Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard
foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...
Ball, C S
Nutrition is a final common pathway in chronic disease, and weight loss is a major manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In sub-Saharan Africa, studies have shown that 25% of children with malnutrition have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, although patterns of malnutrition are indistinguishable from those who are HIV negative. Breast-feeding increases the risk of vertical transmission, and the overall risk versus benefit needs continuing careful consideration in relation to local mortality from gastroenteritis and malnutrition. Chronic diarrhea is much more common in HIV-infected children in Africa and may have a multiplicity of causes, including infection with adherent forms of Escherichia coli, protozoa, and even direct HIV infection of intestinal mucosal cells. The HIV wasting syndrome produces reduction in bioelectrical impedence, fat, lean body mass, and body cell mass, but the changes can be predicted from equations used in starvation states. Micronutrients may be important, but observed changes may be due to immune mediator activation, rather than malnutrition. Calorie supplementation is beneficial when delivered by any route, but is likely to produce the greatest positive change when CD4 counts are highest in relation to calorie intake. Paradoxically, HIV-infected children may be obese early in the disease until AIDS develops. There is an inextricable link between disease and nutritional status. In children with AIDS wasting syndrome, a low CD4 count and high viral load are likely so that effective antiviral treatment may ultimately produce the greatest improvement in health, including nutritional status.
Risk management in HIV/AIDS: ethical and economic issues associated with restricting HAART access only to adherent patients. ... Using the software TreeAge Pro 2009, we developed a Markov model to project economic outcomes for a hypothetical cohort of HIV/AIDS patients on HAART. The model compared two ...
HIV/AIDS is a global problem with an estimated 40 million infected people. In less than two years, this figure will leap to 100 million according to the World Health Organisation (WHO). By 2005, 65 million people will be infected. Half of the number of people in this group will be under 25 years old, and will die before they reach the age of 35. In a South African study done by the Human Science Research Council and published in 2003, regarding the impact of HIV/AIDS on the health sector, the findings were that 15% of health workers in public and private hospitals tested positive for HIV antibodies. Together with these facts above it was found that 46.2 percent of patients served in medical and paediatric wards tested positive for HIV. These factors have major implication for staffing in the future and the role of the nurse manager in South Africa. To explore the management of HIV/AIDS in the workplace of nurses in selected health services in KwaZulu-Natal. This research was part of a greater study on the exploration of the presence of caring as part of nursing management. THE METHODOLOGY: The qualitative research approach was used with a phenomenological design, which ensured that the richness and the complexities are reflected in the study. The data was collected by means of an open-ended question to nurse managers during an interview. The first question posed was; How do you or your services care for nurses in this hospital? Secondly nurse managers were asked, To explain their role in caring for HIV/AIDS positive nurses on their staff establishment. A qualitative analysis of the interviews with nurse managers indicated that they rate HIV/AIDS issues as an important part of their management task. Four main themes were identified, namely HIV/AIDS, counselling, dying of AIDS and funerals. Rich descriptions of these themes are given in this paper. Nurse managers in the health services are managing HIV/AIDS affected nurses, but are doing so without any formal policy
Full Text Available The article discusses and analyzes approaches to translating singable texts. It presents a linguistic (prosodic, lexical and structural analysis of the Slovenian translation of the musical Mamma Mia! The aim of the qualitative and quantitative study is to investigate the translation strategies used to produce a singable target text. The results of the analysis suggest that producing a prosodic match is a basic requirement, whereas the lexical, structural and/or poetic characteristics of the source text are subject to changes. Overall, the findings show that the function and the purpose of the translation play a crucial role in the prioritization of translation strategies.
Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is a global problem with an estimated 40 million infected people. In less than two years, this figure will leap to 100 million according to the World Health Organisation (WHO. By 2005,65 million people will be infected. Half of the number of people in this group will be under 25 years old, and will die before they reach the age of 35. In a South African study done by the Human Science Research Council and published in 2003, regarding the impact of HIV/AIDS on the health sector, the findings were that 15% of health workers in public and private hospitals tested positive for HIV antibodies. Together with these facts above it was found that 46.2 percent of patients served in medical and paediatric wards tested positive for HIV. These factors have major implication for staffing in the future and the role of the nurse manager in South Africa. The aim of the study: to explore the management of HIV/AIDS in the workplace of nurses in selected health services in KwaZulu-Natal. This research was part of a greater study on the exploration of the presence of caring as part of nursing management. . The methodology: the qualitative research approach was used with a phenomenological design, which ensured that the richness and the complexities are reflected in the study. The data was collected by means of an open-ended question to nurse managers during an interview. The first question posed was; How do you or your s e n ’ices care fo r nurses in this hospital? Secondly nurse managers were asked, To explain their role in caring for HIV/AIDS positive nurses on their staff establishment. . The results: a qualitative analysis of the interviews with nurse managers indicated that they rate HIV/AIDS issues as an important part of their management task. Four main themes were identified, namely HIV/AIDS, counselling, dying of AIDS and funerals. Rich descriptions of these themes are given in this paper. Nurse managers in the health services are managing HIV/AIDS
Borione, A.; Cronin, J.W.; Covault, C.E.; Fick, B.E.; Gibbs, K.G.; Krimm, H.A.; McKay, T.A.; Mueller, D.; Newport, B.J.; Ong, R.A.; Rosenberg, L.J.; Catanese, M.; Green, K.D.; Matthews, J.; Nitz, D.F.; Sinclair, D.; van der Velde, J.C.; Kieda, D.
The CASA-MIA detector was constructed to search for sources of UHE neutral radiation. As such it has established limits well below those of previously reported observations and of most contemporaneous detectors. In addition to its primary mission, however, CASA-MIA measures the lateral distribution of both electrons and muons in EAS throughout a range of energies and with a degree of sampling not previously available
de Silva, Leelananda
This eight-chapter book provides information on Official Development Assistance (ODA), its importance in relation to developed and developing countries, and its prospects and limitations. Major areas discussed include: (1) the institutional evolution of development aid; (2) forms of ODA, including project aid, program aid, bilateral aid,…
The Dutch government is committed to green growth, for a strong, sustainable economy. This requires investment in innovative environmental technologies. The Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment encourages these investments with the tools Environmental Investment Deduction (MIA) and the Random depreciation of environmental investments (Vamil). This annual report shows that entrepreneurs in 2012 made good use of MIA and Vamil. There were particularly many investments in clean driving and boating [Dutch] Het kabinet zet in op groene groei, voor een sterke, duurzame economie. Daarvoor zijn investeringen in innovatieve milieutechnieken noodzakelijk. Het ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu stimuleert deze investeringen met de instrumenten Milieu Investeringsaftrek (MIA) en de Willekeurige afschrijving milieu-investeringen (Vamil). Uit dit jaarverslag blijkt dat ondernemers in 2012 goed gebruik maakten van MIA en Vamil. Er waren met name veel investeringen in schoon rijden en varen.
Martin, Geoffrey W.
A survey found that many of British nurses (n=717) had inadequate knowledge and attitudes about people with AIDS. Educational programs should include the following content: attitudes/stereotypes, safer sex and infection control, confidentiality, epidemiology and statistics, and signs, symptoms, and progression of the syndrome. (SK)
Steinbach, Sheldon Elliot
Legal information concerning Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) that college presidents may find helpful in establishing policies and procedures is provided in a paper by the general counsel of the American Council on Education. Sources of medical information, including the American College Health Association, hotlines, and federal…
Commercial sex workers are the second target group benefiting from special programmes designed to address their particular needs in STIs/HIV/AIDS prevention and control. By targeting male workers and commercial sex workers, the agencies have failed to address married women's issues in STIs/HIV/AIDS prevention ...
In early January, a Ukrainian delegation came to Washington to discuss issues related to Ukrainian ratification of START I and accession to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The issues discussed at the meeting (US security assurances and economic aid), which were not resolved, have serious implications for START I, the NPT, and the flow-on START II agreement
Full Text Available The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research.
The paper examines intelligent sensor and sensor system development according to the Common Criteria methodology, which is the basic security assurance methodology for IT products and systems. The paper presents how the development process can be supported by software tools, design patterns and knowledge engineering. The automation of this process brings cost-, quality-, and time-related advantages, because the most difficult and most laborious activities are software-supported and the design reusability is growing. The paper includes a short introduction to the Common Criteria methodology and its sensor-related applications. In the experimental section the computer-supported and patterns-based IT security development process is presented using the example of an intelligent methane detection sensor. This process is supported by an ontology-based tool for security modeling and analyses. The verified and justified models are transferred straight to the security target specification representing security requirements for the IT product. The novelty of the paper is to provide a patterns-based and computer-aided methodology for the sensors development with a view to achieving their IT security assurance. The paper summarizes the validation experiment focused on this methodology adapted for the sensors system development, and presents directions of future research.
Wasti, Sharada Prasad; Simkhada, Padam; Randall, Julian; Van Teijlingen, Edwin
This paper explores some of the key issues and challenges of government HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programme in Nepal. Providing HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment services in Nepal is associated with a number of issues and challenges which are shaped mostly on cultural and managerial issues from grass root to policy level.\\ud Numerous efforts have been done and going on by Nepal government and non-government organization but still HIV\\ud prevention and treatment service is not able to ...
The senior advisor to the AIDSCAP Women's Initiative, Dr. E. Maxine Ankrah, is actively lobbying to secure the inclusion of HIV/AIDS language in the draft platform of the UN Fourth World Conference on Women: Action for Equality, Development and Peace scheduled for September 1995 in Beijing. She organized the only workshop on HIV/AIDS at the preparatory meeting in New York in March 1995. It examined the effects of poverty on the expanding epidemic among females. Workshop presentations included international perspectives on: the effect of structural adjustment programs on women's vulnerability; the relationship between poverty, female prostitution, and AIDS; credit schemes and education to empower rural women; reproductive rights; ethnic issues; and the need for women to help women. Obstacles that obscured the relationships between HIV/AIDS and other women's issues have been: that AIDS was initially defined as a medical problem; that risk groups were narrowly defined; and the emphasis on behavior that blames persons infected with HIV. Despite earlier obstacles, the draft platform has several sections with HIV/AIDS language. Strategic Objective C.3: Undertake Multi-Sectoral Initiatives Sensitive to Women's Life Situations addresses the HIV pandemic and other sexual and reproductive health issues. Some of the actions called for in this objective are involvement of women in decision making, expansion of peer education and outreach, and supporting research of woman-controlled prevention methods. AIDSCAP Women's Initiative and other nongovernmental organizations will work together focus attention on HIV/AIDS in Beijing. AIDSCAP plans to have resource publications available in Beijing as well as to host networking sessions. Unless it is waived, the policy prohibiting HIV-infected persons from entering China will preclude HIV-infected women from taking part in the Conference.
Gender Issues in the Prevention and Control of STIs and HIV/AIDS: Lessons from ... Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for data collection. ... Questions de genre dans la prévention et la lutte contre les IST et le VIH/SIDA: ...
the Tiger . In the course of the death march to the Yalu, at least 100 American POWs were shot by the North Koreans, accord- ing to Colbey. Blake, in...inmates with medical care. Chronic illness such as arthr’ is, asthma , hyper- tension, rheumatism, and heart disease were not treated. Millions of...aircraft, the Paper Tiger , ingested debris from a MiG that Fischer was shooting at near the Yalu River on February 16, 1953.50 By August 1954, the Chinese
Fulton, Brad R
The ambivalent response of many black churches to current social issues has caused some scholars to question the centrality of black churches within African-American communities. Using a nationally representative sample of black congregations, this study engages the debate about the institutional centrality of black churches by focusing on their response to HIV/AIDS. Although many congregational studies treat black churches as a monolithic whole, this analysis identifies heterogeneity among black churches that shapes their responsiveness to social issues. Contrary to prior claims, a congregation's liberal-conservative ideological orientation does not significantly affect its likelihood of having an HIV/AIDS program. Beyond assessing churches’ internal characteristics, this study uses institutional theory to analyze churches as open systems that can be influenced by their surrounding environment. It demonstrates that externally engaged congregations are significantly more likely to have a program. These results indicate that black churches maintain institutional centrality by engaging their external environment.
We first find a virtual accelerator for the HER or the LER through determination of all quadrupole strengths and sextupole feed-downs as well as all BPM gains and BPM cross-plane couplings by an SVD-enhanced Least-squares fitting of the quantities derivable from a complete set of orbits. These quantities are the phase advances, the Green's functions, and the tilt angles and axis ratios of the coupling eigen ellipses. They are obtained by analyzing turn-by-turn Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data with a high-resolution model-independent analysis (MIA). Once the virtual accelerator is found, we select a limited number of key quadrupoles, for example, the linear trombone quadrupoles and the global skews, for Least-square fitting of their strengths to minimize the beta beat while keeping other optics characters unchanged if not improved. We then dial in these limited number of quadrupole strength changes to the real accelerator (HER or LER) to achieve a better-performance PEP-II. Noticeable achievement by this MIA technique has been that MIA has helped PEP-II achieve its breaking record peak luminosity of 6.5 x 10 33 cm -2 s -1 in 2003 by bringing the LER working tune to near half integer and simultaneously fixing the beta beat, which would, otherwise, be difficult without MIA because of the strong LER coupling effect
Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency Search Search DPAA: Search Search DPAA: Search Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency Fulfilling Our Nation's Promise Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency Home Families Family Events Posters Contact Information Our Missing Past
HIV infections occur across the Arctic but their incidence among aboriginal populations varies vastly. At the time this research was initiated there were no data on their occurrence, risk of HIV/AIDS or preventive strategies among Inuit living in the Nunavut territory of Canada. This review is the first to assess the risk of HIV infection among Inuit and evaluate current prevention strategies among Canadian-Inuit populations. The contents of this article are based on the author's own research, undertaken during 3 visits to the Canadian Arctic and the published literature. Disproportionately high rates of Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea within Inuit communities confirm the potential threat of silent HIV transmission. Inuit awareness of HIV/AIDS issues remains inadequate. It is easy to blame distorted perceptions fuelled by the media, religious influence and socio-cultural factors. Aboriginal and Inuit groups, including youth, women and injection drug abusers are at increased risk of infection. The adaptability of proven prevention methods including condom use and male circumcision are discussed. Access to treatment, adherence and resistance issues in the North Canada, require attention. HIV/AIDS poses a considerable threat to Canadian Inuit public health. The most important problem to be addressed is Inuit lack of awareness and understanding of HIV. Education is the single most effective means of prevention. Inuit-specific and culture-sensitive interventions are recommended. Further research opportunities exist to investigate Inuit understanding over HIV/AIDS issues and to assess local prevention efforts. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...
Loh, Brian C S; Then, Patrick H H
Cardiovascular diseases are one of the top causes of deaths worldwide. In developing nations and rural areas, difficulties with diagnosis and treatment are made worse due to the deficiency of healthcare facilities. A viable solution to this issue is telemedicine, which involves delivering health care and sharing medical knowledge at a distance. Additionally, mHealth, the utilization of mobile devices for medical care, has also proven to be a feasible choice. The integration of telemedicine, mHealth and computer-aided diagnosis systems with the fields of machine and deep learning has enabled the creation of effective services that are adaptable to a multitude of scenarios. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of heart disease diagnosis and management, especially within the context of rural healthcare, as well as discuss the benefits, issues and solutions of implementing deep learning algorithms to improve the efficacy of relevant medical applications.
McGinn, Fred; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Gibson, Elaine
Much has been written since the first appearance of HIV/AIDS in 1981 about its effects on the Canadian health care and social services systems. However, researchers have given limited attention to issues of entry or re-entry to the competitive job market for HIV positive individuals. The emergence of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) has allowed a significant number of persons who are HIV positive to experience a major recovery in health and energy. This increase in physical health has in turn led to a re-examination of the possibility of returning to former types and levels of activity, including the prospect of going back to work or entering the competitive workforce for the first time. The purpose of this paper is to outline some of the issues and concerns that impact HIV positive individuals' attempts to return to or enter the competitive workforce, particularly those relating to disability policies and public insurance. Data from in-depth interviews with a sample of people living with HIV/AIDS (PHAs) are used to help illustrate the disconnect between these policies and the lived experiences of PHAs. Also discussed are the opportunities for Canadian policies and practices to employ a functional definition of disability and a philosophy of early intervention in vocational rehabilitation.
Results from the CASA-MIA cosmic ray experiment are presented. I discuss the apparatus and its performance, including new results on the identification of the shadows of the sun and moon used to determine the angular resolution. Limits on the emission of 100 TeV γ-rays from the Crab Nebula are well below extrapolations from TeV observations. A search for diffuse γ-rays from the Galactic plane give limits approaching some recent predictions. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Sacco, A; Ciavarella, M; Trevisan, A; Monteforte, Gabriella; De Santis, A
The inter-ministerial decree (D.I.) 388/03 (the Italian law on first aid in the workplace) attaches particular importance to the organization of first aid and to the content of the teaching and training of designated workers, specifying teaching objectives, programme and duration of courses. However it provides less details on the requirements and qualifications of the teachers and trainers. To discuss this topic in the light of the guidelines contained in the literature and the existing legislation. We used the specific references of literature and legislation concerning first aid training of designated workers. The objectives and the content of the training courses call for a high level of professional competence and approach. Therefore, training of designated workers should be planned and carried out in accordance with the training standards used for the teaching and training of the so-called "lay rescuers". The need to achieve high training standards for workers responsible for first aid at the workplace is to a large extent justified by the difficulty of the role of employees. This need follows the current tendency in regulations to guarantee adequate and up-dated training also for other agents operating within the system of workplace prevention. In this context the occupational physician plays a significant role in the training programmes for designated workers.
Financial aid has long been used to increase access to postsecondary education, particularly for underrepresented students. Given the size of the financial aid system and the widespread use of aid, it should also be thought of as a tool to improve academic success and postsecondary completion. Evidence suggests that using additional financial aid…
Vaillancourt, K.; Waaub, J.P.
The general intention of global climate agreements is to stabilize greenhouse gases (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere which contribute to climate change. Climate models indicate that the global average temperature will increase by about 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100 compared to the 1990 level. This study assumed the participation of all countries, including developing countries, to achieve a global GHG stabilization target. It examined international cooperation mechanisms such as permit trading to achieve global economic efficiency. The study proposed a decision aid tool that provides relevant information on various equitable permit allocation schemes. A dynamic multicriterion model was presented to share the global quantity of permits among 15 regions. Multiple definitions of equity were considered. A realistic simulation of the World-MARKAL energy model was conducted to demonstrate the potential application of the scheme in international negotiations. The goal was to propose a range of permit allocations for each country in order to restrict the number of possibilities and guide negotiations. A model of the global reduction scenario makes it possible to determine cost effective solutions and to calculate reduction costs. Equity issues related to permit allocations were also addressed along with permit allocations and net reduction costs for each region. 45 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs., 1 appendix
Following the adoption of the MDG, particulary the first one that is to reduce poverty by half between 1995 and 2015, numerous studies have examined how external aid can contribute to their achievement. The formula "doubling aid to reduce the poverty by half" relied on the implicit assumption that aid was an effective instrument for poverty reduction. The formula and corresponding assumption have of course been debated. Two opposite views have clearly appeared, one, well represented by Jeffre...
Wollny, Gert; Kellman, Peter; Ledesma-Carbayo, María-Jesus; Skinner, Matthew M; Hublin, Jean-Jaques; Hierl, Thomas
using the according shell scripting language. Since the hard disk becomes the temporal storage memory management is usually a non-issue in the prototyping phase. By using string-based descriptions for filters, optimizers, and the likes, the transition from shell scripts to full fledged programs implemented in C++ is also made easy. In addition, its design based on atomic plug-ins and single tasks command line tools makes it easy to extend MIA, usually without the requirement to touch or recompile existing code. In this article, we describe the general design of MIA, a general purpouse framework for gray scale image processing. We demonstrated the applicability of the software with example applications from three different research scenarios, namely motion compensation in myocardial perfusion imaging, the processing of high resolution image data that arises in virtual anthropology, and retrospective analysis of treatment outcome in orthognathic surgery. With MIA prototyping algorithms by using shell scripts that combine small, single-task command line tools is a viable alternative to the use of high level languages, an approach that is especially useful when large data sets need to be processed.
The review found that in Cameroon women were at increased risk of being infected with HIV/AIDS ... the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS among women. However ...... (Assessed 10 March 2006). 2. .... Prevention. Washington DC 1999: pp 1-7. 45.
Stockton, Rex; Paul, Tebatso; Voils-Levenda, Amanda; Robbins, Melanie; Li, Peiwei; Zaitsoff, Andrew
Mental health concerns can exacerbate the progression and transmission of HIV/AIDS. Thus there have been calls for increased research and integration of mental health care into HIV/AIDS treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the disease has reached pandemic levels. This qualitative study analyzed the open-ended survey responses of 181 individuals…
The purpose of the article is to examine the right to social assistance for households living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa. In particular, the article focuses on the impact of this pandemic on households' access to social assistance benefits in the wake of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which has wrought untold sorrow and suffering ...
Little is known about the health and nutrition of those HIV/AIDS orphans and inconsistent findings make it difficult to assess if orphans and other vulnerable children have specific nutritional needs. This study investigated nutritional status HIV/AIDS orphans in Sagamu. The study population consisted of fifty seronegative ...
The US government, ignoring the almost unanimous recommendation of medical and public health experts throughout the world, continues to ban both immigration and travel by people with HIV. Following recommendations from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Department of Health and Human Services indicated its intention to reduce the list of dangerous and contagious diseases for excluding entry to the US to include only active tuberculosis. That decision would have removed HIV/AIDS from the list. However, due to the subsequent 35,000 letters and postcards, mostly generated by conservative religious broadcasters and mailing houses opposed to lifting the ban, AIDS remained on the list. Opposition to lifting the ban came from the US Justice Department, as well as in the form of a signed statement to that end from 67 Republican members of the US Congress. US AIDS activists have organized their own letter campaign to support the removal of HIV/AIDS from the list. The June 1990 Sixth International Conference on AIDS was disrupted because of the travel ban. More than 70 AIDS, medical, and governmental organizations, including the International Red Cross, the British Medical Association, and the European Parliament boycotted the conferences. Planning for the 8th International Conference on AIDS, scheduled to be held in Boston in May 1992, is already being disputed and may not be held.
Adaptive Speech Reception Threshold in noise (SRTn) measurements are often used to make comparisons between alternative hearing aid (HA) systems. Such measurements usually do not constrain the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at which testing takes place. Meanwhile, HA systems increasingly include nonlinear features that operate differently in different SNRs, and listeners differ in their inherent SNR requirements. To show that SRTn measurements, as commonly used in comparisons of alternative HA systems, suffer from threats to their validity, to illustrate these threats with examples of potentially invalid conclusions in the research literature, and to propose ways to tackle these threats. An examination of the nature of SRTn measurements in the context of test theory, modern nonlinear HAs, and listener diversity. Examples from the audiological research literature were used to estimate typical interparticipant variation in SRTn and to illustrate cases where validity may have been compromised. There can be no doubt that SRTn measurements, when used to compare nonlinear HA systems, in principle, suffer from threats to their internal and external/ecological validity. Interactions between HA nonlinearities and SNR, and interparticipant differences in inherent SNR requirements, can act to generate misleading results. In addition, SRTn may lie at an SNR outside the range for which the HA system is designed or expected to operate in. Although the extent of invalid conclusions in the literature is difficult to evaluate, examples of studies were nevertheless identified where the risk of each form of invalidity is significant. Reliable data on ecological SNRs is becoming available, so that ecological validity can be assessed. Methodological developments that can reduce the risk of invalid conclusions include variations on the SRTn measurement procedure itself, manipulations of stimulus or scoring conditions to place SRTn in an ecologically relevant range, and design and analysis
Perpetua Lum Tanyi
Feb 6, 2018 ... ... social policy are discussed. Keywords: HIV/AIDS, older adults, African family, caregiving, Cameroon ...... and treatment that may be spread out over the full period of illness. ..... anxiety, relationships, grief, loss and addictions.
21. okt. Kaja keskuses etendavad Tallinna 32. keskkooli ja Meri-Porin Lukio õpilased muusikali "Let Mamma Mia in". Muusikal koosneb muusikalihittidest, mille on looks kokku kirjutanud Sven Kivisildnik
Paige, C Y; Johnson, M S
This study examines social workers' perceptions of the needs of families coping with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This research investigates the problems of family caregivers of children orphaned by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related death of their parents. A qualitative semistructured interview format was used in a focus group of 18 social workers. Four questions were designed to assess family needs and resources, as well as to evaluate the social workers' perspectives of governmental policies affecting these families. A list of four problems and two recommendations for change evolved from the focus group. Inadequate finances to house and care for the children was the primary cause for distress in these families. The major governmental policy that hindered the social workers' ability to assist families pertained to the low financial entitlement for caregivers who are related to the orphaned child. It was noted that unrelated caregivers receive substantially more money for the care of these children than family caregivers receive. Recommendations were made to change this policy and to develop guardianship laws that facilitate families' abilities to provide care to AIDS orphans. Family caregivers of AIDS orphans are bombarded with great demands and limited resources. This analysis of their situation from the social workers' perspective is a positive step toward the improvement of support services for these families. Further research should include individual qualitative interviews assessing the needs of the caregivers and AIDS orphans.
Perpetua Lum Tanyi
Feb 6, 2018 ... infection and AIDS requires older people to stay away from social, religious and community .... butions can lead to anxiety among parents over their own econ- ..... level of social interaction, because of either caring for grandchil- ..... gender equality in the area of HIV and sexual & reproductive health & rights.
Keywords: HIV/AIDS, Mental health, Ethical, Medico - legal. S Afr Psychiatry Rev 2003 ... Implementation of the Mental Health Care Act of 2002will entail a shift in attitudes .... (Act 17 of 2002). 13 Gauteng Health Department; Environmental and Occupational. Health and Safety Directorate: Memorandum: 7 April 2000. Guide-.
McGinty, Sara; Mundy, Karen
The Life Skills course is offered to Namibian students in grades eight through twelve. It includes lessons on HIV/AIDS, imparting information and equipping them with the necessary psycho-social skills to assist in reducing the risk of becoming infected. Teachers are the impetus for the success of the course. As such, research was undertaken to…
The burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on the elderly population in three divisions within the Northwest Region of Cameroon was examined. Data for this paper were extracted from a larger study which had been conducted concerning the burden of ...
Papaleo, Bruno; Cangiano, Giovanna; Calicchia, Sara; Marcellini, Laura; Colagiacomo, Chiara; Pera, Alessandra
Develop an effective First Aid's system in workplaces is significantly important to the outcomes of accidents at work, thus contributing positively to create healthy and safe environments, improving responsible attitude and risk perception by workers. The italian regulation (D. Lgs. 81/08; DM 388/03) gives an important role to First Aid within the system for managing health and safety in workplaces and requires the employers to designate and train workers and organize facilities in the workplace. However, to ensure that First Aid's system actually contributes to increasing health and safety in workplaces, it's necessary to verify its effectiveness, beyond the law compliance. The article stands to evaluate the critical issues and related innovations to be introduced in this context, by analyzing data from literature and field experiences involving actors in the prevention system. The goal is to provide suggestions and action proposals to improve first aid's system in workplaces, paying particular attention to the aiders training (selection, motivation, teaching methods, retraining), as well as introduce to innovations to allow an immediate and timely emergency response (company equipments, other useful devices). On this last aspect, it has given particular emphasis to the introduction of semi-automatic defibrillator (AED), which is essential in case of sudden cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation, and special aiders training by means of BLSD (Basic Life Support and Defibrillation) courses based on international guidelines.
Onishchenko, G G
HIV has been spreading over the territories of our countries for 18 years, and it is still possible to resist the epidemic in a unique and efficient way. In June 2001, the UNO General Assembly Special Session was devoted to the problem of HIV/AIDS in full. Its Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (Resolution S-26/2) defines main directions of this work both in world-wide, regional, and international scopes. It should be stressed that first of all the Declaration emphasizes the necessity to improve management and coordination of efforts at the global, regional, and national levels, which is of special importance to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where a new phase of HIV infection epidemic has begun and the spread of the virus grows and very soon may gain uncontrollable character. As for the countries of our region, here the epidemic process has been developing mostly through sexual way of transmission for 8 years since 1987, when the first case of HIV infection was revealed. More than 350000 HIV-infected people, including more than 15,000 children, have been registered in Russian Federation. More than 9000 people have died. The proportion of childbearing age women constantly grows, and the number of children born to mothers with AIDS has now exceeded 15,000. To realize the component "Prevention of HIV infection, B and C hepatitis, and revealing and treatment of HIV patients" of the priority national health project, 3.1 billion rubles are allocated for the prophylaxis of and fight against HIV and AIDS. The measures that are planned to take will allow for principle changes in the present situation with medical aid providence of contemporary antiretroviral medicines. Russian Orthodox Church with its parishes, monasteries etc. carries out numerous projects of primary HIV prophylaxis among children and young people in different regions; these projects are directed towards forming moral values.
Simone Pereira Schmidt
Full Text Available From the mid-twentieth century on, African authors mark their poetry with strong libertarian tones. Their poems can be interpreted as a discourse of identity affirmation that played an important role in anti-colonial struggle. Among these authors, the Mozambican Noemia de Sousa took an important part, and in her poetry we can read a dialogue with intellectuals and artists linked, directly or indirectly, with the struggles of American black movement for civil rights. This article seeks to interpret the dialogue established by Noemia e Sousa, in her poetry, with the construction of a ‘black identity’ discourse, especially in the consolidation of black movements in West and in the growth of an anti-colonial consciousness in African countries. By reading some Noémia de Sousa poems, we intend to investigate the routes traced by such discourses, also considering the gender issues involved in the poet’s work.
South African Gastroenterology Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 2 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Full Text Available The paper deals with researches of microtopography obtained at different working modes at ultrasonically aided micro-electrical discharge machining (μEDM+US and pure micro-EDM, using both commanded and relaxation pulses. Images of machined surface taken with scanning electron microscope were analyzed in correlation with chemical composition of samples detected by X rays spectrometer. This led to some explanations of material removal mechanism, aiming at improvement of process modelling and performances increase of μEDM+US.
Silva, Alex Giacomelli da
O autor discute a faceta internacional da política brasileira sobre HIV/AIDS e sua relação com outras áreas da política externa, como propriedade intelectual e direitos humanos. Para isso, utiliza-se dos conceitos de Joseph Nye Jr. de soft power e hard power. Este reflete a capacidade de um ator fazer com que outros sigam sua posição, mesmo contra a vontade. Aquele consiste na capacidade de um ator atrair outros livremente para sua posição. O ensaio analisa a importância, nas relações interna...
Goo, Jin Mo
Given the increasing resolution of modern CT scanners, and the requirements for large-scale lung-screening examinations and diagnostic studies, there is an increased need for the accurate and reproducible analysis of the large number of images. Nodule detection is one of the main challenges of CT imaging, as they can be missed due to their small size, low relative contrast, or because they are located in an area with complex anatomy. Recent developments in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) schemes are expected to aid radiologists in various tasks of chest imaging. In this era of multidetector row CT, the thoracic applications of greatest interest include the detection and volume measurement of lung nodules (1-7). Technology for CAD as applied to lung nodule detection on chest CT has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and is currently commercially available. The article by Lee et al. (5) in this issue of the Korean Journal of Radiology is one of the few studies to examine the influence of a commercially available CAD system on the detection of lung nodules. In this study, some additional nodules were detected with the help of a CAD system, but at the expense of increased false positivity. The nodule detection rate of the CAD system in this study was lower than that achieved by radiologist, and the authors insist that the CAD system should be improved further. Compared to the use of CAD on mammograms, CAD evaluations of chest CTs remain limited to the laboratory setting. In this field, apart from the issues of detection rate and false positive detections, many obstacles must be overcome before CAD can be used in a true clinical reading environment. In this editorial, I will list some of these issues, but I emphasize now that I believe these issues will be solved by improved CAD versions in the near future
Nicole D Schott
Full Text Available Key terms such as “pro-ana,” “pro-anorexia,” and “pro-ED” are searched for on the Internet over 13 million times annually. These searches lead to web pages and social media sites where pro-anorexia and “pro-bulimia” (pro-ana/mia contributors share weight-loss and exercise tips, “thinspiration” slogans, images and videos, and speak openly about their problems with eating and body image. In this article, we outline our initial research on online responses to pro-ana/mia, and describe how we used the data and analyses from this research to create a piece of research-informed theatre, or performance ethnography. The initial research identified a range of responses to pro-ana/mia that were aligned with either dominant or critical discourses on the causes of, and solutions for, pro-ana/mia. Our findings and analyses challenge media portrayals and medical approaches to pro-ana/mia phenomena, and support an alternative, critical analysis of how psychocentrism and neoliberalism foster social injustices for women and girls. Our work nurtures collective efforts to displace dominant ideologies and practices that have serious implications for the socio-cultural, economic, physical and mental health of women and their communities.
Conclusion: HIV infected children and their families in sub-Saharan Africa face myriad of complex medical and psychosocial issues. A holistic health promotional approach is being advocated as the required step for eradication of pediatric HIV in Africa. Keywords: Pediatric HIV, sub-Saharan Africa, Challenges.
Convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria vaccine trials in Africa: Report from the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme's Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre consultation, 10-11 February 2009, Durban, South Africa
Full Text Available Abstract Background Africa continues to bear a disproportionate share of the global HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB and malaria burden. The development and distribution of safe, effective and affordable vaccines is critical to reduce these epidemics. However, conducting HIV/AIDS, TB, and/or malaria vaccine trials simultaneously in developing countries, or in populations affected by all three diseases, is likely to result in numerous ethical challenges. Methods In order to explore convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trials in Africa, the Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre of the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme hosted a consultation on the Convergent Ethical Issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria Vaccine Trials in Africa in Durban, South Africa on the 10-11 February 2009. Results Key cross cutting ethical issues were prioritized during the consultation as community engagement; ancillary care obligations; care and treatment; informed consent; and resource sharing. Conclusion The consultation revealed that while there have been few attempts to find convergence on ethical issues between HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trial fields to date, there is much common ground and scope for convergence work between stakeholders in the three fields.
Convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria vaccine trials in Africa: Report from the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme's Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre consultation, 10-11 February 2009, Durban, South Africa.
Mamotte, Nicole; Wassenaar, Douglas; Koen, Jennifer; Essack, Zaynab
Africa continues to bear a disproportionate share of the global HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria burden. The development and distribution of safe, effective and affordable vaccines is critical to reduce these epidemics. However, conducting HIV/AIDS, TB, and/or malaria vaccine trials simultaneously in developing countries, or in populations affected by all three diseases, is likely to result in numerous ethical challenges. In order to explore convergent ethical issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trials in Africa, the Ethics, Law and Human Rights Collaborating Centre of the WHO/UNAIDS African AIDS Vaccine Programme hosted a consultation on the Convergent Ethical Issues in HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria Vaccine Trials in Africa in Durban, South Africa on the 10-11 February 2009. Key cross cutting ethical issues were prioritized during the consultation as community engagement; ancillary care obligations; care and treatment; informed consent; and resource sharing. The consultation revealed that while there have been few attempts to find convergence on ethical issues between HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria vaccine trial fields to date, there is much common ground and scope for convergence work between stakeholders in the three fields.
Tan, M; De Leon, A; Stoltzfus, B; O'donnell, C
An estimated 200,000-500,000 men, women, and children work in prostitution in the Philippines in a variety of venues, including brothels, nightclubs, pubs, massage parlors, and other legitimate entertainment establishments. Few, however, are voluntary prostitutes. Many people who work as prostitutes have been recruited from the provinces, kept in conditions similar to slavery, and forced to earn money from prostitution to pay for their transportation, board, and lodging. Many prostitutes work in urban centers and tourist resorts in the countryside. During the 1970s, then President Ferdinand Marcos promoted tourism as a major industry, effectively marketing attractive Filipinas to tourists. Sex tourism has flourished in the country ever since. Thousands of prostitutes are also located in Olongapo and Angeles, 2 cities north of Manila, from where they serve the sexual desires of US military personnel. The presence of US military personnel in the Philippines has always been associated with prostitution. The country's social hygiene centers, prostitutes in Manila and Davao, and AIDS education are briefly discussed.
Sibanda, Elopy Nimele; Stanczuk, Grazyna; Kasolo, Francis
The estimated worldwide prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections topped 52.5 million in June 2003, a mere 20 years after the aetiological agent was shown to be a sexually transmissible virus with a predilection for CD4+ T lymphocytes. More than 22 million people have died of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the condition has in one generation become the most devastating and persistent epidemics in recorded history. More than two thirds of the world total of HIV-infected people live in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Central and Southern Africa at least 20% of the adult population is infected. As these adults die, they leave increasing numbers of orphans. Life expectancy at birth declined by 10 years per decade since the late 1980s to 50 years in the late 1990s, and in Botswana it is estimated to be as low as 33 years by 2010. The epidemic is increasing unabated and prospects for a curative or protective vaccine remain remote. The impact on HIV in Africa has been so profound that it influences political, economic, agriculture/food security, social, education, defence, science and health considerations. The medical and in particular immunology communities in Central Africa have the invidious challenge of on the one hand diagnosing the condition, monitoring its impact and contributing to treatment and management efforts. The science and clinical practice of immunology is challenged to find answers to the epidemic, perhaps including a vaccine. In this review we address the peculiarities of the HIV epidemic in Africa, its epidemiology and immunopathogenesis. We address the effect of the epidemic on individual patients, in their homes, workplaces and the knock-on effects on families and friends of the infected. Respective specialists discuss special groups (women, children) that are predominantly seen in Africa. We also discuss the impact of the epidemic on the clinical practice of medicine in general and challenges faced in the introduction of
Berg, Lise Charlotte; Mata, Xavier; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl
Cartilage-derived retinoic acid sensitive protein (CD-RAP) also known as melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) has already been established as a marker for chondrocyte differentiation and a number of cancerous condition sin humans. Studies have also shown that CD-RAP/MIA is a potential marker of joint......RNA in articular cartilage and chondrocytes from horses with no signs of joint disease. The expression decreased as the cells dedifferentiated in monolayer culture. We also identified an equine CD-RAP/MIA splioce variant similar to that reported in humans. The CD_RAP/MIA protein was detected in equine synovial...... fluid, serum and culture medium from chondrocyte cultures. In conclusion, CD-RAP/MIA is expressed in equine cartilage and chondrocytes, and the protein can be detected in equine serum, synovial fluid and in culture medium from chondrocyte cultures. The equine gene and resulting protein share great...
Dal Poz Mario R
Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies have shown evidence of a direct and positive causal link between the number of health workers and health outcomes. Several studies have identified an adequate health workforce as one of the key ingredients to achieving improved health outcomes. Global health initiatives are faced with human resources issues as a major, system-wide constraint. This article explores how the Global Fund addresses the challenges of a health workforce bottleneck to the successful implementation of priority disease programmes. Possibilities for investment in human resources in the Global Fund's policy documents and guidelines are reviewed. This is followed by an in-depth study of 35 Global Fund proposals from five African countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania. The discussion presents specific human resources interventions that can be found in proposals. Finally, the comments on human resources interventions in the Global Fund's Technical Review Panel and the budget allocation for human resources for health were examined. Policy documents and guidelines of the Global Fund foster taking account of human resources constraints in recipient countries and interventions to address them. However, the review of actual proposals clearly shows that countries do not often take advantage of their opportunities and focus mainly on short-term, in-service training in their human resources components. The comments of the Technical Review Panel on proposed health system-strengthening interventions reveal a struggle between the Global Fund's goal to fight the three targeted diseases, on the one hand, and the need to strengthen health systems as a prerequisite for success, on the other. In realizing the opportunities the Global Fund provides for human resources interventions, countries should go beyond short-term objectives and link their activities to a long-term development of their human resources for health.
Full Text Available Unilateral initial attraction (UIA is a positive affective reaction following a unilateral perception of an unknown target, defining the first stage in developing a new interpersonal relationship. Although little attention is given to this construct, literature suggests it has a physiological activation component as well as an interpersonal interest component. However, this interest component emerges as necessary to willingly approach another person and eventually initiate interaction. Based on these evidences, we developed and validated the Measure of Initial Attraction - Interest Short Scale (MIA-I in a sample of Portuguese-speaking individuals (Study 1, N = 544. Results suggest the MIA-I is a valid and reliable instrument (Study 1; Study 2a, and show its capacity to discriminate UIA across different relationships (Study 1 and to differentiate UIA from passion and love (Study 1. Towards an unknown target, the MIA-I also distinguished UIA from liking (Study 2b. These results show that the MIA-I assesses a specific construct, differentiated from liking, passion and love, and suggest its importance to understand the UIA phenomenon.
Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; Boffetta, Paolo; Xie, Dong; Wampfler, Jason A; Cote, Michele L; Chang, Shen-Chih; Ugolini, Donatella; Neri, Monica; Le Marchand, Loic; Schwartz, Ann G; Morgenstern, Hal; Christiani, David C; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng
The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke on the incidence of lung adenocarcinoma in situ/minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (AIS/MIA). Data from seven case-control studies participating in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) were pooled, resulting in 625 cases of AIS/MIA and 7,403 controls, of whom 170 cases and 3,035 controls were never smokers. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted ORs (ORadj) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for age, sex, race, smoking status (ever/never), and pack-years of smoking. Study center was included in the models as a random-effects intercept term. Ever versus never exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke was positively associated with AIS/MIA incidence in all subjects (ORadj = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.14-1.93) and in never smokers (ORadj = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.00-2.12). There was, however, appreciable heterogeneity of ORadj across studies (P = 0.01), and the pooled estimates were largely influenced by one large study (40% of all cases and 30% of all controls). These findings provide weak evidence for an effect of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on AIS/MIA incidence. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure using the newly recommended classification of subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
Keys, Truman R; Morant, Kesha M; Stroman, Carolyn A
Recent public service announcements (PSAs) directed toward Black youth utilize various formats and appeals to stimulate a motivated cognitive process that engenders personal involvement in the HIV/AIDS issue. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) by Petty and Cacioppo argues that engagement with messages that consist of substantive content causes the audience member to critically analyze the message, which can produce awareness and attitude change. An efficient way to add emphasis to the message and seize the attention of the target audience is to insert the message into an entertainment context. Our study attempted to analyze the impact of the peripheral cue, character appeal, on audience members' attitude change in response to analyzing high- and low-involvement message content. A2 x 4 factorial design was used, with message involvement (high/low) and character appeal (White/Black and celebrity/noncelebrity) as independent variables. The findings showed that celebrity status is the salient factor, with source perception inducing attitude change as a main effect or in an interaction effect with high- and low message content.
Lukenbill, W. Bernard
This study analyzes court records of a county-level trial in Austin, Texas, in which erotized AIDS-HIV safer-sex information shown on a public access cable television program was claimed by the State of Texas to be obscene. This trial raised questions regarding such issues as: free access to information, especially through new technological…
Norman Edward Caterer, U.S. citizen, born 1920, imprisoned March 27, 1943, detained in Lamsdorf 8b. 2. Lorius Cawcause, U.S. citizen, born 1920, unable...March 29, 1948 27. Magdalena Wormittag #C-86, March 7, 1949 28. Hilda Elizabeta Wagner Letter to Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Vyshinsky, March...another winter. Verdine was held in Weimar from the time of his arrest until 1952 then was moved to Lichtenberg prison Berlin. They were separated after
Carvalho, Pedro Daniel de
Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz A dislipidémia caracteriza-se pelos anormais níveis lipídicos no sangue, e constitui um dos principais factores de risco que conduzem às Doenças Cardiovasculares, uma das principais causas de morte a nível mundial. Apesar da eficácia das opções farmacológicas existentes para o tratamento das dislipidémias, as reacções adversas e contra-indicações associadas a estes fármacos fazem com que seja ...
Ado, Gustave Firmin
School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the…
Abbott, Kathy H.; Schutte, Paul C.
A development status evaluation is presented for the NASA-Langley Intelligent Cockpit Aids research program, which encompasses AI, human/machine interfaces, and conventional automation. Attention is being given to decision-aiding concepts for human-centered automation, with emphasis on inflight subsystem fault management, inflight mission replanning, and communications management. The cockpit envisioned is for advanced commercial transport aircraft.
Ado, Gustave Firmin
School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the skills, knowledge, and the training in the delivery of effective school HIV/AIDS education. Since science is where biological events take place, it is suggested that HIV/AIDS science merits being taught in the science education classroom. This study took place in nine public middle schools within two school districts in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, one major urban city in the southern region. The study utilized triangulation of multiple data sources---both qualitative and quantitative. To substantiate the claims made in this study, a range of qualitative methods such as field notes and individual interviews with 39 teachers, 63 sixth grade students, 8 school administrators, and 20 community elders were used. For the quantitative portion 140 teachers and 3510 sixth grade students were surveyed. The findings from the study prioritize science education that includes HIV/AIDS science education for all, with emphasis on HIV/AIDS prevention in Ivory Coast. The factors that influence the implementation of HIV/AIDS curricula within the Ivorian sixth grade classrooms are discussed. Interview and survey data from students, teachers, school administrators, and community elders indicate that in the Ivorian school setting, "gerontocratic" cultural influences, religious beliefs, personal cultural beliefs, and time spent toward the discourse on HIV/AIDS have led to HIV/AIDS education that is often insufficient to change either misconceptions about HIV/AIDS or risky practices. It was also found that approaches to teaching HIV/AIDS does not connect with youth cultures. By reframing and integrating current HIV/AIDS curricula into the science
Full Text Available The continuous development of information and communication technologies is reflected also in the growth of the number of students in the fields of Informatics. Students however, come to study with the idea of what they want to be and how much they would like to earn in the future, but without knowledge of what the specific requirements they will be asked for in the future in a given employment or working position. Based on surveys even IT specialist needs basic economic literacy to improve software quality and customer satisfaction. Therefore effective results of their education process depend on the choice of the appropriate educational methods, which represent the path, or way in achieving the educational objectives defined in the teaching process. Application of appropriate educational methods and innovations are allow students to make basic economic connections in real business conditions and show usefulness of economic knowledge in practice in more attractive way. This contribution deals with issues of why and how to provide economic education for students of Informatics. After analysis of the current situation, the purpose of the article is to identify economic areas that students of Informatics could encounter in their future careers. There are some examples from main areas of microeconomic theory with interconnection of knowledge on student’s possible future applications we recommend demonstrating Then we design new and innovative teaching methods to enhance the economic literacy of technically oriented students. We are confident that economic education helps to equip everybody with useful tools for making decisions and to be ready to face more complex choices in further professional and also personal life.
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to examine the right to social assistance for households living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa. In particular, the article focuses on the impact of this pandemic on households' access to social assistance benefits in the wake of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which has wrought untold sorrow and suffering to the overwhelming majority of households in South Africa. The article analyses the consequences of HIV/AIDS in relation to households' support systems, care and dependency burdens, and the extent to which the household members either acknowledge the illness (enabling them to better engage with treatment options or alternatively, deny its existence. The article commences by reviewing the literature concerning the effects and social impact of HIV/AIDS on the livelihoods of households and their families. The social reciprocity that underpins households' livelihoods is briefly recapitulated. The article concludes that, while recent policy developments are to be welcomed, the current South African legal system of social security does not provide adequate cover for both people living with HIV/AIDS and their families. More remains to be done in order to provide a more comprehensive social security system for the excluded and marginalised people who are living with HIV/AIDS and their families.
Florida Board of Governors, State University System, 2009
This brief presents statistics showing that many students from middle-income and lower-income Florida families do not qualify for federal or state grants and scholarships, and that nearly half of state university system middle- and lower-income families do not receive benefits from federal or state financial aid programs. (Contains technical…
Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...
Full Text Available Resum: Aquest article s’insereix dins del conjunt d’investigacions sobre la Cort dels Habsburgs. L’estudi de les acadèmies musicals és poc conegut. A partir d’algunes investigacions sobre acadèmies literàries, l’article focalitzarà en l’acadèmia musical que Joan de Borja i Castro tenia a Madrid. En aquest sentit, si el mecenatge literari cortesà ja és un tema amb múltiples variants, l’aproximació al patrocini d’altres activitats artístiques, com el cas de la música, ho és encara més. En les següents pàgines s’aprofundirà en les diverses facetes erudites de Joan de Borja amb el fil conductor de les acadèmies, com a centre d’intel·lectualitat, de creació i promoció cultural i també personal. Per aquesta acadèmia van passar alguns dels personatges del món musical ibèric més important de l’època com Francisco Guerrero o Tomás Luis de Victoria. Aquest article pretén mostrar la importància d’aquesta acadèmia com un punt neuràlgic del mecenatge musical de les darreres dècades del segle XVI. Paraules clau: Joan de Borja, Borja, acadèmies, Habsburgs, Música, Madrid Abstract: This work is part of the research on The Court of Habsburg in Modern Era. The study of music academies is not quite known. From few works on literary academies, this article will focus on the music academy that of Juan de Borja i Castro hold in Madrid. In this way, if the courtly literary patronage is already an issue with multiple variants, the approach to other artistic activities, such as the music, it is even more. In the following pages, it will delve into the various aspects of erudition of Juan de Borja with the thread of the academies, as a centre of intellectual, creative and cultural promotion and personal. Some of the most important composers of the Iberian World of that time, such as Francisco Guerrero or Tomás Luis de Victoria, were involved in this academy. The article aims to show the relevance of this
Alice Copetti Dalmaso
Full Text Available Resumo: Exploramos as linhas deste artigo ao nosso modo de responder “O que é ler?”, “O que é ler Mia Couto?” Aventura da leitura que dispare o desejo de escrever: movimento de encontrar na materialidade literária a promoção da ação da escrita, traçando possibilidades de pensar a formação em educação em consonância com esse movimento. A partir de contribuições de autores, como Barthes, Deleuze, Larrosa (entre outras vozes, temos produzido o que, nestes escritos, nomeamos como experimentações: relações de escritas, de produção de pensamento, a partir e com a leitura de alguns escritos do escritor Mia Couto. Experimentar como essa literatura nos movimenta a mapear possibilidades de produzir experiência com a leitura e a escrita, de criar espaços e tempos de liberdade e de não embrutecimento. Palavras-chave: Leitura e escrita. Literatura. Formação. Pesquisa em educação. Mia Couto. READING (AND WRITING THAT MOVES US: SEWING POSSIBILITIES AMONG EDUCATION AND MIA COUTO’S LITERATURE Abstract: We explore the lines in this article as our way to answer “What is reading?”, “What is to read Mia Couto?”. Reading adventure that triggers the desire for writing: movement of finding in literary materiality the promotion of action in writing, tracing possibilities for thinking the formation in Education in consonance with this movement. By means of contributions from authors such as Barthes, Deleuze, Larrosa (among other voices, we have produced what is labelled in these writings as experimentations: relations between our writings, thought production through and with the reading of some writings from Mia Couto. To experiment this literature allows us to map possibilities for producing experience with reading and writing, for creating space and time of freedom and non-brutalization. Keywords: Reading and writing. Literature. Formation. Research in education. Mia Couto. UNA LECTURA (Y ESCRITURA QUE NOS MUEVE: COSIENDO
Sanchez, Ana M; Denny, Thomas N; O'Gorman, Maurice
This Special Issue of the Journal of Immunological Methods includes 16 manuscripts describing quality assurance activities related to virologic and immunologic monitoring of six global laboratory resource programs that support international HIV/AIDS clinical trial studies: Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery (CAVD); Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI); External Quality Assurance Program Oversight Laboratory (EQAPOL); HIV Vaccine Trial Network (HVTN); International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI); and Immunology Quality Assessment (IQA). The reports from these programs address the many components required to develop comprehensive quality control activities and subsequent quality assurance programs for immune monitoring in global clinical trials including: all aspects of processing, storing, and quality assessment of PBMC preparations used ubiquitously in HIV clinical trials, the development and optimization of assays for CD8 HIV responses and HIV neutralization, a comprehensive global HIV virus repository, and reports on the development and execution of novel external proficiency testing programs for immunophenotyping, intracellular cytokine staining, ELISPOT and luminex based cytokine measurements. In addition, there are articles describing the implementation of Good Clinical Laboratory Practices (GCLP) in a large quality assurance laboratory, the development of statistical methods specific for external proficiency testing assessment, a discussion on the ability to set objective thresholds for measuring rare events by flow cytometry, and finally, a manuscript which addresses a framework for the structured reporting of T cell immune function based assays. It is anticipated that this series of manuscripts covering a wide range of quality assurance activities associated with the conduct of global clinical trials will provide a resource for individuals and programs involved in improving the harmonization, standardization, accuracy, and sensitivity of
van Dalen, H.P.; Reuser, M.
Development assistance targeting health overwhelmingly concentrates on HIV/AIDS. This column argues that that focus neglects critical demographic issues and degrades health infrastructure, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The prime rule for AIDS aid should be “First, do no harm”.
Gustavo Capobianco Volaco
Full Text Available Saussure mudou o mundo ao conceituar a paridade biunívoca do significado e do significante, que chamou em seu Curso de Linguística Geral, signo linguístico. Seguindo seus passos, Roman Jakobson estabeleceu uma fórmula para pensarmos o conceito de metonímia que, por sua vez, foi retomado por Jacques Lacan para enfatizar, entre outras coisas, que o simbólico é, antes de mais nada, um eterno continuum. Dentro dessas perspectivas e com o auxílio desses três pensadores procuramos, neste pequeno artigo, articular certas idiossincrasias da obra de James Joyce, Ulisses, a maior delas sendo, em definitivo, um riverrun que não cessa de se inscrever.
Drozd, Filip; Haga, Silje Marie; Brendryen, Håvar; Slinning, Kari
As much as 10-15% of new mothers experience depression postpartum. An Internet-based intervention (Mamma Mia) was developed with the primary aims of preventing depressive symptoms and enhancing subjective well-being among pregnant and postpartum women. A secondary aim of Mamma Mia was to ease the transition of becoming a mother by providing knowledge, techniques, and support during pregnancy and after birth. The aim of the paper is to provide a systematic and comprehensive description of the intervention rationale and the development of Mamma Mia. For this purpose, we used the intervention mapping (IM) protocol as descriptive tool, which consists of the following 6 steps: (1) a needs assessment, (2) definition of change objectives, (3) selection of theoretical methods and practical strategies, (4) development of program components, (5) planning adoption and implementation, and (6) planning evaluation. Mamma Mia is a fully automated Internet intervention available for computers, tablets, and smartphones, intended for individual use by the mother. It starts in gestational week 18-24 and lasts up to when the baby becomes 6 months old. This intervention applies a tunneled design to guide the woman through the program in a step-by-step fashion in accordance with the psychological preparations of becoming a mother. The intervention is delivered by email and interactive websites, combining text, pictures, prerecorded audio files, and user input. It targets risk and protective factors for postpartum depression such as prepartum and postpartum attachment, couple satisfaction, social support, and subjective well-being, as identified in the needs assessment. The plan is to implement Mamma Mia directly to users and as part of ordinary services at well-baby clinics, and to evaluate the effectiveness of Mamma Mia in a randomized controlled trial and assess users' experiences with the program. The IM of Mamma Mia has made clear the rationale for the intervention, and linked
Wolff, Eugenie; Mnguni, Lindelani
The potential of science to transform lives has been highlighted by a number of scholars. This means that critical socio-scientific issues (SSIs) must be integrated into science curricula. Development of context-specific scientific knowledge and twenty-first-century learning skills in science education could be used to address SSIs such as…
Choi, Hyeon-Son; Im, Suji; Park, Je Won; Suh, Hyung Joo
The anti-osteoarthritic activity of the methanol fraction of deer bone oil extract (DBO-M) was evaluated in interleukin (IL)-1β-inflamed primary rabbit chondrocytes and in rats with monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis. The active compound in DBO-M was analyzed using a direct infusion liquid chromatography quadrupole (LCQ) ion-trap electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometer (MS). DBO-M significantly suppressed the IL-1β-induced sulfated-glycosaminoglycan (s-GAG) release from chondrocyte, and lowered mRNA levels of the collagen-degrading enzymes matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 in a dose-dependent manner. Upon treatment with high doses of DBO-M, the levels of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6 decreased by around 40, 70, and 50%, respectively, compared to the control in the serum of rats with MIA-induced osteoarthritis. Bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) increased by over 40% in rats treated with DBO-M compared to the values reported for the MIA-treated control group, while trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) showed a significant decrease (ca. 38%), as confirmed through micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis of MIA-induced destruction of articular bones. Furthermore, direct infusion ESI-MS analysis showed that DBO-M contains gangliosides, which are glycosphingolipids with monosialic acid (GM3), as a major compound. Our results suggest that DBO-M effectively improves MIA-induced osteoarthritis by suppressing inflammatory responses, and that gangliosides could be one of the DBO-derived anti-inflammatory components.
The World Bank, USAID and NASA have recently established a joint project to study multiple issues pertaining to water related applications in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. The main concentration of the project is on utilization of remote sensing data and hydrological models to address crop irrigation and mapping, flood mapping and forecasting, evapotranspiration and drought problems prevalent in this large geographic area. Additional emphases are placed on understanding the climate impact on these areas as well. Per IPCC 2007 report, by the end of this century MENA region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C rise in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation. This poses a serious problem for this geographic zone especially when majority of the hydrological consumption is for the agriculture sector and the remaining amount is for domestic consumption. The remote sensing data from space is one of the best ways to study such complex issues and further feed into the decision support systems. NASA's fleet of Earth Observing satellites offer a great vantage point from space to look at the globe and provide vital signs necessary to maintain healthy and sustainable ecosystem. These observations generate multiple products such as soil moisture, global precipitation, aerosols, cloud cover, normalized difference vegetation index, land cover/use, ocean altimetry, ocean salinity, sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, ozone and atmospheric gases, ice and snow measurements, and many more. All of the data products, models and research results are distributed-via the Internet freely through out the world. This project will utilize several NASA models such as global Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) to generate hydrological states and fluxes in near real time. These LDAS products will then be further compared with other NASA satellite observations (MODIS, VIIRS, TRMM, etc.) and other discrete models to compare and optimize
The Sun article, "Employers finding that AIDS in the workplace is a managerial nightmare" (April 3), did not accurately portray the status of AIDS in the workplace. The AIDS virus, HTLV III, is transmitted by body fluids, primarily semen and blood, and there is no known risk of transmitting the virus by casual contact in the workplace. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) released guidelines for child care workers last August. Guidelines on preventing transmission of AIDS in the workplace were issued by CDC in November 1985. These guidelines specifically discussed health care, personal service, and food service workers. The recommendations were against routine screening. Furthermore, employment should not be restricted on the basis of a positive HTLV III antibody test. A person with HTLV III infection should be exempt from the workplace only if there are circumstances interfering with job performance. In Maryland, the Governor's Task Force on AIDS has gone on record as endorsing CDC guidelines related to employment. Furthermore, the task force condemns discrimination based on the disease AIDS, AIDS Related Complex (ARC), or HTLV III infection. Increasingly AIDS patients are being considered legally disabled and therefore are protected by federal and state laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of a handicap. Marylanders who are subjected to mandatory HTLV III screening in the workplace, or if discriminated against on the basis of HTLV III inefction, should contact the Maryland Commission on Human Relations, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, or the Health Education Resource Organization (HERO). All 3 of these resources guarantee confidentiality. It is only by employees reporting incidents that a nightmare in the workplace can be avoided in Maryland. full text
The Environmental Investment Allowance (MIA), the Random Depreciation of Environmental Investments (VAMIL) and green investments entail fiscal costs that need ex-post evaluation based on the regulations of the RPE (ministerial regulation on performance measurement and evaluation). The aim of the evaluation was to describe the effectiveness of the policy instruments and their implementation. In addition to this basic objective a secondary objective was to provide insight in the expenditure of the means and to list improvement options. [mk] [nl
Park, S H; Sung, J H; Kim, E J; Chung, N
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death. Gemcitabine is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, but the prognosis is still poor. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from a variety of natural herbs, possesses a variety of pharmacological properties including anticancer effects. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of berberine and compared its use with that of gemcitabine in the pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2. Berberine inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. After berberine treatment, the G1 phase of PANC-1 cells increased by 10% compared to control cells, and the G1 phase of MIA-PaCa2 cells was increased by 2%. Whereas gemcitabine exerts antiproliferation effects through S-phase arrest, our results showed that berberine inhibited proliferation by inducing G1-phase arrest. Berberine-induced apoptosis of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 cells increased by 7 and 2% compared to control cells, respectively. Notably, berberine had a greater apoptotic effect in PANC-1 cells than gemcitabine. Upon treatment of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 with berberine at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), apoptosis was induced by a mechanism that involved the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather than caspase 3/7 activation. Our findings showed that berberine had anti-cancer effects and may be an effective drug for pancreatic cancer chemotherapy.
Park, S.H.; Sung, J.H.; Kim, E.J.; Chung, N.
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death. Gemcitabine is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, but the prognosis is still poor. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from a variety of natural herbs, possesses a variety of pharmacological properties including anticancer effects. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of berberine and compared its use with that of gemcitabine in the pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2. Berberine inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. After berberine treatment, the G1 phase of PANC-1 cells increased by 10% compared to control cells, and the G1 phase of MIA-PaCa2 cells was increased by 2%. Whereas gemcitabine exerts antiproliferation effects through S-phase arrest, our results showed that berberine inhibited proliferation by inducing G1-phase arrest. Berberine-induced apoptosis of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 cells increased by 7 and 2% compared to control cells, respectively. Notably, berberine had a greater apoptotic effect in PANC-1 cells than gemcitabine. Upon treatment of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 with berberine at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ), apoptosis was induced by a mechanism that involved the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather than caspase 3/7 activation. Our findings showed that berberine had anti-cancer effects and may be an effective drug for pancreatic cancer chemotherapy
l'aviculture de poissons marins . En Algérie, les travaux effectués sur ce crustacé sont relativement rares. Dans le présent ..... dépassent pour certains les normes établies par l'OMS, ce qui peut provoquer le comportement et la dynamique de la reproduction de l'Artémia salina, sans oublier aussi l'action anthropique qui ...
Qian, Yue; Zhang, Na; Jiang, Ping; Chen, Siyuan; Chu, Shujuan; Hamze, Firas; Wu, Yan; Luo, Qin; Feng, Aiping
Listeria monocytogenes (LM), a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium, can be used as an effective exogenous antigen expression vector in tumor-target therapy. But for successful clinical application, it is necessary to construct attenuated LM stain that is safe yet retains the potency of LM based on the full virulent pathogen. In this study, attenuated LM and recombinants of LM expressing melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) were constructed successfully. The median lethal dose (LD(50)) and invasion efficiency of attenuated LM strains were detected. The recombinants were utilized for immunotherapy of animal model of B16F10 melanoma. The level of MIA mRNA expression in tumor tissue was detected by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific sequence, meanwhile the anti-tumor immune response was assayed by flow cytometric analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay. The results showed the toxicity and invasiveness of attenuated LM were decreased as compared with LM, and attenuated LM expressing MIA, especially the double-genes attenuated LM recombinant, could significantly induce anti-tumor immune response and inhibit tumor growth. This study implicates attenuated LM may be a safer and more effective vector for immunotherapy of melanoma.
Gradiz, Rui; Silva, Henriqueta C; Carvalho, Lina; Botelho, Maria Filomena; Mota-Pinto, Anabela
Studies using cell lines should always characterize these cells to ensure that the results are not distorted by unexpected morphological or genetic changes possibly due to culture time or passage number. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe those MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cell line phenotype and genotype characteristics that may play a crucial role in pancreatic cancer therapeutic assays, namely neuroendocrine chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. Epithelial, mesenchymal, endocrine and stem cell marker characterization was performed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, and genotyping by PCR, gene sequencing and capillary electrophoresis. MIA PaCa-2 (polymorphism) expresses CK5.6, AE1/AE3, E-cadherin, vimentin, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, SSTR2 and NTR1 but not CD56. PANC-1 (pleomorphism) expresses CK5.6, MNF-116, vimentin, chromogranin A, CD56 and SSTR2 but not E-cadherin, synaptophysin or NTR1. MIA PaCA-1 is CD24(-), CD44(+/++), CD326(-/+) and CD133/1(-), while PANC-1 is CD24(-/+), CD44(+), CD326(-/+) and CD133/1(-). Both cell lines have KRAS and TP53 mutations and homozygous deletions including the first 3 exons of CDKN2A/p16(INK4A), but no SMAD4/DPC4 mutations or microsatellite instability. Both have neuroendocrine differentiation and SSTR2 receptors, precisely the features making them suitable for the therapies we propose to assay in future studies.
Lambrecht, Fatma Yurt; Ince, Mine; Er, Ozge; Ocakoglu, Kasim; Sarı, Fatma Aslıhan; Kayabasi, Cagla; Gunduz, Cumhur
Pancreatic cancer is very common and difficult to diagnose in early stage. Imaging systems for diagnosing cancer have many disadvantages. However, combining different imaging modalities offers synergistic advantages. Optical imaging is the most multidirectional and widely used imaging modality in both clinical practice and research. In present study, Zinc(II) phthalocyanine [Zn(II)Pc] was synthesized, labeled with iodine- 131 and in vitro study was carried out. The intracellular uptake studies of radiolabeled Zn(II)Pc were performed in WI-38 [ATCC CCL-75™, tissue: human fibroblast lung] and MIA PaCa-2 [ATCC CRL-1420™, tissue: human epithelial pancreas carcinoma] cell lines. The intracellular uptake efficiency of radiolabeled Zn(II)Pc in MIA PaCa-2 cells was determined two times higher than WI-38 cells. Also, fluorescence imaging (FI) efficiency of synthesized Zn(II)Pc was investigated in MIA PaCa-2 cells and significant uptake was observed. Zn(II)Pc might be used as a new agent for dual fluorescence/nuclear imaging for pancreatic cancer. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... Most people who have become recently infected with HIV will not have any symptoms. They may, however, ...
Sarita Teresinha Alves Amaro
Full Text Available A aids cresce em cifras no Brasil e no mundo. No mundo todo, cerca de 42 milhões de pessoas são soropositivas. Desde o início da década de 80 até setembro de 2003, foram notificados 277.154 casos de aids no Brasil. Atrás desses índices está uma triste realidade: a epidemia cresce 9 vezes mais entre as mulheres. São, no geral, jovens ou mulheres casadas ou que têm relacionamento fixo, sem comportamento promíscuo e que contraíram o vírus dentro de "casa". Junto à descoberta da contaminação pelo vírus, vem a dolorosa verdade da traição do parceiro, a implacável confirmação da fragilidade da relação conjugal vivida, mas principalmente, a morte do mito do amor ideal, guardado numa aliança ou numa união estável. Cada vez mais, vidas femininas são ceifadas assim, com essa história de amor incondicional relativo ao parceiro e total ausência de amor próprio. Devoção de um lado e negligência de outro. Mais do que uma suposta questão filosófica, antropológica ou ontológica, creio que, diante dos números apresentados, o baixo auto-cuidado feminino trata-se de um problema de saúde pública. Mas o que temos feito em termos de prevenção a Aids diante do segmento feminino e suas demandas? Na oportunidade deste relato, teceremos considerações sobre como nós, profissionais de saúde, podemos contribuir na gestão e desenvolvimento de novos programas e tecnologias de prevenção que alcancem o universo feminino e efetivamente desviem-no do comportamento de risco.HIV grows in numbers in Brazil and around the world. In the whole world, about 42 millions people are HIV positive. Since the beginning of the 80's until September of 2003, there were 277.154 cases of HIV confirmed in Brazil. Behind those rates there is a sad reality: the epidemy grows at a rate 9 times higher among women. They are, in general, youngsters or married women or women with stable relationships, without promiscuous behavior and that acquired the
Marcos José Perdoná
Full Text Available A nogueira macadâmia (Macadamia integrifolia apresenta elevada taxa de abortamento de frutos. A nutrição desequilibrada pode ser um dos fatores que contribui para isso. Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, avaliar a influência de doses de N e do parcelamento da adubação NPK, de cobertura, na redução do abortamento de frutos da nogueira macadâmia. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos, durante três anos agrícolas, num Latossolo Vermelho, em Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo. O primeiro experimento foi constituído por cinco doses de N (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 e quatro repetições. O segundo experimento foi constituído por quatro formas de parcelamento da adubação NPK (T1: outubro T2: outubro + dezembro, T3: outubro + dezembro + fevereiro e T4: outubro+dezembro + fevereiro + abril e cinco repetições. A maior parte dos frutos (77,7 % foi abortada no início de seu desenvolvimento. A aplicação de N, bem como o parcelamento da adubação NPK de cobertura, pelo menos em duas vezes (outubro e dezembro, não alteraram o número de frutos abortados por planta de macadâmia, mas, por aumentarem o número total de frutos emitidos e reduzirem a percentagem de abortamento, proporcionaram maior produtividade de nozes.
evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid...
Kojer, Kerstin; Bien, Melanie; Gangel, Heike; Morgan, Bruce; Dick, Tobias P; Riemer, Jan
Glutathione is an important mediator and regulator of cellular redox processes. Detailed knowledge of local glutathione redox potential (EGSH) dynamics is critical to understand the network of redox processes and their influence on cellular function. Using dynamic oxidant recovery assays together with EGSH-specific fluorescent reporters, we investigate the glutathione pools of the cytosol, mitochondrial matrix and intermembrane space (IMS). We demonstrate that the glutathione pools of IMS and cytosol are dynamically interconnected via porins. In contrast, no appreciable communication was observed between the glutathione pools of the IMS and matrix. By modulating redox pathways in the cytosol and IMS, we find that the cytosolic glutathione reductase system is the major determinant of EGSH in the IMS, thus explaining a steady-state EGSH in the IMS which is similar to the cytosol. Moreover, we show that the local EGSH contributes to the partially reduced redox state of the IMS oxidoreductase Mia40 in vivo. Taken together, we provide a comprehensive mechanistic picture of the IMS redox milieu and define the redox influences on Mia40 in living cells. PMID:22705944
Addison, Tony; Morrissey, Oliver; Tarp, Finn
This Special Issue explores macroeconomic effects of aid from various perspectives through a blend of studies, both conceptual and empirical in nature. The overall aim is to enhance the understanding of the macroeconomic dimensions of aid in the policy and research communities, and to inspire...
Jones, Edward Samuel
of data spanning nearly 50 years, this paper uses panel cointegration techniques to consider these issues. The analysis provides clear evidence for heterogeneity both between donors and over time, bandwagon effects, and a growing influence of security considerations in aid provision. Domestic...... macroeconomic shocks have a moderate but delayed effect on aid disbursements....
evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, which I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda...
Uslu, Ugur; Schliep, Stefan; Schliep, Klaus; Erdmann, Michael; Koch, Hans-Uwe; Parsch, Hans; Rosenheinrich, Stina; Anzengruber, Doris; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin; Schuler, Gerold; Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice
In patients with melanoma, early dissemination via lymphatic and hematogenous routes is frequently seen. Thus, besides clinical follow-up examination and imaging, reliable melanoma-specific serological tumor markers are needed. We retrospectively compared two serum markers for melanoma, S100 and melanoma-inhibitory activity (MIA), for monitoring of patients with metastatic melanoma under either adjuvant or therapeutic vaccination immunotherapy with dendritic cells (DC). Serum was obtained from a total of 100 patients (28 patients in stage III and 72 patients in stage IV, according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer 2002) at regular intervals during therapy, accompanied by follow-up imaging. When relapse was detected, both markers often remained within normal range. In contrast, in patients with metastatic measurable disease receiving therapeutic and not adjuvant DC vaccination, an increase of both markers was a strong indicator for disease progression. When comparing both markers in the whole study population, MIA showed a superior sensitivity to detect disease progression. S100 and MIA are highly sensitive tumor markers for monitoring of patients with melanoma with current metastases, but less sensitive for monitoring of tumor-free patients. In the current study, MIA had a slightly superior sensitivity to detect progressive disease compared to S100 and seems to be more useful in monitoring of patients with metastatic melanoma receiving immunotherapy. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
Davis, Blair J.
Eating disorders (EDs) are a serious problem in the U.S. due to their rise in prevalence during the 20th century and high morbidity and mortality rates. A relatively new, controversial phenomenon, "pro-Ana" (pro-anorexia) and "pro-Mia" (pro-bulimia) Web sites, came to the public's attention around 2000. These sites are created by and for people…
Barkla, B.J.; Blumwald, E.
A radiolabeled amiloride analog, [ 3 H]-MIA, was used for equilibrium binding studies and photolabeling of purified tonoplast vesicles. Scatchard analysis revealed a high affinity binding component with a K 4 of 1.4 μM which is closely related to constants of inhibition obtained for Na + -dependent H + efflux (5.9 μM) and pH-dependent 22 Na + influx (2.5 μM). This suggests that the high affinity component represents a class of sites associated with the Na + /H + antiport. Photolabeling of tonoplast with [ 3 H]-MIA in the presence of amiloride revealed the presence of two classes of receptors with distinct affinities for MIA, possibly representing the Na + /H + antiport and the Na + channel. In order to identify these receptors, amiloride analogues specific for the Na + /H + antiport or the Na + channel are being used to protect differentially against labeling of tonoplast proteins by photo-irradiation of [ 3 H]-MIA
Xu, Miao; Chen, Xiumei; Han, Yanling; Ma, Chunqing; Ma, Lin; Li, Shirong
Clusterin (CLU) is known as a multifunctional protein involved in a variety of physiological processes including lipid transport, epithelial cell differentiation, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. Our recent study has demonstrated that knockdown of clusterin sensitizes pancreatic cancer cell lines to gmcitabine treatment. However the details of this survival mechanism remain undefined. Of the various downstream targets of CLU, we examined activation of the NF-kB transcription factor and subsequent transcriptional regulation of BCL-2 gene in pancreatic cancer cell MIA-PaCa-2. The MIA-PaCa-2 cells were transfected with an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) against clusterin, which led to a decreased protein level of the antiapoptotic gene BCL-2. Furthermore, inhibition of CLU decreased the function of NF-kB, which is capable of transcriptional regulation of the BCL-2 gene. Inhibiting this pathway increased the apoptotic effect of gmcitabine chemotherapy. Re-activated NF-kB resulted in attenuation of ASO-induced effects, followed by the bcl-2 upregulation, and bcl-2 re-inhibition resulted in attenuation of Re-activated NF-kB -induced effects. Animals injected with ASO CLU in MIA-PaCa-2 cells combined with gmcitabine treatment had fewer tumors than gmcitabine or ASO CLU alone. These findings suggest that knockdown of CLU sensitized MIA-PaCa-2 cells to gmcitabine chemotherapy through modulating NF-Kb/bcl-2 pathway.
Juliana Ciambra Rahe
Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo a análise do trauma na obra Antes de nascer o mundo, do moçambicano Mia Couto. Partindo das reflexões freudianas, pretendemos examinar os efeitos negativos e positivos do trauma, confrontando os posicionamentos dos personagens Silvestre Vitalício e Marta diante da experiência traumática vivenciada por cada um deles. Valendo-nos como referencial teórico, principalmente, das reflexões de Sigmund Freud, Márcio Seligmann-Silva e Stuart Hall, examinaremos como a narrativa da catástrofe possibilita aos personagens do romance a (reinvenção das identidades abaladas pelo trauma.
Czerwiec, M K
Matthew P. McAllister wrote: "Comic books can and have contributed positively to the discourse about AIDS: images that encourage true education, understanding and compassion can help cope with a biomedical condition which has more than a biomedical relevance" . With this in mind, I combined a 23-narrator oral history and my personal memoir about an inpatient Chicago AIDS hospital unit in my book, Taking Turns: Stories from HIV/AIDS Care Unit 371. In doing so, I built upon the existing rich history of HIV/AIDS in comics, which this article will briefly describe. Although not a comprehensive review of the intersection of AIDS and comics, the book is a tour through influences that proved useful to me. In addition, in making my book, I faced a distinct ethical issue with regard to representing patient experiences with HIV/AIDS, and I describe here how I addressed it. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Park, S H; Sung, J H; Chung, N
Cancer stem cells play an important role in metastasis and the relapse of drug resistant cancers. Side-population (SP) cells are capable of effluxing Hoechst 33342 dye and are referred to as cancer stem cells. We investigated the effect of berberine on pancreatic cancer stem cells of PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2. For both cell lines, the proportions of SP cells in the presence of berberine were investigated and compared to the proportions in the presence of gemcitabine, a standard pancreatic anti-cancer drug. The proportions of SP cells in the PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cell lines were about 9 and PANC-1 decreased to 5.7 ± 2.0 and 6.8 ± 0.8%, respectively, which compares to the control proportion of (9.7 ± 1.7). After berberine and gemcitabine treatment of PANC-1, of the four stem cell-associated genes (SOX2, POU5F1, NANOG, and NOTCH1), all but NOTCH1 were down-regulated. Unfortunately, the effect of berberine and gemcitabine treatments on MIA PaCa-2 SP cells could not be clearly observed because SP cells represented only a very small proportion of MIA PaCa-2 cells. However, SOX2, POU5F1, and NANOG genes were shown to be effectively down-regulated in the MIA PaCa-2 cell line as a whole. Taken together, these results indicate that berberine is as effective at targeting pancreatic cancer cell lines as gemcitabine. Therefore, we believe that POU5F1, SOX2, and NANOG can serve as potential markers, and berberine may be an effective anti-cancer agent when targeting human pancreatic cancer cells and/or their cancer stem cells.
Full Text Available A nogueira-macadâmia produz frutos do tipo folículo, cuja parte comestível é a semente, com alto valor agregado no mercado internacional e com grande aceitação pelos consumidores. No Brasil, sabe-se que a época de colheita dos frutos da nogueira-macadâmia inicia-se em meados de fevereiro, porém, não se conhece o potencial produtivo dos diversos cultivares disponíveis nas condições brasileiras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a produção e a amplitude de colheita de cultivares de nogueira-macadâmia, no município de Itapira, SP. Para o experimento, foram utilizados dez cultivares de nogueira-macadâmia (HAES 722, IAC Campinas-B, 791 Fuji, HAES 842, HAES 849, HAES 814, HAES 344, IAC 9-20X, IAC 9-20 e HAES 816, sendo quantificadas durante três safras, em Itapira, SP, o número de frutos e a massa de colheita (produção e produtividade estimada, calculando-se, posteriormente, a massa média dos frutos. Concluiu-se que a produção da nogueira-macadâmia, em Itapira, SP, inicia-se em meados de fevereiro e estende-se até o final de junho. IAC 9-20 foi o cultivar mais precoce e, HAES 722, o mais tardio, enquanto o HAES 344 proporcionou a menor amplitude de colheita e 791 Fuji e HAES 849 as maiores. Os cultivares IAC 9-20X, IAC 9-20 e HAES 816 apresentaram o maior desempenho produtivo.
Educational aids include printed matter, aural media, visual media, audiovisual media and objects. A distinction is made between learning aids, which include blackboards, overhead projectors, flipcharts, wallcharts and pinboards, and learning aids, which include textbooks, worksheets, documentation and experimental equipment. The various aids are described and their use explained. The aids available at the School for Nuclear Technology of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre are described
The maternal immune activation (MIA) model of schizophrenia produces pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) deficits in both juvenile and adult rats but these effects are not associated with maternal weight loss.
Wolff, Amy R; Bilkey, David K
The developmental onset of deficits in sensorimotor-gating was examined in the maternal immune activation (MIA) animal model of schizophrenia. Pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) deficits were evident in juvenile MIA rats. This parallels the sensorimotor-gating deficits observed in groups at high-risk of schizophrenia. PPI deficits were independent of maternal weight loss following the MIA manipulation, suggesting that this measure may not be a useful marker of treatment efficacy. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alex Giacomelli da Silva
Full Text Available O autor discute a faceta internacional da política brasileira sobre HIV/AIDS e sua relação com outras áreas da política externa, como propriedade intelectual e direitos humanos. Para isso, utiliza-se dos conceitos de Joseph Nye Jr. de soft power e hard power. Este reflete a capacidade de um ator fazer com que outros sigam sua posição, mesmo contra a vontade. Aquele consiste na capacidade de um ator atrair outros livremente para sua posição. O ensaio analisa a importância, nas relações internacionais, dos meios de comunicação, das ONGs, da opinião pública e das instituições interestatais, que não somente possuem soft power próprio, mas também desempenham papel relevante no fortalecimento do soft power dos países. O autor avalia a influência desse tipo de poder nas relações entre o Brasil e os Estados Unidos, bem como em foros multilaterais como as Nações Unidas e a Organização Mundial do Comércio. O artigo analisa, igualmente, o papel do hard power nas relações internacionais e avalia por que os países não podem dispensá-lo. Embora o soft power venha de fato tornando-se cada vez mais importante nos últimos anos, a combinação dos dois tipos de poder continua sendo a política mais correta a ser seguida. A política externa brasileira de HIV/AIDS constitui exemplo ilustrativo.The paper discusses the international facet of the Brazilian policy on HIV/AIDS and its connection to other areas of foreign relations, such as intellectual property rights and human rights. In so doing, it takes into account Joseph Nye Jr. concepts of soft and hard power. The latter reflects the capacity of making others follow one's position, albeit against their will. The former consists in the capacity of freely attracting others to one's position. The author analyses the importance of the media, the nongovernmental organizations, the public opinion, and the international institutions in foreign affairs. Not only do they possess soft
Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J
The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. © The Author(s) 2014.
Sara M. K. Madsen
Full Text Available The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.
Maria Carmen Silveira Barbosa
Full Text Available The essay presents the proposal of an interlocution between the course of our studies in the field of early childhood education and Mia Couto's work. We address the matter of alterity from themes such as space, time, childhoods, art and science. Mia Couto defines alterity as the magic of being us, being others, a conception that reaffirms the African thinking according to which each person is because we are everybody else. Here, "others" do not refer only to people, but also to the places they inhabit, the listening to their social processes, their traditions, in summary, the lives they live. Mia Couto's reflections lead us to part with instituted habits of thinking the education of childhood by favoring the resistance to the hegemonic way of conceiving and conducting the education of small children from one single way of promoting childhood experiences. Este ensaio apresenta uma proposta de interlocução entre o percurso de nossos estudos no campo da educação da infância e a obra de Mia Couto. Para tanto, detemo-nos na questão da alteridade a partir dos temas espaço, tempo, infâncias, arte e ciência. A alteridade é, para Mia Couto, a magia de sermos nós, sendo outros, concepção que reafirma o pensamento africano na qual cada um é porque é todos os outros. Esses “outros” não se referem apenas a pessoas, mas também aos lugares que habitam, à escuta de seus processos sociais, suas tradições, enfim as vidas que neles são vividas. As reflexões de Mia Couto permitem romper com hábitos instituídos de pensar a educação das infâncias ao favorecerem a resistência ao modo hegemônico de conceber e realizar a educação de crianças pequenas a partir de uma única forma escolar de promover experiências de infância na contemporaneidade.
Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn
of the main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces......Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model...... poverty through physical capital investment and improvements in health....
Florida State Postsecondary Education Planning Commission, Tallahassee.
This report presents the results of a review of all state student financial aid programs in Florida and presents recommendations concerning program consolidation. The review was designed to address a variety of aid-related issues, including unexpended financial aid resources, program consolidation, budget request and aid distribution procedures,…
Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn
This is an introduction to the UNU-WIDER special issue of World Development on aid policy and the macroeconomic management of aid. We provide an overview of the 10 studies, grouping them under three sub-themes: the aid–growth relationship; the supply-side of aid (including its level, volatility......, and coordination of donors); and the macroeconomic framework around aid. The studies in the special issue demonstrate the centrality of research methodology, the importance of disaggregation, and the need to account for country-specific situations and problems. This introduction concludes that the sometimes “over...
Full Text Available Escrevendo em português, língua oficial de Moçambiquc e sua línguanativa, Mia Couto, no entanto, baseia seu trabalho na culturado seu país, reino da palavra oral e da sabedoria tradicional africana.Para o autor, a língua portuguesa não é um mero instrumento de escrita,de trabalho artístico. O escritor revela conhecer o papel e o lugar dalíngua portuguesa na expressão dos sentimentos de um povo ex-colonizado,ao reinventar suas formas de expressão e adaptar sua gramática adiferentes sentimentos, estruturas mentais e consciência social. O t rabalhocom a linguagem em Mia Couto é por isso mais que lingüístico,pois revela uma filosofia de uso da linguagem para expressar nova realidadecul tura l e social.
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...
Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...
Full Text Available Després de fer un repàs a les obres que s’han ocupat del tema, s’intenta, a partir de la toponímia conservada en la documentació i dels noms de lloc subsistents, classificar els fenòmens fonètics que semblen caracteritzar el parlar romànic anterior a la conquista catalana en el marc geogràfic de les Balears estrictes.
Interview with Mia Katigbak (co-founder and artistic producing director of NAATCO).Breaking Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes on the American Stage: National Asian American Theatre Company’s 25th Anniversary
Medalle, Rovie Herrera
Entretien avec Mia Katigbak, co-fondatrice et directrice artistique de NAATCO (National Asian American Theatre Company). L’entretien, réalisé en août 2015, consistaient en un échange de courriels Interview with Mia Katigbak, co-founder and Artistic Producing Director of NAATCO (National Asian American Theatre Company). The interview was conducted by emails in August 2015
Wu, Chun-Yan; Yan, Jun; Yang, Yue-Feng; Xiao, Feng-Jun; Li, Qing-Fang; Zhang, Qun-Wei; Wang, Li-Sheng; Guo, Xiao-Zhong; Wang, Hua
Research highlights: → We first investigate the effects of KAI1 on autophagy in MiaPaCa-2 cells. → Our findings demonstrate that KAI1 induces autophagy, which in turn inhibits KAI1-induced apoptosis. → This study also supplies a possible novel therapeutic method for the treatment of pancreatic cancer using autophagy inhibitors. -- Abstract: KAI1, a metastasis-suppressor gene belonging to the tetraspanin family, is known to inhibit cancer metastasis without affecting the primary tumorigenicity by inhibiting the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling pathway. Recent studies have shown that hypoxic conditions of solid tumors induce high-level autophagy and KAI1 expression. However, the relationship between autophagy and KAI1 remains unclear. By using transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and Western blotting, we found that KAI1 can induce autophagy in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the human pancreatic cell line MiaPaCa-2. KAI1-induced autophagy was confirmed by the expression of autophagy-related proteins LC3 and Beclin 1. KAI1 induces autophagy through phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinases rather than that of AKT. KAI1-induced autophagy protects MiaPaCa-2 cells from apoptosis and proliferation inhibition partially through the downregulation of poly [adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose] polymerase (PARP) cleavage and caspase-3 activation.
The Common Agenda for Cooperation in Global Perspective is a bilateral partnership established in 1993 between the US and Japan to address important global challenges of the 21st century such as global health and human development, including population and HIV/AIDS, global stability, protection of the global environment, and the advancement of science and technology. On the fifth anniversary of the agenda, representatives of the Japan and the US governments, international organizations, and private sectors discussed ways to further promote US-Japan cooperation under the agenda at a meeting held in Tokyo during March 12-13. Participants of the Common Agenda Open Forum also reviewed efforts made by Japan and the US under the agenda to address population and the environment. Forum participants focused upon developing new ideas for future cooperation between the governments, the private sector, and other nations, especially in the areas of health and the environment. The meeting was jointly organized by Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the US Department of State. Attention was also given during talks to diminishing international assistance budgets worldwide.
Solange Coelho VEREZA
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir os conceitos de sinonímia e referência usados na semântica e na lingüística textual para verificar até que ponto esses conceitos remetem a uma possível interseção entre a noção de significado denotativo e significado textual. Serão feitas considerações acerca da função expressiva da referência, normalmente vista a partir de sua função referencial no âmbito do texto. Uma análise sucinta de exemplos de referência retirados de um texto servirá de ilustração para as questões aqui tratadas.The aim of this paper is to discuss the concepts of synonymy and reference as they are used in formal semantics and textual linguistics in order to verify the extent to which they may provide a link between the notions of denotative and textual meaning. The expressive function of reference, normally approached through its referencial role in the text, will also be discussed. A brief analysis of some examples of reference taken from a written text will illustrate some of the issues treated in the paper.
Allers, Christopher T.
Older adults are finding themselves the neighbors of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients as well as the primary caregivers of infected adult children. Focuses on roles, issues, and conflicts older adults face in dealing with relatives or neighbors with AIDS. Case management and educational intervention strategies are also offered.…
Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano
A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...
Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...
Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is increasingly becoming a major public health problem in our country. Currently, the reported cases represent only the 'tip of the iceberg' of the problem. In view of the fact that no cure or vaccine for the disease has yet been found, spreading knowledge and removing misconceptions is about the only way that AIDS can be effectively tackled.This handbook, developed by Prof. Shankar Chowdhury and associates, seeks to address all levels of medical and non-medical AIDS workers, as well as the layman. It deals with topics ranging from biology of the virus, symptoms and transmission of disease, to prevention, counselling for infected persons and action plan for AIDS education.The biology of the virus and the immune system is described in simple terms, as well as methods of testing for HIV, and what these test results mean. The progression of disease in adults and children, development of symptoms, diagnostic criteria for AIDS, treatment and outcome of disease is dealt with. How AIDS spreads between people, and the health risk for health workers and families is examined. The various ways in which transmission of HIV can be prevented is looked at in detail, including public health measures, national and internatonal action, and ethical and human rights issues involved.
Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that low-doses proton beam irradiation had an effect on MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic carcinoma cell line. Full extent of irradiation had an impact only 24 h postirradiation, triggering DNA arrested cell cycle in G1/0 phase. Formed DNA DSBs were found to be repaired via the NHEJ pathway mechanism within 72 h. Unsuccessful repaired DSBs induced apoptotic cell death. After 72 h reparation processes were completed, and cell cycle was released from arrest in G1/0 phase.
Mônica Mano Trindade
Full Text Available Neste artigo, cujo objeto de investigação é a metonímia, pretende-se analisar casos não convencionalizados desse processo, como o enunciado - eu estou estacionado - para o qual se tem tradicionalmente atribuído uma análise pragmática. Como aporte teórico à análise, destacam-se Pustejovsky (1995 e Jackendoff (2002. O primeiro trata a polissemia lógica baseado no Léxico Gerativo, que combina os níveis de representação lexical com os mecanismos gerativos responsáveis pela explicação de novos sentidos. O segundo trata os casos de metoníma não convencionalizada como um processo de composição enriquecida, por meio do qual se representa a parte contextualizada do enunciado na estrutura conceitual. Propondo uma aproximação entre os dois autores, o dado linguístico selecionado é analisado como um mecanismo de coerção de tipo, cuja formalização mais abrangente é a composição enriquecida, enfatizando a relação de posse como a relação que viabiliza tal coerção.This study, whose object of investigation is metonymy, aims at analysing the non-convencionalized cases of this process, like - I am parked - which has been traditionally given a pragmatic analysis. Pustejovsky (1995 and Jackendoff (2002 stand out as theoretical background supporting the research. The former addresses logical polysemy based on Generative Lexicon, which combines the levels of lexical representation and the generative mechanisms that account for the explanation of new meanings. The former approaches the cases of non-conventionalized metonymy as an enriched composition process through which the contextualized part of the utterance is represented in the conceptual structure. By proposing an approximation of both authors, the selected linguistic datum is analyzed as a type coercion mechanism, where the more comprehensive formalization is the enriched composition, with emphasis on the relation of ownership as the relation that makes such coercion
I artiklen diskuteres mødet mellem Nikos Kazantzakis og Johannes Jørgensen i Assisi foråret 1924. I Jørgensens dagbøger, nu på Det Kongelige Bibliotek i København, omtales mødet meget kort. Kazantzakis derimod refererer til mødet i sin korrespondance samt udførligt i forordet til sin oversættels...
Patricia Goulart Tondineli
Full Text Available This article discourses of toponimy on them in the context of Grande Sertão: veredas, on which the survey is presented in this work toponymy, are real or imaginary. 462 toponyms were registered for various taxes, which follows the classification taxonomies toponymic exposed by Dick (1990 and divided into physical nature and antropocultural, which include specific types. The taxes thus represent the main motivators for choosing standards of the toponym.
Fink, R.K.; Callow, R.A.; Larson, T.K.; Ransom, V.H.
An expert system called the ATHENA AIDE that assists in the preparation of input models for the ATHENA thermal-hydraulics code has been developed by researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The ATHENA AIDE uses a menu driven graphics interface and rule-based and object-oriented programming techniques to assist users of the ATHENA code in performing the tasks involved in preparing the card image input files required to run ATHENA calculations. The ATENA AIDE was developed and currently runs on single-user Xerox artificial intelligence workstations. Experience has shown that the intelligent modeling environment provided by the ATHENA AIDE expert system helps ease the modeling task by relieving the analyst of many mundane, repetitive, and error prone procedures involved in the construction of an input model. This reduces errors in the resulting models, helps promote standardized modeling practices, and allows models to be constructed more quickly than was previously possible
... Relations Cyber Infrastructure Computational Biology Equal Employment Opportunity Ethics Global Research Office of Mission Integration and Financial Management Strategic Planning Workforce Effectiveness Workplace Solutions Technology Transfer Intellectual Property Division of AIDS ...
... Special Issues Subscribe June 2015 Print this issue HIV and AIDS: Know the Facts Treatments Work, but ... Biological Blueprints Wise Choices Should You Get an HIV Test? HIV tests involve a simple cheek swab, ...
Full Text Available Written Exercises: Ancestral Magic and Emergent Intellectuals in Mia Couto, Lhoussain Azergui and Dorota Masłowska The article consists in a comparative reading of three novels: Um rio chamado tempo by Mia Couto, Le pain des corbeaux by Lhoussain Azergui and Paw królowej by Dorota Masłowska. In spite of the difference of the historical circumstances of Mozambique, Morocco and Poland, these three books meet at an intersecting point: the emergence of an intelligentsia that uses literacy and writing as an instrument to deconstruct the post-colonial concept of nation and to operate a trans-colonial renegotiation of identity. By the notion of trans-colonial, I understand the opposition against new kinds of symbolic violence that emerged after the end of the colonial period; here this new form of oppression is related to the concept of national unity – an artificial construct that leaves no place for a dualism or pluralism of cultural reality (two shores of the Zambezi river, Arab and Berber dualism in Morocco, “small homelands” in Poland. The young heroes of the novels grasp the pen in order to break through the falseness or the taboos created by the fathers, establishing, at the same time, the relation of solidarity with the world of the grandfathers. The act of writing becomes an actualization of the ancestral universe of magic. The settlement of accounts with the parental generation concerns the vision of nation built upon the resistance against the colonizer (it also refers to the Polish cultural formation, based on the tradition of uprisings and resistance against the Russians. Ćwiczenia pisemne: magia przodków i nowi intelektualiści w powieściach Mii Couto, Lhoussaina Azerguiego i Doroty Masłowskiej Na podstawie powieści Um rio chamado tempo, uma casa chamada terra Mii Couto (2002, Le pain des corbeaux Lhoussaina Azerguiego (2012 oraz Paw królowej Doroty Masłowskiej (2005 dokonano analizy zjawiska wyłonienia się nowej
Koshy, L M
The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns
Indra Kusuma Harta
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan Prototipe Egg Boiler (Pengkukus Telur Otomatis sebagai media pembelajaran untuk mata pelajaran Prakarya dan Kewirausahaan pada materi Teknologi Tepat Guna di Kelas XI MIA SMA Negeri 4 Singaraja. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode Penelitian dan Pengembangan dalam bidang pendidikan. Hasil uji validasi ahli media memperoleh skor sebesar 0,75 dalam kategori tinggi. Uji validasi isi dengan nilai sebesar 0,81 dalam kategori sangat tinggi. Sedangkan hasil uji coba perorangan dengan nilai sebesar 0.93, uji coba kelompok kecil dengan nilai sebesar 0.71, dan uji coba lapangan dengan nilai sebesar 0.82. Pada uji coba lapangan juga dilakukan dengan menganalisis nilai dari kegiatan praktikum, nilai yang diperoleh 87.4 dikategorikan dengan hasil belajar tinggi. Dari hasil nilai pre-test dan post-test tersebut secara keseluruhan mengalami peningkatan. Sehingga Pototipe Egg Boiler yang telah dikembangkan sangat membantu siswa dalam memahami materi dan praktikum mata pelajaran Prakarya dan Kewirausahaan untuk materi Teknologi Tepat Guna di Kelas XI MIA SMA Negeri 4 Singaraja.
Full Text Available Pancreatic tumors are the gastrointestinal cancer with the worst prognosis in humans and with a survival rate of 5% at 5 years. Nowadays, no chemotherapy has demonstrated efficacy in terms of survival for this cancer. Previous study focused on the development of a new therapy by non thermal plasma showed significant effects on tumor growth for colorectal carcinoma and glioblastoma. To allow targeted treatment, a fibered plasma (Plasma Gun was developed and its evaluation was performed on an orthotopic mouse model of human pancreatic carcinoma using a MIA PaCa2-luc bioluminescent cell line. The aim of this study was to characterize this pancreatic carcinoma model and to determine the effects of Plasma Gun alone or in combination with gemcitabine. During a 36 days period, quantitative BLI could be used to follow the tumor progression and we demonstrated that plasma gun induced an inhibition of MIA PaCa2-luc cells proliferation in vitro and in vivo and that this effect could be improved by association with gemcitabine possibly thanks to its radiosensitizing properties.
Brullé, Laura; Vandamme, Marc; Riès, Delphine; Martel, Eric; Robert, Eric; Lerondel, Stéphanie; Trichet, Valérie; Richard, Serge; Pouvesle, Jean-Michel; Le Pape, Alain
Pancreatic tumors are the gastrointestinal cancer with the worst prognosis in humans and with a survival rate of 5% at 5 years. Nowadays, no chemotherapy has demonstrated efficacy in terms of survival for this cancer. Previous study focused on the development of a new therapy by non thermal plasma showed significant effects on tumor growth for colorectal carcinoma and glioblastoma. To allow targeted treatment, a fibered plasma (Plasma Gun) was developed and its evaluation was performed on an orthotopic mouse model of human pancreatic carcinoma using a MIA PaCa2-luc bioluminescent cell line. The aim of this study was to characterize this pancreatic carcinoma model and to determine the effects of Plasma Gun alone or in combination with gemcitabine. During a 36 days period, quantitative BLI could be used to follow the tumor progression and we demonstrated that plasma gun induced an inhibition of MIA PaCa2-luc cells proliferation in vitro and in vivo and that this effect could be improved by association with gemcitabine possibly thanks to its radiosensitizing properties.
Victor Cavalcanti Mariano
Full Text Available O presente trabalho traz à baila a discussão sobre a antroponímia de uma parcela da população afrodescendente do Brasil. O texto tenta mostrar, relacionando a história da Bahia e do Brasil, o porquê de os nomes próprios africanos terem praticamente se extinguido no país, revelando possíveis fatores que levaram os negros a adotar nomes de origem europeia. Para tanto, faz-se uso do livro de matrícula da Sociedade Protetora dos Desvalidos (SPD, uma irmandade negra de Salvador que existe desde 1832, quando ainda havia o regime escravocrata no Brasil. Analisam-se aqui os nomes presentes no livro a partir da segunda década do século XX. A partir da leitura de textos que tratam da antroponímia no Brasil e em Portugal, bem como de textos que traçam a história da escravidão brasileira e da SPD, além da análise dos nomes presentes no livro de matrícula, confirma-se a hipótese do uso de nomes de origem europeia pelos negros brasileiros e procura-se criar hipóteses para a explicação de tal fato.
Full Text Available Studi ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa dan mengklasifikasi kesalahan siswa dalam menyelesaikan permasalahan peluang. Subjek studi ini adalah 38 siswa dari kelas X MIA 3 di SMA Negeri 1 Tanjungpinang. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah tes tertulis yang memuat 5 butir soal uraian yang disusun dan divalidasi bersama oleh peneliti dan guru matematika kelas X MIA 3. Kesalahan yang dianalisis dikategorikan dengan menggunakan kategori kesalahan Watson diantaranya data tidak tepat (inappropriate data/id, prosedur tidak tepat (inappropriate procedure/ip, data hilang (ommited data/od, kesimpulan hilang (ommited conclusion/oc, konflik level respon (response level conflict/rlc, manipulasi tidak langsung (undirected manipulation/um, masalah hierarki keterampilan (skills hierarchy problem/shp, dan jenis kesalahan lain dalam kategori terakhir. Hasil analisis kesalahan menunjukkan persentase data tidak tepat sebesar 14,43 %, prosedur tidak tepat sebesar 12,08 %, data hilang sebesar 19,13%, kesimpulan hilang sebesar 21,14%, konflik level respon sebesar 1,34 %, manipulasi tidak langsung sebesar 12,75 %, serta persentase masalah hirarki keterampilan sebesar 19,13 %. Kata Kunci: Peluang, Kesalahan Siswa, Kategori Kesalahan Menurut Watson DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jpm.10.2.3630.39-52
Krieger, N; Margo, G
Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.
D. Ho Analyst in Agricultural Policy Charles E. Hanrahan Senior Specialist in Agricultural Policy February 3, 2010 Congressional Research Service...U.S. Treasury. 10 In United States agricultural policy , “monetization” is a P.L. 480 provision (Section 203) first included in the Food Security Act...Contact Information Melissa D. Ho Analyst in Agricultural Policy firstname.lastname@example.org, 7-5342 Charles E. Hanrahan Senior Specialist in Agricultural
Several evidences were presented during the meeting in London entitled "Origins of AIDS and the HIV epidemic," debating the idea that AIDS was an accidental result of a polio vaccination campaign conducted by a virologist, Hilary Koprowski, and colleagues in the late 1950s among thousands of people in the Belgian Congo. The meeting carefully examined the CHAT theory presented by a writer, Edward Hooper, in his book "The River" and has raised questions on the correlation between vaccination sites and early records of HIV-1, and on the estimated amount of HIV particles that would get through each stage of the process of creating CHAT. Overall, the meeting agreed to reject the CHAT theory of AIDS for it has no basis, since Koprowski and colleagues denied the use of chimpanzee kidneys, which Hooper openly suggests in his book. The meeting noted that the disease's origins remain a mystery.
Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair
This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...
Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.
Partial Contents: AIDS in Burundi, Rwanda AIDS Situation in Country Examined, Estimated Over 750,000 HIV Positive, In 3 Years 4 Million May Be AIDS Carriers, Events at National AIDS Convention Analyzed, Senior Army...
Jonsson, C; Soderholm, P
This paper is concerned with the emergence of transnational cooperative structures in response to AIDS. Of chief concern are efforts to create and maintain links among and between intergovernmental organizations (IGO) in the UN system and the many heterogenous organizations usually included under the nongovernmental organization (NGO) label. After discussing the nature of the AIDS issue, the authors focus upon the various ways of framing the AIDS issue and the effort by the Global Program on AIDS to coordinate IGO and NGO activities. In closing, they identify lessons and insights of broader applicability emanating from the AIDS case. The paper discusses the nature of AIDS, AIDS as a medical problem, AIDS as a human rights problem, AIDS as a socioeconomic problem, forging IGO-NGO links, an international NGO forum, informal networking, NGOs and AIDS-related foreign assistance, representation, formal versus informal coordination, costs of network building, degree of organization, and expertise.
Since HIV is sexually transmitted, people living with AIDS and HIV (PWA/PHA) risk being stigmatized as immoral and promiscuous and they are often discriminated against in society. To this effect, the South African AIDS Law Project and Lawyers for Human Rights have developed a comprehensive resource manual detailing human rights with a special emphasis on issues relevant to PWA/PHA. The concept of the manual aimed to look at the legal and human rights questions that have been raised by the HIV/AIDS epidemic; inform people living with HIV/AIDS about their rights and the law; provide people working in businesses, trade unions, and nongovernmental organization with information about correct and incorrect responses to HIV/AIDS; and give victims of discrimination ideas on how to fight back. This manual initially introduces basic facts about HIV and AIDS and then describes the legal system and the Bill of Rights within the new South African Constitution. The main areas of focus in the manual include: 1) patient's medical rights, 2) employment rights, 3) women's rights, 4) the rights of lesbians and gay men, 5) the rights of youth and children, 6) the rights of prisoners, 7) social support for PWA, 8) HIV/AIDS and insurance law, 9) power of attorney and making wills, 10) criminal law, and 11) legal remedies, such as using the law to protect one's rights.
Mason, Lisa D.
Discusses design issues for interactive multimedia. Notes that technical communication instructors must consider navigational aids, the degree of control a user should have, audio cues, color and typographical elements, visual elements, and copyright issues. (RS)
In "God's Work," an episode of the "Miami Vice" television series in which a gay character comes home to reunite with a childhood friend and ex-lover who is dying of AIDS, the show is at odds with itself over the issue of sexuality and AIDS. At one level, that of the "coming-out" story of the main character, it…
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Seghal, P N
In this article, Dr. P.N. Sehgal, former director of the National Institute of Communicable Diseases in Delhi, explains the steps that women need to take to protect themselves against AIDS and discusses some issues facing women who have already contracted the disease. Because of women's lack of status in the family and society, it is harder for them to ensure their safety. Women based at home often lack information on AIDS, and those women who are informed sometimes depend on their male partner for financial support, which means that they are forced to engage in unsafe sexual practices. Safer sexual practices can reduce the risk for women. Though varying in degree of safety, some safer practices include: monogamous relationships between uninfected partners; the use of condoms for all types of sexual intercourse; non-penetrative sex practices (hugging, kissing, masturbating); reducing the number of sexual partners; avoiding sex when either of the partners has open sores or any STD. Pregnant women should also receive information concerning AIDS, including: a baby born from an HIV-infected mother has a 20-40% of being infected; the risk of transmission is higher when the mother already shows signs of AIDS; and an infected baby may die within the first few years of life. the HIV transmission may occur prepartum or during birth itself, but the risk of transmission from breastfeeding is extremely low. Dr. Sehgal stresses the need for privacy and confidentiality when dealing with carriers of the disease or when carrying out HIV testing. Above all, the rights of HIV-infected people must be protected.
First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...
First aid Chest pain: First aid Chest pain: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Causes of chest pain can vary from minor problems, such as indigestion ... 26, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-chest-pain/basics/ART-20056705 . Mayo ...
First aid Head trauma: First aid Head trauma: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require ... 21, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-head-trauma/basics/ART-20056626 . Mayo ...
Resources - HIV/AIDS ... information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www.kff.org/hivaids US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/hiv
Correspondence in relation to the case report "Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note." published in May issue of Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
Full Text Available Abstract Comment on 'Capnography as an aid in localizing the phrenic nerve in brachial plexus surgery. Technical note' Bhagat H, Agarwal A, Sharma MS Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury 2008, 3:14 (22 May 2008
Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran Problem Based Instruction Disertai Metode Demonstrasi Terhadap Hasil Belajar Dan Retensi Hasil Belajar Siswa Pada Pembelajaran Fisika SMA (Studi Pada Kelas X Mia Sman Arjasa Jember)
Susanti, Eli Dwi; Indrawati, Indrawati; Yushardi, Yushardi
The reseach focuses on the implementation of Problem Based Instruction model with the demonstration method. The purposes of this research are to study the influence of the Models to student's physics achievement of affective, kognitif, psycomotoric and student's physics achievement retention. The kind of this research is experiment by modified post-test only control group design. Population of this research is X MIA Senior High School Arjasa Jember. Techniques to the collection data are obser...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 5E learning cycle instructional model using socioscientific issues (SSI learning context on students’ critical thinking skills of acid-base. This study used quasi-experimental posttest only control group design. The sample consisted of three classes, which were XI MIA-4class (n = 32 that learned using 5E LC model, XI MIA-5 class (n = 33 that learned using 5E LC+SSI, and XI MIA-6 class (n = 32 that learned using conventional method. The samples were choosen by convenience sampling technique. The test instrument consisted of 15 multiple choice items which were valid and reliable (r = 0.806. The data were analyzed using one way ANOVA test and LSD posthoc test. The results of this study indicated that the students who learned using 5E LC+SSI model showed greater levels of critical thinking skills ( = 74,95 than both the student who learned using 5E LC model ( = 74,17 and the student who learned using conventional method ( = 68,96. Based on statistics analysis, there was significant differences on students’ critical thinkings between students taught using conventional method and students taught either using 5E LC+SSI model and 5E LC model. However, there was no significant differences on students’ critical thinking skills between students taught using 5E LC+SSI model and the students taught using 5E LC model.
Shiroma, Calvin Y
As of August 2014, the Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command has identified the remains of 1980 previously unknown U.S. service members; 280 were from the Korean War. To determine the accuracy and completeness of the available antemortem (AM) dental records, a review of the AM/postmortem (AM/PM) dental record comparisons from 233 Forensic Odontology Reports written in support of remains identified from the Korean War was performed. Seventy-two AM/PM comparisons resulted in exact dental chartings while 161 contained discrepancies which were explainable. Explainable discrepancies include undocumented treatment (103), incorrectly charted third molars as missing (82), differing opinions of specific molars present/missing (20), and erroneous treatment documentation and/or misidentification of teeth present/missing (22, other than molars). Reassessment has revealed varying levels of completeness for our available AM dental records, the need to thoroughly review our computerized comparisons, adjust our comparisons to include molar pattern variations/third molars, and updating our database comparison program. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.
Kim, Nayoung; Kang, Min-Jung; Lee, Sang Hyub; Son, Jun Hyuk; Lee, Ji Eun; Paik, Woo Hyun; Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Yong-Tae
Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with a poor prognosis. This study was set up to investigate the combined effect of gemcitabine and fisetin, a natural flavonoid from plants, on human pancreatic cancer cells. Meterials and Methods: Cytotoxic effect of fisetin in combination with gemcitabine on MiaPaca-2 cells was evaluated by the MTT assay, caspase 3/7 assay and propidium iodide/Annexin V. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC) pathway was investigated by western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Combination treatment with fisetin and gemcitabine inhibited the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells within 72 h and induced apoptosis, as indicated by activation of caspase 3/7. Fisetin down-regulated ERK at the protein and mRNA levels, and reduced ERK-induced MYC instability at the protein level. Fisetin sensitized human pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine-induced cytotoxicity through inhibition of ERK-MYC signaling. These results suggest that the combination of fisetin and gemcitabine could be developed as a novel potent therapeutic. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
The methylthiotransferases (MTTases) represent a subfamily of the S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) radical superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the attachment of a methylthioether (-SCH3) moiety on unactivated carbon centers. These enzymes contain two [4Fe-4S] clusters, one of which participates in the reductive fragmentation of AdoMet to generate a 5′-deoxyadenosyl 5′-radical and the other of which, termed the auxiliary cluster, is believed to play a central role in constructing the methylthio group and attaching it to the substrate. Because the redox properties of the bound cofactors within the AdoMet radical superfamily are so poorly understood, we have examined two MTTases in parallel, MiaB and RimO, using protein electrochemistry. We resolve the redox potentials of each [4Fe-4S] cluster, show that the auxiliary cluster has a potential higher than that of the AdoMet-binding cluster, and demonstrate that upon incubation of either enzyme with AdoMet, a unique low-potential state of the enzyme emerges. Our results are consistent with a mechanism whereby the auxiliary cluster is transiently methylated during substrate methylthiolation. PMID:27598886
Antonio Geraldo Cantarela
Full Text Available Os processos iniciáticos – a circuncisão e os ritos e ensinamentos a ela correlacionados – representam um dos mais importantes traços da cultura tradicional africana. Constituem sofisticado e complexo corpus pedagógico, sendo compreendidos, em todos os seus aspectos, em relação com o sagrado. Inúmeros temas e artifícios literários presentes na obra do escritor moçambicano Mia Couto encenam movimentos que podem ser associados ao imaginário da tradição ancestral. O artigo percorre alguns contos e romances do escritor buscando referências ao sagrado expressas com os modos característicos da tradição. Detém-se particularmente na forma de construção diegética que encena aspectos da estrutura ritualístico-narrativa dos mitos. Destaca a estratégia ficcional de Couto que não apenas recolhe e valoriza os saberes da cultura tradicional, mas desconstrói, tensiona e transforma esses saberes. O atravessamento da voz do narrador e das personagens pela voz reinventada da tradição oral, para além de reconhecer e afirmar o valor da sabedoria tradicional, reafirma outrossim o pressuposto do dinamismo da tradição.Palavras-chave: Literatura moçambicana. Mia Couto. Tradição oral. Ritos iniciáticos. AbstractInitiation processes – circumcision and the rites and lessons related to it – represent one of the most important features of traditional African culture. They form a highly sophisticated and complex pedagogical corpus, which is completely understood in relation to the sacred. Many topics and literary devices present in the work of Mozambican writer Mia Couto show movements that can be associated to the imaginary of ancestral tradition. The paper analyzes some tales and novels looking for references to the sacred expressed with the characteristic features of that tradition. This piece of work specially focuses on the diegetic construction used to present aspects of the ritualistic-narrative structure of myths. Couto
Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS The Nation's Top HIV/AIDS Researcher Discusses This Continuing Health Threat Past Issues / ... on. For more than 30 years, the NIH's HIV/AIDS research program has been led by Dr. Anthony S. ...
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First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of your stomach and intestines. Common causes are: Viruses. Food or water contaminated by ...
First aid Snakebites: First aid Snakebites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most North American snakes aren't dangerous to humans. Some exceptions include the rattlesnake, coral snake, water moccasin ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español HIV and AIDS KidsHealth / For Kids / HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...
... the aids? Start using your hearing aids in quiet surroundings, gradually building up to noisier environments. Then eventually work up to wearing your hearing aids all waking hours. Keep a diary to help you remember your ...
First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...
Creusere, Marlena; Fletcher, Carla; Klepfer, Kasey; Norman, Patricia
TG provides critical support to schools, students, and borrowers at every stage of the federal student aid process--from providing information on how to pay for a higher education including financial aid options, to facilitating successful loan repayment after graduation. This issue of "State of Student Aid and Higher Education in Texas"…
During the 13th international AIDS conference in Durban, former president Nelson Mandela pulled the morale of the conference highlighting the need to confront the needs and concerns of those suffering and dying of HIV/AIDS in South Africa, mostly in sub-Saharan. He also stated that to challenge the grave threat posed by HIV and AIDS, efforts should be combined to save the people. This concluding remark was in direct contrast to the opening words of South Africa's current president, Thabo Mbeki, who failed to deal with the impression he has created internationally that he has doubts about the etiology of AIDS. In addition, the need to focus on the accessibility and affordability of treatment for HIV/AIDS or the opportunistic infections associated with it was highlighted. The conference focused on this issue with the help of AIDS activists, who emphasized that pharmaceutical companies needed to address how their drugs could reach those who most need them.
First aid encompasses a wide range of scenarios ranging from simple reassurance following a minor mishap to dealing with a life-threatening emergency. Dentists may need to provide first aid in their dental practice to a patient, relative or member of staff. This article provides an overview to first aid in the dental practice, including priorities, responsibilities when providing first aid, assessment of the environment and the casualty (primary survey &secondary survey). The new A3 'First Aid in the Workplace' poster is now available and is included as an insert in this issue (BDJ Vol. 220, Issue 12).
This article presents the perspectives of UNAIDS and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on migration and HIV/AIDS. It identifies research and action priorities and policy issues, and describes the current situation in major regions of the world. Migration is a process. Movement is enhanced by air transport, rising international trade, deregulation of trade practices, and opening of borders. Movements are restricted by laws and statutes. Denial to freely circulate and obtain asylum is associated with vulnerability to HIV infections. A UNAIDS policy paper in 1997 and IOM policy guidelines in 1988 affirm that refugees and asylum seekers should not be targeted for special measures due to HIV/AIDS. There is an urgent need to provide primary health services for migrants, voluntary counseling and testing, and more favorable conditions. Research is needed on the role of migration in the spread of HIV, the extent of migration, availability of health services, and options for HIV prevention. Research must be action-oriented and focused on vulnerability to HIV and risk taking behavior. There is substantial mobility in West and Central Africa, economic migration in South Africa, and nonvoluntary migration in Angola. Sex workers in southeast Asia contribute to the spread. The breakup of the USSR led to population shifts. Migrants in Central America and Mexico move north to the US where HIV prevalence is higher.
Without a medical miracle, it seems inevitable that the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic will become not only the most serious public health problem of this generation but a dominating issue in 3rd world development. As a present-day killer, AIDS in developing countries is insignificant compared to malaria, tuberculosis, or infant diarrhea, but this number is misleading in 3 ways. First, it fails to reflect the per capita rate of AIDS cases. On this basis, Bermuda, French Guyana, and the Bahamas have much higher rates than the US. Second, there is extensive underreporting of AIDS cases in most developing nations. Finally, the number of AIDS cases indicates where the epidemic was 5-7 years ago, when these people became infected. Any such projections of the growth of 3rd world AIDS epidemics are at this time based on epidemiologic data from the industrialized rations of the north and on the assumption that the virus acts similarly in the south as it does in the US and Europe. Yet, 3rd world conditions differ. Sexually transmitted diseases usually are more prevalent, and people have a different burden of other diseases and of other stresses to the immune system. In Africa, AIDS already is heavily affecting the mainstream population in some nations. Some regions will approach net population declines over the next decade. How far their populations eventually could decline because of AIDS is unclear and will depend crucially on countermeasures taken or not taken over the next 1-2 years. In purely economic terms, AIDS will affect the direct costs of health care, expenses which are unrealistic for most 3rd world countries. Further, the vast majority of deaths from AIDS in developing countries will occur among those in the sexually active age groups -- the wage earners and food producers. Deaths in this age group also will reduce the labor available for farming and industry. AIDS epidemics also may have significant effects on foreign investment in the 3rd
Full Text Available The extracts of selected medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients were investigated for their inhibitory activities against HIV-1 integrase (HIV-1 IN using the multiplate integration assay (MIA. Of these, the water extract of Eclipta prostrata (whole plant exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.8 μg/ml, followed by the methanol extract of Eclipta prostrata (whole plant, IC50 = 21.1 μg/ ml, the water extract of Barleria lupulina (stem, IC50 = 26.4 μg/ml, the chloroform extract of Barleria lupulina (stem, IC50 = 33.0 μg/ml, the methanol extract of Barleria lupulina (stem, IC50 = 38.2 μg/ml and the chloroform extract of Piper betle (leaf, IC50 = 39.3 μg/ml, respectively.
Reljin, B.; Reljin, I.; Milosevic, Z.; Stojic, T.
Two methods for segmentation and visualization of microcalcifications in digital or digitized mammograms are described. First method is based on modern mathematical morphology, while the second one uses the multifractal approach. In the first method, by using an appropriate combination of some morphological operations, high local contrast enhancement, followed by significant suppression of background tissue, irrespective of its radiology density, is obtained. By iterative procedure, this method highly emphasizes only small bright details, possible microcalcifications. In a multifractal approach, from initial mammogram image, a corresponding multifractal 'images' are created, from which a radiologist has a freedom to change the level of segmentation. An appropriate user friendly computer aided visualization (CAV) system with embedded two methods is realized. The interactive approach enables the physician to control the level and the quality of segmentation. Suggested methods were tested through mammograms from MIAS database as a gold standard, and from clinical praxis, using digitized films and digital images from full field digital mammograph. (authors)
Migration is very often a family affair, and often involves children, directly or indirectly. It may give rise to better quality of life for an entire family, or to bitter disappointment, and may also increase vulnerability to HIV and AIDS. This review, carried out for the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS, links the literature on "migration", on "HIV and AIDS" and on "families". Three themes are sketched: (1) As both HIV prevalence and circular migration increase, former migrant workers affected by AIDS may return to their families for care and support, especially at the end of life, often under crisis conditions. Families thus lose promising members, as well as sources of support. However, very little is known about the children of such migrants. (2) Following patterns of migration established for far different reasons, children may have to relocate to different places, sometimes over long distances, if their AIDS-affected parents can no longer care for them. They face the same adaptation challenges as other children who move, but complicated by loss of parent(s), AIDS stigma, and often poverty. (3) The issue of migrant families living with HIV has been studied to some extent, but mainly in developed countries with a long history of migration, and with little attention paid to the children in such families. Difficulties include involuntary separation from family members, isolation and lack of support, disclosure and planning for children's care should the parent(s) die and differences in treatment access within the same family. Numerous research and policy gaps are defined regarding the three themes, and a call is made for thinking about migration, families and AIDS to go beyond description to include resilience theory, and to go beyond prevention to include care.
Orentlicher, David; Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Rich, Ben A
More than 20 years ago, even before voters in Oregon had enacted the first aid in dying (AID) statute in the United States, Timothy Quill and colleagues proposed clinical criteria AID. Their proposal was carefully considered and temperate, but there were little data on the practice of AID at the time. (With AID, a physician writes a prescription for life-ending medication for a terminally ill, mentally capacitated adult.) With the passage of time, a substantial body of data on AID has developed from the states of Oregon and Washington. For more than 17 years, physicians in Oregon have been authorized to provide a prescription for AID. Accordingly, we have updated the clinical criteria of Quill, et al., based on the many years of experience with AID. With more jurisdictions authorizing AID, it is critical that physicians can turn to reliable clinical criteria. As with any medical practice, AID must be provided in a safe and effective manner. Physicians need to know (1) how to respond to a patient's inquiry about AID, (2) how to assess patient decision making capacity, and (3) how to address a range of other issues that may arise. To ensure that physicians have the guidance they need, Compassion & Choices convened the Physician Aid-in-Dying Clinical Criteria Committee, in July 2012, to create clinical criteria for physicians who are willing to provide AID to patients who request it. The committee includes experts in medicine, law, bioethics, hospice, nursing, social work, and pharmacy. Using an iterative consensus process, the Committee drafted the criteria over a one-year period.
Curran, James R.
As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682
Acknowledging AIDS as a crosscutting development issue, a Zambian rural water supply project that provides safe accessible water to rural communities embarked on a new initiative to mainstream AIDS into the water sector. The work of providing safe water takes the predominantly male workforce away from their spouses and families, into the rural villages of Zambia's Eastern Province, for long periods of time. With an HIV prevalence rate of 16.1%, the risk of HIV exposure exists for both employees and rural villagers. AIDS mainstreaming activities were designed to target both groups. An AIDS mainstreaming strategy was developed by identifying components that could be influenced in the external domain (the organization's usual work) and the internal domain (the workplace). Basic questions were addressed such as: how does AIDS affect the organization, how might the usual work aggravate susceptibility to HIV infection, and where is the comparative advantage? A workplace program including peer education, employee health education (including condoms) and a workplace policy was established for employees. For the target population, a series of five messages connecting safe water and AIDS was developed and disseminated through educational drama, community meetings and trainings, and integrated into the regular water, sanitation and hygiene activities. As an efficient utilization of resources that makes a broad impact, AIDS mainstreaming does not change the sector's mandate but takes advantage of the extensive geographic coverage and natural distribution system of water projects to disseminate AIDS information and make linkages with AIDS partners.
Takeuchi, Kana; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Fujimoto, Masanori; Kaino, Seiji; Kondoh, Satoshi; Okita, Kiwamu
Alterations of intracellular proteins during the process of heat stress-induced cell death of a human pancreatic cancer cell line, MIA PaCa-2, were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), agarose gel electrophoresis, and cell biology techniques. Incubation of MIA PaCa-2 at 45 degrees C for 30 min decreased the cell growth rate and cell viability without causing chromosomal DNA fragmentation. Incubation at 51 degrees C for 30 min suppressed cell growth and again led to death without DNA fragmentation. The cell death was associated with the loss of an intracellular protein of M(r) 17,500 and pI 5.2 on 2-DE gel. This protein was determined to be eukaryotic initiation factor SA (eIF-5A) by microsequencing of the N-terminal region of peptide fragments obtained by cyanogen bromide treatment of the protein blotted onto a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane. The sequences detected were QXSALRKNGFVVLKGRP and STSKTGXHGHAKVHLVGID, which were homologous with the sequence of eIF-5A from Gln 20 to Pro 36 and from Ser 43 to Asp 61, respectively. Furthermore, the result of sequencing suggested that the protein was an active form of hypusinated eIF-5A, because Lys 46 could be detected but not Lys 49, which is the site for hypusination. These results suggest that loss of the active form of eIF-5A is an important factor in the irreversible process of heat stress-induced death of MIA PaCa-2 cells.
Raurell Torredà, Marta
Antecedents del tema Posteriorment a l’estudi de Van den Berghe, es van anar aplicant a les diferents UCI’s els protocols de Intensive Insulin Therapy (IIT, insulinoteràpia intensiva) en base a la disminució de la morbimortalitat en pacients tractats amb IIT respecte el tractament amb Conventional Insulin Therapy (CIT, insulinoteràpia subcutània convencional amb sliding-scales). Els protocols de IIT van comportar un increment de la incidència d’hipoglicèmia greu, que es va relacionar amb ...
... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...
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Full Text Available Este artículo es una reflexión sobre la problemática que viven las mujeres ante el VIH/SIDA. A través de estadísticas mundiales y nacionales que dan cuenta del incremento de la epidemia en las mujeres, se hace evidente la necesidad de atender el problema. Se argumenta cómo la estructura y relaciones de género favorecen la vulnerabilidad de las mujeres, y cómo la vulnerabilidad y el riesgo de infección se incrementan para muchas mujeres al transitar por diversas situaciones específicas, como la migración, la precariedad de empleo y la violencia doméstica, entre otras. Se enuncian los principales obstáculos que enfrentan las mujeres para hacer socialmente visible su situación y necesidades, así como la falta de poder para encarar de manera más eficaz su problemática. Se habla de las iniciativas de la sociedad civil organizada y de las estrategias gubernamentales que se han implantado, así como de sus principales logros, carencias, necesidades y retos. Finalmente, a manera de conclusión y recomendación, se destaca la necesidad de establecer y evaluar programas y políticas de prevención y atención bajo una perspectiva de género y de derechos humanos, que permita una mayor conciencia y mejores respuestas al problema de las mujeres frente al VIH/SIDA.This paper presents some thoughts on the problems endured by women facing HIV/AIDS. World and nationwide statistics show an upward trend of the epidemic among women, calling for the need to address this problem. A case is made for the way in which gender structure and relations facilitate the vulnerability of women to this disease, increasing their risk of infection related with specific factors like migration, employment unsafe conditions, and domestic violence, among others. Emphasis is made on the main obstacles faced by women to flag their concerns and needs in society, as well as on their lack of empowerment to cope effectively with their problems. Some initiatives advanced by
B.M. Blokker (Britt)
textabstractThe autopsy is important to keep up the high quality of modern medicine, by giving clinicians feedback on diagnostics and therapies, and providing for medical training and medical research. Nevertheless, autopsy rates have been declining in many Western countries. From 1977 through 2011,
Full Text Available State aid is one of the instruments by which the state can intervene in the economy. Granting thus aid without any control could lead to an imbalance of the market. Very important issues is therefore control of granted aid. European Commission developed catalogue types of aid, which could be granted. One of such types of aid is aid to employment and training. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the importance of state aid for employment and training. In the article the statistical analysis of granted state aid in that area in year 2008-2013 will be done.
19 Feb 1983 ... deal with immunological changes in haemophiliacs similar to those in AIDS and indicate that a number of these patients may be at special risk, a finding supported by a report> of 3 ca es of AIDS identified in heterosexual haemophiliacs. An even more baffling finding is that AIDS is more prevalent in ...
... 12, 2017. Jevon P, et al. Part 5 — First-aid treatment for severe bleeding. Nursing Times. 2008;104:26. Oct. 19, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-severe-bleeding/basics/ART-20056661 . Mayo ...
... Skin problems. In: American Medical Association Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care. New York, N.Y.: Random House; 2009. Jan. 12, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-puncture-wounds/basics/ART-20056665 . Mayo ...
Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.
From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that
Full Text Available The concepts, targets, tools, institutions and modes of operation of official development assistance have been overtaken by the pace of change in a world marked by the combined momentum of demography, technology and economic growth.Aid can however recover, as social consequences of the globalization call for new forms of regulation. It will then be necessary to modify and diversify our target-setting processes, to update operating procedures, and to find better ways of measuring policy implementation. Aid volumes will certainly continue to grow, and we must transform the way aid is financed. Public and private aid stakeholders must recognize the importance of these transformations and be ready to support them, by questioning the methods as well as the objectives of the policies they are implementing. Otherwise, they will severely impede the emergence of the policies we need if we are to build a better world.
Milanović, Dušan; Firat, Elke; Grosu, Anca Ligia; Niedermann, Gabriele
Heat shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that folds, stabilizes, and functionally regulates many cellular proteins involved in oncogenic signaling and in the regulation of radiosensitivity. It is upregulated in response to stress such a heat. Hyperthermia is a potent radiosensitizer, but induction of Hsp90 may potentially limit its efficacy. Our aim was to investigate whether the new Hsp90 inhibitor NVP-HSP990 increases radiosensitivity, thermosensitivity and radiothermosensitivity of human tumor cell lines. U251 glioblastoma and MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic carcinoma cells were used. To determine clonogenic survival, colony forming assays were performed. Cell viability and proliferation were assesed by Trypan blue staining. Cell cycle and apoptosis analyses were performed by flow cytometry. DAPI staining was used to detect mitotic catastrophe. NVP-HSP990 increased the thermosensitivity, radiosensitivity and radio-thermosensitivity of both cell lines in clonogenic assays. 72 hours after irradiation with 4 Gy, a significant reduction in cell number associated with considerable G2/M acumulation and mitotic catastrophe as well as cell death by apoptosis/necrosis was observed. Treatment with NVP-HSP990 strongly sensitized U251 and MIA PaCa-2 cells to hyperthermia and ionizing radiation or combination thereof through augmentation of G2/M arrest, mitotic catastrophe and associated apoptosis
Xavier Torrebadella i Flix
Full Text Available Durante la II República española (1931-1939, en Catalunya se proyectaron algunas de las principales instituciones de la educación física y del deporte que continúan presentes. Esta institucionalización vino espoleada por la Acadèmia d’Educació Física de Catalunya (AEFC a partir de ahora, objeto del presente estudio. Descubrimos, pues, a partir de fuentes documentales primarias y otros estudios paralelos, la relevancia de este organismo y la influencia que ejerció para dotar a los proyectos de educación física y del deporte catalanes de una representación democrática, académica, profesional, científica y nacional. En la forzada coyuntura de la II República, la AEFC significó para el país una contribución profesional y técnica que fue más allá de las rivalidades ideológicas y políticas. A pesar del tiempo transcurrido, opinamos que en la actualidad una Nova Acadèmia d’Educació Física de Catalunya podría representar los intereses académicos y los de una disciplina científica y pedagógica que avanza en continua crisis y transformación.
Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin
The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....
First aid Fractures (broken bones) Fractures (broken bones): First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fracture is a ... 10, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-fractures/basics/ART-20056641 . Mayo Clinic ...
... es Autismo? Family Issues Home / Living with Autism / Family Issues Stress Siblings A child’s autism diagnosis affects every member of the family in different ways. Parents/caregivers must now place their ... may put stress on their marriage, other children, work, finances, and ...
Mahoney, Diane Feeney; Coon, David W; Lozano, Cecil
Objective To gain an understanding of Latino/Hispanic caregivers’ dementia-related dressing issues, their impressions of using a “smart” context-aware dresser to coach dressing, and recommendations to improve its acceptability. Method The same Latina moderator conducted all the caregiver focus groups. She followed a semi-structured interview guide that was previously used with White and African American family caregivers who experienced Alzheimer’s disease related dressing challenges. From that study, the Preservation of Self model emerged. Using a deductive qualitative analytic approach, we applied the thematic domains from the Preservation of Self model to ascertain relevance to Latino/Hispanic caregivers. Results Twenty Latino/Hispanic experienced caregivers were recruited, enrolled, and participated in one of three focus groups. The majority were female (75%) and either the spouse (25%) or adult child (35%). Striking similarities occurred with the dressing challenges and alignment with the Preservation of Self model. Ethnic differences arose in concerns over assimilation weakening the Latino culture of family caregiving. Regional clothing preferences were noted. Technology improvement recommendations for our system, called DRESS, included developing bilingual prompting dialogs and video modules using the local vernacular to improve cultural sensitivity. Caregivers identified the potential for the technology to enable user privacy, empowerment, and exercise as well as offering respite time for themselves. Conclusion Findings suggest dementia-related dressing issues were shared in common by different racial/ethnic groups but the response to them was influenced by cultural dynamics. For the first time Latino/Hispanic voices are heard to reflect their positive technology impressions, concerns, and recommendations in order to begin to address the cultural digital disparities divide.
Mahoney, Diane Feeney; Coon, David W; Lozano, Cecil
To gain an understanding of Latino/Hispanic caregivers' dementia-related dressing issues, their impressions of using a "smart" context-aware dresser to coach dressing, and recommendations to improve its acceptability. The same Latina moderator conducted all the caregiver focus groups. She followed a semi-structured interview guide that was previously used with White and African American family caregivers who experienced Alzheimer's disease related dressing challenges. From that study, the Preservation of Self model emerged. Using a deductive qualitative analytic approach, we applied the thematic domains from the Preservation of Self model to ascertain relevance to Latino/Hispanic caregivers. Twenty Latino/Hispanic experienced caregivers were recruited, enrolled, and participated in one of three focus groups. The majority were female (75%) and either the spouse (25%) or adult child (35%). Striking similarities occurred with the dressing challenges and alignment with the Preservation of Self model. Ethnic differences arose in concerns over assimilation weakening the Latino culture of family caregiving. Regional clothing preferences were noted. Technology improvement recommendations for our system, called DRESS, included developing bilingual prompting dialogs and video modules using the local vernacular to improve cultural sensitivity. Caregivers identified the potential for the technology to enable user privacy, empowerment, and exercise as well as offering respite time for themselves. Findings suggest dementia-related dressing issues were shared in common by different racial/ethnic groups but the response to them was influenced by cultural dynamics. For the first time Latino/Hispanic voices are heard to reflect their positive technology impressions, concerns, and recommendations in order to begin to address the cultural digital disparities divide.
Global Issues is an introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. This new edition of this text has been fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. Fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. An introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. Covers a range of perspectives on a variety of societies, developed and developing. Extensively illustrated with diagrams and photographs, contains guides to further reading, media, and internet resources, and includes suggestions for discussion and studying the material. (author)
The recommendations of a staff member of the Paulina Luisi Movement and member of the Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights were six-fold. Being a woman was considered a risk factor for AIDS. AIDS and HIV infection prevention must concentrate on prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). 1) Women's organizations have the responsibility for sensitizing health professionals about STDs and AIDS and break the "culture of silence." 2) Women's health focus must actively include prevention of AIDS/HIV. 3) The Pap test must be included routinely as part of public and individual health services and conducted with high quality standards. 4) The flow of communication about women's health issues must be initiated between health professionals and women advocates with the objective of changing concepts and attitudes and of developing complementary strategies. 5) The strategy of promoting condom use and quality information does not address the larger issue of discrimination against women. Gender relations between spouses and between patient and doctor must be based on responsibility, reciprocity, and autonomy. Strategies must aim to combat the negativity in society that prevents responsible gender relations. 6) Professional women who have an awareness of gender issues must be engaged in international and governmental institutions with decision making power. Sex and women's health have been lesser priorities. The health system has responded to women as "objects" rather than subjects of attention. Women's position sexually and socially makes them more vulnerable to AIDS and HIV infections, which may be transmitted through a single sexual contact. STDs increase the risk of AIDS. Latin American women feel shame about STDS, while men respond to STDs as a condition of their sexual virility or potency. Treatment of STDS, much less AIDS prevention, is inadequate. The health system must stop treating women as objects and give them their right to health.
Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn
, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has......The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....
Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. AIDS in dentistry. RJ Muya. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.
Mahmoud, Mohammed Bashir
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists
Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H
The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African
Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn
The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro- and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program...... evaluation literature, we re-examine key hypotheses. In our findings, aid has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run, with confidence intervals conforming to levels suggested by growth theory. Aid remains a key tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor...
Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel
inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...
This special report discusses the impact of globalization, patterns of migration in Southeast Asia, gender issues in migration, the links between migration and HIV/AIDS, and spatial mobility and social networks. Migrants are particularly marginalized in countries that blame migrants for transmission of infectious and communicable diseases and other social ills. Effective control of HIV/AIDS among migrant and native populations requires a multisectoral approach. Programs should critically review the privatization of health care services and challenge economic models that polarize the rich and the poor, men and women, North and South, and migrant and native. Programs should recognize the equality between locals and migrants in receipt of health services. Countermeasures should have input from migrants in order to reduce the conditions that increase vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Gender-oriented research is needed to understand women's role in migration. Rapid assessment has obscured the human dimension of migrants' vulnerability to HIV. Condom promotion is not enough. Migration is a major consequence of globalization, which holds the promise, real or imagined, of prosperity for all. Mass migration can be fueled by explosive regional developments. In Southeast Asia, migration has been part of the process of economic development. The potential to emigrate increases with greater per capita income. "Tiger" economies have been labor importers. Safe sex is not practiced in many Asian countries because risk is not taken seriously. Migrants tend to be used as economic tools, without consideration of social adjustment and sex behavior among singles.
Boller, G W; Bush, A J
The authors attempt to expand the dialogue between the health care industry and the marketing discipline on perhaps the most crucial issue facing health care marketers today--AIDS. They offer a critique of a JHCM article by Ronald Paul Hill. Their intent is to prompt a reconsideration of the normative propositions Hill suggests for health care marketers in response to the AIDS crisis.
Fernandez, Chris; Fletcher, Carla; Klepfer, Kasey
Texas Guaranteed Student Loan Corporation (TG) provides critical support to schools, students, and borrowers at every stage of the federal student aid process--from providing information on how to pay for a higher education including financial aid options, to facilitating successful loan repayment after graduation. This 2016 issue of "State…
Issues discussed are for example food aid in relation to human insecurity and humanitarian crisis, poverty, need for institutional reform, World Trade Organization (WTO) and mounting globalization, World Food Program, Food Aid Convention, humanitarian law, human rights and codes of conduct with emphasis on ...
Luana Aparecida Castilho Maro
Full Text Available A nogueira-macadâmia produz nozes de alto valor no mercado internacional, devido às características nutricionais de suas amêndoas, consideradas uma excelente fonte energética. O objetivo do trabalho foi realizar a caracterização química e o perfil de ácidos graxos em 22 cultivares de nogueira-macadâmia. As cultivares utilizadas foram: 'Edson', 'HAES 788 (Pahala', 'Beaumont 695', 'Flor Rosa', 'IAC 9-20X', 'HAES 344 (Kau', 'Cannon', 'IAC 9-20', 'C160', 'HAES 849', 'IAC 4-12B', 'HAES 816', 'Doroti', '791 Fuji', 'IAC 4-20 (Keaumi', 'HAES 814', 'HAES 722', 'África', 'IAC Campinas-B', 'HAES 246 (Keauhou', 'HAES 741 (Mauka' e 'HAES 842'. Foram quantificados a umidade, extrato etéreo, proteína, cinza e fibra bruta, além disso, extração de óleo e o perfil de ácidos graxos. A maior quantidade de proteína foi registrada na cultivar 'IAC 9-20X'. Quanto ao teor de fibra bruta, as maiores porcentagens foram observadas nas cultivares 'HAES 741' e 'HAES 842'. As amêndoas de todas as cultivares de nogueira-macadâmia analisadas possuem ácidos palmítico e oleico.The walnuts macadamia have a high value on the international market due to their almonds nutritional characteristics considered to be an excellent source of energy. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition and fatty acid profile of 22 cultivars of almond walnut macadamia. The cultivars tested were: 'Edson', 'HAES 788 (Pahala', 'Beaumont 695', 'Flor Rosa', 'IAC 9-20X', 'HAES 344 (Kau', 'Cannon', 'IAC 9-20', 'C160', 'HAES 849', 'IAC 4-12B', 'HAES 816', 'Doroti', '791 Fuji', 'IAC 4-20 (Keaumi', 'HAES 814', 'HAES 722', 'África', 'IAC Campinas-B', 'HAES 246 (Keauhou', 'HAES 741 (Mauka' and 'HAES 842'. Moisture, fat, protein, ash and crude fiber were analyzed and also oil extraction and fatty acid profile. The highest amount of protein was recorded in 'IAC 9-20X'. The highest percentages of crude fiber content were observed in cultivars 'HAES 741' and 'HAES 842'. The
Full Text Available A dieta mediterrânica é rica em alimentos funcionais. As leguminosas, um dos alimentos-chave desta dieta, têm visto o seu papel na prevenção de dislipidémias, diabetes e cancro do cólon mencionado por muitos autores. O efeito do consumo de leguminosas na redução da colesterolémia deve-se a diferentes nutrientes e fitoquímicos, tais como: i proteína; ii lípidos, particularmente a componente polinsaturada e monoinsaturada; iii fibra, especialmente a fracção solúvel; iv saponinas; e v fitosteróis. O consumo da soja tem sido relacionado com tais efeitos benéficos, mas dados recentes obtidos na Universidade de Évora demonstraram que leguminosas como a ervilha e o tremoço de folhas estreitas também apresentam elevado potencial funcional na regulação do colesterol sanguíneo. O seu consumo levou a reduções de 30% na colesterolémia de animais experimentais, via redução do colesterol das LDL. A utilização destas leguminosas como alimentos funcionais e/ou como fornecedoras de fitoquímicos com potencial preventivo e terapêutico é promissora e poderá constituir uma maisvalia e uma fonte extra de rendimento para os agricultores que se dediquem ao cultivo destas espécies.The Mediterranean diet is rich in functional foods. Legumes are one of the key-foods of this diet and many authors mention their role in the prevention of dyslipidemias, diabetes and colon cancer. The hypocholesterolemic effect of legumes is related to several nutrients and phytochemicals. Among them: i protein; ii lipids, especially polyunsaturated and monounsaturated ones; iii dietary fibre, especially soluble fibre; iv saponins; and v phytosterols. Soybean consumption has been related with these benefic effects. However, recent data obtained at the University of Évora have demonstrated that other legumes, such as peas and blue lupin, can also present a high hypocholesterolemic potential. In fact, the consumption of these legumes led to a 30% reduction in
Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar
The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM .
Pohl, Melvin I.
After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…
Huddleston, Thomas, Jr.; Batty, Burt F.
Student financial assistance services are becoming a major part of the institutional marketing plan as traditional college-age students decline in numbers and price competition among institutions increases. The effect of financial aid on enrollment and admissions processes is discussed along with the role of the financial aid officer. (Author/LBH)
Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn
to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....
Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin
The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...
... last rabies vaccination, if known any recent unusual behavior by the animal the animal's location, if known if the animal ... Scratches First Aid: Cuts First Aid: Skin Infections Cat Scratch ... Safe Around Animals Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions Rabies Cuts, Scratches, and ...
Grace C. Huerta
Full Text Available The world has been challenged by the AIDS epidemic for 15 years. In 1985, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, allocated funds to all state departments of education to assist schools in the development of AIDS education policies and programs. Yet, these policies do not ensure that all students receive effective AIDS education. On September 21, 1991, the Arizona Legislature passed Senate Bill 1396, which requires public schools to annually provide AIDS education in grades K-12. The bill was rescinded in 1995. With prohibitive curriculum guidelines, limited teacher training opportunities and tremendous instructional demands, this educational policy was implemented in disparate forms. By examining the perspectives of the Arizona educators (representing three school districts, this qualitative study reveals how teachers ultimately controlled the delivery and nature of AIDS instruction based upon personal values, views of teacher roles, and their interpretation of the mandate itself.
Moradian, M.A.; Chow, M.P.; Osborne, R.L.; Jenkins, M.A.
The Westinghouse Turbine Artificial Intelligence Diagnostics system or TurbinAID, can diagnose both thermodynamic and mechanical component anomalies within the turbine, and around the turbine cycle. any monitoring system can detect that a variable is in an abnormal state, but TurbinAID can also indicate the cause, and provide recommended corrective action(s). The TurbinAID Expert Systems utilize multiple sensor and variable inputs, and their interdependencies in the generation of a diagnosis. The system performs sensor validation as part of the data acquisition scheme. The TurbinAID system has been in operation for several years. This paper describes the monitoring and diagnostic functions provided by TurbinAID, and how the utility industry both nuclear and fossil, can utilize the system to enhance unit operation
G. G. Miller
Full Text Available The anticipated A.I.D.S. crisis in Southern Africa presents an opportunity for the Christian church to respond positively rather than merely to react negatively. This requires both a theological understanding and a pastoral response. Theologically, A.I.D.S. may be seen as an object lesson in the interrelation of natural, personal and historical evil. Although both the Old Testament and the New Testament warn against a simplistic doctrine of individual retribution, there are also several different ways in which the A.I.D.S. crisis may indeed in some particular cases be seen as a judgement of God while in other cases it is rather a horrifying event. Other relevant issues include matters relating to justification and sanctification and the wider ethical issues of discrimination and human rights, of "public" and "private" morality. The Church's pastoral response should include both "corrective" education to remove irrational and fearful ignorance and also "preventative" education to encourage a monogamous lifestyle. Pastoral ministry must be "redemptive", appropriate to the varying needs of persons with A.I.D.S., of their families and friends and of professional care-providers. The Church cannot ignore the A.I.D.S. crisis, but must respond to it both Biblically and pastorally.
Santos, Elisabeth Jerónimo dos
Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz Enquadramento: A canela é uma especiaria muito utilizada na gastronomia portuguesa. Diferentes estudos têm sugerido que a canela apresenta efeitos benéficos na glicemia pós-prandial atribuindo-os à presença de compostos fenólicos na canela. Objetivos: Avaliar o efeito de um chá de canela C. burmannii (6 g de canela em pau /100 mL) no nível de glicémia capilar pós-prandial em indivíduos adul...
This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on work force issues moderated by Jan DeJong at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Rethinking the Ties that Bind: An Exploratory Study of Employee Development in Utilities in Canada and the United States" (Michael Aherne, David…
Miller, Barbara Stoler, Ed.
This issue of "Mahfil" is devoted to Sanskrit literature and contains a note on Sanskrit pronunciation and selections of Sanskrit literature. It also contains articles analyzing and discussing various aspects of the literature, including "Sanskrit Rhetoric and Poetic,""The Creative Role of the Goddess Vac in the…
Pollack, Rachel H.
Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…
Weller, T H
A balanced perspective that places acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the context of the social needs of a global society is needed to overcome the hysteria and stigmatizing that presently surrounds this public health issue. The migration of poor, rural, sexually active young people to urban centers in the Third World has clearly played a role in the dissemination of AIDS and other infectious diseases. It is necessary, however, to examine the major cause of such population movement--private enterprise. Migrant workers are used to perform menial jobs in the urban labor force. Another cause of population movements is war and political repression. The fact that young people are becoming increasingly mobile has serious implications for the control of AIDS, and this phenomenon cannot be addressed without looking at its causes. Similarly, the disproportionate mortality of minorities- -seen in the AIDS epidemic as well--calls for discrimination. To prevent and control AIDS, the 1st step is to increase understanding of its natural history and epidemiology. Then, lessons must be learned from successful public health programs rooted in a primary health care system, including the Expanded Program on Immunization and oral rehydration campaigns. Although funds should not be diverted from such programs to combat AIDS, their logistic structure should be studied. Above all, however, it must be kept in mind that the constructive influence of health education will be thwarted as long as social inequities remain.
Perhaps more than any other disease in recent history, AIDS has taught a cruel and crucial lesson: the constraints on our response to this epidemic are as deep as our denial, as entrenched as the inequities that permeate our society, as circumscribed as our knowledge, and as unlimited as our compassion and our commitment to human rights. Elaborating on these themes, the final three articles in this Special Section on AIDS consider three widely divergent yet intimately connected topics: AIDS in Cuba, AIDS in Brazil, and global AIDS prevention in the 1990s. Together, they caution that if we persist in treating AIDS as a problem only of "others," no country will be spared the social and economic devastation that promises to be the cost of our contempt and our folly. Solidarity is not an option; it is a necessity. Without conscious recognition of the worldwide relationship between health, human rights, and social inequalities, our attempts to abate the spread of AIDS--and to ease the suffering that follows in its wake--most surely will fall short of our goals. Finally, as we mourn our dead, we must take to heart the words of Mother Jones, and "fight like hell for living." This is the politics of survival.
Elias, A M
In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.
Full Text Available South-South Cooperation (SSC and North-South Aid (NSA arise from different historical conditions and there are great differences between their philosophies, principles and paradigms. Against the background of a changing global environment, developed countries realized that the original development aid architecture must be reformed on one hand, and that developing countries are increasingly important in the aid architecture on the other. Hence, Western donors began to rethink their aid principles and methods, and accepted the concept of development effectiveness gradually, an attempt to establish global development forum and global partnership including emerging donors, beneficiary countries, civil society and the private sector. Nevertheless, being developing countries themselves, emerging donors are faced with unsolved domestic poverty issues and imperfect aid management institutions, which means that the emerging donors are unable to take a dominant position in the current aid architecture. Hence, the future dialogue and cooperation between traditional and emerging donors should feature the principle that the responsibilities taken by each party are collective but not identical, with developing countries bearing the main responsibilities in promoting poverty reduction and economic development in developing countries. They should be mutually tolerant about the different philosophies and share useful experiences. Moreover, emerging donors should promote development capacity building in recipient countries through win-win cooperation and solve their domestic development issues at the same time.
... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The U.S. CDC reported that in 2015, 39, ...
... Policy The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic Published: Nov 29, 2017 Facebook Twitter ... 2001-FY 2018 Request The Global Response to HIV/AIDS International efforts to combat HIV began in ...
... if desired. What questions should I ask before buying hearing aids? Before you buy a hearing aid, ... the period of warranty? Does the warranty cover future maintenance and repairs? Will loaner aids be provided ...
Chatterji, A; Sehgal, K
The Indian Health Organisation (IHO) is a nongovernmental organization based in Bombay with more than 12 years experience in HIV/AIDS prevention and control efforts. It has attacked ignorance and prejudice via communication efforts. IHO has created a bond with some hospital systems of Bombay. IHO disseminated information about HIV/AIDS in Bombay's red light districts and has bridged the gap between the city's medical establishment and the community most in need. IHO's aggressive street-level fighting in a sector replete with sensitive issues has somewhat isolated it from mainstream national NGOs involved in HIV/AIDS education and control as well as from the medical establishment and potential partners. IHO funds have been reduced, forcing IHO to reduce intervention programs and responses to field demands. It suffers from a high rate of turnover among middle management staff. IHO's chief advantage is its confidence gained over the past 12 years. IHO has clearly delineated the direction it wants to go: care and support programs for persons affected by HIV/AIDS and for commercial sex workers to allow them to quit prostitution, orphan care, and development of training institutions for the education and motivation of medical personnel on HIV/AIDS care and prevention. It plans to build a hospice for AIDS patients and orphans and a training center. Training activities will vary from one-week orientation programs to three-month certificate courses for medical workers, NGOs, and managers from the commercial sector. IHO is prepared to share its experiences in combating HIV/AIDS in Bombay in a team effort. As official and bilateral funding has been decreasing, IHO has targeted industry for funding. Industry has responded, which enables IHO to sustain its core programs and approaches. IHO observations show a decrease in the number of men visiting red-light districts. IHO enjoys a positive relationship with Bombay's media reporting on AIDS.
Banas, G E
Articles and seminars about AIDS in the workplace are not adequate preparation for the genuine problems faced by actual managers in real organizations. There are no easy, win-win solutions to the impossible dilemmas AIDS presents, only various forms of damage control and, at best, more or less humane compromises. Gary Banas knows. Over a period of four years, two of his direct reports developed AIDS, and he watched them suffer through debility, slowly deteriorating performance, and eventual death. He also watched the gradual decline of their subordinates' productivity and morale. He found that, to different degrees, both men refused to acknowledge their illness and their decreasing organizational effectiveness. One of them resisted the author's efforts to give him an easier job at no loss in salary. Both insisted on confidentiality long after the rumor mill had identified their problem. In the course of these two consecutive ordeals, Banas discovered that AIDS patients fall into no single, neat category. AIDS is not an issue but a disease, and the people who get it are human beings first and victims second. He also learned that AIDS affects everyone around the sick individual and that almost every choice a manager makes will injure someone. Finally, he came to understand that while managers have an unequivocal obligation to treat AIDS-afflicted employees with compassion and respect, they have an equally unequivocal obligation to keep their organizations functioning. "Don't let anyone kid you," Banas warns. "When you confront AIDS in the workplace, you will face untenable choices that seem to pit your obligation to humanity against your obligation to your organization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Full Text Available In order to develop oral communication, hearing impaired infants and young children must be able to hear speech comfortably and consistently. To day children with all degrees of hearing loss may be condidates for some kinds of amlification. As children differ from adults, many Factors should be consider in hearing aid selection, evaluation and fitting. For example the child age when he or she is candidate for custom instruments? Do we consider programmable Hearing aid? Are multi memory instruments appropriate for them? What about directional microphones? What style of hearing aid do we select? In this paper such questions are Answered.
Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer
This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i......) significant and positive in the tradable and the nontradable sectors, and (ii) equally strong in both sectors. The article thus provides no empirical support for the hypothesis that aid reduces external competitiveness in developing countries. A possible reason for this finding is the existence of large idle...
Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh
Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness...... of foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....
Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn
Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms...... of the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....
The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.
Bradford, J.; Wilson, L.; Thon, S.; Millar, N.
This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs
The New Brunswick Market Design Committee has examined several issues regarding the restructuring of the province's electricity sector. This report presents issues that require guidance for implementation, with particular focus on options available for their resolutions. The issues include: (1) rate principles for stranded offer service (SOS) supply, (2) the ability of contestable customers to return to SOS after having left it, (3) whether loads embedded in distribution systems are eligible to participate in the bilateral contract market, (4) whether generators or suppliers can offer capacity and energy to SOS suppliers in competition with the SOS supplier, and (5) details for the balancing market, including pricing, bidding protocols, settlements and how intermittent power sources can participate in the market. A section on pricing for SOS explains pricing principles, the use of export profits, pricing for SOS capacity, and time of use pricing. The Committee has made recommendations for the electricity system in the province to have an energy imbalance service that can move towards a market in order to develop an efficient and effective service. This report also explains pricing in the balancing market, penalties, and settlements. 7 refs
Drawing examples from. Uganda and Rwanda we look at the evolving approaches to HIV/AIDS ... solutions to addressing the gender issues with regard to HIV/AIDS spread. .... million people were living with HIV/AIDS majority of whom lived in.
Parsons, D C; Bell, M A; Gilchrist, L D
We evaluated implementation of the British Columbia AIDS Information Line during its initial 15 weeks of operation. Data collected during daily operation of the line included call frequency, caller characteristics, response patterns, caller concerns and community referrals. Information on activities and resources required to implement the AIDS Line was also assembled. The study concluded that the advertising campaign sponsored by the provincial government and other AIDS-related media events had a strong impact on the frequency of calls made to the AIDS Line. However, the effect of both advertising and media events was of relatively short duration, suggesting that utilization of an AIDS information line is dependent on continuing promotional activities. The evaluation results demonstrate the importance of continuous collection of data online utilization, to track public awareness of and response to AIDS-related issues, and to facilitate planning of public education.
Wu, Feng; Zhang, Kong-lai; Shan, Guang-liang
The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Chinese ethnic minorities is an important component of China's AIDS issues. In this study, we launched an intervention programme in Yunnan Province of China, where the Dai people live, to carry out the community-based HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral interventions on ordinary Dai farmers. The Dai people believe in Theravada Buddhism. Four rural communities were randomly divided into two groups. In one group (Buddhist group), HIV/AIDS health education and behavioral intervention were carried out by monks. The other group (women group) was instructed by women volunteers. The intervention continued for one year and the data were collected before and after the intervention project. In the Buddhist group, the villagers' AIDS related knowledge score was boosted from 3.11 to 3.65 (P Buddhist group, the villager's attitude score towards the people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) also increased significantly from 1.51 to 2.16 (P Buddhist organization has limited success in promoting the use of condoms, but plays an important role in eliminating HIV/AIDS related discrimination.
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...
... first signs of HIV infection Diarrhea Weight loss Oral yeast infection (thrush) Shingles (herpes zoster) Progression to AIDS Thanks ... eyes, digestive tract, lungs or other organs. Candidiasis. Candidiasis ... tongue, esophagus or vagina. Cryptococcal meningitis. Meningitis is ...
Gerontological nursing (the care of the elderly) as a specialization for registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and nursing aides is discussed with respect to training and qualifications, employment outlook, and earnings for each group. (JT)
Dec 2, 2004 ... The correlation between HIV infection and surgery began to be highlighted only two ... expect greater clinical exposure to patients with. HIV/AIDS. .... fractures in HIV patient, although too little is known about the relationship ...
... in price according to style, features, and local market prices. Price can range from hundreds of dollars to more than $2,500 for a programmable, digital hearing aid. Purchase price should not be the ...
Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin
of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....
Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn
This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy....... investment. We conclude by stressing the need for more theoretical work before this kind of cross-country regressions are used for policy purposes.......This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy...
... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...
Dec 2, 2004 ... HIV/AIDS patients require surgery sometimes during their illness. The objective of the ... risks to surgical equipes and analysing preventive strategies to HIV ... of Atlanta, and after an assessment of the performance status and ...
US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Aid Explorer shows the multi-dimensional picture of U.S. foreign assistance through a highly visual and interactive website. The website makes it easy...
... Relations Cyber Infrastructure Computational Biology Equal Employment Opportunity Ethics Global Research Office of Mission Integration and Financial Management Strategic Planning Workforce Effectiveness Workplace Solutions Technology Transfer Intellectual Property Division of AIDS ...
... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... avoid sunburn . If your child tends to get eczema flare-ups, avoid harsh soaps. Reviewed by: Steven ...
US Agency for International Development — AidData is a research and innovation lab making information on development finance more accessible and actionable. Tracking more than $6 trillion dollars from 90+...
Heinemann, Trine; Matthews, Ben; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa
to the interaction during hearing aid fitting. This report of a Danish pilot study describes two such problems. The first problem arises from the requirement that the audiologist needs to ‘translate’ the patient’s subjective hearing description for making technological decisions. The second problem is the way...... in which the hearing aid user’s implicit and often unrealistic expectations are handled. This kind of research has potential application for developing a model of best practices....
Olivero, J M; Roberts, J B
The human rights organization Americas Watch, which toured Mexican prisons, reported in 1991 that all prisoners with HIV infection in the Mexico City area were housed in a single AIDS ward in Santa Marta Prison. In 1991, the 16-bed facility had 15 patients; in 1993, this number had increased by 5. In Mexico City, with 3 prisons holding over 2000 male adults each, there were only 20 known infected prisoners in the AIDS ward at Santa Marta. In 1991, authorities at Matamoros, in the state of Tamaulipas, insisted that none of their inmates had ever been diagnosed as infected with HIV. The prison physician at Reynosa indicated that only 2 inmates since 1985 had ever been diagnosed as infected. In 1992, the prison in Saltillo, in the state of Coahuila, reported that here had yet to be a single positive test for HIV. The prison at Reynosa held 1500 people and only 2 inmates were diagnosed as having AIDS between 1985 and 1991. Prisons at Matamoros and Saltillo held similar numbers but had no experience of infected inmates. A survey of 2 prisons in the state of Tamaulipas indicates that around 12% of the population may use IV drugs, and 9% indicate sharing needles. It is possible for prisoners to die of diseases like pneumonia, associated with AIDS, without the connection to AIDS being diagnosed. Each state, and possibly each prison in Mexico, has its own particular AIDS policies. Santa Marta was the single facility in Mexico City used to house AIDS-infected prisoners, who were segregated. Finally, the prison at Saltillo required all women entering the facility to have a medical examination, including a test for HIV. High-level prison personnel have demonstrated ignorance and fear of AIDS and intolerance of infected prisoners. Mexico must reassess the need to provide adequate medical care to offenders who are sick and dying behind bars.
Sharp, Jeremy M
In Lebanon today, there is a battle for political primacy between the anti-Syrian, pro-Western government of Prime Minister Fouad Siniora and the opposition, led by the Hezbollah and former General Michel Aoun...
Baker, S A
HIV infection has become a pandemic. As such, it is the most recent inclusion to epidemiology studies. A review of past epidemics allows a different perspective on the current status of scientific knowledge regarding AIDS. HIV is a retrovirus, one of three groups identified. The other two groups are commonly referred to as HTLV I and II and do not cause AIDS. Two forms of HIV (HIV-1 and HIV-2) make up the third group, HTLV-III. As with any research, various theories are formed, tested, and often rejected. Some theories receive excessive publicity before testing, resulting in incorrect public beliefs that become myths. The cumulative number of cases of AIDS in the United States is 361,509, as of December 31, 1993. Healthcare workers experience multiple opportunities for exposure to the infection in the course of their duties. Based on data from the 1993 BMET/CE survey, several biohazard issues, as well as preventive measures, are discussed.
Hansman, R. John; Feron, Eric; Clarke, John-Paul; Odoni, Amedeo
The objective of the proposed effort is to investigate issues associated with the design and implementation of decision aiding tools to assist in improving the departure process at congested airports. This effort follows a preliminary investigation of potential Departure Planning approaches and strategies, which identified potential benefits in departure efficiency, and also in reducing the environmental impact of aircraft in the departure queue. The preliminary study bas based, in large part, on observations and analysis of departure processes at Boston, Logan airport. The objective of this follow-on effort is to address key implementation issues and to expand the observational base to include airports with different constraints and traffic demand. Specifically, the objectives of this research are to: (1) Expand the observational base to include airports with different underlying operational dynamics. (2) Develop prototype decision aiding algorithms/approaches and assess potential benefits. and (3) Investigate Human Machine Integration (HMI) issues associated with decision aids in tower environments.
Full Text Available A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in developed countries. This article reviews the status of the SFHA and the evidence for its feasibility and challenges and predicts where it is heading. Devices that can be considered partly or fully self-fitting without audiological support were identified in the direct-to-consumer market. None of these devices are considered self-contained as they require access to other hardware such as a proprietary interface, computer, smartphone, or tablet for manipulation. While there is evidence that self-administered fitting processes can provide valid and reliable results, their success relies on user-friendly device designs and interfaces and easy-to-interpret instructions. Until these issues have been sufficiently addressed, optional assistance with the self-fitting process and on-going use of SFHAs is recommended. Affordability and a sustainable delivery system remain additional challenges for the SFHA in developing countries. Future predictions include a growth in self-fitting products, with most future SFHAs consisting of earpieces that connect wirelessly with a smartphone and providers offering assistance through a telehealth infrastructure, and the integration of SFHAs into the traditional hearing health-care model.
The 1988 Consultation on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Workplace, organized by the World Health Organization (WHO), addressed 3 issues: 1) risk factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the workplace, 2) the response of businesses and workers to the AIDS epidemic, and 3) use of the workplace for AIDS education. There is no evidence to suggest that HIV can be transmitted by casual, person-to-person contact in the workplace. The central policy issue for businesses concerns protection of the human rights of workers with HIV infection. Most workers with HIV/AIDS want to continue working as long as they are able to, and they should be enabled to contribute their creativity and productivity in a supportive occupational setting. Consistent policies and procedures should be developed at national and enterprise levels before HIV-related questions arise in the workplace. Such policies should be communicated to all concerned, continually reviewed in the light of scientific and epidemiologic evidence, monitored for their successful implementation, and evaluated for their effectiveness. Pre-employment HIV/AIDS screening, whether for assessment of fitness to work or for insurance purposes, should not be required and raises serious concerns about discrimination. Moreover, there should be no obligation on the worker's part to inform his or her employer if HIV infection develops. Information and educational activities at the workplace are essential to create the climate of collective responsibility and mutual understanding required to protect individuals with HIV or AIDS from stigmatization and discrimination by co-workers, employers or clients, and unions.
Nuclear liability conventions try to provide a set of rules to govern third party liability. Not all States are parties to one of the existing liability conventions. There are a number of reasons why individual States may choose not to join one of the existing conventions. These include limits of compensation, jurisdiction issues, complexity, cost and definition of damage among others. This paper looks at the existing conventions and identifies some of the main issues in the existing conventions which prevent some States from signing them. The paper attempts to tease out some of the perceived gaps in the existing conventions and give a brief description of the reasons why non-Contracting Parties have difficulty with the provisions of the conventions. The paper recognizes that there has been work done in this area previously by the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX) and others to try to develop the existing frameworks to enhance global adherence by nuclear and non-nuclear States to an effective nuclear liability regime. (author)
National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners, Cherry Hill, NJ.
This brochure is designed to help parents answer the questions that their children may ask them about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. It provides basic information about AIDS and HIV, as well as sources for further information, such as the National AIDS Hotline. It…
Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)
Feb 25, 2011 ... IDRC-supported researchers are working with the Government of Free ... “The AIDS issue has become more than a health issue, much more than a ... for nearly 70% of all global HIV infections and 90% of deaths from AIDS. .... student named Donald Ray was studying rural settlement schemes in Zambia.
Hence, the focus of management for People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has shifted to issues relating to function and Quality of Life (QoL). Information is scarce on disability issues and quality of life among people living with HIIV/AIDS in Nigeria. This was the premise of this study that assessed the level of disability and ...
The American Hospital Association (AHA) has taken a leadership role in assisting health care providers in dealing effectively with the challenges of AIDS. Early work focused on preventing infection in the health care setting with the use of the Centers for Disease Control's recommended precautions concerning blood and body fluids. Supporting this effort were a number of live teleconferences, videotapes, and publications that addressed the use of precautions with AIDS patients, community issues associated with the disease, and the development of employee policies. In July 1987, a Special Committee on AIDS/HIV Infection Policy was formed by the AHA Board of Trustees and charged with developing recommendations on the issues that needed to be addressed if hospitals were to continue to meet the challenge of AIDS effectively. The committee's first set of recommendations, approved in November 1987, reaffirmed the use of universal precautions, provided guidance on the appropriate uses and application of HIV testing, and stated that the delivery of care should not be conditioned on the willingness of a patient to undergo testing. The second set of recommendations, which were approved in January 1988, focused on the need to distribute the responsibility for AIDS care among a wide variety of health care providers, to seek creative financing approaches that involve both the private and public sectors, and called on hospitals to provide leadership in ensuring that a continuum of services is available to AIDS patients. Continuing efforts to assist hospitals in the care delivery issues associated with AIDS are described.
Urgent action is needed to fight the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS that infected 1.3 million people in Southeast Asia last year alone, Malaysia's foreign minister said July 24, 2000. Syed Hamid said the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) should tackle at regional and national level an epidemic that was taking its most drastic toll among the region's youth. "HIV/AIDS not only represents a major public health and social problem but is a serious challenge to development as well," Syed Hamid told the opening ceremony of ASEAN's 33rd annual foreign ministers' meeting. The crisis requires commitment at the "highest political level," he said, warning that HIV/AIDS could become a transnational problem within the 10-member group. Foreign ministers have recommended their leaders discuss the crisis later this year at an informal summit in Singapore and hold a summit on HIV/AIDS in conjunction with the 7th ASEAN Summit in Brunei next year. "I think people recognized the importance and the adverse impacts on our social development," Syed Hamid told reporters later. "I think it is a real issue that we cannot run away from." Among ASEAN members, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar have some of the highest infection rates in Asia of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. full text
Roberts, J.P.; Desell, L.J.; Birch, M.L.; Berkowitz, L.; Bader, J.F.
To provide guidance for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a draft regulatory guide on the Format and Content for the License Application for the High-Level Waste Repository (FCRG). To facilitate the development of the FCRG, NRC suggested that DOE use the draft guide as the basis for preparing an annotated outline for a license application. DOE is doing so using an iterative process called the Annotated Outline Initiative. DOE;s use of the Initiative will assist in achieving the desired incorporation of actual experience in the FCRG, contribute to the development of shared interpretation and understanding of NRC regulations, and provide other important programmatic benefits described in this paper
An international colloquium on AIDS held near Paris from October 26-28, 1989, unlike the World Conference on AIDS in Montreal the year before, was able to find reasons for optimism. Significant progress was reported in immunotherapy and in chemotherapy. Successful experiments in vaccinating monkeys against the AIDS virus were reported from the US, France, and Zaire. Time is needed to prove the efficacy of the vaccines because of the slow development in AIDS. A vaccine is being tested by Jonas Salk and collaborators in 75 seropositive volunteers who do not yet show full blown disease but who have very low levels of T4 lymphocytes. Plans are underway for a larger test on 500 seropositive patients at different stages of infection. According to Salk, the new chemical and logical approach toward AIDS will allow combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to destroy the virus. R. Gallo of France listed as accomplishments of the past year a better understanding of the virus, improved case management techniques, increased ability to control Kaposi's sarcoma, considerable progress in the search for a vaccine, and detection of immune proteins that affect the virus. New biological markers permit establishment of correlations between cellular modifications and the progress of the disease as well as the precise effects of treatment. The new immune system drugs immuthiol and DDI are expected to reach the market soon. Patients very soon will be able to receive less toxic alternative treatments, which can be combined for greater efficacy once their toxic interactions are understood.
Numerous cultural practices and attitudes in Africa represent formidable obstacles to the prevention of the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Polygamy and concubinage are still widely practiced throughout Africa. In fact, sexual promiscuity on the part of males is traditionally viewed as positive--a reflection of male supremacy and male sexual prowess. The disintegration of the rural African family, brought about by urbanization, the migrant labor system, and poverty, has resulted in widespread premarital promiscuity. Contraceptive practices are perceived by many as a white conspiracy aimed at limiting the growth of the black population and thereby diminishing its political power. Condom use is particularly in disfavor. Thus, AIDS prevention campaigns urging Africans to restrict the number of sexual partners and to use condoms are unlikely to be successful. Another problem is that most Africans cannot believe that AIDS is sexually linked in that the disease does not affect the sex organs as is the case with other sexually transmitted diseases. The degree to which African governments are able to allocate resources to AIDS education will determine whether the epidemic can be controlled. Even with a massive outpouring of resources, it may be difficult to arouse public alarm about AIDS since Africans are so acclimated to living with calamities of every kind.
Mountz, J.M.; Speed, N.M.; Adams, K.; Schwartz, J.A.; Gross, M.D.; Ostrow, D.G.
A frequent complication of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is AIDS dementia complex (ADC). The authors evaluated seven patients with AIDS (aged 28-55 years, all male) for ADC by psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, CT scanning, and IMP-SPECT. Six of seven patients exhibited cognitive or behavioral abnormalities. Neuropsychological testing showed general deficits but no cases of explicit dementia. SPECT showed marked abnormalities in two cases: posterior temporal-parietal diminution of tracer uptake in one case (posterior/anterior=0.81) and marked right/left subcortical asymmetry (1.17) in the other. In three additional cases there was asymmetric tracer uptake in the subcortical and parietal regions. CT findings were normal in all seven cases. The authors conclude that functional imaging with the use of IMP-SPECT may be a useful method to follow ADC progression and response to therapy
Helena Midori Kashiwagi
Full Text Available Neste artigo objetivou-se apresentar subsídios metodológicos às ações de planejamento ambiental do Parque Nacional de Superagui por meio da identificação das homonímias sígnicas nas análises da paisagem. Os aportes teórico-metodológicos se fundamentaram na interface dos saberes da Geografia Humanista-Cultural, em sua vertente fenomenológica, com as teorias Semiótica e Linguística. A pesquisa utilizou como ferramental de investigação os mapas mentais, cuja metodologia de interpretação do significado dos signos das imagens mentais constituiu-se na essência fenomenológica das entrevistas associadas às teorias sígnicas de Charles Peirce e linguística de Stephen Ullmann. Com a identificação da homonímia sígnica da paisagem em áreas preservadas, buscou-se desvendar a raiz dos conflitos socioambientais, culturais e econômicos de um grupo social. Propõe-se com essa investigação um caminho para rediscutir e mediar as divergências de interesses entre os atores sociais, abrindo-se novas perspectivas de diagnóstico para as políticas de planejamento ambiental em áreas preservadas. Abstract THE UNVEILING OF LANDSCAPE HOMONYMS SIGNS IN THE NATIONAL PARK SUPERAGUI: METHODOLOGICAL SUBSIDIES TO THE ACTIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING This paper aimed to provide subsidies to the actions of methodological environmental planning Superagui National Park through the identification of homonym signS in the analysis of the landscape. The theoretical and methodological contributions were based on the interface of the knowledge of Humanistic-Cultural Geography, in its phenomenological origin, with Semiotics and Linguistics theories. The research used as a tool the mental maps, with a methodology for interpreting the meaning of the signs of mental images constituted in the essence of the phenomenological interviews associated with theories of signs of Charles Peirce and Stephen Ullmann linguistic. With the identification of homonym signs
Kuhlman, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.; Zerhouni, E.A.; Knowles, M.
The CT scans of 55 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reviewed for evidence of pulmonary emphysema. While the average age of patients in this series was 38 years, 25 of the 55 patients, or 45%, demonstrated CT evidence of emphysema. CT findings suggestive of emphysema included areas of low-attenuation, blebs and/or vascular disruption. The authors conclude there is an increased incidence of CT-detectable pulmonary emphysema that is premature for age in patients with AIDS. Destruction of pulmonary parenchyma may represent the response of the lung to repeated pulmonary infections or may be a direct result of the human immunodeficiency virus
Blum, U.; Dinkel, E.; Laaff, H.; Wuertemberger, G.; Senn, H.; Vaith, P.; Kroepelin, T.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.
We reviewed retrospectively the clinical records of 28 patients with AIDS staged group IV according to CDC-criteria. Among these, 19 had pulmonary disease: most of them (n=17) had pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (Pcp). 12/17 patients with proven Pcp displayed typical X-ray findings with diffuse perihilar interstitial infiltration sparing lung periphery. 3/17 had atypical features and 2 normal chest x-ray findings. These data are important to identify patients with pulmonary complications of AIDS. (orig.) [de
Kuhlman, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.
The CT scans of 80 patients with both AIDS and acute abdominal pain were reviewed. CT identifiable causes of pain included perforation (four); colitides (15); septic infarctions (six); abscesses (10); bowel obstruction due to tumor (four); ascending cholangitis (two); enterovesical fistula (one); and sacral osteomyelitis (one). CT affected management in 40% of patients by narrowing diagnostic possibilities, triaging between surgical versus nonsurgical emergencies, and directing diagnostic procedures. CT was an expeditious triage modality for evaluating the critically ill patient with AIDS and acute abdominal pain
This article explores the potential benefits associated with the use of computers in nuclear plants by the operating crew as an aid in making decisions. Pertinent findings are presented from recently completed projects to establish the context in which operating decisions have to be made. Key factors influencing the decision-making process itself are also identified. Safety parameter display systems, which are being implemented in various forms by the nuclear industry, are described within the context of decision making. In addition, relevant worldwide research and development activities are examined as potential enhancements to computerized operator decision aids to further improve plant safety and availability
Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand
Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper......, an interactive personalization system based on Gaussian process regression and active learning is proposed, which personalize the hearing aids based directly on what the user perceives. Preliminary results demonstrate a significant difference between a truly personalized setting obtained with the proposed system...
This discussion paper, the fifth in the series developed at the IPPSO Market Design Conference, addressed the issue of the need to prevent Ontario Hydro from taking unfair advantage of independent producers and other stakeholders through activities and investments in new power generating capacity in the transitional period leading up to deregulation. The need for controls is predicated on the assumption that the short-term actions and investments of Ontario Hydro could seriously compromise the position of independent generators, and that without such controls the level playing field essential to the operation of a competitive market, does not exist. Various actual and potential actions of Ontario Hydro were discussed, all of which point to the need for strict controls over Ontario Hydro exercising its dominant market power in an unfair way. It was recommended that as a minimum, the provincial government should no longer provide guarantees for Ontario Hydro capital projects, and that Ontario Hydro be instructed to defer any investment on new or returning generating capacity until the new market is in place. Limits could also be placed on Ontario Hydro's marketing efforts to enter into contracts during the transition period, and Ontario Hydro and municipal utilities should be required to keep separate accounts of their commercial preparation, and to settle such accounts separate from ratepayer revenue
Krieger, N; Margo, G
In one short decade, the politics of AIDS has become the politics of survival. In a world whose social order is changing before our eyes, AIDS insistently brings new meaning to the age-old question of what it is we must do to survive--as individuals, as families, as communities, as nations, as members of an interdependent world. The goal of this Special Section is to promote frank discussion, from an explicitly progressive perspective, of what it will take to stop the AIDS epidemic and deal with the devastation it has already wrought. Articles by AIDS researchers, service providers, and activists from around the world will address the numerous social, political, economic, and cultural factors that affect both the spread of AIDS and the social response to the epidemic. Topics to be considered in this and future issues of the Journal include: AIDS and community survival in the United States; women and AIDS, particularly in economically underdeveloped countries; the politics and economics of AIDS interventions in Latin America and the Caribbean; and the growing international AIDS industry.
Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has succeeded in creating an unprecedented wave of panic among the Western public and some sections of the medical profession. Research clearly shows that the AIDS virus is transmissible in a number of ways: from man to woman and vice versa during sexual intercourse, through semen and possibly vaginal fluids; from mothers to their children through breast milk; through exchange of saliva (but not through just a casual kiss); and through blood and blood products. Far from being exclusive to homosexuals, studies in Europe have shown that female virus carriers can transmit AIDS to healthy men through sexual intercourse--the predominant means by which transmission appears to occur in Central Africa. Although cases of AIDS began being diagnosed in a few Central African countries at the beginning of the 1980s, at the same time as they were first being observed in Europe and North America, many commentators assumed that the virus originated in Africa. Yet, it is safe to say that the nature of the virus, let alone its origins, remains controversial among scientists and virologists. 1 supporter of the theory that the AIDS virus has African origins is Robert Gall of the US National Institute of Health (NIH). He is one of the co-discoverers of the virus, which he named HTLV3 (Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus 3). The virus also was discovered at France's Pasteur Institute by Luc Montaigner, who called it LAV (Lymphadenpathy Associated Virus). Gallo named the virus as he did because he believes it to be related to a pair of other viruses, HTLV1 and HTLV2, which like the AIDS virus attack the body's immunity system. Unlike AIDS, these 2 viruses, do not destroy the T-cells but cause them to replicate into cancer tumors. In Gallo's view, HTLV1 has long been endemic to some parts of Africa, from where he believes it spread via the slave trade to other parts of the world. Montaigner does not agree. He denies that the AIDS virus is related to
Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Brown, Tim; Phanuphak, Praphan
HIV (ie, HIV-1) epidemics in Asia show great diversity, both in severity and timing. But epidemics in Asia are far from over and several countries including China, Indonesia, and Vietnam have growing epidemics. Several factors affect the rate and magnitude of growth of HIV prevalence, but two of the most important are the size of the sex worker population and the frequency with which commercial sex occurs. In view of the present state of knowledge, even countries with low prevalence of infection might still have epidemics affecting a small percentage of the population. Once HIV infection has become established, growing needs for care and treatment are unavoidable and even the so-called prevention-successful countries of Thailand and Cambodia are seeing burgeoning care needs. The manifestations of HIV disease in the region are discussed with the aim of identifying key issues in medical management and care of HIV/AIDS. In particular, issues relevant to developing appropriate highly active antiretroviral treatment programmes in the region are discussed. Although access to antiretroviral therapy is increasing globally, making it work effectively while simultaneously expanding prevention programmes to stem the flow of new infections remains a real challenge in Asia. Genuine political interest and commitment are essential foundations for success, demanding advocacy at all levels to drive policy, mobilise sufficient resources, and take effective action.
Successful modeling of the thermo-mechanical and hydrochemical behavior of radioactive waste repositories in hard rock is possible in principle. Because such predictions lie outside the realm of experience, their adequacy depends entirely upon a thorough understanding of three fundamental questions: an understanding of the chemical and physical processess that determine the behavior of rock and all its complexities; accurate and realistic numerical models of the geologic media within which a repository may be built; and sufficient in-situ data covering the entire geologic region affected by, or effecting the behavior of a repository. At present sufficient is known to be able to identify most of those areas which require further attention. These areas extend all the way from a complete understanding of the chemical and physical processes determining the behavior of rock through to the exploration mapping and testing that must be done during the development of any potential repository. Many of the techniques, laboratory equipment, field instrumentation, and numerical methods needed to accomplish this do not exist at present. Therefore it is necessary to accept that a major investment in scientific research is required to generate this information over the next few years. The spectrum of scientific and engineering activities is wide extending from laboratory measurements through the development of numerical models to the measurement of data in-situ, but there is every prospect that sufficient can be done to resolve these key issues. However, to do so requires overt recognition of the many gaps which exist in our knowledge and abilities today, and of the need to bridge these gaps and of the significant costs involved in doing so
The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…
Roman, Harry T.
This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…
... urbanisation, prostitution and large-scale colonial medical campaigns intended to eradicate tropical diseases combined to disastrous effect to fuel the spread of the virus from its origins in Léopoldville to the rest of Africa, the Caribbean and ultimately worldwide. This is an essential new perspective on HIV/ AIDS and on the lessons that must be learned if we are to avoi...
Globally, hearing loss is the second most frequent disability. About 80% of the persons affected by hearing loss do not use hearing aids. The goal of this edited volume is to present a theoretically founded, interdisciplinary approach geared at understanding and improving social interaction...
CitizenAID is an easy-to-use app that informs users how to provide care in mass casualty situations, including shootings, knife attacks and bomb incidents. The authors are well known and respected specialists in trauma care and disaster management.
Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.
Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.
Jones, Edward Samuel
The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between...
The document reproduces 20 selected papers from the 38 papers presented at the Technical Committee/Workshop on Computer Aided Safety Analysis organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the Institute of Atomic Energy in Otwock-Swierk, Poland on 25-29 May 1987. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 20 technical papers. Refs, figs and tabs
Barache, J.M.; Beltranda, G.; Blanc, P.
In order to ensure that the data transmitted to the managment system is of the required quality and consistent with the general control command protocols, computer aided design (CAD) was employed for level N4. One describes the use of CAD for the control system of N4 [fr
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the importance of intestinal parasites in patients with AIDS, showing relevant data in the medical literature, with special emphasis on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of enteroparasitosis, especially cryptosporidiasis, isosporiasis, microsporidiasis and strongyloidiasis. DESIGN: Narrative review.
... of tropical diseases interconnected to fuel the communication of HIV-1 in the 1960s, as the country struggled to adapt to its newfound independence. With a unique synthesis of historical, political and medical elements, this book adds a coherent and necessary historical perspective to recent molecular studies of the chronology of the HIV/AIDS pandemic"--Provided by publisher.
Meehan, S T
In its fight against the spread of AIDS, which is inextricably linked to the issues of international development, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has focused support on strengthening existing health care systems, helping vulnerable groups gain control over their lives and health, promoting AIDS prevention measures, and building links to other related health services. Funding includes 1) a grant to Hope House in Zambia (counseling and support for persons with AIDS); 2) a contribution to the Canadian Public Health Association's $11 million Southern Africa AIDS Training Programme (helps regional organizations working in AIDS prevention and support through education, training, hospital outreach, peer education for vulnerable groups, assistance to women's shelters, and networking); 3) support for Laval University's Laval Centre for International Cooperation in Health and Development (runs a $22 million program in French-speaking West Africa that operates in over 10 countries and focuses on epidemiological surveillance, information, education, and communication, control of sexually transmitted diseases [STDs], and management of national AIDS programs); 4) support for the University of Manitoba's $3 million program with the University of Nairobi to slow the spread of HIV (strengthens local health care capabilities for STD/HIV diagnosis, treatment, and counseling, with special emphasis on training and education); 5) support in the past for a study of proposed AIDS legislation and its potential impact on the human rights of PLWHIV/AIDS in Thailand; 6) a contribution to help equip the office of the National Movement for Street Children, Rio de Janeiro (focuses on preventing the spread of AIDS among child prostitutes); and 7) long-term financial support to the Interagency Coalition on AIDS and Development, a coalition of Canadian development nongovernmental organizations responding to AIDS in developing countries. An address to obtain a pamphlet giving
The issues worldwide that deserve attention pertain to international migration, the education of women, family planning, missing female children, and prevention and control of AIDS cases. Migration outside country borders has been increasing due to economic and social disparities, and uncounted and unrecognized refugees are fleeing environmental disasters. The educational status of women has increased over the past 30 years. For example, female illiteracy has declined among women aged 20-24 years from 19% to 8% in Latin America, from 38% to 12% in eastern and western Asia, and from 80% to 49% in Africa. These improvements are significant, but the problem remains, where, for instance in Africa, there is still extensive illiteracy (75% of females aged under 25 years). A 1993 Population Action International Report states that low female educational levels and weak family planning and health programs are related to large family size and high child death rates. During the 1980s family planning was linked with ecological concerns. Progress has been made in the increase in contraceptive users in developing countries from 14% to 53% during 1965-70. Fertility has declined from 6.1 children per woman in the 1950s to 3.7. Kenya is a good example of a country with high fertility that reduced fertility through its emphasis on family planning. Obstacles to increased prevalence of contraception still remain. In Mexico more than 50% of public birth control services are provided to women in secret due to fear of their husband's abuse. Population pressure can result in the loss of girl children through higher mortality, better nutrition, neglect, or gender preference in the early fetal stages. The challenge of AIDS will be in caring for the sick and adjusting to social changes due to the expected increases in orphaned children.
Sastry, Shaunak; Dutta, Mohan J
As a field of inquiry, postcolonial health communication seeks to apprehend processes implicated in the construction of "primitive" versus "modern" with respect to issues of health. In the case of HIV/AIDS, the sociocultural representations of the disease have a profound impact on how the disease is configured medically and symbolically in dominant cultural imagination. Postcolonial constructions of disease are mobilized around the political and economic interests of the dominant power structures in global spaces. In this article, a thematic analysis of the constructions of HIV/AIDS in India in the mainstream U.S. news media was conducted. A corpus of news articles from the Lexis-Nexis database was created with the keywords "HIV," "AIDS," and "India." Three themes emerged from the study: (a) India as a site of biomedical control; (b) the economic logics of HIV/AIDS; and (c) AIDS, development, and the "Third World." Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae
African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities.
Lai, Dejian; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Beasley, R Palmer
In 2007 the Chinese government issued regulations requiring HIV/AIDS testing for Chinese citizens returning at ports of entry if they had resided outside China for 1 year or longer. Three years after publication and partial implementation of the regulations, the Chinese government decided to eliminate compulsory HIV/AIDS testing of returning Chinese. We examine the history of China's HIV/AIDS testing regulations on entry-exit populations, showing how China has gradually altered its policy. As of December 2010, the policy of compulsory HIV/AIDS testing of returning Chinese has been abandoned; however, the regulations still compel HIV/AIDS testing for other groups inside China. Our review sheds new light on the dynamics of regulatory changes in the last 3 years. The Chinese experience that we observed may provide useful insights for policymakers in other parts of the world.
Abstract Despite a history of championing HIV/AIDS as a human rights issue, and a rhetorical commitment to health as a human right, European states and institutions have shifted from a rights-based response to a risk management approach to HIV/AIDS since the economic recession of 2008. An interdisciplinary perspective is applied to analyze health policy changes at the national, regional, and global levels by drawing on data from key informant interviews, and institutional and civil society do...
Nykodym, N; Miners, I A; Simonetti, J L; Patel, N S
The testing of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) remains a political factor. Questions are being raised as to an individual's right to privacy and the public's concern for safety. Despite the controversy, the law protects contagious disease sufferers from employment discrimination. Along with AIDS testing, drug testing remains a controversial issue. Mandatory drug testing remains in both the public and private sectors. Legislative activity in California continues to the present.
UNICEF estimates that the streets are now the home of some 5 million African children aged 7-15 who are victims of rapid population growth and urbanization as well as the disintegration of traditional family structure. These children, deprived of a home and of all parental control, are potentially very vulnerable to the threat of AIDS. Prostitution, which is almost institutionalized in the most impoverished urban areas, represents for young girls the most immediate means of survival and occasionally even of helping their families. Male prostitution is highly tabu and marginal in sub-Saharan Africa, and is only slightly developed around the tourist hotels. Homeless children are somewhat protected against contamination through the blood by their lack of access to health care. Intravenous drugs are rare in Africa, and drug use is at most an indirect risk factor for AIDS to the extent that in increases the need for money and weakens the immune system. The frequency of sexually transmitted diseases, deplorable hygienic conditions, and poor general health of homeless children increase their risk of contracting the virus. Many homeless children do not even know of the existence of condoms and in any event condoms are usually inaccessible or too costly for them. Homeless children, like the general population, have false ideas about AIDS that discourage self-protective behaviors. In addition they are cut off from the activities of existing prevention programs. In a context of permanent daily insecurity, AIDS appears as just 1 more menace among others. According to an anthropologist working with the UNESCO program to help homeless children, the only way of making such children aware of the threat of AIDS in the large African cities will be to increase the number of prevention programs targeted at them. At the same time, the children need to be educated and taught an income-generating skill; in short, they need to be given a reason to believe in the future.
In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices.
Susanto, Johana M; Colvin, Emily K; Pinese, Mark; Chang, David K; Pajic, Marina; Mawson, Amanda; Caldon, C Elizabeth; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Henshall, Susan M; Sutherland, Robert L; Biankin, Andrew V; Scarlett, Christopher J
Despite incremental advances in the diagnosis and treatment for pancreatic cancer (PC), the 5‑year survival rate remains <5%. Novel therapies to increase survival and quality of life for PC patients are desperately needed. Epigenetic thera-peutic agents such as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) have demonstrated therapeutic benefits in human cancer. We assessed the efficacy of these epigenetic therapeutic agents as potential therapies for PC using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment with HDACi [suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)] and DNMTi [5‑AZA‑2' deoxycytidine (5‑AZA‑dc)] decreased cell proliferation in MiaPaCa2 cells, and SAHA treatment, with or without 5‑AZA‑dc, resulted in higher cell death and lower DNA synthesis compared to 5‑AZA‑dc alone and controls (DMSO). Further, combination treatment with SAHA and 5‑AZA‑dc significantly increased expression of p21WAF1, leading to G1 arrest. Treatment with epigenetic agents delayed tumour growth in vivo, but did not decrease growth of established pancreatic tumours. In conclusion, these data demonstrate a potential role for epigenetic modifier drugs for the management of PC, specifically in the chemoprevention of PC, in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents.
Laws can only partially succeed in modifying behavior, especially with regard to sex, drug use, and other human pleasures. Effective and just laws to slow the spread of AIDS must therefore be based upon a thorough knowledge of the issues, not upon ignorance, fear, political expediency, or to meet the emotional demands of an often ignorant general population. Good laws, like good ethics, are founded in good data. The most effective response to the AIDS epidemic is neither prohibition nor punishment of individual behavior, but laws designed to truly affect human behavior and shape a society in which the spread of HIV is minimized. Central to an appropriate legislative response is the imperative of protecting the basic rights of individuals infected with HIV. An example of an enlightened, rational, and nondiscriminatory approach to checking the spread of HIV/AIDS while guaranteeing individual freedoms and rights is found in a report commissioned for the State Government of New South Wales. The following measures are recommended to bring state laws into harmony with the national HIV/AIDS strategy: decriminalize brothels, set regulations and public health standards for sex workers, cover sex workers under the Industrial Relations Act, ensure the privacy of HIV/AIDS patients and improve their redress against discrimination in the workplace, repeal laws which make it illegal to possess and administer drugs to oneself, investigate the therapeutic use of marijuana as a prescribed treatment for HIV/AIDS and other terminal illnesses, abandon compulsory testing for HIV in prisons, make condoms available to prisoners and sexually active children, establish a Natural Death Act to allow terminally ill patients to die with dignity, and give legal status to permanent relationships between homosexual couples.
This paper introduces a method for evaluating decision aids for nuclear power plant operators. The method involves a two-stage process of classification and analytical evaluation of display form and content. The classification scheme relates each specific aid to one or more general decision-making tasks. Evaluation then proceeds using a normative top-down design process based on the classification scheme by determining or deducing how various design issues associated with this process were resolved by the designer. The result is an assessment of the ''understandability'' of the aid as well as identification of the training and display features necessary to ensure understandability. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
Feingold, S. Norman
Approximately 95 percent of affiliated Jewish youth attend college. Much is happening in student aid today that will probably affect parents and their children. Issues of importance include: (1) legal considerations; (2) sources of financial aid; (3) applying for financial aid; (4) state and federal programs of financial aid; (5) sources of…
Health care technology has become an increasingly visible issue in many countries, primarily because of the rising costs of health care. In addition, many questions concerning quality of care are being raised. Health care technology assessment has been seen as an aid in addressing questions
... destroying the white blood cells that fight infection. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. Infection with HIV is serious. But thanks to ...
Having HIV/AIDS weakens your body's immune system. It destroys the white blood cells that fight infection. This puts ... such as crypto (cryptosporidiosis) and toxo (toxoplasmosis) Having HIV/AIDS can make infections harder to treat. People ...
Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh
Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...
Christ, F.; Steudel, H.; Klotz, D.; Bonn Univ.; Bonn Univ.
Since 1982 (Hauser and co-workers), literature has reported focal cerebral tissue charges in AIDS patients whose diagnosis was unclear at first but which could be identified finally as florid toxoplasmosis encephalitis by biopsy and autopsy. It was found that the value of otherwise reliable serological tests (KBR, Sabin-Feldmann tests, etc.) is questionable in patients with severely impaired or incompetent immune systems, and, in particular, that a negative or uncharacteristic test result may not preclude any opportunistic infection process. Furthermore, isolation of Toxoplasma gondii or specific antibodies from the cerebrospinal fluid will be successful in exceptional cases only. In patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy syndrome, the differential diagnosis will have to include - first and foremost - reactivated toxoplasma infection (not newly acquired, as a rule) if central neurological symptoms occur. (orig.) [de
The composition of the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund for 2011 is as follows: President: Pascal Droux Vice-president: Connie Potter Treasurer: Louis Pereira Deputy treasurer: Barbara Brugger Secretary: Sonia Casenove Deputy secretary: Isabelle Mardirossian Members: Christopher David Thomas Jean-Claude Vialis (GAC member) Marie-Luce Falipou Gunilla Santiard (Jean-Claude Vialis’s alternate) The role of the Fund is to provide financial help to members of personnel and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund who are in need of exceptional financial assistance. All requests are treated in the strictest confidence. Should you wish to apply for aid from the Fund, kindly contact any member of the Board as given above or Social Services, tel.74479 – 73867.
paradigm where the increasing integration of parametric tools and performative analysis is changing the way we learn and design. The term Performance Aided Architectural Design (PAD) is proposed at the Master of Science of Architecture and Design at Aalborg University, with the aim of extending a tectonic...... tradition of architecture with computational tools, preparing the basis for the creation of the figure of a modern master builder, sitting at the boundary of the disciplines of architecture and engineering. Performance Aided Design focuses on the role of performative analysis, embedded tectonics......, and computational methods tools to trigger creativity and innovative understanding of relation between form material and a increasingly wide range of performances in architectural design. The ultimate goal is to pursue a design approach that aims at embracing rather than excluding the complexity implicit...
Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard
uncertainty. Then the elaborations made in the Notice on the notion of aid concerning the relation between the two areas of law are analysed and discussed, in particular, first, the question whether adhering to the procurement procedures laid down in the public procurement directives will eliminate the risk......The Commission Notice on the notion of State aid includes elaboration on the relationship between State aid law and public procurement law. To begin with, the article examines some of the reasons why the relationship between State aid law and public procurement law is surrounded by legal...... of granting State aid and, second, the issues rising from State aid control of in-house situations. It is concluded that even though the Notice on the notion of aid brings some needed clarity that fosters coherence between State aid law and public procurement law, the existing legal uncertainty is not even...
... Educators Search English Español How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Do People Get AIDS? Print en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...
AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is a constellation of cognitive, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions frequently observed in persons with AIDS. Estimates of its prevalence vary. ADC may occur at any stage of AIDS but is usually associated with later stages of disease. Its severity varies among patients
Weiske, R.; Buck, J.; Schneider, R.; Hannemann, T.; Krauss, B.
A short description of epidemiologic and clinical facts correlated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is followed by a report on the manifestation of pulmonary infections mostly effected by pneumocystis carinii. Two examples out of four cases will demonstrate the radiographic appearance of the pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and clinical data. Only in rare cases does it seem possible to reduce the fatal outcome by early diagnosis. (orig.) [de
Constantinou, Leonidas; Bagherpour, Khosrow; Gani, Rafiqul
A general methodology for Computer Aided Product Design (CAPD) with specified property constraints which is capable of solving a large range of problems is presented. The methodology employs the group contribution approach, generates acyclic, cyclic and aromatic compounds of various degrees......-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) and gas solubility. Finally, a computer program based on the extended methodology has been developed and the results from five case studies highlighting various features of the methodology are presented....
One consensus in discussions on HIV/AIDS communication in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is the need for communication models to focus on activity rather than cognitive indicators in order to achieve desired improvements in health behaviors and outcomes. Past failures of HIV/AIDS communication efforts in LMICs have been attributed to emphasis on cognitive indicators. This study analyses HIV/AIDS communication models in Nigerian newspapers. Data were obtained through analysis of manifest content of four Nigerian papers issued between 2002 and 2004. Frequency, prominence and space dedicated to HIV/AIDS-related topics were measured. Descriptive statistics were used to highlight the frequency and percentage of cognitive- and activity-oriented information on HIV/AIDS. A total of 464 HIV/AIDS-related articles were identified. Fifty-nine percent (274) of articles were activity-oriented. Over half of articles were news stories. No news story made front and back pages lead. There were only nine editorials on HIV/AIDS. This study shows that the activity model of HIV/AIDS communication dominates the four Nigerian mainstream newspapers studied. However, it is worth noting the limited number of editorials and feature articles, which have the capacity to stimulate debate and foster a social environment in which AIDS is addressed in a spirit of openness. For a country that has the third largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS globally, one would expect the mass media to deliberately play an instrumental and a more active role in the battle against the disease by engaging in in-depth contextual discourse on HIV/AIDS.
Ruiz Garrós, MC
Full Text Available "When my first hospitalization took place, I must recognize I was plunged into the mistake of identifying AIDS with death, together with the depression, uneasiness, unsecurity and the feeling of inability to plan my life in the short and long term to the point of refusing in my mind to organize things as simple as future holidays or improvements at home".Thanks to retroviral treatments, the initially mortal HIV/AIDS infection has become a chronic disease as it can be today thediabetes, allowing objectives in the short, medium and long term. Here is where the occupational therapy operates as an instrument to improve, keep or rehabilitate the occupational areas of this group which has a series of special features to be borne in mind when working with them.I seek to reflect my 8 months experience working as an occupational therapist in a Refuge Centre for AIDS ill people, and how throughout this experience I changed several of my initial approaches and working methods too.
Kim, Seog Joon; Im, Jung Gi; Seong, Chang Kyu; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Song, Jae Woo
To analyze the clinical and radiological manifestations of pulmonary infection in patients with AIDS. We reviewed the medical records and analyzed retrospectively analysed the chest radiographs(n=3D24) and CT scans(n=3D11) of 26 patients with AIDS who had been followed up at our institute from 1987 to June 1998. Pulmonary infections were confirmed by sputum smear and culture(n=3D18), pleural examination(n=3D3), bronchoalveolar lavage(n=3D3), autopsy(n=3D4), transbronchial lung biopsy(n=3D1) or clinical history(n=3D9). The study group included 23 men and three women aged 25-54(average 35.2) years. We correlated the radiologic findings with CD4 lymphocyte counts. Pulmonary infections included tuberculosis(n=3D22), pneumocystis carinii pneumonia(n=3D9), cytomegalovirus(n=3D3), and unidentified bacterial pneumonia(n=3D2). Radiologically pulmonary tuberculosis was classified as primary tuberculosis(n=3D11;mean CD4 counts:41.3 cells/mm 3 ) and post-primary tuberculosis(n=3D11;mean CD4 counts:251.3cells/mm 3 ). CT findings of tuberculosis included lymphadenitis(n=3D6), bronchogenic spread(n=3D5), large consolidation(n=3D4), esophago-mediastinal fistula(n=3D2), and cavity(n=3D1). Tuberculosis in AIDS responded rapidly to anti-TB medication with complete or marked resolution of lesions within three months. Radiologic findings of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia included diffuse ground glass opacities, cysts, and reticular opacities. Tuberculosis was the most common infection in patients with AIDS in Korea, and this is attributed to the high prevalence of tuberculosis. Radiological findings varied with CD4+cell count, showing those of primary tuberculosis as a patient's CD4+ cell count decreased. Pulmonary tuberculosis in AIDS responded rapidly to anti-Tb medication. =20
van Laren, Linda
In South Africa, the HIV&AIDS education policy documents indicate opportunities for integration across disciplines/subjects. There are different interpretations of integration/inclusion and mainstreaming HIV&AIDS education, and numerous levels of integration. Integration ensures that learners experience the disciplines/subjects as being linked and related, and integration is required to support and expand the learners' opportunities to attain skills, acquire knowledge and develop attitudes and values across the curriculum. This study makes use of self-study methodology where I, a teacher educator, aim to improve my practice through including HIV&AIDS statistics in Mathematics Education. This article focuses on how I used HIV&AIDS statistics to facilitate pre-service teacher reflection and introduce them to integration of HIV&AIDS education across the curriculum. After pre-service teachers were provided with HIV statistics, they drew a pie chart which graphically illustrated the situation and reflected on issues relating to HIV&AIDS. Three themes emerged from the analysis of their reflections. The themes relate to the need for further HIV&AIDS education, the changing pastoral role of teachers and the changing context of teaching. This information indicates that the use of statistics is an appropriate means of initiating the integration of HIV&AIDS education into the academic curriculum.
In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of
Alzen, G.; Boeck, E.G.; Thelen, M.; Kutzner, J.
A simple and cheap method is described for the manufacturing of individual positioning aids made of foamed polyurethane. Some examples are given to demonstrate the applicability of these positioning aids for the irradiation of different body regions. The reproducibility of the radiation field in the head and neck area was investigated with and without positioning aid. It was proved that the field is adjusted more exactly when positioning aids are applied. The dosimetric investigations performed showed a negligible influence of foamed polyurethane on the radiation quality. So the positioning aids could be left within the radiation field when drawing the field borders. (orig.) [de
Rosandi, Y.; Urbassek, H. M.; Yamanaka, H.
This issue of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science contains selected papers presented at the Padjadjaran Earth Dialogues: International Symposium on Geophysical Issues, PEDISGI. The meeting was held from June 8 to 10, 2015, at the Bale-Sawala of Universitas Padjadjaran in Jatinangor, Indonesia. The PEDISGI is a symposium to accommodate communication between researchers, in particular geophysicists and related scientists, and to enable sharing of knowledge and research findings concerning local and global geophysical issues. The symposium was attended by 126 participants and 64 contributors from Indonesian universities and the neighbouring countries in four categories, viz. Theoretical and Computational Geophysics, Environmental Geophysics, Geophysical Explorations, and Geophysical Instrumentations and Methods. The symposium was accompanied by a dialog, discussing a chosen topic regarding environmental and geological problems of relevance for the Indonesian archipelago and the surrounding regions. For this first event the topic was ''The formation of Bandung-Basin between myths and facts: Exemplary cultural, geological and geophysical study on the evolution of the earth surface'', presented by invited speakers and local experts. This activity was aimed at extending our knowledge on this particular subject, which may have global impact. This topic was augmented by theoretical background lectures on the earth's surface formation, presented by the invited speakers of the symposium. The meeting would not have been successful without the assistance of the local organizing committee. We want to specially thank Irwan A. Dharmawan for managing the programme, Anggie Susilawati and Mia U. Hasanah for the conference administration, and Dini Fitriani for financial management. We also thank the National Geographic Indonesia for its support via the Business to Business Collaboration Program. The conference photograph can be viewed in the PDF.
... diagnosticar mediante análisis rápidos que permiten detectar la presencia o ausencia de anticuerpos contra el virus. En ... transgender people. Key populations often have legal and social issues related to their behaviours that increase vulnerability ...
Many people believe that the AIDS pandemic will end the population explosion, especially in Africa, where population growth is very high and poverty reigns. Africans make up 10 million of all 15 million HIV- infected persons worldwide. Yet, the proposition that AIDS will sole population explosion does not stand up to reason. About 200 million people in Africa will be HIV infected by 2010, but the loss of 200 million people would not slow population growth. The 14th century's Black Death killed more than 50% of the European population, but by 1750 Europe had reached the population size it would have reached without the Black Death. The 200 million people who died violent deaths between the start and end of the two World Wars did not stop world population growth from peaking in 1970 at about 2%. When Malthus made his prediction that human population would crash, the industrial revolution had already helped production outrun population growth. Today all industrial countries are either at or near zero population growth and have completed the demographic transition (from near zero growth in 1600 with high births and death rates and a 25-year life expectancy, to near zero growth in 1990s at low death and birth rates with a 75-year life expectancy). Mass education, sanitation, primary medicine, and the green revolution have already reduced death rates and increased life expectancy in developing countries. Thus, they have entered the first phase of the demographic transition. Some developing countries are in the second phase; birth rate decline For example, in India and China, fertility has fallen from 6 to 4 in India and is at 2.3 in China. The AIDS pandemic is a diversion of physical and human resources from helping developing countries pass through the demographic transition more quickly to achieve sustainable development. This delay is likely to effect a larger maximum population. The industrial revolution has shifted the key to stopping population growth the people
Ramirez, M M
Vila Mimosa, a site of street prostitution in Rio de Janeiro since the 1930s, is the place of work for over 2000 prostitution who charge an average of $3-4 per client. Several years ago the Association of Prostitutes of Rio de Janeiro (APRJ) was founded by Eunice Coelho Reis. APRJ membership has increased steadily and its list of accomplishments is impressive. A state hospital performs free medical examinations of APRJ members, and the Brazilian family planning association BEMFAM provides 180,000 condoms each month. AIDS control projects have also been successful, and no APRJ members have contracted HIV infection. In the country with the 4th highest rate of infection, the rigid norm of condom use adopted by the prostitutes of Vila Mimosa has led to effective prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. The prostitutes report however that a large proportion of their clients resist condom use, sometimes violently. The proportion of seropositive individuals who are women has been rising steadily. Family Health International estimates that the proportion of new cases among women has risen from 25% in 1990 to 40% at present. AIDS prevention campaigns are attempting to persuade women to "negotiate" condom use during sex. But power relations between the sexes place women at a disadvantage. Men often make the sexual decisions. Socialization patterns of females in Latin America are oriented to maternity. Passive sexual behavior has become a primary obstacle to adoption of safer sex practices. The World Health Organization estimates that currently 9-11 million persons are latent carriers of the HIV virus. Prostitution originating in poverty and unemployment, the vulnerability of adolescents who begin their sexual lives with little knowledge of contraception or sexually transmitted diseases, and the lack of sex education that transcends the biological to consider interpersonal relations are all factors that hinder AIDS prevention.
Tarantola, D; Mann, J
HIV/AIDS is a health problem that is inseparable from individual and collective behavior and social forces, particularly linked with societal respect for human rights and dignity. In its second decade, the HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to thrive. Where organized communities have access to adequate information, education, and services, the incidence of infection has begun to decline. Elsewhere, HIV continues to reach new populations and new geographic areas. Lessons learned in more than a decade of prevention work point to new directions for expanding national responses, at a time when the UNAIDS program, to be launched in January 1996, offers opportunities for innovative, broad-based, coordinated, and expanded global action. Prevention activities have shown that the spread of HIV can be effectively reduced. Public health interventions, including providing information and applying prevention methods, reduce the probability of infection, the risk of transmission, and the chances of not accessing appropriate care or support once infection has set in. These are proximal interventions that yield the short-term benefits of the decline of incidence and improved quality and duration of life for those infected. Societal vulnerability translates today into the focus the pandemic has on individuals, communities, and nations that are disadvantaged, marginalized, or discriminated against for reasons of gender, age, race, sexual orientation, economic status, or cultural, religious, or political affiliation. A fully expanded response to HIV/AIDS requires a combination of risk-reduction (proximal) and contextual interventions--those directed at reducing vulnerability through social change to enable people to exert control over their own health. Contextual actions can be implemented in the short term (changing laws, policies, practices that discriminate, promoting human rights, developing the most vulnerable communities) and in the long term (cultural changes, gender equality in
The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex
Computer based method can help in discovery of leads and can potentially eliminate chemical synthesis and screening of many irrelevant compounds, and in this way, it save time as well as cost. Molecular modeling systems are powerful tools for building, visualizing, analyzing and storing models of complex molecular structure that can help to interpretate structure activity relationship. The use of various techniques of molecular mechanics and dynamics and software in Computer aided drug design along with statistics analysis is powerful tool for the medicinal chemistry to synthesis therapeutic and effective drugs with minimum side effect.
Achieve the best possible standard with this bestselling book of traditional practice and guidance - now in colour!. First Aid in Mathematics provides all the help and support needed for learning and practising Mathematics. It offers comprehensive coverage of core mathematical topics in clear and accessible language. It is suitable for both native English speakers and students of English as a second language and can be used in class, or as a reference and revision book. - Develops a strong basis of understanding with core topics covered in clear and accessible language. - Improves student's ab
Full Text Available Wstęp: Przewlekłe choroby zapalne u dzieci (w tym młodzieńczeidiopatyczne zapalenie stawów – MIZS zostały uznane za jedenz czynników wysokiego ryzyka rozwoju przedwczesnej chorobyukładu sercowo-naczyniowego. Celem pracy była ocena zależnościmiędzy postacią MIZS, aktywnością choroby, czynnikami ryzykaa wczesnymi zmianami miażdżycowymi u dzieci z MIZS.Materiały i metody: Badaniem objęto 37 dzieci (średnia wieku 12,9roku z MIZS rozpoznanym co najmniej rok wcześniej. Grupę kontrolnąstanowiło 26 zdrowych dzieci (tab. I. U wszystkich badanychoznaczono: wskaźnik masy ciała (body mass index – BMI,ciśnienie tętnicze, lipidogram, stężenie białka C-reaktywnego(C-reactive protein – CRP, fibrynogenu oraz insulinooporność(wskaźnik HOMA – homeostatic model assessment, jak równieżoceniono ultrasonograficznie grubość kompleksu IMT (intimamediathickness tętnic szyjnych wspólnych.Wyniki: U dzieci z MIZS w porównaniu z dziećmi zdrowymi wykazanowyższy wskaźnik SDS-BMI: 0,7 vs –0,02, p = 0,02; stężenieCRP: 0,39 vs 0,06 mg/dl, p = 0,008; fibrynogenu: 356 vs 205 mg/dl,p = 0,003; ciśnienie skurczowe krwi: 120 vs 111 mm Hg, p = 0,002;oraz bardziej nasilone zmiany miażdżycowe (IMT: 0,51 vs 0,43 mm,p = 0,001 (tab. II. U 9 dzieci z MIZS i współistniejącą otyłością/nadwagą (24% dzieci chorych stwierdzono wyższy wskaźnikHOMA: 3,4 w porównaniu z dziećmi zdrowymi – 1,8 (p = 0,04 orazszczupłymi dziećmi z MIZS – 1,7 (p = 0,04, jak również większestężenie triglicerydów i wyższą wartość ciśnienia skurczowegokrwi. Dzieci otyłe miały wyższy wskaźnik IMT: 0,54 vs 0,49 mm(p = 0,001 w porównaniu z dziećmi szczupłymi z MIZS (tab. III,ryc. 1. Analiza korelacji wykazała zależności między IMT a BMI(r = 0,32, p = 0,26, IMT a SDS-BMI (r = 0,38, p = 0,007, IMTa HOMA (r = 0,38, p = 0,035, CRP a BMI (r = 0,33, p = 0,009 orazCRP a ciśnieniem skurczowym krwi (r = 0,41, p = 0,004 (ryc. 2 i 3.Wyst
An adaptive directional hearing aid system comprising a left hearing aid and a right hearing aid, wherein a binaural acoustic source localizer is located in the left hearing aid or in the right hearing aid or in a separate body- worn device connected wirelessly to the left hearing aid and the right
Thygerson, Alton L.
This study guide is designed to accompany the American National Red Cross texts ADVANCED FIRST AID AND EMERGENCY CARE and STANDARD FIRST AID AND PERSONAL SAFETY. Part one serves as an introduction to first aid. The legal aspects of first aid are discussed along with a list of suggested first aid kit contents, and information on first aid books is…
Durham, Robert; And Others
This document presents discussions of four problems that may be found in the workplace. "AIDS in the Workplace: Employee Safety and Rights" (Robert Durham and Burton White) explores issues of employee/employer relationship and the issue of Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the workplace. It concludes that the management of the AIDS…
Wynn, Stephanie T
Natural disasters leave survivors suffering physically, psychologically, and spiritually. An EF4 tornado on April 27, 2011, in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, known as April's Fury, raised the question of how mental health practitioners (MHPs) might respond to address psychological needs, rather than being exclusively assigned to offer physical support immediately following a disaster. This article proposes planning ahead for MHPs to provide psychological first aid (PFA) in the immediate aftermath of a catastrophe. Combating psychological issues early will hopefully help reduce the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in survivors.
Full Text Available One of the most important issue for selecting and fitting of hearing aids that should receive special attention is binaural amplification. According to several investigations, superiority of binaural amplification on monaural one is confirmed. Binaural Amplification may have considerable effects on fromation and developing of superior dimensions of hearing including: Localization, Binaural squelch (Better hearing in presence of noise. So, it is necessary to know the basic and scientific concepts and applicable principles of binaural hearing and binaural fitting. Present paper deals with this important subject.
Full Text Available This paper explores the significance of social relationships to two important stages in the process of sexual behavioral change in response to increased HIV/AIDS risk in rural Africa: the perceived risk of becoming HIV-infected through unprotected sexual intercourse and the preferred methods of protection either through sexual fidelity, or through condom use. The empirical analyses are based on cross-sectional data from the 'Kenyan Diffusion and Ideational Change Project' (KDICP which provides information about AIDS-related, ego-centered communication networks of Kenyan men and women. The results show that perceived risks, as well as preferred methods of protection against HIV-infection, depend in general on the prevailing perceptions and favored protective methods within personal communication networks. However, different influential network properties can be found. The risk-perceptions of women are shaped by strong relationships and cohesive network structures. Male's risk perception depends more on the number of risk-perceivers in their communication networks. Heterogeneous relationships of various kinds are influential on women's and men's probability of favoring sexual faithfulness as a method of protection against HIV-infection.
Kowalska, Justyna D; Mocroft, Amanda; Ledergerber, Bruno
are a natural consequence of an increased awareness and knowledge in the field. To monitor and analyze changes in mortality over time, we have explored this issue within the EuroSIDA study and propose a standardized protocol unifying data collected and allowing for classification of all deaths as AIDS or non......-AIDS related, including events with missing cause of death. Methods: Several classifications of the underlying cause of death as AIDS or non-AIDS related within the EuroSIDA study were compared: central classification (CC-reference group) based on an externally standardised method (the CoDe procedures), local...
School nurses address mental health issues of youth on a daily basis. These mental health issues include substance abuse, anxiety, depression, and even suicidal ideation. Mental health first aid is a process that seeks to help medical professionals and laypeople recognize and address someone that is having a mental health or substance abuse crisis. This article will describe an experience with a student having suicidal ideations and how the mental health action plan was used.
Santos, Ana Cristina
This article analyzes how both the Portuguese state and civil society have addressed the AIDS issue, focusing on participation by the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual community (LGBT) in the struggle against AIDS. The article begins by describing the situation of LGBT individuals in Portugal during the 1990s, when the Portuguese LGBT movement emerged and grew, and then characterizes the evolution of HIV/AIDS in Portugal, analyzing the relationship between civil society and sexuality in general and the situation of the epidemic in the country in particular, considering key facts, nongovernmental organizations, and state initiatives. Special attention is given to the role played by LGBT organizations in the struggle against HIV. Finally, the article reflects on the future of the struggle against both AIDS and discrimination in the 21st century, considering recent events in the country and the guidelines recommended by international policies.
Frey, P.R.; Kisner, R.A.
The success of current attempts to improve the operational performance and safety of nuclear power plants by installing computerized operational aids in the control rooms is dependent, in part, on the operator's attitude toward the aid. Utility experience with process computer systems indicates that problems may already exist with operator acceptance of computerized aids. The growth of the role that computers have in nuclear power plants makes user acceptance of computer technology an important issue for the nuclear industry. The purpose of this report is to draw from the literature factors related to user acceptance of computerized equipment that may also be applicable to the acceptance of computerized aids used in the nuclear power plant control room
Frey, P. R.; Kisner, R. A.
The success of current attempts to improve the operational performance and safety of nuclear power plants by installing computerized operational aids in the control rooms is dependent, in part, on the operator's attitude toward the aid. Utility experience with process computer systems indicates that problems may already exist with operator acceptance of computerized aids. The growth of the role that computers have in nuclear power plants makes user acceptance of computer technology an important issue for the nuclear industry. The purpose of this report is to draw from the literature factors related to user acceptance of computerized equipment that may also be applicable to the acceptance of computerized aids used in the nuclear power plant control room.
World leaders, physicians, economists, governmental health organizations, and pharmaceutical manufacturers attended the Third International Conference on Healthcare Resource Allocation for HIV/AIDS and Other Life-threatening Illnesses in Vienna, Austria. The conference participants discussed the economic, ethical, and human rights issues underlying health care resource allocation. Some highlights of the meeting included: the prevention strategies in fighting AIDS virus; the use of high medical ethical standards; the affordability and accessibility of essential therapies; the economic aspects affecting the medical assistance mechanisms; the need to improve the pharmaceutical industry; the need to improve HIV/AIDS care access in developing countries; promoting the development of HIV/AIDS vaccines; and developing rapid diagnosis of HIV.
For more than 10 years, People's Health Education (EPES) has developed educational materials which call upon target audiences to integrate their practical experiences into a collective learning process based upon games. The methodology and materials aim to meet the needs of the most underprivileged sections of the population. EPES produced "Learning about AIDS: the responsibility of all," a game which can be used as it is or adapted to meet the needs of differing groups. The objectives of the game are to provide basic information on AIDS; to facilitate the expression of ideas, beliefs, and myths about AIDS; to promote forums for discussion in order to exchange opinions and views on sexuality and AIDS; to create awareness on how AIDS affects the community; and to create awareness of the need to prevent the disease. Played in couples to strengthen the level of interpersonal communication on such issues, the game is played because AIDS is a fact of everyday life which is affecting the community, because learning about AIDS will help people to protect themselves and their communities from the disease and groundless associated fears, and because open discussion is needed to help prevent more people from becoming infected with HIV.
AJRH Managing Editor
Methodological Issues in HIV/AIDS Social Research in Nigeria ... convaincue au commencement de l'étude qu'une étude sur l'interaction entre le VIH/sida et les questions sensibles comme les ..... One of the vexed issues was the requirement.
SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2018) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 3 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Microscopy 'AIDS' in diagnosing a febrile infant.
Ashford, Richard; Biswas, Shampa
The reduction of transaction costs is a commonly mentioned yet rarely elaborated goal for aid effectiveness in educational development. The casual use of the concept of transaction costs conceals which costs may be reduced, which costs are required and, indeed, what transaction costs actually are. Examining issues related to harmonizing the…
The issue of HIV and AIDS among rural households has become important topic worldwide both in developing and developed countries Rural households run a high risk of being infected with the disease and are capable of transmitting it to others thereby reducing labour force for agricultural and other rural livelihood ...
Grossman, Arnold H.; Silverstein, Charles
Describes support groups for health care professionals who work with people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and who are experiencing burnout from excessive demands on their energy, strength, and resources. Discusses group administration, effective intervention techniques, and issues of health…
R. Foa (Roberto)
textabstractIn recent years, scholars and policymakers have placed growing attention on the issue of aid effectiveness, that is, the efficiency of donor assistance in achieving stated economic and human development objectives. While research has tended to highlight the need for greater capacity
On 13 February 2015, the Middle East Centre at the London School of Economics and Political Science hosted the launch of a special Issue of the journal Mediterranean Politics on The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World: The Impact of the Arab Uprisings. Bringing together academics, NGO...
Olivas, Michael A.
A surprising amount of litigation and legislation has erupted over undocumented college students. Victims at the federal level are the DREAM Act and immigration reform. Financial aid raises technical issues for undocumented college applicants and for the citizen children of undocumented parents. Generally, the undocumented are ineligible for…
To investigate the connection between employee burnout and medical aid claims and expenditure data in a sample from the ... data connected with each participant were: total insured benefits, general ... increase rapidly during 2010 to 2014.1,2 ... fatigue, concentration issues and low energy), they are distinct and.
Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDCâs National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the importance of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and the work of CDC. Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP). Date Released: 2/1/2012.
Tapas Mishra; Bazoumana Ouattara; Mamata Parhi
This paper investigates the factors explaining aid allocation by bilateral and multilateral donors. We use data for 146 aid recipient countries over the period 1990-2007 and employ Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates Approach (BACE) approach and find that both the recipient need and donor interest motives are `significant' determinants of bilateral and multilateral aid allocation process. Our results also indicate that the measures for recipient need and donor interests vary from bilate...
Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn
This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable...... Development Goals, which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda....
Weiss, Matthew J; Kramer, Chelsea; Tremblay, Sébastien; Côté, Luc
Cognitive aids are increasingly recommended in clinical practice, yet little is known about the attitudes of physicians towards these tools. We employed a qualitative, descriptive design to explore physician attitudes towards cognitive aids in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). Semi-structured interviews elicited the opinions of a convenience sample of practicing PICU physicians towards the use of cognitive aids. We analyzed interview data for thematic content to examine the three factors of intention to use cognitive aids as defined by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), attitudes, social norms, and perceived control. Analysis of 14 interviews suggested that in the PICU setting, cognitive aids are widely used. Discovered themes related to their use touched on all three TPB factors of intention and included: aids are perceived to improve team communication; aids may improve patient safety; aids may hinder clinician judgment; physicians may resist implementation if it occurs prior to demonstration of benefit; effective adoption requires cognitive aids to be integrated into local workplace culture; and implementation should take physician concerns into account. Our sample of PICU physicians were open to cognitive aids in their practice, as long as such aids preserve the primacy of clinical judgment, focus on team communication, demonstrate effectiveness through preliminary testing, and are designed and implemented with the local culture and work environment in mind. Future knowledge translation efforts to implement cognitive aids would benefit from consideration of these issues.
A major HIV epidemic is underway in India, home to 900 million people and the world's second largest population. The director-general of the Indian Council of Medical Research expects India by the year 2000 to be the country with the largest number of HIV infections, with some experts predicting 5 million people to be infected with HIV in India by the year 2000. Others predict 30-55 million to be infected. Although HIV is increasingly spreading to typically low-risk group populations, it is the female sex workers and their clients, long distance truck drivers, men who have sex with men, blood transfusion donors and recipients, and IV drug users throughout the country who are both the reservoirs of HIV and vectors of transmission to the general population. For example, 52% of sex workers in Bombay in 1994 were found to be infected with HIV. Studies indicate that India's long-distance truck drivers average 200 sexual encounters per year; at any given time, 70% of them have STDs. Preliminary surveys estimate that almost 33% are infected with HIV. HIV seroprevalence among truckers in Madras requesting HIV testing because they have STDs increased from almost 60% in 1993 to 91% in 1995. Moreover, the illegal status of homosexuality in India has created an underground culture in which HIV and STDs are rampant; one 1995 study in the Sangli district of Maharashtra found 50% of men who have sex with men to be infected with HIV. Half of India's blood for transfusion is drawn from commercial donors. A Bombay study, however, found 86% of such donors screened in 1992 to be HIV-seropositive and not all blood banks comply with mandatory screening laws. As widespread HIV infection evolves into a multitude of AIDS cases, India's health care system and economy will be heavily taxed, and the number of tuberculosis (TB) cases greatly increased. More than half the population carries the TB bacillus. The government by 1992 had drafted a national prevention and control plan and formed the
Andersen, Elizabeth A; Spiers, Jude
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Care Aides' Relational Practices and Caring Contributions" found on pages 24-30, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until October 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Define the application of Swanson's Middle Range Theory of Caring in care aides' relational care practices for nursing home
Limited to periodical literature, this annotated bibliography on school finance contains 81 references grouped in 5 categories: (1) policy and politica issues, (2) federal government, (3) state issues, (4) aid to nonpublic schools, and (5) accountability. Following the bibliographic citations, annotations range from 4 to 15 lines and conclude by…
This podcast highlights National Latino AIDS Awareness Day, to increase awareness of the disproportionate impact of HIV on the Hispanic or Latino population in the United States and dependent territories. The podcast reminds Hispanics or Latinos that they have the power to take control of their health and protect themselves against HIV. Created: 10/8/2014 by Office of Health Equity, Office of the Director, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention. Date Released: 10/14/2014.
Akramov, Kamiljon T
.... Specifically, the study explores how different categories of aid affect economic growth, whether the quality of governance is significant in explaining differences in economic growth, and whether...
Modern digital hearing aids have provided improved fidelity over those of earlier decades for speech. The same however cannot be said for music. Most modern hearing aids have a limitation of their "front end," which comprises the analog-to-digital (A/D) converter. For a number of reasons, the spectral nature of music as an input to a hearing aid is beyond the optimal operating conditions of the "front end" components. Amplified music tends to be of rather poor fidelity. Once the music signal is distorted, no amount of software manipulation that occurs later in the circuitry can improve things. The solution is not a software issue. Some characteristics of music that make it difficult to be transduced without significant distortion include an increased sound level relative to that of speech, and the crest factor- the difference in dB between the instantaneous peak of a signal and its RMS value. Clinical strategies and technical innovations have helped to improve the fidelity of amplified music and these include a reduction of the level of the input that is presented to the A/D converter.
Vermelho, L L; Barbosa, R H; Nogueira, S A
This study approaches the social and cultural profile concerning risk for HIV infection in women, describing some epidemiological variables and disclosing reports of risk situations, the meaning of living with AIDS, and support received. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 25 women from the University Hospital of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, prior to the availability of multi-drug treatment. The majority reported limited schooling, were housewives or engaged in under-skilled occupations, and had family incomes lower than average for users of this public teaching hospital. The view of AIDS as "someone else's disease" was prevalent, and STDs were perceived as male infections, although several women reported episodes of STDs prior to HIV. They had received their diagnosis and initial medical care only after their partners' and/or children's illness or death. The study points to preventive strategies reinforcing these silent women's bargaining power, acting on men as potential active participants in reproductive health programs that incorporate STD/AIDS issues.
Full Text Available Legal aid in India has evolved over the last few decades since 42nd Amendment to the Indian Constitution. This paper attempts to provide philosophical underpinnings suggesting how legal aid model has evolved over the years and excogitate a newer trajectory for its future evolution. It delves into weighing Kant’s imperfect duty justifying a charity based regime and marks a transition to utilitarian model suggesting requirement of institutional need to address issues of basic liberty of ‘access to justice.’ It also spells out Rawls’ principles of justice and attempts to explore their applicability in the Indian context, to chart out a road map for future. While contrasting different models on legal aids, it makes a finding that, India doesn’t accord priority to liberty of access to justice. The Indian Supreme Court has emerged as a bastion of liberty but the finer details of the enactment has been messed up by the Indian lawmakers. The lower compensation to lawyers and lack of alternative incentives in attracting established litigators, testifies this. There is a convergence in Kantian duty of benevolence and Rawls’ liberty principle but in the world of moral relativism, a fair compensation must precede before imposing any obligation on lawyers to take up pro bono matters, as doing so, is likely to compromise their ‘true needs.’
In 2012 AVERT'S HIV/AIDS statistics records Nigeria as the second largest number ... state, Nigeria with 8.7% above the national prevalence average rate of 4.5 per cent. ... Results revealed among others that: biological issues, poverty, female ... false religious assurances against HIV/AIDS, and traditional birth practices are ...
A course on AIDS presents many interdisciplinary opportunities as well as interactive pedagogies. In an AIDS course at Whittier College, students learn about the biological basis and epidemiology of the disease, tackle current policy issues in the United States, and study the effect of the disease in Africa.
Zaidi, Irum F.; Crepaz, Nicole; Song, Ruiguang; Wan, Choi K.; Lin, Lillian S.; Hu, Dale J.; Sy, Francisco S.
Although the percentage of overall AIDS diagnoses remains low among Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in the United States compared with other racial/ethnic groups, research on API risk behaviors and health status suggest that the low number of AIDS cases may not provide a full picture of the epidemic and issues faced by this understudied and…
Miller, Audrey K.; Lee, Brittany L.; Henderson, Craig E.
One of the most commonly cited psychological sequelae of HIV/AIDS is anxiety regarding death due to the illness (i.e., death anxiety; DA). However, extant research is inconclusive on several empirical issues, such as DA's relation to HIV/AIDS diagnostic status, the impact of illness-related symptoms on DA, and factors that may protect against DA.…
Jones, Rodney H.
A study explored the issues of cultural identity and interaction in public health discourse concerning Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in Hong Kong's multilingual, multicultural social context. Twenty public service announcements (PSAs) concerning AIDS awareness televised in both English and Cantonese in Hong Kong from 1987 to 1994 were…
Fetene, Getnet Tizazu; Dimitriadis, Greg
Set against trans- or supra-national policy initiatives which have framed the HIV/AIDS pandemic as in part a pedagogical issue, this paper critically explores local understandings of sexual practices (generally) as well as of HIV/AIDS (more specifically) among young people in the sub-Saharan African country of Ethiopia. Ethiopia has the third…
In a research milestone reported in the June 20 issue of the journal Science, scientists have developed a minimally modified version of HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS in infected humans, that is capable of causing progressive infection and AIDS i
Hill, Robert J.
HIV and AIDS are complex events that offer numerous opportunities for adult education. However, mainstream education on this issue has often not been relevant to a number of subpopulations, including sex workers. This chapter explores sources and content of HIV/AIDS education in the sex work industry (including art and the Internet) and suggests…
By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer In a research milestone reported in the June 20 issue of the journal Science, scientists have developed a minimally modified version of HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS in infected humans, that is capable of causing progressive infection and AIDS in monkeys. The advance should help create more authentic animal
Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole
Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may...... in CACE enhancing efficient flow of information between the tools supporting the following phases of the design process. In principle, this flow has to be two-way, and more or less automated, in order to enable the engineer to observe the propagation of the particular design decisions taken at various...... levels.The major conclusions of the paper are related with identifying the factors affecting the software tool integration in a way needed to facilitate design "inter-phase" communication. These are: standard application interfaces, dynamic data exchange mechanisms, code generation techniques and general...
Shultz, James M; Forbes, David
Psychological first aid (PFA) has become the flagship early intervention for disaster survivors, with recent adaptations for disaster responders, in the post-9/11 era. PFA is broadly endorsed by expert consensus and integrated into guidelines for mental health and psychosocial support in disasters and extreme events. PFA frameworks are proliferating, with increasing numbers of models developed for delivery by a range of providers for use with an expanding array of target populations. Despite popularity and promotion there remains a dearth of evidence for effectiveness and recent independent reviews of PFA have highlighted this important gap. This commentary juxtaposes the current propagation of PFA against the compelling need to produce evidence for effectiveness and suggests a series of actions to prioritize and expedite real-time, real-event field evaluation of PFA. PMID:28228996
Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C
Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior.
Buonaguro, Franco M.
The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...
Although donors generally aim to improve governance in recipient countries by various means, critics claim that the aggregate effect of large aid flows is the deterioration of governance. Aid is said to weaken domestic accountability, sustain authoritarian regimes, increase political instability, weaken government capacities, and increase corruption. Conducting a systematic search in Web of Science, this paper reviews the empirical evidence for these unintended aggregate effects of aid on the political, administrative, and judicial dimensions of good governance. It finds that the negative effects of aid on governance are much exaggerated. The aggregate effect of aid on democracy has become more positive after the Cold War, and the effect of aid on government capacity and on reducing corruption has also improved over time. Furthermore, most studies show a positive effect of aid on political stability. These findings imply that donor intentions matter: donors that are serious about their intended effects on governance are able to mitigate the possible negative unintended effects of their aid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The issue of regional development has captured the attention of researchers long UMA, but some trends in contemporary economy and international division of labor, cooperation, integration and globalization bring it back to the forefront of current theoretical and methodological concerns. Especially the process of European integration requires comprehensive and pragmatic approach, realistic subject (2, 3, 4.
Jul 10, 2010 ... research undertaken amongst migrant workers with HIV or AIDS. The practical ... I have used pseudonyms to protect the identities of my ..... day to day issues like employment, housing and health care. Broad strokes were ...
... Application System. OMB Control Number: Pending. Type of Review: New. Total Estimated Number of Annual... Student Aid and who have been issued the required two factor authentication tokens can access the FS SAS...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Quality Control Review Panel of the Departmental Appeals Board concerning the AFDC program...
Department of Education Information on Consolidation Opportunities and Student Aid. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Human Resources and the Intergovernmental Relations Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, House of Representatives. Statement of Cornelia M. Blanchette, Associate Director, Education and Employment Issues, Health, Education, and Human Services Division.
Blanchette, Cornelia M.
This report evaluates Department of Education opportunities to consolidate overlapping education programs, to find cost savings, and to strengthen its "gatekeeping" over schools' participation in student financial aid programs. It notes that, besides already proposed program consolidation, other programs that could be streamlined include…
December 1 is World AIDS Day. In this PSA, communities are encouraged to get tested for HIV. Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP). Date Released: 11/16/2011.
Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer
The paper examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth of labour productivity. A sectoral decomposition shows...
Arndt, Thomas Channing; Tarp, Finn
Aid and aid institutions constitute an important element of the global response to interlinked global developmental and environmental challenges. As such, these institutions are now being drawn into new arenas beyond the traditional focus on improving the livelihoods of poor people in low-income ...
Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)
Coward, D D
Little research has been reported that explores meaning-discovery and meaning-making in persons with AIDS. Self-transcendence experiences, as proposed by Reed (1991), may lead to maintenance or restoration of mental health in persons facing end-of-life issues. Nurses who work with persons with life-threatening illness, such as men and women with AIDS, have opportunities to facilitate choices that lead to experiences from which meaning and emotional well-being may be obtained. This study used a phenomenological approach to describe experiences of 10 men and 10 women with AIDS that led to feelings of increased self-worth, purpose, and meaning in their lives. Participants provided oral or written descriptions of experiences associated with feelings of increased connectedness with others, sense of well-being, and hope for longer life. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological technique (1978). Although men and women with AIDS faced some of the same issues, their responses were different. By incorporating gender and individual differences, nurses may be better able to create therapeutic exchanges in which self-transcendence views and behaviors are fostered in both men and women with AIDS.
The device of the present invention evaluates the propriety of an operation which is conducted optionally by a trainee depending on the state of the plant, analyzes the cause of an operation error and aids the preparation of training policy and teaching materials based on the results of the evaluation and the analysis. Namely, an operation data collection device collects operation data for the plant operation conducted by the trainee and the state of the plant during the operation. Since an operation evaluation device evaluates the plant operation in a short period of time based on the evaluation criteria of an operation evaluation knowledge base, an operation error is never overlooked. Accordingly, uniform and highly reliable operation training at definite evaluation criteria can be obtained. In addition, an error-cause analyzing device and a training policy knowledge base analyze the cause of an error inherent to each of the trainee, and it is recorded systematically independently on every trainees. Since a training policy guide device retrieves and presents an operation error and a cause of the error, there can be prepared a training policy incorporating training with respect to the operation error that each of the trainee tends to commit. (I.S.)
Williams, J.; Jones, B.
In late 1992, the remedial investigation of operable unit 2 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Superfund site in Fernald, Ohio was in trouble. Despite years of effort--including an EPA-approved field-investigation work plan, 123 soil borings, 51 ground-water-monitoring wells, analysis of more than 650 soil and ground-water samples, and preparation of a draft remedial-investigation (RI) report--it was not possible to conclude if contaminated material in the unit was related to ground-water contamination previously detected beneath and beyond the site boundary. Compounding the problem, the schedule for the RI, feasibility study and record of decision for operable unit 2 was governed by a DOE-EPA consent agreement stipulating penalties of up to $10,000 per week for not meeting scheduled milestones--and time was running out. An advanced three-dimensional computer model confirmed that radioactive wastes dumped at the Fernald, Ohio Superfund site had contaminated ground water, after years of previous testing has been inconclusive. The system is now being used to aid feasibility and design work on the more-than-$1 billion remediation project
Van der Wall, Hans; Provan, I.; Murray, C.; Dwyer, M.; Jones, P.D.
Gallium-67 scanning, indicated either for the elucidation of symptoms or for the assessment of appropriate therapy, was performed in 56 AIDS patients who underwent a total of 77 scans from 1986 to 1988. The age range of the patients was 13-66 years with an average age of 39 years. The majority of patients (95%) were male homosexuals. Gallium scanning has been applied to a wide spectrum of malignancies and to the detection of occult infections. Several mechanisms of uptake have been postulated for the localization of gallium. In general, gallium-67 acts as an analogue of the ferric ion, binding to transferrin soon after intravenous injection. It is believed that it is bound to transferrin receptors on the surface of tumour cells with subsequent intracellular transport. In infection, the association is probably with lactoferrin elaborated by polymorphonuclear cells and siderophores elaborated by bacteria. Gallium-67 is normally distributed to bone and bone marrow, liver, spleen, breast and bowel. In particular, the concentration in the ascending and transverse colon necessitates adequate bowel preparation. Lacrimal, nasopharyngeal and genital activity may also be seen. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs
Broxmeyer, Lawrence; Cantwell, Alan
Acid-fast tuberculous mycobacterial infections are common in AIDS and are regarded as secondary "opportunistic infections." According to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, TB is the major attributable cause of death in AIDS patients. Could such bacteria play a primary or causative role in AIDS? Certainly, In screening tests for HIV, there is frequent, up to 70%, cross-reactivity, between the gag and pol proteins of HIV and patients with mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis. By 1972, five years before gays started dying in the U.S., Rolland wrote Genital Tuberculosis, a Forgotten Disease? And ironically, in 1979, on the eve of AIDS recognition, Gondzik and Jasiewicz showed that even in the laboratory, genitally infected tubercular male guinea pigs could infect healthy females through their semen by an HIV-compatible ratio of 1 in 6 or 17%, prompting him to warn his patients that not only was tuberculosis a sexually transmitted disease, but also the necessity of the application of suitable contraceptives, such as condoms, to avoid it. Gondzik's solution and date of publication are chilling; his findings significant. Since 1982 Cantwell et al found acid-fast bacteria closely related to tuberculosis (TB) and atypical tuberculosis in AIDS tissue. On the other hand molecular biologist and virologist Duesberg, who originally defined retroviral ultrastructure, has made it clear that HIV is not the cause of AIDS and that the so-called AIDS retrovirus has never been isolated in its pure state. Dr. Etienne de Harven, first to examine retroviruses under the electron, agrees. In 1993 HIV co-discoverer Luc Montagnier reported on cell-wall-deficient (CWD) bacteria which he called "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. He suspected these as a necessary "co-factor" for AIDS. Remarkably, Montagnier remained silent on Cantwell's reports of acid-fast bacteria which could simulate "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. Mattman makes clear that the differentiation between
This article reports the AIDS care response of industries to the rising AIDS epidemic in South Africa. It has been reported that during 1993-99 the rate of hospital bed occupancy doubled to over 8/1000 and that 50% of ill-health retirements in 1998 were due to AIDS. Important issues to be considered by industries are the medical separation due to ill health, poor health care services. The focus of HIV/AIDS care should be on the patient, family, care giver, community, and health services, and must be based on the principles of decentralization and integration of sustainable and cost-effective HIV/AIDS services. The development of a care package must be based on six dimensions; namely, appropriateness, acceptability, accessibility, effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. On the other hand, identification of indicators in relation to the components of the care package must include support groups and networks of people living with HIV; the provision of home-based care; responsiveness of the health system; the existence and application of clinical guidelines; and the effectiveness of referrals. Any organization with a commitment in providing care should establish a Care Task Team to develop a care strategy. It should focus on who can have access to the care, what the care consists of, and who will cover the cost. In addition, a review of the existing HIV/AIDS services must be done to identify shortfalls and highlight priority gaps.
Moumita Maity; Barun Mukhopadhyay
One of the important public health issues worldwide is the rise of higher proportion of older aged with advancement of medicine, prolonged life expectancy and for improved health care facilities. Demographic projections suggest that mental illness along with heart diseases, AIDS and cancer will account for the top four illnesses around the globe very soon. It ranks up at the top along with heart disease, cancer, obesity, AIDS and injuries as leading causes of suffering. Increased longevity of...
de Barros, Sandra Garrido; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989), based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields). A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions) and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers. PMID:27463255
Sandra Garrido de Barros
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989, based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields. A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers.
Feb 1, 2018 ... guideline to develop the teaching aid application integrated with the .... categories of application were developed based on the mobile, web-based and ..... Thesis. . M. S. BIN Sabdan, “Penilaian Penggunaan Kaedah Fakih ...
In Malawi, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a major cause of death .... from a sample of programme users (caregivers and patients) and programme staff .... no formal schooling or only primary level education. Only about half of ...
Feb 24, 2018 ... Basic electronics experiments are essential in providing fundamental foundation in ... simplified experimental setup. ... central and true goal of the experiment. ..... MacLeod K. 2007 A practical example aiding understanding ...
Adeniyi Jimmy Adedokun
Full Text Available Foreign aid strategies have undergone restructuring as donors adopt aid selectivity practice to improve aid effectiveness. This study investigates the impact of aid selectivity practice on aid effectiveness (aid-growth relationship in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and several groups of countries within SSA from 1980 to 2012. Employing system generalized methods of moments (system GMM technique; the study produces strong evidence that there is significant improvement in aid effectiveness due to aid selectivity practice.
Shoffstall-Cone, Sarah; Williard, Mary
In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska's Tribal Health Organizations (THO) developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA) Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.
Full Text Available Background. In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska’s Tribal Health Organizations (THO developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. Objectives. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. Results. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Conclusions. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.
Nariddh, M C
HIV has been reported in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, as well as in the northwestern provinces of Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Pursat, and Kompong Chhnang. Unofficial reports indicate the presence of HIV in three northeastern provinces. According to World Health Organization data, 382 people were infected with HIV in Cambodia as of March 1994, but the national AIDS program estimates that 2000-4000 Cambodians may be HIV-seropositive. Small surveys in 1992 identified HIV infection rates to be 4.5% among patients of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and 9.2% among prostitutes. A seroprevalence rate of 4.3% was found in 1993 among clients of STD clinics and others requesting HIV testing. These rather marked levels of infection exist in Cambodia even though HIV was first identified in the country as recently as 1991 among screened blood from volunteer donors. By December 1993, the rate of positive results from blood donors had increased to 1.97%.; the rate of infection among blood donors is expected to double to approximately 4% in 1994. People in Cambodia variously believe that AIDS is nonexistent, AIDS is a problem of other countries, can be transmitted by mosquitoes, healthy people do not have AIDS, a cure exists for AIDS, AIDS can be contracted only from prostitutes, AIDS is the most severe state of syphilis, and AIDS is only a propaganda ploy of condom producers to market their products. It is therefore proving extremely difficult to convince people that AIDS is a truly threatening disease against which they should protect themselves, especially when symptoms are rarely present during the early stage of infection. Health education campaigns, videos, posters, and accurate reporting in the media will, however, help change minds and hopefully induce HIV-preventive behaviors. Of interest, the article notes that virtually every prostitute in Cambodia has at least two-three STDs.
Despite advances made in recent years in medical first aid, psychiatric intervention, survival training and equipment design, many people still perish quickly during and immediately following a disastrous event. In this study, individuals and groups of survivors of life-threatening events were debriefed and the behavior of those who coped well during such a threat to life were compared with those who did not. The behaviors of those who coped well were distilled into a set of principles for psychological first aid; that is, a series of simple actions for use within a disaster which serves to recover victims to functional behavior as quickly as possible, thus increasing their chance for survival. These principles of psychological first aid have recently been introduced into basic first aid and survival training courses for both military and civilian units.
... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ( ... people with HIV and AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...
... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Overview Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV/ ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Last Reviewed: August 25, 2017 ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers from the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program (ACVP) work to improve the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of HIV infection, AIDS, and AIDS-related tumors,...
Full Text Available Introduction: The HIV/AIDS epidemic portrays a growing health threat in the world. In Bangladesh, the prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS is not yet high but it is gradually becoming a threat especially for women and young girls due to gender disparity. This systematic review was conducted to explore the gender-specific vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh in order to suggest to policy makers the best way for the prevention of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh as well as in other low income countries. Methods: Peer review articles were identified using a systematic search of two databases: Pubmed and Goggle Scholar. The search was limited to studies published in English between 1998 and 2016 and included a special focus on articles addressing the gender-specific risk factors to HIV/ AIDS. Discussion and Conclusion: This paper analyzes how women and girls in marginalized position in the society fall victim to HIV/AIDS due to gender disparities and other related issues. The findings of the study indicate that women and young girls are the most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS infection among the general people. Along with biological susceptibility, other major causes of this vulnerability of women and girls are gender inequality, sexual abuse and violence, social stigma, inability to decision making power, economic dependency and men’s sexual power and privilege over women. This paper helps policy makers and invites them to take special care to reduce gender inequality before implementing any policy for the prevention of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh as well as in low income countries.
Cigielski, J P
A recently completed study involving over 10,000 people from 6 Central African countries found seroprevalence rates generally under 1% for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); however, rates were significantly higher for urban residents, prostitutes and their sexual contacts, and patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics. The 4 major modes of transmission of AIDS in Africa are sexual contact, perinatal transmission, transfusion of infected blood or blood products, and the reuse of equipment such as needles and syringes. In 1985, a 2nd AIDS virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-2, was discovered in West Africa--a finding with important implications for epidemiologic surveillance, screening programs, and clinical diagnostic testing. Although 45 of the 50 African countries have developed concrete public health policies and strategies for the prevention and control of AIDS, most nations of sub-Saharan Africa lack the economic and social resources to implement these programs effectively. Thus, international cooperation and a commitment on the part of the US and Western Europe to provide assistance will be essential. Needs must be addressed on 2 fronts: treatment of those already infected or suffering from the disease and containment of the AIDS epidemic. Public health efforts should focus initially on high risk behaviors through health education. At the same time, it should be recognized that AIDS is not the largest health issue facing Africans, and there is a complex interaction between AIDS and other health problems such as malnutrition, genital ulcers, diarrhea, and tuberculosis. An approach to AIDS requires an expansion of public health initiatives in areas such as clean water supplies, maternal-child health programs, nutrition and immunization programs, and sexually transmitted disease clinics.
Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik
We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop...... a correlated random coefficients model, to estimate the average aggregate return on ‘aid investments’ and ‘domestic investments’. Across different estimators and two different sources for GDP and investment data our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per...
Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik
We estimate the average rate of return on investments financed by aid and by domestic resource mobilisation, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop a correlated random coefficients model to estimate the average returns. Across...... different estimators and two different data sources for GDP and investment our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per cent. This is in accord with micro estimates of the economic rate of return on aid projects and with aggregate estimates of the rate...
Full Text Available For the authors of this paper, the teaching aids were and will always be a priority in their teaching activity. The contents of this paper is the result of a long strained period of efforts made to improve the teaching process, a period in which the teaching aids were permanently improved – as a result of attentively monitoring the students’ results. We can say that motivated students, who wanted to become mechanical engineers, used these teaching aids successfully in their learning activity.
Santesteban Moriones, Virginia; Ibáñez Santos, Javier
Introduction: Very few nutritional supplements have scientifically demonstrated their effectiveness as an ergogenic aid. This review will examine creatine monohydrate (MC), the β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), sodium bicarbonate (BS), the β-alanine and caffeine. Objectives: To analyze the effi cacy, mechanisms of action, dose, side effects and some sports that can benefit from their consumption. Methods: Searching in PubMed bibliographic database reviews from the last 15 years and original articles from the last 5 years of the studied substances. Results: Doses of 20 mg/day for 4-7 days are effective in improving strength and muscular power and performance in short and repeated sprints. HMB at doses of 3 g/day for at least 2 weeks contributes to increased lean mass and fat-free mass. The intake of 0.3 g/kg of BS improves performance on tests of 400-1,500 meters in athletics and intermittent sprints. Meanwhile, doses of 80 mg/kg/day of β-alanine for 4-10 weeks may improve performance in high-intensity intermittent exercise. Finally, caffeine at doses of 2 mg/kg improves responsiveness and 3-6 mg/kg improves performance in endurance tests. Conclusions: The revised supplements have shown their efficacy in physical performance, but it is needed to keep in mind that most studies have been conducted with recreational-level athletes. Generally, the better the individual´s fitness level is the less improvement in physical performance the supplement shows. However, an increase of only 1% may sometimes allow the athlete to advance several positions in a final. Finally, we should draw attention to the importance of optimizing nutrition before considering the introduction of sports supplements, especially in children and youth. All analyzed substances have scientific basis supporting its ergogenic effect. All of them can be found in the market with Certificate of Quality and Purit
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Visual Landing Aids (VLA) Laboratory serves to support fleet VLA systems by maintaining the latest service change configuration of currently deployed VLA...
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV often ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100213.htm Minor burn - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... out of 2 Overview To treat a minor burn, run cool water over the area of the ...
... learn CPR properly, take an accredited first-aid training course, including CPR and how to use an automated external defibrillator ( ... and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved.
Dammann, Armin; Agapiou, George; Brunel, Loïc
This paper presents an overview of preliminary results of investigations within the WHERE2 Project on identifying promising avenues for location aided enhancements to wireless communication systems. The wide ranging contributions are organized according to the following targeted systems: cellular...
... anthropology, philosophy, health communication, media, cultural studies, public ... Exploring dual disclosures for men who have sex with men in Mpumalanga, ... Book Review: AIDS and Masculinity in the African City: Privilege, Inequality, ...
... HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Basic Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir HIV and ... HIV. Interested in learning more about CDC's HIV statistics? Terms, Definitions, and Calculations Used in CDC HIV ...
The invention comprises a hearing aid, which has a casing containing a signal receiving part for receiving an audio signal, an audio transducer for providing an audio signal to the user, a signal transmission path between the signal receiving part and the audio transducer, whereby a battery...... is provided for powering the signal receiving part, the signal path and the audio transducer, and where further means are provided for assessing the function of the hearing aid and for generating an electrical indication signal which indicates the function of the hearing aid and where further means...... are provided for intermittently generating a power signal in response to the electrical indication signal and where means are provided for converting the power signal into a light signal, such that the light signal is visible from outside the hearing aid....
Farah, Abdulkadir Osman
nation), and possibilities to link home country/region are all important when looking the Diaspora issue. In connection with the link between Diaspora and Development, four interrelated models are worth considering. The extended family network (remittance) with private particularistic end......Diaspora and Development: The Case of Las Qoray Port project Paper for the Second Nordic Horn of Africa Conference, Oslo (31. Oct.- 1. November 2008) Introduction As a Diaspora Somalis are not yet an established Diaspora like the Chinese but could be described as a significantly emerging Diaspora...... globalisation/travel & telecommunication/flow of resources and mobility. It is also possible to argue that the two major emerging global powers China and India together with their relatively successful Diaspora contributed to this development. With the current economic and deteriorating conditions...
Gan, Richard Wei Chern; Overton, Parisa; Benton, Claire; Daniel, Matija
ENT surgeons may refer children with otitis media with effusion (OME) to audiology for consideration of hearing aids. They are an option for the treatment of OME, but are only effective if the child actually wears them. Our study investigated what proportion of children referred for hearing aids actually receive them, and whether children use them. Retrospective study of children referred to audiology from November 2013 to August 2014, including 70 children referred by ENT for hearing aids for OME, plus a further 5 children with OME given hearing aids through direct access audiology service. During the study period, there were 202 referrals of children to audiology, of which 70 (34.7%) were for consideration of hearing aids for OME. Of these 70 referred children, 37 (52.9%) were not fitted with hearing aids due to normal audiometry (23), asymptomatic mild hearing loss (7), nonattendance (3), clinical decision to just monitor hearing (1), parental decline (2), and unrecorded reason (1). A total of 38 children (including direct access patients) were fitted with hearing aids for OME. Majority (36/38) of children issued aids used them, 16 all day, 7 only at school, 1 only at home, 3 only when needed, and 9 used them for an unspecified duration; 1 child's use of hearing aids was unrecorded, and 1 child refused to use it. 21 were fitted bilaterally and 17 unilaterally. 37 were behind the ear aids and 1 a BAHA softband. A third of referrals to paediatric audiology by ENT are for consideration of hearing aids for OME. Only about half of children referred to audiology for hearing aids for OME actually receive them, as by the time they see audiology the hearing loss has frequently resolved or is asymptomatic so that aiding is unwarranted. Once fitted, they appear to be well accepted. Hearing aids have fair utilization in children fitted with them for OME. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Depression is a major mental health problem today. This is very important because people with depression productivity will decrease and this is very bad for a society and a country that is building. There are at least four chronic diseases that allow the depression sufferer, one of which is HIV and AIDS. Given the uncertainty over the fate of people living with HIV and AIDS had the potential to give rise to feelings of anxiety and depression. Someone who is infected with HIV and AIDS will be overcome by a feeling of dying, guilt about the behavior that makes infection, and taste sequestered by others.The cause of depression in people with HIV and AIDS by cognitive approach that is the mindset of people who deviate from the pattern of the logical interpretation or misinterprets an event or events, focusing on the negative situations that happened to him, and hope that pessimistic and negative about the future. Symptoms are raised is their depressed mood, decreased interest or pleasure in absolute terms, average of worthlessness or excessive guilt, thoughts of death. Response or reaction that occurs is refused, angry, and depressed when he learned he was infected with HIV and AIDS, and eventually be able to accept his situation. Efforts are being made to reduce depression are manifold. One is through social support to colleagues who also have HIV and AIDS.
Full Text Available Educational webcasts or video lectures as a teaching tool and a form of visual aid have become widely used with the rising prevalence of online and blended courses and with the increase of web-based video materials. Thus, research pertaining to factors enhancing the effectiveness of video lectures, such as number of visual aids, is critical. This study compared student evaluations before and after embedding additional visual aids throughout video lectures in an online course. Slide transitions occurred on average every 40 seconds for the pre-treatment group with approximately 600 visuals total, compared to slide transitions every 10 seconds for the post-treatment group with approximately 2,000 visuals total. All students received the same audio recordings. Research questions addressed are: (1 Are student perceptions of the effectiveness of examples used to illustrate concepts affected by number of visual aids? (2 Is the extent to which students feel engaged during the lectures affected by number of visual aids? (3 Are students’ perceived overall learning experiences affected by number of visual aids? Surprisingly, results indicate that for questions #1 and #3, student ratings of those who viewed videos with fewer visuals rated their experiences higher than students who viewed more visuals. There was no significant difference found for question #2. Conclusion: Although some visuals have been shown to enhance learning, too many visuals may be a deterrent to learning.
ETINDE. Improving the role of a methodological approach and ancillary ethnoarchaeological data application for place vulnerability and resilience to a multi-hazard environment: Mt. Cameroon volcano case study [MIA-VITA project -FP7-ENV-2007-1
Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria; Kouokam, Emmanuel; Mbe Akoko, Robert; Peppoloni, Silvia; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Thierry, Pierre
The FP7 MIA-VITA [Mitigate and assess risk from volcanic impact on terrain and human activities] project has been designed to address multidisciplinary aspects of volcanic threat assessment and management from prevention to crisis management recovery. In the socio-economic analysis carried out at Mt. Cameroon Bakweri and Bakossi ethnic groups, ancillary ethnoarchaeological information has been included to point out the cultural interaction between the volcano and its residents. In 2009-2011, ethnoanthropological surveys and interviews for data collection were carried out at Buea, Limbe, West Coast, Tiko and Muyuka sub-divisions adjacent to Mt. Cameroon. One of the outstanding, results from the Bakweri and Bakossi cultural tradition study: natural hazards are managed and produced by supernatural forces, as: Epasa Moto, God of the Mountain (Mt. Cameroon volcano) and Nyango Na Nwana , Goddess of the sea (Gulf of Guinea). In the case of Mount Cameroon, people may seek the spirit or gods of the mountain before farming, hunting and most recently the undertaking of the Mount Cameroon annual race are done. The spirit of this mountain must be seek to avert or stop a volcanic eruption because the eruption is attributed to the anger of the spirit. Among the Northern Bakweri, the association of spirits with the mountain could also be explained in terms of the importance of the mountain to the people. Most of their farming and hunting is done on the Mountain. Some forest products, for instance, wood for building and furniture is obtained from the forest of the mountain; this implies that the people rely on the Mountain for food, game and architecture/furniture etc. In addition, the eruption of the mountain is something which affects the people. It does not only destroy property, it frustrates people and takes away human lives when it occurs. Because of this economic importance of the Mountain and its unexpected and unwanted eruption, the tendency is to believe that it has some
Composing the Curriculum For your summer reading pleasure this month's issue provides a wide range of subjects and activities. Our lead article is a tribute to a chemist-composer, Lejaren A. Hiller, Jr., as well as an examination of the interesting relationship between chemistry (and science) and music. Like Hiller, Wamser and Wamser (page 601) love both chemistry and music, and this comes through loud and clear in their historical perspective on Hiller's work. Much of the rest of the issue impinges on the chemistry curriculum in one form or another. Rettich, Bailey, Frank, and Frick (page 638) describe an integrated first- and second-year curriculum being developed at Illinois Wesleyan University that includes all subdisciplines of chemistry. They describe ways to teach topics such as acids and bases so that the perspectives of (for example) organic and inorganic chemistry are integrated and contemporaneous. Those contemplating a popular reform, group work or cooperative learning, will be interested in Birk and Kurtz's program (page 615) for training teaching assistants using cooperative learning. Surely TAs who have participated in cooperative groups to develop their own techniques for handling discussion and lab sessions will be able to use group learning to better advantage. Several years ago the ACS Division of Chemical Education set up a Task Force on the General Chemistry Curriculum. With support from the National Science Foundation and others, the task force has been quite active. In addition to the summative reports published here (pages 617-636) on four areas in which general chemistry teaching can be improved, they have contributed many Forum columns in earlier issues of the Journal and have published much of their work in New Directions for General Chemistry: A Resource for Curricular Change; Baird W. Lloyd, ed. Our current approach to teaching electron configurations of the atoms is largely based on quantum theory Because of the mathematics required
Weiler, Jim Martin; Martin-Weiler, Cassandra J.
Our research shows that social science university trained Ghanaian student/teachers do have the knowledge, confidence, and willingness to address HIV/AIDS issues in their teaching, yet they do not. The reason, we argue, is that teachers have little incentive to address contentious issues in the classroom. Questionnaires were administered to 382…
Adedokun, Adeniyi Jimmy; Abiodun O. Folawewo, Abiodun O.
Foreign aid strategies have undergone restructuring as donors adopt aid selectivity practice to improve aid effectiveness. This study investigates the impact of aid selectivity practice on aid effectiveness (aid-growth relationship) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and several groups of countries within SSA from 1980 to 2012. Employing system generalized methods of moments (system GMM) technique; the study produces strong evidence that there is significant improvement in aid effectiveness due to a...
May 15, 2016 ... Near-fault earthquake issue is almost a new issue in earthquake engineering. ... although those countries had advanced regulations for seismic design of ... allocating the plastic joints according to development guideline and ...
High energy physics of the future using future accelerators is discussed. The proposed machines and instruments, physics issues and opportunities including brief sketches of outstanding recent results, and the way the proposed machines address these issues are considered. 42 references
... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > orthopedics Orthopedics In SMA, muscle weakness can cause ...
... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > equipment Equipment Individuals with SMA often require a ...
... About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Health Issues & Treatments Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... people with spina bifida are exactly alike. Health issues and treatments for people with spina bifida will ...
... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > breathing Breathing Breathing problems are the most common ...
Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.
Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.
This doctoral thesis, consisting of four separate articles and a summarizing report, discusses so-called South African AIDS myths also called AIDS beliefs, rumours, misconceptions and legends. AIDS myths have been put forth as an outcome of and a major reason behind the severe HIV/AIDS situation in South Africa. They are proposed to flourish among black South Africans living in impoverished townships and villages. In previous studies, the reasons and mechanisms behind AIDS myths have be...
Whitehead, Jim; De Bra, Paul; Grønbæk, Kaj; Larsen, Deena; Legget, John; schraefel, monica m.c.
It has been 15 years since the original presentation by Frank Halasz at Hypertext'87 on seven issues for the next generation of hypertext systems. These issues are: Search and Query Composites Virtual Structures Computation in/over hypertext network Versioning Collaborative Work Extensibility and Tailorability Since that time, these issues have formed the nucleus of multiple research agendas within the Hypertext community. Befitting this direction-setting role, the issues have been revisited ...
Leticia Legay Vermelho
prior to HIV. They had received their diagnosis and initial medical care only after their partners' and/or children's illness or death. The study points to preventive strategies reinforcing these silent women's bargaining power, acting on men as potential active participants in reproductive health programs that incorporate STD/AIDS issues.
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Starting aids. 75.1913 Section 75.1913 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1913 Starting aids. (a) Volatile fuel starting aids shall be used in accordance with recommendations provided by the starting aid...
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary aids. 15b.37 Section 15b.37 Agriculture... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Other Aid, Benefits, or Services § 15b.37 Auxiliary aids... appropriate auxiliary aids to persons with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills, where necessary to...
... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid. 1915.98 Section 1915.98 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working Conditions § 1915.98 First aid...) Unless a first aid room and a qualified attendant are close at hand and prepared to render first aid to...
Belfer, Myron L.
There are at least three aspects to the psychological impact of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on children. First is the psychological response of the child with AIDS; second, the response of the child in a group at high risk for AIDS; and third, the psychological response of children in general to the perceived threat from AIDS.…
Guy, Robin Frederick
This paper describes a number of different types of training aids currently employed in online training: non-interactive audiovisual presentations; interactive computer-based aids; partially interactive aids based on recorded searches; print-based materials; and kits. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of aid are noted, and a table…
This seminar focussed on the major issues affecting the future of the entire nuclear fuel cycle. In particular it covered issues bearing on the formation of public policy in relation to the use of uranium as an energy source: economic risk, industrial risks, health effects, site selection, environmental issues, and public acceptance
Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo
Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time
del Río-Zolezzi, A; Liguori, A L; Magis-Rodríguez, C; Valdespino-Gómez, J L; García-García, M de L; Sepúlveda-Amor, J
This study presents an analysis of AIDS cases and seroprevalence of HIV infection among Mexican women, from the onset of the epidemic through June 1994, as well as the analysis of the social and cultural factors that put women in a powerless situation regarding the adoption of preventive measures. Since 1985, when the first AIDS cases among women were reported in Mexico and until June 1, 1994, a total of 2,767 cases have been reported, representing 14.8% of the total number of cases. The first cases of AIDS among women were associated to infected blood transfusions; however, in 1986, heterosexually transmitted cases began to appear. Currently, only 35% of newly reported AIDS cases are associated to blood transfusions while 64% of them are related to heterosexual transmission. In fact, two epidemics are evident: one transmitted through blood, showing a downward trend (duplication time 45 months), and a second one, heterosexually transmitted, increasing twice as fast (duplication time 27 months). The latter is expected to dominate AIDS epidemiology among women in the future. In general, women are more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS biologically, but also socially and culturally. Women's economic, social and cultural subordination to their sexual partners results in a situation that makes it difficult for them to assess their infection risk and even more, to negotiate taking preventive measures. This situation is even more disadvantageous to rural women and, together with the recent trend of the AIDS epidemic to ruralization and with internal and international migration (temporary work force migration to the USA), can result in deep demographic and social effects. We conclude that it is necessary to work on the design and assessment of preventive measures under women's control, that empower them to protect themselves even without their partner's awareness. Also, it is necessary to promote sexual education among young heterosexual couples on how to talk about sexual issues and
A rebuttal is made to Neville Hodgkinson's article questioning the existence of the AIDS epidemic in view of the pressure on funds for overseas aid in order to explain why support is provided to international AIDS control programs. Some AIDS workers have questioned the reliability of AIDS statistics and challenged the conventional wisdom that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes illness and death. The British Medical Research Council and the Ugandan government have studied about 10,000 people in 15 villages in rural Masaka, southern Uganda. Adolescents and young adults infected with HIV-1 were 60 times more likely to die in the next year than those who were not infected. More than 50% of all adult deaths, and more than 80% of deaths in young adults, are associated with HIV-1. HIV-1 targets CD4 lymphocytes and kills them making people vulnerable to infections such as diarrhea and tuberculosis. In Africa, many of those infected with HIV die as a result of infections from which they would normally recover. In some parts of southern Uganda and northern Tanzania, the prevalence of adults infected with HIV has changed little over the past few years, hovering at 10-15%. In other areas, prevalence is nearer 30-40%. Condoms reduce infection risk and education and condom marketing is changing sexual behavior in Zaire, Zimbabwe, and Tanzania. British aid is designed to help countries tackle health issues in addition to HIV-AIDS faced by their people and to make the best use of cash. Predictions of drastic population decline across Africa, resulting from the relentless spread of HIV also undermined the efforts of African governments to restore both public and external confidence. Hundreds of medical and nursing staff working to improve the world's health draw attention to unnecessary expenditure and condemning waste. Yet none argue that the HIV epidemic is a myth.
Expand your knowledge of problems and possibilities with e-material acquisitions around the world to aid in making your own decisions The demand for electronic material in academic libraries is growing and shows no sign of abating. Collection Development Issues in the Online Environment addresses key issues in electronic materials development and presents cutting-edge practices from academic libraries around the world. Leading authorities reveal insights on both common and special concerns that every library administrator can use in making decisions about their own collections. The text also presents real-life case studies illustrating approaches that can be modified for effective planning of your own library acquisitions. The strategies are practical, the information clear and helpful, all of it contained in a single useful volume that every information science professional or academic can use. Collection Development Issues in the Online Environment is separated into three sections. The first section tackles...
Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter
We examine the idea that aid and FDI are complementary sources of foreign capital. We argue that the relationship between aid and FDI is theoretically ambiguous: aid raises the marginal productivity of capital when used to finance complementary inputs (like public infrastructure and human capital...... investments), but aid may crowd out private investments when it comes in the shape of pure physical capital transfers. Empirically, we find that aid invested in complementary inputs draws in FDI, while aid invested in physical capital crowds it out. The paper shows that the composition of aid matters for its...
Gloster, Annabella Satu; Johnson, Phillip John
RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to perform first aid in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. First aid comprises a series of simple, potentially life-saving steps that an individual can perform with minimal equipment. Although it is not a legal requirement to respond to an emergency situation outside of work, nurses have a professional duty to respond and provide care within the limits of their competency. First aid is the provision of immediate medical assistance to an ill or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. First aid can save lives and it is essential that nurses understand the basic principles. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Your skill in performing first aid and any areas where you may need to extend your knowledge. 2. How reading this article will change your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio .
With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents. First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments. First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.
Le Blang, S.D.; Witheman, M.L.; Donovan Post, M.J.; Casillas, J.V.
Morphological imaging, based on the use of various techniques including ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), plays an important role in the characterization, diagnosis and follow-up of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). While the presence of thoracic infections, the most frequently observed illnesses in AIDS patients, can best be performed by using conventional chest films and CT, the assessment of cerebral involvement in AIDS patients - characterized by the presence of focal masses, demyelination, meningitis, and infarction - is best achieved using MRI. The work-up of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms should include the use of ultrasound for the evaluation of visceral involvement and lymphadenopathy, completed by CT to further characterize pathologic conditions in either the bowel or visceral organs. Ultrasound is the screening exam of choice in AIDS patients with suspected renal disease, but other methods may be necessary for the assessment of the complications due to pharmacological treatment. Musculoskeletal complications may require the combined use of all the above methods, since they may be caused by infections, tumors and rheumatologic illness. The use of the radiographic methods for the detection of the numerous forms of infections and malignancies in AIDS patients is described in detail for the various body districts
The NRC has recognized the need to integrate generic issues (GIs). The GI process includes a number of phases, all of which should recognize the potential for overlap and conflict among related issues. In addition to the issues themselves, other related NRC and industry programs and activities need to be factored into the GI process. Integration has taken place, or is taking place, for a number of GIs. Each case of integration involves a specific set of circumstances and, as a result, the way in which integration proceeds can vary. This paper discusses the integration of issues in the generic issue process and provides a number of examples
Bennink, D.; Faber, J.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Goba, V. [SIA Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Environment ELLE, Tallinn (Estonia); Miller, K.; Williams, E. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom)
This study, for the European Commission, analyses the issues that need to be addressed in the revision of the EU State aid framework to ensure that they do not hinder environmental, resource efficiency and sustainable development goals. In some cases, State aid can be considered an environmentally harmful subsidy (EHS). The study analyses (1) the extent to which the Environmental Aid Guidelines (EAG) need to be changed to take into account recent European environmental policy developments; (2) existing and potential resource efficiency considerations in a) the Regional Aid Guidelines; b) the Research, Development and Innovation (RDI) Guidelines and c) the Agriculture and Forestry Guidelines; assesses cases and schemes using these guidelines to identify whether resource efficiency considerations are taken into account. The study also considers the social, environmental and economic impacts of these cases and schemes. It develops recommendations for the review of the EAG and a number of horizontal guidelines. One of the conclusions of the analysis is that the way in which multiple objectives and impacts are balanced, when deciding to approve state aid, is unclear. Also, EU member states are not required to provide information on certain types of (estimated) impacts. To guarantee that multiple objectives and impacts are sufficiently balanced, it is recommended that the State aid framework prescribes that applicants identify social, economic and environmental objectives and impacts and describe how these are taken into account in the procedure of balancing multiple (conflicting) objectives. Objectives and impacts should be quantified as much as possible, for example by making use of the method of external cost calculation laid down in 'the Handbook on estimation of external costs in the transport Sector'. The results of the study are used by the European Commission as an input for evaluating and improving the EU State aid framework.
Bennink, D.; Faber, J.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Goba, V. [SIA Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Environment ELLE, Tallinn (Estonia); Miller, K.; Williams, E. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom)
This study, for the European Commission, analyses the issues that need to be addressed in the revision of the EU State aid framework to ensure that they do not hinder environmental, resource efficiency and sustainable development goals. In some cases, State aid can be considered an environmentally harmful subsidy (EHS). The study analyses (1) the extent to which the Environmental Aid Guidelines (EAG) need to be changed to take into account recent European environmental policy developments; (2) existing and potential resource efficiency considerations in a) the Regional Aid Guidelines; b) the Research, Development and Innovation (RDI) Guidelines and c) the Agriculture and Forestry Guidelines; assesses cases and schemes using these guidelines to identify whether resource efficiency considerations are taken into account. The study also considers the social, environmental and economic impacts of these cases and schemes. It develops recommendations for the review of the EAG and a number of horizontal guidelines. One of the conclusions of the analysis is that the way in which multiple objectives and impacts are balanced, when deciding to approve state aid, is unclear. Also, EU member states are not required to provide information on certain types of (estimated) impacts. To guarantee that multiple objectives and impacts are sufficiently balanced, it is recommended that the State aid framework prescribes that applicants identify social, economic and environmental objectives and impacts and describe how these are taken into account in the procedure of balancing multiple (conflicting) objectives. Objectives and impacts should be quantified as much as possible, for example by making use of the method of external cost calculation laid down in 'the Handbook on estimation of external costs in the transport Sector'. The results of the study are used by the European Commission as an input for evaluating and improving the EU State aid framework.
Umidade relativa de equilibrio e oxidação de lipídeos em farinhas de castanha do Pará, de macadâmia e de soja Equilibrium relative humidity and lipid oxidation in Brazil-nut, macadamia nut and soybean seed flours
L.G. do Prado-Filho
Full Text Available Foi estudada a oxidação de lipídeos adicionados a farinhas de castanha do Pará (Bertholleta excelsa, de macadâmia (Macadâmia integrifolia e de soja (Glycine max equilibradas nas atividades de água (Aa 0,51; 0,57; 0,67; 0,75; 0,79 e 0,81, a 35°C. O substrato utilizado para quantificar tanto a oxidação autocatalítica como a oxidação enzímica foi o óleo de soja na proporção de 20% (p:p. Dois mecanismos de oxidação de lipídeos concorrem pelo substrato nas condições estudadas. A baixos valores de Aa - de 0,51 a 0,75 - o mecanismo mais eficiente é a autoxidação devida à maior exposição do substrato ao oxigênio e à menor mobilidade dos reagentes - enzima e lipídeo - nas reações de natureza enzímica. Em valores de Aa maiores - 0,79 e 0,81 - predomina a oxidação enzímica, e atua a proteção do substrato pela água, frente à ação do oxigênio. O índice de peróxido medido no transcurso de 6 dias apresenta máximos e mínimos devidos a reações secundárias atuando sobre produtos das reações primárias.Lipid oxidation was studied on the flour of Brazil-nut (Bertolleta excelsa, macadâmia nut (Macadamia integrifoliá and soybean seed (Glycine max, in enviroments with controlled water activity (Aw values of 0.51; 0.57; 0.67; 0.75; 0.79 and 0.81 at 35°C. Every 24 hours during 6 days the peroxide value was determined for each Aw in flour with enzyme inactivation (110°C, 2 hours as well as in flour without inactivation. At low Aw values (up to 0.75 the oxidation by oxigen is the most effective mechanism of deterioration of the lipids. At higher water activity values (0.79 and 0.81 the protective effect of the humidity upon the lipids and the greater mobility of the reagents make the activity of the lipoxigenase the most important mechanism of lipid deterioration.
Fedorova, Marina; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul
Models are playing important roles in design and analysis of chemicals based products and the processes that manufacture them. Computer-aided methods and tools have the potential to reduce the number of experiments, which can be expensive and time consuming, and there is a benefit of working...... development and application. The proposed work is a part of the project for development of methods and tools that will allow systematic generation, analysis and solution of models for various objectives. It will use the computer-aided modeling framework that is based on a modeling methodology, which combines....... In this contribution, the concept of template-based modeling is presented and application is highlighted for the specific case of catalytic membrane fixed bed models. The modeling template is integrated in a generic computer-aided modeling framework. Furthermore, modeling templates enable the idea of model reuse...
Heinrich, Tobias; Loftis, Matthew
for this by analyzing incumbent turnover in elections following poor economic performance – the economic vote – as a measure of voting to achieve performance accountability. In our analysis of over 1,100 elections in 114 developing countries between 1975 and 2010, we find distinct evidence that increasing receipt......Although foreign policies often fail to successfully promote democracy, over a decade of empirical research indicates that foreign aid specifically for democracy promotion is remarkably successful at improving the survival and institutional strength of fragile democracies. However, these measures...... cannot tell us how well democracy aid supports the central promise of democracy: accountable government. Since institutions can be subverted in various ways that undermine accountability, it is vital to know whether democracy aid supports accountability to assess its overall success. We provide evidence...
The adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique data system which uses computer controlled data systems, video cameras and recorders, analog-to-digital conversion, environmental sensors, and digital recorders to collect sensor data. The data can be viewed either manually or with a special computerized data-reduction system which adds new data to a data base stored on a magnetic disc recorder. This report provides a synoptic account of the AIDS as it presently exists. Modifications to the purchased subsystems are described, and references are made to publications which describe the Sandia-designed subsystems
Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard
Exclusive rights are granted in order to regulate markets as one of several possible tools of public intervention. The article considers the role of State aid law in the regulation of exclusive rights. Whereas the right of Member States to organise markets as monopolies and the choice of provider...... are regulated by free movement rules and Article 106 TFEU, State aid law regulates the terms of the right to ensure that the beneficiary is not granted an economic advantage. Exclusive rights may be granted on various terms: for a payment, in combination with compensation or as compensation. The two former...... kinds of terms are regulated under State aid law which requires market terms. The granting of exclusive rights as compensation is analysed on the basis of the Eventech judgment, and it is found that when no financial transaction is included in the grant, it resembles a decision to organise a market...
Vaas, Jocelyn R
The primary purpose of this study was to assess the role, status and scope of workplace HIV/AIDS committees as a means of effective workplace governance of the HIV/AIDS impact, and their role in extending social protective HIV/AIDS-related rights to employees. In-depth qualitative case studies were conducted in five South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that were actively implementing HIV/AIDS policies and programmes. Companies commonly implemented HIV/AIDS policies and programmes through a workplace committee dedicated to HIV/AIDS or a generic committee dealing with issues other than HIV/ AIDS. Management, through the human resources department and the occupational health practitioner often drove initial policy formulation, and had virtually sole control of the HIV/AIDS budget. Employee members of committees were mostly volunteers, and were often production or blue collar employees, while there was a notable lack of participation by white-collar employees, line management and trade unions. While the powers of workplace committees were largely consultative, employee committee members often managed in an indirect manner to secure and extend social protective rights on HIV/AIDS to employees, and monitor their effective implementation in practice. In the interim, workplace committees represented one of the best means to facilitate more effective workplace HIV/AIDS governance. However, the increased demands on collective bargaining as a result of an anticipated rises in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality might prove to be beyond the scope of such voluntary committees in the longer term.
Aug 8, 2017 ... applications concerning computer aided accountancy and business correspondence. Key Words: (CASE tools, programming technique, accounting applications). INTRODUCTION. One of the main features of ... investigations of object-oriented modeling languages (Eliëns,2000, DeLoach,2000) and many.
Aug 8, 2017 ... the prediction model with the aid of the usage of multilaterally ... Meanwhile, sitting height was measured from the top of the head to the seated ... stature (cm) which is a genuine and strong measure of leg explosive power.
The aim of this article is to explore how international donors influence civil society organisations (CSOs) in Mozambique through funding mechanisms, the creation of partnerships, or inclusion in targeted programmes. The main focus is the relationship between donors and AIDS non-governmental organisations (NGOs).
Richey, Lisa Ann
of social change in southern Africa. This sociological study of HIV/AIDS peer education in diverse South African businesses tries to understand "the web of social relationships that influence behavior" (5), particularly with reference to Erving Goffman's classic framing of social space as "front stage......" and "back stage" and Victor Turner's notion of "liminality." So-called front-stage behavior includes that of workplace peer educators who give training sessions to coworkers within vertically structured communication programs run by HIV/AIDS managers; back-stage interventions include educators...
Mitchell, Claudia; de Lange, Naydene
The ubiquity of cellphones in South Africa, a country ravaged by HIV and AIDS, makes cellphones an easily accessible tool to use in participatory approaches to addressing HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)issues, particularly in school contexts. In this article we explore a participatory visual…
Virgili, Gianni; Acosta, Ruthy; Bentley, Sharon A; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Allcock, Claire; Evans, Jennifer R
The purpose of low-vision rehabilitation is to allow people to resume or to continue to perform daily living tasks, with reading being one of the most important. This is achieved by providing appropriate optical devices and special training in the use of residual-vision and low-vision aids, which range from simple optical magnifiers to high-magnification video magnifiers. To assess the effects of different visual reading aids for adults with low vision. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 12); MEDLINE Ovid; Embase Ovid; BIREME LILACS, OpenGrey, the ISRCTN registry; ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). The date of the search was 17 January 2018. This review includes randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared any device or aid used for reading to another device or aid in people aged 16 or over with low vision as defined by the study investigators. We did not compare low-vision aids with no low-vision aid since it is obviously not possible to measure reading speed, our primary outcome, in people that cannot read ordinary print. We considered reading aids that maximise the person's visual reading capacity, for example by increasing image magnification (optical and electronic magnifiers), augmenting text contrast (coloured filters) or trying to optimise the viewing angle or gaze position (such as prisms). We have not included studies investigating reading aids that allow reading through hearing, such as talking books or screen readers, or through touch, such as Braille-based devices and we did not consider rehabilitation strategies or complex low-vision interventions. We used standard methods expected by Cochrane. At least two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. The primary outcome of the review was reading speed in words per minute. Secondary
Evans, J. Calvin
Highlights contemporary sexuality issues that confront children, adolescents, and the adults who care for them. Discusses teenage pregnancy, sexual abuse, HIV/AIDS, sexual orientation, and sexual harassment. States that schools and treatment programs have an important role in sexuality education and that the costs of neglecting that role is high…
Bower, Wilma; And Others
Some children in American schools have known and unknown communicable diseases, including herpes, cytomegalovirus, AIDS, mononucleosis, pinworms, and hepatitis. This article examines major public health issues, school responsibility, preventative measures (like basic hygiene), and the need for more effective community education programs. A disease…
Cottingham, Jane, Comp.
This guide has been compiled as an aide-memoire and resource book about the increasing incidence of malnutrition in infants caused by bottle feeding in the Third World. It deals with four major interrelated issues: (1) the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition, (2) the importance of breast milk, not only in preventing malnutrition and disease…
... issue or invest in additional securities, to borrow money or to make loans to other persons. Describe... this information graphically or in a flow chart if it will aid understanding. (i) If the pool assets are securities, as defined under the Securities Act, state the market price of the securities and the...
Kolstad, Ivar; Wiig, Arne; Williams, Aled
Petroleum-related aid programmes and projects are a key part of donor activities in oil-rich developing countries. This paper critically assesses petroleum-related aid activities, using the Norwegian Oil for Development programme as a main case. Recent research suggests that institutions, or governance, are essential in averting a resource curse. While governance issues are beginning to receive more attention in these types of programmes, they still form a minor part of programme activities. The narrow sector focus that characterizes petroleum-related aid makes it unlikely that it will produce the higher order institutional changes needed to lift the resource curse. Petroleum-related aid activities address the issue of corruption only to a limited extent. Given the commercial and political interests of donor countries, questions about the integrity and credibility of these types of programmes can be raised
Lopes, Sandra Marisa Gomes
Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Nutrição Clínica Enquadramento: O chá é a segunda bebida mais consumida em todo o mundo. Vários estudos realizados em modelos animais e em humanos têm sugerido um possível efeito benéfico sobre a glicémia pós prandial estando este efeito directamente associado à riqueza em polifenóis do chá bem como à sua actividade antioxidante. Objectivos: Estudar o efeito da ingestão de 1 g de C. sinensis na forma de chá branco, chá verde e chá preto na ...
This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.
This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed
Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.
The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.
Goktas, Sonay; Yildirim, Gulay; Kose, Selmin; Yildirim, Senay; Ozhan, Fatma; Senturan, Leman
Poisoning is a crucial public health problem which needs serious approach and response to treatment. In case of poisoning, proper first aid is lifesaving and application should be applied in every condition. This research was conducted in order to evaluate first aid knowledge of university students for poisoning. The research was conducted between the dates of May 2013-June 2013 with the permission gained from the University Rectorship. The cohort of the research contained 4,560 students who received education in Istanbul. The sample of the study included 936 students who accepted to participate in the research and attended the school during the research. The data were collected by using a questionnaire form, which had 21 questions prepared by researchers. Analysis of the data was carried out with a percentage evaluation method and chi square tests in a computer environment. In our study, 92.6% of students (n=867) knew the phone number of the ambulance in case of emergency. In addition, 57.3% of students (n=536) knew the phone number of the poison hotline, and it was seen that they answered correctly the questions regarding the relation between body system and indications of poisoning. It was determined that the students who received education in medical departments answered the questions correctly more than the students who had education in other departments. (p≤0.001, p≤0.01). It was observed that the university students in medical departments had more first aid knowledge on poisoning cases compared to the students in other departments who did not have sufficient information regarding these issues. It is thought that first aid education in all departments of universities, both poisoning and other first aid issues, should be conveyed to all students.
This podcast highlights National Latino AIDS Awareness Day, to increase awareness of the disproportionate impact of HIV on the Hispanic or Latino population in the United States and dependent territories. The podcast reminds Hispanics or Latinos that they have the power to take control of their health and protect themselves against HIV.