoptotic signals revealed on embryos at 25 h post fertilization (hpf). A significant attenuation of apoptosis on the bystander embryos induced by RIBE in a CO concentration dependent manner was observed. - Highlights: ► RIBE between zebrafish embryos in vivo was assessed by the level of apoptosis. ► CO from 10 and 20 μM CORM-3 entirely suppressed the RIBE. ► CO from 5 μM CORM-3 significantly attenuated the level of apoptosis. ► Inactive CORM-3 did not lead to suppression of RIBE. ► Suppression of RIBE by CO depended on the concentration of CORM-3.

  2. An efficient and provable secure revocable identity-based encryption scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changji Wang

    Full Text Available Revocation functionality is necessary and crucial to identity-based cryptosystems. Revocable identity-based encryption (RIBE has attracted a lot of attention in recent years, many RIBE schemes have been proposed in the literature but shown to be either insecure or inefficient. In this paper, we propose a new scalable RIBE scheme with decryption key exposure resilience by combining Lewko and Waters' identity-based encryption scheme and complete subtree method, and prove our RIBE scheme to be semantically secure using dual system encryption methodology. Compared to existing scalable and semantically secure RIBE schemes, our proposed RIBE scheme is more efficient in term of ciphertext size, public parameters size and decryption cost at price of a little looser security reduction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first construction of scalable and semantically secure RIBE scheme with constant size public system parameters.

  3. 33 CFR 385.12 - Pilot projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with certain components such as aquifer storage and recovery, in-ground reservoir technology, seepage..., the Department of Commerce, the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida, the Seminole Tribe of Florida, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and other Federal, State, and local agencies...

  4. Exploring the potential of an Andean fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares Tenorio, Mary Luz

    2017-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is a fruit cultivated in Andean countries. Currently it is available some international markets, besides the domestic Andean market. Colombia is the major producer and export country at the moment. The value chain of cape gooseberry faces several barriers of technological and

  5. EVALUACIÓN SENSORIAL DE FRESA (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) Y UCHUVA (Physalis peruviana L.) FORTIFICADAS CON VITAMINA E SENSORY EVALUATION OF STRAWBERRY (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) AND CAPE GOOSEBERRY (Physalis peruviana L.) FORTIFIED WITH VITAMIN E

    OpenAIRE

    Ana María Restrepo Duque; Misael Cortés Rodríguez; Héctor Suárez Mahecha

    2008-01-01

    El desarrollo de tecnologías como la impregnación al vacío (IV), permite ofrecer al consumidor frutos mínimamente procesados, con alto valor nutricional y calidad sensorial similar al producto fresco. En esta investigación se presenta la evaluación sensorial de fresas y uchuvas fortificadas con vitamina E en función de atributos como: intensidad del color, sabor ácido, sabor dulce, sensación grasa, dureza, jugosidad y aceptación global. La evaluación sensorial se realizó para cada fruto media...

  6. Modulation of modeled microgravity on radiation-induced bystander effects in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ting [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Sun, Qiao [Space Molecular Biological Lab, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100086 (China); Xu, Wei; Li, Fanghua [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Huasheng; Lu, Jinying [Space Molecular Biological Lab, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100086 (China); Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Liu, Min [Space Molecular Biological Lab, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100086 (China); Bian, Po [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The effects of microgravity on the radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) were definitely demonstrated. • The effects of microgravity on RIBE might be divergent for different biological events. • The microgravity mainly modified the generation or transport of bystander signals at early stage. - Abstract: Both space radiation and microgravity have been demonstrated to have inevitable impact on living organisms during space flights and should be considered as important factors for estimating the potential health risk for astronauts. Therefore, the question whether radiation effects could be modulated by microgravity is an important aspect in such risk evaluation. Space particles at low dose and fluence rate, directly affect only a fraction of cells in the whole organism, which implement radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) in cellular response to space radiation exposure. The fact that all of the RIBE experiments are carried out in a normal gravity condition bring forward the need for evidence regarding the effect of microgravity on RIBE. In the present study, a two-dimensional rotation clinostat was adopted to demonstrate RIBE in microgravity conditions, in which the RIBE was assayed using an experimental system of root-localized irradiation of Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants. The results showed that the modeled microgravity inhibited significantly the RIBE-mediated up-regulation of expression of the AtRAD54 and AtRAD51 genes, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and transcriptional activation of multicopy P35S:GUS, but made no difference to the induction of homologous recombination by RIBE, showing divergent responses of RIBE to the microgravity conditions. The time course of interaction between the modeled microgravity and RIBE was further investigated, and the results showed that the microgravity mainly modulated the processes of the generation or translocation of the bystander signal(s) in roots.

  7. Archaeological and Historical Reconnaissance and Literature Search of Cultural Resources within the Pembina River Project, Pembina and Cavalier Counties, North Dakota. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Bur oak Ulmus americana American elm Celtis occidentalis Hackberry Menispermum canadense Moonseed Ribes americanum Black currant Ribes missouriense...broken terrain, or at slippery stream crossings and successfully attacked. There is no indication of the use of poison, pits, traps, fire, or communal

  8. Söke Ovasında (Aydın) yeni bir kültür bitkisi: Yer Kirazı/Altın Çilek (Physalis peruviana)

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Yasemin; Günal, Nurten

    2018-01-01

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is an economically valuable species of Physalis in the family of Solanaceae. Native to the tropical South America, Cape Gooseberry then spread to tropical, subtropical, and sometimes mild climate zones. Physalis peruviana is a plant that highly needs heat, sun light and moisture, and that does not withstand low temperature and strong winds. It is not so much selective in terms of soil.Cape Gooseberry/Golden Strawberry was first grown in the town Bağarası i...

  9. Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, V.W.Y.; Wong, M.Y.P. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Cheng, S.H. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N., E-mail: appetery@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2012-07-15

    In the present work, the influence of a low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) liberated from tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium (II) (CORM-3) on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in vivo between embryos of the zebrafish was studied. RIBE was assessed through the number of apoptotic signals revealed on embryos at 25 h post fertilization (hpf). A significant attenuation of apoptosis on the bystander embryos induced by RIBE in a CO concentration dependent manner was observed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIBE between zebrafish embryos in vivo was assessed by the level of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO from 10 and 20 {mu}M CORM-3 entirely suppressed the RIBE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO from 5 {mu}M CORM-3 significantly attenuated the level of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactive CORM-3 did not lead to suppression of RIBE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppression of RIBE by CO depended on the concentration of CORM-3.

  10. Overexpression of SKP2 Inhibits the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects of Esophageal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chun Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the effects of S-phase kinase protein 2 (SKP2 expression on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE in esophageal cancer (EC cells. Materials and Methods: Western blot was used to detect the levels of SKP2, Rad51, and Ku70 in EC cells. Positive transfection, RNAi, micronucleus (MN, and γ-H2AX focus formation assay were used to investigate the effects of SKP2 on RIBE induced by irradiated cells. Results: We found a significant negative correlation between SKP2 expression and MN frequency (p < 0.05 induced by RIBE. The results were further confirmed by positive transfection, RNAi, and rescue experiments.γ-H2AX focus formation assay results indicated that overexpression of SKP2 in the irradiated cells inhibited the DNA damage of RIBE cells. However, when SKP2 expression decreased in irradiated cells, the DNA damage of RIBE cells increased. Increased or decreased expression levels of SKP2 had effects on Rad51 expression under the conditions of RIBE. Conclusions: These results showed, for the first time, that SKP2 expression can inhibit RIBE of EC cells. The mechanism may function, at least partly, through the regulation of Rad51 in the ability to repair DNA damage.

  11. A brief review of revocable ID-based public key cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Yang Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of ID-based cryptography has received much attention from researchers. However, how to revoke the misbehaviour/compromised user in ID-based public key cryptosystem becomes an important research issue. Recently, Tseng and Tsai proposed a novel public key cryptosystem called revocable ID-based public key cryptosystem (RIBE to solve the revocation problem. Later on, numerous research papers based on the Tseng-Tsai key RIBE were proposed. In this paper, we brief review Tseng and Tsai's RIBE. We hope this review can help the readers to understand the Tseng and Tsai's revocable ID-based public key cryptosystem.

  12. Partial genome sequence of currant latent virus, a new chera-like virus related to Apple latent spherical virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrzik, Karel; Přibylová, Jaroslava; Špak, Josef; Havelka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 2 (2015), s. 142-145 ISSN 1345-2630 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Picornaviridae * Red currant blister aphid * Ribes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.120, year: 2015

  13. Reactive ion beam etching for microcavity surface emitting laser fabrication: technology and damage characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutani, A.; Tadokoro, T.; Koyama, F.; Iga, K.

    1993-01-01

    Reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) is an effective dry etching technique for the fabrication of micro-sized surface emitting (SE) lasers and optoelectronic devices. In this chapter, some etching characteristics for GaAs, InP and GaInAsP with a Cl 2 gas using an RIBE system are discussed. Micro-sized circular mesas including GaInAsP/InP multilayers with vertical sidewalls were fabricated. RIBE-induced damage in InP substrates was estimated by C-V and PL measurement. In addition, the removal of the induced damage by the second RIBE with different conditions for the InP wafer was proposed. The sidewall damage is characterized by photoluminescence emitted from the etched sidewall of a GaInAsP/InP DH wafer. (orig.)

  14. SU-D-16A-03: A Radiation Pneumonitis Dose-Response Model Incorporating Non- Local Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, J; Snyder, K; Zhong, H; Chetty, I

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Dose-response models that can reliably predict radiation pneumonitis (RP) to guide radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer presently do not exist. A model is proposed that incorporates non-local radiationinduced bystander effect (RIBE). Methods: A single sigmoid response function, derived from published data for whole lung irradiation, relates RP probability to cumulative lung damage, regardless of fractionation scheme. Lung damage is assumed to be caused by direct local radiation damage, quantified via the linear-quadratic (LQ) model, and RIBE. Based on published data, RIBE is assumed to be activated when per-fraction dose rises above ∼0.6 Gy, but is constant with dose above that threshold. Integral RIBE damage is assumed proportional to lung volume irradiated above ∼0.6 Gy per fraction. Key model parameters include LQ α and β, and two RIBE parameters: the single-fraction probability δ of damage, and a proportionality parameter κ that relates the potential for RIBE damage to irradiated lung volume. All parameters are tentatively fitted from published data, the RIBE parameters from published RP rates for conventionally fractionated RT (CFRT) and stereotactic body RT (SBRT). Results: The model predicts dose-response curves that are consistent with clinical experience. It provides a tentative explanation for why V20 (33 fractions), V13 (20 fractions) and V5 (<10 fractions) are observed to be correlated with RP. It also provides a plausible explanation for the success of SBRT — RIBE damage increases with the number of fractions, so penalizes CFRT relative to SBRT. Conclusion: The proposed model is relatively simple, extrapolates from published data, plausibly explains several clinical observations, and produces dose-response curves that are consistent with clinical experience. While capable of elaboration, its ability to explain doseresponse experience with different fractionation schemes using a small number of assumptions and parameters is an

  15. SU-D-16A-03: A Radiation Pneumonitis Dose-Response Model Incorporating Non- Local Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, J; Snyder, K; Zhong, H; Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Dept. Radiation Oncology, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Dose-response models that can reliably predict radiation pneumonitis (RP) to guide radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer presently do not exist. A model is proposed that incorporates non-local radiationinduced bystander effect (RIBE). Methods: A single sigmoid response function, derived from published data for whole lung irradiation, relates RP probability to cumulative lung damage, regardless of fractionation scheme. Lung damage is assumed to be caused by direct local radiation damage, quantified via the linear-quadratic (LQ) model, and RIBE. Based on published data, RIBE is assumed to be activated when per-fraction dose rises above ∼0.6 Gy, but is constant with dose above that threshold. Integral RIBE damage is assumed proportional to lung volume irradiated above ∼0.6 Gy per fraction. Key model parameters include LQ α and β, and two RIBE parameters: the single-fraction probability δ of damage, and a proportionality parameter κ that relates the potential for RIBE damage to irradiated lung volume. All parameters are tentatively fitted from published data, the RIBE parameters from published RP rates for conventionally fractionated RT (CFRT) and stereotactic body RT (SBRT). Results: The model predicts dose-response curves that are consistent with clinical experience. It provides a tentative explanation for why V20 (33 fractions), V13 (20 fractions) and V5 (<10 fractions) are observed to be correlated with RP. It also provides a plausible explanation for the success of SBRT — RIBE damage increases with the number of fractions, so penalizes CFRT relative to SBRT. Conclusion: The proposed model is relatively simple, extrapolates from published data, plausibly explains several clinical observations, and produces dose-response curves that are consistent with clinical experience. While capable of elaboration, its ability to explain doseresponse experience with different fractionation schemes using a small number of assumptions and parameters is an

  16. Effects of radiation on levels of DNA damage in normal non-adjacent mucosa from colorectal cancer cases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheridan, Juliette

    2013-03-01

    Defects in DNA repair pathways have been linked with colorectal cancer (CRC). Adjuvant radiotherapy has become commonplace in the treatment of rectal cancer however it is associated with a higher rate of second cancer formation. It is known that radiation results in DNA damage directly or indirectly by radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) by causing double-strand breaks (DSBs). The majority of work in RIBE has been performed in cell lines and limited studies have been in or ex vivo.

  17. Differential modulation of a radiation-induced bystander effect in glioblastoma cells by pifithrin-alpha and wortmannin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.c [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhang Jianghong [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Prise, Kevin M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7AB (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    The implication of radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) for both radiation protection and radiotherapy has attracted significant attention, but a key question is how to modulate the RIBE. The present study found that, when a fraction of glioblastoma cells in T98G population were individually targeted with precise helium particles through their nucleus, micronucleus (MN) were induced and its yield increased non-linearly with radiation dose. After co-culturing with irradiated cells, additional MN could be induced in the non-irradiated bystander cells and its yield was independent of irradiation dose, giving direct evidence of a RIBE. Further results showed that the RIBE could be eliminated by pifithrin-alpha (p53 inhibitor) but enhanced by wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor). Moreover, it was found that nitric oxide (NO) contributed to this RIBE, and the levels of NO of both irradiated cells and bystander cells could be extensively diminished by pifithrin-alpha but insignificantly reduced by wortmannin. Our results indicate that RIBE can be modulated by p53 and PI3K through a NO-dependent and NO-independent pathway, respectively.

  18. Low Concentration of Exogenous Carbon Monoxide Modulates Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in Mammalian Cell Cluster Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During radiotherapy procedures, radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE can potentially lead to genetic hazards to normal tissues surrounding the targeted regions. Previous studies showed that RIBE intensities in cell cluster models were much higher than those in monolayer cultured cell models. On the other hand, low-concentration carbon monoxide (CO was previously shown to exert biological functions via binding to the heme domain of proteins and then modulating various signaling pathways. In relation, our previous studies showed that exogenous CO generated by the CO releasing molecule, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (CORM-2, at a relatively low concentration (20 µM, effectively attenuated the formation of RIBE-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB and micronucleus (MN. In the present work, we further investigated the capability of a low concentration of exogenous CO (CORM-2 of attenuating or inhibiting RIBE in a mixed-cell cluster model. Our results showed that CO (CORM-2 with a low concentration of 30 µM could effectively suppress RIBE-induced DSB (p53 binding protein 1, p53BP1, MN formation and cell proliferation in bystander cells but not irradiated cells via modulating the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS andcyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. The results can help mitigate RIBE-induced hazards during radiotherapy procedures.

  19. Bystander effects of the ionizing radiation and his implications in radiotherapy and radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Ayala, Irene Maria; Sanchez Luthard, Maria de los Angeles; Martins Schmitz; Gomez, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    According to the classical paradigm, biological effects of ionizing radiation are attributed to DNA damage induced in each irradiated cell. Demonstration of ionizing radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) has generated a deep change in current understanding of radiobiology. RIBE are radiation-induced effects produced in cells that have not been actually irradiated. Several technical advances, particularly the use of microbeams, allowed in vitro study of RIBE. There are two known ways by which irradiated cells can communicate with non-irradiated cells, namely: through gap junctions connecting the cytoplasms of adjacent cells, and through the secretion of soluble factors to the extracellular medium. These factors include several cytokines and reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen. In the affected cells, signalling pathways mostly involve activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), NF-kB transcription factor and of the enzymes cyclooxygenase 2, nitric oxide synthase 2 and NAD (P)H oxidase. RIBE induce point mutations and epigenetic changes. Effects on cellular signalling pathways can persist indefinitely and even be transmitted to the progeny of affected cells. Paradoxically, under certain conditions RIBE may be adaptive, which means that they turn affected cells more resistant to ionizing radiation. Adaptation demands protein synthesis. It enhances DNA repair mechanisms and resistance to oxidative stress. RIBE have also been demonstrated in vivo. Thus, they may have important implications for radiotherapy, both to improve therapeutic efficacy and to reduce the incidence of adverse effects. Furthermore, a better understanding of RIBE may have an influence on international radioprotection standards. (authors) [es

  20. The key role of miR-21-regulated SOD2 in the medium-mediated bystander responses in human fibroblasts induced by α-irradiated keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Wenqian; Yin, Xiaoming; Wang, Longxiao; Wang, Jingdong; Zhu, Wei; Cao, Jianping; Yang, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • After co-culture with α-irradiated HaCaT cells, WS1 cells displayed oxidative stress and DNA damage. • Increased miR-21 expression in bystander cells was critical to the occurrence of RIBEs. • SOD2 of bystander cells played an important role in bystander responses. • miR-21 mediated bystander effects through its regulation on SOD2. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is well accepted in the radiation research field by now, but the underlying molecular mechanisms for better understanding this phenomenon caused by intercellular communication and intracellular signal transduction are still incomplete. Although our previous study has demonstrated an important role of miR-21 of unirradiated bystander cells in RIBEs, the direct evidence for the hypothesis that RIBE is epigenetically regulated is still limited and how miR-21 mediates RIBEs is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been demonstrated to be involved in RIBEs, however, the roles of anti-oxidative stress system of cells in RIBEs are unclear. Using transwell insert co-culture system, we investigated medium-mediated bystander responses in WS1 human fibroblasts after co-culture with HaCaT keratinocytes traversed by α-particles. Results showed that the ROS levels in unirradiated bystander WS1 cells were significantly elevated after 30 min of co-culture, and 53BP1 foci, a surrogate marker of DNA damage, were obviously induced after 3 h of co-culture. This indicates the occurrence of oxidative stress and DNA damage in bystander WS1 cells after co-culture with irradiated keratinocytes. Furthermore, the expression of miR-21 was increased in bystander WS1 cells, downregulation of miR-21 eliminated the bystander responses, overexpression of miR-21 alone could induce bystander-like oxidative stress and DNA damage in WS1 cells. These data indicate an important mediating role of miR-21 in RIBEs. In addition, MnSOD or SOD2 in WS1 cells was involved in the bystander effects

  1. The key role of miR-21-regulated SOD2 in the medium-mediated bystander responses in human fibroblasts induced by α-irradiated keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Wenqian; Yin, Xiaoming; Wang, Longxiao; Wang, Jingdong; Zhu, Wei; Cao, Jianping [School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Medical College of Soochow University/Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province 215123 (China); Yang, Hongying, E-mail: yanghongying@suda.edu.cn [School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Medical College of Soochow University/Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province 215123 (China); Institute of Radiotherapy & Oncology, Soochow University (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • After co-culture with α-irradiated HaCaT cells, WS1 cells displayed oxidative stress and DNA damage. • Increased miR-21 expression in bystander cells was critical to the occurrence of RIBEs. • SOD2 of bystander cells played an important role in bystander responses. • miR-21 mediated bystander effects through its regulation on SOD2. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is well accepted in the radiation research field by now, but the underlying molecular mechanisms for better understanding this phenomenon caused by intercellular communication and intracellular signal transduction are still incomplete. Although our previous study has demonstrated an important role of miR-21 of unirradiated bystander cells in RIBEs, the direct evidence for the hypothesis that RIBE is epigenetically regulated is still limited and how miR-21 mediates RIBEs is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been demonstrated to be involved in RIBEs, however, the roles of anti-oxidative stress system of cells in RIBEs are unclear. Using transwell insert co-culture system, we investigated medium-mediated bystander responses in WS1 human fibroblasts after co-culture with HaCaT keratinocytes traversed by α-particles. Results showed that the ROS levels in unirradiated bystander WS1 cells were significantly elevated after 30 min of co-culture, and 53BP1 foci, a surrogate marker of DNA damage, were obviously induced after 3 h of co-culture. This indicates the occurrence of oxidative stress and DNA damage in bystander WS1 cells after co-culture with irradiated keratinocytes. Furthermore, the expression of miR-21 was increased in bystander WS1 cells, downregulation of miR-21 eliminated the bystander responses, overexpression of miR-21 alone could induce bystander-like oxidative stress and DNA damage in WS1 cells. These data indicate an important mediating role of miR-21 in RIBEs. In addition, MnSOD or SOD2 in WS1 cells was involved in the bystander effects

  2. Low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide protects mammalian cells against proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Liping; Yu, K.N.; Bao, Lingzhi; Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Hongzhi; Han, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We show the possibility of modulate proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect with low concentration carbon monoxide. • Carbon monoxide inhibited proliferation via modulating the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway. • Exogenous carbon monoxide has potential application in clinical radiotherapy. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been proposed to have tight relationship with the irradiation-caused secondary cancers beyond the irradiation-treated area after radiotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated a protective effect of low concentration carbon monoxide (CO) on the genotoxicity of RIBE after α-particle irradiation. In the present work, a significant inhibitory effect of low-dose exogenous CO, generated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on both RIBE-induced proliferation and chromosome aberration was observed. Further studies on the mechanism revealed that the transforming growth factor β1/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which mediated RIBE signaling transduction, could be modulated by CO involved in the protective effects. Considering the potential of exogenous CO in clinical applications and its protective effect on RIBE, the present work aims to provide a foundation for potential application of CO in radiotherapy

  3. Low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide protects mammalian cells against proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Liping [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Bao, Lingzhi; Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Hongzhi [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Han, Wei, E-mail: hanw@hfcas.cn [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We show the possibility of modulate proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect with low concentration carbon monoxide. • Carbon monoxide inhibited proliferation via modulating the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway. • Exogenous carbon monoxide has potential application in clinical radiotherapy. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been proposed to have tight relationship with the irradiation-caused secondary cancers beyond the irradiation-treated area after radiotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated a protective effect of low concentration carbon monoxide (CO) on the genotoxicity of RIBE after α-particle irradiation. In the present work, a significant inhibitory effect of low-dose exogenous CO, generated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on both RIBE-induced proliferation and chromosome aberration was observed. Further studies on the mechanism revealed that the transforming growth factor β1/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which mediated RIBE signaling transduction, could be modulated by CO involved in the protective effects. Considering the potential of exogenous CO in clinical applications and its protective effect on RIBE, the present work aims to provide a foundation for potential application of CO in radiotherapy.

  4. Ion microbeam irradiation for radiobiology and radical chemistry: status and prospect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodja, H, E-mail: hicham.khodja@cea.fr [CEA, IRAMIS, SIS2M, LEEL, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); CNRS, UMR 3299, SIS2M, LEEL, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-01-01

    Ion microbeams are commonly used to study local irradiation effects in living cells, as it has been established that ion beam irradiations can lead to deleterious changes in cells that are not struck directly by the microbeam. Such changes, which take place over distances long compared to the size of the irradiation spot and for times long compared to the time of irradiation, are collectively termed radiation-induced bystander effect or RIBE. Free-radical chemistry is frequently invoked to explain the RIBE but no unified model is available at present. Ion microbeams when coupled with advanced methods for observing free radicals are the tools of choice for investigating the chemistry and biological processes governing RIBE.

  5. An Investigation of the Effects of Raw Garlic on Radiation-induced Bystander Effects in MCF7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE is a phenomenon in which radiation signals are transmitted from irradiated cells to non-irradiated ones, inducing radiation effects in these cells. RIBE plays an effective role in radiation response at environmentally relevant low doses and in radiotherapy, given its impact on adjacent normal tissues or those far from the irradiated tumor. Reactive oxygen species contribute to RIBE induction. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the possible inhibitory effects of garlic, as an antioxidant-containing plant, on RIBE. Materials and Methods MCF7 cells, treated with raw garlic extracts, were irradiated by 60Co gamma rays, and their culture medium was transferred to non-irradiated autologous bystander cells. Percentage cell viability and micronucleus formation in both irradiated and bystander cells were examined and compared with corresponding cell groups, not treated with garlic. Results Treatment with garlic extract reduced the number of micronucleus-containing cells in both irradiated and bystander cells. However, it only increased the percentage cell viability in bystander cells, not the irradiated ones. Conclusion RIBE was effectively suppressed by raw garlic extracts. Inhibitory effects of raw garlic may be of particular importance for exposure to environmentally relevant low doses, where RIBE dominates direct radiation effects. They are also partially important for addressing the limited therapeutic gain of radiotherapy, as they may only increase the percentage cell viability of bystander cells, not the directly irradiated tumor cells. However, more comprehensive in-vivo research regarding garlic treatment duration is required to support the obtained results.

  6. USSR Report: Political and Sociological Affairs, No. 1478.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-18

    34 [indyuk], " whale " [Mt], "gooseberry" [kryzhovnik], "palm tree" [pal’ma], "lilac" [siren’], "battle" [srazheniye], and "navy" [flot]. You have to... addict , then on a swindling salesman, then on a degenerate priest who has just come from the bed of his lover. Adding that, "all of them are

  7. Výskyt virů v odrůdách rybízu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špak, Josef; Přibylová, Jaroslava; Kubelková, Darina; Sedlák, J.; Paprštein, F.; Svobodová, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2010), s. 14-16 ISSN 1213-7596 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH91224 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Currant * Blackcurrant reversion virus * Gooseberry vein banding associated virus * Strawberry latent ringspot virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  8. The key role of miR-21-regulated SOD2 in the medium-mediated bystander responses in human fibroblasts induced by α-irradiated keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wenqian; Yin, Xiaoming; Wang, Longxiao; Wang, Jingdong; Zhu, Wei; Cao, Jianping; Yang, Hongying

    2015-10-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is well accepted in the radiation research field by now, but the underlying molecular mechanisms for better understanding this phenomenon caused by intercellular communication and intracellular signal transduction are still incomplete. Although our previous study has demonstrated an important role of miR-21 of unirradiated bystander cells in RIBEs, the direct evidence for the hypothesis that RIBE is epigenetically regulated is still limited and how miR-21 mediates RIBEs is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been demonstrated to be involved in RIBEs, however, the roles of anti-oxidative stress system of cells in RIBEs are unclear. Using transwell insert co-culture system, we investigated medium-mediated bystander responses in WS1 human fibroblasts after co-culture with HaCaT keratinocytes traversed by α-particles. Results showed that the ROS levels in unirradiated bystander WS1 cells were significantly elevated after 30min of co-culture, and 53BP1 foci, a surrogate marker of DNA damage, were obviously induced after 3h of co-culture. This indicates the occurrence of oxidative stress and DNA damage in bystander WS1 cells after co-culture with irradiated keratinocytes. Furthermore, the expression of miR-21 was increased in bystander WS1 cells, downregulation of miR-21 eliminated the bystander responses, overexpression of miR-21 alone could induce bystander-like oxidative stress and DNA damage in WS1 cells. These data indicate an important mediating role of miR-21 in RIBEs. In addition, MnSOD or SOD2 in WS1 cells was involved in the bystander effects, overexpression of SOD2 abolished the bystander oxidative stress and DNA damage, indicating that SOD2 was critical to the induction of RIBEs. Moreover, we found that miR-21 regulated SOD2, suggesting that miR-21 might mediate bystander responses through its regulation on SOD2. In conclusion, this study revealed a profound role of miR-21-regulated SOD2 of unirradiated WS1

  9. Pilgrimssouvenir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søvsø, Mette Højmark; Neiß, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Nye arkæologiske fund af stenstøbeforme fra Ribe viser, at her blev fremstillet religiøse souvenirs i højmiddelalderen. Særligt en af støbeformene er sjælden og spektakulær.......Nye arkæologiske fund af stenstøbeforme fra Ribe viser, at her blev fremstillet religiøse souvenirs i højmiddelalderen. Særligt en af støbeformene er sjælden og spektakulær....

  10. White pine blister rust in northern ldaho and western Montana: alternatives for integrated management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan K. Hagle; Geral I. McDonald; Eugene A. Norby

    1989-01-01

    This report comprises a handbook for managing western white pine in northern ldaho and western Montana, under the threat of white pine blister rust. Various sections cover the history of the disease and efforts to combat it, the ecology of the white pine and Ribes, alternate host of the rust, and techniques for evaluating the rust hazard and attenuating it. The authors...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: ethylmalonic encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 0004.2010.01457.x. Citation on PubMed García-Silva MT, Ribes A, Campos Y, Garavaglia B, Arenas ... R, Lamantea E, Mandel H, Balestri P, Garcia-Silva MT, Vollmer B, Rinaldo P, Hahn SH, Leonard ...

  12. Phylogenetic relationships in the "grossulariae" species group of the genus Aphis (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae): Molecular evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcinaviciene, Jorga; Rakauskas, Rimantas; Pedersen, Bo Vest

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Palaearctic Ribes and/or Onagraceae inhabiting Aphis species from five countries were examined using mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (CO-I) and nuclear gene elongation factor 1 a (EF-1a) sequences. There was no major conflict between the trees obtained fro...

  13. Pedicularis and Castilleja are natural hosts of Cronartium ribicola in North America: A first report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geral I. McDonald; Bryce A. Richardson; Paul J. Zambino; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim

    2006-01-01

    White pine blister rust disease, caused by the introduced pathogen Cronartium ribicola, has severely disrupted five-needled pine ecosystems in North America. A 100-year effort to manage this disease was predicated in part on the premise that the pathogen utilizes only species of Ribes (Grossulariaceae) as...

  14. Biochemical studies on the effect of curcumin and embelin during N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... tics is the isolation and evaluation of chemicals of natural origin. The importance of natural products for drug discovery has been impressive. Embelin (2, 5 dihydroxy 3-undecyl 1, 4, benzoquinone) is a benzoquinone derivative from Embelia ribes Burm. (Family: Myrsinaceae). Embelin is reported to be an.

  15. Next Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified continually. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate m...

  16. Next-Generation Sequencing of Elite Berry Germplasm and Data Analysis Using a Bioinformatics Pipeline for Virus Detection and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry crops (members of the genera Fragaria, Ribes, Rubus, Sambucus and Vaccinium) are known hosts for more than 70 viruses and new ones are identified frequently. In modern berry cultivars, viruses tend to be asymptomatic in single infections and symptoms only develop after plants accumulate multip...

  17. Gas chromatography analysis of blackcurrant oil in relation to its stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stránský, Karel; Zarevúcka, Marie; Wimmer, Zdeněk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 92, - (2005), 569-573 ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04OCD13.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : blackcurrant oil * Ribes nigrum * triacylglycerol Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.811, year: 2005

  18. ANGINA PECTORIS AND NORMAL CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 14th patient, a woman aged 28, had angina pectoris with an abnormal cardiogram ... coronary arteries, and there was no cardiac muscle or valve pathology. ... depression of abnormal shape, werebdes~ribed as pn;'bably positive. Selective ...

  19. Modeling of altered layer formation during reactive ion etching of GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutzke, A. [Max-Planck-Institute of Plasmaphysics, EURATOM Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Rai, A., E-mail: Abha.Rai@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institute of Plasmaphysics, EURATOM Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Schneider, R.; Angelin, E.J.; Hippler, R. [Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str.6, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental result showing the preferential sputtering of GaAs (150 keV Ar{sup +} and thermal O on GaAs) during reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) has been reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model based on binary collisions (SDTrimSP) is presented to simulate RIBE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model is used to explain the reported experimental data and also the results by Grigonis and co-workers [1]. - Abstract: The binary collision based SDTrimSP model has been used to simulate the reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) of GaAs in the presence of energetic Ar ions and thermal O atoms. It includes the collisional effects, diffusive processes and chemical reactions taking place in the system. The model parameters are fitted using the experimental observations of Grigonis and co-workers [1] and validated with the experimental results obtained during the GaAs ion etching presented in this paper. A detailed analysis is presented to understand the effect of the diffusive processes and the role of O during RIBE of GaAs. It is shown how the presence of damage caused by the energetic Ar coupled with the presence of thermal O opens up chemical reaction channels which eventually leads to the preferential sputtering of Ga observed at the ion etching facility at University of Greifswald.

  20. Protective effect of mild endoplasmic reticulum stress on radiation-induced bystander effects in hepatocyte cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuexia; Ye, Shuang; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Dong, Chen; Tu, Wenzhi; Liu, Peifeng; Shao, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the defense and self-protective mechanisms of bystander normal cells are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia, where the ratio of the yield of bystander MN induction to the yield of radiation-induced MN formation under hypoxia was much higher than that of normoxia. Nonetheless, thapsigargin induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and dramatically suppressed this bystander response manifested as the decrease of MN and apoptosis inductions. Meanwhile, the interference of BiP gene, a major ER chaperone, amplified the detrimental RIBE. More precisely, thapsigargin provoked ER sensor of PERK to initiate an instantaneous and moderate ER stress thus defensed the hazard form RIBE, while BiP depletion lead to persistently destroyed homeostasis of ER and exacerbated cell injury. These findings provide new insights that the mild ER stress through BiP-PERK-p-eIF2α signaling pathway has a profound role in protecting cellular damage from RIBE and hence may decrease the potential secondary cancer risk after cancer radiotherapy. PMID:27958308

  1. Udgravningerne i Sct. Nicolaj Gade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrø Jensen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ved renoveringen af Sct. Nicolaj Gade i 2010 og 2011 blev et af de hidtil største sammenhængende arealer (190m²) af Ribes markedsplads afdækket umiddelbart under eksisterende gadeniveau. Ved den efterfølgende undersøgelse kunne den allerede kendte parcelstruktur iagttages, og der blev udtaget...

  2. Strong partial resistance to white pine blister rust in sugar pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohun B. Kinloch, Jr.; Deems Burton; Dean A. Davis; Robert D. Westfall; Joan Dunlap; Detlev Vogler

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative resistance to white pine blister rust in 128 controlled- and open-pollinated sugar pine families was evaluated in a “disease garden”, where alternate host Ribes bushes were interplanted among test progenies. Overall infection was severe (88%), but with great variation among and within families: a 30-fold range in numbers of infections...

  3. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Supersonic Flight Operations in the Reserve Military Operations Area, Holloman, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Juniper, one-seed Juniperus monosperma Juniper, rocky mountain Juniperus scopulorum Oak, Gambel Querqus gambeli Oak, gray Quercus grisea Oak, silverleaf... Quercus hypoleucoides Pine, Chihuahua (localized) Pinus leiophylla Pine, pinyon Pinus edulis Pine, ponderosa Pinus ponderosa Pine, southwestern white...stansburiana Currant, Golden Ribes aureum Grape, Canyon Vitis Arizonica Groundsel, Ragwort Senecio multicapitatus Morning Glory, Red Starflower Ipomea

  4. Phytotherapy for children's nocturnal enuresis | Ahmadipour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results have shown that Zingiber officinale, Valeriana officinalis, Alcea rosea, Elettaria cardamomum, Cinnamomum verum, Ribes uva-crispa, Cornus mas, Juglans regia, Vitis vinifera, Sinapis spp., Olea europaea, and Prunus cerasus are a number of important plants that are effective on nocturnal enuresis in traditional ...

  5. LEGO, Legoland og Billund Lalandia nr. 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth Pasgaard, Jens Chr.

    2007-01-01

    kant af Ribe Amt. Ud over LEGO koncernens produktionsudflytning påvirkes Ny Billund Kommune endvidere af lukningen af Danish Crowns slagteri i Grindsted, hvor 700 arbejdspladser for nyligt blev nedlagt. Det er således forståeligt at kommunen byder nye investorer velkommen. Kommunen har potentialet til...

  6. Rehabilitering og 'motion på recept'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Sandholm; Larsen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    af disse forskningsarbejder er etablering af fænomenet 'motion på recept'. Konceptet om 'motion på recept' stammer oprindelig fra Sverige, hvor praktiserende læger i en periode har haft mulighed for at henvise visse typer af patienter til fysisk træning hos praktiserende fysioterapeuter. Ribe Amt...... 2007)....

  7. Radiation-induced bystander effects in cultured human stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykyta V Sokolov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The radiation-induced "bystander effect" (RIBE was shown to occur in a number of experimental systems both in vitro and in vivo as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR. RIBE manifests itself by intercellular communication from irradiated cells to non-irradiated cells which may cause DNA damage and eventual death in these bystander cells. It is known that human stem cells (hSC are ultimately involved in numerous crucial biological processes such as embryologic development; maintenance of normal homeostasis; aging; and aging-related pathologies such as cancerogenesis and other diseases. However, very little is known about radiation-induced bystander effect in hSC. To mechanistically interrogate RIBE responses and to gain novel insights into RIBE specifically in hSC compartment, both medium transfer and cell co-culture bystander protocols were employed.Human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC and embryonic stem cells (hESC were irradiated with doses 0.2 Gy, 2 Gy and 10 Gy of X-rays, allowed to recover either for 1 hr or 24 hr. Then conditioned medium was collected and transferred to non-irradiated hSC for time course studies. In addition, irradiated hMSC were labeled with a vital CMRA dye and co-cultured with non-irradiated bystander hMSC. The medium transfer data showed no evidence for RIBE either in hMSC and hESC by the criteria of induction of DNA damage and for apoptotic cell death compared to non-irradiated cells (p>0.05. A lack of robust RIBE was also demonstrated in hMSC co-cultured with irradiated cells (p>0.05.These data indicate that hSC might not be susceptible to damaging effects of RIBE signaling compared to differentiated adult human somatic cells as shown previously. This finding could have profound implications in a field of radiation biology/oncology, in evaluating radiation risk of IR exposures, and for the safety and efficacy of hSC regenerative-based therapies.

  8. Isolation of two tissue-specific Drosophila paired box genes, Pox meso and Pox neuro.

    OpenAIRE

    Bopp, D; Jamet, E; Baumgartner, S; Burri, M; Noll, M

    1989-01-01

    Two new paired domain genes of Drosophila, Pox meso and Pox neuro, are described. In contrast to the previously isolated paired domain genes, paired and gooseberry, which contain both a paired and a homeo-domain (PHox genes), Pox meso and Pox neuro possess no homeodomain. Evidence suggesting that the new genes encode tissue-specific transcriptional factors and belong to the same regulatory cascade as the other paired domain genes includes (i) tissue-specific expression of Pox meso in the soma...

  9. Hypoglycemic effect of triphala on selected non insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Sowmya S.; Antony, Seema

    2008-01-01

    Modern life style is characterized by high stress, increased automation, junk food consumption and sedentary life style which have lead to the incidence of Diabetes. The study involved selection of NIDDM subjects who were supplemented with Triphala powder called, The Three Myrobalans ( Terminalia bellirica - Belliric myrobalan, Terminalia chebula -Inknut, Embilica officinalis - Indian gooseberry) for a period of 45 days. Statistical evaluation of the blood profile showed significant reduction...

  10. Comparative Characterization of the Leaf Tissue of Physalis alkekengi and Physalis peruviana Using RNA-seq and Metabolite Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Nakamura, Michimi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Yamazaki, Mami; Knoch, Eva; Mori, Tetsuya; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Morita, Masaki; Hirai, Go; Sodeoka, Mikiko; Saito, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    The genus Physalis in the Solanaceae family contains several species of benefit to humans. Examples include P. alkekengi (Chinese-lantern plant, hôzuki in Japanese) used for medicinal and for decorative purposes, and P. peruviana, also known as Cape gooseberry, which bears an edible, vitamin-rich fruit. Members of the Physalis genus are a valuable resource for phytochemicals needed for the development of medicines and functional foods. To fully utilize the potential of these phytochemicals we...

  11. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in red fruits produced in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. A. Soutinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were studied three red fruits (raspberry, gooseberry and blueberry produced in organic mode, to evaluate the variations in the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity along maturation. The phenols were extracted from the fruits with two solvents (methanol and acetone and were quantified by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was determined with two methods (HPPH and ABTS. Furthermore, HPLC was used to identify and quantify some phenolic compounds present in the fruits analyzed. The results showed that the total phenolic compounds in all fruits decreased along maturation, either in the methanol or acetone extracts (23 % and 20 % reduction, on average, for methanol and acetone extracts, respectively, although in methanol extracts the levels of phenolic compounds were always higher (0.54 and 0.21 mg GAE/g. The blueberry showed higher level of total phenolics in methanol extract (average 0.67 mg GAE/g, while in the acetone extract it was gooseberry (average 0.31 mg GAE/g. At the end of maturation, all fruits studied had similar values of antioxidant capacity as determined by DPPH method (0.52 mmol Trolox/g. For the ABTS method, blueberries showed higher values of antioxidant activity (6.01 mmol Trolox/g against 3.01 and 2.66 mmol Trolox/g, for raspberry and gooseberry, respectively. Furthermore, the HPLC analysis allowed to identify monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids in the three fruits studied.

  12. Occurrence of Colombian datura virus in Brugmansia hybrids, Physalis peruviana L. and Solanum muricatum Ait. in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, P; Palkovics, L

    2005-01-01

    Colombian datura virus (CDV) has been found to infect angel trumpets (Brugmansia spp.) frequently and cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) and pepino (Solanum muricatum) sporadically in Hungary. A CDV BRG/H isolate was characterized. It had flexuous thread-like virions of about 750 x 12 nm in size. Host range and symptomathological studies revealed its great similarity to authentic CDV isolates. Nicotiana tabacum cultivars and lines resistant to Potato virus Y (PVYN) either genically or transgenically proved highly susceptible to the BRG/H isolate. Tomato (L. esculentum cvs.) was systemically susceptible to this isolate, but some lines of Lycopersicon hirsutum and L. peruvianum turned out to be resistant. Browallia demissa, Ipomoea purpurea, N. megalosiphon and S. scabrum were demonstrated as new experimental hosts of CDV. The BRG/ H isolate proved to be transmissible by the aphid Myzus persicae Sulz. in a non-persistent manner. Potyvirus-specific coat protein (CP) gene sequences of about 1700 bp from angel trumpet, cape gooseberry and pepino plants were amplified by RT-PCR. The cloned BRG/H CP gene showed a 99.12-99.31% identity with other CDV isolates. CDV has been found for the first time to infect naturally cape gooseberry and pepino. Since the botanical genus name of original hosts of CDV has changed from Datura to Brugmansia, we propose to change the virus name from CDV to Angel trumpet mosaic virus (ATMV).

  13. A pivotal role of the jasmonic acid signal pathway in mediating radiation-induced bystander effects in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ting; Xu, Wei; Deng, Chenguang; Xu, Shaoxin; Li, Fanghua; Wu, Yuejin; Wu, Lijun [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Pollution Control Technology of Anhui Province, Hefei 230031 (China); Bian, Po, E-mail: bianpo@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Pollution Control Technology of Anhui Province, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • The JA signal pathway plays a pivotal role in mediating radiation-induced bystander effects in Arabidopsis thaliana. • The JA signal pathway is involved in both the generation of bystander signals in irradiated roots and radiation responses in bystander aerial plants. • Over-accumulation of endogenous JA enhances the radiosensitivity of plants in terms of RIBE. - Abstract: Although radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) in Arabidopsis thaliana have been well demonstrated in vivo, little is known about their underlying mechanisms, particularly with regard to the participating signaling molecules and signaling pathways. In higher plants, jasmonic acid (JA) and its bioactive derivatives are well accepted as systemic signal transducers that are produced in response to various environmental stresses. It is therefore speculated that the JA signal pathway might play a potential role in mediating radiation-induced bystander signaling of root-to-shoot. In the present study, pretreatment of seedlings with Salicylhydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of lipoxigenase (LOX) in JA biosynthesis, significantly suppressed RIBE-mediated expression of the AtRAD54 gene. After root irradiation, the aerial parts of A. thaliana mutants deficient in JA biosynthesis (aos) and signaling cascades (jar1-1) showed suppressed induction of the AtRAD54 and AtRAD51 genes and TSI and 180-bp repeats, which have been extensively used as endpoints of bystander genetic and epigenetic effects in plants. These results suggest an involvement of the JA signal pathway in the RIBE of plants. Using the root micro-grafting technique, the JA signal pathway was shown to participate in both the generation of bystander signals in irradiated root cells and radiation responses in the bystander aerial parts of plants. The over-accumulation of endogenous JA in mutant fatty acid oxygenation up-regulated 2 (fou2), in which mutation of the Two Pore Channel 1 (TPC1) gene up-regulates expression of the LOX

  14. Studies on bystander effects of 14MeV neutrons in human blood lymphocytes using CBMN assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkiam, D.; Arul Anantha Kumar, A.; Sonwani, Swetha; Alaguraja, E.; Mathiyarasu, R.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2018-01-01

    Radiation induced Bystander Effects (RIBE) in cells generally describes the phenomenon that non-irradiated cells respond as if they have themselves been irradiated upon receiving signals from directly irradiated cells, either through partnering or medium transfer. While it has been well established that bystander effects could be induced by gamma radiation and alpha-particle radiation it is still a question whether neutrons induce bystander effects or not. In view of this, experiments were carried out to quantify cytogenetic damage in human blood lymphocytes induced by neutron directly and indirectly i.e. RIBE through medium transfer method. Cytokinesis Blocked MicroNucleus (CBMN) assay was used to study DNA damage events wherein micronuclei (MN) were scored in binucleated cells. Results of MN frequency in neutron direct and indirect irradiated blood lymphocytes (bystander samples) are compared

  15. A Simulation Study of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect: Modeling with Stochastically Defined Signal Reemission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Sasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE has been experimentally observed for different types of radiation, cell types, and cell culture conditions. However, the behavior of signal transmission between unirradiated and irradiated cells is not well known. In this study, we have developed a new model for RIBE based on the diffusion of soluble factors in cell cultures using a Monte Carlo technique. The model involves the signal emission probability from bystander cells following Poisson statistics. Simulations with this model show that the spatial configuration of the bystander cells agrees well with that of corresponding experiments, where the optimal emission probability is estimated through a large number of simulation runs. It was suggested that the most likely probability falls within 0.63–0.92 for mean number of the emission signals ranging from 1.0 to 2.5.

  16. BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PUNY FRUITS RELATED TO THEIR ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BALOGHOVÁ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available All analysed species of puny fruits (red currant (Ribes rubrum L variant Jonkheervan Tets, white currant (Ribes vulgare L. variant Blanka, black currant (Ribesnigrum L. variant Eva, blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilis variant Berkeley, elderberry(Sambucus nigra L. variant Sambo, hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha, mulberry(Morus nigra L. genotypes M152 and M047 are natural sources of anthocyanpigments and vitamin C with a high antiradical activity. Due to the fact that thehighest antiradical activity is not accompanied by the highest content of anthocyansand vitamin C in puny fruits, we suppose that the antiradical activity of plantmaterials is also connected with the presence of other compounds with antioxidantand antiradical activity. From our results follows that all studied puny fruits with ahigh antiradical activity increase the antioxidant value of human nutrition and alsoits prophylactic and medicinal effect.

  17. Utjecaj jestivog filma od želatine, obogaćenog eteričnim uljem lovora, na kakvoću fileta kalifornijske pastrve (Onchorynchus mykiss) tijekom skladištenja u hladnjaku

    OpenAIRE

    Alparslan, Yunus; Baygar, Tuba; Baygar, Taçnur; Hasanhocaoglu, Hatice; Metin, Cansu

    2014-01-01

    U ovom je radu ispitan utjecaj filma od želatine, obogaćenog eteričnim uljem lovorovog lista, na kakvoću fileta kalifornijske pastrve (Onchorynchus mykiss) skladištene na (4±1) °C tijekom 26 dana. Fileti su ribe omotani u filmove od 8 %-tne želatine, koji su sadržavali 0; 0,1 ili 1 % (volumena po masi želatine) eteričnog ulja lovora, te pakirani u vakuumu. Tijekom skladištenja određivani su: senzorske značajke sirove i kuhane ribe, mikrobiološki parametri (ukupan broj živih stanica, te bro...

  18. Final report on Grant DE-FG03-01ER63234

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Miller

    2006-11-16

    Current data suggests that radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) are associated with release of active polypeptide factors into the extra-cellular medium. Proteolytic processing of membrane-anchored cytokines (shedding) is a generic cellular response to environmental stress; hence, it is likely that RIBE are part of a general mechanism by which cells alert their neighbors to potential harm by exchange of autocrine and paracrine factors. In radiation biology, we lack a general understanding of the relative importance of shed factors in the overall response of tissues to energy absorbed from a radiation field. This project helped fill that knowledge gap by investigating (1) the production of soluble factors by cells traversed by ionizing particles, (2) transport of soluble factors through the extra-cellular medium, and (3) signaling processes initiate by capture of soluble factors on cell-surface receptors.

  19. Mapping and quantifying geodiversity in land-water transition zones using MBES and topobathymetric LiDAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Andersen, Mikkel Skovgaard; Gergely, Aron

    due to the challenging environmental conditions. Combining vessel borne shallow water multibeam echosounder (MBES) surveys ,to cover the subtidal coastal areas and the river channel areas, with airborne topobathymetric light detection and ranging (LiDAR) surveys, to cover the intertidal and supratidal...... coastal areas and the river floodplain areas, potentially enables full-coverage and high-resolution mapping in these challenging environments. We have carried out MBES and topobathymetric LiDAR surveys in the Knudedyb tidal inlet system, a coastal environment in the Danish Wadden Sea which is part...... of the Wadden Sea National Park and UNESCO World Heritage, and in the Ribe Vesterå, a fluvial environment in the Ribe Å river catchment discharging into the Knudedyb tidal basin. Detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) with a grid cell size of 0.5 m x 0.5 m were generated from the MBES and the LiDAR point...

  20. Target irradiation induced bystander effects between stem-like and non stem-like cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kobayashi, Alisa [Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Maeda, Takeshi [Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fu, Qibin [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Oikawa, Masakazu [Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yang, Gen, E-mail: gen.yang@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Konishi, Teruaki, E-mail: tkonishi@nirs.go.jp [Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Uchihori, Yukio [Space Radiation Research Unit, International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Technical Support and Development, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); and others

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Existence of radiation induced bystander effects (RIBE) between cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and non stem-like cancer cells (NSCCs) in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. • Existence of significant difference in generation and response of bystander signals between CSCs and NSCCs. • CSCs are significantly less sensitive to NO scavenger than that of NSCCs in terms of DNA double strand breaks induced by RIBE. - Abstract: Tumors are heterogeneous in nature and consist of multiple cell types. Among them, cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are suggested to be the principal cause of tumor metastasis, resistance and recurrence. Therefore, understanding the behavior of CSCs in direct and indirect irradiations is crucial for clinical radiotherapy. Here, the CSCs and their counterpart non stem-like cancer cells (NSCCs) in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cell line were sorted and labeled, then the two cell subtypes were mixed together and chosen separately to be irradiated via a proton microbeam. The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) between the CSCs and NSCCs was measured by imaging 53BP1 foci, a widely used indicator for DNA double strand break (DSB). CSCs were found to be less active than NSCCs in both the generation and the response of bystander signals. Moreover, the nitric oxide (NO) scavenger c-PTIO can effectively alleviate the bystander effect in bystander NSCCs but not in bystander CSCs, indicating a difference of the two cell subtypes in NO signal response. To our knowledge, this is the first report shedding light on the RIBE between CSCs and NSCCs, which might contribute to a further understanding of the out-of-field effect in cancer radiotherapy.

  1. Catàleg dels Miridae (Heteroptera) del Massís del Garraf

    OpenAIRE

    Goula Goula, Marta

    1989-01-01

    Per a la redacció d'aquest catàleg, s'aporten dades d'observació pròpia al llarg dels anys 1980-1984, així com les troballes publicades per CUNI (1889a,1889b,1889c,1891) i per RIBES (1978a,1978b,1980,1984). Totes aquestes observacions s'han fet en localitats del Massis del Garraf, que será objecte d'una curta descripció.

  2. Grossulariaceae endémicas del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Mendoza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Grossulariaceae are represented in Peru by three genera and nearly 35 species (Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Weigend & Rodriguez, 2006 , all shrubs and trees. Here we recognize 11 endemic species in two genera. Ribes is the genus with the largest number of endemic species. Endemic Grossulariaceae species grow mainly in Humid and Dry Puna, and Very Humid Montane Forest regions, between 2500 and 4600 m elevation. Two endemic Grossulariaceae have been registered to date in the Peruvian protected areas system.

  3. Preliminary Investigations of the Archaic in the Region of Las Cruces, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    sotol ( Dasylirion wheeleri ), saltbush, and grasses. The dominant animals in this zone are jackrabbit and pronghom antelope, with deer, birds, small...areas are grasses, whitethorn acacia, Agave spp., Mormon tea (Ephedra spp.), Yucca spp., sotol ( Dasylirion wheeleri ), Opuntia spp., and cacti. Table...X X X X Dasylirion wheeleri X X X X Acacia constricta X X X X X Amelancier utahensii (Utah serviceberry) X X X X X Agave spp. X X X Ribes mescalerium

  4. Bystander signaling via oxidative metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawal HA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Humaira Aziz Sawal,1 Kashif Asghar,2 Matthias Bureik,3 Nasir Jalal4 1Healthcare Biotechnology Department, Atta-ur-Rahman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, 2Basic Sciences Research, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan; 3Health Science Platform, School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China; 4Health Science Platform, Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China Abstract: The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE is the initiation of biological end points in cells (bystander cells that are not directly traversed by an incident-radiation track, but are in close proximity to cells that are receiving the radiation. RIBE has been indicted of causing DNA damage via oxidative stress, besides causing direct damage, inducing tumorigenesis, producing micronuclei, and causing apoptosis. RIBE is regulated by signaling proteins that are either endogenous or secreted by cells as a means of communication between cells, and can activate intracellular or intercellular oxidative metabolism that can further trigger signaling pathways of inflammation. Bystander signals can pass through gap junctions in attached cell lines, while the suspended cell lines transmit these signals via hormones and soluble proteins. This review provides the background information on how reactive oxygen species (ROS act as bystander signals. Although ROS have a very short half-life and have a nanometer-scale sphere of influence, the wide variety of ROS produced via various sources can exert a cumulative effect, not only in forming DNA adducts but also setting up signaling pathways of inflammation, apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, aging, and even tumorigenesis. This review outlines the sources of the bystander effect linked to ROS in a cell, and provides methods of investigation for researchers who would like to

  5. Target irradiation induced bystander effects between stem-like and non stem-like cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu; Kobayashi, Alisa; Maeda, Takeshi; Fu, Qibin; Oikawa, Masakazu; Yang, Gen; Konishi, Teruaki; Uchihori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Existence of radiation induced bystander effects (RIBE) between cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and non stem-like cancer cells (NSCCs) in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. • Existence of significant difference in generation and response of bystander signals between CSCs and NSCCs. • CSCs are significantly less sensitive to NO scavenger than that of NSCCs in terms of DNA double strand breaks induced by RIBE. - Abstract: Tumors are heterogeneous in nature and consist of multiple cell types. Among them, cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are suggested to be the principal cause of tumor metastasis, resistance and recurrence. Therefore, understanding the behavior of CSCs in direct and indirect irradiations is crucial for clinical radiotherapy. Here, the CSCs and their counterpart non stem-like cancer cells (NSCCs) in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cell line were sorted and labeled, then the two cell subtypes were mixed together and chosen separately to be irradiated via a proton microbeam. The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) between the CSCs and NSCCs was measured by imaging 53BP1 foci, a widely used indicator for DNA double strand break (DSB). CSCs were found to be less active than NSCCs in both the generation and the response of bystander signals. Moreover, the nitric oxide (NO) scavenger c-PTIO can effectively alleviate the bystander effect in bystander NSCCs but not in bystander CSCs, indicating a difference of the two cell subtypes in NO signal response. To our knowledge, this is the first report shedding light on the RIBE between CSCs and NSCCs, which might contribute to a further understanding of the out-of-field effect in cancer radiotherapy

  6. Støbeforme af sten fra middelalderen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søvsø, Mette Højmark; Neiß, Michael; Jensen, Anne Juul

    2015-01-01

    religiøse souvenirs i Europa. Der findes mange bevarede genstande, også i Danmark, men sporene efter selve produktionen er sjældne. Genstandene blev typisk støbt i stenforme, som kendes fra spredte fund i Danmark. I Ribe er efterhånden fundet syv fragmenter af sådanne forme, som viser, at der har fundet...

  7. Synthesis and Antibacterial Screening of Novel Derivatives of Embelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, L.; Leema, M.; Pradeep, N. S.; Joy, B.; Pillai, Z. S.

    2018-02-01

    Embelin, a naturally occurring compound extracted from Embelia ribes is used in Ayurvedic system of medicine owing to its wide spectrum of biological activities. In the present work, we have aimed at improving the efficacy of Embelin by appropriate structural modifications. A few novel derivatives of Embelin have been prepared. The antibacterial screening of these derivatives were carried out and compared with a well known antibiotic, Streptomycin. The derivatives exhibited better activity than Streptomycin and the lead molecule, Embelin.

  8. Observaciones adicinales sobre la biogeografía de la zona de AmotapeHuancabamba en el norte del Perú: definiendo el límite suroriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Weigend

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Observaciones de Loasaceae y Ribes (Grossulariaceae obtenidos durante estudios de campo en el Perú nos permiten definir el límite suroriental de la zona Amotape Huancabamba con gran precisión. El límite se encuentra entre la zona directamente al NE de Otuzco (departamento La Libertad, prov. Otuzco, sistema Río Chicama: 07° 50,315´ S, 078° 29,076´ W hacía el abra entre Parcoy y Buldibuyo (departamento La Libertad, provincia Pataz, N del Río Cajas: 08° 04,619´ S, 077° 25,457´ O. Los grupos de plantas típicas de la zona Amotape Huancabamba (grupo N. triphylla, N. ser. Alatae, grupo Ribes andicola, Nasa picta subsp. picta tienen sus límites suroriental de distribución en el Norte de la provincia de Pataz (La Libertad, y se encuentran reemplazadas por grupos de los Andes Centrales (grupo N. poissoniana, Ribes viscosum inmediatamente al sur de esta abra.

  9. Radiation-induced bystander effects enhanced by elevated sodium chloride through sensitizing cells to bystander factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lingyan; Han Wei; Chen Shaopeng; Zhao Ye; Jiang Erkang; Bao Lingzhi; Pei Bei; Yang Gen; Zhao Guoping; Wang Jun; Xu An; Wu Lijun

    2008-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been demonstrated to occur widely in various cell lines. However, very little data is available on the genotoxic effects of RIBE combined with other factor(s). We reported previously that with a low dose of α-particle irradiation, the fraction of γ-H2AX foci-positive cells in non-irradiated bystander cells was significantly increased under elevated NaCl culture conditions. In this study, we further investigated the functional role of NaCl in the enhancement of RIBE using a specially designed co-culture system and micronucleus (MN) test. It was shown that the MN frequency was not increased significantly by elevated NaCl (9.0 g/L) alone or by medium exposure. However, with 1.0 cGy α-particle irradiation, the induced MN frequency increased significantly in both irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions. Additional studies showed that elevated NaCl made the non-irradiated bystander cells more vulnerable to bystander factors. Furthermore, it was found that the induced MN frequency in cells both in irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions was weakened when the hypertonic medium was changed to normotonic medium for 2 h before irradiation. Such observations were quite similar to the co-effect of NaCl and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), indicating that elevated NaCl might sensitize non-irradiated cells to bystander factors-induced oxidative stress

  10. Elevated sodium chloride concentrations enhance the bystander effects induced by low dose alpha-particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wei; Zhu Lingyan; Jiang Erkang; Wang Jun; Chen Shaopeng; Bao Linzhi; Zhao Ye; Xu An; Yu Zengliang; Wu Lijun

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that high NaCl can be genotoxic, either alone or combined with irradiation. However, little is known about the relationship between environmental NaCl at elevated conditions and radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). RIBE, which has been considered as non-targeted bystander responses, has been demonstrated to occur widely in various cell lines. In the present study, RIBE under the elevated NaCl culture condition was assessed in AG 1522 cells by both the induction of γ-H2AX, a reliable marker of DNA double-strand break (DSB) for the early process ( G -methyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, the induced fraction of foci-positive cells was effectively inhibited both in 0.2 cGy α-particle irradiated and adjacent non-irradiated regions under either normal or elevated NaCl conditions. These results suggested that the cultures with elevated NaCl medium magnified the damage effects induced by the low dose α-particle irradiation and nitric oxide generated by irradiation was also very important in this process

  11. Pattern transfer on large samples using a sub-aperture reactive ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miessler, Andre; Mill, Agnes; Gerlach, Juergen W.; Arnold, Thomas [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung (IOM), Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In comparison to sole Ar ion beam sputtering Reactive Ion Beam Etching (RIBE) reveals the main advantage of increasing the selectivity for different kind of materials due to chemical contributions during the material removal. Therefore RIBE is qualified to be an excellent candidate for pattern transfer applications. The goal of the present study is to apply a sub-aperture reactive ion beam for pattern transfer on large fused silica samples. Concerning this matter, the etching behavior in the ion beam periphery plays a decisive role. Using CF{sub 4} as reactive gas, XPS measurements of the modified surface exposes impurities like Ni, Fe and Cr, which belongs to chemically eroded material of the plasma pot as well as an accumulation of carbon (up to 40 atomic percent) in the beam periphery, respectively. The substitution of CF{sub 4} by NF{sub 3} as reactive gas reveals a lot of benefits: more stable ion beam conditions in combination with a reduction of the beam size down to a diameter of 5 mm and a reduced amount of the Ni, Fe and Cr contaminations. However, a layer formation of silicon nitride handicaps the chemical contribution of the etching process. These negative side effects influence the transfer of trench structures on quartz by changing the selectivity due to altered chemical reaction of the modified resist layer. Concerning this we investigate the pattern transfer on large fused silica plates using NF{sub 3}-sub-aperture RIBE.

  12. Pattern transfer on fused silica samples using sub-aperture reactive ion beam etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miessler, Andre; Arnold, Thomas [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung (IOM), Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In comparison to sole Ar ion beam sputtering Reactive Ion Beam Etching (RIBE) reveals the main advantage of increasing the selectivity for different kind of materials due to chemical contributions during the material removal. Therefore RIBE is qualified to be an excellent candidate for pattern transfer applications. The goal of the present study is to apply a sub-aperture reactive ion beam for pattern transfer on large fused silica samples. Concerning this matter, the etching behavior in the ion beam periphery plays a decisive role. Using a Kaufman-typed ion source with NF{sub 3} as reactive gas, XPS measurements of the modified surface exposes impurities like Ni, Fe and Cr, which belongs to chemically eroded material of the plasma pot and a layer formation of silicon nitride, handicaps the etching process mainly in the beam periphery where the sputtering contribution decrease. These side effects influence the pattern transfer of trench structures, produced in AZ MIR 701 photoresist by lithography on a 2'' fused silica plate, by changing the selectivity due to modified chemical reactions of the resist layer. Concerning this we investigate a RF-Ion source for sub aperture reactive ion beam applications and finally we examine the pattern transfer on large fused silica plates using NF{sub 3}-sub-aperture RIBE.

  13. Radiation quality-dependence of bystander effect in unirradiated fibroblasts is associated with TGF-β1-Smad2 pathway and miR-21 in irradiated keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaoming; Tian, Wenqian; Wang, Longxiao; Wang, Jingdong; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping; Yang, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    Traditional radiation biology states that radiation causes damage only in cells traversed by ionizing radiation. But radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), which refers to the biological responses in unirradiated cells when the neighboring cells are exposed to radiation, challenged this old dogma and has become a new paradigm of this field. By nature, RIBEs are the consequences of intercellular communication between irradiated and unirradiated cells. However, there are still some important questions remain unanswered such as whether RIBE is dependent on radiation quality, what are the determining factors if so, etc. Using a transwell co-culture system, we found that HaCaT keratinocytes irradiated with α-particles but not X-rays could induce bystander micronucleus formation in unirradiated WS1 fibroblasts after co-culture. More importantly, the activation of TGF-β1-Smad2 pathway and the consistent decrease of miR-21 level in α-irradiated HaCaT cells were essential to the micronucleus induction in bystander WS1 cells. On the other hand, X-irradiation did not induce bystander effect in unirradiated WS1 cells, accompanied by lack of Smad2 activation and consistent decrease of miR-21 in X-irradiated HaCaT cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the radiation quality-dependence of bystander effect may be associated with the TGF-β1-Smad2 pathway and miR-21 in irradiated cells. PMID:26080011

  14. Bystander signaling via oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawal, Humaira Aziz; Asghar, Kashif; Bureik, Matthias; Jalal, Nasir

    2017-01-01

    The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is the initiation of biological end points in cells (bystander cells) that are not directly traversed by an incident-radiation track, but are in close proximity to cells that are receiving the radiation. RIBE has been indicted of causing DNA damage via oxidative stress, besides causing direct damage, inducing tumorigenesis, producing micronuclei, and causing apoptosis. RIBE is regulated by signaling proteins that are either endogenous or secreted by cells as a means of communication between cells, and can activate intracellular or intercellular oxidative metabolism that can further trigger signaling pathways of inflammation. Bystander signals can pass through gap junctions in attached cell lines, while the suspended cell lines transmit these signals via hormones and soluble proteins. This review provides the background information on how reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as bystander signals. Although ROS have a very short half-life and have a nanometer-scale sphere of influence, the wide variety of ROS produced via various sources can exert a cumulative effect, not only in forming DNA adducts but also setting up signaling pathways of inflammation, apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, aging, and even tumorigenesis. This review outlines the sources of the bystander effect linked to ROS in a cell, and provides methods of investigation for researchers who would like to pursue this field of science.

  15. A pivotal role of the jasmonic acid signal pathway in mediating radiation-induced bystander effects in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Xu, Wei; Deng, Chenguang; Xu, Shaoxin; Li, Fanghua; Wu, Yuejin; Wu, Lijun; Bian, Po

    Although radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) in Arabidopsis thaliana have been well demonstrated in vivo, little is known about their underlying mechanisms, particularly with regard to the participating signaling molecules and signaling pathways. In higher plants, jasmonic acid (JA) and its bioactive derivatives are well accepted as systemic signal transducers that are produced in response to various environmental stresses. It is therefore speculated that the JA signal pathway might play a potential role in mediating radiation-induced bystander signaling of root-to-shoot. In the present study, pretreatment of seedlings with Salicylhydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of lipoxigenase (LOX) in JA biosynthesis, significantly suppressed RIBE-mediated expression of the AtRAD54 gene. After root irradiation, the aerial parts of A. thaliana mutants deficient in JA biosynthesis (aos) and signaling cascades (jar1-1) showed suppressed induction of the AtRAD54 and AtRAD51 genes and TSI and 180-bp repeats, which have been extensively used as endpoints of bystander genetic and epigenetic effects in plants. These results suggest an involvement of the JA signal pathway in the RIBE of plants. Using the root micro-grafting technique, the JA signal pathway was shown to participate in both the generation of bystander signals in irradiated root cells and radiation responses in the bystander aerial parts of plants. The over-accumulation of endogenous JA in mutant fatty acid oxygenation up-regulated 2 (fou2), in which mutation of the Two Pore Channel 1 (TPC1) gene up-regulates expression of the LOX and allene oxide synthase (AOS) genes, inhibited RIBE-mediated expression of the AtRAD54 gene, but up-regulated expression of the AtKU70 and AtLIG4 genes in the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. Considering that NHEJ is employed by plants with increased DNA damage, the switch from HR to NHEJ suggests that over-accumulation of endogenous JA might enhance the radiosensitivity of plants

  16. Pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland (2009-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyaszek, Aneta; Szpyrka, Ewa; Podbielska, Magdalena; Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Kurdziel, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Poland is a leading grower/producer of berries in Europe that are either eaten raw or processed. As well as berries this includes fruit such as grapes, strawberries and other small fruits. Testing for the presence of active substances in Plant Protection Products, (PPP), in such fruit is however important, as part of measures taken to minimise human intake. To determine the incidence of pesticide residues in berries harvested from South-Eastern Poland in 2009-2011. . Chromatographic separation followed by analytical detection was performed on 250 samples of various test fruits using an accredited methodology: GC/ECD/NPD, together with spectrophotometric detection wherever necessary, according to PN-EN ISO/IEC 17025. As part of previous monitoring, 126 active substances were identified in 2009, 132 in 2010 and 153 in 2011; levels were compared to Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). RESULTS;. Analyses showed that 46.4% of samples contained PPPs of which 4% exceeded the MRL. The most were found in raspberries, (58.8% of all tested), followed by 58.3% redcurrants, and gooseberries as well as 50% grapes. The most frequently found active substances of PPPs were pyrimethanil (15.6%), dithiocarbamates (12.4%), procymidone (8%), cyprodinil (5.6%) and difenoconazole (5.2%). The highest MRL exceedances were found in blackcurrants. Testing also revealed many examples of pesticides not recommended for the protection of specific crops: propiconazole in gooseberries, cyprodinil, flusilazole, iprodione, pyrimethanil in blackcurrants and folpet and captan in raspberries. Furthermore, active substances whose use in PPPs have been forbidden since 2008 were also detected, ie. endosulfan in blackcurrants and strawberries, fenitrothion in black and red currants as well as procymidone in raspberries, blackcurrants and strawberries. These data are consistent to those obtained from the whole of Poland and the European Union (EU). Most pesticides were present in raspberries, redcurrants

  17. Study the effect of heat processing on the vitamin C of some fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema .

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic Acid also known as Vitamin C. Vitamin C is very essential for growth and maintenance of the human body. It is necessary for the normal formation of the protein collagen, which is an important constituent of skin and connective tissue. The deficiency of vitamin C causes will be known as disease “Scurvy”. Vitamin C is present in all citrus fruits, gooseberry (Aonala, tomato, apple, pine, pineapple, grapes and other foods. The vitamin C is very sensitive to heat light air and strong alkali. In this paper, we study the effect of heat processing on the vitamin C of Citrus Limon, Ananas Cosmosus, Psidium Guajana, Vitis Vinifera.

  18. Radiation-induced bystander effects enhanced by elevated sodium chloride through sensitizing cells to bystander factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Lingyan; Han Wei; Chen Shaopeng; Zhao Ye; Jiang Erkang; Bao Lingzhi; Pei Bei; Yang Gen; Zhao Guoping; Wang Jun; Xu An [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Wu Lijun [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China)], E-mail: ljw@ipp.ac.cn

    2008-09-26

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been demonstrated to occur widely in various cell lines. However, very little data is available on the genotoxic effects of RIBE combined with other factor(s). We reported previously that with a low dose of {alpha}-particle irradiation, the fraction of {gamma}-H2AX foci-positive cells in non-irradiated bystander cells was significantly increased under elevated NaCl culture conditions. In this study, we further investigated the functional role of NaCl in the enhancement of RIBE using a specially designed co-culture system and micronucleus (MN) test. It was shown that the MN frequency was not increased significantly by elevated NaCl (9.0 g/L) alone or by medium exposure. However, with 1.0 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiation, the induced MN frequency increased significantly in both irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions. Additional studies showed that elevated NaCl made the non-irradiated bystander cells more vulnerable to bystander factors. Furthermore, it was found that the induced MN frequency in cells both in irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions was weakened when the hypertonic medium was changed to normotonic medium for 2 h before irradiation. Such observations were quite similar to the co-effect of NaCl and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), indicating that elevated NaCl might sensitize non-irradiated cells to bystander factors-induced oxidative stress.

  19. Radiation Bystander Effects Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokohzaman Soleymanifard

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiation Induced Bystander Effect (RIBE which cause radiation effects in non-irradiated cells, has challenged the principle according to which radiation traversal through the nucleus of a cell is necessary for producing biological responses. What is the mechanism of this phenomenon? To have a better understanding of this rather ambiguous concept substantial number of original and reviewed article were carefully examined. Results: Irradiated cells release molecules which can propagate in cell environment and/or transmit through gap junction intercellular communication. These molecules can reach to non-irradiated cells and transmit bystander signals. In many investigations, it has been confirmed that these molecules are growth factors, cytokines, nitric oxide and free radicals like reactive oxygen species (ROS. Transmission of by stander signal to neighboring cells persuades them to produce secondary growth factors which in their turn cause further cell injuries. Some investigators suggest, organelles other than nucleus (mitochondria and cell membrane are the origin of these signals.  There is another opinion which suggests double strand breaks (DSB are not directly generated in bystander cells, rather they are due to smaller damage like single strand breaks which accumulate and end up to DSB. Although bystander mechanisms have not been exactly known, it can be confirmed that multiple mechanisms and various pathways are responsible for this effect. Cell type, radiation type, experimental conditions and end points identify the dominant mechanism. Conclusion: Molecules and pathways which are responsible for RIBE, also cause systemic responses to other non-irradiation stresses. So RIBE is a kind of systemic stress or innate immune responses, which are performed by cell microenvironment. Irradiated cells and their signals are components of microenvironment for creating bystander effects.

  20. SirT1 knockdown potentiates radiation-induced bystander effect through promoting c-Myc activity and thus facilitating ROS accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yuexia [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Central Laboratory, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Tu, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Ye, Shuang; Dong, Chen [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • γ-Irradiation induced bystander effects between hepatoma cells and hepatocyte cells. • SirT1 played a protective role in regulating this bystander effect. • SirT1 contributed to the protective effects via elimination the accumulation of ROS. • The activity of c-Myc is critical for maintaining the protective role of SirT1. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the bystander signaling processes, especially under hypoxic condition, are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 and SK-Hep-1 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia. This bystander response was dramatically diminished or enhanced when the SirT1 gene of irradiated hepatoma cells was overexpressed or knocked down, respectively, especially under hypoxia. Meanwhile, SirT1 knockdown promoted transcriptional activity for c-Myc and facilitated ROS accumulation. But both of the increased bystander responses and ROS generation due to SirT1-knockdown were almost completely suppressed by c-Myc interference. Moreover, ROS scavenger effectively abolished the RIBE triggered by irradiated hepatoma cells even with SirT1 depletion. These findings provide new insights that SirT1 has a profound role in regulating RIBE where a c-Myc-dependent release of ROS may be involved.

  1. SirT1 knockdown potentiates radiation-induced bystander effect through promoting c-Myc activity and thus facilitating ROS accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yuexia; Tu, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Ye, Shuang; Dong, Chen; Shao, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • γ-Irradiation induced bystander effects between hepatoma cells and hepatocyte cells. • SirT1 played a protective role in regulating this bystander effect. • SirT1 contributed to the protective effects via elimination the accumulation of ROS. • The activity of c-Myc is critical for maintaining the protective role of SirT1. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the bystander signaling processes, especially under hypoxic condition, are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 and SK-Hep-1 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia. This bystander response was dramatically diminished or enhanced when the SirT1 gene of irradiated hepatoma cells was overexpressed or knocked down, respectively, especially under hypoxia. Meanwhile, SirT1 knockdown promoted transcriptional activity for c-Myc and facilitated ROS accumulation. But both of the increased bystander responses and ROS generation due to SirT1-knockdown were almost completely suppressed by c-Myc interference. Moreover, ROS scavenger effectively abolished the RIBE triggered by irradiated hepatoma cells even with SirT1 depletion. These findings provide new insights that SirT1 has a profound role in regulating RIBE where a c-Myc-dependent release of ROS may be involved

  2. The role of TGF-β1–miR-21–ROS pathway in bystander responses induced by irradiated non-small-cell lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Chen, X; Tian, W; Yin, X; Wang, J; Yang, H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many studies have indicated an important implication of radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBEs) in cancer radiotherapy, but the detailed signalling remains unclear. Methods: The roles of tumour growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) and miR-21 in medium-mediated RIBEs in H1299 non-small-cell lung cancer cells were investigated using DNA damage, changes in proliferation and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as end points. SB431542, a specific inhibitor of TGF-β type 1 receptor kinases, was used to inhibit TGF-β1 pathways in irradiated and bystander cells. Exogenous miR-21 regulation was achieved through inhibitor or mimic transfection. Results: Compared with relative sham-radiation-conditioned medium, radiation-conditioned medium (RCM) from irradiated cells 1 h post radiation (1-h RCM) caused an increase in ROS levels and DNA damage in bystander cells, while 18-h RCM induced cell cycle delay and proliferation inhibition. All these effects were eliminated by TGF-βR1 inhibition. One-hour RCM upregulated miR-21 expression in bystander cells, and miR-21 inhibitor abolished bystander oxidative stress and DNA damage. Eighteen-hour RCM downregulated miR-21 of bystander cells, and miR-21 mimic eliminated bystander proliferation inhibition. Furthermore, the dysregulation of miR-21 was attenuated by TGF-βR1 inhibition. Conclusions: The TGF-β1–miR-21–ROS pathway of bystander cells has an important mediating role in RIBEs in H1299 cells. PMID:24992582

  3. NUTRIENTS ACCUMULATION IN FRUITS OF BERRY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Parascovia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of observations and biochemical analysis of the berries made during the years 2013-2014 in Republic of Moldova, it was found that bacciferous species included in the study had a wide spectrum of colors, from white, orange, red to blue and black. The possibility to extend the consumption of fresh berries is because these species ripen in series starting with honeysuckle in May, then one by one until September: strawberry, raspberry, currant, gooseberry, barberry, jostaberry, blueberry, sea buckthorn, blackberry, chokeberry, guilder rose. Chokeberries accumulated the highest average amount of soluble solids - 18.02%, jostaberries highlighted with the highest average amount of accumulated sugars - 9.56%. Red currant highlighted with the highest acidity - 5.22%, while blueberries with low acidity - 1.43%. Rosehip has accumulated the highest average amount of tannins and coloring substances - 546.65 mg%. Rosehip berries accumulated the highest amount of vitamin C average - 292.38 mg%, the black currant - 179.69 mg%, jostaberry - 112.86 mg%, and sea buckthorn - 96.7 mg%. The highest average values of the coefficient sugar / acid certifying good qualities were found in: blueberries - 4.39, guelder rose - 3.93, gooseberry - 3.55.

  4. Antioxidant properties of selected fruit cultivars grown in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K D R R; Sirasa, M S F

    2018-01-01

    Extracts of twenty locally available Sri Lankan fruits were analysed for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferrous reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and vitamin C content. The results showed that gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica 'local') exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging activity (111.25mg ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC)/g), FRAP (1022.05μmol FeSO 4 /g), TPC (915.7mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100g), TFC (873.2mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100g) and vitamin C (136.8mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/100g), respectively. Sugar apple (Annona squamosa 'local') and star fruit (Averrhoa carambola 'Honey Sweet') obtained the second and third highest antioxidant activities in terms of rankings of FRAP, DPPH activities, TPC, TFC and vitamin C content. Strong correlation between vitamin C, TPC and TFC with FRAP and DPPH showed their contribution to antioxidant capacity. Among the selected fruits, underutilized fruit cultivar gooseberry showed the highest overall antioxidant potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro studies on the relationship between the antioxidant activities of some berry extracts and their binding properties to serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiesnik, Jacek; Vearasilp, Kann; Nemirovski, Alina; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Pasko, Pawel; Martinez-Ayala, Alma Leticia; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Suhaj, Milan; Gorinstein, Shela

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to use the bioactive components from cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana), blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum), and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) extracts as a novel source against oxidation in food supplementation. The quantitative analysis of bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, carotenoids, and chlorophyll) was based on radical scavenging spectrophometric assays and mass spectrometry. The total phenolic content was the highest (P < 0.05) in water extract of blueberries (46.6 ± 4.2 mg GAE/g DW). The highest antioxidant activities by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay and Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity were in water extracts of blueberries, showing 108.1 ± 7.2 and 131.1 ± 9.6 μMTE/g DW with correlation coefficients of 0.9918 and 0.9925, and by β-carotene linoleate assay at 80.1 ± 6.6 % with correlation coefficient of 0.9909, respectively. The water extracts of berries exhibited high binding properties with human serum albumin in comparison with quercetin. In conclusion, the bioactive compounds from a relatively new source of gooseberries in comparison with blueberries and cranberries have the potential as food supplementation for human health. The antioxidant and binding activities of berries depend on their bioactive compounds.

  6. In-tube extraction for the determination of the main volatile compounds in Physalis peruviana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupska, Magdalena; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2017-01-01

    An analytical procedure based on in-tube extraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry has been developed for the analysis of 24 of the main volatile components in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) samples. According to their chemical structure, the compounds were organized into different groups: one hydrocarbon, one aldehyde, four alcohols, four esters, and 14 monoterpenes. By single-factor experiments, incubation temperature, incubation time, extraction volume, extraction strokes, extraction speed, desorption temperature, and desorption speed were determined as 60°C, 20 min, 1000 μL, 20, 50:50 μL/s, 280°C, 100 μL/s, respectively. Quantitative analysis using authentic standards and external calibration curves was performed. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for the analytical procedure were calculated. Results shown the benzaldehyde, ethyl butanoate, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-butanol, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol were the most abundant volatile compounds in analyzed fruits (68.6-585 μg/kg). The obtained data may contribute to qualify cape gooseberry to the group of superfruits and, therefore, increase its popularity. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Cytogenetics of Physalis peruviana L. and Physalis floridana Rydb. genotypes with differential response to Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A. Liberato G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporumis considered the main constraint of cape gooseberry, Physalis peruviana, production in Colombia. P. peruvianaand P. floridana genotypes with differential resistance responses against F. oxysporum have been identified previously. In the present study, the genotypes were evaluated in order to complement the knowledge of cytogenetics diversity in Physalisand to design hybridization strategies to support breeding of cape gooseberry crop. The chromosome number in mitotic dividing cells from root-tips of tissue culture plantlets was determined, from which the average mitotic hour was estimated at 12:00 hours for P. peruviana and 10:00 for P. floridana. Chromosomic complements of 2n = 4x = 48 and 2n = 2x = 24 were found for each one of the two species. Additionally, flow cytometry analyses detected variation within P. peruviana with a nuclear DNA content of 2.33 pg for the 2n = 24 genotype and variations ranged from 5.77 to 8.12 pg for 2n = 48 genotypes. In P. floridanaDNA content was 2.29 pg in the 2n = 24 genotype and 4.03 pg in the 2n = 48 genotype. There was a significant effect (α = 0.01 of the number of chromosomes on nuclear DNA content for the two species.

  8. Identification of Immunity Related Genes to Study the Physalis peruviana – Fusarium oxysporum Pathosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E.; González, Carolina; Rodríguez, Edwin A.; López, Camilo E.; Landsman, David; Barrero, Luz Stella; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    The Cape gooseberry ( Physalis peruviana L) is an Andean exotic fruit with high nutritional value and appealing medicinal properties. However, its cultivation faces important phytosanitary problems mainly due to pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, Cercosporaphysalidis and Alternaria spp. Here we used the Cape gooseberry foliar transcriptome to search for proteins that encode conserved domains related to plant immunity including: NBS (Nucleotide Binding Site), CC (Coiled-Coil), TIR (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor). We identified 74 immunity related gene candidates in P . peruviana which have the typical resistance gene (R-gene) architecture, 17 Receptor like kinase (RLKs) candidates related to PAMP-Triggered Immunity (PTI), eight (TIR-NBS-LRR, or TNL) and nine (CC–NBS-LRR, or CNL) candidates related to Effector-Triggered Immunity (ETI) genes among others. These candidate genes were categorized by molecular function (98%), biological process (85%) and cellular component (79%) using gene ontology. Some of the most interesting predicted roles were those associated with binding and transferase activity. We designed 94 primers pairs from the 74 immunity-related genes (IRGs) to amplify the corresponding genomic regions on six genotypes that included resistant and susceptible materials. From these, we selected 17 single band amplicons and sequenced them in 14 F. oxysporum resistant and susceptible genotypes. Sequence polymorphisms were analyzed through preliminary candidate gene association, which allowed the detection of one SNP at the PpIRG-63 marker revealing a nonsynonymous mutation in the predicted LRR domain suggesting functional roles for resistance. PMID:23844210

  9. Identification of immunity related genes to study the Physalis peruviana--Fusarium oxysporum pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E; González, Carolina; Rodríguez, Edwin A; López, Camilo E; Landsman, David; Barrero, Luz Stella; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    The Cape gooseberry (Physalisperuviana L) is an Andean exotic fruit with high nutritional value and appealing medicinal properties. However, its cultivation faces important phytosanitary problems mainly due to pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, Cercosporaphysalidis and Alternaria spp. Here we used the Cape gooseberry foliar transcriptome to search for proteins that encode conserved domains related to plant immunity including: NBS (Nucleotide Binding Site), CC (Coiled-Coil), TIR (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor). We identified 74 immunity related gene candidates in P. peruviana which have the typical resistance gene (R-gene) architecture, 17 Receptor like kinase (RLKs) candidates related to PAMP-Triggered Immunity (PTI), eight (TIR-NBS-LRR, or TNL) and nine (CC-NBS-LRR, or CNL) candidates related to Effector-Triggered Immunity (ETI) genes among others. These candidate genes were categorized by molecular function (98%), biological process (85%) and cellular component (79%) using gene ontology. Some of the most interesting predicted roles were those associated with binding and transferase activity. We designed 94 primers pairs from the 74 immunity-related genes (IRGs) to amplify the corresponding genomic regions on six genotypes that included resistant and susceptible materials. From these, we selected 17 single band amplicons and sequenced them in 14 F. oxysporum resistant and susceptible genotypes. Sequence polymorphisms were analyzed through preliminary candidate gene association, which allowed the detection of one SNP at the PpIRG-63 marker revealing a nonsynonymous mutation in the predicted LRR domain suggesting functional roles for resistance.

  10. Identification of immunity related genes to study the Physalis peruviana--Fusarium oxysporum pathosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix E Enciso-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available The Cape gooseberry (Physalisperuviana L is an Andean exotic fruit with high nutritional value and appealing medicinal properties. However, its cultivation faces important phytosanitary problems mainly due to pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, Cercosporaphysalidis and Alternaria spp. Here we used the Cape gooseberry foliar transcriptome to search for proteins that encode conserved domains related to plant immunity including: NBS (Nucleotide Binding Site, CC (Coiled-Coil, TIR (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor. We identified 74 immunity related gene candidates in P. peruviana which have the typical resistance gene (R-gene architecture, 17 Receptor like kinase (RLKs candidates related to PAMP-Triggered Immunity (PTI, eight (TIR-NBS-LRR, or TNL and nine (CC-NBS-LRR, or CNL candidates related to Effector-Triggered Immunity (ETI genes among others. These candidate genes were categorized by molecular function (98%, biological process (85% and cellular component (79% using gene ontology. Some of the most interesting predicted roles were those associated with binding and transferase activity. We designed 94 primers pairs from the 74 immunity-related genes (IRGs to amplify the corresponding genomic regions on six genotypes that included resistant and susceptible materials. From these, we selected 17 single band amplicons and sequenced them in 14 F. oxysporum resistant and susceptible genotypes. Sequence polymorphisms were analyzed through preliminary candidate gene association, which allowed the detection of one SNP at the PpIRG-63 marker revealing a nonsynonymous mutation in the predicted LRR domain suggesting functional roles for resistance.

  11. LC/PDA/ESI-MS Profiling and Radical Scavenging Activity of Anthocyanins in Various Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichiro Nakajima

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin extracts of two blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry and Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry, and of three other berries, Ribes nigrum (black currant, Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry, and Sambucus nigra (elderberry, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization - mass spectrometry (LC/PDA/ESI-MS. Both bilberry and rabbiteye blueberry contained 15 identical anthocyanins with different distribution patterns. Black currant, chokeberry, and elderberry contained 6, 4, and 4 kinds of anthocyanins, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of these berry extracts were analyzed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. All these extracts showed potent antiradical activities.

  12. "Balkanski bojevnik"

    OpenAIRE

    Lampe, Špela

    2015-01-01

    Zloglasni primer »Balkanski bojevnik« je za zdaj nekoliko potihnil, vendar ne za dolgo. To je eden izmed najbolj odmevnih primerov v zgodovini Slovenije, ki je veliko pozornosti zahteval tudi mednarodno. Državno tožilstvo je 17 oseb obtožilo, da naj bi trgovali s prepovedanimi drogami (kokainom) in orožjem ter vodili in sodelovali v hudodelski združbi. 4 obtoženci so bili spoznani za krive, ostalih 13 – domnevne vodje in večje ribe – pa je bilo deležnih oprostilne sodbe, ker so jim bile v pre...

  13. Elevated sodium chloride concentrations enhance the bystander effects induced by low dose alpha-particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Wei; Zhu Lingyan; Jiang Erkang; Wang Jun; Chen Shaopeng; Bao Linzhi; Zhao Ye; Xu An; Yu Zengliang [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu Lijun [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)], E-mail: ljw@ipp.ac.cn

    2007-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that high NaCl can be genotoxic, either alone or combined with irradiation. However, little is known about the relationship between environmental NaCl at elevated conditions and radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). RIBE, which has been considered as non-targeted bystander responses, has been demonstrated to occur widely in various cell lines. In the present study, RIBE under the elevated NaCl culture condition was assessed in AG 1522 cells by both the induction of {gamma}-H2AX, a reliable marker of DNA double-strand break (DSB) for the early process (<1 h post irradiation), and the generation of micronuclei (MN), a sensitive marker for relative long process of RIBE. Our results showed that in the absence of irradiation, NaCl at elevated concentration such as 8.0, 9.0 and 10.0 g/L did not significantly increase the frequency of {gamma}-H2AX foci-positive cells and the number of foci per positive cell comparing with that NaCl at a normal concentration (6.8 g/L). However, with 0.2 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiation, the induced fraction of {gamma}-H2AX foci-positive cells and the number of induced {gamma}-H2AX foci per positive cell were significantly increased in both irradiated and adjacent non-irradiated regions. Similarly, the induction of MN by 0.2 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiation also increased with the elevated NaCl concentrations. With N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, the induced fraction of foci-positive cells was effectively inhibited both in 0.2 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiated and adjacent non-irradiated regions under either normal or elevated NaCl conditions. These results suggested that the cultures with elevated NaCl medium magnified the damage effects induced by the low dose {alpha}-particle irradiation and nitric oxide generated by irradiation was also very important in this process.

  14. Chemopreventive effects of embelin and curcumin against N-nitrosodiethylamine/phenobarbital-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreepriya, M; Bali, Geetha

    2005-09-01

    The effects of embelin (50 mg/kg/day), a benzoquinone derivative of Embelia ribes, and the effects of curcumin (100 mg/kg/day), the active principle of Curcuma longa, against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DENA)-initiated and phenobarbital (PB)-promoted hepatocarcinogenesis were studied in Wistar rats. They were able to prevent the induction of hepatic hyper plastic nodules, body weight loss, increase in the levels of hepatic diagnostic markers, and hypoproteinemia induced by DENA/PB treatment. Hence, results of our study suggest the possible chemopreventive effects of embelin (EMB) and curcumin (CUR) against DENA/PB-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats.

  15. Archeological Investigations in Cochiti Reservoir, New Mexico. Volume 1. A Survey of Regional Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    pear Opuntia spp. Cholla Upper Sonoran Deciduous Quercus gambeiii Gambels oak Cercocarpus sp. Mountain mahogany Upper Sonoran Deciduous Mixture of Upper...x P’unus melanocarpe x Quercus spp. x x x Rhui tilobata x x Ribes spp. x x x x Rosa spp. x Rubus paruiflorus x Rubus arizonensis x Rudbeckia...laciniata x x Rumex spp. Sambucus spp. x x x Smilacina amplexicaulis x Typha latifolia x x x Vitis arizonica x x Yucca $pp. x TABLE 11.2.4 NUMBER OF EDIBLE

  16. La radiodifusión en Andorra. Política, economía y espacio comunicacional en un país dependiente

    OpenAIRE

    Giral Quintana, Eugenio

    1989-01-01

    [spa] Las peculiares características internacionales del Principado de Andorra, y su situación territorial, le hicieron aparecer como una posible localización de una emisora de radio en ondas medias y cortas, con una programación dirigida al público del Mediodía francés, Catalunya y Aragón. La concesión por el M.l. Consell General, el 16 de agosto de 1935, a Bonaventura Vila Ribes, del permiso administrativo para instalar una emisora en el Principado inició la actividad de la que sería "R...

  17. Spatially-Resolved Ion Trajectory Measurements During Cl2 Reactive Ion Beam Etching and Ar Ion Beam Etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vawter, G. Allen; Woodworth, Joseph R.; Zubrzycki, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    The angle of ion incidence at the etched wafer location during RIBE and IBE using Cl 2 , Ar and O 2 ion beams has been characterized using an ion energy and angle analyzer. Effects of beam current and accelerator grid bias on beam divergence and the spatial uniformity of the spread of incident angles are measured. It is observed that increased total beam current can lead to reduced current density at the sample stage due to enhanced beam divergence at high currents. Results are related to preferred etch system design for uniform high-aspect-ratio etching across semiconductor wafers

  18. PMCV and PRV occurrence in wild and farmed fish in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Susie Sommer; Arnö, J.; Bruun, Morten Sichlau

    Every year salmon are restocked in the 7 rivers Storå, Skjern Å, Varde Å, Sneum Å, Kongeå, Ribe Å and Gudenåen. Six-month-old and 1-year-old salmon for about 2 mio. Kr (€268000) are restocked every year. The salmon are restocked in both the main rivers as well as the larger inlets. 6-month-old sa...... fish were tested by real-time RT-PCR for PRV and 30 fish from each river were tested by real-time RT-PCR for PMCV. This is the first time wild and farmed fish have been tested for either virus in Denmark.......-virus in the family of Reoviridae, while Piscine myocarditis virus (PMCV) is a double-stranded RNA virus of the Totiviridae family. Wild and farmed salmon and trout have not been tested for PRV or PMCV in Denmark before, but both viruses are found in Norway, where they are suspected of causing Heart and Skeletal...... Muscle Inflammation (HSMI) and Cardiomyopathy Syndrome (CMS), respectively. In 2013, broodstock from four different rivers in Denmark were received for surveillance. These rivers are Ribe, Varde, Skjern and Store Å, which are all west-facing rivers. Of these fish 8 were Sea Trout and the rest Salmon. 184...

  19. Elemental depth profiles and plasma etching rates of positive-tone electron beam resists after sequential infiltration synthesis of alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Yuki; Ito, Shunya; Hiroshiba, Nobuya; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2018-06-01

    By scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM–EDS), we investigated the elemental depth profiles of organic electron beam resist films after the sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) of inorganic alumina. Although a 40-nm-thick poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film was entirely hybridized with alumina, an uneven distribution was observed near the interface between the substrate and the resist as well as near the resist surface. The uneven distribution was observed around the center of a 100-nm-thick PMMA film. The thicknesses of the PMMA and CSAR62 resist films decreased almost linearly as functions of plasma etching period. The comparison of etching rate among oxygen reactive ion etching, C3F8 reactive ion beam etching (RIBE), and Ar ion beam milling suggested that the SIS treatment enhanced the etching resistance of the electron beam resists to chemical reactions rather than to ion collisions. We proposed oxygen- and Ar-assisted C3F8 RIBE for the fabrication of silica imprint molds by electron beam lithography.

  20. Hybrid model of the radiation-induced bystander effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Viviane V.B.; Faria, Fernando Pereira de; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein

    2013-01-01

    The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) refer to biological alterations in non-irradiated cells that occupy the same medium (culture or tissue) of irradiated cells. The biochemical mechanisms of the RIBE are not completely elucidated. However, several experiments indicate its existence. The objective of this work is to quantify the effect via stochastic and deterministic approaches. The hypotheses of the model are: a) one non-irradiated healthy cell interacts with signals that propagate through the medium. These signals are released by irradiated cells. At the time of interaction cell-signal, the cell can become damaged and signaling or damage and not signaling; b) Both types of damage cells repair with certain rate becoming health cells; c) The diffusion of signals obey the discrete diffusion equation with decay in two dimensions. d) The signal concentration released by irradiated cells depends on the dose in the low dose range (< 0.3 Gy) and saturates for higher dose values. As expected, the temporal analysis of the model as a function of the repair rate shows that the survival fraction decreases as the repair rate is reduced. The analysis of the extent of damage triggered by a signal concentration released by a single irradiated cell at time zero show that the damage grows with the maximum simulation time. The results show good agreement with the experimental data. The stochastic and deterministic methods used are in qualitative agreement, as expected. (author)

  1. MRC5 and QU-DB bystander cells can produce bystander factors and induce radiation bystander effect

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    Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation damages initiated by radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE are not limited to the first or immediate neighbors of the irradiated cells, but the effects have been observed in the cells far from the irradiation site. It has been postulated that bystander cells, by producing bystander factors, are actively involved in the propagation of bystander effect in the regions beyond the initial irradiated site. Current study was planned to test the hypothesis. MRC5 and QU-DB cell lines were irradiated, and successive medium transfer technique was performed to induce bystander effects in two bystander cell groups. Conditioned medium extracted from the target cells was transferred to the bystander cells (first bystander cells. After one hour, conditioned medium was substituted by fresh medium. Two hours later, the fresh medium was transferred to a second group of non-irradiated cells (second bystander cells. Micronucleated cells (MC were counted to quantify damages induced in the first and second bystander cell groups. Radiation effect was observed in the second bystander cells as well as in the first ones. Statistical analyses revealed that the number of MC in second bystander subgroups was significantly more than the corresponding value observed in control groups, but in most cases it was equal to the number of MC observed in the first bystander cells. MRC5 and QU-DB bystander cells can produce and release bystander signals in the culture medium and affect non-irradiated cells. Therefore, they may contribute to the RIBE propagation.

  2. Hybrid model of the radiation-induced bystander effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Viviane V.B.; Faria, Fernando Pereira de; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein, E-mail: vitoriabraga06@gmail.com, E-mail: fernandopereirabh@gmail.com, E-mail: seg@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) refer to biological alterations in non-irradiated cells that occupy the same medium (culture or tissue) of irradiated cells. The biochemical mechanisms of the RIBE are not completely elucidated. However, several experiments indicate its existence. The objective of this work is to quantify the effect via stochastic and deterministic approaches. The hypotheses of the model are: a) one non-irradiated healthy cell interacts with signals that propagate through the medium. These signals are released by irradiated cells. At the time of interaction cell-signal, the cell can become damaged and signaling or damage and not signaling; b) Both types of damage cells repair with certain rate becoming health cells; c) The diffusion of signals obey the discrete diffusion equation with decay in two dimensions. d) The signal concentration released by irradiated cells depends on the dose in the low dose range (< 0.3 Gy) and saturates for higher dose values. As expected, the temporal analysis of the model as a function of the repair rate shows that the survival fraction decreases as the repair rate is reduced. The analysis of the extent of damage triggered by a signal concentration released by a single irradiated cell at time zero show that the damage grows with the maximum simulation time. The results show good agreement with the experimental data. The stochastic and deterministic methods used are in qualitative agreement, as expected. (author)

  3. Surface characterization after subaperture reactive ion beam etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miessler, Andre; Arnold, Thomas; Rauschenbach, Bernd [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung (IOM), Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In usual ion beam etching processes using inert gas (Ar, Xe, Kr..) the material removal is determined by physical sputtering effects on the surface. The admixture of suitable gases (CF{sub 4}+O{sub 2}) into the glow discharge of the ion beam source leads to the generation of reactive particles, which are accelerated towards the substrate where they enhance the sputtering process by formation of volatile chemical reaction products. During the last two decades research in Reactive Ion Beam Etching (RIBE) has been done using a broad beam ion source which allows the treatment of smaller samples (diameter sample < diameter beam). Our goal was to apply a sub-aperture Kaufman-type ion source in combination with an applicative movement of the sample with respect to the source, which enables us to etch areas larger than the typical lateral dimensions of the ion beam. Concerning this matter, the etching behavior in the beam periphery plays a decisive role and has to be investigated. We use interferometry to characterize the final surface topography and XPS measurements to analyze the chemical composition of the samples after RIBE.

  4. Mechanism of protection of bystander cells by exogenous carbon monoxide: Impaired response to damage signal of radiation-induced bystander effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, W.; Yu, K.N.; Wu, L.J.; Wu, Y.C.; Wang, H.Z.

    2011-01-01

    A protective effect of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated by CO releasing molecule ticarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2), on the bystander cells from the toxicity of radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) was revealed in our previous study. In the present work, a possible mechanism of this CO effect was investigated. The results from medium transfer experiments showed that α-particle irradiated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells would release nitric oxide (NO), which was detected with specific NO fluorescence probe, to induce p53 binding protein 1 (BP1) formation in the cell population receiving the medium, and the release peak was found to be at 1 h post irradiation. Treating the irradiated or bystander cells separately with CO (CORM-2) demonstrated that CO was effective in the bystander cells but not the irradiated cells. Measurements of NO production and release with a specific NO fluorescence probe also showed that CO treatment did not affect the production and release of NO by irradiated cells. Protection of CO on cells to peroxynitrite, an oxidizing free radical from NO, suggested that CO might protect bystander cells via impaired response of bystander cells to NO, a RIBE signal in our research system.

  5. Novel features of radiation-induced bystander signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated using root micro-grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Fanghua; Xu, Wei; Bian, Po; Wu, Yuejin; Wu, Lijun

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been well demonstrated in whole organisms, as well as in single-cell culture models in vitro and multi-cellular tissues models in vitro, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, including the temporal and spatial course of bystander signaling. The RIBE in vivo has been shown to exist in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana). Importantly, the unique plant grafting provides a delicate approach for studying the temporal and spatial course of bystander signaling in the context of whole plants. In our previous study, the time course of bystander signaling in plants has been well demonstrated using the root micro-grafting technique. In this study, we further investigated the temporal cooperation pattern of multiple bystander signals, the directionality of bystander signaling, and the effect of bystander tissues on the bystander signaling. The results showed that the bystander response could also be induced efficiently when the asynchronously generated bystander signals reached the bystander tissues in the same period, but not when they entered into the bystander tissues in an inversed sequence. The absence of bystander response in root-inversed grafting indicated that the bystander signaling along roots might be of directionality. The bystander signaling was shown to be independent of the bystander tissues. PMID:23072991

  6. Role of nitric oxide in the radiation-induced bystander effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Vasily A

    2015-12-01

    Cells that are not irradiated but are affected by "stress signal factors" released from irradiated cells are called bystander cells. These cells, as well as directly irradiated ones, express DNA damage-related proteins and display excess DNA damage, chromosome aberrations, mutations, and malignant transformation. This phenomenon has been studied widely in the past 20 years, since its first description by Nagasawa and Little in 1992, and is known as the radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE). Several factors have been identified as playing a role in the bystander response. This review will focus on one of them, nitric oxide (NO), and its role in the stimulation and propagation of RIBE. The hydrophobic properties of NO, which permit its diffusion through the cytoplasm and plasma membranes, allow this signaling molecule to easily spread from irradiated cells to bystander cells without the involvement of gap junction intercellular communication. NO produced in irradiated tissues mediates cellular regulation through posttranslational modification of a number of regulatory proteins. The best studied of these modifications are S-nitrosylation (reversible oxidation of cysteine) and tyrosine nitration. These modifications can up- or down-regulate the functions of many proteins modulating different NO-dependent effects. These NO-dependent effects include the stimulation of genomic instability (GI) and the accumulation of DNA errors in bystander cells without direct DNA damage. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Classification and fingerprinting of different berries based on biochemical profiling and antioxidant capacity

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    Jasminka Milivojević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the biochemical composition of six berry types belonging to Fragaria, Rubus, Vaccinium and Ribes genus. Fruit samples were collected in triplicate (50 fruit each from 18 different species or cultivars of the mentioned genera, during three years (2008 to 2010. Content of individual sugars, organic acids, flavonols, and phenolic acids were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis, while total phenolics (TPC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, by using spectrophotometry. Principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (CA were performed to evaluate the differences in fruit biochemical profile. The highest contents of bioactive components were found in Ribes nigrum and in Fragaria vesca, Rubus plicatus, and Vaccinium myrtillus. PCA and CA were able to partially discriminate between berries on the basis of their biochemical composition. Individual and total sugars, myricetin, ellagic acid, TPC and TAC showed the highest impact on biochemical composition of the berry fruits. CA separated blackberry, raspberry, and blueberry as isolate groups, while classification of strawberry, black and red currant in a specific group has not occurred. There is a large variability both between and within the different types of berries. Metabolite fingerprinting of the evaluated berries showed unique biochemical profiles and specific combination of bioactive compound contents.

  8. Latitude and Power Characteristics of Solar Activity at the End of the Maunder Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. G.; Miletsky, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    Two important sources of information about sunspots in the Maunder minimum are the Spörer catalog (Spörer, 1889) and observations of the Paris observatory (Ribes and Nesme-Ribes, 1993), which cover in total the last quarter of the 17th and the first two decades of the 18th century. These data, in particular, contain information about sunspot latitudes. As we showed in (Ivanov et al., 2011; Ivanov and Miletsky, 2016), dispersions of sunspot latitude distributions are tightly related to sunspot indices, and we can estimate the level of solar activity in the past using a method which is not based on direct calculation of sunspots and weakly affected by loss of observational data. The latitude distributions of sunspots in the time of transition from the Maunder minimum to the regular regime of solar activity proved to be wide enough. It gives evidences in favor of, first, not very low cycle no.-3 (1712-1723) with the Wolf number in maximum W = 100 ± 50, and, second, nonzero activity in the maximum of cycle no.-4 (1700-1711) W = 60 ± 45. Therefore, the latitude distributions in the end of the Maunder minimum are in better agreement with the traditional Wolf numbers and new revisited indices of activity SN and GN (Clette et al., 2014; Svalgaard and Schatten, 2016) than with the GSN (Hoyt and Schatten, 1998); the latter provide much lower level of activity in this epoch.

  9. A 3' UTR-derived non-coding RNA RibS increases expression of cfa and promotes biofilm formation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Liu, Rui; Tang, Hao; Osei-Adjei, George; Xu, Shungao; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Xinxiang

    2018-05-08

    Bacterial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are widely studied and found to play important roles in regulating various cellular processes. Recently, many ncRNAs have been discovered to be transcribed or processed from 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs). Here we reported a novel 3' UTR-derived ncRNA, RibS, which could influence biofilm formation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). RibS was confirmed to be a ∼700 nt processed product produced by RNase III-catalyzed cleavage from the 3' UTR of riboflavin synthase subunit alpha mRNA, RibE. Overexpression of RibS increased the expression of the cyclopropane fatty acid synthase gene, cfa, which was located at the antisense strand. Biofilm formation of S. Typhi was enhanced by overexpressing RibS both in the wild type strain and cfa deletion mutant. Deletion of cfa attenuated biofilm formation of S. Typhi, while complementation of cfa partly restored the phenotype. Moreover, overexpressing cfa enhanced the biofilm formation of S. Typhi. In summary, RibS has been identified as a novel ncRNA derived from the 3' UTR of RibE that promotes biofilm formation of S. Typhi, and it appears to do so, at least in part, by increasing the expression of cfa. Copyright © 2018 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanism of protection of bystander cells by exogenous carbon monoxide: Impaired response to damage signal of radiation-induced bystander effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, W. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wu, L.J. [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Y.C. [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China); Wang, H.Z. [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2011-05-10

    A protective effect of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated by CO releasing molecule ticarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2), on the bystander cells from the toxicity of radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) was revealed in our previous study. In the present work, a possible mechanism of this CO effect was investigated. The results from medium transfer experiments showed that {alpha}-particle irradiated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells would release nitric oxide (NO), which was detected with specific NO fluorescence probe, to induce p53 binding protein 1 (BP1) formation in the cell population receiving the medium, and the release peak was found to be at 1 h post irradiation. Treating the irradiated or bystander cells separately with CO (CORM-2) demonstrated that CO was effective in the bystander cells but not the irradiated cells. Measurements of NO production and release with a specific NO fluorescence probe also showed that CO treatment did not affect the production and release of NO by irradiated cells. Protection of CO on cells to peroxynitrite, an oxidizing free radical from NO, suggested that CO might protect bystander cells via impaired response of bystander cells to NO, a RIBE signal in our research system.

  11. Large scale screening of commonly used Iranian traditional medicinal plants against urease activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabati Farzaneh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study H. pylori infection is an important etiologic impetus usually leading to gastric disease and urease enzyme is the most crucial role is to protect the bacteria in the acidic environment of the stomach. Then urease inhibitors would increase sensitivity of the bacteria in acidic medium. Methods 137 Iranian traditional medicinal plants were examined against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction. Each herb was extracted using 50% aqueous methanol. The more effective extracts were further tested and their IC50 values were determined. Results 37 plants out of the 137 crude extracts revealed strong urease inhibitory activity (more than 70% inhibition against urease activity at 10 mg/ml concentration. Nine of the whole studied plants crude extracts were found as the most effective with IC50 values less than 500 μg/ml including; Rheum ribes, Sambucus ebulus, Pistachia lentiscus, Myrtus communis, Areca catechu, Citrus aurantifolia, Myristica fragrans, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Nicotiana tabacum. Conclusions The most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Sambucus ebulus and Rheum ribes extracts with IC50 values of 57 and 92 μg/ml, respectively.

  12. Large Scale Screening of Commonly Used Iranian Traditional Medicinal Plants against Urease Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Nabati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study:H. pylori infection is an important etiologic impetus usually leading to gastric disease andurease enzyme is the most crucial role is to protect the bacteria in the acidic environment of the stomach. Then urease inhibitors would increase sensitivity of the bacteria in acidic medium.Methods:137 Iranian traditional medicinal plants were examined against Jack bean urease activity by Berthelot reaction. Each herb was extracted using 50% aqueous methanol. The more effectiveextracts were further tested and their IC50 values were determined.Results:37 plants out of the 137 crude extracts revealed strong urease inhibitory activity (more than 70% inhibition against urease activity at 10 mg/ml concentration. Nine of the whole studiedplants crude extracts were found as the most effective with IC50 values less than 500 μg/ml including; Rheum ribes, Sambucus ebulus, Pistachia lentiscus, Myrtus communis, Areca catechu, Citrus aurantifolia, Myristica fragrans, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Nicotianatabacum.Conclusions:The most potent urease inhibitory was observed for Sambucus ebulus and Rheum ribes extracts with IC50 values of 57 and 92 μg/ml, respectively.

  13. A multiherbal formulation influencing immune response in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghini, L; Leporini, L; Scanu, N; Pintore, G; Ferrante, C; Recinella, L; Orlando, G; Vacca, M; Brunetti, L

    2012-02-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of phytocomplexes of Uncaria, Shiitake and Ribes in terms of viability and inflammatory response on immune cell-derived cultures. Standardized extracts of Uncaria, Shitake and Ribes and their commercial formulation were tested on cell lines PBMC, U937 and macrophage. The activity was evaluated in terms of cell viability (MTT test), variations of oxidative marker release (ROS and PGE2) and modulatory effects on immune response (gene expression of IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα, RT-PCR). Cell viability was not affected by extracts, except subtle variations observed only at higher doses (>250 µg/mL). The extract mixture was well tolerated, with no effects on cell viability up to doses of 500 µg/mL. Pre-treatment of macrophages with subtoxic doses of the extracts reduced the basal release of oxidative markers and enhanced the cell response to exogenous oxidant stimulation, as revealed by ROS and PGE2 release reduction. The same treatment on macrophage resulted in a selective modulation of the immune response, as shown by an increase of IL-6 mRNA and, partially, IL-8 mRNA, while a reduction was observed for TNFα mRNA. Data confirm that extracts and their formulations can act as regulator of the immune system with mechanisms involving the oxidative stress and the release of selected proinflammatory cytokines.

  14. Implementation of Statistical Methods and SWOT Analysis for Evaluation of Metal Waste Management in Engineering Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Záhorská Renáta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the waste management research in a selected engineering company RIBE Slovakia, k. s., Nitra factory. Within of its manufacturing programme, the mentioned factory uses wide range of the manufacturing technologies (cutting operations, metal cold-forming, thread rolling, metal surface finishing, automatic sorting, metrology, assembly, with the aim to produce the final products – connecting components (fasteners delivered to many industrial fields (agricultural machinery manufacturers, car industry, etc.. There were obtained data characterizing production technologies and the range of manufactured products. The key attention is paid to the classification of waste produced by engineering production and to waste management within the company. Within the research, there were obtained data characterizing the time course of production of various waste types and these data were evaluated by means of statistical method using STATGRAPHICS. Based on the application of SWOT analysis, there is objectively assessed the waste management in the company in terms of strengths and weaknesses, as well as determination of the opportunities and potential threats. Results obtained by the SWOT analysis application have allowed to come to conclusion that the company RIBE Slovakia, k. s., Nitra factory has well organized waste management system. The fact that the waste management system is incorporated into the company management system can be considered as an advantage.

  15. INTERRELATION BETWEEN TYPE AND CULTIVAR OF BERRY-LIKE CROP AND CUTTINGS CRYOPRESERVATION RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Gorbunov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimal cryopreservation parameters were determined for the berry-like crop cuttings: blackcurrant (Dachnica, Yuviley, Sofiivska, Kitayskaya; redcurrant (Kitaivska, Djoker, Svyatkova; gooseberries (Krasen, Malachite, Kolobok; raspberries (Novost’ Kuz’mina, Struyka, Skromnica. This procedure allowed increasing viability of deconservation samples in 2–5 times compared to the existing methods of cryopreservation. Maximal values of cutting viability were obtained after their temperature adaptation at –10 °C during 14–60 days, stepwise cooling of the samples with 0.1–0.5 °C/hr rate down to –30 °C (exposure 3–7 days, direct plunging into liquid nitrogen, storage from 1 to 30 days and thawing rate of 70 °C/min. It was found that the in the region of allowable values for maximum viability of investigated birch (control cuttings humidity values correspond 32±40%, for blackcurrant are 40±50%, and raspberries 37±40 % in affirmative temperature span and 14±28 %, 30±40 %, 20±23 % in below zero. Using dispersion analysis it has been established that the development probability of frozenthawed plant cuttings significantly depends on the selected cultivar and cryopreservation method. It is noted that the force of influence η2А, due to the individual properties of the studied cultivars of berries, is comparable to that of the force of influence η2В of cryopreservation procedures. The differences of average indexes of viability of the studied cultivars were showed within a single species. It was found that these rates are different for black currant by 92%, redcurrant — 54%, gooseberries — 48%, raspberries — 70%. Using paired Student’s t-test has reduced to 3 times the error of representativeness of the sample that enabled to improve the reliability of the significance of differences compared to the values of the P ≥0,99. Selection of the cuttings’ cultivars and cryopreservation method significantly affect the

  16. Profiling and Quantification of Regioisomeric Caffeoyl Glucoses in Berry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patras, Maria A; Jaiswal, Rakesh; McDougall, Gordon J; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2018-02-07

    On the basis of a recently developed tandem mass spectrometry-based hierarchical scheme for the identification of regioisomeric caffeoyl glucoses, selected berry fruits were profiled for their caffeoyl glucose ester content. Fresh edible berries profiled, including strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, red currant, black currant, lingonberries, gooseberries, and juices of elderberries, goji berries, chokeberries, cranberries, açai berries, sea buckthorn berries, Montmorency sour cherries, and pomegranates, were investigated. 1-Caffeoyl glucose was found to be the predominant isomer in the majority of samples, with further profiling revealing the presence of additional hydroxycinnamoyl glucose esters and O-glycosides with p-coumaroyl, feruloyl, and sinapoyl substituents. A quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based method was developed and validated, and all caffeoyl glucose isomers were quantified for the first time in edible berries.

  17. Decentralized models of agricultural marketing as a strategy for social inclusion in Colombia: the case Exofruit SAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Arias Vargas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a model of decentralized marketing cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana as an alternative to traditional wholesale channels; where brokers obtain higher profits; while farmers receive little profit for their product and the customer receives an expensive product. The investigative process development for nine months under a descriptive exploratory approach to data collection and triangulation of it to build the case. The project currently benefits 40 farmers; victims of armed conflict in the village of Mesopotamia Antioquia Union have joined the project, which has particularities like organic production of 1.2 tons per month of product, recovery of abandoned land; and equitable distribution of profits and the way for negotiations between farmers and the seller as a new proposal of peasant association.

  18. Distribusi Phyllanthus emblica L. di Sumatera Utara Bagian Selatan

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    Ummi Khoiriyah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica L. distribution has been studied in the southern part of North Sumatera, which is in the South Labuhanbatu district, North Padanglawas, Padanglawas, SouthTapanuli, Padangsidempuan city and Mandailing Natal district. The aims ofthis study was to determine the distribution area of balakka based on rainfall, lands cover and soil type. The data were collectedby observation. Distribution data are presented in the  form of map using ArcView 3.3 Software. The results of the analysis showed that the common balakka was distributed in the rainfall region of 2000 – 2500 mm/year in dryland farming and the humic acrisols soil.

  19. Potential economic pests of solanaceous crops: a new species of Solanum-feeding psyllid from Australia and first record from New Zealand of Acizzia solanicola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gary S; Kent, Deborah S

    2013-02-11

    Acizzia credoensis sp. n. is described from a single population on the native plant, Solanum lasiophyllum, from semi-arid Western Australia. The host range of Acizzia solanicola Kent & Taylor, initially recorded as damaging eggplant, S. melongena, in commercial crops and gardens and on wild tobacco bush, S. mauritianum in eastern Australia, is expanded to include the following Solanaceae: rock nightshade, S. petrophilum, cape gooseberry, Physalis peruviana, and an undetermined species of angel's trumpet Brugmansia and Datura. New Zealand specimens of A. solanicola collected in early 2012 from S. mauritianum are the first record for this species from outside Australia, and possibly represent a very recent incursion. The potential for the solanaceous-inhabiting Psyllidae to vector Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum, an economically important plant pathogen, on native Australian Solanaceae is discussed. The occurrence of A. credoensis and A. solanicola on native Australian Solanum supports the Australian origin for the solanaceous-inhabiting Acizzia psyllids.

  20. An overview on Phyllanthus emblica: phytochemical and pharmacological investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Amirazodi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Phyllanthus emblica L. (Phyllanthaceae, commonly known as Indian gooseberry, is an endemic plant to the tropical and subtropical areas in china, India and Thailand. The plant is extensively used in Chinese, Ayurveda, and traditional Persian medicine (TPM. In addition, there are numerous reports on pharmacological and clinical activities of gooseberry in current medicine. The present review was performed to compile the phytochemical and pharmacological data on P. emblica in order to draw a window for further research.  Methods: Databases such as Scopus, ScienceDirect and PubMed were searched for the term “P. emblica” up to 1st September, 2017. Papers concerning pharmacology and phytochemistry of the plant were gathered and analyzed. On the contrary, agriculture and genetic contents were excluded. Results: Over all, 80 papers were selected. The herb revealed to possess anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, larvicidal, anti-asthmatic, antiulcer, anti-aging, anti-carcinogenic, anti-tumor, anti-genotoxicity, anti-microbial, anticholinergic, antispasmodic, gastroprotective, anti-plasmodia, and antinociceptive activities as well as antidote effect against certain elements. The fruits are also useful in brain and gastrointestinal diseases and can be beneficial in hearth protection. Remarkably, many of those properties have been mentioned in TPM manuscripts.  Conclusion: Despite numerous pharmacological activities for P. emblica, there is still a gap between the in vivo and human studies which should be covered by more comprehensive and complementary studies. Many compounds have been isolated and elucidated from this plant which can be good candidates for various related activities and also as new natural medicaments in novel drug discovery.

  1. The Physalis peruviana leaf transcriptome: assembly, annotation and gene model prediction

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    Garzón-Martínez Gina A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physalis peruviana commonly known as Cape gooseberry is a member of the Solanaceae family that has an increasing popularity due to its nutritional and medicinal values. A broad range of genomic tools is available for other Solanaceae, including tomato and potato. However, limited genomic resources are currently available for Cape gooseberry. Results We report the generation of a total of 652,614 P. peruviana Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs, using 454 GS FLX Titanium technology. ESTs, with an average length of 371 bp, were obtained from a normalized leaf cDNA library prepared using a Colombian commercial variety. De novo assembling was performed to generate a collection of 24,014 isotigs and 110,921 singletons, with an average length of 1,638 bp and 354 bp, respectively. Functional annotation was performed using NCBI’s BLAST tools and Blast2GO, which identified putative functions for 21,191 assembled sequences, including gene families involved in all the major biological processes and molecular functions as well as defense response and amino acid metabolism pathways. Gene model predictions in P. peruviana were obtained by using the genomes of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato and Solanum tuberosum (potato. We predict 9,436 P. peruviana sequences with multiple-exon models and conserved intron positions with respect to the potato and tomato genomes. Additionally, to study species diversity we developed 5,971 SSR markers from assembled ESTs. Conclusions We present the first comprehensive analysis of the Physalis peruviana leaf transcriptome, which will provide valuable resources for development of genetic tools in the species. Assembled transcripts with gene models could serve as potential candidates for marker discovery with a variety of applications including: functional diversity, conservation and improvement to increase productivity and fruit quality. P. peruviana was estimated to be phylogenetically branched out before the

  2. The Physalis peruviana leaf transcriptome: assembly, annotation and gene model prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Martínez, Gina A; Zhu, Z Iris; Landsman, David; Barrero, Luz S; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2012-04-25

    Physalis peruviana commonly known as Cape gooseberry is a member of the Solanaceae family that has an increasing popularity due to its nutritional and medicinal values. A broad range of genomic tools is available for other Solanaceae, including tomato and potato. However, limited genomic resources are currently available for Cape gooseberry. We report the generation of a total of 652,614 P. peruviana Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs), using 454 GS FLX Titanium technology. ESTs, with an average length of 371 bp, were obtained from a normalized leaf cDNA library prepared using a Colombian commercial variety. De novo assembling was performed to generate a collection of 24,014 isotigs and 110,921 singletons, with an average length of 1,638 bp and 354 bp, respectively. Functional annotation was performed using NCBI's BLAST tools and Blast2GO, which identified putative functions for 21,191 assembled sequences, including gene families involved in all the major biological processes and molecular functions as well as defense response and amino acid metabolism pathways. Gene model predictions in P. peruviana were obtained by using the genomes of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Solanum tuberosum (potato). We predict 9,436 P. peruviana sequences with multiple-exon models and conserved intron positions with respect to the potato and tomato genomes. Additionally, to study species diversity we developed 5,971 SSR markers from assembled ESTs. We present the first comprehensive analysis of the Physalis peruviana leaf transcriptome, which will provide valuable resources for development of genetic tools in the species. Assembled transcripts with gene models could serve as potential candidates for marker discovery with a variety of applications including: functional diversity, conservation and improvement to increase productivity and fruit quality. P. peruviana was estimated to be phylogenetically branched out before the divergence of five other Solanaceae family members, S

  3. Effects of Pinus flexilis on the dynamics and structure of plant communities on the northern Rocky Mountain front, and, Training biologists for emerging niches in non-traditional jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Dayna Marie

    My research examines the relative importance of interacting mechanisms (amelioration of wind, provision of shade, accumulation of snow pack, and alteration of soil characteristics) governing facilitation between Pinus flexilis and two understory species, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Ribes cereum in Montana. Survival of understory species was greatest beneath P. flexilis at a leeward site (Pseudotsuga, 38% and Ribes, 63%), and lowest in the open at a windward site (2% and 6%, respectively). The effects of wind amelioration, shade provision, and snowdrift accumulation were separated experimentally and after two years, shade was of overwhelming importance for the survival of both species. Once shade was provided, effects of wind amelioration and increased snow pack increased survival, suggesting a hierarchical functioning of mechanisms. High winter mortality of Pseudotsuga suggests P. flexilis canopies may prevent photoinhibition and winter desiccation through reduction of light and insulation from variable temperatures. High summer mortality of Ribes suggests P. flexilis canopies may reduce transpiration through lowering leaf temperatures, thereby decreasing vapor pressure deficits. In this system, several mechanisms governing facilitation operated simultaneously, but in a hierarchical manner of relative importance thereby determining the overall effect of P. flexilis on understory plants. I also studied facilitation and secondary succession by examining understory species composition beneath individual P. flexilis and in P. flexilis stands. As P. flexilis trees and stands aged, understory species richness increased, as did cover of forbs and shrubs, but cover of grasses decreased. Stands currently dominated by P. flexilis are shifting towards dominance by Pseudotsuga primarily in mesic sites, with corresponding increases in litter and shrub cover and decreases in grasses and P. flexilis recruitment. Since the 1860's succession from grasslands to forest on the Front has

  4. Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Oligocene - Miocene succession of Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a revised lithostratigraphic scheme for the uppermost Upper Oligocene – Miocene succession of Denmark. The marine Oligocene Brejning Clay Member is upgraded to formation status and includes the Sydklint Member and the Øksenrade Member (new. The shallow marine and deltaic deposits of mainly Early Miocene age are included in the Ribe Group (new while the fully marine Middle and Upper Miocene clay-rich deposits are referred to the Måde Group (new. The Ribe Group is subdivided into 6 formations: the Vejle Fjord Formation is revised and includes the Skansebakke Member,the Billund Formation (new includes the Addit and Hvidbjerg Members (new, the Klintinghoved Formation is redefined formally and includes the Koldingfjord Member (new, the Bastrup Formation(new includes the Resen Member (new, the Vandel Member is a new member in the Arnum Formation (revised, the Odderup Formation is redefined and includes the Stauning Member (new and the coalbearing Fasterholt Member. The Måde Group is subdivided into the Hodde, Ørnhøj (new, Gram and Marbæk (new Formations. Subdivision of the Upper Oligocene – Miocene succession into two groups, the Ribe and Måde Groups, is compatible with the North Sea lithostratigraphic framework where they correlate with the upper part of the Hordaland Group and the Nordland Group, respectively. The revised lithostratigraphic framework correlated in three dimensions provides rigorous constraints on the palaeogeographic interpretation of the Late Oligocene – Miocene period. Three major deltaic units (Billund, Bastrup and Odderup Formations prograded from the north and north-east into the North Sea Basin during the Early – early Middle Miocene. Delta progradation was punctuated by deposition of marine clay and silt associated with minor transgressive events (Vejle Fjord, Klintinghoved and Arnum Formations. During the Middle–Late Miocene, marine depositional conditions dominated (Hodde, Ørnhøj and

  5. AcEST: DK944768 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 96 9e-19 tr|Q6AZL1|Q6AZL1_XENTR Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus... 96 1e-18 tr|B4MLP6|B4MLP6_DROW... musculus GN... 95 2e-18 tr|Q642K5|Q642K5_MOUSE Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus... 95 2e-18 tr|Q5BJN7|Q5BJN7_RAT Fink... tr|Q3SZG2|Q3SZG2_BOVIN Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus... 95 2e-18 tr|Q4PM00|Q4PM00_IXOSC 40S rib...e-18 tr|Q56JV7|Q56JV7_BOVIN Ubiquitin-like/S30 ribosomal fusion prote... 95 2e-18

  6. AcEST: DK957349 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 96 9e-19 tr|Q6AZL1|Q6AZL1_XENTR Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus... 96 1e-18 tr|B4MLP6|B4MLP6_DROW... musculus GN... 95 2e-18 tr|Q642K5|Q642K5_MOUSE Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus... 95 2e-18 tr|Q5BJN7|Q5BJN7_RAT Fink... tr|Q3SZG2|Q3SZG2_BOVIN Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus... 95 2e-18 tr|Q4PM00|Q4PM00_IXOSC 40S rib...e-18 tr|Q56JV7|Q56JV7_BOVIN Ubiquitin-like/S30 ribosomal fusion prote... 95 2e-18

  7. In vitro screening of methanol plant extracts for their antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, T.; Arshad, M.; Khan, S.; Sattar, H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the antibacterial activity of aqueous methanolic extracts of 10 plants against 2-gram negative bacteria (Pasteurella multocida, Escherichia coli) and 3-gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium bovis) by using disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by agar well diffusion method and agar dilution method. All the bacteria were susceptible to different plant extracts. Lawsonia inermis, Embellia ribes and Santalum album showed antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria. The extract of Santalum album showed maximum antibacterial activity of the 10 plant extracts used. Bacillus cereus and Pasteurella multocida were the most sensitive bacteria against most of the plant extracts. It is clear from the results of the present studies that the plant extracts have great potential as antimicrobial compounds against bacteria. However, there is a need of further research to isolate the active ingredients for further pharmacological evaluation. (author)

  8. Playful Learning Culture in the Museum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    not undergone much investigation. This study was conducted in cooperation with two historical museums, these being the Transport Museum in Coventry, England and The Viking Museum in Ribe, Denmark. A new learning platform called MicroCulture has been created, aimed at eliciting a sociocultural understanding......Museum learning culture is going through a paradigmatic change. Two main positions are dominant: the modernist, emphasizing the need for assessment and uniform learning outcomes, and the postmodern, encouraging dialogue and multiple learning outcomes. A critical factor is the potential contribution...... of history in young visitors. This study indicates that museum learning culture could be enriched by the introduction of mediated play as a resource for conceptual thinking and social interaction....

  9. Sammenhænge mellem risikoadfærd for spiseforstyrrelser og SF-36 samt selvoplevet stress for yngre danske kvinder, 16-29 år

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, Mette; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To improve the early identification of eating disorders the study tested whether women with risk behaviour for eating disorders have lower health-related life quality and more perceived stress than women without risk behaviour. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a representative...... cross sectional survey of 16-29-year old women and was part of the Danish Health Interview Survey 2005. After the personal interviews, 487 returned the questionnaires, with a response rate of 53.3%. Participants responded to RiBED-8, a screening instrument for identification of risk behaviour for eating...... disorders and also to SF-36 and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). RESULTS: Women with risk behaviour for eating disorders have a lower score on all subscales of SF-36 than women without risk behaviour. The differences are significant for the subscales for mental health, vitality, social function and general...

  10. Sammenhaenge mellem risikoadfaerd for spiseforstyrrelser og Short Form-36 samt selvoplevet stress blandt 16-29-årige danske kvinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waadegaard, Mette; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To improve the early identification of eating disorders the study tested whether women with risk behaviour for eating disorders have lower health-related life quality and more perceived stress than women without risk behaviour. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a representative...... cross sectional survey of 16-29-year old women and was part of the Danish Health Interview Survey 2005. After the personal interviews, 487 returned the questionnaires, with a response rate of 53.3%. Participants responded to RiBED-8, a screening instrument for identification of risk behaviour for eating...... disorders and also to SF-36 and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). RESULTS: Women with risk behaviour for eating disorders have a lower score on all subscales of SF-36 than women without risk behaviour. The differences are significant for the subscales for mental health, vitality, social function and general...

  11. ERZURUM'DA SEBZE OLARAK DEĞERLENDİRİLEN YÖRESEL BAZI BİTKİLER / LOCAL VVILD PLANTS USED AS VEGETABLE IN ERZURUM

    OpenAIRE

    Güvenç, İsmail; Kaya, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    ÖZET 1 Bu çalışma, Erzurum vejetasyonunda doğal olarak yetişen ve sebze olarak kullanılan yöreselbitkileri belirlemek amacıyla gerçekleştirildi. Yöreden toplanan bitki örneklerinin tamtum teşhis edildi. Sebzeolarak değerlendirilen bu bitkilerin yöresel adları bağa yaprağı (Plantago majör), ısırgan (Urtica dioica), (Sinapis arvensis), kuzu kulağı (Rumex acetocella), çaşır (Prangos uechritzii), çiriş (Asphodelus ramosus), (Rheum ribes), ...

  12. Using the Shewhart control charts by process control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Lestyánszka Škůrková

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the statistics pursing the process capability of turning in screws production in RIBE Slovakia, k.s. in technical practice, an important group of statistic methods is formed by analyzing qualification of measures, production equipment and qualification of process. By the term “process qualification“ we mean the ability of the process to observe required technical parameters by required value and tolerance limits. Findings of the process capability can be isolated in the estimate process capability (before starting the production and permanent process capability. Also, we have finished the quest for the process capability where the indexes Cp and Cpk are bigger than the determined value of 1.33 points.

  13. Caffeine Markedly Enhanced Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Erkang; Wu Lijun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that incubation with 2 mM caffeine enhanced significantly the MN (micronucleus) formation in both the 1 cGy α-particle irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions. Moreover, caffeine treatment made the non-irradiated bystander cells more sensitive to damage signals. Treated by c-PTIO(2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)- 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide), a nitric oxide (NO) scavenger, the MN frequencies were effectively inhibited, showing that nitric oxide might be very important in mediating the enhanced damage. These results indicated that caffeine enhanced the low dose α-particle radiation-induced damage in irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions, and therefore it is important to investigate the relationship between the radiosensitizer and radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). (ion beam bioengineering)

  14. Adaptation of Bacteria of Anaerobic Digestion to Higher Salinity for the Application to Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Ivanova, Yanina; Spirov, Pavel

    g/L in the volume of 350 g/L. To revitalize bacteria and activate gas production, 200 mL salty water and 5 mL molasses were added. On the 6th day of the experiment, the maximum production was 1300 mL at 90 g/L and the minimum of 400 mL at 80 g/L. The experiment showed that bacteria of anaerobic......For this study, bacteria of anaerobic digestion from Ribe Biogas plant, Denmark, were chosen. The volume of the produced gas from the bacteria was measured in a water displacement setup every day. After the gas production ceased in the second day, the maximum produced gas was measured at 70 and 90...

  15. On the dualism in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNICA MARÍA NOVOA GÓMEZ

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In the sciences dedicated to study the human beings, a dualism framework has been a constant and thedebate has been abundant both in philosophy of the science and in psychology itself (Moore, 2001;Ribes, 1990; Skinner, 1975, Skinner, 1969; Kantor, 1969, Ryle, 1949. The history of the psychologicaland philosophical thought about body-mind relation since Descartes is the history of the uncountableintents to escape from what Vesey (1965 nominated as the dead Cartesian point, to refer to thescientists’conclusion on the human impossibility to understand how the body and mind are united. Inthe best way, finally there has been a return to the unavoidable common sense conception of its mutualinteraction. This article discusses the legitimacy of the dualist postulates and present AEC contributionsrelated to.

  16. Surveys on Gyrodactylus parasites onwild Atlantic salmon in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

    Gyrodactylus salaris is a monogenean ectoparasite parasitizing salmonids in freshwater. This parasite is highly pathogenic to both Norwegian and Scottish salmon and has decimated the salmon populations in 45 Norwegian rivers after anthropogenic transfer from Sweden. G. salaris has also been found...... on several occasions in Danish rainbow trout farms but has never been recorded as a pathogenic parasite on Danish wild salmon. In the present study the occurrence of G. salaris and other Gyrodactylus parasites on wild Danish salmon fry and parr were monitored. Electrofishing was conducted in three river......-systems (River Skjern, Ribe and Varde) and 0+ and 1+ salmon were collected and sacrificed using an overdose of MS222. During spring or summer time more salmon fry and parr will be collected. The fins were excised and fins and body were conserved separately in 96% ethanol. In the laboratory, the fins and body...

  17. Obesity and prevalence of risk behaviour for eating disorders among young Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, Mette; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Danish women aged 16-29 from two nationwide, representative, cross-sectional interview/questionnaire surveys from 2000 and 2005 are analyzed for trends in prevalence of risk behaviour for developing eating disorders and associations to BMI and age. METHODS: Participants completed the Danish...... Health Interview Survey and an 8-item screen, RiBED-8, for risk behaviour for eating disorders. To analyze how the prevalence of risk behaviour depends on age, BMI, and year of survey, logistic regression analyses were applied. On acceptance of no interaction, the effect of each variable was tested...... and described using odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Women aged 16-19 or with a BMI of>25 had the greatest chance of reporting risk behaviour for eating disorders. However, many women in their 20s also had risk behaviour. Prevalence of risk behaviour for eating disorders did not change from...

  18. In vitro screening of six anthelmintic plant products against larval Haemonchus contortus with a modified methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium reduction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hördegen, P; Cabaret, J; Hertzberg, H; Langhans, W; Maurer, V

    2006-11-03

    Because of the increasing anthelmintic resistance and the impact of conventional anthelmintics on the environment, it is important to look for alternative strategies against gastrointestinal nematodes. Phytotherapy could be one of the major options to control these pathologies. Extracts or ingredients of six different plant species were tested against exsheathed infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus using a modified methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) reduction assay. Pyrantel tartrate was used as reference anthelmintic. Bromelain, the enzyme complex of the stem of Ananas comosus (Bromeliaceae), the ethanolic extracts of seeds of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae) and Vernonia anthelmintica (Asteraceae), and the ethanolic extracts of the whole plant of Fumaria parviflora (Papaveraceae) and of the fruit of Embelia ribes (Myrsinaceae) showed an anthelmintic efficacy of up to 93%, relative to pyrantel tartrate. Based on these results obtained with larval Haemonchus contortus, the modified MTT reduction assay could be a possible method for testing plant products with anthelmintic properties.

  19. Sammenhænge mellem risikoadfærd for spiseforstyrrelser og SF-36 samt selvoplevet stress for yngre danske kvinder, 16-29 år

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, Mette; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2009-01-01

    cross sectional survey of 16-29-year old women and was part of the Danish Health Interview Survey 2005. After the personal interviews, 487 returned the questionnaires, with a response rate of 53.3%. Participants responded to RiBED-8, a screening instrument for identification of risk behaviour for eating......INTRODUCTION: To improve the early identification of eating disorders the study tested whether women with risk behaviour for eating disorders have lower health-related life quality and more perceived stress than women without risk behaviour. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a representative...... disorders and also to SF-36 and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). RESULTS: Women with risk behaviour for eating disorders have a lower score on all subscales of SF-36 than women without risk behaviour. The differences are significant for the subscales for mental health, vitality, social function and general...

  20. Study on ECR dry etching and selective MBE growth of AlGaN/GaN for fabrication of quantum nanostructures on GaN (0001) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Fumitaro; Sato, Taketomo; Hashizume, Tamotsu; Hasegawa, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    This paper attempts to form AlGaN/GaN quantum wire (QWR) network structures on patterned GaN (0001) substrates by selective molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth. Substrate patterns were prepared along - and -directions by electron cyclotron resonance assisted reactive-ion beam etching (ECR-RIBE) process. Selective growth was possible for both directions in the case of GaN growth, but only in the -direction in the case of AlGaN growth. A hexagonal QWR network was successfully grown on a hexagonal mesa pattern by combining the -direction and two other equivalent directions. AFM observation confirmed excellent surface morphology of the grown network. A clear cathodoluminescence (CL) peak coming from the embedded AlGaN/GaN QWR structure was clearly identified

  1. Looking north-east. Southern Scandinavia in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    2018-01-01

    and The Netherlands, in particular, were much more important, also in the main Danish port to the west, Ribe. Two British-Danish royal marriages in the 15th century illustrate English and Scottish interest in the increasingly important Baltic trade, then controlled by Denmark from the castle of Elsinore. From......An investigation of British influences and imports in southern Scandinavia from the late 11th to the early 16th centuries from a mainly archaeological point-of-view. Danish links with England continued in various forms after the Viking Age, but decreasingly so; contacts with Germany...... then onwards many Scots settled in East Danish towns - the first evidence of extensive relations between Scotland and Denmark....

  2. Psykisk og fysisk helbred og risikoadfaerd for spiseforstyrrelser hos kvinder på 16-29 år

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, Mette; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Possibilities for early identification of eating disorders among 16-29-year-old women are investigated regarding physical and mental health-related determinants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a representative cross-sectional survey of 16-29-year-old women, and was part...... of the Danish Health Interview Survey 2005. The response rate was 53.3%. Participants responded to RiBED-8, a screening instrument for identification of risk behaviour for eating disorders. Relative Risk (RR) for the development of risk behaviour was shown for each variable to identify the effect on prevalence...... of risk behaviour for eating disorders. Analyses showed no effect of non-response on prevalence of risk behaviour for eating disorders. RESULTS: 19% of 16-29-year-old women had risk behaviour for eating disorders. Women had a higher RR for developing risk behaviour if they had had sick leave from work...

  3. Psykisk og fysisk helbred og risikoadfærd for spiseforstyrrelser hos kvinder, 16-29 år

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, Mette; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Possibilities for early identification of eating disorders among 16-29-year-old women are investigated regarding physical and mental health-related determinants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a representative cross-sectional survey of 16-29-year-old women, and was part...... of the Danish Health Interview Survey 2005. The response rate was 53.3%. Participants responded to RiBED-8, a screening instrument for identification of risk behaviour for eating disorders. Relative Risk (RR) for the development of risk behaviour was shown for each variable to identify the effect on prevalence...... of risk behaviour for eating disorders. Analyses showed no effect of non-response on prevalence of risk behaviour for eating disorders. RESULTS: 19% of 16-29-year-old women had risk behaviour for eating disorders. Women had a higher RR for developing risk behaviour if they had had sick leave from work...

  4. Flowers visited by honey bee in southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Käpylä

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available A list of nectar and pollen sources of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. in southern Finland based on 44 500 flower records is presented. Only the common wild and cultivated species are included, 139 species altogether. The flowering times are shown with an accuracy of two weeks. The most important food sources during spring (April—May are Salix spp., and Tussilago farfara: during early summer (late May and June Salix spp., Taraxacum officinale, Acer platanoides, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Barbarea vulgaris, Ribes spp., Malus domestica, Sorbus aucuparia, and Geranium sylvaticum; during mid-summer Trifolium repens, T. hybridum, Rubus idaeus, Tilia cordata, Epilobium angustifolium, and Cirsium arvense; during late summer and early autumn Calluna vulgaris, Arctium tomentosum, Sonchus arvensis and Leontodon autumnalis.

  5. Chemical Analysis of Extracts from Newfoundland Berries and Potential Neuroprotective Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Z. Hossain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Various species of berries have been reported to contain several polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, which are known to possess high antioxidant activity and may be beneficial for human health. To our knowledge, a thorough chemical analysis of polyphenolics in species of these plants native to Newfoundland, Canada has not been conducted. The primary objective of this study was to determine the polyphenolic compounds present in commercial extracts from Newfoundland berries, which included blueberries (V. angustifolium, lingonberries (V. vitis-idaea and black currant (Ribes lacustre. Anthocyanin and flavonol glycosides in powdered extracts from Ribes lacustre and the Vaccinium species were identified using the high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC separation method with mass spectrometric (MS detection. The identified compounds were extracted from dried berries by various solvents via ultrasonication followed by centrifugation. A reverse-phase analytical column was employed to identify the retention time of each chemical component before submission for LC–MS analysis. A total of 21 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in the three species. Further, we tested the effects of the lingonberry extract for its ability to protect neurons and glia from trauma utilizing an in vitro model of cell injury. Surprisingly, these extracts provided complete protection from cell death in this model. These findings indicate the presence of a wide variety of anthocyanins and flavonols in berries that grow natively in Newfoundland. These powdered extracts maintain these compounds intact despite being processed from berry fruit, indicating their potential use as dietary supplements. In addition, these recent findings and previous data from our lab demonstrate the ability of compounds in berries to protect the nervous system from traumatic insults.

  6. Proteomic overview and perspectives of the radiation-induced bystander effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, François; Hamdi, Dounia Houria; Saintigny, Yannick; Lefaix, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Radiation proteomics is a recent, promising and powerful tool to identify protein markers of direct and indirect consequences of ionizing radiation. The main challenges of modern radiobiology is to predict radio-sensitivity of patients and radio-resistance of tumor to be treated, but considerable evidences are now available regarding the significance of a bystander effect at low and high doses. This "radiation-induced bystander effect" (RIBE) is defined as the biological responses of non-irradiated cells that received signals from neighboring irradiated cells. Such intercellular signal is no more considered as a minor side-effect of radiotherapy in surrounding healthy tissue and its occurrence should be considered in adapting radiotherapy protocols, to limit the risk for radiation-induced secondary cancer. There is no consensus on a precise designation of RIBE, which involves a number of distinct signal-mediated effects within or outside the irradiated volume. Indeed, several cellular mechanisms were proposed, including the secretion of soluble factors by irradiated cells in the extracellular matrix, or the direct communication between irradiated and neighboring non-irradiated cells via gap junctions. This phenomenon is observed in a context of major local inflammation, linked with a global imbalance of oxidative metabolism which makes its analysis challenging using in vitro model systems. In this review article, the authors first define the radiation-induced bystander effect as a function of radiation type, in vitro analysis protocols, and cell type. In a second time, the authors present the current status of protein biomarkers and proteomic-based findings and discuss the capacities, limits and perspectives of such global approaches to explore these complex intercellular mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biological response of cancer cells to radiation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamanickam eBaskar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and has the ability to spread or metastasize throughout the body. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made towards the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development, care and treatment modalities. Radiation therapy or radiotherapy is an important and integral component of cancer management, mostly conferring a survival benefit. Radiation therapy destroys cancer by depositing high-energy radiation on the cancer tissues. Over the years, radiation therapy has been driven by constant technological advances and approximately 50% of all patients with localized malignant tumors are treated with radiation at some point in the course of their disease. In radiation oncology, research and development in the last three decades has led to considerable improvement in our understanding of the differential responses of normal and cancer cells. The biological effectiveness of radiation depends on the linear energy transfer (LET, total dose, number of fractions and radiosensitivity of the targeted cells or tissues. Radiation can either directly or indirectly (by producing free radicals damages the genome of the cell. This has been challenged in recent years by a newly identified phenomenon known as radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE. In RIBE, the non-irradiated cells adjacent to or located far from the irradiated cells/tissues demonstrate similar responses to that of the directly irradiated cells. Understanding the cancer cell responses during the fractions or after the course of irradiation will lead to improvements in therapeutic efficacy and potentially, benefitting a significant proportion of cancer patients. In this review, the clinical implications of radiation induced direct and bystander effects on the cancer cell are discussed.

  8. Damaging and protective bystander cross-talk between human lung cancer and normal cells after proton microbeam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Sejal; Kobayashi, Alisa; Konishi, Teruaki; Oikawa, Masakazu; Pandey, Badri N.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Proton-microbeam irradiated A549 cells send damaging signals to bystander A549 cells. • Irradiated A549–A549 bystander response is through gap junctional communication. • Bystander WI38 cells exert protective signalling in irradiated A549 cells. • Rescue of irradiated A549 cells by WI38 cells is independent of gap junctions. - Abstract: Most of the studies of radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been focused on understanding the radiobiological changes observed in bystander cells in response to the signals from irradiated cells in a normal cell population with implications to radiation risk assessment. However, reports on RIBE with relevance to cancer radiotherapy especially investigating the bidirectional and criss-cross bystander communications between cancer and normal cells are limited. Hence, in present study employing co-culture approach, we have investigated the bystander cross-talk between lung cancer (A549) and normal (WI38) cells after proton-microbeam irradiation using γ-H2AX foci fluorescence as a measure of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We observed that in A549–A549 co-cultures, irradiated A549 cells exert damaging effects in bystander A549 cells, which were found to be mediated through gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). However, in A549–WI38 co-cultures, irradiated A549 did not affect bystander WI38 cells. Rather, bystander WI38 cells induced inverse protective signalling (rescue effect) in irradiated A549 cells, which was independent of GJIC. On the other hand, in response to irradiated WI38 cells neither of the bystander cells (A549 or WI38) showed significant increase in γ-H2AX foci. The observed bystander signalling between tumour and normal cells may have potential implications in therapeutic outcome of cancer radiotherapy

  9. Molecular Understanding of Growth Inhibitory Effect from Irradiated to Bystander Tumor Cells in Mouse Fibrosarcoma Tumor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sejal; Srambikkal, Nishad; Yadav, Hansa D.; Shetake, Neena; Balla, Murali M. S.; Kumar, Amit; Ray, Pritha; Ghosh, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Even though bystander effects pertaining to radiation risk assessment has been extensively studied, the molecular players of radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in the context of cancer radiotherapy are poorly known. In this regard, the present study is aimed to investigate the effect of irradiated tumor cells on the bystander counterparts in mouse fibrosarcoma (WEHI 164 cells) tumor model. Mice co-implanted with WEHI 164 cells γ-irradiated with a lethal dose of 15 Gy and unirradiated (bystander) WEHI 164 cells showed inhibited tumor growth, which was measured in terms of tumor volume and Luc+WEHI 164 cells based bioluminescence in vivo imaging. Histopathological analysis and other assays revealed decreased mitotic index, increased apoptosis and senescence in these tumor tissues. In addition, poor angiogenesis was observed in these tumor tissues, which was further confirmed by fluorescence imaging of tumor vascularisation and CD31 expression by immuno-histochemistry. Interestingly, the growth inhibitory bystander effect was exerted more prominently by soluble factors obtained from the irradiated tumor cells than the cellular fraction. Cytokine profiling of the supernatants obtained from the irradiated tumor cells showed increased levels of VEGF, Rantes, PDGF, GMCSF and IL-2 and decreased levels of IL-6 and SCF. Comparative proteomic analysis of the supernatants from the irradiated tumor cells showed differential expression of total 24 protein spots (21 up- and 3 down-regulated) when compared with the supernatant from the unirradiated control cells. The proteins which showed substantially higher level in the supernatant from the irradiated cells included diphosphate kinase B, heat shock cognate, annexin A1, angiopoietin-2, actin (cytoplasmic 1/2) and stress induced phosphoprotein 1. However, the levels of proteins like annexin A2, protein S100 A4 and cofilin was found to be lower in this supernatant. In conclusion, our results provided deeper insight about

  10. Damaging and protective bystander cross-talk between human lung cancer and normal cells after proton microbeam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Sejal [Radiation Signalling and Cancer Biology Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kobayashi, Alisa; Konishi, Teruaki; Oikawa, Masakazu [Radiation System and Engineering Section, Department of Technical Support and Development, Research, Development and Support Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Pandey, Badri N., E-mail: badrinarain@yahoo.co.in [Radiation Signalling and Cancer Biology Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Proton-microbeam irradiated A549 cells send damaging signals to bystander A549 cells. • Irradiated A549–A549 bystander response is through gap junctional communication. • Bystander WI38 cells exert protective signalling in irradiated A549 cells. • Rescue of irradiated A549 cells by WI38 cells is independent of gap junctions. - Abstract: Most of the studies of radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been focused on understanding the radiobiological changes observed in bystander cells in response to the signals from irradiated cells in a normal cell population with implications to radiation risk assessment. However, reports on RIBE with relevance to cancer radiotherapy especially investigating the bidirectional and criss-cross bystander communications between cancer and normal cells are limited. Hence, in present study employing co-culture approach, we have investigated the bystander cross-talk between lung cancer (A549) and normal (WI38) cells after proton-microbeam irradiation using γ-H2AX foci fluorescence as a measure of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). We observed that in A549–A549 co-cultures, irradiated A549 cells exert damaging effects in bystander A549 cells, which were found to be mediated through gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). However, in A549–WI38 co-cultures, irradiated A549 did not affect bystander WI38 cells. Rather, bystander WI38 cells induced inverse protective signalling (rescue effect) in irradiated A549 cells, which was independent of GJIC. On the other hand, in response to irradiated WI38 cells neither of the bystander cells (A549 or WI38) showed significant increase in γ-H2AX foci. The observed bystander signalling between tumour and normal cells may have potential implications in therapeutic outcome of cancer radiotherapy.

  11. Molecular Understanding of Growth Inhibitory Effect from Irradiated to Bystander Tumor Cells in Mouse Fibrosarcoma Tumor Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejal Desai

    Full Text Available Even though bystander effects pertaining to radiation risk assessment has been extensively studied, the molecular players of radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE in the context of cancer radiotherapy are poorly known. In this regard, the present study is aimed to investigate the effect of irradiated tumor cells on the bystander counterparts in mouse fibrosarcoma (WEHI 164 cells tumor model. Mice co-implanted with WEHI 164 cells γ-irradiated with a lethal dose of 15 Gy and unirradiated (bystander WEHI 164 cells showed inhibited tumor growth, which was measured in terms of tumor volume and Luc+WEHI 164 cells based bioluminescence in vivo imaging. Histopathological analysis and other assays revealed decreased mitotic index, increased apoptosis and senescence in these tumor tissues. In addition, poor angiogenesis was observed in these tumor tissues, which was further confirmed by fluorescence imaging of tumor vascularisation and CD31 expression by immuno-histochemistry. Interestingly, the growth inhibitory bystander effect was exerted more prominently by soluble factors obtained from the irradiated tumor cells than the cellular fraction. Cytokine profiling of the supernatants obtained from the irradiated tumor cells showed increased levels of VEGF, Rantes, PDGF, GMCSF and IL-2 and decreased levels of IL-6 and SCF. Comparative proteomic analysis of the supernatants from the irradiated tumor cells showed differential expression of total 24 protein spots (21 up- and 3 down-regulated when compared with the supernatant from the unirradiated control cells. The proteins which showed substantially higher level in the supernatant from the irradiated cells included diphosphate kinase B, heat shock cognate, annexin A1, angiopoietin-2, actin (cytoplasmic 1/2 and stress induced phosphoprotein 1. However, the levels of proteins like annexin A2, protein S100 A4 and cofilin was found to be lower in this supernatant. In conclusion, our results provided deeper

  12. A infância e a cultura do consumo na contemporaneidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Guedes Bredel de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Observa-se na atualidade que ao mesmo tempo em que a criança é objeto do consumo, também é sujeito, na medida em que consome tanto ou mais que um adulto. Analisar as práticas culturais contemporâneas da criança, relacionadas à cultura de consumo, faz-se necessário e importante hoje quando, em função da lógica do mercado, as relações entre adulto e criança foram modificadas. O presente artigo tem como objetivo compreender as implicações da cultura do consumo na constituição da infância. Defini como metodologia uma pesquisa de cunho teórico. Tomei como referencial teórico dentre outros autores, os estudos de Buckingham (2002, Canclini (1997, Postman (1999 e Ribes (2003. Traz à tona questões polêmicas sobre o impacto do consumo na infância, suscitando novas questões sobre a temática. Palavras-chave: infância, criança, consumo. It is noted that in actuality the same time the child is an object of consumption, it is also subject, as it consumes much or more than an adult. Analyze contemporary cultural practices of children relating to consumer culture, it is necessary and important today when, according to the market logic, relations between adults and children have been modified. This papers aims to understand the implications of consumer culture in childhood constitution. Set as methodology one theoretical, research based on studies of Buckingham (2002, Canclini (1997, Postman (1999 and Ribes (2003. It brings up controversial issues on the impact of consumption in childhood, raising new questions about the topic. Keywords: childhood, child, consumption.

  13. Caracterización morfológica de 29 introducciones de Physalis peruviana L. de la colección de trabajo de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Palmira Morphological characterization of 29 introductions of Physalis peruviana L. from the collection of the National University of Colombia at Palmira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Madriñán Palomino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physalis peruviana L. (uchuva), de la familia Solanaceae, es una de las frutas más importantes en términos de exportaciones para Colombia debido a sus propiedades nutricionales y medicinales. En nuestro país la caracterización morfológica y evaluación de los bancos de germoplasma ha comenzado a implementarse. El objetivo de la presente investigación es la caracterización morfológica mediante descriptores discriminantes de 29 Introducciones de uchuva representativas de la colección de trabajo de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira. El trabajo se realizó en la Reserva Natural "La Albecia", vereda Regaderos, corregimiento de Aují, Municipio de El Cerrito - Valle del Cauca, a una altura de 1945 msnm, temperatura de 18-20°C, humedad relativa 70-80% y precipitación anual de 900-1200 mm. El ensayo se desarrolló en tres fases. En la primera se escogieron 29 introducciones representativas de la colección de trabajo de uchuva (CTU). En la segunda se estableció el ensayo bajo un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar (BCA) y en la última fase se recopiló la información mediante descriptores cuantitativos y cualitativos previamente seleccionados. Se obtuvo un dendrograma a partir del análisis de conglomerado de varianza mínima de Ward, que determinó cinco grupos para las variables cualitativas. El tercer grupo explica el mayor grado de similitud entre las 29 introducciones evaluadas, con un porcentaje del 27.58. La mayor variabilidad estuvo relacionada con los caracteres del fruto: peso con y sin cáliz, grados Brix y diámetros polares y ecuatoriales.Physalis peruviana L. (gooseberry) Solanaceae family, is one of the most important to export for Colombia because its nutritional and medicinal properties. In Colombia, the morphological characterization and evaluation of germplasm banks has begun to be implemented. This research aims the morphological characterization by using descriptors able to discriminate 29

  14. Microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAM en estudios de diversidad genética vegetal Random amplified microsatellites (RAM´s in plant genetic diversity studies

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    Jaime Eduardo Muñoz Flórez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el uso e importancia, ventajas, desventajas y características de la técnica Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAM en uchuva Physalis peruviana, mora Rubus spp, guayaba Psidium guajava y heliconias Heliconia spp. En mora se diferenciaron las especies R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, se detectaron duplicados y se encontró alta variabilidad genética en R. glaucus, la especie más importante. En uchuva se encontró alta diversidad y dos accesiones de fruto rojo que se diferenciaron genéticamente de las amarillas y una región geográfica con alta variabilidad. En guayaba los cebadores fueron altamente polimórficos y se encontró alta variabilidad en el Valle del Cauca. En heliconias y especies relacionadas se diferenciaron las familias del orden Zingiberales, algunos subgéneros y variaciones en la especie. La técnica es de bajo costo, utiliza un cebador, no requiere información previa, es altamente polimórfica y diferencia especies en los taxones evaluados.The use and importance, advantages, disadvantages and features of the Random Amplified Microsatellites RAMs technique, were reviewed in Cape gooseberry Physalis peruviana, blackberry Rubus spp, guava Psidium guajava and heliconias Heliconia spp. In blackberry, we differentiated the species R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, detected duplicated accessions and found high genetic diversity in R. glaucus, the most important specie. In cape gooseberry we found high diversity and two red fruit accessions genetically differentiated from the yellow fruit ones and a geographical region with high variability. In guava, primers were highly polymorphic and found high variability in Valle del Cauca region. In Heliconia and related species we differentiated families belonging to Zingiberal order, between some sub genera and variation among specie. The technique has low cost of implementation, use a single primer, do not require previous information, is highly

  15. Emblica officinalis (Amla): A review for its phytochemistry, ethnomedicinal uses and medicinal potentials with respect to molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variya, Bhavesh C; Bakrania, Anita K; Patel, Snehal S

    2016-09-01

    Medicinal plants, having great elementary and therapeutic importance, are the gift to mankind to acquire healthy lifestyle. Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbeaceae), commonly known as Indian gooseberry or Amla, has superior value in entirely indigenous traditional system of medicine, including folklore Ayurveda, for medicinal and nutritional purposes to build up lost vitality and vigor. In this article, numerous phytochemicals isolated from E. officinalis and its ethnomedical and pharmacological potentials with molecular mechanisms are briefly deliberated and recapitulated. The information documented in the present review was collected from more than 270 articles, published or accepted in the last five to six decades, and more than 20 e-books using various online database. Additional information was obtained from various botanical books and dissertations. The extracts from various parts of E. officinalis, especially fruit, contain numerous phytoconstituents viz. higher amount of polyphenols like gallic acid, ellagic acid, different tannins, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, fixed oils, and flavonoids like rutin and quercetin. The extract or plant is identified to be efficacious against diversified ailments like inflammation, cancer, osteoporosis, neurological disorders, hypertension together with lifestyle diseases, parasitic and other infectious disorders. These actions are attributed to either regulation of various molecular pathway involved in several pathophysiologies or antioxidant property which prevents the damage of cellular compartments from oxidative stress. However, serious efforts are required in systemic research to identify, isolate and evaluate the chemical constituents for nutritional and therapeutic potentials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. One-step synthesis and antibacterial property of water-soluble silver nanoparticles by CGJ bio-template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zichun; Wu Qingsheng; Chen Ping; Yang Xiaohong

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a new synthetic method of nanoparticles with fresh Chinese gooseberry juice (CGJ) as bio-template was developed. One-step synthesis of highly water-soluble silver nanoparticles at room temperature without using any harmful reducing agents and special capping agent was fulfilled with this method. In the process, the products were obtained by adding AgNO 3 to CGJ, which was used as reducing agent, capping agent, and the bio-template. The products of silver nanoparticles with diameter of 10–30 nm have strong water solubility and excellent antibiotic function. With the same concentration 0.047 μg mL −1 , the antibacterial effect of water-soluble silver particles by fresh CGJ was 53%, whereas only 27% for silver nanoparticles synthesized using the template method of fresh onion inner squama coat (OISC). The excellent water solubility of the products would enable them have better applications in the bio-medical field. The synthetic method would also have potential application in preparing other highly water-soluble particles, because of its simple apparatus, high yield, mild conditions, and facile operation.

  17. Dietary agents in the prevention of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicty: preclinical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankara, Arnadi Ramachandrayya; Azmidah, Aysha; Haniadka, Raghavendra; Rai, Manoj Ponadka; Arora, Rajesh; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2012-02-01

    Long term alcohol consumption is one of the important causes for liver failure and death. To complicate the existing problem there are no dependable hepatoprotective drugs and a large number of patients prefer using complementary and alternative medicines for treating and managing hepatic complications. Almost 25 centuries ago, Hippocrates, the father of medicine, proclaimed "Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food." Exploring the association between diet and health continues even today. Preclinical studies carried out in the recent past have shown that the commonly used dietary agents like Allium sativum (garlic), Camellia sinensis (tea), Curcuma longa (turmeric), Emblica officinalis (Indian gooseberry), Ferula asafoetida (asafoetida), Garcinia cambogia (Malabar tamarind), Glycine max (soyabean), Murraya koenigii (curry leaves), Piper betle (beetle leaf), Prunus armeniaca (apricot), Ocimum gratissimum (wild basil), Theobroma cacao (cocoa), Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) and Vitis vinifera (grapes) protect against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity. Mechanistic studies have shown that the beneficial effects of these phytochemicals in preventing the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity are mediated by the antioxidant, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. The present review for the first time collates the hepatoprotective effects of these agents and also emphasizes on aspects that need future research to establish their utility in humans.

  18. Physiological and molecular characterization of Phytophthora infestans isolates from the Central Colombian Andean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, María C; Cárdenas, Martha E; Vargas, Angela M; Rojas, Alejandro; Morales, Juan G; Jiménez, Pedro; Bernal, Adriana J; Restrepo, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most devastating diseases found in potato and tomato crops worldwide. In Colombia it also attacks other important crops: cape gooseberry and tree tomato. The knowledge of the pathogen population is determinant to effectively design control strategies. To determine the physiological and molecular characteristics of a set of Colombian P. infestans isolates. Strains isolated from Cundinamarca and Boyacá were examined for the level of resistance to mefenoxam and cymoxanil. Virulence was tested for all strains and crosses between A1 mating type, from different hosts, and the Colombian A2 mating type were tested for the production and viability of oospores in different substrates. Additionally, the molecular diversity of the avirulence gene Avr3a, the β-tubulin gene, and two single copy genes showing RxLR motif, was assessed. We found all levels of mefenoxam sensitivity, with 48% of the strains resistant. A high diversity of races was detected and the population was genetically clonal. Colombian strains had the possibility of sexual reproduction. These results will help in optimizing the use of fungicides and deployment of resistance as control strategies and will contribute to broader studies on diversity of this pathogen. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT OF SURVEY, DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE MOTHER OF GOD DITCH OF SERAPHIMO-DIVEEVSKY MONASTERY

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    Darchiya Valentina Ivanovna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Subject: the article describes the structure, technologies of construction, gardening and exploitation of the Holy Trinity Seraphimo-Diveevsky Monastery - the ancient linear fortification consisting of a ditch and an earth embankment that is located directly above the ditch. Research objectives: ensure the stability of slopes, create a technique for gardening of steep slopes in difficult microclimatic conditions, ensure drainage of water. Materials and methods: the computational techniques were used to ensure stability of slopes, and experimental techniques were applied for their phyto-fixation; geosynthetics, rebar grids, varietal herbs, gooseberries and thuja were used. Results: for recreation of the unique structure, a special set of design, survey and construction works was developed, as well as works to maintain the structure during its exploitation. In particular, we have developed the method of detection of the recreated ditch based on the stratification of bulk soils by their age; the methods for fastening the slopes; lawn grass mixture formula for slopes with angles of 45° and 65°; drainage system. Conclusions: owing to the research work, for the first time this construction was completed with the required parameters, while the earlier recreation attempts failed due to erosion and landslide processes. The developed methods can be applied for recreation of other ancient defensive fortifications on the fields of great battles and for landscaping the territories with complex relief.

  20. A Review of the Hypoglycemic Effects of Five Commonly Used Herbal Food Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ruitang

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is a pathological condition associated with prediabetes and diabetes. The incidence of prediabetes and diabetes is increasing and imposes great burden on healthcare worldwide. Patients with prediabetes and diabetes have significantly increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and other complications. Currently, management of hyperglycemia includes pharmacological interventions, physical exercise, and change of life style and diet. Food supplements have increasingly become attractive alternatives to prevent or treat hyperglycemia, especially for subjects with mild hyperglycemia. This review summarized current patents and patent applications with relevant literature on five commonly used food supplements with claims of hypoglycemic effects, including emblica officinalis (gooseberry), fenugreek, green tea, momordica charantia (bitter melon) and cinnamon. The data from human clinical studies did not support a recommendation for all five supplements to manage hyperglycemia. Fenugreek and composite supplements containing emblica officinalis showed the most consistency in lowering fasting blood sugar (FBS) or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in diabetic patients. The hypoglycemic effects of cinnamon and momordica charantia were demonstrated in most of the trials with some exceptions. However, green tea exhibited limited benefits in reducing FBS or HbA1c levels and should not be recommended for managing hyperglycemia. Certain limitations are noticed in a considerable number of clinical studies including small sample size, poor experimental design and considerable variations in participant population, preparation format, daily dose, and treatment duration. Future studies with more defined participants, standardized preparation and dose, and improved trial design and size are warranted. PMID:22329631

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Aloevera barbedensis, Daucus carota, Emblica officinalis, Honey and Punica granatum and Formulation of a Health Drink and Salad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeswin Philip

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Indian folk medicine has been in practice from time immemorial. Traditional medicine interconnects our body with nature for a healthy living. The naturally occurring antimicrobials in food vary in their efficacy and function, toxicology, safety and mechanism of action against microorganisms.Methodology and Results: The study revitalizes the traditional system of medicine in order to achieve self reliance in health care and health for all by analyzing the antimicrobial property of aqueous extracts of aloevera (Aloevera barbedensis, carrot (Daucus carota, Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis, honey and pomegranate (Punicagranatum, and to assess the reason for inhibition of growth of pathogenic organisms by DNA and protein analysis. Various aqueous extracts showed inhibition to microrganisms like Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexineri and Staphylococcus aureus.Conclusion significance and impact of study: The study also formulated and standardized a nourishing health drink and salad using the tested foods and estimated their shelf life and nutritive value. The health drink and salad had a low protein, low fat and moderate carbohydrate content. Therapeutically this drink and salad can be used to treat obesity.

  2. Prevention of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in testes of rats treated with Physalis peruviana L. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 2 ml/kg body weight) once a week for 12 weeks caused a significant decrease in serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. These decreases in sex hormones were reduced with Physalis peruviana L. (Cape gooseberry) juice supplementation. In addition, testicular activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase suppressed with CCl4 were elevated after P. peruviana juice supplements. P. peruviana juice supplementation significantly increased the testicular glutathione and significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and the nitric oxide production compared with the CCl4 group. In addition, the decline in the activity of antioxidant enzymes after CCl4 was ameliorated by P. peruviana Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were prevented with the supplementation of P. peruviana juice. Furthermore, P. peruviana juice attenuated CCl4-induced apoptosis in testes tissue by inhibition of caspase-3 activity. The results clearly demonstrate that P. peruviana juice augments the antioxidants defense mechanism against CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that the juice may have a therapeutic role in free radical-mediated diseases and infertility. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Peruvioses A to F, sucrose esters from the exudate of Physalis peruviana fruit as α-amylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Carlos-A; Castellanos, Leonardo; Aragón, Diana M; Martínez-Matamoros, Diana; Jiménez, Carlos; Baena, Yolima; Ramos, Freddy A

    2018-05-22

    The fruit of Physalis peruviana is widely used in traditional Colombian medicine as an antidiabetic treatment. The aim of the study reported here was to identify the compounds responsible for the hypoglycemic activity using the α-amylase inhibition test. Bioguided fractionation of a dichloromethane extract of the sticky exudate that covers the fruit allowed the isolation and identification of three new sucrose esters, named as peruvioses C-E (1-3), along with the known peruvioses A (6), B (5) and F (4), the structures of which were elucidated by extensive NMR and MS experiments. These compounds proved to be responsible for the hypoglycemic activity observed in the extract. Peruviose D (2) showed the highest activity, with an inhibitory activity value of 84.8%. This is the first study to establish the potential of sucrose esters as α-amylase inhibitors and to explain the hypoglycemic effect that has traditionally been attributed to gooseberry fruit. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Potato virus Y (PVY) Isolates from Physalis peruviana are Unable to Systemically Infect Potato or Pepper and Form a Distinct New Lineage Within the PVYC Strain Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kelsie J; Chikh-Ali, Mohamad; Hamasaki, Randall T; Melzer, Michael J; Karasev, Alexander V

    2017-11-01

    Poha, or cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), is a plant species cultivated in Hawaii for fresh fruit production. In 2015, an outbreak of virus symptoms occurred on poha farms in the South Kohala District of the island of Hawaii. The plants displayed mosaic, stunting, and leaf deformation, and produced poor fruit. Initial testing found the problem associated with Potato virus Y (PVY) infection. Six individual PVY isolates, named Poha1 to Poha6, were collected from field-grown poha plants and subjected to biological and molecular characterization. All six isolates induced mosaic and vein clearing in tobacco, and three of them exhibited O-serotype while the other three reacted only with polyclonal antibodies and had no identifiable serotype. Until now, PVY isolates have been broadly divided into pepper or potato adapted; however, these six PVY isolates from poha were unable to establish systemic infection in pepper and in four tested potato cultivars. Whole-genome sequences for the six isolates were determined, and no evidence of recombination was found in any of them. Phylogenetic analysis placed poha PVY isolates in a distinct, monophyletic "Poha" clade within the PVY C lineage, suggesting that they represented a novel, biologically and evolutionarily unique group. The genetic diversity within this poha PVY C clade was unusually high, suggesting a long association of PVY C with this solanaceous host or a prolonged geographical separation of PVY C in poha in Hawaii.

  5. Selection of antagonistic bacteria isolated from the Physalis peruviana rhizosphere against Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrea, R; Cabezas, L; Sierra, R; Cárdenas, M; Restrepo, S; Jiménez, P

    2011-09-01

    Cape gooseberries (Physalis peruviana) have become increasingly important in Colombia for both domestic consumption and the international export market. Vascular wilting caused by Fusarium oxysporum is the most damaging disease to P. peruviana crops in Colombia. The control of this pathogen is mainly carried out by chemical and cultural practices, increasing production costs and generating resistance. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to test rhizobacteria isolates from P. peruviana rhizosphere against F. oxysporum under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Over 120 strains were isolated, and five were selected for their high inhibition of F. oxysporum growth and conidia production under in vitro conditions. These strains inhibited growth by 41-58% and reduced three- to fivefold conidia production. In the in vivo assays, all the tested isolates significantly reduced fungal pathogenicity in terms of virulence. Isolate B-3.4 was the most efficient in delaying the onset of the first symptoms. All isolates were identified as belonging to the genus Pseudomonas except for A-19 (Bacillus sp.). Our results confirmed that there are prospective rhizobacteria strains that can be used as biological control agents; some of them being able to inhibit in vitro F. oxysporum growth and sporulation. Incorporating these bacteria into biological control strategies for the disease that causes high economical losses in the second most exported fruit from Colombia would result in a reduced impact on environment and economy. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. [Antiinflammatory activity of extracts and fractions obtained from Physalis peruviana L. calyces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Luis A; Matiz, Germán E; Calle, Jairo; Pinzón, Roberto; Ospina, Luis F

    2007-03-01

    Cape gooseberry calyces (Physalis peruviana) have been used in folk medicine for their medicinal properties including anticancer, antimycobacterial, antipyretic, diuretic, immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties. The antiinflammatory effect was evaluated for extracts and fractions obtained from Physalis peruviana calyces in a mice model of acute inflammation. The fractions responsible for antiinflammatory activity were extracted for possible identification. The Physalis peruviana calyces were extracted by percolation with organic solvents. The primary hydroalcoholic fraction was purified by column chromatography. The antiinflammatory effect of extracts and fractions was evaluated using the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced mouse model of ear edema. Thirty-eight secondary fractions were obtained by column chromatography of primary hydroalcoholic fraction. Six fractions, evaluated in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation assay, showed significant antiinflammatory activity (pPhysalis peruviana calyces was confirmed and validated its use in folk medicine. Fractions responsible for the antiinflammatory action were identified and seem promising for phytomedicinal development. Further studies are needed to isolate and identify the active constituents of these fractions as well as to ascertain the mechanisms involved in the antiinflammatory effect.

  7. The potential protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats is mediated by suppression of oxidative stress and downregulation of MMP-9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Olayan, Ebtisam M; El-Khadragy, Manal F; Aref, Ahmed M; Othman, Mohamed S; Kassab, Rami B; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-01-01

    The active constituent profile in Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) juice was determined by GC-MS. Quercetin and kaempferol were active components in the juice. In this study we have evaluated its potential protective effect on hepatic injury and fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Twenty-eight rats divided into 4 groups: Group I served as control group, and Group II received weekly i.p. injection of 2 mL CCl4/kg bwt for 12 weeks. Group III were supplemented with Physalis juice via the drinking water. The animals of Group IV received Physalis juice as Group III and also were intraperitoneally injected weekly with 2 mL CCl4/kg bwt for 12 weeks. Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by improvement in liver enzymes serum levels, reduction in collagen areas, downregulation in expression of the fibrotic marker MMP-9, reduction in the peroxidative marker malonaldehyde and the inflammatory marker nitric oxide, and restoration of the activity of antioxidant enzymatic and nonenzymatic systems, namely, glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities. The results show that the potential hepatoprotective effects of Physalis peruviana may be due to physalis acts by promotion of processes that restore hepatolobular architecture and through the inhibition of oxidative stress pathway.

  8. NMR-based metabolic study of fruits of Physalis peruviana L. grown in eight different Peruvian ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruenda, Helena; Cabrera, Rodrigo; Cañari-Chumpitaz, Cristhian; Lopez, Juan M; Toubiana, David

    2018-10-01

    The berry of Physalis peruviana L. (Solanaceae) represents an important socio-economical commodity for Latin America. The absence of a clear phenotype renders it difficult to trace its place of origin. In this study, Cape gooseberries from eight different regions within the Peruvian Andes were profiled for their metabolism implementing a NMR platform. Twenty-four compounds could be unequivocally identified and sixteen quantified. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test revealed that all of the quantified metabolites changed significantly among regions: Bambamarca I showed the most accumulated significant differences. The coefficient of variation demonstrated high phenotypic plasticity for amino acids, while sugars displayed low phenotypic plasticity. Correlation analysis highlighted the closely coordinated behavior of the amino acid profile. Finally, PLS-DA revealed a clear separation among the regions based on their metabolic profiles, accentuating the discriminatory capacity of NMR in establishing significant phytochemical differences between producing regions of the fruit of P. peruviana L. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differentiation between lutein monoester regioisomers and detection of lutein diesters from marigold flowers (Tagetes erecta L.) and several fruits by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Dietmar E; Wirt, Ursula; Bamedi, Ameneh

    2002-01-02

    Liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-APCIMS) was employed for the identification of eight lutein monoesters, formed by incomplete enzymatic saponification of lutein diesters of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) by Candida rugosa lipase. Additionally, the main lutein diesters naturally occurring in marigold oleoresin were chromatographically separated and identified. The LC-MS method allows for characterization of lutein diesters occurring as minor components in several fruits; this was demonstrated by analysis of extracts of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), kiwano (Cucumis metuliferus E. Mey. ex Naud.), and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.). The assignment of the regioisomers of lutein monoesters is based on the characteristic fragmentation pattern: the most intense daughter ion generally results from the loss of the substituent (fatty acid or hydroxyl group) bound to the epsilon-ionone ring, yielding an allylic cation. The limit of detection was estimated at 0.5 microg/mL with lutein dimyristate as reference compound. This method provides a useful tool to obtain further insight into the biochemical reactions leading to lutein ester formation in plants.

  10. Mapping and quantifying geodiversity in land-water transition zones using MBES and topobathymetric LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandbyge Ernstsen, Verner; Skovgaard Andersen, Mikkel; Gergely, Aron; Schulze Tenberge, Yvonne; Al-Hamdani, Zyad; Steinbacher, Frank; Rolighed Larsen, Laurids; Winter, Christian; Bartholomä, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Land-water transition zones, like e.g. coastal and fluvial environments, are valuable ecosystems which are often characterised by high biodiversity and geodiversity. However, often these land-water transition zones are difficult or even impossible to map and investigate in high spatial resolution due to the challenging environmental conditions. Combining vessel borne shallow water multibeam echosounder (MBES) surveys ,to cover the subtidal coastal areas and the river channel areas, with airborne topobathymetric light detection and ranging (LiDAR) surveys, to cover the intertidal and supratidal coastal areas and the river floodplain areas, potentially enables full-coverage and high-resolution mapping in these challenging environments. We have carried out MBES and topobathymetric LiDAR surveys in the Knudedyb tidal inlet system, a coastal environment in the Danish Wadden Sea which is part of the Wadden Sea National Park and UNESCO World Heritage, and in the Ribe Vesterå, a fluvial environment in the Ribe Å river catchment discharging into the Knudedyb tidal basin. Detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) with a grid cell size of 0.5 m x 0.5 m were generated from the MBES and the LiDAR point clouds, which both have point densities in the order of 20 points/m2. Morphometric analyses of the DEMs enabled the identification and mapping of the different landforms within the coastal and fluvial environments. Hereby, we demonstrate that vessel borne MBES and airborne topobathymetric LiDAR, here in combination, are promising tools for seamless mapping across land-water transition zones as well as for the quantification of a range of landforms at landscape scale in different land-water transition zone environments. Hence, we demonstrate the potential for mapping and quantifying geomorphological diversity, which is one of the main components of geodiversity and a prerequisite for assessing geoheritage. Acknowledgements This work was funded by the Danish Council for

  11. Signaling factors and pathways of α-particle irradiation induced bilateral bystander responses between Beas-2B and U937 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jiamei; Wang, Juan; Wang, Xiangdong; Wang, Ping; Xu, Jinping; Zhou, Cuiping; Bai, Yang; Shao, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Radiation damage of Beas-2B cells was enhanced by macrophage-mediated bilateral bystander responses. • Expressions of TNF-α and IL-8 in the α-irradiated Beas-2B cells were dependent on ERK and p38 pathways. • The neighboring U937 cells further increased the generation of TNF-α and IL-8 in the α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. • NF-κB dependent upregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 was induced in the bystander U937 cells. - Abstract: Although radiation induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been investigated for decades for their potential health risk, the underlying gene regulation is still largely unclear, especially the roles of immune system and inflammatory response in RIBE. In the present study, macrophage U937 cells and epithelial Beas-2B cells were co-cultured to disclose the cascades of bystander signaling factors and intercellular communications. After α-particle irradiation, both ERK and p38 pathways were activated in Beas-2B cells and were associated with the autocrine and paracrine signaling of TNF-α and IL-8, resulting in direct damage to the irradiated cells. Similar upregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 was induced in the bystander U937 cells after co-culture with α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. This upregulation was dependent on the activation of NF-κB pathway and was responsible for the enhanced damage of α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. Interestingly, the increased expressions of TNF-α and IL-8 mRNAs in the bystander U937 cells were clearly relayed on the activated ERK and p38 pathways in the irradiated Beas-2B cells, and the upregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 mRNAs in co-cultured Beas-2B cells was also partly due to the activated NF-κB pathway in the bystander U937 cells. With the pretreatment of U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor), SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) or BAY 11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor), the aggravated damage in the α-irradiated Beas-2B cells could be largely alleviated. Our results disclosed novel signaling cascades of macrophage-mediated bilateral

  12. Signaling factors and pathways of α-particle irradiation induced bilateral bystander responses between Beas-2B and U937 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jiamei; Wang, Juan; Wang, Xiangdong; Wang, Ping; Xu, Jinping; Zhou, Cuiping; Bai, Yang; Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Radiation damage of Beas-2B cells was enhanced by macrophage-mediated bilateral bystander responses. • Expressions of TNF-α and IL-8 in the α-irradiated Beas-2B cells were dependent on ERK and p38 pathways. • The neighboring U937 cells further increased the generation of TNF-α and IL-8 in the α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. • NF-κB dependent upregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 was induced in the bystander U937 cells. - Abstract: Although radiation induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been investigated for decades for their potential health risk, the underlying gene regulation is still largely unclear, especially the roles of immune system and inflammatory response in RIBE. In the present study, macrophage U937 cells and epithelial Beas-2B cells were co-cultured to disclose the cascades of bystander signaling factors and intercellular communications. After α-particle irradiation, both ERK and p38 pathways were activated in Beas-2B cells and were associated with the autocrine and paracrine signaling of TNF-α and IL-8, resulting in direct damage to the irradiated cells. Similar upregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 was induced in the bystander U937 cells after co-culture with α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. This upregulation was dependent on the activation of NF-κB pathway and was responsible for the enhanced damage of α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. Interestingly, the increased expressions of TNF-α and IL-8 mRNAs in the bystander U937 cells were clearly relayed on the activated ERK and p38 pathways in the irradiated Beas-2B cells, and the upregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 mRNAs in co-cultured Beas-2B cells was also partly due to the activated NF-κB pathway in the bystander U937 cells. With the pretreatment of U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor), SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) or BAY 11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor), the aggravated damage in the α-irradiated Beas-2B cells could be largely alleviated. Our results disclosed novel signaling cascades of macrophage-mediated bilateral

  13. HISTORIA FUNCIONAL DE MORFOLOGÍAS LINGÜÍSTICAS Y SU EFECTO EN UN AJUSTE CONVENCIONAL/ FUNCTIONAL HISTORY OF LINGUISTIC MORPHOLOGIES AND THEIR EFFECT ON A CONVENTIONAL ADJUSTMENT/ HISTÓRIA FUNCIONAL DE MORFOLOGIAS LINGÜÍSTICAS E SEU EFEITO EM UM AJUSTE CONVENCIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Yáñez Ramírez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se observó si diferentes historias funcionales construidas durante la adquisición de un conjunto de morfologías lingüísticas facilitaban un ajuste convencional. Participaron 24 estudiantes universitarios distribuidos en tres grupos, expuestos a entrenamientos construidos bajo la lógica de diferentes niveles de interacción: contextual, suplementario o selector (Ribes y López, 1985; y posteriormente se evaluó su ejecución en una tarea convencional. El entrenamiento cuyo criterio de ajuste era de tipo selector fue la que más facilitó tanto la adquisición de las morfologías lingüísticas como su uso en la tarea, efecto que pareció más evidente en los hablantes que en los escuchas. No se encontraron diferencias entre los entrenamientos contextual y suplementario. Los resultados se discuten en términos de sus implicaciones teóricas y metodológicas.

  14. Exercise on prescription: a randomized study on the effect of counseling vs counseling and supervised exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, J.; Skovgaard, T.; Puggaard, L.

    2008-01-01

    (counseling) using maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) as the primary outcome. The study was conducted as a randomized trial in 2005-2006 with a high and a low-intensive group. All the patients referred to the EoP scheme by their GP in the counties of Vejle and Ribe, Denmark, were eligible for the trial....... The high-intensive EoP group received 4 months of group-based supervised training and attended five motivational counseling sessions. The low-intensive group only attended four motivational counseling sessions. Three hundred and twenty-seven patients entered the EoP scheme, and 52 (16%) volunteered......The aim of this study was to compare short- (0-4 months) and long-term (0-10 months) effects of high-intensive Exercise on Prescription (EoP) intervention (counseling and supervised exercise) implemented in primary healthcare in a number of Danish counties with a low-intensive intervention...

  15. Improvement of boiling heat transfer by radiation induced boiling enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Yasuyuki; Okamoto, Koji; Madarame, Haruki; Takamasa, Tomoji

    2003-01-01

    For nuclear reactor systems, the critical heat flux (CHF) data is very important because it limits reactor efficiency. Improvement of CHF requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability, highly hydrophilic heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. In our previous study, we confirmed that the surface wettability changed significantly or that highly hydrophilic conditions were achieved, after irradiation of 60 Co gamma ray, by the Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) phenomenon. To delineate the effect of RISA on boiling phenomena, surface wettability in a high-temperature environment and critical heat flux (CHF) of metal oxides irradiated by gamma rays were investigated. A CHF experiment in the pool boiling condition was carried out under atmospheric pressure. The heating test section made of titanium was 0.2 mm in thickness, 3 mm in height, and 60 mm in length. Oxidation of the surface was carried out by plasma jetting for 40 seconds. The test section was irradiated by 60 Co gamma ray with predetermined radiation intensity and period. The CHF of oxidized titanium was improved up to 100 percent after 800 kGy 60 Co gamma ray irradiation. We call this effect Radiation Induced Boiling Enhancement (RIBE). Before we conducted the CHF experiment, contact angles of the test pieces were measured to show the relationship between wettability and CHF. The CHF in the present experiment increases will surface wettability in the same manner as shown by Liaw and Dhir's results. (author)

  16. Monotowns: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shastitko Andrei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose an empirical analysis of the current situation in monotowns. The study questions the perceived seriousness of the ‘monotown problem’ as well as the actual challenges it presents. The authors use a cluster analysis to divide monotowns into groups for further structural comparison. The structural differences in the available databases limit the possibilities of empirical analysis. Hence, alternative approaches are required. The authors consider possible reasons for the limitations identified. Special attention is paid to the monotowns that were granted the status of advanced development territories. A comparative analysis makes it possible to study their general characteristics and socioeconomic indicators. The authors apply the theory of opportunistic behaviour to describe potential problems caused by the lack of unified criteria for granting monotowns the status of advanced development territories. The article identifies the main stakeholders and the character of their interaction; it desc ribes a conceptual model built on the principal/agent interactions, and identifies the parametric space of mutually beneficial cooperation. The solution to the principal/agent problem suggested in the article contributes to the development of an alternative approach to the current situation and a rational approach to overcoming the ‘monotown problem’.

  17. Cytoprotective Mechanisms Mediated by Polyphenols from Chilean Native Berries against Free Radical-Induced Damage on AGS Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ávila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of cytoprotective mechanisms induced by polyphenols such as activation of intracellular antioxidant responses (ICM and direct free radical scavenging was investigated in native Chilean species of strawberries, raspberries, and currants. Human gastric epithelial cells were co- and preincubated with polyphenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs from Chilean raspberries (Rubus geoides, strawberries (Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis f. chiloensis, and currants (Ribes magellanicum and challenged with peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Cellular protection was determined in terms of cell viability, glyoxalase I and glutathione s-transferases activities, and carboxymethyl lysine (CML and malondialdehyde levels. Our results indicate that cytoprotection induced by ICM was the prevalent mechanism for Rubus geoides and F. chiloensis. This agreed with increased levels of glyoxalase I and glutathione S-transferase activities in cells preincubated with PEEs. ORAC index indicated that F. chiloensis was the most efficient peroxyl radical scavenger. Moreover, ICM mediated by F. chiloensis was effective in protecting cells from CML accumulation in contrast to the protective effects induced by free radical scavenging. Our results indicate that although both polyphenol-mediated mechanisms can exert protective effects, ICM was the most prevalent in AGS cells. These results suggest a potential use of these native berries as functional food.

  18. Cytoprotective Mechanisms Mediated by Polyphenols from Chilean Native Berries against Free Radical-Induced Damage on AGS Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Dorta, Eva; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of cytoprotective mechanisms induced by polyphenols such as activation of intracellular antioxidant responses (ICM) and direct free radical scavenging was investigated in native Chilean species of strawberries, raspberries, and currants. Human gastric epithelial cells were co- and preincubated with polyphenolic-enriched extracts (PEEs) from Chilean raspberries ( Rubus geoides ), strawberries ( Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis f . chiloensis ), and currants ( Ribes magellanicum ) and challenged with peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Cellular protection was determined in terms of cell viability, glyoxalase I and glutathione s-transferases activities, and carboxymethyl lysine (CML) and malondialdehyde levels. Our results indicate that cytoprotection induced by ICM was the prevalent mechanism for Rubus geoides and F. chiloensis . This agreed with increased levels of glyoxalase I and glutathione S-transferase activities in cells preincubated with PEEs. ORAC index indicated that F. chiloensis was the most efficient peroxyl radical scavenger. Moreover, ICM mediated by F. chiloensis was effective in protecting cells from CML accumulation in contrast to the protective effects induced by free radical scavenging. Our results indicate that although both polyphenol-mediated mechanisms can exert protective effects, ICM was the most prevalent in AGS cells. These results suggest a potential use of these native berries as functional food.

  19. An interview with W. N. Schoenfeld (july 22, 1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribes-Iñesta, E

    1999-01-01

    This article is a transcription of an interview with William N. Schoenfeld made in 1990. William N. Schoenfeld (1915-1996) is one of the outstanding contributors to the initial stages of the experimental analysis of behavior. After graduating from Columbia University, Schoenfeld wrote, in collaboration with Fred S. Keller, what was at that time the most significant book introducing, and updating, the seminal contributions of B. F. Skinner and other behavioral psychologists: Principles of Psychology (1950). Schoenfeld was also instrumental in the design of a psychology course at Columbia University based on the integration of theory and laboratory work, as well as in the foundation of the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior in 1958. In 1968 Schoenfeld moved to the Queens College of the City University of New York, where he developed a doctoral program based in the research of stimulus schedules (T system), the analysis of conceptual and theoretical problems in operant conditioning, and the study of respondent and operant interactions under pharmacological agents. After his retirement from Queens College, Schoenfeld taught at Bar-Ilan University and the Hebrew University in Israel. The interview forms part of a research project on the experimental analysis of scientific behavior (Ribes, 1994), which also included two other distinguished and original contributors of the experimental analysis of behavior, B. F. Skinner and R. J. Herrnstein.

  20. Thin-layer chromatography with stationary phase gradient as a method for separation of water-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpoiu, Claudia; Hosu, Anamaria; Puscas, Anitta

    2012-02-03

    The group of hydrophilic vitamins play an important role in human health, and their lack or excess produces specific diseases. Therefore, the analysis of these compounds is indispensable for monitoring their content in pharmaceuticals and food in order to prevent some human diseases. TLC was successfully applied in the analysis of hydrophilic vitamins, but the most difficult problem in the simultaneous analysis of all these compounds is to find an optimum stationary phase-mobile phase system due to different chemical characteristics of analytes. Unfortunately structural analogues are difficult to separate in one chromatographic run, and this is the case in hydrophilic vitamins investigations. TLC gives the possibility to perform two-dimensional separations by using stationary phase gradient achieving the highest resolution by combining two systems with different selectivity. The goal of this work was to develop a method of analysis enabling separation of hydrophilic vitamins using TLC with adsorbent gradient. The developed method was used for identifying the water-soluble vitamins in alcoholic extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides and of Ribes nigrum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antioxidant status, lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on high-cholesterol diet containing currant oil rich in n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, R; Skottová, N; Vána, P; Kazdová, L; Chmela, Z; Svagera, Z; Walterá, D; Ulrichová, J; Simánek, V

    2003-01-01

    Plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) possess a prospective antiatherogenic potential. Currant oil from Ribes nigrum L. is one of the few plant oils containing PUFAn-3 (15.3 mol%) in addition to PUFAn-6 (60.5 mol%). This study was aimed at comparing the effects of currant oil with those of lard fat, rich in saturated (43.8 mol%) and monounsaturated (47.0 mol%) fatty acids, on antioxidant parameters, the lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on 1 % (w/w) cholesterol diets containing either 10 % of currant oil (COD) or lard fat (LFD). After 3 weeks of feeding, the COD induced a significant decrease in blood glutathione (GSH) and an increase in Cu(2+) induced oxidizability of serum lipids, but did not affect liver GSH and t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced lipoperoxidation of liver microsomes. Although the COD did not cause accumulation of liver triacylglycerols as LFD, the lipoprotein profile (VLDL, LDL, HDL) was not significantly improved after COD. The consumption of PUFAn-3 was reflected in LDL as an increase in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. These results suggest that currant oil affects positively the lipid metabolism in the liver, above all it does not cause the development of a fatty liver. However, adverse effects of currant oil on the antioxidant status in the blood still remain of concern.

  2. The History of Tree and Shrub Taxa on Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island (New Siberian Archipelago since the Last Interglacial Uncovered by Sedimentary Ancient DNA and Pollen Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike H. Zimmermann

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem boundaries, such as the Arctic-Boreal treeline, are strongly coupled with climate and were spatially highly dynamic during past glacial-interglacial cycles. Only a few studies cover vegetation changes since the last interglacial, as most of the former landscapes are inundated and difficult to access. Using pollen analysis and sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA metabarcoding, we reveal vegetation changes on Bol’shoy Lyakhovsky Island since the last interglacial from permafrost sediments. Last interglacial samples depict high levels of floral diversity with the presence of trees (Larix, Picea, Populus and shrubs (Alnus, Betula, Ribes, Cornus, Saliceae on the currently treeless island. After the Last Glacial Maximum, Larix re-colonised the island but disappeared along with most shrub taxa. This was probably caused by Holocene sea-level rise, which led to increased oceanic conditions on the island. Additionally, we applied two newly developed larch-specific chloroplast markers to evaluate their potential for tracking past population dynamics from environmental samples. The novel markers were successfully re-sequenced and exhibited two variants of each marker in last interglacial samples. SedaDNA can track vegetation changes as well as genetic changes across geographic space through time and can improve our understanding of past processes that shape modern patterns.

  3. MicroRNA Expression Profiling Altered by Variant Dosage of Radiation Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Fang Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various biological effects are associated with radiation exposure. Irradiated cells may elevate the risk for genetic instability, mutation, and cancer under low levels of radiation exposure, in addition to being able to extend the postradiation side effects in normal tissues. Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE is the focus of rigorous research as it may promote the development of cancer even at low radiation doses. Alterations in the DNA sequence could not explain these biological effects of radiation and it is thought that epigenetics factors may be involved. Indeed, some microRNAs (or miRNAs have been found to correlate radiation-induced damages and may be potential biomarkers for the various biological effects caused by different levels of radiation exposure. However, the regulatory role that miRNA plays in this aspect remains elusive. In this study, we profiled the expression changes in miRNA under fractionated radiation exposure in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. By utilizing publicly available microRNA knowledge bases and performing cross validations with our previous gene expression profiling under the same radiation condition, we identified various miRNA-gene interactions specific to different doses of radiation treatment, providing new insights for the molecular underpinnings of radiation injury.

  4. Investigation of the bystander effect in MRC5 cells after acute and fractionated irradiation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE has been defined as radiation responses observed in nonirradiated cells. It has been the focus of investigators worldwide due to the deleterious effects it induces in nonirradiated cells. The present study was performed to investigate whether acute or fractionated irradiation will evoke a differential bystander response in MRC5 cells. A normal human cell line (MRC5, and a human lung tumor cell line (QU-DB were exposed to 0, 1, 2, and 4Gy of single acute or fractionated irradiation of equal fractions with a gap of 6 h. The MRC5 cells were supplemented with the media of irradiated cells and their micronucleus frequency was determined. The micronucleus frequency after single and fractionated irradiation did not vary significantly in the MRC5 cells conditioned with autologous or QU-DB cell-irradiated media, except for 4Gy where the frequency of micronucleated cells was lower in those MRC5 cells cultured in the media of QU-DB-exposed with a single dose of 4Gy. Our study demonstrates that the radiation-induced bystander effect was almost similar after single acute and fractionated exposure in MRC5 cells.

  5. Description of the first Palaearctic species of Tineobius Ashmead, 1896 with DNA data, a checklist of world species, and nomenclatural changes in Eupelmidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Fusu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tineobius (Tineobius tamaricis Ribes & Fusu sp. nov. is newly described from Parapodia sinaica (Frauenfeld, 1859 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae galls from Catalonia in Spain. This is the first record of the so far Palaeotropical genus Tineobius Ashmead, 1896 in the Palaearctic region. Basic biological data and a DNA barcode are provided for the new species. Parapodia sinaica (the host of T. tamaricis sp. nov. is reported for the first time to form galls on Tamarix canariensis (Willd. A checklist of described world Tineobius species is provided, with nine species formally transferred to Tineobius from Anastatoidea Gahan, 1927 and thirteen species newly assigned to T. (Tineobius. Metapelma seyrigi (Risbec, 1952 is transferred to Tineobius and the replacement name Tineobius (Tineobius madagascariensis nom. nov. is proposed, as the name is preoccupied by Tineobius (Tineobius seyrigi (Ferrière, 1938 comb. nov.; Tineobius (Tineobius albopalpalis (Brues, 1907 comb. nov. is transferred from Charitopus Förster, 1856 (a genus in Encyrtidae. One species is transferred from Anastatoidea to Eupelmus Dalman, 1820 as Eupelmus (Episolindelia ambatomangae (Risbec, 1958 comb. nov.

  6. Polyphenols profile and antioxidant activity of skin and pulp of a rare apple from Marche region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giomaro, Giovanna; Karioti, Anastasia; Bilia, Anna Rita; Bucchini, Anahi; Giamperi, Laura; Ricci, Donata; Fraternale, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Apples are an important source of polyphenols in the human diet and the consumption of this fruit has been linked to the prevention of degenerative diseases. CATECHINS, PROCYANIDINS, HYDROXYCINNAMIC ACIDS, FLAVONOL GLYCOSIDES, DIHYDROCHALCONE GLYCOSIDES AND ONE ANTHOCYANIN: cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, were identified both in the peel and pulp. Procyanidins, catechins and flavonols represent the main constituents of peel. Concerning the antioxidant activity, in the reduction of the stable DPPH radical and in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the ethanolic extracts of red peel and red pulp showed a good similar activity comparable to ascorbic acid in the DPPH test and about ten times more active than BHT in the lipoxygenase test, and were much more active than aqueous extracts. The ORAC value of red pulp aqueous extract resulted comparable to that of red berries: vaccinium, rubus and ribes, foods appreciated for their health value. This apple contains an appreciable amount of polyphenols also in the flesh; this variety with red flesh can also be useful for researchers engaged in apples varietal innovation in addition to being used as food apple.

  7. Investigation of the bystander effect in MRC5 cells after acute and fractionated irradiation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman; Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Samani, Roghayeh Kamran; Mohebbi, Shokoufeh

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been defined as radiation responses observed in nonirradiated cells. It has been the focus of investigators worldwide due to the deleterious effects it induces in nonirradiated cells. The present study was performed to investigate whether acute or fractionated irradiation will evoke a differential bystander response in MRC5 cells. A normal human cell line (MRC5), and a human lung tumor cell line (QU-DB) were exposed to 0, 1, 2, and 4Gy of single acute or fractionated irradiation of equal fractions with a gap of 6 h. The MRC5 cells were supplemented with the media of irradiated cells and their micronucleus frequency was determined. The micronucleus frequency after single and fractionated irradiation did not vary significantly in the MRC5 cells conditioned with autologous or QU-DB cell-irradiated media, except for 4Gy where the frequency of micronucleated cells was lower in those MRC5 cells cultured in the media of QU-DB-exposed with a single dose of 4Gy. Our study demonstrates that the radiation-induced bystander effect was almost similar after single acute and fractionated exposure in MRC5 cells. (author)

  8. Role of ROS-mediated autophagy in radiation-induced bystander effect of hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangdong; Zhang, Jianghong; Fu, Jiamei; Wang, Juan; Ye, Shuang; Liu, Weili; Shao, Chunlin

    2015-05-01

    Autophagy plays a crucial role in cellular response to ionizing radiation, but it is unclear whether autophagy can modulate radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE). Here, we investigated the relationship between bystander damage and autophagy in human hepatoma cells of HepG2. HepG2 cells were treated with conditioned medium (CM) collected from 3 Gy γ-rays irradiated hepatoma HepG2 cells for 4, 12, or 24 h, followed by the measurement of micronuclei (MN), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and protein expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin-1 in the bystander HepG2 cells. In some experiments, the bystander HepG2 cells were respectively transfected with LC3 small interfering RNA (siRNA), Beclin-1 siRNA or treated with 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Additional MN and mitochondrial dysfunction coupled with ROS were induced in the bystander cells. The expressions of protein markers of autophagy, LC3-II/LC3-I and Beclin-1, increased in the bystander cells. The inductions of bystander MN and overexpressions of LC3 and Beclin-1 were significantly diminished by DMSO. However, when the bystander cells were transfected with LC3 siRNA or Beclin-1 siRNA, the yield of bystander MN was significantly enhanced. The elevated ROS have bi-functions in balancing the bystander effects. One is to cause MN and the other is to induce protective autophagy.

  9. Improvement of boiling heat transfer by radiation induced boiling enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Y.; Okamoto, K.; Madarame, H.; Takamasa, T.

    2003-01-01

    For nuclear reactor systems, the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) data is very important because it limits reactor efficiency. Improvement of CHF requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability, highly hydrophilic heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. In our previous study, we confirmed that the surface wettability changed significantly or that highly hydrophilic conditions were achieved, after irradiation of 60Co gamma ray, by the Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) phenomenon. To delineate the effect of RISA on boiling phenomena, surface wettability in a high-temperature environment and Critical Heat Flux (CHF) of metal oxides irradiated by gamma rays were investigated. A CHF experiment in the pool boiling condition was carried out under atmospheric pressure. The heating test section made of titanium was 0.2mm in thickness, 3mm in height, and 60mm in length. Oxidation of the surfaces was carried out by plasma jetting for 40 seconds. The test section was irradiated by 60Co gamma ray with predetermined radiation intensity and period. The CHF of oxidized titanium was improved up to 100 percent after 800kGy 60Co gamma ray irradiation. We call this effect Radiation Induced Boiling Enhancement (RIBE). Before we conducted the CHF experiment, contact angles of the test pieces were measured to show the relationship between wettability and CHF. The CHF in the present experiment increases with surface wettability in the same manner as shown by Liaw and Dhir's results

  10. Traditional uses of medicinal plants of uzumlu district, erzincan, turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    A list of medicinal plants used by local people in uzumlu district and its villages is presented. This study included the first detailed ethnobotanical survey carried out in Erzincan. The study was conducted during spring and summer periods in 2010 and 2011 through face-to-face interview method to determine the local names, used parts, and medicinal usages of the determined plants. The plant samples collected from the study area were pressed, dried, and labeled according to the herbarium techniques, and identified. Totally 64 plant taxa belonging to 53 genera and 29 families were used by local people for different medicinal purposes in the area. The families including the highest number of taxa were Rosaceae (11 species), Asteraceae (6 species) and Lamiaceae (5 species). The species with the highest number of usage as herbal medicine were Urtica dioica, Anthemis cretica subsp. iberica, Petroselinum crispum,Allium cepa, Rheum ribes, Rosa dumalis subsp. boissieri var. boissieri and Vitis vinifera. Fruits and flowers were the most widely used parts of the plants. Decoction was the main method for using, and the primary therapeutic use of herbal remedies was for the respiratory system diseases such as cold, cough, asthma, and bronchitis.This study was the first carried out on 20 plant taxa used as traditional medicine, and the use of 28 taxa were recorded for the first time in Turkey. For maintaining the knowledge on traditional medicine, urgent studies should be carried out for recording before they have been completely lost. (author)

  11. Ozone air pollution and foliar injury development on native plants of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Kristopher; Skelly, John M.; Schaub, Marcus; Kraeuchi, Norbert; Hug, Christian; Landolt, Werner; Bleuler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Visible ozone-induced foliar injury on native forest species of Switzerland was identified and confirmed under ambient OTC-conditions and related to the current European AOT40 standard. - The objectives of this study were to examine the foliar sensitivity to ozone exposure of 12 tree, shrub, and herbaceous species native to southern Switzerland and determine the seasonal cumulative ozone exposures required to induce visible foliar injury. The study was conducted from the beginning of May through the end of August during 2000 and 2001 using an open-top chamber research facility located within the Lattecaldo Cantonal Forest Nursery in Canton Ticino, southern Switzerland (600 m asl). Plants were examined daily and dates of initial foliar injury were recorded in order to determine the cumulative AOT40 ppb h ozone exposure required to cause visible foliar injury. Plant responses to ozone varied significantly among species; 11 species exhibited visible symptoms typical of exposures to ambient ozone. The symptomatic species (from most to least sensitive) were Populus nigra, Viburnum lantana, Salix alba, Crataegus monogyna, Viburnum opulus, Tilia platyphyllos, Cornus alba, Prunus avium, Fraxinus excelsior, Ribes alpinum, and Tilia cordata; Clematis spp. did not show foliar symptoms. Of the 11 symptomatic species, five showed initial injury below the critical level AOT40 10 ppmh O 3 in the 2001 season

  12. New, rare or remarkable microfungi in the Italian Alps (Carnic Alps)--part I--ascomycotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

    2004-01-01

    During our observations in the SE part of the Carnic Alps in the year 2003 we were able to collect and identify 35 ascomycetes on trees and dead wood. Among these one can find numerous ascomycetes of different orders e.g. Pyrenomycetes, Loculoascomycetes and Discomycetes. Some species like Botryosphaeria ribis GROSENLUCHER & DUGGAR on Ribes alpinum L., Dothiora pyrenophora (FR.) FR. on Sorbus aucuparia L., Gemmamyces piceae (BORTH.) CASAGO. on Picea excelsa (LAM.) LINK, Glomerella montana (SACC.) v. ARX & E. MULLER on Sesleria caerulea (L.) ARD, Hymenoscyphus immutabilis (Fuck.) Dennis on Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Hysterographium fraxini (PERS. Ex. FR.) de Not. on Fraxinus ornus L., Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) DENNIS [= Trichascyphella willkommii (Hartig) NANNF.] on Larix decidua MILL.,Leptosphaeria lycopodina (Mont.) SACC. on Lycopodium annotinum L., Mollisia adenostylidis REHM. on Adenostyles glabra (MILL.) DC., Pezicula cinnamomea (DC.)SACC. [ana: Cryptosporiopsis quercina PETRAK] on Quercus robur L., Pyrenopeziza petiolaris (A. & S. Ex FR.) NANNF. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Tapesia rosae (PERS.) FUCKEL on Rosa canina L., are new for this area. All specimen are deposited in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha.

  13. Ion-beam nanopatterning: experimental results with chemically-assisted beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Sebastien C. R.

    2018-03-01

    The need for forming gratings (for example used in VR headsets) in materials such as SiO2 has seen a recent surge in the use of Ion beam etching techniques. However, when using an argon-only beam, the selectivity is limited as it is a physical process. Typically, gases such as CHF3, SF6, O2 and Cl2 can be added to argon in order to increase selectivity; depending on where the gas is injected, the process is known as Reactive Ion Beam Etching (RIBE) or Chemically Assisted Ion Beam Etching (CAIBE). The substrate holder can rotate in order to provide an axisymmetric etch rate profile. It can also be tilted over a range of angles to the beam direction. This enables control over the sidewall profile as well as radial uniformity optimisation. Ion beam directionality in conjunction with variable incident beam angle via platen angle setting enables profile control and feature shaping during nanopatterning. These hardware features unique to the Ion Beam etching methods can be used to create angled etch features. The CAIBE technique is also well suited to laser diode facet etch (for optoelectronic devices); these typically use III-V materials like InP. Here, we report on materials such as SiO2 etched without rotation and at a fixed platen angle allowing the formation of gratings and InP etched at a fixed angle with rotation allowing the formation of nanopillars and laser facets.

  14. Historia Funcional de Morfologías Lingüísticas y su Efecto en un Ajuste Convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Yáñez Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se observó si diferentes historias funcionales construidas durante la adquisición de un conjunto de morfologías lingüísticas facilitaban un ajuste convencional. Participaron 24 estudiantes universitarios distribuidos en tres grupos, expuestos a entrenamientos construidos bajo la lógica de diferentes niveles de interacción: contextual, suplementario o selector (Ribes y López, 1985; y posteriormente se evaluó su ejecución en una tarea convencional. El entrenamiento cuyo criterio de ajuste era de tipo selector fue la que más facilitó tanto la adquisición de las morfologías lingüísticas como su uso en la tarea, efecto que pareció más evidente en los hablantes que en los escuchas. No se encontraron diferencias entre los entrenamientos contextual y suplementario. Los resultados se discuten en términos de sus implicaciones teóricas y metodológicas.

  15. Blackcurrant Anthocyanins Increase the Levels of Collagen, Elastin, and Hyaluronic Acid in Human Skin Fibroblasts and Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Nanashima

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Blackcurrants (Ribes nigrum L. contain high levels of anthocyanin polyphenols, which have beneficial effects on health, owing to their antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. Phytoestrogens are plant-derived substances with estrogenic activity, which could have beneficial effects on the skin. Estradiol secretion decreases during menopause, reducing extracellular matrix (ECM component production by skin fibroblasts. Using a normal human female skin fibroblast cell line (TIG113 and ovariectomized rats, the present study investigated whether an anthocyanin-rich blackcurrant extract (BCE and four blackcurrant anthocyanins have novel phytoestrogenic activities that could benefit the skin in menopausal women. In TIG113 cells, a microarray and the Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis showed that 1.0 μg/mL of BCE upregulated the expression of many estrogen signaling-related genes. A quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that BCE (1.0 or 10.0 μg/mL and four types of anthocyanins (10 μM altered the mRNA expression of ECM proteins and enzymes involved in ECM turnover. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that the anthocyanins stimulated the expression of ECM proteins, such as collagen (types I and III and elastin. Dietary administration of 3% BCE to ovariectomized rats for 3 months increased skin levels of collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid. This is the first study to show that blackcurrant phytoestrogens have beneficial effects on skin experimental models.

  16. A model of competing species that exhibits zip bifurcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Echeverri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar un modelo concreto d e poblaciones de especies en competición que exhibe la bifurc ación Zip. La bifurcación zip fue introducida por Farkas en 1984 para un si stema tridi- mensional de ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias que desc ribe un quimiostato. Estudiaremos un sistema tridimensional de ecuaciones dife renciales ordinarias que modela la competición de dos poblaciones distintas de pr edadores por una única población presa. El sistema usa funciones trigonomét ricas concretas pa- ra representar la tasa de crecimiento de la presa y la respues ta funcional del predador. El modelo exhibe diferentes clases de comportami entos y muestra ejemplos de los llamados principio de exclusión competitiva y la competición de un r-estratega contra un k-estratega . Adicionalmente, para ilustrar la bi- furcacion zip, presentaremos algunas simulaciones numéri cas.

  17. Evaluación comparativa en distintas condiciones de un programa de enseñanza de la lectoescritura.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Bazán Ramírez

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan los datos obtenidos en diferentes condiciones didácticas y/o momentos de evaluación de un programa de enseñanza de la lecto-escritura con perspectiva interconductual. La primera condición didáctica evaluada, corresponde a una fase inicial de proyección del programa como apoyo a la actividad del docente (Mares, Plancarte y Rueda, 1994. La segunda evaluación se refiere, a una prueba realizada sobre cuatro programas experimentales diseñadas por Mares y et al., con base en la taxonomía de la conducta elaborada por Ribes y López (1985. Finalmente, la tercera condición evaluada corresponde a una adecuación del programa de lecto-escritura a grupos de 40 niños (Mares, Bazán y Farfán, 1995. En todas las ocasiones la efectividad del programa se midió con base en los aspectos mecánicos y funcionales de la lengua escrita y, se estableció una comparación con otros programas utilizados por un grupo diferente de docentes.

  18. Analysis of Multi Muon Events in the L3 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Volker

    2000-01-01

    The muon density distribution in air showers initiated by osmi parti les is sensitive to the hemi al omposition of osmi rays. The density an be measured via the multipli ity distribution in a nite size dete tor, as it is L3. With a shallow depth of 30 meters under ground, the dete tor provides an ex ellent fa ility to measure a high muon rate, but being shielded from the hadroni and ele troni shower omponent. Subje t of this thesis is the des ription of the L3 Cosmi s experiment (L3+C), whi h is taking data sin e May 1999 and the analysis of muon bundles in the large magneti spe trometer of L3. The new osmi trigger and readout system is brie y des ribed. The in uen e of dierent primaries on the multipli ity distribution has been investigated using Monte Carlo event samples, generated with the CORSIKA program. The simulation results showed that L3+C measures in the region of the \\knee" of the primary spe trum of osmi rays. A new pattern re ognition has been developed and added to the re onstru tion ode, whi h ...

  19. Protective role of plants against harmful radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Shreesh Kumar; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Vikas; Bharti, Navaldey [Department of Applied Plant Science-Horticulture, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow (India)

    2012-07-01

    The rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Ionizing radiations produces deleterious effects in the living organisms. Widespread use of radiation in diagnosis therapy, industry, energy sector and inadvertent exposure during air and space travel, nuclear accidents and nuclear terror attacks requires safeguard against human exposures. Lead shielding and other physical measures can be used in such situations but with difficulty to manage; thus pharmacological intervention could be the most prudent strategy to protect humans against the harmful effect of ionizing radiations. These pharmacological agents are radioprotectives; The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radio protectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources including plants has been ongoing. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. This all is due to antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, and melatonin, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory. haemopoitic and immunostimulant compounds. Some of the plants which are found to be radioprotective are Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Podophyllurn hexandrum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, etc. So there is an urgent need to identify and characterize the many of the plants in relation to the radioprotection. Besides these medicinal plants there are also some fruits and vegetables which are having good response against harmful radiations such as Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidaceae), Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae). They protect against the radiation-induced damage by

  20. Comparative characterization of the leaf tissue of Physalis alkekengi and Physalis peruviana using RNA-seq and metabolite profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Fukushima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Physalis in the Solanaceae family contains several species of benefit to humans. Examples include Physalis alkekengi (Chinese-lantern plant, hōzuki in Japanese used for medicinal and for decorative purposes, and Physalis peruviana, also known as Cape gooseberry, which bears an edible, vitamin-rich fruit. Members of the Physalis genus are a valuable resource for phytochemicals needed for the development of medicines and functional foods. To fully utilize the potential of these phytochemicals we need to understand their biosynthesis, and for this we need genomic data, especially comprehensive transcriptome datasets for gene discovery. We report the de novo assembly of the transcriptome from leaves of P. alkekengi and P. peruviana using Illumina RNA-seq technologies. We identified 75,221 unigenes in P. alkekengi and 54,513 in P. peruviana. All unigenes were annotated with gene ontology (GO, Enzyme Commission (EC numbers, and pathway information from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG. We classified unigenes encoding enzyme candidates putatively involved in the secondary metabolism and identified more than one unigenes for each step in terpenoid backbone- and steroid biosynthesis in P. alkekengi and P. peruviana. To measure the variability of the withanolides including physalins and provide insights into their chemical diversity of Physalis, we also analyzed the metabolite content in leaves of P. alkekengi and P. peruviana at 5 different developmental stages by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We discuss that comprehensive transcriptome approaches within a family can yield a clue for gene discovery in Physalis and provide insights into their complex chemical diversity. The transcriptome information we submit here will serve as an important public resource for further studies of the specialized metabolism of Physalis species.

  1. Chinese and Venetian glass beads excavated from Fais Island in Micronesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intoh, Michiko

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Over 830 glass beads were excavated from a late prehistoric cemetery site on Fais Island in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia In one of the 13 excavated burials a young woman had more that 310 glass beads around her wrist. Bone collagen from this burial was dated by AMS to 387 + 64 BP. The associated glass beads were classified into three groups based on colour and size. A sample from each group was examined for evidence of manufacturing technique. The chemical composition was determined using an X-ray microanalyser. The first group consisted of more than 300 pale green, transparent glass beads which are less than 2 mm in diameter. The chemical composition is high in PbO (75.22%) while low in MgO. Such a high lead content is characteristic of Chinese glass. The manufacturing technique could not be determined because the surfaces were too eroded. The second group contains several yellow, translucent glass beads. The chemical composition is also high in PbO (54.8%) and low in MgO. The beads were made by winding. The combination of winding and high lead strongly indicates that the beads were made in China. The third group had only one white, translucent glass bead. It has particular white stripes which suggest that it is a 'gooseberry' bead which was made in Venice between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. In conclusion, both Chinese and Venetian glass beads co-existed on Fais Island around the time of European contact. They are likely to have been brought in from an area which had access to both beads. Island South-East Asia is tentatively considered to be the source area

  2. Identification and Validation of Novel Hedgehog-Responsive Enhancers Predicted by Computational Analysis of Ci/Gli Binding Site Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Neil; Parker, David S.; Johnson, Lisa A.; Allen, Benjamin L.; Barolo, Scott; Gumucio, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway directs a multitude of cellular responses during embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. Stimulation of the pathway results in activation of Hh target genes by the transcription factor Ci/Gli, which binds to specific motifs in genomic enhancers. In Drosophila, only a few enhancers (patched, decapentaplegic, wingless, stripe, knot, hairy, orthodenticle) have been shown by in vivo functional assays to depend on direct Ci/Gli regulation. All but one (orthodenticle) contain more than one Ci/Gli site, prompting us to directly test whether homotypic clustering of Ci/Gli binding sites is sufficient to define a Hh-regulated enhancer. We therefore developed a computational algorithm to identify Ci/Gli clusters that are enriched over random expectation, within a given region of the genome. Candidate genomic regions containing Ci/Gli clusters were functionally tested in chicken neural tube electroporation assays and in transgenic flies. Of the 22 Ci/Gli clusters tested, seven novel enhancers (and the previously known patched enhancer) were identified as Hh-responsive and Ci/Gli-dependent in one or both of these assays, including: Cuticular protein 100A (Cpr100A); invected (inv), which encodes an engrailed-related transcription factor expressed at the anterior/posterior wing disc boundary; roadkill (rdx), the fly homolog of vertebrate Spop; the segment polarity gene gooseberry (gsb); and two previously untested regions of the Hh receptor-encoding patched (ptc) gene. We conclude that homotypic Ci/Gli clustering is not sufficient information to ensure Hh-responsiveness; however, it can provide a clue for enhancer recognition within putative Hedgehog target gene loci. PMID:26710299

  3. Induced mutagenesis as a breeding strategy for improvement of Solanaceous vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Masaharu; Ojiewo, Christopher O.

    2008-01-01

    The Solanaceae are a cosmopolitan family containing many essential vegetables and fruits such as potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.), eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), paprika, chillies, green and red peppers (Capsicum annuum L.), jasmine nightshade (Solanum jasminoides Paxt.), winter cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum L.), and Cape gooseberry, ornamentals such as Petunia, Schizanthus, and Lycium species, and medicinal plants such as bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara L.) and Solanum viarum Dun., both used as sources of corticosteroids. It also contains tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) - one of the most harmful yet economically important plants in the world - together with many other plants of both poisonous and medicinal value such as belladonna (Atropa belladona L.), stramonium (Datura stramonium L.), black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger L.), and African nightshade (Solanum villosum). Composed of approximately 90 genera and between 2000 and 3000 species, the family is widely distributed throughout the tropical and temperate regions of the world, with centers of diversity occurring in Central and South America, Australia, and Africa (EDMONDS 1978; SYMON 1981; D'ARCY 1991). Work to develop new varieties of improved solanaceous crops started more than 2 centuries ago. This paper reviews some of the recent developments in various aspects of varietal improvement of solanaceous vegetables through mutation breeding. Mutational work reported here includes the alteration of plant reproductive or vegetative growth and the development of locally adapted cultivars and popular breeding lines, or the induction of novel alleles. The potential for direct application of the mutants as new improved cultivars, their use in cross-breeding schemes, and their application in, for example, marker technology in genetic research are discussed. Specific examples of novel mutants developed in our laboratory that have the potential for application in improving solanaceous fruits

  4. Therapeutic Potential and Molecular Mechanisms of Emblica officinalis Gaertn in countering nephrotoxicity in rats induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Malik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Emblica officinalis Gaertn. belonging to family Euphorbiaceae is commonly known as Indian gooseberry or Amla in India. It is used as a ‘rejuvenating herb’ in traditional system of Indian medicine. It has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Thus, on the basis of its biological effects, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of the dried fruit extract of the E. Officinalis (EO in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and also to evaluate the mechanism of its nephroprotection. The study was done on male albino Wistar rats. They were divided into 6 groups (n=6 viz. control, cisplatin-control, cisplatin and EO (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg; p.o. respectively in different groups and EO only (600 mg/kg; p.o. only. EO was administered orally to the rats for a period of 10 days and on the 7th day, a single injection of cisplatin (8 mg/kg; i.p. was administered to the cisplatin-control and EO treatment groups. The rats were sacrificed on the 10th day. Cisplatin-control rats had deranged renal function parameters and the kidney histology confirmed the presence of acute tubular necrosis. Furthermore, there were increased oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation along with higher expression of MAPK pathway proteins in the rat kidney from the cisplatin-control group. Contrary to this, EO (600 mg/kg significantly normalized renal function, bolstered antioxidant status and ameliorated histological alterations. The inflammation and apoptosis were markedly lower in comparison to cisplatin-control rats. Furthermore, EO (600 mg/kg inhibited MAPK phosphorylation which was instrumental in preserving renal function and morphology. In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrated that EO attenuated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats through suppression of MAPK induced inflammation and apoptosis.

  5. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis on Histopathology of Kidney and on Biochemical Parameters in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bheemshetty S. Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that hyperlipidemia plays a central role in the development of atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Embilica officinalis also known as Amla or Indian Gooseberry acts as antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant. Its active ingredients contains tannins, gallic acid and flavonoids. Aim & Objectives: It was aimed to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis on histopathology of kidney and on biochemical parameters in hyperlipidemic albino Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Extraction of dried fruits of Emblica officinalis was done by Soxhlet apparatus 0 using 99% ethanol at 60 C for 24 hours and also phytochemical analysis was done. Group I served as normal control. Group II was fed with isocaloric diet. Group III was fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Group IV was fed with isocaloric diet for 21 days + Embilica officinalis for 21 days. Group V was fed with hyperlipidemic diet for 21 days+ Embilica officinalis for 21 days. The dose of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis was taken as 100mg/kg body weight daily. Results: Percent body weight gain, kidney weight and nephro-somatic index significantly improved in hyperlipidemic rats treated with Emblica officinalis. There was a significant improvement in serum electrolyte and kidney markers. It was found that there were focal glomerular lesions with thickening of glomerulus in the kidneys of rats on hyperlipidemic diet and normal renal histology of rats on hyperlipidemic diet treated with Emblica officinalis. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Emblica officinalis may be a good, natural therapeutic agent against hyperlipidemic diet induced oxidative damage and nephrotoxicity.

  6. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora infestans in the Northern Andean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Martha; Grajales, Alejandro; Sierra, Roberto; Rojas, Alejandro; González-Almario, Adriana; Vargas, Angela; Marín, Mauricio; Fermín, Gustavo; Lagos, Luz E; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Bernal, Adriana; Salazar, Camilo; Restrepo, Silvia

    2011-02-09

    Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, is responsible for tremendous crop losses worldwide. Countries in the northern part of the Andes dedicate a large proportion of the highlands to the production of potato, and more recently, solanaceous fruits such as cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) and tree tomato (Solanum betaceum), all of which are hosts of this oomycete. In the Andean region, P. infestans populations have been well characterized in Ecuador and Peru, but are poorly understood in Colombia and Venezuela. To understand the P. infestans population structure in the Northern part of the Andes, four nuclear regions (ITS, Ras, β-tubulin and Avr3a) and one mitochondrial (Cox1) region were analyzed in isolates of P. infestans sampled from different hosts in Colombia and Venezuela. Low genetic diversity was found within this sample of P. infestans isolates from crops within several regions of Colombia and Venezuela, revealing the presence of clonal populations of the pathogen in this region. We detected low frequency heterozygotes, and their distribution patterns might be a consequence of a high migration rate among populations with poor effective gene flow. Consistent genetic differentiation exists among isolates from different regions. The results here suggest that in the Northern Andean region P. infestans is a clonal population with some within-clone variation. P. infestans populations in Venezuela reflect historic isolation that is being reinforced by a recent self-sufficiency of potato seeds. In summary, the P. infestans population is mainly shaped by migration and probably by the appearance of variants of key effectors such as Avr3a.

  7. Comparative Characterization of the Leaf Tissue of Physalis alkekengi and Physalis peruviana Using RNA-seq and Metabolite Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Nakamura, Michimi; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Yamazaki, Mami; Knoch, Eva; Mori, Tetsuya; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Morita, Masaki; Hirai, Go; Sodeoka, Mikiko; Saito, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    The genus Physalis in the Solanaceae family contains several species of benefit to humans. Examples include P. alkekengi (Chinese-lantern plant, hôzuki in Japanese) used for medicinal and for decorative purposes, and P. peruviana , also known as Cape gooseberry, which bears an edible, vitamin-rich fruit. Members of the Physalis genus are a valuable resource for phytochemicals needed for the development of medicines and functional foods. To fully utilize the potential of these phytochemicals we need to understand their biosynthesis, and for this we need genomic data, especially comprehensive transcriptome datasets for gene discovery. We report the de novo assembly of the transcriptome from leaves of P. alkekengi and P. peruviana using Illumina RNA-seq technologies. We identified 75,221 unigenes in P. alkekengi and 54,513 in P. peruviana . All unigenes were annotated with gene ontology (GO), Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers, and pathway information from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). We classified unigenes encoding enzyme candidates putatively involved in the secondary metabolism and identified more than one unigenes for each step in terpenoid backbone- and steroid biosynthesis in P. alkekengi and P. peruviana . To measure the variability of the withanolides including physalins and provide insights into their chemical diversity in Physalis , we also analyzed the metabolite content in leaves of P. alkekengi and P. peruviana at five different developmental stages by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We discuss that comprehensive transcriptome approaches within a family can yield a clue for gene discovery in Physalis and provide insights into their complex chemical diversity. The transcriptome information we submit here will serve as an important public resource for further studies of the specialized metabolism of Physalis species.

  8. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora infestans in the Northern Andean region

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    Grünwald Niklaus J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, is responsible for tremendous crop losses worldwide. Countries in the northern part of the Andes dedicate a large proportion of the highlands to the production of potato, and more recently, solanaceous fruits such as cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana and tree tomato (Solanum betaceum, all of which are hosts of this oomycete. In the Andean region, P. infestans populations have been well characterized in Ecuador and Peru, but are poorly understood in Colombia and Venezuela. To understand the P. infestans population structure in the Northern part of the Andes, four nuclear regions (ITS, Ras, β-tubulin and Avr3a and one mitochondrial (Cox1 region were analyzed in isolates of P. infestans sampled from different hosts in Colombia and Venezuela. Results Low genetic diversity was found within this sample of P. infestans isolates from crops within several regions of Colombia and Venezuela, revealing the presence of clonal populations of the pathogen in this region. We detected low frequency heterozygotes, and their distribution patterns might be a consequence of a high migration rate among populations with poor effective gene flow. Consistent genetic differentiation exists among isolates from different regions. Conclusions The results here suggest that in the Northern Andean region P. infestans is a clonal population with some within-clone variation. P. infestans populations in Venezuela reflect historic isolation that is being reinforced by a recent self-sufficiency of potato seeds. In summary, the P. infestans population is mainly shaped by migration and probably by the appearance of variants of key effectors such as Avr3a.

  9. Protective role of plants against harmful radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Shreesh Kumar; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Vikas; Bharti, Navaldey

    2012-01-01

    The rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Ionizing radiations produces deleterious effects in the living organisms. Widespread use of radiation in diagnosis therapy, industry, energy sector and inadvertent exposure during air and space travel, nuclear accidents and nuclear terror attacks requires safeguard against human exposures. Lead shielding and other physical measures can be used in such situations but with difficulty to manage; thus pharmacological intervention could be the most prudent strategy to protect humans against the harmful effect of ionizing radiations. These pharmacological agents are radioprotectives; The development of radioprotective agents has been the subject of intense research in view of their potential for use within a radiation environment. However, no ideal, safe synthetic radio protectors are available to date, so the search for alternative sources including plants has been ongoing. In Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine, several plants have been used to treat free radical-mediated ailments and, therefore, it is logical to expect that such plants may also render some protection against radiation damage. This all is due to antioxidant enzymes, nitroxides, and melatonin, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory. haemopoitic and immunostimulant compounds. Some of the plants which are found to be radioprotective are Centella asiatica, Ginkgo biloba, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Podophyllurn hexandrum, Tinospora cordifolia, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, etc. So there is an urgent need to identify and characterize the many of the plants in relation to the radioprotection. Besides these medicinal plants there are also some fruits and vegetables which are having good response against harmful radiations such as Kiwifruit Actinidia deliciosa (Actinidaceae), Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana (Solanaceae). They protect against the radiation-induced damage by

  10. The effect of soil tillage system and weeding time on the growth of weed and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril

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    Husni Thamrin Sebayang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and yield of soybeans can decrease due to competition from weeds. Various efforts have been made to control the growth of weeds such as land preparation and weeding periods. An experiment to study the effect of soil tillage systems and weeding time on the growth of weeds and soybean crop yield (Glycine max (L. Merril has been done in Wringinsongo Village, Tumpang Sub-District, Malang Regency from February to May 2017. The split-plot design with three replicates was used with the soil tillage system as the main plot consisting of three levels, T0: no tillage, T1: minimum tillage, and T2: conventional tillage, and weeding time as the sub plot consisting of 4 levels, P0: no weeding, P1: weeding 1 time, P2: weeding two times and P3: weeding three times. The results showed that the dominant weed species before treatment were Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny amaranth, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass, Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge, Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat weed, and Portulaca oleracea (Common purslane. After treatment, the dominant weed species were Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge, Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny amaranth, Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat weed, Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry, and Eclipta alba (False daisy. There was no significant difference of the dry weight of weeds in conventional tillage followed by weeding 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after planting, and minimum tillage and no tillage. For the yield of soybeans, conventional tillage followed by weeding 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after planting were not significant with that of minimum tillage. The yield of soybeans was lower than that of with no tillage and no weeding.

  11. [Radiation-induced bystander effect: the important part of ionizing radiation response. Potential clinical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideł, Maria; Przybyszewski, Waldemar; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna

    2009-08-18

    It has long been a central radiobiological dogma that the damaging effects of ionizing radiation, such as cell death, cytogenetic changes, apoptosis, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis, are the results of the direct ionization of cell structures, particularly DNA, or indirect damage via water radiolysis products. However, several years ago attention turned to a third mechanism of radiation, termed the "bystander effect" or "radiation-induced bystander effect" (RIBE). This is induced by agents and signals emitted by directly irradiated cells and manifests as a lowering of survival, cytogenetic damage, apoptosis enhancement, and biochemical changes in neighboring non-irradiated cells. The bystander effect is mainly observed in in vitro experiments using very low doses of alpha particles (range; mGy, cGy), but also after conventional irradiation (X-rays, gamma rays) at low as well as conventional doses. The mechanisms responsible for the bystander effect are complex and still poorly understood. It is believed that molecular signals released from irradiated cells induce different signaling ways in non-irradiated neighboring cells, leading to the observed events. The molecular signals may be transmitted through gap junction intercellular communication and through a medium transfer mechanism. The nature of these transmitted factors are diverse, and still not definitely established. It seems that RIBE may have important clinical implications for health risk associated with radiation exposure. Potentially, this effect may have important implications in the creation of whole-body or localized side effects in tissues beyond the irradiation field and also in low-dose radiological and radioisotope diagnostics. Factors emitted by irradiated cells may result in the risk of genetic instability, mutations, and second primary cancer induction. They might also have their own part in inducing and extending post-radiation side effects in normal tissue. The bystander effect may be a

  12. Radiation-induced bystander effect: The important part of ionizing radiation response. Potential clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wideł

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available It has long been a central radiobiological dogma that the damaging effects of ionizing radiation, such as cell death, cytogenetic changes, apoptosis, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis, are the results of the direct ionization of cell structures, particularly DNA, or indirect damage via water radiolysis products. However, several years ago attention turned to a third mechanism of radiation, termed the “bystander effect” or “radiation-induced bystander effect” (RIBE. This is induced by agents and signals emitted by directly irradiated cells and manifests as a lowering of survival, cytogenetic damage, apoptosis enhancement, and biochemical changes in neighboring non-irradiated cells. The bystander effect is mainly observed in in vitro experiments using very low doses of alpha particles (range; mGy, cGy, but also after conventional irradiation (X-rays, gamma rays at low as well as conventional doses. The mechanisms responsible for the bystander effect are complex and still poorly understood. It is believed that molecular signals released from irradiated cells induce different signaling ways in non-irradiated neighboring cells, leading to the observed events. The molecular signals may be transmitted through gap junction intercellular communication and through a medium transfer mechanism. The nature of these transmitted factors are diverse, and still not defi nitely established. It seems that RIBE may have important clinical implications for health risk associated with radiation exposure. Potentially, this effectmay have important implications in the creation of whole-body or localized side effects in tissues beyond the irradiation fi eld and also in low-dose radiological and radioisotope diagnostics. Factors emitted by irradiated cells may result in the risk of genetic instability, mutations, and second primary cancer induction. They might also have their own part in inducing and extending post-radiation side effects in normal tissue. The

  13. Investigation of structural transformations in surface layer of phosphate glasses incorporating radiactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloj, A.S.; Kolycheva, T.I.; Trofimenko, A.V.; Shashukov, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the paper was to clarify possibilities of detection of structural transformations initial stages on the surface of phosphate glasses using the method of infrared reflection spectroscopy. Phase composition of crystalline compounds formed in surface glass layer is determined by the method of X-ray diffraction. All experiments were performed using sodium alumophosphate glass comprising the model mixture of fission product of the following compostion (mass%): Na 2 O-22.0, Al 2 O 3 -14.0, P 2 O 5 -50.0, Fe 2 O 3 -3.5, Cs 2 O-3.5, SrO-3.0, Ln 2 O 3 -4.0, where Ln 2 O 3 is a mixture of cerium, lanthanum and europium oxides. Sample preparation were carried out by molten glass deposition on platinum forms 15mm in diameter and 4mm thick. Glasses were treated within the 600-400deg.C temperature range. Fixing of processes accompanied by structural transformations was accomplished the method of rapid cooling. It has been shown that phase transformations, taking place in investigated phosphate glasses under the action of heat, result in deterioration of chemical properties. Analysis of IR spectra has revealed that emergence of structural transformations in surface layer of investigated glasses results in variation of a ratio of 1060 and 1140cm - 1 reflection band intensities. Experimental dependences of the time of beginning of variation of 1060 and 1140cm - 1 bands relative intensity on temperature are presented. Insemilogarithmic coordinates this dependence has a straight line form within the 600-400 deg C temperature range and is desc ribed by the following formular: lg r=-7.41+5.70x10 3 x1/T, where r is the time of process beginning, h. Extrapolation of established to the region of low temperature is shown. Competence of such extrapolation may be confirmed in the course of further experiments

  14. Phenological research of climate changes in the north part of Lithuania by the phenological garden of Šiauliai University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimienė, Asta; Vainorienė, Rimanta; Klimas, Ramutis

    2017-02-01

    Šiauliai University Botanical Garden is a member of the International Phenological Garden network since 2005. It is the only one botanical garden in the East Europe that participated in the programme. In 2015, 18 species were observed. For research, data of 14 plants was used. The aim of this study is to estimate the responsiveness of the species of plants of the phenological garden to annual and monthly precipitation and temperature of the air. The main variables in this investigation were growing season length and the beginning of the growing season. In the period 2006-2015, the lowest annual air temperature was in 2010 (6.0 °C), and the highest was in 2015 (8.9 °C). The lowest precipitation was in 2015 (37.3 mm), and the highest was in 2012 (63.5 mm). The leanest regression among growing length, average annual precipitation, and air temperature showed that statistically significant correlation between growing length and average annual air temperature was found for nine plants, between growing length and precipitation was found for three plants, and between growing length and both factors was found for one plant, Salix smithiana, only. Due to the short evaluating period (2007-2015), consistent regression of the length of the growing season could not be found. The growing length of Betula pubescens sequentially increased. The average growing season of 14 plants starts on April 27 (±3), but for Corylus avellana, it is on April 26 (±3). Longevity of the growing season was the most related with precipitation for C. avellana in summer, autumn, and winter and with air temperature, Ribes alpinum and Salix acutifolia in summer and in autumn.

  15. Preliminary Screening of a Classical Ayurvedic Formulation for Anticonvulsant Activity

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    Arnab Dhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is a serious and complex central nervous system disorder associated with recurrent episodes of convulsive seizures due to the imbalance between excitatory (glutamatergic and inhibitory (GABAergic neurotransmitters level in the brain. The available treatments are neither competent to control the seizures nor prevent progress of disease. Since ages, Herbal medicines have remained important sources of medicines in many parts of world which is evidenced through their uses in traditional systems of medicine i.e. Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Homeopathy and Chinese etc. Aim: A polyherbal formulation (containing Terminalia chebula Retz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Embelia ribes Burm. F, Acorus calamus L., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd. Miers, Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy, Saussurea lappa C.B.Clarke, Achyranthes aspera L. is mentioned in Ayurvedic classics Bhaiṣajya Ratnāvali. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of the formulation in Maximum electroshock and Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in rats. Materials and Methods: In the present study, a polyherbal formulation was developed as directed by classical text and evaluated for the anticonvulsant activity using Maximal Electroshock Shock (MES and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced convulsions in rats. Statistical comparison was done by one way ANOVA followed by the Tukey's multiple comparison test. Results: The obtained results showed that the PHF had a protective role on epilepsy. Treatment with PHF significantly improves antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH levels significantly as compared to controls. PHF also significantly decreased malonaldialdehyde (MDA levels in the brain. Moreover, it also attenuated the PTZ-induced increase in the activity of GABA-T in the rat brain. Conclusion: These findings suggest that PHF might have possible efficacy in the treatment of epilepsy.

  16. Radionuclides in radiation-induced bystander effect; may it share in radionuclide therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widel, M

    2017-01-01

    For many years in radiobiology and radiotherapy predominated the conviction that cellular DNA is the main target for ionizing radiation, however, the view has changed in the past 20 years. Nowadays, it is assumed that not only directed (targeted) radiation effect, but also an indirect (non-targeted) effect may contribute to the result of radiation treatment. Non-targeted effect is relatively well recognized after external beam irradiation in vitro and in vivo, and comprises such phenomena like radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), genomic instability, adaptive response and abscopal (out of field) effect. These stress-induced and molecular signaling mediated phenomena appear in non-targeted cells as variety responses resembling that observed in directly hit cells. Bystander effects can be both detrimental and beneficial in dependence on dose, dose-rate, cell type, genetic status and experimental condition. Less is known about radionuclide-induced non-targeted effects in radionuclide therapy, although, based on characteristics of the radionuclide radiation, on experiments in vitro utilizing classical and 3-D cell cultures, and preclinical study on animals it seems obvious that exposure to radionuclide is accompanied by various bystander effects, mostly damaging, less often protective. This review summarizes existing data on radionuclide induced bystander effects comprising radionuclides emitting beta- and alpha-particles and Auger electrons used in tumor radiotherapy and diagnostics. So far, separation of the direct effect of radionuclide decay from crossfire and bystander effects in clinical targeted radionuclide therapy is impossible because of the lack of methods to assess whether, and to what extent bystander effect is involved in human organism. Considerations on this topic are also included.

  17. PUBLICACIONES DE LA REVISTA AGRONOMÍA MESOAMERICANA DURANTE EL PERIODO 1990-2010: CLASIFICACIÓN, TEMÁTICA, PAÍSES Y DIFUSIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pe\\u00F1a Navarro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la temática y procedencia de las publicaciones de la revista Agronomía Me soamericana durante el periodo comprendido entre 1990-2010. Esta revista es el Órgano divulgativo del Programa Cooperativo Ce ntroamericano para el Me joramie nto de Cultivos y Animales (PCCMCA . Desde el inicio en 1990 a la fecha se han publicado 629 trabajos de los cuales el 63% son artículos científicos, 26% notas técnicas, 8% son análisis y comentarios, mientras que las informaciones técnicas y las revisiones bibliográficas poseen 2% cada uno. Costa Rica y México son los países con mayor cantidad de trabajos publicados, con 37 y 32% respectivamente, seguidos de El Sa lvador, Guatemala, Honduras y Cuba. Los principa les temas tratados son el maíz (24% y el frijol (21%, seguidos de los forrajes (7% y el de ganado lechero (4%, mie ntras que el arroz, el sorgo, las malezas y el pejibaye alcanzaron el 3% cada uno. El porcentaje de rechazo de los trabajos sometidos a publicación durante el 2010 fue del 20%. Se destaca la distribución impresa de la revista a treinta países alrededor del mundo, a bibliotecas así como a centros de documentación principalmente a los continentes de América, Europa, Asia y algunas de las islas del Ca ribe.

  18. Manje stvari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Una Krizmanić Ožegović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Idemo do plaže spasiti ptiće da se ne udave. Obučem traperice i debelu vestu preko pidžame. Dok piškim u hladnoj kupaonici, mokraća mi isparava. Tata svojim koracima prodrma i razbudi cijelu kuću. Idemo, kaže s prstom u uhu. Kad izađemo van, lice mi se stisne od hladnoće. Jučer sam izgubio rukavicu, tako da golu ruku trpam duboko u džep, zajedno sa šmrkavim maramicama i fosilima. Na vrhu litice izraslo je novo cvijeće. Tata ga očeše potplatom čizme. Nisam siguran zašto to radi, ali čini se da je zadovoljan.Na pjeskovitoj nizbrdici nema drugih tragova osim naših. Jednom sam ovdje pao, davno, porezao lice na travu, koja u čupercima raste poput zakopanih jastučića za pribadače. Imam blijedosrebrni ožiljak na licu. U obliku ptičjeg stopala. Tata juri dugim korakom, a ja se izmičem pijesku koji zabacuje iza sebe dok trči. Već je ugledao ptića morske laste na plaži pri dnu litice. Isprva, riba koja mu je zapela u grlu izgleda kao dugi jezik. Ptić baca glavu u stranu, onda ponire naprijed, gušeći se. Par koraka naprijed, zatetura pod težinom ribe pa se uspravi.

  19. Prehranjevalne navade in telesna aktivnost dijakov primorsko-notranjske regije

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manica Radivo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Uvod: Zdrava prehrana in telesna aktivnost sta neločljivo povezani določilnici zdravja mladostnikov. Namen raziskave je bil (1 ovrednotiti prehranski status ter prehranjevalne navade dijakov 3. letnikov srednješolskega izobraževanja v primorsko-notranjski regiji in (2 preučiti navade njihove telesne aktivnosti ter (3 raziskati povezavo med njihovimi indeksi telesne mase (kg/m2 in prehranskimi navadami. Metode: Raziskava je bila opravljena spomladi 2015 na vzorcu dijakov 3. letnikov (n = 166 v primorskonotranjski regiji. Njihova povprečna starost je bila 18,2 let. Uporabljen je bil anonimni spletni vprašalnik 1KA s 44 vprašanji. S programom SPSS verzija 22 je bila izvedena opisna in inferenčna statistika. Rezultati: Dijaki ne uživajo sadja in zelenjave vsak dan (74 % fantov in 63 % deklet, pri čemer je primanjkljaj skupnega vnosa zelenjave (fantje: 151,3 g, dekleta: 166,7 g in stročnic (fantje: 138,2 g, dekleta: 141,8 g večji, kot je pri vnosu sadja (fantje: 172,4 g, dekleta: 170,9 g. Tudi uživanje rib je glede na priporočila premajhno, priporočene količine dosega le 5,4 % deklet in 4,5 %. Dijaki tudi niso dovolj telesno aktivni. Diskusija in zaključek: Kljub številnim ukrepom prehranske politike je med dijaki še vedno premajhen vnos sadja in zelenjave. Šolski obroki bi morali pogosteje vsebovati zelenjavo, stročnice in ribe. Za spodbujanje telesne aktivnosti bi morali mladim šport približati kot vrednoto, dostopno vsem mladostnikom.

  20. HERBICIDAS PARA EL CONTROL DE Spermacoce tenuior L EN PAPAYA (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bogantes-Arias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la eficacia de varios herbicidas en el control de Spermacoce tenuior y otras arvenses en papa ya, se realizó un ensayo en el 2007, en una plantación de papa ya "Pococí" ubicada en Guápiles, en el Ca ribe de Costa Ri ca. La primera etapa consistió en la evaluación de seis tratamie ntos posemergentes (1. Glifosato 24 SL, 2. Glifosato 68 SG , 3. Glifosato 24 SL + carfentrazone 24 EC , 4. Glifosato 68 SG + carfentrazone 24 EC , 5. Glifosato 24 SL + metsulfurón metil 60 WG, 6. Glifosato 24 SL + oxifluorfen 24 EC. En la segunda etapa se evaluaron tres preemergentes (1. Orizalina 75 WP, 2. Oxifluorfen 12 EC, 3. Acetaclor 90 EC; distribuidos en bloques al azar. Se evaluó la cobertura de especie s antes y después de la aplicación, daño al cultivo, altura y grosor de plantas de papa ya. El tratamie nto posemergente glifosato (0,94 kg i.a./ ha + metsulfurón (16 g i.a./ha en aplicación dirigida, mostró el mejor control de malezas a partir de la segunda y hasta la sexta semana después de la aplicación (SDA, sin observarse daño en el cultivo. El herbicida preemergente orizalina (3 kg i.a./ha mostró el mejor control de Spermacoce tenuior hasta las 14 SDA tanto en el lomillo como en la rodaja. No se observó fitotoxidad en el cultivo.

  1. Avatar in the Amazon - Narratives of Cultural Conversion and Environmental Salvation between Cultural Theory and Popular Culture

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    John Ødemark

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 the New York Times reported that '[t]ribes of Amazon Find an Ally Out of "Avatar"', James Cameron. The alliance was against the building of Belo Monte, a hydroelectricdam in the Xingu River in Brazil. Cameron made a documentary about Belo Monte, A Message from Pandora. Here he states that Avatar becomes real in the struggle against the dam. This appears to confirm U. K. Heise's observation that the 'Amazon rainforest has long functioned as a complex symbol of exotic natural abundance, global ecological connectedness, and environmental crisis'. This construal, however, downplays the 'symbols' cultural components. In this article I show that the image of an ecological 'rainforest Indian' and a particular kind of culture constitutes a crucial part of the Amazon as 'a complex' cross-disciplinary 'symbol'. Firstly, I examine how an Amazonian topology (closeness to nature, natural cultures is both a product of an interdisciplinary history, and a place to speak from for ethno-political activist. Next I analyze how Amazonian cultures have been turned into 'ethnological isolates' representing a set of grand theoretical problems in anthropology, not least concerning the nature/culture-distinction, and how environmentalism has deployed the same topology. Finally I examine how Avatar and one of its cinematic intertexts, John Boorman's The Emerald Forest, is used as a model to understand the struggle over the Belo Monte. In a paradoxical way the symbolic power of indigenous people in ecological matters here appears to be dependent upon a non-relation, and a reestablishment of clear cut cultural boundaries, where 'the tribal' is also associated with the human past. Disturbingly such symbolic exportation of solutions is consonant with current exportations of the solution of ecological problems to 'other places'.

  2. ANALISIS PSICOLOGICO DEL ARBITRAJE Y JUICIO DEPORTIVOS: UNA APROXIMACION DESDE EL MODELO INTERCONDUCTUAL

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    J.C. Caracuel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La Psicología del Deporte no es solamente, como comenta Riera, psicología del deportista; todas las demás
    personas involucradas, directa o indirectamente, en dicha actividad son sujetos potenciales de esta disciplina.
    Posiblemente, una de las personas más estrechamente vinculadas al desarrollo y/o resultado final de una
    competición deportiva sean los jueces y árbitros. En el presente trabajo, los autores se ocupan de analizar la
    influencia que los factores psicológicos tienen sobre tales personas a la hora de decidir y/o valorar la legalidad
    o la calificación de las ejecuciones de los sujetos en las competiciones deportivas. Como punto de partida se
    adopta la conceptualización de la percepción como una respuesta interactiva -y no meramente pasiva- del
    organismo en relación con el medio, siguiendo los lineamientos del enfoque interconductual. Ello permite
    analizar la actuación de árbitros y jueces de acuerdo con el modelo de campo propuesto por Kantor y Ribes,
    identificando los elementos integrantes, así como sus interrelaciones. Se valora la influencia de tales variables
    -más específicamente- como factores a tener en cuenta tanto en la percepción como en la toma de decisiones que
    tienen lugar en el quehacer de jueces y árbitros. Finalmente se hacen algunas sugerencias respecto a orientaciones
    futuras a seguir en orden a mejorar tanto el análisis de los comportamientos de jueces y árbitros como su
    formación.

  3. Inhibition of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α by Medicinal Plants in Relation to Their Phenolic Content

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    Eva Arnold

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cytosolic phospholipase A2α(cPLA2α is one of the potential targets for anti-inflammatory drugs, since this enzyme plays a key role in the inflammation processes seen in health disorders, like asthma, allergic reactions, arthritis and neuronal diseases. In this study, cPLA2α inhibition by 43 methanol extracts from medicinal plants rich in polyphenols was determined. The eight most active extracts were derived from Ribes nigrum (IC50 of 27.7 μg/mL, Ononis spinosa (IC50 of 39.4 μg/mL, Urtica dioica (IC50 of 44.32 μg/mL, Betula sp. (IC50 of 58.02 μg/mL, Sanguisorba officinalis (IC50 of 76.25 μg/mL, Orthosiphon stamineus (IC50 of 78.83 μg/mL, Petasites hybridus (IC50 of 81.02 μg/mL and Tussilago farfara (IC50 of 123.28 μg/mL. Additionally, the antioxidant activities of these extracts were determined with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay and their phenolic content with the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent. Antioxidant activity showed a non-linear, positive correlation to the phenolic content, but no correlation of PLA2 inhibition with phenolic content could be established. This study provides evidence that cPLA2α may be a relevant target for anti-inflammatory agents.

  4. Preliminary Screening of a Classical Ayurvedic Formulation for Anticonvulsant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Arnab; Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Ashish; Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Seth, Ankit

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a serious and complex central nervous system disorder associated with recurrent episodes of convulsive seizures due to the imbalance between excitatory (glutamatergic) and inhibitory (GABAergic) neurotransmitters level in the brain. The available treatments are neither competent to control the seizures nor prevent progress of disease. Since ages, Herbal medicines have remained important sources of medicines in many parts of world which is evidenced through their uses in traditional systems of medicine i.e. Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Homeopathy and Chinese etc. A polyherbal formulation (containing Terminalia chebula Retz., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Embelia ribes Burm. F, Acorus calamus L., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers, Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy, Saussurea lappa C.B.Clarke, Achyranthes aspera L.) is mentioned in Ayurvedic classics Bhaiṣajya Ratnāvali . The aim of the study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of the formulation in Maximum electroshock and Pentylenetetrazole induced convulsions in rats. In the present study, a polyherbal formulation was developed as directed by classical text and evaluated for the anticonvulsant activity using Maximal Electroshock Shock (MES) and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convulsions in rats. Statistical comparison was done by one way ANOVA followed by the Tukey's multiple comparison test. The obtained results showed that the PHF had a protective role on epilepsy. Treatment with PHF significantly improves antioxidant enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels significantly as compared to controls. PHF also significantly decreased malonaldialdehyde (MDA) levels in the brain. Moreover, it also attenuated the PTZ-induced increase in the activity of GABA-T in the rat brain. These findings suggest that PHF might have possible efficacy in the treatment of epilepsy.

  5. Análisis de dos tipos de refuerzo a flexión de forjados de semiviguetas

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    Ramírez, José L.

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available Slabs are the most costly structural elements in a building, often accounting for more than 20 % of the cost of the building. Therefore, and as a continuation of previous works on columns and beams, the authors are working on a research project relative to the strengthening of slabs, both massive concrete slabs and those in joist construction form. This article presents the results of flexural strengthening carried out by attaching steel mesh to the bottom of joist construction slabs with adhesive mortar or shot concrete. Very good results were obtained, which are hard to explain, if it is taken into account that 85 % of the reinforcement is adhered to the porous concrete filling piedes between ribes which are of no significant strength in the calculation, and only 15 % to the resistant ribs bottoms.

    Los forjados constituyen el elemento estructural de mayor incidencia económica en el coste de un edificio de plantas, alcanzando porcentajes respecto al valor total del inmueble que superan habitualmente el 20%. Por ello, y continuando trabajos anteriores en torno a pilares y vigas, se está desarrollando por los autores un proyecto de investigación relativo al refuerzo de forjados, tanto en forma de losa maciza como confeccionados a partir de semiviguetas. En el presente artículo se exponen los resultados del refuerzo a flexión adhiriendo malla de acero a la parte inferior de los forjados de semiviguetas por medio de mortero adherente u hormigón proyectado. Se comprueban muy buenos resultados, difícilmente esperables contando con que la nueva armadura está adherida en un 85% a la parte inferior de las bovedillas de relleno, sin consideración resistente en el cálculo, y sólo en un 15% a la semivigueta resistente.

  6. Stability of Anthocyanins from Commercial Black Currant Juice under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion

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    Alija Uzunović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are effective antioxidants but they have also been proposed to have other biological activities independent of their antioxidant capacities that produce health benefits. Examples range from inhibition of cancer cell growth in vitro, induction of insulin production in isolated pancreatic cells, reduction of starch digestion through inhibition of a-glucosidase activity, suppression of inflammatory responses as well as protection against age-related declines in cognitive behavior and neuronal dysfunction in the central nervous system. However, to achieve any biological effect in a specific tissue or organ, anthocyanins must be bioavailable; i.e. effectively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT into the circulation and delivered to the appropriate location within the body. In this study, we assess the stability of anthocyanins from commercial Black currant (Ribes nigrum L. juice using an in vitro digestion procedure that mimics the physiochemical and biochemical conditions encountered in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. The main objective of this work was the evaluation of stability of anthocyanins during in vitro digestion in gastric and intestinal fluid regarding whether appropriate enzyme (pepsin or pancreatin was added or not. Anthocyanins present in commercial black currant juice remain stable during in vitro digestion in gastric fluid regardless whether pepsin was added into the medium or not. Also, they remain stable during in vitro digestion in simulated intestinal fluid without pancreatin. The stability studies of anthocyanins in the intestinal fluid containing pancreatin indicated reduced stability, which also mainly contribute to slight reduction of total anthocyanins content (1,83%- in commercial black currant juice.

  7. EFECTO DE DOS TIPOS DE FUNDAS SOBRE EL FRUTO DE BANANO (Musa AAA

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    Alfonso Vargas-Calvo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de dos fundas en la protección del racimo de banano (Musa AAA . En dos épocas climáticas (adversa y favorable bajo condiciones del Ca ribe de Costa Ri ca se evaluaron dos fundas: 1- azul Sa nta Lucía (bifentrina 0,1%, polie tileno de 12,7 ¿ de grosor, con perforaciones de 4 mm y 86,4 cm de ancho y 2- transparente con aditivos para filtrar la luz ultravioleta e infrarroja (bifentrina 0,1%, 20,3 ¿ de grosor, con perforaciones de 4 mm y 88,9 cm de ancho. El peso del racimo así como el grosor y la longitud del fruto central de la fila externa en la segunda, cuarta y sexta mano no difirieron (P> 0,0556 entre ambas fundas. Tampoco hubo diferencias entre estas en la apa rie ncia del racimo (P>0,4699 ni en la firmeza de la cáscara en grado 1 de maduración (P= 0,6268. En las varia bles de medición del color del fruto solamente L* presentó un valor (56,48 más alto (P=0,0109 con la funda transparente fotosensible, mie ntras que las otras dos varia bles relacionadas (a* y b* no fueron diferentes (P>0,1011 entre las fundas. El incremento adicional de 7,6 ¿ en el grosor del polie tileno de la funda transparente con respecto a la azul Sa nta Lucía, no ocasionó un incremento productivo ni una mejor apa rie ncia del racimo de banano y sus frutos.

  8. Dose response of micronuclei induced by combination radiation of α-particles and γ-rays in human lymphoblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Ruiping; He, Mingyuan; Dong, Chen; Xie, Yuexia; Ye, Shuang; Yuan, Dexiao [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► α-Particle induced MN had a biphasic dose–response followed by a bystander model. ► MN dose–response of α- and γ-combination IR was similar to that of α-particle. ► α-Particles followed by γ-rays yielded a synergistic effect on MN induction. ► Low dose γ-rays triggered antagonistic and adaptive responses against α-particle. - Abstract: Combination radiation is a real situation of both nuclear accident exposure and space radiation environment, but its biological dosimetry is still not established. This study investigated the dose–response of micronuclei (MN) induction in lymphocyte by irradiating HMy2.CIR lymphoblast cells with α-particles, γ-rays, and their combinations. Results showed that the dose–response of MN induced by γ-rays was well-fitted with the linear-quadratic model. But for α-particle irradiation, the MN induction had a biphasic phenomenon containing a low dose hypersensitivity characteristic and its dose response could be well-stimulated with a state vector model where radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) was involved. For the combination exposure, the dose response of MN was similar to that of α-irradiation. However, the yield of MN was closely related to the sequence of irradiations. When the cells were irradiated with α-particles at first and then γ-rays, a synergistic effect of MN induction was observed. But when the cells were irradiated with γ-rays followed by α-particles, an antagonistic effect of MN was observed in the low dose range although this combination radiation also yielded a synergistic effect at high doses. When the interval between two irradiations was extended to 4 h, a cross-adaptive response against the other irradiation was induced by a low dose of γ-rays but not α-particles.

  9. L’herbari de l’Institut Botànic de Barcelona com una eina per la conservació dels tàxons endèmics i amenaçats de Catalunya

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    Gavioli, L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The herbarium of the Botanic Institute of Barcelona (BC is the largest collection of plants of Catalonia and the second of Spain due to its volume, and it is representative of the flora of the western Mediterranean region. It includes, apart from the general collection, other historical collections (from 17th to early 20th century. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate if the endemic and threatened taxa of Catalonia are represented in the herbarium. We also provide chronological and geographical information of herborization intensity, as well as altitudinal, chorological, chronological, phenological and over-collection risk new data. We analyzed the general collection and part of informatized historical herbaria (Cadevall, Hieraciotheca Gallica et Hispanica, Institució Catalana d’Història Natural, Salvador, Societat Botànica Barcelonesa and Trèmols [volumes I-XXI]. Specimens collected from Catalonia have been found to represent 82.24% of the 304 endemic and threatened taxa. The areas with more herborization pressure were Ribes Valley, Montserrat, Port Massif, Cardó Mountains, Montseny and Montsec Mountains. The new chorological data provided expands the distribution of Berberis vulgaris L. subsp. seroi O. Bolòs & Vigo and Stachys maritima Gouan. New altitudinal and phenological data are provided for nine and 40 taxa, respectively.

    El herbario del Instituto Botánico de Barcelona (BC es la colección de plantas más importante de Cataluña y la segunda de España y es representativo de la flora de la región mediterránea occidental. Incluye la colección general y otras colecciones históricas (desde el siglo XVII hasta principios del XX. Los objetivos principales de este trabajo han sido evaluar la representatividad de los táxones endémicos y amenazados de Cataluña en el herbario así como aportar información de tipo cronológico y geográfico de intensidad de recolección y

  10. Herb-drug interaction of Nisha Amalaki and Curcuminoids with metformin in normal and diabetic condition: A disease system approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengule, Sushant; Kumbhare, Kalyani; Patil, Dada; Mishra, Sanjay; Apte, Kishori; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2018-05-01

    Nisha Amalaki (NA), formulation with Curcuma longa Linn (Turmeric, Haridra, Nisha in Sanskrit; Family: Zingiberaceae) and Phyllanthus emblica Linn (Indian gooseberry, Amlaki in Sanskrit; Family: Phyllanthaceae) which is described for various diseases including diabetes in ayurvedic texts and Nighantus. The aim of the present study was to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) interactions of chemically standardized NA and Curcuminoids (CE) with metformin (MET) in normal and diabetic animals. Oral administration of NA (200 mg/kg) and CE (30 mg/kg) was carried out for seven days followed by co-administration of MET till fifteen days. MET plasma PK parameters including C max , AUC 0-∞ , t 1/2 , CL and V d were measured on the eighth day. PD parameters including plasma glucose AUC followed by oral glucose tolerance test, high-density lipoproteins (HDL), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were measured on the fifteenth day. In normal animals, co-administration of NA + MET and CE + MET resulted in significant increase (p < 0.05) in C max , AUC 0-∞ , t 1/2, and reduction of CL and V d . We report that co-administration of NA + MET and CE + MET significantly (p < 0.01, p < 0.001) reduced plasma glucose level, HDL level while a notable reduction in TG and TC level was observed. Interestingly, in diabetic condition, co-administration of NA + MET and CE + MET indicated a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in C max , AUC 0-∞ , t 1/2 and enhanced CL and V d. Hence, to conclude, co-administration of NA + MET and CE + MET resulted in beneficial PK and PD interactions leading to antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects in both conditions. However, PK interaction was drastically different in diabetic and normal conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy Scripts: Poha Berry (Physalis peruviana) with Potential Anti-inflammatory and Cancer Prevention Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Leng Chee; Sang-Ngern, Mayuramas; Pezzuto, John M; Ma, Carolyn

    2016-11-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy, during a historic event in Spring 2016, graduated the first two students in the Pacific region to earn a PhD in pharmaceutical sciences at the University of Hawai'i at Hilo. The college offers PhD programs in these five disciplines: Cancer Biology, Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmaceutics, Pharmacognosy, and Pharmacology. One of the Pharmacognosy dissertations focused on plant-derived natural products with potential anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive activities. Physalis peruviana (Pp) L. originated in tropical South America. It has become naturalized and is found readily on the Island of Hawai'i. The edible fruits are commonly known as cape gooseberry or poha in Hawai'i. In part of our study, three new withanolides, physaperuvin G ( 1 ), physaperuvins I-J ( 2 - 3 ), along with four known withanolides, namely, 4β-hydroxywithanolide E ( 4 ), withaperuvin C ( 5 ), and physalactone ( 6 ), coagulin ( 7 ) were isolated from the aerial parts of P. peruviana . In addition, two known compounds, phyperunolide F ( 8 ), and withanolide S ( 9 ), were isolated and identified from the poha berry fruits. The structures and absolute stereochemistry of new compounds from poha were elucidated by several spectroscopy methods: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mass spectrometry analyses. All isolated poha compounds (aerial parts and fruits) were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) with transfected human embryonic kidney cells 293. Most of the isolated natural compounds showed activity with these assays. Additional studies were performed with models of colon cancer. Specifically, 4β-hydroxywithanolide E (4HWE) inhibited the growth of colon cancer monolayer and spheroid cultures. The compound induced cell cycle arrest at low

  12. The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Leng Chee; Sang-ngern, Mayuramas; Pezzuto, John M; Ma, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye College of Pharmacy, during a historic event in Spring 2016, graduated the first two students in the Pacific region to earn a PhD in pharmaceutical sciences at the University of Hawai‘i at Hilo. The college offers PhD programs in these five disciplines: Cancer Biology, Medicinal Chemistry, Pharmaceutics, Pharmacognosy, and Pharmacology. One of the Pharmacognosy dissertations focused on plant-derived natural products with potential anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive activities. Physalis peruviana (Pp) L. originated in tropical South America. It has become naturalized and is found readily on the Island of Hawai‘i. The edible fruits are commonly known as cape gooseberry or poha in Hawai‘i. In part of our study, three new withanolides, physaperuvin G (1), physaperuvins I–J (2–3), along with four known withanolides, namely, 4β-hydroxywithanolide E (4), withaperuvin C (5), and physalactone (6), coagulin (7) were isolated from the aerial parts of P. peruviana. In addition, two known compounds, phyperunolide F (8), and withanolide S (9), were isolated and identified from the poha berry fruits. The structures and absolute stereochemistry of new compounds from poha were elucidated by several spectroscopy methods: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and mass spectrometry analyses. All isolated poha compounds (aerial parts and fruits) were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) with transfected human embryonic kidney cells 293. Most of the isolated natural compounds showed activity with these assays. Additional studies were performed with models of colon cancer. Specifically, 4β-hydroxywithanolide E (4HWE) inhibited the growth of colon cancer monolayer and spheroid cultures. The compound induced cell cycle arrest at low concentrations and

  13. Relations between total phosphorus and orthophosphorus concentrations and rainfall, surface-water discharge, and groundwater levels in Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation, Florida, 2014–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, W. Scott; Sifuentes, Dorothy F.

    2018-02-06

    The Seminole Tribe of Florida (the Tribe) is partnering with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop a numeric phosphorus criterion for the 52,000-acre Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation (BCSIR), which is located downgradient of the Everglades Agricultural Area, and of other public and private lands, in southeastern Hendry County and northwestern Broward County in southern Florida. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Tribe, used water-quality data collected between October 2014 and September 2016 by the Tribe and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), along with data from rainfall gages, surface-water stage and discharge gages, and groundwater monitoring wells, to (1) examine the relations between local hydrology and measured total phosphorus (TP) and orthophosphorus (OP) concentrations and (2) identify explanatory variables for TP concentrations. Of particular concern were conditions when TP exceeded 10 parts per billion (ppb) (0.01 milligram per liter [mg/L]) given that the State of Florida and the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians Alligator Alley Reservation (located downstream of the BCSIR) have adopted a 10-ppb maximum TP criterion for surface waters.From October 2014 to September 2016, the Tribe collected 47–52 samples at each of nine water-quality sites for analysis of TP and OP, except at one site where 28 samples were collected. For all sites sampled, concentrations of TP (as phosphorus [P]) ranged from less than 0.002 mg/L (2 ppb) to a maximum of nearly 0.50 mg/L (500 ppb), whereas concentrations of OP (as P), the reactive form of inorganic phosphorus readily absorbed by plants and (or) abiotically absorbed, ranged from less than 0.003 mg/L (3 ppb) to a maximum of 0.24 mg/L (240 ppb). The median and interquartile ranges of concentrations of TP and OP in the samples collected in 2014–16 by the Tribe were similar to the median and interquartile ranges of concentrations in samples collected by the SFWMD at

  14. Soil and art: the Spanish Society of Soil Science calendar for 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Poch, Rosa M.; Díaz-Fierros, Francisco; Pérez-Moreira, Roxelio; Asins, Sabina; Porta, Jaume; Cortés, Amparo; Badía, David; Del Moral, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    The Spanish Society of Soil Science (SECS: www.secs.com.es) is preparing since 2009 a calendar dealing with a topic chosen by its members, with the main aim to disseminate the importance of the soil to the society. In this contribution, we want to show the calendar 2016, developed during 2015, (International Year of Soils) dedicated to soil and art. We chose, for the twelve months of the year, a selection of paintings where soil is present, and where we, as soil scientists, can interpret what the artist observed about the soil or its management. An introduction written by professor F. Díaz-Fierros describes the evolution of different styles in different regions of Western Europe and US, and how soil was reflected in artworks. The selected paintings date from XV century to current times, by autors of different schools of art and very varying styles. The main features shown in these paintings are soil colour, soil structure, horizonation, and even soil profiles that can be classified. Other paintings show ploughing as main land management practice, and also soil conservation practices and the effects of fire as soil degradation. Artworks included in the calendar (in order of appearance): The ploughed field. 1888. Vincent Van Gogh. Zundert, The Netherlands (1853-1869) Los Cigarrales (alrededores de Toledo). Aureliano de Beruete y Moret. ca. 1905. Casa del Museo Goya - Museo de Arte Hispánico. Castres (France) Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Miniature. Musée Condé, Bibliothèque, Chantilly (France)(1413-1416). Paul, Jean and Herman de Limbourg The Dunes near Haarlem. 1667. Jan Wijnants. (1632-1684). National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin. Archaeology: Rooted in the Past. 2010. GC Myers, New York, USA (1959) La forêt au sol rouge. 1891. Georges Lacombe, Versalles (1868-1916) Sitges des de la Creu de Ribes. 1892. Santiago Rusiñol. Barcelona (1861-1931). Courtesy of the Colección Carmen Thyssen-Bornemisza (Madrid) De Kruisdraging. 1606. Pieter Brueghel the

  15. Photon hormesis deactivates alpha-particle induced bystander effects between zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.Y.P.; Cheng, S.H.; Yu, K.N.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we studied the effects of low-dose X-ray photons on the alpha-particle induced bystander effects between embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The effects on the naive whole embryos were studied through quantification of apoptotic signals (amounts of cells undergoing apoptosis) at 24 h post fertilization (hpf) using vital dye acridine orange staining, followed by counting the stained cells under a fluorescent microscope. We report data showing that embryos at 5 hpf subjected to a 4.4 mGy alpha-particle irradiation could release a stress signal into the medium, which could induce bystander effect in partnered naive embryos sharing the same medium. We also report that the bystander effect was deactivated when the irradiated embryos were subjected to a concomitant irradiation of 10 or 14 mGy of X-rays, but no such deactivation was achieved if the concomitant X-ray dose dropped to 2.5 or 5 mGy. In the present study, the significant drop in the amount of apoptotic signals on the embryos having received 4.4 mGy alpha particles together X-rays irradiation from 2.5 or 5 mGy to 10 or 14 mGy, together with the deactivation of RIBE with concomitant irradiation of 10 or 14 mGy of X-rays supported the participation of photon hormesis with an onset dose between 5 and 10 mGy, which might lead to removal of aberrant cells through early apoptosis or induction of high-fidelity DNA repair. As we found that photons and alpha particles could have opposite biological effects when these were simultaneously irradiated onto living organisms, these ionizing radiations could be viewed as two different environmental stressors, and the resultant effects could be regarded as multiple stressor effects. The present work presented the first study on a multiple stressor effect which occurred on bystander organisms. In other words, this was a non-targeted multiple stressor effect. The photon hormesis could also explain some failed attempts to observe neutron-induced bystander

  16. Insights of asphaltene aggregation mechanism from molecular dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer De León

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el proceso de agregación de asfaltenos utilizando té cnicas de dinámica molecular. Se utilizaron cuatro estructuras diferentes. Las primeras tres moléculas tienen una estructura continental, con núcleos aromáticos condensador, mientras que la cuarta pose e una estructura tipo archipiélago, con pequeños grupos de anillos ar omáticos conectados con cadenas saturadas. Las moléculas fueron construidas de manera atomística, en la cual cada átomo se desc ribe individualmente. Se calcula ron las fuerzas de interacción a 300 K y 200 atm; las fuerzas de Van der W aals y las interacciones elect rostáticas fueron evaluadas separadamente. Se calculó el paráme tro de solubilidad para las cuatro molécu las. Se encontró que las inte racciones de Van der Waals asoc iadas a los anillos aromáticos y las fuerzas electrostáticas ocasionadas princ ipalmente por la presencia de heteroátomos como oxígeno, azufr e y nitrógeno, son igualmente r elevantes en la agregación de moléculas de asfalteno. Para todas las molé culas se encontró que los sistemas de asfaltenos tienen menor e nergía en estado de agregación que en estado monomérico. Para las estruct uras continentales, la presencia de largas cadenas obstruye el proceso de formación de agregados. Para las estructuras tipo archipiélago, la flexibilidad de las moléculas facilita la agregación con ot ras estructuras. La presencia de heteroátomos ocasiona una fuerza repulsiva que dificulta la agregación. El volumen molecular y la energía de c ohesión también son sensibles a la confi guración geométrica y la compos ición de las especies, lo cual afecta el parámetro de solubilidad.

  17. U-Pb SHRIMP-RG zircon ages and Nd signature of lower Paleozoic rifting-related magmatism in the Variscan basement of the Eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, F.J.; Iriondo, A.; Dietsch, C.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Peucat, J.J.; Cires, J.; Reche, J.; Capdevila, R.

    2011-01-01

    The ages of orthogneisses exposed in massifs of the Variscan chain can determine whether they are part of a pre-Neoproterozoic basement, a Neoproterozoic, Panafrican arc, or are, in fact, lower Paleozoic, and their isotopic compositions can be used to probe the nature of their source rocks, adding to the understanding of the types, distribution, and tectonic evolution of peri-Gondwanan crystalline basement. Using SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology and Nd isotopic analysis, pre-Variscan metaigneous rocks from the N??ria massif in the Eastern Pyrenean axial zone and the Guilleries massif, 70km to the south, have been dated and their Nd signatures characterized. All dated orthogneisses from the N??ria massif have the same age within error, ~457Ma, including the Ribes granophyre, interpreted as a subvolcanic unit within Caradocian sediments contemporaneous with granitic magmas intruded into Cambro-Ordovician sediments at deeper levels. Orthogneisses in the Guilleries massif record essentially continuous magmatic activity during the Ordovician, beginning at the Cambro-Ordovician boundary (488??3Ma) and reaching a peak in the volume of magma in the early Late Ordovician (~460Ma). Metavolcanic rocks in the Guilleries massif were extruded at 452??4Ma and appear to have their intrusive equivalent in thin, deformed veins of granitic gneiss (451??7Ma) within metasedimentary rocks. In orthogneisses from both massifs, the cores of some zircons yield Neoproterozoic ages between ~520 and 900Ma. The age of deposition of a pre-Late Ordovician metapelite in the Guilleries massif is bracketed by the weighted average age of the youngest detrital zircon population, 582??11Ma, and the age of cross-cutting granitic veins, 451??7Ma. Older detrital zircons populations in this metapelite include Neoproterozoic (749-610Ma; n=10), Neo- to Mesoproterozoic (1.04-0.86Ga; n=7), Paleoproterozoic (2.02-1.59Ga; n=5), and Neoarchean (2.74-2.58Ga; n=3). Nd isotopic analyses of the N??ria and Guilleries

  18. Photobacterium kishitanii sp. nov., a luminous marine bacterium symbiotic with deep-sea fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, Jennifer C; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Engelbeen, Katrien; Urbanczyk, Henryk; Thompson, Fabiano L; De Vos, Paul; Dunlap, Paul V

    2007-09-01

    Six representatives of a luminous bacterium commonly found in association with deep, cold-dwelling marine fishes were isolated from the light organs and skin of different fish species. These bacteria were Gram-negative, catalase-positive, and weakly oxidase-positive or oxidase-negative. Morphologically, cells of these strains were coccoid or coccoid-rods, occurring singly or in pairs, and motile by means of polar flagellation. After growth on seawater-based agar medium at 22 degrees C for 18 h, colonies were small, round and white, with an intense cerulean blue luminescence. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity placed these bacteria in the genus Photobacterium. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven housekeeping gene sequences (16S rRNA gene, gapA, gyrB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and rpoD), seven gene sequences of the lux operon (luxC, luxD, luxA, luxB, luxF, luxE and luxG) and four gene sequences of the rib operon (ribE, ribB, ribH and ribA), resolved the six strains as members of the genus Photobacterium and as a clade distinct from other species of Photobacterium. These strains were most closely related to Photobacterium phosphoreum and Photobacterium iliopiscarium. DNA-DNA hybridization values between the designated type strain, Photobacterium kishitanii pjapo.1.1(T), and P. phosphoreum LMG 4233(T), P. iliopiscarium LMG 19543(T) and Photobacterium indicum LMG 22857(T) were 51, 43 and 19 %, respectively. In AFLP analysis, the six strains clustered together, forming a group distinct from other analysed species. The fatty acid C(17 : 0) cyclo was present in these bacteria, but not in P. phosphoreum, P. iliopiscarium or P. indicum. A combination of biochemical tests (arginine dihydrolase and lysine decarboxylase) differentiates these strains from P. phosphoreum and P. indicum. The DNA G+C content of P. kishitanii pjapo.1.1(T) is 40.2 %, and the genome size is approximately 4.2 Mbp, in the form of two circular chromosomes. These strains represent a novel species, for

  19. Negative effects of a high tumour necrosis factor-α concentration on human gingival mesenchymal stem cell trophism: the use of natural compounds as modulatory agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Chiara; Natali, Letizia; Nisi, Marco; De Leo, Marinella; Daniele, Simona; Costa, Barbara; Graziani, Filippo; Gabriele, Mario; Braca, Alessandra; Trincavelli, M Letizia; Martini, Claudia

    2018-05-11

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a crucial role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and in regenerative processes. Among the different MSC types, the gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) have arisen as a promising tool to promote the repair of damaged tissues secreting trophic mediators that affect different types of cells involved in regenerative processes. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α is one of the key mediators of inflammation that could affect tissue regenerative processes and modify the MSC properties in in-vitro applications. To date, no data have been reported on the effects of TNF-α on GMSC trophic activities and how its modulation with anti-inflammatory agents from natural sources could modulate the GMSC properties. GMSCs were isolated and characterized from healthy subjects. The effects of TNF-α were evaluated on GMSCs and on the well-being of endothelial cells. The secretion of cytokines was measured and related to the modification of GMSC-endothelial cell communication using a conditioned-medium method. The ability to modify the inflammatory response was evaluated in the presence of Ribes nigrum bud extract (RBE). TNF-α differently affected GMSC proliferation and the expression of inflammatory-related proteins (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2) dependent on its concentration. A high TNF-α concentration decreased the GMSC viability and impaired the positive cross-talk between GMSCs and endothelial cells, probably by enhancing the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the GMSC secretome. RBE restored the beneficial effects of GMSCs on endothelial viability and motility under inflammatory conditions. A high TNF-α concentration decreased the well-being of GMSCs, modifying their trophic activities and decreasing endothelial cell healing. These data highlight the importance of controlling TNF-α concentrations to maintain the trophic activity of GMSCs. Furthermore, the

  20. The role of rock fragment cover on soil erosion in conventional vineyards in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Jordán, Antonio; García-Díaz, Andrés; Brevik, Eric C.; Pereira, Paulo; Keesstra, Saskia; Novara, Agata; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    and Vegetation Affect Soil Erosion in Eastern Spain. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 63. doi:10.2136/sssaj1999.03615995006300020014x Cerdà, A., 1997. Soil erosion after land abandonment in a semiarid environment of southeastern Spain. Arid Soil Res. Rehabil. 11, 163-176. doi:10.1080/15324989709381469 Jiménez, M.N., Fernández-Ondoño, E., Ripoll, M.Á., Castro-Rodríguez, J., Huntsinger, L., Navarro, F.B., 2016. Stones and Organic Mulches Improve the Quercus Ilex L. Afforestation Success Under Mediterranean Climatic Conditions. Land Degrad. Dev. 27, 357-365. doi:10.1002/ldr.2250 Martínez-Casasnovas, J.A., Ramos, M.C., Ribes-Dasi, M., 2005. On-site effects of concentrated flow erosion in vineyard fields: some economic implications. Catena 60, 129-146. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2004.11.006 Prosdocimi, M., Cerdà, A., Tarolli, P., 2016. Soil water erosion on Mediterranean vineyards: A review. Catena 141, 1-21. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2016.02.010 Rodrigo Comino, J., Brings, C., Lassu, T., Iserloh, T., Senciales, J., Martínez Murillo, J., Ruiz Sinoga, J., Seeger, M., Ries, J., 2015. Rainfall and human activity impacts on soil losses and rill erosion in vineyards (Ruwer Valley, Germany). Solid Earth 6, 823-837. doi:10.5194/se-6-823-2015 Rodrigo Comino, J., Iserloh, T., Lassu, T., Cerdà, A., Keestra, S.D., Prosdocimi, M., Brings, C., Marzen, M., Ramos, M.C., Senciales, J.M., Ruiz Sinoga, J.D., Seeger, M., Ries, J.B., 2016. Quantitative comparison of initial soil erosion processes and runoff generation in Spanish and German vineyards. Sci. Total Environ. 565, 1165-1174. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.05.163

  1. Study on Radioecology and Tracer of Iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaolin, Hou

    2004-01-01

    Iodine-129 (15.7 Ma) is a naturally occurring radioisotope of iodine. The ratio of 129 I/ 127 I was estimated to be ∼ 10 -12 in the ocean and 10 -11 in the territorial environment in pre-nuclear era, releases from nuclear weapon tests have increased this ratio to ∼ 10 -10 . However, a large amount of iodine-129 was released from various nuclear facilities, and the greatest releases of 129 I are from two European reprocessing plants, especially in recent years. By 1998, 2600 Kg and 220 Kg 129 I have been discharged to the marine environment and atmosphere from La Hague (France) and Sellafield reprocessing plants, respectively. This amount is tens times larger than the total 129 I inventory in the pre-nuclear ocean and weapon test releases. Although there is no significant radiation risk for the human health at present level of 129 I, the continuously increasing production and release of 129 I make the accumulation of 129 I in the environment, immigration, cycle and long term radioecological risk should be give more attention due to its long half-life, high accumulation in human thyroid and high mobility. Iodine is a conservative element in the ocean, the large amount of iodine-129 discharged to the marine system can therefore be used as a oceanographic tracer to study the physical dispersion, mixing and circulative processes of water mass in the ocean. In Riso national laboratory, a radiochemical neutron activation analysis method was developed, using this method the radioecology and tracer of iodine-129 was studied. Some representative works are presented below. (1) Evaluation of radiation exposure of humans to iodine-129. The human and animal thyroids collected from different places, such as Tianjin in China, Gemol in Belarus, Ribe in Denmark, human urine in Denmark, seafood in China were analysed for iodine-129 concentration and 129 I/ 127 I ratio, the exposure level were compared with other places. (2) Reconstruction of radiation dose from I-131 in the