WorldWideScience

Sample records for mhz gsm radiation

  1. Cell death induced by GSM 900-MHz and DCS 1800-MHz mobile telephony radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, D. J; Chavdoula, E. D.; Nezis, I. P.; Margaritis, L. H.

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay '' a well known technique widely used for detecting fragmented DNA in various types of cells'' was used to detect cell death (DNA fragmentation) in a biological model, the early and mid stages of oogenesis of the insect Drosophila melanogaster. The flies were exposed in vivo to either GSM 900-MHz (Global System for Mobile telecommunications) or DCS 1800-MHz (Digital Cellular System) radiation from a common digital mobile phone, for few minutes per day during the first 6 days of their adult life. The exposure conditions were similar to those to which a mobile phone user is exposed, and were determined according to previous studies of ours [D.J. Panagopoulos, A. Karabarbounis, L.H. Margaritis, Effect of GSM 900-MHz mobile phone radiation on the reproductive capacity of D. melanogaster, Electromagn. Biol. Med. 23 (1) (2004) 29''43; D.J. Panagopoulos, N. Messini, A. Karabarbounis, A.L. Philippetis, L.H. Margaritis, Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation within ''safety levels'' alters the physiological function of insects, in: P. Kostarakis, P. Stavroulakis (Eds.), Proceedings of the Millennium International Workshop on Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, October 17''20, 2000, pp. 169''175, ISBN: 960-86733-0-5; D.J. Panagopoulos, L.H. Margaritis, Effects of electromagnetic fields on the reproductive capacity of D. melanogaster, in: P. Stavroulakis (Ed.), Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Springer, 2003, pp. 545''578], which had shown a large decrease in the oviposition of the same insect caused by GSM radiation. Our present results suggest that the decrease in oviposition previously reported, is due to degeneration of large numbers of egg chambers after DNA fragmentation of their constituent cells, induced by both types of mobile telephony radiation. Induced cell death is recorded for the first time, in all types of

  2. Influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like electromagnetic radiation exposure on fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ahmet; Kırdemır, Vecihi; Kocak, Ahmet; Atay, Tolga; Baydar, Metin Lütfi; Özerdemoglu, Remzi Arif; Aydogan, Nevres Hürriyet

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate whether 1800 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) has an effect on bone healing. A total of 30 Wistar albino rats were divided into two equal groups. Fractures were created in the right tibias of all rats; next, intramedullary fixations with K-wire were performed. A control group (Group I) was kept under the same experimental conditions except without EMR exposure. Rats in Group II were exposed to an 1800 MHz frequency EMR for 30 min a day for 5 days a week. Next, radiological, mechanical, and histological examinations were performed to evaluate tibial fracture healing. Radiological, histological and mechanical scores were not significantly different between groups (respectively, p = 0.114, p = 0.184 and p = 0.083), and all of these scores were lower than those of the controls. EMR at 1800 MHz frequency emitted from cellular phones has no effect on bone fracture healing. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. GSM 900 MHz Microwave RadiationInduced Alterations of Insulin Level and Histopathological Changes of Liver and Pancreas in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi S. M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapidly increasing use of mobile phones has led to public concerns about possible health effects of these popular communication devices. This study is an attempt to investigate the effects of radiofrequency (RF radiation produced by GSM mobile phones on the insulin release in rats. Methods: Forty two female adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group1 were exposed to RF radiation 6 hours per day for 7 days. Group 2 received sham exposure (6 hours per day for 7 days. Groups 3 and 4 received RF radiation 3 hours per day for 7 days and sham exposure (3 hours per day, respectively. The specific absorption rate (SAR of RF was 2.0W/kg. Results: Our results showed that RF radiations emitted from mobile phone could not alter insulin release in rats. However, mild to severe inflammatory changes in the portal spaces of the liver of rats as well as damage in the cells of islet of Langerhans were observed. These changes were linked with the duration of the exposures. Conclusion: RF exposure can induce inflammatory changes in the liver as well causing damage in the cells of islet of Langerhans.

  4. Does exposure to GSM 900 MHz mobile phone radiation affect short-term memory of elementary school students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movvahedi, M M; Tavakkoli-Golpayegani, A; Mortazavi, S A R; Haghani, M; Razi, Z; Shojaie-Fard, M B; Zare, M; Mina, E; Mansourabadi, L; Nazari-Jahromi; Safari, A; Shokrpour, N; Mortazavi, S M J

    2014-05-01

    Now-a-days, children are exposed to mobile phone radiation at a very early age. We have previously shown that a large proportion of children in the city of Shiraz, Iran use mobile phones. Furthermore, we have indicated that the visual reaction time (VRT) of university students was significantly affected by a 10 min real/sham exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phone. We found that these exposures decreased the reaction time which might lead to a better response to different hazards. We have also revealed that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreased the reaction time in radar workers. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether short-term exposure of elementary school students to radiofrequency (RF) radiation leads to changes in their reaction time and short-term memory. A total of 60 elementary school children ages ranging from 8 to 10 years studying at a public elementary school in Shiraz, Iran were enrolled in this study. Standardized computer-based tests of VRT and short-term memory (modified for children) were administered. The students were asked to perform some preliminary tests for orientation with the VRT test. After orientation, to reduce the random variation of measurements, each test was repeated ten times in both real and sham exposure phases. The time interval between the two subsequent sham and real exposure phases was 30 min. The mean ± standard deviation reaction times after a 10 min talk period and after a 10 min sham exposure (switched off mobile) period were 249.0 ± 82.3 ms and 252.9 ± 68.2 ms (P = 0.629), respectively. On the other hand, the mean short-term memory scores after the talk and sham exposure periods were 1062.60 ± 305.39, and 1003.84 ± 339.68 (P = 0.030), respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that short-term exposure of elementary school students to RF radiation leads to the better performance of their short-term memory.

  5. Effect of Exposure to 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Radiation on Estrogen Receptor Methylation Status in Colon Cells of Male Sprague Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokarram, P.; Sheikhi, M.; Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Saeb, S.; Shokrpour, N.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Over the past several years, the rapidly increasing use of mobile phones has raised global concerns about the biological effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Numerous studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can be associated with effects on the nervous, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, hematopoietic and ocular systems. In spite of genetic diversity, the onset and progression of cancer can be controlled by epigenetic mechanisms such as gene promoter methylation. There are extensive studies on the epigenetic changes of the tumor suppressor genes as well as the identification of methylation biomarkers in colorectal cancer. Some studies have revealed that genetic changes can be induced by exposure to RF radiation. However, whether or not RF radiation is capable of inducing epigenetic alteration has not been clarified yet. To date, no study has been conducted on the effect of radiation on epigenetic alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC). Several studies have also shown that methylation of estrogen receptor α (ERα), MYOD, MGMT, SFRP2 and P16 play an important role in CRC. It can be hypothesized that RF exposure can be a reason for the high incidence of CRC in Iran. This study aimed to investigate whether epigenetic pattern of ERα is susceptible to RF radiation and if RF radiation can induce radioadaptive response as epigenetic changes after receiving the challenge dose (γ-ray). Material and Method: 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups (Group I: exposure to RF radiation of a GSM cell phone for 4 hours and sacrificed after 24 hours; Group II: RF exposure for 4 hours, exposure to Co-60 gamma radiation (3 Gy) after 24 hours and sacrificed after 72 hrs; Group III: only 3Gy gamma radiation; Group 4: control group). DNA from colon tissues was extracted to evaluate the methylation status by methylation specific PCR. Results: Our finding showed that exposure to GSM cell phone RF radiation was

  6. Effect of Exposure to 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Radiation on Estrogen Receptor Methylation Status in Colon Cells of Male Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokarram P.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past several years, the rapidly increasing use of mobile phones has raised global concerns about the biological effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF radiation. Numerous studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs can be associated with effects on the nervous, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, hematopoietic and ocular systems. In spite of genetic diversity, the onset and progression of cancer can be controlled by epigenetic mechanisms such as gene promoter methylation. There are extensive studies on the epigenetic changes of the tumor suppressor genes as well as the identification of methylation biomarkers in colorectal cancer. Some studies have revealed that genetic changes can be induced by exposure to RF radiation. However, whether or not RF radiation is capable of inducing epigenetic alteration has not been clarified yet. To date, no study has been conducted on the effect of radiation on epigenetic alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC. Several studies have also shown that methylation of estrogen receptor α (ERα, MYOD, MGMT, SFRP2 and P16 play an important role in CRC. It can be hypothesized that RF exposure can be a reason for the high incidence of CRC in Iran. This study aimed to investigate whether epigenetic pattern of ERα is susceptible to RF radiation and if RF radiation can induce radioadaptive response as epigenetic changes after receiving the challenge dose (γ-ray. Material and Method: 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups (Group I: exposure to RF radiation of a GSM cell phone for 4 hours and sacrificed after 24 hours; Group II: RF exposure for 4 hours, exposure to Co-60 gamma radiation (3 Gy after 24 hours and sacrificed after 72 hrs; Group III: only 3Gy gamma radiation; Group 4: control group. DNA from colon tissues was extracted to evaluate the methylation status by methylation specific PCR. Results: Our finding showed that exposure to GSM cell phone RF

  7. Exposure to GSM 900 MHz electromagnetic fields affects cerebral cytochrome c oxidase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammari, Mohamed; Lecomte, Anthony; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Seze, Rene de

    2008-01-01

    The world-wide and rapidly growing use of mobile phones has raised serious concerns about the biological and health-related effects of radio frequency (RF) radiation, particularly concerns about the effects of RFs upon the nervous system. The goal of this study was conducted to measure cytochrome oxidase (CO) levels using histochemical methods in order to evaluate regional brain metabolic activity in rat brain after exposure to a GSM 900 MHz signal for 45 min/day at a brain-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.5 W/Kg or for 15 min/day at a SAR of 6 W/Kg over seven days. Compared to the sham and control cage groups, rats exposed to a GSM signal at 6 W/Kg showed decreased CO activity in some areas of the prefrontal and frontal cortex (infralimbic cortex, prelimbic cortex, primary motor cortex, secondary motor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex areas 1 and 2 (Cg1 and Cg2)), the septum (dorsal and ventral parts of the lateral septal nucleus), the hippocampus (dorsal field CA1, CA2 and CA3 of the hippocampus and dental gyrus) and the posterior cortex (retrosplenial agranular cortex, primary and secondary visual cortex, perirhinal cortex and lateral entorhinal cortex). However, the exposure to GSM at 1.5 W/Kg did not affect brain activity. Our results indicate that 6 W/Kg GSM 900 MHz microwaves may affect brain metabolism and neuronal activity in rats

  8. Survey of the Effects of Exposure to 900 MHz Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted by a GSM Mobile Phone on the Pattern of Muscle Contractions in an Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi S. M. J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid development of wireless telecommunication technologies over the past decades, has led to significant changes in the exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields. Nowadays, people are continuously exposed to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones, mobile base stations, cordless phones, Wi-Fi routers, and power lines. Therefore, the last decade witnessed a rapidly growing concern about the possible health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by these sources. Materials and Methods: In this study that was aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF radiation emitted by a GSM mobile phone on the pattern of contraction in frog’s isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz, pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period were measured. Results: Our findings showed that the pulse height of contractions muscle could be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. Especially, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. Conclusion: These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions

  9. Survey of the Effects of Exposure to 900 MHz Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted by a GSM Mobile Phone on the Pattern of Muscle Contractions in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, S M J; Rahimi, S; Talebi, A; Soleimani, A; Rafati, A

    2015-09-01

    The rapid development of wireless telecommunication technologies over the past decades, has led to significant changes in the exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields. Nowadays, people are continuously exposed to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones, mobile base stations, cordless phones, Wi-Fi routers, and power lines. Therefore, the last decade witnessed a rapidly growing concern about the possible health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by these sources. In this study that was aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted by a GSM mobile phone on the pattern of contraction in frog's isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz), pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period were measured. Our findings showed that the pulse height of contractions muscle could be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. Especially, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions.

  10. Comparison of GSM Modulated and CW Radiofrequency Radiation on Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicic, I.; Marjanovic, A.M.; Trosic, I.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare effect of global system of mobile (GSM) modulation and continuous wave (CW) radiofrequency radiation (RF) on proliferation ability and viability of V79 Chinese hamster lung cells. Previously prepared samples of cells in culture were exposed for 1, 2 and 3 hours both to 915 MHz GSM modulated and to 935 MHz CW RF field in gigahertz transversal electromagnetic mode cell (GTEM-cell). Electric field strength for cells exposed to GSM modulation was set at 10 V/m and for CW exposed cells was 8.2 V/m. Average specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated to be for GSM 0.23 W/kg and for CW 0.12 W/kg. V79 samples were plated in concentration of 1x10 4 cells/mL. Cell proliferation was determined by cell counts for each hour of exposure during five post-exposure days. Trypan blue exclusion test was used to determine cell viability. In comparison to control cell samples, proliferation of GSM irradiated cells showed significant decrease after 3 hours of exposure on the second and third post-exposure day. CW exposed cell samples showed significant decrease after 3 hours of exposure on the third post-exposure day. Viability of GSM and CW exposed cells did not significantly differ from matched control cell samples. Both applied RF fields have shown similar effect on cell culture growth, and cell viability of V79 cell line. In addition, applied GSM modulated RF radiation demonstrate bigger influence on proliferation of cells. (author)

  11. Looking at the other side of the coin: the search for possible biopositive cognitive effects of the exposure to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Tavakkoli-Golpayegani, Ali; Haghani, Masoud; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Although exposure to electromagnetic radiation in radiofrequency range has caused a great deal of concern globally, radiofrequency radiation has many critical applications in both telecommunication and non-communication fields. The induction of adaptive response phenomena by exposure to radiofrequency radiation as either increased resistance to a subsequent dose of ionizing radiation or resistance to a bacterial infection has been reported recently. Interestingly, the potential beneficial effects of mobile phone radiofrequency radiation are not only limited to the induction of adaptive phenomena. It has previously been indicated that the visual reaction time of university students significantly decreased after a 10 min exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted by a mobile phone. Furthermore, it has been revealed that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreased the reaction time in radar workers. Based on these findings, it can be hypothesized that in special circumstances, these exposures might lead to a better response of humans to different hazards. Other investigators have also provided evidence that confirms the induction of RF-induced cognitive benefits. Furthermore, some recent reports have indicated that RF radiation may play a role in protecting against cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. In this light, a challenging issue will arise if there are other RF-induced stimulating effects. It is also challenging to explore the potential applications of these effects. Further research may shed light on dark areas of the health effects of short and long-term human exposure to radiofrequency radiation.

  12. Effects of GSM-Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Some Physiological and Biochemical Parameters in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khirazova, E E; Baizhumanov, A A; Trofimova, L K; Deev, L I; Maslova, M V; Sokolova, N A; Kudryashova, N Yu

    2012-10-01

    Single exposure of white outbred rats to electromagnetic radiation with a frequency 905 MHz (GSM frequency) for 2 h increased anxiety, reduced locomotor, orientation, and exploration activities in females and orientation and exploration activities in males. Glucocorticoid levels and antioxidant system activity increased in both males and females. In addition to acute effects, delayed effects of radiation were observed in both males and females 1 day after the exposure. These results demonstrated significant effect of GSM-range radiation on the behavior and activity of stress-realizing and stress-limiting systems of the body.

  13. A Novel Dual-Band Rectenna for Ambient RF Energy Harvesting at GSM 900 MHz and 1800 MHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Khanh Ho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel dual-band rectenna for RF energy harvesting system. This rectenna is created from a dual-band antenna and a dual-band rectifier which operates at GSM bands (900 MHz and 1800 MHz. The printed monopole antenna is miniaturized by two meander-lines. The received signal from the receiving antenna is rectified by a voltage double using Schottky diode SMS-7630. The rectifier is optimized for low input power level of -20dBm using harmonic balance. Prototype is designed and fabricated. The simulation is validated by measurement with power conversion efficiency of 20% and 40.8% (in measurement at the input power level of -20dBm. The proposed rectenna has output voltage from 183-415 mV. From the measured results, this rectenna provides the possibility to harvest the ambient electromagnetic energy for powering low-power electronic devices.

  14. GSM base station electromagnetic radiation and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurekli, Ali Ihsan; Ozkan, Mehmed; Kalkan, Tunaya; Saybasili, Hale; Tuncel, Handan; Atukeren, Pinar; Gumustas, Koray; Seker, Selim

    2006-01-01

    The ever increasing use of cellular phones and the increasing number of associated base stations are becoming a widespread source of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Some biological effects are likely to occur even at low-level EM fields. In this study, a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell was used as an exposure environment for plane wave conditions of far-field free space EM field propagation at the GSM base transceiver station (BTS) frequency of 945 MHz, and effects on oxidative stress in rats were investigated. When EM fields at a power density of 3.67 W/m2 (specific absorption rate = 11.3 mW/kg), which is well below current exposure limits, were applied, MDA (malondialdehyde) level was found to increase and GSH (reduced glutathione) concentration was found to decrease significantly (p < 0.0001). Additionally, there was a less significant (p = 0.0190) increase in SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity under EM exposure.

  15. [Non-thermal effect of GSM electromagnetic radiation on quality of pea seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselova, T V; Veselovskiĭ, V A; Deev, L I; Baĭzhumanov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The seeds with low level of room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) were selected from a lot of air-dry peas (Pisum sativum) with 62% germination. These strong seeds (95-97% germination percentage) in air-dry, imbibed or emerged states were exposed to 905 MHz GSM-band electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The following effects of EMR were observed. Fraction II with higher RTP level appeared in the air-dry seeds. The germination rate decreased 2-3 fold in the air-dry, swollen and sprouting seeds due to an increase in the ratio of the seedlings with morphological defects (from 3 to 38%) and suffocated seeds (from 1 to 15%). We suggest tentative mechanisms to account for the decreased fitness of peas under GSM-band EMR (905 MHz); also discussed is the role of non-enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates and amino-carbonyl reaction in this process.

  16. Level of Radiofrequency (RF) Radiations from GSM Base Stations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Levels of radiofrequency radiations around two global systems for mobile communication (GSM) base stations located in the vicinity of a residential quarter and workplace complex were measured. The effects of the radiofrequency radiations on albino mice placed in exposure cages and located around the base stations ...

  17. GSM module for wireless radiation monitoring system via SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Hisyam Ibrahim, Noor; Lombigit, Lojius; Azman, Azraf; Jaafar, Zainudin; Arymaswati Abdullah, Nor; Hadzir Patai Mohamad, Glam

    2018-01-01

    A customised Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) module is designed for wireless radiation monitoring through Short Messaging Service (SMS). This module is able to receive serial data from radiation monitoring devices such as survey meter or area monitor and transmit the data as text SMS to a host server. It provides two-way communication for data transmission, status query, and configuration setup. The module hardware consists of GSM module, voltage level shifter, SIM circuit and Atmega328P microcontroller. Microcontroller provides control for sending, receiving and AT command processing to GSM module. The firmware is responsible to handle task related to communication between device and host server. It process all incoming SMS, extract, and store new configuration from Host, transmits alert/notification SMS when the radiation data reach/exceed threshold value, and transmits SMS data at every fixed interval according to configuration. Integration of this module with radiation survey/monitoring device will create mobile and wireless radiation monitoring system with prompt emergency alert at high-level radiation.

  18. Can the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors be affected by the Received Signal Strength of 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, J; Ghafaripour, F; Mortazavi, S A R; Mortazavi, S M J; Shojaei-Fard, M B

    2015-12-01

    People who use home blood glucose monitors may use their mobile phones in the close vicinity of medical devices. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Sixty non-diabetic volunteer individuals aged 21 - 28 years participated in this study. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose level by using a common blood glucose monitoring system. Each blood sample was analyzed twice, within ten minutes in presence and absence of electromagnetic fields generated by a common GSM mobile phone during ringing. Blood samples were divided into 3 groups of 20 samples each. Group 1: exposure to mobile phone radiation with weak signal strength. Group2: exposure to mobile phone radiation with strong signal strength. Group3: exposure to a switched-on mobile phone with no signal strength. The magnitude of the changes in the first, second and third group between glucose levels of two measurements (׀ΔC׀) were 7.4±3.9 mg/dl, 10.2±4.5 mg/dl, 8.7±8.4 mg/dl respectively. The difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 1st and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Furthermore, the difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 2nd and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Findings of this study showed that the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones cannot play a significant role in changing the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors.

  19. Can the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors be affected by the Received Signal Strength of 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phones?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslami J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: People who use home blood glucose monitors may use their mobile phones in the close vicinity of medical devices. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Methods: Sixty non-diabetic volunteer individuals aged 21 - 28 years participated in this study. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose level by using a common blood glucose monitoring system. Each blood sample was analyzed twice, within ten minutes in presence and absence of electromagnetic fields generated by a common GSM mobile phone during ringing. Blood samples were divided into 3 groups of 20 samples each. Group 1: exposure to mobile phone radiation with weak signal strength. Group2: exposure to mobile phone radiation with strong signal strength. Group3: exposure to a switched–on mobile phone with no signal strength. Results: The magnitude of the changes in the first, second and third group between glucose levels of two measurements (׀ΔC׀ (were 7.4±3.9 mg/dl, 10.2±4.5 mg/ dl, 8.7±8.4 mg/dl respectively. The difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 1st and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Furthermore, the difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 2nd and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed that the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones cannot play a significant role in changing the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors.

  20. Can the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors be affected by the Received Signal Strength of 900 MHz GSM Mobile Phones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, J.; Ghafaripour, F.; Mortazavi, S.A.R.; Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Shojaei-fard, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background People who use home blood glucose monitors may use their mobile phones in the close vicinity of medical devices. This study is aimed at investigating the effect of the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Methods Sixty non-diabetic volunteer individuals aged 21 - 28 years participated in this study. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose level by using a common blood glucose monitoring system. Each blood sample was analyzed twice, within ten minutes in presence and absence of electromagnetic fields generated by a common GSM mobile phone during ringing. Blood samples were divided into 3 groups of 20 samples each. Group 1: exposure to mobile phone radiation with weak signal strength. Group2: exposure to mobile phone radiation with strong signal strength. Group3: exposure to a switched–on mobile phone with no signal strength. Results The magnitude of the changes in the first, second and third group between glucose levels of two measurements (׀ΔC׀) were 7.4±3.9 mg/dl, 10.2±4.5 mg/dl, 8.7±8.4 mg/dl respectively. The difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 1st and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Furthermore, the difference in the magnitude of the changes between the 2nd and the 3rd groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion Findings of this study showed that the signal strength of 900 MHz GSM mobile phones cannot play a significant role in changing the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. PMID:26688798

  1. Exposure to low level GSM 935 MHz radiofrequency fields does not induce apoptosis in proliferating or differentiated murine neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moquet, J.; Ainsbury, E.; Bouffler, S.; Lloyd, D.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiofrequency (RF) fields characteristic of mobile phones at non-thermal levels can induce apoptosis in murine neuroblastoma (N2a) cells in both proliferating and differentiated states. Cells were exposed continuously for 24 h to one of the three 935-MHz RF signals: global system for mobile communication (GSM) basic, GSM talk and a continuous wave, unmodulated signal; all at a specific energy absorption rate of 2 W kg -1 . The measured increase in temperature of the cells due to the RF fields was around 0.06 deg. C. At a number of time points between 0 and 48 h post-exposure, the cells were assessed for apoptosis under a fluorescence microscope using three independent assays: Annexin V, caspase activation and in situ end-labelling. No statistically significant differences in apoptosis levels were observed between the exposed and sham-exposed cells using the three assays at any time point post-exposure. These data suggest that RF exposures, characteristic of GSM mobile phones, do not significantly affect the apoptosis levels in proliferating and differentiated murine neuroblastoma cell line N2a. (authors)

  2. Reduced growth of soybean seedlings after exposure to weak microwave radiation from GSM 900 mobile phone and base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N; Yak, See Kye; Eberhardt, Jacob L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study possible effects of environmental radiation pollution on plants. The association between cellular telephone (short duration, higher amplitude) and base station (long duration, very low amplitude) radiation exposure and the growth rate of soybean (Glycine max) seedlings was investigated. Soybean seedlings, pre-grown for 4 days, were exposed in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell for 2 h to global system for mobile communication (GSM) mobile phone pulsed radiation or continuous wave (CW) radiation at 900 MHz with amplitudes of 5.7 and 41 V m(-1) , and outgrowth was studied one week after exposure. The exposure to higher amplitude (41 V m(-1)) GSM radiation resulted in diminished outgrowth of the epicotyl. The exposure to lower amplitude (5.7 V m(-1)) GSM radiation did not influence outgrowth of epicotyl, hypocotyls, or roots. The exposure to higher amplitude CW radiation resulted in reduced outgrowth of the roots whereas lower CW exposure resulted in a reduced outgrowth of the hypocotyl. Soybean seedlings were also exposed for 5 days to an extremely low level of radiation (GSM 900 MHz, 0.56 V m(-1)) and outgrowth was studied 2 days later. Growth of epicotyl and hypocotyl was found to be reduced, whereas the outgrowth of roots was stimulated. Our findings indicate that the observed effects were significantly dependent on field strength as well as amplitude modulation of the applied field. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effects of an acute and a sub-chronic 900 MHz GSM exposure on brain activity and behaviors of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsa Brillaud; Aleksandra Piotrowski; Anthony Lecomte; Franck Robidel; Rene de Seze

    2006-01-01

    Radio frequencies are suspected to produce health effects. Concerning the mobile phone technology, according to position during use (close to the head), possible effects of radio frequencies on the central nervous system have to be evaluated. Previous works showed contradictory results, possibly due to experimental design diversity. In the framework of R.A.M.P. 2001 project, we evaluated possible effect of a 900 MHz GSM exposure on the central nervous system of rat at a structural, a functional and a behavioral level after acute or sub-chronic exposures. Rats were exposed using a loop antenna system to different S.A.R. levels and durations, according to results of the French C.O.M.O.B.I.O. 2001 project. A functional effect was found (modification of the cerebral activity and increase of the glia surface) after an acute exposure, even at a low level of brain averaged S.A.R. (1.5 W/kg). No cumulative effect was observed after a sub-chronic exposure (same amplitude of the effect). No structural or behavioral consequence was noted. We do not conclude on the neurotoxicity of the 900 MHz GSM exposure on the rat brain. Our results do not indicate any health risk. (authors)

  4. Effects of an acute and a sub-chronic 900 MHz GSM exposure on brain activity and behaviors of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsa Brillaud; Aleksandra Piotrowski; Anthony Lecomte; Franck Robidel; Rene de Seze [Toxicology Unit, INERIS, Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2006-07-01

    Radio frequencies are suspected to produce health effects. Concerning the mobile phone technology, according to position during use (close to the head), possible effects of radio frequencies on the central nervous system have to be evaluated. Previous works showed contradictory results, possibly due to experimental design diversity. In the framework of R.A.M.P. 2001 project, we evaluated possible effect of a 900 MHz GSM exposure on the central nervous system of rat at a structural, a functional and a behavioral level after acute or sub-chronic exposures. Rats were exposed using a loop antenna system to different S.A.R. levels and durations, according to results of the French C.O.M.O.B.I.O. 2001 project. A functional effect was found (modification of the cerebral activity and increase of the glia surface) after an acute exposure, even at a low level of brain averaged S.A.R. (1.5 W/kg). No cumulative effect was observed after a sub-chronic exposure (same amplitude of the effect). No structural or behavioral consequence was noted. We do not conclude on the neurotoxicity of the 900 MHz GSM exposure on the rat brain. Our results do not indicate any health risk. (authors)

  5. Effects of exposure to 2100 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency electromagnetic field on auditory system of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Çeliker

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The use of mobile phones has become widespread in recent years. Although beneficial from the communication viewpoint, the electromagnetic fields generated by mobile phones may cause unwanted biological changes in the human body. Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of 2100 MHz Global System for Mobile communication (GSM-like electromagnetic field, generated by an electromagnetic fields generator, on the auditory system of rats by using electrophysiological, histopathologic and immunohistochemical methods. Methods: Fourteen adult Wistar albino rats were included in the study. The rats were divided randomly into two groups of seven rats each. The study group was exposed continuously for 30 days to a 2100 MHz electromagnetic fields with a signal level (power of 5.4 dBm (3.47 mW to simulate the talk mode on a mobile phone. The control group was not exposed to the aforementioned electromagnetic fields. After 30 days, the Auditory Brainstem Responses of both groups were recorded and the rats were sacrificed. The cochlear nuclei were evaluated by histopathologic and immunohistochemical methods. Results: The Auditory Brainstem Responses records of the two groups did not differ significantly. The histopathologic analysis showed increased degeneration signs in the study group (p = 0.007. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis revealed increased apoptotic index in the study group compared to that in the control group (p = 0.002. Conclusion: The results support that long-term exposure to a GSM-like 2100 MHz electromagnetic fields causes an increase in neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the auditory system.

  6. Effects of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation on skin hydroxyproline contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çam, Semra Tepe; Seyhan, Nesrin; Kavaklı, Cengiz; Çelikbıçak, Ömür

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on rat skin hydroxyproline content, since skin is the first target of external electromagnetic fields. Skin hydroxyproline content was measured using liquid chromatography mass spectrometer method. Two months old male wistar rats were exposed to a 900 MHz pulse-modulated RFR at an average whole body specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.35 W/kg for 20 min/day for 3 weeks. The radiofrequency (RF) signals were pulse modulated by rectangular pulses with a repetition frequency of 217 Hz and a duty cycle of 1:8 (pulse width 0.576 ms). A skin biopsy was taken at the upper part of the abdominal costa after the exposure. The data indicated that whole body exposure to a pulse-modulated RF radiation that is similar to that emitted by the global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones caused a statistically significant increase in the skin hydroxyproline level (p = 0.049, Mann-Whitney U test). Under our experimental conditions, at a SAR less than the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection safety limit recommendation, there was evidence that GSM signals could alter hydroxyproline concentration in the rat skin.

  7. Co-channel and Adjacent Channel Interference Measurement of UMTS and GSM/EDGE Systems in 900 MHz Radio Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hanus

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with inter-system and intra-system interference measurements of 2.5G and 3G mobile communication systems. The both systems UMTS and GSM/EDGE are assumed to operate in a common radio band of 900 MHz. The main system parameters are briefly introduced as well as the measurement scenario. Several simulations and key measurements were performed. Important results are described and commented along with a graphical representation, namely bit error ratio (BER dependence on carrier to noise ratio (CNR in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN, the measurement of adjacent channel interference ratio of each system, the coexistence of both systems in same band and the impact of a carrier offset on BER.

  8. GSM based real time remote radiation monitoring and mapping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodiya, Kamal; Gupta, Ashutosh; Padmanabhan, N.; Chaudhury, Probal; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile Radiological Impact Assessment Laboratory (M-RIAL) has been developed in Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre for carrying out assessment of radioactive contamination following a nuclear or radiological emergency in a nuclear facility or in public domain. During such situations a large area is to be monitored for radiological impact assessment and availability of the monitored data in real-time to a control centre is a great advantage for the decision makers. Development and application of such a system has been described in this paper. The system can transmit real-time radiological data, acquired by the universal counting system of M-RIAL and tagged with positional information, wirelessly to an Emergency Response Centre (ERC) using Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication. The radiological profile of the affected area is then superimposed on Geographical Information System (GIS) at the ERC and which can be used for the generation of radiological impact maps for use as decision support

  9. Electromagnetic radiation-2450 MHz exposure causes cognition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    83

    Electromagnetic radiation-2450 MHz exposure causes cognition deficit with mitochondrial. 1 ... decrease in levels of acetylcholine, and increase in activity of acetyl ...... neuronal apoptosis and cognitive disturbances in sevoflurane or propofol ...

  10. Survey of radiofrequency radiation levels around GSM base stations and evaluation of measurement uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulević Branislav D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a summary of broadband measurement values of radiofrequency radiation around GSM base stations in the vicinity of residential areas in Belgrade and 12 other cities in Serbia. It will be useful for determining non-ionizing radiation exposure levels of the general public in the future. The purpose of this paper is also an appropriate representation of basic information on the evaluation of measurement uncertainty.

  11. Development of a GSM based radiation monitoring system (GRaMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saindane, Shashank S.; Suri, M.M.K.; Padmanabhan, N.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2007-01-01

    Real-time measurements and the quick analysis of the data are of crucial importance during a radiological or nuclear emergency. To develop a timely response capability, the Radiation Safety Systems Division has launched a project to develop an advanced online measurement system for use in different threat scenarios, such as the release of radioactive materials to the environment during any nuclear or radiological accident. In order to meet this requirement a Global system for Mobile (GSM) based Radiation Monitoring system is designed and tested on field. It uses an energy compensated GM detector and is attached with commercially available Global Positioning System (GPS) for online acquisition of positional coordinates with time, and GSM modem for online data transfer. The equipment can be operated continuously while the vehicle is moving. The system is designed to provide measurement information, either raw data or analysis results, to the local database or to a remote database through a communication link. The system consumes ∼ 250 mA including the GPS and GSM enabling ∼ 30 hours of continuous radioactivity monitoring with a 12 Ah battery source. The system has been used in road based environmental radiation surveys carried out at various part of the country. With PC support, the system can map the radiological status online onto the map of the area being surveyed, to help decision-making on countermeasures during the survey and sending the online data at a remote station to enable the emergency managers to take appropriate decision. (author)

  12. Radiations from GSM Base Stations and its Biological Effects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    All rights reserved ... radiofrequency radiations on albino mice placed in exposure cages and ... information in Nigeria on the possible effects of the .... The slides were left to dry on the hot plate ... potential health effect of the RF radiations. It is also a pointer to the need for .... The telecommunication industry is an essential.

  13. A 3D printed dual GSM band near isotropic on-package antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Zhen, Su

    2017-10-25

    In this paper, we propose an on-package dual band monopole antenna with near-isotropic radiation pattern for GSM mobile applications. The proposed antenna is well matched for both GSM 900 and 1800 bands and provides decent gain for both the bands (1.67 and 3.27 dBi at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz respectively). The antenna is printed with silver ink on a 3D printed polymer based package. The package houses the GSM electronics and the battery. By optimizing the antenna arms width and length, a near-isotropic radiation pattern is achieved. Unlike the published isotropic antennas which are either single band or large in size, the proposed antenna covers both GSM bands with required bandwidth and is only half wavelength long. The design is low cost and highly suitable for various GSM applications such as localization, in additional to conventional communication applications.

  14. Enhancement of chemically induced reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by 872 MHz radiofrequency radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luukkonen, Jukka [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, Bioteknia 2, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: Jukka.Luukkonen@uku.fi; Hakulinen, Pasi; Maeki-Paakkanen, Jorma [Department of Environmental Health, National Public Health Institute, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Juutilainen, Jukka; Naarala, Jonne [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, Bioteknia 2, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-03-09

    The objective of the study was to investigate effects of 872 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage at a relatively high SAR value (5 W/kg). The experiments also involved combined exposure to RF radiation and menadione, a chemical inducing intracellular ROS production and DNA damage. The production of ROS was measured using the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein and DNA damage was evaluated by the Comet assay. Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed to RF radiation for 1 h with or without menadione. Control cultures were sham exposed. Both continuous waves (CW) and a pulsed signal similar to that used in global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones were used. Exposure to the CW RF radiation increased DNA breakage (p < 0.01) in comparison to the cells exposed only to menadione. Comparison of the same groups also showed that ROS level was higher in cells exposed to CW RF radiation at 30 and 60 min after the end of exposure (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). No effects of the GSM signal were seen on either ROS production or DNA damage. The results of the present study suggest that 872 MHz CW RF radiation at 5 W/kg might enhance chemically induced ROS production and thus cause secondary DNA damage. However, there is no known mechanism that would explain such effects from CW RF radiation but not from GSM modulated RF radiation at identical SAR.

  15. Enhancement of chemically induced reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by 872 MHz radiofrequency radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkonen, Jukka; Hakulinen, Pasi; Maeki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Juutilainen, Jukka; Naarala, Jonne

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate effects of 872 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage at a relatively high SAR value (5 W/kg). The experiments also involved combined exposure to RF radiation and menadione, a chemical inducing intracellular ROS production and DNA damage. The production of ROS was measured using the fluorescent probe dichlorofluorescein and DNA damage was evaluated by the Comet assay. Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed to RF radiation for 1 h with or without menadione. Control cultures were sham exposed. Both continuous waves (CW) and a pulsed signal similar to that used in global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones were used. Exposure to the CW RF radiation increased DNA breakage (p < 0.01) in comparison to the cells exposed only to menadione. Comparison of the same groups also showed that ROS level was higher in cells exposed to CW RF radiation at 30 and 60 min after the end of exposure (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). No effects of the GSM signal were seen on either ROS production or DNA damage. The results of the present study suggest that 872 MHz CW RF radiation at 5 W/kg might enhance chemically induced ROS production and thus cause secondary DNA damage. However, there is no known mechanism that would explain such effects from CW RF radiation but not from GSM modulated RF radiation at identical SAR

  16. Exposure to electromagnetic radiation from GSM and UMTS base station antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.; Carpinteiro, G.; Correia, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses processes for measurement of GSM and UMTS signal strength on different scenarios, regarding base stations compliance evaluation with radiation exposure limits. Recommendations to minimize exposure from base station antennas' radiation are also established. Propagation models application and their importance to base stations security evaluation are analysed. An application example of the use of these models in a software tool development is given. A measurement campaign to collect real data from base stations in Lisbon is described, and propagation models applicability is discussed. Radiation reference levels were never exceeded on the analysed base stations. The worst-case detected was about five time (in terms of electric field strength) below security limits adopted by the European Union Council. Nevertheless, in general, the measured stations were at least thirteen times below limits. Scenarios where differences between measurements and limits are lower and exposure on buildings' rooftops with base stations and indoors. (author)

  17. Development of low cost wireless radiation monitoring station using GSM network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Aira Abd Rahman; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Nor Arymaswati Abdullah; Roslan Md Dan

    2006-01-01

    SMS or Short Message Service is a mean of GSM wireless communication that allow text messages to be sent to and from mobile cell phones. While SMS communication is mainly utilized at personal level or person to person basis; the usage of SMS can be extended into nuclear application specifically in radiation monitoring. This paper explains the development of a wireless station assembled by using a recycled Siemens M50 cell phone as substitutes to GSM modem, a PIC micro controller, and MINT-ISG home made digital survey meter at the remote transmitting site. While at the receiving end; an online monitoring system is set-up by using a Bluetooth enabled cell phone, a Bluetooth dongle, and a PC with Labview 8.0 software written as the Data logger which also served as the PC-Bluetooth interface platform. Wireless station at the remote area operates by continuously sending SMS in every 3 minutes to a predefined cellular number located at the monitoring system. The SMS consists of 6 data which individually is a survey meter readings recorded at each 30 seconds duration. At the receiver, Data logger program will retrieve the SMS from the cell phone via Bluetooth and extract the original 6 readings to be displayed on PC. The system has been successfully tested to detect and log radiation data for extended period of time. (Author)

  18. Oxidative changes and apoptosis induced by 1800-MHz electromagnetic radiation in NIH/3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingxia; Wang, Minglian; Wu, Shuicai; Ma, Xuemei; An, Guangzhou; Liu, Huan; Xie, Fei

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the potential adverse effects of mobile phone radiation, we studied reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) after intermittent exposure (5 min on/10 min off, for various durations from 0.5 to 8 h) to an 1800-MHz GSM-talk mode electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at an average specific absorption rate of 2 W/kg. A 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate fluorescence probe was used to detect intracellular ROS levels, immunofluorescence was used to detect γH2AX foci as a marker for DNA damage, and flow cytometry was used to measure apoptosis. Our results showed a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels after EMR exposure and it reached the highest level at an exposure time of 1 h (p < 0.05) followed by a slight decrease when the exposure continued for as long as 8 h. No significant effect on the number of γH2AX was detected after EMR exposure. The percentage of late-apoptotic cells in the EMR-exposed group was significantly higher than that in the sham-exposed groups (p < 0.05). These results indicate that an 1800-MHz EMR enhances ROS formation and promotes apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells.

  19. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, SMJ; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, AR

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors. PMID:25505778

  20. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMJ Mortazavi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students, blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2 while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students, two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (ΔC in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors.

  1. Assessment of cutaneous radiation fibrosis by 20 MHz-sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottloeber, P.; Braun-Falco, B.; Plewig, G.; Kerscher, M.; Peter, R.U.; Nadeshina, N.

    1996-01-01

    Radiation fibrosis is the cardinal symptom of the chronicle stage of the cutaneous radiation syndrome. The degree of cutaneous fibrosis can clinically be estimated by palpation. High-frequency 20 MHz-sonography is an established, noninvasive procedure, which renders an exact determination of skin thickness and additionally densitometry is possible. We investigated 15 survivors of the Chernobyl accident in 1986, who developed symptoms of the chronic stage of the cutaneous radiation syndrome. We determined skin thickness and echogenicity of skin areas clinically suggestive of radiation fibrosis before, during and after treatment. 20 MHz-sonography showed a distinct enlargement of the echorich corium and a reduction of the subcutaneous fatty tissue in comparison with the unaffected, contralateral skin, here demonstrating typical features of radiation fibrosis, namely dermal fibrosis and reactive pseudoatrophy and fatty tissue. The histology presented an increase and swelling of the collagen fibers and atypical fibroblastic cells. The patients received treatment with low-dose interferon y (Polyfcron R , 3 x 50μg s.C., three times per week) up to 30 months. A marked reduction of skin thickness and echogenicity reaching nearly normal values could be observed. We conclude that 20 MHz-sonography is an easy to apply, noninvasive, well established procedure to quantify cutaneous radiation fibrosis and to assess therapeutic outcome

  2. Exposure of cultured astroglial and microglial brain cells to 900 MHz microwave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlin, Thorleif; Rouquette, Jean-Michel; Hamnerius, Yngve; Hansson, Elisabeth; Persson, Mikael; Björklund, Ulrika; Rosengren, Lars; Rönnbäck, Lars; Persson, Mikael

    2006-08-01

    The rapid rise in the use of mobile communications has raised concerns about health issues related to low-level microwave radiation. The head and brain are usually the most exposed targets in mobile phone users. In the brain, two types of glial cells, the astroglial and the microglial cells, are interesting in the context of biological effects from microwave exposure. These cells are widely distributed in the brain and are directly involved in the response to brain damage as well as in the development of brain cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether 900 MHz radiation could affect these two different glial cell types in culture by studying markers for damage-related processes in the cells. Primary cultures enriched in astroglial cells were exposed to 900 MHz microwave radiation in a temperature-controlled exposure system at specific absorption rates (SARs) of 3 W/kg GSM modulated wave (mw) for 4, 8 and 24 h or 27 W/kg continuous wave (cw) for 24 h, and the release into the extracellular medium of the two pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 (Il6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (Tnfa) was analyzed. In addition, levels of the astroglial cell-specific reactive marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (Gfap), whose expression dynamics is different from that of cytokines, were measured in astroglial cultures and in astroglial cell-conditioned cell culture medium at SARs of 27 and 54 W/kg (cw) for 4 or 24 h. No significant differences could be detected for any of the parameters studied at any time and for any of the radiation characteristics. Total protein levels remained constant during the experiments. Microglial cell cultures were exposed to 900 MHz radiation at an SAR of 3 W/kg (mw) for 8 h, and I16, Tnfa, total protein and the microglial reactivity marker ED-1 (a macrophage activation antigen) were measured. No significant differences were found. The morphology of the cultured astroglial cells and microglia was studied and appeared to be

  3. Reminder: GSM

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    1- Your present GSM subscription (SIM card) will no longer be valid as from the 5th January 2004. 2- Short numbers 16xxxx (where xxxx are your current last 4 digits) will remain valid. 3- Your new number from outside will then be +4176 487xxxx. 4- From the 20th December to the 4th January 2004 (CERN's official holiday) your GSM will be unusable underground. Nota bene: Due to the high costs involved calls from outside will not be automatically diverted to a "combox" indicating that your number has changed. It is therefore up to you to inform your correspondents of your GSM number change. For further information on the GSM Migration see the CERN home page: http://cern.ch/

  4. Assessment of radiofrequency radiation within the vicinity of some GSM base stations in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deatanyah, P.; Amoako, J. K.; Fletcher, J. J.; Asiedu, G. O.; Adjei, D. N.; Dwapanyin, G. O.; Amoatey, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    A radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation safety survey had been carried out at public access points in 46 towns with 76 Global Systems for Mobile communication cell sites in two major cities in Ghana. The objective was to determine the levels of RF field in residential areas, schools and market places, and compare the measured results with the guidelines set by the International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation (ICNIRP). Measurements were made with log-periodic antenna coupled with spectrum analyzer. The results varied from 0.85 to 1.07 mW m -2 and 0.78 to 1.19 mW m -2 for the transmission frequencies of 900 and 1800 MHz, respectively. The result generally shows a compliance with the ICNIRP limit of 0.024 % but was 108 times higher than a similar survey carried out in Ghana 2 y ago. (authors)

  5. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation induces oxidative DNA base damage in a mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Duan, Weixia; Xu, Shangcheng; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2013-03-27

    Whether exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted from mobile phones can induce DNA damage in male germ cells remains unclear. In this study, we conducted a 24h intermittent exposure (5 min on and 10 min off) of a mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line to 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) signals in GSM-Talk mode at specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1 W/kg, 2 W/kg or 4 W/kg. Subsequently, through the use of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) in a modified comet assay, we determined that the extent of DNA migration was significantly increased at a SAR of 4 W/kg. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that levels of the DNA adduct 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) were also increased at a SAR of 4 W/kg. These increases were concomitant with similar increases in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); these phenomena were mitigated by co-treatment with the antioxidant α-tocopherol. However, no detectable DNA strand breakage was observed by the alkaline comet assay. Taking together, these findings may imply the novel possibility that RF-EMR with insufficient energy for the direct induction of DNA strand breaks may produce genotoxicity through oxidative DNA base damage in male germ cells. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The protective effect of autophagy on mouse spermatocyte derived cells exposure to 1800MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaijun; Zhang, Guowei; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Yong; Dong, Jianyun; Dong, Xiaomei; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia; Ao, Lin; Zhang, Shaoxiang

    2014-08-04

    The increasing exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from mobile phone use has raised public concern regarding the biological effects of RF exposure on the male reproductive system. Autophagy contributes to maintaining intracellular homeostasis under environmental stress. To clarify whether RF exposure could induce autophagy in the spermatocyte, mouse spermatocyte-derived cells (GC-2) were exposed to 1800MHz Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) signals in GSM-Talk mode at specific absorption rate (SAR) values of 1w/kg, 2w/kg or 4w/kg for 24h, respectively. The results indicated that the expression of LC3-II increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner with RF exposure, and showed a significant change at the SAR value of 4w/kg. The autophagosome formation and the occurrence of autophagy were further confirmed by GFP-LC3 transient transfection assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Furthermore, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II was enhanced by co-treatment with Chloroquine (CQ), indicating autophagic flux could be enhanced by RF exposure. Intracellular ROS levels significantly increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after cells were exposed to RF. Pretreatment with anti-oxidative NAC obviously decreased the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and attenuated the degradation of p62 induced by RF exposure. Meanwhile, phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) significantly increased after RF exposure at the SAR value of 2w/kg and 4w/kg. Moreover, we observed that RF exposure did not increase the percentage of apoptotic cells, but inhibition of autophagy could increase the percentage of apoptotic cells. These findings suggested that autophagy flux could be enhanced by 1800MHz GSM exposure (4w/kg), which is mediated by ROS generation. Autophagy may play an important role in preventing cells from apoptotic cell death under RF exposure stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of GSM modulated radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation on permeability of blood-brain barrier in male & female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırav, Bahriye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    With the increased use of mobile phones, their biological and health effects have become more important. Usage of mobile phones near the head increases the possibility of effects on brain tissue. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of pulse modulated 900MHz and 1800MHz radio-frequency radiation on the permeability of blood-brain barrier of rats. Study was performed with 6 groups of young adult male and female wistar albino rats. The permeability of blood-brain barrier to intravenously injected evans blue dye was quantitatively examined for both control and radio-frequency radiarion exposed groups. For male groups; Evans blue content in the whole brain was found to be 0.08±0.01mg% in the control, 0.13±0.03mg% in 900MHz exposed and 0.26±0.05mg% in 1800MHz exposed animals. In both male radio-frequency radiation exposed groups, the permeability of blood-brain barrier found to be increased with respect to the controls (pradiation exposure was found more effective on the male animals (p0.01). However 900MHz pulse modulated radio-frequency exposure was found effective on the permeability of blood-brain barrier of female animals. Results have shown that 20min pulse modulated radio-frequency radiation exposure of 900MHz and 1800MHz induces an effect and increases the permeability of blood-brain barrier of male rats. For females, 900MHz was found effective and it could be concluded that this result may due to the physiological differences between female and male animals. The results of this study suggest that mobile phone radation could lead to increase the permeability of blood-brain barrier under non-thermal exposure levels. More studies are needed to demonstrate the mechanisms of that breakdown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of 900 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation on the Induction of ROS in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, E.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Ali-Ghanbari, A.; Sharifzadeh, S.; Ranjbaran, R.; Mostafavi-pour, Z.; Zal, F.; Haghani, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite numerous studies over a decade, it still remains controversial about the biological effects of RF EMF emitted by mobile phone telephony. Objective Here we investigated the effect of 900 MHz GSM on the induction of oxidative stress and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human mononuclear cells, monocytes and lymphocytes as defence system cells. Method 6 ml Peripheral Blood samples were obtained from 13 healthy volunteers (21-30 year-old). Each sample was devided into 2 groups: one was exposed RF radiation emitted from a mobile phone simulator for 2 hour and the other used as control group which was not exposed to any fields. After that, mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood by density gradient centrifugation in Ficoll-Paque. The intracellular ROS content in monocytes and lymphocytes was measured by the CM-H2DCFDA fluorescence probe using flowcytometry technique. Results Our results showed significant increase in  ROS production after exposure in population rich in monocytes. This effect was not significant in population rich in lymphocytes in comparison with non exposed cells. Conclusion The results obtained in this study clearly showed the oxidative stress induction capability of RF electromagnetic field in the portion of PBMCs mostly in monocytes, like the case of exposure to micro organisms, although the advantages or disadvantages of this effect should be evaluated. PMID:26396966

  9. Effect of 900 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation on the Induction of ROS in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi S.M.J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite numerous studies over a decade, it still remains controversial about the biological effects of RF EMF emitted by mobile phone telephony. Objective: Here we investigated the effect of 900 MHz GSM on the induction of oxidative stress and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in human mononuclear cells, monocytes and lymphocytes as defence system cells. Method: 6 ml Peripheral Blood samples were obtained from 13 healthy volunteers (21-30 year-old. Each sample was devided into 2 groups: one was exposed RF radiation emitted from a mobile phone simulator for 2 hour and the other used as control group which was not exposed to any fields. After that, mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood by density gradient centrifugation in Ficoll-Paque. The intracellular ROS content in monocytes and lymphocytes was measured by the CM-H2DCFDA fluorescence probe using flowcytometry technique. Results: Our results showed significant increase in ROS production after exposure in population rich in monocytes. This effect was not significant in population rich in lymphocytes in comparison with non exposed cells. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study clearly showed the oxidative stress induction capability of RF electromagnetic field in the portion of PBMCs mostly in monocytes, like the case of exposure to micro organisms, although the advantages or disadvantages of this effect should be evaluated.

  10. Effects of radiofrequency exposure emitted from a GSM mobile phone on proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of neural stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghlidospour, Mahsa; Ghanbari, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Due to the importance of neural stem cells (NSCs) in plasticity of the nervous system and treating neurodegenerative diseases, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from a GSM 900-MHz mobile phone with different exposure duration on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult murine NSCs in vitro. We used neurosphere assay to evaluate NSCs proliferation, and immunofluorescence assay of neural cell markers to examine NSCs differentiation. We also employed alamarBlue and caspase 3 apoptosis assays to assess harmful effects of mobile phone on NSCs. Our results showed that the number and size of resulting neurospheres and also the percentage of cells differentiated into neurons decreased significantly with increasing exposure duration to GSM 900-MHz radiofrequency (RF)-electromagnetic field (EMF). In contrast, exposure to GSM 900-MHz RF-EMF at different durations did not influence cell viability and apoptosis of NSCs and also their astrocytic differentiation. It is concluded that accumulating dose of GSM 900-MHz RF-EMF might have devastating effects on NSCs proliferation and neurogenesis requiring more causations in terms of using mobile devices. PMID:28713615

  11. Cellular responses to 836 MHz and 1,765 GHz CDMA radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woong Yang; Seo, Jeong Sun; Paik, Jung Ki; Lim, Kye Jae; Yoon, Hyun Bo

    2002-01-01

    The effect of radiofrequency (RF) radiation in the cellular phone communication range (836.5 MHz and 1.765 GHz code division multiple access, CDMA) on tumorigenesis and other health effect was measured using the in vitro cell culture system. To determine whether 836.5 MHz or 1.765 GHz CDMA radiations have any genotoxic effects to induce neoplastic transformation, C3H 10T1/2 cells were exposed to either of the above radiations at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 35.6W/Kg (836.5 MHz) and 38.2 W/kg(1.765 GHz) or sham- exposed at the same time for 7 days. Cells were maintained in incubators and refed with fresh growth medium every 3 days. At this SAR, radiofrequency radiation did not induce neoplastic transformation in vitro. The extent of alteration in the kinetics of cell proliferation indicated no significant differences between RF-radiation- and sham-exposed cells with respect to MTS assay and 8-OHdG. Under this experimental conditions tested, there is no evidence for the induction of genotoxic indices in human and mouse cells exposed in vitro for 7 days to 836.5 MHz or 1.765 GHz RF radiation at SARs of up to 35.6 or 38.2 W/kg

  12. Gsm 1900Umts Printed Monopole Antenna For Mobile Base Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyi Nyi Lwin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper printed rectangular monopole antenna which is basically printed microstrip patch antenna with partial ground plane is designed for mobile base station. The substrate FR4 with a relative permittivity of 4.4 and thickness 1.8 is used in design. In addition the printed monopole antenna is of low profile in appearance and suitable for most application. The proposed antenna can cover GSM1900 1850-1990 MHz and UMTS 1920-2170 MHz bands. Design and simulation processes are carried out with the aid of FEKO software which is used for the analysis of electromagnetic problems. Simulation results of the return loss gain and radiation patterns are presented.

  13. Comparison of 864 and 935 MHz microwave radiation effects on cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicic, I.; Trosic, I.; Sarolic, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare the effect of 864 and 935 MHz microwave radiation on proliferation, colony forming and viability of Chinese hamster lung cells, cell line V79. Cell cultures were exposed both to the 864 MHz microwave field in transversal electromagnetic mode cell (TEM-cell) and to the 935 MHz field in Gigahertz transversal electromagnetic mode cell (GTEM-cell) for 1, 2 and 3 hours. Philips PM 5508 generator connected with a signal amplifier generated the frequency of 864 MHz, whereas Hewlett Packard HP8657A signal generator was used to generate the frequency of 935 MHz. The average specific absorption rate (SAR) was 0.08 W/kg for 864 MHz and 0.12 W/kg for 935 MHz. To determine the cell growth, V79 cells were plated in the concentration of 1x10 4 cells per milliliter of nutrient medium. Cells were cultured in a humidified atmosphere at 37 degrees of C in 5% CO 2 . Cell proliferation was determined by cell counts for each hour of exposure during the five post-exposure days. To identify colony-forming ability, cells were cultivated in the concentration of 40 cells/mL of medium and incubated as described above. Colony-forming ability was assessed for each exposure time by colony count on post-exposure day 7. Trypan blue exclusion test was used to determine cell viability. On post-exposure day 3, the growth curve of 864 MHz irradiated cells showed a significant decrease (p less than 0.05) after 2 and 3 hours of exposure in comparison with control cells. Cells exposed to 935 MHz radiation showed a significant decrease (p less than 0.05) after 3 hours of exposure on post-exposure day 3. Both the colony-forming ability and viability of 864 MHz and 935 MHz exposed cells did not significantly differ from matched control cells. In conclusion, both applied RF/MW fields have shown similar effects on cell culture growth, colony forming and cell viability of the V79 cell line.(author)

  14. Effect of 905 MHz microwave radiation on colony growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains FF18733, FF1481 and D7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrhovac, Ivana; Hrascan, Reno; Franekic, Jasna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of weak radiofrequency microwave (RF/MW) radiation emitted by mobile phones on colony growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae strains FF18733 (wild-type), FF1481 (rad1 mutant) and D7 (commonly used to detect reciprocal and nonreciprocal mitotic recombinations) were exposed to a 905 MHz electromagnetic field that closely matched the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) pulse modulation signals for mobile phones at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.12 W/kg. Following 15-, 30- and 60-minutes exposure to RF/MW radiation, strain FF18733 did not show statistically significant changes in colony growth compared to the control sample. The irradiated strains FF1481 and D7 demonstrated statistically significant reduction of colony growth compared to non-irradiated strains after all exposure times. Furthermore, strain FF1481 was more sensitive to RF/MW radiation than strain D7. The findings indicate that pulsed RF/MW radiation at a low SAR level can affect the rate of colony growth of different S. cerevisiae strains

  15. An improved procedure to accurately assess the variability of the exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by GSM base station antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechet, Paul; Miclaus, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Long-term human exposure around Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) base station antennas has not yet been precisely established; this is of interest from human health and epidemiological perspectives. Actual exposure is difficult to assess accurately, mainly because there is a lack of technical information directly from the GSM operators. The in situ measurement standards available at present provide only a worst-case prediction method; the present work goes beyond this and proposes a methodology that, without the need for data from operators, allows a reliable way to express real exposure with a greater accuracy than all other methods proposed to date. The method is based on dual measurements of the signal strengths in the frequency domain and the time domain and takes into consideration the instantaneous traffic in GSM channels. In addition, it allows a channel-individualized exposure assessement, by making possible the separate analysis of the electric field level in the two types of channel of the GSM standard—the traffic channels and the control channels. (paper)

  16. Mobile network maintenance (GSM)

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN mobile network infrastructure (GSM) on the 23 and 24 July from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. in order to replace discontinued equipment and to increase the bandwidth capacity of the GSM mobile network. All CERN GSM emitters (40 units) will be moved one by one to the new infrastructure during the maintenance. The call of a user connected to an emitter at the time of its maintenance will be cut off. However, the general overlapping of the GSM radio coverage should mean that users are able immediately to call again should their call be interrupted. IT/CS/CS

  17. Effects of acute and chronic exposure to both 900 MHz and 2100 MHz electromagnetic radiation on glutamate receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçek-Saraç, Çiğdem; Er, Hakan; Kencebay Manas, Ceren; Kantar Gok, Deniz; Özen, Şükrü; Derin, Narin

    2017-09-01

    To demonstrate the molecular effects of acute and chronic exposure to both 900 and 2100 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the hippocampal level/activity of some of the enzymes - including PKA, CaMKIIα, CREB, and p44/42 MAPK - from N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-related signaling pathways. Rats were divided into the following groups: sham rats, and rats exposed to 900 and 2100 MHz RF-EMR for 2 h/day for acute (1 week) or chronic (10 weeks), respectively. Western blotting and activity measurement assays were used to assess the level/activity of the selected enzymes. The obtained results revealed that the hippocampal level/activity of selected enzymes was significantly higher in the chronic groups as compared to the acute groups at both 900 and 2100 MHz RF-EMR exposure. In addition, hippocampal level/activity of selected enzymes was significantly higher at 2100 MHz RF-EMR than 900 MHz RF-EMR in both acute and chronic groups. The present study provides experimental evidence that both exposure duration (1 week versus 10 weeks) and different carrier frequencies (900 vs. 2100 MHz) had different effects on the protein expression of hippocampus in Wistar rats, which might encourage further research on protection against RF-EMR exposure.

  18. Performance of an LPD prototype detector at MHz frame rates under Synchrotron and FEL radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, A.; Hart, M.; Nicholls, T.; Angelsen, C.; Coughlan, J.; French, M.; Hauf, S.; Kuster, M.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Turcato, M.; Carini, G. A.; Chollet, M.; Herrmann, S. C.; Lemke, H. T.; Nelson, S.; Song, S.; Weaver, M.; Zhu, D.; Meents, A.; Fischer, P.

    2013-11-01

    A MHz frame rate X-ray area detector (LPD — Large Pixel Detector) is under development by the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory for the European XFEL. The detector will have 1 million pixels and allows analogue storage of 512 images taken at 4.5 MHz in the detector front end. The LPD detector has 500 μm thick silicon sensor tiles that are bump bonded to a readout ASIC. The ASIC's preamplifier provides relatively low noise at high speed which results in a high dynamic range of 105 photons over an energy range of 5-20 keV. Small scale prototypes of 32 × 256 pixels (LPD 2-Tile detector) and 256 × 256 pixels (LPD supermodule detector) are now available for X-ray tests. The performance of prototypes of the detector is reported for first tests under synchrotron radiation (PETRA III at DESY) and Free-Electron-Laser radiation (LCLS at SLAC). The initial performance of the detector in terms of signal range and noise, radiation hardness and spatial and temporal response are reported. The main result is that the 4.5 MHz sampling detection chain is reliably working, including the analogue on-chip memory concept. The detector is at least radiation hard up to 5 MGy at 12 keV. In addition the multiple gain concept has been demonstrated over a dynamic range to 104 at 12 keV with a readout noise equivalent to < 1 photon rms in its most sensitive mode.

  19. 1950MHz Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation Inhibits Testosterone Secretion of Mouse Leydig Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan-Yun; Wu, Tao; Liu, Jun-Ye; Gao, Peng; Li, Kang-Chu; Guo, Qi-Yan; Yuan, Meng; Lang, Hai-Yang; Zeng, Li-Hua; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2017-12-23

    More studies that are focused on the bioeffects of radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation that is generated from the communication devices, but there were few reports with confirmed results about the bioeffects of RF radiation on reproductive cells. To explore the effects of 1950 MHz RF electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on mouse Leydig (TM3) cells. TM3 cells were irradiated or sham-irradiated continuously for 24 h by the specific absorption rate (SAR) 3 W/kg radiation. At 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days after irradiation, cell proliferation was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method, cell cycle distribution, percentage of apoptosis, and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were examined by flow cytometry, Testosterone level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression level of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and P450scc in TM3 cells was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After being irradiated for 24 h, cell proliferation obviously decreased and cell cycle distribution, secretion capacity of Testosterone, and P450scc mRNA level were reduced. While cell apoptosis, ROS, and StAR mRNA level did not change significantly. The current results indicated that 24 h of exposure at 1950 MHz 3 W/kg radiation could cause some adverse effects on TM3 cells proliferation and Testosterone secretion, further studies about the biological effects in the reproductive system that are induced by RF radiation are also needed.

  20. Variability in effective radiating area and output power of new ultrasound transducers at 3 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Lennart D; Straub, Stephen J; Howard, Samuel M

    2007-01-01

    Spatial average intensity (SAI) is often used by clinicians to gauge therapeutic ultrasound dosage, yet SAI measures are not directly regulated by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standards. Current FDA guidelines permit a possible 50% to 150% minimum to maximum range of SAI values, potentially contributing to variability in clinical outcomes. To measure clinical values that describe ultrasound transducers and to determine the degree of intramanufacturer and intermanufacturer variability in effective radiating area, power, and SAI when the transducer is functioning at 3 MHz. A descriptive and interferential approach was taken to this quasi-experimental design. Measurement laboratory. Sixty-six 5-cm(2) ultrasound transducers were purchased from 6 different manufacturers. All transducers were calibrated and then assessed using standardized measurement techniques; SAI was normalized to account for variability in effective radiating area, resulting in an nSAI. Effective radiating area, power, and nSAI. All manufacturers with the exception of Omnisound (P = .534) showed a difference between the reported and measured effective radiating area values (P nSAI (P < .05) than all other manufacturers functioning at 3 MHz. Intramanufacturer variability in SAI ranged from 16% to 35%, and intermanufacturer variability ranged from 22% to 61%. Clinicians should consider treatment values of each individual transducer, regardless of the manufacturer. In addition, clinicians should scrutinize the power calibration and recalibration record of the transducer and adjust clinical settings as needed for the desired level of heating. Our data may aid in explaining the reported heating differences among transducers from different manufacturers. Stricter FDA standards regarding effective radiating area and total power are needed, and standards regulating SAI should be established.

  1. A large-scale measurement, analysis and modelling of electromagnetic radiation levels in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base stations in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadağ, Teoman; Yüceer, Mehmet; Abbasov, Teymuraz

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyses the electric field radiating from the GSM/UMTS base stations located in central Malatya, a densely populated urban area in Turkey. The authors have conducted both instant and continuous measurements of high-frequency electromagnetic fields throughout their research by using non-ionising radiation-monitoring networks. Over 15,000 instant and 13,000,000 continuous measurements were taken throughout the process. The authors have found that the normal electric field radiation can increase ∼25% during daytime, depending on mobile communication traffic. The authors' research work has also demonstrated the fact that the electric field intensity values can be modelled for each hour, day or week with the results obtained from continuous measurements. The authors have developed an estimation model based on these values, including mobile communication traffic (Erlang) values obtained from mobile phone base stations and the temperature and humidity values in the environment. The authors believe that their proposed artificial neural network model and multivariable least-squares regression analysis will help predict the electric field intensity in an environment in advance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A large-scale measurement, analysis and modelling of electromagnetic radiation levels in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base stations in an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadag, Teoman; Abbasov, Teymuraz; Yuceer, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyses the electric field radiating from the GSM/UMTS base stations located in central Malatya, a densely populated urban area in Turkey. The authors have conducted both instant and continuous measurements of high-frequency electromagnetic fields throughout their research by using non-ionising radiation-monitoring networks. Over 15 000 instant and 13 000 000 continuous measurements were taken throughout the process. The authors have found that the normal electric field radiation can increase ∼25 % during daytime, depending on mobile communication traffic. The authors' research work has also demonstrated the fact that the electric field intensity values can be modelled for each hour, day or week with the results obtained from continuous measurements. The authors have developed an estimation model based on these values, including mobile communication traffic (Erlang) values obtained from mobile phone base stations and the temperature and humidity values in the environment. The authors believe that their proposed artificial neural network model and multivariable least-squares regression analysis will help predict the electric field intensity in an environment in advance. (authors)

  3. CERN GSM monitoring system

    CERN Multimedia

    Ghabrous Larrea, C

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the tremendous development of GSM services over the last years, the number of related services used by organizations has drastically increased. Therefore, monitoring GSM services is becoming a business critical issue in order to be able to react appropriately in case of incident. In order to provide with GSM coverage all the CERN underground facilities, more than 50 km of leaky feeder cable have been deployed. This infrastructure is also used to propagate VHF radio signals for the CERN’s fire brigade. Even though CERN’s mobile operator monitors the network, it cannot guarantee the availability of GSM services, and for sure not VHF services, where signals are carried by the leaky feeder cable. So, a global monitoring system has become critical to CERN. In addition, monitoring this infrastructure will allow to characterize its behaviour over time, especially with LHC operation. Given that commercial solutions were not yet mature, CERN developed a system based on GSM probes and an application...

  4. CERN GSM SUBSCRIPTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    Labo Telecom

    2002-01-01

    AS Division has created a new EDH document for handling all GSM subscription requests and amendments. This procedure will enter force immediately and from now on the Labo Telecom stores will no longer be able to deal with requests submitted on paper forms. Detailed information on the subject can be found here and the Labo Telecom stores will continue to open every day between 11.00 a.m. and 12.00 midday. IT-CS-TEL, Labo Telecom

  5. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station antenna masts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Neskovic, Natasa; Neskovic, Aleksandar; Paunovic, George

    2014-01-01

    As a result of dense installations of public mobile base station, additional electromagnetic radiation occurs in the living environment. In order to determine the level of radio-frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations. Base station locations were classified into three categories: indoor, masts and locations with installations on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (47 %) of sites with antenna masts, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed, and the measurement results were presented. It was concluded that the total electric field strength in the vicinity of base station antenna masts in no case exceeded 10 V m(-1), which is quite below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels. At horizontal distances >50 m from the mast bottom, the median and maximum values were <1 and 2 V m(-1), respectively.

  6. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station antenna masts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprivica, M.; Neskovic, N.; Neskovic, A.; Paunovic, G.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of dense installations of public mobile base station, additional electromagnetic radiation occurs in the living environment. In order to determine the level of radio-frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations. Base station locations were classified into three categories: indoor, masts and locations with installations on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (47 %) of sites with antenna masts, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed, and the measurement results were presented. It was concluded that the total electric field strength in the vicinity of base station antenna masts in no case exceeded 10 V m -1 , which is quite below the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels. At horizontal distances >50 m from the mast bottom, the median and maximum values were -1 , respectively. (authors)

  7. ECG changes in factory workers exposed to 27.2  MHz radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingsong; Xu, Guoyong; Lang, Li; Yang, Aichu; Li, Shilin; Yang, Liwen; Li, Chaolin; Huang, Hanlin; Li, Tao

    2013-05-01

    To research the effect of 27.2 MHz radiofrequency radiation on electrocardiograms (ECG), 225 female workers operating radiofrequency machines at a shoe factory were chosen as the exposure group and 100 female workers without exposure from the same factory were selected as the control group. The 6 min electric field strength that the female workers were exposed to was 64.0 ± 25.2 V/m (mean ± SD), which exceeded 61 V/m, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference root mean square levels for occupational exposure. A statistical difference was observed between the exposed group and the control group in terms of the rate of sinus bradycardia (χ(2)  = 11.48, P = 0.003). When several known risk factors for cardiovascular disease were considered, including smoking, age, alcohol ingestion habit, and so on, the exposure duration was not an effective factor for ECG changes, sinus arrhythmia, or sinus bradycardia according to α = 0.05, while P = 0.052 for sinus arrhythmia was very close to 0.05. We did not find any statistical difference in heart rate, duration of the QRS wave (ventricular depolarization), or corrected QT intervals (between the start of the Q wave and end of the T wave) between the exposed and control groups. Occupational exposure to radiofrequency radiation was not found to be a cause of ECG changes after consideration of the confounding factors. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station installed on buildings in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Slavkovic, Vladimir; Neskovic, Natasa; Neskovic, Aleksandar

    2016-03-01

    As a result of dense deployment of public mobile base stations, additional electromagnetic (EM) radiation occurs in the modern human environment. At the same time, public concern about the exposure to EM radiation emitted by such sources has increased. In order to determine the level of radio frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive EM field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations, from which 276 locations refer to the case of base stations with antenna system installed on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (42 %) of locations with installations on buildings, as well as the inevitable presence of people in their vicinity, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed. Measurement results showed that the maximum recorded value of total electric field strength has exceeded International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection general public exposure reference levels at 2.5 % of locations and Serbian national reference levels at 15.6 % of locations. It should be emphasised that the values exceeding the reference levels were observed only outdoor, while in indoor total electric field strength in no case exceeded the defined reference levels. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of GSM/UMTS base station installed on buildings in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Slavkovic, Vladimir; Neskovic, Natasa; Neskovic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    As a result of dense deployment of public mobile base stations, additional electromagnetic (EM) radiation occurs in the modern human environment. At the same time, public concern about the exposure to EM radiation emitted by such sources has increased. In order to determine the level of radio frequency radiation generated by base stations, extensive EM field strength measurements were carried out for 664 base station locations, from which 276 locations refer to the case of base stations with antenna system installed on buildings. Having in mind the large percentage (42 %) of locations with installations on buildings, as well as the inevitable presence of people in their vicinity, a detailed analysis of this location category was performed. Measurement results showed that the maximum recorded value of total electric field strength has exceeded International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection general public exposure reference levels at 2.5 % of locations and Serbian national reference levels at 15.6 % of locations. It should be emphasised that the values exceeding the reference levels were observed only outdoor, while in indoor total electric field strength in no case exceeded the defined reference levels. (authors)

  10. Statistical analysis of electromagnetic radiation measurements in the vicinity of indoor microcell GSM/UMTS base stations in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Mladen; Petrić, Majda; Nešković, Nataša; Nešković, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    To determine the level of radiofrequency radiation generated by base stations of Global System for Mobile Communications and Universal Mobile Telecommunication System, extensive electromagnetic field strength measurements were carried out in the vicinity of 664 base station locations. These were classified into three categories: indoor, masts, and locations with installations on buildings. Although microcell base stations with antennas installed indoors typically emit less power than outdoor macrocell base stations, the fact that people can be found close to antennas requires exposure originating from these base stations to be carefully considered. Measurement results showed that maximum recorded value of electric field strength exceeded International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference levels at 7% of indoor base station locations. At the same time, this percentage was much lower in the case of masts and installations on buildings (0% and 2.5%, respectively). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effects of 2450 MHz microwave radiation on meiosis and reproduction in male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manikowska-Czerska, E.; Czerski, P.; Leach, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    A series of studies to examine effects od continuous wave 2450 MHz radiation on meiosis and on chromosomes of germ cells in male CBA/CAY or ICR mice, by means of the spermatocyte (SCT), heritable translocation (HTT) and dominant lethal (DLT) tests is presented. Animals were exposed in an environmentally controlled waveguide system during two consecutive weeks, 30 minutes daily, six days a week. Specific absorption rates (SAR) were used in the range from 0.05 to 20 W/kg. With the SCT, it was demonstrated that chromosomal translocations can be induced by exposure during the first meiotic prophase, particularly during initial and early pachytene stages. The HTT results demonstrated that balanced translocations may be recovered among offspring of exposed males. The DLT provided confirmatory data on effects during prophase and indicated that chromosomal damage may be also induced by exposure of spermatids, during the maturation stage, and of spermatozoa. No changes were observed in spermatogonia. Thus, the effects of exposure were limited to one spermatogenic cycle. Genetically significant effects were induced at an SAR of 2 W/kg in the testes. For comparison, an SAR of 0.4 W/kg is used commonly as a basis for occupational exposure limits

  12. A 3D printed dual GSM band near isotropic on-package antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Zhen, Su; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    .67 and 3.27 dBi at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz respectively). The antenna is printed with silver ink on a 3D printed polymer based package. The package houses the GSM electronics and the battery. By optimizing the antenna arms width and length, a near

  13. Design of HTS filter for GSM-R communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongyu; Ji, Laiyun

    2018-04-01

    High-temperature superconducting materials with its excellent performance have increasingly been valued by industries, especially in the field of electronic information. The superconducting material has almost zero surface resistance, and the filter made of it has the characteristics of low insertion loss, high edge steepness and good out-of-band rejection. It has higher selectivity for the desired signal and thus less interference from adjacent channels Signal interference, and noise reduction coefficient can improve the ability to detect weak signals. This design is suitable for high temperature superconducting filter of GSM-R communication system, which can overcome many shortcomings of the traditional GSM-R. The filter is made of DyBCO, a high temperature superconducting thin film material based on magnesium oxide (MgO) substrate with the dielectric constant of 9.7, the center frequency at 887.5MHz, bandwidth of 5MHz.

  14. Remote controlled gate controller using a GSM network and Arduino platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pospisilik Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most remote controllers for entrance gates operate on free frequencies 433 or 868 MHz. However, this technology limits the user comfort, as it is usually not common that bi-directional communication is established. A higher comfort of controlling the entrance gates can be achieved by employing the GSM network for transmission of commands and messages between the gate controller and the user. In this case, only a conventional GSM cellular phone is needed to control the gate. A description of such a controller based on the GSM module and Arduino controller is provided in this paper.

  15. Measuring personal exposure from 900MHz mobile phone base stations in Australia and Belgium using a novel personal distributed exposimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Thielens, Arno; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Billah, Baki; Sim, Malcolm R; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout; Benke, Geza

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: i) measure personal exposure in the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) 900MHz downlink (DL) frequency band with two systems of exposimeters, a personal distributed exposimeter (PDE) and a pair of ExpoM-RFs, ii) compare the GSM 900MHz DL exposures across

  16. The 2100MHz radiofrequency radiation of a 3G-mobile phone and the DNA oxidative damage in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Duygu; Ozgur, Elcin; Guler, Goknur; Tomruk, Arın; Unlu, Ilhan; Sepici-Dinçel, Aylin; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of 2100MHz radiofrequency radiation emitted by a generator, simulating a 3G-mobile phone on the brain of rats during 10 and 40 days of exposure. The female rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group I; exposed to 3G modulated 2100MHz RFR signal for 6h/day, 5 consecutive days/wk for 2 weeks, group II; control 10 days, were kept in an inactive exposure set-up for 6h/day, 5 consecutive days/wk for 2 weeks, group III; exposed to 3G modulated 2100MHz RFR signal for 6h/day, 5 consecutive days/wk for 8 weeks and group IV; control 40 days, were kept in an inactive exposure set-up for 6h/day, 5 consecutive days/wk for 8 weeks. After the genomic DNA content of brain was extracted, oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine, pg/mL) and malondialdehyde (MDA, nmoL/g tissue) levels were determined. Our main finding was the increased oxidative DNA damage to brain after 10 days of exposure with the decreased oxidative DNA damage following 40 days of exposure compared to their control groups. Besides decreased lipid peroxidation end product, MDA, was observed after 40 days of exposure. The measured decreased quantities of damage during the 40 days of exposure could be the means of adapted and increased DNA repair mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation of a 3G mobile phone on the parotid gland of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Filiz; Unlu, Ilhan; Aydin, Emine; Yumusak, Nihat; Devrim, Erdinc; Samim, Ethem Erdal; Ozgur, Elcin; Unsal, Velid; Tomruk, Arin; Ozturk, Goknur Guler; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation on the parotid gland of rats in short and relatively long terms. Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Groups A and B served as the control groups (for 10 days and 40 days, respectively), and each group included six rats. Groups C and D were composed of nine rats each, and they were the exposure groups. The rats were exposed to 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation emitted by a generator, simulating a third generation mobile phone for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 10 or 40 days. Following exposure, the rats were sacrificed and parotid glands were removed. Histopathological and biochemical examinations were performed. Although there were no histopathological changes in the control groups except for two animals in group A and three animals in group B, the exposure groups C (10 days) and D (40 days) showed numerous histopathological changes regarding salivary gland damage including acinar epithelial cells, interstitial space, ductal system, vascular system, nucleus, amount of cytoplasm and variations in cell size. The histopathological changes were more prominent in group D compared to group C. There was statistically significant different parameter regarding variation in cell size between the groups B and D (p=0.036). The parotid gland of rats showed numerous histopathological changes after exposure to 2100 MHz radiofrequency radiation, both in the short and relatively long terms. Increased exposure duration led to an increase in the histopathological changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (Pelectromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy.

  19. [Effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation on rat liver and blood serum enzyme activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersesova, L S; Petrosian, M S; Gazariants, M G; Mkrtchian, Z S; Meliksetian, G O; Pogosian, L G; Akopian, Zh I

    2014-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the rat liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase post-radiation activity levels after a total two-hour long single and fractional exposure of the animals to low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic field showed that the most sensitive enzymes to the both schedules of radiation are the liver creatine kinase, as well as the blood serum creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase. According to the comparative analysis of the dynamics of changes in the activity level of the liver and blood serum creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, both single and fractional radiation schedules do not affect the permeability of a hepatocyte cell membrane, but rather cause changes in their energetic metabolism. The correlation analysis of the post-radiation activity level changes of the investigated enzymes did not reveal a clear relationship between them. The dynamics of post-radiation changes in the activity of investigated enzyme levels following a single and short-term fractional schedules of radiation did not differ essentially.

  20. Studies of the teratogenic potential of exposure of rats to 6000-MHz microwave radiation. II. Postnatal psychophysiologic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Wistar rats (36) were exposed daily throughout pregnancy to a power density level of 35 mW/cm 2 of 6000-MHz microwave radiation (11), sham irradiated (10), or used as control animals (15). Litters were culled to a maximum of eight F 1 /sub a/ offspring/litter (total = 124) on Postnatal Day 1 and subjected to a series of reflex tests beginning Day 3. Mothers were rebred 10 days after weaning. Teratologic evaluations were completed on 263 F 1 /sub b/ offspring. Weekly weights were recorded for 298 F 1 /sub a/ offspring. At 60 days, behavioral testing was initiated on 121 offspring. At 90 days, offspring were bred within/across groups. Teratologic evaluations were completed on 659 F 2 term fetuses. Organ weight analyses were completed on 17 mothers and 181 F 1 /sub a/ adult offspring, and blood analyses on 21 mothers and 131 offspring. Sex differences within groups were observed in four behavioral tests and in blood data. Significant differences between groups were observed for: F 1 /sub b/ term fetal weight; F 1 /sub a/ eye opening, postnatal growth to the fifth week, water T-maze and open field test results; and several organ/body weight ratios. These results indicate that exposure to 6000-MHz radiation at this power density level may result in subtle long-term neurophysiologic alterations not detectable at term using conventional morphologic teratologic procedures

  1. Studies of the teratogenic potential of exposure of rats to 6000-MHz microwave radiation. II. Postnatal phychophysiologic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Wistar rats (36) were exposed daily throughout pregnancy to a power density level of 35 mW/cm 2 of 6000-MHz microwave radiation (11), sham irradiated (10), or used as control animals (15). Litters were culled to a maximum of eight F 1 /sub a/ offspring/litter (total = 124) on Postnatal Day 1 and subjected to a series of reflex tests beginning Day 3. Mothers were rebred 10 days after weaning. Teratologic evaluations were completed on 263 F 1 /sub b/ offspring. Weekly weights were recorded for 298 F 1 /sub a/ offspring. At 60 days, behavioral testing was initiated on 121 offspring. At 90 days, offspring were bred within/across groups. Teratologic evaluations were completed on 659 F 2 term fetuses. Organ weight analyses were completed on 17 mothers and 181 F 1 /sub a/ adult offspring, and blood analyses on 21 mothers and 131 offspring. Sex differences within groups were observed in four behavioral tests and in blood data. Significant differences between groups were observed for: F 1 /sub b/ term fetal weight; F 1 /sub a/ eye opening, postnatal growth to the fifth week, water T-maze and open field test results; and several organ/body weight ratios. These results indicate that exposure to 6000-MHz radiation at this power density level may result in subtle long-term neurophysiologic alterations not detectable at term using conventional morphologic teratologic procedures

  2. Electromagnetic radiation at 900 MHz induces sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 signaling pathways in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Si, Tianlei; Xu, Xiaoyun; Liang, Fuqiang; Wang, Lufeng; Pan, Siyi

    2015-08-04

    The decreased reproductive capacity of men is an important factor contributing to infertility. Accumulating evidence has shown that Electromagnetic radiation potentially has negative effects on human health. However, whether radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) affects the human reproductive system still requires further investigation. Therefore, The present study investigates whether RF-EMR at a frequency of 900 MHz can trigger sperm cell apoptosis and affect semen morphology, concentration, and microstructure. Twenty four rats were exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation with a special absorption rate of 0.66 ± 0.01 W/kg for 2 h/d. After 50d, the sperm count, morphology, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), representing the sum of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, were investigated. Western blotting and reverse transcriptase PCR were used to determine the expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins and genes, including bcl-2, bax, cytochrome c, and capase-3. In the present study, the percentage of apoptotic sperm cells in the exposure group was significantly increased by 91.42% compared with the control group. Moreover, the ROS concentration in exposure group was increased by 46.21%, while the TAC was decreased by 28.01%. Radiation also dramatically decreased the protein and mRNA expression of bcl-2 and increased that of bax, cytochrome c, and capase-3. RF-EMR increases the ROS level and decreases TAC in rat sperm. Excessive oxidative stress alters the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes and triggers sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax, cytochrome c and caspase-3 signaling pathways.

  3. Lightning electromagnetic radiation field spectra in the interval from 0.2 to 20 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, J. C.; Bailey, J. C.; Leteinturier, C.; Krider, E. P.

    1990-01-01

    New Fourier transforms of wideband time-domain electric fields (E) produced by lightning (recorded at the Kennedy Space Center during the summers of 1985 and 1987) were recorded in such a way that several different events in each lightning flash could be captured. Average HF spectral amplitudes for first return strokes, stepped-leader steps, and 'characteristic pulses' are given for significantly more events, at closer ranges, and with better spectral resolution than in previous literature reports. The method of recording gives less bias toward the first large event in the flash and thus yields a large sample of a wide variety of lightning processes. As a result, reliable composite spectral amplitudes are obtained for a number of different processes in cloud-to-ground lightning over the frequency interval from 0.2 to 20 MHz.

  4. Long-term exposure to mobile communication radiation: An analysis of time-variability of electric field level in GSM900 down-link channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miclaus, S.; Bechet, P.; Gheorghevici, M.

    2013-01-01

    Interest for knowing long-term human exposure levels due to mobile communications has increased in the last years. It has been shown that short-term exposure assessment made under standard procedural restrictions is not reliable when it comes to conclusions on long-term exposure levels. The present work is the result of a several week analysis of time variability of electric field level inside traffic and control channels of the GSM900 mobile communication down-link band and it indicates that a temporal model to allow future predictions of exposure on the long run is obtainable. Collecting, processing and statistically analysing the data provide expression of the maximum and weighted field strengths and their evolution in time. Specific electromagnetic footprints of the channels have been extracted, differentiations between their characteristics have been emphasised and practical advice is provided, with the scope of contributing to the development of reliable procedures for long-term exposure assessment. (authors)

  5. Route 66: Passively Breaking All GSM Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, Philip S.; Bogdanov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    The A5/2 stream cipher used for encryption in the GSM mobile phone standard has previously been shown to have serious weaknesses. Due to a lack of key separation and flaws in the security protocols, these vulnerabilities can also compromise the stronger GSM ciphers A5/1 and A5/3. Despite GSM's huge...

  6. The CERN GSM monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghabrous, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the way CERN has approached the problem of monitoring its own GSM infrastructure, especially in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator tunnel and other underground facilities, where a leaky feeder cable carries mobile phone signals, and where this technology is the only means for inter-personnel communications.

  7. Naltrexone-sensitive analgesia following exposure of mice to 2450-MHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillefer, R.H.; Quock, R.M. (Univ. of Illinois, Rockford (United States))

    1991-03-11

    This study was conducted to determine whether exposure to RFR might induce sufficient thermal stress to activate endogenous opioid mechanisms and induce analgesia. Male Swiss Webster mice, 20-25 g, were exposed to 10, 15 or 20 mV/cm{sup 2} RFR in a 2,450-MHz waveguide system for 10 min, then tested in the abdominal constriction paradigm. Specific absorption rates (SAR) were 23.7 W/kg at 10 mW/cm{sup 2}, 34.6 W/kg at 15 mW/cm{sup 2} and 45.5 W/kg at 20 mW/cm{sup 2}. Confinement in the exposure chamber alone did not appreciably alter body temperature but did appear to induce a stress-associated analgesia that was insensitive to the opioid receptor blocker naltrexone. Exposure of confined mice to RFR elevated body temperature and further increased analgesia in SAR-dependent manner. The high-SAR RFR-induced analgesia, but not the hyperthermia, was reduced by naltrexone. These findings suggest that (1) RFR produces SAR-dependent hyperthermia and analgesia and (2) RFR-induced analgesia is mediated by opioid mechanisms while confinement-induced analgesia involves non-opioid mechanisms.

  8. [Effect of Low-Intensity 900 MHz Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat Brain Enzyme Activities Linked to Energy Metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, M S; Nersesova, L S; Gazaryants, M G; Meliksetyan, G O; Malakyan, M G; Bajinyan, S A; Akopian, J I

    2015-01-01

    The research deals with the effect of low-intensity 900 MHz frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR), power density 25 μW/cm2, on the following rat brain and blood serum enzyme activities: creatine kinase (CK), playing a central role in the process of storing and distributing the cell energy, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) that play a key role in providing the conjunction of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. The comparative analysis of the changes in the enzyme activity studied at different times following the two-hour single, as well as fractional, radiation equivalent of the total time showed that the most radiosensitive enzyme is the brain creatine kinase, which may then be recommended as a marker of the radio frequency radiation impact. According to the analysis of the changing dynamics of the CK, ALT and AST activity level, with time these changes acquire the adaptive character and are directed to compensate the damaged cell energy metabolism.

  9. A comparison of the effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic fields and gamma ionizing radiation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savova, G.; Stankova, K. [Molecular Radiobiology and Prophylaxis Laboratory, National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria); Kuzmanova, M. [Sofia University „St. Kl. Ohridski”, Faculty of Biology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-07-01

    The usage of mobile phones increased significantly in the last 15 years. The concerns about the potential negative health effects arise, because of the daily use of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources. EMF, produced by cell phones may affect biological systems by increasing the production of free radicals, and even DNA damage. Other environmental factor, with an impact on humans’ life is the ionizing radiation. The main purpose of this work is to compare the effects of 900-MHz radiofrequency fields and gamma-ionizing radiation (γ-IR) on the levels of free radicals and DNA damage in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The EMF generated, at a power of 2W used for cell phone applications, led to a significant increase in the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not in persisting DNA damage 2h post-exposure. In contrast, irradiation with 4Gy of gamma rays increased dramatically both - the intracellular ROS and the DNA damage compared to background. (author)

  10. Temperature-specific inhibition of human red cell (Na/sup +//K/sup +/) ATPase by 2450-MHz microwave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allis, J.W.; Sinha-Robinson, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The ATPase activity in human red blood cell membranes was investigated in vitro as a function of temperature and exposure to 2450-MHz (CW) microwave radiation. Assays were conducted spectrophotometrically during microwave exposure with a custom-made spectrophotometer-waveguide apparatus. Temperature profiles of total ATPase and Ca+2 ATPase (ouabain-inhibited) activity between 17 and 31 C were graphed as an Arrhenius plot. Each data set was fitted to two straight lines which intersected between 23 and 24 C. The difference between the total and Ca+2 ATPase activities, which represented the Na+/K+ ATPase activity, was also plotted and treated similarly to yield an intersection near 25 C. Exposure of membrane suspensions to a 6 W/kg dose rate at 1 C intervals between 23 and 27 C, resulted in an activity change only for the Na+/K+ ATPase at 25 C. The activity decreased by approximately 35% compared to sham-irradiated samples. An hypothesis based on the interaction of microwave radiation with enzyme structure during a conformational rearrangement is proposed as an explanation for the effect.

  11. Temperature-specific inhibition of human red cell Na+/K+ ATPase by 2450-MHz microwave radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allis, J.W.; Sinha-Robinson, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The ATPase activity in human red blood cell membranes was investigated in vitro as a function of temperature and exposure to 2450-MHz continuous wave microwave radiation to confirm and extend a report of Na+ transport inhibition under certain conditions of temperature and exposure. Assays were conducted spectrophotometrically during microwave exposure with a custom-made spectrophotometer-waveguide apparatus. Temperature profiles of total ATPase and Ca+2 ATPase (ouabain-inhibited) activity between 17 and 31 degrees C were graphed as an Arrhenius plot. Each data set was fitted to two straight lines which intersect between 23 and 24 degrees C. The difference between the total and Ca+2 ATPase activities, which represented the Na+/K+ ATPase activity, was also plotted and treated similarly to yield an intersection near 25 degrees C. Exposure of membrane suspensions to electromagnetic radiation, at a dose rate of 6 W/kg and at five temperatures between 23 and 27 degrees C, resulted in an activity change only for the Na+/K+ ATPase at 25 degrees C. The activity decreased by approximately 35% compared to sham-irradiated samples. A possible explanation for the unusual temperature/microwave interaction is proposed.

  12. LAST REMINDER: GSM Operator change

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN changes its mobile phone operator on 5th January 2004. Your old SIM card and number +41 79 201 XXXX will no longer be valid. Your new number will be +41 76 487 XXXX, but still 16 XXXX inside the CERN area. Your last four digits do not change. To obtain your new SIM card, please fill in the web form at http://it-service-gsm.web.cern.ch/it-service-gsm/ or call tel. 76111 if you do not have access to the web. Dates and places for the distribution of the new SIM cards are: - Meyrin site: Building 504, Restaurant 2, from 26/11 to 5/12; - Prevessin site: Building 866, Restaurant 3, room R-11, from 8/12 to 12/12.

  13. Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR from GSM (0.9/1.8GHz mobile phones induces oxidative stress and reduces sperm motility in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Mailankot

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mobile phones have become indispensable in the daily lives of men and women around the globe. As cell phone use has become more widespread, concerns have mounted regarding the potentially harmful effects of RF-EMR from these devices. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of RF-EMR from mobile phones on free radical metabolism and sperm quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male albino Wistar rats (10-12 weeks old were exposed to RF-EMR from an active GSM (0.9/1.8 GHz mobile phone for 1 hour continuously per day for 28 days. Controls were exposed to a mobile phone without a battery for the same period. The phone was kept in a cage with a wooden bottom in order to address concerns that the effects of exposure to the phone could be due to heat emitted by the phone rather than to RF-EMR alone. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last exposure and tissues of interest were harvested. RESULTS: One hour of exposure to the phone did not significantly change facial temperature in either group of rats. No significant difference was observed in total sperm count between controls and RF-EMR exposed groups. However, rats exposed to RF-EMR exhibited a significantly reduced percentage of motile sperm. Moreover, RF-EMR exposure resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and low GSH content in the testis and epididymis. CONCLUSION: Given the results of the present study, we speculate that RF-EMR from mobile phones negatively affects semen quality and may impair male fertility.

  14. On the mechanisms of interference between mobile phones and pacemakers: parasitic demodulation of GSM signal by the sensing amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, V; Bartolini, P; Calcagnini, G; Censi, F; Beard, B; Ruggera, P; Witters, D

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which the radiated radiofrequency (RF) GSM (global system for mobile communication) signal may affect pacemaker (PM) function. We measured the signal at the output of the sensing amplifier of PMs with various configurations of low-pass filters. We used three versions of the same PM model: one with a block capacitor which short circuits high-frequency signals; one with a ceramic feedthrough capacitor, a hermetically sealed mechanism connecting the internal electronics to the external connection block, and one with both. The PMs had been modified to have an electrical shielded connection to the output of the sensing amplifier. For each PM, the output of the sensing amplifier was monitored under exposure to modulated and non-modulated RF signals, and to GSM signals (900 and 1800 MHz). Non-modulated RF signals did not alter the response of the PM sensing amplifier. Modulated RF signals showed that the block capacitor did not succeed in short circuiting the RF signal, which is somehow demodulated by the PM internal non-linear circuit elements. Such a demodulation phenomenon poses a critical problem because digital cellular phones use extremely low-frequency modulation (as low as 2 Hz), which can be mistaken for normal heartbeat

  15. Studies of the teratogenic potential of exposure of rats to 6000-MHz microwave radiation. I. Morphologic analysis at term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-six pregnant Wistar strain albino rats were exposed throughout pregnancy to 6000-MHz microwave radiation at a power density level of 35 mW/cm 2 or were used as controls. The irradiation did not cause a significant increase in maternal body temperature as measured by a rectal thermocouple. The rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: home cage control (5), anechoic chamber control (10), sham-irradiated concurrent control (10), and irradiated (11). All animals were killed on the 22nd day of gestation, and maternal tissues were removed and weighed and maternal blood samples were taken. The 384 resultant fetuses and their placentas were individually weighed, fixed, and dissected to determine normality. Teratologic evaluation included the following parameters: maternal weight and weight gain; mean litter size; maternal organ weight and organ weight/body weight ratios; body weight ratios of brain, liver, kidneys, and ovaries; maternal peripheral blood parameters including hematocrit, hemoglobin, and white cell counts; number of resorptions and resorption rate; number of abnormalities and abnormality rate; mean term fetal weight. The irradiated fetuses exhibited slight but statistically significant growth retardation at term. Term maternal monocyte count was also significantly depressed. No other parameters differed between the control groups and the irradiated group

  16. Potential protection of green tea polyphenols against 1800 MHz electromagnetic radiation-induced injury on rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Li; Wen, Jian-Qiang; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2011-10-01

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) are harmful to public health, but the certain anti-irradiation mechanism is not clear yet. The present study was performed to investigate the possible protective effects of green tea polyphenols against electromagnetic radiation-induced injury in the cultured rat cortical neurons. In this study, green tea polyphenols were used in the cultured cortical neurons exposed to 1800 MHz EMFs by the mobile phone. We found that the mobile phone irradiation for 24 h induced marked neuronal cell death in the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) and TUNEL (TdT mediated biotin-dUTP nicked-end labeling) assay, and protective effects of green tea polyphenols on the injured cortical neurons were demonstrated by testing the content of Bcl-2 Assaciated X protein (Bax) in the immunoprecipitation assay and Western blot assay. In our study results, the mobile phone irradiation-induced increases in the content of active Bax were inhibited significantly by green tea polyphenols, while the contents of total Bax had no marked changes after the treatment of green tea polyphenols. Our results suggested a neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols against the mobile phone irradiation-induced injury on the cultured rat cortical neurons.

  17. SAR and temperature distribution in the rat head model exposed to electromagnetic field radiation by 900 MHz dipole antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Hao, Dongmei; Wu, Shuicai; Zhong, Rugang; Zeng, Yanjun

    2013-06-01

    Rats are often used in the electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure experiments. In the study for the effect of 900 MHz EMF exposure on learning and memory in SD rats, the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the temperature rise in the rat head are numerically evaluated. The digital anatomical model of a SD rat is reconstructed with the MRI images. Numerical method as finite difference time domain has been applied to assess the SAR and the temperature rise during the exposure. Measurements and simulations are conducted to characterize the net radiated power of the dipole to provide a precise dosimetric result. The whole-body average SAR and the localized SAR averaging over 1, 0.5 and 0.05 g mass for different organs/tissues are given. It reveals that during the given exposure experiment setup, no significant temperature rise occurs. The reconstructed anatomical rat model could be used in the EMF simulation and the dosimetric result provides useful information for the biological effect studies.

  18. Temperature mapping and thermal dose calculation in combined radiation therapy and 13.56 MHz radiofrequency hyperthermia for tumor treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Kyung; Prasad, Bibin; Kim, Suzy

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the synergistic effect of radiotherapy and radiofrequency hyperthermia therapy in the treatment of lung and liver cancers, we studied the mechanism of heat absorption and transfer in the tumor using electro-thermal simulation and high-resolution temperature mapping techniques. A realistic tumor-induced mouse anatomy, which was reconstructed and segmented from computed tomography images, was used to determine the thermal distribution in tumors during radiofrequency (RF) heating at 13.56 MHz. An RF electrode was used as a heat source, and computations were performed with the aid of the multiphysics simulation platform Sim4Life. Experiments were carried out on a tumor-mimicking agar phantom and a mouse tumor model to obtain a spatiotemporal temperature map and thermal dose distribution. A high temperature increase was achieved in the tumor from both the computation and measurement, which elucidated that there was selective high-energy absorption in tumor tissue compared to the normal surrounding tissues. The study allows for effective treatment planning for combined radiation and hyperthermia therapy based on the high-resolution temperature mapping and high-precision thermal dose calculation.

  19. Liver antioxidant stores protect the brain from electromagnetic radiation (900 and 1800 MHz)-induced oxidative stress in rats during pregnancy and the development of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Hasan; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Çelik, Ömer; Yüksel, Murat; Pastacı, Nural; Özkaya, Mehmet Okan

    2014-12-01

    The present study determined the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure on oxidative stress in the brain and liver as well as the element levels in growing rats from pregnancy to 6 weeks of age. Thirty-two rats and their offspring were equally divided into three different groups: the control, 900 MHz, and 1800 MHz groups. The 900 MHz and 1800 MHz groups were exposed to EMR for 60 min/d during pregnancy and neonatal development. At the 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks of the experiment, brain samples were obtained. Brain and liver glutathione peroxidase activities, as well as liver vitamin A and β-carotene concentrations decreased in the EMR groups, although brain iron, vitamin A, and β-carotene concentrations increased in the EMR groups. In the 6th week, selenium concentrations in the brain decreased in the EMR groups. There were no statistically significant differences in glutathione, vitamin E, chromium, copper, magnesium, manganese, and zinc concentrations between the three groups. EMR-induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver was reduced during the development of offspring. Mobile phone-induced EMR could be considered as a cause of oxidative brain and liver injury in growing rats.

  20. TO ALL CERN GSM USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Due to modifications introduced by SWISSCOM to their GSM network, the following changes will be made on Monday 5 July 1999:the CERN Closed User Group (CUG) area will extend to the whole of Switzerland for a period of approximately 3 monthsthe prefixes 0 and/or 11, hitherto used by authorised subscribers to make outside calls via the CERN telephone exchange, will be replaced by the prefix 22.Further information can be obtained on the Web at the following URL:http://nicewww.cern.ch/st/el/telecom/GSMopE.htm

  1. Inversion of the OH 1720-MHz line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elitzur, M.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the OH 1720-MHz line can be strongly inverted by collisions which excite the rotation states. It is also argued that radiative pumps (of any wave length) can invert strongly only the 1612-MHz line. (author)

  2. Effects of RF-EMF Exposure from GSM Mobile Phones on Proliferation Rate of Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells: An In-vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the use of mobile phones is increasing, public concern about the harmful effects of radiation emitted by these devices is also growing. In addition, protection questions and biological effects are among growing concerns which have remained largely unanswered. Stem cells are useful models to assess the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF on other cell lines. Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells. Adipose tissue represents an abundant and accessible source of adult stem cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of GSM 900 MHz on growth and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue within the specific distance and intensity. Materials and Methods: ADSCs were exposed to GSM mobile phones 900 MHz with intensity of 354.6 µW/cm2 square waves (217 Hz pulse frequency, 50% duty cycle, during different exposure times ranging from 6 to 21 min/day for 5 days at 20 cm distance from the antenna. MTT assay was used to determine the growth and metabolism of cells and trypan blue test was also done for cell viability. Statistical analyses were carried out using analysis of one way ANOVA. P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The proliferation rates of human ADSCs in all exposure groups were significantly lower than control groups (P<0.05 except in the group of 6 minutes/day which did not show any significant difference with control groups. Conclusion: The results show that 900 MHz RF signal radiation from antenna can reduce cell viability and proliferation rates of human ADSCs regarding the duration of exposure.

  3. Combined application of sub-toxic level of silver nanoparticles with low powers of 2450 MHz microwave radiation lead to kill Escherichia coli in a short time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardia Varastehmoradi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Electromagnetic radiations which have lethal effects on the living cells are currently also considered as a disinfective physical agent.   Materials and Methods: In this investigation, silver nanoparticles were applied to enhance the lethal action of low powers (100 and 180 W of 2450 MHZ electromagnetic radiation especially against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739. Silver nanoparticles were biologically prepared and used for next experiments. Sterile normal saline solution was prepared and supplemented by silver nanoparticles to reach the sub-inhibitory concentration (6.25 μg/mL. Such diluted silver colloid as well as free-silver nanoparticles solution was inoculated along with test microorganisms, particularly E. coli. These suspensions were separately treated by 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation for different time intervals in a microwave oven operated at low powers (100 W and 180 W. The viable counts of bacteria before and after each radiation time were determined by colony-forming unit (CFU method. Results: Results showed that the addition of silver nanoparticles significantly decreased the required radiation time to kill vegetative forms of microorganisms. However, these nanoparticles had no combined effect with low power electromagnetic radiation when used against Bacillus subtilis spores. Conclusion: The cumulative effect of silver nanoparticles and low powers electromagnetic radiation may be useful in medical centers to reduce contamination in polluted derange and liquid wastes materials and some devices.

  4. Class-E Amplifier Design Improvements for GSM Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Nadir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficient power amplifiers are essential in portable battery-operated systems such as mobile phones. Also, the power amplifier (PA is the most power-consuming building block in the transmitter of a portable system. This paper investigates how the efficiency of the power amplifier (which is beneficial for multiple applications in communcation sector can be improved by increasing the efficiency of switching mode class E power amplifiers for frequencies of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz. The paper tackles modeling, design improvements and verification through simulation for higher efficiencies. This is the continuation of previous work by the authors. These nonlinear power amplifiers can only amplify constant-envelope RF signals without introducing significant distortion. Mobile systems such as Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS and Global System for Mobile communications (GSM use modulation schemes which generate constant amplitude RF outputs in order to use efficient but nonlinear power amplifiers. Improvements in designs are suggested and higher efficiencies are achieved, to the tune of 67.1% (for 900 MHz and 67.0% (1800 MHz.

  5. Effect of Short-term 900 MHz low level electromagnetic radiation exposure on blood serotonin and glutamate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eris, A H; Kiziltan, H S; Meral, I; Genc, H; Trabzon, M; Seyithanoglu, H; Yagci, B; Uysal, O

    2015-01-01

    Long term exposure to low level electromagnetic radiation (LLER) by using cellular phones causes serious health problems. Ten male Wistar Albino rats were anesthetized 30 min before the LLER exposure, 0.5 ml blood was taken from the tail vein of rats in order to determine control values. Rats were grouped by three and placed on a plexi-glass flat. A fixed equivalent frequency emitter device was used. A sign to be an electromagnetic field 15.14 V/m (608 mW/m(2)) in strength in the head region with 100 kHz FM modulation at 900 MHz was applied to the animals. After calculating the ideal position for the device, electromagnetic LLER energy was applied for 45 minutes from a distance to be equal with energy transmitted by a mobile phone from a 0.5-1 cm distance to their head regions. After 1.5 hours and before the rats awoke, 0.5 ml of blood was taken from the tail veins in order to determine the treatment values. Plasma 5-HT and glutamate levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using commercial kits. It was found that a single 45 min of LLER exposure increased the blood 5-HT level significantly, but did not change the glutamate level of rats. It was concluded that even a single 45 min of LLER exposure may produce an increase in 5-HT level without changing the blood glutamate level. Increased 5-HT level may lead to a retarded learning and a deficit in spatial memory (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 24).

  6. Electromagnetic interference of GSM mobile phones with the implantable deep brain stimulator, ITREL-III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesch François

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose was to investigate mobile phone interference with implantable deep brain stimulators by means of 10 different 900 Mega Hertz (MHz and 10 different 1800 MHz GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications mobile phones. Methods All tests were performed in vitro using a phantom especially developed for testing with deep brain stimulators. The phantom was filled with liquid phantom materials simulating brain and muscle tissue. All examinations were carried out inside an anechoic chamber on two implants of the same type of deep brain stimulator: ITREL-III from Medtronic Inc., USA. Results Despite a maximum transmitted peak power of mobile phones of 1 Watt (W at 1800 MHz and 2 W at 900 MHz respectively, no influence on the ITREL-III was found. Neither the shape of the pulse form changed nor did single pulses fail. Tests with increased transmitted power using CW signals and broadband dipoles have shown that inhibition of the ITREL-III occurs at frequency dependent power levels which are below the emissions of GSM mobile phones. The ITREL-III is essentially more sensitive at 1800 MHz than at 900 MHz. Particularly the frequency range around 1500 MHz shows a very low interference threshold. Conclusion These investigations do not indicate a direct risk for ITREL-III patients using the tested GSM phones. Based on the interference levels found with CW signals, which are below the mobile phone emissions, we recommend similar precautions as for patients with cardiac pacemakers: 1. The phone should be used at the ear at the opposite side of the implant and 2. The patient should avoid carrying the phone close to the implant.

  7. SMS service from your GSM mobile phone

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    The exchange of SMS (Short Message Service) messages is a very popular application of GSM mobile services. However, the use of the application with a CERN subscription is subject to certain conditions: First of all, only text messages can be sent and received with a CERN GSM subscription. These messages are limited to 160 characters. MMS (Multimedia Message Service) messages, which consist in attaching pictures, videos or sounds to a message, are not supported by the current CERN mobile network configuration. In addition, value-added SMS or SMS premium messages (e.g. messages to short numbers involving extra charges) are not permitted. Before sending a message, you must first record the number of the message centre (+41765980000) in your mobile. In principle, this configuration setting is automatically applied to all standard GSM mobile phones when they are issued. To send a message to another GSM user, you must of course enter his or her GSM number. This number must be e...

  8. External GSM phone calls now made simpler

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    On 2 July, the IT/CS Telecom Service introduced a new service making external calls from CERN GSM phones easier. A specific prefix is no longer needed for calls outside CERN. External calls from CERN GSM phones are to be simplified. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix to call an external number from the CERN GSM network.The Telecom Section of the IT/CS Group is introducing a new system that will make life easier for GSM users. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix (333) to call an external number from the CERN GSM network. Simply dial the number directly like any other Swiss GSM customer. CERN currently has its own private GSM network with the Swiss mobile operator, Sunrise, covering the whole of Switzerland. This network was initially intended exclusively for calls between CERN numbers (replacing the old beeper system). A special system was later introduced for external calls, allowing them to pass thr...

  9. Review of studies validating the protective efficacy of a new technology designed to compensate adverse biological effects caused by vdu and GSM cell phone radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youbicier-Simo, B.J.; Messagier, R.; Fillion-Robin, M

    2001-01-01

    A total of 13 studies were initiated and coordinated by Technolab Research Center in 6 laboratories from 3 countries (France, UK, Japan). These studies were aimed at: 1) investigating potential adverse biological effects associated with exposure to non ionizing radiation emitted by two types of communication devices, video display units and cell phones; 2) assessing the efficacy of a compensation magnetic oscillating technology designed to protect from non ionizing radiation. Five types of biological systems including chicken embryos, young chickens, healthy mice, mice suffering from cancer and humans were used. A set of 10 biological parameters were assessed, including embryonic mortality, hormones, antibodies, haematological parameters, stress, mood, ocular damage, neurogenesis, micronuclei formation and intracellular calcium. Overall endpoints were affected by irradiation, in terms of increased embryonic mortality, immune depression, depletion of hormones crucial for the regulation of the immune system, changes in haematological parameters, increased stress, mood alteration, induction of ophthalmologic disorders, inhibition of the neurogenesis in brain areas associated with memory processes, induction of symptoms of cell dysfunction, apoptosis or cancer, and disruption of trans-membrane fluxes of calcium. On the other hand, the compensation magnetic oscillation technology tested allowed significant correction of altered physiological parameters, as well as improvement or disappearance of observed pathological symptoms (author)

  10. The effects of electromagnetic radiation (2450 MHz wireless devices) on the heart and blood tissue: role of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumral, N; Saygin, M; Asci, H; Uguz, A C; Celik, O; Doguc, D K; Savas, H B; Comlekci, S

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of 2450 MHz EMR on the heart and blood in rat and possible ameliorating effects of melatonin. Thirty-two female Wistar Albino rats were randomly grouped (by eight in each group) as follows:  Group I: cage-control group (dimethysulfoxide (DMSO), 10mg/kg/day i.p. without stress and EMR. Group II: sham-control rats stayed in restrainer without EMR and DMSO (10mg/kg/day i.p.). Group III: rats exposed to 2450 MHz EMR. Group IV: treated group rats exposed to 2450 MHz EMR+melatonin (MLT) (10mg/kg/day i.p.). In the blood tissue, there was no significant difference between the groups in respect of erythrocytes GSH, GSH-Px activity, plasma LP level and vitamin A concentration (p > 0.05). However, in the Group IV, erythrocytes' LP levels (p < 0.05) were observed to be significantly decreased while plasma vitamin C, and vitamin E concentrations (p < 0.05) were found to be increased when compared to Group III. In the heart tissues, MDA and NO levels significantly increased in group III compared with groups I and II (p < 0.05). Contrary to these oxidant levels, CAT and SOD enzyme activities decreased significantly in group III compared with groups I and II (p 0.05). Besides, MLT treatment lowered the MDA and NO levels compared with group III. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that contrary to its effect on the heart, the wireless (2450 MHz) devices cause slight oxidative-antioxidative changes in the blood of rats, and a moderate melatonin supplementation may play an important role in the antioxidant system (plasma vitamin C and vitamin E). However, further investigations are required to clarify the mechanism of action of the applied 2450 MHz EMR exposure (Tab. 3, Fig. 1, Ref. 49).

  11. Influence of 1.8-GHz (GSM) radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on DNA damage and repair induced by X-rays in human leukocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhijian, Chen; Xiaoxue, Li; Yezhen, Lu; Deqiang, Lu; Shijie, Chen; Lifen, Jin; Jianlin, Lou; Jiliang, He

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the in vitro comet assay was used to determine whether 1.8-GHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR) can influence DNA repair in human leukocytes exposed to X-rays. The specific energy absorption rate (SAR) of 2 W/kg (the current European safety limit) was applied. The leukocytes from four young healthy donors were intermittently exposed to RFR for 24 h (fields on for 5 min, fields off for 10 min), and then irradiated with X-rays at doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Gy. DNA damage to human leukocytes was detected using the comet assay at 0, 15, 45, 90, 150 and 240 min after exposure to X-rays. Using the comet assay, the percent of DNA in the tail (% tail DNA) served as the indicator of DNA damage; the DNA repair percentage (DRP) served as the indicator of the DNA repair speed. The results demonstrated that (1) the DNA repair speeds of human leukocytes after X-ray exposure exhibited individual differences among the four donors; (2) the intermittent exposures of 1.8-GHz RFR at the SAR of 2 W/kg for 24 h did not directly induce DNA damage or exhibit synergistic effects with X-rays on human leukocytes.

  12. Internet Access from CERN GSM subscriptions

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    The data service on GSM subscriptions has been improved, allowing CERN users to access the Internet directly. A CERN GSM subscription with data option now allows you to connect to the Internet from a mobile phone or a PC equipped with a GSM modem. The previous access (CERN intranet) still exists. To get access to the new service, you will find all the information on configurations at: http://cern.ch/gprs The use of this service on the Sunrise network is charged on a flat-rate basis (no extra charge related to the volume of downloaded data). Depending on your CERN subscription type (standard or master), you can also connect to foreign GSM data networks (roaming), but this is strongly discouraged, except where absolutely necessary, due to international roaming charges. Telecom Section, IT/CS

  13. Future alternatives to GSM-R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José; Dittmann, Lars

    Signalling is as fundamental contributor to a robust railway system. European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) enhances dynamic train control, interoperability and track utilization. GSM-R is a communication subsystem in ERTMS.......Signalling is as fundamental contributor to a robust railway system. European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) enhances dynamic train control, interoperability and track utilization. GSM-R is a communication subsystem in ERTMS....

  14. Smart GSM Based Home Automation System

    OpenAIRE

    Teymourzadeh, Rozita

    2013-01-01

    This research work investigates the potential of ‘Full Home Control’, which is the aim of the Home Automation Systems in near future. The analysis and implementation of the home automation technology using Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) modem to control home appliances such as light, conditional system, and security system via Short Message Service (SMS) text messages is presented in this paper. The proposed research work is focused on the functionality of the GSM protocol, whic...

  15. [State of the reproductive systemin in male rats of 1st generation obtained from irradiated parents and exposed to electromagnetic radiation (897 MHz) during embryogenesis and postnatal development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereshchako, G G; Chueshova, N V; Gorokh, G A; Naumov, A D

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation from cellular phone (897 MHz, daily 8 h/day) in male rats of the 1st generation obtained from irradiated parents and subjected to prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation of the range of mobile communications during ontogeny and postnatal development were studied. It has been found that irradiation causes a decrease in the number of births of animals, changing the sex ratio towards the increase in the number of males. It had a significant impact on the reproductive system of males, accelerating their sexual development, revealed at the age of two months. Radiation from cell phones led to significant disproportions in the cell number at different stages of spermatogenesis. It increased the number of mature spermatozoa which decreased viability.

  16. Cytogenetic studies in human blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to radiofrequency radiation at a cellular telephone frequency (835.62 MHz, FDMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalaxmi; Leal, B Z; Meltz, M L; Pickard, W F; Bisht, K S; Roti Roti JL; Straube, W L; Moros, E G

    2001-01-01

    Freshly collected peripheral blood samples from four healthy human volunteers were diluted with RPMI 1640 tissue culture medium and exposed in sterile T-75 tissue culture flasks in vitro for 24 h to 835.62 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation, a frequency employed for customer-to-base station transmission of cellular telephone communications. An analog signal was used, and the access technology was frequency division multiple access (FDMA, continuous wave). A nominal net forward power of 68 W was used, and the nominal power density at the center of the exposure flask was 860 W/m(2). The mean specific absorption rate in the exposure flask was 4.4 or 5.0 W/kg. Aliquots of diluted blood that were sham-exposed or exposed in vitro to an acute dose of 1.50 Gy of gamma radiation were used as negative or positive controls. Immediately after the exposures, the lymphocytes were stimulated with a mitogen, phytohemagglutinin, and cultured for 48 or 72 h to determine the extent of genetic damage, as assessed from the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei. The extent of alteration in the kinetics of cell proliferation was determined from the mitotic indices in 48-h cultures and from the incidence of binucleate cells in 72-h cultures. The data indicated no significant differences between RF-radiation- and sham-exposed lymphocytes with respect to mitotic indices, incidence of exchange aberrations, excess fragments, binucleate cells, and micronuclei. In contrast, the response of the lymphocytes exposed to gamma radiation was significantly different from both RF-radiation- and sham-exposed cells for all of these indices. Thus, under the experimental conditions tested, there is no evidence for the induction of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in human blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro for 24 h to 835.62 MHz RF radiation at SARs of 4.4 or 5.0 W/kg.

  17. Building GSM network in extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulec, M.; Voznak, M.; Fajkus, M.; Partila, P.; Tovarek, J.; Chmelikova, Z.

    2015-05-01

    The paper is focused on the building ad-hoc GSM network based on open source software and low-cost hardware. The created Base Transmission Station can be deployed and put into operation in a few minutes in a required area to ensure private communication between connected GSM mobile terminals. The convergence between BTS station and the other networks is possible through IP network. The paper tries to define connection parameters to provide sufficient quality of voice service between the GSM network and IP Multimedia Subsystem. The paper brings practical results of voice call quality measurement between users inside BTS station mobile network and users inside IP Multimedia Subsystem network. The calls are simulated by low-cost embedded solution for speech quality measurement in GSM network. This tool is under development of our laboratory and allows automatic speech quality measurement of any GSM or UMTS mobile network. The Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality method is used to get final comparable results. The communication between BTS station and connected networks has to be secured against the interception from the third party. The influence of the securing method for quality of service is presented in detail. Paper, apart from the quality of service measurement section, describes technical requirements for successful interconnection between BTS and IMS networks. The authentication, authorization and accounting methods in roaming between BTS and IMS system are presented too.

  18. FDTD chiral brain tissue model for specific absorption rate determination under radiation from mobile phones at 900 and 1800 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamorano, M; Torres-Silva, H [Departamento de Electronica, Universidad de Tarapaca, 18 de Septiembre 2222, Arica (Chile)

    2006-04-07

    A new electrodynamics model formed by chiral bioplasma, which represents the human head inner structure and makes it possible to analyse its behaviour when it is irradiated by a microwave electromagnetic field from cellular phones, is presented. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numeric technique is used, which allows simulation of the electromagnetic fields, deduced with Maxwell's equations, and allows us to simulate the specific absorption rate (SAR). The results show the SAR behaviour as a function of the input power and the chirality factor. In considering the chiral brain tissue in the proposed human head model, the two more important conclusions of our work are the following: (a) the absorption of the electromagnetic fields from cellular phones is stronger, so the SAR coefficient is higher than that using the classical model, when values of the chiral factor are of order of 1; (b) 'inverse skin effect' shows up at 1800 MHz, with respect to a 900 MHz source.

  19. Oxidative stress response in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to short-term 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic Cermak, Ana Marija; Pavicic, Ivan; Trosic, Ivancica

    2018-01-28

    The exact mechanism that could explain the effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure at non-thermal level is still unknown. Increasing evidence suggests a possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and development of oxidative stress. To test the proposed hypothesis, human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were exposed to 1800 MHz short-term RF exposure for 10, 30 and 60 minutes. Electric field strength within Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic cell (GTEM) was 30 V m -1 and specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated to be 1.6 W kg -1 . Cellular viability was measured by MTT assay and level of ROS was determined by fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Concentrations of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls were used to assess lipid and protein oxidative damage and antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring concentrations of total glutathione (GSH). After radiation exposure, viability of irradiated cells remained within normal physiological values. Significantly higher ROS level was observed for every radiation exposure time. After 60 min of exposure, the applied radiation caused significant lipid and protein damage. The highest GSH concentration was detected after 10 minute-exposure. The results of our study showed enhanced susceptibility of SH-SY5Y cells for development of oxidative stress even after short-term RF exposure.

  20. Dynamic half-rate connections in GSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winands, E.M.M.; Wieland, J.; Sanders, B.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic half-rate is an optional feature that allows a Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) cell to switch new incoming half-rate capable calls to half-rate speech coding, when the cell is nearly congested. Since two half-rate speech calls can be put together in one single-time slot, dynamic

  1. Deriving Consistent GSM Schemas from DCR Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshuis, Rik; Debois, Søren; Slaats, Tijs

    2016-01-01

    Case Management (CM) is a BPM technology for supporting flexible services orchestration. CM approaches like CMMN, an OMG standard, and GSM, one of CMMN’s core influences, use Event-Condition-Action rules, which can be inconsistent due to cyclic inter-dependencies between the rules; repairing...

  2. Analgesia produced by exposure to 2450-MHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR) is mediated by brain mu- and kappa-opioid receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon, G.; Park, E.J.; Quock, R.M. (Univ. of Illinois, Rockford (United States))

    1992-02-26

    This study was conducted to identify the opioid receptor subtype(s) responsible for RFR-induced analgesia. Male Swiss Webster mice, 20-25 g, were exposed to 20 mW/cm{sup 2} RFR in a 2,450-MHz waveguide system for 10 min, then tested 15 min later in the abdominal constriction paradigm which detects {mu}- and {kappa}-opioid activity. Immediately following RFR exposure, different groups of mice were pretreated intracerebroventricularly with different opioid receptor blockers with selectivity for {mu}- or {kappa}-opioid receptors. Results show that RFR-induced analgesia was attenuated by higher but not lower doses of the non-selective antagonist naloxone, but the selective {mu}-opioid antagonist {beta}-funaltrexamine and by the selective {kappa}-opioid antagonist norbinaltorphimine. RFR-induced analgesia was also reduced by subcutaneous pretreatment with 5.0 mg/kg of the {mu}-/{kappa}-opioid antagonist({minus})-5,9-diethyl-{alpha}-5,9-dialkyl-2{prime}-hydroxy-6,7-benzomorphan(MR-2266). These findings suggest that RFR-induced analgesia may be mediated by both {mu}- and {kappa}-opioid mechanisms.

  3. Electromagnetic Interference Assessment of CDMA and GSM Wireless Phones to Aircraft Navigation Radios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Salud, M. Theresa

    2002-01-01

    To address the concern for cellular phone electromagnetic interference (EMI) to aircraft radios, a radiated emission measurement process for CDMA (IS-95) and GSM (ETSI GSM 11.22) wireless handsets was developed. Spurious radiated emissions were efficiently characterized from devices tested in either a semi-anechoic or reverberation chamber, in terms of effective isotropic radiated power. Eight representative handsets (4 GSM, 4 CDMA) were commanded to operate while varying their radio transmitter parameters (power, modulation, etc.). This report provides a detailed description of the measurement process and resulting data, which may subsequently be used by others as a basis of consistent evaluation for cellular/PCS phones, Bluetooth, IEEE802.11b, IEEE802.11a, FRS/GMRS radios, and other portable transmitters. Aircraft interference path loss (IPL) and navigation radio interference threshold data from numerous reference documents, standards, and NASA partnerships were compiled. Using this data, a preliminary risk assessment is provided for CDMA and GSM wireless phone interference to aircraft localizer, Glideslope, VOR, and GPS radio receivers on typical transport airplanes. The report identifies where existing data for device emissions, IPL, and navigation radio interference thresholds needs to be extended for an accurate risk assessment for wireless transmitters in aircraft.

  4. Cellular and genetic effects and recovery of heat-damaged cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by low intensity electromagnetic radiation at 915 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, I.H.

    1984-01-01

    Studies were conducted on two genetically well known strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Wild Type) and repair deficient mutant (UVS). Results obtained showed clear genetic difference between normal and mutants based on UV sensitivity, percent survival at elevated temperatures and high intensity electromagnetic radiation. At the cellular level, both strains showed a consistent increase in the recovery rate of heat damaged cells when exposed to low intensity FMR as compared to sham (non irradiated cells) at 915 MHz. The percent recovery of wild type was higher than mutant. At the molecular level, the uptake of tritiated uridine into thermally damaged cells which were recovered by low level EMR was significantly higher than sham. Total RNA isolated from irradiated cells and sham showed visible differences in the intensity of RNA bands. Gross quantitative analyses suggest more RNA production in radiation recovered cells as compared to sham. Results presented in this dissertation provide conclusive evidence that low level microwave radiation can be used in the recovery of heat damaged cells

  5. GSM BASED IRRIGATION CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    GODFREY A. MILLS; STEPHEN K. ARMOO; AGYEMAN K. ROCKSON; ROBERT A. SOWAH; MOSES A. ACQUAH

    2013-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the primary water consumers in most parts of the world. With developments in technology, efforts are being channeled into automation of irrigation systems to facilitate remote control of the irrigation system and optimize crop production and cost effectiveness. This paper describes an on-going work on GSM based irrigation monitoring and control systems. The objective of the work is to provide an approach that helps farmers to easily access, manage and regulate ...

  6. Occupational exposure to EM radiation in the range from 800 to 2500 MHz : What are we really talking about?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prlic, I.; Suric Mihic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Precautionary principle is explicitly laid down in the EU treaty and is one of the starting points of its environmental policy. European Commission made a statement in February 2000 regarding the use of precautionary principle indicating that principle should be applied where there is a reasonable suspicion of the existence of a health or environmental risk. Furthermore, the Commission indicates that measures based on the precautionary principle should not be aimed at completely precluding any risk; it assumes that such an effort is unrealistic. In the Council Recommendation of 12 July 1999 on the limitation of exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz) (CEU) the following comment is made in Appendix I: 'However, since there is a safety factor of about 50 between the threshold values for acute effects and the basis restrictions, this recommendation implicitly covers possible long-term effects in the whole frequency range.' Both, the comment and the Council Recommendation are addressing the human health. This concern over human health was raised up because modern society is highly sensitive to extended growth of mobile and wireless telecommunication technologies regardless of their obvious economic and societal benefits. This growth was followed with the changes in working environment and with gestation of new types of working places. Occupational medicine is challenged with the new working stressor which has to be scientifically acceptable introduced in daily life. Natural nonionizing background radiation is covering the globe with much more complex space matrix than natural ionizing background radiation. There is a decision to be made weather the occupational exposure to RF is to be regarded as potentially hazardous or is simply to be added to a person total exposure to such fields. We are proposing the reasonable protocol for the how to decide and judge the occupational exposure to RF fields originating from

  7. 47 CFR 15.242 - Operation in the bands 174-216 MHz and 470-668 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation in the bands 174-216 MHz and 470-668... bands 174-216 MHz and 470-668 MHz. (a) The marketing and operation of intentional radiators under the... services, facilities, and beds for use beyond 24 hours in rendering medical treatment and institutions and...

  8. Smart Home System Based on GSM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiar Ali Karim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing robbery and intrusion, establishing home-security system has become a correlated part of the modern houses, buildings, and offices. As the family members are not at home all the time, the traditional home security system, which makes alarm sound only, may not be efficient enough. Alternatively, Global System for Mobile communications (GSM based security system can provide higher level of security and convenience compared to the traditionally used systems. The main objective of the current paper is to design and implement cost-efficient and reliable security, safety and home automation system for protection and occupants’ convenience. If any undesired events, such as intrusion, gas leakage and fire occurs in the house, our system warns the homeowner in real-time using Short Message Service (SMS. With the proposed system home appliances can also be controlled in three ways, namely sending SMS from the authorized numbers to the system through GSM network, smartphone app using Bluetooth module and infrared (IR control using IR module

  9. EMF radiations (1800 MHz)-inhibited early seedling growth of maize (Zea mays) involves alterations in starch and sucrose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R; Kaur, Shalinder; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the impact of 1800-MHz electromagnetic field radiations (EMF-r), widely used in mobile communication, on the growth and activity of starch-, sucrose-, and phosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes in Zea mays seedlings. We exposed Z. mays to modulated continuous wave homogenous EMF-r at specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.69±0.0 × 10(-1) W kg(-1) for ½, 1, 2, and 4 h. The analysis of seedlings after 7 days revealed that short-term exposure did not induce any significant change, while longer exposure of 4 h caused significant growth and biochemical alterations. There was a reduction in the root and coleoptile length with more pronounced effect on coleoptile growth (23 % reduction on 4-h exposure). The contents of photosynthetic pigments and total carbohydrates declined by 13 and 18 %, respectively, in 4-h exposure treatments compared to unexposed control. The activity of starch-hydrolyzing enzymes-α- and β-amylases-increased by ∼92 and 94 %, respectively, at an exposure duration of 4 h, over that in the control. In response to 4-h exposure treatment, the activity of sucrolytic enzymes-acid invertases and alkaline invertases-was increased by 88 and 266 %, whereas the specific activities of phosphohydrolytic enzymes (acid phosphatases and alkaline phosphatases) showed initial increase up to ≤2 h duration and then declined at >2 h exposure duration. The study concludes that EMF-r-inhibited seedling growth of Z. mays involves interference with starch and sucrose metabolism.

  10. Ambient RF energy scavenging: GSM and WLAN power density measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Reniers, A.C.F.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of ambient RF energy scavenging, a survey of expected power density levels distant from GSM-900 and GSM-1800 base stations has been conducted and power density measurements have been performed in a WLAN environment. It appears that for distances ranging from 25 m to 100 m

  11. A novel security algorithm for gsm mobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minhas, A.A.; Mehmood, W.; Ijaz, A.

    2010-01-01

    Security is a crucial factor in the provision of secure mobile services. The rapid growth of harmful attacks has increased the need for higher security level, especially in the case of wireless networks. GSM security is proposed by A5/1 synchronous symmetric-key stream cipher. It has been revealed in (1), (2), and (3) that biased birthday attack, random subgraph attack and correlation attack, breach the security at the air interface. In this paper, we have proposed a high level security solution that incorporates a new Key setup routine and new feedback taps positions. We have shown that the proposed solution is more secure and efficient by simulating and application of different Statistical Tests for standard A5/1 and proposed A5/1 in MATLAB and comparing results. (author)

  12. Computational modelling of temperature rises in the eye in the near field of radiofrequency sources at 380, 900 and 1800 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, P. R.

    2007-07-01

    This paper reports calculations of the temperature rises induced in the eye and lens by near-field exposure to radiation from communication handsets, using the finite difference time domain method and classical bioheat equation. Various models are compared, including the analytic solution for a sphere, a finite element model of an isolated eye and a modern model of the whole head. The role of the blood supply to the choroid in moderating temperature is discussed. Three different frequencies are considered, namely 380 MHz (used by TETRA), and 900 and 1800 MHz (used by GSM mobile phones). At 380 MHz, monopole and helical antennas are compared. An 'equivalent blood flow' is derived for the choroid in order to facilitate comparison of the whole head and isolated eye models. In the whole head model, the heating of the lens receives a significant contribution from energy absorbed outside the eye. The temperature rise in the lens is compared to the ICNIRP-recommended average specific energy absorption rate (SAR) and the SAR averaged over the eye alone. The temperature rise may reach 1.4 °C at the ICNIRP occupational exposure limit if an antenna is placed less than 24 mm from the eye and the exposure is sufficiently prolonged.

  13. Computational modelling of temperature rises in the eye in the near field of radiofrequency sources at 380, 900 and 1800 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainwright, P R

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports calculations of the temperature rises induced in the eye and lens by near-field exposure to radiation from communication handsets, using the finite difference time domain method and classical bioheat equation. Various models are compared, including the analytic solution for a sphere, a finite element model of an isolated eye and a modern model of the whole head. The role of the blood supply to the choroid in moderating temperature is discussed. Three different frequencies are considered, namely 380 MHz (used by TETRA), and 900 and 1800 MHz (used by GSM mobile phones). At 380 MHz, monopole and helical antennas are compared. An 'equivalent blood flow' is derived for the choroid in order to facilitate comparison of the whole head and isolated eye models. In the whole head model, the heating of the lens receives a significant contribution from energy absorbed outside the eye. The temperature rise in the lens is compared to the ICNIRP-recommended average specific energy absorption rate (SAR) and the SAR averaged over the eye alone. The temperature rise may reach 1.4 deg. C at the ICNIRP occupational exposure limit if an antenna is placed less than 24 mm from the eye and the exposure is sufficiently prolonged

  14. GSM accessories now available from the CERN Stores

    CERN Multimedia

    Labo Telecom

    2001-01-01

    As of 1st October you can order and receive GSM accessories from the CERN stores like any other article. The CERN stores also manage GSM telephones but, for technical reasons, only the Labo Telecom shop (Building 31, Room S026) is able to make the standard sales, repairs and exchanges for authorised persons with a CERN subscription. Labo Telecom will thus become a specialist shop, open from 11 a.m. to 12 a.m., and will apply the usual rules and authorisation procedures of the stores. The paper form for requests for GSM subscriptions is being computerized and will be available on EDH in the near future.

  15. Can LTE become an alternative to GSM-R?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    GSM-R is the first widely adopted international mobile communication network for railways. It is a part of the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS), which substitutes legacy national railway signaling technologies. GSM-R is designed to provide two fundamental services: transmission...... of the European Train Control System (ETCS) messages and voice communication for railways. ETCS system offers safe and reliable in-cab signaling and train supervision, which reduces the risk of train driver error and increases the track occupancy. Thus, GSM-R, as a basis for ETCS, contributes to the safety...

  16. Seismic stations with GSM telemetry for registration of quarry blasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brož, Milan; Číž, Radim; Málek, Jiří; Žanda, Libor

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 2000, 16 (118) (2000), s. 25-32 ISSN 1211-1910 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : blasting * seismic station * GSM mobile modem Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  17. performance performance analysis of gsm networks in minna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    in terms of key performance indicators (KPI) based on statistics performance indicators ... in this study. Keywords: GSM Network, Drive Test, KPI and Radio Frequency Network Optimization. 1. .... message (SMS) traffic or in scenarios where so.

  18. Medical reliable network using concatenated channel codes through GSM network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Emtithal; Kohno, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    Although the 4(th) generation (4G) of global mobile communication network, i.e. Long Term Evolution (LTE) coexisting with the 3(rd) generation (3G) has successfully started; the 2(nd) generation (2G), i.e. Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) still playing an important role in many developing countries. Without any other reliable network infrastructure, GSM can be applied for tele-monitoring applications, where high mobility and low cost are necessary. A core objective of this paper is to introduce the design of a more reliable and dependable Medical Network Channel Code system (MNCC) through GSM Network. MNCC design based on simple concatenated channel code, which is cascade of an inner code (GSM) and an extra outer code (Convolution Code) in order to protect medical data more robust against channel errors than other data using the existing GSM network. In this paper, the MNCC system will provide Bit Error Rate (BER) equivalent to the BER for medical tele monitoring of physiological signals, which is 10(-5) or less. The performance of the MNCC has been proven and investigated using computer simulations under different channels condition such as, Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN), Rayleigh noise and burst noise. Generally the MNCC system has been providing better performance as compared to GSM.

  19. New types of subscriptions for CERN GSM

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    A recent renegotiation of our commercial conditions with our mobile telephony operator allows us today to deploy new GSM mobile services, reduce communication costs, as well as put in place a new subscription system. First of all, the "email to SMS" service has already been extended to all Swiss numbers. This service allows you to send SMS messages (Short Message Service) to any Swiss mobile telephone from your CERN e-mail account. For further details, please refer to the web site http://cern.ch/sms. The sending of MMS messages (Multi-media Message Service) will be activated by default on all CERN subscriptions by the end of March 2010. This service allows users to attach to a text message an image, a video or an audio recording. All the necessary details for configuring this new service on CERN mobile phones will be published on the web site http://cern.ch/mms. Concerning mobile service costs, new rates have been put in place since 1st January 2010. All tariffs have dramatically decrea...

  20. Effect of head-only sub-chronic GSM exposure on spatial memory of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammari, Mohamed; Brillaud, Elsa; Lecomte, Anthony; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Seze, Rene de; Faculte des Sciences de Bizerte, Jarzouna

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Low power electromagnetic fields (EMF) are suspected to produce deficit memory in rats. The study of Dubreuil et al (2003) showed that a short-term (10-15 days) exposure 'head-only' to GSM 900 MHz radio frequencies does not produce a deficit memory in adult rats. The aim of our experiment was to determine if head-only sub-chronic exposure (2 months) of rats to GSM signal for 45 min at a SAR = 1.5 W/Kg and for 15 min at 6 W/Kg induce deficit in spatial memory of rats in radial maze test. Materials and methods: Exposure system: Animals were placed in Plexiglas rockets with an individual loop antenna placed above the rat's head. Four animals were exposed at the time. Loop antennas were connected to a generator and emitted a GSM signal (900 MHz, pulsed at 217 Hz, 1/8 duty factor) 5 days / week for 8 weeks. Experimental group: 30 Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly assigned to 5 different groups: a) 6 rats exposed 15 min at SAR = 6 W/Kg; b) 6 rats exposed 45 min at SAR = 1.5 W/g; c) 6 rats sham controls (3 for 5 min and 3 for 45 min, SAR = 0 W/Kg); d) 6 rats without any treatment and manipulation (cage control); e) 6 rats were injected (i.p) S.B.H 0.1 mg/Kg (Sigma Aldrich) as positive control group. Behavioural procedure: The radial maze protocol consists of two consecutive phases: the training task (10 days) and the test task (8 days). In the first phase, rats were trained to visit the 8 arms of the maze without returning to an arm already visited. In the second phase (8 days), a 45-min intra-trial delay was introduced after four visited arms. After the intra-delay, the rat was placed in the maze to finish the test task, which is visiting four other arms he had not visited. During the training task, exposure took place before the behavioural task. During the test task, exposure or sham-exposure took place during the intra-delay. Results and discussion: In all experiments, performance of exposed rats (1.5 and 6 W/Kg) was compared with that of

  1. Age-dependent acute interference with stem and progenitor cell proliferation in the hippocampus after exposure to 1800 MHz electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Falin; Bai, Qiongdan; Zhou, Kai; Ma, Li; Duan, Jiajia; Zhuang, Fangli; Xie, Cuicui; Li, Wenli; Zou, Peng; Zhu, Changlian

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of exposure to an 1800 MHz electromagnetic field on cell death and cell proliferation in the developing brain, postnatal day 7 (P7) and P21 healthy Kunming mice were randomly assigned into the experimental and control groups. The experimental groups were exposed to an 1800 MHz electromagnetic field for 8 h daily for three consecutive days. The thymidine analog 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected intraperitoneally 1 h before each exposure session, and all animals were sacrificed 24 h after the last exposure. Cell death and proliferation markers were detected by immunohistochemistry in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Electromagnetic exposure has no influence on cell death in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in P7 and P21 mice as indicated by active caspase-3 immunostaining and Fluoro-Jade labeling. The basal cell proliferation in the hippocampus was higher in P7 than in P21 mice as indicated by the number of cells labeled with BrdU and by immunohistochemical staining for phosphor-histone H3 (PHH3) and brain lipid-binding protein (BLBP). Electromagnetic exposure stimulated DNA synthesis in P7 neural stem and progenitor cells, but reduced cell division and the total number of stem cells in the hippocampus as indicated by increased BrdU labeling and reduced PHH3 and BLBP labeling compared to P7 control mice. There were no significant changes in cell proliferation in P21 mice after exposure to the electromagnetic field. These results indicate that interference with stem cell proliferation upon short-term exposure to an 1800 MHz electromagnetic field depends on the developmental stage of the brain.

  2. Interference of GSM mobile phones with communication between Cardiac Rhythm Management devices and programmers: A combined in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong; Dong, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Yan; Wang, Fa-Bin; Wei, Zhi; Zhao, Wen-Bin; Li, Shuai; Liu, Ming-Ya; Zhu, Wei; Wei, Meng; Li, Jing-Bo

    2015-07-01

    To investigate interference, and how to avoid it, by high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) mobile phone with communication between cardiac rhythm management devices (CRMs) and programmers, a combined in vivo and in vitro testing was conducted. During in vivo testing, GSM mobile phones interfered with CRM-programmer communication in 33 of 65 subjects tested (50.8%). Losing ventricle sensing was representative in this study. In terms of clinical symptoms, only 4 subjects (0.6%) felt dizzy during testing. CRM-programmer communication recovered upon termination of mobile phone communication. During in vitro testing, electromagnetic interference by high-frequency (700-950 MHz) EMFs reproducibly occurred in duplicate testing in 18 of 20 CRMs (90%). During each interference, the pacing pulse signal on the programmer would suddenly disappear while the synchronous signal was normal on the amplifier-oscilloscope. Simulation analysis showed that interference by radiofrequency emitting devices with CRM-programmer communication may be attributed to factors including materials, excitation source distance, and implant depth. Results suggested that patients implanted with CRMs should not be restricted from using GSM mobile phones; however, CRMs should be kept away from high-frequency EMFs of GSM mobile phone during programming. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Android App Based Vehicle Tracking Using GPS And GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Saini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System GPS is used in numerous applications in todays world. A real time vehicle tracking system using the GPS technology is proposed in this paper. The project Android App based Vehicle Tracking Using GSM AND GPRS mainly focuses in tracking the location of the vehicle on which the device has been installed. It will then send the data in the form of latitude and longitude coordinates through SMS on the users mobile where the coordinates will be plotted in the Android app automatically. Initially the GPS installed in the device takes input from the satellite and stores it in the microcontrollers buffer. In order to track the vehicle the mobile user has to call on the SIM number that is registered in the GSM module of the device. Once the call is received the device authenticates the calling number. If authenticated the location of the vehicle is sent to the registered mobile number in the form of SMS. After sending the message the GSM is deactivated and the GPS is activated again. The coordinates of the location received in the SMS can be viewed on the android app. The hardware part described in the paper comprises of GPRS GSM module LCD to view the coordinates ATMega Microcontroller MAX 232 Arduino RS232 and relay.

  4. Vehicle Theft Identification and Intimation Using GSM & IOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswar Kumar, M.; Thippa Reddy, G.; Sudheer, K.; Reddy, M. Praveen Kumar; Kaluri, Rajesh; Singh Rajput, Dharmendra; Lakshmanna, Kuruva

    2017-11-01

    Internet of Things is the most predominant innovation associates the things through web. IoT is a technology which interfaces things from different places on the planet. Home mechanization is a wide range innovation in IoT technology on the planet. Home automation constitutes in security issues, controlling gadgets and so on. In existing model, the vehicle theft is distinguished and controlled by physically with GSM module. Furthermore, there are a few in controlling the vehicle is major issue for owner from theft. Here in this paper a technique described to overcome issue of existing one. In this the vehicle is identified, controlled and connected updates with Internet in a simple way. By utilization of AT commands of GSM module a message will be send to the owner that the vehicle is recognized. Action can be taken by sending a reply to GSM module to stop motor of vehicle. Arduino uno board is used to interface the GSM and engine of vehicle with appropriate sensors. Visual studio, Arduino uno are the programming software used to outline this application.

  5. Advanced Channel Estimation and Multiuser Detection in GSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arildsen, Thomas; Blauendahl, Jesper

    A single-antenna interference cancellation-capable data detector employing the SAGE-algorithm for GSM downlink transmission with co-channel interference has been designed and tested. Two scenarios were considered: First, a frequency-flat Rayleigh fading scenario with synchronously received users...

  6. Intellectual property rights and standardization. The case of GSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.N.A.; Verspagen, B.; Smits, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in the process of standardization in the telecommunications industry. We take the global system for mobile communications (GSM) case as a highly relevant example, being part of a high-tech industry in which standards play a

  7. The influence of Discontinuous Transmission on RXQUAL statistics in GSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigard, Jeroen; Nielsen, Thomas Toftegaard; Skjærris, Søren

    1999-01-01

    parameter used in GSM, which is directly related to the estimated BER before decoding. In the non-DTX mode the estimated BER is based on 100 bursts within 0.48 sec, while in the DTX mode the BER estimate is based on only 12 bursts within the same period. One method of estimation is the BER, and its...

  8. On Controlled Iterated GSM Mappings and Related Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    1979-01-01

    In [17] G. Paun studied families of languages generated by iterated gsm mappings, iterated finite substitutions, and iterated homomorphisms. In this note we generalize some results in [17], and we discuss the relation between iterated finite substitutions (homomorphisms) and (deterministic) tabled

  9. On Controlled Iterated GSM Mappings and Related Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    1980-01-01

    In [17] G. Paun studied families of languages generated by iterated gsm mappings, iterated finite substitutions, and iterated homomorphisms. In this note we generalize some results in [17], and we discuss the relation between iterated finite substitutions (homomorphisms) and (deterministic) tabled

  10. receive signal strength prediction in the gsm band using wavelet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    strength was measured on a Mobile Equipment (ME). One-dimensional ... used to predict the fading phenomenon of the GSM receive signal strength measured. Wavelet ... radio wavelength. The prediction is ... realized by reusing frequency in a dense or complex .... NETWORK SIGNAL PRO software, down loaded from.

  11. Indoor Localisation Based on GSM Signals: Multistorey Building Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Górak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the accurate indoor localisation systems that are using WiFi, Bluetooth, or infrared technologies, the ones that are based on the GSM rely on a stable external infrastructure that can be used even in an emergency. This paper presents an accurate GSM indoor localisation system that achieves a median error of 4.39 metres in horizontal coordinates and up to 64 percent accuracy in floor prediction (for 84 percent of cases the floor prediction is mistaken by not more than a single floor. The test and reference measurements were made inside a six-floor academic building, with an irregular shape, whose dimensions are around 50 metres by 70 metres. The localisation algorithm uses GSM signal readings from the 7 strongest cells available in the GSM standard (or fewer, if fewer than 7 are available. We estimate the location by a three-step method. Firstly, we propose a point localisation solution (i.e., localisation based on only one measurement. Then, by applying the central tendency filters and the Multilayer Perceptron, we build a localisation system that uses a sequence of estimations of current and past locations. We also discuss major accuracy factors such as the number of observed signals or the types of spaces in the building.

  12. Esimene GSM-võrk Radiolinjal / Tiina Kass

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kass, Tiina

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti : Infotehnologija 21. apr. lk. 1. Mobiilsideoperaatori Radiolinja Eesti AS-i juht Ants Viira ettevõtte asutamisest 1994. aastal, GSM-võrgu avamisest ja konkurentsist EMT AS-iga. Lisa: Radiolinja kõnehind pole 10 aastaga kuigivõrd muutunud. Vt. samas: Suhkru ja metalliärikad olid esimesed mobiiliomanikud

  13. Exposure assessment of mobile phone base station radiation in an outdoor environment using sequential surrogate modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Deschrijver, Dirk; Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Martens, Luc; Dhaene, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Human exposure to background radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has been increasing with the introduction of new technologies. There is a definite need for the quantification of RF-EMF exposure but a robust exposure assessment is not yet possible, mainly due to the lack of a fast and efficient measurement procedure. In this article, a new procedure is proposed for accurately mapping the exposure to base station radiation in an outdoor environment based on surrogate modeling and sequential design, an entirely new approach in the domain of dosimetry for human RF exposure. We tested our procedure in an urban area of about 0.04 km(2) for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 900 MHz (GSM900) using a personal exposimeter. Fifty measurement locations were sufficient to obtain a coarse street exposure map, locating regions of high and low exposure; 70 measurement locations were sufficient to characterize the electric field distribution in the area and build an accurate predictive interpolation model. Hence, accurate GSM900 downlink outdoor exposure maps (for use in, e.g., governmental risk communication and epidemiological studies) are developed by combining the proven efficiency of sequential design with the speed of exposimeter measurements and their ease of handling. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A large-scale measurement of electromagnetic fields near GSM base stations in Guangxi, China for risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongning; Shao, Qing; Yang, Lei; Qi, Dianyuan; Lin, Jun; Lin, Xiaojun; Yu, Zongying

    2013-06-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from wireless telecommunication base station antennae can lead to debates, conflicts or litigations among the adjacent residents if inappropriately managed. This paper presents a measurement campaign for the GSM band EMF exposure in the vicinity of 827 base station sites (totally 6207 measurement points) in Guangxi, China. Measurement specifications are designed for risk communication with the residents who previously complained of over-exposure. The EMF power densities with the global positioning system coordinate at each measured point were recorded. Compliance with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and Chinese environmental EMF safety standards was studied. The results show that the GSM band EMF level near the base stations is very low. The measurement results and the EMF risk communication procedures positively influence public perception of the RF EMF exposure from the base stations and promote the exchange of EMF exposure-related knowledge.

  15. A large-scale measurement of electromagnetic fields near GSM base stations in Guangxi, China for risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Shao, Q.; Yang, L.; Qi, D.; Lin, J.; Lin, X.; Yu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from wireless telecommunication base station antennae can lead to debates, conflicts or litigations among the adjacent residents if inappropriately managed. This paper presents a measurement campaign for the GSM band EMF exposure in the vicinity of 827 base station sites (totally 6207 measurement points) in Guangxi, China. Measurement specifications are designed for risk communication with the residents who previously complained of over-exposure. The EMF power densities with the global positioning system coordinate at each measured point were recorded. Compliance with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and Chinese environmental EMF safety standards was studied. The results show that the GSM band EMF level near the base stations is very low. The measurement results and the EMF risk communication procedures positively influence public perception of the RF EMF exposure from the base stations and promote the exchange of EMF exposure-related knowledge. (authors)

  16. Effect of cell phone radiofrequency radiation on body temperature in rodents: Pilot studies of the National Toxicology Program's reverberation chamber exposure system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyde, Michael E; Horn, Thomas L; Capstick, Myles H; Ladbury, John M; Koepke, Galen; Wilson, Perry F; Kissling, Grace E; Stout, Matthew D; Kuster, Niels; Melnick, Ronald L; Gauger, James; Bucher, John R; McCormick, David L

    2018-04-01

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) causes heating, which can lead to detrimental biological effects. To characterize the effects of RFR exposure on body temperature in relation to animal size and pregnancy, a series of short-term toxicity studies was conducted in a unique RFR exposure system. Young and old B6C3F1 mice and young, old, and pregnant Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) or Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) RFR (rats = 900 MHz, mice = 1,900 MHz) at specific absorption rates (SARs) up to 12 W/kg for approximately 9 h a day for 5 days. In general, fewer and less severe increases in body temperature were observed in young than in older rats. SAR-dependent increases in subcutaneous body temperatures were observed at exposures ≥6 W/kg in both modulations. Exposures of  ≥10 W/kg GSM or CDMA RFR induced excessive increases in body temperature, leading to mortality. There was also a significant increase in the number of resorptions in pregnant rats at 12 W/kg GSM RFR. In mice, only sporadic increases in body temperature were observed regardless of sex or age when exposed to GSM or CDMA RFR up to 12 W/kg. These results identified SARs at which measurable RFR-mediated thermal effects occur, and were used in the selection of exposures for subsequent toxicology and carcinogenicity studies. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:190-199, 2018. © 2018 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Designing a fractal antenna of 2400 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Hamburger, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    The design of a fractal antenna with 2400 MHz of frequency has been studied. The fractal used is described by Waclaw Spierpi.ski. The initial figure, also known as seed, is divided using equilateral triangles with the aim of obtaining a perimeter similar to a meaningful portion of wave length. The use of λ to establish an ideal perimeter has reduced the radiation resistance. The adequate number of iterations needed to design the antenna is calculated based on λ. (author) [es

  18. A survey on electromagnetic interferences on aircraft avionics systems and a GSM on board system overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinto, Natale; Tropea, Mauro; Fazio, Peppino; Voznak, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    Recent years have been characterized by an increase in the air traffic. More attention over micro-economic and macroeconomic indexes would be strategic to gather and enhance the safety of a flight and customer needing, for communicating by wireless handhelds on-board aircrafts. Thus, European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) proposed a GSM On Board (GSMOBA) system as a possible solution, allowing mobile terminals to communicate through GSM system on aircraft, avoiding electromagnetic interferences with radio components aboard. The main issues are directly related with interferences that could spring-out when mobile terminals attempt to connect to ground BTS, from the airplane. This kind of system is able to resolve the problem in terms of conformance of Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) limits, defined outside the aircraft, by using an On board BTS (OBTS) and modeling the relevant key RF parameters on the air. The main purpose of this work is to illustrate the state-of-the-art of literature and previous studies about the problem, giving also a good detail of technical and normative references.

  19. Wi-Fi and GSM Based Motion Sensor for Home Security System Apllication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzaimy Jusoh, Mohamad; Jamali, Muhammad Firdaus Bin; Zainal Abidin, Ahmad Faizal bin; Asari Sulaiman, Ahmad; Fahmi Hussin, Mohamad

    2015-11-01

    The Wi-Fi and GSM based home security system is a system designed to reduce the high rates of crimes in most personal housing. The overall project consists of three major parts; the input part that consists of sensors, the software part that operates the entire hardware structure, and the output part, which consists of camera, alarm system, and micro secure digital (SD) data storage card. It is based on the principle of infrared radiation generated by a human body heat which trigger the passive infrared (PIR) sensor. The microcontroller processes the received signal, then trigger the buzzer alarm, camera and alerts the home owner through an SMS. Once triggered, the camera will capture the image of the intruder and the image will be saved in SD card. As alert to the user (away), the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) will send the Short Message Service (SMS) from the device to the user's mobile phone. The image will be sent to Dropbox data cloud storage via Wi-Fi for further clarification. The prototype was successfully developed, tested and has been installed at residential area in Taman Cahaya Alam, Section U12, Shah Alam, Malaysia.

  20. Design of a rectenna system for GSM-900 band using novel broadside 2 × 1 array antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Singh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a rectenna operating at the GSM-900 frequency band has been fabricated and tested. This rectenna composed of a 2 × 1 T-shaped monopole array antenna and an energy processing circuit. In order to reduce the gap between adjacent antenna elements in the array structure, the proposed array antenna uses a ground stub. Compared with other array antennas, the proposed array antenna with the ground stub reduces the size up to 50% without affecting the gain and bandwidth. An antenna prototype is fabricated and experimentally tested. The measured antenna's gain and bandwidth are 3.2 and 152 MHz, respectively, hence showing its suitability for radio-frequency (RF energy harvesting application. For this to be feasible, the developed array antenna is matched with the rectifier at GSM-900 using a single stub matching network. The measured result demonstrates that the proposed rectifier circuit offers the conversion efficiency of 21.2 and 63.6% for an input power of −20 and 0 dBm, respectively. Finally, the rectifier performance is attested experimentally with the developed array antenna. The rectenna's measured RF-to-dc conversion efficiency was found to be 60% at the far-field distance from the transmitting antenna.

  1. ANALISIS KUAT SINYAL DAN KUALITAS PANGGILAN JARINGAN GSM INDOOR DENGAN TEMS INVESTIGATION DAN G-NETTRACK PRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Ari Budiarta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan akan teknologi GSM merupakan tantangan bagi provider untuk memberikan pelayanan terbaik bagi pengguna layanannya. Dalam proses layanan tersebut kemungkinan besar terdapat masalah yang terjadi. Pihak provider biasanya melakukan walk test untuk mengecek kekuatan sinyal yang dipancarkan oleh antena pemancar di dalam ruangan. Kebanyakan pihak provider menggunakan TEMS Investigation dalam melakukan walk test. Biaya walk test dengan TEMS Investigation bisa dikatakan cukup mahal. Namun dengan berkembangnya teknologi, walk test juga bisa dilakukan menggunakan smartphone Android dengan menggunakan G-NetTrack Pro. Dalam penelitian ini dibandingkan kualitas hasil pengukuran parameter kuat sinyal yaitu RSL dan parameter kualitas panggilan yaitu RxQual, CSSR, dan DCR antara software TEMS Investigation dengan G-NetTrack Pro berdasarkan metode walk test pada jaringan GSM indoor 1800 MHz di Matahari Duta Plaza. Secara keseluruhan, G-NetTrack Pro mampu menampilkan data yang dibutuhkan pada penelitian tetapi tidak sedetail TEMS Investigation, sehingga untuk pengenalan awal walk test, software G-NetTrack Pro bisa digunakan sebagai bahan pembelajaran.

  2. Effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones (GSM 900 and WCDMA/UMTS) on the macrostructure of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Dorn, Hans; Bahr, Achim; Anderer, Peter; Sauter, Cornelia

    2011-03-01

    In the present double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled cross-over study, possible effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 and Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA)/Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) cell-phones on the macrostructure of sleep were investigated in a laboratory environment. An adaptation night, which served as screening night for sleep disorders and as an adjustment night to the laboratory environment, was followed by 9 study nights (separated by a 2-week interval) in which subjects were exposed to three exposure conditions (sham, GSM 900 and WCDMA/UMTS). The sample comprised 30 healthy male subjects within the age range 18-30 years (mean ± standard deviation: 25.3 ± 2.6 years). A cell-phone usage at maximum radio frequency (RF) output power was simulated and the transmitted power was adjusted in order to approach, but not to exceed, the specific absorption rate (SAR) limits of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines for general public exposure (SAR(10g) = 2.0 W kg(-1)). In this study, possible effects of long-term (8 h) continuous RF exposure on the central nervous system were analysed during sleep, because sleep is a state in which many confounding intrinsic and extrinsic factors (e.g. motivation, personality, attitude) are eliminated or controlled. Thirteen of 177 variables characterizing the initiation and maintenance of sleep in the GSM 900 and three in the WCDMA exposure condition differed from the sham condition. The few significant results are not indicative of a negative impact on sleep architecture. From the present results there is no evidence for a sleep-disturbing effect of GSM 900 and WCDMA exposure. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  3. TRACKING VEHICLE IN GSM NETWORK TO SUPPORT INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Koppanyi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The penetration of GSM capable devices is very high, especially in Europe. To exploit the potential of turning these mobile devices into dynamic data acquisition nodes that provides valuable data for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS, position information is needed. The paper describes the basic operation principles of the GSM system and provides an overview on the existing methods for deriving location data in the network. A novel positioning solution is presented that rely on handover (HO zone measurements; the zone geometry properties are also discussed. A new concept of HO zone sequence recognition is introduced that involves application of Probabilistic Deterministic Finite State Automata (PDFA. Both the potential commercial applications and the use of the derived position data in ITS is discussed for tracking vehicles and monitoring traffic flow. As a practical cutting edge example, the integration possibility of the technology in the SafeTRIP platform (developed in an EC FP7 project is presented.

  4. PENERAPAN FITUR ADAPTIVE MULTI RATE (AMR PADA JARINGAN GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdusy Syarif

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive Mutlirate (AMR is a feature that plays an important role in the efficiency of use of cell/voice channels and GSM networks in overall and it can improve sound quality dynamically based on actual measurements (real time between Mobile Station (MS and Base Transmitter Station (BTS. Resources used as analytical parameters are SQI (Speech Quality Index, MOS (Mean Opinion Score and the sound quality on the network without and with AMR. Measurements using Test Equipment Mobile System (TEMS while locking devices to the single channel and comparing them between the two types of network. Based on test results it is obtained that with voice channels with AMR can increase the value of SQI approximately 40% for fullrate channels and about 60% for half-rate channels producing a remarkable (excellent level, with research and further measuring it is expected to produce better and more perfect sound quality.Kata kunci: AMR, SQI, GSM networkABSTRAK

  5. RFID Based Security Access Control System with GSM Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Adole; Joseph M. Môm; Gabriel A. Igwue

    2016-01-01

    The security challenges being encountered in many places today require electronic means of controlling access to secured premises in addition to the available security personnel. Various technologies were used in different forms to solve these challenges. The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Based Access Control Security system with GSM technology presented in this work helps to prevent unauthorized access to controlled environments (secured premises). This is achieved mainly...

  6. GSM Channel Equalization Algorithm - Modern DSP Coprocessor Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drutarovsky

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents basic equations of efficient GSM Viterbi equalizer algorithm based on approximation of GMSK modulation by linear superposition of amplitude modulated pulses. This approximation allows to use Ungerboeck form of channel equalizer with significantly reduced arithmetic complexity. Proposed algorithm can be effectively implemented on the Viterbi and Filter coprocessors of new Motorola DSP56305 digital signal processor. Short overview of coprocessor features related to the proposed algorithm is included.

  7. GSM Network Employment on a Man-Portable UAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    28  Figure 15.  Mobile market share (From Global Mobile Suppliers Association, 2010) ......29  Figure 16.  GSM architecture...Signaling System 7 SSP Service Switching Points STP Signal Transfer Points SUAS Small Unmanned Aerial System TCH Traffic Channel TCP...platforms that are currently accessible on the commercial market . As the cost of technology continues to drop, group one UASs will continue to benefit

  8. Vulnerabilities in GSM technology and feasibility of selected attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznak, M.; Prokes, M.; Sevcik, L.; Frnda, J.; Toral-Cruz, Homer; Jakovlev, Sergej; Fazio, Peppino; Mehic, M.; Mikulec, M.

    2015-05-01

    Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) is the most widespread technology for mobile communications in the world and serving over 7 billion users. Since first publication of system documentation there has been notified a potential safety problem's occurrence. Selected types of attacks, based on the analysis of the technical feasibility and the degree of risk of these weaknesses, were implemented and demonstrated in laboratory of the VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic. These vulnerabilities were analyzed and afterwards possible attacks were described. These attacks were implemented using open-source tools, software programmable radio USRP (Universal Software RadioPeripheral) and DVB-T (Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial) receiver. GSM security architecture is being scrutinized since first public releases of its specification mainly pointing out weaknesses in authentication and ciphering mechanisms. This contribution also summarizes practically proofed and used scenarios that are performed using opensource software tools and variety of scripts mostly written in Python. Main goal of this paper is in analyzing security issues in GSM network and practical demonstration of selected attacks.

  9. Design and Implementation of GSM Based Automated Home Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Love Aggarwal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Automated Home Security System aims at building a security system for common households using GSM modem, sensors and microcontroller. Since many years, impeccable security system has been the prime need of every man who owns a house. The increasing crime rate has further pressed the need for it. Our system is an initiative in this direction. The system provides security function by monitoring the surroundings at home for intruders, fire, gas leakages etc. using sensors and issue alerts to the owners and local authorities by using GSM via SMS. It provides the automation function as it can control (On/Off the various home appliances while the owners are away via SMS. Thus the Automated Home Security System is self-sufficient and can be relied upon undoubtedly. Also, it is capable of establishing two way communication with its owner so that he/she can keep a watch on his/her home via sensor information or live video streaming. A camera can be installed for continuous monitoring of the system and its surroundings. The system consists of two main parts: hardware and software. Hardware consists of Microcontroller, Sensors, Buzzer and GSM modem while software is implemented by tools using Embedded ‘C’.

  10. APROXIMACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD DE VOZ Y COBERTURA EN UNA RED GSM DE EMERGENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Eduardo Gaona García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se muestran los resultados obtenidos al medir los parámetros de calidad de voz en una solución propuesta de telecomunicaciones para la atención de desastres en situaciones de emergencia, haciendo uso de software libre para interconectar llamadas, protocolos de comunicaciones empleados en las redes GSM (Global System Mobile en la banda DCS-1800 (Digital Cellular Service - 1800MHz, que facilita el uso de cualquier terminal móvil comercial, utilizando un USRP (Universal Software Radio Peripheral en conjunto con sistema de telefonía IP basado en Asterisk. El USRP se encarga de emular la operación de una BTS (Base Transceiver Station al ejecutar las funciones de un PBX (Private Branch Exchange, permitiendo la coordinación de las entidades responsables de responder y atender este tipo de emergencias. Las mediciones del desempeño de la red se realizaron a partir de tres parámetros probabilísticos: GoS (Grade of service, DCR (Dropped Call Rate y MOS (Mean Opinion Score. Con el uso de 8 terminales y escogiendo un GoS del 2% se generó un tráfico de hasta 3,6 Erlang. Esta medición se realizó empleando modelos probabilísticos de Erlang B. Se realiza el comparativo de la cobertura de la red aplicando el modelo Okumura-Hata sin el uso de amplificadores.

  11. Reengineering GSM/GPRS Towards a Dedicated Network for Massive Smart Metering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    GSM is a synonym for a major success in wireless technology, achieving widespread use and high technology maturity. However, its future is questionable, as many stakeholders indicate that the GSM spectrum should be re-farmed for LTE. On the other hand, the advent of smart grid and the ubiquity...... of smart meters will require reliable, long-lived wide area connections. This motivates to investigate the potential of GSM to be evolved into a dedicated network for smart metering. We introduce simple mechanisms to reengineer the access control in GSM. The result is a system that offers excellent support...

  12. A Dual Band Additively Manufactured 3D Antenna on Package with Near-Isotropic Radiation Pattern

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Zhen

    2018-04-06

    Internet of things (IoT) applications need wireless connectivity on devices with very small footprints, and in RF obscure environments. The antenna for such applications must work on multiple GSM bands (preferred choice for network connectivity), provide near isotropic radiation pattern to maintain orientation insensitive communication, be small in size so that it can be integrated with futuristic miniaturized IoT devices, and be low in cost to be implemented on billions of devices. This paper presents a novel 3D dual band near-isotropic wideband GSM antenna to fulfill these requirements. The antenna has been realized on the package of electronics through additive manufacturing to ensure efficient utilization of available space and lower cost. The proposed antenna consists of a meander line antenna that is folded on the faces of a 3D package with two variations, 0.375λ length for narrowband version and 0.67λ length for the wideband version. Theoretical conditions to achieve near isotropic radiation pattern with bent wire antennas on a 3D surface have been derived. The antenna has been optimized to operate with embedded electronics and a large metallic battery. The antenna provides 8.9% and 34.4% bandwidths, at 900 and 1800 MHz respectively with decent near isotropic radiation behavior.

  13. A possible effect of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations on the number of breeding house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Joris; Bauwens, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    A possible effect of long-term exposure to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone (GSM) base stations on the number of House Sparrows during the breeding season was studied in six residential districts in Belgium. We sampled 150 point locations within the 6 areas to examine small-scale geographic variation in the number of House Sparrow males and the strength of electromagnetic radiation from base stations. Spatial variation in the number of House Sparrow males was negatively and highly significantly related to the strength of electric fields from both the 900 and 1800 MHz downlink frequency bands and from the sum of these bands (Chi(2)-tests and AIC-criteria, Pnegative relationship was highly similar within each of the six study areas, despite differences among areas in both the number of birds and radiation levels. Thus, our data show that fewer House Sparrow males were seen at locations with relatively high electric field strength values of GSM base stations and therefore support the notion that long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation negatively affects the abundance or behavior of House Sparrows in the wild.

  14. The Effects of Cell Phone Waves (900 MHz-GSM Band) on Sperm Parameters and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Masoud; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Khavanin, Ali; Khazaei, Mozafar

    2013-04-01

    There is tremendous concern regarding the possible adverse effects of cell phone microwaves. Contradictory results, however, have been reported for the effects of these waves on the body. In the present study, the effect of cell phone microwaves on sperm parameters and total antioxidant capacity was investigated with regard to the duration of exposure and the frequency of these waves. This experimental study was performed on 28 adult male Wistar rats (200-250 g). The animals were randomly assigned to four groups (n=7): i. control; ii. two-week exposure to cell phone-simulated waves; iii. three-week exposure to cell phonesimulated waves; and iv. two-week exposure to cell phone antenna waves. In all groups, sperm analysis was performed based on standard methods and we determined the mean sperm total antioxidant capacity according to the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) method. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test using SPSS version 16 software. The results indicated that sperm viability, motility, and total antioxidant capacity in all exposure groups decreased significantly compared to the control group (pcell phone waves can decrease sperm viability and motility in rats. These waves can also decrease sperm total antioxidant capacity in rats and result in oxidative stress.

  15. The Effects of Cell Phone Waves (900 MHz-GSM Band on Sperm Parameters and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Ghanbari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is tremendous concern regarding the possible adverse effects of cellphone microwaves. Contradictory results, however, have been reported for the effectsof these waves on the body. In the present study, the effect of cell phone microwaves onsperm parameters and total antioxidant capacity was investigated with regard to the durationof exposure and the frequency of these waves.Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 28 adult male Wistarrats (200-250 g. The animals were randomly assigned to four groups (n=7: i. control; ii.two-week exposure to cell phone-simulated waves; iii. three-week exposure to cell phonesimulatedwaves; and iv. two-week exposure to cell phone antenna waves. In all groups,sperm analysis was performed based on standard methods and we determined the meansperm total antioxidant capacity according to the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAPmethod. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test using SPSSversion 16 software.Results: The results indicated that sperm viability, motility, and total antioxidant capacityin all exposure groups decreased significantly compared to the control group (p<0.05.Increasing the duration of exposure from 2 to 3 weeks caused a statistically significantdecrease in sperm viability and motility (p<0.05.Conclusion: Exposure to cell phone waves can decrease sperm viability and motility inrats. These waves can also decrease sperm total antioxidant capacity in rats and result inoxidative stress.

  16. UMTS network planning, optimization, and inter-operation with GSM

    CERN Document Server

    Rahnema, Moe

    2008-01-01

    UMTS Network Planning, Optimization, and Inter-Operation with GSM is an accessible, one-stop reference to help engineers effectively reduce the time and costs involved in UMTS deployment and optimization. Rahnema includes detailed coverage from both a theoretical and practical perspective on the planning and optimization aspects of UMTS, and a number of other new techniques to help operators get the most out of their networks. Provides an end-to-end perspective, from network design to optimizationIncorporates the hands-on experiences of numerous researchersSingle

  17. Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure from Cellular Base Station: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure from Cellular Base Station: A Concern for Public ... as well as safety guidelines relating to exposure of non-ionizing radiation. Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) operators claimed that their ...

  18. Electromagnetic radiation 2450 MHz exposure causes cognition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sukesh Kumar Gupta

    2018-03-24

    Mar 24, 2018 ... Earlier studies have reported that long term low fre- quency of EMR ... 2.45 GHz at low intensity (50–230HZ) for short time period (15–120 min daily ... lead to cognitive disorders or memory dysfunction in rats. (Lai et al. 1987 ...

  19. Splitting GSM schemas : a framework for outsourcing of declarative artifact systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Hull, R.; Sun, Y.; Vaculin, R.

    2014-01-01

    Case Management is emerging as an important paradigm for Business Process Management. The Guard-Stage-Milestone (GSM) model is a recent case management approach that substantially influences OMG¿s emerging Case Management Modeling Notation standard. We study the problem of outsourcing part of a GSM

  20. Splitting GSM schemas : a framework for outsourcing of declarative artifact systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, H.; Hull, R.; Sun, Y.; Vaculin, R.; Daniel, F.; Wang, J.; Weber, B.

    2013-01-01

    Case Management is emerging as an important paradigm for Business Process Management. The Guard-Stage-Milestone (GSM) model is a recent case management approach that substantially influences OMG’s emerging Case Management Modeling Notation standard. We study the problem of outsourcing part of a GSM

  1. Eesti allilm suudab tõkestada GSM-levi / Rasmus Kagge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kagge, Rasmus, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 10. mai lk. 2. Politsei andmetel on Eesti kuritegelike jõukude käes praegu vähemalt paar GSM-levi segajat ehk jammerit. Politseil on õnnestunud konfiskeerida autovarastelt üks GSM-levi tõkestaja. Lisa. Kasutajapiirang. Vt. samas: Jammereid saab osta internetist

  2. Measurement and mapping of the GSM-based electromagnetic pollution in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuysuz, Burak; Mahmutoglu, Yigit

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic pollution caused by mobile communication devices, a new form of environmental pollution, has been one of the most concerning problems to date. Consequences of long-term exposure to the electromagnetic radiation caused by cell phone towers are still unknown and can potentially be a new health hazard. It is important to measure, analyze and map the electromagnetic radiation levels periodically because of the potential risks. The electromagnetic pollution maps can be used for the detection of diseases caused by the radiation. With the help of the radiation maps of different regions, comparative analysis can be provided and distribution of the diseases can be investigated. In this article, Global System for Mobile communication (GSM)-based electromagnetic pollution map of the Rize Providence, which has high cancer rates because of the Chernobyl nuclear explosion, is generated. First, locations of the GSM base stations are identified and according to the antenna types of the base stations, safety distances are determined. Subsequently, 155 measurements are taken during November 2014 from the nearest living quarters of the Rize city center in Turkey. The measurements are then assessed statistically. Thenceforth, for visual judgment of the determined statistics, collected measurements are presented on the map. It is observed that national limits are not exceeded, but it is also discovered that the safety distance is waived at some of the measurement points and above the average radiation levels are noted. Even if the national limits are not exceeded, the long-term effects of the exposition to the electromagnetic radiation can cause serious health problems.

  3. The effects of 1800 MHz radiofrequency waves on lipid peroxidation in pregnant rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomruk, Arin; Guler, Goknur; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2008-01-01

    II (non-pregnant +RF exposed group); 3) Group III (pregnant group); 4) Group IV (pregnant + RF exposed group). For each exposure groups (Group II, Group IV) rabbits were exposed to pulsed 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation (217 Hz GSM modulation; 20dBm) 15 min/day during a week. MDA levels were quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). TBARS levels were determined in liver tissues of rabbits by using Uchiyama and Mihara's spectrophotometric method. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS software (SPSS 11.5 for windows, SPSS Inc., Chicago, USA). Mann-Whitney U test were performed on the data of biochemical variables to examine the difference among groups. It was found increased TBARS levels in Group II statistically significant (p<0.004) with respect to Group I. While, it was observed that TBARS levels were found increased during pregnancy period, the effect of short-term pulsed RF exposure on TBARS levels were determined during this period. Depending on the results obtained from this study, TBARS levels were found also increased in Group IV statistically significant (p<0.006) with respect to Group II. Consequently, increased TBARS levels can be evaluated as oxidative effects of pulsed 1800 MHz RF radiation on lipids and be assumed that increased LPO products mediated by free radicals may be indicators of subsequent reactions that occur to form other oxygen toxicity in tissues. (author)

  4. Calibration of SAR probes in waveguide at 900 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokela, K.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P.

    1998-01-01

    The radiation safety tests for hand-held mobile phones require precise calibration of the small electric field probes used for the measurement of SAR in phantoms simulating the human body. In this study a calibration based on a rectangular waveguide was developed for SAR calibrations at 900 MHz

  5. Measuring personal exposure from 900MHz mobile phone base stations in Australia and Belgium using a novel personal distributed exposimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Thielens, Arno; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Billah, Baki; Sim, Malcolm R; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout; Benke, Geza

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: i) measure personal exposure in the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) 900MHz downlink (DL) frequency band with two systems of exposimeters, a personal distributed exposimeter (PDE) and a pair of ExpoM-RFs, ii) compare the GSM 900MHz DL exposures across various microenvironments in Australia and Belgium, and iii) evaluate the correlation between the PDE and ExpoM-RFs measurements. Personal exposure data were collected using the PDE and two ExpoM-RFs simultaneously across 34 microenvironments (17 each in Australia and Belgium) located in urban, suburban and rural areas. Summary statistics of the electric field strengths (V/m) were computed and compared across similar microenvironments in Australia and Belgium. The personal exposures across urban microenvironments were higher than those in the rural or suburban microenvironments. Likewise, the exposure levels across the outdoor were higher than those for indoor microenvironments. The five highest median exposure levels were: city centre (0.248V/m), bus (0.124V/m), railway station (0.105V/m), mountain/forest (rural) (0.057V/m), and train (0.055V/m) [Australia]; and bicycle (urban) (0.238V/m), tram station (0.238V/m), city centre (0.156V/m), residential outdoor (urban) (0.139V/m) and park (0.124V/m) [Belgium]. Exposures in the GSM900 MHz frequency band across most of the microenvironments in Australia were significantly lower than the exposures across the microenvironments in Belgium. Overall correlations between the PDE and the ExpoM-RFs measurements were high. The measured exposure levels were far below the general public reference levels recommended in the guidelines of the ICNIRP and the ARPANSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Are there evidences for the influence of GSM- and TETRA-electromagnetic fields on language comprehension in the human memory?; Laesst sich durch den Einfluss von kopfnah gepulsten Hochfrequenzfeldern des GSM- und TETRA-Mobilfunks ein Wirkungseffekt auf sprachverarbeitende Prozesse im Gedaechtnis nachweisen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, G. [Bundesanstalt fuer Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Stummvoll, B.; Beyer, R. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Institut fuer Psychologie

    2004-07-01

    The experimental study using a double blind design examining the influences of the electromagnetic fields of GSM and TETRA mobile phones on the language comprehension in the human memory. 30 young men had to decide whether a given word was contained in a text they had read before. It will be demonstrated that GSM-radiation seemed to cause a quicker answer. In contrast the TETRA-radiation allowed reading - i.e. to understand - the text in a significant shorter time when the exposition came from the telephone situated on the right side of the head. Since these effects are very small, there is now evidence for a health risk. Both results point at a support of the mental processes at attention and memory. (orig.)

  7. Fiber optic Ethernet transceiver for Joint STARS block I GSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatens, Dennis R.; Usberghi, Michael J.

    The authors discuss the use of FiberCom's DPT dual redundant counter-rotating ring Ethernet transceiver, and its use as an integral part of the Joint STARS (Surveillance Target Attack Radar System) surface-to-air battlefield information station called the ground station module (GSM). The Ethernet transceiver uses a dual counter-rotating fiber ring architecture. The operation of the unit enables the network to have fault-tolerant capability with no single point of failure. This results from the unit's ability to reconfigure around a network failure, creating a new working segment from the remaining portion. The medium attachment unit interface conforms to ANSI/IEEE Std. 802.3-1985, the IEEE Standard for Local Area Networks-Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications.

  8. GSM and web-based flood monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagatpat, J C; Arellano, A C; Gerasta, O J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a local real-time river flood monitoring and warning system for the selected communities near Mandulog River. This study focuses only on the detection and early warning alert system (via website and/or cell phone text messages) that alerts local subscribers of potential flood events. Furthermore, this system is interactive wherein all non-registered subscribers could inquire the actual water level of the desired area location they want to monitor. An estimated time a particular river waterway will overflow is also included in the analyses. The hardware used in the design is split into several parts namely: the water level detector, GSM module, and microcontroller development board. (paper)

  9. Gamma portal detector with micro-processed and GSM communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Lindolff Thadeu

    2008-01-01

    Full text: We present in this paper a new concept of gamma radiation portal detector, where the detection process is monitored by a micro-controller, coupled to a compatible GSM communication system, which is suitable to be accessed by all mobile phone operators worldwide. The signal generated at the detectors is converted by an A/D circuit, and driven to a micro-controller where a software evaluates the signal conditions and, depending on a previously set program, it triggers a communication system which sends the alarm to any computer linked to internet and/or to any mobile phone protocol by a specific software linked to the portal. The control electronic system is compatible to several detectors types, ranging from gas based devices to solid state ones. The portal is totally compatible with the ANSI - Standard N42.35 - 2004. It can be used in all types of government and industrial control scenarios. Its measure device permits the use of the equipment in all range of sensibility and in tracking radiation signals where it is. (author)

  10. Public exposure to radio waves near GSM microcell and picocell base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T G; Mann, S M; Khalid, M; Blackwell, R P

    2006-01-01

    Exposures of the general public to radio waves at locations near 20 randomly selected GSM microcell and picocell base stations in the UK have been assessed in the context of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. Compliance distances were calculated for the antennas of the base stations from their reported radiated powers. Under pessimistic assumptions that would maximise exposures, the minimum height at which the general public reference level could potentially be exceeded near any of the base station antennas was calculated to be 2.4 m above ground level. The power densities of the broadcast carriers transmitted by the base stations have been measured and scaled to include all other possible carriers. Exposures were generally in the range 0.002-2% of the ICNIRP general public reference level, and the greatest exposure quotient near any of the base stations was 8.6%. Exposures close to microcell base stations were found to be generally greater than those close to macrocell base stations

  11. Evaluation of Spectrum Usage for GSM band in Indoor and Outdoor Scenario for Dynamic Spectrum Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Kishor P.; Barge, Snehal; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2013-01-01

    , and transmit power. Several measurements have shown that the current spectrum is inefficiently utilized. The inefficient utilization problem can be solved with the help of Dynamic Spectrum Access. This paper describes the GSM band measurement conducted at different locations. In this paper, we report detailed...... measurement results of GSM band including statistical as well as spectral occupancy details obtained from measurement campaign conducted in Pune, India for indoor and outdoor scenarios. The results can be further used as an input for spectrum regulator for considering Cognitive Radio (CR) operation in GSM...

  12. Real-Time Vehicle Data Logging System Using GPS And GSM

    OpenAIRE

    Win Minn Thet; MyoMaung Maung; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes and implements a low cost Vehicle Data Logging System using GPS and GSM. This system allows a user to trace the present and past positions recorded in SD card. This system also reads the current position of the vehicle using GPS the data is sent via GSM service from the GSM network. The vehicles position including the driving speed the UTC time and data are stored in the SD card for live and past tracking. All of that GPS data is sent to PIC 18F4520 by the Uni...

  13. Evaluation of the Effect of Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted From Wi-Fi Router and Mobile Phone Simulator on the Antibacterial Susceptibility of Pathogenic Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, M; Mortazavi, S M J; Moradi, M; Mansouri, S; Hatam, G R; Nouri, F

    2017-01-01

    Mobile phones and Wi-Fi radiofrequency radiation are among the main sources of the exposure of the general population to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Previous studies have shown that exposure of microorganisms to RF-EMFs can be associated with a wide spectrum of changes ranged from the modified bacterial growth to the alterations of the pattern of antibiotic resistance. Our laboratory at the nonionizing department of the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center has performed experiments on the health effects of exposure to animal models and humans to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as cellular phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons, magnetic resonance imaging, and Helmholtz coils. On the other hand, we have previously studied different aspects of the challenging issue of the ionizing or nonionizing radiation-induced alterations in the susceptibility of microorganisms to antibiotics. In this study, we assessed if the exposure to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiation and 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from common Wi-Fi routers alters the susceptibility of microorganisms to different antibiotics. The pure cultures of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were exposed to RF-EMFs generated either by a GSM 900 MHz mobile phone simulator and a common 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi router. It is also shown that exposure to RF-EMFs within a narrow level of irradiation (an exposure window) makes microorganisms resistant to antibiotics. This adaptive phenomenon and its potential threats to human health should be further investigated in future experiments. Altogether, the findings of this study showed that exposure to Wi-Fi and RF simulator radiation can significantly alter the inhibition zone diameters and growth rate for L monocytogenes and E coli. These findings may have implications for the management of serious infectious diseases.

  14. Evaluation of Noise in Hearing Instruments Caused by GSM and DECT Mobile Telephones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Østergaard; Poulsen, Torben

    1996-01-01

    The annoyance of noise in hearing instruments caused by electromagnetic interference from Global systems for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Digital European Cordless Telecommunication (DECT) mobile telephones has been subjectively evaluated by test subjects. The influence on speech recognition from...... the GSM and the DECT noises was also determined. The measurements involved seventeen hearing-imparied subjects. The annoyance was tested with GSM and DECT noise, each one mixed with continuous speech, a mall environment noise, or an office environment noise. Speech recognition was tested with the DANTALE...... word material mixed with GSM and DECT noise. The listening tests showed that if the noise level is acceptable so also is speech recognition. The results agree well with an investigation carried out on normal-hearing subjects. If a hearing instrument user is able to use a telephone without annoyance...

  15. How Many Smart Meters can be Deployed in a GSM cell?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    connectivity serving all types of wireless traffic. On the other hand, GSM is a well-adopted technology and represents a valuable asset to build M2M infrastructure due to the good coverage, device maturity, and low cost. In this paper we assess the potential of GSM/GPRS/EDGE to operate as a dedicated network...... for M2M communications. In order to enable M2M-dedicated operation in the near future, we reengineer the GSM/GPRS/EDGE protocol in a way that requires only minor software updates of the protocol stack. We propose different schemes to boost the number of M2M devices in the system without affecting...... the network stability. We show that a single GSM cell can support simultaneous low-data rate connections (e. g. to smart meters) in the order of 104 devices....

  16. DrumNet : Building a GSM-enabled Information System for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and marketing - to boost agricultural productivity and enhance rural livelihoods. ... and implement a global system for mobile communications (GSM)-enabled ... Using ICT to integrate smallholder farmers into agricultural value chains : the ...

  17. Q GSM tegi konkurentidele dünamo / Aivar Hundimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hundimägi, Aivar, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    Mobiilsideoperaatorile Q GSM (praegune Tele2) edu taganud turundusstrateegiatest. Lisad: Q GSMi Dynamo teenuspaketi eesmärgid; Q GSMist sai Tele2. Diagramm: 2000. aastal turule toodud Dynamo pakett tõi murrangu

  18. Evaluation Of Electromagnetic Fields For Frequencies 900 MHz-1 800 MHz In Tirana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuqi Dhurata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The massive use of mobile phone as a communication tool nowadays is accompanied the ever increasing interest of the public and researchers for the possibly impact on human health as a result of exposure to the electromagnetic fields that accompany these devices. Therefore knowing the level of exposure electromagnetic fields of this electronic equipment has been and will be in the future interest object to the public and the subject of study for the researchers. In this paper are presents the results of measurements of electromagnetic fields for the frequencies 900 MHz - 1800 MHz used in mobile telephone in Tirana. These frequencies are included in the area radio frequency RF and Microwave MW 300 Hz - 300 GHz in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves and belong to non-ionizing radiation. The measurements were performed in different areas of Tirana. The purpose is to assess the level of exposure electromagnetic fields especially near areas where mobile antennas are mounted construction of dynamic digital mapping and comparison with the permitted levels of the exposure defined by the International Commission of Non Ionizing Radiation Protection ICNIRP. Through this publication the aim of the authors is to provide real information and reliable for the population.

  19. Performance of Adaptive Antennas in FH-GSM Using Conventional Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Elgaard; Leth-Espensen, P; Zetterberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the performance of adaptive antennas in a 1/3 reuse frequency hopping GSM network using conventional beamforming. It mainly focuses on C/I improvement for the purpose of capacity enhancement. The performance evaluation has been conducted by means of network computer simulations...... implementation facilitates a potential capacity gain of x3 in a 1/3 reuse FH-GSM network for an array size of M = 4-6....

  20. Proposed Marketing Strategy for TELKOM FLEXI to Compete with GSM Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Mardiansyah, Marshal; Desiana, Krisnati; Nasution, Reza Ashari

    2013-01-01

    In Indonesian telecommunication industry, market penetration of FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) based is still about 12% of the total population size. But the market penetration of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) based in cellular telecommunication industry has reach 82%. Therefore when the FWA operators in Indonesia want to expand their market, they will have to compete with GSM operators. As market leader of FWA license in Indonesia, it is time for Flexi for extending their networ...

  1. VEHICLE TRACKING AND MONITORING SYSTEM USING GPS AND GSM/GPRS.

    OpenAIRE

    *Arsheen Barnagarwala, *Aziz Buriwala

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: This system offers an affordable and compact design implemented for tracking and monitoring vehicle’s Instantaneous speed, peak speed, distance and current location with the help of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM). The system consist of two parts, one is ambulatory and incorporated in the target vehicle which comprises of a GPS receiver, a microcontroller and a GSM modem with periphery display and power units. Other is stable at a rem...

  2. Effects of 415 MHz frequency on human lymphocyte genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garaj-Vrhovac, V.; Fucic, A.; Kubelka, D.; Vojvodic, S.

    1996-01-01

    The continuously increasing use of artificial sources of electromagnetic radiation in industry and medicine has been accompanied in everyday life with telecommunication systems which is followed with great interest in possible hazardous effects of this type of radiation. The interesting applications of mobile telecommunications and the use of cellular phones are of topic interest. Numerous cytogenetic investigations are focused on the effects of microwave radiation from mobile communications frequency of 450 and 950 MHz on isolated cells in vitro. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of microwaves from mobile telephone frequencies on human peripheral blood lymphocytes cultured in vitro. (author)

  3. Dosimetry Methods for Human Exposure to Non-Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poljak, D.; Sarolic, A.; Doric, V.; Peratta, C.; Peratta, A.

    2011-01-01

    of internal current density do not exceed ICNIRP basic restrictions. Next example is related to human exposure to the magnetic field generated from RFID shop-anti theft protection system. The measured field value of 1.1 mA/m2 is significantly below ICNIRP reference levels (160 mA/m 2 for workers and 73 mA/m 2 for general population. The last example deals with the experimental incident dosimetry of GSM base station antennas. The source of GSM radiation is the roof-top antenna system in a sectorial arrangement mounted at height 48 m above ground. The radiated power per channel is P = 955 W at f = 935 MHz. The electric field measured in a flat at 15 t h floor below antenna system at approximated distance of 8 m from the radiation source is E = 0.23 V/m, which is rather negligible compared to the ICNIRP reference level E l im = 42 V/m. The obtained results from calculation and/or measurement mostly stay within the exposure limits proposed by ICNIRP safety guidelines. (author)

  4. Mobile telephones: a comparison of radiated power between 3G VoIP calls and 3G VoCS calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Dragan; Bragard, Guillaume; Picard, Dominique; Chauvin, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the mean RF power radiated by mobile telephones during voice calls in 3G VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) using an application well known to mobile Internet users, and to compare it with the mean power radiated during voice calls in 3G VoCS (Voice over Circuit Switch) on a traditional network. Knowing that the specific absorption rate (SAR) is proportional to the mean radiated power, the user's exposure could be clearly identified at the same time. Three 3G (High Speed Packet Access) smartphones from three different manufacturers, all dual-band for GSM (900 MHz, 1800 MHz) and dual-band for UMTS (900 MHz, 1950 MHz), were used between 28 July and 04 August 2011 in Paris (France) to make 220 two-minute calls on a mobile telephone network with national coverage. The places where the calls were made were selected in such a way as to describe the whole range of usage situations of the mobile telephone. The measuring equipment, called "SYRPOM", recorded the radiation power levels and the frequency bands used during the calls with a sampling rate of 20,000 per second. In the framework of this study, the mean normalised power radiated by a telephone in 3G VoIP calls was evaluated at 0.75% maximum power of the smartphone, compared with 0.22% in 3G VoCS calls. The very low average power levels associated with use of 3G devices with VoIP or VoCS support the view that RF exposure resulting from their use is far from exceeding the basic restrictions of current exposure limits in terms of SAR.

  5. Waveform digitizing at 500 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiya, M.; Ito, M.; Haggerty, J.; Ng, C.; Sippach, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Experiment E787 at Brookhaven National Laboratory is designed to study the decay K + → π + ν/bar /nu// to a sensitivity of 2 /times/ 10 -10 . To achieve acceptable muon rejection it is necessary to couple traditional methods (range/energy/momentum correlation) with observation of the (π + → μ + ν, μ + → e + ν/bar /nu//) decay sequence in scintillator. We report on the design and construction of 200 channels of relatively low cost solid state waveform digitizers. The distinguishing features are: 8 bits dynamic range, 500 MHz sampling, zero suppression on the fly, deep memory (up to .5 msec), and fast readout time (100 μsec for the entire system). We report on data obtained during the February-May 1988 run showing performance of the system for the observation of the above decay. 8 figs

  6. Waveform digitizing at 500 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiya, M.; Ito, M.; Haggerty, J.; Ng, C.; Sippach, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Experiment E787 at Brookhaven National Laboratory is designed to study the decay K + → π + ν/bar /nu// to a sensitivity of 2 /times/ 10/sup /minus/10/. To achieve acceptable muon rejection it is necessary to couple traditional methods (range/energy/momentum correlation) with observation of the π + → μ + → e + ν/bar /nu// decay sequence in scintillator. We report on the design and construction of over 200 channels of relatively low cost solid state waveform digitizers. The distinguishing features are: 8 bits dynamic range, 500 MHz sampling, zero suppression on the fly, deep memory (up to .5 msec), and fast readout time (100 μsec for the entire system). We report on data obtained during the February--May 1988 run showing performance of the system for the observation of the above decay. 9 figs

  7. Evaluation of cellular effects of pulsed and continuous wave radiofrequency radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicic, Ivan; Trosic, Ivancica

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In less than twenty years, the mobile telephone has gone from being rare, expensive equipment of the business elite to a pervasive, low-cost personal item. Since the introduction of mobile phones, concerns have been raised about the potential detrimental impacts on living beings from regular use. The first 'modern' network technology on second generation cellular technology was launched in 1991 in Finland on the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) standard. This study evaluates cellular effects of, both, continuous (CW) and pulsed GSM modulated waves (PW). Continuous cell culture of Chinese hamster lung cells, line V79, was used in this study. Cell growth and colony forming ability (CFA) was analyzed after 1, 2 and 3 hours of exposure to the both frequency fields, 935 MHz CW and 915 MHz PW. Selected frequency fields were generated inside gigahertz transversal electromagnetic mode cell (GTEM) equipped with the signal generators. Hewlett Packard HP8657A signal generator was used to generate CW 935 MHz frequency field. Anritzu MS2711B spectrum analyzer with tracking generator and Micro devices RF 3146 power amplifier module generated PW radiofrequency field of 915 MHz. Averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) belonging to the CW 935 MHz frequency field was calculated to be 0.12 W/kg, and for GSM modulated 915 MHz field was 0.23 W/kg. Cell samples were irradiated in triplicate. The sham exposed control cell samples were included in the study. The temperature inside the exposure set-up was recorded in ten-minute intervals through the irradiation treatment. Both, sham-exposed and exposed cell samples were kept in the same condition, except in the time of irradiation for experimental samples when signal generator was switched on. To determine cell growth, V79 samples were plated in concentration of 1x10 4 cells/mL. Cells were maintained in the standard laboratory conditions, which are humidified atmosphere, 37 C degrees, and 5% CO 2 . Cell

  8. Surge currents and voltages at the low voltage power mains during lightning strike to a GSM tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowska, Renata [Bialystok Technical University (Poland)], E-mail: remark@pb.edu.pl

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents the results of numerical calculations of lightning surge currents and voltages in the low voltage power mains system connected to a free standing GSM base station. Direct lightning strike to GSM tower was studied. The analysis concerned the current that flows to the transformer station through AC power mains, the potential difference between the grounding systems of the GSM and the transformer stations and the voltage differences between phase and PE conductors of the power mains underground cable at both the GSM and the transformer sides. The calculations were performed using a numerical program based on the electromagnetic field theory and the method of moments. (author)

  9. 47 CFR 101.77 - Public safety licensees in the 1850-1990 MHz, 2110-2150 MHz, and 2160-2200 MHz bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., 2110-2150 MHz, and 2160-2200 MHz bands. 101.77 Section 101.77 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS...-1990 MHz, 2110-2150 MHz, and 2160-2200 MHz bands. (a) In order for public safety licensees to qualify... a Police licensee, a Fire Licensee, or an Emergency Medical Licensee as defined in § 90.7 of this...

  10. Real-Time Vehicle Data Logging System Using GPS And GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Minn Thet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes and implements a low cost Vehicle Data Logging System using GPS and GSM. This system allows a user to trace the present and past positions recorded in SD card. This system also reads the current position of the vehicle using GPS the data is sent via GSM service from the GSM network. The vehicles position including the driving speed the UTC time and data are stored in the SD card for live and past tracking. All of that GPS data is sent to PIC 18F4520 by the Universal Asynchronous ReceiverTransmitter UART and also store in SD card. GSM also uses UART to transmit. To know the position of the vehicle the owner sends a request through a SMS. The SMS sends to the authorized person through the GSM network. The travel history of the vehicle are stored in a file on an SD card in FAT format.This system is very useful for car tracking for adolescent driver being checked by parent speed limit exceeding leaving a specific area. V The developed system is easy to use requires no additional hardware and permits the selection of the amount of data and the time intervals between the data recordings. In addition the collected data can easily be transferred to a computer via a connected serial port.

  11. eGSM: A extended Sky Model of Diffuse Radio Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doyeon; Liu, Adrian; Switzer, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Both cosmic microwave background and 21cm cosmology observations must contend with astrophysical foreground contaminants in the form of diffuse radio emission. For precise cosmological measurements, these foregrounds must be accurately modeled over the entire sky Ideally, such full-sky models ought to be primarily motivated by observations. Yet in practice, these observations are limited, with data sets that are observed not only in a heterogenous fashion, but also over limited frequency ranges. Previously, the Global Sky Model (GSM) took some steps towards solving the problem of incomplete observational data by interpolating over multi-frequency maps using principal component analysis (PCA).In this poster, we present an extended version of GSM (called eGSM) that includes the following improvements: 1) better zero-level calibration 2) incorporation of non-uniform survey resolutions and sky coverage 3) the ability to quantify uncertainties in sky models 4) the ability to optimally select spectral models using Bayesian Evidence techniques.

  12. Design of Remote Monitoring System of Irrigation based on GSM and ZigBee Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao xi, Zheng; Fang, Zhao; Shuaifei, Shao

    2018-03-01

    To solve the problems of low level of irrigation and waste of water resources, a remote monitoring system for farmland irrigation based on GSM communication technology and ZigBee technology was designed. The system is composed of sensors, GSM communication module, ZigBee module, host computer, valve and so on. The system detects and closes the pump and the electromagnetic valve according to the need of the system, and transmits the monitoring information to the host computer or the user’s Mobile phone through the GSM communication network. Experiments show that the system has low power consumption, friendly man-machine interface, convenient and simple. It can monitor agricultural environment remotely and control related irrigation equipment at any time and place, and can better meet the needs of remote monitoring of farmland irrigation.

  13. Design and implementation of Remote Digital Energy Meter (RDEM) based on GSM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Waseem; Wang, Jie; Irfan, Muhammad; Shiraz, M.; Khan, Ali Hassan

    2017-11-01

    Electric power is one of the basic requirement for socio economic and social prosperity of any country, which is mainly employs for domestic, industrial and agricultural sectors. The primary purpose of this research is to design and implement an energy meter which can remotely control and monitor through global system for mobile (GSM) communication technology. For this purpose, a single phase or three phase digital energy meters are used to add on different advanced modules. The energy meter can be activated and display power consumption information at the consumer premises on liquid crystal display and through a short message service (SMS) by using GSM technology. At the power sending end, an energy meter can be remotely control and monitor through GSM technology without any system disturbances. This study will lead to make the system easier, economical, reliable and efficient for the electrical department.

  14. Efficient Radio Resource Allocation in a GSM and GPRS Cellular Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vannucci

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of various radio resource allocation strategies in a GSM/GPRS cellular network. The most efficient resource allocation is analysed as a function of the proportion of circuit switched voice and packet switched data load. The Grade of Service and average packet delay is investigated as a function of the load, packet size and call duration. Additionally, the feasibility of using voice over Internet Protocol as opposed to circuit switched voice is investigated as a means to increase subscriber capacity per base station. The work is motivated firstly by the complexity of having both circuit switched and packet switched connectivity on GSM/GPRS mobile cellular system and secondly that an exclusively packet based access on GSM/GPRS has the potential to increase the efficiency of resource utilisation by suitably varying the channel allocation to exploit the characteristics of voice and data traffic.

  15. Pemrograman Antarmuka Modem GSM dengan Pengendali Mikro AVR Menggunakan Bahasa C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kartawiguna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones are now a cheap means of wide-ranged wireless communication. One feature widely used is the short message service (SMS. The cellular communication system is more appropriate for long-distanced applications than high speed data transfer. This study aims to develop a GSM modem interface with AVR microcontroller using C programming language. The tools controlled by the microcontroller system can gain more benefit if it is linked with GSM mobile communication system. The results of this study can be applied whether in a remote monitoring system, remote control system, or communication between the microcontroller via SMS. Many additional benefits can be obtained for the tools controlled by the microcontroller when connected to a GSM system. 

  16. Speech Quality Measurement of GSM Infrastructure Built on USRP N210 and OpenBTS Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Fajkus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the methodology for speech quality measuring in GSM networks using Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ. The paper brings results of practical measurement of own GSM network build on the Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP N210 hardware and OpenBTS software. This OpenBTS station was installed in open terrain, and the speech quality was measured from different distances from the transmitter. The limit parameters of OpenBTS station with USRP N210 were obtained.

  17. Influence of Intra-cell Traffic on the Output Power of Base Station in GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mileusnic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the influence of intracell traffic in a GSM cell on the base station output power. It is proved that intracell traffic increases this power. If offered traffic is small, the increase of output power is equal to the part of intracell traffic. When the offered traffic and, as the result, call loss increase, the increase of output power becomes less. The results of calculation are verified by the computer simulation of traffic process in the GSM cell. The calculation and the simulation consider the uniform distribution of mobile users in the cell, but the conclusions are of a general nature.

  18. Effects of exposure to GSM mobile phone base station signals on salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, and immunoglobulin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner, Christoph; Hacker, Gerhard W; Oberfeld, Gerd; Florian, Matthias; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Hutter, Jörg; Pauser, Gernot

    2010-06-01

    The present study aimed to test whether exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted by mobile phone base stations may have effects on salivary alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and cortisol levels. Fifty seven participants were randomly allocated to one of three different experimental scenarios (22 participants to scenario 1, 26 to scenario 2, and 9 to scenario 3). Each participant went through five 50-minute exposure sessions. The main RF-EMF source was a GSM-900-MHz antenna located at the outer wall of the building. In scenarios 1 and 2, the first, third, and fifth sessions were "low" (median power flux density 5.2 microW/m(2)) exposure. The second session was "high" (2126.8 microW/m(2)), and the fourth session was "medium" (153.6 microW/m(2)) in scenario 1, and vice versa in scenario 2. Scenario 3 had four "low" exposure conditions, followed by a "high" exposure condition. Biomedical parameters were collected by saliva samples three times a session. Exposure levels were created by shielding curtains. In scenario 3 from session 4 to session 5 (from "low" to "high" exposure), an increase of cortisol was detected, while in scenarios 1 and 2, a higher concentration of alpha-amylase related to the baseline was identified as compared to that in scenario 3. IgA concentration was not significantly related to the exposure. RF-EMF in considerably lower field densities than ICNIRP-guidelines may influence certain psychobiological stress markers. Copyright © 2010 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. radio frequency emf radio frequency emf exposure due to gsm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    about electromagnetic field (EMF) radiation from base. Nigerian Journal of ... oscillate in phase perpendicular to each other as shown in ... and magnetic) is produced by a change in the other part and the ... limit). 4. MATERIALS AND METHOD.

  20. Radio Frequency EMF Exposure due to Gsm Mobile Phones Base ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSs). In Nigerian some people believed that exposure to radiation from BSs for long period could cause different diseases like cancer, destroys reproductive organs, congenital anomalies, epilepsy and persistent headache and some of the BSs ...

  1. Improved Intelligent Underlay-Overlay Combined with Frequency Hopping in GSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigard, Jeroen; Nielsen, Thomas Toftegaard; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    1997-01-01

    IUO (intelligent underlay-overlay) in a combination with random frequency hopping in GSM is analysed. Several improvements to the original IUO concept analysed in Nielsen et al. (1997) are introduced. With the improved IUO concept it is possible to load a network configuration consisting of 4...

  2. Time domain analysis of the lightning current distribution at the HV tower with GSM system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grcev, L.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; Waes, van J.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    GSM base stations are often placed in the poles of power transmission lines. Such base stations are usually powered from the low-voltage network through an isolating transformer to separate the high- and low-voltage networks. The isolating transformer serves to ensure security at other customers'

  3. Experimental and numerical assessment of low-frequency current distributions from UMTS and GSM mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kühn, Sven; Kuster, Niels

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of the exposure from mobile communication devices requires consideration of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) over a broad frequency range from dc to GHz. Mobile phones in operation have prominent spectral components in the low-frequency (LF) and radio-frequency (RF) ranges. While the exposure to RF fields from mobile phones has been comprehensively assessed in the past, the LF fields have received much less attention. In this study, LF fields from mobile phones are assessed experimentally and numerically for the global system for mobile (GSM) and universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) communication systems and conclusions about the global (LF and RF) EMF exposure from both systems are drawn. From the measurements of the time-domain magnetic fields, it was found that the contribution from the audio signal at a normal speech level, i.e., −16 dBm0, is the same order of magnitude as the fields induced by the current bursts generated from the implementation of the GSM communication system at maximum RF output level. The B-field induced by currents in phones using the UMTS is two orders of magnitude lower than that induced by GSM. Knowing that the RF exposure from the UMTS is also two orders of magnitude lower than from GSM, it is now possible to state that there is an overall reduction of the exposure from this communication system. (paper)

  4. DrumNet : Building a GSM-enabled Information System for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gradual penetration of mobile telephony into rural Kenya offered a timely alternative. ... During Phase II, researchers will design and implement a global system for mobile communications (GSM)-enabled system that provides interactive links ... By cell phone, scientists assist African farmers facing effects of climate change ...

  5. GSM Marketing Service Providers Operations and Customers Satisfaction in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebisi Sunday Abayomi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out on the GSM arm of the Nigerian Telecomunication sectorto primarily investigate the level of satisfaction that the subscribers of GSM service providers haveenjoyed in the seven years of operations in Nigeria. In testing this empirically, MTN, GLOBACOMand ZAIN were selected as case studies. 600 questionnaires were administered on the subscribers ofthese GSM service providers in the Six States of the South-Western Nigeria using the purposivesampling technique. In analyzing the collated data, three hypotheses were tested with the use ofPercentages, T-test, F-test, [at 95% confidence limit], Cross-tabulation [using the ‘Eta’ Directionalmeasure] and statistical charts. The results from the SPSS 16 output rejected the Null hypotheses.This further indicated that, the various factors that determined the level of subscribers’ satisfactionwere statistically significant. The study therefore concluded that, subscribers in Nigeria aredissatisfied with the services of their service providers hence, the need for the regulatory body; NCCto ensure that subscribers interests are protected. The study then suggested that,, the GSM serviceproviders should reposition themselves to give adequate value to subscribers money incommensuration with their own gains from the Nigeria Telecommunications market.

  6. Experimental and numerical assessment of low-frequency current distributions from UMTS and GSM mobile phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kühn, Sven; Kuster, Niels

    2013-12-01

    The evaluation of the exposure from mobile communication devices requires consideration of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) over a broad frequency range from dc to GHz. Mobile phones in operation have prominent spectral components in the low-frequency (LF) and radio-frequency (RF) ranges. While the exposure to RF fields from mobile phones has been comprehensively assessed in the past, the LF fields have received much less attention. In this study, LF fields from mobile phones are assessed experimentally and numerically for the global system for mobile (GSM) and universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) communication systems and conclusions about the global (LF and RF) EMF exposure from both systems are drawn. From the measurements of the time-domain magnetic fields, it was found that the contribution from the audio signal at a normal speech level, i.e., -16 dBm0, is the same order of magnitude as the fields induced by the current bursts generated from the implementation of the GSM communication system at maximum RF output level. The B-field induced by currents in phones using the UMTS is two orders of magnitude lower than that induced by GSM. Knowing that the RF exposure from the UMTS is also two orders of magnitude lower than from GSM, it is now possible to state that there is an overall reduction of the exposure from this communication system.

  7. On the application of Dijkstra\\'s algorithms in solving the GSM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the application of Dijkstra\\'s algorithms in solving the GSM Network problem. A W Gbolagade, R K Odunaike, Z O Ogunwobi. Abstract. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 8 2004: pp. 319-322. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  8. Systematic analysis of the impact of mixing locality on Mixing-DAC linearity for multicarrier GSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bechthum, E.; Radulov, G.I.; Briaire, J.; Geelen, G.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    In an RF transmitter, the function of the mixer and the DAC can be combined in a single block: the Mixing-DAC. For the generation of multicarrier GSM signals in a basestation, high dynamic linearity is required, i.e. SFDR>85dBc, at high output signal frequency, i.e. ƒout ˜ 4GHz. This represents a

  9. KAJIAN PENGARUH MODERATING KELOMPOK PENGGUNA DALAM PENERIMAAN GSM-WLAN DI KOTA BANDUNG BERDASARKAN MODEL UTAUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarif Hidayatulloh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The increasing use of the internet is testament to the rapid development of technology. GSM-WLAN is one technology that is manifested by the provider with the aim can hit 3G and 4G technology which requires a very large investment funds for the internet service provider. One of its main objectives is the big cities that became the majority of the largest internet usage in Indonesia, Bandung City region was no exception as the capital of the province and city tours. Therefore please note the acceptance of these technologies in the community. The model that is used to find out the level of acceptance and use of such technology is a Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT. In this study examined factors that supposedly affects the acceptance and use of technology GSM-WLAN in Bandung. Those factors among other performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and price value to account for the contribution of each variable to predict the user's stance on such technology by using user groups as a moderator variable. Data processing method used is a Structural Equation Models (SEM that use software AMOS. The data processing of the obtained results performance expectancy value and price effect on attitudes toward the use of GSM technology-WLAN. While the moderator variable user groups influence on the attitude of the users in using GSM technology WLAN. Keywords: Internet, WLAN, GSM-UTAUT, SEM Abstrak - Penggunaan internet yang semakin meningkatnya merupakan bukti perkembangan teknologi yang sangat pesat. GSM-WLAN merupakan salah satu teknologi yang dihadirkan oleh para provider dengan tujuan dapat menekan penggunaan teknologi 3G dan 4G yang memerlukan innvestasi dana yang sangat besar bagi para penyedia layanan internet. Salah satu sasaran utamanya ialah kota-kota besar yang menjadi mayoritas penggunaan internet terbesar di Indonesia, tidak terkecuali wilayah Kota Bandung sebagai Ibu kota

  10. Providing primary standard calibrations beyond 20 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickley, C J; Zeqiri, B; Robinson, S P

    2004-01-01

    The number of applications of medical ultrasound utilising frequencies in excess of 20 MHz has shown a consistent increase over recent years. Coupled with the commercial availability of wide-bandwidth hydrophones whose response extends beyond 40 MHz, this has driven a growing need to develop hydrophone calibration techniques at elevated frequencies. The current National Physical Laboratory primary standard method of calibrating hydrophones is based on an optical interferometer. This has been in operation for around 20 years and provides traceability over the frequency range of 0.3 to 20 MHz. More recently, calibrations carried out using the interferometer have been extended to 60 MHz, although the uncertainties associated with these calibrations are poor, being in excess of ±20% at high frequencies. Major contributions to the degraded calibration uncertainties arise from poor signal-to-noise at higher frequencies, the frequency response of the photodiodes used and the noise floor of the instrument. To improve the uncertainty of hydrophone calibrations above 20 MHz, it has been necessary to build and commission a new interferometer. Important features of the new primary standard are its use of a higher power laser to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, along with photodiodes whose greater bandwidth to improve the overall frequency response. This paper describes the design of key aspects of the new interferometer. It also presents some initial results of the performance assessment, including a detailed comparison of calibrations of NPL reference membrane hydrophones, undertaken using old and new interferometers for calibration up to 40 MHz

  11. Measure of enzymatic activity coincident with 2450 MHz microwave exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, T R; Allis, J W; Elder, J A

    1975-09-01

    Enzyme preparations were exposed to microwave radiation at 2450 MHz and enzymatic activity was simultaneously monitored spectrophotometrically with a crossed-beam exposure detection system. Enzymes studied were glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase from human red blood cells and yeast, adenylate kinase from rat liver mitochondria and rabbit muscle, and rat liver microsomal NADPH cytochrome c reductase. No difference was found between the specific activity at 25/sup 0/C of unirradiated controls and enzyme preparations irradiated at an absorbed dose rate of 42 W/kg.

  12. Comparison of grey scale median (GSM) measurement in ultrasound images of human carotid plaques using two different softwares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östling, Gerd; Persson, Margaretha; Hedblad, Bo; Gonçalves, Isabel

    2013-11-01

    Grey scale median (GSM) measured on ultrasound images of carotid plaques has been used for several years now in research to find the vulnerable plaque. Centres have used different software and also different methods for GSM measurement. This has resulted in a wide range of GSM values and cut-off values for the detection of the vulnerable plaque. The aim of this study was to compare the values obtained with two different softwares, using different standardization methods, for the measurement of GSM on ultrasound images of carotid human plaques. GSM was measured with Adobe Photoshop(®) and with Artery Measurement System (AMS) on duplex ultrasound images of 100 consecutive medium- to large-sized carotid plaques of the Beta-blocker Cholesterol-lowering Asymptomatic Plaque Study (BCAPS). The mean values of GSM were 35·2 ± 19·3 and 55·8 ± 22·5 for Adobe Photoshop(®) and AMS, respectively. Mean difference was 20·45 (95% CI: 19·17-21·73). Although the absolute values of GSM differed, the agreement between the two measurements was good, correlation coefficient 0·95. A chi-square test revealed a kappa value of 0·68 when studying quartiles of GSM. The intra-observer variability was 1·9% for AMS and 2·5% for Adobe Photoshop. The difference between softwares and standardization methods must be taken into consideration when comparing studies. To avoid these problems, researcher should come to a consensus regarding software and standardization method for GSM measurement on ultrasound images of plaque in the arteries. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Microwaves from GSM mobile telephones affect 53BP1 and gamma-H2AX foci in human lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovà, Eva; Hillert, Lena; Malmgren, Lars; Persson, Bertil R R; Belyaev, Igor Y

    2005-09-01

    The data on biologic effects of nonthermal microwaves (MWs) from mobile telephones are diverse, and these effects are presently ignored by safety standards of the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In the present study, we investigated effects of MWs of Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) at different carrier frequencies on human lymphocytes from healthy persons and from persons reporting hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). We measured the changes in chromatin conformation, which are indicative of stress response and genotoxic effects, by the method of anomalous viscosity time dependence, and we analyzed tumor suppressor p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) and phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), which have been shown to colocalize in distinct foci with DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), using immunofluorescence confocal laser microscopy. We found that MWs from GSM mobile telephones affect chromatin conformation and 53BP1/gamma-H2AX foci similar to heat shock. For the first time, we report here that effects of MWs from mobile telephones on human lymphocytes are dependent on carrier frequency. On average, the same response was observed in lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy subjects.

  14. Micronuclei Formation and 8-Hydroxy-2-Deoxyguanosine Enzyme Detection in Ovarian Tissues After Radiofrequency Exposure at 1800 MHz in Adult Sprague–Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Saeed Hammoodi Alchalabi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Human fertility and its correlation to ovarian function and cytological changes are linked to ever-increasing use of mobile phones. Wireless communications have become a critical topic of concern because of an increasing number of studies in this field with controversial outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effect of GSM frequency at 1800 MHz on ovarian function. Sixty female Sprague–Dawley rats were distributed over six groups (control group and the exposure groups with whole-body exposure for 2 h/day, 7 days/week for 15, 30 and 60 continuous days. The study investigated the oxidative stress, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine enzyme, micronuclei formation and histopathological changes in ovarian tissue. The results showed an induced oxidative stress via an increase in lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity. There was also an elevation in the 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine enzyme and an increased rate of micronuclei formation in ovarian tissues of exposed animals with 60-day exposure compared with control animals. Cytological changes were recorded such as micronuclei formation, vacuolation, degeneration and impaired folliculogenesis. The study suggests that GSM frequency at 1800 MHz was negatively impacted on female reproductive performances mediated by oxidative stress induction and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine formation leading to overall impaired ovarian function.

  15. Assessment Of The Effectiveness Of Telecommunication Delivery Among Operators Of GSM In Ekiti State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumuyiwa Oludare Fagbohun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Data survey on the service delivery of the three principal Global System for Mobile Communications GSM Operators in Ekiti State Nigeria was conducted with a questionnaire administered among its citizens. Three locations Ado Ekiti 7o381 5o131 Ikere Ekiti 7o301 5o141 and Aramoko Ekiti 7o431 5o31were selected. Based on the responses from various subscribers using the networks the performance analyses of the operators were assessed using the descriptive statistical method. The assessment was based on the coverage area interconnectivity call quality number of subscribers growth and other supplementary services to assist the various GSM operators know the area of weakness and improve on the quality of the service delivery. It was discovered that the users have more complaints to offer with the performance generally rated below average and a need for fast and better network optimization for needed improvements for an effective telecommunication delivery.

  16. Design and Research of a New secure Authentication Protocol in GSM networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Ai-qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the first line of defense in the security application system, Authentication is an important security service. Its typical scheme is challenge/response mechanism and this scheme which is simple-structured and easy to realize has been used worldwide. But these protocols have many following problems In the GSM networks such as the leakage of user indentity privacy, no security protection between home registers and foreign registers and the vicious intruders’ information stealing and so on. This paper presents an authentication protocol in GSM networks based on maths operation and modular square root technique . The analysis of the security and performance has also been done. The results show that it is more robust and secure compared to the previous agreements.

  17. DETERMINING THE PREFERENCE OF GSM OPERATORS IN TURKEY WITH FUZZY TOPSIS AFTER MOBILE NUMBER PORTABILITY SYSTEM APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal ERGİNEL

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile number portability systems is a system that can allow portability of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications number from another operator without changing GSM number. There are several criteria to select the GSM operators by customer after this system is legal in Turkey. The main purpose of this study is to determine the market sharing in the future of GSM operators by expressing the weighting grades of selection criteria and the relationship between criteria and alternatives that include uncertainty as fuzzy triangular numbers. In this study, the selection criteria of GSM operators are defined form literature and views of customer and weighted with linguistic variables by working group. Avea, Turkcell and Vodafone that active in Turkey are graded with linguistic variables to each criterion. Analyzing linguistic variables as qualitative variables and using graded linguistic variables in a specified interval are required fuzzy multi-criteria decision making methods. Expected market sharing of GSM operators is determined by using fuzzy TOPSIS method.

  18. Data on the key performance indicators for quality of service of GSM networks in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun I. Popoola

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs for Quality of Service (QoS of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM networks in Nigeria are provided and analyzed. The data provided in this paper contain the Call Setup Success Rate (CSSR, Drop Call Rate (DCR, Stand-alone Dedicated Channel (SDCCH congestion, and Traffic Channel (TCH congestion for the four GSM network operators in Nigeria (Airtel, Etisalat, Glo, and MTN. These comprehensive data were obtained from the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC. Significant differences in each of the KPIs for the four quarters of each year were presented based on Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. The values of the KPIs were plotted against the months of the year for better visualization and understanding of data trends across the four quarters. Multiple comparisons of the mean-quarterly differences of the KPIs were also presented using Tukey's Post Hoc test. Public availability and further interpretation and discussion of these useful information will assist the network providers, Nigerian government, local and international regulatory bodies, policy makers, and other stakeholders in ensuring access of people, machines, and things to high quality telecommunications services. Keywords: Quality of service, GSM networks, Call setup success rate, Drop call rate, Stand-alone dedicated channel congestion, Traffic channel congestion

  19. BLAZAR SPECTRAL PROPERTIES AT 74 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; Funk, S. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Giroletti, M. [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Paggi, A.; D' Abrusco, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    Blazars are the most extreme class of active galactic nuclei. Despite a previous investigation at 102 MHz for a small sample of BL Lac objects and our recent analysis of blazars detected in the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey, a systematic study of the blazar spectral properties at frequencies below 100 MHz has been never carried out. In this paper, we present the first analysis of the radio spectral behavior of blazars based on the recent Very Large Array Low-frequency Sky Survey (VLSS) at 74 MHz. We search for blazar counterparts in the VLSS catalog, confirming that they are detected at 74 MHz. We then show that blazars present radio-flat spectra (i.e., radio spectral indices of ∼0.5) when evaluated, which also about an order of magnitude in frequency lower than previous analyses. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings in the context of the blazars-radio galaxies connection since the low-frequency radio data provide a new diagnostic tool to verify the expectations of the unification scenario for radio-loud active galaxies.

  20. Fluorescence, Decay Time, and Structural Change of Laser Dye Cresyl Violet in Solution due to Microwave Irradiation at GSM 900/1800 Mobile Phone Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Bayrakceken

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave irradiation at GSM 900/1800 MHz mobile phone frequencies affects the electronic structure of cresyl violet in solution. These changes are important because laser-dye cresyl violet strongly bonds to DNA- and RNA-rich cell compounds in nerve tissues. The irradiation effects on the electronic structure of cresyl violet and its fluorescence data were all obtained experimentally at room temperature. For most laser dyes, this is not a trivial task because laser dye molecules possess a relatively complex structure. They usually consist of an extended system of conjugated double or aromatic π-bonds with attached auxochromic (electron donating groups shifting the absorption band further towards longer wavelength. Because of the intrinsically high degree of conjugation, the vibrational modes of the molecular units couple strongly with each other. We found that the fluorescence quantum yield was increased from to due to intramolecular energy hopping of cresyl violet in solution which is exposed to microwave irradiation at mobile phone frequencies, and the photonic product cannot be used as a laser dye anymore.

  1. Neurological complications after 434 MHz microwave hyperthermia of the rat lumbar region including the spinal cord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, N. A.; de Vrind, H. H.; Sminia, P.; Haveman, J.; Troost, D.; Gonzalez Gonzalez, D.

    1992-01-01

    Hyperthermia was applied in the region of the vertebral column from the second to the fifth lumbar vertebra using a ring-shaped 434 MHz microwave radiator. In all experiments temperatures were measured at a 'reference' thermocouple which was placed against the fourth lumbar vertebra. After 60 min of

  2. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation exposure inside the metro tube infrastructure in Warszawa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryz, Krzysztof; Karpowicz, Jolanta

    2015-09-01

    Antennas from various wireless communications systems [e.g. mobile phones base transceiver stations (BTS) and handsets used by passengers, public Internet access, staff radiophone transmitters used between engine-drivers and traffic operators] emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) are used inside underground metro public transportation. Frequency-selective exposimetric investigations of RF-EMR exposure inside the metro infrastructure in Warsaw (inside metro cars passing between stations and on platforms) were performed. The statistical parameters of exposure to the E-field were analyzed for each frequency range and for a total value (representing the wide-band result of measurements of complex exposure). The recorded exposimetric profiles showed the dominant RF-EMR sources: handsets and BTS of mobile communication systems (GSM 900 and UMTS 2100) and local wireless Internet access (WiFi 2G). Investigations showed that the GSM 900 system is the dominant source of exposure - BTS (incessantly active) on platforms, and handsets - used by passengers present nearby during the tube drive. The recorded E-field varies between sources (for BTS were: medians - 0.22 V/m and 75th percentile - 0.37 V/m; and for handsets: medians - 0.28 V/m and 75th percentile - 0.47 V/m). Maximum levels (peaks) of exposure recorded from mobile handsets exceeded 10 V/m (upper limit of used exposimeters). Broadband measurements of E-field, including the dominant signal emitted by staff radiophones (151 MHz), showed that the level of this exposure of engine-drivers does not exceed 2.5 V/m.

  3. Effect of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation on somitogenesis of birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakimenko, I.L.; Khenshel', D.; Sidorik, E.P.; Tsybulin, A.S.; Rozumnyuk, V.T.; Yakimenko, I.L.; Khenshel', D.; Sidorik, E.P.; Tsybulin, A.S.; Rozumnyuk, V.T.; Yakimenko, I.L.; Khenshel', D.; Sidorik, E.P.; Tsybulin, A.S.; Rozumnyuk, V.T.

    2011-01-01

    We have assessed the early embryo development of quails after the irradiation of incubation eggs by a standard mobile phone handset. Fresh fertilized quail eggs of exposed groups were irradiated periodically during 2 days before the incubation and in the first day of incubation by commercial mobile phone in the 'receiving a call' position (Motorola W230, GSM 850 MHz, SAR 0.75 W/kg, intensity of RF radiation in the zone of exposure 5-15 μW/cm 2 , total duration of exposure 20 h). Microscopic analysis of 40-hour embryos revealed that embryos of the exposed groups did not differ significantly from the control in the stage of development according to the quantity of pairs of differentiated somites. But embryos of the exposed groups had more abnormalities of their development as compared with the control. Consolidated data of two experiments revealed a statistically significant (p<0.05) increase of abnormalities in exposed embryos (33.33%) as compared with the control (9.68%). Most malformations in the exposed embryos appeared as the deformations of the first few pairs of differentiated somites. Such a kind of malformations was not found in control embryos.

  4. Initial Demonstration of 9-MHz Framing Camera Rates on the FAST UV Drive Laser Pulse Trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H. [Fermilab; Edstrom Jr., D. [Fermilab; Ruan, J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-09

    We report the configuration of a Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera as a framing camera to record transverse spatial information of green-component laser micropulses at 3- and 9-MHz rates for the first time. The latter is near the time scale of the ~7.5-MHz revolution frequency of the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) ring and its expected synchroton radiation source temporal structure. The 2-D images are recorded with a Gig-E readout CCD camera. We also report a first proof of principle with an OTR source using the linac streak camera in a semi-framing mode.

  5. Design of 325 MHz spoke cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Peng; Huang Hong; Dai Jianping; Zu Guoquan; Li Han

    2012-01-01

    Spoke cavity can be used in the low-energy section of the proton accelerator. It has many significant advantages: compact structure, high value of R/Q, etc. The ADS (Accelerator Driven System) project will adopt many spoke cavities with different β values. Therefore, IHEP has began the research of β=0.14, 325 MHz spoke cavity. In this pa per, the dimensions, RF performances and mechanical properties of it are studied. (authors)

  6. Heat transfer enhancement using 2MHz ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulliard-Sauret, Odin; Ferrouillat, Sebastien; Vignal, Laure; Memponteil, Alain; Gondrexon, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    The present work focuses on possible heat transfer enhancement from a heating plate towards tap water in forced convection by means of 2MHz ultrasound. The thermal approach allows to observe the increase of local convective heat transfer coefficients in the presence of ultrasound and to deduce a correlation between ultrasound power and Nusselt number. Heat transfer coefficient under ultrasound remains constant while heat transfer coefficient under silent conditions increases with Reynolds number from 900 up to 5000. Therefore, heat transfer enhancement factor ranges from 25% up to 90% for the same energy conditions (supplied ultrasonic power=110W and supplied thermal power=450W). In the same time cavitational activity due to 2MHz ultrasound emission was characterized from mechanical and chemical viewpoints without significant results. At least, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements have been performed in order to investigate hydrodynamic modifications due to the presence of 2MHz ultrasound. It was therefore possible to propose a better understanding of heat transfer enhancement mechanism with high frequency ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  8. The seven components of Hα and the 9873 MHz line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenka, A.

    1978-01-01

    Under conditions pertaining to the middle chromosphere, the nlj-substates of the n = 2 and n = 3 states of hydrogen are found to be populated proportionally to their degree of degeneracy. Thus, the non-LTE formation of the Hα line is not expected to be influenced by some exotic excitation conditions in one of its seven components. The overpopulation of the 2Ssub(1/2) substate relative to the 2Psub(3/2) substate does not depend upon details of the radiative transfer in Hα, so that it rests wholly on the transfer in Lα (Milkey and Mihalas, 1973). One-component plane parallel models of the chromosphere thus further predict that the 2Ssub(1/2)-2Psub(3/2), 9873 MHz (3.04 cm) line will not be observeable in the radio-spectrum of the quiet Sun. (Auth.)

  9. ANALISIS PERILAKU KONSUMEN DALAM MEMILIH JASA LAYANAN OPERATOR MOBILE PHONE YANG BERBASIS CDMA DAN GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demitri Marvin Kadhaffi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKS Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (1 menganalisis faktor-faktor yang dipertimbangkan konsumen dalam memilih suatu jasa layanan operator mobile phone (baik CDMA maupun GSM, (2 menganalsis variabel dominan yang mempengaruhi perilaku konsumen dalam memilih jasa layanan operator Jenis penelitian ini adalah applied research dengan metode penelitian studi kausal. Penelitian ini ditujukan pada segmen pelajar dan mahasiswa di Kota Malang yang termasuk kelompok Net Generations (yang lahir antara tahun 1977-1997 dengan batas minimal umur untuk responden adalah 17 tahun.  Kerangka Sampel untuk penelitian ini adalah pengguna kartu CDMA dan GSM sebanyak 175 responden. Tehnik Sampling yang digunakan adalah desain sampel non probability dengan metode purposive sample yang kedua yaitu quota sampling. Metode analisa data yang digunakan adalah analisa faktor dan analisa diskriminan Hasil analisa faktor terhadap 34 variabel diperoleh  7 faktor baru, yang diberi label sebagai berikut : (1 faktor citra produk (2 faktor pelayanan, (3 faktor pengaruh lingkungan, (4 faktor promosi,(5 faktor individual, (6 faktor harga, dan (7 faktor proses. Dari analisa diskriminan diperoleh hasil yang bertentangan dengan hipotesis yaitu ternyata variabel harga bukan merupakan variabel yang dominan dalam membedakan perilaku pelanggan operator CDMA dengan GSM. Mereka lebih sensitif terhadap proses produk. Hal ini mengarahkan pelanggan untuk kalangan pelajar dan mahasiswa sebagai kelompok smart. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa untuk membangun keunggulan bersaing operator harus meraih keunggulan posisional melalui diferensiasi “content” jasa yang dihasilkan yaitu berupa proses, sebagai hasil dari aplikasi  positioning produk.   Kata kunci: perilaku konsumen, jasa layanan, mobile phone   ABSTRACT Objective of this research are (1 to identify factors that customer consider in choosing mobile phone operator service (whether CDMA and GSM, (2 to identify dominant variable that

  10. Assessment of extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure from GSM mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Carolina; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Findlay, Richard; Maslanyj, Myron; Conil, Emmanuelle; Kromhout, Hans; Lee, Ae-kyoung; Sim, Malcolm R; Taki, Masao; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2014-04-01

    Although radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones have received much attention, relatively little is known about the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields emitted by phones. This paper summarises ELF magnetic flux density measurements on global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones, conducted as part of the MOBI-KIDS epidemiological study. The main challenge is to identify a small number of generic phone models that can be used to classify the ELF exposure for the different phones reported in the study. Two-dimensional magnetic flux density measurements were performed on 47 GSM mobile phones at a distance of 25 mm. Maximum resultant magnetic flux density values at 217 Hz had a geometric mean of 221 (+198/-104) nT. Taking into account harmonic data, measurements suggest that mobile phones could make a substantial contribution to ELF exposure in the general population. The maximum values and easily available variables were poorly correlated. However, three groups could be defined on the basis of field pattern indicating that manufacturers and shapes of mobile phones may be the important parameters linked to the spatial characteristics of the magnetic field, and the categorization of ELF magnetic field exposure for GSM phones in the MOBI-KIDS study may be achievable on the basis of a small number of representative phones. Such categorization would result in a twofold exposure gradient between high and low exposure based on type of phone used, although there was overlap in the grouping. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Artificial Neural Network model for the determination of GSM Rxlevel from atmospheric parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ofure Eichie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate received signal level (Rxlevel values are useful for mobile telecommunication network planning. Rxlevel is affected by the dynamics of the atmosphere through which it propagates. Adequate knowledge of the prevailing atmospheric conditions in an environment is essential for proper network planning. However most of the existing GSM received signal determination model are function of distance between point of signal reception and transmitting site thus necessitating the development of a model that involve the use of atmospheric parameters in the determination of received GSM signal level. In this paper, a three stage approach was used in the development of the model using some atmospheric parameters such as atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and dew point. The selected and easily measurable atmospheric parameters were used as input parameters in developing two new models for computing the Rxlevel of GSM signal using a three-step approach. Data acquisition and pre-processing serves as the first stage and formulation of ANN design and the development of parametric model for the Rxlevel using ANN synaptic weights form the second stage of the proposed approach. The third stage involves the use of ANN weight and bias values, and network architecture in the development of the model equation. In evaluating the performance of the proposed models, network parameters were varied and the results obtained using mean squared error (MSE as performance measure showed the developed model with 33 neurons in the hidden layer and tansig activation, function in both the hidden and output layers as the optimal model with least MSE value of 0.056. Thus showing that the developed model has an acceptable accuracy value as demonstrated from comparison of results with actual measured values.

  12. Design and testing of a GPS/GSM collar prototype to combat cattle rustling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco M. Tangorra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rustling is an age-old practice that was widespread in Italy until the first half of the 20th century. Today, incidents of cattle rustling are again being reported. However, the problem is not only found in Italy. It is also becoming a plague for ranchers in the US and is still rampant in East Africa. In Italy, the cattle rustling phenomena have usually been limited through the direct control of the herdsmen. Global positioning system (GPS and geographic information system (GIS combined technologies are increasingly applied for tracking and monitoring livestock with greater spatial and temporal resolution. However, so far, no case studies of the use of GPS technology to combat cattle rustling have been reported in the literature. The aim of this research was to develop a GPS/GSM (global system for mobile communication collar, using commercial hardware and implementing a specific software [ARVAshepherd 1.0; ARVAtec Srl, Rescaldina (MI, Italy] to track animals’ movements outside their grazing area and to signal when animals are straying outside virtual perimeters. A phase I study was conducted from January to June 2011 to build the GPS/GSM collar and to assess its performances in terms of GPS accuracy and precision, while a phase II study was conducted in July 2011 to test the GPS collar under real-life operating conditions. The static GPS positioning error achieved a circular error probable (50% and horizontal 95% accuracy of 1.462 m and 4.501 m, respectively. This is comparable with values obtained by other authors in static tests of a commercial GPS collar for grazing studies. In field tests, the system was able to identify the incorrect position of the cattle and the warning messages were sent promptly to the farmer, continuing until the animals had been repositioned inside the fence, thus highlighting the potential of the GPS/GSM collar as an anti-theft system.

  13. Analysis of emotionality and locomotion in radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sareesh Naduvil; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Paval, Jaijesh; Kedage, Vivekananda; Bhat, M Shankaranarayana; Nayak, Satheesha; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2013-07-01

    In the current study the modulatory role of mobile phone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on emotionality and locomotion was evaluated in adolescent rats. Male albino Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) were randomly assigned into the following groups having 12 animals in each group. Group I (Control): they remained in the home cage throughout the experimental period. Group II (Sham exposed): they were exposed to mobile phone in switch-off mode for 28 days, and Group III (RF-EMR exposed): they were exposed to RF-EMR (900 MHz) from an active GSM (Global system for mobile communications) mobile phone with a peak power density of 146.60 μW/cm(2) for 28 days. On 29th day, the animals were tested for emotionality and locomotion. Elevated plus maze (EPM) test revealed that, percentage of entries into the open arm, percentage of time spent on the open arm and distance travelled on the open arm were significantly reduced in the RF-EMR exposed rats. Rearing frequency and grooming frequency were also decreased in the RF-EMR exposed rats. Defecation boli count during the EPM test was more with the RF-EMR group. No statistically significant difference was found in total distance travelled, total arm entries, percentage of closed arm entries and parallelism index in the RF-EMR exposed rats compared to controls. Results indicate that mobile phone radiation could affect the emotionality of rats without affecting the general locomotion.

  14. Transmitting patient and device data via GSM--central management for decentral mobile medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmor, T; Schöchlin, J; Bolz, A

    2002-01-01

    Equipping medical devices with long range telemetry opens completely new possibilities for emergency response, home care and remote diagnosis. Mobile communications nowadays seem to be a generally accepted part of our modern world, but bridging the gap between new (consumer-) technologies and medical devices still is a challenge today. Providing a telemetry link (GSM) is just the trivial part--ensuring security, reliability and service management are the more critical tasks that need to be addressed. Therefore, a complete system concept consists of an automatic fleet management (e.g. periodic device-initiated service calls) as well as customer relationship management (CRM), including technical service and a trouble-ticket system.

  15. Key technologies of the server monitor and control system based on GSM short messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Taiwei; Zhou Zhenliu; Liu Baoxu

    2007-01-01

    The network management based on SNMP protocol cannot effectively monitor and control application-system states and key-process states on the computer server. Furthermore, it needs the administrator's longtime surveillance. When the administrator leaves the computer, he can't receive the malfunction message in time. In this paper we present a server monitor and control system based on monitor agents and GSM short messages, introduce the key technology to realize it, and implement a model system in the real network environment. (authors)

  16. Indoor Radio Planning A Practical Guide for GSM, DCS, UMTS, HSPA and LTE

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstrup, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Why is indoor coverage needed, and how it is best implemented? As the challenge of providing higher data speeds and quality for mobile applications intensifies, ensuring adequate in-building and tunnel coverage and capacity is increasingly important. A unique, single-source reference on the theoretical and practical knowledge behind indoor and tunnel radio planning, Indoor Radio Planning, Second Edition provides an overview of mobile networks systems and coverage solutions with GSM, UMTS, HSPA and LTE cellular systems technologies as a backdrop. All of the available solutions, from basic passi

  17. Bonus and Rebate: Perception of Exclusive GSM Dealers and Their Salesmen in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melik Karabiyikoglu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study bonus and rebate for exclusive dealers in GSM sector in Turkey, for which operators and handset manufacturers provide special incentives to dealers for exceeding specific sales targets. They develop a theoretical model of dealers and manufacturer behavior based on observations about key aspects of the mobile phone market. The analysis provides important insights about sales bonus. For example, rebate is not preferred by the owners of dealers instead of bonuses. The authors find empirical support when they test the theoretical results.

  18. 47 CFR 90.355 - LMS operations below 512 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Intelligent Transportation Systems Radio Service § 90.355 LMS... LMS station and the nearest co-channel base station of another licensee operating a voice system is 75... MHz, 150-170 MHz, and 450-512 MHz bands may use either base-mobile frequencies currently assigned the...

  19. Vehicle tracking based technique for radiation monitoring during nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saindane, Shashank S.; Otari, Anil D.; Suri, M.M.K.; Patil, S.S.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation Safety Systems Division, BARC has developed an advanced online radiation measurement cum vehicle tracking system for use. For the preparedness for response to any nuclear/radiological emergency scenario which may occur anywhere, the system designed is a Global System for Mobile (GSM) based Radiation Monitoring System (GRaMS) along with a Global Positioning System (GPS). It uses an energy compensated GM detector for radiation monitoring and is attached with commercially available Global Positioning System (GPS) for online acquisition of positional coordinates with time, and GSM modem for online data transfer to a remote control centre. The equipment can be operated continuously while the vehicle is moving

  20. Antenna modeling considerations for accurate SAR calculations in human phantoms in close proximity to GSM cellular base station antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Marnus J; Bingle, Marianne; Meyer, Frans J C

    2005-09-01

    International bodies such as International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE) make provision for human exposure assessment based on SAR calculations (or measurements) and basic restrictions. In the case of base station exposure this is mostly applicable to occupational exposure scenarios in the very near field of these antennas where the conservative reference level criteria could be unnecessarily restrictive. This study presents a variety of critical aspects that need to be considered when calculating SAR in a human body close to a mobile phone base station antenna. A hybrid FEM/MoM technique is proposed as a suitable numerical method to obtain accurate results. The verification of the FEM/MoM implementation has been presented in a previous publication; the focus of this study is an investigation into the detail that must be included in a numerical model of the antenna, to accurately represent the real-world scenario. This is accomplished by comparing numerical results to measurements for a generic GSM base station antenna and appropriate, representative canonical and human phantoms. The results show that it is critical to take the disturbance effect of the human phantom (a large conductive body) on the base station antenna into account when the antenna-phantom spacing is less than 300 mm. For these small spacings, the antenna structure must be modeled in detail. The conclusion is that it is feasible to calculate, using the proposed techniques and methodology, accurate occupational compliance zones around base station antennas based on a SAR profile and basic restriction guidelines. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Data on the key performance indicators for quality of service of GSM networks in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Segun I; Atayero, Aderemi A; Faruk, Nasir; Badejo, Joke A

    2018-02-01

    In this data article, the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for Quality of Service (QoS) of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) networks in Nigeria are provided and analyzed. The data provided in this paper contain the Call Setup Success Rate (CSSR), Drop Call Rate (DCR), Stand-alone Dedicated Channel (SDCCH) congestion, and Traffic Channel (TCH) congestion for the four GSM network operators in Nigeria (Airtel, Etisalat, Glo, and MTN). These comprehensive data were obtained from the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC). Significant differences in each of the KPIs for the four quarters of each year were presented based on Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The values of the KPIs were plotted against the months of the year for better visualization and understanding of data trends across the four quarters. Multiple comparisons of the mean-quarterly differences of the KPIs were also presented using Tukey's Post Hoc test. Public availability and further interpretation and discussion of these useful information will assist the network providers, Nigerian government, local and international regulatory bodies, policy makers, and other stakeholders in ensuring access of people, machines, and things to high quality telecommunications services.

  2. Design and Implementation of IoT Cloud Moveable SCADA Supported by GSM for Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shaker Nasr

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The world at the beginning of a new era of innovation and development with the rise of the industrial Internet or Internet of Things, IoT. It takes the space through the convergence of the global industrial system with the power of advanced computing, analytics, and low cost sensor devices and innovation of communication allowed by the Internet. One of the most important developments is IoT SCADA systems, which are considered as infrastructure of society because of their potential enormous in several industrial applications. This paper presents the design of a new generation of SCADA, named moveable SCADA , based on IoT cloud, and supported by GSM for more flexibility and reliability. The system is applied to industrial application that consists of three-control processes which are temperature, liquid level and motor processes. The three control processes data acquisition and controllers are implemented using embedded microcontroller system while a gateway is used to transfer the data proceed in field supervisor at first as well as main supervisor and monitoring engineer through IoT cloud. The system supported by GSM unit to support the system in case of internet failure. Also a camera is added to the system in order to monitor any location, any location (determined by any of the authorities in the field where the camera is mounted. The proposed SCADA is implemented practically and tested for many cases; the presented obtained results demonstrate that the system operation is very fair and meet the required targets.

  3. GSM Web-Based Centralized Remote Wireless Automatic Controlling and Monitoring of Aquafeeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. L.; Idris, A.; Hasan, Z.

    2016-03-01

    This project is about producing a prototype to feed fishes at fish ponds of remote location with the use of GSM mobile phone. An automatic fish feeder is an electric device that has been designed to give out the right amount of pellets at the designed time. In this project, the automatic feeder designed consists of photovoltaic solar cells that are used to generate electricity and storing it into batteries. Solar charge controllers can be used to determine the rate of which current is drawn and added from the batteries. GSM cellular communication is used to allow user to control from a distance. Commands or instructions are sent to the operating system which in return runs the servomotor and blower by blowing certain amount of fish pallets into the pond to feed the fishes. The duration of the feeding processes is fixed by the user, hence the amount of fish food pallets released are precisely the same for each time. This technology is especially useful for fish farmers where they can remotely feed their fishes.

  4. Enhancing Network Quality using Baseband Frequency Hopping, Downlink Power Control and DTX in a Live GSM Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Toftegaard; Wagard, Jeroen; Skjærris, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Baseband frequency hopping in the combination with downlink power control and discontinuous transmission has been investigated as a quality improving feature in a live GSM network. Using the dropped call rate and the frame erasure rate to measure the network quality, the use of frequency hopping...... to the statistical inaccuracy with discontinuous transmission in GSM and maybe due to poor performance of the mobile stations, was encountered. The current status is therefore to reject the use of downlink discontinuous transmission until more information about the performance of the mobile stations is found...

  5. Frequency Arrangement For 700 MHz Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancans G.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The 694-790 MHz (700 MHz band was allocated by the 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12 in ITU Region 1 (Europe included, to the mobile service on a co-primary basis with other services to which this band was allocated on the primary basis and identified for the International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT. At the same time, the countries of Region 1 will be able also to continue using these frequencies for their broadcasting services if necessary. This allocation will be effective immediately after 2015 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-15. In order to make the best possible use of this frequency band for mobile service, a worldwide harmonized frequency arrangement is to be prepared to allow for large economies of scale and international roaming as well as utilizing the available spectrum in the best possible way, minimizing possible interference between services, facilitating deployment and cross-border coordination. The authors analyze different possible frequency arrangements and conclude on the frequency arrangement most suitable for Europe.

  6. The 938 MHz resonant damping loops for the 200 MHz SPS travelling wave cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of the beam stability in the SPS in 1982 - 1983 have shown a transversal instability for high intensity beams [1]. The fact that this related technical note is published nearly 30 years later, is related to the revival of interest in the frame of SPS impedance evaluation for LS1. Until now there was just a barely known paper folder available which could be consulted on request. The instability mentioned above was identified from beam measurements as raised by a deflecting mode at approximately 940 MHz in the 200 MHz travelling wave cavities of the SPS. Estimates showed that an attenuation of this particular mode by 20 dB would be desirable. In order to achieve this attenuation some vacuum ports on top of the cavities were available. For the damping devices three requirements had to be met: - sufficient damping at about 940 MHz - no serious change of cavity input VSWR at 200 MHz - no water cooling requirement for this higher order mode coupler.

  7. Radiated Emissions Test Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-02

    1. Draft Department of Transportation (DOT) Test Plan to Develop : Interference Tolerance Masks for GNSS Receivers in the L1 : Radiofrequency Band (1559 1610 MHz) provides high level : overview of radiated emissions test setup : 2. Presenta...

  8. 47 CFR 101.69 - Transition of the 1850-1990 MHz, 2110-2150 MHz, and 2160-2200 MHz bands from the fixed microwave...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and 2160-2200 MHz bands from the fixed microwave services to personal communications services and...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses License Transfers... MHz bands from the fixed microwave services to personal communications services and emerging...

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Paracoccus sp. GSM2 Capable of Degrading Textile Azo Dye Reactive Violet 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun C. Bheemaraddi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential bacterial strain GSM2, capable of degrading an azo dye Reactive Violet 5 as a sole source of carbon, was isolated from textile mill effluent from Solapur, India. The 16S rDNA sequence and phenotypic characteristics indicated an isolated organism as Paracoccus sp. GSM2. This strain exhibited complete decolorization of Reactive Violet 5 (100 mg/L within 16 h, while maximally it could decolorize 800 mg/L of dye within 38 h with 73% decolorization under static condition. For color removal, the most suitable pH and temperature were pH 6.0–9.0 and 25–40°C, respectively. The isolate was able to decolorize more than 70% of five structurally different azo dyes within 38 h. The isolate is salt tolerant as it can bring out more than 90% decolorization up to a salt concentration of 2% (w/v. UV-Visible absorption spectra before and after decolorization suggested that decolorization was due to biodegradation and was further confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Overall results indicate the effectiveness of the strain GSM2 explored for the treatment of textile industry effluents containing various azo dyes. To our knowledge, this could be the first report on biodegradation of Reactive Violet 5 by Paracoccus sp. GSM2.

  10. BNL 703 MHz SRF cryomodule demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Calaga, R.; Dalesio, L.; Dottavio, T.; Gassner, D.; Hahn, H.; Hoff, L.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Lambiase, R.; Lederle, D.; Litvinenko, V.; Mahler, G.; McIntyre, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will present the preliminary results of the testing of the 703 MHz SRF cryomodule designed for use in the ampere class ERL under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The preliminary cavity tests, carried out at Thomas Jefferson Laboratory, demonstrated cavity performance of 20 MV/m with a Qo of 1 x 10 10 , results we expect to reproduce in the horizontal configuration. This test of the entire string assembly will allow us to evaluate all of the additional cryomodule components not previously tested in the VTA and will prepare us for our next milestone test which will be delivery of electrons from our injector through the cryomodule to the beam dump. This will also be the first demonstration of an accelerating cavity designed for use in an ampere class ERL, a key development which holds great promise for future machines

  11. The all-sky 408 MHz survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslam, C.G.T.; Salter, C.J.; Stoffel, H.

    1981-01-01

    A brief outline of the results of this survey is presented. The 408 MHz All-sky Survey has been made from four radio continuum surveys observed between 1965 and 1978, using the Jodrell Bank MKI telescope (Haslam et al., 1970), the Effelsberg 100 metre telescope (Haslam et al., 1974) and the Parkes 64 metre telescope (Haslam et al., 1975). A detailed description of the survey data reduction and calibration methods, with preliminary astronomical results will soon be published (Haslam et al., 1980a) and a second paper will give an atlas of maps at the full survey resolution of 51' arc between half power points (Haslam et al., 1980b). A map, smoothed to a gaussian beam with resolution between half power poitns of 3 0 , is presented. (Auth.)

  12. GSM base stations: short-term effects on well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner, Christoph; Florian, Matthias; Pauser, Gernot; Oberfeld, Gerd; Hacker, Gerhard W

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of short-term GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) cellular phone base station RF-EMF (radiofrequency electromagnetic fields) exposure on psychological symptoms (good mood, alertness, calmness) as measured by a standardized well-being questionnaire. Fifty-seven participants were selected and randomly assigned to one of three different exposure scenarios. Each of those scenarios subjected participants to five 50-min exposure sessions, with only the first four relevant for the study of psychological symptoms. Three exposure levels were created by shielding devices in a field laboratory, which could be installed or removed during the breaks between sessions such that double-blinded conditions prevailed. The overall median power flux densities were 5.2 microW/m(2) during "low," 153.6 microW/m(2) during "medium," and 2126.8 microW/m(2) during "high" exposure sessions. For scenario HM and MH, the first and third sessions were "low" exposure. The second session was "high" and the fourth was "medium" in scenario HM; and vice versa for scenario MH. Scenario LL had four successive "low" exposure sessions constituting the reference condition. Participants in scenarios HM and MH (high and medium exposure) were significantly calmer during those sessions than participants in scenario LL (low exposure throughout) (P = 0.042). However, no significant differences between exposure scenarios in the "good mood" or "alertness" factors were obtained. We conclude that short-term exposure to GSM base station signals may have an impact on well-being by reducing psychological arousal. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. A Technical Report on the Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation From a Mobile Phone on Mice Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgenaidi A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: Exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR from mobile phones can cause detrimental effects on cell function, chromosomal aberrations, and tissue injuries [1-6]. The rapid expansion of mobile phones has lead to widespread concern for their safety. We examined the histopathological effects of direct exposure to this EMR from mobile phones in adult male Swiss albino mice. The animals were obtained from the biotechnology center, Tripoli, Libya, weighing from 25-30 grams, aged 10-12 weeks. The experiments were approved by state authorities and fol¬lowed guidelines of Egyptian law for animal protection. Mice were fed standard diets and water ad libitum. Plastic cages (diameter 45 cm by 11 cm height were designed for this work. The roof of the cage was designed to receive the mobile phone from a distance of about 10 cm from the cage floor [7]. EMR was emitted from the Nokia 1112 device with a dimension of 104×44×17 in connection with Libyan network (Misurata, Libya. The distance between phone and mice was about 10 cm. The GSM mobile phones operate with microwave carrier frequencies in the GHz range (850–1900 MHz [8-10].

  14. Effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted by cellular telephones on the cognitive functions of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyahu, Ilan; Luria, Roy; Hareuveny, Ronen; Margaliot, Menachem; Meiran, Nachshon; Shani, Gad

    2006-02-01

    The present study examined the effects of exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation emitted by a standard GSM phone at 890 MHz on human cognitive functions. This study attempted to establish a connection between the exposure of a specific area of the brain and the cognitive functions associated with that area. A total of 36 healthy right-handed male subjects performed four distinct cognitive tasks: spatial item recognition, verbal item recognition, and two spatial compatibility tasks. Tasks were chosen according to the brain side they are assumed to activate. All subjects performed the tasks under three exposure conditions: right side, left side, and sham exposure. The phones were controlled by a base station simulator and operated at their full power. We have recorded the reaction times (RTs) and accuracy of the responses. The experiments consisted of two sections, of 1 h each, with a 5 min break in between. The tasks and the exposure regimes were counterbalanced. The results indicated that the exposure of the left side of the brain slows down the left-hand response time, in the second-later-part of the experiment. This effect was apparent in three of the four tasks, and was highly significant in only one of the tests. The exposure intensity and its duration exceeded the common exposure of cellular phone users.

  15. Analysis of the contended health risks due to digitally modulated mobile phone radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liesenkoetter, B.

    2002-01-01

    In the public discussion regarding the health risks of mobile phone system radiation, it is emphasized that the pulse slope of digital modulation, as defined in the GSM-Standard, will cause biological effects. In contrast, the high field strength of broadcasting and television radiation is not considered to be relevant. This paper compares quantitatively the slope of the digital GSM pulses with that of the synchronizing pulse of the television signal. The result shows clearly that the pulse spectrum of the television signal contains that of the GSM signal; in addition, the synchronizing impulse of television exhibits a much steeper slope. Considering the countrywide normal radiation intensities of television and mobile phone systems, it can be stated that the worldwide exposure to the common television signals over more than 50 years can disprove the contention of adverse biological health effects of the pulse slope of digitally modulated radiofrequency. (orig.) [de

  16. Impact of electromagnetic radiation exposure during pregnancy on embryonic skeletal development in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali SAEED H Alchalabi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the teratogenic effect of mobile phone radiation exposure during pregnancy on embryonic skeletal development at the common used mobile phone frequency in our environment. Methods: Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into three experiment groups; control and two exposed groups (1 h/day, 2 h/day exposure groups (n=20/ each group and exposed to whole body radiation during gestation period from day 1- day 20. Electromagnetic radiofrequency signal generator was used to generate 1 800 MHz GSM-like signals at specific absorption rate value 0.974 W/kg. Animals were exposed during experiment in an especial designed Plexiglas box (60 cm × 40 cm × 30 cm. At the end of exposure duration at day 20 of pregnancy animals were sacrificed and foetuses were removed, washed with normal saline and processed to Alizarin red and Alcian blue stain. Skeleton specimens were examined under a stereo microscope and skeleton's snaps were being carefully captured by built in camera fixed on the stereo microscope. Results: Intrauterine exposure to electromagnetic radiation lead to variation in degree of ossification, mineralization, formation of certain parts of the skeleton majorly in head and lesser in other parts. Deformity and absence of formation of certain bones in the head, ribs, and coccygeal vertebrae were recorded in skeleton of foetuses from exposed dams compare to control group. Conclusions: The electromagnetic radiation exposure during pregnancy alter the processes of bone mineralization and the intensity of bone turnover processes, and thus impact embryonic skeleton formation and development directly.

  17. 300-MHz optical discriminator-counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turko, B.; Lo, C.C.

    1981-07-01

    The prediction of future CO 2 content in the atmosphere is not completely credible because the oceanographers and terrestrial ecologists do not agree on the global CO 2 balance. Very precise measurements of O 2 /N 2 ratio using Raman scattering over a few years' period could provide important information and lead to the explanation of the disparity in the atmospheric CO 2 balance. An optical discriminator-counter has been developed to count closely spaced optical events in the few photon level. Simulated optical events as close as 2.5 ns apart had been positively detected by using selected photomultipliers and optimized discriminators. Testing of the optical discriminator-counter was done by using an electrical pulse pair spaced 3 ns apart and also by a similar optical pulse pair generated by fast light-emitting diode. The photomultiplier is capable of counting an average single photoelectron pulse frequency of 50 MHz and has a sensitive detecting area of 50 mm in diameter. The discriminator performance is discussed

  18. Radiofrequency radiation at Stockholm Central Railway Station in Sweden and some medical aspects on public exposure to RF fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Koppel, Tarmo; Carlberg, Michael; Ahonen, Mikko; Hedendahl, Lena

    2016-10-01

    The Stockholm Central Railway Station in Sweden was investigated for public radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure. The exposimeter EME Spy 200 was used to collect the RF exposure data across the railway station. The exposimeter covers 20 different radiofrequency bands from 88 to 5,850 MHz. In total 1,669 data points were recorded. The median value for total exposure was 921 µW/m2 (or 0.092 µW/cm2; 1 µW/m2=0.0001 µW/cm2) with some outliers over 95,544 µW/m2 (6 V/m, upper detection limit). The mean total RF radiation level varied between 2,817 to 4,891 µW/m2 for each walking round. High mean measurements were obtained for GSM + UMTS 900 downlink varying between 1,165 and 2,075 µW/m2. High levels were also obtained for UMTS 2100 downlink; 442 to 1,632 µW/m2. Also LTE 800 downlink, GSM 1800 downlink, and LTE 2600 downlink were in the higher range of measurements. Hot spots were identified, for example close to a wall mounted base station yielding over 95,544 µW/m2 and thus exceeding the exposimeter's detection limit. Almost all of the total measured levels were above the precautionary target level of 3-6 µW/m2 as proposed by the BioInitiative Working Group in 2012. That target level was one-tenth of the scientific benchmark providing a safety margin either for children, or chronic exposure conditions. We compare the levels of RF radiation exposures identified in the present study to published scientific results reporting adverse biological effects and health harm at levels equivalent to, or below those measured in this Stockholm Central Railway Station project. It should be noted that these RF radiation levels give transient exposure, since people are generally passing through the areas tested, except for subsets of people who are there for hours each day of work.

  19. Design considerations for RF power amplifiers demonstrated through a GSM/EDGE power amplifier module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltus, P.G.M.; Bezooijen, van A.; Huijsing, J.H.; Steyaert, M.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the design considerations for RF power amplifiers in general, including trends in systems, linearity and efficiency, the PA environment, implementation is sues and technology. As an example a triple-band (900/1800/1900MHz) dual mode (GSMIEdge) power amplifier module is described

  20. 500 MHz transient digitizers based on GaAs CCDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryman, D.A.; Constable, M.; Cresswell, J.V.; Daviel, A.; LeNoble, M.; Mildenberger, J.; Poutissou, R.

    1996-11-01

    A system of 500 MHz transient digitizers based on gallium arsenide resistive gate charged coupled devices has been developed for an experiment studying rare K decays. CCDs with dynamic range of 8-bits and 128 or 320 pixels are used as analog pipelines. The CCD's are driven by a single phase transport system. Data readout and manipulation occurs at 15.6 MHz. (authors)

  1. A 70 MHz pulsing beam system for protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Shizhong; Zhang Tianjue; Wu Longcheng; Lv Yinlong; Song Guofang; Guan Fengping; Jia Xianlu

    2008-01-01

    A test beam line for pulsed beam generation for 10 MeV central region model (CRM) of a compact cyclotron is under construction as China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). A 70 MHz continuous H - beam with the energy of dozens of keV or a hundred keV will be pulsed to pulse length of less than 10 ns with the repetition rate of 1-8 MHz. A 70.487 MHz buncher will be used to compress the DC beam into the RF phase acceptance of ±30° of the CRM cyclotron. The 2.2 MHz sine waveform will be used for the chopper. A pulse with the repetition rate to 4.4 MHz and pulse length less than 10 ns is expected after CRM cyclotron. (authors)

  2. Imaging melanin cancer growth in-vivo using raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy (RSOM) at 50 MHz and 100 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Murad; Schwarz, Mathias; Soliman, Dominik; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-03-01

    We used raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy (RSOM) at 50 MHz, and at 100 MHz, to monitor tumor growth, and tumor angiogenesis, which is a central hallmark of cancer, in-vivo. In this study we compared the performance, and the effect of the 50 MHz, and the 100 MHz frequencies on the quality of the final image. The system is based on a reflection-mode implementation of RSOM. The detectors used are custom made, ultrawideband, and spherically focused. The use of such detectors enables light coupling from the same side as the detector, thus reflection-mode. Light is in turn coupled using a fiber bundle, and the detector is raster scanned in the xy-plane. Subsequently, to retrieve small features, the raw data are reconstructed using a multi-bandwidth, beamforming reconstruction algorithm. Comparison of the system performance at the different frequencies shows as expected a higher resolution in case of the 100 MHz detector compared to the 50 MHz. On the other hand the 50 MHz has a better SNR, can detect features from deeper layers, and has higher angular acceptance. Based on these characteristics the 50 MHz detector was mostly used. After comparing the performance we monitored the growth of B16F10 cells, melanin tumor, over the course of 9 days. We see correspondence between the optoacoustic measurements and the cryoslice validations. Additionally, in areas close to the tumor we see sprouting of new vessels, starting at day 4-5, which corresponds to tumor angiogenesis.

  3. The Measurement of Low Frequency Magnetic Field of Two Kinds of GSM900 Mobile Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Kaviani Moghadam

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  The  use  of  mobile  communication  systems  has  dramatically  increased  over  the  past  decade. Although many studies have been performed to determine the effect of radio frequency (RF but  less attention has been paid to the possible biological impact of exposure to extremely low frequency  (ELF components.   The objective of this study is two folds. One is to design the equipments needed for the measurement of  the ELF fields of two types of GSM900 mobile phone. Secondly, use a protocol suitable for an accurate  assessment of the ELF fields.  Materials  and Methods:  First  a  home-made  search  coil  was  provided  and  calibrated precisely  under  several experiments. Using Fast Fourier Transform, the power spectrum density of the induced voltage in  the search coil was analyzed and the amplitudes of 217 Hz and its harmonics were extracted and then the  distribution of magnetic field in the back side of mobile phones was determined.  Results: The values of B-field on the back side of the two kinds of GSM mobile phone were different.  They  were  between  50  to  160  µT in  Nokia  3310  and  14  to  30  µT in  Nokia  8310.  Considering  the  difference between the amplitudes of frequency components at 217 Hz and its harmonics in the two kinds  of mobile phone, a range of magnetic flux density at different times in a five day period was measured.  Discussion and Conclusion: These findings emphasize the need for considering the distribution of low  frequency magnetic field from mobile phone when biological effects of magnetic fields are studied. To  determine  the  intensity  windowing  effect,  one  must  consider  the  physical  characteristics  of  the  fundamental  frequency  component  wave  (217  Hz  and  its  harmonics  produced  by  the  mobile  phone  similar to the one generated under a real situation.

  4. Design of anti-theft/cable cut real time alert system for copper cable using microcontroller and GSM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, E. K.; Norizan, M. N.; Mohamad, I. S.; Yasin, M. N. M.; Murad, S. A. Z.; Baharum, N. A.; Jamalullail, N.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the design of anti-theft/cable cut real time alert system using microcontroller and GSM technology. The detection part is using the electrical circuit wire connection in detecting the voltage drop of the cable inside the microcontroller digital input port. The GSM wireless modem is used to send the location of cable cut directly to the authority mobile phone. Microcontroller SK40C with Microchip PIC16F887 is used as a controller to control the wireless modem and also the detection device. The device is able to detect and display the location of the cable cut on the LCD display besides of and sending out the location of the cable break to the authority mobile phone wirelessly via SMS.

  5. Theoretical evaluation of electromagnetic emissions from GSM900 mobile telephony base stations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip-Palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahham, Adnan; Abu Alkbash, Jehad; ALMasri, Hussien

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical assessments of power density in far-field conditions were used to evaluate the levels of environmental electromagnetic frequencies from selected GSM900 macrocell base stations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Assessments were based on calculating the power densities using commercially available software (RF-Map from Telstra Research Laboratories-Australia). Calculations were carried out for single base stations with multi-antenna systems and also for multiple base stations with multi-antenna systems at 1.7 m above the ground level. More than 100 power density levels were calculated at different locations around the investigated base stations. These locations include areas accessible to the general public (schools, parks, residential areas, streets and areas around kindergartens). The maximum calculated electromagnetic emission level resulted from a single site was 0.413 μW cm -2 and found at Hizma town near Jerusalem. Average maximum power density from all single sites was 0.16 μW cm -2 . The results of all calculated power density levels in 100 locations distributed over the West Bank and Gaza were nearly normally distributed with a peak value of ∼0.01% of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection's limit recommended for general public. Comparison between calculated and experimentally measured value of maximum power density from a base station showed that calculations overestimate the actual measured power density by ∼27%. (authors)

  6. The effect of authentic metallic implants on the SAR distribution of the head exposed to 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz dipole near field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, H; Keshvari, J; Lappalainen, R

    2007-03-07

    As the use of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) fields has increased along with increased use of wireless communication, the possible related health risks have also been widely discussed. One safety aspect is the interaction of medical implants and RF devices like mobile phones. In the literature, effects on active implants like pacemakers have been discussed but the studies of passive metallic (i.e. conductive) implants are rare. However, some studies have shown that the EM power absorption in tissues may be enhanced due to metallic implants. In this study, the effect of authentic passive metallic implants in the head region was examined. A half-wave dipole antenna was used as an exposure source and the specific absorption rate (SAR, W kg(-1)) in the near field was studied numerically. The idea was to model the presumably worst cases of most common implants in an accurate MRI-based phantom. As exposure frequencies GSM (900 and 1800 MHz) and UMTS (2450 MHz) regions were considered. The implants studied were skull plates, fixtures, bone plates and ear rings. The results indicate that some of the implants, under very rare exposure conditions, may cause a notable enhancement in peak mass averaged SAR.

  7. ANALISIS KUAT SINYAL DAN KUALITAS PANGGILAN JARINGAN GSM INDOOR DENGAN TEMS INVESTIGATION DAN G-NETTRACK PRO

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Bagus Ari Budiarta; Pande Ketut Sudiarta; IGAK. Diafari Djuni H.

    2016-01-01

    Kebutuhan akan teknologi GSM merupakan tantangan bagi provider untuk memberikan pelayanan terbaik bagi pengguna layanannya. Dalam proses layanan tersebut kemungkinan besar terdapat masalah yang terjadi. Pihak provider biasanya melakukan walk test untuk mengecek kekuatan sinyal yang dipancarkan oleh antena pemancar di dalam ruangan. Kebanyakan pihak provider menggunakan TEMS Investigation dalam melakukan walk test. Biaya walk test dengan TEMS Investigation bisa dikatakan cukup mahal. Namun den...

  8. Network Performance Evaluation of Abis Interface over DVB-S2 in the GSM over Satellite Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Musabekov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with establishing a GSM link over Satellite. Abis interface, which is defined between Base Transceiver Station (BTS and Base Station Controller (BSC, in a GSM network is considered here to be routed over the Satellite. The satellite link enables a quick and cost-effective GSM link in meagerly populated areas. A different scenario comparison was done to understand the impact of Satellite environment on network availability comparing to terrestrial scenario. We have implemented an Abis interface over DVB S2 in NS2 and evaluated the performance over the high delay and loss satellite channel. Network performance was evaluated with respect to Satellite channel delay and DVB S2 encapsulation efficiency under different amount of user traffic and compared with the terrestrial scenario. The results clearly showed an increased amount of SDCCH and TCH channels required in the case of satellite scenario for the same amount of traffic in comparison to conventional terrestrial scenario. We have optimized the parameters based on the simulation results. Link budget estimation considering DVB-S2 platform was done to find satellite bandwidth and cost requirements for different network setups.

  9. Utilization of GSM Module (Sim 900 Based Arduino-Uno for Alarm System and Remote Automatic Door Locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzi Fauzi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sebuah sistem alarm dan pengunci pintu otomatis jarak jauh untuk keamanan rumah telah dibuat. Otomatisasi kunci pintu rumah ini beroperasi dengan menggunakan perintah yang dikirimkan oleh pemilik rumah melalui pesan singkat melalui handphone sehingga keamanan rumah akan tetap dapat dikendalikan meski dari jarak yang jauh. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membangun otomatisasi rumah pintar yang mampu melakukan dua hal yakni mengunci pintu dan menyalakan alarm dengan menggunakan mikrokontroler Arduino-uno dan modul GSM. Pengontrolan secara otomatis tersebut cukup kompleks dan memerlukan berbagai komponen yang terintegrasi dengan kemampuan pembacaan masukan, pemrosesan data dan pengontrolan keluaran secara bersamaan dan terprogram.  A remote door automatic alarm and door lock system for home security has been designed. This home door lock automation operates using commands sent by homeowners via short messages from handphone so that home security will remain controllable even from a long distance. This study aims to build smart home automation that can do two things: lock the door and turn on the alarm by using Arduino-uno microcontroller and GSM module. The automatic control is quite complex and requires a variety of integrated components with the ability to read input, data processing and control the output simultaneously and programmed.   Keywords: Arduino, GSM, Automatic Doors, SMS Rerefences Depari, G.S. (1985. Belajar Teori dan Keterampilan Elektronika. Bandung: Armico Daryanto, 2005. Pengetahuan Teknik Elektronika. Erlangga. Jakarta. Session, Kendall Webster, 2003. 1001 Rangkaian Elektronika. PT. Elek Media Komputindo Kelompok Gramedia, Jakarta. Sustrisno, 1986, Elektronika Teori dan penerapanya. Penerbit ITB, Bandung

  10. Technology development of solid state rf systems at 350 MHz and 325 MHz for RF accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, B.V.; Mishra, J.K.; Pande, Manjiri; Gupta, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    For decades vacuum tubes and klystrons have been used in high power application such as RF accelerators and broadcast transmitters. However, now, the solid-state technology can give power output in kilowatt regime. Higher RF power output can be achieved by combining several solid-state power amplifier modules using power combiners. This technology presents several advantages over traditional RF amplifiers, such as simpler start-up procedure, high modularity, high redundancy and flexibility, elimination of high voltage supplies and high power circulators, low operational cost, online maintenance without shut down of RF power station and no warm up time. In BARC, solid state amplifier technology development is being done both at 350 MHz and 325 MHz using RF transistors such as 1 kW LDMOS and 350 Watt VDMOS. Topology of input and output matching network in RF modules developed, consist of two L type matching sections with each section having a combination of series micro-strip line and parallel capacitor. The design is of equal Q for both the sections and of 25 ohm characteristics impedance of micro strip lines. Based on this, lengths of micro strips lines and values of shunt capacitors have been calculated. The calculated and simulated values of network elements have been compared. Similarly power combiners have been designed and developed based on Wilkinson techniques without internal resistors and using coaxial technology. This paper presents design and development of RF power amplifier modules, associated power combiner technologies and then integrated RF power amplifier. (author)

  11. Automatic recloser circuit breaker integrated with GSM technology for power system notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lada, M. Y.; Khiar, M. S. A.; Ghani, S. A.; Nawawi, M. R. M.; Rahim, N. H.; Sinar, L. O. M.

    2015-05-01

    Lightning is one type of transient faults that usually cause the circuit breaker in the distribution board trip due to overload current detection. The instant tripping condition in the circuit breakers clears the fault in the system. Unfortunately most circuit breakers system is manually operated. The power line will be effectively re-energized after the clearing fault process is finished. Auto-reclose circuit is used on the transmission line to carry out the duty of supplying quality electrical power to customers. In this project, an automatic reclose circuit breaker for low voltage usage is designed. The product description is the Auto Reclose Circuit Breaker (ARCB) will trip if the current sensor detects high current which exceeds the rated current for the miniature circuit breaker (MCB) used. Then the fault condition will be cleared automatically and return the power line to normal condition. The Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) system will send SMS to the person in charge if the tripping occurs. If the over current occurs in three times, the system will fully trip (open circuit) and at the same time will send an SMS to the person in charge. In this project a 1 A is set as the rated current and any current exceeding a 1 A will cause the system to trip or interrupted. This system also provides an additional notification for user such as the emergency light and warning system.

  12. Development of a Semielliptical Partial Ground Plane Antenna for RFID and GSM-900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Zaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel compact broadband patch antenna for UHF (ultrahigh frequency, RFID (radio frequency identification, and GSM-900 (global system for mobile communications band is shown in this paper. The antenna is composed of an ellipse shape annular ring at the patch. The ground plane of the planar antenna is modified with a semiellipse shape slot. The structure can generate substantial amount of current at the feed-line. The geometry of the antenna is evaluated by using HFSS simulation software and deliberated across the paper. Parametric study is exhibited to delineate the response change of the antenna. The antenna has a physical width of 0.24 λ and length of 0.3 λ. It covers a frequency starting from 0.9 GHz to 1.08 GHz. A fractional bandwidth of 18.2% has been achieved from 0.9 GHz till 1.08 GHz. An average gain of 5.5 dBi is achieved at the resonance frequency. The simulated and measured results have good agreement.

  13. Antiviral activity of the exopolysaccharide produced by Serratia sp. strain Gsm01 against Cucumber mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipper, Nagesh S; Cho, Saeyoull; Lee, Seon Hwa; Cho, Jun Mo; Hur, Jang Hyun; Lim, Chun Keun

    2008-01-01

    The potential of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) from a Serratia sp. strain Gsm01 as an antiviral agent against a yellow strain of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-Y) was evaluated in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc). The spray treatment of plants using an EPS preparation, 72 before CMV-Y inoculation, protected them against symptom appearance. Fifteen days after challenge inoculation with CMVY, 33.33% of plants showed mosaic symptoms in EPS-treated plants compared with 100% in the control plants. The EPS-treated plants, which showed mosaic symptoms, appeared three days later than the controls. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses of the leaves of the protected plants revealed that the EPS treatment affected virus accumulation in those plants. Analysis of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, and phenols in protected plants revealed enhanced accumulation of these substances. The pathogenesis-related (PR) genes expression represented by PR-1b was increased in EPS-treated plants. This is the first report of a systemic induction of protection triggered by EPS produced by Serratia sp. against CMV-Y.

  14. INTERFACING VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION WITH GSM NETWORKS TO PREVENT THE THEFT OF THE VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Prabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Visible Light Communication (VLC by means of white Light Emitting Diode (LED is an alternate and most promising technology for existing Radio Frequency (RF communication. We proposed one of the important applications of VLC to prevent the theft of the vehicle. Every year approximately 36,000 vehicles worth Rs.115 crores are stolen in India. In critical road condition, only 15,000 are traced and many spare parts of vehicle are found missing. Even the existing technologies have some disadvantages related to the problem stated. In our paper, we dealt with the data communication through LED. One of the optical wireless communication having short range is called as VLC whose visible light spectrum starts from 380 nm and ends at 780 nm and it has an incomparable data rate of 10GB/s whereas the speed is 1MB/s on Bluetooth and for Infra Red (IR the speed is 4MB/s. We try to achieve the communication through VLC between 1 car - car to prevent the accident and 2 car - tollgate and received signal from tollgate is transmitted to Global System for Mobile communication (GSM network using microcontroller to prevent the theft of vehicle. To enhance the security of VLC, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES algorithm is used and the result is illustrated with the help of LabVIEW.

  15. Investigation of the performance of EOTD for GSM users in telematics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharawi, Mohammad S.; Aloi, Daniel N.

    2003-08-01

    Location-based services have been standardized for incorporation into 3rd generation wireless communications as a result of the Federal Communications Commission"s (FCC) mandate on wireless carriers to provide automatic location information (ALI) during emergency911 calls. This mandate has driven the wireless carriers to explore terrestrial, satellite, and hybrid based location technology solutions. This paper presents a communications model that investigates the position accuracyof a Global Standard Mobile (GSM) phone employing the enhanced observed time difference (EOTD) location technology. The EOTD positioning technique requires the mobile station (MS) to detect signals from at least three base stations (BS). This studyassumes the three BSs are synchronized in time. For a given BS geometry with respect to the MS, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed to assess the two-dimensional position accuracyof the MS in Rayleigh and Ricean fading channels. In each channel, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed for a good and a bad BS-to-MS geometry. The paper concludes with a list of pros/cons of implementing EOTD as a location technologyenabler in telematics applications.

  16. Method of analysis of populations exposure and radio coverage of GSM and UMTS mobile phone networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudaire, Francois; Noe, Nicolas; Dufour, Jean Benoit; De Seze, Rene; Cagnon, Patrice; Selmaoui, Brahim; Mauger, Samuel; Thuroczy, Georges; Mazet, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We present a description and preliminary results of a large-scale project (COMOP) started in 2009 by the Ministry for Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy and the National Agency of Frequencies (ANFR). This work is collaborative between the government, municipalities, associations, network operators and agencies. This project concerns GSM and UMTS mobile phone networks. Sixteen voluntary pilot communes were selected to carry out the experiments. This work is based on numerical modeling methods associated with various innovative measurement campaigns. It consists of: - determination of current status of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted by base station antennas by modeling and measurements. - investigations on reducing this exposure while assessing the impact of parallel territorial coverage and quality of service of mobile networks. This study has established a comprehensive scientific realization of human exposure to radio-frequencies from base station antennas. These results constitute an innovative approach and are relevant in terms of dialogue in the current debate about positioning of base stations. (authors)

  17. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol Mora, J.

    1999-01-01

    The exposition to ionizing radiations is a constant fact in the life of the human being and its utilization as diagnostic and therapeutic method is generalized. However, it is notorious how as years go on, the fear to the ionizing radiation seems to persist too, and this fact is not limited to the common individual, but to the technical personnel and professional personnel that labors with them same. (S. Grainger) [es

  18. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  19. Explanation for Cancer in Rats, Mice and Humans due to Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2016-01-01

    Very recently, the National Toxicology Program reported a correlation between exposure to whole body 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation and cancer in the brains and hearts of Sprague Dawley male rats. This paper proposes the following explanation for these results. The neurons around the rat's brain and heart form closed electrical circuits and, following Faraday's Law, 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation induces 900 MHz electrical currents in these neural circuits. In turn, these 900 MHz currents...

  20. CAMEX-4 MIPS 915 MHZ DOPPLER WIND PROFILER V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 MIPS 915 MHZ Doppler Wind Profiler dataset was collected by the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Mobile Integrated Profiling System (MIPS),...

  1. CAMEX-4 MIPS 915 MHZ DOPPLER WIND PROFILER V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Mobile Integrated Profiling System (MIPS) is a mobile atmospheric profiling system. It includes a 915 MHz Doppler...

  2. Analog Fiber Optic Link with DC-100 MHz Bandwidth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, C. A; Girardi, P. G; Lohrmann, Dieter R

    2008-01-01

    An analog fiber optic link covering the frequency range from DC to 100 MHz was designed, constructed, and tested, in order to connect a 10 kA pulse current probe to oscilloscopes for oscillographing...

  3. 500 MHz transient digitizers based on GaAs CCDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryman, D A; Constable, M; Cresswell, J V; Daviel, A; LeNoble, M; Mildenberger, J; Poutissou, R

    1996-11-01

    A system of 500 MHz transient digitizers based on gallium arsenide resistive gate charged coupled devices has been developed for an experiment studying rare K decays. CCDs with dynamic range of 8-bits and 128 or 320 pixels are used as analog pipelines. The CCD`s are driven by a single phase transport system. Data readout and manipulation occurs at 15.6 MHz. (authors). 12 refs., 15 figs.

  4. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  5. Telepositional portable real time radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpalariu, Jeni; Matei, Corina; Popescu, Oana

    2010-01-01

    Technology development for complex portable networks is on going to meet the area dosimetry challenge, improving the basic design using new telepositional GPS satellite methods and GSM terrestrial civil radio transmission networks. The system and devices proposed overcome the limitations of fixed and portable dosimeters, providing wireless real time radiations data and geospatial information's means, using many portable dosimeter stations and a mobile dosimeter computerised central console. (authors)

  6. The 136 MHz/400 MHz earth station antenna-noise temperature prediction program documentation for RAE-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, M.

    1972-01-01

    A simulation study to determine the 136 MHz and 400 MHz noise temperature of the ground network antennas which will track the RAE-B satellite during data transmission periods is described. Since the noise temperature of the antenna effectively sets the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the received signal, a knowledge of SNR will be helpful in locating the optimum time windows for data transmission during low-noise periods. Antenna-noise temperatures at 136 MHz and 400 MHz will be predicted for selected earth-based ground stations which will support RAE-B. The antenna-noise temperature predictions will include the effects of galactic-brightness temperature, the sun, and the brightest radio stars. Predictions will cover the ten-month period from March 1, 1973 to December 31, 1973. The RAE-B mission will be expecially susceptible to SNR degradation during the two eclipses of the Sun occurring in this period.

  7. The 136 MHZ/400 MHz earth station antenna-noise temperature prediction program for RAE-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R. E.; Fee, J. J.; Chin, M.

    1972-01-01

    A simulation study was undertaken to determine the 136 MHz and 400 MHz noise temperature of the ground network antennas which will track the RAE-B satellite during data transmission periods. Since the noise temperature of the antenna effectively sets the signal-to-noise ratio of the received signal, a knowledge of SNR will be helpful in locating the optimum time windows for data transmission during low noise periods. Antenna noise temperatures will be predicted for selected earth-based ground stations which will support RAE-B. Telemetry data acquisition will be at 400 MHz; tracking support at 136 MHz will be provided by the Goddard Range and Range Rate (RARR) stations. The antenna-noise temperature predictions will include the effects of galactic-brightness temperature, the sun, and the brightest radio stars. Predictions will cover the ten-month period from March 1, 1973 to December 31, 1973.

  8. Influence of GSM900 electromagnetic fields on the metabolic rate in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. El Ouardi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of exposure devices for investigating possible effects of mobile communication systems to non-restrained animals aims at a homogenous field distribution in the area the animals occupy. In the presented 900 MHz exposure device a quite good field homogeneity of 5% (including the standing wave contribution due to internal reflections is reached in the cage region mainly by flattening the transverse field. For the standard waveguide (WR1150 without dielectric sheets this value reads 14%. The desired maximal whole body specific absorption rate (SAR of 4 W/kg in the Djungarian hamster model is achieved at an input power of only 3.7 W.

  9. Report of final results regarding brain and heart tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to mobile phone radiofrequency field representative of a 1.8 GHz GSM base station environmental emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcioni, L; Bua, L; Tibaldi, E; Lauriola, M; De Angelis, L; Gnudi, F; Mandrioli, D; Manservigi, M; Manservisi, F; Manzoli, I; Menghetti, I; Montella, R; Panzacchi, S; Sgargi, D; Strollo, V; Vornoli, A; Belpoggi, F

    2018-08-01

    In 2011, IARC classified radiofrequency radiation (RFR) as possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). According to IARC, animals studies, as well as epidemiological ones, showed limited evidence of carcinogenicity. In 2016, the NTP published the first results of its long-term bioassays on near field RFR, reporting increased incidence of malignant glial tumors of the brain and heart Schwannoma in rats exposed to GSM - and CDMA - modulated cell phone RFR. The tumors observed in the NTP study are of the type similar to the ones observed in some epidemiological studies of cell phone users. The Ramazzini Institute (RI) performed a life-span carcinogenic study on Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the carcinogenic effects of RFR in the situation of far field, reproducing the environmental exposure to RFR generated by 1.8 GHz GSM antenna of the radio base stations of mobile phone. This is the largest long-term study ever performed in rats on the health effects of RFR, including 2448 animals. In this article, we reported the final results regarding brain and heart tumors. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from prenatal life until natural death to a 1.8 GHz GSM far field of 0, 5, 25, 50 V/m with a whole-body exposure for 19 h/day. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of heart Schwannomas was observed in treated male rats at the highest dose (50 V/m). Furthermore, an increase in the incidence of heart Schwann cells hyperplasia was observed in treated male and female rats at the highest dose (50 V/m), although this was not statistically significant. An increase in the incidence of malignant glial tumors was observed in treated female rats at the highest dose (50 V/m), although not statistically significant. The RI findings on far field exposure to RFR are consistent with and reinforce the results of the NTP study on near field exposure, as both reported an increase in the incidence of tumors of the brain and heart in RFR-exposed Sprague

  10. Public safety assessment of electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhekail, Z O; Hadi, M A; Alkanhal, M A

    2012-09-01

    Exposure of the general public to electromagnetic radiation originating from randomly selected GSM/WCDMA base stations in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been assessed in the context of the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The purpose of the measurement was to record the maximum power density of signals to estimate possible worst case exposure at each measurement location. These power density measurements were carried out at 60 mobile base stations located in different regions of the city. For each of these sites, three sectors were operational, yielding a total of 180 sectors. Two positions were identified per site with the greatest power density values. Exposures from these base stations were generally found to be in the range of 0.313 to 0.00000149% of the ICNIRP general public reference level, and the greatest exposure near any of the base stations was 21.96 mW m(-2) for a wideband measurement in the 75-3000 MHz frequency range. Analysis of the measured data reveals several trends for different mobile bands with respect to maximum exposure in those locations. Additionally, a simplified calculation method for the electromagnetic fields was used to compare calculated and the measured data. It was determined, on the basis of both results of the measurements and calculations carried out for these selected base stations, that members of the public would not be exposed to in excess of a small fraction of the ICNIRP guidelines at any of those sites. These are first such measurements to be made in the Middle East and provide assurance that exposures in this region of the world do not seem to be any greater than elsewhere.

  11. Resource Allocation in a Frequency Hopping PCS1900/GSM/DCS1800 Type of Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Toftegaard; Wigard, Jeroen; Michaelsen, Per-Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Resource allocation in a frequency hopping network is even more problematic than in a traditional network. The combined effect from all serving frequencies has to be considered directly in the allocation process. An algorithm doing this for a PCS1900/GSM/DCS1800 type of network is presented. The ....... A graphical visualisation tool has been developed as well. This tool uses a network quality measure tightly linked to the FER rather than the traditional C/I or BER. Using these statistics an increase in network quality is shown...

  12. BER and FER Prediction of Control and Traffic Channels for a GSM type of interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigard, Jeroen; Nielsen, Thomas Toftegaard; Michaelsen, Per Henrik

    1998-01-01

    in a network simulator, but without having to simulate every single link, since this would be to time consuming. In this paper a method is presented to find the BER and FER from the signal to interference (C/I) values for a GSM type of air-interface, which can be used for integration of link aspects...... in a network simulator. The accuracy is within 0.2 dB in case of the BER and 0.5 for the FER. Both traffic and control channels are studied and the method is independent of hopping sequences and speed...

  13. Self-Organizing Networks (SON) Self-Planning, Self-Optimization and Self-Healing for GSM, UMTS and LTE

    CERN Document Server

    Ramiro, Juan

    2011-01-01

    With the current explosion in network traffic, and mounting pressure on operators' business case, Self-Organizing Networks (SON) play a crucial role. They are conceived to minimize human intervention in engineering processes and at the same time improve system performance to maximize Return-on-Investment (ROI) and secure customer loyalty. Written by leading experts in the planning and optimization of Multi-Technology and Multi-Vendor wireless networks, this book describes the architecture of Multi-Technology SON for GSM, UMTS and LTE, along with the enabling technologies for SON planning, opti

  14. Development of disposable membrane hydrophones for a frequency range from 1MHz to 10MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Wan; Ohm, Won-Suk; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2017-11-01

    A method for fabricating disposable membrane hydrophones is presented. The disposable hydrophones are intended for onetime use in such damaging environments as chemically contaminating fluids and high-amplitude (peak amplitude ∼100MPa) shock wave fields, where the use of commercial membrane hydrophones is not recommended. Fabrication of a hydrophone is done using only off-the-shelf components and hand tools, which translates into ease of fabrication and orders-of-magnitude reduction in unit cost. In particular, poling and sputtering, the two processes that are chiefly responsible for the cost and difficulty associated with the conventional fabrication method, are replaced with the use of pre-poled polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-coated aluminum foils, respectively. Despite the seemingly crude construction, these disposable hydrophones can exhibit voltage sensitivity response that compares favorably with that of commercial hydrophones. For example, one prototype having a 2mm×2mm active element shows the end-of-cable voltage sensitivity of -270 (±1.9) dB re 1V/μPa over the frequency range of 1-10MHz. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of Spherical Radiation Pattern Measurement Uncertainty on Handset Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2005-01-01

    system that may introduce errors in standardized performance measurements. Radiation patterns of six handsets have been measured while they were mounted at various offsets from the reference position defined by the Cellular Telecommunications & Internet Association (CTIA) certification. The change...... in the performance measures are investigated for both the GSM-900 and the GSM-1800 band. Despite the deliberately large deviations from the reference position, the changes in TRP and TIS are generally within ±0.5 dB with a maximum of about 1.4 dB. For the MEG values the results depend on the orientation...

  16. 120 MW, 800 MHz Magnicon for a Future Muon Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-01-01

    Development of a pulsed magnicon at 800 MHz was carried out for the muon collider application, based on experience with similar amplifiers in the frequency range between 915 MHz and 34.3 GHz. Numerical simulations using proven computer codes were employed for the conceptual design, while established design technologies were incorporated into the engineering design. A cohesive design for the 800 MHz magnicon amplifier was carried out, including design of a 200 MW diode electron gun, design of the magnet system, optimization of beam dynamics including space charge effects in the transient and steady-state regimes, design of the drive, gain, and output cavities including an rf choke in the beam exit aperture, analysis of parasitic oscillations and design means to eliminate them, and design of the beam collector capable of 20 kW average power operation

  17. 47 CFR 90.353 - LMS operations in the 902-928 MHz band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false LMS operations in the 902-928 MHz band. 90.353... operations in the 902-928 MHz band. LMS systems may be authorized within the 902-928 MHz band, subject to the..., scientific, and medical (ISM) devices and radiolocation Government stations that operate in the 902-928 MHz...

  18. 78 FR 42701 - Improving Public Safety Communications in the 800 MHz Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ...] Improving Public Safety Communications in the 800 MHz Band AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION...-901 MHz/935- 940 MHz band (900 MHz B/ILT Band) to allow a qualified entity to file an application for..., manufacturing, energy) to non-commercial (e.g., clerical, educational, philanthropic, medical). In 2004, the...

  19. 77 FR 22720 - Service Rules for Advanced Wireless Services in the 2000-2020 MHz and 2180-2200 MHz Bands, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... operations in 1930-1995 MHz and uplink operations in 2000-2020 MHz. To address this apparent tension, we seek... includes broadcast auxiliary service (BAS) and cable television service (CARS) operations, as well as...

  20. Theoretical Evaluation of Electromagnetic Emissions from GSM900 Mobile Telephony Base Stations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip-Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahham, Adnan; Alkbash, Jehad Abu; ALMasri, Hussien

    2017-04-20

    Theoretical assessments of power density in far-field conditions were used to evaluate the levels of environmental electromagnetic frequencies from selected GSM900 macrocell base stations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Assessments were based on calculating the power densities using commercially available software (RF-Map from Telstra Research Laboratories-Australia). Calculations were carried out for single base stations with multiantenna systems and also for multiple base stations with multiantenna systems at 1.7 m above the ground level. More than 100 power density levels were calculated at different locations around the investigated base stations. These locations include areas accessible to the general public (schools, parks, residential areas, streets and areas around kindergartens). The maximum calculated electromagnetic emission level resulted from a single site was 0.413 μW cm-2 and found at Hizma town near Jerusalem. Average maximum power density from all single sites was 0.16 μW cm-2. The results of all calculated power density levels in 100 locations distributed over the West Bank and Gaza were nearly normally distributed with a peak value of ~0.01% of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection's limit recommended for general public. Comparison between calculated and experimentally measured value of maximum power density from a base station showed that calculations overestimate the actual measured power density by ~27%. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Cambridge observations at 38-115 MHz and their implications for space astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, R.

    1987-01-01

    The design and performance of the Cambridge LF telescopes are reviewed. Consideration is given to the 151-MHz 6C telescope, the 38-MHz and 151-MHz LF synthesis telescopes, 81.5-MHz interplanetary scintillation observations with the 3.6-hectare array, long-baseline interferometry at 81.5 MHz, and the use of the Jodrell Bank MERLIN for 151-MHz closure-phase observations of bright sources. The strict limitation on the field mappable at a given resolution in ground-based observations at these frequencies is pointed out, and some outstanding astronomical problems requiring 0.3-30-MHz space observations are listed. 7 references

  2. 47 CFR 15.209 - Radiated emission limits; general requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...), fundamental emissions from intentional radiators operating under this section shall not be located in the... fundamental emission. For intentional radiators which operate under the provisions of other sections within... incorporated digital device. (g) Perimeter protection systems may operate in the 54-72 MHz and 76-88 MHz bands...

  3. Evaluation Of Geo-Spatial Proximity Of Mobile Communication GSM Base Transceiver Stations To Buildings In Ile-Ife Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badru

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient placement of radio facilities for the communication base transceiver station CBS of the two small global system for mobile communication GSM has being an area of research due to fast growing of GSM market in Nigeria. In line with this development Nigerian Communication Commission NCC and Nigeria Environmental Standard and Regulation Enforcement Agency NESREA have stated the setback between communication base station and the nearest infrastructure as 5 m and 10 m respectively. To evaluate the degree of the implementation of these setbacks in Ile-Ife the study area the research study identified the spatial locations of the CBS using a global communication for satellite GPS receiver and also employed the use of a high resolution satellite imagery which were processed using geo-spatial techniques. The results of this study revealed that 45.6 and 59.5 of the CBS had setback to building structures at 5 m and 10 m respectively with spatial variability between 30 m to 17074 m at elevation between 193 m to 377 m.

  4. 47 CFR 90.672 - Unacceptable interference to non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from 800 MHz cellular systems or part...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unacceptable interference to non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from 800 MHz cellular systems or part 22 Cellular Radiotelephone systems, and within the... Procedures and Process-Unacceptable Interference § 90.672 Unacceptable interference to non-cellular 800 MHz...

  5. Diseño e implementación de un sistema domótico remoto vía GSM para el Hotel San Miguel

    OpenAIRE

    Oña Chipuxi, Rosa Yadira

    2015-01-01

    At present there is a constant technological advancement, security has seen the need to innovate alarm systems that exist in the market, So that is necessary the creation of a general system in which developed the construction of a home automation system using the GSM technology. The goal of this project is the analysis, design and implementation of a prototype home automation remote via GSM for Hotel San Miguel, able to activate the alarm when a sensor to send a signal informing the possi...

  6. DactyLoc : A minimally geo-referenced WiFi+GSM-fingerprint-based localization method for positioning in urban spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cujia, Kristian; Wirz, Martin; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2012-01-01

    Fingerprinting-based localization methods relying on WiFi and GSM information provide sufficient localization accuracy for many mobile phone applications. Most of the existing approaches require a training set consisting of geo-referenced fingerprints to build a reference database. We propose...... a collaborative, semi-supervised WiFi+GSM fingerprinting method where only a small fraction of all fingerprints needs to be geo-referenced. Our approach enables indexing of areas in the absence of GPS reception as often found in urban spaces and indoors without manual labeling of fingerprints. The method takes...

  7. Acceleration performance of a 50-MHz split coaxial RFQ and the design of a 25.5-MHz prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, N.; Arai, S.; Fukushima, T.; Morimoto, T.; Tojyo, E.

    1989-03-01

    Acceleration tests on a 50-MHz split coaxial RFQ have been conducted at INS. The 2-m long RFQ has accelerated protons from 2 to 60 keV. The experimental results concerning beam emittance and transmission efficiency agree with predictions of a computer simulation. Following this success, we are fabricating a 25.5-MHz prototype of 2-m long. The issues of the study are to establish a structure standing a high-power operation and to accelerate heavy ions with a charge-to-mass ratio larger than 1/30. (author)

  8. MEMS Tunable Antennas to Address LTE 600 MHz-bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Morris, Art; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2015-01-01

    The broadcast television spectrum around 600 MHz has been freed in the united states and will be put for auction to wireless carriers in 2015. The newest generation of mobile communication standards will be deployed on these newly available bands, to provide mobile device users with an enhanced c...

  9. Charge domain filter operating up to 20 MHz clock frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gal, R.A.J.; Wallinga, Hans

    1983-01-01

    An analog sampled data low pass third order Butterworth filter has been realised in a buried channel CCD technology. This Charge Domain Filter, composed of transversal and recursive CCD filter sections, has been tested at clock frequencies up to 20 MHz.

  10. 500 MHz transient digitizers based on GaAs CCDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryman, D.; Cresswell, J.V.; LeNoble, M.; Poutissou, R.

    1990-10-01

    A wide bandwidth transient digitizer based on a recently produced gallium arsenide charged coupled device is under development. The CCDs have 128 pixels and operate at 500 MHz. Initial testing of prototype modules in Experiment 787 at Brookhaven National Laboratory is reported. (Author) (8 refs., 10 figs.)

  11. MIMOSA. A 32 channel 40 MHz Camac scaler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, A.; Bourgeois, F.; Critin, G.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes a 32 channel, 24 bit, 40 MHz single width Camac scaler based on the memory increment technique. The characteristics of the module are given and its logic is briefly described. Circuit diagrams and component lists are given. (orig.)

  12. Status of 174 MHz RF system for BEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biryuchevsky, Yu.A.; Gorniker, E.I.; Kendjebulatov, E.K.; Krutikhin, S.A.; Kurkin, G.Ya.; Petrov, V.M.; Pilan, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The new RF system for the BEP storage ring (which is an injector of VEPP-2000 accelerating complex) will increase the particles energy in the BEP from 0.9 to 1 GeV. RF system operates at a frequency of 174 MHz and consists of an accelerating cavity, RF power generator and control system.

  13. Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynski, Dariusz; Joenväärä, Sakari; Reivinen, Jukka; Kuokka, Reetta

    2002-05-01

    We have examined whether non-thermal exposures of cultures of the human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone microwave radiation could activate stress response. Results obtained demonstrate that 1-hour non-thermal exposure of EA.hy926 cells changes the phosphorylation status of numerous, yet largely unidentified, proteins. One of the affected proteins was identified as heat shock protein-27 (hsp27). Mobile phone exposure caused a transient increase in phosphorylation of hsp27, an effect which was prevented by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK). Also, mobile phone exposure caused transient changes in the protein expression levels of hsp27 and p38MAPK. All these changes were non-thermal effects because, as determined using temperature probes, irradiation did not alter the temperature of cell cultures, which remained throughout the irradiation period at 37 +/- 0.3 degrees C. Changes in the overall pattern of protein phosphorylation suggest that mobile phone radiation activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK stress response pathway. Based on the known functions of hsp27, we put forward the hypothesis that mobile phone radiation-induced activation of hsp27 may (i) facilitate the development of brain cancer by inhibiting the cytochrome c/caspase-3 apoptotic pathway and (ii) cause an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability through stabilization of endothelial cell stress fibers. We postulate that these events, when occurring repeatedly over a long period of time, might become a health hazard because of the possible accumulation of brain tissue damage. Furthermore, our hypothesis suggests that other brain damaging factors may co-participate in mobile phone radiation-induced effects.

  14. Development of an automatic frequency control system for an X-band (=9300 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sungsu, E-mail: sscha@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byung Cheol [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Dal [Radiation Technology eXcellence(RTX), Daejeon 34025 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hyun [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University(SKKU), Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Buaphad, Pikad [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Radiation Technology eXcellence(RTX), Daejeon 34025 (Korea, Republic of); Accelerator and Nuclear Fusion Physical Engineering, University of Science and Technology(UST), Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-21

    KAERI is developing a 6 MeV X-band radio frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for medical purposes. The proposed X-band accelerator consists of an e-gun, an accelerating structure, two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, a modulator, and an automatic frequency control (AFC) system. The accelerating structure of the component consists of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the ambient temperature changes the volume, and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure also changes. If the RF frequency of a 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure do not match, it can degrade the performance. That is, it will decrease the output power, lower the beam current, decrease the X-ray dose rate, increase the reflection power, and result in unstable operation of the accelerator. Accelerator operation should be possible at any time during all four seasons. To prevent humans from being exposed to radiation when it is operated, the accelerator should also be operable through remote monitoring and remote control. Therefore, the AFC system is designed to meet these requirements; it is configured based on the concept of a phase-locked loop (PLL) model, which includes an RF section, an intermediate frequency (IF) [1-3] section, and a local oscillator (LO) section. Some resonance frequency controllers use a DC motor, chain, and potentiometer to store the position and tune the frequency [4,5]. Our AFC system uses a step motor to tune the RF frequency of the magnetron. The maximum tuning turn number of our magnetron frequency tuning shaft is ten. Since the RF frequency of our magnetron is 9300±25 MHz, it gives 5 MHz (∵±25 MHz/10 turns → 50 MHz/10 turns =5 MHz/turn) frequency tuning per turn. The rotation angle of our step motor is 0.72° per step and the total step number per one rotation is 360°/0.72°=500 steps. Therefore, the tuning range per step is 10 kHz/step (=5 MHz per turn/500 steps per

  15. Development of an automatic frequency control system for an X-band (=9300 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byung Cheol; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Buaphad, Pikad

    2017-05-01

    KAERI is developing a 6 MeV X-band radio frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for medical purposes. The proposed X-band accelerator consists of an e-gun, an accelerating structure, two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, a modulator, and an automatic frequency control (AFC) system. The accelerating structure of the component consists of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the ambient temperature changes the volume, and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure also changes. If the RF frequency of a 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure do not match, it can degrade the performance. That is, it will decrease the output power, lower the beam current, decrease the X-ray dose rate, increase the reflection power, and result in unstable operation of the accelerator. Accelerator operation should be possible at any time during all four seasons. To prevent humans from being exposed to radiation when it is operated, the accelerator should also be operable through remote monitoring and remote control. Therefore, the AFC system is designed to meet these requirements; it is configured based on the concept of a phase-locked loop (PLL) model, which includes an RF section, an intermediate frequency (IF) [1-3] section, and a local oscillator (LO) section. Some resonance frequency controllers use a DC motor, chain, and potentiometer to store the position and tune the frequency [4,5]. Our AFC system uses a step motor to tune the RF frequency of the magnetron. The maximum tuning turn number of our magnetron frequency tuning shaft is ten. Since the RF frequency of our magnetron is 9300±25 MHz, it gives 5 MHz (∵±25 MHz/10 turns → 50 MHz/10 turns =5 MHz/turn) frequency tuning per turn. The rotation angle of our step motor is 0.72° per step and the total step number per one rotation is 360°/0.72°=500 steps. Therefore, the tuning range per step is 10 kHz/step (=5 MHz per turn/500 steps per

  16. Development of an automatic frequency control system for an X-band (=9300 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byung Cheol; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Buaphad, Pikad

    2017-01-01

    KAERI is developing a 6 MeV X-band radio frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for medical purposes. The proposed X-band accelerator consists of an e-gun, an accelerating structure, two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, a modulator, and an automatic frequency control (AFC) system. The accelerating structure of the component consists of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the ambient temperature changes the volume, and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure also changes. If the RF frequency of a 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure do not match, it can degrade the performance. That is, it will decrease the output power, lower the beam current, decrease the X-ray dose rate, increase the reflection power, and result in unstable operation of the accelerator. Accelerator operation should be possible at any time during all four seasons. To prevent humans from being exposed to radiation when it is operated, the accelerator should also be operable through remote monitoring and remote control. Therefore, the AFC system is designed to meet these requirements; it is configured based on the concept of a phase-locked loop (PLL) model, which includes an RF section, an intermediate frequency (IF) [1-3] section, and a local oscillator (LO) section. Some resonance frequency controllers use a DC motor, chain, and potentiometer to store the position and tune the frequency [4,5]. Our AFC system uses a step motor to tune the RF frequency of the magnetron. The maximum tuning turn number of our magnetron frequency tuning shaft is ten. Since the RF frequency of our magnetron is 9300±25 MHz, it gives 5 MHz (∵±25 MHz/10 turns → 50 MHz/10 turns =5 MHz/turn) frequency tuning per turn. The rotation angle of our step motor is 0.72° per step and the total step number per one rotation is 360°/0.72°=500 steps. Therefore, the tuning range per step is 10 kHz/step (=5 MHz per turn/500 steps per

  17. Meandered Monopoles for 700 MHz LTE Handsets and Improved MIMO Channel Capacity Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dioum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the design and the measurement of MIMO meandered monopole antennas and the computation of their channel capacity performance. The initial proposed handset-system is composed of a meandered monopole operating in the LTE 700 MHz band, connected to a parasitic radiating element for the upper 2.5 GHz LTE band. Two antennas of the same kind are then closely positioned on the same 120x50 mm2 Printed Circuit Board (PCB. A neutralization line connects the two antennas to enhance their port-to-port isolation in the 700 MHz band. The computation of the channel capacity performance in this band is based on propagation simulations performed with the GRIMM model from the CREMANT. Two system-prototypes are evaluated: one with the neutralization line for enhanced port-to-port isolation and a second without the neutralization exhibiting poor antenna-to-antenna isolation. It is demonstrated that the neutralization technique helps in giving a minimum improvement of 12% of the capacity performance of the handset-system, and a maximum improvement 46%, in the chosen environment.

  18. ACCURATE POLARIZATION CALIBRATION AT 800 MHz WITH THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Yu-Wei; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Kuo, Cheng-Yu [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astro-Math Building, AS/NTU, 1 Roosevelt Road Sec. 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Masui, Kiyoshi Wesley [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Oppermann, Niels; Pen, Ue-Li [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto ON, M5S 3H8 (Canada); Peterson, Jeffrey B., E-mail: ywliao@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Physics, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh PA 15213 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Polarization leakage of foreground synchrotron emission is a critical issue in H i intensity mapping experiments. While the sought-after H i emission is unpolarized, polarized foregrounds such as Galactic and extragalactic synchrotron radiation, if coupled with instrumental impurity, can mimic or overwhelm the H i signals. In this paper, we present the methodology for polarization calibration at 700–900 MHz, applied on data obtained from the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We use astrophysical sources, both polarized and unpolarized sources including quasars and pulsars, as calibrators to characterize the polarization leakage and control systematic effects in our GBT H i intensity mapping project. The resulting fractional errors on polarization measurements on boresight are well controlled to within 0.6%–0.8% of their total intensity. The polarized beam patterns are measured by performing spider scans across both polarized quasars and pulsars. A dominant Stokes I to V leakage feature and secondary features of Stokes I to Q and I to U leakages in the 700–900 MHz frequency range are identified. These characterizations are important for separating foreground polarization leakage from the H i 21 cm signal.

  19. Design of horizontal test cryostat for testing two 650 MHz cavities: cryogenic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, P.; Gilankar, S.; Kush, P. K.; Lakshminarayanan, A.; Choubey, R.; Ghosh, R.; Jain, A.; Patel, H.; Gupta, P. D.; Hocker, A.; Ozelis, J. P.; Geynisman, M.; Reid, C.; Poloubotko, V.; Mitchell, D.; Peterson, T. J.; Nicol, T. H.

    2017-02-01

    Horizontal Test Cryostat has been designed for testing two 650 MHz "dressed" Superconducting Radio Frequency (SCRF) cavities in a single testing cycle at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, India (RRCAT) in collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, USA (FNAL). This cryostat will facilitate testing of two 5-cell 650 MHz SCRF cavities, in CW or pulsed regime, for upcoming High Intensity Superconducting Proton Accelerator projects at both countries. Two such HTS facilities are planned, one at RRCAT for Indian Spallation Neutron Source project (ISNS), which is on the horizon, and the other at FNAL, USA. A test cryostat, a part of horizontal test stand-2 (HTS-2) will be set up at RRCAT for Indian project. In order to maximize the utility of this facility, it can also be used to test two dressed 9-cell 1.3 GHz cavities and other similarly-sized devices. The facility assumes, as an input, the availability of liquid nitrogen at 80 K and liquid helium at 4.5 K and 2 K, with a refrigeration capacity of approximately 50 W at 2 K. Design work of cryostat has been completed and now procurement process is in progress. This paper discusses salient features of the cryostat. It also describes different design calculations and ANSYS analysis for cool down of few subsystems like cavity support system and liquid nitrogen cooled thermal radiation shield of horizontal test cryostat..

  20. ACCURATE POLARIZATION CALIBRATION AT 800 MHz WITH THE GREEN BANK TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yu-Wei; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Masui, Kiyoshi Wesley; Oppermann, Niels; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Polarization leakage of foreground synchrotron emission is a critical issue in H i intensity mapping experiments. While the sought-after H i emission is unpolarized, polarized foregrounds such as Galactic and extragalactic synchrotron radiation, if coupled with instrumental impurity, can mimic or overwhelm the H i signals. In this paper, we present the methodology for polarization calibration at 700–900 MHz, applied on data obtained from the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). We use astrophysical sources, both polarized and unpolarized sources including quasars and pulsars, as calibrators to characterize the polarization leakage and control systematic effects in our GBT H i intensity mapping project. The resulting fractional errors on polarization measurements on boresight are well controlled to within 0.6%–0.8% of their total intensity. The polarized beam patterns are measured by performing spider scans across both polarized quasars and pulsars. A dominant Stokes I to V leakage feature and secondary features of Stokes I to Q and I to U leakages in the 700–900 MHz frequency range are identified. These characterizations are important for separating foreground polarization leakage from the H i 21 cm signal.

  1. Some results of observations of solar radio bursts of the ''drift pairs'' type near 25 and 12.5 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abranin, Eh.P.; Bazelyan, L.L.; Goncharov, N.Yu.; Zajtsev, V.V.; Zinichev, V.A.; Levin, B.N.; Rapoport, V.O.; Tsybko, Ya.G.; Gor'kovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.

    1977-01-01

    The drift pairs in the frequency range of 12-13 MHz and 24-26 MHz are considered. It is shown that double bursts may be observed both at the second and at the first harmonics. The time interval between the elements of the double burst remains practically unchanged. This fact creates difficulties when interpreting double bursts due to the radio echo in the solar corona. It is suggested that the double (and generally multiple) structure of burst may be associated with the successive transmission of a fast electron beam in regions of double plasma resonance. It is considered that the radiation occurs due to cyclotron instability at the forward front of the electron beam travelling along the decreasing magnetic field of the coronal ray. It is shown that the properties of these burst can be explained by the proposed mechanism of drift pairs formation

  2. Modeling And Simulation Of Electrical Prevenion System Using Arduino Uno,Gsm Modem, And Acs712 Current Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Ummul; Jabbar Lubis, Abdul; Agustha, Indra; Dharmawati; Zulfin, M.

    2017-12-01

    The current electricity needs is very primary, all objects including electronics require power, it encourages people not to be able to save electricity so the theft of electric power would be done. The use of ACS712 current sensor as the sensor with arduino uno would find out the power consumption continuously and prevent the theft of electricity because of the use of electricity which has been determined by PLN and the people fetl that it is not enough for every house, so the author made a tool for prevention of theft of electric power by using the arduino uno, buzzer, ACS712 current sensor, lcd, and relay then the power usage can be controlled according to the use to prevent the occurrence of theft of electricity so the use can be seen directly on the lcd 16x2and GSM modem to give information to employees of PLN so that it can reduceelectrical theft by the public.

  3. Development of an electronic medical report delivery system to 3G GSM mobile (cellular) phones for a medical imaging department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eugene Y; Lee, Chiang; Cai, Weidong; Feng, Dagan; Fulham, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Medical practice is characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity in collaborative and cooperative patient care. Fast and effective communication between medical practitioners can improve patient care. In medical imaging, the fast delivery of medical reports to referring medical practitioners is a major component of cooperative patient care. Recently, mobile phones have been actively deployed in telemedicine applications. The mobile phone is an ideal medium to achieve faster delivery of reports to the referring medical practitioners. In this study, we developed an electronic medical report delivery system from a medical imaging department to the mobile phones of the referring doctors. The system extracts a text summary of medical report and a screen capture of diagnostic medical image in JPEG format, which are transmitted to 3G GSM mobile phones.

  4. Assessment of real exposure to GSM mobile telephones using the SYRPOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, D.; Fouquet, L.; Chauvin, S.

    2013-01-01

    A mobile telephone user's exposure to the radio-frequency electromagnetic field depends heavily on the power their telephone radiates, which can vary widely according to requests from the base station. This study presents the design and development of a system called System for Radiated Power Measurement (SYRPOM), which measures the power radiated by a mobile telephone. This study also describes the tests carried out on the system itself and gives the results of two measuring campaigns it has been possible to perform in this way. The first such campaign consisted of assessing the mean power received by a typical mobile telephone user carrying out various activities. The second campaign was aimed at (1) comparing the mean radiated power when stationary and when moving and (2) assessing and contrasting different models of handsets in terms of the mean radiated power. The SYRPOM has proved to be a flexible, easy-to-use high-performance and innovative tool for carrying out this kind of studies. (authors)

  5. Characterization of the SPS 800MHz travelling wave cavities.

    CERN Document Server

    Bazyl, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that HOMs in RF cavities are a potentially dangerous source of beam impedance. Therefore, HOMs (both longitudinal and transverse) can drive the beam unstable . The 800MHz cavities of the SPS were studied in the past. However, very little documentation was left behind. Currently, the performance of the SPS is limited by a longitudinal beam instability. In order to study this instability, an accurate impedance model of the whole SPS is needed.

  6. Polarization observations of four southern pulsars at 1560 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin-Ji; Manchester, R. N.; Lyne, A. G.

    1991-12-01

    Some interesting results from the mean pulse polarization observations of four southern pulsars made at the Australian National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Parkes, using the 64-m telescope in June and July, 1988, are presented. The 2 x 16 x 5 MHz filter system from Jodrell Bank has proved excellent in dedispersing the pulse signals and measuring their polarization properties. Data for the four pulsars are given in some detail, and their spectral behavior is discussed.

  7. Status of HLT1 sequence and path towards 30 MHz

    CERN Document Server

    De Cian, Michel; Gligorov, Vladimir; Hasse, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Latham, Thomas Edward; Ponce, Sebastien; Quagliani, Renato; Schreiner, Henry Fredrick; Stemmle, Simon Benedikt; Van Tilburg, Jeroen; Zdybal, Milosz Jerzy; Williams, J Michael

    2018-01-01

    We present the current status of the HLT1 reconstruction sequence for the LHCb upgrade, both in terms of the number of events which can be processed per second and the achievable physics performance on a selected range of benchmark modes. We present detailed profiling of the various algorithms, describe the bottlenecks, and outline a strategy towards an HLT1 able to process the LHCb upgrade data at 30 MHz

  8. Effect of 2 MHz ultrasound irradiation on Pisum sativum roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.W.; Voorhees, S.M.; Carstensen, E.L.; Kaufman, G.E.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of 2 MHz ultrasound at intensity levels from 2.5 to 22 W/cm 2 on the growth rate and mitotic index of Pisum sativum roots was studied. The ultrasound produced an immediate reduction in the growth rate on the first postexposure day, followed by a gradual recovery to the control value. Ultrasound reduced the root meristem mitotic index. Intensity- and time-dependent relations were found for the growth rate and mitotic index reductions

  9. Design of 1 MHz solid state high frequency power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Darshan Kumar; Singh, N.P.; Gajjar, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    A High Voltage High Frequency (HVHF) Power supply is used for various applications, like AM Transmitters, metallurgical applications, Wireless Power Transfer, RF Ion Sources, etc. The Ion Source for a Neutral beam Injector at ITER-India uses inductively coupled power source at High Frequency (∼ 1 MHz). Switching converter based topology used to generate 1 MHz sinusoidal output is expected to have advantages on efficiency and reliability as compared to traditional RF Tetrode tubes based oscillators. In terms of Power Electronics, thermal and power coupling issues are major challenges at such a high frequency. A conceptual design for a 200 kW, 1 MHz power supply and a prototype design for a 600W source been done. The prototype design is attempted with Class-E amplifier topology where a MOSFET is switched resonantly. The prototype uses two low power modules and a ferrite combiner to add the voltage and power at the output. Subsequently solution with class-D H-Bridge configuration have been evaluated through simulation where module design is stable as switching device do not participate in resonance, further switching device voltage rating is substantially reduced. The rating of the modules is essentially driven by the maximum power handling capacity of the MOSFETs and ferrites in the combiner circuit. The output passive network including resonance tuned network and impedance matching network caters for soft switching and matches the load impedance to 50 ohm respectively. This paper describes the conceptual design of a 200 kW power supply and experimental results of the prototype 600 W, 1 MHz source. (author)

  10. The quiet Sun brightness temperature at 408 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avignon, Y.; Lantos, P.; Palagi, F.; Patriarchi, P.

    1975-01-01

    The flux of the radio quiet Sun and the brightness temperature at 408 MHz (73cm) are derived from measurements with the E-W Nancay interferometer and the E-W arm of the Medicina North Cross. It is shown that the lowest envelopes, which defined the radio quiet Sun, correspond to transits of extended coronal holes across the disk of the Sun. (Auth.)

  11. Development of a high-power 432 MHz DTL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, F.; Kato, T.; Takasaki, E.; Yamazaki, Y.; Kawasumi, T.; Suzuki, K.; Iino, Y.

    1992-01-01

    A high-power model of a 432 MHz Drift-Tube Linac is under construction. It will accelerate H - ions from 3 to 5.4 MeV, and is a prototype of the DTL for the Japanese Hadron Project. Several new techniques have been developed for constructing the DTL: fabricating and assembling methods of permanent quadrupole magnet and a drift tube, alignment of the drift tube, and a method of connecting the tanks. (Author) 6 refs., 5 figs

  12. Spectroscopy of radio sources from the Parkes 2700 MHz survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.J.; Djorgovski, S.; De Carvalho, R.

    1990-01-01

    The results of long-slit CCD spectroscopy on 37 objects from the Parkes 2700 MHz survey are presented, with data for an additional two companion objects. Eight of the objects are quasars, six more are AGNs, and five more are radio galaxies. Seventeen of the objects observed are stars and, thus, probable misidentifications. Three objects show featureless spectra and are identified as possible BL Lac objects. Spectra are presented for a total of 20 objects. 20 refs

  13. Prototype 350 MHz niobium spoke-loaded cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J. R.; Kedzie, M.; Mammosser, J.; Piller, C.; Shepard, K. W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the development of 350 MHz superconducting cavities of a spoke-loaded geometry, intended for the velocity range 0.2 < v/c < 0.6. Two prototype single-cell cavities have been designed, one optimized for velocity v/c = 0.4, and the other for v/c = 0.29. Construction of the prototype niobium cavities is nearly complete. Details of the design and construction are discussed, along with the results of cold tests

  14. Prototype 350 MHz niobium spoke-loaded cavities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delayen, J. R.; Kedzie, M.; Mammosser, J.; Piller, C.; Shepard, K. W.

    1999-05-10

    This paper reports the development of 350 MHz superconducting cavities of a spoke-loaded geometry, intended for the velocity range 0.2 < v/c < 0.6. Two prototype single-cell cavities have been designed, one optimized for velocity v/c = 0.4, and the other for v/c = 0.29. Construction of the prototype niobium cavities is nearly complete. Details of the design and construction are discussed, along with the results of cold tests.

  15. Design of 1 MHz Solid State High Frequency Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Darshan; Singh, N. P.; Gajjar, Sandip; Thakar, Aruna; Patel, Amit; Raval, Bhavin; Dhola, Hitesh; Dave, Rasesh; Upadhay, Dishang; Gupta, Vikrant; Goswami, Niranjan; Mehta, Kush; Baruah, Ujjwal

    2017-04-01

    High Frequency Power supply (HFPS) is used for various applications like AM Transmitters, metallurgical applications, Wireless Power Transfer, RF Ion Sources etc. The Ion Source for a Neutral beam Injector at ITER-India uses inductively coupled power source at High Frequency (∼1 MHz). Switching converter based topology used to generate 1 MHz sinusoidal output is expected to have advantages on efficiency and reliability as compared to traditional RF Tetrode tubes based oscillators. In terms of Power Electronics, thermal and power coupling issues are major challenges at such a high frequency. A conceptual design for a 200 kW, 1 MHz power supply and a prototype design for a 600 W source been done. The prototype design is attempted with Class-E amplifier topology where a MOSFET is switched resonantly. The prototype uses two low power modules and a ferrite combiner to add the voltage and power at the output. Subsequently solution with Class-D H-Bridge configuration have been evaluated through simulation where module design is stable as switching device do not participate in resonance, further switching device voltage rating is substantially reduced. The rating of the modules is essentially driven by the maximum power handling capacity of the MOSFETs and ferrites in the combiner circuit. The output passive network including resonance tuned network and impedance matching network caters for soft switching and matches the load impedance to 50ohm respectively. This paper describes the conceptual design of a 200 kW high frequency power supply and experimental results of the prototype 600 W, 1 MHz source.

  16. The non ionizing radiations; Les rayonnements non ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchia, P. [Institut National de la Sante, Lab. de Physique, Rome (Italy); Souques, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France); Lambrozo, J. [EDF/GDF, Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    The biological effects of non ionizing radiations are studied in this part. The magnetic fields and the cardiac implants, melatonin secretion among the electricians exposed to magnetic fields of 50 hz, the effects of electromagnetic fields in professional medium, evaluation of the effect of an exposure to a signal of a mobile phone (GSM 900) on the skin are the different subjects discussed. (N.C.)

  17. Velocities of Auroral Coherent Echoes At 12 and 144 Mhz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koustov, A. V.; Danskin, D. W.; Makarevitch, R. A.; Uspensky, M. V.; Janhunen, P.; Nishitani, N.; Nozawa, N.; Lester, M.; Milan, S.

    Two Doppler coherent radar systems are currently working at Hankasalmi, Finland, the STARE and CUTLASS radars operating at 144 MHz and 12 MHz, respectively. The STARE beam 3 is nearly co-located with the CUTLASS beam 5 providing an opportunity for echo velocity comparison along the same direction but at significantly different radar frequencies. In this study we consider one event when STARE radar echoes are detected t the same ranges as CUTLASS radar echoes. The observations are complemented by EISCAT measurements of the ionospheric electric field and elec- tron density behavior at one range of 900 km. Two separate situations are studied; for the first one, CUTLASS observed F-region echoes (including the range of the EIS- CAT measurements) while for the second one CUTLASS observed E-region echoes. In both cases STARE E-region measurements were available. We show that F-region CUTLASS velocities agree well with the convection component along the CUTLASS radar beam while STARE velocities are sometimes smaller by a factor of 2-3. For the second case, STARE velocities are found to be either smaller or larger than CUTLASS velocities, depending on range. Plasma physics of E- and F-region irregularities is dis- cussed in attempt to explain inferred relationship between various velocities. Special attention is paid to ionospheric refraction that is important for the detection of 12-MHz echoes.

  18. The LANSCE 805 MHZ RF System History and Status

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Michael; Tallerico, Paul J

    2005-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) linear accelerator runs at 201.25 MHz for acceleration to 100 MeV. The remainder of the acceleration to 800 MeV is at 805 MHz. This is done with 44 accelerator cavity stages driven by 805 MHz klystrons. Each klystron has a peak power capability of 1.25 MeV. Originally, 97 klystrons were purchased, which was 70 from Varian/CPI and 27 from Litton. The 44 RF systems are laid out in sectors with either 6 or 7 klystrons per sector. The klystrons in each sector are powered from a common HV sytem. The current arrangement uses the Varian/CPI klystrons in 6 of the 7 sectors and Litton klystrons in the remaining sector. With that arrangement there are 38 CPI klystrons installed and 1 spare klystron per sector and 6 Litton klystrons installed in the final sector with 2 spares. The current average life of all of the operating and spare klystrons (52 total) is >112,000 filament hours and >93,000 HV hours. That is three times the typical klystron lifetime today f...

  19. A 2 MHz 3-port analog isolation and fanout module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    In many accelerator based data acquisition systems, signal isolation is a necessary feature so ground loops are avoided. Here, a 3-port isolated circuit providing 1:3 fanout, buffering and amplification over a multi-megahertz bandwidth is presented. The circuit accepts a single input and drives 3 independently isolated output channels, up to ± 10 V into 50 ohms. The input and output isolation is supplied via a dual optocoupler, and the power isolation is achieved with DC/DC converters. In each channel, a voltage feedback amplifier is used in combination with the optocoupler to form a transimpedance configuration with the gain-bandwidth product (GBP) set by a pair of resistors. The feedback amplifier linearizes the optocoupler transfer characteristics using a servo technique and also controls the circuit drift, nonlinearity, and bandwidth. The circuit has demonstrated long-term drift of 4 MHz, and a SNR of >55 db in a 1 MHz bandwidth with < 1% THD for a 10 V amplitude sinusoidal input. With few modifications, this design is capable of providing input/output gain and bandwidth in the range of 10--50 MHz

  20. Design of 118 MHz twelfth harmonic cavity of APS PAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Bridges, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Two radio frequency (RF) cavities are needed in the Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) of the Advanced Photon Source. One is for the first harmonic frequency at 9.8 MHz, and the other is for the twelfth harmonic frequency at 118 MHz. This note reports on the design of the 118 MHz RF cavity. Computer models are used to find the mode frequencies, impedances, Q-factors, and field distributions in the cavity. The computer codes MAFIA, URMEL, and URMEL-T are useful tools which model and simulate the resonance characteristics of a cavity. These codes employ the finite difference method to solve Maxwell's equations. MAFIA is a three-dimensional problem solver and uses square patches to approximate the inner surface of a cavity. URMEL and URMEL-T are two-dimensional problem solvers and use rectangular and triangular meshes, respectively. URMEL-T and MAFIA can handle problems with arbitrary dielectric materials located inside the boundary. The cavity employs a circularly cylindrical ceramic window to limit the vacuum to the beam pipe. The ceramic window used in the modeling will have a wall thickness of 0.9 cm. This wall thickness is not negligible in determining the resonant frequencies of the cavity. In the following, results of two- and three-dimensional modeling of the cavities using the URMEL-T and MAFIA codes are reported

  1. An Automated 476 MHz RF Cavity Processing Facility at SLAC

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, P; Schwarz, H

    2003-01-01

    The 476 MHz accelerating cavities currently used at SLAC are those installed on the PEP-II B-Factory collider accelerator. They are designed to operate at a maximum accelerating voltage of 1 MV and are routinely utilized on PEP-II at voltages up to 750 kV. During the summer of 2003, SPEAR3 will undergo a substantial upgrade, part of which will be to replace the existing 358.54 MHz RF system with essentially a PEP-II high energy ring (HER) RF station operating at 476.3 MHz and 3.2 MV (or 800 kV/cavity). Prior to installation, cavity RF processing is required to prepare them for use. A dedicated high power test facility is employed at SLAC to provide the capability of conditioning each cavity up to the required accelerating voltage. An automated LabVIEW based interface controls and monitors various cavity and test stand parameters, increasing the RF fields accordingly such that stable operation is finally achieved. This paper describes the high power RF cavity processing facility, highlighting the features of t...

  2. Reduction of environmental MHz noise for SQUID application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araya, T. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)]. E-mail: araya@sup.ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp; Kitamura, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Kamishiro, M. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Sakuta, K. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Itozaki, H. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)]. E-mail: itozaki@ee.es.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2006-10-01

    It is important to remove large environmental noise in measurement using SQUIDs without magnetic shielding. Active noise control (ANC) is an effective method to remove the environmental noise. The environmental noise has been reduced by the ANC system in the radio frequency region around MHz. The anti-phase waves of the environmental noise should be generated by this system. The ANC system including the phase and amplitude control circuit was developed to make the anti-phase waves in the MHz region. In this paper, sinusoidal waves with a MHz frequency were used as the environmental noise. When a coil antenna was used for a receiver antenna, this ANC system suppressed these sinusoidal waves to the white noise level about 40 dB. When we used a SQUID as a receiver antenna, we also cancelled sinusoidal waves to the white noise level by this system. This shows that the ANC system is useful to reduce an environmental noise when this ANC system is developed to cancel multi-frequency noise.

  3. Reduction of environmental MHz noise for SQUID application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araya, T.; Kitamura, Y.; Kamishiro, M.; Sakuta, K.; Itozaki, H.

    2006-01-01

    It is important to remove large environmental noise in measurement using SQUIDs without magnetic shielding. Active noise control (ANC) is an effective method to remove the environmental noise. The environmental noise has been reduced by the ANC system in the radio frequency region around MHz. The anti-phase waves of the environmental noise should be generated by this system. The ANC system including the phase and amplitude control circuit was developed to make the anti-phase waves in the MHz region. In this paper, sinusoidal waves with a MHz frequency were used as the environmental noise. When a coil antenna was used for a receiver antenna, this ANC system suppressed these sinusoidal waves to the white noise level about 40 dB. When we used a SQUID as a receiver antenna, we also cancelled sinusoidal waves to the white noise level by this system. This shows that the ANC system is useful to reduce an environmental noise when this ANC system is developed to cancel multi-frequency noise

  4. 1800MHz Microwave Induces p53 and p53-Mediated Caspase-3 Activation Leading to Cell Apoptosis In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Xing

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported that exposure of mammalian cells to microwave radiation may have adverse effects such as induction of cell apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying microwave induced mammalian cell apoptosis are not fully understood. Here, we report a novel mechanism: exposure to 1800MHz microwave radiation induces p53-dependent cell apoptosis through cytochrome c-mediated caspase-3 activation pathway. We first measured intensity of microwave radiation from several electronic devices with an irradiation detector. Mouse NIH/3T3 and human U-87 MG cells were then used as receivers of 1800MHz electromagnetic radiation (EMR at a power density of 1209 mW/m2. Following EMR exposure, cells were analyzed for viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, DNA damage, p53 expression, and caspase-3 activity. Our analysis revealed that EMR exposure significantly decreased viability of NIH/3T3 and U-87 MG cells, and increased caspase-3 activity. ROS burst was observed at 6 h and 48 h in NIH/3T3 cells, while at 3 h in U-87 MG cells. Hoechst 33258 staining and in situ TUNEL assay detected that EMR exposure increased DNA damage, which was significantly restrained in the presence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant. Moreover, EMR exposure increased the levels of p53 protein and p53 target gene expression, promoted cytochrome c release from mitochondrion, and increased caspase-3 activity. These events were inhibited by pretreatment with NAC, pifithrin-α (a p53 inhibitor and caspase inhibitor. Collectively, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that 1800MHz EMR induces apoptosis-related events such as ROS burst and more oxidative DNA damage, which in turn promote p53-dependent caspase-3 activation through release of cytochrome c from mitochondrion. These findings thus provide new insights into physiological mechanisms underlying microwave-induced cell apoptosis.

  5. The Protective Effect of Antioxidants on Oxidative Stress in Rats Exposed to the 950 MHz Electromagnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.K.; Gharib, O.A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies have linked cell phone radiation to health problems such as headaches, high blood pressure, cancer and more. There is a latency period for most diseases and it may take years and more studies before the required weight of evidence is established. But the effects are cumulative and precautions should be taken now before it is too late. The aim of the present study was to investigate if supplementation with antioxidants would protect heart and liver tissues from harmful radiation emitted by cell phone. Thirty two male albino rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: I- Control, II- Antioxidants treated group, III- 950 MHz EMR, IV- 950 MHz EMR + antioxidants. A 950 MHz EMR radiation (217-Hz pulse rate, 2-W maximum peak power, SAR Specific Absorption Rate 1 .6 W/Kg) was applied to groups III and IV 60 min/day, for 30 days using an experimental exposure device. Antioxidants supplement (Vitamins A, E and C + Se) was administered to rats daily, by gavages, during the period of exposure to EMR. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were used as markers of oxidative damage. Catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activities were studied to evaluate the changes of antioxidant status. Biochemical analysis performed at the end of EMR exposure showed that supplementation with antioxidants has significantly attenuated EMR-induced oxidative stress signified by a decrease in the amount of MDA and an increase the activity of CAT and GSHPx in heart and liver tissues. Amelioration of oxidative damage was substantiated by significant amelioration in the activity of serum enzymes creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). According to the results obtained in the present study, it could be concluded that antioxidants supplementation may protect from mobile phone-induced oxidative damage in heart and liver tissues

  6. High-power circulator test results at 350 and 700 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, W.; Bradley, J.T.; Rees, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    The high-power RF systems for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program require high-power circulators at 350 MHz and 700 MHz to protect 1 MW Continuous Wave (CW) klystrons from reflected power. The 350 MHz circulator is based on the CERN, EXF, and APS designs and has performed very well. The 700 MHz circulator is a new design. Prototype 700 MHz circulators have been high-power tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The first of these circulators has satisfied performance requirements. The circulator requirements, results from the testing, and lessons learned from this development are presented and discussed

  7. Two-dimensional 220 MHz Fourier transform EPR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placidi, Giuseppe; Brivati, John A.; Alecci, Marcello; Testa, Luca; Sotgiu, Antonello

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade radiofrequency continuous-wave EPR spectrometers have been developed to detect and localize free radicals in vivo. Only recently, pulsed radiofrequency EPR spectrometers have been described for imaging applications with small samples. In the present work, we show the first two-dimensional image obtained at 220 MHz on a large phantom (40 ml) that simulates typical conditions of in vivo EPR imaging. This pulsed EPR apparatus has the potential to make the time required for three-dimensional imaging compatible with the biological half-life of normally used paramagnetic probes. (author)

  8. Operation of a 473 MHz four-rod cavity RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimi, R.; Huson, F.R.; Mackay, W.W.; Meitzler, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed a new type of four-rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole to operate at 473 MHz. Four-rod structures have not previously been built for such a high frequency. The RFQ is designed to accelerate 10 mA of H - ions from 30 keV to 0.5 MeV. The rf measurements and beam test of the RFQ have been performed successfully. Here we present operational results of the RFQ system including measurements of the beam current, the required rf power, energy, energy spread, and emittance. (Author) 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  9. LAMPF 201.25-MHz linac field distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.; Halbig, J.K.

    1978-01-01

    Returning of the 201.25-MHz accelerator structure field distributions after the 1975 shutdown is described, and final data are given for use in beam dynamics studies. Several improvements made in procedures included a different method for stopband closure check and a positive method for postcoupler clamping. To obtain accurate results for the first tank a rigorous data reduction technique that included the removal of a ''signature'' due to the bead-pull string itself was used. Other special studies are reported, including the effects of vacuum, bead size, slug tuners, and a bead-pull method for measuring the cavity quality factor Q

  10. BNL 56 MHz HOM Damper Prototype Fabrication at JLab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huque, Naeem A. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Daly, Edward F. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Clemens, William A. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); McIntyre, Gary T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wu, Qiong [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Seberg, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bellavia, Steve [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A prototype Higher-Order Mode (HOM) Damper was fabricated at JLab for the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider's (RHIC) 56 MHz cavity at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Primarily constructed from high RRR Niobium and Sapphire, the coaxial damper presented significant challenges in electron-beam welding (EBW), brazing and machining via acid etching. The results of the prototype operation brought about changes in the damper design, due to overheating braze alloys and possible multi-pacting. Five production HOM dampers are currently being fabricated at JLab. This paper outlines the challenges faced in the fabrication process, and the solutions put in place.

  11. Controls and interlocks for a prototype 1MHz beam chopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, G.; Bishop, D.; Barnes, M.J.; Wait, G.D.

    1991-05-01

    A prototype 1 MHz beam chopper for the proposed KAON Factory at TRIUMF has been constructed. The chopper is an electric field device, driven by a tetrode based pulser, for deflecting a charged particle beam. Associated with the tetrode used in the prototype design are high voltage power supplies for the electrodes. We use an FET based grid pulser and a sequencer capable of accurate digital control of pulse timing to 0.4 ns. A safety interlock and control system using a programmable controller with fibre optic links has been built. This has given us the versatility required in a prototype system. (Author) 4 refs., 5 figs

  12. MHz gravitational waves from short-term anisotropic inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around 10 −26 ∼10 −27 are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10 MHz∼100 MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.

  13. Brightness distribution data on 2918 radio sources at 365 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, W.D.; Owen, F.N.; Ghigo, F.D.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series describing the results of a program attempting to fit models of the brightness distribution to radio sources observed at 365 MHz with the Bandwidth Synthesis Interferometer (BSI) operated by the University of Texas Radio Astronomy Observatory. Results for a further 2918 radio sources are given. An unresolved model and three symmetric extended models with angular sizes in the range 10--70 arcsec were attempted for each radio source. In addition, for 348 sources for which other observations of brightness distribution are published, the reference to the observations and a brief description are included

  14. Apoptotic cell death during Drosophila oogenesis is differentially increased by electromagnetic radiation depending on modulation, intensity and duration of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagioglou, Niki E; Manta, Areti K; Giannarakis, Ioannis K; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini S; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2016-01-01

    Present generations are being repeatedly exposed to different types and doses of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) from wireless technologies (FM radio, TETRA and TV stations, GSM and UMTS phones/base stations, Wi-Fi networks, DECT phones). Although there is controversy on the published data regarding the non-thermal effects of NIR, studies have convincingly demonstrated bioeffects. Their results indicate that modulation, intensity, exposure duration and model system are important factors determining the biological response to irradiation. Attempting to address the dependence of NIR bioeffectiveness on these factors, apoptosis in the model biological system Drosophila melanogaster was studied under different exposure protocols. A signal generator was used operating alternatively under Continuous Wave (CW) or Frequency Modulation (FM) emission modes, at three power output values (10 dB, 0, -10 dB), under four carrier frequencies (100, 395, 682, 900 MHz). Newly emerged flies were exposed either acutely (6 min or 60 min on the 6th day), or repeatedly (6 min or 60 min daily for the first 6 days of their life). All exposure protocols resulted in an increase of apoptotic cell death (ACD) observed in egg chambers, even at very low electric field strengths. FM waves seem to have a stronger effect in ACD than continuous waves. Regarding intensity and temporal exposure pattern, EMF-biological tissue interaction is not linear in response. Intensity threshold for the induction of biological effects depends on frequency, modulation and temporal exposure pattern with unknown so far mechanisms. Given this complexity, translating such experimental data into possible human exposure guidelines is yet arbitrary.

  15. Charge-Domain Signal Processing of Direct RF Sampling Mixer with Discrete-Time Filters in Bluetooth and GSM Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available RF circuits for multi-GHz frequencies have recently migrated to low-cost digital deep-submicron CMOS processes. Unfortunately, this process environment, which is optimized only for digital logic and SRAM memory, is extremely unfriendly for conventional analog and RF designs. We present fundamental techniques recently developed that transform the RF and analog circuit design complexity to digitally intensive domain for a wireless RF transceiver, so that it enjoys benefits of digital and switched-capacitor approaches. Direct RF sampling techniques allow great flexibility in reconfigurable radio design. Digital signal processing concepts are used to help relieve analog design complexity, allowing one to reduce cost and power consumption in a reconfigurable design environment. The ideas presented have been used in Texas Instruments to develop two generations of commercial digital RF processors: a single-chip Bluetooth radio and a single-chip GSM radio. We further present details of the RF receiver front end for a GSM radio realized in a 90-nm digital CMOS technology. The circuit consisting of low-noise amplifier, transconductance amplifier, and switching mixer offers 32.5 dB dynamic range with digitally configurable voltage gain of 40 dB down to 7.5 dB. A series of decimation and discrete-time filtering follows the mixer and performs a highly linear second-order lowpass filtering to reject close-in interferers. The front-end gains can be configured with an automatic gain control to select an optimal setting to form a trade-off between noise figure and linearity and to compensate the process and temperature variations. Even under the digital switching activity, noise figure at the 40 dB maximum gain is 1.8 dB and +50 dBm IIP2 at the 34 dB gain. The variation of the input matching versus multiple gains is less than 1 dB. The circuit in total occupies 3.1 mm 2 . The LNA, TA, and mixer consume less than 15.3 mA at a supply voltage of 1.4 V.

  16. Charge-Domain Signal Processing of Direct RF Sampling Mixer with Discrete-Time Filters in Bluetooth and GSM Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Yo-Chuol

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available RF circuits for multi-GHz frequencies have recently migrated to low-cost digital deep-submicron CMOS processes. Unfortunately, this process environment, which is optimized only for digital logic and SRAM memory, is extremely unfriendly for conventional analog and RF designs. We present fundamental techniques recently developed that transform the RF and analog circuit design complexity to digitally intensive domain for a wireless RF transceiver, so that it enjoys benefits of digital and switched-capacitor approaches. Direct RF sampling techniques allow great flexibility in reconfigurable radio design. Digital signal processing concepts are used to help relieve analog design complexity, allowing one to reduce cost and power consumption in a reconfigurable design environment. The ideas presented have been used in Texas Instruments to develop two generations of commercial digital RF processors: a single-chip Bluetooth radio and a single-chip GSM radio. We further present details of the RF receiver front end for a GSM radio realized in a 90-nm digital CMOS technology. The circuit consisting of low-noise amplifier, transconductance amplifier, and switching mixer offers dB dynamic range with digitally configurable voltage gain of 40 dB down to dB. A series of decimation and discrete-time filtering follows the mixer and performs a highly linear second-order lowpass filtering to reject close-in interferers. The front-end gains can be configured with an automatic gain control to select an optimal setting to form a trade-off between noise figure and linearity and to compensate the process and temperature variations. Even under the digital switching activity, noise figure at the 40 dB maximum gain is 1.8 dB and dBm IIP2 at the 34 dB gain. The variation of the input matching versus multiple gains is less than 1 dB. The circuit in total occupies 3.1 . The LNA, TA, and mixer consume less than mA at a supply voltage of 1.4 V.

  17. 47 CFR 90.259 - Assignment and use of frequencies in the bands 216-220 MHz and 1427-1432 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MHz band are secondary to the Wireless Medical Telemetry Service except in the locations specified in... operations are secondary to the Wireless Medical Telemetry Service in the 1429-1431.5 MHz band. (3) All... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment and use of frequencies in the bands...

  18. 47 CFR 101.82 - Reimbursement and relocation expenses in the 2110-2150 MHz and 2160-2200 MHz bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement and relocation expenses in the... License Transfers, Modifications, Conditions and Forfeitures § 101.82 Reimbursement and relocation expenses in the 2110-2150 MHz and 2160-2200 MHz bands. (a) Reimbursement and relocation expenses for the...

  19. Toxicologic study of electromagnetic radiation emitted by television and video display screens and cellular telephones on chickens and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, M.; Youbicier-Simo, B.J.; Lebecq, J.C.; Giaimis, J.; Youbicier-Simo, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of continuous exposure of chick embryos and young chickens to the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by video display units (VDUs) and GSM cell phone radiation, either the whole spectrum emitted or attenuated by a copper gauze, were investigated. Permanent exposure to the EMFs radiated by a VDU was associated with significantly increased fetal loss (47-68%) and markedly depressed levels of circulating specific antibodies (lgG), corticosterone and melatonin. We have also shown that under chronic exposure conditions, GSM cell phone radiation was harmful to chick embryos, stressful for healthy mice and, in this species, synergistic with cancer insofar as it depleted stress hormones. The same pathological results were observed after substantial reduction of the microwaves radiated from the cell phone by attenuating them with a copper gauze. (author)

  20. A High Current Proton Linac with 352 MHz SC Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Pagani, C; Pierini, P

    1996-01-01

    A proposal for a 10-120 mA proton linac employing superconducting beta-graded, CERN type, four cell cavities at 352 MHz is presented. The high energy part (100 MeV-1 GeV) of the machine is split in three beta-graded sections, and transverse focusing is provided via a periodic doublet array. All the parameters, like power in the couplers and accelerating fields in the cavities, are within the state of the art, achieved in operating machines. A first stage of operation at 30 mA beam current is proposed, while the upgrade of the machine to 120 mA operation can be obtained increasing the number of klystrons and couplers per cavity. The additional coupler ports, up to four, will be integrated in the cavity design. Preliminary calculations indicate that beam transport is feasible, given the wide aperture of the 352 MHz structures. A capital cost of less than 100 M$ at 10 mA, reaching up to 280 M$ for the 120 mA extension, has been estimated for the superconducting high energy section (100 MeV-1 GeV). The high effic...

  1. Design Considerations for the LHC 200 MHz RF System

    CERN Document Server

    Boussard, Daniel; Kindermann, H P; Linnecar, Trevor Paul R; Marque, S; Tückmantel, Joachim

    2000-01-01

    The longitudinal beam transfer from the SPS into the LHC 400 MHz buckets will not be free of losses without a lower frequency capture system and a fast longitudinal damping system in LHC. We present a complete study of a combined system using four identical copper cavities at 200 MHz delivering 3 MV total CW voltage and having still enough bandwidth to achieve fast longitudinal damping. The shape of a cavity was designed according to the accelerating mode performance, its tuning and the higher order mode spectrum with respect to the LHC beam lines and their possible attenuation. The possibility to park the cavities during coast was included. The local heat load and the corresponding cooling water distribution as well as deformations were studied and techniques to build the cavity with all ports at low cost are proposed. The parameters of the RF generators, couplers and detuning are determined. Simulations of the total LHC RF system incorporating real delays, generator bandwidth and the control loops confirm t...

  2. Mechanical design and fabrication of a 425-MHz H- buncher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, N.G.; Precechtel, D.

    1987-01-01

    A beam buncher has been designed, fabricated, and installed on the accelerator test stand (ATS) to match the 2-MeV output beam of a 425-MHz H - radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) into a 425-MHz drift-tube linac (DTL). The buncher configuration provides integral-matching permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ) at the exit of the RFQ and one βλ across the buncher accelerating gap; a third PMQ is the first DTL half-cell magnet. Located between the second and third PMQs is a 50-Ω, capacitively coupled, beam-sensing pickup loop. Cooling channels are provided in each of the brazed OFHC copper wall sections. Vacuum pumping of the buncher is provided by a cryogenic refrigerator vacuum pump through an array of small-diameter holes in the buncher cavity wall. Mechanical features of the buncher, the brazing and electron-beam welding of the solid-copper buncher structure, and the beam pickup loop are described in this paper. The buncher has been tuned, installed, and operated at full power on the ATS

  3. Experimental Limits on Gravitational Waves in the MHz frequency Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, Robert Jr. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This thesis presents the results of a search for gravitational waves in the 1-11MHz frequency range using dual power-recycled Michelson laser interferometers at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. An unprecedented level of sensitivity to gravitational waves in this frequency range has been achieved by cross-correlating the output fluctuations of two identical and colocated 40m long interferometers. This technique produces sensitivities better than two orders of magnitude below the quantum shot-noise limit, within integration times of less than 1 hour. 95% confidence level upper limits are placed on the strain amplitude of MHz frequency gravitational waves at the 10-21 Hz-1/2 level, constituting the best direct limits to date at these frequencies. For gravitational wave power distributed over this frequency range, a broadband upper limit of 2.4 x 10-21Hz-1/2 at 95% confidence level is also obtained. This thesis covers the detector technology, the commissioning and calibration of the instrument, the statistical data analysis, and the gravitational wave limit results. Particular attention is paid to the end-to-end calibration of the instrument’s sensitivity to differential arm length motion, and so to gravitational wave strain. A detailed statistical analysis of the data is presented as well.

  4. VLA observations of NGC 1265 at 4886 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, F.N.; Burns, J.O.; Rudnick, L.

    1978-01-01

    Observations are presented of the head-tail radio galaxy NGC 1265, made with the VLA at 4886 MHz. The total intensity brightness distribution has a resolution of 1' x 1'.5 and an rms noise of approx.150 μJy/beam area. These observations, combined with data at 2695 and 8085 MHz on a 35 km baseline in Green Bank, show that the nuclear component is less than 0'.1 and has a slightly inverted spectrum.The VLA map reveals a narrow continuous stream of emission leading away from the nucleus and out into the lower-surface brightness tail. Several small knots are superposed on the stream. This brightness distribution is compared with the independent-blob model of Jaffe and Perola. We find that the brightness distribution predicted by this model does not agree well with the observed brightness distribution. We suggest that a hot interstellar medium in the galaxy may be necessary to explain the complex structure

  5. Very high frequency (beyond 100 MHz) PZT kerfless linear arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Da-Wei; Zhou, Qifa; Geng, Xuecang; Liu, Chang-Geng; Djuth, Frank; Shung, K Kirk

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and measurements of very high frequency kerfless linear arrays prepared from PZT film and PZT bulk material. A 12-microm PZT thick film fabricated from PZT-5H powder/solution composite and a piece of 15-microm PZT-5H sheet were used to fabricate 32-element kerfless high-frequency linear arrays with photolithography. The PZT thick film was prepared by spin-coating of PZT sol-gel composite solution. The thin PZT-5H sheet sample was prepared by lapping a PZT-5H ceramic with a precision lapping machine. The measured results of the 2 arrays were compared. The PZT film array had a center frequency of 120 MHz, a bandwidth of 60% with a parylene matching layer, and an insertion loss of 41 dB. The PZT ceramic sheet array was found to have a center frequency of 128 MHz with a poorer bandwidth (40% with a parylene matching layer) but a better sensitivity (28 dB insertion loss).

  6. Resonance Frequency Readout Circuit for a 900 MHz SAW Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Zhang, Chun; Weng, Zhaoyang; Guo, Yanshu; Wang, Zhihua

    2017-09-15

    A monolithic resonance frequency readout circuit with high resolution and short measurement time is presented for a 900 MHz RF surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor. The readout circuit is composed of a fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) as the stimulus source to the SAW device and a phase-based resonance frequency detecting circuit using successive approximation (SAR). A new resonance frequency searching strategy has been proposed based on the fact that the SAW device phase-frequency response crosses zero monotonically around the resonance frequency. A dedicated instant phase difference detecting circuit is adopted to facilitate the fast SAR operation for resonance frequency searching. The readout circuit has been implemented in 180 nm CMOS technology with a core area of 3.24 mm². In the experiment, it works with a 900 MHz SAW resonator with a quality factor of Q = 130. Experimental results show that the readout circuit consumes 7 mW power from 1.6 V supply. The frequency resolution is 733 Hz, and the relative accuracy is 0.82 ppm, and it takes 0.48 ms to complete one measurement. Compared to the previous results in the literature, this work has achieved the shortest measurement time with a trade-off between measurement accuracy and measurement time.

  7. Q0 Degradation of LANL 700-MHZ β = 0.64 Elliptical Cavities and ANL 340 MHZ Spoke Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Chan, Kwok-Chi D.; Edwards, Randall L.; Gentzlinger, Robert C.; Kelley, John Patrick; Krawczyk, Frank L.; Madrid, Michael A.; Montoya, Debbie I.; Schrage, Dale L.; Shapiro, Alan H.

    2002-01-01

    The quality factor (Q 0 ) of most of the six LANL β = 0.64 700-MHz 5-cell elliptical cavities starts to drop at E acc = 8-10 MV/m, which may be related to multipacting. Residual resistances of these cavities were measured to be 5.0-7.6 n(Omega). The sensitivity of surface resistance to the external magnetic field was measured to be 0.22 n(Omega)/mG. Q disease tests have shown no significant Q 0 degradation for both elliptical cavities and a spoke cavity with our 100 (micro)m BCP.

  8. Feasibility of using global system for mobile communication (GSM)-based tracking for vaccinators to improve oral poliomyelitis vaccine campaign coverage in rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandir, Subhash; Dharma, Vijay Kumar; Siddiqi, Danya Arif; Khan, Aamir Javed

    2017-09-05

    Despite multiple rounds of immunization campaigns, it has not been possible to achieve optimum immunization coverage for poliovirus in Pakistan. Supplementary activities to improve coverage of immunization, such as door-to-door campaigns are constrained by several factors including inaccurate hand-drawn maps and a lack of means to objectively monitor field teams in real time, resulting in suboptimal vaccine coverage during campaigns. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) - based tracking of mobile subscriber identity modules (SIMs) of vaccinators provides a low-cost solution to identify missed areas and ensure effective immunization coverage. We conducted a pilot study to investigate the feasibility of using GSM technology to track vaccinators through observing indicators including acceptability, ease of implementation, costs and scalability as well as the likelihood of ownership by District Health Officials. The real-time location of the field teams was displayed on a GSM tracking web dashboard accessible by supervisors and managers for effective monitoring of workforce attendance including 'time in-time out', and discerning if all target areas - specifically remote and high-risk locations - had been reached. Direct access to this information by supervisors eliminated the possibility of data fudging and inaccurate reporting by workers regarding their mobility. The tracking cost per vaccinator was USD 0.26/month. Our study shows that GSM-based tracking is potentially a cost-efficient approach, results in better monitoring and accountability, is scalable and provides the potential for improved geographic coverage of health services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of GSM-1800 and U.M.T.S. exposures on micro-glial activation and heat shock proteins induction in brain: a study on young adult and elderly rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laclau, M; Billaudel, B; Taxil, M; Haro, E; Ruffie, G; Sanchez, S; Poulletier De Gannes, F; Lagroye, I; Veyret, B [PIOM/Bioelecromagnetics Lab., ENSCPB/EPHE, 33 - Pessac (France)

    2006-07-01

    Contradictory results have emerged from recent studies describing low -level radiofrequency radiation (R.F.R.) as a hazardous factor for the central nervous system while others described such type of exposure as totally safe. In the brain, heat shock proteins (H.s.p.) are often induced under harmful conditions such as ischemia, traumatic injury, epilepsy, hyperthermia, drug administration, and neuro-degenerative diseases. Under those conditions, activation of the micro-glial cell population is often observed. In this work we studied the effect of two types of mobile phone signals, GSM-1800 and U.M.T.S. on the expression of two major H.s.p., induced in the brain under harmful conditions, H.s.p. 70 and H.s.p. 25. We also studied micro-glial activation in young adult (8 weeks) and elderly (17 months) Wistar rats. Height animals by group were exposed. Exposures were performed using a brain-averaged S.A.R. of 2 W/kg following two types of protocols: an acute exposure, with exposure lasting only two hours, and a sub chronic exposure in which the animals were exposed for two hours per day, five days per week, during four weeks. In all cases, rats were progressively habituated to the exposure setup (rockets) over two weeks to avoid stress and a sham group was exposed for each condition. Positive controls were performed by induction of a status epilepticus using a subcutaneous injection kainic acid (10 mg/kg). At the end of exposure, rats were anesthetized with isofluran and perfused from the heart with P.B.S. then paraformaldehyde prior to removing of the brain. Sections (10 m m thick) were prepared on slides for immunohistochemistry. Brain samples were coded and the analysis was performed in a blind manner. The sections were immuno-histo-chemically stained with antibodies raised in rabbits against H.s.p.25 and against the inducible form of H.s.p.70. The whole glial cell population was detected by its common cell surface glyco conjugates, which bind the plant Griffonia

  10. Effect of GSM-1800 and U.M.T.S. exposures on micro-glial activation and heat shock proteins induction in brain: a study on young adult and elderly rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laclau, M.; Billaudel, B.; Taxil, M.; Haro, E.; Ruffie, G.; Sanchez, S.; Poulletier De Gannes, F.; Lagroye, I.; Veyret, B.

    2006-01-01

    Contradictory results have emerged from recent studies describing low -level radiofrequency radiation (R.F.R.) as a hazardous factor for the central nervous system while others described such type of exposure as totally safe. In the brain, heat shock proteins (H.s.p.) are often induced under harmful conditions such as ischemia, traumatic injury, epilepsy, hyperthermia, drug administration, and neuro-degenerative diseases. Under those conditions, activation of the micro-glial cell population is often observed. In this work we studied the effect of two types of mobile phone signals, GSM-1800 and U.M.T.S. on the expression of two major H.s.p., induced in the brain under harmful conditions, H.s.p. 70 and H.s.p. 25. We also studied micro-glial activation in young adult (8 weeks) and elderly (17 months) Wistar rats. Height animals by group were exposed. Exposures were performed using a brain-averaged S.A.R. of 2 W/kg following two types of protocols: an acute exposure, with exposure lasting only two hours, and a sub chronic exposure in which the animals were exposed for two hours per day, five days per week, during four weeks. In all cases, rats were progressively habituated to the exposure setup (rockets) over two weeks to avoid stress and a sham group was exposed for each condition. Positive controls were performed by induction of a status epilepticus using a subcutaneous injection kainic acid (10 mg/kg). At the end of exposure, rats were anesthetized with isofluran and perfused from the heart with P.B.S. then paraformaldehyde prior to removing of the brain. Sections (10 m m thick) were prepared on slides for immunohistochemistry. Brain samples were coded and the analysis was performed in a blind manner. The sections were immuno-histo-chemically stained with antibodies raised in rabbits against H.s.p.25 and against the inducible form of H.s.p.70. The whole glial cell population was detected by its common cell surface glyco conjugates, which bind the plant Griffonia

  11. Radiation measurements during cavities conditioning on APS RF test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grudzien, D.M.; Kustom, R.L.; Moe, H.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to determine the shielding structure around the Advanced Photon Source (APS) synchrotron and storage ring RF stations, the X-ray radiation has been measured in the near field and far field regions of the RF cavities during the normal conditioning process. Two cavity types, a prototype 352-MHz single-cell cavity and a 352-MHz five-cell cavity, are used on the APS and are conditioned in the RF test stand. Vacuum measurements are also taken on a prototype 352-MHz single-cell cavity and a 352-MHz five-cell cavity. The data will be compared with data on the five-cell cavities from CERN

  12. Multiband and wideband monopole antenna for GSM900 and other wireless applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abutarboush, Hattan; Nasif, H.; Nilavalan, Rajagopal; Cheung, Sing Wai

    2012-01-01

    In this letter, the design of a compact monopole antenna for multiband and wideband operations is proposed. The antenna has three distinct frequency bands, centered at 0.94, 2.7, and 4.75 GHz. The antenna has a compact size of only 30×40×1.57 mm$ 3 including the ground plane. The multiband and wideband operations are achieved by using an E-shaped slot on the ground plane. The design procedure is also discussed. The frequency bands can be independently controlled by using the parameters of the E-slot. The impedance bandwidth, current distributions, radiation patterns, gain, and efficiency of the antenna are studied by computer simulation and measurements. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Development of a Real-Time Smoke Belching Monitoring System for Public Utility Vehicles (PUV via GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson C. Rodelas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Development of a Real-Time-Based Smoke Belching Monitoring System for Public Utility Vehicle is designed in order to monitor smoke belchers or violators among public utility vehicles (PUV that uses diesel such as jeepneys or buses. The concept of the project is to measure the opacity of the smoke being emitted by the PUV with the use of a predesigned sensor unit incorporated by Light Dependent Resistor Sensor and Light Source facing each other, 4 inches apart. By allowing the smoke to pass through the LDR and Light Source, the desired resistance is acquired and processed by the microcontroller to obtain the Light Absorption Coefficient. This value is the basis for being a smoke belcher (If it exceeds 2.5 k. The system then sends the data (Plate Number and K -value for every one (1 hour to the Database System and to the operator with the aid of GSM Microcontroller that leads to a real time monitoring. The system is possible to implement and has a potential to be used for emission testing centers since it has the features of the commercial opacity meter which is common in emission centers to measure the smoke emitted by the diesel-fueled vehicles. This project serves as an innovation in emission testing because it monitors the smoke belchers in real-time and operators or owners of the vehicle are not required anymore to go to the emission testing center every year to renew their car registration.

  14. Design and Implementation of a Web-based Greenhouse Remote Monitoring System with Zigbee Protocol and GSM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Tabatabaeifar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In modern and big greenhouses, it is necessary to measure several climate parameters to automate and control the greenhouse properly. Monitoring and transmitting by cable may lead to an expensive and stiff measurement system. Since, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is a distributed system that consists of small-size wireless sensor nodes equipped with radio and one or several sensors; it is a low cost option to build the required monitoring system. In this paper, we introduce and implement an intelligent monitoring system based on WSN by using Xbee modules. The Xbee Series 2 hardware uses a microchip from Ember Networks that enables several different flavors of standards-based ZigBee mesh networking. All gathered information by sensors, are sent to a remote center in form of GPRS packets through a GSM network and viewed by monitoring software. The proposed system has low power consumption, low cost and simple driver circuits. Furthermore, it can support various types of digital and analog sensors.

  15. Potential health risks due to telecommunications radiofrequency radiation exposures in Lagos State Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aweda, M A; Ajekigbe, A T; Ibitoye, A Z; Evwhierhurhoma, B O; Eletu, O B

    2009-01-01

    The global system mobile telecommunications system (GSM) which was recently introduced in Nigeria is now being used by over 40 million people in Nigeria. The use of GSM is accompanied with exposure of the users to radiofrequency radiation (RFR), which if significant, may produce health hazards. This is the reason why many relevant national and international organizations recommended exposure limits to RFR and why it is made compulsory for GSM handsets to indicate the maximum power output as a guide to potential consumers. This study was conducted to measure the RFR output power densities (S) from the most commonly used GSM handsets used in Lagos State and compare with the limit recommended for safety assessment. Over 1100 most commonly used handsets of different makes and models as well as wireless phones were sampled and studied in all over the local government areas of the State. An RFR meter, Electrosmog from LESSEMF USA was used for the measurements. The handsets were assessed for health risks using the reference value of 9 Wm(-2) as recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The range of the S-values obtained varied from a minimum of 1.294 0.101 Wm(-2) with Siemens model R228 to a maximum of 16.813 +/- 0.094 Wm(-2) with Samsung model C140*. The results from wireless telephones showed very low S-values ranging from a minimum of 0.024 +/- 0.001 Wm(-2) with HUAWEI and ST CDMA 1 to a maximum of 0.093 +/- 0.002 Wm(-2) with HISENSE. The results showed that the population in Lagos State may be at risk due to significant RFR exposures resulting principally from the use of GSM. Quite a number of handsets emit power above the ICNIRP recommended value. Measured RFR power close to Radio and Television masts and transmitters are within tolerable limits in most cases, only that the public should not reside or work close to RFR installations. Phone calls with GSM should be restricted to essential ones while youths and children

  16. Measurement of blood-brain barrier permeation in rats during exposure to 2450-MHz microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, T.R.; Elder, J.A.; Long, M.D.; Svendsgaard, D.

    1982-01-01

    Adult rats anesthesized with pentobarbital and injected intravenously with a mixture of [ 14 C] sucrose and [ 3 H] inulin were exposed for 30 min to an environment at an ambient temperature of 22, 30, or 40 degrees C, or were exposed at 22 degrees C to 2450-MHz CW microwave radiation at power densities of 0, 10, 20, or 30 mW/cm2. Following exposure, the brain was perfused and sectioned into eight regions, and the radioactivity in each region was counted. The data were analyzed by two methods. First, the data for each of the eight regions and for each of the two radioactive tracers were analyzed by regression analysis for a total of 16 analyses and Bonferroni's Inequality was applied to prevent false positive results from numerous analyses. By this conservative test, no statistically significant increase in permeation was found for either tracer in any brain region of rats exposed to microwaves. Second, a profile analysis was used for a general change in tracer uptake across all brain regions. Using this statistical method, a significant increase in permeation was found for sucrose but not for inulin. A correction factor was then derived from the warm-air experiments to correct for the increase in permeation of the brain associated with change in body temperature. This correction factor was applied to the data for the irradiated animals. After correcting the data for thermal effects of the microwave radiation, no significant increase in permeation was found

  17. Comparison of 250 MHz R10K Origin 2000 and 400 MHz Origin 2000 Using NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Raymond D.; Thigpen, William W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report describes results of benchmark tests on Steger, a 250 MHz Origin 2000 system with R10K processors, currently installed at the NASA Ames National Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) facility. For comparison purposes, the tests were also run on Lomax, a 400 MHz Origin 2000 with R12K processors. The BT, LU, and SP application benchmarks in the NAS Parallel Benchmark Suite and the kernel benchmark FT were chosen to measure system performance. Having been written to measure performance on Computational Fluid Dynamics applications, these benchmarks are assumed appropriate to represent the NAS workload. Since the NAS runs both message passing (MPI) and shared-memory, compiler directive type codes, both MPI and OpenMP versions of the benchmarks were used. The MPI versions used were the latest official release of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks, version 2.3. The OpenMP versions used were PBN3b2, a beta version that is in the process of being released. NPB 2.3 and PBN3b2 are technically different benchmarks, and NPB results are not directly comparable to PBN results.

  18. 915-MHz Radar Wind Profiler (915RWP) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulter, R

    2005-01-01

    The 915 MHz radar wind profiler/radio acoustic sounding system (RWP/RASS) measures wind profiles and backscattered signal strength between (nominally) 0.1 km and 5 km and virtual temperature profiles between 0.1 km and 2.5 km. It operates by transmitting electromagnetic energy into the atmosphere and measuring the strength and frequency of backscattered energy. Virtual temperatures are recovered by transmitting an acoustic signal vertically and measuring the electromagnetic energy scattered from the acoustic wavefront. Because the propagation speed of the acoustic wave is proportional to the square root of the virtual temperature of the air, the virtual temperature can be recovered by measuring the Doppler shift of the scattered electromagnetic wave.

  19. Parametric thermal analysis of 75 MHz heavy ion RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, N.K.; Mehrotra, N.; Verma, V.; Gupta, A.K.; Bhagwat, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    An ECR based Heavy Ion Accelerator comprising of a superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source, normal conducting RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) and superconducting Niobium resonators is being developed at BARC under XII plan. A state-of-the-art 18 GHz superconducting ECR ion source (PK-ISIS) jointly configured with Pantechnik, France is operational at Van-de-Graaff, BARC. The electromagnetic design of the improved version of 75 MHz heavy ion RFQ has been reported earlier. The previous thermal study of 51 cm RFQ model showed large temperature variation axially along the vane tip. A new coolant flow scheme has been worked out to optimize the axial temperature gradient. In this paper the thermal analysis including parametric study of coolant flow rates and inlet temperature variation will be presented. (author)

  20. Optimized 425MHz passive wireless magnetic field sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2014-06-01

    A passive, magnetic field sensor consisting of a 425 MHz surface acoustic wave device loaded with a giant magnetoimpedance element is developed. The GMI element with a multilayer structure composed of Ni80Fe 20/Cu/Ni80Fe20, is fabricated on a 128° Y-X cut LiNbO3 LiNbO3 substrate. The integrated sensor is characterized with a network analyzer through an S-parameter measurement. Upon the application of a magnetic field, a maximum magnitude change and phase shift of 7.8 dB and 27 degree, respectively, are observed. Within the linear region, the magnetic sensitivity is 1.6 dB/Oe and 5 deg/Oe. © 2014 IEEE.

  1. 352.2 MHz rf system for the ESRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, J.; David, C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that ESRF's 352.2 MHz RF system that uses 1 MW-CW klystrons and five-cell LEP type cavities has been adopted. In the storage ring (SR), two klystrons will feed a total of four cavities in order to provide the maximum required accelerating voltage of 8.9 MV. In the injector synchrotron (SY), two cavities fed by one klystron in a cycling mode at 10 Hz will give the maximum needed accelerating voltage of 7.3 MV. In multibunch operation of the SR, coupled bunch oscillations will be driven by the higher order modes (HOMs) of the cavities, and may limit the maximum beam current to about 60 mA. Spare ports will allow to install HOM dampers on the cavities in order to raise the instability thresholds above the design current of 100 mA. In addition, active feed back systems may be implemented

  2. 201 MHz Cavity R and D for MUCOOL and MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Derun; Virostek, Steve; Zisman, Michael; Norem, Jim; Bross, Alan; Moretti, Alfred; Norris, Barry; Torun, Yagmur; Phillips, Larry; Rimmer, Robert; Stirbet, Mircea; Reep, Michael; Summers, Don

    2006-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, analysis and preliminary testing of the prototype 201 MHz copper cavity for a muon ionization cooling channel. Cavity applications include the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) as well as cooling channels for a neutrino factory or a muon collider. This cavity was developed by the US muon cooling (MUCOOL) collaboration and is being tested in the MUCOOL Test Area (MTA) at Fermilab. To achieve a high accelerating gradient, the cavity beam irises are terminated by a pair of curved, thin beryllium windows. Several fabrication methods developed for the cavity and windows are novel and offer significant cost savings as compared to conventional construction methods. The cavity's thermal and structural performances are simulated with an FEA model. Preliminary high power RF commissioning results will be presented

  3. Commissioning of the 400 MHz LHC RF System

    CERN Document Server

    Ciapala, Edmond; Baudrenghien, P; Brunner, O; Butterworth, A; Linnecar, T; Maesen, P; Molendijk, J; Montesinos, E; Valuch, D; Weierud, F

    2008-01-01

    The installation of the 400 MHz superconducting RF system in LHC is finished and commissioning is under way. The final RF system comprises four cryo-modules each with four cavities in the LHC tunnel straight section round IP4. Also underground in an adjacent cavern shielded from the main tunnel are the sixteen 300 kW klystron RF power sources with their high voltage bunkers, two Faraday cages containing RF feedback and beam control electronics, and racks containing all the slow controls. The system and the experience gained during commissioning will be described. In particular, results from conditioning the cavities and their movable main power couplers and the setting up of the low level RF feedbacks will be presented.

  4. 47 CFR 22.970 - Unacceptable interference to part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from cellular radiotelephone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-cellular 800 MHz licensees from cellular radiotelephone or part 90-800 MHz cellular systems. 22.970 Section... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.970 Unacceptable interference to part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from cellular radiotelephone or part 90-800 MHz cellular systems. (a) Definition...

  5. Possible Explanation for Cancer in Rats due to Cell Phone Radio Frequency Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    Very recently, the National Toxicology Program reported a correlation between exposure to whole body 900 MHz radio frequency radiation and cancer in the brains and hearts of Sprague Dawley male rats. Assuming that the National Toxicology Program is statistically significant, I propose the following explanation for these results. The neurons around the brain and heart form closed electrical circuits and, following Faraday's Law, 900 MHz radio frequency radiation induces 900 MHz electrical currents in these neural circuits. In turn, these 900 MHz currents in the neural circuits generate sufficient localized heat in the neural cells to shift the equilibrium concentration of carcinogenic radicals to higher levels and thus, to higher incidences of cancer.

  6. Measurements of Radiofrequency Radiation with a Body-Borne Exposimeter in Swedish Schools with Wi-Fi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena K. Hedendahl

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionWireless access to the Internet is now commonly used in schools. Many schools give each student their own laptop and utilize the laptops and wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi connection for educational purposes. Most children also bring their own mobile phones to school. Since children are obliged by law to attend school, a safe environment is important. Lately, it has been discussed if radiofrequency (RF radiation can have long-term adverse effects on children’s health.MethodThis study conducted exposimetric measurements in schools to assess RF emissions in the classroom by measuring the teachers’ RF exposure in order to approximate the children’s exposure. Teachers in grades 7–12 carried a body-borne exposimeter, EME-Spy 200, in school during 1–4 days of work. The exposimeter can measure 20 different frequency bands from 87 to 5,850 MHz.ResultsEighteen teachers from seven schools participated. The mean exposure to RF radiation ranged from 1.1 to 66.1 µW/m2. The highest mean level, 396.6 µW/m2, occurred during 5 min of a lesson when the teacher let the students stream and watch YouTube videos. Maximum peaks went up to 82,857 µW/m2 from mobile phone uplink.DiscussionOur measurements are in line with recent exposure studies in schools in other countries. The exposure levels varied between the different Wi-Fi systems, and if the students were allowed to use their own smartphones on the school’s Wi-Fi network or if they were connected to GSM/3G/4G base stations outside the school. An access point over the teacher’s head gave higher exposure compared with a school with a wired Internet connection for the teacher in the classroom. All values were far below International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection’s reference values, but most mean levels measured were above the precautionary target level of 3–6 µW/m2 as proposed by the Bioinitiative Report. The length of time wireless devices are used is an

  7. Administrative norms on radiofrequency radiation for occupationally exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxeboel, G.

    1982-01-01

    The report presents a proposal for administrative norms on radiofrequency (RF) radiation for occupationally exposed persons. The norms establish maximum allowable field exposure in a frequency range from 1 MHz too 300 GHz. (RF)

  8. Geomagnetic oriented electromagnetic radiation in the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, C.U.; Fowles, H.M.; Goen, P.K.

    1976-08-01

    Strong bursts of electromagnetic radiation were observed in the ionosphere during the Waso rocket Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) experiment. The pulses have a frequency content from below 20 MHz to above 70 MHz. They vary in duration between 5 μs and 2 ms and in peak-amplitudes of 2 mV/m to greater than 200 mV/m. These pulses show a high degree of geomagnetic correlation and are of unknown origin

  9. Development of a cryostat for the 4-cell 352 MHz sc accelerating cavities at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stierlin, R.

    1988-01-01

    The upgrading of LEP by s.c. cavities will require installation and operation of a few hundred 350 MHz, 4-cell cavities in the accelerator tunnel. It is at present anticipated to install eight cavities per rf-cell which have a length of ∼ 24 m. A tunnel slope of up to 1.5% and a tunnel diameter of 4.4 m have to be accommodated. For the design of adequate cryostats the following guiding lines were considered: up to eight cavities with their He tank could be housed in a common insulation vacuum. Cryostats should be modular and allow installation of individual cavities or groups of two cavities (with a total length not exceeding 6 m thus enabling normal transport inside the access pits and machine tunnel). A high accessibility to all critical parts like couplers, tuners and beam tube connections should be guaranteed. This requirement dictates a lateral access through the vacuum tank and thermal radiation shield which should also permit the removal and replacement of any one 4-cell cavity without disturbing the neighboring units. Cavity connections to the beam vacuum system as well as repairs should be possible under reasonably clean and dust-free conditions, particularly when keeping cavities under a slight overpressure of dry, dust-free protective gas. A test program was launched and a 1/5 scale model vacuum tank was constructed and tested. The main feature of this model was a frame and sealing skin design which offers complete accessibility to the inside of the vessel. The results obtained prompted the design and construction of a full size model which was completed in 1985 and proved the feasibility of the new concepts. A thin copper radiation shield mechanically clamped to the piping carrying the refrigerant and thus easily removable to meet the requirement of accessibility also proved adequate to intercept and evacuate the heat radiated by the vacuum tank. 4 references, 6 figures

  10. Efficacy and limitations of hyperthermia using a 13.56 MHz radiofrequency capacitive heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamori, Jiro; Ito, Hideo; Kato, Ken-ichi; Hayasaka, Kazumasa; Saito, Tsutomu; Urahashi, Shingo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki

    1996-01-01

    Between August 1989 and June 1995, 123 patients were treated with hyperthermia using a 13.56 MHz RF capacitive heating system (HEH 500C/OMRON). Hyperthermia was combined with radiation therapy in 103 patients, with radiochemotherapy in 15 patients, with chemotherapy in 3 patients, and was used in 2 patients. Among the 123 patients, 92 completed hyperthermia and the remaining 31 discontinued it. Of these 31 patients, hyperthermia was discontinued because of local pain during heating in 22 cases and because of the poor general condition the remaining 9 patients. The initial response rate of the 92 patients completing therapy was 54.3%. CR, PR, NC and PD were achieved in 15, 35, 37, and 5 case, respectively. Initial response rates for head/neck, breast, and bone/soft tissue tumors were better than for other primary sites. The initial response rate for superficial tumors was better than that for deep seated tumors. Prognostic factors that significantly influenced the initial response rate were the radiation dose, number of heating sessions, tumor histology, and primary site. Concerning pain during heating, severe pain or discontinuation due to pain occurred were observed in 49 cases (39.8%). The factors having a significant correlation with pain during heating were applicator arrangement, applicator size, heating site, and tumor depth. In 24 patients, erosions or ulcers occurred (27.2%). The factors having a significant correlation with acute skin reactions, were applicator arrangement, applicator size, radiation therapy, tumor depth, and proximity to bone. In 12 cases, fat necrosis was observed (13%). Multiple regression analysis showed that the thickness of the subcutaneous fat, and the applicator arrangement had a significant correlation with the occurrence of fat necrosis. (K.H.)

  11. Cell type-dependent induction of DNA damage by 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields does not result in significant cellular dysfunctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although IARC clarifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF as possible human carcinogen, the debate on its health impact continues due to the inconsistent results. Genotoxic effect has been considered as a golden standard to determine if an environmental factor is a carcinogen, but the currently available data for RF-EMF remain controversial. As an environmental stimulus, the effect of RF-EMF on cellular DNA may be subtle. Therefore, more sensitive method and systematic research strategy are warranted to evaluate its genotoxicity. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether RF-EMF does induce DNA damage and if the effect is cell-type dependent by adopting a more sensitive method γH2AX foci formation; and to investigate the biological consequences if RF-EMF does increase γH2AX foci formation. METHODS: Six different types of cells were intermittently exposed to GSM 1800 MHz RF-EMF at a specific absorption rate of 3.0 W/kg for 1 h or 24 h, then subjected to immunostaining with anti-γH2AX antibody. The biological consequences in γH2AX-elevated cell type were further explored with comet and TUNEL assays, flow cytometry, and cell growth assay. RESULTS: Exposure to RF-EMF for 24 h significantly induced γH2AX foci formation in Chinese hamster lung cells and Human skin fibroblasts (HSFs, but not the other cells. However, RF-EMF-elevated γH2AX foci formation in HSF cells did not result in detectable DNA fragmentation, sustainable cell cycle arrest, cell proliferation or viability change. RF-EMF exposure slightly but not significantly increased the cellular ROS level. CONCLUSIONS: RF-EMF induces DNA damage in a cell type-dependent manner, but the elevated γH2AX foci formation in HSF cells does not result in significant cellular dysfunctions.

  12. Radiative capture reactions and spectroscopy of multipolar anions in the framework of Gamow Shell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossez, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Small open quantum systems, whose properties are profoundly affected by the environment of continuum states, are intensely studied in various fields of Physics: nuclear physics, atomic and molecular physics, quantum optics, etc. These different many-body systems, in spite of their specific features, have generic properties which are common to all weakly bound or unbound systems close to the threshold. Coupling to the continuum is essential to describe the low-energy nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest, the formation of halo states in nuclei, atomic clusters and dipolar anions, or the near-threshold two neutron and alpha particle correlations (clustering). Recently, the open quantum system extension of the nuclear shell model, the Gamow shell model (GSM), based on the Berggren ensemble, has been applied successfully for the description of resonant states spectra in atomic nuclei. The coupled-channel formulation of the GSM (GSM-CC) allows to describe various low-energy nuclear reactions. In this work, the GSM-CC is formulated and applied for the description of proton/neutron radiative capture reactions of astrophysical interest, such as: 17 F(p, γ) 18 Ne, 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B and 7 Li(n, γ) 8 Li. Moreover, for the first time, the GSM has been applied in atomic physics for the description of spectra of dipolar anions. Systematic investigation of the hydrogen cyanide dipolar anion (HCN - ) allowed to identify the collective bands of states both in the strong coupling regime, for weakly bound halo states, and in the weak coupling regime above the dissociation threshold. In the strong coupling regime, K J = 0 anion a rotational band has been found. Above the threshold, K J quantum number is not conserved. Resonances in this regime form rotational bands according to the angular momentum of the rotating molecule, whereas the band head energies and the lifetimes depend predominantly on the external electron wave function. (author) [fr

  13. Commissioning of the 112 MHz SRF Gun and 500 MHz bunching cavities for the CeC PoP Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belomestnykh, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Brutus, J. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Litvinenko, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); McIntosh, P. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Daresbury (United Kingdom). Daresbury Lab.; Moss, A. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Daresbury (United Kingdom). Daresbury Lab.; Narayan, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Orfin, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pinayev, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rao, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Skaritka, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tuozzolo, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wheelhouse, A. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Daresbury (United Kingdom). Daresbury Lab.; Wu, Q. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xiao, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xin, T. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Xu, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zaltsman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The Coherent electron Cooling Proof-of-Principle (CeC PoP) experiment at BNL includes a short electron linac. During Phase 1, a 112 MHz superconducting RF photo-emission gun and two 500 MHz normal conducting bunching cavities were installed and are under commissioning. The paper describes the Phase1 linac layout and presents commissioning results for the cavities and associated RF, cryogenic and other sub-systems

  14. Facial tightening with an advanced 4-MHz monopolar radiofrequency device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Amy F; Tucker, Robert D; Palange, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Over the past 10 years, radiofrequency (RF) technology has been utilized for nonablative treatments for the treatment of rhytides and skin laxity. This manuscript reviews the scientific background of collagen synthesis in vivo and in response to RF energy as well as a clinical study of 17 patients receiving a series of facial treatments with a 4-MHz monopolar RF (Pellevé, Ellman International, Inc, Oceanside, NY). Clinical methods, results, and a review of the literature for RF aesthetic treatments of the face are presented. Seventeen patients were treated in one site with 6 total treatments scheduled as follows: 1 session was performed every 15 days for 2 consecutive sessions, 1 session every month for 2 consecutive sessions, and 1 session every 2 months for 2 consecutive sessions. Both the treating physician and the patients via live viewing and comparison with baseline photographs performed assessment of results. Results are reported as averages across the 17 patients. Two weeks after the first treatment, patients noted an overall average of 25% to 30% improvement. Just before the last or sixth treatment, there was an average of 50% improvement noted by the physician, with patients ranking an average self-improvement of 48%. The treating physician rated average improvement of 46% compared with baseline, whereas the patients ranked average improvement of 30% compared with baseline at 1 year after treatment was initiated (6 months after the final treatment). Patients find this treatment to be very well tolerated, with minimal to no discomfort and no downtime or significant side effects. The Pellevé 4-MHz monopolar RF device is effective, safe, and very well tolerated for treating laxity, texture, and wrinkles of the skin without complication or discomfort. Evidence in the literature supports the scientific mechanism of action of acute collagen modification and continued neocollagenesis observed with the system. In this cohort, patients maintain approximately 50

  15. A 1 MHz beam chopper for the KAON Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wait, G.D.; Barnes, M.J.; Waters, G.; Figley, C.B.

    1990-06-01

    The proposed KAON Factory at TRIUMF requires a high repetition rate beam chopper for the injection process into the accumulator ring. Prototype studies on a novel design for an energy efficient 1 MHz (10 6 discrete pulses/s) beam chopper are described. In the low voltage prototype 20 V electrical pulses are stored in a low loss transmission line which is open circuited at the far end. Testing has just begun on high voltage prototype in which 7 kV pulses have been produced at the end of 10 cm diameter, 50 Ω coaxial cable. In the final version the voltage may be as high as 20 kV and the low loss transmission line will be coupled to an open circuited set of deflection plates through which the beam passes. Results on the performance of the low voltage prototype are presented as well as a description of the first test results from the high voltage prototype. (Author) 16 refs., 5 figs., tab

  16. Design of large aperture 500 MHz 5-cell superconducting cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yelong; Feng Ziqiang; Lu Changwang; Yu Haibo; Liu Jianfei; Hou Hongtao; Ma Zhenyu; Mao Dongqing

    2012-01-01

    With the potential application of Energy Recovery Linac (ERL), the superconducting (SC) cavities were developed to deliver much higher current than before. Nowadays, the current of the international SC accelerator designed has already exceeded 100 mA. This paper presents the design of a new 500 MHz 5-cell SC cavity (SINAP 5-cell cavity), in which the parameters r/Q= 515.5 Ω of the fundamental mode and the geometry factor G=275.8 are under an acceptable Radio Frequency (RF) field level. (B peak /E acc =4.31 mT/MV/m and E peak /E acc =2.48). This design employs a larger beam pipe to propagate the Higher Order Modes (HOMs) out of the cavity and increases the damping efficiently for the dangerous HOMs. By simulation technique, it has been found that almost all the dangerous HOMs (including TE 111 , TM 110 , and TM 011 ) can be propagated into the beam pipe and are absorbed by ferrite absorbers, when the beam pile is enlarged. Finally, the loss factor for the new 5-cell cavity is also calculated. (authors)

  17. Modulation improvements in the 201 MHZ RF generators at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, W.M.; Lyles, J.T.M.; Harris, H.W.

    1992-01-01

    Radio-frequency generators, operating at 201 MHz, power the first four stages of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator. Each generator consists of four stages of seriesconnected, vacuum-tube amplifiers. The modulation scheme for each stage is different. The fist amplifier is a grid-modulated tetrode that produces 500 W peak-power. The second amplifier is a drive-modulated tetrode that produces 5 kill peak-power. The third stage is a grid- and plate-modulated tetrode that produces 130 kill peak-power. The last stage is a plate-modulated triode that produces 2.5 MW peak power. A modernization program has been initiated to improve the reliability of each of these stages. The first two stages of each generator are being replaced with a single, drive-modulated, solid-state amplifier. Specifications for the amplifier design, and requirements for integration into the system are presented. The third stage will be converted to a drive-modulated system using the current tetrode. This modification involves the development of a 17-kV, 15-A switching supply to replace the present plate-modulator. Design requirements for this switching supply are presented. The final stage will remain plate-modulated but will contain a new driver unit for the modulator tube

  18. Dipole compensation of the 176 MHz MYRRHA RFQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuempel, Klaus; Podlech, Holger; Lenz, Christoph; Petry, Nils [IAP, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bechtold, Alexander [NTG Neue Technologien GmbH und Co.KG, Gelnhausen (Germany); Zhang, Chuan [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) Project is planned as an accelerator driven system (ADS) for the transmutation of long-living radioactive waste. For this project a cw 4-rod-RFQ with 176 MHz and a total length of about 4 m is required. It is supposed to accelerate protons from 30 keV up to 1.5 MeV*. One of the main tasks during the development of the RFQ is the very high reliability of the accelerator to limit the thermal stress inside the reactor. Another challenge was to compensate the dipole component of the MYRRHA-RFQ which is due to the design principle of 4-rod-RFQs. This dipole component is responsible for shifting the ideal beam axis from the geometrical center of the quadrupole downwards. Design studies with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO have shown that the dipole component can be almost completely compensated by widening the stems alternately so that the current paths of the lower electrodes are increased.

  19. Atmel's New Rad-Hard Sparc V8 Processor 200Mhz & Low Power System on Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganry, Nicolas; Mantelet, Guy; Parkes, Steve; McClements, Chris

    2014-08-01

    The AT6981 is a new generation of processor designed for critical spaceflight applications, which combines a high-performance SPARC® V8 radiation hard processor, with enough on-chip memory for many aerospace applications and state-of-the-art SpaceWire networking technology from STAR- Dundee. The AT6981 is implemented in Atmel 90nm rad-hard technology, enabling 200 MHz operating speed for the processor with power consumption levels around 1W. This advanced technology allows strong system integration in a SoC with embedded peripherals like CAN, 1553, Ethernet, DDR and embedded memory with 1Mbytes SRAM. The device is ITAR- free and is developed in France by Atmel Aerospace having more than of 30years space experience. This paper describes this new SoC architecture and technical options considered to insure the best performances, the minimum power consumption and high reliability. This device will be available on the market in H2 2014 for evaluation with first flight models targeted end 2015.

  20. Graphene based plasmonic terahertz amplitude modulator operating above 100 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessop, D. S., E-mail: dsj23@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: rd448@cam.ac.uk; Kindness, S. J.; Ren, Y.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.; Degl' Innocenti, R., E-mail: dsj23@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: rd448@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Xiao, L.; Braeuninger-Weimer, P.; Hofmann, S. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Lin, H.; Zeitler, J. A. [Department of Chemical Engineering & Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Ren, C. X. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-25

    The terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum holds great potential in many fields of study, from spectroscopy to biomedical imaging, remote gas sensing, and high speed communication. To fully exploit this potential, fast optoelectronic devices such as amplitude and phase modulators must be developed. In this work, we present a room temperature external THz amplitude modulator based on plasmonic bow-tie antenna arrays with graphene. By applying a modulating bias to a back gate electrode, the conductivity of graphene is changed, which modifies the reflection characteristics of the incoming THz radiation. The broadband response of the device was characterized by using THz time-domain spectroscopy, and the modulation characteristics such as the modulation depth and cut-off frequency were investigated with a 2.0 THz single frequency emission quantum cascade laser. An optical modulation cut-off frequency of 105 ± 15 MHz is reported. The results agree well with a lumped element circuit model developed to describe the device.

  1. Graphene based plasmonic terahertz amplitude modulator operating above 100 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessop, D. S.; Kindness, S. J.; Ren, Y.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.; Degl'Innocenti, R.; Xiao, L.; Braeuninger-Weimer, P.; Hofmann, S.; Lin, H.; Zeitler, J. A.; Ren, C. X.

    2016-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum holds great potential in many fields of study, from spectroscopy to biomedical imaging, remote gas sensing, and high speed communication. To fully exploit this potential, fast optoelectronic devices such as amplitude and phase modulators must be developed. In this work, we present a room temperature external THz amplitude modulator based on plasmonic bow-tie antenna arrays with graphene. By applying a modulating bias to a back gate electrode, the conductivity of graphene is changed, which modifies the reflection characteristics of the incoming THz radiation. The broadband response of the device was characterized by using THz time-domain spectroscopy, and the modulation characteristics such as the modulation depth and cut-off frequency were investigated with a 2.0 THz single frequency emission quantum cascade laser. An optical modulation cut-off frequency of 105 ± 15 MHz is reported. The results agree well with a lumped element circuit model developed to describe the device.

  2. Experimental study of underwater transmission characteristics of high-frequency 30 MHz polyurea ultrasonic transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Marie; Aoyagi, Takahiro; Tabaru, Masaya; Nakamura, Kentaro; Ueha, Sadayuki

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present the transmission characteristics of a polyurea ultrasonic transducer operating in water. In this study, we used a polyurea transducer with fundamental resonance at approximately 30 MHz. Firstly, acoustic pressure radiated from the transducer was measured using a hydrophone, which has a diameter of 0.2 mm. The transmission characteristics such as relative bandwidth, pulse width, and acoustic sensitivity were calculated from the experimental results. The results of the experiment showed a relative bandwidth of 50% and a pulse width of 0.061 μs. The acoustic sensitivity was 0.60 kPa/V with good linearity, where the correlation coefficient R in the fitting calculation was 0.996. A maximum pressure of 13.1 kPa was observed when the transducer was excited at a zero-to-peak voltage of 21 V. Moreover, we experimentally verified the results. The results of the pulse/echo experiment showed that the estimated diameters of the copper wires were 458 and 726 μm, where the differences between the actual and measured values were 15% and 4%, respectively. Acoustic streaming was also observed so that a particle velocity map was estimated by particle image velocimetry (PIV). The sound pressure calculated from the particle velocity obtained by PIV showed good agreement with the acoustic pressure measured using the hydrophone, where the differences between the calculated and measured values were 12-19%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 47 CFR 90.1408 - Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership. 90.1408 Section 90.1408 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Partnership § 90.1408 Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership. (a) The Upper 700...

  4. 47 CFR 27.1308 - Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership. 27.1308 Section 27.1308 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Partnership § 27.1308 Organization and structure of the 700 MHz public/private partnership. (a) The Upper 700...

  5. 78 FR 28749 - Private Land Mobile Radio Stations Below 800 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... these proposals, with the exception of those issues relating to Wireless Medical Telemetry Services... accomplished in the PLMR bands below 800 MHz. A trunked radio system employs technology that can search two or... prohibited by Sec. 1.935). We also take this opportunity to correct the 800 MHz band trunking rules to set...

  6. 76 FR 51271 - Implementing a Nationwide, Broadband, Interoperable Public Safety Network in the 700 MHz Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... 700 MHz Band AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document... medical services, Incorporation by reference, Individuals with disabilities, Radio, Reporting and...- 798 MHz bands. * * * * * Service Availability. The use of a public safety broadband network on a day...

  7. 76 FR 62309 - Implementing a Nationwide, Broadband, Interoperable Public Safety Network in the 700 MHz Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... the 700 MHz Band AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this... spectrum of the 700 MHz band. The Commission dismissed the request, but clarified that a reasonably broad... personnel including, but not limited to, activities of police, fire and medical emergency first responders...

  8. 75 FR 9210 - Wireless Telecommunications Bureau Seeks Comment on Petition for Rulemaking Regarding 700 MHz...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    [email protected] or call the Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau at 202-418-0530 (Voice), 202-418-0432 (TTY... the Commission to ``assure that consumers will have access to all paired 700 MHz spectrum that the Commission licenses, to act so that the entire 700 MHz band will develop in a competitive fashion, and to...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1061 - Special requirements for 406.0-406.1 MHz EPIRB stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special requirements for 406.0-406.1 MHz EPIRB stations. 80.1061 Section 80.1061 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY... entitled RTCM Paper 77-02/SC110-STD, “RTCM Recommended Standards for 406 MHz Satellite Emergency Position...

  10. The detection of prostatic carcinoma. 4- or 7-MHz transrectal ultrasonography?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleeming, R.; Noordzij, J. W.; de Reijke, T. M.; Kurth, K. H.

    1993-01-01

    In this prospective study a comparison of 4-versus 7-MHz transrectal ultrasonography for the detection of prostatic carcinoma is reported. A total of 150 prostates were biopsied due to suspicion of malignancy arising at either digital rectal examination, 4- and/or 7-MHz transrectal ultrasonography,

  11. 47 CFR 80.303 - Watch on 156.800 MHz (Channel 16).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 80.303 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Coast Station Safety... maintain a safety watch on the frequency 156.800 MHz except when transmitting on 156.800 MHz. (b) A coast...

  12. Effect of stress and intesity of mobile phone using on the health and subjective symptoms in GSM workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Szyjkowska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no available data on the health consequences that may result from the synergistic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF and stress. Understanding the mechanisms of the simultaneous exposure will make it possible to develop procedures to minimize adverse health effects in professionals using mobile phones. Material and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted in 600 randomly selected people to obtain data on their health status and the prevalence of subjective symptoms related to the mobile phones using. Among them, there were 208 GSM Network employees, to whom the Perceived Stress Scale and Assessment of Stress at Work Questionnaire were sent. Eighty-nine completed questionnaires were returned (response rate – 42.8%. Results: The mean age of respondents was 30.3 years (standard deviation (SD = 7.7, time of occupational use of mobile phone – 4.1 years (SD = 1.7, the level of occupational stress – 95.3 (SD = 19.1. A significant percentage of people (62.8% complained of the frequent difficulties in coping with problems of everyday life, and 57.4% had a fairly frequent problems with managing their own affairs. Significant differences in the life stress were detected between groups with different time of phone use (p = 0.03, and in occupational stress level, significant differences were noted between the 2 groups differing in the length of the conversation (p = 0.05. The risk of headache, associated (odds ratio (OR = 4.2, p = 0.008 or not associated (OR = 2.97, p = 0.04 with calls on mobile phone, adjusted for stress, was significantly higher in people speaking via mobile more than 60 min/day than in those talking less. Conclusions: The study indicates that both stressors acting at the same time (EMF from cell phone and stress adversely affect the well-being of workers and increase the risk of subjective symptoms. Med Pr 2017;68(5:617–628

  13. [Effect of stress and intesity of mobile phone using on the health and subjective symptoms in GSM workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyjkowska, Agata; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Szymczak, Wiesław; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    2017-07-26

    There are no available data on the health consequences that may result from the synergistic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and stress. Understanding the mechanisms of the simultaneous exposure will make it possible to develop procedures to minimize adverse health effects in professionals using mobile phones. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 600 randomly selected people to obtain data on their health status and the prevalence of subjective symptoms related to the mobile phones using. Among them, there were 208 GSM Network employees, to whom the Perceived Stress Scale and Assessment of Stress at Work Questionnaire were sent. Eighty-nine completed questionnaires were returned (response rate - 42.8%). The mean age of respondents was 30.3 years (standard deviation (SD) = 7.7), time of occupational use of mobile phone - 4.1 years (SD = 1.7), the level of occupational stress - 95.3 (SD = 19.1). A significant percentage of people (62.8%) complained of the frequent difficulties in coping with problems of everyday life, and 57.4% had a fairly frequent problems with managing their own affairs. Significant differences in the life stress were detected between groups with different time of phone use (p = 0.03), and in occupational stress level, significant differences were noted between the 2 groups differing in the length of the conversation (p = 0.05). The risk of headache, associated (odds ratio (OR) = 4.2, p = 0.008) or not associated (OR = 2.97, p = 0.04) with calls on mobile phone, adjusted for stress, was significantly higher in people speaking via mobile more than 60 min/day than in those talking less. The study indicates that both stressors acting at the same time (EMF from cell phone and stress) adversely affect the well-being of workers and increase the risk of subjective symptoms. Med Pr 2017;68(5):617-628. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. Transmission line matching simulation for 350 MHz RF driver for 400 KeV (deuterium) RFQ based 14 MeV neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sonal; Pande, Manjiri; Handu, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    A 60 KW, 350 MHz tetrode based high power RF system is being developed for 400 KeV RFQ based 14 MeV neutron generator in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre to study physics of coupled neutron sources and subcritical assembly. This RF system requires a 2.5 kW RF driver which is being designed by using tetrode TH-393. At such high frequency i.e. 350 MHz, lumped components are not practically useful due to radiation losses. Therefore, techniques such as coaxial line with stub tuning are preferred, which minimizes these losses. Simulation of two such stub tuning based matched coaxial lines at the input and output of the tube has been done by using CST studio. CST STUDIO is a special tool for the 3D EM simulation of high frequency components

  15. Eight-MHz RF-hyperthermia for advanced urological malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisazumi, Haruo; Nakajima, Kazuyoshi

    1986-01-01

    Eight-MHz radiofrequency hyperthermia (H) using a Thermotron-RF Model 8, and its combination with irradiation (RH), anticancer drugs (CH) or anticancer drugs plus irradiation (CRH), were carried out for a total of 48 urological malignancies: 10 cases of renal cancer, 1 of renal pelvic cancer, 2 of uretetral cancer, 19 of bladder cancer, 5 of prostatic cancer, 9 of metastatic lesion of urological cancers and 2 of other urological cancers. All had failed in previous treatments, or had not undergone surgery because of their poor general condition. Four cases, including 2 of bladder cancer, 1 of prostatic cancer and 1 of metastatic lesion of bladder cancer, were treated with H. Twenty-five cases, including 3 renal cancer cases, were treated with RH. Seven of the 10 cases of renal cancer were treated with mitomycin C-microcapsule embolization prior to RH (CRH). Twelve of the 23 cases with urothelial cancer or its metastasis, including 1 of renal pelvic cancer, 10 of bladder cancer and 1 of metastatic lesion of bladder cancer, received combined treatment of THP-adriamycin, one of the derivatives of adriamycin, by i.v. and RF-heating (CH). Hyperthermia was given twice a week, totalling 10 sessions in 5 weeks. Intratumoral temperature was kept above 42.5 deg C for 30 to 40 minutes during one-hour heating. Complete tumor disappearance was obtained in the 5 bladder cancer cases. Partial tumor regression, defined as a regression of 50 % or more, was obtained in 11 cases. As side effects, mild skin burns and anorexia were observed in approximately 30 to 40 % of cases. Seven obese cases, who had subcutaneous tissue 15 mm thick or more, developed fat tissue induration after treatment. (author)

  16. Evaluating the More Suitable ISM Frequency Band for IoT-Based Smart Grids: A Quantitative Study of 915 MHz vs. 2400 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Ruben M; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Garcia-Haro, Joan

    2016-12-31

    IoT has begun to be employed pervasively in industrial environments and critical infrastructures thanks to its positive impact on performance and efficiency. Among these environments, the Smart Grid (SG) excels as the perfect host for this technology, mainly due to its potential to become the motor of the rest of electrically-dependent infrastructures. To make this SG-oriented IoT cost-effective, most deployments employ unlicensed ISM bands, specifically the 2400 MHz one, due to its extended communication bandwidth in comparison with lower bands. This band has been extensively used for years by Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET), from which the IoT technologically inherits. However, this work questions and evaluates the suitability of such a "default" communication band in SG environments, compared with the 915 MHz ISM band. A comprehensive quantitative comparison of these bands has been accomplished in terms of: power consumption, average network delay, and packet reception rate. To allow such a study, a dual-band propagation model specifically designed for the SG has been derived, tested, and incorporated into the well-known TOSSIM simulator. Simulation results reveal that only in the absence of other 2400 MHz interfering devices (such as WiFi or Bluetooth) or in small networks, is the 2400 MHz band the best option. In any other case, SG-oriented IoT quantitatively perform better if operating in the 915 MHz band.

  17. Evaluating the More Suitable ISM Frequency Band for IoT-Based Smart Grids: A Quantitative Study of 915 MHz vs. 2400 MHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben M. Sandoval

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available IoT has begun to be employed pervasively in industrial environments and critical infrastructures thanks to its positive impact on performance and efficiency. Among these environments, the Smart Grid (SG excels as the perfect host for this technology, mainly due to its potential to become the motor of the rest of electrically-dependent infrastructures. To make this SG-oriented IoT cost-effective, most deployments employ unlicensed ISM bands, specifically the 2400 MHz one, due to its extended communication bandwidth in comparison with lower bands. This band has been extensively used for years by Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN and Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET, from which the IoT technologically inherits. However, this work questions and evaluates the suitability of such a “default” communication band in SG environments, compared with the 915 MHz ISM band. A comprehensive quantitative comparison of these bands has been accomplished in terms of: power consumption, average network delay, and packet reception rate. To allow such a study, a dual-band propagation model specifically designed for the SG has been derived, tested, and incorporated into the well-known TOSSIM simulator. Simulation results reveal that only in the absence of other 2400 MHz interfering devices (such as WiFi or Bluetooth or in small networks, is the 2400 MHz band the best option. In any other case, SG-oriented IoT quantitatively perform better if operating in the 915 MHz band.

  18. Biological effects of 2450 MHZ microwave radiation on Raji-Cell in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Ming; Zhang Mengdan; Xu Hao.

    1988-01-01

    A water circulating microwave exposure system designed by the authors was used to investigate the thermal and nonthermal biological effects at different power density (1.0mw/cm 2 , 3.9mw/cm 2 , 6.2mw/cm 2 , 8.3mw/cm 2 , 10.5mw/cm 2 ). The results show that the growth of Raji-Cell is inhibited significantly by microwave exposure in 8.3 mw/cm 2 and 10.5 mw/cm 2 groups in temperature controlled test (below 37.0 deg C). It shows that while the growth curve goes down, the rate of inhibition and time of generation increase. The degree of inhibition would increase when the medium temperature was not controlled. And, the mechanisms of thermal and nonthermal biological effects were discussed

  19. Optimasi Perencanaan Jumlah Base Transceiver Station (BTS dan Kapasitas Trafik BTS Menggunakan Pendekatan Goal Programming pada Sistem Telekomunikasi Seluler Berbasis GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fajrul Hakim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jumlah pengguna telepon seluler GSM telah mencapai 229.4 juta pada tahun 2011. Hal ini menyebabkan operator seluler GSM harus bisa memenuhi kebutuhan trafik pengguna. Pemenuhan kebutuhan jaringan dilakukan dengan membangun infrastruktur jaringan, salah satunya adalah BTS. BTS biasanya dibangun untuk dapat menampung trafik pengguna selama beberapa tahun ke depan. Perencanaan pembangunan BTS diusahakan membutuhkan seminimal mungkin perangkat keras jaringan tetapi dapat memenuhi semaksimal mungkin kapasitas trafik yang ada. Untuk melaksanakan perencanaan tersebut dibutuhkan optimasi jumlah dan trafik BTS dalam satu wilayah. Optimasi tersebut mencakup dua fungsi tujuan. Salah satu metode optimasi yang mampu menangani kasus multi tujuan adalah metode goal programming. Tugas akhir ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kapasitas trafik yang bisa menampung semua permintaan trafik dari pengguna telepon seluler dan menentukan kapasitas total trafik BTS yang tidak melebihi total kapasitas yang dimiliki masing-masing BTS. Dalam pengerjaan tugas akhir ini, permintaan trafik diramalkan selama 10 tahun mendatang. Hasil peramalan digunakan sebagai batasan dari fungsi tujuan. Kemudian model optimasi dibuat dalam bentuk program linear, lalu diubah sesuai metode goal programming. Model yang terbentuk diselesaikan menggunakan program komputer. Dari hasil penelitian dan perhitungan diperoleh bahwa metode goal programming dapat dijadikan sebagai metode untuk menyelesaikan multi tujuan.

  20. Radioprotection of Wistar Rat Lymphocytes Against Microwave Radiation Mediated by Bee Venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garaj-Vrhovac, V.; Gajski, G.

    2011-01-01

    Microwave radiation is a type of non-ionising electromagnetic radiation present in the environment, and is a potential threat to human health. Cytogenetic studies of microwave radiation conducted in vitro and in vivo, yielded contradictory and often intriguing experimental results. Some reports suggest that exposure of human cells to radiofrequency radiation does not result in increased cytogenetic damage. On the other hand, there is a range of studies showing that radiofrequency radiation can indeed induce genetic alteration after exposure to electric field. Bee venom is used in traditional medicine to treat variety of conditions, such as arthritis, rheumatism, back pain and skin disease. In recent years it has been reported that bee venom possesses antimutagenic, proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and anticancer effects. In addition to the wide range of the bee venom's activities, it also possesses a radioprotective capacity that was noted against X-ray and gamma radiation in various test systems. The aim of the present study was assessment of the radioprotective effect of bee venom against 915 MHz microwave radiation-induced DNA damage in the Wistar rat's lymphocytes in vitro. The possible genotoxic effect of bee venom alone was also assessed on non-irradiated lymphocytes. The alkaline comet assay was used as a sensitive tool in The assessment of DNA damage was performed using the alkaline comet assay and the Fpg-modified comet assay that is more specific technique in detection of DNA strand breaks and oxidative stress. Whole blood was collected from adult male Wistar rats (11 weeks old, approximate body weight 350 g)by cardiac puncture under sterile conditions in heparinized vacutainer tubes. After collection, blood was divided into 1 ml aliquots and placed into 24-well culture plates according to the exposure conditions. Bee venom was added to lymphocyte cultures in final concentration of 1 μg/ml, 4 h prior to irradiation and immediately

  1. Impact of foliage on LoRa 433MHz propagation in tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Khairol Amali; Salleh, Mohd Sharil; Segaran, Jivitraa Devi; Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan

    2018-02-01

    LoRa is being considered as one of the promising system for Low-Power-Wide-Area-Network (LPWAN) to support the growth of Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Designed to operate in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) bands, LoRa had been tested and evaluated mainly in Europe and US in the 868 MHz and 915 MHz modulation bands. Using chirp spread spectrum technology, LoRa is expected to be robust against degredation. This paper provides some early results in the performance of LoRa signal propagation of 433 MHz modulation in tropical foliage environments.

  2. Performance analysis of commercial MOSFET packages in Class E converter operating at 2.56 MHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nair, Unnikrishnan Raveendran; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Jørgensen, Asger Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    resistance and high temperature operation over Si devices have aided in the paradigm shift towards wide bandgap devices. The low gate charge requirements of SiC MOSFETs enables use of these devices in radio frequency (RF) converters using resonant topologies operating at MHz frequency range. The RF...... are not commercially available and power modules have to be custom designed for these applications. This work demonstrates performance of various commercial MOSFET packages at frequency of 2.56 MHz. Commercial SiC MOSFETs in TO-247 and D2Pak packs are tested in Class E resonant converter operating at 2.56 MHz...

  3. Compact high efficiency, light weight 200-800 MHz high power RF source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader, M.B.; Preist, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    There has long been a need for a new more efficient less bulky high power RF power source to drive accelerators in the 200 to 800 MHz region. Results on a recent 5-year EIMAC sponsored R and D program which have lead to the introduction of the Klystrode for UHF television and troposcatter applications indicate that at power levels of 1MW or more efficiencies in excess of 75% can be obtained at 450 MHz. Efficiencies of this order coupled with potential size and weight parameters which are a fraction of those of existing high power UHF generators open up new applications which heretofore would have been impractical if not impossible. Measurements at 470 MHz on existing Klystrodes are given. Projected operating conditions for a 1MW 450 MHz Klystrode having an overall length of 60 inches and a total tube, circuit, and magnet weight of 250 pounds is presented

  4. Crosstalk Models for Short VDSL2 Lines from Measured 30 MHz Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leshem A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing interest in hybrid fiber-copper access solutions, as in fiber to the basement (FTTB and fiber to the curb/cabinet (FTTC. The twisted pair segment in these architectures is in the range of a few hundred meters, thus supporting transmission over tens of MHz. This paper provides crosstalk models derived from measured data for quad cable, lengths between 75 and 590 meters, and frequencies up to MHz. The results indicate that the log-normal statistical model (with a simple parametric law for the frequency-dependent mean fits well up to MHz for both FEXT and NEXT. This extends earlier log-normal statistical modeling and validation results for NEXT over bandwidths in the order of a few MHz. The fitted crosstalk power spectra are useful for modem design and simulation. Insertion loss, phase, and impulse response duration characteristics of the direct channels are also provided.

  5. RF Tests of an 805 MHz Pillbox Cavity at Lab G of Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Li; J. Corlett; R. MacGill; M. Zisman; J. Norem; A. Moretti; Z. Qian; J. Wallig; V. Wu; Y. Torun; R.A. Rimmer

    2003-01-01

    We report recent high power RF tests on an 805 MHz RF pillbox cavity with demountable windows over beam apertures at Lab G of Fermilab, a dedicated facility for testing of MUCOOL (muon cooling) components. The cavity is installed inside a superconducting solenoidal magnet. A 12 MW peak RF power klystron is used for the tests. The cavity has been processed both with and without magnetic field. Without magnetic field, a gradient of 34 MV/m was reached rather quickly with very low sparking rate. In a 2.5 T solenoidal field, a 16 MV/m gradient was achieved, following several weeks of conditioning. Strong multipacting effects associated with high radiation levels were measured during processing with the magnetic field. More recently Be windows with TiN-coated surface have been installed and tested with and without the external magnetic field. 16 MV/m gradient without magnetic field was reached quickly as planned. Less multipacting was observed during the conditioning, indicating that the TiN-coated surface on the windows had indeed helped to reduce the secondary electron emission significantly. A gradient of 16.5 MV/m was finally achieved with magnet on in solenoidal mode and the field up to 4 T. Preliminary inspection of the Be window surface found no visual damage, in comparison with Cu windows where substantial surface damage was found. Preliminary understanding of conditioning the cavity in a strong magnetic field has been developed. More thorough window and cavity surface inspection is under way

  6. RF tests of an 805 MHz pillbox cavity at Lab G of Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Derun; Corlett, J.; MacGill, R.; Wallig, J.; Zisman, M.; Moretti, A.; Qian, Z.; Wu, V.; Rimmer, R.; Norem, J.; Torun, Y.

    2003-01-01

    We report recent high power RF tests on an 805 MHz RF pillbox cavity with demountable windows for beam apertures at Lab G of Fermilab, a dedicated facility for testing of MUCOOL (muon cooling) components. The cavity is installed inside a superconducting solenoidal magnet. A 12 MW peak RF power klystron is used for the tests. The cavity has been processed both with and without magnetic field. Without magnetic field, a gradient of 34 MV/m was reached rather quickly with very low sparking rate. In a 2.5 T solenoidal field, a 16 MV/m gradient was achieved, and it had to take many weeks of conditioning. Strong multipacting effects associated with high radiation levels were measured during the processing with the magnetic field. More recently Be windows with TiN-coated surface have been installed and tested at conditions of with and without the external magnetic field. A conservative 16 MV/m gradient without magnetic field was reached quickly as planned. Less multipacting was observed during the conditioning, it indicated that the TiN-coated surface on the windows had indeed helped to reduce the secondary electron emissions significantly. A modest gradient of 16.5 MV/m was finally achieved with magnet on in solenoidal mode and the field up to 4 T. Preliminary inspection on Be windows surface found no damage at all, in comparison with Cu windows where substantial surface damage was found. Preliminary understanding of conditioning cavity in a strong magnetic field has been developed. More through window and cavity surface inspection is under way

  7. Mitochondrial DNA damage and oxidative damage in HL-60 cells exposed to 900 MHz radiofrequency fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yulong; Zong, Lin; Gao, Zhen [School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhu, Shunxing [Laboratory Animal Center, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province (China); Tong, Jian [School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China); Cao, Yi, E-mail: yicao@suda.edu.cn [School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Increased reactive oxygen species. • Decreased mitochondrial transcription Factor A and polymerase gamma. • Decreased mitochondrial transcripts (ND1 and 16S) and mtDNA copy number. • Increased 8-hydroxy-2′deoxyguanosine. • Decreased adenosine triphosphate. - Abstract: HL-60 cells, derived from human promyelocytic leukemia, were exposed to continuous wave 900 MHz radiofrequency fields (RF) at 120 μW/cm{sup 2} power intensity for 4 h/day for 5 consecutive days to examine whether such exposure is capable damaging the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mediated through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, the effect of RF exposure was examined on 8-hydroxy-2′-dexoyguanosine (8-OHdG) which is a biomarker for oxidative damage and on the mitochondrial synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is the energy required for cellular functions. The results indicated a significant increase in ROS and significant decreases in mitochondrial transcription factor A, mtDNA polymerase gamma, mtDNA transcripts and mtDNA copy number in RF-exposed cells compared with those in sham-exposed control cells. In addition, there was a significant increase in 8-OHdG and a significant decrease in ATP in RF-exposed cells. The response in positive control cells exposed to gamma radiation (GR, which is also known to induce ROS) was similar to those in RF-exposed cells. Thus, the overall data indicated that RF exposure was capable of inducing mtDNA damage mediated through ROS pathway which also induced oxidative damage. Prior-treatment of RF- and GR-exposed the cells with melatonin, a well-known free radical scavenger, reversed the effects observed in RF-exposed cells.

  8. Early 500 MHz prototype LEP RF Cavity with superposed storage cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    The principle of transferring the RF power back and forth between the accelerating cavity and a side-coupled storage cavity was demonstrated with this 500 MHz prototype. In LEP, the accelerating frequency was 352.2 MHz, and accelerating and storage cavities were consequently larger. See also 8002294, 8006061, 8407619X, and Annual Reports 1980, p.115; 1981, p.95; 1985, vol.I, p.13.

  9. Collision of two shock waves as a hypothetical mechanism of producing drifting radio bursts in the 400-500 MHz range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlicky, M.

    1978-01-01

    After the proton flare of July 3, 1974 a hitherto unclassified phenomenon with a diffusion ''banner'' and with a considerably decelerating drift within the type II and III burst drifts range was observed in the radio dynamic spectrum between 410 and 470 MHz. The hypothesis is presented that the phenomenon is due to the collision of two shock waves, propagating against one another, during which the flux of electromagnetic radiation is considerably enhanced relative to the sum of the fluxes of the electromagnetic radiation of the individual shock waves. The Newkirk 4-density model of the corona is used to describe the phenomenon, the mechanism of plasmon-plasmon conversion in electromagnetic radiation with a double plasma frequency is considered and, according to the parameters derived from the dynamic spectrum, the velocities, radii of curvature and direction of propagation of the anticipated shock waves are analysed in a simplifed symmetric case. (author)

  10. Results on the role of metastable Ar atoms in a 9-MHz high-power atmospheric ICP by using emission/absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, W.; Zeeman, P.B.; Visser, K.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation into the role of overpopulations of metastable argon levels as agents for causing non-local thermal equilibrium (LTE) in an inductively coupled plasma source (ICP), was carried out. Four argon transitions in the near infrared region were monitored through absorption measurements at two different observation heights in a 9-MHz high-power ICP. The lower states of the four transitions consist of two metastable (11.55 and 11.72 eV) and two radiating (11.62 and 11.83 eV) levels. Comparison of measured metastable level to radiating level absorbance ratios with calculated population ratios gave an indication whether overpopulations of certain levels existed. Results indicate no overpopulation of metastable states with respect to radiating states, arguing against their role as non-LTE mechanism agents. This conclusion is, however, preliminary, since the calculation of absolute population densities from absorbance measurements must still be carried out

  11. Effect of exposure and withdrawal of 900-MHz-electromagnetic waves on brain, kidney and liver oxidative stress and some biochemical parameters in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragy, Merhan Mamdouh

    2015-01-01

    Increasing use of mobile phones in daily life with increasing adverse effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR), emitted from mobile on some physiological processes, cause many concerns about their effects on human health. Therefore, this work was designed to study the effects of exposure to mobile phone emits 900-MHz EMR on the brain, liver and kidney of male albino rats. Thirty male adult rats were randomly divided into four groups (10 each) as follows: control group (rats without exposure to EMR), exposure group (exposed to 900-MHz EMR for 1 h/d for 60 d) and withdrawal group (exposed to 900-MHz electromagnetic wave for 1 h/d for 60 d then left for 30 d without exposure). EMR emitted from mobile phone led to a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and significant decrease total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in brain, liver and kidneys tissues. The sera activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea, creatinine and corticosterone were significantly increased (p electromagnetic field emitting from mobile phone might produce impairments in some biochemicals changes and oxidative stress in brain, liver and renal tissue of albino rats. These alterations were corrected by withdrawal.

  12. Design and implementation of a telemedicine system using Bluetooth protocol and GSM/GPRS network, for real time remote patient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasemian, Yousef; Nielsen, Lars Arendt

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the design and implementation of a generic wireless and Real-time Multi-purpose Health Care Telemedicine system applying Bluetooth protocol, Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). The paper explores the factors that should be considered when evaluating different technologies for application in telemedicine system. The design and implementation of an embedded wireless communication platform utilising Bluetooth protocol is described, and the implementation problems and limitations are investigated. The system is tested and its telecommunication general aspects are verified. The results showed that the system has (97.9 +/- 1.3)% Up-time, 2.5 x 10(-5) Bit Error Rate, 1% Dropped Call Rate, 97.4% Call Success Rate, 5 second transmission delay in average, (3.42 +/- 0.11) kbps throughput, and the system may have application in electrocardiography.

  13. Developments and directions in 200 MHz very high power RF at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliff, R.; Bush, E.D.; DeHaven, R.A.; Harris, H.W.; Parsons, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), is a linear particle accelerator a half-mile long. It produces an 800 million electron- volt hydrogen-ion beam at an average current of more than one milliamp. The first RF section of the accelerator consists of four Alvarez drift-tube structures. Each of these structures is excited by an amplifier module at a frequency of 201.25 MHz. These amplifiers operate at a duty of 13 percent or more and at peak pulsed power levels of about 2.5 million watts. The second RF accelerator section consists of forty-four side-coupled-cavity structures. Each of these is excited by an amplifier module at a frequency of 805 MHz. These amplifiers operate at a duty of up to 12 percent and at peak pulsed power levels of about 1.2 million watts. The relatively high average beam current in the accelerator places a heavy demand upon components in the RF systems. The 201-MHz modules have always required a large share of maintenance efforts. In recent years, the four 201.25 MHz modules have been responsible for more than twice as much accelerator down-time as have the forty-four 805 MHz modules. This paper reviews recent, ongoing, and planned improvements in the 201-MHz systems. The Burle Industries 7835 super power triode is used in the final power amplifiers of each of the 201-MHz modules. This tube has been modified for operation at LAMPF by the addition of Penning ion vacuum''pumps.'' This has enabled more effective tube conditioning and restarting. A calorimetry system of high accuracy is in development to monitor tube plate-power dissipation

  14. Development of 650 MHz (β=0.9) single-cell SCRF cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagre, M.; Jain, V.; Yedle, A.; Maurya, T.; Yadav, A.; Puntambekar, A.; Goswami, S.G.; Choudhary, R.S.; Sandha, S.; Dwivedi, J.; Kane, G.V.; Mahawar, A.; Mohania, P.; Shrivastava, P.; Sharma, S.; Gupta, R.; Sharma, S.D.; Joshi, S.C.; Mistri, K.K.; Prakash, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology has initiated the work on development of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SCRF) cavities and associated technologies as part of R and D activities for upcoming Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project involving superconducting Linear Accelerator (LINAC). It is planned to use 650 MHz SCRF cavities for the medium and high energy section of the proposed LINAC. Under Indian Institution Fermilab Collaboration (IIFC), Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology is also working on development of 650 MHz (β=0.9) SCRF cavities proposed to be used in the high energy section of Project-X at FNAL. The work has been initiated with design and development of 650 MHz single cell SCRF cavity. FE analysis was done to estimate change in frequency with temperature as well as to estimate the frequency of the cavity at different cavity manufacturing stages. The development cycle comprises of design and manufacturing of forming tooling, machining, welding and RF measurement fixtures as well as design for manufacturing. The half-cell and beam tubes forming and machining of all parts were done using in-house facilities. The Electron beam welding was carried out at Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi under a MoU. One 650 MHz single cell SCRF cavity has been recently manufactured. In this paper we present the development efforts on manufacturing and pre-qualification of 650 MHz (β=0.9) single cell SCRF cavity. (author)

  15. NICER Discovers mHz Oscillations and Marginally Stable Burning in GS 1826-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Gendreau, Keith C.; Keek, Laurens; Bult, Peter; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Arzoumanian, Zaven; NICER Science Team

    2018-01-01

    To date, marginally stable thermonuclear burning, evidenced as mHz X-ray flux oscillations, has been observed in only five accreting neutron star binaries, 4U 1636-536, 4U 1608-52, Aql X-1, 4U 1323-619 and Terzan 5 X-2. Here we report the discovery with NASA's Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) of such oscillations from the well-known X-ray burster GS 1826-24. NICER observed GS 1826-24 on 9 September, 2017 for a total exposure of about 4 ksec. Timing analysis revealed highly significant oscillations at a frequency of 8.2 mHz in two successive pointings. The oscillations have a fractional modulation amplitude of approximately 3% for photon energies less than 6 keV. The observed frequency is consistent with the range observed in the other mHz QPO systems, and indeed is slightly higher than the frequency measured in 4U 1636-536 below which mHz oscillations ceased and unstable burning (X-ray bursts) resumed. We discuss the mass accretion rate dependence of the oscillations as well as the X-ray spectrum as a function of pulsation phase. We place the observations in the context of the current theory of marginally stable burning and briefly discuss the potential for constraining neutron star properties using mHz oscillations.

  16. 27.12 MHz Radiofrequency Ablation for Benign Cutaneous Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As surgical and/or ablative modalities, radiofrequency (RF has been known to produce good clinical outcomes in dermatology. Recently, 27.12 MHz RF has been introduced and has several advantages over conventional 4 or 6 MHz in terms of the precise ablation and lesser pain perception. We aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 27.12 MHz RF for the treatment of benign cutaneous lesions. Twenty female patient subjects were enrolled. Digital photography and a USB microscope camera were used to monitor the clinical results before one session of treatment with 27.12 MHz RF and after 1 and 3 weeks. Treated lesions included telangiectasias, cherry and spider angiomas, skin tags, seborrheic keratoses, lentigo, milium, dilated pore, acne, piercing hole, and one case of neurofibroma. For vascular lesions, clinical results were excellent for 33.3%, good for 44.4%, moderate for 11.1%, and poor for 11.1%. For nonvascular lesions (epidermal lesions and other benign cutaneous lesions, clinical results were excellent for 48.3%, good for 45.2%, moderate for 3.2%, and poor for 3.2%. No serious adverse events were observed. Mild adverse events reported were slight erythema, scale, and crust. The 27.12 MHz RF treatment of benign vascular and nonvascular lesions appears safe and effective after 3 weeks of follow-up.

  17. Spectral intensity dependence an isotropy of sources stronger than 0.1 Jy at 2700 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonek, T.J.; Broderick, J.J.; Condon, J.J.; Crawford, D.F.; Jauncey, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    The 1000-foot (305 m) telescope of the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center was used to measure 430 MHz flux densities of sources stronger than 0.1 Jy at 2700 MHz. Distributions of the resulting two-point spectral indices α (430, 2700) of sources in the intensity range 0.1less than or equal toS<0.35 Jy were compared with α (318, 2700) distributions of sources stronger than 0.35 Jy at 2700 MHz. The median normal-component spectral index and fraction of flat-spectrum sources in the faintest sample do not continue the previously discovered trend toward increased spectral steepening of faint sources. This result differs from the prediction of simple evolutionary cosmological models and therefore favors the alternative explanation that local source-density inhomogeneities are responsible for the observed intensity dependence of spectral indices

  18. 318-MHz variability of complete samples of extragalactic radio sources. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, B.; Broderick, J.J.; Ledden, J.E.; O'Dell, S.L.; Condon, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    We report the remainder of two- and three-epoch 318-MHz observations of extragalactic sources in samples complete to 3 Jy at 1400 MHz and 1 Jy at 5000 MHz. From analysis of this low-frequency variability survey, we find that steep-spectrum (α> or =0.5) sources do not appear to vary, but about 40% of all flat-spectrum (α<0.5) sources exhibit low-frequency variability exceeding 8% over approx.5 yr. Among the flat-spectrum sources, those with inverted spectra show the largest fractional variations. We also find that the incidence of low-frequency variability is strongly correlated with the determination that a source is an optically violent variable. These statistical properties are consistent with models invoking relativistic beaming of radio and optical emission

  19. Search for a stochastic background of 100-MHz gravitational waves with laser interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Tomotada; Kawamura, Seiji; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Arai, Koji; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Nagano, Shigeo; Nishida, Erina; Chiba, Takeshi; Takahashi, Ryuichi; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Yamazaki, Toshitaka; Fujimoto, Masa-Katsu

    2008-09-05

    This Letter reports the results of a search for a stochastic background of gravitational waves (GW) at 100 MHz by laser interferometry. We have developed a GW detector, which is a pair of 75-cm baseline synchronous recycling (resonant recycling) interferometers. Each interferometer has a strain sensitivity of approximately 10;{-16} Hz;{-1/2} at 100 MHz. By cross-correlating the outputs of the two interferometers within 1000 seconds, we found h{100};{2}Omega_{gw}<6 x 10;{25} to be an upper limit on the energy density spectrum of the GW background in a 2-kHz bandwidth around 100 MHz, where a flat spectrum is assumed.

  20. Multi-detector environmental radiation monitor with multichannel data communication for Indian Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network (IERMON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, M.D.; Ratheesh, M.P.; Prakasha, M.S.; Salunkhe, S.S.; Vinod Kumar, A.; Puranik, V.D.; Nair, C.K.G.

    2011-01-01

    A solar powered system for online monitoring of environmental radiation with multiple detectors has been designed, developed and produced. Multiple GM tube detectors have been used to extend the range of measurement from 50 nano Gy/hr to 20 Gy/hr and to enhance the reliability of the system. Online data communication using GSM based and direct LAN based communication has been incorporated. Options for use of power supply from mains powered and battery powered have been enabled. Care has been taken to make it weather-proof, compact, elegant and reliable. The development is a part of the ongoing program of country-wide deployment of radiation monitors under 'Indian Environmental Radiation MOnitoring Network' (IERMON). (author)

  1. Spiral Slotted Microstrip Antenna Design for 700 MHz Band Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Meneses González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design and implementation of spiral slotted microstrip antenna. Recently, just like other countries, in Mexico, terrestrial digital television has been implemented (analogic shutdown; as a consequence, the 700 MHz UFH Band (698–806 MHz has been opened to new telecommunications services, particularly wireless mobile communication. This technological advance represents a radio mobile antenna design challenge because it is necessary to design an antenna whose dimensions must be small enough, which satisfies gain, resonance frequency, and bandwidth requirements and is of low cost.

  2. Investigations in a drift chamber using 250 MHz analogue-digital-converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharf, F.A.

    1993-06-01

    The performance of a new 250 MHz FADC module was investigated in a small drift chamber system. Straight tracks were induced in the chamber volume by UV-LASER beams. The time resolution was determined from drift time measurements for four neighbouring signal wires. By use of a beam splitter a pair of parallel beams was produced. An appropriate rotation of this pair relative to the signal wire plane allowed the determination of the double hit resolution. A comparison of the obtained values with the results achieved with 100 MHz FADC modules showed that the new module is well suited for chamber read out. The attainable improvements however are small. (orig.) [de

  3. The Phase Servo Tuner Control system of the ALS 500 MHz cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.; Taylor, B.

    1993-05-01

    Three 500 MHz cavities are used in the Booster and Storage Ring of the Advanced Light Source (ALS). Due to different varying parameters, a control system is required to keep the cavities in tune during operation. The tuning of the 500 MHz cavity is achieved by detecting the phase error between the drive signal and the cavity probe signal. The error signal is amplified and used to drive a stepping motor which in turn moves a metallic cylinder in or out of the cavity to achieve tuning

  4. Production of narrowband tunable extreme-ultraviolet radiation by noncollinear resonance-enhanced four-wave mixing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannemann, S.; Hollenstein, U.; van Duijn, E.J.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Fourier-transform-limited extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation (bandwidth ≲300 MHz) tunable around 91 nm is produced by use of two-photon resonance-enhanced four-wave mixing on the Kr resonance at 94 093 cm

  5. Winter habitat use of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina fitted with Fastloc™GPS/GSM tags in two tidal bays in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Vincent

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter movements and habitat use of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina were investigated in two tidal bays in France, at the southern limit of their species range in the Northeast Atlantic. We fitted 15 seals with Fastloc™GPS/GSMtags in the Baie du Mont-Saint-Michel (BMSM and the Baie des Veys (BDV. Tags relayed 20.6±7.1 GPS locations per seal-day, 81% of all dives performed by the seals and 87% of haulouts, during an average tracking duration of 108±56 days. One seal travelled 380 km away from the BMSM but the other seals remained stationary, with 95% and 55% of at-sea locations ≤ 5 km from the haulout sites in BMSM and BDV respectively. Home range sizes were 137 and 161 km² in BMSM and BDV, and core areas’ sizes, 35 and 22 km² respectively. The seals remained very coastally in both sites with 93% and 71% of at-sea locations located in the intertidal zone of BMSM and BDV respectively. Accordingly, dives were shallow with 63% and 61% of dive maximum depths <4 m and 94% and 88% <10 m (in BMSM and BDV respectively. Preferred foraging areas were located in tidal channels in BMSM, sometimes in the vicinity of rocks or mussel farms. In BDV one seal made foraging trips 10-15 km offshore but all other seals repeatedly used coastal areas, often foraging around mussel farms, shipwrecks or intertidal rocks in tidal currents. We suggest that the importance of the tides combined with local features of the topography allow seals to predict prey availability, driving their foraging strategies towards a number of specific coastal areas. These results further illustrate the behavioural plasticity of the species according to habitat and environmental conditions. Fastloc™ GPS/GSM telemetry is particularly well adapted for the study of seals’ habitat use at a fine geographical and temporal scale, as long as they occasionally come close to shore within GSM coverage.

  6. Measurement and analysis of electromagnetic pollution generated by GSM-900 mobile phone networks in Erciyes University, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgucu, Ugur; Develi, Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Mobile phones are becoming increasingly important in our everyday lives. The rising number of mobile phones reflects a similar increase in the number of base stations. Because of this rapid evolution, the establishment and planning of new base stations has become mandatory. However, the rise in the number of base stations, in terms of human health, is potentially very harmful. It is important to analyze the radiation levels of base stations until we can confirm that they are definitely not harmful in the long term. Mapping of electromagnetic field (EMF) is also important from a medical point of view because it provides useful information, for example, on the detection of diseases caused by EMF. With the help of this information the distribution of diseases over different regions can be obtained. In this article, the electromagnetic radiation levels of base stations were measured at 80 different points in Erciyes University (ERU), Turkey and detailed information about the measurement tools and measurement method were given. It was observed that no area in ERU exceeded the national and international limits. It is also observed that the effects of base stations vary according to duration and degree of exposure. Therefore, if people are exposed to a very low-intensity electromagnetic field for a very long time, serious health problems can occur.

  7. 47 CFR 15.250 - Operation of wideband systems within the band 5925-7250 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of wideband systems within the band 5925-7250 MHz. (a) The −10 dB bandwidth of a device operating... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of wideband systems within the band... variations in temperature and supply voltage. (b) The −10 dB bandwidth of the fundamental emission shall be...

  8. Design of 57.5 MHz CW RFQ structure for the Rare Isotope ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility includes a driver LINAC for production of 400 kW CW heavy-ion beams. The initial acceleration of heavy ions delivered from an ECR ion source can be effectively performed by a 57.5 MHz 4 m long RFQ. The principal specifications of the RFQ are: (1) formation of extremely low ...

  9. Limits on fast radio bursts at 145 MHz with ARTEMIS, a real-time software backend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karastergiou, A.; Chennamangalam, J.; Armour, W.; Williams, C.; Mort, B.; Dulwich, F.; Salvini, S.; Magro, A.; Roberts, S.; Serylak, M.; Doo, A.; Bilous, A.V.; Breton, R.P.; Falcke, H.; Grießmeier, J.M.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Keane, E.F.; Kondratiev, V.I.; Kramer, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; Noutsos, A.; Osłowski, S.; Sobey, C.; Stappers, B.W.; Weltevrede, P.

    2015-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond radio signals that exhibit dispersion larger than what the Galactic electron density can account for. We have conducted a 1446 h survey for FRBs at 145 MHz, covering a total of 4193 deg2 on the sky. We used the UK station of the low frequency array (LOFAR)

  10. 47 CFR 22.603 - 488-494 MHz fixed service in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 488-494 MHz fixed service in Hawaii. 22.603 Section 22.603 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... fixed service in Hawaii. Before filing applications for authorization of inter-island control and/or...

  11. Measurements on the SPS 200 MHz Travelling Wave Cavity towards an Impedance Model

    CERN Document Server

    Roggen, Toon; Caspers, Fritz; Vollinger, Christine; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    This note discusses the contribution of the SPS 200 MHz TWC (Travelling Wave Cavity) to the SPS longitudinal impedance model. The measurement method and setup is briefly explained and a comparison with simulations is discussed for both the fundamental pass band (FPB) as well as the Higher Order Modes (HOMs). In addition a number of improvements to the measurement setup are discussed.

  12. Conformational studies on pertrimethylsilyl derivatives of some mono- and disaccharides by 220 MHz PMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Streefkerk, D.G.; Bie, M.J.A. de

    1973-01-01

    The complete interpretation of 220 MHz PMR spectra and the accurate chemical shifts and coupling constants, obtained after computer simulation of the spectra, of a number of TMS-mono and -disaccharides are given. By means of an adapted Karplus equation the conformation of the derivatives has been

  13. Nouvelle application de control des cavités 200 MHz RF du PS (CERN)

    CERN Document Server

    Cotte, D

    2011-01-01

    Le système Radio Fréquence (RF) 200MHz du PS est un outil essentiel pour la préparation des faisceaux haute intensité du PS. Dans l’anneau PS on trouve 6 cavités 200 MHz utilisées pour contrôler : • l’émittance longitudinale des « bunches » • le processus de « Rebunching » du faisceau avant de l’envoyer au SPS. Chaque cavité est pilotée par des événements appelés « timing » et suit une fonction de tension programmée. Cependant, l’électronique utilisée pour piloter les cavités 200 MHz du PS est obsolète et sa fiabilité non garantie pour cause du manque de pièces de rechange. Ce document décrit le fonctionnement du nouveau programme d’application qui fait abstraction de l’ancienne matrice hardware. Elle suit les recommandations décrites dans l’étude d’une nouvelle structure pour le système RF 200MHz du PS. [1

  14. Structural analysis of the carbohydrate chains of glycoproteins by 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutsaers, J.H.G.M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with the structural analysis by 500-MHz 1 H-NMR spectroscopy of carbohydrate chains obtained from glycoproteins. In the chapters 1 to 6 the structural analysis of N-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains is described. The chapters 7 to 10 describe the structural analysis of O-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains. 381 refs.; 44 figs.; 24 tabs.; 7 schemes

  15. A 100 MHz synchronized OEIC photoreceiver in n-well, CMOS technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamel, Ayadi; Danielsen, Per Lander

    1998-01-01

    We analyze and demonstrate a synchronized CMOS photoreceiver for the conversion of optical inputs of pulse-light to electronic digital signals. Small-signal and photonic analysis of the proposed circuit are detailed. The photoreceiver was operated at 100 MHz with only 13.3 fJ/pulse of 830-nm inpu...

  16. A 10.7 MHz CMOS SC radio IF filter using orthogonal hardware modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quinn, P.J.; Hartingsveldt, van K.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    FM radio receivers require an IF filter for channel selection, customarily set at an IF center frequency of 10.7 MHz. Up until now, the limitations of integrated radio selectivity filters in terms of power dissipation, dynamic range, and cost are such that it is still required to use an external

  17. Characterization of Definity™ Ultrasound Contrast Agent at Frequency Range of 5–15 MHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faez, Telli; Goertz, David; de Jong, N.

    2011-01-01

    The status of vasa vasorum, which can be imaged using ultrasound contrast agents, is an indication for the progression of atherosclerosis. The preferred ultrasound frequency for this purpose is between 5 and 15 MHz. Therefore, it is essential to have knowledge about the acoustic properties of

  18. Coupler Development and Gap Field Analysis for the 352 MHz Superconducting CH-Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Liebermann, H; Ratzinger, U; Sauer, A C

    2004-01-01

    The cross-bar H-type (CH) cavity is a multi-gap drift tube structure based on the H-210 mode currently under development at IAP Frankfurt and in collaboration with GSI. Numerical simulations and rf model measurements showed that the CH-type cavity is an excellent candidate to realize s.c. multi-cell structures ranging from the RFQ exit energy up to the injection energy into elliptical multi-cell cavities. The reasonable frequency range is from about 150 MHz up to 800 MHz. A 19-cell, β=0.1, 352 MHz, bulk niobium prototype cavity is under development at the ACCEL-Company, Bergisch-Gladbach. This paper will present detailed MicroWave Studio simulations and measurements for the coupler development of the 352 MHz superconducting CH cavity. It will describe possibilities for coupling into the superconducting CH-Cavity. The development of the coupler is supported by measurement on a room temperature CH-copper model. We will present the first results of the measurements of different couplers, e.g. capacitiv...

  19. Multi scale modeling of 2450MHz electric field effects on microtubule mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setayandeh, S S; Lohrasebi, A

    2016-11-01

    Microtubule (MT) rigidity and response to 2450MHz electric fields were investigated, via multi scale modeling approach. For this purpose, six systems were designed and simulated to consider all types of feasible interactions between α and β monomers in MT, by using all atom molecular dynamics method. Subsequently, coarse grain modeling was used to design different lengths of MT. Investigation of effects of external 2450MHz electric field on MT showed MT less rigidity in the presence of such field, which may perturb its functions. Moreover, an additional computational setup was designed to study effects of 2450MHz field on MT response to AFM tip. It was found, more tip velocity led to MT faster transformation and less time was required to change MT elastic response to plastic one, applying constant radius. Moreover it was observed smaller tip caused to increase required time to change MT elastic response to plastic one, considering constant velocity. Furthermore, exposing MT to 2450MHz field led to no significant changes in MT response to AFM tip, but quick change in MT elastic response to plastic one. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A search for interplanetary scintillation of Cygnus A at 81.5 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsien, S.C.; Duffett-Smith, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    IPS observations of Cygnus A at 81.5 MHz with the Cambridge 3.6-hectare array set an upper limit on the scintillation of 0.07 per cent of the total flux density. This suggests that the hotspots seen at high frequencies are much less prominent at low frequencies. (author)

  1. 78 FR 66298 - Promoting Interoperability in the 700 MHz Commercial Spectrum; Requests for Waiver and Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... when the two operators use the same 2G and 3G technologies and bands), and Band Class 12 devices and... Lower 700 MHz band to improve choice and quality for consumers of mobile services. The Commission... an efficient and effective manner to improve choice and quality for consumers of mobile services. A...

  2. Use of the North Sea by harbour seal with special emphasis on the Horns Reef area. Test of prototype GPS/GSM-transmitter on harbour seals in the Sealarium Esbjerg[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, S.; Tougaard, J.

    2004-04-15

    A combined GPS-receiver and GSM mobile phone transmitter designed for deployment on wild seals was tested on a captive harbour seal. The unit has been under development in recent years and consists of a GPS-unit for positioning and a GSM mobile phone unit for transmission of logged positions to land. The test took place in the Sealarium at the Fisheries and Maritime Museum, Esbjerg. The unit was glued onto the fur on the head of the seal, where it stayed on for 13 days. Only one position was acquired by the unit and it failed to connect to the GSM-net during the test. Technical information from the constructor of the unit is not available and it is thus not possible to conclude on the reasons why the unit did not function as intended. The behaviour of the seal can however, be ruled out, as close observation and registration of the seals dive behaviour during the first days of deployment showed that the unit was free of the water for sufficiently long periods for positions to be acquired. (au)

  3. Use of the North Sea by harbour seal with special emphasis on the Horns Reef area. Test of prototype GPS/GSM-transmitter on harbour seals in the Sealarium Esbjerg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, S.; Tougaard, J.

    2004-04-01

    A combined GPS-receiver and GSM mobile phone transmitter designed for deployment on wild seals was tested on a captive harbour seal. The unit has been under development in recent years and consists of a GPS-unit for positioning and a GSM mobile phone unit for transmission of logged positions to land. The test took place in the Sealarium at the Fisheries and Maritime Museum, Esbjerg. The unit was glued onto the fur on the head of the seal, where it stayed on for 13 days. Only one position was acquired by the unit and it failed to connect to the GSM-net during the test. Technical information from the constructor of the unit is not available and it is thus not possible to conclude on the reasons why the unit did not function as intended. The behaviour of the seal can however, be ruled out, as close observation and registration of the seals dive behaviour during the first days of deployment showed that the unit was free of the water for sufficiently long periods for positions to be acquired. (au)

  4. Ilımlaştırıcı Değişken Olarak Değiştirme Maliyetinin Müşteri Sadakati Üzerindeki Etkisi: Türk GSM Sektöründe Bir Uygulama(As A Moderator Variable The Effect Of Switching Cost On Customer Loyalty: A Case In The Turkish Gsm Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AYDIN

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently customer loyalty has appeared as a factor for obtaining sustainable competitive advantage. A firm, desiring to customers’ loyalty, should provide customer satisfaction and acquire its customers’ trust. On the other hand, though customer switching cost has a potential importance for loyalty, it’s seen that studies about the effect of customer switching cost on loyalty have been very limited. In this context, current study’s aim is to examine the customer switching costs’ effect on loyalty in GSM sector. For this reason, data, containing 1662 GSM users, was formed via questionnaire. Findings, obtained analyzing of data with regression analysis, shows that customer switching cost plays a significant role (moderator effect in positive effect of both customer satisfaction and trust on loyalty

  5. GSM技术在煤矿供电的应用%Application of GSM Technology in Power Supply in Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁小东

    2011-01-01

    现代开采技术的应用,为煤矿传统的供电提出新的要求.在偏远的地区进行变电站远控与维修带来难题,有线通讯随着箱式变电站的移动出现重复投资.本文利用西门子公司的GSM模块TC35结合SCADA系统,实现变电站短消息自动数据传输与报警系统的无线通讯.为变电站实现“无人值班”提供了一种新的技术支持.%The application of the modem mining technology put forward new requirements for traditional power supply of coal mine and also brought with problems for remote control and maintenance of substation in a remote region. Repeated investment of wired communications appeared with the shift of compact substations mobile. This paper realized wireless communication of short message automatic data transmission and alarm system by using the Siemens Company's GSM module TC35 and combining with the SCADA system, and provided a new technical support for "the unattended operation" of the substation.

  6. GSM SiNYALLERİNİN .IP OMURGASI İİZERiNI>E TAŞINMASI (SS7 OVER IP- NettcSS7)

    OpenAIRE

    Tülü, Çağatay Neftali; Demirkol, Aşkın

    2003-01-01

    Bu çalışmada günümüzün en popüler nıobilhaberleşme sistemi olan GSM [1 l sisteminin, kendiöğeleri aras1ndaki en temel sinyalleşme sistemi olannumara 7 (SS7 [2) ) sinyallerinin, günümüzün enyaygın iletim omurgast olan ve tüm dünyadakibilgisayarları birbirine bağlayan IP (3] omurgasıüzerinden taşınabilmesi için gerekli si stemin tasar11n1ve gerçeklenınesi üzerinde çahş1lmtştır. Klasil\\ SS7iletimine göre en büyül< faydası çok düşül{ maliyetiolan bu sistem sayesinde, dünyadaki b i r çok GS...

  7. Initial Tuning Sebagai Salah Satu Metode Pengoptimalan New Site Pada Jaringan Seluler Gsm (Studi Kasus Pada Area Kerja Pt. Sinergi Telecom Under Ericsson Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesti Susilawati

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of new sites by telecommunication network operator, especially GSM network, purposes for more increase performance and give satisfy for consument. Performance of a site is most affecting for value of network quality totally. New site builded must be monitorized and optimized by its existing in order to can be more realible on serving society with the method that was mentioned “initial tuning activity”. On this method must be concerned some matter as like: application of accurate frequency for avoiding interference problem, creating neighbour relationship between ex isting site and new site, detection for faulth installation for arranging re-use frequency concept, setting accurate coverage, olso changing tilt angle for accurate main beam area. This arrangement must be conditioned on a new site that still “default”, so it can improve quality. On operator side, they have some criteria that must be passed by a new site. Initial tuning activity on Site Simpang RGM had been proved on passing  that site from recommended criteria, olso being totally indicated more increase pe rformance of network

  8. Global modelling study (GSM TIP of the ionospheric effects of excited N2, convection and heat fluxes by comparison with EISCAT and satellite data for 31 July 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Smilauer

    Full Text Available Near-earth plasma parameters were calculated using a global numerical self-consistent and time-dependent model of the thermosphere, ionosphere and protonosphere (GSM TIP. The model results are compared with experimental data of different origin, mainly EISCAT measurements and simultaneous satellite data (Ne and ion composition. Model runs with varying inputs of auroral FAC distributions, temperature of vibrationally excited nitrogen and photoelectron energy escape fluxes are used to make adjustments to the observations. The satellite data are obtained onboard Active and its subsatellite Magion-2 when they passed nearby the EISCAT station around 0325 and 1540 UT on 31 July 1990 at a height of about 2000 and 2200 km, respectively. A strong geomagnetic disturbance was observed two days before the period under study. Numerical calculations were performed with consideration of vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules for high solar-activity conditions. The results show good agreement between the incoherent-scatter radar measurements (Ne, Te, Ti and model calculations, taking into account the excited molecular nitrogen reaction rates. The comparison of model results of the thermospheric neutral wind shows finally a good agreement with the HWM93 empirical wind model.

  9. A Methodology for Measuring Voice Quality Using PESQ and Interactive Voice Response in the GSM Channel Designed by OpenBTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Partila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a methodology for rating the quality of mobile calls. Majority telecommunications service from the perspective of the whole world is using mobile telephony networks. One of the problems affecting this service and its quality are landscape barriers, which prevent the spread signal. Price and complex construction of classic BTS does not allow their dense distribution. In such cases, one solution is to use OpenBTS technology. Design of OpenBTS is more available, so it can be applied to much more places and more complex points. Purpose of this measurement is a model for effective stations deployment, due to shape and distribution of local barriers that reduce signal power, and thus the quality of speech. GSM access point for our mobile terminals is OpenBTS USRP N210 station. The PESQ method for evaluating of speech quality is compared with the subjective evaluation, which provides Asterisk PBX with IVR call back. Measurement method was taken into account the call quality depending on terminal position. The measured results and its processing bring knowledge to use this technology for more complicated locations with degraded signal level and increases the quality of voice services in telecommunications.

  10. Global modelling study (GSM TIP of the ionospheric effects of excited N2, convection and heat fluxes by comparison with EISCAT and satellite data for 31 July 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Korenkov

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Near-earth plasma parameters were calculated using a global numerical self-consistent and time-dependent model of the thermosphere, ionosphere and protonosphere (GSM TIP. The model results are compared with experimental data of different origin, mainly EISCAT measurements and simultaneous satellite data (Ne and ion composition. Model runs with varying inputs of auroral FAC distributions, temperature of vibrationally excited nitrogen and photoelectron energy escape fluxes are used to make adjustments to the observations. The satellite data are obtained onboard Active and its subsatellite Magion-2 when they passed nearby the EISCAT station around 0325 and 1540 UT on 31 July 1990 at a height of about 2000 and 2200 km, respectively. A strong geomagnetic disturbance was observed two days before the period under study. Numerical calculations were performed with consideration of vibrationally excited nitrogen molecules for high solar-activity conditions. The results show good agreement between the incoherent-scatter radar measurements (Ne, Te, Ti and model calculations, taking into account the excited molecular nitrogen reaction rates. The comparison of model results of the thermospheric neutral wind shows finally a good agreement with the HWM93 empirical wind model.

  11. Analysis and design of a high-linearity receiver RF front-end with an improved 25%-duty-cycle LO generator for WCDMA/GSM applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Song; Li Weinan; Huang Yumei; Hong Zhiliang

    2012-01-01

    A fully integrated receiver RF front-end that meets WCDMA/GSM system requirements is presented. It supports SAW-less operation for WCDMA. To improve the linearity in terms of both IP3 and IP2, the RF front-end is comprised of multiple-gated LNAs with capacitive desensitization, current-mode passive mixers with the proposed IP2 calibration circuit and reconfigurable Tow-Thomas-like biquad TIAs. A new power-saving multi-mode divider with low phase noise is proposed to provide the 4-phase 25%-duty-cycle LO. In addition, a constant-g m biasing with a non-chip resistor is adopted to make the conversion gain invulnerable to the process and temperature variations of the transimpedance. This RF front-end is integrated in a receiver with an on-chip frequency synthesizer in 0.13 μm CMOS. The measurement results show that owing to this high-linearity RF front-end, the receiver achieves −6 dBm IIP3 and better than +60 dBm IIP2 for all modes and bands. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. The Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated from 1800 MHz Cell Phones on Erythrocyte Rheological Parameters and Zinc Level in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Divrikli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the electromagnetic field generated from the 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation (EF on erythrocyte rheological parameters and erythrocyte zinc levels. Material and Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar Albino rats were randomly grouped as follows: 1 two control groups and 2 study groups: i Group A: EF exposed group (2.5 h/day for 30 days, the phone on stand-by, and ii Group B: EF exposed group (2.5 min/day for 30 days, the phone ringing in silent mode. At the end of the experimental period erythrocyte rheological parameters such as erythrocyte deformability and aggregation were determined by an ectacytometer. Erythrocyte zinc level, which affects hemorheological parameters, was also measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Erythrocyte deformability was decreased in both study groups but the decrease in group A was not statistically significant. Exposure to EF did not have any significant effect on erythrocyte aggregation. On the other hand, erythrocyte zinc level was significantly reduced in both study groups. Conclusion: Exposure to EF may have decreased tissue oxygenation due to reduced erythrocyte deformability. Decrease in erythrocyte zinc level may have caused the impairment in erythrocyte deformability.

  13. The Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated from 1800 MHz Cell Phones on Erythrocyte Rheological Parameters and Zinc Level in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erken, Gülten; Küçükatay, Melek Bor; Turgut, Sebahat; Erken, Haydar Ali; Cömlekçi, Selçuk; Divrikli, Umit; Genç, Osman

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the electromagnetic field generated from the 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation (EF) on erythrocyte rheological parameters and erythrocyte zinc levels. Twenty-four male Wistar Albino rats were randomly grouped as follows: 1) two control groups and 2) study groups: i) Group A: EF exposed group (2.5 h/day for 30 days, the phone on stand-by), and ii) Group B: EF exposed group (2.5 min/day for 30 days, the phone ringing in silent mode). At the end of the experimental period erythrocyte rheological parameters such as erythrocyte deformability and aggregation were determined by an ectacytometer. Erythrocyte zinc level, which affects hemorheological parameters, was also measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Erythrocyte deformability was decreased in both study groups but the decrease in group A was not statistically significant. Exposure to EF did not have any significant effect on erythrocyte aggregation. On the other hand, erythrocyte zinc level was significantly reduced in both study groups. Exposure to EF may have decreased tissue oxygenation due to reduced erythrocyte deformability. Decrease in erythrocyte zinc level may have caused the impairment in erythrocyte deformability.

  14. FDTD calculations of SAR for child voxel models in different postures between 10 MHz and 3 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, R P; Lee, A-K; Dimbylow, P J

    2009-08-01

    Calculations of specific energy absorption rate (SAR) have been performed on the rescaled NORMAN 7-y-old voxel model and the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) child 7-y-old voxel model in the standing arms down, arms up and sitting postures. These calculations were for plane-wave exposure under isolated and grounded conditions between 10 MHz and 3 GHz. It was found that there was little difference at each resonant frequency between the whole-body averaged SAR values calculated for the NORMAN and ETRI 7-y-old models for each of the postures studied. However, when compared with the arms down posture, raising the arms increased the SAR by up to 25%. Electric field values required to produce the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers public basic restriction were calculated, and compared with reference levels for the different child models and postures. These showed that, under certain worst-case exposure conditions, the reference levels may not be conservative.

  15. Incidence of micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to modulated and unmodulated 2450 MHz radiofrequency fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalaxmi; Reddy, Abhishek B; McKenzie, Raymond J; McIntosh, Robert L; Prihoda, Thomas J; Wood, Andrew W

    2013-10-01

    Peripheral blood samples from four healthy volunteers were collected and aliquots were exposed in vitro for 2 h to either (i) modulated (wideband code division multiple access, WCDMA) or unmodulated continuous wave (CW) 2450 MHz radiofrequency (RF) fields at an average specific absorption rate of 10.9 W/kg or (ii) sham-exposed. Aliquots of the same samples that were exposed in vitro to an acute dose of 1.5 Gy ionizing gamma-radiation (GR) were used as positive controls. Half of the aliquots were treated with melatonin (Mel) to investigate if such treatment offers protection to the cells from the genetic damage, if any, induced by RF and GR. The cells in all samples were cultured for 72 h and the lymphocytes were examined to determine the extent of genetic damage assessed from the incidence of micronuclei (MN). The results indicated the following: (i) the incidence of MN was similar in incubator controls, and those exposed to RF/sham and Mel alone; (ii) there were no significant differences between WCDMA and CW RF exposures; (iii) positive control cells exposed to GR alone exhibited significantly increased MN; and (iv) Mel treatment had no effect on cells exposed to RF and sham, while such treatment significantly reduced the frequency of MN in GR-exposed cells. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. 47 CFR 25.252 - Special requirements for ancillary terrestrial components operating in the 2000-2020 MHz/2180...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., including takeoff and landing paths. (5) Exceed an aggregate power flux density of −51.8 dBW/m2 in a 1.23 MHz bandwidth at all airport runways and aircraft stand areas, including takeoff and landing paths and...) Be located less than 820 meters from a U.S. Earth Station facility operating in the 2200-2290 MHz...

  17. 75 FR 9586 - Solicitation of Participation In and Public Meeting to Discuss Public Safety 700 MHz Broadband...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... to local, state and tribal public safety agencies (i.e. fire, police, emergency medical services...\\ Implementing a Nationwide, Broadband, Interoperable Public Safety Network in the 700 MHz Band, FCC WT Docket No... technology deployed in the 700 MHz bands, specific to the needs of public safety agencies. NIST has developed...

  18. 47 CFR 95.1119 - Specific requirements for wireless medical telemetry devices operating in the 608-614 MHz band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... devices operating in the 608-614 MHz band. For a wireless medical telemetry device operating within the... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specific requirements for wireless medical telemetry devices operating in the 608-614 MHz band. 95.1119 Section 95.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL...

  19. SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS OF GIANT PULSES FROM PULSAR PSR B0031-07 AT 38 AND 74 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Jr-Wei; Simonetti, John H.; Bear, Brandon [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Gough, Jonathan D. [Department of Chemistry, Lehman College, CUNY, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Newton, Joseph R. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912 (United States); Kavic, Michael [Department of Physics, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The first station of the Long Wavelength Array was used to study PSR B0031-07 with simultaneous observations at 38 and 74 MHz. We found that 158 (0.35%) of the observed pulses at 38 MHz and 221 (0.49%) of the observed pulses at 74 MHz qualified as giant pulses (GPs) in a total of 12 hr of observations. GPs are defined as having flux densities of a factor of ≥90 times that of an average pulse (AP) at 38 MHz and ≥80 times that of an AP at 74 MHz. The cumulative distribution of pulse strength follows a power law, with an index of −4.2 at 38 MHz and −4.9 at 74 MHz. This distribution has a much more gradual slope than would be expected if observing the tail of a Gaussian distribution of normal pulses. The dispersion measure (DM) value which resulted in the largest signal to noise for dedispersed pulses was DM = 10.9 pc cm{sup −3}. No other transient pulses were detected in the data in the wide DM range from 1 to 5000 pc cm{sup −3}. There were 12 GPs detected within the same period from both 38 and 74 MHz, meaning that the majority of them are not generated in a wide band.

  20. A high dynamic range programmable CMOS front-end filter with a tuning range from 1850 to 2400 MHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kåre Tais; Lee, Thomas H.; Bruun, Erik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a highly programmable front-end filter and amplifier intended to replace SAW filters and low noise amplifiers (LNA) in multi-mode direct conversion radio receivers. The filter has a 42 MHz bandwidth, is tunable from 1850 to 2400 MHz, achieves a 5.8 dB NF, -25 dBm in-band 1-d...