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Sample records for mhz superconducting rf

  1. Multiplacting analysis on 650 MHz, BETA 0.61 superconducting RF LINAC cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, Sudeshna; Som, Sumit; Mandal, Aditya; Ghosh, Surajit; Saha, S.

    2013-01-01

    Design, analysis and development of high-β multi-cell elliptical shape Superconducting RF linac cavity has been taken up by VECC, Kolkata as a part of IIFC collaboration. The project aims to provide the-art technology achieving very high electric field gradient in superconducting linac cavity, which can be used in high energy high current proton linear accelerator to be built for ADSS/SNS programme in India and in Project-X at Fermilab, USA. The performance of this type of superconducting RF structure can be greatly affected due to multipacting when we feed power to the cavity. Multipacting is a phenomenon of resonant electron multiplication in which a large number of electrons build up an electron Avalanche which absorbs RF Energy leading to remarkable power losses and heating of the walls, making it impossible to raise the electric field by increasing the RF Power. Multipacting analysis has been carried out for 650 MHz, β=0.61, superconducting elliptical cavity using 2D code MultiPac 2.1 and 3 D code CST particle studio and the result is presented in this paper. (author)

  2. Progress on the high-current 704 MHz superconducting RF cavity at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, W.; Astefanous, C.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2012-01-01

    The 704 MHz high current superconducting cavity has been designed with consideration of both performance of fundamental mode and damping of higher order modes. A copper prototype cavity was fabricated by AES and delivered to BNL. RF measurements were carried out on this prototype cavity, including fundamental pass-band and HOM spectrum measurements, HOM studies using bead-pull setup, prototyping of antenna-type HOM couplers. The measurements show that the cavity has very good damping for the higher-order modes, which was one of the main goals for the high current cavity design. 3D cavity models were simulated with Omega3P code developed by SLAC to compare with the measurements. The paper describes the cavity design, RF measurement setups and results for the copper prototype. The progress with the niobium cavity fabrication will also be described.

  3. Mechanical design of 56 MHz superconducting RF cavity for RHIC collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, C.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Chang, X.; McIntyre, G.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wu, Q.

    2011-03-28

    A 56 MHz Superconducting RF Cavity operating at 4.4K is being constructed for the RHIC collider. This cavity is a quarter wave resonator with beam transmission along the centerline. This cavity will increase collision luminosity by providing a large longitudinal bucket for stored bunches of RHIC ion beam. The major components of this assembly are the niobium cavity with the mechanical tuner, its titanium helium vessel and vacuum cryostat, the support system, and the ports for HOM and fundamental dampers. The cavity and its helium vessel must meet equivalent safety with the ASME pressure vessel code and it must not be sensitive to frequency shift due to pressure fluctuations from the helium supply system. Frequency tuning achieved by a two stage mechanical tuner is required to meet performance parameters. This tuner mechanism pushes and pulls the tuning plate in the gap of niobium cavity. The tuner mechanism has two separate drive systems to provide both coarse and fine tuning capabilities. This paper discusses the design detail and how the design requirements are met.

  4. Development of high pressure rinsing set up for 650 MHz, 5- cell superconducting RF cavity cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhane, S.K.; Chauhan, S.K.; Bose, A.; Kokil, S.V.; Rajput, D.S.; Oraon, B.; Md Hussain; Sahu, A.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    High pressure rinsing (HPR) is an ultra-cleanliness process for the surface preparation of high field superconducting RF cavities. Any dust particle or chemical residue on the interior of cavity causes field emission. Jets of high pressure (80-100 bar) ultra pure water dislodge surface contaminants that normally resist removal with conventional rinsing procedures, leading to substantial reduction in field emission and better cavity performance. For cleaning of 650 MHz, 5-cell SRF cavities, a high pressure rinsing set up has been developed at RRCAT. The HPR tool has a rotating wand coaxial with the vertically mounted SRF cavity that is moving up and down. Fan style spray nozzles are attached to the end of the rotating wand and the water jets emerging from spray nozzles scan the entire internal surface of the cavity. The set-up was installed in a specially built clean area meeting cleanliness class 100 standards. The ultrapure water with resistivity 2 ≥ 18 MΩ-cm required for rinsing is obtained from a dedicated water purification system installed for this purpose. The paper describes the salient design and constructional details of the high pressure rinsing set up. Characterization of water jet parameters based on the momentum transfer between the water jet and a load cell is also presented. (author)

  5. Development of superconducting RF cavity at 1050 MHz frequency for an electron LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.G.; Mondal, J.; Mittal, K.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the design of a prototype superconducting cavity at 1050 MHz and design of associated die punch and machining fixtures for the cavity fabrication. The cavity is of β= 1 and elliptical in shape. The circle-straight line-ellipse-type structure design has been optimized by 'SUPERFISH' - a 2 dimensional code for cavity tuning. The 3 Dimensional EM field analysis of the cavity structure has been done using 'CST' software. The ratio of the maximum surface electric field to the accelerating gradient, E pk /E acc , is optimised to 1.984 and H pk /E acc is optimised to 4.141 mT/(MV/m). Bore radius of the cavity has been chosen such a way so that the cell-to-cell coupling remains as high as 1.85%. The cavity is designed to achieve 25 MV/m accelerating gradient. (author)

  6. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, G [Jefferson Lab (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  7. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  8. Cryogenic system for TRISTAN superconducting RF cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoyama, K.; Hara, K.; Kabe, A.; Kojima, Yuuji; Ogitsu, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kawamura, S.; Ishimaru, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A cryogenic system consisting of a helium refrigerator (4 kW at 4.4 K) and a liquid helium distribution transfer system for TRISTAN 508 MHz 32 x 5-cell superconducting RF cavities was designed and constructed. After the performance test of the cryogenic system, 16 x 5-cell superconducting RF cavities in 8 cryostats were installed in underground TRISTAN electron-positron collider and connected to the helium refrigerator on the ground level through the transfer line (total length about 330 m) and cooled by liquid helium pool boiling in parallel. The cryogenic system and its operation experience are described. (author)

  9. Commissioning of the 400 MHz LHC RF System

    CERN Document Server

    Ciapala, Edmond; Baudrenghien, P; Brunner, O; Butterworth, A; Linnecar, T; Maesen, P; Molendijk, J; Montesinos, E; Valuch, D; Weierud, F

    2008-01-01

    The installation of the 400 MHz superconducting RF system in LHC is finished and commissioning is under way. The final RF system comprises four cryo-modules each with four cavities in the LHC tunnel straight section round IP4. Also underground in an adjacent cavern shielded from the main tunnel are the sixteen 300 kW klystron RF power sources with their high voltage bunkers, two Faraday cages containing RF feedback and beam control electronics, and racks containing all the slow controls. The system and the experience gained during commissioning will be described. In particular, results from conditioning the cavities and their movable main power couplers and the setting up of the low level RF feedbacks will be presented.

  10. Design of RF structures for a superconducting proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Rajni; Roy, Shweta; Rao, S.V.L.S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main components of the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) programme in India is a 1 GeV, high intensity CW proton accelerator that will be superconducting after the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), i.e. after 3 MeV. The superconducting linac will consist of various superconducting structures like Half Wave Resonators, Spoke Resonators and elliptical cavities, operating at RF frequencies of 162.5 MHz, 325 MHz and 650 MHz. The paper will discuss the optimization of the electromagnetic design of the various superconducting structures. (author)

  11. RF superconductivity at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) is a 4 GeV continuous beam electron accelerator being constructed to perform nuclear physics research. Construction began in February 1987 and initial operation is scheduled for February 1994. The present report describes its prototyping, problems/solutions, further development, facilities, design status, production and upgrade potential. The accelerator is 1.4 km in circumference, and has a race-track shape. It is of the recirculated linear accelerator type, and employs a total of five passes. Two linacs on opposite sides of the race-track each provide 400 MeV per pass. Beams of various energies are transported by separated arcs at each end of the straight sections to provide the recirculation. There are 4 recirculation arcs at the injector end, and 5 arcs at the other end. The full energy beam is routed by an RF separator to between one and three end stations, as desired, on a bucket-by-bucket basis. The average output beam current is 200 microamperes. Acceleration is provided by 338 superconducting cavities, which are arranged in pairs, each of which is enclosed in a helium vessel and suspended inside a vacuum jacket without ends. (N.K.)

  12. Technology development of solid state rf systems at 350 MHz and 325 MHz for RF accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, B.V.; Mishra, J.K.; Pande, Manjiri; Gupta, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    For decades vacuum tubes and klystrons have been used in high power application such as RF accelerators and broadcast transmitters. However, now, the solid-state technology can give power output in kilowatt regime. Higher RF power output can be achieved by combining several solid-state power amplifier modules using power combiners. This technology presents several advantages over traditional RF amplifiers, such as simpler start-up procedure, high modularity, high redundancy and flexibility, elimination of high voltage supplies and high power circulators, low operational cost, online maintenance without shut down of RF power station and no warm up time. In BARC, solid state amplifier technology development is being done both at 350 MHz and 325 MHz using RF transistors such as 1 kW LDMOS and 350 Watt VDMOS. Topology of input and output matching network in RF modules developed, consist of two L type matching sections with each section having a combination of series micro-strip line and parallel capacitor. The design is of equal Q for both the sections and of 25 ohm characteristics impedance of micro strip lines. Based on this, lengths of micro strips lines and values of shunt capacitors have been calculated. The calculated and simulated values of network elements have been compared. Similarly power combiners have been designed and developed based on Wilkinson techniques without internal resistors and using coaxial technology. This paper presents design and development of RF power amplifier modules, associated power combiner technologies and then integrated RF power amplifier. (author)

  13. Modern technologies in rf superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengeler, H.

    1994-01-01

    The development and application of superconducting rf cavities in particle accelerators is a fine example of advanced technology and of close cooperation with industry. This contribution examines the theoretical and present-day practical limitations of sc cavities and describes some advanced technologies needed for their large scale applications. (orig.)

  14. Rf superconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, W.H.; Passow, C.

    1975-01-01

    Topics discussed include (1) the theory of superconductors in high-frequency fields (London surface impedance, anomalous normal surface resistance, pippard nonlocal theory, quantum mechanical model, superconductor parameters, quantum mechanical calculation techniques for the surface, impedance, and experimental verification of surface impedance theories); (2) residual resistance (separation of losses, magnetic field effects, surface resistance of imperfect and impure conductors, residual loss due to acoustic coupling, losses from nonideal surfaces, high magnetic field losses, field emission, and nonlinear effects); (3) design and performance of superconducting devices (design considerations, materials and fabrication techniques, measurement of performance, and frequency stability); (4) devices for particle acceleration and deflection (advantages and problems of using superconductors, accelerators for fast particles, accelerators for particles with slow velocities, beam optical devices separators, and applications and projects under way); (5) applications of low-power superconducting resonators (superconducting filters and tuners, oscillators and detectors, mixers and amplifiers, antennas and output tanks, superconducting resonators for materials research, and radiation detection with loaded superconducting resonators); and (6) transmission and delay lines

  15. Technology of RF superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This work has several parts, two of which are collaborative development projects with the majority of the work being performed at Argonne. The first is the development of a superconducting RFQ structure in collaboration with AccSys Technology Inc. of Pleasanton, California, funded as a Phase II SBIR grant. Another is a collaborative project with the Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi, India (who are funding the work) to develop new superconducting ion accelerating structures. Other initiatives are developing various aspects of the technology required to utilize ATLAS as a secondary beam linac for radioactive beams

  16. Status of 174 MHz RF system for BEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biryuchevsky, Yu.A.; Gorniker, E.I.; Kendjebulatov, E.K.; Krutikhin, S.A.; Kurkin, G.Ya.; Petrov, V.M.; Pilan, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The new RF system for the BEP storage ring (which is an injector of VEPP-2000 accelerating complex) will increase the particles energy in the BEP from 0.9 to 1 GeV. RF system operates at a frequency of 174 MHz and consists of an accelerating cavity, RF power generator and control system.

  17. 17th International Conference on RF Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Laxdal, Robert E.; Schaa, Volker R.W.

    2015-01-01

    RF superconductivity is the key technology of accelerators for particle physics, nuclear physics and light sources. SRF 2015 covered the latest advances in the science, technology, and applications of superconducting RF. There was also an industrial exhibit during the conference with the key vendors in the community available to discuss their capabilities and products.

  18. Investigation of superconducting niobium 1170 MHz cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anashin, V.V.; Bibko, S.I.; Fadeyev, E.I.

    1988-01-01

    The design, fabrication and experiments with superconducting L-band single cell cavities are described. These cavities model a cell of an accelerating RF structure. The cavities have been fabricated from technical grade and higher purity grade sheet niobium using deep-drawing, electron beam welding and chemical polishing. They have spherical geometry and are excited in the TM 010 mode. A computerized set-up was used for cavity tests. Qo=1.5 x 10 9 and E acc = 4.3 MV/m were obtained in the cavity made of higher purity grade niobium. 6 references, 8 figures, 3 tables

  19. The LHC Superconducting RF System

    CERN Document Server

    Boussard, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), the largest high energy physics laboratory worldwide, is constructing the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in the existing 27 km circumference LEP (Large Electron Positron) collider tunnel. For the LHC, superconducting cavities, operating at 4.5 K, will provide the required acceleration field for ramping the beam energy up to 7 TeV and for keeping the colliding proton beams tightly bunched. Superconducting cavities were chosen, not only because of their high acceleration field leading to a small contribution to the machine impedance, but also because of their high stored energy which minimises the effects of periodic transient beam loading associated with the high beam intensity (0.5 A). There will be eight single-cell cavities per beam, each delivering 2 MV (5.3 MV/m) at 400 MHz. The cavities themselves are now being manufactured by industrial firms, using niobium on copper technology which gives full satisfaction at LEP. A complete cavity prototype assembly in...

  20. Superconducting rf development at ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kedzie, M.; Clifft, B.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Roy, A.; Potukuchi, P. [Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi (India); Givens, J.; Potter, J.; Crandall, K. [AccSys Technology, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Added, N. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The ATLAS superconducting heavy-ion linac began operation in 1978 and has operated nearly continuously since that time, while undergoing a series of upgrades and expansions, the most recent being the ``uranium upgrade`` completed earlier this year and described below. In its present configuration the ATLAS linac consists of an array of 64 resonant cavities operating from 48 to 145 MHz, which match a range of particle velocities .007 < {beta} = v/c < .2. The linac provides approximately 50 MV of effective accelerating potential for ions of q/m > 1/10 over the entire periodic table. Delivered beams include 5 {minus} 7 pnA of {sup 238}U{sup 39+} at 1535 MeV. At present more than 10{sup 6} cavity-hours of operation at surface electric fields of 15 MV/m have been accumulated. Superconducting structure development at ATLAS is aimed at improving the cost/performance of existing low velocity structures both for possible future ATLAS upgrades, and also for heavy-ion linacs at other institutions. An application of particular current interest is to develop structures suitable for accelerating radioactive ion beams. Such structures must accelerate very low charge to mass ratio beams and must also have very large transverse acceptance.

  1. Superconducting RF activities at Cornell University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, J.; Moffat, D.; Padamsee, H.; Rubin, D.; Sears, J.; Shu, Q.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper outlines the RF superconductivity research and development work that has taken place at Cornell Laboratory of Nuclear Studies over the past years. The work that has been performed since the last RF superconductivity workshop is emphasized together with a discussion of the direction of future efforts. Past work is summarized first, focusing on research and development activities in the area of RF superconductivity. Superconducting TeV linear collider is then discussed focusing on the application of superconducting RF to a future TeV linear collider. Linear collider structure development is then described centering on the development of a simpler (thereby cheaper) structure for a TeV linear collider. B-factory with superconducting RF is outlined focusing on the formulation of a conceptual design for a B-factory. B-factory structure development is discussed in relation to the advancement in the capability of SC cavities to carry beam currents of several amperes necessary for a high luminosity storage ring. High gradients are discussed as the key to the realization of a high energy superconducting linac or a superconducting RF B-factory. (N.K.)

  2. Status of RF superconductivity at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Development of a superconducting slow-wave structures began at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1971, and led to the first superconducting heavy-ion linac (ATLAS - the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System). The Physics Division at ANL has continued to develop superconducting RF technology for accelerating heavy-ions, with the result that the linac has been in an almost continuous process of upgrade and expansion. In 1987, the Engineering Physics Division at ANL began developing of superconducting RF components for the acceleration of high-brightness proton and deuterium beams. The two divisions collaborate in work on several applications of RF superconductivity, and also in work to develop the technology generally. The present report briefly describes major features of the superconducting heavy-ion linac (very-low-velocity superconducting linac, positive ion injector), proton accelerating structures (superconducting resonant cavities for acceleration of high-current proton and deuteron beams, RF properties of oxide superconductors), and future work. Both divisions expect to continue a variety of studies, frequently in collaboration, to advance the basic technology of RF superconductivity. (N.K.)

  3. RF Processing of the Couplers for the SNS Superconducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y.Kang; I.E. Campisi; D. Stout; A. Vassioutchenko; M. Stirbet; M. Drury; T. Powers

    2005-01-01

    All eighty-one fundamental power couplers for the 805 MHz superconducting cavities of the SNS linac have been RF conditioned and installed in the cryomodules successfully. The couplers were RF processed at JLAB or at the SNS in ORNL: more than forty couplers have been RF conditioned in the SNS RF Test Facility (RFTF) after the first forty couplers were conditioned at JLAB. The couplers were conditioned up to 650 kW forward power at 8% duty cycle in traveling and standing waves. They were installed on the cavities in the cryomodules and then assembled with the airside waveguide transitions. The couplers have been high power RF tested with satisfactory accelerating field gradients in the cooled cavities

  4. Tuner Design for PEFP Superconducting RF Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yazhe; An, Sun; Zhang, Liping; Cho, Yong Sub

    2009-01-01

    A superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity will be used to accelerate a proton beam after 100 MeV at 700 MHz in a linac of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) and its extended project. In order to control the SRF cavity's operating frequency at a low temperature, a new tuner has been developed for the PEFP SRF cavities. Each PEFP superconducting RF cavity has one tuner to match the cavity resonance frequency with the desired accelerator operating frequency; or to detune a cavity frequency a few bandwidths away from a resonance, so that the beam will not excite the fundamental mode, when the cavity is not being used for an acceleration. The PEFP cavity tuning is achieved by varying the total length of the cavity. The length of the cavity is controlled differentially by tuner acting with respect to the cavity body. The PEFP tuner is attached to the helium vessel and drives the cavity Field Probe (FP) side to change the frequency of the cavity

  5. Application of RF Superconductivity to High-Current Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.C.D.

    1998-01-01

    In 1997, the authors initiated a development program in Los Alamos for high-current superconducting proton-linac technology to build prototypes components of this linac to demonstrate the feasibility. The authors are building 700-MHz niobium cavities with elliptical shapes, as well as power couplers to transfer high RF power to these cavities. The cavities and power couplers will be integrated in cryostats as linac cryomodules. In this paper, they describe the linac design and the status of the development program

  6. Early prototype of a superconducting RF cavity for LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    As early as 1979, before LEP became an approved project, studies were located in the ISR Division. Although Cu-cavities were foreseen, certainly for the 1st energy-stage, superconducting cavities were explored as a possible alternative for the 2nd energy-stage. This began with very basic studies of manufacture and properties of Nb-cavities. This one, held by Mr.Girel, was made from bulk Nb-sheet, 2.5 mm thick. It was dimensioned for tests at 500 MHz (LEP accelerating RF was 352.2 MHz). See also 8004204, 8007354, 8209255, 8210054, 8312339.

  7. Superconducting RF for energy-recovery linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liepe, M.; Knobloch, J.

    2006-01-01

    Since superconducting RF for particle accelerators made its first appearance in the 1970s, it has found highly successful application in a variety of machines. Recent progress in this technology has made so-called Energy-Recovery Linacs (ERLs)-originally proposed in 1965-feasible, and interest in this type of machine has increased enormously. A superconducting linac is the driving heart of ERLs, and emittance preservation and cost efficiency is of utmost importance. The resulting challenges for the superconducting cavity technology and RF field control are manifold. In March 2005 the first international workshop on ERLs was held at Newport News, VA, to explore the potential of ERLs and to discuss machine-physics and technology challenges and their solutions. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in superconducting RF and RF control for ERLs, and summarizes the discussions of the SRF working group on this technology during the ERL2005 workshop

  8. TESLA superconducting RF cavity development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepke, K.

    1995-01-01

    The TESLA collaboration has made steady progress since its first official meeting at Cornell in 1990. The infrastructure necessary to assemble and test superconducting rf cavities has been installed at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) at DESY. 5-cell, 1.3 GHz cavities have been fabricated and have reached accelerating fields of 25 MV/m. Full sized 9-cell copper cavities of TESLA geometry have been measured to verify the higher order modes present and to evaluate HOM coupling designs. The design of the TESLA 9-cell cavity has been finalized and industry has started delivery. Two prototype 9-cell niobium cavities in their first tests have reached accelerating fields of 10 MV/m and 15 MV/m in a vertical dewar after high peak power (HPP) conditioning. The first 12 m TESLA cryomodule that will house 8 9-cell cavities is scheduled to be delivered in Spring 1995. A design report for the TTF is in progress. The TTF test linac is scheduled to be commissioned in 1996/1997. (orig.)

  9. Cryogenic system for TRISTAN superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoyama, K.; Hara, K.; Kabe, A.; Kojima, Y.; Ogitsu, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kawamura, S.; Matsumoto, K.

    1993-01-01

    A large cryogenic system has been designed, constructed and operated in the TRISTAN electron-positron collider at KEK for 508 MHz, 32x5-cell superconducting RF cavities. A 6.5 kW, 4.4 K helium refrigerator with 5 turbo-expanders on the ground level supplies liquid helium in parallel to the 16 cryostats in the TRISTAN tunnel through about 250 m long multichannel transfer line. Two 5-cell cavities are coupled together, enclosed in a cryostat and cooled by about 830 L pool boiling liquid helium. A liquid nitrogen circulation system with a turbo-expander has been adopted for 80 K radiation shields in the multichannel transfer line and the cryostats to reduce liquid nitrogen consumption and to increase the operation stability of the system. The cryogenic system has a total of about 18 000 hours of operating time from the first cool down test in August 1988 to November 1991. The design principle and outline of the cryogenic system and the operational experience are presented. (orig.)

  10. An Automated 476 MHz RF Cavity Processing Facility at SLAC

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, P; Schwarz, H

    2003-01-01

    The 476 MHz accelerating cavities currently used at SLAC are those installed on the PEP-II B-Factory collider accelerator. They are designed to operate at a maximum accelerating voltage of 1 MV and are routinely utilized on PEP-II at voltages up to 750 kV. During the summer of 2003, SPEAR3 will undergo a substantial upgrade, part of which will be to replace the existing 358.54 MHz RF system with essentially a PEP-II high energy ring (HER) RF station operating at 476.3 MHz and 3.2 MV (or 800 kV/cavity). Prior to installation, cavity RF processing is required to prepare them for use. A dedicated high power test facility is employed at SLAC to provide the capability of conditioning each cavity up to the required accelerating voltage. An automated LabVIEW based interface controls and monitors various cavity and test stand parameters, increasing the RF fields accordingly such that stable operation is finally achieved. This paper describes the high power RF cavity processing facility, highlighting the features of t...

  11. HOM Coupler Optimisation for the Superconducting RF Cavities in ESS

    CERN Document Server

    Ainsworth, R; Calaga, R

    2012-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) will be the world’s most powerful next generation neutron source. It consists of a linear accelerator, target, and instruments for neutron experiments. The linac is designed to accelerate protons to a final energy of 2.5 GeV, with an average design beam power of 5 MW, for collision with a target used to produce a high neutron flux. A section of the linac will contain Superconducting RF (SCRF) cavities designed at 704 MHz. Beam induced HOMs in these cavities may drive the beam unstable and increase the cryogenic load, therefore HOM couplers are installed to provide sufficient damping. Previous studies have shown that these couplers are susceptible to multipacting, a resonant process which can absorb RF power and lead to heating effects. This paper will show how a coupler suffering from multipacting has been redesigned to limit this effect. Optimisation of the RF damping is also discussed.

  12. Designing focusing solenoids for superconducting RF accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Page, T.; Terechkine, I.; Tompkins, J.; Wokas, T.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    The design of a focusing solenoid for use in a superconducting RF linac requires resolving a range of problems with conflicting requirements. Providing the required focusing strength contradicts the goal of minimizing the stray field on the surfaces of adjacent superconducting RF cavities. The requirement of a compact solenoid, able to fit into a gap between cavities, contradicts the need of mechanical support necessary to restrain electromagnetic forces that can result in coil motion and subsequent quenching. In this report we will attempt to address these and other issues arising during the development of focusing solenoids. Some relevant test data will also be presented.

  13. Superconducting rf activities at Cornell University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padamsee, H.; Hakimi, M.; Kirchgessner, J.

    1988-01-01

    Development of rf superconductivity for high energy accelerators has been a robust activity at the Cornell Laboratory of Nuclear Studies (LNS) for many years. In order to realize the potential of rf superconductivity, a two-pronged approach has been followed. On the one hand accelerator applications were selected where the existing state-of-the art of superconducting rf is competitive with alternate technologies, then LNS engaged in a program to design, construct and test suitable superconducting cavities, culminating in a full system test in an operating accelerator. On the second front the discovery and invention of ideas, techniques and materials required to make superconducting rf devices approach the ideal in performance has been aggressively pursued. Starting with the development of superconducting cavities for high energy electron synchrotrons, the technology was extended to high energy e + e - storage rings. The LE5 cavity design has now been adopted for use in the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). When completed, this project will be one of the largest applications of SRF technology, using 440 LE5 modules[4]. In the last two years, the cavity design and the technology have been transferred to industry and CEBAF. Cornell has tested the early industrial prototypes and cavity pairs. LNS has developed, in collaboration with CEBAF, designs and procedures for cavity pair and cryomodule assembly and testing. Advanced research for future electron accelerators is badly needed if particle physicists hope to expand the energy frontier. Superconducting cavity technology continues to offer attractive opportunities for further advances in achievable voltage at reasonable cost for future accelerators. For Nb, the full potential implies an order of magnitude increase over current capabilities. 20 references, 11 figures

  14. RF Characterization of Niobium Films for Superconducting Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Aull† , S; Doebert, S; Junginger, T; Ehiasarian, AP; Knobloch, J; Terenziani, G

    2013-01-01

    The surface resistance RS of superconductors shows a complex dependence on the external parameters such as temperature, frequency or radio-frequency (RF) field. The Quadrupole Resonator modes of 400, 800 and 1200 MHz allow measurements at actual operating frequencies of superconducting cavities. Niobium films on copper substrates have several advantages over bulk niobium cavities. HIPIMS (High-power impulse magnetron sputtering) is a promising technique to increase the quality and therefore the performance of niobium films. This contribution will introduce CERNs recently developed HIPIMS coating apparatus. Moreover, first results of niobium coated copper samples will be presented, revealing the dominant loss mechanisms.

  15. Electron Source based on Superconducting RF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianmu

    High-bunch-charge photoemission electron-sources operating in a Continuous Wave (CW) mode can provide high peak current as well as the high average current which are required for many advanced applications of accelerators facilities, for example, electron coolers for hadron beams, electron-ion colliders, and Free-Electron Lasers (FELs). Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) has many advantages over other electron-injector technologies, especially when it is working in CW mode as it offers higher repetition rate. An 112 MHz SRF electron photo-injector (gun) was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to produce high-brightness and high-bunch-charge bunches for electron cooling experiments. The gun utilizes a Quarter-Wave Resonator (QWR) geometry for a compact structure and improved electron beam dynamics. The detailed RF design of the cavity, fundamental coupler and cathode stalk are presented in this work. A GPU accelerated code was written to improve the speed of simulation of multipacting, an important hurdle the SRF structure has to overcome in various locations. The injector utilizes high Quantum Efficiency (QE) multi-alkali photocathodes (K2CsSb) for generating electrons. The cathode fabrication system and procedure are also included in the thesis. Beam dynamic simulation of the injector was done with the code ASTRA. To find the optimized parameters of the cavities and beam optics, the author wrote a genetic algorithm Python script to search for the best solution in this high-dimensional parameter space. The gun was successfully commissioned and produced world record bunch charge and average current in an SRF photo-injector.

  16. Pulsed rf superconductivity program at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campisi, I.E.; Farkas, Z.D.

    1984-08-01

    Recent tests performed at SLAC on superconducting TM 010 caavities using short rf pulses (less than or equal to 2.5 μs) have established that at the cavity surface magnetic fields can be reached in the vicinity of the theoretical critical fields without an appreciable increase in average losses. Tests on niobium and lead cavities are reported. The pulse method seems to be best suited to study peak field properties of superconductors in the microwave band, without the limitations imposed by defects. The short pulses also seem to be more effective in decreasing the causes of field emission by rf processing. Applications of the pulsed rf superconductivity to high-gradient linear accelerators are also possible

  17. Design of large aperture 500 MHz 5-cell superconducting cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yelong; Feng Ziqiang; Lu Changwang; Yu Haibo; Liu Jianfei; Hou Hongtao; Ma Zhenyu; Mao Dongqing

    2012-01-01

    With the potential application of Energy Recovery Linac (ERL), the superconducting (SC) cavities were developed to deliver much higher current than before. Nowadays, the current of the international SC accelerator designed has already exceeded 100 mA. This paper presents the design of a new 500 MHz 5-cell SC cavity (SINAP 5-cell cavity), in which the parameters r/Q= 515.5 Ω of the fundamental mode and the geometry factor G=275.8 are under an acceptable Radio Frequency (RF) field level. (B peak /E acc =4.31 mT/MV/m and E peak /E acc =2.48). This design employs a larger beam pipe to propagate the Higher Order Modes (HOMs) out of the cavity and increases the damping efficiently for the dangerous HOMs. By simulation technique, it has been found that almost all the dangerous HOMs (including TE 111 , TM 110 , and TM 011 ) can be propagated into the beam pipe and are absorbed by ferrite absorbers, when the beam pile is enlarged. Finally, the loss factor for the new 5-cell cavity is also calculated. (authors)

  18. Status of superconducting RF test facility (STF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting technology was recommended for the main linac design of the International Linear Collider (ILC) by the International Technology Recommendation Panel (ITRP). The basis for this design has been developed and tested at DESY, and R and D is progressing at many laboratories around the world including DESY, Orsay, KEK, FNAL, SLAC, Cornell, and JLAB. In order to promote Asian SC-technology for ILC, construction of a test facility in KEK was discussed and decided. The role and status of the superconducting RF test facility (STF) is reported in this paper. (author)

  19. RF tuning system for superconducting cyclotron at VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Aditya; Som, S.; Pal, Saikat; Seth, S.; Mukherjee, A.K.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Prasad, J.S.; Raj, P.R.; Manna, S.K.; Banerjee, M.; Krishnaiah, K.V.; Maskawade, S.; Saha, M.S.; Biswas, S.; Panda, Umashakar

    2009-01-01

    The RF system of Superconducting cyclotron at VECC has operational frequency 9-27 MHz. It has three numbers of tunable rf amplifier cavities as well as six numbers of tunable Main resonant cavities. RF tuning system takes care of movement of nine stepper motor based sliding short movement and hydraulic driven three coupling capacitors and three trimmer capacitors. The PC-based stepper motor controlled sliding short movement system has positional accuracy of around 20 micron and PC-based hydraulically driven couplers and trimmers system has 10 micron positional accuracy. The RF power is capacitively coupled to the dee (accelerating electrode) of the main resonant cavity through Coupler (Coupling capacitor). The coupling capacitor is used to match the impedance of the main resonant cavity to the 50 Ohm output impedance of final RF power amplifier. Trimmer capacitor operates in closed loop for the adjustment of cavity phase variation arising due to temperature variation and beam loading of the cavity. Coupler can travel 100 mm. and trimmer has 20 mm. travels. A PLC based PID control system has been developed for positional control of the coupler and trimmer. One position control mode of trimmer is same as coupling capacitor and another is velocity control mode. Velocity control mode operates in close-loop. The positional data of different frequencies of nine stepper motors and three coupling capacitors are stored in a database. (author)

  20. Eccentric superconducting rf cavity separator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggus, J.R.; Giordano, S.T.; Halama, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    An accelerator apparatus is described having an eccentric-shaped, iris-loaded deflecting cavity for an rf separator for a high energy high momentum, charged particle accelerator beam. In one embodiment, the deflector is superconducting, and the apparatus of this invention provides simplified machining and electron beam welding techniques. Model tests have shown that the electrical characteristics provide the desired mode splitting without adverse effects

  1. Superconducting RF separator for Omega Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The photo shows an Nb-deflector for the superconducting RF separator ready for installation in its cryostat (visible at the back). Each deflector was about 3 m long. L. Husson and P. Skacel (Karlsruhe) stand on the left, A. Scharding (CERN) stands on the right. This particle separator, the result of a collaboration between the Gesellshaft für Kernforschung, Karlsruhe, and CERN was installed in the S1 beam line to Omega spectrometer. (See Annual Report 1977.)

  2. Low-Level RF Control of Microphonics in Superconducting Spoke-Loaded Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, Z.A.; Kelly, M.P.; Sharamentov, S.I.; Shepard, K.W.; Davis, G.; Delayen, Jean; Doolittle, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of cw RF frequency control and RF phase-stabilization experiments performed with a piezoelectric fast tuner mechanically coupled to a superconducting, 345 MHz, < = 0.5 triple-spoke-loaded cavity operating at 4.2K. The piezoelectric fast tuner damped low-frequency microphonic-noise by an order of magnitude. Two methods of RF phase-stabilization were characterized: overcoupling with negative phase feedback, and also fast mechanical tuner feedback. The = 0.5 triple-spoke-loaded cavity RF field amplitude and phase errors were controlled to ±0.5% and ±30 respectively.

  3. Superconducting niobium in high rf magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.

    1988-01-01

    The benefit of superconducting cavities for accelerator applications depends on the field and Q/sub 0/ levels which can be achieved reliably in mass producible multicell accelerating structures. The presently observed field and Q/sub 0/ limitations are caused by anomalous loss mechanisms which are not correlated with the intrinsic properties of the pure superconductor but rather due to defects or contaminants on the superconducting surface. The ultimate performance levels of clean superconducting cavities built from pure Nb will be given by the rf critical field and the surface resistance of the superconductor. In the first part of this paper a short survey is given of the maximum surface magnetic fields achieved in single-cell cavities. The results of model calculations for the thermal breakdown induced by very small defects and for the transition to the defect free case is discussed in part 2. In the last chapter, a discussion is given for the rf critical field of Nb on the basis of the Ginzburg-Landau Theory. It is shown that not only purity but also the homogeneity of the material should become important for the performance of superconducting Nb cavities at field levels beyond 100mT. Measurement results of the upper critical field for different grades of commercially available Nb sheet materials are given. 58 references, 20 figures, 1 table

  4. Design Considerations for the LHC 200 MHz RF System

    CERN Document Server

    Boussard, Daniel; Kindermann, H P; Linnecar, Trevor Paul R; Marque, S; Tückmantel, Joachim

    2000-01-01

    The longitudinal beam transfer from the SPS into the LHC 400 MHz buckets will not be free of losses without a lower frequency capture system and a fast longitudinal damping system in LHC. We present a complete study of a combined system using four identical copper cavities at 200 MHz delivering 3 MV total CW voltage and having still enough bandwidth to achieve fast longitudinal damping. The shape of a cavity was designed according to the accelerating mode performance, its tuning and the higher order mode spectrum with respect to the LHC beam lines and their possible attenuation. The possibility to park the cavities during coast was included. The local heat load and the corresponding cooling water distribution as well as deformations were studied and techniques to build the cavity with all ports at low cost are proposed. The parameters of the RF generators, couplers and detuning are determined. Simulations of the total LHC RF system incorporating real delays, generator bandwidth and the control loops confirm t...

  5. The LANSCE 805 MHZ RF System History and Status

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Michael; Tallerico, Paul J

    2005-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) linear accelerator runs at 201.25 MHz for acceleration to 100 MeV. The remainder of the acceleration to 800 MeV is at 805 MHz. This is done with 44 accelerator cavity stages driven by 805 MHz klystrons. Each klystron has a peak power capability of 1.25 MeV. Originally, 97 klystrons were purchased, which was 70 from Varian/CPI and 27 from Litton. The 44 RF systems are laid out in sectors with either 6 or 7 klystrons per sector. The klystrons in each sector are powered from a common HV sytem. The current arrangement uses the Varian/CPI klystrons in 6 of the 7 sectors and Litton klystrons in the remaining sector. With that arrangement there are 38 CPI klystrons installed and 1 spare klystron per sector and 6 Litton klystrons installed in the final sector with 2 spares. The current average life of all of the operating and spare klystrons (52 total) is >112,000 filament hours and >93,000 HV hours. That is three times the typical klystron lifetime today f...

  6. 352.2 MHz rf system for the ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, J.; David, C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that ESRF's 352.2 MHz RF system that uses 1 MW-CW klystrons and five-cell LEP type cavities has been adopted. In the storage ring (SR), two klystrons will feed a total of four cavities in order to provide the maximum required accelerating voltage of 8.9 MV. In the injector synchrotron (SY), two cavities fed by one klystron in a cycling mode at 10 Hz will give the maximum needed accelerating voltage of 7.3 MV. In multibunch operation of the SR, coupled bunch oscillations will be driven by the higher order modes (HOMs) of the cavities, and may limit the maximum beam current to about 60 mA. Spare ports will allow to install HOM dampers on the cavities in order to raise the instability thresholds above the design current of 100 mA. In addition, active feed back systems may be implemented

  7. The LEP2 superconducting RF system

    CERN Document Server

    Butterworth, A; Brunner, O; Ciapala, Edmond; Frischholz, Hans; Geschonke, Günther; Peschardt, E; Sladen, J

    2008-01-01

    The upgrade of LEP2 energy to beyond the W boson production threshold required the progressive installation of a completely new radio-frequency (RF) accelerating system. The new system used superconducting (SC) cavities, which complemented and partially replaced the original LEP1 RF system based on conventional copper cavity technology. The final system consisted of 56 copper and 288 SC cavities and provided a peak acceleration of more than 3600 MV/turn. This paper describes the main elements of the SC system and reviews the 5 years of LEP2 operation at gradients well beyond the design specification. Also presented are some of the main performance limitations and problems encountered together with the various solutions and procedures found to eliminate them or reduce their effects.

  8. Status of RF superconductivity at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a superconducting (SC) slow-wave structures began at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1971, and led to the first SC heavy-ion linac (ATLAS - the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerating System), which began regularly scheduled operation in 1978. To date, more than 40,000 hours of bean-on target operating time has been accumulated with ATLAS. The Physics Division at ANL has continued to develop SC RF technology for accelerating heavy-ions, with the result that the SC linac has, up to the present, has been in an almost continuous process of upgrade and expansion. It should be noted that this has been accomplished while at the same time maintaining a vigorous operating schedule in support of the nuclear and atomic physics research programs of the division. In 1987, the Engineering Physics Division at ANL began development of SC RF components for the acceleration of high-brightness proton and deuterium beams. This work has included the evaluation of RF properties of high-T c oxide superconductors, both for the above and for other applications. The two divisions collaborated while they worked on several applications of RF SC, and also worked to develop the technology generally. 11 refs., 6 figs

  9. Theory of RF superconductivity for resonant cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Alex

    2017-03-01

    An overview of a theory of electromagnetic response of superconductors in strong radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields is given with the emphasis on applications to superconducting resonant cavities for particle accelerators. The paper addresses fundamentals of the BCS surface resistance, the effect of subgap states and trapped vortices on the residual surface resistance at low RF fields, and a nonlinear surface resistance at strong fields, particularly the effect of the RF field suppression of the surface resistance. These issues are essential for the understanding of the field dependence of high quality factors Q({B}a)˜ {10}10{--}{10}11 achieved on the Nb cavities at 1.3-2 K in strong RF fields B a close to the depairing limit, and the extended Q({B}a) rise which has been observed on Ti and N-treated Nb cavities. Possible ways of further increase of Q({B}a) and the breakdown field by optimizing impurity concentration at the surface and by multilayer nanostructuring with materials other than Nb are discussed.

  10. Status of RF superconductivity at Argonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a superconducting (SC) slow-wave structures began at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1971, and led to the first SC heavy-ion linac (ATLAS - the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerating System), which began regularly scheduled operation in 1978. To date, more than 40,000 hours of bean-on target operating time has been accumulated with ATLAS. The Physics Division at ANL has continued to develop SC RF technology for accelerating heavy-ions, with the result that the SC linac has, up to the present, has been in an almost continuous process of upgrade and expansion. It should be noted that this has been accomplished while at the same time maintaining a vigorous operating schedule in support of the nuclear and atomic physics research programs of the division. In 1987, the Engineering Physics Division at ANL began development of SC RF components for the acceleration of high-brightness proton and deuterium beams. This work has included the evaluation of RF properties of high-{Tc} oxide superconductors, both for the above and for other applications. The two divisions collaborated while they worked on several applications of RF SC, and also worked to develop the technology generally. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Coupler Development and Gap Field Analysis for the 352 MHz Superconducting CH-Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Liebermann, H; Ratzinger, U; Sauer, A C

    2004-01-01

    The cross-bar H-type (CH) cavity is a multi-gap drift tube structure based on the H-210 mode currently under development at IAP Frankfurt and in collaboration with GSI. Numerical simulations and rf model measurements showed that the CH-type cavity is an excellent candidate to realize s.c. multi-cell structures ranging from the RFQ exit energy up to the injection energy into elliptical multi-cell cavities. The reasonable frequency range is from about 150 MHz up to 800 MHz. A 19-cell, β=0.1, 352 MHz, bulk niobium prototype cavity is under development at the ACCEL-Company, Bergisch-Gladbach. This paper will present detailed MicroWave Studio simulations and measurements for the coupler development of the 352 MHz superconducting CH cavity. It will describe possibilities for coupling into the superconducting CH-Cavity. The development of the coupler is supported by measurement on a room temperature CH-copper model. We will present the first results of the measurements of different couplers, e.g. capacitiv...

  12. Magnetic shielding for superconducting RF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, M.; Terashima, A.; Tsuchiya, K.; Ueki, R.

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic shielding is a key technology for superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavities. There are basically two approaches for shielding: (1) surround the cavity of interest with high permeability material and divert magnetic flux around it (passive shielding); and (2) create a magnetic field using coils that cancels the ambient magnetic field in the area of interest (active shielding). The choice of approach depends on the magnitude of the ambient magnetic field, residual magnetic field tolerance, shape of the magnetic shield, usage, cost, etc. However, passive shielding is more commonly used for superconducting RF cavities. The issue with passive shielding is that as the volume to be shielded increases, the size of the shielding material increases, thereby leading to cost increase. A recent trend is to place a magnetic shield in a cryogenic environment inside a cryostat, very close to the cavities, reducing the size and volume of the magnetic shield. In this case, the shielding effectiveness at cryogenic temperatures becomes important. We measured the permeabilities of various shielding materials at both room temperature and cryogenic temperature (4 K) and studied shielding degradation at that cryogenic temperature.

  13. Eight-MHz RF-hyperthermia for advanced urological malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisazumi, Haruo; Nakajima, Kazuyoshi

    1986-01-01

    Eight-MHz radiofrequency hyperthermia (H) using a Thermotron-RF Model 8, and its combination with irradiation (RH), anticancer drugs (CH) or anticancer drugs plus irradiation (CRH), were carried out for a total of 48 urological malignancies: 10 cases of renal cancer, 1 of renal pelvic cancer, 2 of uretetral cancer, 19 of bladder cancer, 5 of prostatic cancer, 9 of metastatic lesion of urological cancers and 2 of other urological cancers. All had failed in previous treatments, or had not undergone surgery because of their poor general condition. Four cases, including 2 of bladder cancer, 1 of prostatic cancer and 1 of metastatic lesion of bladder cancer, were treated with H. Twenty-five cases, including 3 renal cancer cases, were treated with RH. Seven of the 10 cases of renal cancer were treated with mitomycin C-microcapsule embolization prior to RH (CRH). Twelve of the 23 cases with urothelial cancer or its metastasis, including 1 of renal pelvic cancer, 10 of bladder cancer and 1 of metastatic lesion of bladder cancer, received combined treatment of THP-adriamycin, one of the derivatives of adriamycin, by i.v. and RF-heating (CH). Hyperthermia was given twice a week, totalling 10 sessions in 5 weeks. Intratumoral temperature was kept above 42.5 deg C for 30 to 40 minutes during one-hour heating. Complete tumor disappearance was obtained in the 5 bladder cancer cases. Partial tumor regression, defined as a regression of 50 % or more, was obtained in 11 cases. As side effects, mild skin burns and anorexia were observed in approximately 30 to 40 % of cases. Seven obese cases, who had subcutaneous tissue 15 mm thick or more, developed fat tissue induration after treatment. (author)

  14. High power RF test of an 805 MHz RF cavity for a muon cooling channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Derun; Corlett, J.; MacGill, R.; Rimmer, R.; Wallig, J.; Zisman, M.; Moretti, A.; Qian, Z.; Wu, V.; Summers, D.; Norem, J.

    2002-01-01

    We present recent high power RF test results on an 805 MHz cavity for a muon cooling experiment at Lab G in Fermilab. In order to achieve high accelerating gradient for large transverse emittance muon beams, the cavity design has adopted a pillbox like shape with 16 cm diameter beam iris covered by thin Be windows, which are demountable to allow for RF tests of different windows. The cavity body is made from copper with stiff stainless steel rings brazed to the cavity body for window attachments. View ports and RF probes are available for visual inspections of the surface of windows and cavity and measurement of the field gradient. Maximum of three thermo-couples can be attached to the windows for monitoring the temperature gradient on the windows caused by RF heating. The cavity was measured to have Q 0 of about 15,000 with copper windows and coupling constant of 1.3 before final assembling. A 12 MW peak power klystron is available at Lab G in Fermilab for the high power test. The cavity and coupler designs were performed using the MAFIA code in the frequency and the time domain. Numerical simulation results and cold test measurements on the cavity and coupler will be presented for comparisons

  15. Test results for a heat-treated 4-cell 805 MHz superconducting cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusnak, B.; Shapiro, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    Assessing superconducting technology for potential upgrades to existing proton accelerators as well as applications to future high-current machines necessitates developing expertise in the processing and handling of multicell cavities at useful frequencies. In order to address some of these technological issues, Los Alamos has purchased a 4-cell 805-MHz superconducting cavity from Siemens AG. The individual cavity cells were double-sided titanium heat-treated after equatorial welding, then the irises were welded to complete the cavity assembly. The resulting high RRR (residual resistance ratio) in the cells enables stable operation at higher cavity field levels than are possible with lower RRR material. Additionally, the high thermal conductivity of the material is conducive to rf and high peak power processing. The cavity was also cleaned at Los Alamos with high-pressure water rinsing. Results from the initial cavity tests, utilizing various processing techniques, are presented

  16. Fast thermometry for superconducting rf cavity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orris, Darryl; Bellantoni, Leo; Carcagno, Ruben H.; Edwards, Helen; Harms, Elvin Robert; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Makulski, Andrzej; Nehring, Roger; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    Fast readout of strategically placed low heat capacity thermometry can provide valuable information of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity performance. Such a system has proven very effective for the development and testing of new cavity designs. Recently, several resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were installed in key regions of interest on a new 9 cell 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with integrated HOM design at FNAL. A data acquisition system was developed to read out these sensors with enough time and temperature resolution to measure temperature changes on the cavity due to heat generated from multipacting or quenching within power pulses. The design and performance of the fast thermometry system will be discussed along with results from tests of the 9 cell 3.9GHz SRF cavity

  17. Fast thermometry for superconducting rf cavity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orris, Darryl; Bellantoni, Leo; Carcagno, Ruben H.; Edwards, Helen; Harms, Elvin Robert; Khabiboulline, Timergali N.; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Makulski, Andrzej; Nehring, Roger; Pischalnikov, Yuriy; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Fast readout of strategically placed low heat capacity thermometry can provide valuable information of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity performance. Such a system has proven very effective for the development and testing of new cavity designs. Recently, several resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were installed in key regions of interest on a new 9 cell 3.9 GHz SRF cavity with integrated HOM design at FNAL. A data acquisition system was developed to read out these sensors with enough time and temperature resolution to measure temperature changes on the cavity due to heat generated from multipacting or quenching within power pulses. The design and performance of the fast thermometry system will be discussed along with results from tests of the 9 cell 3.9GHz SRF cavity.

  18. Automated Hydroforming of Seamless Superconducting RF Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Tomohiko; Shinozawa, Seiichi; Abe, Noriyuki; Nagakubo, Junki; Murakami, Hirohiko; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Hitoshi; Yamanaka, Masashi; Ueno, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    We are studying the possibility of automated hydroforming process for seamless superconducting RF cavities. Preliminary hydroforming tests of three-cell cavities from seamless tubes made of C1020 copper have been performed. The key point of an automated forming is to monitor and strictly control some parameters such as operation time, internal pressure and material displacements. Especially, it is necessary for our studies to be able to control axial and radial deformation independently. We plan to perform the forming in two stages to increase the reliability of successful forming. In the first stage hydroforming by using intermediate constraint dies, three-cell cavities were successfully formed in less than 1 minute. In parallel, we did elongation tests on cavity-quality niobium and confirmed that it is possible to achieve an elongation of >64% in 2 stages that is required for our forming of 1.3 GHz cavities.

  19. Superconducting rf and beam-cavity interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisognano, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Beam-cavity interactions can limit the beam quality and current handling capability of linear and circular accelerators. These collective effects include cumulative and regenerative transverse beam breakup (BBU) in linacs, transverse multipass beam breakup in recirculating linacs and microtrons, longitudinal and transverse coupled-bunch instabilities in storage rings, and a variety of transverse and longitudinal single-bunch phenomena (instabilities, beam breakup, and energy deposition). The superconducting radio frequency (SRF) environment has a number of features which distinguish it from room temperature configuration with regard to these beam-cavity interactions. Typically the unloaded Qs of the lower higher order modes (HOM) are at the 10 9 level and require significant damping through couplers. High gradient CW operation, which is a principal advantage of SRF, allows for better control of beam quality, which for its preservation requires added care which respect to collective phenomena. Gradients are significantly higher than those attainable with copper in CW operation but remain significantly lower than those obtainable with pulsed copper cavities. Finally, energy deposition by the beam into the cavity can occur in a cryogenic environment. In this note those characteristics of beam-cavity interactions which are of particular importance for superconducting RF cavities are highlighted. 6 refs., 4 figs

  20. Status of Tristan superconducting RF program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, S.; Akai, K.; Arinaga, M.

    1988-01-01

    The TRISTAN accelerator complex consists of an injector linac system, an accumulation ring (AR) and a main colliding beam ring (MR). The injector linac system is composed of a 2.5 GeV main linac, a 200 MeV high current (10 A) linac for positron generation and a 250 MeV positron preaccelerator. These linacs are now operated with a pulse width of 2 nsec and a repetition rate of 20 pps, which is raised to 50 pps in the near future. The TRISTAN AR is used as a beam accumulator and energy booster for the TRISTAN MR, and additionally it can be operated as an electron-positron collider and as a storage ring for the synchrotron radiation research. The electron (positron) beam of 50 mA (10 mA) peak current is injected from the main linac. The accumulation rate of positrons is now typically 5 mA/min. There are 8 RF cavity sections in two long straight sections, of which 6 sections are occupied by 11 cell APS cavities and 2 sections are used for the beam test of the superconducting cavities. The TRISTAN MR was designed so that it could achieve as high energy as possible for its size, therefore it has very long straight sections for RF cavities. The normal conducting cavities, which are 9-cell APS type and have a shunt impedance of 22.5 M Omega/m, are distributed to 3 straight sections. The remaining straight section named NIKKO division, is allotted to the superconducting cavities. MR accelerated the first electron beam to 25.5 GeV on 24th of October 1986. The energy upgrading program was approved in 1986 and the construction of 32 5-cell superconducting cavities and a 4.5 KW helium refrigerator system started. It is expected that the accelerating field and the Q value are better than 5 MV/m and 1 x 10 9 , respectively. 8 references, 13 figures, 4 tables

  1. Development of a Solid State RF Amplifier in the kW Regime for Application with Low Beta Superconducting RF Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Christian; Borisov, A; Kolesov, Sergej; Piel, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Projects based on the use of low beta superconducting cavities for ions are under operation or development at several labs worldwide. Often these cavities are individually driven by RF power sources in the kW regime. For an ongoing project a modular 2 kW, 176 MHz unconditionally stable RF amplifier for CW and pulsed operation was designed, built, and tested. Extended thermal analysis was used to develop a water cooling system in order to optimize the performance of the power transistors and other thermally loaded components. The paper will outline the design concept of the amplifier and present first results on the test of the amplifier with a superconducting cavity.

  2. Development of Low Level RF Control Systems for Superconducting Heavy Ion Linear Accelerators, Electron Synchrotrons and Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Aminov, Bachtior; Kolesov, Sergej; Pekeler, Michael; Piel, Christian; Piel, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Since 2001 ACCEL Instruments is supplying low level RF control systems together with turn key cavity systems. The early LLRF systems used the well established technology based on discrete analogue amplitude and phase detectors and modulators. Today analogue LLRF systems can make use of advanced vector demodulators and modulators combined with a fast computer controlled analogue feed back loop. Feed forward control is implemented to operate the RF cavity in an open loop mode or to compensate for predictable perturbations. The paper will introduce the general design philosophy and show how it can be adapted to different tasks as controlling a synchrotron booster nc RF system at 500 MHz, or superconducting storage ring RF cavities, as well as a linear accelerator at 176 MHz formed by a chain of individually driven and controlled superconducting λ/2 cavities.

  3. Industrialization of Superconducting RF Accelerator Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiniger, Michael; Pekeler, Michael; Vogel, Hanspeter

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting RF (SRF) accelerator technology has basically existed for 50 years. It took about 20 years to conduct basic R&D and prototyping at universities and international institutes before the first superconducting accelerators were built, with industry supplying complete accelerator cavities. In parallel, the design of large scale accelerators using SRF was done worldwide. In order to build those accelerators, industry has been involved for 30 years in building the required cavities and/or accelerator modules in time and budget. To enable industry to supply these high tech components, technology transfer was made from the laboratories in the following three regions: the Americas, Asia and Europe. As will be shown, the manufacture of the SRF cavities is normally accomplished in industry whereas the cavity testing and module assembly are not performed in industry in most cases, yet. The story of industrialization is so far a story of customized projects. Therefore a real SRF accelerator product is not yet available in this market. License agreements and technology transfer between leading SRF laboratories and industry is a powerful tool for enabling industry to manufacture SRF components or turnkey superconducting accelerator modules for other laboratories and users with few or no capabilities in SRF technology. Despite all this, the SRF accelerator market today is still a small market. The manufacture and preparation of the components require a range of specialized knowledge, as well as complex and expensive manufacturing installations like for high precision machining, electron beam welding, chemical surface preparation and class ISO4 clean room assembly. Today, the involved industry in the US and Europe comprises medium-sized companies. In Japan, some big enterprises are involved. So far, roughly 2500 SRF cavities have been built by or ordered from industry worldwide. Another substantial step might come from the International Linear Collider (ILC) project

  4. RF properties of superconducting Pb electroplated onto Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of Pb as a superconducting material for high power rf applications are reviewed. The most common method of producing Pb superconducting resonators, which is by electrodeposition of a thin layer on a Cu substrate, is described, and some suggestions for further development are presented. 56 references, 11 figures, 1 table

  5. Adaptive compensation of Lorentz force detuning in superconducting RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pischalnikov, Yuriy [Fermilab; Schappert, Warren [Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    The Lorentz force can dynamically detune pulsed Superconducting RF cavities and considerable additional RF power can be required to maintain the accelerating gradient if no effort is made to compensate. Fermilab has developed an adaptive compensation system for cavities in the Horizontal Test Stand, in the SRF Accelerator Test Facility, and for the proposed Project X.

  6. Linear collider applications of superconducting RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The most promising technology for producing interactions of electrons and positrons in TeV energy range is the linear collider. In the linear collider each and every collision of charged particles depends on the production of the charges at rest and then the acceleration of those charges to full energy. The particles that exit the interaction region are discharded. A consequence of this mode of operation is that the luminosity of the machine is ultimately determined by the efficiency with which AC power can be converted into beam power. The consideration of superconducting cavities is motivated by the need for high efficiency. Thus, the high emittance around a beam collider and low emittance around beams are discussed first in the present report. Flat beams are then addressed focusing on the characteristics of the source, final focus, and beam stability. The beam stability, in particular, is discussed in detail in relation to the multiple bunch transverse stability, wake field induced energy spread, trapped modes, pulse width, duty cycle, RF power, and refrigerator power. (N.K.)

  7. RF Tests of an 805 MHz Pillbox Cavity at Lab G of Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Li; J. Corlett; R. MacGill; M. Zisman; J. Norem; A. Moretti; Z. Qian; J. Wallig; V. Wu; Y. Torun; R.A. Rimmer

    2003-01-01

    We report recent high power RF tests on an 805 MHz RF pillbox cavity with demountable windows over beam apertures at Lab G of Fermilab, a dedicated facility for testing of MUCOOL (muon cooling) components. The cavity is installed inside a superconducting solenoidal magnet. A 12 MW peak RF power klystron is used for the tests. The cavity has been processed both with and without magnetic field. Without magnetic field, a gradient of 34 MV/m was reached rather quickly with very low sparking rate. In a 2.5 T solenoidal field, a 16 MV/m gradient was achieved, following several weeks of conditioning. Strong multipacting effects associated with high radiation levels were measured during processing with the magnetic field. More recently Be windows with TiN-coated surface have been installed and tested with and without the external magnetic field. 16 MV/m gradient without magnetic field was reached quickly as planned. Less multipacting was observed during the conditioning, indicating that the TiN-coated surface on the windows had indeed helped to reduce the secondary electron emission significantly. A gradient of 16.5 MV/m was finally achieved with magnet on in solenoidal mode and the field up to 4 T. Preliminary inspection of the Be window surface found no visual damage, in comparison with Cu windows where substantial surface damage was found. Preliminary understanding of conditioning the cavity in a strong magnetic field has been developed. More thorough window and cavity surface inspection is under way

  8. RF tests of an 805 MHz pillbox cavity at Lab G of Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Derun; Corlett, J.; MacGill, R.; Wallig, J.; Zisman, M.; Moretti, A.; Qian, Z.; Wu, V.; Rimmer, R.; Norem, J.; Torun, Y.

    2003-01-01

    We report recent high power RF tests on an 805 MHz RF pillbox cavity with demountable windows for beam apertures at Lab G of Fermilab, a dedicated facility for testing of MUCOOL (muon cooling) components. The cavity is installed inside a superconducting solenoidal magnet. A 12 MW peak RF power klystron is used for the tests. The cavity has been processed both with and without magnetic field. Without magnetic field, a gradient of 34 MV/m was reached rather quickly with very low sparking rate. In a 2.5 T solenoidal field, a 16 MV/m gradient was achieved, and it had to take many weeks of conditioning. Strong multipacting effects associated with high radiation levels were measured during the processing with the magnetic field. More recently Be windows with TiN-coated surface have been installed and tested at conditions of with and without the external magnetic field. A conservative 16 MV/m gradient without magnetic field was reached quickly as planned. Less multipacting was observed during the conditioning, it indicated that the TiN-coated surface on the windows had indeed helped to reduce the secondary electron emissions significantly. A modest gradient of 16.5 MV/m was finally achieved with magnet on in solenoidal mode and the field up to 4 T. Preliminary inspection on Be windows surface found no damage at all, in comparison with Cu windows where substantial surface damage was found. Preliminary understanding of conditioning cavity in a strong magnetic field has been developed. More through window and cavity surface inspection is under way

  9. Design and development progress of a LLRF control system for a 500 MHz superconducting cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. S.; Kim, H. W.; Song, H. S.; Lee, J. H.; Park, K. H.; Yu, I. H.; Chai, J. S.

    2012-07-01

    The LLRF (low-level radio-frequency) control system which regulates the amplitude and the phase of the accelerating voltage inside a RF cavity is essential to ensure the stable operation of charged particle accelerators. Recent advances in digital signal processors and data acquisition systems have allowed the LLRF control system to be implemented in digitally and have made it possible to meet the higher demands associated with the performance of LLRF control systems, such as stability, accuracy, etc. For this reason, many accelerator laboratories have completed or are completing the developments of digital LLRF control systems. The digital LLRF control system has advantages related with flexibility and fast reconfiguration. This paper describes the design of the FPGA (field programmable gate array) based LLRF control system and the status of development for this system. The proposed LLRF control system includes an analog front-end, a digital board (ADC (analog to digital converter), DAC (digital to analog converter), FPGA, etc.) and a RF & clock generation system. The control algorithms will be implemented by using the VHDL (VHSIC (very high speed integrated circuits) hardware description language), and the EPICS (experiment physics and industrial control system) will be ported to the host computer for the communication. In addition, the purpose of this system is to control a 500 MHz RF cavity, so the system will be applied to the superconducting cavity to be installed in the PLS storage ring, and its performance will be tested.

  10. Fundamental of cryogenics (for superconducting RF technology)

    CERN Document Server

    Pierini, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This review briefly illustrates a few fundamental concepts of cryogenic engineering, the technological practice that allows reaching and maintaining the low-temperature operating conditions of the superconducting devices needed in particle accelerators. To limit the scope of the task, and not to duplicate coverage of cryogenic engineering concepts particularly relevant to superconducting magnets that can be found in previous CAS editions, the overview presented in this course focuses on superconducting radio-frequency cavities.

  11. RF Coupler Design for the TRIUMF ISAC-II Superconducting Quarter Wave Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Poirier, R L; Harmer, P; Laxdal, R E; Mitra, A K; Sekatchev, I; Waraich, B; Zvyagintsev, V

    2004-01-01

    An RF Coupler for the ISAC-II medium beta (β=0.058 and 0.071) superconducting quarter wave resonators was designed and tested at TRIUMF. The main goal of this development was to achieve stable operation of superconducting cavities at high acceleration gradients and low thermal load to the helium refrigeration system. The cavities will operate at 6 MV/m acceleration gradient in overcoupled mode at a forward power 200 W at 106 MHz. The overcoupling provides ±20 Hz cavity bandwidth, which improves the stability of the RF control system for fast helium pressure fluctuations, microphonics and environmental noise. Choice of materials, cooling with liquid nitrogen, aluminum nitride RF window and thermal shields insure a small thermal load on the helium refrigeration system by the Coupler. An RF finger contact which causedμdust in the coupler housing was eliminated without any degradation of the coupler performance. RF and thermal calculations, design and test results on the coupler are p...

  12. Early 500 MHz prototype LEP RF Cavity with superposed storage cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    The principle of transferring the RF power back and forth between the accelerating cavity and a side-coupled storage cavity was demonstrated with this 500 MHz prototype. In LEP, the accelerating frequency was 352.2 MHz, and accelerating and storage cavities were consequently larger. See also 8002294, 8006061, 8407619X, and Annual Reports 1980, p.115; 1981, p.95; 1985, vol.I, p.13.

  13. Laboratory report on RF superconductivity at Peking University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kui, Zhao; Baocheng, Zhang; Lifang, Wang; Jin, Yu; Rongli, Geng; Genfa, Wu; Tong, Wang; Jinhu, Song; Chia-erh, Chen

    1996-01-01

    The activities on RF superconductivity at Peking University in the past two years are reported. Two 1.5 GHz Nb cavities were successfully fabricated using Chinese Nb sheets in 1994. One of the cavities has been measured, and the results are given. A laser driven DC electron gun has been designed and constructed which is the pre-testing device of photo-electron gun using superconducting cavity. A series of experiments on the cathode and cavity will be performed in the near future. Two superconducting accelerating devices are being considered for two projects in China. (R.P.)

  14. Design and construction of a 500 KW CW, 400 MHz klystron to be used as RF power source for LHC/RF component tests

    CERN Document Server

    Frischholz, Hans; Pearson, C

    1998-01-01

    A 500 kW cw klystron operating at 400 MHz was developed and constructed jointly by CERN and SLAC for use as a high-power source at CERN for testing LHC/RF components such as circulators, RF absorbers and superconducting cavities with their input couplers. The design is a modification of the 353 MHz SLAC PEP-I klystron. More than 80% of the original PEP-I tube parts could thus be incorporated in the LHC test klystron which resulted in lower engineering costs as well as reduced development and construction time. The physical length between cathode plane and upper pole plate was kept unchanged so that a PEP-I tube focusing solenoid, available at CERN, could be re-used. With the aid of the klystron simulation codes JPNDISK and CONDOR, the design of the LHC tube was accomplished, which resulted in a tube with noticeably higher efficiency than its predecessor, the PEP-I klystron. The integrated cavities were redesigned using SUPERFISH and the output coupling circuit, which also required redesigning, was done with t...

  15. Conceptual design of the RF accelerating cavities for a superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiore, M.; Calabretta, L.; Di Giacomo, M.; Rifuggiato, D.; Battaglia, D.; Piazza, L.

    2006-01-01

    A superconducting cyclotron accelerating ions up to 250 A MeV, for medical applications and radioactive ions production is being studied at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud in Catania. The radio frequency (RF) system, working in the fourth harmonic, is based on four normal conducting radio frequency cavities operating at 93 MHz. This paper describes an unusual multi-stem cavity design, performed with 3D electromagnetic codes. Our aim is to obtain a cavity, completely housed inside the cyclotron, with a voltage distribution ranging from 65 kV in the injection region to a peak value of 120 kV in the extraction region, and having a low power consumption

  16. Fabrication, tests, and RF control of the 50 superconducting resonators of the Saclay heavy ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, B.; Coret, M.; Fouan, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Two types of niobium superconducting resonators are currently in use in the linac Outer cylinder and RF ports are identical for both designs but internal structures are different full wave helix (λ) with three gaps behavior or half-wave (λ/2) with two gaps behavior. The λ structure is based on a Karlsruhe design. All cavities (34 λ and 16 λ/2) are now fabricated, tested for field, and mounted in the eight machine cryostats. Resonator characteristics are listed. Frequencies are multiples of the low energy bunching frequency (13.5 MHz). The high magnetic fields arise at the welds joining helix to can (λ/2) or half-helices together (λ)

  17. A Novel Dual-Band Rectenna for Ambient RF Energy Harvesting at GSM 900 MHz and 1800 MHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Khanh Ho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel dual-band rectenna for RF energy harvesting system. This rectenna is created from a dual-band antenna and a dual-band rectifier which operates at GSM bands (900 MHz and 1800 MHz. The printed monopole antenna is miniaturized by two meander-lines. The received signal from the receiving antenna is rectified by a voltage double using Schottky diode SMS-7630. The rectifier is optimized for low input power level of -20dBm using harmonic balance. Prototype is designed and fabricated. The simulation is validated by measurement with power conversion efficiency of 20% and 40.8% (in measurement at the input power level of -20dBm. The proposed rectenna has output voltage from 183-415 mV. From the measured results, this rectenna provides the possibility to harvest the ambient electromagnetic energy for powering low-power electronic devices.

  18. Karlsruhe: En route to a superconducting r.f. separator

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    A superconducting r.f. separator is under construction at Karlsruhe for use at the SPS in the beam-line to the Omega spectrometer. Tests on a section of the first 3 m deflector have given results close to the desired parameters.

  19. Improving superconducting RF technology for high energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, P.

    1991-01-01

    A review of the state of the art is given. It shows recent proofs of success of the technology. An important R and D effort remains to be done in order to collect all the expectable benefits of RF superconductivity. (author)

  20. Development of 650 MHz solid state RF amplifier for proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Akhilesh; Sharma, Deepak; Gupta, Alok; Tiwari, Ashish; Rao, Nageswar; Sekar, Vasanthi; Lad, M.; Hannurkar, P.R.; Gupta, P.D.

    2011-01-01

    Design and development of 30 kW high powers RF source at 650 MHz, using solid RF state technology, has been initiated at RRCAT. The indigenous technology development efforts will be useful for the proposed high power proton accelerators for SNS/ADS applications. In this 650 MHz amplifier scheme, 30 kW CW RF power will be generated using modular combination of 8 kW amplifier units. Necessary studies were carried out for device selection, choice of amplifier architecture and design of high power combiners and dividers. Presently RF amplifier delivering 250 W at 650 MHz has been fabricated and tested. Towards development of high power RF components, design and engineering prototyping of 16-port power combiner, directional coupler and RF dummy loads has been completed. The basic 8 kW amplifier unit is designed to provide power gain of 50 dB, bandwidth of 20 MHz and spurious response below 30 dB from fundamental signal. Based on the results of circuit simulation studies and engineering prototyping of amplifier module, two RF transistor viz. MRF3450 and MRF 61K were selected as solid state active devices. Impedance matching network in amplifier module is designed using balanced push pull configuration with transmission line BALUN. Due to high circulating current near drain side, metal clad RF capacitors were selected which helps in avoiding hot spot from output transmission path, ensuring continuous operation at rated RF power without damage to RF board. 350 W circulator is used to protect the RF devices from reflected power. Based on the prototype design and measured performance, one of these RF transistors will be selected to be used as workhorse for all amplifier modules. Two amplifier modules are mounted on water cooled copper heat-sink ensuring proper operating temperature for reliable and safe operation of amplifier. Also real time control system and data logger has been developed to provide DAQ and controls in each rack. For power combining and power measurement

  1. Superconducting rf cavities for accelerator application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proch, D.

    1988-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a review of superconducting cavities for accelerator application (β = 1). The layout of a typical accelerating unit is described and important parameters are discussed. Recent cavity measurements and storage ring beam tests are reported and the present state of the art is summarized

  2. A design and performance analysis tool for superconducting RF systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilcher, T.; Simrock, S.N.; Merminga, L.; Wang, D.X.

    1997-01-01

    Superconducting rf systems are usually operated with continuous rf power or with rf pulse lengths exceeding 1 ms to maximize the overall wall plug power efficiency. Typical examples are CEBAF at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) and the TESLA Test Facility at DESY. The long pulses allow for effective application of feedback to stabilize the accelerating field in presence of microphonics, Lorentz force detuning, and fluctuations of the beam current. In this paper the authors describe a set of tools to be used with MATLAB and SIMULINK, which allow to analyze the quality of field regulation for a given design. The tools include models for the cavities, the rf power source, the beam, sources of field perturbations, and the rf feedback system. The rf control relevant electrical and mechanical characteristics of the cavity are described in form of time-varying state space models. The power source is modeled as a current generator and includes saturation characteristics and noise.An arbitrary time structure can be imposed on the beam current to reflect a macro-pulse structure and bunch charge fluctuations. For rf feedback several schemes can be selected: Traditional amplitude and phase control as well as I/Q control. The choices for the feedback controller include analog or digital approaches and various choices of frequency response. Feed forward can be added to further suppress repetitive errors. The results of a performance analysis of the CEBAF and the TESLA Linac rf system using these tools are presented

  3. Modulation improvements in the 201 MHZ RF generators at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, W.M.; Lyles, J.T.M.; Harris, H.W.

    1992-01-01

    Radio-frequency generators, operating at 201 MHz, power the first four stages of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator. Each generator consists of four stages of seriesconnected, vacuum-tube amplifiers. The modulation scheme for each stage is different. The fist amplifier is a grid-modulated tetrode that produces 500 W peak-power. The second amplifier is a drive-modulated tetrode that produces 5 kill peak-power. The third stage is a grid- and plate-modulated tetrode that produces 130 kill peak-power. The last stage is a plate-modulated triode that produces 2.5 MW peak power. A modernization program has been initiated to improve the reliability of each of these stages. The first two stages of each generator are being replaced with a single, drive-modulated, solid-state amplifier. Specifications for the amplifier design, and requirements for integration into the system are presented. The third stage will be converted to a drive-modulated system using the current tetrode. This modification involves the development of a 17-kV, 15-A switching supply to replace the present plate-modulator. Design requirements for this switching supply are presented. The final stage will remain plate-modulated but will contain a new driver unit for the modulator tube

  4. Developments and directions in 200 MHz very high power RF at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliff, R.; Bush, E.D.; DeHaven, R.A.; Harris, H.W.; Parsons, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), is a linear particle accelerator a half-mile long. It produces an 800 million electron- volt hydrogen-ion beam at an average current of more than one milliamp. The first RF section of the accelerator consists of four Alvarez drift-tube structures. Each of these structures is excited by an amplifier module at a frequency of 201.25 MHz. These amplifiers operate at a duty of 13 percent or more and at peak pulsed power levels of about 2.5 million watts. The second RF accelerator section consists of forty-four side-coupled-cavity structures. Each of these is excited by an amplifier module at a frequency of 805 MHz. These amplifiers operate at a duty of up to 12 percent and at peak pulsed power levels of about 1.2 million watts. The relatively high average beam current in the accelerator places a heavy demand upon components in the RF systems. The 201-MHz modules have always required a large share of maintenance efforts. In recent years, the four 201.25 MHz modules have been responsible for more than twice as much accelerator down-time as have the forty-four 805 MHz modules. This paper reviews recent, ongoing, and planned improvements in the 201-MHz systems. The Burle Industries 7835 super power triode is used in the final power amplifiers of each of the 201-MHz modules. This tube has been modified for operation at LAMPF by the addition of Penning ion vacuum''pumps.'' This has enabled more effective tube conditioning and restarting. A calorimetry system of high accuracy is in development to monitor tube plate-power dissipation

  5. A 700 MHZ, 1 MW CW RF System for a FEL 100mA RF Photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Roybal, William; Reass, William; Rees, Daniel; Tallerico, Paul J; Torrez, Phillip A

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a 700 MHz, 1 Megawatt CW, high efficiency klystron RF system utilized for a Free Electron Laser (FEL) high-brightness electron photoinjector (PI). The E2V klystron is mod-anode tube that operates with a beam voltage of 95 kV. This tube, operating with a 65% efficiency, requires ~96 watts of input power to produce in excess of 1 MW of output power. This output drives the 3rd cell of a 2½-cell, p-mode PI cavity through a pair of planar waveguide windows. Coupling is via a ridge-loaded tapered waveguide section and "dog-bone" iris. This paper will present the design of the RF, RF transport, coupling, and monitoring/protection systems that are required to support CW operations of the 100 mA cesiated, semi-porous SiC photoinjector.

  6. Status of superconducting RF cavity development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    For several reasons, a brief historical review seems appropriate at this time. The twenty-fifth anniversary of the first acceleration of beam with a superconducting cavity will occur shortly [1,2,3]. Also, the scope of accelerator applications of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) devices has, within the last few months, begun to increase rapidly [4] - to the point that it seems likely that early expectations for this technology will largely be fulfilled. Since the object is to accelerate beam, a simple one parameter measure of the technology is the total of how much beam has been accelerated. Figure 1 shows the total accumulated voltage in tests and/or operation of superconducting accelerating cavities with beam, up to the time indicated, as reported in the open literature [4-35]. This parameter has been divided into two terms: first, the subtotal for electron accelerating velocity-of-light structures, and second the subtotal for low-velocity, ion accelerating structures. To restate: each of these terms represents as a function of time an integrated, accumulative total voltage produced by SRF hardware and demonstrated with beam. 56 refs., 4 figs

  7. Superconducting RF Development at Nuclear Science Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Amit

    2005-01-01

    A Superconducting Linac is being installed as a booster for the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC). The accelerating structure for this linac is a Nb QWR cavity, designed and fabricated as a joint collaboration between NSC and ANL, USA. Initial cavities required for the first linac module were fabricated at ANL. For fabrication of cavities required for future modules a Superconducting Resonator Fabrication Facility has been set up at NSC. Three quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavities have been fabricated using the in-house facility. This facility has been used for repairs on the resonators which sprung leaks. Fabrication of fifteen resonators for the second and third linac modules is under progress. Eight resonators along with a superconducting solenoid has been installed in the first linac cryostat and tested for energy gain with a pulsed beam of 90 MeV Si from the Pelletron. Acceleration of the ions to 96 MeV was measured downstream and beam transmission through the linac was measured...

  8. Compact high efficiency, light weight 200-800 MHz high power RF source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader, M.B.; Preist, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    There has long been a need for a new more efficient less bulky high power RF power source to drive accelerators in the 200 to 800 MHz region. Results on a recent 5-year EIMAC sponsored R and D program which have lead to the introduction of the Klystrode for UHF television and troposcatter applications indicate that at power levels of 1MW or more efficiencies in excess of 75% can be obtained at 450 MHz. Efficiencies of this order coupled with potential size and weight parameters which are a fraction of those of existing high power UHF generators open up new applications which heretofore would have been impractical if not impossible. Measurements at 470 MHz on existing Klystrodes are given. Projected operating conditions for a 1MW 450 MHz Klystrode having an overall length of 60 inches and a total tube, circuit, and magnet weight of 250 pounds is presented

  9. Design and development of RF system for vertical test stand for characterization of superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohania, Praveen; Rajput, Vikas; Baxy, Deodatta; Agrawal, Ankur; Mahawar, Ashish; Adarsh, Kunver; Singh, Pratap; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2011-01-01

    RRCAT is developing a Vertical Test Stand (VTS) to test and qualify 1.3 GHz/650 MHz, SCRF Cavities in collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) under Indian Institutions' Fermilab Collaboration. The technical details for VTS is being provided by FNAL, USA. The RF System of VTS needs to provide stable RF power to SCRF cavity with control of amplitude, relative phase and frequency. The incident, reflected, transmitted power and field decay time constant of the cavity are measured to evaluate cavity performance parameters (E, Qo). RF Power is supplied via 500 W Solid State amplifier, 1270-1310 MHz being developed by PHPMS, RRCAT. VTS system is controlled by PXI Platform and National Instruments LabVIEW software. Low Level RF (LLRF) system is used to track the cavity frequency using Phase Locked Loop (PLL). The system is comprised of several integrated functional modules which would be assembled, optimized, and tested separately. Required components and instruments have been identified and procurement for the same is underway. Inhouse development for the Solid State RF amplifier and instrument interfacing is in progress. This paper describes the progress on the development of the RF system for VTS. (author)

  10. Design of RF system for CYCIAE-230 superconducting cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Zhiguo, E-mail: bitbearAT@hotmail.com; Ji, Bin; Fu, Xiaoliang; Cao, Xuelong; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhang, Tinajue

    2017-05-11

    The CYCIAE230 is a low-current, compact superconducting cyclotron designed for proton therapy. The Radio Frequency system consists of four RF cavities and applies second harmonic to accelerate beams. The driving power for the cavity system is estimated to be approximately 150 kW. The LLRF controller is a self-made device developed and tested at low power using a small-scale cavity model. In this paper, the resonator systems of an S.C. cyclotron in history are reviewed. Contrary to those RF systems, the cavities of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron connect two opposite dees. Two high-power RF windows are included in the system. Each window carries approximately 75 kW RF power from the driver to the cavities. Thus, the RF system for the CY-CIAE230 cyclotron is operated in driven push–pull mode. The two-way amplifier-coupler-cavity systems are operated with approximately the same amount of RF power but 180° out of phase compared with each other. The design, as well as the technical advantage and limitations of this operating mode, of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron RF system is analyzed.

  11. Design of RF system for CYCIAE-230 superconducting cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiguo; Ji, Bin; Fu, Xiaoliang; Cao, Xuelong; Zhao, Zhenlu; Zhang, Tinajue

    2017-05-01

    The CYCIAE230 is a low-current, compact superconducting cyclotron designed for proton therapy. The Radio Frequency system consists of four RF cavities and applies second harmonic to accelerate beams. The driving power for the cavity system is estimated to be approximately 150 kW. The LLRF controller is a self-made device developed and tested at low power using a small-scale cavity model. In this paper, the resonator systems of an S.C. cyclotron in history are reviewed. Contrary to those RF systems, the cavities of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron connect two opposite dees. Two high-power RF windows are included in the system. Each window carries approximately 75 kW RF power from the driver to the cavities. Thus, the RF system for the CY-CIAE230 cyclotron is operated in driven push-pull mode. The two-way amplifier-coupler-cavity systems are operated with approximately the same amount of RF power but 180° out of phase compared with each other. The design, as well as the technical advantage and limitations of this operating mode, of the CYCIAE230 cyclotron RF system is analyzed.

  12. New Control Structure of the 200 MHz RF System in the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    The 200 MHz RF system is an essential tool for the preparation of high-intensity beams in the CERN PS. Presently, six RF cavities are operated to control the longitudinal bunch emittance and rebunching of the beam before the transfer to the SPS. Cavities are selected for the various processes with a dedicated hardware matrix, switching the individual timing pulses and voltage programs per cavity. However, the electronics used for the matrix hardware is obsolete and its reliability cannot be guaranteed due to a lack of spare modules and components. Instead of replacing the old hardware matrix by modern hardware, this note describes a new control structure for the 200MHz RF system so that no dedicated hardware will be required anymore. The implementation of the new control structure is based on two main concepts. Firstly, linked timing trees per blow-up or rebunching are used to handle all related timing and to store one row of the matrix. Secondly, as a reflection of the RF signal generation for the 200 MHz sy...

  13. First prototype Copper-Niobium RF Superconducting Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This is the first RF superconducting cavity made of copper with a very thin layer of pure niobium deposited on the inner wall by sputtering. This new developpment lead to a considerable increase of performance and stability of superconducting cavities and to non-negligible economy. The work was carried out in the ISR workshop. This technique was adopted for the LEP II accelerating cavities. At the centre is Cristoforo Benvenuti, inventor of this important technology, with his assistants, Nadia Circelli and Max Hauer, carrying the sputtering electrode. See also 8209255, 8312339.

  14. Elliptical superconducting RF cavities for FRIB energy upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Contreras, C.; Plastun, A. S.; Rathke, J.; Schultheiss, T.; Taylor, A.; Wei, J.; Xu, M.; Xu, T.; Zhao, Q.; Gonin, I. V.; Khabiboulline, T.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Yakovlev, V. P.

    2018-04-01

    The multi-physics design of a five cell, βG = 0 . 61, 644 MHz superconducting elliptical cavity being developed for an energy upgrade in the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is presented. The FRIB energy upgrade from 200 MeV/u to 400 MeV/u for heaviest uranium ions will increase the intensities of rare isotope beams by nearly an order of magnitude. After studying three different frequencies, 1288 MHz, 805 MHz, and 644 MHz, the 644 MHz cavity was shown to provide the highest energy gain per cavity for both uranium and protons. The FRIB upgrade will include 11 cryomodules containing 5 cavities each and installed in 80-meter available space in the tunnel. The cavity development included extensive multi-physics optimization, mechanical and engineering analysis. The development of a niobium cavity is complete and two cavities are being fabricated in industry. The detailed design of the cavity sub-systems such as fundamental power coupler and dynamic tuner are currently being pursued. In the overall design of the cavity and its sub-systems we extensively applied experience gained during the development of 650 MHz low-beta cavities at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) for the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) II.

  15. Superconducting RF activities at Cornell University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, J.; Barnes, P.; Belomestnykh, S.; Chojnacki, E.; Ehrlich, R.; Flynn, G.; Graber, J.; Hartung, W.; Hays, T.; Kaplan, R.; and others.

    1996-01-01

    The decision was made to try to increase the luminosity of CESR as high as possible with a single magnet ring. This, the Phase-III plan, can yield a luminosity of 1 x 10 33 with 45 bunches in each beam for a total current in each beam of 0.5 amperes. This plan utilizes four superconducting, single cell cavities. The use of only four SC accelerating cells as compared to the present twenty normal conducting cells decreases both the broad band and narrow band impedances sufficiently to allow stable operation at these half ampere current levels. (R.P.)

  16. Superconducting RF Cavities Past, Present and Future

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaveri, Enrico

    2003-01-01

    In the last two decades many laboratories around the world, notably Argonne (ANL), TJNAF (formerly CEBAF), CERN, DESY and KEK, decided to develop the technology of superconducting (SC) accelerating cavities. The aim was either to increase the accelerator energy or to save electrical consumption or both. This technology has been used extensively in the operating machines showing good performances and strong reliability. At present, the technology using bulk niobium (Nb) or Nb coated on copper (Cu) is mature enough to be applied for many different applications, such as synchrotron light sources and spallation neutron drivers. Results, R&D work and future projects will be presented with emphasis on application to linear accelerators.

  17. Basic principles of RF superconductivity and superconducting cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Schmüser, P

    2006-01-01

    The basics of superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the features which are relevant for the application of superconductors in radio frequency cavities for particle acceleration. For a cylindrical resonator (“pill box cavity”) the electromagnetic field in the cavity and important parameters such as resonance frequency, quality factor and shunt impedance are calculated analytically. The design and performance of practical cavities is shortly addressed.

  18. Characterization of a superconducting Pb photocathode in a superconducting rf photoinjector cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Barday, R; Jankowiak, A; Kamps, T; Knobloch, J; Kugeler, O; Matveenko, A; Neumann, A; Schmeißer, M; Volker, J; Kneisel, P; Nietubyc, R; Schubert S; Smedley J; Sekutowicz, J; Will, I

    2014-01-01

    Photocathodes are a limiting factor for the next generation of ultrahigh brightness photoinjectors. We studied the behavior of a superconducting Pb cathode in the cryogenic environment of a superconducting rf gun cavity to measure the quantum efficiency, its spatial distribution, and the work function. We will also discuss how the cathode surface contaminants modify the performance of the photocathode as well as the gun cavity and we discuss the possibilities to remove these contaminants.

  19. HOM Dampers or not in Superconducting RF Proton Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Circular machines are plagued by Coupled Bunch Instabilities, driven by impedance peaks, irrespectively of their frequency relation to machine lines; hence all cavity Higher Order Modes are possible drivers. This is the fundamental reason that all superconducting RF cavities in circular machines are equipped with HOM dampers. This raises the question if HOM damping would not be imperative also in high current proton linacs where a mechanism akin to CBI might exist. To clarify this question we have simulated the longitudinal bunched beam dynamics in linacs, allowing bunch-to-bunch variations in time-of-arrival. Simulations were executed for a generic proton linac with properties close to SNS or the planned SPL at CERN. It was found that for monopole HOMs with high Qext large beam scatter or even beam loss cannot be excluded. Therefore omitting HOM dampers on superconducting RF cavities in high current proton linacs, even pulsed ones, is a very risky decision.

  20. HOM Dampers or not in SUPERCONDUCTING RF Proton Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Circular machines are plagued by Coupled Bunch Instabilities, driven by impedance peaks, irrespectively of their frequency relation to machine lines; hence all cavity Higher Order Modes are possible drivers. This is the fundamental reason that all superconducting RF cavities in circular machines are equipped with HOM dampers. This raises the question if HOM damping would not be imperative also in high current proton linacs where a mechanism akin to CBI might exist. To clarify this question we have simulated the longitudinal bunched beam dynamics in linacs, allowing bunch-to-bunch variations in time-of-arrival. Simulations were executed for a generic proton linac with properties close to SNS or the planned SPL at CERN. It was found that for monopole HOMs with high Qext large beam scatter or even beam loss cannot be excluded. Therefore omitting HOM dampers on superconducting RF cavities in high current proton linacs, even pulsed ones, is a very risky decision.

  1. Suppression of multipacting in high power RF couplers operating with superconducting cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostroumov, P.N., E-mail: ostroumov@frib.msu.edu [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kazakov, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Morris, D.; Larter, T.; Plastun, A.S.; Popielarski, J.; Wei, J.; Xu, T. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Capacitive input couplers based on a 50 Ω coaxial transmission line are frequently used to transmit RF power to superconducting (SC) resonators operating in CW mode. It is well known that coaxial transmission lines are prone to multipacting phenomenon in a wide range of RF power level and operating frequency. The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) being constructed at Michigan State University includes two types of quarter wave SC resonators (QWR) operating at 80.5 MHz and two types of half wave SC resonators (HWR) operating at 322 MHz. As was reported in ref. [1] a capacitive input coupler used with HWRs was experiencing strong multipacting that resulted in a long conditioning time prior the cavity testing at design levels of accelerating fields. We have developed an insert into 50 Ω coaxial transmission line that provides opportunity to bias the RF coupler antenna and protect the amplifier from the bias potential in the case of breakdown in DC isolation. Two of such devices have been built and are currently used for the off-line testing of 8 HWRs installed in the cryomodule.

  2. Buffer Chemical Polishing and RF Testing of the 56 MHz SRF Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrill,A.

    2009-01-01

    The 56 MHz cavity presents a unique challenge in preparing it for RF testing prior to construction of the cryomodule. This challenge arises due to the physical dimensions and subsequent weight of the cavity, and is further complicated by the coaxial geometry, and the need to properly chemically etch and high pressure rinse the entire inner surface prior to RF testing. To the best of my knowledge, this is the largest all niobium SRF cavity to be chemically etched and subsequently tested in a vertical dewar at 4K, and these processes will be the topic of this technical note.

  3. Operating experience with high beta superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dylla, H.F.; Doolittle, L.R.; Benesch, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    The number of installed and operational β=1 superconducting rf cavities has grown significantly over the last two years in accelerator laboratories in Europe, Japan and the U.S. The total installed acceleration capability as of mid-1993 is approximately 1 GeV at nominal gradients. Major installations at CERN, DESY, KEK and CEBAF have provided large increments to the installed base and valuable operational experience. A selection of test data and operational experience gathered to date is reviewed

  4. Operating experience with high beta superconducting rf cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dylla, H.F.; Doolittle, L.R.; Benesch, J.F.

    1993-06-01

    The number of installed and operational β = 1 superconducting rf cavities has grown significantly over the last two years in accelerator laboratories in Europe, Japan and the US. The total installed acceleration capability as of mid-1993 is approximately 1 GeV at nominal gradients. Major installations at CERN, DESY, KEK and CEBAF have provided large increments to the installed base and valuable operational experience. A selection of test data and operational experience gathered to date is reviewed

  5. 1 MW, 352.2 MHz, CW and Pulsed RF test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badapanda, M.K.; Tripathi, Akhilesh; Upadhyay, Rinki; Tyagi, Rajiv; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    A 1 MW, 352.2 MHz, RF test stand based on Thales make TH 2089 klystron amplifier is being developed at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore for characterization and qualification of RF components, cavities and related subsystems. Provision to vary RF power from 50 kW to 1 MW with adequate flexibility for testing wide range of HV components, RF components and cavities is incorporated in this test stand. The paper presents a brief detail of various power supplies like high voltage cathode bias power supply, modulating anode power supply, filament power supply, electromagnet power supplies and ion pump power supplies along with their interconnections for biasing TH 2089 klystron amplifier. A digital control and interlock system is being developed to realize proper sequence of operation of various power supplies and to monitor the status of crucial parameters in this test set up. This RF test stand will be a unique national facility, capable of providing both CW and pulse RF power for realizing reliable RF power sources for various projects including the development of high energy proton linac under ADSS program of the Department of Atomic Energy. (author)

  6. Niobium superconducting rf cavity fabrication by electrohydraulic forming

    CERN Document Server

    Cantergiani, E.; Léaux, F.; Perez Fontenla, A.T.; Prunet, S.; Dufay-Chanat, L.; Koettig, T.; Bertinelli, F.; Capatina, O.; Favre, G.; Gerigk, F.; Jeanson, A. C.; Fuzeau, J.; Avrillaud, G.; Alleman, D.; Bonafe, J.; Marty, P.

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting rf (SRF) cavities are traditionally fabricated from superconducting material sheets or made of copper coated with superconducting material, followed by trim machining and electron-beam welding. An alternative technique to traditional shaping methods, such as deep-drawing and spinning, is electrohydraulicforming (EHF). InEHF, half-cells areobtainedthrough ultrahigh-speed deformation ofblank sheets, using shockwaves induced in water by a pulsed electrical discharge. With respect to traditional methods, such a highly dynamic process can yield interesting results in terms of effectiveness, repeatability, final shape precision, higher formability, and reduced springback. In this paper, the first results of EHFon high purity niobium are presented and discussed. The simulations performed in order to master the multiphysics phenomena of EHF and to adjust its process parameters are presented. The microstructures of niobium half- cells produced by EHFand by spinning have been compared in terms of damage...

  7. Nouvelle application de control des cavités 200 MHz RF du PS (CERN)

    CERN Document Server

    Cotte, D

    2011-01-01

    Le système Radio Fréquence (RF) 200MHz du PS est un outil essentiel pour la préparation des faisceaux haute intensité du PS. Dans l’anneau PS on trouve 6 cavités 200 MHz utilisées pour contrôler : • l’émittance longitudinale des « bunches » • le processus de « Rebunching » du faisceau avant de l’envoyer au SPS. Chaque cavité est pilotée par des événements appelés « timing » et suit une fonction de tension programmée. Cependant, l’électronique utilisée pour piloter les cavités 200 MHz du PS est obsolète et sa fiabilité non garantie pour cause du manque de pièces de rechange. Ce document décrit le fonctionnement du nouveau programme d’application qui fait abstraction de l’ancienne matrice hardware. Elle suit les recommandations décrites dans l’étude d’une nouvelle structure pour le système RF 200MHz du PS. [1

  8. Preparation and handling of superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Takaaki

    1990-01-01

    The present paper outlines the recent preparation methods for superconducting cavities used in various laboratories and universities, and reports the problems of the cavity fabrication at KEK as an example of mass production. Preparation and handling are first addressed, focusing on material, fabrication, surface treatment, rinsing, clean environment, and heat treatment. Cavity production at KEK is then described, centering on defects on the surface and clean environments. Field gradients of more than 20 MV/m have been obtained by 1.5-3 GHz single cavities, for multi-cell cavities Eacc of 10 MV/m are available at any frequency range. The successful construction of thirty-two cavities for TRISTAN at KEK is due to the careful checking of the surface and quality control of all processes against the surface defects and contaminations. Eacc of 5 MV/m has been achieved by 94 % of the TRISTAN cavities at the first cold test, but 6 % of them had to be reworked because of the surface defects. These defects could not be detected by an X-ray photograph or visual inspections during the fabrication processes. (N.K.)

  9. Nano-fabricated superconducting radio-frequency composites, method for producing nano-fabricated superconducting rf composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norem, James H.; Pellin, Michael J.

    2013-06-11

    Superconducting rf is limited by a wide range of failure mechanisms inherent in the typical manufacture methods. This invention provides a method for fabricating superconducting rf structures comprising coating the structures with single atomic-layer thick films of alternating chemical composition. Also provided is a cavity defining the invented laminate structure.

  10. Testing of inductive output tube based RF amplifier for 650 MHz SRF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, A.; Som, S.; Manna, S.K.; Ghosh, S.; Seth, S.; Thakur, S.K.; Saha, S.; Panda, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    A 650 MHz IOT based RF amplifier has been developed in VECC. It can be used to power several cavity modules in high energy high current proton linear accelerator to be built for ADSS programme in India and in Project-X at Fermilab, USA. The IOT based amplifier requires different powers supplies, water cooling and forced air cooling for its operation. A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) based interlocks has been incorporated to take care of systematic on/off of the power supplies and driver amplifier, water flow, air flow and other interlocks for the safe operation of the RF System. In addition to that EPICS based RF operating console and data logging/monitoring system has been added. (author)

  11. Status of rf superconductivity at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovich, P.M.; Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the status of hardware development for the linac portion of the Argonne tandem-linac accelerator system (ATLAS). The ATLAS superconducting linac consists of an independent-phased array of 45 superconducting niobium resonators of the split-ring type. The linac has been operating in its present form since 1985, on a 24-hours per day, 5 days per week schedule. An upgrade of the ATLAS system is currently under construction the positive-ion injector (PII). The PII system will consist of an ECR positive-ion source mounted on a high-voltage platform injecting a very-low-velocity superconducting linac. The completed system will provide for the acceleration of beams of mass up to uranium, and will replace the tandem electrostatic accelerator as the injector for ATLAS. The status of resonator development for the superconducting linac is reported in this paper. Accelerating gradients in the existing ATLAS linac are currently limited by excessive heating and rf loss in the fast-tuning system associated with each superconducting resonator. Development of an upgraded fast-tuning system is also reported here. 7 refs., 5 figs

  12. The PS 13.3-20 MHZ RF Systems for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Garoby, R; Haase, M; Krusche, A; Maesen, P; Morvillo, M; Paoluzzi, M; Rossi, C

    2003-01-01

    As part of the preparation of the PS as an injector for the LHC, a prototype 20 MHz rf system has been used, to demonstrate that the nominal longitudinal performance of the proton beam for LHC can be obtained using multiple bunch-splittings. Based on these successful results obtained during 2000, the development of the operational rf system began in 2001. To allow the preparation of bunch trains with a bunch spacing of 25 or 75 ns, this system must operate either at 20 or 13.3 MHz respectively. Two new ferrite cavities and their associated amplifiers have been designed and built. Each one can provide a maximum voltage of 20 kV peak during 200 ms with a 10% duty cycle. The cavities are equipped with fast (~20 ms) gap shorting relays, and rf feedback reduces their Q below 10 at both frequencies. A single system is sufficient to generate the nominal beam for LHC. The second one will then be both a "hot spare" and a very valuable performance enhancement providing the possibility of handling a larger than nominal ...

  13. SNS Superconducting RF cavity modeling-iterative learning control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.-I.; Regan, Amy; Wang, Y.-M.

    2002-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Superconducting RF (SRF) linear accelerator is operated with a pulsed beam. For the SRF control system to track the repetitive electromagnetic field reference trajectory, both feedback and feedforward controllers have been proposed. The feedback controller is utilized to guarantee the closed loop system stability and the feedforward controller is used to improve the tracking performance for the repetitive reference trajectory and to suppress repetitive disturbances. As the iteration number increases, the feedforward controller decreases the tracking error. Numerical simulations demonstrate that inclusion of the feedforward controller significantly improves the control system performance over its performance with just the feedback controller

  14. SNS Superconducting RF cavity modeling-iterative learning control

    CERN Document Server

    Kwon, S I; Wang, Y M

    2002-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Superconducting RF (SRF) linear accelerator is operated with a pulsed beam. For the SRF control system to track the repetitive electromagnetic field reference trajectory, both feedback and feedforward controllers have been proposed. The feedback controller is utilized to guarantee the closed loop system stability and the feedforward controller is used to improve the tracking performance for the repetitive reference trajectory and to suppress repetitive disturbances. As the iteration number increases, the feedforward controller decreases the tracking error. Numerical simulations demonstrate that inclusion of the feedforward controller significantly improves the control system performance over its performance with just the feedback controller.

  15. Design Topics for Superconducting RF Cavities and Ancillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padamsee, H

    2014-01-01

    RF superconductivity has become a major subfield of accelerator science. There has been an explosion in the number of accelerator applications and in the number of laboratories engaged. The first lecture at this meeting of the CAS presented a review of fundamental design principles to develop cavity geometries to accelerate velocity-of-light particles (β = v/c ~ 1), moving on to the corresponding design principles for medium-velocity (medium-β) and low-velocity (low-β) structures. The lecture included mechanical design topics. The second lecture dealt with input couplers, higher-order mode extraction couplers with absorbers, and tuners of both the slow and fast varieties

  16. Design Topics for Superconducting RF Cavities and Ancillaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padamsee, H [Cornell University, CLASSE (United States)

    2014-07-01

    RF superconductivity has become a major subfield of accelerator science. There has been an explosion in the number of accelerator applications and in the number of laboratories engaged. The first lecture at this meeting of the CAS presented a review of fundamental design principles to develop cavity geometries to accelerate velocity-of-light particles (β = v/c ~ 1), moving on to the corresponding design principles for medium-velocity (medium-β) and low-velocity (low-β) structures. The lecture included mechanical design topics. The second lecture dealt with input couplers, higher-order mode extraction couplers with absorbers, and tuners of both the slow and fast varieties.

  17. Muon spin rotation studies of niobium for superconducting rf applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grassellino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate superconducting properties of niobium samples via application of the muon spin rotation/relaxation (μSR technique. We employ for the first time the μSR technique to study samples that are cut out from large and small grain 1.5 GHz radio frequency (rf single cell niobium cavities. The rf test of these cavities was accompanied by full temperature mapping to characterize the rf losses in each of the samples. Results of the μSR measurements show that standard cavity surface treatments like mild baking and buffered chemical polishing performed on the studied samples affect their surface pinning strength. We find an interesting correlation between high field rf losses and field dependence of the sample magnetic volume fraction measured via μSR. The μSR line width observed in zero-field-μSR measurements matches the behavior of Nb samples doped with minute amounts of Ta or N impurities. A lower and an upper bound for the upper critical field H_{c2} of these cutouts is found.

  18. A 201-MHz Normal Conducting RF Cavity for the International MICE Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; DeMello, A.J.; Virostek, Steve; Zisman, Michael S.; Rimmer, Robert

    2008-01-01

    MICE is a demonstration experiment for the ionization cooling of muon beams. Eight RF cavities are proposed to be used in the MICE cooling channel. These cavities will be operated in a strong magnetic field; therefore, they must be normal conducting. The cavity design and construction are based on the successful experience and techniques developed for a 201-MHz prototype cavity for the US MUCOOL program. Taking advantage of a muon beamΛ s penetration property, the cavity employs a pair of curved thin beryllium windows to terminate conventional beam irises and achieve higher cavity shunt impedance. The cavity resembles a round, closed pillbox cavity. Two half-shells spun from copper sheets are joined by e-beam welding to form the cavity body. There are four ports on the cavity equator for RF couplers, vacuum pumping and field probes. The ports are formed by means of an extruding technique.

  19. Phase loop bandwidth measurements on the advanced photon source 352 MHz rf systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, D.; Nassiri, A.; Schwartz, C.

    1997-01-01

    Phase loop bandwidth tests were performed on the Advanced Photon Source storage ring 352-MHz rf systems. These measurements were made using the HP3563A Control Systems Analyzer, with the rf systems running at 30 kilowatts into each of the storage ring cavities, without stored beam. An electronic phase shifter was used to inject approximately 14 degrees of stimulated phase shift into the low-level rf system, which produced measureable response voltage in the feedback loops without upsetting normal rf system operation. With the PID (proportional-integral-differential) amplifier settings at the values used during accelerator operation, the measurement data revealed that the 3-dB response for the cavity sum and klystron power-phase loops is approximately 7 kHz and 45 kHz, respectively, with the cavities the primary bandwidth-limiting factor in the cavity-sum loop. Data were taken at various PID settings until the loops became unstable. Crosstalk between the two phase loops was measured

  20. New high power 200 MHz RF system for the LANSCE drift tube linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyles, J.; Friedrichs, C.; Lynch, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) linac provides an 800 MeV direct H + proton beam, and injects H - to the upgraded proton storage ring for charge accumulation for the Short Pulse Spallation Source. Accelerating these interlaced beams requires high average power from the 201.25 MHz drift tube linac (DTL) RF system. Three power amplifiers have operated at up to three Megawatts with 12% duty factor. The total number of electron power tubes in the RF amplifiers and their modulators has been reduced from fifty-two to twenty-four. The plant continues to utilize the original design of a tetrode driving a super power triode. Further increases in the linac duty factor are limited, in part, by the maximum dissipation ratings of the triodes. A description of the system modifications proposed to overcome these limitations includes new power amplifiers using low-level RF modulation for tank field control. The first high power Diacrode reg-sign is being delivered and a new amplifier cavity is being designed. With only eight power tubes, the new system will deliver both peak power and high duty factor, with lower mains power and cooling requirements. The remaining components needed for the new RF system will be discussed

  1. Niobium superconducting rf cavity fabrication by electrohydraulic forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantergiani, E.; Atieh, S.; Léaux, F.; Perez Fontenla, A. T.; Prunet, S.; Dufay-Chanat, L.; Koettig, T.; Bertinelli, F.; Capatina, O.; Favre, G.; Gerigk, F.; Jeanson, A. C.; Fuzeau, J.; Avrillaud, G.; Alleman, D.; Bonafe, J.; Marty, P.

    2016-11-01

    Superconducting rf (SRF) cavities are traditionally fabricated from superconducting material sheets or made of copper coated with superconducting material, followed by trim machining and electron-beam welding. An alternative technique to traditional shaping methods, such as deep-drawing and spinning, is electrohydraulic forming (EHF). In EHF, half-cells are obtained through ultrahigh-speed deformation of blank sheets, using shockwaves induced in water by a pulsed electrical discharge. With respect to traditional methods, such a highly dynamic process can yield interesting results in terms of effectiveness, repeatability, final shape precision, higher formability, and reduced springback. In this paper, the first results of EHF on high purity niobium are presented and discussed. The simulations performed in order to master the multiphysics phenomena of EHF and to adjust its process parameters are presented. The microstructures of niobium half-cells produced by EHF and by spinning have been compared in terms of damage created in the material during the forming operation. The damage was assessed through hardness measurements, residual resistivity ratio (RRR) measurements, and electron backscattered diffraction analyses. It was found that EHF does not worsen the damage of the material during forming and instead, some areas of the half-cell have shown lower damage compared to spinning. Moreover, EHF is particularly advantageous to reduce the forming time, preserve roughness, and to meet the final required shape accuracy.

  2. High-resolution simulations of the thermophysiological effects of human exposure to 100 MHz RF energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, David A; Curran, Allen R; Nyberg, Hans A; Marttila, Eric A; Mason, Patrick A; Ziriax, John M

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic energy is known to result in tissue heating and can raise temperatures substantially in some situations. Standards for safe exposure to RF do not reflect bio-heat transfer considerations however. Thermoregulatory function (vasodilation, sweating) may mitigate RF heating effects in some environments and exposure scenarios. Conversely, a combination of an extreme environment (high temperature, high humidity), high activity levels and thermally insulating garments may exacerbate RF exposure and pose a risk of unsafe temperature elevation, even for power densities which might be acceptable in a normothermic environment. A high-resolution thermophysiological model, incorporating a heterogeneous tissue model of a seated adult has been developed and used to replicate a series of whole-body exposures at a frequency (100 MHz) which approximates that of human whole-body resonance. Exposures were simulated at three power densities (4, 6 and 8 mW cm −2 ) plus a sham exposure and at three different ambient temperatures (24, 28 and 31 °C). The maximum hypothalamic temperature increase over the course of a 45 min exposure was 0.28 °C and occurred in the most extreme conditions (T amb = 31 °C, PD = 8 mW cm −2 ). Skin temperature increases attributable to RF exposure were modest, with the exception of a ‘hot spot’ in the vicinity of the ankle where skin temperatures exceeded 39 °C. Temperature increases in internal organs and tissues were small, except for connective tissue and bone in the lower leg and foot. Temperature elevation also was noted in the spinal cord, consistent with a hot spot previously identified in the literature. (paper)

  3. New Control Structure of the 10 MHz RF System in the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H

    2013-01-01

    The 10MHz cavities comprise the main RF system in the CERN PS and the only one that allows acceleration. In total 11 tunable cavities (10 operational and a hot spare, grouped into 3+1 tuning groups and up to presently 6 voltage program groups) are distributed all around the circumference of the PS ring. Next to the RF drive signal each of the cavities is controlled by a voltage program and timing pulses to open and close the relays to short-circuit the cavity gaps. These control signals are presently generated by a dedicated hardware matrix. It translates voltage functions and relay timing pulses per cavity group into functions and timings per cavity. However, due to its central position in the RF beam control system, the dedicated hardware matrix can cause significant downtime in case of a major hardware failure. Instead of upgrading the existing obsolete hardware, this note suggests a replacement by standard controls hardware and dedicated application software. Thanks to advanced software concepts like “M...

  4. Cerenkov Radiator Driven by a Superconducting RF Electron Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, B.R.; Harris, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), Niowave, Inc., and Boeing have recently demonstrated operation of the first superconducting RF electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator structure. In preliminary tests, this gun has produced 10 ps long bunches with charge in excess of 78 pC, and with beam energy up to 396 keV. Initial testing occurred at Niowave's Lansing, MI facility, but the gun and diagnostic beam line are planned for installation in California in the near future. The design of the diagnostic beam line is conducive to the addition of a Cerenkov radiator without interfering with other beam line operations. Design and simulations of a Cerenkov radiator, consisting of a dielectric lined waveguide will be presented. The dispersion relation for the structure is determined and the beam interaction is studied using numerical simulations. The characteristics of the microwave radiation produced in both the short and long bunch regimes will be presented.

  5. Adaptive Feedforward Cancellation of Sinusoidal Disturbances in Superconducting RF Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Kandil, T H; Hartung, W; Khalil, H; Popielarski, J; Vincent, J; York, R C

    2004-01-01

    A control method, known as adaptive feedforward cancellation (AFC) is applied to damp sinusoidal disturbances due to microphonics in superconducting RF (SRF) cavities. AFC provides a method for damping internal, and external sinusoidal disturbances with known frequencies. It is preferred over other schemes because it uses rudimentary information about the frequency response at the disturbance frequencies, without the necessity of knowing an analytic model (transfer function) of the system. It estimates the magnitude and phase of the sinusoidal disturbance inputs and generates a control signal to cancel their effect. AFC, along with a frequency estimation process, is shown to be very successful in the cancellation of sinusoidal signals from different sources. The results of this research may significantly reduce the power requirements and increase the stability for lightly loaded continuous-wave SRF systems.

  6. 1.3 GHz superconducting RF cavity program at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsburg, C.M.; Arkan, T.; Barbanotti, S.; Carter, H.; Champion, M.; Cooley, L.; Cooper, C.; Foley, M.; Ge, M.; Grimm, C.; Harms, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    At Fermilab, 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are prepared, qualified, and assembled into cryomodules (CMs) for Project X, an International Linear Collider (ILC), or other future projects. The 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program includes targeted R&D on 1-cell 1.3 GHz cavities for cavity performance improvement. Production cavity qualification includes cavity inspection, surface processing, clean assembly, and one or more cryogenic low-power CW qualification tests which typically include performance diagnostics. Qualified cavities are welded into helium vessels and are cryogenically tested with pulsed high-power. Well performing cavities are assembled into cryomodules for pulsed high-power testing in a cryomodule test facility, and possible installation into a beamline. The overall goals of the 1.3 GHz SRF cavity program, supporting facilities, and accomplishments are described.

  7. Rf structure of superconducting cyclotron for therapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekoshi, Hidekuni; Matsuki, Seishi; Mashiko, Katuo; Shikazono, Naomoto.

    1981-01-01

    Advantages of fast neutrons in therapeutical application are now widely recognized. Fast neutrons are generated by bombarding a thick beryllium target with high energy protons and deuterons. The AVF cyclotrons which deliver 50 MeV protons and 25 MeV deuterons are commonly used and are commercially available now. At the treatment usually rotational irradiation is taken to prevent an injury to normal tissue from the high LET effect of fast neutrons. The construction cost of both cyclotrons and isocentric irradiation installation are relatively high, so that the spread of neutron therapy is obstructed. A superconducting cyclotron for neutron therapy application was proposed by a Chalk River group. This low cost design allows the installation to be a dedicated facility located in a hospital, and small size allows installations of the complete cyclotron in a rotatable gantry. The design studies of the superconducting cyclotron based on this idea are going on at Kyoto University. The full scale model experiments for a rf structure of the cyclotron were carried out. (author)

  8. High temperature superconducting films by rf magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadin, A.M.; Ballentine, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have produced sputtered films of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O by rf magnetron sputtering from an oxide target consisting of loose reacted powder. The use of a large 8-inch stoichiometric target in the magnetron mode permits films located above the central region to be free of negative-ion resputtering effects, and hence yields reproducible, uniform stoichiometric compositions for a wide range of substrate temperatures. Superconducting YBCO films have been obtained either by sputtering at low temperatures followed by an 850 0 C oxygen anneal, or alternatively by depositing onto substrates heated to ∼600 - 650 0 C and cooling in oxygen. Films prepared by the former method on cubic zirconia substrate consist of randomly oriented crystallites with zero resistance above 83 K. Those deposited on zirconia at medium temperatures without the high-temperature anneal contain smooth partially oriented crystallites, with a slightly depressed T/sub c/ ∼75K. Finally, superconducting films have been deposited on MgO using a BiSrCaCu/sub 2/O/sub x/ powder target

  9. rf measurements and tuning of the 750 MHz radio frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubek, Benjamin; Grudiev, Alexej; Timmins, Marc

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of the program on medical applications a compact 750 MHz RFQ has been designed and built to be used as an injector for a hadron therapy linac. This RFQ was designed to accelerate protons to an energy of 5 MeV within only 2 m length. It is divided into four segments and equipped with 32 tuners in total. The length of the RFQ corresponds to 5 λ which is considered to be close to the limit for field adjustment using only piston tuners. Moreover the high frequency, which is about double the frequency of existing RFQs, results in a sensitive structure and requires careful tuning. In this paper we present the tuning algorithm, the tuning procedure and rf measurements of the RFQ.

  10. rf measurements and tuning of the 750 MHz radio frequency quadrupole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Koubek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the program on medical applications a compact 750 MHz RFQ has been designed and built to be used as an injector for a hadron therapy linac. This RFQ was designed to accelerate protons to an energy of 5 MeV within only 2 m length. It is divided into four segments and equipped with 32 tuners in total. The length of the RFQ corresponds to 5λ which is considered to be close to the limit for field adjustment using only piston tuners. Moreover the high frequency, which is about double the frequency of existing RFQs, results in a sensitive structure and requires careful tuning. In this paper we present the tuning algorithm, the tuning procedure and rf measurements of the RFQ.

  11. RF Measurements and Tuning of the 750 MHz HF-RFQ

    CERN Document Server

    Koubek, Benjamin; Timmins, Marc; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    In the frame of the program on medical applications CERN has built a compact 750 MHz RFQ to be used as an injector for a hadron therapy linac. This RFQ was designed to accelerate protons to an energy of 5 {\\lambda} MeV within only 2 m length. It is divided into four segments and equipped with 32 tuners in total. The length of the RFQ corresponds to 5 which is considered to be close to the limit for field adjustment using only piston tuners. Moreover the high frequency, which is about double the frequency of existing RFQs, results in a sensitive structure and requires careful tuning by means of the alignment of the pumping ports and fixed tuners. This report summarises the tuning procedure, RF and bead pull measurements of the RFQ.

  12. RF, Thermal and Structural Analysis of the 201.25 MHz Muon Ionization Cooling Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virostek, S.; Li, D.

    2005-01-01

    A finite element analysis has been carried out to characterize the RF, thermal and structural behavior of the prototype 201.25 MHz cavity for a muon ionization cooling channel. A single ANSYS model has been developed to perform all of the calculations in a multi-step process. The high-gradient closed-cell cavity is currently being fabricated for the MICE (international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment) and MUCOOL experiments. The 1200 mm diameter cavity is constructed of 6 mm thick copper sheet and incorporates a rounded pillbox-like profile with an open beam iris terminated by 420 mm diameter, 0.38 mm thick curved beryllium foils. Tuning is accomplished through elastic deformation of the cavity, and cooling is provided by external water passages. Details of the analysis methodology will be presented including a description of the ANSYS macro that computes the heat loads from the RF solution and applies them directly to the thermal model. The process and results of a calculation to determine the resulting frequency shift due to thermal and structural distortion of the cavity will also be presented

  13. Development of an automatic frequency control system for an X-band (=9300 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sungsu, E-mail: sscha@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byung Cheol [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Dal [Radiation Technology eXcellence(RTX), Daejeon 34025 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hyun [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University(SKKU), Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Buaphad, Pikad [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Radiation Technology eXcellence(RTX), Daejeon 34025 (Korea, Republic of); Accelerator and Nuclear Fusion Physical Engineering, University of Science and Technology(UST), Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-21

    KAERI is developing a 6 MeV X-band radio frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for medical purposes. The proposed X-band accelerator consists of an e-gun, an accelerating structure, two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, a modulator, and an automatic frequency control (AFC) system. The accelerating structure of the component consists of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the ambient temperature changes the volume, and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure also changes. If the RF frequency of a 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure do not match, it can degrade the performance. That is, it will decrease the output power, lower the beam current, decrease the X-ray dose rate, increase the reflection power, and result in unstable operation of the accelerator. Accelerator operation should be possible at any time during all four seasons. To prevent humans from being exposed to radiation when it is operated, the accelerator should also be operable through remote monitoring and remote control. Therefore, the AFC system is designed to meet these requirements; it is configured based on the concept of a phase-locked loop (PLL) model, which includes an RF section, an intermediate frequency (IF) [1-3] section, and a local oscillator (LO) section. Some resonance frequency controllers use a DC motor, chain, and potentiometer to store the position and tune the frequency [4,5]. Our AFC system uses a step motor to tune the RF frequency of the magnetron. The maximum tuning turn number of our magnetron frequency tuning shaft is ten. Since the RF frequency of our magnetron is 9300±25 MHz, it gives 5 MHz (∵±25 MHz/10 turns → 50 MHz/10 turns =5 MHz/turn) frequency tuning per turn. The rotation angle of our step motor is 0.72° per step and the total step number per one rotation is 360°/0.72°=500 steps. Therefore, the tuning range per step is 10 kHz/step (=5 MHz per turn/500 steps per

  14. Development of an automatic frequency control system for an X-band (=9300 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byung Cheol; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Buaphad, Pikad

    2017-05-01

    KAERI is developing a 6 MeV X-band radio frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for medical purposes. The proposed X-band accelerator consists of an e-gun, an accelerating structure, two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, a modulator, and an automatic frequency control (AFC) system. The accelerating structure of the component consists of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the ambient temperature changes the volume, and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure also changes. If the RF frequency of a 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure do not match, it can degrade the performance. That is, it will decrease the output power, lower the beam current, decrease the X-ray dose rate, increase the reflection power, and result in unstable operation of the accelerator. Accelerator operation should be possible at any time during all four seasons. To prevent humans from being exposed to radiation when it is operated, the accelerator should also be operable through remote monitoring and remote control. Therefore, the AFC system is designed to meet these requirements; it is configured based on the concept of a phase-locked loop (PLL) model, which includes an RF section, an intermediate frequency (IF) [1-3] section, and a local oscillator (LO) section. Some resonance frequency controllers use a DC motor, chain, and potentiometer to store the position and tune the frequency [4,5]. Our AFC system uses a step motor to tune the RF frequency of the magnetron. The maximum tuning turn number of our magnetron frequency tuning shaft is ten. Since the RF frequency of our magnetron is 9300±25 MHz, it gives 5 MHz (∵±25 MHz/10 turns → 50 MHz/10 turns =5 MHz/turn) frequency tuning per turn. The rotation angle of our step motor is 0.72° per step and the total step number per one rotation is 360°/0.72°=500 steps. Therefore, the tuning range per step is 10 kHz/step (=5 MHz per turn/500 steps per

  15. Development of an automatic frequency control system for an X-band (=9300 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byung Cheol; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Buaphad, Pikad

    2017-01-01

    KAERI is developing a 6 MeV X-band radio frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for medical purposes. The proposed X-band accelerator consists of an e-gun, an accelerating structure, two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, a modulator, and an automatic frequency control (AFC) system. The accelerating structure of the component consists of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the ambient temperature changes the volume, and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure also changes. If the RF frequency of a 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure do not match, it can degrade the performance. That is, it will decrease the output power, lower the beam current, decrease the X-ray dose rate, increase the reflection power, and result in unstable operation of the accelerator. Accelerator operation should be possible at any time during all four seasons. To prevent humans from being exposed to radiation when it is operated, the accelerator should also be operable through remote monitoring and remote control. Therefore, the AFC system is designed to meet these requirements; it is configured based on the concept of a phase-locked loop (PLL) model, which includes an RF section, an intermediate frequency (IF) [1-3] section, and a local oscillator (LO) section. Some resonance frequency controllers use a DC motor, chain, and potentiometer to store the position and tune the frequency [4,5]. Our AFC system uses a step motor to tune the RF frequency of the magnetron. The maximum tuning turn number of our magnetron frequency tuning shaft is ten. Since the RF frequency of our magnetron is 9300±25 MHz, it gives 5 MHz (∵±25 MHz/10 turns → 50 MHz/10 turns =5 MHz/turn) frequency tuning per turn. The rotation angle of our step motor is 0.72° per step and the total step number per one rotation is 360°/0.72°=500 steps. Therefore, the tuning range per step is 10 kHz/step (=5 MHz per turn/500 steps per

  16. 470‐MHz–698‐MHz IEEE 802.15.4m Compliant RF CMOS Transceiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngho Seo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an IEEE 802.15.4m compliant TV white‐space orthogonal frequency‐division multiplexing (TVWS‐(OFDM radio frequency (RF transceiver that can be adopted in advanced metering infrastructures, universal remote controllers, smart factories, consumer electronics, and other areas. The proposed TVWS‐OFDM RF transceiver consists of a receiver, a transmitter, a 25% duty‐cycle local oscillator generator, and a delta‐sigma fractional‐N phase‐locked loop. In the TV band from 470 MHz to 698 MHz, the highly linear RF transmitter protects the occupied TV signals, and the high‐Q filtering RF receiver is tolerable to in‐band interferers as strong as −20 dBm at a 3‐MHz offset. The proposed TVWS‐OFDM RF transceiver is fabricated using a 0.13‐μm CMOS process, and consumes 47 mA in the Tx mode and 35 mA in the Rx mode. The fabricated chip shows a Tx average power of 0 dBm with an error‐vector‐magnitude of  3%, and a sensitivity level of −103 dBm with a packet‐error‐rate of 3%. Using the implemented TVWS‐OFDM modules, a public demonstration of electricity metering was successfully carried out.

  17. Technical training: RF superconductivity and accelerator cavity applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training

    2016-01-01

    We are happy to announce a new training course organised by the TE-VSC group in the field of the physics and applications of superconductors. The course provides an overview and update of the theory of radiofrequency and superconductors:   RF Superconductivity and Accelerator Cavity Applications https://cern.ch/course/?164VAC19 One timetable only:  Tuesday, 8 March 2016: from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. Wednesday, 9 March 2016: from 9.30 a.m to 11.30 a.m. Thursday, 10 March 2016: from 9.30 a.m to 11.30 a.m. Monday, 14 March 2016: from 9.30 a.m to 11.30 a.m. Tuesday, 15 March 2016: from 9.30 a.m to 11.30 a.m. Wednesday, 16 March 2016: from 9.30 a.m to 11.30 a.m. Thursday, 17 March 2016: from 9.30 a.m to 11.30 a.m. Target audience: Experts in radiofrequency or solid state physics (PhD level). Pre-requisites: Basic knowledge of quantum physics and superc...

  18. Electron Heating Mode Transitions in Nitrogen (13.56 and 40.68) MHz RF-CCPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erozbek Gungor, Ummugul; Bilikmen, Sinan Kadri; Akbar, Demiral

    2015-09-01

    Capacitively coupled radio frequency plasmas (RF-CCPs) are commonly used in plasma material processing. Parametrical structure of the plasma determines the demands of processing applications. For example; high density plasmas in gamma mode are mostly preferred for etching applications while stabile plasmas in gamma mode are usually used in sputtering applications. For this reason, characterization of the plasma is very essential before surface modification of the materials. In this work, analysis of electron heating mode transition in high frequency (40.68 MHz) RF-CCP was deeply investigated. The plasma was generated in a home-made (500 × 400 mm2) stainless steel cylindrical reactor in which two identical (200 mm in diameter) electrodes were placed with 40 mm interval. In addition, L-type automatic matching network system was connected to the 40.68 MHz RF generator to get high accuracy. Moreover, the pure (99.995 %) nitrogen was used as an activation gas on account of having an appreciable impression in plasma processing applications. Furthermore, diagnostic measurements of the plasma were done by using the Impedans Langmuir single and double probe systems. It was found that two transition points; α- γ (pressure dependent) and γ- α (RF power dependent) were observed in both medium and high RF-CCPs. As a result, the α- γ pressure transition increased, whereas the γ- α power transition remained constant by changing the RF frequency sources.

  19. Comparison of higher order modes damping techniques for 800 MHz single cell superconducting cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashkov, Ya. V.; Sobenin, N. P.; Petrushina, I. I.; Zobov, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    At present, applications of 800 MHz harmonic cavities in both bunch lengthening and shortening regimes are under consideration and discussion in the framework of the High Luminosity LHC project. In this paper we study electromagnetic characteristics of high order modes (HOMs) for a single cell 800 MHz superconducting cavity and arrays of such cavities connected by drifts tubes. Different techniques for the HOMs damping such as beam pipe grooves, coaxial-notch loads, fluted beam pipes etc. are investigated and compared. The influence of the sizes and geometry of the drift tubes on the HOMs damping is analyzed. The problems of a multipacting discharge in the considered structures are discussed and the operating frequency detuning due to the Lorentz force is evaluated.

  20. Comparison of higher order modes damping techniques for 800 MHz single cell superconducting cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shashkov, Ya.V., E-mail: shashkovyv@mail.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sobenin, N.P.; Petrushina, I.I. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zobov, M.M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati INFN, Rome (Italy)

    2014-12-11

    At present, applications of 800 MHz harmonic cavities in both bunch lengthening and shortening regimes are under consideration and discussion in the framework of the High Luminosity LHC project. In this paper we study electromagnetic characteristics of high order modes (HOMs) for a single cell 800 MHz superconducting cavity and arrays of such cavities connected by drifts tubes. Different techniques for the HOMs damping such as beam pipe grooves, coaxial-notch loads, fluted beam pipes etc. are investigated and compared. The influence of the sizes and geometry of the drift tubes on the HOMs damping is analyzed. The problems of a multipacting discharge in the considered structures are discussed and the operating frequency detuning due to the Lorentz force is evaluated.

  1. Introduction to Superconducting RF Structures and the Effect of High Pressure Rinsing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Tsuyoshi [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This presentation begins by describing RF superconductivity and SRF accelerating structures. Then the use of superconducting RF structures in a number of accelerators around the world is reviewed; for example, the International Linear Collider (ILC) will use ~16,000 SRF cavities with ~2,000 cryomodules to get 500 GeV e⁺/e⁻ colliding energy. Field emission control was (and still is) a very important practical issue for SRF cavity development. It has been found that high-pressure ultrapure water rinsing as a final cleaning step after chemical surface treatment resulted in consistent performance of single- and multicell superconducting cavities.

  2. Introduction to Superconducting RF Structures and the Effect of High Pressure Rinsing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This presentation begins by describing RF superconductivity and SRF accelerating structures. Then the use of superconducting RF structures in a number of accelerators around the world is reviewed; for example, the International Linear Collider (ILC) will use ~16,000 SRF cavities with ~2,000 cryomodules to get 500 GeV e@@@/e@@@ colliding energy. Field emission control was (and still is) a very important practical issue for SRF cavity development. It has been found that high-pressure ultrapure water rinsing as a final cleaning step after chemical surface treatment resulted in consistent performance of single- and multicell superconducting cavities.

  3. RF Power Detector/Monitor Upgrade for the 500MHz Systems at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptiste, K.

    2003-01-01

    Several systems rely on the accurate and linear detection of 500 MHz signals, (the fundamental frequency of both the Booster Ring and Storage Ring) over a dynamic range in excess of 25dB. Prior to this upgrade, the detector/monitor was diode based and though this type of detector could handle the dynamic range requirement it could not do so in an accurate and linear manner. In order to meet the requirements (dynamic range greater than or equal to 25dB, accurate and linear to +-0.25dB over the range, and additional circuitry to interface to the legacy control system and interlocks), a new RF Power Detector/Monitor has been developed using two AD8361, Analog Devices Tru RMS Detectors and a fuzzy comparator, which extends the overall detector's range to twice that of the AD8361. Further information is available [www.analogedevices.com/]. Details of the design requirements and the detector/monitor's circuit as well as the performance of the detector will be presented

  4. Design aspects of 13.56MHz, 1kW, CW-RF oscillator for plasma production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Kadia, Bhavesh; Singh, Raj; Varia, Atul; Srinivas, Y S S; Kulkarni, S V

    2010-01-01

    RF produced plasma has many applications in plasma processing and also it is useful in studying the fundamental characteristics of the plasma. A 1KW RF Hartley oscillator is designed and tested at 13.56 MHz. This has been built at RF section of Institute for Plasma Research by using EIMAC (3CX1200A7) triode tube. The RF source is operated in the grounded cathode mode. Triode 3CX1200A7 is operated in class AB and the feedback is Cathode grounded. The tube has sufficient margin in terms of plate dissipation and Grid dissipation that makes it suitable to withstand momentarily load mismatch. To optimize the RF source along with HVDC power supply many mechanical and electrical aspects have been thought of to enhance the overall quality of the system. This source mainly has three sections (The RF section, HVDC Power supply and soft start Filament Power supply). The system is compact and is housed in a 80 cm x 60 cm x 1800 cm aluminum panel. This paper describes the specifications, design criteria, circuit used, operating parameters of 1KW Oscillator along with HVDC power supply with necessary interlocks, tests conducted and results obtained of this 1 KW grounded grid Hartley Oscillator on 50 ohm dummy load. This system has been tested for 8 hours of continuous operation without any appreciable deterioration of the RF output power.

  5. Experimental Studies of Light Emission Phenomena in Superconducting RF Cavitites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, P.L.; /SLAC; Delayen, J.R.; /Jefferson Lab; Fryberger, D.; /SLAC; Goree, W.S.; Mammosser, J.; /Jefferson Lab /SNS Project, Oak Ridge; Szalata, Z.M.; II, J.G.Weisend /SLAC

    2009-08-04

    Experimental studies of light emission phenomena in superconducting RF cavities, which we categorize under the general heading of cavity lights, are described. The cavity lights data, which were obtained using a small CCD video camera, were collected in a series of nine experimental runs ranging from {approx} 1/2 to {approx} 2 h in duration. The video data were recorded on a standard VHS tape. As the runs progressed, additional instrumentation was added. For the last three runs a LabVIEW controlled data acquisition system was included. These runs furnish evidence for several, possibly related, light emission phenomena. The most intriguing of these is what appear to be small luminous objects {le} 1.5 mm in size, freely moving about in the vacuum space, generally without wall contact, as verified by reflections of the tracks in the cavity walls. In addition, on a number of occasions, these objects were observed to bounce off of the cavity walls. The wall-bounce aspect of most of these events was clearly confirmed by pre-bounce and post-bounce reflections concurrent with the tracks. In one of the later runs, a mode of behavior was observed that was qualitatively different from anything observed in the earlier runs. Perhaps the most perplexing aspect of this new mode was the observation of as many as seven luminous objects arrayed in what might be described as a macromolecular formation, coherently moving about in the interior of the cavity for extended periods of time, evidently without any wall contact. It is suggested that these mobile luminous objects are without explanation within the realm of established physics. Some remarks about more exotic theoretical possibilities are made, and future plans are discussed.

  6. Design, fabrication and low power RF testing of a prototype beta=1, 1050 MHz cavity developed for electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.; Mondal, J.; Mittal, K.C.

    2013-01-01

    A single cell 1050 MHz β = 1 elliptical cavity has been designed for possible use in High energy electron accelerator. A prototype Aluminium cavity has been fabricated by die punch method and low power testing of the cavity has been carried out by using VNA. The fundamental mode frequency of the prototype cavity is found out to be 1051.38 MHz and Q (loaded) and Q0 values corresponding to 2 modes are 8439 and 10013 respectively. Cell to cell coupling coefficient is 1.82 % from measurement which matches with the designed value (1.84%). The higher order mode frequencies are also measured and electric field of the cavity is confirmed by bead pull method. Low power RF measurements on the prototype cavity indicate that the critical RF parameters (Qo, f, Kc etc) for the cavity are consistent with the designed value. (author)

  7. Dependence of the microwave surface resistance of superconducting niobium on the magnitude of the rf field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanenko, A.; Grassellino, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

    2013-06-24

    Utilizing difference in temperature dependencies we decoupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and residual components of the microwave surface resistance of superconducting niobium at all rf fields up to B{sub rf}{approx}115 mT. We reveal that the residual resistance decreases with field at B{sub rf} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 40 mT and strongly increases in chemically treated niobium at B{sub rf}>80 mT. We find that BCS surface resistance is weakly dependent on field in the clean limit, whereas a strong and peculiar field dependence emerges after 120 Degree-Sign C vacuum baking.

  8. Digital base-band rf control system for the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konrad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The accelerating field in superconducting cavities has to be stabilized in amplitude and phase by a radio-frequency (rf control system. Because of their high loaded quality factor superconducting cavities are very susceptible for microphonics. To meet the increased requirements with respect to accuracy, availability, and diagnostics, the previous analog rf control system of the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC has been replaced by a digital rf control system. The new hardware consists of two components: An rf module that converts the signal from the cavity down to the base-band and a field-programmable gate array board including a soft CPU that carries out the signal processing steps of the control algorithm. Different algorithms are used for normal-conducting and superconducting cavities. To improve the availability of the control system, techniques for automatic firmware and software deployment have been implemented. Extensive diagnostic features provide the operator with additional information. The architecture of the rf control system as well as the functionality of its components will be presented along with measurements that characterize the performance of the system, yielding, e.g., an amplitude stabilization down to (ΔA/A_{rms}=7×10^{-5} and a phase stabilization of (Δϕ_{rms}=0.8° for superconducting cavities.

  9. Development of high power CW and pulsed RF test facility based on 1 MW, 352.2 MHz klystron amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badapanda, M.K.; Tripathi, Akhilesh; Upadhyay, Rinki; Rao, J.N.; Tiwari, Ashish; Jain, Akhilesh; Lad, M.R.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    A high power 1 MW, 352.2 MHz RF Test facility having CW and Pulse capability is being developed at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore for performance evaluation of various RF components, accelerating structures and related subsystems. Thales make 1 MW, 352.2 MHz klystron amplifier (TH 2089) will be employed in this high power test facility, which is thoroughly tested for its performance parameters at rated operating conditions. Auxiliary power supplies like filament, electromagnet, ion pump and mod anode power supply as well as 200 W solid state driver amplifier necessary for this high power test facility have been developed. A high voltage floating platform is created for floating filament and mod anode power supplies. Interconnection of various power supplies and other subsystems of this test facility are being carried out. A high voltage 100 kV, 25 Amp DC crowbar less power supply and low conductivity water (LCW) plant required for this klystron amplifier are in advanced stage of development. NI make cRIO 9081 real time (RT) controller based control and interlock system has been developed to realize proper sequence of operation of various power supplies and to monitor the status of crucial parameters in this test facility. This RF test facility will provide confidence for development of RF System of future accelerators like SNS and ADSS. (author)

  10. A 201 MHz RF cavity design with non-stressed pre-curved Be windows for muon cooling channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Derun; Ladran, A.; Staples, J.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Lau, W.; Yang, S.; Rimmer, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present a 201-MHz RF cavity design for muon cooling channels with non-stressed and pre-curved Be foils to terminate the beam apertures. The Be foils are necessary to improve the cavity shunt impedance with large beam apertures needed for accommodating large transverse size muon beams. Be is a low-Z material with good electrical and thermal properties. It presents an almost transparent window to muon beams, but terminates the RF cavity electro-magnetically. Previous designs use pre-stressed flat Be foils in order to keep cavity from detuning resulted from RF heating on the window surface. Be foils are expensive, and it is difficult to make them under desired tension. An alternative design is to use pre-curved and non-stressed Be foils where the buckling direction is known, and frequency shifts can be properly predicted. We will present mechanical simulations on the Be foils in this paper

  11. Design and development of 75 MHz 1 kW RF system with micro-controller based protection and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosily, Sherry; Pande, Manjiri; Handu, V.K.

    2011-01-01

    A 75 MHz, 1 kW Radio Frequency (RF) system has been successfully tested on a 50 ohm load, along with a microcontroller based protection circuit for protection of the system against the possible problems that may occur during RF power coupling to Radio Frequency Quadrapole (RFQ) load. This paper describes major challenges faced during the development and methods by which they have been overcome. Measurement of the tube anode temperature which is at 4 kV dc and 1 kW RF power is one of these. Confidence provided by these successful experiences has inspired an exploration of possibilities for further enhancement of the present system. These are also discussed in the paper. (author)

  12. Submacropulse electron-beam dynamics correlated with higher-order modes in Tesla-type superconducting rf cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Lumpkin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the direct observations of submacropulse beam centroid oscillations correlated with higher order modes (HOMs which were generated by off-axis electron beam steering in TESLA-type superconducting rf cavities. The experiments were performed at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST facility using its unique configuration of a photocathode rf gun injecting beam into two separated nine-cell cavities in series with corrector magnets and beam position monitors (BPMs located before, between, and after them. Oscillations of ∼100  kHz in the vertical plane and ∼380  kHz in the horizontal plane with up to 600-μm amplitudes were observed in a 3-MHz micropulse repetition rate beam with charges of 100, 300, 500, and 1000  pC/b. However, the effects were much reduced at 100  pC/b. The measurements were based on HOM detector circuitry targeting the first and second dipole passbands, rf BPM bunch-by-bunch array data, imaging cameras, and a framing camera. Calculations reproduced the oscillation frequencies of the phenomena in the vertical case. In principle, these fundamental results may be scaled to cryomodule configurations of major accelerator facilities.

  13. On a possibility of using a superconducting cavity in the RF system of the storage ring LESR-N100

    CERN Document Server

    Androsov, V P; Telegin, Yu P

    2002-01-01

    In the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology the design project of the 200 MeV electron storage ring LESR-N100 is under development. The essential feature of this facility is the large beam energy spread (of about 1%). To ensure a reasonable beam lifetime the RF-system should provide the accelerating voltage of about 0.5 MV, while the total energy losses do not exceed approx 700 eV/turn. The power dissipated in two 700 MHz normal-conducting (NC) cavities much exceeds the power transmitted to the beam. We considered a possibility to use in LESR-N100 a high-Q superconducting RF-cavity (SRF-cavity) in which the dissipated power is the same order of magnitude as the beam-transmitted power. The studies show that the system with SRF-cavity cannot operate in the standard mode when the cavity is matched to the power transmission line at some nominal beam current. The optimal operation mode with high overcoupling is proposed that requires the RF-power one order of magnitude less than in the case of Nc-cavities.

  14. 3 GHz digital rf control at the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator: First results from the baseband approach and extensions for other frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Araz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The low level rf system for the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator (S-DALINAC developed 20 years ago and operating since converts the 3 GHz signals from the cavities down to the baseband and not to an intermediate frequency. While designing the new, digital rf control system this concept was kept: the rf module does the I/Q and amplitude modulation/demodulation while the low frequency board, housing an field programmable gate array analyzes and processes the signals. Recently, the flexibility of this concept was realized: By replacing the modulator/demodulators on the rf module, cavities operating at frequencies other than the one of the S-DALINAC can be controlled with only minor modifications: A 6 GHz version, needed for a harmonic bunching system at the S-DALINAC and a 324 MHz solution to be used on a room temperature cavity at GSI, are currently under design. This paper reviews the concept of the digital low level rf control loops in detail and reports on the results gained during first operation with a superconducting cavity.

  15. Cs2Te normal conducting photocathodes in the superconducting rf gun

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, R; Buettig, H; Janssen, D; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Schamlott, A; Schneider, Ch; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Teichert, J

    2010-01-01

    The superconducting radio frequency photoinjector (SRF gun) is one of the latest applications of superconducting rf technology in the accelerator field. Since superconducting photocathodes with high quantum efficiency are yet unavailable, normal conducting cathode material is the main choice for SRF photoinjectors. However, the compatibility between the photocathode and the cavity is one of the challenges for this concept. Recently, a SRF gun with Cs2Te cathode has been successfully operated in Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. In this paper, we will present the physical properties of Cs2Te photocathodes in the SC cavity, such as the quantum efficiency, the lifetime, the rejuvenation, the charge saturation, and the dark current.

  16. Mechanical Design and Fabrication Studies for SPL Superconducting RF Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Atieh, S; Aviles Santillana, I; Capatina, O; Renaglia, T; Tardy, T; Valverde Alonso, N; Weingarten, W

    2011-01-01

    CERN’s R&D programme on the Superconducting Proton Linac’s (SPL) superconducting radio frequency (SRF) elliptical cavities made from niobium sheets explores new mechanical design and consequently new fabrication methods, where several opportunities for improved optimization were identified. A stainless steel helium vessel is under design rather than a titanium helium vessel using an integrated brazed transition between Nb and the SS helium vessel. Different design and fabrication aspects were proposed and the results are discussed hereafter.

  17. Design and construction of the advanced photon source 352-MHz rf system switching control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, D.; Solita, L.; Reigle, D.; Dimonte, N.

    1997-01-01

    A switching control system has been designed and built to provide the capability of rapidly switching the waveguide and low-level cabling between different klystrons to operate the Advanced Photon Source storage ring in the event of a failure of a klystron system or to perform necessary repairs and preventative maintenance. The twelve possible modes of operation allow for complete redundancy of the booster synchrotron rf system and either a maximum of two storage ring rf systems to be completely off-line or one system to be used as a power source for an rf test stand. A programmable controller is used to send commands to intermediate control panels which interface to WR2300 waveguide switches and phase shifters, rf cavity interlock and low-level rf distribution systems, and klystron power supply controls for rapid reconfiguration of the rf systems in response to a mode-selection command. Mode selection is a local manual operation using a keyswitch arrangement which prevents more than one mode from being selected at a time. The programmable controller also monitors for hardware malfunction and guards against open-quotes hot-switchingclose quotes of the rf systems. The rf switching controls system is monitored via the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) for remote system status check

  18. Electromagnetic design of a β=0.9, 650 MHz elliptic superconducting radio frequency cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Arup Ratan; Kumar, V.

    2011-01-01

    We have recently performed two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetic design studies of a β=0.9, 650 MHz, elliptic superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavity using electromagnetic field solver code SUPERFISH. We have evolved the design starting from the design parameters of β=1, 1300 MHz, TESLA design SCRF cavity and then scaled it for the β=0.9 and 650 MHz case. The design has been optimized for minimizing the SCRF cavity power loss. One of the important parameters in the design of such elliptic SCRF cavities is the wall angle, which is defined as the vertical angle made by the common tangent to the iris and equator ellipses. Generally, there is a constraint on the minimum value of the wall angle, which is decided by the mechanical considerations, ease of chemical cleaning etc. In our optimization studies, we have first explored the case when there is no such constraint on wall angle. We find that from the point of view of low cavity power dissipation, the optimized design has a re-entrant geometry, where the wall angle is negative. We then perform design optimization, keeping the constraint that the wall angle should be greater than 5 degree. Keeping this constraint, we find that our optimized design parameters for the single cell match closely with the design parameters reported for Project-X. We discuss the results of 2D electromagnetic field calculations for this design using SUPERFISH. In the next, we have performed the design studies of the multi-cell β=0.9, 650 MHz, elliptic SCRF cavity. The design parameters of end-cells are optimized such that the frequency of the end-cell is matched to that of mid-cells. We have studied all the normal modes for the multi-cell cavity. The frequency of different normal modes is also calculated using a finite element code ANSYS and results are compared with those obtained using SUPERFISH. The field flatness, which is an important design criterion, is also studied. For multi-cell cavity, another important aspect is the cell

  19. Programmable optical processor chips: toward photonic RF filters with DSP-level flexibility and MHz-band selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Yiwei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated optical signal processors have been identified as a powerful engine for optical processing of microwave signals. They enable wideband and stable signal processing operations on miniaturized chips with ultimate control precision. As a promising application, such processors enables photonic implementations of reconfigurable radio frequency (RF filters with wide design flexibility, large bandwidth, and high-frequency selectivity. This is a key technology for photonic-assisted RF front ends that opens a path to overcoming the bandwidth limitation of current digital electronics. Here, the recent progress of integrated optical signal processors for implementing such RF filters is reviewed. We highlight the use of a low-loss, high-index-contrast stoichiometric silicon nitride waveguide which promises to serve as a practical material platform for realizing high-performance optical signal processors and points toward photonic RF filters with digital signal processing (DSP-level flexibility, hundreds-GHz bandwidth, MHz-band frequency selectivity, and full system integration on a chip scale.

  20. Traveling wave tube oscillator/amplifier with superconducting rf circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasper, L.J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a device comprising: an electron gun for producing an electron beam; a collector for collecting the electron beam; a vacuum housing surrounding the electron beam and having an integral slow wave circuit, the circuit being made from superconducting ceramic material; means for maintaining the temperature of the superconducting ceramic below its critical temperature; means for extracting an output signal from the slow wave circuit; means for creating a magnetic field within the vacuum housing so that interaction between the electron beam and the slow wave circuit produces the output signal

  1. Superconducting accelerometer using niobium-on-sapphire rf resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    An accelerometer is described which uses a rf niobium-on-sapphire resonator as its sensor element. The accelerometer uses a magnetically levitated spool as a test mass and the spool modulates the inductance of the resonator; its position is servo controlled to maintain the resonator at the external rf excitation frequency. The accelerometer has high sensitivity over the full audio frequency range, but is optimized for frequencies between 100 Hz and 1 kHz, where the calculated displacement sensitivity approaches 10 -15 cm for a 1 Hz measurement bandwidth. The system noise sources are analyzed and possible improvements are discussed

  2. Medium Power 352 MHZ solid state pulsed RF amplifiers for the CERN LINAC4 Project

    CERN Document Server

    Broere, J; Gómez Martínez, Y; Rossi, M

    2011-01-01

    Economic, modular and highly linear pulsed RF amplifiers have recently been developed to be used for the three buncher cavities in the CERN Linac4. The amplifiers are water-cooled and can provide up to 33 kW pulsed RF Power, 1.5 ms pulse length and 50 Hz repetition rate. Furthermore a 60 kW unit is under construction to provide the required RF Power for the debuncher cavity. The concept is based on 1.2 kW RF power modules using the latest 6th generation LDMOS technology. For integration into the CERN control environment the amplifiers have an internal industrial controller, which will provide easy control and extended diagnostic functions. This paper describes the construction, performance, including linearity, phase stability and EMC compliance tests

  3. Study of thermal effects in superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousson, S.; Caruette, A.; Fouaidy, M.; Hammoudi, N.; Junquera, T.; Lesrel, J.; Yaniche, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    A high speed thermometric system equipped with 64 fixed surface thermometers is used to investigate thermal effects in several 3 GHz cavities. An evaluation of the time response of our thermometers is presented. A method based on RF signal analysis is proposed to evaluate the normal zone propagation rate during thermal breakdown. (authors)

  4. Field profile and loading measurements on higher order modes in a two cell 500 MHz superconducting structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, W.; Edighoffer, J.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Fornaco, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Infrared Free Electron Laser, being designed at LBL as part of the Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory, is based on a 500 MHz superconducting linac driver that consists of five 4-cell structures of the CERN/DESY type. A 500 MHz, 2-cell version of this structure is being used in a joint Stanford/LBL/BNL program to study accelerator issues relevant to the FEL applications. As part of this study, field profile and loading measurements of higher order modes have been made on the prototype structure. (Author) 3 refs., 2 figs., tab

  5. Field profile and loading measurements on higher order modes in a two cell 500 MHz superconducting structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, W.; Edighoffer, J.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Fornaca, S.

    1992-08-01

    The Infrared Free Electron Laser, being designed at LBL as part of the Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory, is based on a 500 MHz superconducting linac driver that consists of five 4-cell structures of the CERN/DESY type. A 500 MHz, 2-cell version of this structure is being used in a joint Stanford/LBL/BNL program to study accelerator issues relevant to the FEL applications. As part of this study, field profile and loading measurements of higher order modes have been made on the prototype structure

  6. Development of vertical electropolishing process applied on 1300 and 704 MHz superconducting niobium resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Eozénou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An advanced setup for vertical electropolishing of superconducting radio-frequency niobium elliptical cavities has been installed at CEA Saclay. Cavities are vertically electropolished with circulating standard HF-HF-H_{2}SO_{4} electrolytes. Parameters such as voltage, cathode shape, acid flow, and temperature have been investigated. A low voltage (between 6 and 10 V depending on the cavity geometry, a high acid flow (25  L/min, and a low acid temperature (20° C are considered as promising parameters. Such a recipe has been tested on single-cell and nine-cell International Linear Collider (ILC as well as 704 MHz five-cell Super Proton Linac (SPL cavities. Single-cell cavities showed similar performances at 1.6 K being either vertically or horizontally electropolished. The applied baking process provides similar benefit. An asymmetric removal is observed with faster removal in the upper half-cells. Multicell cavities (nine-cell ILC and five-cell SPL cavities exhibit a standard Q_{0} value at low and medium accelerating fields though limited by power losses due to field emitted electrons.

  7. Researches on bake effect on RF superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Jiankui; Zhao Kui; Zhu Feng

    2005-01-01

    The Q-slope at high gradient affects the performance of superconducting cavity greatly. Recent researches show that low temperature (100-150) degree C heat treatment (bake) has positive effects on the performance of superconducting cavities. A lot of cavity tests are analyzed based on bake treatment. The average gradient E acc,max and E acc at Q=1 x 10 10 are increased by more than 3.5 MV/m. Q at E acc,max is increased and the Q-slope is improved. Analysis on bake temperature shows that higher bake temperature leads to higher Q value. Comparison of BCP and EP cavities shows that at least 60-80 μm EP is needed for BCP surface. More than 10-15 μm removal of the surface by BCP will degrade the performance of an EP cavity. Oxygen diffusion model is used to illustrate bake effect. (authors)

  8. Stroboscopic topographies on iron borate crystal in 9.6 MHz rf magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Takaya; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kikuta, Seishi

    2003-01-01

    The influence of magnetoacoustic wave on the crystal deformation was studied by stroboscopic double crystal X-ray topography. The acoustic wave was excited by the rf magnetic field, which was synchronized with synchrotron radiation X-ray pulse. In measured rocking curves of FeBO 3 (4 4 4) reflection, we observed, for the first time, that the application of rf magnetic field (|H rf | max >8.4 Oe) brought about the extreme narrowing of full width at half maximum (FWHM). Recorded topographs showed that the narrowing of FWHM was due to the magnetoacoustic standing wave which is excited in FeBO 3 crystal. In our experiments, the influence of additional static magnetic field on the magnetoacoustic standing wave of FeBO 3 crystal was investigated too

  9. Microscopic Investigation of Materials Limitations of Superconducting RF Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anlage, Steven [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2017-08-04

    Our overall goal is to contribute to the understanding of defects that limit the high accelerating gradient performance of Nb SRF cavities. Our approach is to develop a microscopic connection between materials defects and SRF performance. We developed a near-field microwave microscope to establish this connection. The microscope is based on magnetic hard drive write heads, which are designed to create very strong rf magnetic fields in very small volumes on a surface.

  10. RF properties of 700 MHz, β= 0.42 elliptical cavity for high current ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ADSS) that will be mainly utilized for the transmutation of nuclear waste and enrichment of U233. Design and development of superconducting medium velocity cavity has been taken up as a part of the accelerator-driven subcritical system ...

  11. High-Q operation of superconducting rf cavities: Potential impact of thermocurrents on the rf surface resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Vogt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For many new accelerator applications, superconducting radio frequency systems are the enabling technology. In particular for CW applications, much effort is being expended to minimize the power dissipation (surface resistance of niobium cavities. Starting in 2009, we suggested a means of reducing the residual resistance by performing a thermal cycle [O. Kugeler et al., in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on RF Superconductivity (2009, p. 352], a procedure of warming up a cavity after initial cooldown to about 20 K and cooling it down again. In subsequent studies [J. M. Vogt, O. Kugeler, and J. Knobloch, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 16, 102002 (2013], this technique was used to manipulate the residual resistance by more than a factor of 2. It was postulated that thermocurrents during cooldown generate additional trapped magnetic flux that impacts the cavity quality factor. Here, we present a more extensive study that includes measurements of two additional passband modes and that confirms the effect. In this paper, we also discuss simulations that support the claim. While the layout of the cavity LHe tank system is cylindrically symmetric, we show that the temperature dependence of the material parameters results in a nonsymmetric current distribution. Hence a significant amount of magnetic flux can be generated at the rf surface.

  12. Fabrication and tests and RF control of the superconducting resonators of the Saclay heavy ion LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, B.; Coret, M.; Fouan, J.P.; Girard, J.; Girma, J.L.; Leconte, P.; Lussignol, Y.; Moreau, R.; Passerieux, J.P.; Ramstein, G.; Wartski, L.

    1987-01-01

    Two types of niobium superconducting resonators used in the Saclay linac are discussed. The outer cylinder and RF ports are identical for the two designs, but internal structures are different: full wave helix with three gaps behavior; or half wave with two gaps behavior. All cavities (34 full wave, 16 half) were tested for field and mounted in the machine cryostats. Cavity fabrication and performance are summarized. Vibration tests and Rf control are described. It is argued that helix resonators can overcome problems due to vibration. The very low lock out time percentage measured in an acceleration test with 21 cavities supports this confidence

  13. First cold test of TESLA superconducting RF cavity in horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzminski, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the TESLA project, the horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA) was built to test a superconducting RF cavity equipped with its helium vessel, magnetic shielding, cold tuner, main coupler and higher order modes couplers under realistic conditions before final assembly of eight cavities into TESLA Test Facility cryo-module. The results of the first cold tests in CHECHIA, performed at DESY with a 9-cell cavity (C19) to be used in the TTF injector are presented. Additional measurements of mechanical stability under RF operation (frequency variation with He pressure, Lorentz detuning) and cryogenic and electric measurements of power dissipation are presented. (author)

  14. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D B

    1974-01-01

    A short general review is presented of the progress made in applied superconductivity as a result of work performed in connection with the high-energy physics program in Europe. The phenomenon of superconductivity and properties of superconductors of Types I and II are outlined. The main body of the paper deals with the development of niobium-titanium superconducting magnets and of radio-frequency superconducting cavities and accelerating structures. Examples of applications in and for high-energy physics experiments are given, including the large superconducting magnet for the Big European Bubble Chamber, prototype synchrotron magnets for the Super Proton Synchrotron, superconducting d.c. beam line magnets, and superconducting RF cavities for use in various laboratories. (0 refs).

  15. Beam simulations with initial bunch noise in superconducting RF proton linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, J

    2010-01-01

    Circular machines are plagued by coupled bunch instabilities (CBI), driven by impedance peaks, where then all cavity higher order modes (HOMs) are possible drivers. Limiting the CBI growth rate is the fundamental reason that all superconducting rf cavities in circular machines are equipped with HOM dampers. The question arises if for similar reasons HOM damping would not be imperative also in high current superconducting rf proton linacs. Therefore we have simulated the longitudinal bunched beam dynamics in such machines, also including charge and position noise on the injected bunches. Simulations were executed for a generic linac with properties close to the planned SPL at CERN, SNS, or Project X at FNAL. It was found that with strong bunch noise and monopole HOMs with high Qext large beam scatter, possibly exceeding the admittance of a receiving machine, cannot be excluded. A transverse simulation shows similar requirements. Therefore including initial bunch noise in any beam dynamic study on superconducti...

  16. Present and next steps of the JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.J.; Yamauchi, T.; Sugimoto, M.

    2000-01-01

    The JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL has successfully been lased to produce a 0.3 kW FEL light and 100 kW or larger electron beam output in quasi continuous wave operation in 1999. The 1 kW class output as our present program goal will be achieved to improve the optical out coupling method in the FEL optical resonator, the electron gun, and the electron beam optics in the JAERI FEL driver. As our next 5 year program goal is the 100 kW class FEL light and a few tens MW class electron beam output in average, quasi continuous wave operation of the light and electron beam will be planned in the JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL facility. Conceptual design options needed for such a very high power operation and shorter wavelength light sources will be discussed to improve and to upgrade the exciting facility. (author)

  17. Cryomodule tests of four Tesla-like cavities in the Superconducting RF Test Facility at KEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Kako

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-m cryomodule including four Tesla-like cavities was developed, and was tested in the Superconducting RF Test Facility phase-I at KEK. The performance as a total superconducting cavity system was checked in the cryomodule tests at 2 K with high rf power. One of the four cavities achieved a stable pulsed operation at 32  MV/m, which is higher than the operating accelerating gradient in the ILC. The maximum accelerating gradient (E_{acc,max⁡} obtained in the vertical cw tests was maintained or slightly improved in the cryomodule tests operating in a pulse mode. Compensation of the Lorentz force detuning at 31  MV/m was successfully demonstrated by a piezo tuner and predetuning.

  18. First cold test of TESLA superconducting RF cavity in horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzminski, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the TESLA project, the horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA) was built to test a superconducting RF cavity equipped with its helium vessel, magnetic shielding, cold tuner, main coupler and higher order modes couplers under realistic conditions before final assembly of eight cavities into TESLA Test Facility cryo-module. The results of the first cold tests in CHECHIA, performed at DESY with a 9-cell cavity (C19) to be used in the TTF injector are presented. (author)

  19. Microphonics detuning compensation in 3.9 GHZ superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruben Carcagno

    2003-01-01

    Mechanical vibrations can detune superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities unless a tuning mechanism counteracting the vibrations is present. Due to their narrow operating bandwidth and demanding mechanical structure, the 13-cell 3.9GHz SCRF cavities for the Charged Kaons at Main Injector (CKM) experiment at Fermilab are especially susceptible to this microphonic phenomena. We present early results correlating RF frequency detuning with cavity vibration measurements for CKM cavities; initial detuning compensation results with piezoelectric actuators are also presented

  20. Microphonics detuning compensation in 3.9 GHZ superconducting RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruben Carcagno et al.

    2003-10-20

    Mechanical vibrations can detune superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities unless a tuning mechanism counteracting the vibrations is present. Due to their narrow operating bandwidth and demanding mechanical structure, the 13-cell 3.9GHz SCRF cavities for the Charged Kaons at Main Injector (CKM) experiment at Fermilab are especially susceptible to this microphonic phenomena. We present early results correlating RF frequency detuning with cavity vibration measurements for CKM cavities; initial detuning compensation results with piezoelectric actuators are also presented.

  1. BNL superconducting RF guns - technology challenges as ERL sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Calaga, R.; Chang, X.; Hahn, H.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.; McIntyre, G.; Nicoletti, A.; Pate, D.; Rank, J.; Scaduto, J.; Rao, T.; Wu, K.; Zaltsman, A.; Zhao, Y.; Bluem, H.; Cole, M.; Falletta, M.; Holmes, D.; Peterson, E.; Rathke, J.; Schultheiss, T.; Todd, A.; Wong, R.; Lewellen, J.; Funk, W.; Kneisel, P.; Phillips, L.; Preble, J.; Janssen, D.; Nguyen-Tuong, V.

    2005-01-01

    The design, fabrication and commissioning of a 703.75 MHz SRF photoinjector with a retractable multi-alkali photocathode designed to deliver 0.5A average current at 100% duty factor is the present undertaking of the electron cooling group in the Collider Accelerator Division of Brookhaven National Labs. This photoinjector represents the state of the art in photoinjector technology, orders of magnitude beyond the presently available technology, and should be commissioned by 2007. The RandD effort presently underway, and the focus of this paper, will address the numerous technological challenges that must be met for this project to succeed. These include the novel physics design of the cavity, the challenges of inserting and operating a multi-alkali photocathode in the photoinjector at these high average currents, and the design and installation of a laser system capable of delivering the required 10s of watts of laser power needed to make this photoinjector operational

  2. The elbe accelerator facility starts operation with the superconducting rf gun

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, R; Buettig, H; Janssen, D; Justus, M; Lehnert, U; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Schneider, C; Schurig, R; Staufenbiel, F; Teichert, J; Kamps, T; Rudolph, J; Schenk, M; Klemz, G; Will, I

    2010-01-01

    As the first superconducting rf photo-injector (SRF gun) in practice, the FZD 3+1/2 cell SRF gun is successfully connected to the superconducting linac ELBE. This setting will improve the beam quality for ELBE users. It is the first example for an accelerator facility fully based on superconducting RF technology. For high average power FEL and ERL sources, the combination of SRF linac and SRF gun provides a new chance to produce beams of high average current and low emittance with relative low power consumption. The main parameters achieved from the present SRF gun are the final electron energy of 3 MeV, 16 μA average current, and rms transverse normalized emittances of 3 mm mrad at 77 pC bunch charge. A modified 3+1/2 cell niobium cavity has been fabricated and tested, which will increase the rf gradient in the gun and thus better the beam parameters further. In this paper the status of the integration of the SRF gun with the ELBE linac will be presented, and the latest results of the beam experiments will ...

  3. Present status and future directions of the JAERI superconducting RF linac-based FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, EJ.; Yamauchi, T.; Sugimori, M.; Sawamura, M.; Hajima, R.; Nagai, R.; Kikuzawa, N.; Nishimori, N.; Shizuma, T.

    2000-01-01

    The JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL has successfully been lased to produce a 2.34kW FEL light and l00kW electron beam output in quasi continuous wave operation in February 2000. Twice larger output than the present program goal of 1kW was achieved to improve the optical out coupling method in the FEL optical resonator, the electron gun, and the electron beam optics in the JAERI FEL driver. As our next 2 years program goal is the 100kW class FEL light and a few MW class electron beam output in average, quasi continuous wave operation of the light and electron beam will be planned in the JAERI superconducting rf linac based FEL facility. Conceptual and engineering design options needed for such a very high power operation will be discussed to improve and to upgrade the existing facility. Finally, several applications, table-top superconducting rf linac based FELs, and an X-ray FEL R and D will be discussed as a next-five years program at JAERI-FEL laboratory. (author)

  4. Combined treatment of radiotherapy and local hyperthermia using 8 MHz RF-wave for advanced carcinoma of the breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuwa, Nobukazu

    1988-01-01

    During the period from January 1983 through September 1986, 13 patients with carcinoma of the breast were treated with local hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy. Six patients were inoperable advanced cases and the other 7 were recurrent cases. Local heat was applied with an 8-MHz RF-capacitive heating equipment, once or twice a week after radiotherapy, for 40 approx. 60 minutes per session. Of the 6 cases with inoperable advanced lesions, 4 achieved CR and the other 2 achieved PRa (80 approx. 100 % regression), and of the 7 cases with local recurrent tumors, 3 achieved CR and the other 4 achieved PRa. As complications of the thermoradiotherapy, grade I-II skin burns were observed in 9 cases, pain around the ribs in 8 cases, mild lassitude in 2 cases, persistent tachycardia in 1 case and acute erosive gastritis in 1 case. It is worth noting that CR was achieved in these huge tumors, which can not be controlled by radiotherapy alone.

  5. Pre-tuning of TRISTAN superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Furuya, Takaaki; Suzuki, Toshiji; Iino, Yohsuke.

    1990-01-01

    Pre-tuning of thirty-two TRISTAN superconducting cavities has been done. In this paper are described the pre-tuning system and the results of all the cavities. The average field flatness was 1.4 % after pre-tuning. From our experience, the followings are important, 1) to evacuate the cavity during the process of the pre-tuning to avoid the uncertainty in evacuation, 2) pre-tuning is needed after annealing because it causes changes of the cell length and the field profile and 3) field flatness sometimes changes when expanded and 4) cells should not be expanded more than 1.5 mm after pre-tuning since inelastic deformation occurs. (author)

  6. Investigation and reduction of excess low-frequency noise in rf superconducting quantum interference devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, M.; Heiden, C.; Clarke, J.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed study has been made of the low-frequency excess noise of rf superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), fabricated from thin niobium films and operated at 4.2 K, with rf bias frequencies of 0.15, 1.7, and 3 GHz. When the SQUIDs were operated in an open-loop configuration in the absence of low-frequency flux modulation, the demodulated rf voltage exhibited a substantial level 1/f noise, which was essentially independent of the rf bias frequency. As the rf bias frequency was increased, the crossover frequency at which the 1/f noise power was equal to the white noise power moved to higher frequencies, because of the reduction in white noise. On the other hand, when the SQUID was flux modulated at 50 kHz and operated in a flux locked loop, no 1/f noise was observed at frequencies above 0.5 Hz. A detailed description of how the combination of rf bias and flux modulation removes 1/f noise due to critical current fluctuations is given. Thus, the results demonstrate that the 1/f noise observed in these SQUIDs is generated by critical current fluctuations, rather than by the hopping of flux vortices in the niobium films

  7. Fermilab 500 GeV main accelerator rf cavity 128 MHz mode damper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, Q.A.; Miller, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    The Fermilab 500-GeV main accelerating system has been operating for a year now with the aid of 128-MHz mode dampers. Such dampers proved to be necessary to achieve stable operation and a reasonably smooth slow spill at intensities of approximately 2 x 10 13 protons per pulse, and furthermore are low-cost and reliable. The approach used to identify troublesome modes, the observed beam blow-up without dampers, and the steps taken to design and install suitable dampers on eighteen main ring cavities are discussed. Spectrum analyzer pictures help illustrate the performance

  8. Cs_{2}Te normal conducting photocathodes in the superconducting rf gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Xiang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The superconducting radio frequency photoinjector (SRF gun is one of the latest applications of superconducting rf technology in the accelerator field. Since superconducting photocathodes with high quantum efficiency are yet unavailable, normal conducting cathode material is the main choice for SRF photoinjectors. However, the compatibility between the photocathode and the cavity is one of the challenges for this concept. Recently, a SRF gun with Cs_{2}Te cathode has been successfully operated in Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. In this paper, we will present the physical properties of Cs_{2}Te photocathodes in the SC cavity, such as the quantum efficiency, the lifetime, the rejuvenation, the charge saturation, and the dark current.

  9. RF tests on the INS 25.5-MHz split coaxial RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, S.; Arai, S.; Imanishi, A.; Morimoto, T.; Tojyo, E.; Tokuda, N.

    1990-09-01

    A 25.5-MHz split coaxial RFQ with modulated vanes has been constructed. This RFQ will accelerate heavy ions with a charge-to-mass ratio greater than 1/30. We have finished field measurements and obtained the following results: the field strengths between neighboring vanes are same within ±0.6 % over the vane length; the distribution of the intervane voltage in the axial direction is almost flat. Through high power tests so far conducted, we have attained an intervane voltage of 110 kV under a pulse operation with a peak power of 70 kW and a duty factor of 0.9 %. The cavity is thus almost ready for acceleration tests. (author)

  10. Research on DC-RF superconducting photocathode injector for high average power FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Kui; Hao Jiankui; Hu Yanle; Zhang Baocheng; Quan Shengwen; Chen Jiaer; Zhuang Jiejia

    2001-01-01

    To obtain high average current electron beams for a high average power Free Electron Laser (FEL), a DC-RF superconducting injector is designed. It consists of a DC extraction gap, a 1+((1)/(2)) superconducting cavity and a coaxial input system. The DC gap, which takes the form of a Pierce configuration, is connected to the 1+((1)/(2)) superconducting cavity. The photocathode is attached to the negative electrode of the DC gap. The anode forms the bottom of the ((1)/(2)) cavity. Simulations are made to model the beam dynamics of the electron beams extracted by the DC gap and accelerated by the superconducting cavity. High quality electron beams with emittance lower than 3 π-mm-mrad can be obtained. The optimization of experiments with the DC gap, as well as the design of experiments with the coaxial coupler have all been completed. An optimized 1+((1)/(2)) superconducting cavity is in the process of being studied and manufactured

  11. Transmission line matching simulation for 350 MHz RF driver for 400 KeV (deuterium) RFQ based 14 MeV neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sonal; Pande, Manjiri; Handu, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    A 60 KW, 350 MHz tetrode based high power RF system is being developed for 400 KeV RFQ based 14 MeV neutron generator in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre to study physics of coupled neutron sources and subcritical assembly. This RF system requires a 2.5 kW RF driver which is being designed by using tetrode TH-393. At such high frequency i.e. 350 MHz, lumped components are not practically useful due to radiation losses. Therefore, techniques such as coaxial line with stub tuning are preferred, which minimizes these losses. Simulation of two such stub tuning based matched coaxial lines at the input and output of the tube has been done by using CST studio. CST STUDIO is a special tool for the 3D EM simulation of high frequency components

  12. Study of thermal interaction between a 150 kW CW power coupler and a superconducting 704 MHz elliptical cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souli, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France)]. E-mail: souli@ipno.in2p3.fr; Fouaidy, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Saugnac, H. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Szott, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Gandolfo, N. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Bousson, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Braud, D. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Charrier, J.P. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Roudier, D. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Sahuquet, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Visentin, B. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SACM, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2006-07-15

    The power coupler needed for {beta} = 0.65 SRF elliptical cavities dedicated to the driver of XADS (eXperimental Accelerator Driven System) should transmit a CW RF power of 150 kW to a 10 mA proton beam. The estimated average values of the RF losses in the coupler are 130 W (respectively 46 W) for the inner (respectively outer) conductor in SW mode. Due to such high values of the RF losses, it is necessary to very carefully design and optimize the cooling circuits of the coupler in order to efficiently remove the generated heat and to reduce the thermal load to the cavity operating at T = 2 K. An experiment simulating the thermal interaction between the power coupler and a 704 MHz SRF five cells cavity was performed in the CRYHOLAB test facility in order to determine the critical heat load that can be sustained by the cavity without degradation of its RF performance. Experimental data are compared to numerical simulation results obtained with the Finite Element Method code COSMOS/M. These data allow us also to perform in situ measurements of the thermal parameters needed in the thermal model of the coupler (thermal conductivity, thermal contact resistance). These data are used to validate numerical simulations.

  13. Commissioning of the 112 MHz SRF Gun and 500 MHz bunching cavities for the CeC PoP Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belomestnykh, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Brutus, J. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Litvinenko, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); McIntosh, P. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Daresbury (United Kingdom). Daresbury Lab.; Moss, A. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Daresbury (United Kingdom). Daresbury Lab.; Narayan, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Orfin, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pinayev, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rao, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Skaritka, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tuozzolo, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wheelhouse, A. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Daresbury (United Kingdom). Daresbury Lab.; Wu, Q. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xiao, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xin, T. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Xu, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zaltsman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The Coherent electron Cooling Proof-of-Principle (CeC PoP) experiment at BNL includes a short electron linac. During Phase 1, a 112 MHz superconducting RF photo-emission gun and two 500 MHz normal conducting bunching cavities were installed and are under commissioning. The paper describes the Phase1 linac layout and presents commissioning results for the cavities and associated RF, cryogenic and other sub-systems

  14. Reducing field emission in the superconducting rf cavities for the next generation of particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Q.S.; Hartung, W.; Leibovich, A.; Kirchgessner, J.; Moffat, D.; Padamsee, H.; Rubin, D.; Sears, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on field emission, which is an obstacle to reaching the higher fields called for in future applications of superconducting radio frequency cavities to particle accelerators. The authors used heat treatment up to 1500 degrees C in an ultra-high vacuum furnace, along with processing of cavities and temperature mapping, to suppress field emission and analyze emitter properties. In 27 tests of 1-cell 1500 MHz fired accelerating cavities, on the average the accelerating field E acc increased to 24 MV/m (H pk = 1250 Oe) from 13 MV/m with chemical treatment alone; the highest E acc reached was 30.5 MV/m

  15. Niobium superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    This 5-cell superconducting cavity, made from bulk-Nb, stems from the period of general studies, not all directed towards direct use at LEP. This one is dimensioned for 1.5 GHz, the frequency used at CEBAF and also studied at Saclay (LEP RF was 352.2 MHz). See also 7908227, 8007354, 8209255, 8210054, 8312339.

  16. On active disturbance rejection based control design for superconducting RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, John; Morris, Dan; Usher, Nathan [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Gao, Zhiqiang, E-mail: z.gao@csuohio.edu [Center for Advanced Control Technologies, Fenn College of Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115-2214 (United States); Zhao Shen; Nicoletti, Achille; Zheng Qinling [Center for Advanced Control Technologies, Fenn College of Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115-2214 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities are key components of modern linear particle accelerators. The National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) is building a 3 MeV/u re-accelerator (ReA3) using SRF cavities. Lightly loaded SRF cavities have very small bandwidths (high Q) making them very sensitive to mechanical perturbations whether external or self-induced. Additionally, some cavity types exhibit mechanical responses to perturbations that lead to high-order non-stationary transfer functions resulting in very complex control problems. A control system that can adapt to the changing perturbing conditions and transfer functions of these systems would be ideal. This paper describes the application of a control technique known as 'Active Disturbance Rejection Control' (ARDC) to this problem.

  17. Development of L-band niobium superconducting RF cavities with high accelerating field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kenji; Noguchi, Shuichi; Ono, Masaaki; Kako, Eiji; Shishido, Toshio; Matsuoka, Masanori; Suzuki, Takafusa; Higuchi, Tamawo.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting RF cavity is a candidate for the TeV energy e + /e - linear collider of next generation if the accelerating field is improved to 25-30 MV/m and much cost down is achieved in cavity fabrication. Since 1990, KEK has continued R and D of L-band niobium superconducting cavities focusing on the high field issue. A serious problem like Q-degradation due to vacuum discharge came out on the way, however, it has been overcome and presently all of cavities which were annealed at 1400degC achieved the accelerating field of >25 MV/m with enough Qo value. Recent results on single cell cavities are described in this paper. (author)

  18. Physics and chemistry of niobium materials in the context of superconducting RF cavity applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities excel over the normal conducting RF cavities in the long pulse or continuous wave high energy particle accelerations, and niobium (Nb) is currently the material of choice for fabrication of such SCRF cavities. However the accelerating gradients attained in the Nb SCRF cavities deployed in various high energy particle accelerators are significantly below the theoretical limit predicted by the superconducting properties of Nb. Thus it is very important to understand the physics and chemistry of Nb materials in some details so as to maximize the SCRF cavity performance. This abstract will discuss some issues which help in the development of high gradient and energy efficient Nb SCRF cavities in a cost effective manner. (author)

  19. Structural and superconducting properties of sputter-deposited niobium films for applications in RF accelerating cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Peck, M A

    2000-01-01

    The present work presents the results of a systematic study of superconducting and structural properties of niobium films sputter deposited onto the inner walls of radiofrequency copper resonators. The measured superconducting quantities include the surface resistance, the critical temperature, the penetration depth and the upper and lower critical fields. In addition to films grown with different discharge gases (Xe, Kr, Ar, Ne and Ar-Ne mixtures) and to films grown on substrates prepared under different conditions, the study also includes massive niobium cavities. The surface resistance is analysed in terms of its dependence on the temperature and on the rf field amplitude and, when possible, compared to theoretical predictions. In general, good agreement with BCS theory is observed. All experimental results are presented in the form of a simple, but adequate parameterisation. The residual resistance is observed to be essentially uncorrelated with the other variables, but strongly dependent on the macroscop...

  20. Recent progress in the superconducting RF Program at TRIUMF/ISAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laxdal, R.E. [University of British Columbia, TRIUMF, 4004 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T2A3 (Canada)]. E-mail: lax@triumf.ca; Fong, K. [University of British Columbia, TRIUMF, 4004 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T2A3 (Canada); Laverty, M. [University of British Columbia, TRIUMF, 4004 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T2A3 (Canada); Mitra, A. [University of British Columbia, TRIUMF, 4004 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T2A3 (Canada); Poirier, R. [University of British Columbia, TRIUMF, 4004 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T2A3 (Canada); Sekachev, I. [University of British Columbia, TRIUMF, 4004 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T2A3 (Canada); Zvyagintsev, V. [University of British Columbia, TRIUMF, 4004 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T2A3 (Canada)

    2006-07-15

    A heavy ion superconducting linac is being installed at TRIUMF to increase the final energy of radioactive beams from ISAC. A first stage of 20 MV consisting of five medium beta cryomodules each with four quarter wave bulk niobium cavities and a superconducting solenoid is being installed with commissioning scheduled for December 2005. The cavities have been fully characterized for rf performance. Two cryomodules have been tested at cold temperatures. A high beta cavity ({beta} {sub 0} = 0.104) for the next phase is presently in design. A weak phase lock loop technique is used to monitor the control loop phase noise to characterize system microphonics. A recent highlight is the acceleration of heavy ions by one cryomodule as a proof of system integrity. The report will summarize all aspects of the program.

  1. Latest Development in Superconducting RF Structures for beta=1 Particle Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Kneisel

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting RF technology is since nearly a decade routinely applied to different kinds of accelerating devices: linear accelerators, storage rings, synchrotron light sources and FEL's. With the technology recommendation for the International Linear Collider (ILC) a year ago, new emphasis has been placed on improving the performance of accelerating cavities both in Q-value and in accelerating gradients with the goal to achieve performance levels close to the fundamental limits given by the material parameters of the choice material, niobium. This paper will summarize the challenges to SRF technology and will review the latest developments in superconducting structure design. Additionally, it will give an overview of the newest results and will report on the developments in alternative materials and technologies

  2. Digital Low-Level RF Controls for Future Superconducting Linear Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Simrock, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The requirements for RF Control Systems of Superconducting Linear Colliders are not only defined in terms of the quality of field control but also with respect to operability, availability, and maintainability of the RF System, and the interfaces to other subsystems. The field control of the vector-sum of many cavities driven by one klystron in pulsed mode at high gradients is a challenging task since severe Lorentz force detuning, microphonics and beam induced field errors must be suppressed by several orders of magnitude. This is accomplished by a combination of local and global feedback and feedforward control. Sensors monitor individual cavity probe signals, and forward and reflected wave as well as the beam properties including beam energy and phase while actuators control the incident wave of the klystron and individual cavity resonance frequencies. The operability of a large llrf system requires a high degree of automation while the high availability requires robust algorithms, redundancy, and extremel...

  3. Plasma processing of large curved surfaces for superconducting rf cavity modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Upadhyay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma-based surface modification of niobium is a promising alternative to wet etching of superconducting radio frequency (SRF cavities. We have demonstrated surface layer removal in an asymmetric nonplanar geometry, using a simple cylindrical cavity. The etching rate is highly correlated with the shape of the inner electrode, radio-frequency (rf circuit elements, gas pressure, rf power, chlorine concentration in the Cl_{2}/Ar gas mixtures, residence time of reactive species, and temperature of the cavity. Using variable radius cylindrical electrodes, large-surface ring-shaped samples, and dc bias in the external circuit, we have measured substantial average etching rates and outlined the possibility of optimizing plasma properties with respect to maximum surface processing effect.

  4. Intermediate quality control tests in the development of a superconducting RF cryomodule for CW operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattalwar, Shrikant; Jones, Thomas; Strachan, John; Bate, Robert; Davies, Phil; McIntosh, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Through an international cryomodule collaboration, ASTeC at Daresbury Laboratory has taken the primary responsibility in leading the development of an optimised Superconducting RF (SRF) cryomodule, operating in CW mode for energy recovery facilities and other high duty cycle accelerators. For high beam current operation, Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers are critical components of the SRF Cryomodule, ensuring excessive heating of the accelerating structures and beam instabilities are effectively managed. This paper describes some of the cold tests conducted on the HOM absorbers and other critical components during the construction phase, to ensure that the quality and reliable cryomodule performance is maintained.

  5. Preparation of niobium coated copper superconducting rf cavities for the large electron positron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuti, C.; Bloess, D.; Chiaveri, E.; Hilleret, N.; Minestrini, M.; Weingarten, W.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1980 development work has been carried out at CERN aiming at producing niobium coated superconducting RF cavities in the framework of the foreseen LEP energy upgrading above the initial 55 GeV. During 1987 a 4-cell LEP cavity without coupling ports has been successfully coated for the first time. Meanwhile, cathodes for coating the coupling ports were built and tested. The effort has been subsequently directed to preparing at least one (possibly 2) coated cavity(ies) to be installed in LEP during 1989. In this paper the various production steps of these cavities are reconsidered in view of industrial production

  6. Thermal Emittance Measurement of the Cs2Te Photocathode in FZD Superconducting RF

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, R; Michel, P; Murcek, P; Teichert, J

    2010-01-01

    The thermal emittance of the photocathode is an interesting physical property for the photoinjector, because it decides the minimum emittance the photoinjector can finally achieve. In this paper we will report the latest results of the thermal emittance of the Cs2Te photocathode in FZD Superconducting RF gun. The measurement is performed with solenoid scan method with very low bunch charge and relative large laser spot on cathode, in order to reduce the space charge effect as much as possible, and meanwhile to eliminate the wake fields and the effect from beam halos.

  7. Proc. of the workshop on pushing the limits of RF superconductivity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K-J., Eyberger, C., editors

    2005-04-13

    For three days in late September last year, some sixty experts in RF superconductivity from around the world came together at Argonne to discuss how to push the limits of RF superconductivity for particle accelerators. It was an intense workshop with in-depth presentations and ample discussions. There was added excitement due to the fact that, a few days before the workshop, the International Technology Recommendation Panel had decided in favor of superconducting technology for the International Linear Collider (ILC), the next major high-energy physics accelerator project. Superconducting RF technology is also important for other large accelerator projects that are either imminent or under active discussion at this time, such as the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) for nuclear physics, energy recovery linacs (ERLs), and x-ray free-electron lasers. For these accelerators, the capability in maximum accelerating gradient and/or the Q value is essential to limit the length and/or operating cost of the accelerators. The technological progress of superconducting accelerators during the past two decades has been truly remarkable, both in low-frequency structures for acceleration of protons and ions as well as in high-frequency structures for electrons. The requirements of future accelerators demand an even higher level of performance. The topics of this workshop are therefore highly relevant and timely. The presentations given at the workshop contained authoritative reviews of the current state of the art as well as some original materials that previously had not been widely circulated. We therefore felt strongly that these materials should be put together in the form of a workshop proceeding. The outcome is this report, which consists of two parts: first, a collection of the scholarly papers prepared by some of the participants and second, copies of the viewgraphs of all presentations. The presentation viewgraphs, in full color, are also available from the Workshop

  8. The dielectric properties of human pineal gland tissue and RF absorption due to wireless communication devices in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Gernot; Ueberbacher, Richard; Samaras, Theodoros; Tschabitscher, Manfred; Mazal, Peter R

    2007-01-01

    In order to enable a detailed analysis of radio frequency (RF) absorption in the human pineal gland, the dielectric properties of a sample of 20 freshly removed pineal glands were measured less than 20 h after death. Furthermore, a corresponding high resolution numerical model of the brain region surrounding the pineal gland was developed, based on a real human tissue sample. After inserting this model into a commercially available numerical head model, FDTD-based computations for exposure scenarios with generic models of handheld devices operated close to the head in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz were carried out. For typical output power values of real handheld mobile communication devices, the obtained results showed only very small amounts of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland when compared to SAR limits according to international safety standards. The highest absorption was found for the 400 MHz irradiation. In this case the RF power absorbed inside the pineal gland (organ mass 96 mg) was as low as 11 μW, when considering a device of 500 mW output power operated close to the ear. For typical mobile phone frequencies (900 MHz and 1850 MHz) and output power values (250 mW and 125 mW) the corresponding values of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland were found to be lower by a factor of 4.2 and 36, respectively. These results indicate that temperature-related biologically relevant effects on the pineal gland induced by the RF emissions of typical handheld mobile communication devices are unlikely

  9. R.F. Beam Recombination ("Funnelling") at the CERN PSB by Means of an 8 MHz Dipole Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassibian, G.; Schindl, K.

    1985-10-01

    For filling the Antiproton Accumulator ring, the beam in the PS must be concentrated within one quarter of its circumference. A first step is to inject as much beam as possible into two groups of five PS buckets each occupying one quarter of its periphery. For this purpose, beams from the 4-ring injector synchrotron (PSB) are recombined in pairs by means of an RF dipole magnet which permits longitudinal interleaving of successive bunches. Each PSB bunch being slightly under 180° in length, two of them can fit into a (stationary) PS bucket. It is shown that the use of a sinusoidal deflecting field instead of the ideal square wave results in only a modest growth of the transverse emittance of the recombined beams. The increase of longitudinal emittance by a factor of 3, inherent to the scheme is also acceptable for the PS machine. We discuss the beam dynamics aspects, the construction of the 8 MHz, 250 gauss meter deflecting magnet and the experimental results.

  10. Combined treatment of radiotherapy and local hyperthermia using 8 MHz RF-wave for advanced carcinoma of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuwa, Nobukazu

    1988-01-01

    During the period from January 1983 through September 1986, 13 patients with carcinoma of the breast were treated with local hyperthermia combined with radiotherapy. Six patients were inoperable advanced cases and the other 7 were recurrent cases. Local heat was applied with an 8-MHz RF-capacitive heating equipment, once or twice a week after radiotherapy, for 40 ∼ 60 minutes per session. Of the 6 cases with inoperable advanced lesions, 4 achieved CR and the other 2 achieved PRa (80 ∼ 100 % regression), and of the 7 cases with local recurrent tumors, 3 achieved CR and the other 4 achieved PRa. As complications of the thermoradiotherapy, grade I-II skin burns were observed in 9 cases, pain around the ribs in 8 cases, mild lassitude in 2 cases, persistent tachycardia in 1 case and acute erosive gastritis in 1 case. It is worth noting that CR was achieved in these huge tumors, which can not be controlled by radiotherapy alone. (author)

  11. Study of a power coupler for superconducting RF cavities used in high intensity proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souli, M.

    2007-07-01

    The coaxial power coupler needed for superconducting RF cavities used in the high energy section of the EUROTRANS driver should transmit 150 kW (CW operation) RF power to the protons beam. The calculated RF and dielectric losses in the power coupler (inner and outer conductor, RF window) are relatively high. Consequently, it is necessary to design very carefully the cooling circuits in order to remove the generated heat and to ensure stable and reliable operating conditions for the coupler cavity system. After calculating all type of losses in the power coupler, we have designed and validated the inner conductor cooling circuit using numerical simulations results. We have also designed and optimized the outer conductor cooling circuit by establishing its hydraulic and thermal characteristics. Next, an experiment dedicated to study the thermal interaction between the power coupler and the cavity was successfully performed at CRYOHLAB test facility. The critical heat load Qc for which a strong degradation of the cavity RF performance was measured leading to Q c in the range 3 W-5 W. The measured heat load will be considered as an upper limit of the residual heat flux at the outer conductor cold extremity. A dedicated test facility was developed and successfully operated for measuring the performance of the outer conductor heat exchanger using supercritical helium as coolant. The test cell used reproduces the realistic thermal boundary conditions of the power coupler mounted on the cavity in the cryo-module. The first experimental results have confirmed the excellent performance of the tested heat exchanger. The maximum residual heat flux measured was 60 mW for a 127 W thermal load. As the RF losses in the coupler are proportional to the incident RF power, we can deduce that the outer conductor heat exchanger performance is continued up to 800 kW RF power. Heat exchanger thermal conductance has been identified using a 2D axisymmetric thermal model by comparing

  12. Status and Plans for a Superconducting RF Accelerator Test Facility at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R.; Baffes, C.M.; Carlson, K.; Chase, B.; Church, M.D.; Harms, E.R.; Klebaner, A.L.; Leibfritz, J.R.; Martinez, A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Nobrega, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) is being constructed at Fermilab. The existing New Muon Lab (NML) building is being converted for this facility. The accelerator will consist of an electron gun, injector, beam acceleration section consisting of 3 TTF-type or ILC-type cryomodules, multiple downstream beam lines for testing diagnostics and conducting various beam tests, and a high power beam dump. When completed, it is envisioned that this facility will initially be capable of generating a 750 MeV electron beam with ILC beam intensity. An expansion of this facility was recently completed that will provide the capability to upgrade the accelerator to a total beam energy of 1.5 GeV. Two new buildings were also constructed adjacent to the ASTA facility to house a new cryogenic plant and multiple superconducting RF (SRF) cryomodule test stands. In addition to testing accelerator components, this facility will be used to test RF power systems, instrumentation, and control systems for future SRF accelerators such as the ILC and Project-X. This paper describes the current status and overall plans for this facility.

  13. Evidence for preferential flux flow at the grain boundaries of superconducting RF-quality niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Z.-H.; Lee, P. J.; Gurevich, A.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2018-04-01

    The question of whether grain boundaries (GBs) in niobium can be responsible for lowered operating field (B RF) or quality factor (Q 0) in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities is still controversial. Here, we show by direct DC transport across planar GBs isolated from a slice of very large-grain SRF-quality Nb that vortices can preferentially flow along the grain boundary when the external magnetic field lies in the GB plane. However, increasing the misalignment between the GB plane and the external magnetic field vector markedly reduces preferential flux flow along the GB. Importantly, we find that preferential GB flux flow is more prominent for a buffered chemical polished than for an electropolished bi-crystal. The voltage-current characteristics of GBs are similar to those seen in low angle grain boundaries of high temperature superconductors where there is clear evidence of suppression of the superconducting order parameter at the GB. While local weakening of superconductivity at GBs in cuprates and pnictides is intrinsic, deterioration of current transparency of GBs in Nb appears to be extrinsic, since the polishing method clearly affect the local GB degradation. The dependence of preferential GB flux flow on important cavity preparation and experimental variables, particularly the final chemical treatment and the angle between the magnetic field and the GB plane, suggests two more reasons why real cavity performance can be so variable.

  14. Dynamic compensation of an rf cavity failure in a superconducting linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc Biarrotte

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An accelerator driven system (ADS for transmutation of nuclear waste typically requires a 600 MeV–1 GeV accelerator delivering a proton flux of a few mA for demonstrators, and of a few tens of mA for large industrial systems. Such a machine belongs to the category of the high-power proton accelerators, with an additional requirement for exceptional “reliability”: because of the induced thermal stress to the subcritical core, the number of unwanted “beam trips” should not exceed a few per year, a specification that is several orders of magnitude above usual performance. In order to meet this extremely high reliability, the accelerator needs to implement, to the maximum possible extent, a fault-tolerance strategy that would allow beam operation in the presence of most of the envisaged faults that could occur in its beam line components, and in particular rf systems’ failures. This document describes the results of the simulations performed for the analysis of the fault-tolerance capability of the XT-ADS superconducting linac in the case of an rf cavity failure. A new simulation tool, mixing transient rf behavior of the accelerating cavities with full 6D description of the beam dynamics, has been developed for this purpose. Fast fault-recovery scenarios are proposed, and required research and development is identified.

  15. An infrared free electron laser system for the proposed Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory at LBL based on a 500 MHz superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; Byrns, R.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Donahue, R.; Edighoffer, J.; Gough, R.; Hoyer, E.; Leemans, W.; Staples, J.; Taylor, B.; Xie, M.

    1992-09-01

    We describe a new design of the Infrared Free Electron Laser (IRFEL) for the proposed Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory (CDRL) at LBL. The design and choice of parameters are dictated by the unique requirements of the CDRL scientific program. The accelerator system is based on the 500 MHz superconducting cavity technology to achieve a wavelength stability of 10 -4

  16. Upgrade of the cryogenic infrastructure of SM18, CERN main test facility for superconducting magnets and RF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, A.; Dhalla, F.; Gayet, P.; Serio, L.

    2017-12-01

    SM18 is CERN main facility for testing superconducting accelerator magnets and superconducting RF cavities. Its cryogenic infrastructure will have to be significantly upgraded in the coming years, starting in 2019, to meet the testing requirements for the LHC High Luminosity project and for the R&D program for superconducting magnets and RF equipment until 2023 and beyond. This article presents the assessment of the cryogenic needs based on the foreseen test program and on past testing experience. The current configuration of the cryogenic infrastructure is presented and several possible upgrade scenarios are discussed. The chosen upgrade configuration is then described and the characteristics of the main newly required cryogenic equipment, in particular a new 35 g/s helium liquefier, are presented. The upgrade implementation strategy and plan to meet the required schedule are then described.

  17. EXCESS RF POWER REQUIRED FOR RF CONTROL OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE (SNS) LINAC, A PULSED HIGH-INTENSITY SUPERCONDUCTING PROTON ACCELERATOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.; Kwon, S.

    2001-01-01

    A high-intensity proton linac, such as that being planned for the SNS, requires accurate RF control of cavity fields for the entire pulse in order to avoid beam spill. The current design requirement for the SNS is RF field stability within ±0.5% and ±0.5 o [1]. This RF control capability is achieved by the control electronics using the excess RF power to correct disturbances. To minimize the initial capital costs, the RF system is designed with 'just enough' RF power. All the usual disturbances exist, such as beam noise, klystron/HVPS noise, coupler imperfections, transport losses, turn-on and turn-off transients, etc. As a superconducting linac, there are added disturbances of large magnitude, including Lorentz detuning and microphonics. The effects of these disturbances and the power required to correct them are estimated, and the result shows that the highest power systems in the SNS have just enough margin, with little or no excess margin

  18. Biased HiPIMS technology for superconducting rf accelerating cavities coating

    CERN Document Server

    G. Rosaz, G.; Sonato, D.; Calatroni, S.; Ehiasarian, A.; Junginger, T.; Taborelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years the interest of the thin film science and technology community on High Impulse Power Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) coatings has steadily increased. HIPIMS literature shows that better thin film morphology, denser and smoother films can be achieved when compared with standard dc Magnetron Sputtering (dcMS) coating technology. Furthermore the capability of HIPIMS to produce a high quantity of ionized species can allow conformal coatings also for complex geometries. CERN already studied the possibility to use such a coating method for SRF accelerating cavities. Results are promising but not better from a RF point of view than dcMS coatings. Thanks to these results the next step is to go towards a biased HiPIMS approach. However the geometry of the cavities leads to complex changes in the coating setup in order to apply a bias voltage. Coating system tweaking and first superconducting properties of biased samples are presented.

  19. The JAERI superconducting RF linac-based FELS and THEIR cryogenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke J.

    2003-01-01

    In the 21st century, we need a powerful and efficient free-electron laser (FEL) for academic and industrial uses in almost all fields. In order to realize such a tunable, highly-efficient, high average power, high peak power and ultra-short pulse FEL, the JAERI FEL group and I have developed an industrial FEL driven by a compact, stand-alone and zero-boil off super-conducting rf linac with an energy-recovery geometry. Our discussions on the JAERI FEL and cryogenics will cover market-requirements for the industrial FELs, some answers from the JAERI compact, stand-alone and zero-boil off cryostat concept and operational experiences over these 9 years, our discovery of the new, highly-efficient, high-power, and ultra-short pulse lasing mode, and the energy-recovery geometry. (author)

  20. Material options for the superconducting rf system of the Future Circular Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Aull, Sarah; Butterworth, Andy; Schwerg, Nikolai

    2018-01-01

    The design of the superconducting RF (SRF) systems of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) machine variants requires a thorough comparison of the different options for cavity material, oper- ating temperature and frequency. We collected representative SRF performance data at different frequencies and temperatures of bulk niobium as the standard technology and of niobium thin films as a potential alternative and develop a perspective for future performance for all material- frequency-temperature combinations as function of accelerating gradient. Based on this perspective, we estimate the corresponding cryogenic grid power for the different FCC machines showing the most favourable accelerating gradients for the different materials and operating temperatures. Further- more, we discuss advantages, disadvantages and limitations of the different technology options to be taken into consideration.

  1. Design and results of the radio frequency quadrupole RF system at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grippe, J.; Marsden, E.; Marrufo, O.; Regan, A.; Rees, D.; Ziomek, C.

    1993-05-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) entered into a joint venture to design and develop a 600 kW amplifier and its low-level controls for use in the Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerating cavity of the SSC. The design and development work has been completed. After being tested separately, the high power amplifier and low level RF control system were integrated and tested on a test cavity. Results of that tests are given. Tests were then carried out on the actual RFQ with and without the presence of the accelerated beam. Results of these tests are also given, along with the phase and amplitude information

  2. New technology of lead-tin plating of superconducting RF resonators for the ANU LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanov, N.R.; Weisser, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    The RF accelerating resonators for the ANU superconducting LINAC have been re-plated with lead-tin and their performance substantially improved. The re-plating was at first derailed by the appearance of dendrites on the surface. This problem was overcome by a new combination of two techniques. Rather than the standard process of chemically stripping the old Pb and hand polishing the Cu substrate the unsatisfactory Pb surface was mechanically polished and then re-plated. This is enormously easier, faster and doesn't put at risk the thin cosmetic electron beam welds or the repaired ones. Reverse pulse plating was then used to re-establish an excellent superconducting surface. Average acceleration fields of 3.5 to 3.9 MV/m have been achieved. The re-plated resonators will double the energy gain of the accelerator significantly extending capability of the facility research. Lead-tin plating provides fast adequate results with modest equipment and at relatively low cost. SUNY re-plated six high-beta SLRs with 2 microns of Pb-Sn using a modern, commercial, methane-sulfonate process (Lea Ronal Solderon MHS-L) and a simple open-air procedure. This proven success motivated ANU to adopt MSA chemistry and to re-plate the first SLR in November 1998 followed by re-plating all twelve SLRs by November 2002. This increased the booster energy gain by almost 100%

  3. A technique for monitoring fast tuner piezoactuator preload forces for superconducting rf cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pischalnikov, Y.; Branlard, J.; Carcagno, R.; Chase, B.; Edwards, H.; Orris, D.; Makulski, A.; McGee, M.; Nehring, R.; Poloubotko, V.; Sylvester, C.; Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    The technology for mechanically compensating Lorentz Force detuning in superconducting RF cavities has already been developed at DESY. One technique is based on commercial piezoelectric actuators and was successfully demonstrated on TESLA cavities [1]. Piezo actuators for fast tuners can operate in a frequency range up to several kHz; however, it is very important to maintain a constant static force (preload) on the piezo actuator in the range of 10 to 50% of its specified blocking force. Determining the preload force during cool-down, warm-up, or re-tuning of the cavity is difficult without instrumentation, and exceeding the specified range can permanently damage the piezo stack. A technique based on strain gauge technology for superconducting magnets has been applied to fast tuners for monitoring the preload on the piezoelectric assembly. The design and testing of piezo actuator preload sensor technology is discussed. Results from measurements of preload sensors installed on the tuner of the Capture Cavity II (CCII)[2] tested at FNAL are presented. These results include measurements during cool-down, warmup, and cavity tuning along with dynamic Lorentz force compensation

  4. A technique for monitoring fast tuner piezoactuator preload forces for superconducting rf cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pischalnikov, Y.; Branlard, J.; Carcagno, R.; Chase, B.; Edwards, H.; Orris, D.; Makulski, A.; McGee, M.; Nehring, R.; Poloubotko, V.; Sylvester, C.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The technology for mechanically compensating Lorentz Force detuning in superconducting RF cavities has already been developed at DESY. One technique is based on commercial piezoelectric actuators and was successfully demonstrated on TESLA cavities [1]. Piezo actuators for fast tuners can operate in a frequency range up to several kHz; however, it is very important to maintain a constant static force (preload) on the piezo actuator in the range of 10 to 50% of its specified blocking force. Determining the preload force during cool-down, warm-up, or re-tuning of the cavity is difficult without instrumentation, and exceeding the specified range can permanently damage the piezo stack. A technique based on strain gauge technology for superconducting magnets has been applied to fast tuners for monitoring the preload on the piezoelectric assembly. The design and testing of piezo actuator preload sensor technology is discussed. Results from measurements of preload sensors installed on the tuner of the Capture Cavity II (CCII)[2] tested at FNAL are presented. These results include measurements during cool-down, warmup, and cavity tuning along with dynamic Lorentz force compensation.

  5. Development of Infrastructure Facilities for Superconducting RF Cavity Fabrication, Processing and 2 K Characterization at RRCAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S. C.; Raghavendra, S.; Jain, V. K.; Puntambekar, A.; Khare, P.; Dwivedi, J.; Mundra, G.; Kush, P. K.; Shrivastava, P.; Lad, M.; Gupta, P. D.

    2017-02-01

    An extensive infrastructure facility is being established at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) for a proposed 1 GeV, high intensity superconducting proton linac for Indian Spallation Neutron Source. The proton linac will comprise of a large number of superconducting Radio Frequency (SCRF) cavities ranging from low beta spoke resonators to medium and high beta multi-cell elliptical cavities at different RF frequencies. Infrastructure facilities for SCRF cavity fabrication, processing and performance characterization at 2 K are setup to take-up manufacturing of large number of cavities required for future projects of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). RRCAT is also participating in a DAE’s approved mega project on “Physics and Advanced technology for High intensity Proton Accelerators” under Indian Institutions-Fermilab Collaboration (IIFC). In the R&D phase of IIFC program, a number of high beta, fully dressed multi-cell elliptical SCRF cavities will be developed in collaboration with Fermilab. A dedicated facility for SCRF cavity fabrication, tuning and processing is set up. SCRF cavities developed will be characterized at 2K using a vertical test stand facility, which is already commissioned. A Horizontal Test Stand facility has also been designed and under development for testing a dressed multi-cell SCRF cavity at 2K. The paper presents the infrastructure facilities setup at RRCAT for SCRF cavity fabrication, processing and testing at 2K.

  6. Cooling tests of the cryomodules at superconducting RF test facility (STF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohuchi, Norihito; Nakai, Hirotaka; Kojima, Yuuji

    2009-01-01

    KEK has been constructing the Superconducting RF Test Facility (STF) with aiming at a center of the ILC-R and D in Asia from 2005. In this project, KEK targets manufacturing and operational experiences of the RF cavity and cryomodule toward the ILC, and two cryomodules have been developed. These cryomodules are 6 meter long and have 4 nine-cell cavities in each cryostat. The designs of the cryomodules are based on the TESLA Type-3 (TTF-3) at DESY, however, each cryostat has the different type of cavities, TESLA-like type and Low-Loss type. The tests of the cryomodules were performed in two steps. In the first test, measurements of the cryogenic performances of these cryomodules were the main objective. One nine-cell cavity was assembled in each cryomodule and cool-down of the two cryomodules was performed, individually. In the second test, the four TESLA-like cavities were assembled in the cryomodule as complete integration. Cool-down of the cryomodule to 2 K was successfully completed, and thermal performances of the cryomodule and cooling capacity of the cryogenics system were studied in detail. In this paper, we will report the design of the cryomodules and the thermal performances at these cold tests. (author)

  7. Reduction of field emission in superconducting cavities with high power pulsed RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, J.; Crawford, C.; Kirchgessner, J.; Padamsee, H.; Rubin, D.; Schmueser, P.

    1994-01-01

    A systematic study is presented of the effects of pulsed high power RF processing (HPP) as a method of reducing field emission (FE) in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities to reach higher accelerating gradients for future particle accelerators. The processing apparatus was built to provide up to 150 kW peak RF power to 3 GHz cavities, for pulse lengths from 200 μs to 1 ms. Single-cell and nine-cell cavities were tested extensively. The thermal conductivity of the niobium for these cavities was made as high as possible to ensure stability against thermal breakdown of superconductivity. HPP proves to be a highly successful method of reducing FE loading in nine-cell SRF cavities. Attainable continuous wave (CW) fields increase by as much as 80% from their pre-HPP limits. The CW accelerating field achieved with nine-cell cavities improved from 8-15 MV/m with HPP to 14-20 MV/m. The benefits are stable with subsequent exposure to dust-free air. More importantly, HPP also proves effective against new field emission subsequently introduced by cold and warm vacuum ''accidents'' which admitted ''dirty'' air into the cavities. Clear correlations are obtained linking FE reduction with the maximum surface electric field attained during processing. In single cells the maximums reached were E peak =72 MV/m and H peak =1660 Oe. Thermal breakdown, initiated by accompanying high surface magnetic fields is the dominant limitation on the attainable fields for pulsed processing, as well as for final CW and long pulse operation. To prove that the surface magnetic field rather than the surface electric fields is the limitation to HPP effectiveness, a special two-cell cavity with a reduced magnetic to electric field ratio is successfully tested. During HPP, pulsed fields reach E peak =113 MV/m (H peak =1600 Oe) and subsequent CW low power measurement reached E peak =100 MV/m, the highest CW field ever measured in a superconducting accelerator cavity. ((orig.))

  8. Linear beam dynamics and ampere class superconducting RF cavities at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaga, Rama R.

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a hadron collider designed to collide a range of ions from protons to gold. RHIC operations began in 2000 and has successfully completed five physics runs with several species including gold, deuteron, copper, and polarized protons. Linear optics and coupling are fundamental issues affecting the collider performance. Measurement and correction of optics and coupling are important to maximize the luminosity and sustain stable operation. A numerical approach, first developed at SLAC, was implemented to measure linear optics from coherent betatron oscillations generated by ac dipoles and recorded at multiple beam position monitors (BPMs) distributed around the collider. The approach is extended to a fully coupled 2D case and equivalence relationships between Hamiltonian and matrix formalisms are derived. Detailed measurements of the transverse coupling terms are carried out at RHIC and correction strategies are applied to compensate coupling both locally and globally. A statistical approach to determine BPM reliability and performance over the past three runs and future improvements also discussed. Aiming at a ten-fold increase in the average heavy-ion luminosity, electron cooling is the enabling technology for the next luminosity upgrade (RHIC II). Cooling gold ion beams at 100 GeV/nucleon requires an electron beam of approximately 54 MeV and a high average current in the range of 50-200 mA. All existing e-Coolers are based on low energy DC accelerators. The only viable option to generate high current, high energy, low emittance CW electron beam is through a superconducting energy-recovery linac (SC-ERL). In this option, an electron beam from a superconducting injector gun is accelerated using a high gradient (˜ 20 MV/m) superconducting RF (SRF) cavity. The electrons are returned back to the cavity with a 180° phase shift to recover the energy back into the cavity before being dumped. A design and development of a half

  9. Effect of low temperature baking on the RF properties of niobium superconducting cavities for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianluigi Ciovati

    2004-01-01

    Radio-frequency superconducting (SRF) cavities are widely used to accelerate a charged particle beam in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk niobium has significantly improved over the last ten years and is approaching the theoretical limit for niobium. Nevertheless, RF tests of niobium cavities are still showing some ''anomalous'' losses that require a better understanding in order to reliably obtain better performance. These losses are characterized by a marked dependence of the surface resistance on the surface electromagnetic field and can be detected by measuring the quality factor of the resonator as a function of the peak surface field. A low temperature (100 C-150 C) ''in situ'' bake under ultra-high vacuum has been successfully applied as final preparation of niobium RF cavities by several laboratories over the last few years. The benefits reported consist mainly of an improvement of the cavity quality factor at low field and a recovery from ''anomalous'' losses (so-called ''Q-drop'') without field emission at higher field. A series of experiments with a CEBAF single-cell cavity have been carried out at Jefferson Lab to carefully investigate the effect of baking at progressively higher temperatures for a fixed time on all the relevant material parameters. Measurements of the cavity quality factor in the temperature range 1.37 K-280 K and resonant frequency shift between 6 K-9.3 K provide information about the surface resistance, energy gap, penetration depth and mean free path. The experimental data have been analyzed with the complete BCS theory of superconductivity. The hydrogen content of small niobium samples inserted in the cavity during its surface preparation was analyzed with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA). The single-cell cavity has been tested at three different temperatures before and after baking to gain some insight on thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance and the data are compared with different models

  10. Broadband electron spin resonance from 500 MHz to 40 GHz using superconducting coplanar waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Conrad; Bothner, Daniel; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold; Bogani, Lapo; Scheffler, Marc; Dressel, Martin

    2013-04-01

    We present non-conventional electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments based on microfabricated superconducting Nb thin film waveguides. A very broad frequency range, from 0.5 to 40 GHz, becomes accessible at low temperatures down to 1.6 K and in magnetic fields up to 1.4 T. This allows for an accurate inspection of the ESR absorption position in the frequency domain, in contrast to the more common observation as a function of magnetic field. We demonstrate the applicability of frequency-swept ESR on Cr3+ atoms in ruby as well as on organic radicals of the nitronyl-nitroxide family. Measurements between 1.6 and 30 K reveal a small frequency shift of the ESR and a resonance broadening below the critical temperature of Nb, which we both attribute to a modification of the magnetic field configuration due to the appearance of shielding supercurrents in the waveguide.

  11. RF properties of high-T/sub c/ superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, C.L.; Delayen, J.R.; Dos Santos, D.I.; Lanagan, M.T.; Shepard, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    We have investigated the rf properties of high-T/sub c/ superconductors over a wide range of temperature, frequency, and rf field amplitude. We have tested both bulk polycrystalline samples and thick films on silver substrates. At 150 MHz and 4.2 K, we have measured a surface resistance of 18 μ/sup /OMEGA// at low rf field and 3.6 m/sup /OMEGA// at an rf field of 270 gauss. All samples showed a strong dependence of the surface resistance on rf field; however, no breakdown of the superconducting state has been observed up to the highest field achieved (320 gauss). 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. RF Design and Operating Performance of the BNL/AES 1.3 GHz Single Cell Superconducting RF Photocathode Electron Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Michael; Kneisel, Peter; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Burrill, Andrew; Hahn, H.; Rao, Triveni; Zhao, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past several years Advanced Energy Systems and BNL have been collaborating on the development and testing of a fully superconducting photocathode electron gun. Over the past year we have begun to realize significant results which have been published elsewhere (1). This paper will review the RF design of the gun under test and present results of its performance under various operating conditions. Results for cavity quality factor will be presented for various operating temperatures and cavity field gradients. We will also discuss future plans for testing using this gun.

  13. Effect of the Tuner on the Field Flatness of SNS Superconducting RF Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, A

    2004-01-01

    Field flatness in a multi-cell superconducting cavity affects not only the net accelerating voltage, but also the peak surface field and the Lorenz Force detuning coefficient. Our measurement indicates that the field flatness changes both external Q of the Fundamental Power Coupler (FPC) and external Q of the Field Probe (FP). The field amplitude tilts linearly to the distance between the cell center and the cavity’s geometry center (pivot point). The tilt rate has been measured in a cryomodule cold (2 K) test, being about 2%/100 kHz, relative the field flatness at the cavity’s center frequency of 805 MHz. Bead-pull measurements confirmed that the field flatness change is 2.0%/100 kHz for a medium β cavity with helium vessel, and 1.72%/100 kHz without helium vessel. These results matched the predictions of simulations using ANSYS and SUPERFISH. A detailed analysis reveals that longitudinal capacitive gap deformation is the main cause of the frequency change. Field flatness change ...

  14. Recent developments in the application of rf superconductivity to high-brightness and high-gradient ion beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.; Kennedy, W.L.; Nichols, G.L.; Roche, C.T.; Sagalovsky, L.

    1991-01-01

    A development program is underway to apply rf superconductivity to the design of continuous-wave (cw) linear accelerators for high- brightness ion beams. Since the last workshop, considerable progress has been made both experimentally and theoretically toward this application. Recent tests of niobium resonators for ion acceleration have yielded average accelerating gradients as high as 18 MV/m. In an experiment with a radio-frequency quadrupole geometry, niobium was found to sustain cw peak surface electric fields as high as 128 MV/m over large (10 cm 2 ) surface areas. Theoretical studies of beam impingement and cumulative beam breakup have also yielded encouraging results. Consequently, a section of superconducting resonators and focusing elements has been designed for tests with high-current deuteron beams. In addition, considerable data pertaining to the rf properties of high-T c superconductors has been collected at rf-field amplitudes and frequencies of interest in connection with accelerator operation. This paper summarizes the recent progress and identifies current and future work in the areas of accelerator technology and superconducting materials which will build upon it

  15. A superconducting focusing solenoid for the neutrino factory linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.; Lebedev, V.; Strauss, B.P.

    2001-01-01

    The proposed linear Accelerator that accelerates muons from 190 MeV to 2.45 GeV will use superconducting solenoids for focusing the muon beam. The accelerator will use superconducting RF cavities. These cavities are very sensitive to stay magnetic field from the focusing magnets. Superconducting solenoids can produce large stray fields. This report describes the 201.25 MHz acceleration system for the neutrino factory. This report also describes a focusing solenoid that delivers almost no stray field to a neighboring superconducting RF cavity

  16. An rf separated kaon beam from the Main Injector: Superconducting aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Edwards

    1998-11-01

    ThE report is intended to focus on the superconducting aspects of a potential separated kaon beam facility for the Main Injector, and most of this document reflects that emphasis. However, the RF features cannot be divorced from the overall beam requirements, and so the next section is devoted to the latter subject. The existing optics design that meets the needs of the two proposed experiments is outliied, and its layout at Fermilab is shown. The frequency and deflection gradient choices present implementation dMiculties, and the section closes with some commentary on these issues. Sec. 3 provides an introduction to cavity design considerations, and, in particular carries forward the discussion of resonator shape and frequency selection. The R&D program is the subject of Sec. 4. Provisional parameter choices will be summarized. Initial steps toward cavity fabrication based `on copper models have been taken. The next stages in cavity fabrication will be reviewed in some detail. The infrastructure needs and availability will be discussed. Sec. 5 discusses what maybe characterized as the in~edlents of a point design. At this writing, some aspects are clear and some are not. The basic systems are reasonably clear and are described. The final section presents a cost and schedule estimate for both the Ft&D and production phase. Some supporting material and elaboration is provided in the Appendices.

  17. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L

    1975-01-01

    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  18. Design of a low-power 433/915-MHz RF front-end with a current-reuse common-gate LNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Yiou; Lu Huaxiang

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a wideband RF front-end with novel current-reuse wide band low noise amplifier (LNA), current-reuse V—I converter, active double balanced mixer and transimpedance amplifier for short range device (SRD) applications. With the proposed current-reuse LNA, the DC consumption of the front-end reduces considerably while maintaining sufficient performance needed by SRD devices. The RF front-end was fabricated in 0.18 μm RFCMOS process and occupies a silicon area of just 0.11 mm 2 . Operating in 433 MHz band, the measurement results show the RF front-end achieves a conversion gain of 29.7 dB, a double side band noise figure of 9.7 dB, an input referenced third intercept point of −24.9 dBm with only 1.44 mA power consumption from 1.8 V supply. Compared to other reported front-ends, it has an advantage in power consumption. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  19. RF and feedback systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussard, D.

    1994-01-01

    The radiofrequency system of the Tau Charm Factory accelerating 10 11 particles per bunch and a circulating current of 0.5 A is presented. In order to produce the very short bunches required, the RF system of TCF must provide a large RF voltage (8 MV) at a frequency in the neighbourhood of 400-500 MHz. It appears very attractive to produce the high voltage required with superconducting cavities, for which wall losses are negligible. A comparison between the sc RF system proposed and a possible copper system run at an average 1 MV/m, shows the clear advantage of sc cavities for TCF. (R.P.). 2 figs,. 1 tab

  20. Superconducting cavities for HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwersteg, B.; Ebeling, W.; Moeller, W.D.; Renken, D.; Proch, D.; Sekutowicz, J.; Susta, J.; Tong, D.

    1988-01-01

    Superconducting 500 MHz cavities are developed to demonstrate the feasibility of upgrading the e-beam energy of the HERA storage ring. A prototype module with 2 x 4 cell resonators and appropriate fundamental and higher mode couplers has been designed at DESY and is being built by industrial firms. The design and results of RF and cryogenic measurements are reported in detail. 17 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  1. Frontier applications of rf superconductivity for high energy physics in the TeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigner, M.; Padamsee, H.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present understanding of the fundamental nature of matter is embodied in the standard theory. This theory views all matter as composed of families of quarks and leptons with their interactions mediated by the family of force-carrying particles. Progress in particle accelerators has been a vital element in bringing about this level of understanding. Although the standard theory is successful in relating a wide range of phenomena, it raises deeper questions about the basic nature of matter and energy. Among these are: why are the masses of the various elementary particles and the strengths of the basic forces what they are? It is expected that over the next decade a new generation of accelerators spanning the 100 Gev mass range will shed light on some of these questions. These accelerators, will provide the means to thoroughly explore the energy regime corresponding to the mass scale of the weak interactions to reveal intimate details of the force carrying particles, the weak bosons, Z0 and W+-. Superconducting rf technology will feature in a major way in the electron storage rings. Current theoretical ideas predict that to make further progress towards a more fundamental theory of matter, it will be necessary to penetrate the TeV energy regime. At this scale a whole new range of phenomena will manifest the nature of the symmetry breaking mechanism that must be responsible for the differences they observe in the familiar weak and electromagnetic forces. History has shown that unexpected discoveries made in a new energy regime have proven to be the main engine of progress. The experimental challenge to accelerator designers and builders is clear. 11 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  2. Control interlock and monitoring system for 80 KW IOT based RF power amplifier system at 505.812 MHz for Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Gautam; Deo, R.K.; Jain, M.K.; Bagre, Sunil; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    For 80 kW inductive output tube (IOT) based RF power amplifier system at 505.812 MHz for Indus-2, a control, interlock and monitoring system is realized. This is to facilitate proper start-up and shutdown of the amplifier system, monitor various parameters to detect any malfunction during its operation and to bring the system in a safe stage, thereby assuring reliable operation of the amplifier system. This high power amplifier system incorporates interlocks such as cooling interlocks, various voltage and current interlocks and time critical RF interlocks. Processing of operation sequence, cooling interlocks and various voltage and current interlocks have been realized by using Siemens make S7-CPU-315-2DP (CPU) based programmable logic controller (PLC) system. While time critical or fast interlocks have been realized by using Siemens make FPGA based Boolean Co-processor FM-352-5 which operates in standalone mode. Siemens make operating panel OP277 6'' is being used as a human machine interface (HMI) device for command, data, alarm generation and process parameter monitoring. (author)

  3. Dynamics and performance of the free electron laser at Super-Aco with a harmonic RF cavity set on 500 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutarelli, D.

    2000-01-01

    This work is dedicated to the development of the potentialities of the free electron laser that has been installed on the storage ring Super-Aco at Orsay university. We have studied the dynamics of the electron beam inside a harmonic RF cavity set on 500 MHz. The impact of the geometric characteristics of the optical cavity on the transverse overlapping between laser radiation and the electron beam has been studied in details. An important part of the work has been the assessment of the optical characterization of the dielectric multi-layer mirrors of the cavity. For that purpose a complete system has been designed to assess the changes in optical properties of mirrors during laser operation. Another important part of this work was the study of the interaction process between laser radiation and the electron bunch leading to saturation. This interaction process has been simulated through a new model and some predictions given by this model have been successfully confronted to experimental data. The installation of the harmonic RF cavity has led to a significant increase of the laser radiation gain and the value of the mean power of the laser radiation has reached 300 mW. An interesting application of this technique is the generation of high energy gamma photons through Compton backscattering. A collimated 35 MeV-energy photon beam has been produced at Super-Aco with a rate of 5.10 6 photons per second. (A.C.)

  4. A 900 MHz RF energy harvesting system in 40 nm CMOS technology with efficiency peaking at 47% and higher than 30% over a 22dB wide input power range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Jiang, Y.; Dijkhuis, J.; Dolmans, G.; Gao, H.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    A 900 MHz RF energy harvesting system is proposed for a far-field wireless power transfer application. The topology of a single-stage CMOS rectifier loaded with an integrated boost DC-DC converter is implemented in a 40 nm CMOS technology. The co-design of a cross-coupled CMOS rectifier and an

  5. Tuning of Lee Path Loss Model based on recent RF measurements in 400 MHZ conducted in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alotaibi, Faihan D.; Ali, Adel A.

    2008-01-01

    In mobile radio systems, path loss models are necessary for proper planning, interference estimations, frequently assignments and cell parameters which are basic for network planning process as well as Location Based Services (LBS) techniques that are not based on GPS system. Empirical models are the most adjustable models that can be suited to different types of environments. In this paper, the Lee path loss model has been tuned using Least Square (LS) algorithm to fit measured data for TETRA system operating 400 MHz in Riyadh urban and suburbs. Consequently, Lee model's parameter (L0, y) are obtained for the targeted areas. The performance of the tuned Lee model is then compared to the three most widely used empirical path loss models: Hat, ITU-R and Cost 231 Walfisch-Ikegami non line-of-sight (CWI-NLOS) path loss models. The performance criterion selected for the comparison of various empirical path loss models are the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and goodness of fit (R2). The RMSE and R2between the actual and predicted data are calculated for various path loss models. It turned that the tuned Lee model outperforms the other empirical models. (author)

  6. Development of a Magnetron Resonance Frequency Auto Tuning System for Medical Xband [9300 MHz] RF Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sung Su; Lee, Byung Cheol [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yujong; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Byeong-No; Joo, Youngwoo; Cha, Hyungki; Lee, Soo Min; Song, Ki Baek [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hyun [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The total components of the accelerator are the magnetron, electron gun, accelerating structure, a set of solenoid magnets, four sets of steering coils, a modulator, and a circulator. One of the accelerator components of the accelerating structure is made of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC), and its volume is changed according to the ambient temperature. As the volume changes, the resonant frequency of the accelerating structure is changed. Accordingly, the resonance frequency is mismatched between the source of the magnetron and the accelerating structure. An automatic frequency tuning system is automatically matched with the resonant frequency of the magnetron and accelerating structure, which allows a high output power and reliable accelerator operation. An automatic frequency tuning system is composed of a step motor control part for correcting the frequency of the source and power measuring parts, i.e., the forward and reflected power between the magnetron and accelerating structure. In this paper, the design, fabrication, and RF power test of the automatic frequency tuning system for the X-band linac are presented. A frequency tuning system was developed to overcome an unstable accelerator operation owing to the frequency mismatch between the magnetron and accelerating structure. The frequency measurement accuracy is 100 kHz and 0.72 degree per pulse.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance at 310 MHz in a superconducting solenoid; Resonance magnetique nucleaire a 310 MHz dans un solenoide supra-conducteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunand, J J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The realisation of an NMR spectrometer with a superconducting magnet is presented in the first section. The methods to attain the best possible homogeneity of the magnetic field and to minimize the error in the spectrometer are described. The second section is devoted to the study of elastomers and nitr-oxides free radicals. A shift of the transition temperature with the magnetic field appears for the elastomers. The increasing paramagnetic shift has allowed a complete study by NMR of piperidinic and pyrrolidinic nitroxide free radicals. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie est exposee la realisation d'un spectrometre de RMN utilisant un solenoide supraconducteur. Des solutions sont donnees pour obtenir la meilleure homogeneite possible du champ magnetique et pour minimiser les sources d'erreur apportees par le spectrometre. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude d'elastomeres et de radicaux libres nitroxydes. Une variation de la temperature de transition avec le champ magnetique est mise en evidence pour les elastomeres. L'accroissement du deplacement paramagnetique a permis une etude complete par RMN des radicaux libres nitroxydes piperidiniques et pyrrolidiniques. (auteur)

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance at 310 MHz in a superconducting solenoid; Resonance magnetique nucleaire a 310 MHz dans un solenoide supra-conducteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunand, J.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The realisation of an NMR spectrometer with a superconducting magnet is presented in the first section. The methods to attain the best possible homogeneity of the magnetic field and to minimize the error in the spectrometer are described. The second section is devoted to the study of elastomers and nitr-oxides free radicals. A shift of the transition temperature with the magnetic field appears for the elastomers. The increasing paramagnetic shift has allowed a complete study by NMR of piperidinic and pyrrolidinic nitroxide free radicals. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie est exposee la realisation d'un spectrometre de RMN utilisant un solenoide supraconducteur. Des solutions sont donnees pour obtenir la meilleure homogeneite possible du champ magnetique et pour minimiser les sources d'erreur apportees par le spectrometre. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude d'elastomeres et de radicaux libres nitroxydes. Une variation de la temperature de transition avec le champ magnetique est mise en evidence pour les elastomeres. L'accroissement du deplacement paramagnetique a permis une etude complete par RMN des radicaux libres nitroxydes piperidiniques et pyrrolidiniques. (auteur)

  9. Response, thermal regulatory threshold and thermal breakdown threshold of restrained RF-exposed mice at 905 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, S [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Eom, S J [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Schuderer, J [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstrasse 43, 8004 Zurich (Switzerland); Apostel, U [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Nicolai-Fuchs-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Tillmann, T [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Nicolai-Fuchs-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Dasenbrock, C [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Nicolai-Fuchs-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Kuster, N [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-11-07

    The objective of this study was the determination of the thermal regulatory and the thermal breakdown thresholds for in-tube restrained B6C3F1 and NMRI mice exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields at 905 MHz. Different levels of the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR 0, 2, 5, 7.2, 10, 12.6 and 20 W kg{sup -1}) have been applied to the mice inside the 'Ferris Wheel' exposure setup at 22 {+-} 2 {sup 0}C and 30-70% humidity. The thermal responses were assessed by measurement of the rectal temperature prior, during and after the 2 h exposure session. For B6C3F1 mice, the thermal response was examined for three different weight groups (20 g, 24 g, 29 g), both genders and for pregnant mice. Additionally, NMRI mice with a weight of 36 g were investigated for an interstrain comparison. The thermal regulatory threshold of in-tube restrained mice was found at SAR levels between 2 W kg{sup -1} and 5 W kg{sup -1}, whereas the breakdown of regulation was determined at 10.1 {+-} 4.0 W kg{sup -1}(K = 2) for B6C3F1 mice and 7.7 {+-} 1.6 W kg{sup -1}(K = 2) for NMRI mice. Based on a simplified power balance equation, the thresholds show a clear dependence upon the metabolic rate and weight. NMRI mice were more sensitive to thermal stress and respond at lower SAR values with regulation and breakdown. The presented data suggest that the thermal breakdown for in-tube restrained mice, whole-body exposed to radiofrequency fields, may occur at SAR levels of 6 W kg{sup -1}(K = 2) at laboratory conditions.

  10. Nonlinear Near-Field Microwave Microscopy for RF Defect Localization in Nb-Based Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Tamin

    2011-03-01

    Niobium Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are very sensitive to localized defects that give rise to quenches at high accelerating gradients. In order to identify these defects via scanning microscopy, and to further understand the origins of the quench under high radio frequency excitation (1-3 GHz), a scanning probe with localized and up to ~ 200 mT RF magnetic field is required for low temperature microscopy to achieve sub-micron resolution. For this purpose, we developed a micro loop probe on silicon substrate with outer diameter 20 μ m and inner diameter 17 μ m and successfully fabricated it by lithography. The probe has been used to identify a signal arising from the nonlinear Meissner effect in a Nb thin film. In addition, a magnetic write head is another promising candidate to achieve this goal of understanding localized defect behavior under high RF magnetic field at low temperatures. We will discuss and compare both types of probe for nonlinear scanning microscopy and RF defect localization in superconductors. We acknowledge the support of DOE/HEP.

  11. New achievements in RF cavity manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippmann, G.; Pimiskern, K.; Kaiser, H.

    1993-01-01

    Dornier has been engaged in development, manufacturing and testing of Cu-, Cu/Nb- and Nb-cavities for many years. Recently, several different types of RF cavities were manufactured. A prototype superconducting (s.c.) B-Factory accelerating cavity (1-cell, 500 MHz) was delivered to Cornell University, Laboratory of Nuclear Studies. A second lot of 6 s.c. cavities (20-cell, 3000 MHz) was fabricated on contract from Technical University of Darmstadt for the S-DALINAC facility. Finally, the first copper RF structures (9-cell, 1300 MHz) for TESLA were finished and delivered to DESY, two s.c. niobium structures of the same design are in production. Highlights from the manufacturing processes of these cavities are described and first performance results will be reported

  12. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.W.B.; Noakes, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    This book is an elementray introduction into superconductivity. The topics are the superconducting state, the magnetic properties of superconductors, type I superconductors, type II superconductors and a chapter on the superconductivity theory. (WL)

  13. Overview of superconducting RF technology and its application to high-current linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.; Bohn, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting linacs may be a viable option for high-current applications such as copious neutron production like that needed for transmutation of radioactive waste. These linacs must run reliably for many years and allow easy routine maintenance. superconducting cavities operate efficiently with high cw gradients, properties which help to reduce operating and capital costs. However, cost effectiveness is not the sole consideration in these applications. For example, beam impingement must be essentially eliminated to prevent unsafe radioactivation of the accelerating structures, and thus large apertures are needed through which to pass the beam. Because of their high efficiency, superconducting cavities can be designed with very large bore apertures, thereby reducing the effect of beam impingement

  14. Superconducting linac beam dynamics with high-order maps for RF resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Geraci, A A; Pardo, R C; 10.1016/j.nima.2003.11.177

    2004-01-01

    The arbitrary-order map beam optics code COSY Infinity has recently been adapted to calculate accurate high-order ion-optical maps for electrostatic and radio-frequency accelerating structures. The beam dynamics of the superconducting low-velocity positive-ion injector linac for the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Lab is used to demonstrate some advantages of the new simulation capability. The injector linac involves four different types of superconducting accelerating structures and has a total of 18 resonators. The detailed geometry for each of the accelerating cavities is included, allowing an accurate representation of the on- and off-axis electric fields. The fields are obtained within the code from a Poisson-solver for cylindrically symmetric electrodes of arbitrary geometry. The transverse focusing is done with superconducting solenoids. A detailed comparison of the transverse and longitudinal phase space is made with the conventional ray-tracing code LINRAY. The two codes are evaluated for ease ...

  15. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Farach, Horacio A

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity covers the nature of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The book discusses the fundamental principles of superconductivity; the essential features of the superconducting state-the phenomena of zero resistance and perfect diamagnetism; and the properties of the various classes of superconductors, including the organics, the buckministerfullerenes, and the precursors to the cuprates. The text also describes superconductivity from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and provides expressions for the free energy; the Ginzburg-Landau and BCS theories; and the structures of the high

  16. Study of quality and field limitation of superconducting 1.3 GHz 9-Cell RF-cavities at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlander, Felix

    2013-01-01

    The European XFEL and the International Linear Collider are based on superconducting rf cavities made of niobium. Their advantages are low ohmic losses which allow high duty cycles and the possibility to use a large beam aperture which is substantial to prevent wake fields at high current accelerators. To reach the theoretical limits of superconducting cavities, it is required to understand the present performance limitations. These are field emission, thermal breakdown (quench) and the ohmic losses dependent on the accelerating field, which are expressed in the quality factor. As the limiting mechanisms themselves are understood in general, the origin of the quench is often unclear. To determine the quench locations, a localisation tool for thermal breakdown using the second sound in superfluid helium has been installed at the cavity test facility at DESY and the results for a sample of about 30 cavities have been examined. The features of the distribution of the quench locations have been analysed and it has been found that the quench locations are in the area of the highest surface magnetic field and not necessarily at the equator of the cells. The data sample has been extended in an attempt to characterise the average behaviour of the quality factor related to the accelerating field. An analysis of the surface resistance of individual cavities shows that a recently developed model for the surface resistance of niobium is not able to describe the measurement in all detail, but the application of an additional mechanism showed promising results.

  17. Study of quality and field limitation of superconducting 1.3 GHz 9-Cell RF-cavities at DESY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlander, Felix

    2013-01-15

    The European XFEL and the International Linear Collider are based on superconducting rf cavities made of niobium. Their advantages are low ohmic losses which allow high duty cycles and the possibility to use a large beam aperture which is substantial to prevent wake fields at high current accelerators. To reach the theoretical limits of superconducting cavities, it is required to understand the present performance limitations. These are field emission, thermal breakdown (quench) and the ohmic losses dependent on the accelerating field, which are expressed in the quality factor. As the limiting mechanisms themselves are understood in general, the origin of the quench is often unclear. To determine the quench locations, a localisation tool for thermal breakdown using the second sound in superfluid helium has been installed at the cavity test facility at DESY and the results for a sample of about 30 cavities have been examined. The features of the distribution of the quench locations have been analysed and it has been found that the quench locations are in the area of the highest surface magnetic field and not necessarily at the equator of the cells. The data sample has been extended in an attempt to characterise the average behaviour of the quality factor related to the accelerating field. An analysis of the surface resistance of individual cavities shows that a recently developed model for the surface resistance of niobium is not able to describe the measurement in all detail, but the application of an additional mechanism showed promising results.

  18. Study of thermal effects in superconducting RF cavities; Etude des effets thermiques dans le cavites supraconductrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousson, S.; Caruette, A.; Fouaidy, M.; Hammoudi, N.; Junquera, T.; Lesrel, J.; Yaniche, J.F. [Services Techniques, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1999-11-01

    A high speed thermometric system equipped with 64 fixed surface thermometers is used to investigate thermal effects in several 3 GHz cavities. An evaluation of the time response of our thermometers is presented. A method based on RF signal analysis is proposed to evaluate the normal zone propagation rate during thermal breakdown. (authors) 2 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Significant RF-EMF and thermal levels observed in a computational model of a person with a tibial plate for grounded 40 MHz exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Anderson, Vitas

    2014-05-01

    Using numerical modeling, a worst-case scenario is considered when a person with a metallic implant is exposed to a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF). An adult male standing on a conductive ground plane was exposed to a 40 MHz vertically polarized plane wave field, close to whole-body resonance where maximal induced current flows are expected in the legs. A metal plate (50-300 mm long) was attached to the tibia in the left leg. The findings from this study re-emphasize the need to ensure compliance with limb current reference levels for exposures near whole-body resonance, and not just rely on compliance with ambient electric (E) and magnetic (H) field reference levels. Moreover, we emphasize this recommendation for someone with a tibial plate, as failure to comply may result in significant tissue damage (increases in the localized temperature of 5-10 °C were suggested by the modeling for an incident E-field of 61.4 V/m root mean square (rms)). It was determined that the occupational reference level for limb current (100 mA rms), as stipulated in the 1998 guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), is satisfied if the plane wave incident E-field levels are no more than 29.8 V/m rms without an implant and 23.4 V/m rms for the model with a 300 mm implant. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. High Power RF Test Facility at the SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Yoon W; Campisi, Isidoro E; Champion, Mark; Crofford, Mark; Davis, Kirk; Drury, Michael A; Fuja, Ray E; Gurd, Pamela; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; McCarthy, Michael P; Powers, Tom; Shajedul Hasan, S M; Stirbet, Mircea; Stout, Daniel; Tang, Johnny Y; Vassioutchenko, Alexandre V; Wezensky, Mark

    2005-01-01

    RF Test Facility has been completed in the SNS project at ORNL to support test and conditioning operation of RF subsystems and components. The system consists of two transmitters for two klystrons powered by a common high voltage pulsed converter modulator that can provide power to two independent RF systems. The waveguides are configured with WR2100 and WR1150 sizes for presently used frequencies: 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz. Both 402.5 MHz and 805 MHz systems have circulator protected klystrons that can be powered by the modulator capable of delivering 11 MW peak and 1 MW average power. The facility has been equipped with computer control for various RF processing and complete dual frequency operation. More than forty 805 MHz fundamental power couplers for the SNS superconducting linac (SCL) cavitites have been RF conditioned in this facility. The facility provides more than 1000 ft2 floor area for various test setups. The facility also has a shielded cave area that can support high power tests of normal conducti...

  1. Oak Ridge rf Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, W.L.; Hoffman, D.J.; McCurdy, H.C.; McManamy, T.J.; Moeller, J.A.; Ryan, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    The rf Test Facility (RFTF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a national facility for the testing and evaluation of steady-state, high-power (approx.1.0-MW) ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) systems and components. The facility consists of a vacuum vessel and two fully tested superconducting development magnets from the ELMO Bumpy Torus Proof-of-Principle (EBT-P) program. These are arranged as a simple mirror with a mirror ratio of 4.8. The axial centerline distance between magnet throat centers is 112 cm. The vacuum vessel cavity has a large port (74 by 163 cm) and a test volume adequate for testing prototypic launchers for Doublet III-D (DIII-D), Tore Supra, and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Attached to the internal vessel walls are water-cooled panels for removing the injected rf power. The magnets are capable of generating a steady-state field of approx.3 T on axis in the magnet throats. Steady-state plasmas are generated in the facility by cyclotron resonance breakdown using a dedicated 200-kW, 28-GHz gyrotron. Available rf sources cover a frequency range of 2 to 200 MHz at 1.5 kW and 3 to 18 MHz at 200 kW, with several sources at intermediate parameters. Available in July 1986 will be a >1.0-MW, cw source spanning 40 to 80 MHz. 5 figs

  2. Transient beam loading and rf power distribution in the SSC [Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raka, E.C.

    1986-01-01

    Transient beam loading will occur in the SSC at injection as the fifteen individual batches from the High Energy Booster are loaded box-car fashion into the main rings. Periodic transient beam loading will be present also at injection due to the gaps between the successive batches as well as the gap that remains to be filled. Even after the rings have been ''filled'' there will remain the abort gap of 3.1 μsec. This can produce significant modulation of the phase and amplitude of the rf voltage seen by those bunches immediately following it unless corrective measures are taken. Two different methods of reducing this modulation will be discussed, each of which put certain requirements on the rf power distribution system

  3. Preparation of YBaCuO superconducting tape by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukutomi, Masao; Akutsu, Nakao; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Asano, Toshihisa; Maeda, Hiroshi (National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba (Japan); Mitsui Mining and Smelting Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-04-01

    The effect of buffer layers, conditions of film preparation, and the relation between superconducting characteristics and bombardment of high energy ions on films were discussed in an attempt to fabricate YBaCuO films on metallic substrates by sputtering. Hastelloy-X tapes and Chromel (Ni-10Cr) fine wires were used as metallic substrates, and MgO films as buffer layers, which were provided by sputtering a MgO sintered target and annealing. As a result, superconducting films were favorably obtained on the Hastelloy tapes with the MgO buffer layers, however, counter diffusion at the interface of the film and layer was unavoidable in annealing. C axis-highly oriented film with high zero resistance Tc was obtained in such an arrangement of the target and substrate as to lower the effect of 0{sup {minus}} ion resputtering, resulting in the most favorable Tc=80.4K. YBaCuO superconducting films could be also deposited on a bundle of Chromel fine wires preliminarily. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langone, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book explains the theoretical background of superconductivity. Includes discussion of electricity, material fabrication, maglev trains, the superconducting supercollider, and Japanese-US competition. The authors reports the latest discoveries

  5. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onnes, H.K.

    1988-01-01

    The author traces the development of superconductivity from 1911 to 1986. Some of the areas he explores are the Meissner Effect, theoretical developments, experimental developments, engineering achievements, research in superconducting magnets, and research in superconducting electronics. The article also mentions applications shown to be technically feasible, but not yet commercialized. High-temperature superconductivity may provide enough leverage to bring these applications to the marketplace

  6. The LHC Low Level RF

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, Philippe; Molendijk, John Cornelis; Olsen, Ragnar; Rohlev, Anton; Rossi, Vittorio; Stellfeld, Donat; Valuch, Daniel; Wehrle, Urs

    2006-01-01

    The LHC RF consists of eight 400 MHz superconducting cavities per ring, with each cavity independently powered by a 300 kW klystron, via a circulator. The challenge for the Low Level is to cope with very high beam current (more than 1 A RF component) and achieve excellent beam lifetime (emittance growth time in excess of 25 hours). Each cavity has an associated Cavity Controller rack consisting of two VME crates which implement high gain RF Feedback, a Tuner Loop with a new algorithm, a Klystron Ripple Loop and a Conditioning system. In addition each ring has a Beam Control system (four VME crates) which includes a Frequency Program, Phase Loop, Radial Loop and Synchronization Loop. A Longitudinal Damper (dipole and quadrupole mode) acting via the 400 MHz cavities is included to reduce emittance blow-up due to filamentation from phase and energy errors at injection. Finally an RF Synchronization system implements the bunch into bucket transfer from the SPS into each LHC ring. When fully installed in 2007, the...

  7. Experience with two large-scale Hell-cryostats for a superconducting RF particle separator working in closed cycle with a 300 W refrigerator

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, W

    1976-01-01

    The contribution of the Karlsruhe Institut fur Experimental Kernphysik to the RF particle separator at the SPS/CERN consists of the two superconducting deflectors and their Hell-cryostats with the cryogenic and vacuum accessories. The cryostats have to fulfil specifications concerning tightness, thermal insulation, adjustment of the cavities to the beam and reliability. Corresponding cryogenic and RF tests are performed in Karlsruhe before a 300 W refrigerator simulating normal and emergency conditions. Following a description of cryostats design the results of these measurements are compared with the specifications. Operating experience with the cryostats in closed circuit with the refrigerator are reported. (5 refs).

  8. Status report on CERN activities aiming at the production of sputter-coated copper superconducting RF cavities for LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuti, C.; Bloess, D.; Chiaveri, E.; Hilleret, N.; Minestrini, M.; Weingarten, W.

    1990-01-01

    To upgrade LEP energy above 55 GeV, the first step will consist in installing 32 SC cavities of 352 MHz frequency at Point 2 of the machine. This operation will be carried out in steps and should be completed by the end of 1991. It has been decided that 8 of the 32 cavities will be Nb coated copper cavities, the crucial part of which (i.e. the cavity proper) will be manufactured and coated at CERN. For the time being, 4 of these 8 cavities have been prepared. They present Q 0 values at low field of about 10 10 , while at the specified operating field of 5 MV/m their Q 0 range between 5 and 7 x 10 9 . In order to carry out assembly, coating and rinsing of cavities in better (i.e. cleaner) conditions, an experimental hall is being prepared, which will become operational after summer 1989, such as to be used for the manufacturing of the second batch of 4 coated cavities. In parallel with this main activity, some work is also being devoted to the study of coatings of higher T c materials, namely NbTiN. Due to the higher T c , these new coatings should present a lower BCS RF resistivity, a necessary condition to obtain higher Q 0 values. The first cavity coated so far with NbTiN (a single cell cavity of 500 MHz frequency) gave encouraging results, which however are not better than what was obtained with a Nb film. (author)

  9. Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement related to the application of novel cavity fabrication techniques and Nb/Cu sputter coating technology in the field of superconducting RF for the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Proposal to negotiate a collaboration agreement related to the application of novel cavity fabrication techniques and Nb/Cu sputter coating technology in the field of superconducting RF for the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study

  10. Electron bunch train excited higher-order modes in a superconducting RF cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Feng; Huang, Sen-Lin; Wang, Fang; Feng, Li-Wen; Zhuang, De-Hao; Lin, Lin; Zhu, Feng; Hao, Jian-Kui; Quan, Sheng-Wen; Liu, Ke-Xin

    2017-04-01

    Higher-order mode (HOM) based intra-cavity beam diagnostics has been proved effective and convenient in superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) accelerators. Our recent research shows that the beam harmonics in the bunch train excited HOM spectrum, which have much higher signal-to-noise ratio than the intrinsic HOM peaks, may also be useful for beam diagnostics. In this paper, we will present our study on bunch train excited HOMs, including a theoretical model and recent experiments carried out based on the DC-SRF photoinjector and SRF linac at Peking University. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275014)

  11. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.H.; Mortensen, K.

    1988-12-01

    This report contains lecture notes of the basic lectures presented at the 1st Topsoee Summer School on Superconductivity held at Risoe National Laboratory, June 20-24, 1988. The following lecture notes are included: L.M. Falicov: 'Superconductivity: Phenomenology', A. Bohr and O. Ulfbeck: 'Quantal structure of superconductivity. Gauge angle', G. Aeppli: 'Muons, neutrons and superconductivity', N.F. Pedersen: 'The Josephson junction', C. Michel: 'Physicochemistry of high-T c superconductors', C. Laverick and J.K. Hulm: 'Manufacturing and application of superconducting wires', J. Clarke: 'SQUID concepts and systems'. (orig.) With 10 tabs., 128 figs., 219 refs

  12. Low Level RF System for Jefferson Lab Cryomodule Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasz Plawski; Trent Allison; Jean Delayen; J. Hovater; Thomas Powers

    2003-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) has been upgraded to test and commission SNS and CEBAF Energy Upgrade cryomodules. Part of the upgrade was to modernize the superconducting cavity instrumentation and control. We have designed a VXI based RF control system exclusively for the production testing of superconducting cavities. The RF system can be configured to work either in Phase Locked Loop (PLL) or Self Excited Loop (SEL) mode. It can be used to drive either SNS 805 MHz or CEBAF Energy Upgrade 1497 MHz superconducting cavities and can be operated in pulsed or continuous wave (CW) mode. The base design consists of RF-analog and digital sections. The RF-analog section includes a Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO), phase detector, IandQ modulator and ''low phase shift'' limiter. The digital section controls the analog section and includes ADC, FPGA, and DAC . We will discuss the design of the RF system and how it relates to the support of cavity testing

  13. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on superconductivity the absence of electrical resistance has always fascinated the mind of researchers with a promise of applications unachievable by conventional technologies. Since its discovery superconductivity has been posing many questions and challenges to solid state physics, quantum mechanics, chemistry and material science. Simulations arrived to superconductivity from particle physics, astrophysic, electronics, electrical engineering and so on. In seventy-five years the original promises of superconductivity were going to become reality: a microscopical theory gave to superconductivity the cloth of the science and the level of technological advances was getting higher and higher. High field superconducting magnets became commercially available, superconducting electronic devices were invented, high field accelerating gradients were obtained in superconductive cavities and superconducting particle detectors were under study. Other improvements came in a quiet progression when a tornado brought a revolution in the field: new materials had been discovered and superconductivity, from being a phenomenon relegated to the liquid Helium temperatures, became achievable over the liquid Nitrogen temperature. All the physics and the technological implications under superconductivity have to be considered ab initio

  14. Mirror-smooth surfaces and repair of defects in superconducting RF cavities by mechanical polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, C. A. [Fermilab; Cooley, L. D. [Fermilab

    2012-11-22

    Mechanical techniques for polishing the inside surface of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities have been systematically explored. By extending known techniques to fine polishing, mirror-like finishes were produced, with <15 nm RMS (root mean square) roughness over 1 mm2 scan area. This is an order of magnitude less than the typical roughness produced by the electropolishing of niobium cavities. The extended mechanical polishing (XMP) process was applied to several SRF cavities which exhibited equator defects that caused quench at <20 MV m-1 and were not improved by further electropolishing. Cavity optical inspection equipment verified the complete removal of these defects, and minor acid processing, which dulled the mirror finish, restored performance of the defective cells to the high gradients and quality factors measured for adjacent cells when tested with other harmonics. This innate repair feature of XMP could be used to increase manufacturing yield. Excellent superconducting properties resulted after initial process optimization, with quality factor Q of 3 × 1010 and accelerating gradient of 43 MV m-1 being attained for a single-cell TESLA cavity, which are both close to practical limits. Several repaired nine-cell cavities also attained Q > 8 × 109 at 35 MV m-1, which is the specification for the International Linear Collider. Future optimization of the process and pathways for eliminating requirements for acid processing are also discussed.

  15. The Design of a Five-Cell Superconducting RF Module with a PBG Coupler Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenyev, Sergey A.; Simakov, Evgenya I.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the problem of incorporating a Photonic Band Gap (PBG) cell into a superconducting accelerating module of 5 cells designed for the operational frequency of 2.1 GHz. The reason for using a PBG cell is to provide a good accelerating mode confinement and good Higher Order Mode (HOM) suppression. PBG cell can potentially be used for placing HOM and fundamental mode couplers. However, because of the naturally higher ratio of the peak magnetic field to the accelerating field in the PBG cell, it should be designed to operate at a lower accelerating gradient than the other cells of the module. This ensures that the probability of quench in the PBG cell would be no higher than in other elliptical cells of the structure.

  16. Surface characterization of Nb samples electropolished with real superconducting rf accelerator cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of surface characterizations of niobium (Nb samples electropolished together with a single cell superconducting radio-frequency accelerator cavity. These witness samples were located in three regions of the cavity, namely at the equator, the iris, and the beam pipe. Auger electron spectroscopy was utilized to probe the chemical composition of the topmost four atomic layers. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x ray for elemental analysis was used to observe the surface topography and chemical composition at the micrometer scale. A few atomic layers of sulfur (S were found covering the samples nonuniformly. Niobium oxide granules with a sharp geometry were observed on every sample. Some Nb-O granules appeared to also contain sulfur.

  17. Study of field-limiting defects in superconducting RF cavities for electron-accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aderhold, Sebastian

    2015-02-01

    Superconducting radio-frequency resonators made from niobium are an integral part of many accelerator projects. Their main advantage are the low ohmic losses resulting in the possibility for a long pulse structure and high duty cycles up to continous wave (cw) operation. The European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) and the International Linear Collider (ILC) are based on this technology. In some cases the resonators reach accelerating electric fields close to the theoretical limit of bulk niobium. Yet most resonators are limited at lower fields and mass production for large scale accelerator projects suffers from the spread in the achievable gradient per resonator. The main limitations are field emission and the breakdown of superconductivity (quench). While field emission is mostly attributed to the overall surface cleanliness of the resonator, quench is usually associated with local defects. Optical inspection of the inner surface of the resonators with unprecedented resolution, accuracy and a special illumination has been established at DESY and used to study such local surface defects. More than 30 resonators have been inspected. Distinctive features from these inspections have been catalogued and assessed for their potential risk for the performance of the resonator. Several confirmed quenching defects could be extracted for further analysis and could be traced back to likely origins in the production process. A new, automated set-up for optical inspection of large series of resonators, named OBACHT, has been developed and successfully commissioned. Its design includes the minimal need for operator interference, reproducibility, robustness and versatility, in order to fit the requirements for application both in a laboratory and in a production environment. To facilitate the comparison of the results obtained during the global R and D effort on resonators for the ILC, the ILC global yield database has been established. The yield and selection rules for the

  18. Plasma treatment of bulk niobium surface for superconducting rf cavities: Optimization of the experimental conditions on flat samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rašković

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Accelerator performance, in particular the average accelerating field and the cavity quality factor, depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of the superconducting radio-frequency (SRF cavity surface. Plasma based surface modification provides an excellent opportunity to eliminate nonsuperconductive pollutants in the penetration depth region and to remove the mechanically damaged surface layer, which improves the surface roughness. Here we show that the plasma treatment of bulk niobium (Nb presents an alternative surface preparation method to the commonly used buffered chemical polishing and electropolishing methods. We have optimized the experimental conditions in the microwave glow discharge system and their influence on the Nb removal rate on flat samples. We have achieved an etching rate of 1.7  μm/min⁡ using only 3% chlorine in the reactive mixture. Combining a fast etching step with a moderate one, we have improved the surface roughness without exposing the sample surface to the environment. We intend to apply the optimized experimental conditions to the preparation of single cell cavities, pursuing the improvement of their rf performance.

  19. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakani, S.L.; Kakani, Shubhra

    2007-01-01

    The monograph provides readable introduction to the basics of superconductivity for beginners and experimentalists. For theorists, the monograph provides nice and brief description of the broad spectrum of experimental properties, theoretical concepts with all details, which theorists should learn, and provides a sound basis for students interested in studying superconducting theory at the microscopic level. Special chapter on the theory of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates is devoted

  20. High power RF systems for the BNL ERL project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaltsman, A.; Lambiase, R.

    2011-03-28

    The Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) project, now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, requires two high power RF systems. The first RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting electron gun. The RF power from this system is used to drive nearly half an Ampere of beam current to 2 MeV. There is no provision to recover any of this energy so the minimum amplifier power is 1 MW. It consists of 1 MW CW klystron, transmitter and power supplies, 1 MW circulator, 1 MW dummy load and a two-way power splitter. The second RF system is for the 703.75 MHz superconducting cavity. The system accelerates the beam to 54.7 MeV and recovers this energy. It will provide up to 50 kW of CW RF power to the cavity. It consists of 50 kW transmitter, circulator, and dummy load. This paper describes the two high power RF systems and presents the test data for both.

  1. SQIF Arrays as RF Sensors (Briefing Charts)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yukon, Stanford P

    2007-01-01

    ... (Superconducting Quantum Interference Filter) arrays may be employed as sensitive RF sensors. RF SQIF arrays fabricated with high Tc Josephson junctions can be cooled with small Sterling microcoolers...

  2. New results of development on high efficiency high gradient superconducting rf cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Rongli [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Li, Z. K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hao, Z. K. [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Liu, K. X. [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Zhao, H. Y. [OTIC, Ningxia (China); Adolphsen, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We report on the latest results of development on high-efficiency high-gradient superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Several 1-cell cavities made of large-grain niobium (Nb) were built, processed and tested. Two of these cavities are of the Low Surface Field (LSF) shape. Series of tests were carried out following controlled thermal cycling. Experiments toward zero-field cooling were carried out. The best experimentally achieved results are Eacc = 41 MV/m at Q0 = 6.5×1010 at 1.4 K by a 1-cell 1.3 GHz large-grain Nb TTF shape cavity and Eacc = 49 MV/m at Q0 = 1.5×1010 at 1.8 K by a 1-cell 1.5 GHz large-grain Nb CEBAF upgrade low-loss shape cavity.

  3. Comparative Simulation Studies of Multipacting in Higher-Order-Mode Couplers of Superconducting RF Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y. M.; Liu, Kexin; Geng, Rongli

    2014-01-01

    Multipacting (MP) in higher-order-mode (HOM) couplers of the International Linear Collider (ILC) baseline cavity and the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) 12 GeV upgrade cavity is studied by using the ACE3P suites, developed by the Advanced Computations Department at SLAC. For the ILC cavity HOM coupler, the simulation results show that resonant trajectories exist in three zones, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 0.6A-1.6 MV/m, 21A-34 MV/m, 32A-35 MV/m, and > 40MV/m, respectively. For the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade cavity HOM coupler, resonant trajectories exist in one zone, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 6A-13 MV/m. Potential implications of these MP barriers are discussed in the context of future high energy pulsed as well as medium energy continuous wave (CW) accelerators based on superconducting radio frequency cavities. Frequency scaling of MPA's predicted in HOM couplers of the ILC, CBEAF upgrade, SNS and FLASH third harmonic cavity is given and found to be in good agreement with the analytical result based on the parallel plate model

  4. Thermal design studies in superconducting rf cavities: Phonon peak and Kapitza conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aizaz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal design studies of superconducting radio frequency (SRF cavities involve two thermal parameters, namely the temperature dependent thermal conductivity of Nb at low temperatures and the heat transfer coefficient at the Nb-He II interface, commonly known as the Kapitza conductance. During the fabrication process of the SRF cavities, Nb sheet is plastically deformed through a deep drawing process to obtain the desired shape. The effect of plastic deformation on low temperature thermal conductivity as well as Kapitza conductance has been studied experimentally. Strain induced during the plastic deformation process reduces the thermal conductivity in its phonon transmission regime (disappearance of phonon peak by 80%, which may explain the performance limitations of the defect-free SRF cavities during their high field operations. Low temperature annealing of the deformed Nb sample could not recover the phonon peak. However, moderate temperature annealing during the titanification process recovered the phonon peak in the thermal conductivity curve. Kapitza conductance measurements for the Nb-He II interface for various surface topologies have also been carried out before and after the annealing. These measurements reveal consistently increased Kapitza conductance after the annealing process was carried out in the two temperature regimes.

  5. Development of a multi-scale simulation model of tube hydroforming for superconducting RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Sumption, M.D., E-mail: sumption.3@osu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Bong, H.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Lim, H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Collings, E.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-01-02

    This work focuses on finite element modeling of the hydroforming process for niobium tubes intended for use in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. The hydroforming of tubular samples into SRF-relevant shapes involves the complex geometries and loading conditions which develop during the deformation, as well as anisotropic materials properties. Numerical description of the process entails relatively complex numerical simulations. A crystal plasticity (CP) model was constructed that included the evolution of crystallographic orientation during deformation as well as the anisotropy of tubes in all directions and loading conditions. In this work we demonstrate a multi-scale simulation approach which uses both microscopic CP and macroscopic continuum models. In this approach a CP model (developed and implemented into ABAQUS using UMAT) was used for determining the flow stress curve only under bi-axial loading in order to reduce the computing time. The texture of the materials obtained using orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) and tensile test data were inputs for this model. Continuum FE analysis of tube hydroforming using the obtained constitutive equation from the CP modeling was then performed and compared to the results of hydraulic bulge testing. The results show that high quality predictions of the deformation under hydroforming of Nb tubes can be obtained using CP-FEM based on their known texture and the results of tensile tests. The importance of the CP-FEM based approach is that it reduces the need for hydraulic bulge testing, using a relatively simple computational approach.

  6. Superconducting RF for Low-Velocity and Intermediate-Velocity Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, Terry L

    2005-01-01

    Existing superconducting radio frequency (SRF) linacs are used to accelerate ions (protons through uranium) with velocities less than about 15% the speed of light, or electrons with velocities approximately equal to the speed of light. In the last ten years, prototype SRF cavities have completely covered the remaining range of velocities. They have demonstrated that SRF linacs will be capable of accelerating electrons from rest up to the speed of light, and ions from less than 1% up to the speed of light. When the Spallation Neutron Source is operational, SRF ion linacs will have covered the full range of velocities except for v/c ~ 0.15 to v/c ~ 0.5. A number of proposed projects (RIA, EURISOL) would span the latter range of velocities. Future SRF developments will have to address the trade-offs associated with a number of issues, including high gradient operation, longitudinal and transverse acceptance, microphonics, Lorentz detuning, operating temperature, cryogenic load, number of gaps or cells per cavity...

  7. Comparative simulation studies of multipacting in higher-order-mode couplers of superconducting rf cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Multipacting (MP in higher-order-mode (HOM couplers of the International Linear Collider (ILC baseline cavity and the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade cavity is studied by using the ACE3P suites, developed by the Advanced Computations Department at SLAC. For the ILC cavity HOM coupler, the simulation results show that resonant trajectories exist in three zones, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 0.6–1.6  MV/m, 21–34   MV/m, 32–35  MV/m and >40  MV/m, respectively. For the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade cavity HOM coupler, resonant trajectories exist in one zone, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 6–13  MV/m. Potential implications of these MP barriers are discussed in the context of future high-energy pulsed as well as medium-energy continuous wave accelerators based on superconducting radio frequency cavities. Frequency scaling of MP’s predicted in HOM couplers of the ILC, CEBAF upgrade, Spallation Neutron Source (SNS, and Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH third harmonic cavity is given and found to be in good agreement with the analytical result based on the parallel plate model.

  8. Status on RF superconductivity at the institute for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevryukova, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    The development of SC cavities started at the Institute for High Energy Physics in September 1980 when the group of technology and study of SC cavities of the Research Institute of Nuclear Physics at Tomsk Polytechnic Institute moved there. At first the group worked at the Linear Accelerator Division, then later, in March 1993 the Federate Problem Laboratory for Technology and Study of the superconducting cavities of the Russian Atomic Ministry was founded at IHEP. The main goal of the SC cavity investigation is to study and develop the suppression methods for emission effects and conditions for thermomagnetic breakdown creation to increase the accelerating fields at SC cavities; also developing the experimental equipment to answer this goal. In this report the following items are enlightened in short: 1. Study and development of methods to suppress emission effects in SC cavities; 2. Study and development of methods to increase the threshold of the thermomagnetic breakdown. 3. Study of new materials and technologies. 4. SVAAP (SC accelerator for the applied purposes) project development. (author)

  9. Comparative Simulation Studies of Multipacting in Higher-Order-Mode Couplers of Superconducting RF Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y. M. [Peking University, Beijing (China); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Liu, Kexin [Peking University, Beijing (China); Geng, Rongli [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Multipacting (MP) in higher-order-mode (HOM) couplers of the International Linear Collider (ILC) baseline cavity and the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) 12 GeV upgrade cavity is studied by using the ACE3P suites, developed by the Advanced Computations Department at SLAC. For the ILC cavity HOM coupler, the simulation results show that resonant trajectories exist in three zones, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 0.6-1.6 MV/m, 21-34 MV/m, 32-35 MV/m, and > 40MV/m, respectively. For the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade cavity HOM coupler, resonant trajectories exist in one zone, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 6-13 MV/m. Potential implications of these MP barriers are discussed in the context of future high energy pulsed as well as medium energy continuous wave (CW) accelerators based on superconducting radio frequency cavities. Frequency scaling of MP's predicted in HOM couplers of the ILC, CBEAF upgrade, SNS and FLASH third harmonic cavity is given and found to be in good agreement with the analytical result based on the parallel plate model.

  10. Development of a multi-scale simulation model of tube hydroforming for superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.S.; Sumption, M.D.; Bong, H.J.; Lim, H.; Collings, E.W.

    2017-01-01

    This work focuses on finite element modeling of the hydroforming process for niobium tubes intended for use in superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. The hydroforming of tubular samples into SRF-relevant shapes involves the complex geometries and loading conditions which develop during the deformation, as well as anisotropic materials properties. Numerical description of the process entails relatively complex numerical simulations. A crystal plasticity (CP) model was constructed that included the evolution of crystallographic orientation during deformation as well as the anisotropy of tubes in all directions and loading conditions. In this work we demonstrate a multi-scale simulation approach which uses both microscopic CP and macroscopic continuum models. In this approach a CP model (developed and implemented into ABAQUS using UMAT) was used for determining the flow stress curve only under bi-axial loading in order to reduce the computing time. The texture of the materials obtained using orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) and tensile test data were inputs for this model. Continuum FE analysis of tube hydroforming using the obtained constitutive equation from the CP modeling was then performed and compared to the results of hydraulic bulge testing. The results show that high quality predictions of the deformation under hydroforming of Nb tubes can be obtained using CP-FEM based on their known texture and the results of tensile tests. The importance of the CP-FEM based approach is that it reduces the need for hydraulic bulge testing, using a relatively simple computational approach.

  11. RF Group Annual Report 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E; Betz, M; Brunner, O; Baudrenghien, P; Calaga, R; Caspers, F; Ciapala, E; Chambrillon, J; Damerau, H; Doebert, S; Federmann, S; Findlay, A; Gerigk, F; Hancock, S; Höfle, W; Jensen, E; Junginger, T; Liao, K; McMonagle, G; Montesinos, E; Mastoridis, T; Paoluzzi, M; Riddone, G; Rossi, C; Schirm, K; Schwerg, N; Shaposhnikova, E; Syratchev, I; Valuch, D; Venturini Delsolaro, W; Völlinger, C; Vretenar, M; Wuensch, W

    2012-01-01

    The highest priority for the RF group in 2011 was to contribute to a successful physics run of the LHC. This comprises operation of the superconducting 400 MHz accelerating system (ACS) and the transverse damper (ADT) of the LHC itself, but also all the individual links of the injector chain upstream of the LHC – Linac2, the PSB, the PS and the SPS – don’t forget that it is RF in all these accelerators that truly accelerates! A large variety of RF systems had to operate reliably, often near their limit. New tricks had to be found and implemented to go beyond limits; not to forget the equally demanding operation with Pb ions using in addition Linac3 and LEIR. But also other physics users required the full attention of the RF group: CNGS required in 2011 beams with very short, intense bunches, AD required reliable deceleration and cooling of anti-protons, Isolde the post-acceleration of radioactive isotopes in Rex, just to name a few. In addition to the supply of beams for physics, the RF group has a num...

  12. SRF and RF systems for LEReC Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belomestnykh, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Brutus, J. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fedotov, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); McIntyre, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Polizzo, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tuozzolo, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Veshcherevich, V. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Wu, Q. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xiao, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xu, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zaltsman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The Low Energy RHIC electron Cooling (LEReC) is under development at BNL to improve RHIC luminosity at low energies. It will consist of a short electron linac and two cooling sections, one for blue and one for yellow rings. For the first stage of the project, LEReC-I, we will install a 704 MHz superconducting RF cavity and three normal conducting cavities operating at 9 MHz, 704 MHz and 2.1 GHz. The SRF cavity will boost the electron beam energy up to 2 MeV. The warm cavities will be used to correct the energy spread introduced in the SRF cavity. The paper describes layouts of the SRF and RF systems, their parameters and status.

  13. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruana, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Despite reports of new, high-temperature superconductive materials almost every day, participants at the First Congress on Superconductivity do not anticipate commercial applications with these materials soon. What many do envision is the discovery of superconducting materials that can function at much warmer, perhaps even room temperatures. Others hope superconductivity will usher in a new age of technology as semiconductors and transistors did. This article reviews what the speakers had to say at the four-day congress held in Houston last February. Several speakers voiced concern that the Reagan administration's apparent lack of interest in funding superconductivity research while other countries, notably Japan, continue to pour money into research and development could hamper America's international competitiveness

  14. Overview and status of RF systems for the SSC Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynk, J.; Grippe, J.; Cutler, R.I.; Rodriguez, R.

    1993-05-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Linear Accelerator (Linac) produces a 600-MeV, 35-μs, H-beam at a 10-Hz repetition rate. The beam is accelerated by a series of RF cavities. These consist of a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), two bunchers, and four Drift Tube Linac (DTL) tanks at 427.617 MHz, and two bunchers, nine side-coupled Linac modules, and an energy compressor at 1282.851 MHz. The RFQ amplifier and the low-frequency buncher cavity amplifiers use gridded tubes, while the other cavities use klystron amplifier systems. The RF control system consists of a reference line and cavity feedback and feedforward loops for each amplifier. The RF amplifier system for each of these accelerator cavities is described, and the current status of each system is presented

  15. Mechanical analysis of a $\\beta=0.09 $ 162.5MHz taper HWR cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Peiliang; Zhu, Feng; Zhong, Hutianxiang; Quan, Shengwen; Liu, Kexin

    2015-01-01

    One superconducting taper-type half-wave resonator (HWR) with frequency of 162.5MHz, \\b{eta} of 0.09 has been developed at Peking University, which is used to accelerate high current proton ($\\sim$ 100mA) and $D^{+}$($\\sim$ 50mA). The radio frequency (RF) design of the cavity has been accomplished. Herein, we present the mechanical analysis of the cavity which is also an important aspect in superconducting cavity design. The frequency shift caused by bath helium pressure and Lorenz force, and...

  16. The LHC superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Boussard, Daniel; Häbel, E; Kindermann, H P; Losito, R; Marque, S; Rödel, V; Stirbet, M

    1999-01-01

    The LHC RF system, which must handle high intensity (0.5 A d.c.) beams, makes use of superconducting single-cell cavities, best suited to minimizing the effects of periodic transient beam loading. There will be eight cavities per beam, each capable of delivering 2 MV (5 MV/m accelerating field) at 400 MHz. The cavities themselves are now being manufactured by industry, using niobium-on-copper technology which gives full satisfaction at LEP. A cavity unit includes a helium tank (4.5 K operating temperature) built around a cavity cell, RF and HOM couplers and a mechanical tuner, all housed in a modular cryostat. Four-unit modules are ultimately foreseen for the LHC (two per beam), while at present a prototype version with two complete units is being extensively tested. In addition to a detailed description of the cavity and its ancillary equipment, the first test results of the prototype will be reported.

  17. Surface Characterization of Impurities in Superconducting Niobium for Radio Frequency (RF) Cavities used in Particle Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Prateek

    Niobium (Nb) is the material of choice for Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Cavities used in particle accelerators owing to its high critical temperature (Tc = 9.2 K) and critical magnetic field (≈ 200mT). However, niobium tends to harbor interstitial impurities such as H, C, O and N, which are detrimental to cavity performance. Since the magnetic field penetration depth (lambda) of niobium is 40nm, it is important to characterize these impurities using surface characterization techniques. Also, it is known that certain heat treatments improve cavity efficiency via interstitial impurity removal from the surface of niobium. Thus, a systematic study on the effect of these heat treatments on the surface impurity levels is needed. In this work, surface analysis of both heat treated and non heat treated (120°C-1400°C) large grain (single crystal) bulk niobium samples was performed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Impurity levels were compared on the surface using SIMS after various types of heat treatments expected to improve cavity performance, and the effect of these heat treatments on the surface impurities were examined. SIMS characterization of ion implanted standards of C, N, O, D showed that quantification of C, N and O impurities in Nb is achievable and indicated that H is very mobile in Nb. It was hence determined that quantification of H in Nb is not possible using SIMS due to its high diffusivity in Nb. However, a comparative study of the high temperature heat treated (600°C-1400°C) and non heat treated (control) samples revealed that hydrogen levels decreased by upto a factor of 100. This is attributed to the dissociation of the niobium surface oxide layer, which acts as a passivating film on the surface, and subsequent desorption of hydrogen. Reformation of this oxide layer on cool down disallows any re-absorption of hydrogen, indicating that the oxide acts as a surface barrier for

  18. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Ketterson, John B

    2008-01-01

    Conceived as the definitive reference in a classic and important field of modern physics, this extensive and comprehensive handbook systematically reviews the basic physics, theory and recent advances in the field of superconductivity. Leading researchers, including Nobel laureates, describe the state-of-the-art in conventional and unconventional superconductors at a particularly opportune time, as new experimental techniques and field-theoretical methods have emerged. In addition to full-coverage of novel materials and underlying mechanisms, the handbook reflects continued intense research into electron-phone based superconductivity. Considerable attention is devoted to high-Tc superconductivity, novel superconductivity, including triplet pairing in the ruthenates, novel superconductors, such as heavy-Fermion metals and organic materials, and also granular superconductors. What’s more, several contributions address superconductors with impurities and nanostructured superconductors. Important new results on...

  19. A New RF System for the CEBAF Normal Conducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curt Hovater; Hai Dong; Alicia Hofler; George Lahti; John Musson; Tomasz Plawski

    2004-01-01

    The CEBAF Accelerator at Jefferson Lab is a 6 GeV five pass electron accelerator consisting of two superconducting linacs joined by independent magnetic transport arcs. CEBAF also has numerous normal conducting cavities for beam conditioning in the injector and for RF extraction to the experimental halls. The RF systems that presently control these cavities are becoming expensive to maintain, therefore a replacement RF control system is now being developed. For the new RF system, cavity field control is maintained digitally using an FPGA which contains the feedback algorithm. The system incorporates digital down conversion, using quadrature under-sampling at an IF frequency of 70 MHz. The VXI bus-crate was chosen as the operating platform because of its excellent RFI/EMI properties and its compatibility with the EPICS control system. The normal conducting cavities operate at both the 1497 MHz accelerating frequency and the sub-harmonic frequency of 499 MHz. To accommodate this, the ne w design will use different receiver-transmitter daughter cards for each frequency. This paper discusses the development of the new RF system and reports on initial results

  20. Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Charles P; Creswick, Richard J; Prozorov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Superconductivity, Third Edition is an encyclopedic treatment of all aspects of the subject, from classic materials to fullerenes. Emphasis is on balanced coverage, with a comprehensive reference list and significant graphics from all areas of the published literature. Widely used theoretical approaches are explained in detail. Topics of special interest include high temperature superconductors, spectroscopy, critical states, transport properties, and tunneling. This book covers the whole field of superconductivity from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. This third edition features extensive revisions throughout, and new chapters on second critical field and iron based superconductors.

  1. RF power diagnostics and control on the DIII-D, 4 MW 30--120 MHz fast wave current drive system (FWCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, S.W.; Allen, J.C.; Callis, R.W.; Cary, W.P.; Harris, T.E.

    1995-10-01

    The Fast Wave Current Drive System uses three 2 MW transmitters to drive three antennas inside the DIII-D vacuum vessel. This paper describes the diagnostics for this system. The diagnostics associated with the General Atomics Fast Wave Current Drive System allow the system tuning to be analyzed and modified on a between shot basis. The transmitters can be exactly tuned to match the plasma with only one tuning shot into the plasma. This facilitates maximum rf power utilization

  2. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Amongst the numerous scientific discoveries that the 20th century has to its credit, superconductivity stands out as an exceptional example of having retained its original dynamism and excitement even for more than 80 years after its discovery. It has proved itself to be a rich field by continually offering frontal challenges in both research and applications. Indeed, one finds that a majority of internationally renowned condensed matter theorists, at some point of their career, have found excitement in working in this important area. Superconductivity presents a unique example of having fetched Nobel awards as many as four times to date, and yet, interestingly enough, the field still remains open for new insights and discoveries which could undeniably be of immense technological value. 1 fig

  3. High Power RF Transmitters for ICRF Applications on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yuzhou; Yuan Shuai; Zhao Yanping; Zhang Xinjun; Chen Gen; Cheng Yan; Wang Lei; Ju Songqing; Deng Xu; Qin Chengming; Yang Lei; Kumazawa, R.

    2013-01-01

    An Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) system with a radio frequency (RF) power of 4 × 1.5 MW was developed for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). High RF power transmitters were designed as a part of the research and development (R and D) for an ICRF system with long pulse operation at megawatt levels in a frequency range of 25 MHz to 70 MHz. Studies presented in this paper cover the following parts of the high power transmitter: the three staged high power amplifier, which is composed of a 5 kW wideband solid state amplifier, a 100 kW tetrode drive stage amplifier and a 1.5 MW tetrode final stage amplifier, and the DC high voltage power supply (HVPS). Based on engineering design and static examinations, the RF transmitters were tested using a matched dummy load where an RF output power of 1.5 MW was achieved. The transmitters provide 6 MW RF power in primary phase and will reach a level up to 12 MW after a later upgrade. The transmitters performed successfully in stable operations in EAST and HT-7 devices. Up to 1.8 MW of RF power was injected into plasmas in EAST ICRF heating experiments during the 2010 autumn campaign and plasma performance was greatly improved.

  4. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book profiles the research activity of 42 companies in the superconductivity field, worldwide. It forms a unique and comprehensive directory to this emerging technology. For each research site, it details the various projects in progress, analyzes the level of activity, pinpoints applications and R and D areas, reviews strategies and provides complete contact information. It lists key individuals, offers international comparisons of government funding, reviews market forecasts and development timetables and features a bibliography of selected articles on the subject

  5. RF Power Generation in LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, O C; Valuch, D

    2003-01-01

    The counter-rotating proton beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be captured and then accelerated to their final energies of 2 x 7 TeV by two identical 400 MHz RF systems. The RF power source required for each beam comprises eight 300 kW klystrons. The output power of each klystron is fed via a circulator and a waveguide line to the input coupler of a single-cell super-conducting (SC) cavity. Four klystrons are powered by a 100 kV, 40A AC/DC power converter, previously used for the operation of the LEP klystrons. A five-gap thyratron crowbar protects the four klystrons in each of these units. The technical specification and measured performance of the various high-power elements are discussed. These include the 400MHz/300kW klystrons with emphasis on their group delay and the three-port circulators, which have to cope with peak reflected power levels up to twice the simultaneously applied incident power of 300 kW. In addition, a novel ferrite loaded waveguide absorber, used as termination for port No...

  6. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buller, L.; Carrillo, F.; Dietert, R.; Kotziapashis, A.

    1989-01-01

    Superconductors are materials which combine the property of zero electric resistance with the capability to exclude any adjacent magnetic field. This leads to many large scale applications such as the much publicized levitating train, generation of magnetic fields in MHD electric generators, and special medical diagnostic equipment. On a smaller-scale, superconductive materials could replace existing resistive connectors and decrease signal delays by reducing the RLC time constants. Thus, a computer could operate at much higher speeds, and consequently at lower power levels which would reduce the need for heat removal and allow closer spacing of circuitry. Although technical advances and proposed applications are constantly being published, it should be recognized that superconductivity is a slowly developing technology. It has taken scientists almost eighty years to learn what they now know about this material and its function. The present paper provides an overview of the historical development of superconductivity and describes some of the potential applications for this new technology as it pertains to the electronics industry

  7. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCEM key comparison CCEM.RF-K10.CL (GT-RF/99-2) 'Power in 50 Ω coaxial lines, frequency: 50 MHz to 26 GHz' measurement techniques and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Dieter; Inoue, T.; Michaud, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the results and the measuring methods of an international key comparison between twelve national metrology institutes (NMIs) and is concerning the calibration factor of RF power sensors in the coaxial 3.5 mm line for frequencies up to 26 GHz. Two RF power travelling standards fitted with male PC 3.5 mm connectors were measured at seven frequencies. The following NMIs participated: NMIJ (Japan), NRC (Canada), NIST (USA), METAS (Switzerland), CSIR-NML (South Africa), NMIA (Australia), NPL (UK), SiQ (Slovenia), IEN (Italy), VNIIFTRI (Russian Federation), SPRING (Singapore) and PTB (Germany), as the pilot laboratory. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  8. Superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.M.; Shepard, K.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    This project has two goals: to design, build, and test a small superconducting linac to serve as an energy booster for heavy ions from an FN tandem electrostatic accelerator, and to investigate various aspects of superconducting rf technology. The main design features of the booster are described, a status report on various components (resonators, rf control system, linac control system, cryostats, buncher) is given, and plans for the near future are outlined. Investigations of superconducting-linac technology concern studies on materials and fabrication techniques, resonator diagnostic techniques, rf-phase control, beam dynamics computer programs, asymmetry in accelerating field, and surface-treatment techniques. The overall layout of the to-be-proposed ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System, is shown; the ATLAS would use superconducting technology to produce beams of 5 to 25 MeV/A. 6 figures

  9. Superconducting resonator used as a beam phase detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Sharamentov

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Beam-bunch arrival time has been measured for the first time by operating superconducting cavities, normally part of the linac accelerator array, in a bunch-detecting mode. The very high Q of the superconducting cavities provides high sensitivity and allows for phase-detecting low-current beams. In detecting mode, the resonator is operated at a very low field level comparable to the field induced by the bunched beam. Because of this, the rf field in the cavity is a superposition of a “pure” (or reference rf and the beam-induced signal. A new method of circular phase rotation (CPR, allowing extraction of the beam phase information from the composite rf field was developed. Arrival time phase determination with CPR is better than 1° (at 48 MHz for a beam current of 100 nA. The electronics design is described and experimental data are presented.

  10. The CEBAF RF separator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovater, C.; Arnold, G.; Fugitt, J.; Harwood, L.; Kazimi, R.; Lahti, G.; Mammosser, J.; Nelson, R.; Piller, C.; Turlington, L.

    1996-01-01

    The 4 GeV CEBAF accelerator at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) is arranged in a five-pass racetrack configuration, with two superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) linacs joined by independent magnetic transport arcs. The 1497 MHz continuous electron beam is composed of three interlaced variable-intensity 499 MHz beams that can be independently directed from any of the five passes to any of the three experimental halls. Beam extraction is made possible by a system of nine warm sub-harmonic separator cavities capable of delivering a 100 urad kick to any pass at a maximum machine energy of 6 GeV. Each separator cavity is a half-wavelength, two cell design with a high transverse shunt impedance and a small transverse dimension. The cavities are powered by 1 kW solid state amplifiers operating at 499 MHz. Cavity phase and gradient control are provided through a modified version of the same control module used for the CEBAF SRF cavity controls. The system has recently been tested while delivering beam to Hall C. In this paper we present a description of the RF separator system and recent test results with beam. (author)

  11. Superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    During 2007, a large amount of the work was centred on the ITER project and related tasks. The activities based on low-temperature superconducting (LTS) materials included the manufacture and qualification of ITER full-size conductors under relevant operating conditions, the design of conductors and magnets for the JT-60SA tokamak and the manufacture of the conductors for the European dipole facility. A preliminary study was also performed to develop a new test facility at ENEA in order to test long-length ITER or DEMO full-size conductors. Several studies on different superconducting materials were also started to create a more complete database of superconductor properties, and also for use in magnet design. In this context, an extensive measurement campaign on transport and magnetic properties was carried out on commercially available NbTi strands. Work was started on characterising MgB 2 wire and bulk samples to optimise their performance. In addition, an intense experimental study was started to clarify the effect of mechanical loads on the transport properties of multi-filamentary Nb 3 Sn strands with twisted or untwisted superconducting filaments. The experimental activity on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials was mainly focussed on the development and characterisation of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-X (YBCO) based coated conductors. Several characteristics regarding YBCO deposition, current transport performance and tape manufacture were investigated. In the framework of chemical approaches for YBCO film growth, a new method, developed in collaboration with the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca (TUCN), Romania, was studied to obtain YBCO film via chemical solution deposition, which modifies the well-assessed metallic organic deposition trifluoroacetate (MOD-TFA) approach. The results are promising in terms of critical current and film thickness values. YBCO properties in films with artificially added pinning sites were characterised in collaboration with

  12. Development of 650 MHz (β=0.9) single-cell SCRF cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagre, M.; Jain, V.; Yedle, A.; Maurya, T.; Yadav, A.; Puntambekar, A.; Goswami, S.G.; Choudhary, R.S.; Sandha, S.; Dwivedi, J.; Kane, G.V.; Mahawar, A.; Mohania, P.; Shrivastava, P.; Sharma, S.; Gupta, R.; Sharma, S.D.; Joshi, S.C.; Mistri, K.K.; Prakash, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology has initiated the work on development of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SCRF) cavities and associated technologies as part of R and D activities for upcoming Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project involving superconducting Linear Accelerator (LINAC). It is planned to use 650 MHz SCRF cavities for the medium and high energy section of the proposed LINAC. Under Indian Institution Fermilab Collaboration (IIFC), Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology is also working on development of 650 MHz (β=0.9) SCRF cavities proposed to be used in the high energy section of Project-X at FNAL. The work has been initiated with design and development of 650 MHz single cell SCRF cavity. FE analysis was done to estimate change in frequency with temperature as well as to estimate the frequency of the cavity at different cavity manufacturing stages. The development cycle comprises of design and manufacturing of forming tooling, machining, welding and RF measurement fixtures as well as design for manufacturing. The half-cell and beam tubes forming and machining of all parts were done using in-house facilities. The Electron beam welding was carried out at Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi under a MoU. One 650 MHz single cell SCRF cavity has been recently manufactured. In this paper we present the development efforts on manufacturing and pre-qualification of 650 MHz (β=0.9) single cell SCRF cavity. (author)

  13. Investigation of a 2K superfluid liquid helium refrigerator system and research of superconducting RF cavities. Report from the short visiting and research program aboard supported by the Japanese education ministry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kenji

    2001-01-01

    The author visited at Jefferson Lab for two months from July 5 '99 to September 2 by the short visit and research program financed by the Japanese Education Ministry for the investigation the CEBAF 2K refrigerator system and research superconducting RF cavities. Here, the result will be presented. (author)

  14. Design of 250-MW CW RF system for APT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, D.

    1997-01-01

    The design for the RF systems for the APT (Accelerator Production of Tritium) proton linac will be presented. The linac produces a continuous beam power of 130 MW at 1300 MeV with the installed capability to produce up to a 170 MW beam at 1700 MeV. The linac is comprised of a 350 MHz RFQ to 7 MeV followed in sequence by a 700 MHz coupled-cavity drift tube linac, coupled-cavity linac, and superconducting (SC) linac to 1700 MeV. At the 1700 MeV, 100 mA level the linac requires 213 MW of continuous-wave (CW) RF power. This power will be supplied by klystrons with a nominal output power of 1.0 MW. 237 kystrons are required with all but three of these klystrons operating at 700 MHz. The klystron count includes redundancy provisions that will be described which allow the RF systems to meet an operational availability in excess of 95 percent. The approach to achieve this redundancy will be presented for both the normal conducting (NC) and SC accelerators. Because of the large amount of CW RF power required for the APT linac, efficiency is very important to minimize operating cost. Operation and the RF system design, including in-progress advanced technology developments which improve efficiency, will be discussed. RF system performance will also be predicted. Because of the simultaneous pressures to increase RF system reliability, reduce tunnel envelope, and minimize RF system cost, the design of the RF vacuum windows has become an important issue. The power from a klystron will be divided into four equal parts to minimize the stress on the RF vacuum windows. Even with this reduction, the RF power level at the window is at the upper boundary of the power levels employed at other CW accelerator facilities. The design of a 350 MHz, coaxial vacuum window will be presented as well as test results and high power conditioning profiles. The transmission of 950 kW, CW, power through this window has been demonstrated with only minimal high power conditioning

  15. First Results of the IOT Based 300 kW 500 MHz Amplifier for the Diamond Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Morten; Maddock, Matt; Müller, Marc; Rains, Simon; Watkins, Alun V

    2005-01-01

    We present the first RF measurements of the IOT based 300 kW 500 MHz amplifier for the Diamond Light Source. Four 80 kW IOTs are combined using a waveguide combiner to achieve the RF requirement of up to 300 kW for each of three superconducting cavities for the main storage ring. The IOTs are protected by a full power circulator and a 300 kW ferrite RF load. This is the first time IOTs will be used for a synchrotron light source. This paper gives an overview of the design of the Thales amplifiers and IOTs with commissioning results including measurements of key components and overall RF performance following factory tests and the installation of the first unit

  16. Characterization and modelling of low-pressure rf discharges at 2-500 MHz for miniature alkali vapour dielectric barrier discharge lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatraman, Vinu; Shea, Herbert; Pétremand, Yves; Rooij, Nico de

    2012-01-01

    Low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) alkali vapour lamps are of particular interest for portable atomic clocks because they (1) could enable low-power operation, (2) generate the precise required wavelength, (3) are planar simplifying chip-level integration and (4) use external electrodes, which increases the lifetime. Given the stringent requirements on lamps for atomic clocks, it is important to identify the parameters that can be optimized to meet these performance requirements (size, power consumption, stability, reliability). We report on the electrical and optical characteristics of dielectric barrier plasma discharges observed in two configurations: (1) in a vacuum chamber over a wide low-pressure range (2-100 mbar) for three different buffer gases (He, Ar, N 2 ) driven at different frequencies between 2 and 500 MHz and (2) on microfabricated hermetically sealed Rb vapour cells filled with 30 and 70 mbar of Ar. We discuss the optimum conditions for a low-power and stable operation of a Rb vapour DBD lamp, aimed at chip-scale atomic clocks. We also present the electrical modelling of the discharge parameters to understand the power distribution mechanisms and the input power to discharge power coupling efficiency.

  17. IOT based RF power systems as an alternative to klystron amplifier in Indus-2 at the rate 505.812 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, R.K.; Jain, M.K.; Kumar, Gautam; Lad, Mahendra; Badapanda, M.K.; Bagre, Sunil; Upadhyay, Rinki; Tripathi, Akhilesh; Rao, J.N.; Pandiyar, Mohan; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    Due to non-availability of replacement Klystron tube in Indus-2, an IOT based high power RF amplifier system is realized. It is based on E2V make 80 kW IOTD2130 tube with its circuit assembly IMD2000ST. This amplifier system is easily available commercially due to its application in DTV broadcast. It has inherent advantages over klystron amplifier viz. high efficiency (η), less phase and amplitude sensitivity to HV ripple, higher linearity, compactness and less cooling requirement. This high power IOT amplifier is tested with its required control system, cooling system, electron gun auxiliary supplies, beam supply and focusing supply. The nominal beam voltage for this IOT is -36 kV however amplifier was tested successfully with indigenously developed -32 kV, crowbar less power supply. The optimum load impedance for IOT beam was calculated for this bias voltage ( 32kV). For the required load impedance, coupling coefficient (β) of output coupler to the O/P cavity was estimated and accordingly loop angle was adjusted. The amplifier has been tested up to 50 kW with amplifier efficiency 60% and gain 23 dB at - 32 kV beam voltage. (author)

  18. Superconducting accelerator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunder, H.A.; Hartline, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Modern and future accelerators for high energy and nuclear physics rely increasingly on superconducting components to achieve the required magnetic fields and accelerating fields. This paper presents a practical overview of the phenomenon of superconductivity, and describes the design issues and solutions associated with superconducting magnets and superconducting rf acceleration structures. Further development and application of superconducting components promises increased accelerator performance at reduced electric power cost

  19. Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo [ed.

    2005-07-01

    Research on superconductivity at ENEA is mainly devoted to projects related to the ITER magnet system. In this framework, ENEA has been strongly involved in the design, manufacturing and test campaigns of the ITER toroidal field model coil (TFMC), which reached a world record in operating current (up to 80 kA). Further to this result, the activities in 2004 were devoted to optimising the ITER conductor performance. ENEA participated in the tasks launched by EFDA to define and produce industrial-scale advanced Nb3Sn strand to be used in manufacturing the ITER high-field central solenoid (CS) and toroidal field (TF) magnets. As well as contributing to the design of the new strand and the final conductor layout, ENEA will also perform characterisation tests, addressing in particular the influence of mechanical stress on the Nb3Sn performance. As a member of the international ITER-magnet testing group, ENEA plays a central role in the measurement campaigns and data analyses for each ITER-related conductor and coil. The next phase in the R and D of the ITER magnets will be their mechanical characterisation in order to define the fabrication route of the coils and structures. During 2004 the cryogenic measurement campaign on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by-pass diode stacks was completed. As the diode-test activity was the only LHC contract to be finished on schedule, the 'Centre Europeenne pour la Recherche Nucleaire' (CERN) asked ENEA to participate in an international tender for the cold check of the current leads for the LHC magnets. The contract was obtained, and during 2004, the experimental setup was designed and realised and the data acquisition system was developed. The measurement campaign was successfully started at the end of 2004 and will be completed in 2006.

  20. A new measurement tool for characterization of superconducting rf accelerator cavities using high-performance LTS SQUIDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodel, W [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Neubert, R [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Nietzsche, S [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Seidel, P [Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Knaack, K [DESY Hamburg (Germany); Wittenburg, K [DESY Hamburg (Germany); Peters, A [Heidelberger Ionenstrahl-Therapiezentrum, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents a new system to measure very low currents in an accelerator environment, using a cryogenic current comparator (CCC). In principle a CCC is a conventional current transformer using the high-performance SQUID technology to sense the magnetic fields caused by the beam current. Since the system is sensitive on a pA level, it is an optimum device to detect dark currents of superconducting cavities. The system presented here is designed for the test facilities of the superconducting accelerator modules for the European XFEL at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) in Hamburg. Measurements in a quiet environment showed that an intrinsic noise level of the CCC of 40 pA Hz{sup -1/2} could be achieved.

  1. Investigations of the surface resistance of superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    In particle accelerators superconducting RF cavities are widely used to achieve high accelerating gradients and low losses. Power consumption is proportional to the surface resistance R S which depends on a number of external parameters, including frequency, temperature, magnetic and electric field. Presently, there is no widely accepted model describing the increase of R S with applied field. In the frame of this project the 400 MHz Quadrupole Resonator has been extended to 800 and 1200 MHz to study surface resistance and intrinsic critical RF magnetic field of superconducting samples over a wide parameter range, establishing it as a world-wide unique test facility for superconducting materials. Different samples were studied and it was shown that R S is mainly caused by the RF electric field in the case of strongly oxidized surfaces. This can be explained by interface tunnel exchange of electrons between the superconductor and localized states in adjacent oxides. For well prepared surfaces, however, the majority of the dissipation is caused by the magnetic field and R S factorizes into field and temperature dependent parts. These different loss mechanisms were correlated to surface topography of the samples and distribution of oxides by using ultrasonic force microscopy and X-ray photon spectroscopy.

  2. rf power dependence of subharmonic voltage spectra of two-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebboul, S.E.; Garland, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured the rf-bias-current dependence of the ν/2 subharmonic spectral response of planar 300x300 Nb-Au-Nb proximity-coupled Josephson-junction arrays. The ν/2 subharmonic voltage spectrum was examined at two rf-bias frequencies, ν/ν c ∼1.4, 2.0 (ν c ∼120 MHz), and in applied magnetic fields corresponding to f=0,1/2 flux quantum per plaquette. The measurements were compared to analytical predictions for an rf-biased asymmetric superconducting quantum interference device with non-negligble loop inductance and large rf-bias-current amplitudes, based on the resistively shunted Josephson-junction model. Reasonable agreement was found between experiment and theory, suggesting that a possible origin for the observed subharmonic behavior in arrays involves an interplay between array plaquette inductances and junction critical-current variations

  3. Impact of cool-down conditions at T_{c} on the superconducting rf cavity quality factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Vogt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many next-generation, high-gradient accelerator applications, from energy-recovery linacs to accelerator-driven systems (ADS rely on continuous wave (CW operation for which superconducting radio-frequency (SRF systems are the enabling technology. However, while SRF cavities dissipate little power, they must be cooled by liquid helium and for many CW accelerators the complexity as well as the investment and operating costs of the cryoplant can prove to be prohibitive. We investigated ways to reduce the dynamic losses by improving the residual resistance (R_{res} of niobium cavities. Both the material treatment and the magnetic shielding are known to have an impact. In addition, we found that R_{res} can be reduced significantly when the cool-down conditions during the superconducting phase transition of the niobium are optimized. We believe that not only do the cool-down conditions impact the level to which external magnetic flux is trapped in the cavity but also that thermoelectric currents are generated which in turn create additional flux that can be trapped. Therefore, we investigated the generation of flux and the dynamics of flux trapping and release in a simple model niobium-titanium system that mimics an SRF cavity in its helium tank. We indeed found that thermal gradients along the system during the superconducting transition can generate a thermoelectric current and magnetic flux, which subsequently can be trapped. These effects may explain the observed variation of the cavity’s R_{res} with cool-down conditions.

  4. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India)

    2013-02-15

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and {+-}0.2{sup 0}, respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ('Dee' voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  5. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-01-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9–27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.2 0 , respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages (“Dee” voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  6. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.20, respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ("Dee" voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  7. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.2(0), respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ("Dee" voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  8. Fast Ferroelectric L-Band Tuner for Superconducting Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-03-01

    Analysis and modeling is presented for a fast microwave tuner to operate at 700 MHz which incorporates ferroelectric elements whose dielectric permittivity can be rapidly altered by application of an external voltage. This tuner could be used to correct unavoidable fluctuations in the resonant frequency of superconducting cavities in accelerator structures, thereby greatly reducing the RF power needed to drive the cavities. A planar test version of the tuner has been tested at low levels of RF power, but at 1300 MHz to minimize the physical size of the test structure. This test version comprises one-third of the final version. The tests show performance in good agreement with simulations, but with losses in the ferroelectric elements that are too large for practical use, and with issues in bonding of ferroelectric elements to the metal walls of the tuner structure.

  9. Fast Ferroelectric L-Band Tuner for Superconducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis and modeling is presented for a fast microwave tuner to operate at 700 MHz which incorporates ferroelectric elements whose dielectric permittivity can be rapidly altered by application of an external voltage. This tuner could be used to correct unavoidable fluctuations in the resonant frequency of superconducting cavities in accelerator structures, thereby greatly reducing the RF power needed to drive the cavities. A planar test version of the tuner has been tested at low levels of RF power, but at 1300 MHz to minimize the physical size of the test structure. This test version comprises one-third of the final version. The tests show performance in good agreement with simulations, but with losses in the ferroelectric elements that are too large for practical use, and with issues in bonding of ferroelectric elements to the metal walls of the tuner structure.

  10. Fast Ferroelectric L-Band Tuner for Superconducting Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-07-03

    Design, analysis, and low-power tests are described on a ferroelectric tuner concept that could be used for controlling external coupling to RF cavities for the superconducting Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) in the electron cooler of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The tuner configuration utilizes several small donut-shaped ferroelectric assemblies, which allow the design to be simpler and more flexible, as compared to previous designs. Design parameters for 704 and 1300 MHz versions of the tuner are given. Simulation results point to efficient performance that could reduce by a factor-of-ten the RF power levels required for driving superconducting cavities in the BNL ERL.

  11. Fast Ferroelectric L-Band Tuner for Superconducting Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2012-01-01

    Design, analysis, and low-power tests are described on a ferroelectric tuner concept that could be used for controlling external coupling to RF cavities for the superconducting Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) in the electron cooler of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The tuner configuration utilizes several small donut-shaped ferroelectric assemblies, which allow the design to be simpler and more flexible, as compared to previous designs. Design parameters for 704 and 1300 MHz versions of the tuner are given. Simulation results point to efficient performance that could reduce by a factor-of-ten the RF power levels required for driving superconducting cavities in the BNL ERL.

  12. Higher order mode damping in a five-cell superconducting rf cavity with a photonic band gap coupler cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenyev, Sergey A.; Temkin, Richard J.; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu.; Simakov, Evgenya I.; Boulware, Chase H.; Grimm, Terry L.; Rogacki, Adam R.

    2016-08-01

    We present a study of higher order mode (HOM) damping in the first multicell superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity with a photonic band gap (PBG) coupler cell. Achieving higher average beam currents is particularly desirable for future light sources and particle colliders based on SRF energy-recovery linacs (ERLs). Beam current in ERLs is limited by the beam breakup instability, caused by parasitic HOMs interacting with the beam in accelerating cavities. A PBG cell incorporated in an accelerating cavity can reduce the negative effect of HOMs by providing a frequency selective damping mechanism, thus allowing significantly higher beam currents. The five-cell cavity with a PBG cell was designed and optimized for HOM damping. Monopole and dipole HOMs were simulated. The SRF cavity was fabricated and tuned. External quality factors for some HOMs were measured in a cold test. The measurements agreed well with the simulations.

  13. Higher order mode damping in a five-cell superconducting rf cavity with a photonic band gap coupler cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Arsenyev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of higher order mode (HOM damping in the first multicell superconducting radio-frequency (SRF cavity with a photonic band gap (PBG coupler cell. Achieving higher average beam currents is particularly desirable for future light sources and particle colliders based on SRF energy-recovery linacs (ERLs. Beam current in ERLs is limited by the beam breakup instability, caused by parasitic HOMs interacting with the beam in accelerating cavities. A PBG cell incorporated in an accelerating cavity can reduce the negative effect of HOMs by providing a frequency selective damping mechanism, thus allowing significantly higher beam currents. The five-cell cavity with a PBG cell was designed and optimized for HOM damping. Monopole and dipole HOMs were simulated. The SRF cavity was fabricated and tuned. External quality factors for some HOMs were measured in a cold test. The measurements agreed well with the simulations.

  14. Simulation of the High-Pass Filter for 56MHz Cavity for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2010-01-01

    The 56MHz Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity for RHIC places high demands High Order Mode (HOM) damping, as well as requiring a high field at gap with fundamental mode frequency. The damper of 56MHz cavity is designed to extract all modes to the resistance load outside, including the fundamental mode. Therefore, the circuit must incorporate a high-pass filter to reflect back the fundamental mode into the cavity. In this paper, we show the good frequency response map obtained from our filter's design. We extract a circuit diagram from the microwave elements that simulate well the frequency spectrum of the finalized filter. We also demonstrate that the power dissipation on the filter over its frequency range is small enough for cryogenic cooling.

  15. Five-cell superconducting RF module with a PBG coupler cell: design and cold testing of the copper prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenyev, Sergey Andreyevich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Shchegolkov, Dmitry [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boulware, Chase [Niowave, Lansing, MI (United States); Grimm, Terry [Niowave, Lansing, MI (United States); Rogacki, Adam [Niowave, Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-04-29

    We report the design and experimental data for a copper prototype of a superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) accelerator module. The five-cell module has an incorporated photonic band gap (PBG) cell with couplers. The purpose of the PBG cell is to achieve better higher order mode (HOM) damping, which is vital for preserving the quality of high-current electron beams. Better HOM damping raises the current threshold for beam instabilities in novel SRF accelerators. The PBG design also increases the real-estate gradient of the linac because both HOM damping and the fundamental power coupling can be done through the PBG cell instead of on the beam pipe via complicated end assemblies. First, we will discuss the design and accelerating properties of the structure. The five-cell module was optimized to provide good HOM damping while maintaining the same accelerating properties as conventional elliptical-cell modules. We will then discuss the process of tuning the structure to obtain the desired accelerating gradient profile. Finally, we will list measured quality factors for the accelerating mode and the most dangerous HOMs.

  16. A New Vacuum Brazing Route for Niobium-316L Stainless Steel Transition Joints for Superconducting RF Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Ganesh, P.; Kaul, R.; Bhatnagar, V. K.; Yedle, K.; Ram Sankar, P.; Sindal, B. K.; Kumar, K. V. A. N. P. S.; Singh, M. K.; Rai, S. K.; Bose, A.; Veerbhadraiah, T.; Ramteke, S.; Sridhar, R.; Mundra, G.; Joshi, S. C.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2015-02-01

    The paper describes a new approach for vacuum brazing of niobium-316L stainless steel transition joints for application in superconducting radiofrequency cavities. The study exploited good wettability of titanium-activated silver-base brazing alloy (CuSil-ABA®), along with nickel as a diffusion barrier, to suppress brittle Fe-Nb intermetallic formation, which is well reported during the established vacuum brazing practice using pure copper filler. The brazed specimens displayed no brittle intermetallic layers on any of its interfaces, but instead carried well-distributed intermetallic particles in the ductile matrix. The transition joints displayed room temperature tensile and shear strengths of 122-143 MPa and 80-113 MPa, respectively. The joints not only exhibited required hermeticity (helium leak rate high vacuum but also withstood twelve hour degassing heat treatment at 873 K (suppresses Q-disease in niobium cavities), without any noticeable degradation in the microstructure and the hermeticity. The joints retained their leak tightness even after undergoing ten thermal cycles between the room temperature and the liquid nitrogen temperature, thereby establishing their ability to withstand service-induced low cycle fatigue conditions. The study proposes a new lower temperature brazing route to form niobium-316L stainless steel transition joints, with improved microstructural characteristics and acceptable hermeticity and mechanical properties.

  17. Rf power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the author reports on RF power sources for accelerator applications. The approach will be with particular customers in mind. These customers are high energy physicists who use accelerators as experimental tools in the study of the nucleus of the atom, and synchrotron light sources derived from electron or positron storage rings. The author pays close attention to electron- positron linear accelerators since the RF sources have always defined what is possible to achieve with these accelerators. Circular machines, cyclotrons, synchrotrons, etc. have usually not been limited by the RF power available and the machine builders have usually had their RF power source requirements met off the shelf. The main challenge for the RF scientist has been then in the areas of controls. An interesting example of this is in the Conceptual Design Report of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) where the RF system is described in six pages of text in a 700-page report. Also, the cost of that RF system is about one-third of a percent of the project's total cost. The RF system is well within the state of the art and no new power sources need to be developed. All the intellectual effort of the system designer would be devoted to the feedback systems necessary to stabilize beams during storage and acceleration, with the main engineering challenges (and costs) being in the superconducting magnet lattice

  18. Thermal behaviour analysis of SRF cavities and superconducting HOM couplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouaidy, M.; Junquera, T.

    1993-01-01

    Two individual papers appear in this report, titled Thermal model calculations in superconducting RF cavities, and Thermal study of HOM couplers for superconducting RF cavities. Both were indexed separately for the INIS database. (R.P.)

  19. Versatile rf controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.

    1985-05-01

    The low level rf system developed for the new Bevatron local injector provides precise control and regulation of the rf phase and amplitude for three 200 MHz linac cavities. The main features of the system are: extensive use of inexpensive, off-the-shelf components, ease of maintenance, and adaptability to a wide range of operation frequencies. The system utilizes separate function, easily removed rf printed circuit cards interconnected via the edge connectors. Control and monitoring are available both locally and through the computer. This paper will describe these features as well as the few component changes that would be required to adapt the techniques to other operating frequencies. 2 refs

  20. RF Power Requirements for PEFP SRF Cavity Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub

    2011-01-01

    For the future extension of the PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) Proton linac, preliminary study on the SRF (superconducting radio-frequency) cavity is going on including a five-cell prototype cavity development to confirm the design and fabrication procedures and to check the RF and mechanical properties of a low-beta elliptical cavity. The main parameters of the cavity are like followings. - Frequency: 700 MHz - Operating mode: TM010 pi mode - Cavity type: Elliptical - Geometrical beta: 0.42 - Number of cells: 5 - Accelerating gradient: 8 MV/m - Epeak/Eacc: 3.71 - Bpeak/Eacc: 7.47 mT/(MV/m) - R/Q: 102.3 ohm - Epeak: 29.68 MV/m (1.21 Kilp.) - Geometrical factor: 121.68 ohm - Cavity wall thickness: 4.3 mm - Stiffening structure: Double ring - Effective length: 0.45 m For the test of the cavity at low temperature of 4.2 K, many subsystems are required such as a cryogenic system, RF system, vacuum system and radiation shielding. RF power required to generate accelerating field inside cavity depends on the RF coupling parameters of the power coupler and quality factor of the SRF cavity and the quality factor itself is affected by several factors such as operating temperature, external magnetic field level and surface condition. Therefore, these factors should be considered to estimate the required RF power for the SRF cavity test

  1. High power test of RF window and coaxial line in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, D.; Champion, M.; Gormley, M.; Kerns, Q.; Koepke, K.; Moretti, A.

    1993-01-01

    Primary rf input couplers for the superconducting accelerating cavities of the TESLA electron linear accelerator test to be performed at DESY, Hamburg, Germany are under development at both DESY and Fermilab. The input couplers consist of a WR650 waveguide to coaxial line transition with an integral ceramic window, a coaxial connection to the superconducting accelerating cavity with a second ceramic window located at the liquid nitrogen heat intercept location, and bellows on both sides of the cold window to allow for cavity motion during cooldown, coupling adjustments and easier assembly. To permit in situ high peak power processing of the TESLA superconducting accelerating cavities, the input couplers are designed to transmit nominally 1 ms long, 2 MW peak, 1.3 GHz rf pulses from the WR650 waveguide at room temperature to the cavities at 1.8 K. The coaxial part of the Fermilab TESLA input coupler design has been tested up to 1.7 MW using the prototype 805 MHz rf source located at the A0 service building of the Tevatron. The rf source, the testing system and the test results are described

  2. Comparison of coaxial higher order mode couplers for the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac study

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085329; Gerigk, Frank; Van Rienen, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Higher order modes (HOMs) may affect beam stability and refrigeration requirements of superconducting proton linacs such as the Superconducting Proton Linac, which is studied at CERN. Under certain conditions beam-induced HOMs can accumulate sufficient energy to destabilize the beam or quench the superconducting cavities. In order to limit these effects, CERN considers the use of coaxial HOM couplers on the cutoff tubes of the 5-cell superconducting cavities. These couplers consist of resonant antennas shaped as loops or probes, which are designed to couple to potentially dangerous modes while sufficiently rejecting the fundamental mode. In this paper, the design process is presented and a comparison is made between various designs for the high-beta SPL cavities, which operate at 704.4 MHz. The rf and thermal behavior as well as mechanical aspects are discussed. In order to verify the designs, a rapid prototype for the favored coupler was fabricated and characterized on a low-power test-stand.

  3. Spallation Neutron Source High Power RF Installation and Commissioning Progress

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Michael P; Bradley, Joseph T; Fuja, Ray E; Gurd, Pamela; Hardek, Thomas; Kang, Yoon W; Rees, Daniel; Roybal, William; Young, Karen A

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac will provide a 1 GeV proton beam for injection into the accumulator ring. In the normal conducting (NC) section of this linac, the Radio Frequency Quadupole (RFQ) and six drift tube linac (DTL) tanks are powered by seven 2.5 MW, 402.5 MHz klystrons and the four coupled cavity linac (CCL) cavities are powered by four 5.0 MW, 805 MHz klystrons. Eighty-one 550 kW, 805 MHz klystrons each drive a single cavity in the superconducting (SC) section of the linac. The high power radio frequency (HPRF) equipment was specified and procured by LANL and tested before delivery to ensure a smooth transition from installation to commissioning. Installation of RF equipment to support klystron operation in the 350-meter long klystron gallery started in June 2002. The final klystron was set in place in September 2004. Presently, all RF stations have been installed and high power testing has been completed. This paper reviews the progression of the installation and testing of the HPRF Sys...

  4. Progress on the RF Coupling Coil Module Design for the MICE Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Green, M.A.; Virostek, S.P.; Zisman, M.S.; Lau, W.; White, A.E.; Yang, S.Q.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the progress on the design of the RF coupling coil (RFCC) module for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. The MICE cooling channel design consists of one SFOFO cell that is similar to that of the US Study-II of a neutrino factory. The MICE RFCC module comprises a superconducting solenoid, mounted around four normal conducting 201.25-MHz RF cavities. Each cavity has a pair of thin curved beryllium windows to close the conventional open beam irises, which allows for independent control of the phase in each cavity and for the RF power to be fed separately. The coil package that surrounds the RF cavities is mounted on a vacuum vessel. The RF vacuum is shared between the cavities and the vacuum vessel around the cavities such that there is no differential pressure on the thin beryllium windows. This paper discusses the design progress of the RFCC module and the fabrication progress of a prototype 201.25-MHz cavity

  5. Radio frequency quadrupole linac for the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrage, D.L.; Young, L.M.; Clark, W.L.; Billen, J.H.; DePaula, R.F.; Naranjo, A.C.; Neuschaefer, G.H.; Roybal, P.L.; Stovall, J.E.; Ray, K.; Richter, R.

    1993-01-01

    A 2.5 MeV, 428 MHz radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac has been designed and fabricated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and GAR Electroforming for the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory. This device is a two segment accelerator fabricated from tellurium-copper (CDA14500) vane/cavity quadrants which are joined by electroforming. The structure incorporates an integral vacuum jacket and has no longitudinal rf or mechanical joints. The SSC RFQ linac is an extension of the design of the 1.0 MeV RFQ which was successfully flown on the BEAR Project. (orig.)

  6. Resonator controller for the super-conducting LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Gopal; Sujo, C.I.; Karande, Jitendra

    2001-01-01

    A resonator controller has been developed at Electronics Division, BARC, to stabilize the amplitude and phase of RF fields in the super-conducting resonators of BARC-TIFR linac. Due to reduced losses these resonators have intrinsic bandwidth of the order of one hertz at 150MHz whereas the vibration induced center frequency changes are of the order of a few hertz. In the control strategy followed the resonator is made the frequency selective part of an oscillator. The phase lock is achieved by dynamically adding a phase shift in the oscillator. In this paper we present the control strategy, implementation details and performance obtained with this controller. (author)

  7. Performance of Superconducting Cavities as Required for the SPL

    CERN Document Server

    Weingarten, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    This document outlines an optimisation analysis for the RF cavities of the planned Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) at CERN with regard to the operating frequency and temperature. The analysis is based on a phenomenological assessment of the field dependent Q-value, as taken from published test results from RF cavities of various proveniences. It turns out that the design Q-value at an accelerating gradient of 25 MV/m ($\\Beta$ = 1 cavity) of $1^{.}10^{10}$ at 704 (1408) MHz is attainable at 1.9 (1.6) K, respectively, however, with the present state-of-the-art manufacturing, at the expense of some reprocessing. The optimum of the total electrical grid power consumption (composed of RF and cryogenics) is estimated as a function of frequency and operating temperature for both the low and high power SPL. This document outlines an optimisation analysis for the RF cavities of the planned Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) at CERN with regard to the operating frequency and temperature. The analysis is based on a p...

  8. Study of a power coupler for superconducting RF cavities used in high intensity proton accelerator; Etude et developpement d'un coupleur de puissance pour les cavites supraconductrices destinees aux accelerateurs de protons de haute intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souli, M

    2007-07-15

    The coaxial power coupler needed for superconducting RF cavities used in the high energy section of the EUROTRANS driver should transmit 150 kW (CW operation) RF power to the protons beam. The calculated RF and dielectric losses in the power coupler (inner and outer conductor, RF window) are relatively high. Consequently, it is necessary to design very carefully the cooling circuits in order to remove the generated heat and to ensure stable and reliable operating conditions for the coupler cavity system. After calculating all type of losses in the power coupler, we have designed and validated the inner conductor cooling circuit using numerical simulations results. We have also designed and optimized the outer conductor cooling circuit by establishing its hydraulic and thermal characteristics. Next, an experiment dedicated to study the thermal interaction between the power coupler and the cavity was successfully performed at CRYOHLAB test facility. The critical heat load Qc for which a strong degradation of the cavity RF performance was measured leading to Q{sub c} in the range 3 W-5 W. The measured heat load will be considered as an upper limit of the residual heat flux at the outer conductor cold extremity. A dedicated test facility was developed and successfully operated for measuring the performance of the outer conductor heat exchanger using supercritical helium as coolant. The test cell used reproduces the realistic thermal boundary conditions of the power coupler mounted on the cavity in the cryo-module. The first experimental results have confirmed the excellent performance of the tested heat exchanger. The maximum residual heat flux measured was 60 mW for a 127 W thermal load. As the RF losses in the coupler are proportional to the incident RF power, we can deduce that the outer conductor heat exchanger performance is continued up to 800 kW RF power. Heat exchanger thermal conductance has been identified using a 2D axisymmetric thermal model by comparing

  9. RF electrodynamics in small particles of oxides - a review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Srinivasu, VV

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available RF electrodynamics, particularly, the low field rf absorption in small superconducting and manganite particles is reviewed and compared with their respective bulk counterparts. Experimental and theoretical aspects of the small particle...

  10. The TESLA RF System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroba, S.

    2003-01-01

    The TESLA project proposed by the TESLA collaboration in 2001 is a 500 to 800GeV e+/e- linear collider with integrated free electron laser facility. The accelerator is based on superconducting cavity technology. Approximately 20000 superconducting cavities operated at 1.3GHz with a gradient of 23.4MV/m or 35MV/m will be required to achieve the energy of 500GeV or 800GeV respectively. For 500GeV ∼600 RF stations each generating 10MW of RF power at 1.3GHz at a pulse duration of 1.37ms and a repetition rate of 5 or 10Hz are required. The original TESLA design was modified in 2002 and now includes a dedicated 20GeV electron accelerator in a separate tunnel for free electron laser application. The TESLA XFEL will provide XFEL radiation of unprecedented peak brilliance and full transverse coherence in the wavelength range of 0.1 to 6.4nm at a pulse duration of 100fs. The technology of both accelerators, the TESLA linear collider and the XFEL, will be identical, however the number of superconducting cavities and RF stations for the XFEL will be reduced to 936 and 26 respectively. This paper describes the layout of the entire RF system of the TESLA linear collider and the TESLA XFEL and gives an overview of its various subsystems and components

  11. Development of superconducting crossbar-H-mode cavities for proton and ion accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dziuba

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The crossbar-H-mode (CH structure is the first superconducting multicell drift tube cavity for the low and medium energy range operated in the H_{21} mode. Because of the large energy gain per cavity, which leads to high real estate gradients, it is an excellent candidate for the efficient acceleration in high power proton and ion accelerators with fixed velocity profile. A prototype cavity has been developed and tested successfully with a gradient of 7  MV/m. A few new superconducting CH cavities with improved geometries for different high power applications are under development at present. One cavity (f=325  MHz, β=0.16, seven cells is currently under construction and studied with respect to a possible upgrade option for the GSI UNILAC. Another cavity (f=217  MHz, β=0.059, 15 cells is designed for a cw operated energy variable heavy ion linac application. Furthermore, the EUROTRANS project (European research program for the transmutation of high level nuclear waste in an accelerator driven system, 600 MeV protons, 352 MHz is one of many possible applications for this kind of superconducting rf cavity. In this context a layout of the 17 MeV EUROTRANS injector containing four superconducting CH cavities was proposed by the Institute for Applied Physics (IAP Frankfurt. The status of the cavity development related to the EUROTRANS injector is presented.

  12. Microfluidic stretchable RF electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2010-12-07

    Stretchable electronics is a revolutionary technology that will potentially create a world of radically different electronic devices and systems that open up an entirely new spectrum of possibilities. This article proposes a microfluidic based solution for stretchable radio frequency (RF) electronics, using hybrid integration of active circuits assembled on flex foils and liquid alloy passive structures embedded in elastic substrates, e.g. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This concept was employed to implement a 900 MHz stretchable RF radiation sensor, consisting of a large area elastic antenna and a cluster of conventional rigid components for RF power detection. The integrated radiation sensor except the power supply was fully embedded in a thin elastomeric substrate. Good electrical performance of the standalone stretchable antenna as well as the RF power detection sub-module was verified by experiments. The sensor successfully detected the RF radiation over 5 m distance in the system demonstration. Experiments on two-dimensional (2D) stretching up to 15%, folding and twisting of the demonstrated sensor were also carried out. Despite the integrated device was severely deformed, no failure in RF radiation sensing was observed in the tests. This technique illuminates a promising route of realizing stretchable and foldable large area integrated RF electronics that are of great interest to a variety of applications like wearable computing, health monitoring, medical diagnostics, and curvilinear electronics.

  13. Tolerance study for the components of the probe-type and hook-type Higher Order Mode couplers for the HL-LHC 800 MHz harmonic system

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    A superconducting 800 MHz second harmonic RF system is one of the considered options as a Landau damping mechanism for HiLumi LHC. The Higher Order Mode (HOM) coupler designs require tight manufacturing tolerances in order to operate at the design specifications. The project consists of defining the mechanical tolerances for the different components of both the probe-type and hook-type HOM coupler. With the use of electromagnetic field simulation software it is possible to identify the critical components of the HOM coupler and to quantify their respective tolerances. The obtained results are discussed in this paper.

  14. High-gradient normal-conducting RF structures for muon cooling channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.N.; Green, M.A.; Hartman, N.; Ladran, A.; Li, D.; MacGill, R.; Rimmer, R.; Moretti, A.; Jurgens, T.; Holtkamp, N.; Black, E.; Summers, D.; Booke, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a status report on the research and development of high-gradient normal-conducting RF structures for the ionization cooling of muons in a neutrino factory or muon collider. High-gradient RF structures are required in regions enclosed in strong focusing solenoidal magnets, precluding the application of superconducting RF technology [1]. We propose using linear accelerating structures, with individual cells electromagnetically isolated, to achieve the required gradients of over 15 MV/m at 201 MHz and 30 MV/m at 805 MHz. Each cell will be powered independently, and cell length and drive phase adjusted to optimize shunt impedance of the assembled structure. This efficient design allows for relatively small field enhancement on the structure walls, and an accelerating field approximately 1.7 times greater than the peak surface field. The electromagnetic boundary of each cell may be provided by a thin Be sheet, or an assembly of thin-walled metal tubes. Use of thin, low-Z materials will allow passage of the muon beams without significant deterioration in beam quality due to scattering. R and D in design and analysis of robust structures that will operate under large electric and magnetic fields and RF current heating are discussed, including the experimental program based in a high-power test laboratory developed for this purpose

  15. Digital Measurement System for the HIE-Isolde Superconducting Accelerating Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Elias, Michal

    Extensive R&D efforts are being invested at CERN into the fundamental science of the RF superconductivity, cavity design, niobium sputtering, coating and RF properties of superconducting cavities. Fast and precise characterization and measurements of RF parameters of the newly produced cavities is essential for advances with the cavity production. The currently deployed analogue measurement system based on an analogue phase discriminators and tracking RF generators is not optimal for efficient work at the SM18 superconducting cavity test stand. If exact properties of the cavity under test are not known a traditional feedback loop will not be able to find resonant frequency in a reasonable time or even at all. This is mainly due to a very high Q factor. The resonance peak is very narrow (fraction of a Hz at 100 MHz). If the resonant frequency is off by several bandwidths, small changes of the cavity field during the tuning will not be measureable. Also cavity field will react only very slowly to any change...

  16. SNS superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundelin, Ronald M.

    2001-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) decided in early 2000 to use superconducting RF (SRF) in the linac at energies above 185 MeV. Since the SNS duty cycle is 6%, the SRF and normal conducting approaches have capital costs which are about the same, but operating costs and future upgradability are improved by using SRF. The current status of cavity and cryomodule development and procurement, including the basis for decisions made, is discussed. The current plan includes use of 805 MHz, 6-cell cavities with geometrical betas of 0.61 and 0.81. There are 33 medium beta and 60 high beta cavities in 11 and 15 cryomodules, respectively. Each cavity (except the 93rd) is powered by a 550 kW pulsed klystron. Issues addressed include choice of peak surface gradient, optimization of cavity shape, selection of a scaled KEK input power coupler, selection of scaled TESLA higher mode couplers, and control of the effects of higher order modes on the beam. (author)

  17. Niobium thin film coating on a 500-MHz copper cavity by plasma deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haipeng Wang; Genfa Wu; H. Phillips; Robert Rimmer; Anne-Marie Valente; Andy Wu

    2005-05-16

    A system using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma source for the deposition of a thin niobium film inside a copper cavity for superconducting accelerator applications has been designed and is being constructed. The system uses a 500-MHz copper cavity as both substrate and vacuum chamber. The ECR plasma will be created to produce direct niobium ion deposition. The central cylindrical grid is DC biased to control the deposition energy. This paper describes the design of several subcomponents including the vacuum chamber, RF supply, biasing grid and magnet coils. Operational parameters are compared between an operating sample deposition system and this system. Engineering work progress toward the first plasma creation will be reported here.

  18. Room temperature RF characterization of Nb make super conducting radio frequency cavities at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahawar, Ashish; Mohania, Praveen; Shrivastava, Purushottam; Yadav, Anand; Puntambekar, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    In order to ensure that the final welded Nb superconducting RF cavities are at the correct frequency the cavity structures are measured at various development stages for their resonant frequency. These measurements are performed at room temperature using a cavity measurement setup developed in house and a VNA. These measurements are critical to identify the length a cavity structure needs to be trimmed before welding. Measurement of resonant frequencies of Nb made cavity structures were performed for half cell, dumb bell, single cell, long end cell and short end cell structures. These structures were then joined to develop single cell and multi-cell 650 MHz/1300 MHz cavities. The present paper describes room temperature cavity characterization being carried out at RRCAT. (author)

  19. Radiation measurements during cavities conditioning on APS RF test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grudzien, D.M.; Kustom, R.L.; Moe, H.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to determine the shielding structure around the Advanced Photon Source (APS) synchrotron and storage ring RF stations, the X-ray radiation has been measured in the near field and far field regions of the RF cavities during the normal conditioning process. Two cavity types, a prototype 352-MHz single-cell cavity and a 352-MHz five-cell cavity, are used on the APS and are conditioned in the RF test stand. Vacuum measurements are also taken on a prototype 352-MHz single-cell cavity and a 352-MHz five-cell cavity. The data will be compared with data on the five-cell cavities from CERN

  20. Effect of High Solenoidal Magnetic Fields on Breakdown Voltages of High Vacuum 805 MHz Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Moretti, A; Geer, S; Qian, Z

    2004-01-01

    The demonstration of muon ionization cooling by a large factor is necessary to demonstrate the feasilibility of a collider or neutrino factory. An important cooling experiment, MICE [1], has been proposed to demonstrate 10 % cooling which will validate the technology. Ionization cooling is accomplished by passing a high-emittance beam in a multi-Tesla solenoidal channel alternately through regions of low Z material and very high accelerating RF Cavities. To determine the effect of very large solenoidal magnetic fields on the generations of Dark current, X-Rays and breakdown Voltage gradients of vacuum RF cavities, a test facility has been established at Fermilab in Lab G. This facility consists of a 12 MW 805 MHz RF station, and a large bore 5 T solenoidal superconducting magnet containing a pill box type Cavity with thin removable window apertures allowing dark current studies and breakdown studies of different materials. The results of this study will be presented. The study has shown that the peak achievab...

  1. Effect of high solenoidal magnetic fields on breakdown voltages of high vacuum 805 MHz cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, A.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Qian, Z.; Norem, J.; Li, D.; Zisman, M.; Torun, Y.; Rimmer, R.; Errede, D.

    2005-01-01

    There is an on going international collaboration studying the feasibility and cost of building a muon collider or neutrino factory [1,2]. An important aspect of this study is the full understanding of ionization cooling of muons by many orders of magnitude for the collider case. An important muon ionization cooling experiment, MICE [3], has been proposed to demonstrate and validate the technology that could be used for cooling. Ionization cooling is accomplished by passing a high-emittance muon beam alternately through regions of low Z material, such as liquid hydrogen, and very high accelerating RF Cavities within a multi-Tesla solenoidal field. To determine the effect of very large solenoidal magnetic fields on the generation of dark current, x-rays and on the breakdown voltage gradients of vacuum RF cavities, a test facility has been established at Fermilab in Lab G. This facility consists of a 12 MW 805 MHz RF station and a large warm bore 5 T solenoidal superconducting magnet containing a pill box type cavity with thin removable window apertures. This system allows dark current and breakdown studies of different window configurations and materials. The results of this study will be presented. The study has shown that the peak achievable accelerating gradient is reduced by a factor greater than 2 when solenoidal field of greater than 2 T are applied to the cavity

  2. 47 CFR 90.1335 - RF safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 90.1335 Section 90.1335 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1335 RF safety...

  3. Design for the National RF Test Facility at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, W.L.; Hoffman, D.J.; Becraft, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Conceptual and preliminary engineering design for the National RF Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been completed. The facility will comprise a single mirror configuration embodying two superconducting development coils from the ELMO Bumpy Torus Proof-of-Principle (EBT-P) program on either side of a cavity designed for full-scale antenna testing. The coils are capable of generating a 1.2-T field at the axial midpoint between the coils separated by 1.0 m. The vacuum vessel will be a stainless steel, water-cooled structure having an 85-cm-radius central cavity. The facility will have the use of a number of continuous wave (cw), radio-frequency (rf) sources at levels including 600 kW at 80 MHz and 100 kW at 28 GHz. Several plasma sources will provide a wide range of plasma environments, including densities as high as approx. 5 x 10 13 cm -3 and temperatures on the order of approx. 10 eV. Furthermore, a wide range of diagnostics will be available to the experimenter for accurate appraisal of rf testing

  4. RF system for the super conducting proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchi, Y.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the several types of RF sources used for proton liner accelerators. Also we discus the undesirable characteristics of super-conducting cavities, and the influence of the large beam loading for an accelerating field. We propose the RF system for the super-conducting proton linear accelerators using the Diacrode or IOT taking these effects into account. (author)

  5. Superconducting versus normal conducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Podlech, Holger

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important issues of high-power hadron linacs is the choice of technology with respect to superconducting or room-temperature operation. The favour for a specific technology depends on several parameters such as the beam energy, beam current, beam power and duty factor. This contribution gives an overview of the comparison between superconducting and normal conducting cavities. This includes basic radiofrequency (RF) parameters, design criteria, limitations, required RF and plug power as well as case studies.

  6. Cryogenic rf test of the first SRF cavity etched in an rf Ar/Cl2 plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, J.; Palczewski, A.; Popović, S.; Valente-Feliciano, A.-M.; Im, Do; Phillips, H. L.; Vušković, L.

    2017-12-01

    An apparatus and a method for etching of the inner surfaces of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerator cavities are described. The apparatus is based on the reactive ion etching performed in an Ar/Cl2 cylindrical capacitive discharge with reversed asymmetry. To test the effect of the plasma etching on the cavity rf performance, a 1497 MHz single cell SRF cavity was used. The single cell cavity was mechanically polished and buffer chemically etched and then rf tested at cryogenic temperatures to provide a baseline characterization. The cavity's inner wall was then exposed to the capacitive discharge in a mixture of Argon and Chlorine. The inner wall acted as the grounded electrode, while kept at elevated temperature. The processing was accomplished by axially moving the dc-biased, corrugated inner electrode and the gas flow inlet in a step-wise manner to establish a sequence of longitudinally segmented discharges. The cavity was then tested in a standard vertical test stand at cryogenic temperatures. The rf tests and surface condition results, including the electron field emission elimination, are presented.

  7. Cryogenic rf test of the first SRF cavity etched in an rf Ar/Cl2 plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Upadhyay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus and a method for etching of the inner surfaces of superconducting radio frequency (SRF accelerator cavities are described. The apparatus is based on the reactive ion etching performed in an Ar/Cl2 cylindrical capacitive discharge with reversed asymmetry. To test the effect of the plasma etching on the cavity rf performance, a 1497 MHz single cell SRF cavity was used. The single cell cavity was mechanically polished and buffer chemically etched and then rf tested at cryogenic temperatures to provide a baseline characterization. The cavity’s inner wall was then exposed to the capacitive discharge in a mixture of Argon and Chlorine. The inner wall acted as the grounded electrode, while kept at elevated temperature. The processing was accomplished by axially moving the dc-biased, corrugated inner electrode and the gas flow inlet in a step-wise manner to establish a sequence of longitudinally segmented discharges. The cavity was then tested in a standard vertical test stand at cryogenic temperatures. The rf tests and surface condition results, including the electron field emission elimination, are presented.

  8. Analog techniques in CEBAF's RF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovater, C.; Fugitt, J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent developments in high-speed analog technology have progressed into the areas of traditional RF technology. Diode related devices are being replaced by analog IC's in the CEBAF RF control system. Complex phase modulators and attenuators have been successfully tested at 70 MHz. They have three advantages over existing technology: lower cost, less temperature sensitivity, and more linearity. RF signal conditioning components and how to implement the new analog IC's will be covered in this paper. 4 refs., 5 figs

  9. Analog techniques in CEBAF'S RF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovater, C.; Fugitt, J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent developments in high-speed analog technology have progressed into the areas of traditional rf technology. Diode-related devices are being replaced by analog IC's in the CEBAF rf control system. Complex phase modulators and attenuators have been successfully tested at 70 MHz. They have three advantages over existing technology: lower cost, less temperature sensitivity, and more linearity. Rf signal conditioning components and how to implement the new analog IC's will be covered in this paper. 4 refs., 5 figs

  10. Quantum decay of metastable current states in rf squids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrenko, I.M.; Khlus, V.A.; Tsoj, C.M.; Shnyrkov, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    Quantum decay of metastable current states in a rf SQUID superconducting ring of a hysteresis mode are considered. Point contacts are used as a Josephson weak link. The first derivative of rf IVC, dVsub(T)/dIsub(RF), is measured which gives the dependence of the density of decay probability on the amplitude of magnetic flux oscillations in the ring. The temperature dependence of probability distribution width between 4.2 and 0.5 K suggests that for most of high-ohmic contacts Nb-Nb, Nb-Ag-Nb the quantum mechanisms of decay become dominant beginning with the temperature of about 2 K. The experimental parameters of distribution of decay probability in the quantum limit are compared to those calculated by the theory of macroscopic quantum tunneling in the limit of high and low dissipation. The experimental values of probability density distribution width and characteristic quantum temperature are higher than the theoretical ones, the fact can be attributed to the deviation of current-phase relation of contact from a sinusoidal one. Besides, some contacts seem to correspond to the case of an intermediate value of dissipation. As the frequency of rf oscillations varies from 30 to 6 MHz, the distribution width remains unchanged in accordance with the theory of quantum tunneling decay of metastable current state in the ring in the limit of high damping. At low temperatures (T approximately 0.5 K), and rather small damping coefficient, the density of probability displays anomalous peaks when the amplitude of rf oscillations is lower considerably than the critical vaiue of magnetic flux in the ring

  11. Design of 325 MHz spoke cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Peng; Huang Hong; Dai Jianping; Zu Guoquan; Li Han

    2012-01-01

    Spoke cavity can be used in the low-energy section of the proton accelerator. It has many significant advantages: compact structure, high value of R/Q, etc. The ADS (Accelerator Driven System) project will adopt many spoke cavities with different β values. Therefore, IHEP has began the research of β=0.14, 325 MHz spoke cavity. In this pa per, the dimensions, RF performances and mechanical properties of it are studied. (authors)

  12. An updated overview of the LEB RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.D.; Ferrell, J.H.; Curbow, J.E.; Friedrichs, C.

    1992-01-01

    Each of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) rf systems consists of the following major subsystems: a vacuum tube final rf amplifier driven by a solid state rf amplifier, a ferrite-tuned rf cavity used to bunch and accelerate the beam, a low-level rf system including rf feedback systems, a computer-based supervisory control system, and associated power supplies. The LEB rf system is broadband with the exception of the rf cavity, which is electronically tuned from approximately 47.5 MHz to 59.7 MHz in 50 ms. The design and development status of the LEB rf system is presented, with particular emphasis on the cavity and tuner, and the tuner bias power supply

  13. Tests of a niobium split-ring superconducting heavy ion accelerating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benaroya, R.; Bollinger, L.M.; Jaffey, A.H.; Khoe, T.K.; Olesen, M.C.; Scheibelhut, C.H.; Shepard, K.W.; Wesolowski, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    A niobium split-ring accelerating structure designed for use in the Argonne superconducting heavy-ion energy booster was successfully tested. The superconducting resonator has a resonant frequency of 97 MHz and an optimum particle velocity β = 0.11. Ultimate performance is expected to be limited by peak surface fields, which in this structure are 4.7 E/sub a/ electric and 170 E/sub a/ (Gauss) magnetic, where E/sub a/ is the effective accelerating gradient in MV/m. The rf losses in two demountable superconducting joints severely limited performance in initial tests. Following independent measurements of the rf loss properties of several types of demountable joints, one demountable joint was eliminated and the other modified. Subsequently, the resonator could be operated continuously at E/sub a/ = 3.6 MV/m (corresponding to an energy gain of 1.3 MeV per charge) with 10W rf input power. Maximum field level was limited by electron loading. The mechanical stability of the resonator under operating conditions is excellent: vibration induced eigenfrequency noise is less than 120 Hz peak to peak, and the radiation pressure induced frequency shift is Δf/f = 1.6 x 10 -6 E/sub a/ 2

  14. Tests of a niobium split-ring superconducting heavy ion accelerating structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benaroya, R.; Bollinger, L.M.; Jaffey, A.H.; Khoe, T.K.; Olesen, M.C.; Scheibelhut, C.H.; Shepard, K.W.; Wesolowski, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    A niobium split-ring accelerating structure designed for use in the Argonne superconducting heavy-ion energy booster was successfully tested. The superconducting resonator has a resonant frequency of 97 MHz and an optimum particle velocity ..beta.. = 0.11. Ultimate performance is expected to be limited by peak surface fields, which in this structure are 4.7 E/sub a/ electric and 170 E/sub a/ (Gauss) magnetic, where E/sub a/ is the effective accelerating gradient in MV/m. The rf losses in two demountable superconducting joints severely limited performance in initial tests. Following independent measurements of the rf loss properties of several types of demountable joints, one demountable joint was eliminated and the other modified. Subsequently, the resonator could be operated continuously at E/sub a/ = 3.6 MV/m (corresponding to an energy gain of 1.3 MeV per charge) with 10W rf input power. Maximum field level was limited by electron loading. The mechanical stability of the resonator under operating conditions is excellent: vibration induced eigenfrequency noise is less than 120 Hz peak to peak, and the radiation pressure induced frequency shift is ..delta..f/f = 1.6 x 10/sup -6/ E/sub a//sup 2/.

  15. Field emission in RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.

    1996-01-01

    Electron field emission limits the accelerating gradient in superconducting cavities. It is shown how and why it is an important problem. The phenomenology of field emission is then described, both in DC and RF regimes. Merits of a few plausible 'remedies' to field emission are discussed. (author)

  16. Commissioning of the Superconducting Linac at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Ho; Campisi, Isidoro E.

    2007-01-01

    The use of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities in particle accelerator is becoming more widespread. Among the projects that make use of that technology is the Spallation Neutron Source, where H-ions are accelerated to about 1 GeV, mostly making use of niobium elliptical cavities. SNS will use the accelerated short (about 700 ns) sub-bunches of protons to generate neutrons by spallation, which will in turn allow probing structural and magnetic properties of new and existing materials. The SNS superconducting linac is the largest application of RF superconductivity to come on-line in the last decade. The SRF cavities, operated at 805 MHz, were designed, built and integrated into cryomodules at Jefferson Lab and installed and tested at SNS. SNS is also the first proton-like accelerator which uses SRF cavities in a pulse mode. Many of the details of the cavity performance are peculiar to this mode of operation, which is also being applied to lepton accelerators (TESLA test facility and X-FEL at DESY and the international linear collider project). Thanks to the low frequency of the SNS superconducting cavities, operation at 4.2 K has been possible without beam energy degradation, even though the cavities and cryogenic systems were originally designed for 2.1 K operation. The testing of the superconducting cavities, the operating experience with beam and the performance of the superconducting linac will be presented

  17. Radio-Frequency Illuminated Superconductive Disks: Reverse Josephson Effects and Implications for Precise Measuring of Proposed Gravity Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David A.; Koczor, Ronald J.

    1998-01-01

    We have previously reported results using a high precision gravimeter to probe local gravity changes in the neighborhood of large bulk-processed high-temperature superconductors. It have been indicated three essential components to achieve anomalous gravity effects, namely large, two-layer high-temperature YBCO superconductors, magnetic levitation and AC input in the form of radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. We report experiments on RF-illuminated (1-15 MHz) superconducting disks with corresponding gravity readings indicating an apparent increase in observed gravity of approximately 3-5 x l0(exp -5)cm/sq s, above and to the side of the superconductor. In this preliminary study, RF- illumination is achieved using a series of large radius (15 cm) spiral antenna with RF power inputs equal to or greater than 90 W. The observed gravitational modification range is significantly lower than the 2.1% gravity modification. The error analyses of thermal and electromagnetic interference in a magnetically shielded gravimeter with vacuum enclosures, Faraday cages and shielded instrument leads, are outlined both experimentally and theoretically. The nearly exact correspondence between the peak gravity effects reported and the well-known peak in AC resistance in superconductors (2-7 MHz, owing to reverse Josephson quantum effects) suggests that electrical resistance will arise in this frequency range and subsequently any trapped magnetic fields in the superconductor may disperse partially into the measuring instrument's local environment. Implications for propulsion initiatives and RF-heating in superconductors will be discussed.

  18. Microscopic investigation of RF surfaces of 3 GHz niobium accelerator cavities following RF processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, J.; Barnes, P.; Flynn, T.; Kirchgessner, J.; Knobloch, J.; Moffat, D.; Muller, H.; Padamsee, H.; Sears, J.

    1993-01-01

    RF processing of Superconducting accelerating cavities is achieved through a change in the electron field emission (FE) characteristics of the RF surface. The authors have examined the RF surfaces of several single-cell 3 GHz cavities, following RF processing, in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The RF processing sessions included both High Peak Power (P ≤ 50 kW) pulsed processing, and low power (≤ 20 W) continuous wave processing. The experimental apparatus also included a thermometer array on the cavity outer wall, allowing temperature maps to characterize the emission before and after RF processing gains. Multiple sites have been located in cavities which showed improvements in cavity behavior due to RF processing. Several SEM-located sites can be correlated with changes in thermometer signals, indicating a direct relationship between the surface site and emission reduction due to RF processing. Information gained from the SEM investigations and thermometry are used to enhance the theoretical model of RF processing

  19. Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory coupled-cavity linac mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starling, W.J.; Cain, T.

    1992-01-01

    A collaboration between the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the engineering and mechanical design of the SSCL Coupled-Cavity Linac (CCL) has yielded an innovative example of the well known side coupled-cavity type of linear accelerator. The SSCL CCL accelerates an H - beam from 70 MeV to 600 MeV with an rf cavity structure consisting of eight tanks in each of nine modules for a total length of about 112 meters. Magnetically-coupled bridge couplers transfer power from tank to tank within a module. A single rf power input is located at the center bridge coupler of each module. The bridge couplers permit placement along the beam line of combined function focusing/steering electromagnets and diagnostic pods for beam instrumentation. Each tank and bridge coupler is rf frequency stabilized, nominally to 1,283 MHz, by water pumped through integral water passages. Air isolation grooves surround the water passages at each braze joint so that water-to-vacuum interfaces are avoided. Each tank is supported by adjustable spherical bearing rod end struts to permit alignment and accommodate thermal expansion and contraction of the rf structure. Tank struts, electromagnet/diagnostic pod support frames, vacuum manifolds and utilities are all mounted to a girder-and-leg support stand running the full length of the CCL. (Author) tab., fig

  20. Racetrack microtron rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.; Keffeler, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The rf system for the National Bureau of Standards (NBS)/Los Alamos cw racetrack microtron is described. The low-power portion consists of five 75-W amplifers that drive two input ports in each of two chopper deflection cavities and one port in the prebuncher cavity. A single 500-kW klystron drives four separate 2380-MHz cavity sections: the two main accelerator sections, a capture section, and a preaccelerator section. The phases and amplitudes in all cavities are controlled by electronic or electromechanical controls. The 1-MW klystron power supply and crowbar system were purchased as a unit; several modifications are described that improve power-supply performance. The entire rf system has been tested and shipped to the NBS, and the chopper-buncher system has been operated with beam at the NBS. 5 refs., 2 figs

  1. Performance of photocathode rf gun electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    1993-01-01

    In Photo-Injectors (PI) electron guns, electrons are emitted from a photocathode by a short laser pulse and then accelerated by intense rf fields in a resonant cavity. The best known advantage of this technique is the high peak current with a good emittance (high brightness). This is important for short wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and linear colliders. PIs are in operation in many electron accelerator facilities and a large number of new guns are under construction. Some applications have emerged, providing, for example, very high pulse charges. PIs have been operated over a wide range of frequencies, from 144 to 3000 MHz (a 17 GHz gun is being developed). An exciting new possibility is the development of superconducting PIs. A significant body of experimental and theoretical work exists by now, indicating the criticality of the accelerator elements that follow the gun for the preservation of the PI's performance as well as possible avenues of improvements in brightness. Considerable research is being done on the laser and photocathode material of the PI, and improvement is expected in this area

  2. Radio frequency superconductivity at CERN: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnolds-Mayer, G.; Benvenuti, C.; Bernard, P.

    1988-01-01

    Up to 1984 the efforts in superconducting (s.c.) cavity development at CERN were mainly concentrated on 500 MHz cavities, leading to the test of a 5-cell, 500 MHz cavity at PETRA. The results confirmed that the achievable accelerating fields do not decrease at lower frequencies as strongly as previously suspected. Therefore, it was decided in 1984 to concentrate efforts on 352 MHz cavities. This frequency choice is suggested by the fact that LEP will be equipped at the beginning with 128 Cu cavities at 352 MHz which will bring up energies to 55 GeV/beam [5]. There is an obvious interest to install at a later stage s.c. cavities with the same frequency and to use at maximum the existing installation of radio frequency (r.f.) power sources. With the installed r.f. power of 16 MW, LEP could be upgraded to ∼ 90 GeV by using s.c. cavities. This will require the construction, testing and installation of several hundred of s.c. cavities, therefore arguments of economy and reliability are of outstanding importance. The LEP program asks for many additional items and substantial work has gone into the development, construction and testing of cryostats, main couplers, Higher-Order Mode (HOM) couplers and frequency tuners. Besides the main line based on Nb-cavities another development has been pursued and that is the deposition of a thin niobium layer on copper cavities. Results look very promising but more efforts will be needed to reach the same level of know-how as for Nb cavities. 34 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  3. Effects of acute and chronic exposure to both 900 MHz and 2100 MHz electromagnetic radiation on glutamate receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçek-Saraç, Çiğdem; Er, Hakan; Kencebay Manas, Ceren; Kantar Gok, Deniz; Özen, Şükrü; Derin, Narin

    2017-09-01

    To demonstrate the molecular effects of acute and chronic exposure to both 900 and 2100 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the hippocampal level/activity of some of the enzymes - including PKA, CaMKIIα, CREB, and p44/42 MAPK - from N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-related signaling pathways. Rats were divided into the following groups: sham rats, and rats exposed to 900 and 2100 MHz RF-EMR for 2 h/day for acute (1 week) or chronic (10 weeks), respectively. Western blotting and activity measurement assays were used to assess the level/activity of the selected enzymes. The obtained results revealed that the hippocampal level/activity of selected enzymes was significantly higher in the chronic groups as compared to the acute groups at both 900 and 2100 MHz RF-EMR exposure. In addition, hippocampal level/activity of selected enzymes was significantly higher at 2100 MHz RF-EMR than 900 MHz RF-EMR in both acute and chronic groups. The present study provides experimental evidence that both exposure duration (1 week versus 10 weeks) and different carrier frequencies (900 vs. 2100 MHz) had different effects on the protein expression of hippocampus in Wistar rats, which might encourage further research on protection against RF-EMR exposure.

  4. RF transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroba, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the techniques of transport of high-power radiofrequency (RF) power from a RF power source to the cavities of an accelerator. Since the theory of electromagnetic waves in waveguides and of waveguide components is very well explained in a number of excellent text books it will limit itself on special waveguide distributions and on a number of, although not complete list of, special problems which sometimes occur in RF power transportation systems. (author)

  5. Design and analysis of magnetic shield for 650 MHz SCRF cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Vanshree; Jain, Vikas; Das, S.; Shinde, R.S.; Joshi, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Five-cell, 650 MHz Superconducting RF (SCRF) cavity is being developed at RRCAT for the Injector Linac of proposed ISNS project. The SCRF cavity needs to be shielded effectively from earth magnetic field. The external magnetic field can cause magnetic field trapping that limits the performance of SCRF cavity. The allowable limit of earth magnetic field in the cavity surface is < 10 mG. The magnetic shielding analysis carried out for 650 MHz dressed SCRF cavity is presented in this paper. For axial magnetic field shielding analysis, 2-D code PANDIRA has been used. A 2-D axisymmetric geometry (cylinder of Cryoperm10 sheet with 460 mm diameter of various thickness and 1100 mm length) has been modelled and analyzed in the presence of 240 mG external axial magnetic field. The influence of partial opening of 120 mm diameter at both ends of the cylinder on magnetic field pattern inside the shielded region has been evaluated. The transverse magnetic shielding analysis in the presence of 500 mG transverse external field has been carried out using OPERA 3D code. The flux leakage through the major openings for cavity supports, ports on the shield is investigated and accordingly the openings are designed to minimize the leakage. Inference of material thickness on the magnetic shielding for reducing magnetic field below specified limit has been investigated. Details of design and analysis of magnetic shield for SCRF cavity will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. Superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulzacchelli, J.F.; Lee, H.-S.; Misewich, J.A.; Ketchen, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    Bandpass delta-sigma modulators digitize narrowband signals with high dynamic range and linearity. The required sampling rate is only a few times higher than the centre frequency of the input. This paper presents a superconducting bandpass delta-sigma modulator for direct analogue-to-digital conversion of RF signals in the GHz range. The input signal is capacitively coupled to one end of a microstrip transmission line, and a single flux quantum balanced comparator quantizes the current flowing out of the other end. Quantization noise is suppressed at the quarter-wave resonance of the transmission line (about 2 GHz in our design). Circuit performance at a 20 GHz sampling rate has been studied with several long JSIM simulations. Full-scale (FS) input sensitivity is 20 mV (rms), and in-band noise is -53 dBFS and -57 dBFS over bandwidths of 39 MHz and 19.5 MHz, respectively. In-band intermodulation distortion is better than -69 dBFS. (author)

  7. 805 MHz Beta = 0.47 Elliptical Accelerating Structure R & D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bricker; C. Compton; W. Hartung; M. Johnson; F. Marti; J. Popierlarski; R. C. York; et al

    2008-09-22

    A 6-cell 805 MHz superconducting cavity for acceleration in the velocity range of about 0.4 to 0.53 times the speed of light was designed. After single-cell prototyping, three 6-cell niobium cavities were fabricated. In vertical RF tests of the 6-cell cavities, the measured quality factors (Q{sub 0}) were between 7 {center_dot} 10{sup 9} and 1.4 {center_dot} 10{sup 10} at the design field (accelerating gradient of 8 to 10 MV/m). A rectangular cryomodule was designed to house 4 cavities per cryomodule. The 4-cavity cryomodule could be used for acceleration of ions in a linear accelerator, with focusing elements between the cryomodules. A prototype cryomodule was fabricated to test 2 cavities under realistic operating conditions. Two of the 6-cell cavities were equipped with helium tanks, tuners, and input coupler and installed into the cryomodule. The prototype cryomodule was used to verify alignment, electromagnetic performance, frequency tuning, cryogenic performance, low-level RF control, and control of microphonics.

  8. 805 MHz β = 0.47 Elliptical Accelerating Structure R and D. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricker, S.; Compton, C.; Hartung, W.; Johnson, M.; Marti, F.; Popierlarski, J.; York, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    A 6-cell 805 MHz superconducting cavity for acceleration in the velocity range of about 0.4 to 0.53 times the speed of light was designed. After single-cell prototyping, three 6-cell niobium cavities were fabricated. In vertical RF tests of the 6-cell cavities, the measured quality factors (Q 0 ) were between 7 · 10 9 and 1.4 · 10 10 at the design field (accelerating gradient of 8 to 10 MV/m). A rectangular cryomodule was designed to house 4 cavities per cryomodule. The 4-cavity cryomodule could be used for acceleration of ions in a linear accelerator, with focusing elements between the cryomodules. A prototype cryomodule was fabricated to test 2 cavities under realistic operating conditions. Two of the 6-cell cavities were equipped with helium tanks, tuners, and input coupler and installed into the cryomodule. The prototype cryomodule was used to verify alignment, electromagnetic performance, frequency tuning, cryogenic performance, low-level RF control, and control of microphonics.

  9. Industrial production of SC RF accelerating cavities at CERCA. Latest results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutes, J.L.; Maccioni, P.

    1996-01-01

    CERCA is one of the most experienced companies throughout the world for the manufacture of superconducting RF accelerating devices. The latest results obtained during the past 2 years on CERCA's superconducting cavities are presented. (K.A.)

  10. Cryogenic testing of the 2.1 GHz five-cell superconducting RF cavity with a photonic band gap coupler cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenyev, Sergey A.; Temkin, Richard J.; Haynes, W. Brian; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu.; Simakov, Evgenya I.; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Boulware, Chase H.; Grimm, Terrence L.; Rogacki, Adam R.

    2016-05-01

    We present results from cryogenic tests of the multi-cell superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity with a photonic band gap (PBG) coupler cell. Achieving high average beam currents is particularly desirable for future light sources and particle colliders based on SRF energy-recovery-linacs (ERLs). Beam current in ERLs is limited by the beam break-up instability, caused by parasitic higher order modes (HOMs) interacting with the beam in accelerating cavities. A PBG cell incorporated in an accelerating cavity can reduce the negative effect of HOMs by providing a frequency selective damping mechanism, thus allowing significantly higher beam currents. The multi-cell cavity was designed and fabricated of niobium. Two cryogenic (vertical) tests were conducted. The high unloaded Q-factor was demonstrated at a temperature of 4.2 K at accelerating gradients up to 3 MV/m. The measured value of the unloaded Q-factor was 1.55 × 108, in agreement with prediction.

  11. A prototype superconducting cavity for TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, T.; Hara, K.; Hosoyama, K.

    1987-01-01

    Following the feasibility study on the 3-cell superconducting cavity in the TRISTAN Accumulation Ring (TAR), a 5-cell 508 MHz Nb cavity was constructed and tested in the TAR. The cavity was equipped with a RF input coupler on a beam pipe, two HOM couplers on the other beam pipe and two additional HOM couplers on the equator of an end cell. The maximum accelerating field (Eaxx) was 4.5 MV/m with a Q value of about 1x10 9 at 4.2 deg K. The field was limited by the electron field emission and neither electron multipacting nor breakdown caused by couplers was observed. Damping of the HOM was sufficient and the input coupler was tested up to 82 KW in total reflection. A frequency tuning system consisted of two piezo electric and mechanical tuners. The piezo tuner was fast enough and the mechanical tuner covered wide range. In the beam test, the single bunch electron current of 29 mA was captured by the superconducting cavity alone and 13 mA was accelerated to 4.8 GeV. The maximum power transferred to the beam was 26 KW. The refrigeration system worked very stably

  12. A 70 MHz pulsing beam system for protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Shizhong; Zhang Tianjue; Wu Longcheng; Lv Yinlong; Song Guofang; Guan Fengping; Jia Xianlu

    2008-01-01

    A test beam line for pulsed beam generation for 10 MeV central region model (CRM) of a compact cyclotron is under construction as China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). A 70 MHz continuous H - beam with the energy of dozens of keV or a hundred keV will be pulsed to pulse length of less than 10 ns with the repetition rate of 1-8 MHz. A 70.487 MHz buncher will be used to compress the DC beam into the RF phase acceptance of ±30° of the CRM cyclotron. The 2.2 MHz sine waveform will be used for the chopper. A pulse with the repetition rate to 4.4 MHz and pulse length less than 10 ns is expected after CRM cyclotron. (authors)

  13. RF MEMS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    At the bare die level the insertion loss, return loss and the isolation ... ing and packaging of a silicon on glass based RF MEMS switch fabricated using DRIE. ..... follows the power law based on the asperity deformation model given by Pattona & ... Surface mount style RF packages (SMX series 580465) from Startedge Corp.

  14. Study of superconducting cavities for high power proton accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biarrotte, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The research program on hybrid reactors has started in France in order to study the technologies allowing the transmutation of radioactive wastes thanks to a spallation neutron source supplied by a linear high intensity proton accelerator. The study of the high energy part of this accelerator (superconducting accelerator for hybrid) has started, and its aim is the design of superconducting radiofrequency cavities which make the two different sections of the accelerator (0.47 and 0.65). This thesis presents the advance of the work carried out on this topic since 1997, in particular the design and optimization of the 5-cell cavities which work at the 704.4 MHz frequency. The experimental part of the study has been carried out in parallel with the industrial fabrication (Cerca) of several prototypes of mono-cell cavities. These cavities have shown very good RF performances during the tests in vertical cryostat; the A 102 A cavity, in particular develops a Q0 of 7.10 10 (indicating very low RF losses) and reaches an accelerator field of 25 MV/m, i.e. more than two times the specified value (about 10 MV/V). Finally, a new risk analysis method for the excitation of the upper modes is proposed. This method shows in particular the uselessness of the implementation of HOM couplers on the cavities for a continuous beam use. (J.S.)

  15. Design of 650 MHz, β=0.61, 5-cell SRF cavity and development of single cell niobium cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, Sudeshna; Som, Sumit; Bhattacharyya, Pranab

    2015-01-01

    In India, DAE laboratories and other institutes are now actively involved in research and development activities on SRF cavities and associated technologies for the proposed high current, high energy proton linear accelerators like ISNS/IADS and also for the FERMILAB PIP-II program under Indian institutions-Fermilab collaboration (IIFC). As part of the above activities, VECC, Kolkata, has been involved in the design, analysis and development of a 650 MHz, β=0.61, 5-cell elliptical shape Superconducting RF linac cavity. RF design involves optimization of the geometry to get acceptable values of field enhancement factors (magnetic and electric), R/Q , Geometric factor, coupling factor and field flatness. This paper describes the RF design using 2-D superfish and 3-D CST Microwave studio and multipacting analysis using 2-D Multipac2.1 and 3-D CST Particle Studio. A prototype 1-cell aluminum cavity and a prototype 5-cell copper cavity have been fabricated using die-punch assembly designed for fabrication of elliptical half-cells to check the procedures for forming and to make sure the desired frequency and field flatness could be obtained. RF characterization has been carried out for both the prototypes using Vector Network Analyzer and Bead pull measurement set up.The fabrication of a single-cell niobium cavity has been carried out indigenously and with the help of Electron Beam Welding (EBW) facility at IUAC, New Delhi. CMM measurement and RF characterization of the niobium half cells and full cell cavities have been carried out. This paper describes the development and measurement of prototype cavities and single cell niobium cavity. (author)

  16. LCLS-II high power RF system overview and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeremian, Anahid Dian

    2015-10-07

    A second X-ray free electron laser facility, LCLS-II, will be constructed at SLAC. LCLS-II is based on a 1.3 GHz, 4 GeV, continuous-wave (CW) superconducting linear accelerator, to be installed in the first kilometer of the SLAC tunnel. Multiple types of high power RF (HPRF) sources will be used to power different systems on LCLS-II. The main 1.3 GHz linac will be powered by 280 1.3 GHz, 3.8 kW solid state amplifier (SSA) sources. The normal conducting buncher in the injector will use four more SSAs identical to the linac SSAs but run at 2 kW. Two 185.7 MHz, 60 kW sources will power the photocathode dual-feed RF gun. A third harmonic linac section, included for linearizing the bunch energy spread before the first bunch compressor, will require sixteen 3.9 GHz sources at about 1 kW CW. A description and an update on all the HPRF sources of LCLS-II and their implementation is the subject of this paper.

  17. Plasma Etching of superconducting radio frequency cavity by Ar/Cl2 capacitively coupled Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Janardan; Popovic, Svetozar; Valente-Feliciano, Anne-Marie; Phillips, Larry; Vuskovic, Lepsha

    2016-09-01

    We are developing plasma processing technology of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. The formation of dc self-biases due to surface area asymmetry in this type of plasma and its variation on the pressure, rf power and gas composition was measured. Enhancing the surface area of the inner electrode to reduce the asymmetry was studied by changing the contour of the inner electrode. The optimized contour of the electrode based on these measurements was chosen for SRF cavity processing. To test the effect of the plasma etching on the cavity rf performance, a 1497 MHz single cell SRF cavity is used, which previously mechanically polished, buffer chemically etched afterwards and rf tested at cryogenic temperatures for a baseline test. Plasma processing was accomplished by moving axially the inner electrode and the gas flow inlet in a step-wise manner to establish segmented plasma processing. The cavity is rf tested afterwards at cryogenic temperatures. The rf test and surface condition results are presented.

  18. RF characterization and testing of ridge waveguide transitions for RF power couplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Jose, Mentes; Singh, G.N. [Ion Accelerator Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, Girish [Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai 400076,India (India); Bhagwat, P.V. [Ion Accelerator Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-12-01

    RF characterization of rectangular to ridge waveguide transitions for RF power couplers has been carried out by connecting them back to back. Rectangular waveguide to N type adapters are first calibrated by TRL method and then used for RF measurements. Detailed information is obtained about their RF behavior by measurements and full wave simulations. It is shown that the two transitions can be characterized and tuned for required return loss at design frequency of 352.2 MHz. This opens the possibility of testing and conditioning two transitions together on a test bench. Finally, a RF coupler based on these transitions is coupled to an accelerator cavity. The power coupler is successfully tested up to 200 kW, 352.2 MHz with 0.2% duty cycle.

  19. LEDA RF distribution system design and component test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, W.T.; Rees, D.E.; Borchert, H.L.; McCarthy, M.; Toole, L.

    1998-01-01

    The 350 MHz and 700 MHz RF distribution systems for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) have been designed and are currently being installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Since 350 MHz is a familiar frequency used at other accelerator facilities, most of the major high-power components were available. The 700 MHz, 1.0 MW, CW RF delivery system designed for LEDA is a new development. Therefore, high-power circulators, waterloads, phase shifters, switches, and harmonic filters had to be designed and built for this applications. The final Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) RF distribution systems design will be based on much of the same technology as the LEDA systems and will have many of the RF components tested for LEDA incorporated into the design. Low power and high-power tests performed on various components of these LEDA systems and their results are presented here

  20. High-power circulator test results at 350 and 700 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, W.; Bradley, J.T.; Rees, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    The high-power RF systems for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program require high-power circulators at 350 MHz and 700 MHz to protect 1 MW Continuous Wave (CW) klystrons from reflected power. The 350 MHz circulator is based on the CERN, EXF, and APS designs and has performed very well. The 700 MHz circulator is a new design. Prototype 700 MHz circulators have been high-power tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The first of these circulators has satisfied performance requirements. The circulator requirements, results from the testing, and lessons learned from this development are presented and discussed

  1. The design and development of a multilayer RF circuit card

    OpenAIRE

    Ferro, John Francis

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this project was to design an airborne radio frequency circuit card that was very light weight, occupied a small volume, and operated from 20 Mhz to 1500 Mhz. The circuit card being reported on is called an RF multicoupler, and is one of two cards used in a radio frequency distribution unit (RFD). This unit interfaces a large number of receivers to various antennas. In the past this type of circuitry was done by cascading discrete connectorized RF compo...

  2. Normal Conducting RF Cavity for MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; DeMello, A.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Summers, D.

    2010-01-01

    Normal conducting RF cavities must be used for the cooling section of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), currently under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. Eight 201-MHz cavities are needed for the MICE cooling section; fabrication of the first five cavities is complete. We report the cavity fabrication status including cavity design, fabrication techniques and preliminary low power RF measurements.

  3. Superconductors for pulsed rf accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campisi, I.E.; Farkas, Z.D.

    1985-04-01

    The choice of superconducting materials for accelerator rf cavities has been determined in the past only in part by basic properties of the superconductors, such as the critical field, and to a larger extent by criteria which include fabrication processes, surface conditions, heat transfer capabilities and so on. For cw operated cavities the trend has been toward choosing materials with higher critical temperatures and lower surface resistance, from Lead to Niobium, from Niobium to Nb 3 Sn. This trend has been dictated by the specific needs of storage ring cw system and by the relatively low fields which could be reached without breakdown. The work performed at SLAC on superconducting cavities using microsecond long high power rf pulses has shown that in Pb, Nb, and Nb 3 Sn fields close to the critical magnetic fields can be reached without magnetic breakdown

  4. Photocathodes inside superconducting cavities. Studies on the feasibility of a superconducting photoelectron source of high brightness. External report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalke, A.

    1992-01-01

    We have done studies and experiments to explore the feasibility of a photoemission RF gun with a superconducting accelerator cavity. This concept promises to provide an electron beam of high brightness in continuous operation. It is thus of strong interest for a free-electron-laser or a linear collider based on a superconducting accelerator. In a first step we studied possible technical solutions for its components, especially the material of the photocathode and the geometrical shape of the cavity. Based on these considerations, we developed the complete design for a prototype electron source. The cathode material was chosen to be alkali antimonide. In spite of its sensitivity, it seems to be the best choice for a gun with high average current due to its high quantum efficiency. The cavity shape was at first a reentrant-type single cell of 500 MHz. It is now replaced by a more regular two-and-half cell shape, an independent half cell added for emittance correction. Its beam dynamics properties are investigated by numerical simulations; we estimated a beam brightness of about 5x10 11 A/(m.rad) 2 . But the mutual interactions between alkali antimonide photocathode and superconducting cavity must be investigated experimentally, because they are completely unkown. (orig.)

  5. Rf Station For Ion Beam Staking In Hirfl-csr

    CERN Document Server

    Arbuzov, V S; Bushuev, A A; Dranichnikov, A N; Gorniker, E I; Kendjebulatov, E K; Kondakov, A A; Kondaurov, M; Kruchkov, Ya G; Krutikhin, S A; Kurkin, G Ya; Mironenko, L A; Motygin, S V; Osipov, V N; Petrov, V M; Pilan, Andrey M; Popov, A M; Rashenko, V V; Selivanov, A N; Shteinke, A R; Vajenin, N F

    2004-01-01

    BINP has developed and produced the RF station for Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Lanzhou, China, for multipurpose accelerator complex with electron cooling. The RF station will be used for accumulation of ion beams in the main ring of the system. It was successfully tested in IMP and installed into the main accelerator ring of the complex. The RF station includes accelerating RF cavity and RF power generator with power supplies. The station works within frequency range 6.0 - 14.0 MHz, maximum voltage across the accelerating gap of the RF cavity - 20 kV. In the RF cavity the 200 VNP ferrite is utilized. A residual gas pressure in vacuum chamber does not exceed 2,5E-11 mbar. Maximum output power of the RF generator 25 kW. The data acquisition and control of the RF station is based on COMPACT - PCI bus and provides all functions of monitoring and control.

  6. Superconducting linear accelerator system for NSC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    59, No. 5. — journal of. November 2002 physics pp. 849–858. Superconducting linear accelerator system for NSC ... cryogenics facility, RF electronics development, facilities for fabricating niobium resonators indige- ... Prototype resonator was.

  7. WORKSHOP: Radiofrequency superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    1993-01-01

    Full text: With superconducting radiofrequency playing a major role in the push for new machines to break fresh physics frontiers, it has become a tradition for experts and newcomers in this field from all over the world to meet every second year to hear progress reports from laboratories and to discuss common problems and possible solutions. The sixth such workshop was held from 4-8 October under the chairmanship of Ron Sundelin at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) under construction in Newport News, Virginia. With 170 participants from 14 countries including Eastern Europe and China, it reflected the growing interest in the field - looking back to 1984, when CERN was the host laboratory, the second workshop had less than 100 participants. The CEBAF meeting began with laboratory status reports, covering both high beam energy ('high beta') applications with 'spherical' cavities (as with CERN's LEP200), all using niobium as superconductor and working between 352 MHz and 3 GHz, and lower energy (low beta') applications with geometrically more complicated shapes such as quarter or half wave, split ring or spoke resonators, some using electrodeposited lead as superconductor and working around 100 MHz. During these talks it became clear that more and more laboratories have focused on routine problems, such as reliable series production and testing, running cavities with ancillaries in the machines, or building complete prototypes for projects to be approved by critical funding authorities. This contrasts with the heady days just a few years ago when - at least in the high beta community - the main objective was to explore new ideas. State-of-the-art summaries showed how at 1.3 and 3 GHz 25-30 MV/m have been reached by several laboratories using different preparation methods. Newer developments for common problems included r.f. windows, couplers, controls, and especially field emission, public enemy number one for

  8. Experience with the New Digital RF Control System at the CESR Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Liepe, Matthias; Dobbins, John; Kaplan, Roger; Strohman, Charles R; Stuhl, Benjamin K

    2005-01-01

    A new digital control system has been developed, providing great flexibility, high computational power and low latency for a wide range of control and data acquisition applications. This system is now installed in the CESR storage ring and stabilizes the vector sum field of two of the superconducting CESR 500 MHz cavities and the output power from the driving klystron. The installed control system includes in-house developed digital and RF hardware, very fast feedback and feedforward control, a state machine for automatic start-up and trip recovery, cw and pulsed mode operation, fast quench detection, and cavity frequency control. Several months of continuous operation have proven high reliability of the system. The achieved field stability surpasses requirements.

  9. Design of an L-band normally conducting RF gun cavity for high peak and average RF power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonov, V., E-mail: paramono@inr.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, 60-th October Anniversary prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Philipp, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Rybakov, I.; Skassyrskaya, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, 60-th October Anniversary prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Stephan, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-05-11

    To provide high quality electron bunches for linear accelerators used in free electron lasers and particle colliders, RF gun cavities operate with extreme electric fields, resulting in a high pulsed RF power. The main L-band superconducting linacs of such facilities also require a long RF pulse length, resulting in a high average dissipated RF power in the gun cavity. The newly developed cavity based on the proven advantages of the existing DESY RF gun cavities, underwent significant changes. The shape of the cells is optimized to reduce the maximal surface electric field and RF loss power. Furthermore, the cavity is equipped with an RF probe to measure the field amplitude and phase. The elaborated cooling circuit design results in a lower temperature rise on the cavity RF surface and permits higher dissipated RF power. The paper presents the main solutions and results of the cavity design.

  10. Etching of Niobium Sample Placed on Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavity Surface in Ar/CL2 Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Janardan; Phillips, Larry; Valente, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Plasma based surface modification is a promising alternative to wet etching of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. It has been proven with flat samples that the bulk Niobium (Nb) removal rate and the surface roughness after the plasma etchings are equal to or better than wet etching processes. To optimize the plasma parameters, we are using a single cell cavity with 20 sample holders symmetrically distributed over the cell. These holders serve the purpose of diagnostic ports for the measurement of the plasma parameters and for the holding of the Nb sample to be etched. The plasma properties at RF (100 MHz) and MW (2.45 GHz) frequencies are being measured with the help of electrical and optical probes at different pressures and RF power levels inside of this cavity. The niobium coupons placed on several holders around the cell are being etched simultaneously. The etching results will be presented at this conference.

  11. Etching of Niobium Sample Placed on Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavity Surface in Ar/CL2 Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janardan Upadhyay, Larry Phillips, Anne-Marie Valente

    2011-09-01

    Plasma based surface modification is a promising alternative to wet etching of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. It has been proven with flat samples that the bulk Niobium (Nb) removal rate and the surface roughness after the plasma etchings are equal to or better than wet etching processes. To optimize the plasma parameters, we are using a single cell cavity with 20 sample holders symmetrically distributed over the cell. These holders serve the purpose of diagnostic ports for the measurement of the plasma parameters and for the holding of the Nb sample to be etched. The plasma properties at RF (100 MHz) and MW (2.45 GHz) frequencies are being measured with the help of electrical and optical probes at different pressures and RF power levels inside of this cavity. The niobium coupons placed on several holders around the cell are being etched simultaneously. The etching results will be presented at this conference.

  12. Performance analysis of commercial MOSFET packages in Class E converter operating at 2.56 MHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nair, Unnikrishnan Raveendran; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Jørgensen, Asger Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    resistance and high temperature operation over Si devices have aided in the paradigm shift towards wide bandgap devices. The low gate charge requirements of SiC MOSFETs enables use of these devices in radio frequency (RF) converters using resonant topologies operating at MHz frequency range. The RF...... are not commercially available and power modules have to be custom designed for these applications. This work demonstrates performance of various commercial MOSFET packages at frequency of 2.56 MHz. Commercial SiC MOSFETs in TO-247 and D2Pak packs are tested in Class E resonant converter operating at 2.56 MHz...

  13. Conceptual design report: superconducting booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Superconducting Booster project includes the construction of a new high-voltage injector and buncher for the existing tandem, a magnetic transport system, an rf linac with superconducting resonators, and a rebuncher-debuncher. The booster will fit in existing space so that a new building is not required. The layout of the accelerator is given in Fig. I-1. The University of Washington is contributing approximately $1 M to this project

  14. Conceptual Design of the Low-Power and High-Power SPL A Superconducting H$^-$ Linac at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Atieh, S; Aviles Santillana, I; Bartmann, W; Borburgh, J; Brunner, O; Calatroni, S; Capatina, O; Chambrillon, J; Ciapala, E; Eshraqi, M; Ferreira, L; Garoby, R; Goddard, B; Hessler, C; Hofle, W; Horvath-Mikulas, S; Junginger, T; Kozlova, E; Lebbos, E; Lettry, J; Liao, K; Lombardi, A M; Macpherson, A; Montesinos, E; Nisbet, D; Otto, T; Paoluzzi, M; Papke, K; Parma, V; Pillon, F; Posocco, P; Ramberger, S; Rossi, C; Schirm, K; Schuh, M; Scrivens, R; Torres Sanchez, R; Valuch, D; Valverde Alonso, N; Wegner, R; Weingarten, W; Weisz, S

    2014-01-01

    The potential for a superconducting proton linac (SPL) at CERN started to be seriously considered at the end of the 1990s. In the first conceptual design report (CDR), published in 2000 [1], most of the 352 MHz RF equipment from LEP was re-used in an 800 m long linac, and the proton beam energy was limited to 2.2 GeV. During the following years, the design was revisited and optimized to better match the needs of a high-power proton driver for neutrino physics. The result was a more compact (470 m long) accelerator capable of delivering 5 MW of beam power at 3.5 GeV, using state-of-the-art superconducting RF cavities at 704 MHz. It was described in a second CDR, published in 2006 [2]. Soon afterwards, when preparation for increasing the luminosity of the LHC by an order of magnitude beyond nominal became an important concern, a low-power SPL (LP-SPL) was studied as a key component in the renovation of the LHC injector complex. The combination of a 4 GeV LP-SPL injecting into a new 50 GeV synchrotron (PS2) was ...

  15. Performance of the Crowbar of the LHC High Power RF System

    CERN Document Server

    Ravidà, G; Valuch, D

    2012-01-01

    The counter-rotating proton beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are captured and accelerated to their final energies by two identical 400 MHz Radio Frequency (RF) systems. The RF power source required for each beam comprises eight 300 kW klystrons. The output power of each klystron is fed via a circulator and a waveguide line to the input coupler of a single-cell superconducting (SC) cavity. Each unit of four klystrons is powered by a -100kV/40A AC/DC power converter. A fast protection system (crowbar) protects the four klystrons in each of these units. Although the LHC RF system has shown has very good performance, operational experience has shown that the five-gap double-ended thyratrons used in the crowbar system suffer, from time to time, from auto-firing, which result in beam dumps. This paper presents the recent results obtained with an alternative solution based on solid state thyristors. Comparative measurements with the thyratron are shown.

  16. Cathode follower RF system with frequency modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Y.; Yano, Y.; Kaneko, N.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A model RF system with a cathode follower was tested under frequency modulation in the 1-3.5 MHz range. The repetition rate was 40 Hz. The oscillation was stable, and the output impedance was measured to be around 20 ohm. (author)

  17. Cw rf operation of the FMIT RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Brandeberry, F.E.

    1985-01-01

    The 80-MHz RFQ for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility prototype accelerator has been rf conditioned for cw operation to the design field level of 17.5 MV/m (1.68 x Kilpatrick limit). Experimental results and operating experience will be discussed

  18. Studies of RF Breakdown of Metals in Dense Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Hanlet, Pierrick M; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Johnson, Rolland P; Kaplan, Daniel; Kuchnir, Moyses; Moretti, Alfred; Paul, Kevin; Popovic, Milorad; Yarba, Victor; Yonehara, Katsuya

    2005-01-01

    A study of RF breakdown of metals in gases has begun as part of a program to develop RF cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas to be used for muon ionization cooling. A pressurized 800 MHz test cell has been used at Fermilab to compare the conditioning and breakdown behavior of copper, molybdenum, chromium, and beryllium electrodes as functions of hydrogen and helium gas density. These results are compared to the predicted or known RF breakdown behavior of these metals in vacuum.

  19. Longitudinal beam dynamics with rf noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, H.J.; Ellison, J.A.; Cogburn, R.; Newberger, B.S.

    1993-06-01

    The Dome-Krinsky-Wang (DKW) diffusion-inaction theory for rf-noise-induced emittance dilution is reviewed and related to recent work on the approximation of stochastic processes by Markov processes. An accurate and efficient numerical procedure is developed to integrate the diffusion equation of the DKW theory. Tracking simulations are undertaken to check the validity of the theory in the parameter range of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and to provide additional information. The study of effects of rf noise is applied to two problems of interest at the SSC: (1) determination of noise tolerance levels in the rf system, and (2) feasibility of beam extraction using crystal channeling

  20. Comparison of coaxial higher order mode couplers for the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Papke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher order modes (HOMs may affect beam stability and refrigeration requirements of superconducting proton linacs such as the Superconducting Proton Linac, which is studied at CERN. Under certain conditions beam-induced HOMs can accumulate sufficient energy to destabilize the beam or quench the superconducting cavities. In order to limit these effects, CERN considers the use of coaxial HOM couplers on the cutoff tubes of the 5-cell superconducting cavities. These couplers consist of resonant antennas shaped as loops or probes, which are designed to couple to potentially dangerous modes while sufficiently rejecting the fundamental mode. In this paper, the design process is presented and a comparison is made between various designs for the high-beta SPL cavities, which operate at 704.4 MHz. The rf and thermal behavior as well as mechanical aspects are discussed. In order to verify the designs, a rapid prototype for the favored coupler was fabricated and characterized on a low-power test-stand.

  1. Updating the CSNS injector linac to 250 MeV with superconducting double-spoke cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhihui; Fu Shinian

    2015-01-01

    In order to update the beam power from 100 kW to 500 kW in the China Spallation neutron source (CSNS) Phase Ⅱ, one of the important measures is to replace the 80 m long beam transport line between the present 80 MeV linac injector and the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) to another kind of acceleration structure. In this paper, we proposed a scheme based on 324 MHz double-spoke superconducting cavities. Unlike the superconducting elliptical cavity and normal conducting coupled cavity linac (CCL) structure, the double-spoke cavity belongs to the TE mode structure and has a smaller transverse dimension compared with that of the TH mode one. It can work at base frequency as the drift tube Linac (DTL) section, so that the cost and complexity of the RF system will be much decreased, and the behaviors of the beam dynamics are also improved significantly because of the low charge density and larger longitudinal acceptance. Furthermore, because of the relatively longer interactive length between the charged particle and the electromagnetic field per cell, it needs relatively less cell numbers and it has larger velocity acceptance compared with the double frequency TH structures. The superconducting section consists of 14 periods, each of which includes 3 superconducting cavities encapsulated in one cryomodule and a doublet in room temperate. The general considerations on cavity and beam dynamics design are discussed and the main results are presented. (authors)

  2. Development of an optical inspection bench for the inspection of internal surfaces of 650 MHz SCRF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokil, S.V.; Kane, G.V.; Raghavendra, S.; Chauhan, S.K.; Rajpoot, D.S.; Oraon, B.; Om Prakash; Joshi, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    An optical inspection system has been developed for inspection of internal surfaces of 650 MHz superconducting RF cavities. The cavity parts are welded either using Electron Beam or Laser Beam Welding for making a good quality of weld joints. Surface defects like pits, scratches, welding spatters etc. on the internal surface of the cavity deteriorates cavity performance. Surface quality of the cavity equator joint plays an important role in the cavity performance. To study the quality of equator surface, the inspection bench offers high resolution images with a linear resolution of 45 m/pixel at a distance of ∼200 mm. The bench comprises of two major sub-systems, optical imaging system and cavity positioning system. A digital camera and multi coloured illumination system is used to obtain high resolution images. The camera is mounted inside a long cylindrical tube. The cylindrical tube can be inserted into a SCRF cavity. The length of the cylinder is long enough to inspect five-cell 650 MHz SCRF cavity. The cavity is placed on a set of PTFE rollers, which are mounted on a trolley. The cavity can be moved linearly with the help of ball screw-servomotor mechanism. The camera along with cylindrical tube can be rotated around its axis with a stepper motor to scan the cavity's internal surface. The paper presents the details about the optical inspection bench and optical inspection results. (author)

  3. Beam test with the HIMAC RF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, M.; Sato, K.; Itano, A.

    1992-01-01

    RF system of the HIMAC synchrotron has been developed and tested in the factory. With the high power system, we could sweep the acceleration frequency from 1MHz to 8MHz with the acceleration voltage of 6KV. The performance of the RF control system has been confirmed with a developed simulator of the synchrotron oscillation. Following these two tests in the factory, we had a beam test of the RF control system at TARN-II in INS (Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo). This paper describes the beam test and its results. (author)

  4. SPS RF Accelerating Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    This picture shows one of the 2 new cavities installed in 1978-1979. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X

  5. Operation of a 473 MHz four-rod cavity RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimi, R.; Huson, F.R.; Mackay, W.W.; Meitzler, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed a new type of four-rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole to operate at 473 MHz. Four-rod structures have not previously been built for such a high frequency. The RFQ is designed to accelerate 10 mA of H - ions from 30 keV to 0.5 MeV. The rf measurements and beam test of the RFQ have been performed successfully. Here we present operational results of the RFQ system including measurements of the beam current, the required rf power, energy, energy spread, and emittance. (Author) 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Flux trapping in superconducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, C.; Bolore, M.; Bonin, B.; Charrier, J.P.; Daillant, B.; Gratadour, J.; Koechlin, F.; Safa, H.

    1992-01-01

    The flux trapped in various field cooled Nb and Pb samples has been measured. For ambient fields smaller than 3 Gauss, 100% of the flux is trapped. The consequences of this result on the behavior of superconducting RF cavities are discussed. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs

  7. The CEBAF RF Separator System Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovater, J.; Mark Augustine; Al Guerra; Richard Nelson; Robert Terrell; Mark Wissmann

    2004-01-01

    The CEBAF accelerator uses RF deflecting cavities operating at the third sub-harmonic (499 MHz) of the accelerating frequency (1497 MHz) to ''kick'' the electron beam to the experimental halls. The cavities operate in a TEM dipole mode incorporating mode enhancing rods to increase the cavity's transverse shunt impedance [1]. As the accelerators energy has increased from 4 GeV to 6 GeV the RF system, specifically the 1 kW solid-state amplifiers, have become problematic, operating in saturation because of the increased beam energy demands. Two years ago we began a study to look into replacement for the RF amplifiers and decided to use a commercial broadcast Inductive Output Tube (IOT) capable of 30 kW. The new RF system uses one IOT amplifier on multiple cavities as opposed to one amplifier per cavity as was originally used. In addition, the new RF system supports a proposed 12 GeV energy upgrade to CEBAF. We are currently halfway through the upgrade with three IOTs in operation and the remaining one nearly installed. This paper reports on the new RF system and the IOT performance

  8. RF transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  9. Operating experience of upgraded radio frequency source at 76 MHz coupled to heavy ion RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Manjiri; Shiju, A.; Patel, N.R.; Shrotriya, S.D.; Bhagwat, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A heavy ion radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been developed at BARC (BARC). A RF source which was designed and developed at 76 MHz earlier, has been upgraded and coupled to heavy ion RFQ successfully. The DC bias supplies of this source have been replaced with new supplies having high efficiency and well filteration against RF interference (RFI). The driver of main power amplifier has been replaced with indigenously designed and developed unit. The earlier introduced microcontroller based interlock experienced RF noise issues. So, this circuit has been modified with the new circuit. With these modifications, the performance of the RF source was improved. Additionally, a separate low power RF source of around 100 + Watt was designed, developed and integrated with RFQ for its RF conditioning. This paper describes the details of up gradation of technologies implemented and coupling experience of this RF source with heavy ion RFQ. (author)

  10. Measurement of RF characteristics of magnetic alloys for an RF cavity of the accumulator cooler ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, M.; Chiba, Y.; Katayama, T.; Koseki, T.; Ohtomo, K.; Tsutsui, H.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic alloy (MA)-loaded RF cavity has been studied for an RF stacking system of the accumulator cooler ring (ACR). RF characteristics of several high-permeability MA cores were measured in the frequency range between 1 and 50 MHz. The effects of the cut-core configuration, cutting the core and leaving air gaps between two circular halves, were also investigated. The results show that the shunt impedance remains high and the appropriate inductance and Q-value can be obtained by increasing the gap width of the cut core in the frequency region of the ACR cavity

  11. 27.12 MHz Radiofrequency Ablation for Benign Cutaneous Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As surgical and/or ablative modalities, radiofrequency (RF has been known to produce good clinical outcomes in dermatology. Recently, 27.12 MHz RF has been introduced and has several advantages over conventional 4 or 6 MHz in terms of the precise ablation and lesser pain perception. We aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 27.12 MHz RF for the treatment of benign cutaneous lesions. Twenty female patient subjects were enrolled. Digital photography and a USB microscope camera were used to monitor the clinical results before one session of treatment with 27.12 MHz RF and after 1 and 3 weeks. Treated lesions included telangiectasias, cherry and spider angiomas, skin tags, seborrheic keratoses, lentigo, milium, dilated pore, acne, piercing hole, and one case of neurofibroma. For vascular lesions, clinical results were excellent for 33.3%, good for 44.4%, moderate for 11.1%, and poor for 11.1%. For nonvascular lesions (epidermal lesions and other benign cutaneous lesions, clinical results were excellent for 48.3%, good for 45.2%, moderate for 3.2%, and poor for 3.2%. No serious adverse events were observed. Mild adverse events reported were slight erythema, scale, and crust. The 27.12 MHz RF treatment of benign vascular and nonvascular lesions appears safe and effective after 3 weeks of follow-up.

  12. Prototype 350 MHz niobium spoke-loaded cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J. R.; Kedzie, M.; Mammosser, J.; Piller, C.; Shepard, K. W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the development of 350 MHz superconducting cavities of a spoke-loaded geometry, intended for the velocity range 0.2 < v/c < 0.6. Two prototype single-cell cavities have been designed, one optimized for velocity v/c = 0.4, and the other for v/c = 0.29. Construction of the prototype niobium cavities is nearly complete. Details of the design and construction are discussed, along with the results of cold tests

  13. Prototype 350 MHz niobium spoke-loaded cavities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delayen, J. R.; Kedzie, M.; Mammosser, J.; Piller, C.; Shepard, K. W.

    1999-05-10

    This paper reports the development of 350 MHz superconducting cavities of a spoke-loaded geometry, intended for the velocity range 0.2 < v/c < 0.6. Two prototype single-cell cavities have been designed, one optimized for velocity v/c = 0.4, and the other for v/c = 0.29. Construction of the prototype niobium cavities is nearly complete. Details of the design and construction are discussed, along with the results of cold tests.

  14. Characterization of the SPS 800MHz travelling wave cavities.

    CERN Document Server

    Bazyl, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that HOMs in RF cavities are a potentially dangerous source of beam impedance. Therefore, HOMs (both longitudinal and transverse) can drive the beam unstable . The 800MHz cavities of the SPS were studied in the past. However, very little documentation was left behind. Currently, the performance of the SPS is limited by a longitudinal beam instability. In order to study this instability, an accurate impedance model of the whole SPS is needed.

  15. Superconducting magnets for a muon collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The existence of a muon collider will be dependent on the use of superconducting magnets. Superconducting magnets for the μ - μ + collider will be found in the following locations: the π - π + capture system, the muon phase rotation system, the muon cooling system, the recirculating acceleration system, the collider ring, and the collider detector system. This report describes superconducting magnets for each of these sections except the detector. In addition to superconducting magnets, superconducting RF cavities will be found in the recirculating accelerator sections and the collider ring. The use of superconducting magnets is dictated by the need for high magnetic fields in order to reduce the length of various machine components. The performance of all of the superconducting magnets will be affected the energy deposited from muon decay products. (orig.)

  16. REDESIGN OF CERNS QUADRUPOLE RESONATOR FOR TESTING OF SUPERCONDUCTING SAMPLES

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pozo Romano, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    The quadrupole resonator (QPR) was constructed in 1997 to measure the surface resistance of niobium samples at 400 MHz, the technology and RF frequency chosen for the LHC. It allows measurement of the RF properties of superconducting films deposited on disk-shaped metallic substrates. The samples are used to study different coatings which is much faster than the coating, stripping and re-coating of sample cavities. An electromagnetic and mechanical re-design of the existing QPR has been done with the goal of doubling the magnetic peak fields on the samples. Electromagnetic simulations were carried out on a completely parametrized model, using the existings QPR as baseline and modifying its dimensions. The aim was to optimize the measurement range and resolution by increasing the ratio between the magnetic peak fields on the sample and in the cavity. Increasing the average magnetic field on the sample leads to a more homogenous field distribution over the sample. Some of the modifications were based on t...

  17. Building of radio frequency cavity for Superconducting Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahammed, M.; DuttaGupta, A.; Mandal, B.Ch.; Saha, S.; Bhattacharya, P.; Manna, B.; Hembrom, B.; Murmu, S.; Sur, S.; Murali, S.; Chaudhuri, J.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: RF cavity for Superconducting Cyclotron is a room temperature cavity having 10 m tall coaxial structure placed symmetrically above and below the median plane. The structure is made of copper and operates within the frequency range of 9 to 27 MHz. The frequency is varied with the help of sliding shorts, which moves up and down. Part of the cavity is in air and rest is in vacuum. After fabrication of individual components, assembly of sub-system has been started by carrying out numeral critical (around 500 joints approx.) soldering and brazing joints of which some of them are located within centimeter of distance. All these joints were tested for vacuum and water sealing including many temporary joints sealed by O rings and C seals. Main criticalities involve in fabricating these sub-assemblies are maintaining dimensional accuracies, concentricity and parallelism. Moreover challenges faced during transportation and handling of this subassembly while carrying out soldering and actual site assembly, were overcome by employing several specially designed fixtures. Fixtures were used to control distortion that would take place during soldering and brazing and to avoid any damage which is likely to occur because of less mechanical strength of soldering and brazing joint. This paper highlights the above difficulties and challenges faced during the actual site assembly of the whole RF system because of its limited accessibility, compactness, requirements of upper and lower resonator cavity to be symmetric and ultra cleanliness. (author)

  18. ASC 84: applied superconductivity conference. Final program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations covering: superconducting device fabrication; applications of rf superconductivity; conductor stability and losses; detectors and signal processing; fusion magnets; A15 and Nb-Ti conductors; stability, losses, and various conductors; SQUID applications; new applications of superconductivity; advanced conductor materials; high energy physics applications of superconductivity; electronic materials and characterization; general superconducting electronics; ac machinery and new applications; digital devices; fusion and other large scale applications; in-situ and powder process conductors; ac applications; synthesis, properties, and characterization of conductors; superconducting microelectronics

  19. ASC 84: applied superconductivity conference. Final program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations covering: superconducting device fabrication; applications of rf superconductivity; conductor stability and losses; detectors and signal processing; fusion magnets; A15 and Nb-Ti conductors; stability, losses, and various conductors; SQUID applications; new applications of superconductivity; advanced conductor materials; high energy physics applications of superconductivity; electronic materials and characterization; general superconducting electronics; ac machinery and new applications; digital devices; fusion and other large scale applications; in-situ and powder process conductors; ac applications; synthesis, properties, and characterization of conductors; superconducting microelectronics. (LEW)

  20. Assessment of the basic parameters of the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Brunner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a 4 GeV superconducting proton linac (the SPL is now part of the long term plan of CERN, and the construction of Linac4, its low-energy front end, has begun. For mid-2012 the existing conceptual design of the SPL has to be refined and transformed into a project proposal. As a first step, basic parameters like rf frequency, accelerating gradient, and operating temperature of the superconducting cavities have been reassessed, taking into account the experience accumulated in the world during the recent years, especially for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS in Oakridge and the International Linear Collider (ILC projects. The conclusions confirm the validity of the initial choices, namely, the rf frequency of 704.4 MHz and the cooling temperature of ≈2  K. However, the assumed gradients are estimated as optimistic: additional tests are necessary during the coming years to properly define the values to be used in the SPL design. This analysis is documented and its results are explained in this report.

  1. 120 MW, 800 MHz Magnicon for a Future Muon Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-01-01

    Development of a pulsed magnicon at 800 MHz was carried out for the muon collider application, based on experience with similar amplifiers in the frequency range between 915 MHz and 34.3 GHz. Numerical simulations using proven computer codes were employed for the conceptual design, while established design technologies were incorporated into the engineering design. A cohesive design for the 800 MHz magnicon amplifier was carried out, including design of a 200 MW diode electron gun, design of the magnet system, optimization of beam dynamics including space charge effects in the transient and steady-state regimes, design of the drive, gain, and output cavities including an rf choke in the beam exit aperture, analysis of parasitic oscillations and design means to eliminate them, and design of the beam collector capable of 20 kW average power operation

  2. Prototype rf cavity for the HISTRAP accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosko, S.W.; Dowling, D.T.; Olsen, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    HISTRAP, a proposed synchrotron-cooling-storage ring designed to both accelerate and decelerate very highly charged very heavy ions for atomic physics research, requires an rf accelerating system to provide /+-/2.5 kV of peak accelerating voltage per turn while tuning through a 13.5:1 frequency range in a fraction of a second. A prototype half-wave, single gap rf cavity with biased ferrite tuning was built and tested over a continuous tuning range of 200 kHz through 2.7 MHz. Initial test results establish the feasibility of using ferrite tuning at the required rf power levels. The resonant system is located entirely outside of the accelerator's 15cm ID beam line vacuum enclosure except for a single rf window which serves as an accelerating gap. Physical separation of the cavity and the beam line permits in situ vacuum baking of the beam line at 300/degree/C

  3. Upgrade of the Cryogenic CERN RF Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Pirotte, O; Brunner, O; Inglese, V; Koettig, T; Maesen, P; Vullierme, B

    2014-01-01

    With the large number of superconducting radiofrequency (RF) cryomodules to be tested for the former LEP and the present LHC accelerator a RF test facility was erected early in the 1990’s in the largest cryogenic test facility at CERN located at Point 18. This facility consisted of four vertical test stands for single cavities and originally one and then two horizontal test benches for RF cryomodules operating at 4.5 K in saturated helium. CERN is presently working on the upgrade of its accelerator infrastructure, which requires new superconducting cavities operating below 2 K in saturated superfluid helium. Consequently, the RF test facility has been renewed in order to allow efficient cavity and cryomodule tests in superfluid helium and to improve its thermal performances. The new RF test facility is described and its performances are presented.

  4. Upgrade of the cryogenic CERN RF test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirotte, O.; Benda, V.; Brunner, O.; Inglese, V.; Maesen, P.; Vullierme, B.; Koettig, T.

    2014-01-01

    With the large number of superconducting radiofrequency (RF) cryomodules to be tested for the former LEP and the present LHC accelerator a RF test facility was erected early in the 1990’s in the largest cryogenic test facility at CERN located at Point 18. This facility consisted of four vertical test stands for single cavities and originally one and then two horizontal test benches for RF cryomodules operating at 4.5 K in saturated helium. CERN is presently working on the upgrade of its accelerator infrastructure, which requires new superconducting cavities operating below 2 K in saturated superfluid helium. Consequently, the RF test facility has been renewed in order to allow efficient cavity and cryomodule tests in superfluid helium and to improve its thermal performances. The new RF test facility is described and its performances are presented

  5. High efficiency RF amplifier development over wide dynamic range for accelerator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Jitendra Kumar; Ramarao, B. V.; Pande, Manjiri M.; Joshi, Gopal; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Pitamber

    2017-10-01

    Superconducting (SC) cavities in an accelerating section are designed to have the same geometrical velocity factor (βg). For these cavities, Radio Frequency (RF) power needed to accelerate charged particles varies with the particle velocity factor (β). RF power requirement from one cavity to other can vary by 2-5 dB within the accelerating section depending on the energy gain in the cavity and beam current. In this paper, we have presented an idea to improve operating efficiency of the SC RF accelerators using envelope tracking technique. A study on envelope tracking technique without feedback is carried out on a 1 kW, 325 MHz, class B (conduction angle of 180 degrees) tuned load power amplifier (PA). We have derived expressions for the efficiency and power output for tuned load amplifier operating on the envelope tracking technique. From the derived expressions, it is observed that under constant load resistance to the device (MOSFET), optimum amplifier efficiency is invariant whereas output power varies with the square of drain bias voltage. Experimental results on 1 kW PA module show that its optimum efficiency is always greater than 62% with variation less than 5% from mean value over 7 dB dynamic range. Low power amplifier modules are the basic building block for the high power amplifiers. Therefore, results for 1 kW PA modules remain valid for the high power solid state amplifiers built using these PA modules. The SC RF accelerators using these constant efficiency power amplifiers can improve overall accelerator efficiency.

  6. Parametric thermal analysis of 75 MHz heavy ion RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, N.K.; Mehrotra, N.; Verma, V.; Gupta, A.K.; Bhagwat, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    An ECR based Heavy Ion Accelerator comprising of a superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source, normal conducting RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) and superconducting Niobium resonators is being developed at BARC under XII plan. A state-of-the-art 18 GHz superconducting ECR ion source (PK-ISIS) jointly configured with Pantechnik, France is operational at Van-de-Graaff, BARC. The electromagnetic design of the improved version of 75 MHz heavy ion RFQ has been reported earlier. The previous thermal study of 51 cm RFQ model showed large temperature variation axially along the vane tip. A new coolant flow scheme has been worked out to optimize the axial temperature gradient. In this paper the thermal analysis including parametric study of coolant flow rates and inlet temperature variation will be presented. (author)

  7. RF study and 3-D simulations of a side-coupling thermionic RF-gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimjaem, S.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Thongbai, C.

    2014-01-01

    A thermionic RF-gun for generating ultra-short electron bunches was optimized, developed and used as a source at a linac-based THz radiation research laboratory of the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The RF-gun is a π/2-mode standing wave structure, which consists of two S-band accelerating cells and a side-coupling cavity. The 2856 MHz RF wave is supplied from an S-band klystron to the gun through the waveguide input-port at the cylindrical wall of the second cell. A fraction of the RF power is coupled from the second cell to the first one via a side-coupling cavity. Both the waveguide input-port and the side-coupling cavity lead to an asymmetric geometry of the gun. RF properties and electromagnetic field distributions inside the RF-gun were studied and numerically simulated by using computer codes SUPERFISH 7.19 and CST Microwave Studio 2012 © . RF characterizations and tunings of the RF-gun were performed to ensure the reliability of the gun operation. The results from 3D simulations and measurements are compared and discussed in this paper. The influence of asymmetric field distributions inside the RF-gun on the electron beam properties was investigated via 3D beam dynamics simulations. A change in the coupling-plane of the side-coupling cavity is suggested to improve the gun performance

  8. RF study and 3-D simulations of a side-coupling thermionic RF-gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimjaem, S., E-mail: sakhorn.rimjaem@cmu.ac.th [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics (ThEP), Commission on Higher Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Kusoljariyakul, K.; Thongbai, C. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics (ThEP), Commission on Higher Education, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-02-01

    A thermionic RF-gun for generating ultra-short electron bunches was optimized, developed and used as a source at a linac-based THz radiation research laboratory of the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The RF-gun is a π/2-mode standing wave structure, which consists of two S-band accelerating cells and a side-coupling cavity. The 2856 MHz RF wave is supplied from an S-band klystron to the gun through the waveguide input-port at the cylindrical wall of the second cell. A fraction of the RF power is coupled from the second cell to the first one via a side-coupling cavity. Both the waveguide input-port and the side-coupling cavity lead to an asymmetric geometry of the gun. RF properties and electromagnetic field distributions inside the RF-gun were studied and numerically simulated by using computer codes SUPERFISH 7.19 and CST Microwave Studio 2012{sup ©}. RF characterizations and tunings of the RF-gun were performed to ensure the reliability of the gun operation. The results from 3D simulations and measurements are compared and discussed in this paper. The influence of asymmetric field distributions inside the RF-gun on the electron beam properties was investigated via 3D beam dynamics simulations. A change in the coupling-plane of the side-coupling cavity is suggested to improve the gun performance.

  9. RF study and 3-D simulations of a side-coupling thermionic RF-gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimjaem, S.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Thongbai, C.

    2014-02-01

    A thermionic RF-gun for generating ultra-short electron bunches was optimized, developed and used as a source at a linac-based THz radiation research laboratory of the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The RF-gun is a π/2-mode standing wave structure, which consists of two S-band accelerating cells and a side-coupling cavity. The 2856 MHz RF wave is supplied from an S-band klystron to the gun through the waveguide input-port at the cylindrical wall of the second cell. A fraction of the RF power is coupled from the second cell to the first one via a side-coupling cavity. Both the waveguide input-port and the side-coupling cavity lead to an asymmetric geometry of the gun. RF properties and electromagnetic field distributions inside the RF-gun were studied and numerically simulated by using computer codes SUPERFISH 7.19 and CST Microwave Studio 2012©. RF characterizations and tunings of the RF-gun were performed to ensure the reliability of the gun operation. The results from 3D simulations and measurements are compared and discussed in this paper. The influence of asymmetric field distributions inside the RF-gun on the electron beam properties was investigated via 3D beam dynamics simulations. A change in the coupling-plane of the side-coupling cavity is suggested to improve the gun performance.

  10. New developments in RF power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.H.

    1994-06-01

    The most challenging rf source requirements for high-energy accelerators presently being studied or designed come from the various electron-positron linear collider studies. All of these studies except TESLA (the superconducting entry in the field) have specified rf sources with much higher peak powers than any existing tubes at comparable high frequencies. While circular machines do not, in general, require high peak power, the very high luminosity electron-positron rings presently being designed as B factories require prodigious total average rf power. In this age of energy conservation, this puts a high priority on high efficiency for the rf sources. Both modulating anodes and depressed collectors are being investigated in the quest for high efficiency at varying output powers

  11. The CEBAF [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility] superconducting accelerator: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    The CEBAF accelerator is a CW linac based on rf superconductivity and making use of multiple recirculation. Its major components are a 50 MeV injector, two linac segments of 0.5 GeV energy gain each, and recirculator arcs connecting the two linac segments. Each linac segment consists of 25 cryomodules, separated by warm sections with quadrupoles, steering magnets, and beam diagnostics. Each cryomodule contains 8, 1500 MHz, 5-cell, Cornell type cavities with waveguide couplers for fundamental power and HOM damping, each cavity being powered by its own klystron. Recirculator arcs are vertically stacked, large radius, strong focusing beam lines that minimize synchrotron radiation effects. A high quality (ΔE/E ∼ 10 -4 , ε ∼ 10 -9 m) beam of 200μA, 100% duty factor, with 0.5 GeV ≤ E ≤ 4.0 GeV will be generated

  12. Superconducting accelerating structure for particle velocities from 0.12 to 0.23 c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    A split-ring resonator has been designed for an optimum particle velocity #betta# = v/c = 0.16 and a frequency of 145.5 MHz. The ratio of peak-surface electric field to effective accelerating field in the resonator has been reduced 20% from the value obtained in previously developed split-ring resonators. The improved design results from the use of elliptically-sectioned loading arms and drift tubes, which have been enlarged to reduce peak-surface fields and also shaped to eliminate beam-steering effects in the resonator. All fabrication problems presented by the more-complex geometry have been solved, and a prototype superconducting niobium resonator has been completed. An accelerating field of 3.3 MV/m at 4 watts rf input has been so far achieved, corresponding to an effective accelerating potential of 1.17 MV per resonator

  13. Operation of a 400MHz NMR magnet using a (RE:Rare Earth)Ba2Cu3O7-x high-temperature superconducting coil: Towards an ultra-compact super-high field NMR spectrometer operated beyond 1GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Y; Piao, R; Iguchi, S; Nakagome, H; Takao, T; Kominato, K; Hamada, M; Matsumoto, S; Suematsu, H; Jin, X; Takahashi, M; Yamazaki, T; Maeda, H

    2014-12-01

    High-temperature superconductors (HTS) are the key technology to achieve super-high magnetic field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers with an operating frequency far beyond 1GHz (23.5T). (RE)Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7- x (REBCO, RE: rare earth) conductors have an advantage over Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10- x (Bi-2223) and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8- x (Bi-2212) conductors in that they have very high tensile strengths and tolerate strong electromagnetic hoop stress, thereby having the potential to act as an ultra-compact super-high field NMR magnet. As a first step, we developed the world's first NMR magnet comprising an inner REBCO coil and outer low-temperature superconducting (LTS) coils. The magnet was successfully charged without degradation and mainly operated at 400MHz (9.39T). Technical problems for the NMR magnet due to screening current in the REBCO coil were clarified and solved as follows: (i) A remarkable temporal drift of the central magnetic field was suppressed by a current sweep reversal method utilizing ∼10% of the peak current. (ii) A Z2 field error harmonic of the main coil cannot be compensated by an outer correction coil and therefore an additional ferromagnetic shim was used. (iii) Large tesseral harmonics emerged that could not be corrected by cryoshim coils. Due to those harmonics, the resolution and sensitivity of NMR spectra are ten-fold lower than those for a conventional LTS NMR magnet. As a result, a HSQC spectrum could be achieved for a protein sample, while a NOESY spectrum could not be obtained. An ultra-compact 1.2GHz NMR magnet could be realized if we effectively take advantage of REBCO conductors, although this will require further research to suppress the effect of the screening current. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. RF installation for the grain disinfestation

    CERN Document Server

    Zajtzev, B V; Kobetz, A F; Rudiak, B I

    2001-01-01

    The ecologically pure method of grain product disinfestations through the grain treatment with the RF electric field is described. The experimental data obtained showed that with strengths of the electrical RF field of E=5 kV/cm and frequency of 80 MHz the relative death rate is 100%.The time of the grain treatment it this case is 1 sec. The pulses with a duration of 600 mu s and repetition rate of 2 Hz were used, the duration of the front was 10 mu s. The schematic layout of installation with a productivity of 50 tones/h and power of 10 kW is given.

  15. Performance of the Brookhaven photocathode rf gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Fernow, R.C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, A.S.; Gallardo, J.; Ingold, G.; Kirk, H.G.; Leung, K.P.; Malone, R.; Pogorelsky, I.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Rogers, J.; Tsang, T.; Sheehan, J.; Ulc, S.; Woodle, M.; Xie, J.; Zhang, R.S.; Lin, L.Y.; McDonald, K.T.; Russell, D.P.; Hung, C.M.; Wang, X.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) uses a photocathode rf gun to provide a high-brightness electron beam intended for FEL and laser-acceleration experiments. The rf gun consists of 1 1/2 cells driven at 2856 MHz in π-mode with a maximum cathode field of 100 MV/m. To achieve long lifetimes, the photocathode development concentrates on robust metals such as copper, yttrium and samarium. We illuminate these cathodes with a 10-ps, frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser. We describe the initial operation of the gun, including measurements of transverse and longitudinal emittance, quantum efficiencies, and peak current. The results are compared to models

  16. High-powered, solid-state rf systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two years, the requirement to supply megawatts of rf power for space-based applications at uhf and L-band frequencies has caused dramatic increases in silicon solid-state power capabilities in the frequency range from 10 to 3000 MHz. Radar and communications requirements have caused similar increases in gallium arsenide solid-state power capabilities in the frequency ranges from 3000 to 10,000 MHz. This paper reviews the present state of the art for solid-state rf amplifiers for frequencies from 10 to 10,000 MHz. Information regarding power levels, size, weight, and cost will be given. Technical specifications regarding phase and amplitude stability, efficiency, and system architecture will be discussed. Solid-stage rf amplifier susceptibility to radiation damage will also be examined

  17. Los Alamos free-electron laser (FEL) rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.; Lynch, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    The FEL rf system was designed for 3.6-MW rf pulses from two klystrons to drive two linacs and one deflection cavity at 1300 MHz. Two 108.33-MHz subharmonic buncher cavities and one fundamental buncher were also built, each powered by a 5-kW amplifier. A single phase-coherent source drives the various amplifiers as well as the grid of the electron gun, which is pulsed at 21.67 MHz. The initial buncher system did not work as well as expected, and the first linac tank required more rf power than anticipated. The light output was extremely sensitive to amplitude and phase errors. More powerful klystrons were developed and installed, and a method was discovered for operating a single subharmonic buncher and allowing the first linac to complete the bunching process. This paper shows the actual configuration used to operate the laser and discusses future improvements

  18. Tunnel-diode resonator and nuclear magnetic resonance studies of low-dimensional magnetic and superconducting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeninas, Steven Lee [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis emphasizes two frequency-domain techniques which uniquely employ radio frequency (RF) excitations to investigate the static and dynamic properties of novel magnetic and superconducting materials.

  19. SPS RF System Amplifier plant

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The picture shows a 2 MW, 200 MHz amplifier plant with feeder lines. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X.

  20. The RF system of FELI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morii, Y.; Miyauchi, Y.; Koga, A.; Abe, H.; Keishi, T.; Bessho, I.; Tomimasu, T.

    1994-01-01

    FELI (Free Electron Laser Research Institute, Inc.) is constructing a Free Electron Laser facility covering from 20 μm (infra red region) to 0.35 μm (ultra violet region), using an S-band linac. The building will be completed in November 1993 and installation of the linac will start in December 1993. The linac consists of a thermoionic 0.5ns-pulse triggered gun, a 714 MHz SHB (subharmonic buncher), a 2856 MHz standing wave type buncher, and 7 ETL (Electrotechnical Laboratory) type accelerating sections. An RF system of the linac for FELs is required of long pulse duration and high stability. S-band klystrons (TOSHIBA E3729) are operated in three pulse operation modes (pulse width and peak RF power); 24 μs - 24 MW, 12.5 μs - 34 MW, 0.5 μs - 70 MW. Each klystron modulator has the PFN consisting of 4 parallel networks of 24 capacitors and 24 inductors, and it has a line switch of an optical thyristor stack. These equipments are manufactured now, and an S-band klystron and modulator will be combined to test their performance at the works of NISSIN ELECTRIC Co. in October 1993. (author)

  1. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    generate coupling strengths of C x/Co ˜0.1%, which is a 6.1x improvement over previous efforts. The filter structure utilizes electrical tuning to correct frequency mismatches due to process variations, where a dc tuning voltage of 12.1 V improves the filter insertion loss by 1.8 dB and yields the desired equiripple passband shape. An electrical equivalent circuit is presented that captures not only the ideal filter response, but also parasitic non-idealities that create electrical feed-through, where simulation of the derived equivalent circuit matches the measured filter spectrum closely both in-band and out-of-band. The combined 2.7dB passband insertion loss and 50dB stopband rejection of the demonstrated 206-element 0.09% bandwidth 223.4-MHz differential micromechanical disk filter represents a landmark for capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonator technology. This demonstration proves that the mere introduction of small gaps, on the order of 39 nm, goes a long way towards moving this technology from a research curiosity to practical performance specs commensurate with the needs of actual RF channel-selecting receiver front-ends. It also emphasizes the need for tuning and defensive stress-relieving structural design when percent bandwidths and gaps shrink, all demonstrated by the work herein. Perhaps most encouraging is that the models presented in dissertation used to design the filter and predict its behavior seem to be all be spot on. This means that predictions using these models foretelling 1-GHz filters with sub-200O impedances enabled by 20nm-gaps might soon come true, bringing this technology ever closer to someday realizing the ultra-low power channel-selecting communication front-ends targeted for autonomous set-and-forget sensor networks. Work towards these goals continues.

  2. Superconductivity - applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the following subjects: 1) Electronics and high-frequency technology, 2) Superconductors for energy technology, 3) Superconducting magnets and their applications, 4) Electric machinery, 5) Superconducting cables. (WBU) [de

  3. Fundamental Frequency Tuning and Its Influence on LHC 200MHz ACN Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Linnecar, Trevor Paul R; Tückmantel, Joachim; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2001-01-01

    To study the influence of the tuner on the fundamental mode frequency, the Q factor as well as the shunt impedance of the LHC 200MHz ACN cavities, 3D simulations have been done in the frequency domain using MAFIA. Curves giving the variation of RF frequency and other RF parameters with tuner position relative to the inner surface of the cavity have been obtained for the fundamental mode. This paper details the simulation results.

  4. Frequency control of RF booster cavity in TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, K.; Laverty, M.

    1993-01-01

    A booster is used in the TRIUMF cyclotron to increase the energy gain per turn for beam orbits corresponding to energies greater than 370 MeV. It operates at 92.24 MHz, the 4 th harmonic of the cyclotron main rf, and at a nominal voltage of 150 kV. Excitation is provided by a 90 kW rf system that is phase locked to the main rf. When the main rf is interrupted due to sparking or other causes, a controller built into the low frequency source of the booster rf system disables the phase-locked loop, and reconfigures the source as a temperature stabilized oscillator operating at the last locked frequency. When the cyclotron rf is restored it usually will be at different frequency. The oscillator tunes automatically to this new frequency. The acquisition time is extended by the controller to match the response time of the mechanical tuner in the cavity

  5. ICH antenna development on the ORNL RF Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, W.L.; Bigelow, T.S.; Haste, G.R.; Hoffman, D.J.; Livesey, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A compact resonant loop antenna is installed on the ORNL Radio Frequency Test Facility (RFTF). Facility characteristics include a steady-state magnetic field of ∼ 0.5 T at the antenna, microwave-generated plasmas with n e ∼ 10 12 cm -3 and T e ∼ 8 eV, and 100 kW of 25-MHz rf power. The antenna is tunable from ∼22--75 MHz, is designed to handle ≥1 MW of rf power, and can be moved 5 cm with respect to the port flange. Antenna characteristics reported and discussed include the effect of magnetic field on rf voltage breakdown at the capacitor, the effects of magnetic field and plasma on rf voltage breakdown between the radiating element and the Faraday shield, the effects of graphite on Faraday shield losses, and the efficiency of coupling to the plasma. 2 refs., 4 figs

  6. Low power rf system for the ALS Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.; Taylor, B.; Lancaster, H.

    1991-05-01

    The Linear Accelerator (Linac) in the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is designed to provide either single or multiple bunchers of 50 MeV electrons for the booster synchrotron. Three cavities are used in the Linac for electron bunching. The two subharmonic bunching cavities operate at 124.914 MHz and 499.654 MHz respectively. The S Band buncher operates at 2.997924 GHz. The low level RF system includes a master signal source, RF burst generators, signal phase control, timing trigger generators and a water temperature control system. The design and performance of the system will be described. 7 refs., 3 figs

  7. A low-power RF system with accurate synchronization for a S-band RF-gun using a laser-triggered photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Y.; Naito, T.; Shintake, T.; Takata, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Urakawa, J.; Yoshioka, M.; Akiyama, H.

    1992-01-01

    An S-band RF-gun using a laser-triggered photocathode and its low-power RF system have been constructed. The main elements of the low-power RF system comprise a 600-W amplifier, an amplitude modulator, a phase detector, a phase shifter and a frequency-divider module. Synchronization between the RF fields for acceleration and the mode-locked laser pulses for beam triggering are among the important points concerning the RF-gun. The frequency divider module which down-converts from 2856 MHz(RF) to 89.25 MHz(laser), and the electrical phase-shifter were specially developed for stable phase control. The phase jitter of the frequency divider should be less than 10 ps to satisfy our present requirements. The first experiments to trigger and accelerate beams with the above-mentioned system were carried out in January, 1992. (Author) 6 figs., 5 refs

  8. Modulator considerations for the SNS RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.; Reass, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an intense neutron source for neutron scattering experiments. The project is in the research stage, with construction funding beginning next year. The SNS is comprised of an ion source, a 1,000 MeV, H - linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, a neutron producing target, and experimental area to utilize the scattering of the neutrons. The linear accelerator is RF driven, and the peak beam current is 27 mA and the beam duty factor is 5.84%. The peak RF power required is 104 MW, and the H - beam pulse length is 0.97 ms at a 60 Hz repetition rate. The RF pulses must be about 0.1 ms longer than the beam pulses, due to the Q of the accelerating cavities, and the time required to establish control of the cavity fields. The modulators for the klystrons in this accelerator are discussed in this paper. The SNS is designed to be expandable, so the beam power can be doubled or even quadrupled in the future. One of the double-power options is to double the beam pulse length and duty factor. The authors are specifying the klystrons to operate in this twice-duty-factor mode, and the modulator also should be expandable to 2 ms pulses at 60 Hz. Due to the long pulse length and low RF frequency of 805 MHz, the klystron power is specified at 2.5 MW peak, and the RF system will have 56 klystrons at 805 MHz, and three 1.25 MW peak power klystrons at 402.5 MHz for the low energy portion of the accelerator. The low frequency modulators are conventional floating-deck modulation anode control systems

  9. Rf power systems for the national synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, T.; Rheaume, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The booster synchrotron and the two storage rings at the NSLS are provided with rf power systems of 3 kW, 50 kW, and 500 kW nominal output power, all at 53 MHz. This power is supplied by grounded grid tetrode amplifiers designed for television broadcast service. These amplifiers and associated power supplies, control and interlock systems, rf controls, and computer interface are described

  10. Biologically Inspired Radio-Frequency (RF) Direction Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    microcontroller unit (MCU) - arduino duemilanove. The interrogator consists of one DIGI xbee s2, one ultrasonic receiver, one arduino , a pair of PIFAs...out a localization request using 2450 MHz band, and the arduino at the interrogator mandates the xbee to emit an RF signal and to start the timer...Once the xbee at the tag receives the RF signal, the arduino at the tag will request the ultrasonic module to emit an ultrasound and the xbee to

  11. Design of 118 MHz twelfth harmonic cavity of APS PAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Bridges, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Two radio frequency (RF) cavities are needed in the Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) of the Advanced Photon Source. One is for the first harmonic frequency at 9.8 MHz, and the other is for the twelfth harmonic frequency at 118 MHz. This note reports on the design of the 118 MHz RF cavity. Computer models are used to find the mode frequencies, impedances, Q-factors, and field distributions in the cavity. The computer codes MAFIA, URMEL, and URMEL-T are useful tools which model and simulate the resonance characteristics of a cavity. These codes employ the finite difference method to solve Maxwell's equations. MAFIA is a three-dimensional problem solver and uses square patches to approximate the inner surface of a cavity. URMEL and URMEL-T are two-dimensional problem solvers and use rectangular and triangular meshes, respectively. URMEL-T and MAFIA can handle problems with arbitrary dielectric materials located inside the boundary. The cavity employs a circularly cylindrical ceramic window to limit the vacuum to the beam pipe. The ceramic window used in the modeling will have a wall thickness of 0.9 cm. This wall thickness is not negligible in determining the resonant frequencies of the cavity. In the following, results of two- and three-dimensional modeling of the cavities using the URMEL-T and MAFIA codes are reported

  12. Trends in RF-structure research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henke, H.

    1995-01-01

    New trends in RF structure research are presented. The choice is limited to developments as they are required by the next generation of light sources, particle factories and linear colliders. Therefore, emphasis is put on the suppression of higher order modes either in standing or travelling wave resonators and on the development of superconducting cavities. Finally, a brand new development of very high frequency structures with planar geometry suited for fabrication by lithography is mentioned. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  13. A divide-down RF source generation system for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, D.; Lenkszus, F.; Laird, R.

    1997-01-01

    A divide-down rf source system has been designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory to provide harmonically-related and phase-locked rf source signals between the APS 352-MHz storage ring and booster synchrotron rf systems and the 9.77-MHz and 117-MHz positron accumulator ring rf systems. The design provides rapid switching capability back to individual rf synthesizers for each one. The system also contains a digital bucket phase shifter for injection bucket selection. Input 352-MHz rf from a master synthesizer is supplied to a VXI-based ECL divider board which produces 117-MHz and 9.77-MHz square-wave outputs. These outputs are passed through low-pass filters to produce pure signals at the required fundamental frequencies. These signals, plus signals at the same frequencies from independent synthesizers, are fed to an interface chassis where source selection is made via local/remote control of coaxial relays. This chassis also produces buffered outputs at each frequency for monitoring and synchronization of ancillary equipment

  14. The IPNS second harmonic RF upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middendorf, M.E.; Brumwell, F.R.; Dooling, J.C.; Horan, D.; Kustom, R.L.; Lien, M.K.; McMichael, G.E.; Moser, M.R.; Nassiri, A.; Wang, S.

    2008-01-01

    The intense pulsed neutron source (IPNS) rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) is used to accelerate protons from 50 MeV to 450 MeV, at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The original ring design included two identical rf systems, each consisting of an accelerating cavity, cavity bias supply, power amplifiers and low-level analog electronics. The original cavities are located 180 degrees apart in the ring and provide a total peak accelerating voltage of ∼21 kV over the 2.21-MHz to 5.14-MHz revolution frequency sweep. A third rf system has been constructed and installed in the RCS. The third rf system is capable of operating at the fundamental revolution frequency for the entire acceleration cycle, providing an additional peak accelerating voltage of up to ∼11 kV, or at the second harmonic of the revolution frequency for the first ∼4 ms of the acceleration cycle, providing an additional peak voltage of up to ∼11 kV for bunch shape control. We describe here the hardware implementation and operation to date of the third rf cavity in the second harmonic mode.

  15. RF Design of the LCLS Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limborg-Deprey, C.

    2010-01-01

    Final dimensions for the LCLS RF gun are described. This gun, referred to as the LCLS gun, is a modified version of the UCLA/BNL/SLAC 1.6 cell S-Band RF gun (1), referred to as the prototype gun. The changes include a larger mode separation (15 MHz for the LCLS gun vs. 3.5 MHz for the prototype gun), a larger radius at the iris between the 2 cells, a reduced surface field on the curvature of the iris between the two cells, Z power coupling, increased cooling channels for operation at 120 Hz, dual rf feed, deformation tuning of the full cell, and field probes in both cells. Temporal shaping of the klystron pulse, to reduce the average power dissipated in the gun, has also been adopted. By increasing the mode separation, the amplitude of the 0-mode electric field on the cathode decreases from 10% of the peak on axis field for the prototype gun to less than 3% for the LCLS gun for the steady state fields. Beam performance is improved as shown by the PARMELA simulations. The gun should be designed to accept a future load lock system. Modifications follow the recommendations of our RF review committee (2). Files and reference documents are compiled in Section IV.

  16. Evaluation Of Electromagnetic Fields For Frequencies 900 MHz-1 800 MHz In Tirana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuqi Dhurata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The massive use of mobile phone as a communication tool nowadays is accompanied the ever increasing interest of the public and researchers for the possibly impact on human health as a result of exposure to the electromagnetic fields that accompany these devices. Therefore knowing the level of exposure electromagnetic fields of this electronic equipment has been and will be in the future interest object to the public and the subject of study for the researchers. In this paper are presents the results of measurements of electromagnetic fields for the frequencies 900 MHz - 1800 MHz used in mobile telephone in Tirana. These frequencies are included in the area radio frequency RF and Microwave MW 300 Hz - 300 GHz in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves and belong to non-ionizing radiation. The measurements were performed in different areas of Tirana. The purpose is to assess the level of exposure electromagnetic fields especially near areas where mobile antennas are mounted construction of dynamic digital mapping and comparison with the permitted levels of the exposure defined by the International Commission of Non Ionizing Radiation Protection ICNIRP. Through this publication the aim of the authors is to provide real information and reliable for the population.

  17. Overview on superconducting photoinjectors

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, A

    2011-01-01

    The success of most of the proposed energy recovery linac (ERL) based electron accelerator projects for future storage ring replacements (SRR) and high power IR–free-electron lasers (FELs) largely depends on the development of an appropriate source. For example, to meet the FEL specifications [J.W. Lewellen, Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. 5534, 22 (2004)] electron beams with an unprecedented combination of high brightness, low emittance (0.1 µmrad), and high average current (hundreds of mA) are required. An elegant way to create a beam of such quality is to combine the high beam quality of a normal conducting rf photoinjector with the superconducting technology, i.e., to build a superconducting rf photoinjector (SRF gun). SRF gun R&D programs based on different approaches have been launched at a growing number of institutes and companies (AES, Beijing University, BESSY, BNL, DESY, FZD, TJNAF, Niowave, NPS, Wisconsin University). Substantial progress was achieved in recent years and the first long term ...

  18. Simplified RF power system for Wideroe-type linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fugitt, J.; Howard, D.; Crosby, F.; Johnson, R.; Nolan, M.; Yuen, G.

    1981-03-01

    The RF system for the SuperHILAC injector linac was designed and constructed for minimum system complexity, wide dynamic range, and ease of maintenance. The final amplifier is close coupled to the linac and operates in an efficient semilinear mode, eliminating troublesome transmission lines, modulators, and high level regulators. The system has been operated at over 250 kW, 23 MHz with good regulation. The low level RF electronics are contained in a single chassis adjacent to the RF control computer, which monitors all important operating parameters. A unique 360 0 phase and amplitude modular is used for precise control and regulation of the accelerating voltage

  19. RF Scenarios for Pb54+ Ions in the PS2

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, M; Hancock, S; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    This note analyses some of the rf scenarios that are presently being considered for lead ions in the PS2. An earlier note principally concerning protons [1] highlighted the problem of the large revolution frequency swing of ions in the PS2 and the issue of bunching factor with direct injection from the LEIR machine. We present solutions based on additional rf systems in LEIR and consider the 40 MHz principal rf system proposed for the PS2 in the earlier work to have switchable tuning ranges to cover the large frequency swing required.

  20. The external Q factor of a dual-feed coupling for superconducting radio frequency cavities: Theoretical and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, J.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Xu, Wencan

    2013-11-01

    We propose a theoretical model based on network analysis to study the external quality factor (Q factor) of dual-feed coupling for superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. Specifically, we apply our model to the dual-feed 704 MHz half-cell SRF gun for Brookhaven National Laboratory's prototype Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). The calculations show that the external Q factor of this dual-feed system is adjustable from 104 to 109 provided that the adjustment range of a phase shifter covers 0°-360°. With a period of 360°, the external Q factor of the coupling system changes periodically with the phase difference between the two coupling arms. When the RF phase of both coupling arms is adjusted simultaneously in the same direction, the external Q factor of the system also changes periodically, but with a period of 180°.

  1. Microphonic measurements on superconducting linac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzali, A.; Schwettman, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    Microphonics in multi-cell linac structures lead to energy and pointing modulation of the electron beam despite RF stabilization. Evaluation of the microphonic behaviour of a 500 MHz two cell structure is planned in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory. In this paper we describe a method of evaluation based on accelerometer measurements. (Author) fig., 2 tabs., 5 refs

  2. RF BREAKDOWN STUDIES USING PRESSURIZED CAVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland

    2014-09-21

    Many present and future particle accelerators are limited by the maximum electric gradient and peak surface fields that can be realized in RF cavities. Despite considerable effort, a comprehensive theory of RF breakdown has not been achieved and mitigation techniques to improve practical maximum accelerating gradients have had only limited success. Part of the problem is that RF breakdown in an evacuated cavity involves a complex mixture of effects, which include the geometry, metallurgy, and surface preparation of the accelerating structures and the make-up and pressure of the residual gas in which plasmas form. Studies showed that high gradients can be achieved quickly in 805 MHz RF cavities pressurized with dense hydrogen gas, as needed for muon cooling channels, without the need for long conditioning times, even in the presence of strong external magnetic fields. This positive result was expected because the dense gas can practically eliminate dark currents and multipacting. In this project we used this high pressure technique to suppress effects of residual vacuum and geometry that are found in evacuated cavities in order to isolate and study the role of the metallic surfaces in RF cavity breakdown as a function of magnetic field, frequency, and surface preparation. One of the interesting and useful outcomes of this project was the unanticipated collaborations with LANL and Fermilab that led to new insights as to the operation of evacuated normal-conducting RF cavities in high external magnetic fields. Other accomplishments included: (1) RF breakdown experiments to test the effects of SF6 dopant in H2 and He gases with Sn, Al, and Cu electrodes were carried out in an 805 MHz cavity and compared to calculations and computer simulations. The heavy corrosion caused by the SF6 components led to the suggestion that a small admixture of oxygen, instead of SF6, to the hydrogen would allow the same advantages without the corrosion in a practical muon beam line. (2) A

  3. Superconductivity revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    While the macroscopic phenomenon of superconductivity is well known and in practical use worldwide in many industries, including MRIs in medical diagnostics, the current theoretical paradigm for superconductivity (BCS theory) suffers from a number of limitations, not the least of which is an adequate explanation of high temperature superconductivity. This book reviews the current theory and its limitations and suggests new ideas and approaches in addressing these issues. The central objective of the book is to develop a new, coherent, understandable theory of superconductivity directly based on molecular quantum mechanics.

  4. Design of 1 MHz solid state high frequency power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Darshan Kumar; Singh, N.P.; Gajjar, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    A High Voltage High Frequency (HVHF) Power supply is used for various applications, like AM Transmitters, metallurgical applications, Wireless Power Transfer, RF Ion Sources, etc. The Ion Source for a Neutral beam Injector at ITER-India uses inductively coupled power source at High Frequency (∼ 1 MHz). Switching converter based topology used to generate 1 MHz sinusoidal output is expected to have advantages on efficiency and reliability as compared to traditional RF Tetrode tubes based oscillators. In terms of Power Electronics, thermal and power coupling issues are major challenges at such a high frequency. A conceptual design for a 200 kW, 1 MHz power supply and a prototype design for a 600W source been done. The prototype design is attempted with Class-E amplifier topology where a MOSFET is switched resonantly. The prototype uses two low power modules and a ferrite combiner to add the voltage and power at the output. Subsequently solution with class-D H-Bridge configuration have been evaluated through simulation where module design is stable as switching device do not participate in resonance, further switching device voltage rating is substantially reduced. The rating of the modules is essentially driven by the maximum power handling capacity of the MOSFETs and ferrites in the combiner circuit. The output passive network including resonance tuned network and impedance matching network caters for soft switching and matches the load impedance to 50 ohm respectively. This paper describes the conceptual design of a 200 kW power supply and experimental results of the prototype 600 W, 1 MHz source. (author)

  5. Design of 1 MHz Solid State High Frequency Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Darshan; Singh, N. P.; Gajjar, Sandip; Thakar, Aruna; Patel, Amit; Raval, Bhavin; Dhola, Hitesh; Dave, Rasesh; Upadhay, Dishang; Gupta, Vikrant; Goswami, Niranjan; Mehta, Kush; Baruah, Ujjwal

    2017-04-01

    High Frequency Power supply (HFPS) is used for various applications like AM Transmitters, metallurgical applications, Wireless Power Transfer, RF Ion Sources etc. The Ion Source for a Neutral beam Injector at ITER-India uses inductively coupled power source at High Frequency (∼1 MHz). Switching converter based topology used to generate 1 MHz sinusoidal output is expected to have advantages on efficiency and reliability as compared to traditional RF Tetrode tubes based oscillators. In terms of Power Electronics, thermal and power coupling issues are major challenges at such a high frequency. A conceptual design for a 200 kW, 1 MHz power supply and a prototype design for a 600 W source been done. The prototype design is attempted with Class-E amplifier topology where a MOSFET is switched resonantly. The prototype uses two low power modules and a ferrite combiner to add the voltage and power at the output. Subsequently solution with Class-D H-Bridge configuration have been evaluated through simulation where module design is stable as switching device do not participate in resonance, further switching device voltage rating is substantially reduced. The rating of the modules is essentially driven by the maximum power handling capacity of the MOSFETs and ferrites in the combiner circuit. The output passive network including resonance tuned network and impedance matching network caters for soft switching and matches the load impedance to 50ohm respectively. This paper describes the conceptual design of a 200 kW high frequency power supply and experimental results of the prototype 600 W, 1 MHz source.

  6. Low-velocity superconducting accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The present paper reviews the status of RF superconductivity as applied to low-velocity accelerating properties. Heavy-ion accelerators must accelerate efficiently particles which travel at a velocity much smaller than that of light particles, whose velocity changes along accelerator, and also different particles which have different velocity profiles. Heavy-ion superconducting accelerators operate at frequencies which are lower than high-energy superconducting accelerators. The present paper first discusses the basic features of heavy-ion superconducting structures and linacs. Design choices are then addressed focusing on structure geometry, materials, frequency, phase control, and focusing. The report also gives an outline of the status of superconducting booster projects currently under way at the Argonne National Laboratory, SUNY Stony Brook, Weizmann Institute, University of Washington, Florida State, Saclay, Kansas State, Daresbury, Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute, Legnaro, Bombay, Sao Paulo, ANU (Canberra), and Munich. Recent developments and future prospects are also described. (N.K.) 68 refs

  7. Beam dynamics studies for transverse electromagnetic mode type rf deflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ahmed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We have performed three-dimensional simulations of beam dynamics for transverse electromagnetic mode (TEM type rf deflectors: normal and superconducting. The compact size of these cavities as compared to the conventional TM_{110} type structures is more attractive particularly at low frequency. Highly concentrated electromagnetic fields between the parallel bars provide strong electrical stability to the beam for any mechanical disturbance. An array of six 2-cell normal conducting cavities or a single cell superconducting structure is enough to produce the required vertical displacement at the target point. Both the normal and superconducting structures show very small emittance dilution due to the vertical kick of the beam.

  8. Beam dynamics studies for transverse electromagnetic mode type rf deflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Shahid; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Deitrick, Kirsten; De Silva, Subashini U.; Delayen, Jean R.; Spata, Michael; Tiefenback, Michael; Hofler, Alicia; Beard, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We have performed three-dimensional simulations of beam dynamics for transverse electromagnetic mode (TEM) type RF deflectors: normal- and super-conducting. The compact size of these cavities as compared to the conventional TM 110 type structures is more attractive particularly at low frequency. Highly concentrated electromagnetic fields between the parallel bars provide strong electrical stability to the beam for any mechanical disturbance. An array of six 2-cell normal conducting cavities or a single cell superconducting structure is enough to produce the required vertical displacement at the target point. Both the normal and super-conducting structures show very small emittance dilution due to the vertical kick of the beam.

  9. Pembuatan Dan Analisis Exciter Generator Rf Untuk Siklotron Proton Decy-13

    OpenAIRE

    Prajitno, Prajitno

    2011-01-01

    PEMBUATAN DAN ANALISIS EXCITER GENERATOR RF UNTUK SIKLOTRON PROTON DECY-13.Telah dilakukan analisis dan pembuatan exciter generator RF untuk siklotron proton 13MeV. Generator RFakan digunakan sebagai sumber tegangan pemercepat bolak-Balik siklotron DECY-13 rancangan PTAPBBATAN.Berdasarkan dokumen rancangan dasar yang telah dibuat siklotron Decy-13 akan menggunakanmedan magnet 1,275 Tesla, sehingga frekuensi generator RF bila menggunakan harmonik keempat adalah77,667 MHz. Salah satu teknik pem...

  10. Development of 400- to 450-MHz RFQ resonator-cavity mechanical designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansborough, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    In the development of the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, the resonator cavity's mechanical design may be a challenge similar in magnitude to that of the development of the accelerator structure itself. Experience with the all-copper 425-MHz RFQ proof-of-principle linac has demonstrated that the resonator cavity must be structurally stiff and easily tunable. This experience has led to development of copper-plated steel structures having vanes that may be moved within a cylinder for tuning. Design of a flexible vane-to-cylinder radio-frequency (rf) joint, the vane, and the cylinder has many constraints dictated by the small-diameter cavities in the 400-MHz-frequency region. Two types of flexible, mechanical vane-to-cylinder rf joints are being developed at Los Alamos: the C-seal and the rf clamp-joint

  11. A precision master trigger system for SLC based on the accelerator RF drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Leger, G.; Paffrath, L.; Wilmunder, A.

    1984-01-01

    A new trigger system consisting of a single 476 MHz rf doublet pulse superimposed on the main 476 MHz rf Drive Line signal that transits the 3 km accelerator has been implemented and is working well. This paper describes the general concept of this system, outlines the operation of the main master trigger generator, the fiducial (476 MHz doublet) generator, and the fiducial pickoff system. A companion paper by Paffrath et al describes the counter electronics that produces precision timed triggers for all SLC operations along the accelerator. (orig.)

  12. RF system considerations for accelerator production of tritium and the transmutation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallerico, P.J.; Lynch, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    RF driven proton accelerators for the transmutation of nuclear waste (ATW) or for the production of tritium (APT) require unprecedented amounts of CW RF power at UHF frequencies. For both systems, the baseline design is for 246 MW at 700 MHz and 8,5 MW at 350 MHz. The main technical challenges are how to design and build such a large system so that it has excellent reliability, high efficiency, and reasonable capital cost. The issues associated with the selection of the RF amplifier and the sizes of the power supplies are emphasized in this paper

  13. Auto-tuning systems for J-PARC LINAC RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Z.; Kobayashi, T.; Fukui, Y.; Futatsukawa, K.; Michizono, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Anami, S.; Suzuki, H.; Sato, F.; Shinozaki, S.; Chishiro, E.

    2014-01-01

    The 400-MeV proton linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) consists of 324-MHz low-β and 972-MHz high-β accelerator sections. From October 2006 to May 2013, only the 324-MHz low-β accelerator section was in operation. From the summer of 2013 the J-PARC LINAC was upgraded by installing the 972-MHz high-β accelerator section, and the proton beam was successfully accelerated to 400 MeV in January 2014. Auto-tuning systems for the J-PARC LINAC RF cavities have been successfully developed. A first generation design, an auto-tuning system using a mechanical tuner controller, was developed and operated for the first 3 years. Then the second-generation auto-tuning system was developed using a new approach to the RF cavity warm-up process, and this was applied to the accelerator operation for the subsequent 4 years. During the RF cavity warm-up process in this system, the mechanical tuner is constantly fixed and the input RF frequency is automatically tuned to the cavity resonance frequency using the FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) of the digital feedback RF control system. After the input power level reaches the required value, input RF frequency tuning is stopped and it is switched to the operation frequency. Then, the mechanical tuner control begins operation. This second-generation auto-tuning system was extremely effective for the 324-MHz cavity operation. However, if we apply this approach to the 972-MHz RF cavities, an interlock due to the RF cavity reflection amplitude occasionally occurs at the end of the warm-up process. In order to solve this problem a third generation novel auto-tuning system was successfully developed in December 2013 and applied to the operation of the J-PARC LINAC, including the 972-MHz ACS RF cavities. During the warm-up process both the mechanical tuner controller and the input RF frequency tuning are in operation, and good matching between the input RF frequency and the RF cavity is

  14. Auto-tuning systems for J-PARC LINAC RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z., E-mail: fang@post.kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kobayashi, T.; Fukui, Y.; Futatsukawa, K.; Michizono, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Anami, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Suzuki, H.; Sato, F.; Shinozaki, S.; Chishiro, E. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2014-12-11

    The 400-MeV proton linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) consists of 324-MHz low-β and 972-MHz high-β accelerator sections. From October 2006 to May 2013, only the 324-MHz low-β accelerator section was in operation. From the summer of 2013 the J-PARC LINAC was upgraded by installing the 972-MHz high-β accelerator section, and the proton beam was successfully accelerated to 400 MeV in January 2014. Auto-tuning systems for the J-PARC LINAC RF cavities have been successfully developed. A first generation design, an auto-tuning system using a mechanical tuner controller, was developed and operated for the first 3 years. Then the second-generation auto-tuning system was developed using a new approach to the RF cavity warm-up process, and this was applied to the accelerator operation for the subsequent 4 years. During the RF cavity warm-up process in this system, the mechanical tuner is constantly fixed and the input RF frequency is automatically tuned to the cavity resonance frequency using the FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) of the digital feedback RF control system. After the input power level reaches the required value, input RF frequency tuning is stopped and it is switched to the operation frequency. Then, the mechanical tuner control begins operation. This second-generation auto-tuning system was extremely effective for the 324-MHz cavity operation. However, if we apply this approach to the 972-MHz RF cavities, an interlock due to the RF cavity reflection amplitude occasionally occurs at the end of the warm-up process. In order to solve this problem a third generation novel auto-tuning system was successfully developed in December 2013 and applied to the operation of the J-PARC LINAC, including the 972-MHz ACS RF cavities. During the warm-up process both the mechanical tuner controller and the input RF frequency tuning are in operation, and good matching between the input RF frequency and the RF cavity is

  15. Perpendicular biased ferrite tuned RF cavity for the TRIUMF KAON Factory booster ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, R.L.; Enegren, T.; Haddock, C.

    1989-03-01

    The rf cavity for the booster ring requires a frequency swing of 46 MHz to 62 MHz at a repetition rate of 50 Hz. The possibility of using the LANL booster cavity design with a yttrium garnet ferrite tuner biased perpendicular to the rf field, in the longitudinal direction, is being investigated. In order to minimize the stray magnetic biasing field on the beam axis, an alternative scheme similar to the design being proposed for the LANL main ring cavity in which the ferrite is perpendicular biased in the radial direction, is being considered. The behaviour of the rf cavity and the magnetizing circuit for both designs are discussed

  16. Superconducting cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, A.; Funkenbusch, P.D.; Chang, G.C.S.; Burns, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two distant classes of superconducting cermets can be distinguished, depending on whether or not a fully superconducting skeleton is established. Both types of cermets have been successfully fabricated using non-noble metals, with as high as 60wt% of the metal phase. The electrical, magnetic and mechanical behavior of these composites is discussed

  17. SUPERCONDUCTING LINAC FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STOVALL, J.; NATH, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linac is comprised of both normal and superconducting rf (SRF) accelerating structures. The SRF linac accelerates the beam from 186 to 1250 MeV through 117 elliptical, multi-cell niobium cavities. This paper describes the SRF linac architecture, physics design considerations, cavity commissioning, and the expected beam dynamics performance

  18. PLC based development of control, monitoring and interlock for 100 kW, 45.6 MHz ICRH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadav, Hiralal; Joshi, Rameshkumar; Mali, Aniruddh K.; Kadia; Bhavesh; Parmar; Maganbhai, Kiritkumar; Kulkarni, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents details of PLC based system development for 100KW at the rate 45.6 MHz. Presently in ICRH RF DAC (Data acquisition and control) system existing based on real time VME and linux operating system. The ICRH system consists of 1.5 MW RF generator operating at 22- 40MHz which is used for second harmonic heating and pre-ionization experiments on SST-1 Tokamak at 1.5T and 3T magnetic field operation respectively. The task of PLC system in RF ICRH is to control, monitoring and interlocks HVDC power supply signal. Voltage and current signal of 2 kW, 20 kW, tetrode for 100 kW RF tube electrode like Filament, Control grid, Plate, Screen grid, signal monitor and voltage set raised by PLC analog IO module. Acknowledgement of the HVDC supply Filament, Control grid, Plate, Screen grid power supply is monitor and interlocks by PLC Digital IO module to interlocks stop the RF pulse and off HV power supply. The RF pulse(shot) to trigger signal generator (5mw) RF power output feed to LPA then chain of 2 KW, 20 KW, 100 KW at the rate 45.6 MHz. The programming logic controller (PLC) software is written in ladder language for AH500 Delta make using ISP Soft 2.04 and GUI is in the table form to control and monitor the parameters. Communication of PLC to PC by ethernet LAN network. (author)

  19. Superconducting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Superconductivity has a long history of about 100 years. Over the past 50 years, progress in superconducting materials has been mainly in metallic superconductors, such as Nb, Nb-Ti and Nb 3 Sn, resulting in the creation of various application fields based on the superconducting technologies. High-T c superconductors, the first of which was discovered in 1986, have been changing the future vision of superconducting technology through the development of new application fields such as power cables. On basis of these trends, future prospects of superconductor technology up to 2040 are discussed. In this article from the viewpoints of material development and the applications of superconducting wires and electronic devices. (author)

  20. Special features of radio-frequency system for the superconducting cyclotron at VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Som, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Radio-frequency system of Superconducting (Sc) cyclotron consists of three accelerating electrodes, called Dees, located in the valleys of the magnet at 120 degree apart between each other. It has been developed in the frequency range of 9 - 27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.5 degC. Each dee along with half-wave coaxial cavity develops peak voltage of 100kV having fed with rf power 80 kW from each of the three high power final rf amplifiers. Three numbers of Dee-cavities as well as three numbers of amplifier cavities are tuned by moveable sliding short. The tapered inner conductor (under vacuum) of the main Dee-cavity has been used to minimize power dissipation in the cavity and also to avoid mode interference. Each of the four identical Bridge-T network in the grid of each amplifier is driven with rf power of 150 watts. The amplifier is based on Eimac 4CW - 150000E tetrode and is operated in class-AB mode with power gain 22 dB. It requires dc power supplies (P/S) like, Filament P/S 15.5V/215A, Grid P/S -200V to -500V, Anode P/S 20kV/22.5A and Screen P/S 1.5kV/lA, at its four terminals. A PC-based stepper motor controlled sliding-short movement system is used for tuning the cavities at different frequencies. The closed-loop amplitude and phase regulators are based on RF modulator and I and Q modulation technique respectively. Dee voltage pick-off signals are used as feedback. A PLC-based interlock system protects the rf system as well as operating personnel. Measurements of rf parameters at various resonant frequencies of the amplifier cavity have been done. The frequency response of the input circuit of the amplifier has been measured using VNA. The warm rf test of the amplifier performed well with 70kW output power at 50 Ohm water-cooled dummy load. (author)