Sample records for mhd turbulence simulations

  1. Final Report: "Large-Eddy Simulation of Anisotropic MHD Turbulence"

    Zikanov, Oleg


    To acquire better understanding of turbulence in flows of liquid metals and other electrically conducting fluids in the presence of steady magnetic fields and to develop an accurate and physically adequate LES (large-eddy simulation) model for such flows. The scientific objectives formulated in the project proposal have been fully completed. Several new directions were initiated and advanced in the course of work. Particular achievements include a detailed study of transformation of turbulence caused by the imposed magnetic field, development of an LES model that accurately reproduces this transformation, and solution of several fundamental questions of the interaction between the magnetic field and fluid flows. Eight papers have been published in respected peer-reviewed journals, with two more papers currently undergoing review, and one in preparation for submission. A post-doctoral researcher and a graduate student have been trained in the areas of MHD, turbulence research, and computational methods. Close collaboration ties have been established with the MHD research centers in Germany and Belgium.

  2. MHD turbulence and distributed chaos

    Bershadskii, A


    It is shown, using results of recent direct numerical simulations, that spectral properties of distributed chaos in MHD turbulence with zero mean magnetic field are similar to those of hydrodynamic turbulence. An exception is MHD spontaneous breaking of space translational symmetry, when the stretched exponential spectrum $\\exp(-k/k_{\\beta})^{\\beta}$ has $\\beta=4/7$.

  3. Cosmic-ray pitch-angle scattering in imbalanced MHD turbulence simulations

    Weidl, Martin S; Teaca, Bogdan; Schlickeiser, Reinhard


    Pitch-angle scattering rates for cosmic-ray particles in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations with imbalanced turbulence are calculated for fully evolving electromagnetic turbulence. We compare with theoretical predictions derived from the quasilinear theory of cosmic-ray diffusion for an idealized slab spectrum and demonstrate how cross helicity affects the shape of the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient. Additional simulations in evolving magnetic fields or static field configurations provide evidence that the scattering anisotropy in imbalanced turbulence is not primarily due to coherence with propagating Alfven waves, but an effect of the spatial structure of electric fields in cross-helical MHD turbulence.

  4. MHD Turbulence, Turbulent Dynamo and Applications

    Beresnyak, Andrey


    MHD Turbulence is common in many space physics and astrophysics environments. We first discuss the properties of incompressible MHD turbulence. A well-conductive fluid amplifies initial magnetic fields in a process called small-scale dynamo. Below equipartition scale for kinetic and magnetic energies the spectrum is steep (Kolmogorov -5/3) and is represented by critically balanced strong MHD turbulence. In this paper we report the basic reasoning behind universal nonlinear small-scale dynamo and the inertial range of MHD turbulence. We measured the efficiency of the small-scale dynamo $C_E=0.05$, Kolmogorov constant $C_K=4.2$ and anisotropy constant $C_A=0.63$ for MHD turbulence in high-resolution direct numerical simulations. We also discuss so-called imbalanced or cross-helical MHD turbulence which is relevant for in many objects, most prominently in the solar wind. We show that properties of incompressible MHD turbulence are similar to the properties of Alfv\\'enic part of MHD cascade in compressible turbul...

  5. Sub-Alfvenic Non-Ideal MHD Turbulence Simulations with Ambipolar Diffusion: I. Turbulence Statistics

    Klein, R I; Li, P S; McKee, C F; Fisher, R


    Most numerical investigations on the role of magnetic fields in turbulent molecular clouds (MCs) are based on ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD). However, MCs are weakly ionized, so that the time scale required for the magnetic field to diffuse through the neutral component of the plasma by ambipolar diffusion (AD) can be comparable to the dynamical time scale. We have performed a series of 256{sup 3} and 512{sup 3} simulations on supersonic but sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems with AD using the Heavy-Ion Approximation developed in Li et al. (2006). Our calculations are based on the assumption that the number of ions is conserved, but we show that these results approximately apply to the case of time-dependent ionization in molecular clouds as well. Convergence studies allow us to determine the optimal value of the ionization mass fraction when using the heavy-ion approximation for low Mach number, sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems. We find that ambipolar diffusion steepens the velocity and magnetic power spectra compared to the ideal MHD case. Changes in the density PDF, total magnetic energy, and ionization fraction are determined as a function of the AD Reynolds number. The power spectra for the neutral gas properties of a strongly magnetized medium with a low AD Reynolds number are similar to those for a weakly magnetized medium; in particular, the power spectrum of the neutral velocity is close to that for Burgers turbulence.

  6. Numerical Simulations of Driven Supersonic Relativistic MHD Turbulence

    Zrake, Jonathan; 10.1063/1.3621748


    Models for GRB outflows invoke turbulence in relativistically hot magnetized fluids. In order to investigate these conditions we have performed high-resolution three-dimensional numerical simulations of relativistic magneto-hydrodynamical (RMHD) turbulence. We find that magnetic energy is amplified to several percent of the total energy density by turbulent twisting and folding of magnetic field lines. Values of epsilon_B near 1% are thus naturally expected. We study the dependence of saturated magnetic field energy fraction as a function of Mach number and relativistic temperature. We then present power spectra of the turbulent kinetic and magnetic energies. We also present solenoidal (curl-like) and dilatational (divergence-like) power spectra of kinetic energy. We propose that relativistic effects introduce novel couplings between these spectral components. The case we explore in most detail is for equal amounts of thermal and rest mass energy, corresponding to conditions after collisions of shells with re...

  7. Sub-Alfvenic Non-Ideal MHD Turbulence Simulations with Ambipolar Diffusion: I. Turbulence Statistics

    Li, Pak Shing; Klein, Richard I; Fisher, Robert T


    Most numerical investigations on the role of magnetic fields in turbulent molecular clouds (MCs) are based on ideal magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD). However, MCs are weakly ionized, so that the time scale required for the magnetic field to diffuse through the neutral component of the plasma by ambipolar diffusion (AD) can be comparable to the dynamical time scale. We have performed a series of 256^3 and 512^3 simulations on supersonic but sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems with AD using the Heavy-Ion Approximation developed in Li, McKee, & Klein (2006). Our calculations are based on the assumption that the number of ions is conserved, but we show that these results approximately apply to the case of time-dependent ionization in molecular clouds as well. Convergence studies allow us to determine the optimal value of the ionization mass fraction when using the heavy-ion approximation for low Mach number, sub-Alfvenic turbulent systems. We find that ambipolar diffusion steepens the velocity and magnetic power spectr...


    Franci, Luca; Verdini, Andrea; Landi, Simone [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Matteini, Lorenzo [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hellinger, Petr [Astronomical Institute, AS CR, Bocni II/1401, CZ-14100 Prague (Czech Republic)


    We present results from a high-resolution and large-scale hybrid (fluid electrons and particle-in-cell protons) two-dimensional numerical simulation of decaying turbulence. Two distinct spectral regions (separated by a smooth break at proton scales) develop with clear power-law scaling, each one occupying about a decade in wavenumbers. The simulation results simultaneously exhibit several properties of the observed solar wind fluctuations: spectral indices of the magnetic, kinetic, and residual energy spectra in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) inertial range along with a flattening of the electric field spectrum, an increase in magnetic compressibility, and a strong coupling of the cascade with the density and the parallel component of the magnetic fluctuations at sub-proton scales. Our findings support the interpretation that in the solar wind, large-scale MHD fluctuations naturally evolve beyond proton scales into a turbulent regime that is governed by the generalized Ohm’s law.

  9. Alignment of Velocity and Magnetic Fluctuations in Simulations of Anisotropic MHD Turbulence

    Ng, C. S.; Bhattacharjee, A.


    There has been recent theoretical interest in the effect of the alignment of velocity and magnetic fluctuations in three-dimensional (3D) MHD turbulence with a large-scale magnetic field [Boldyrev 2005, 2006]. This theory predicts that the angle θ between the velocity and magnetic fluctuation vectors has a scaling of θ&1/4circ;, where λ is the spatial scale of the fluctuations. There have also been simulations on 3D forced MHD turbulence that supports this prediction [Mason et al. 2006, 2007]. The scaling has also been tested against observations of solar wind turbulence [Podesta et al. 2007]. We report here simulation results based on decaying 2D turbulence. The scaling of θ&1/4circ; and Iroshnikov-Kraichnan scaling has also been observed within a range of time interval and spatial scales, despite the fact that Boldyrev's theory was developed for fully 3D turbulence in the presence of a strong external field. As the external field is reduced in magnitude and becomes comparable to the magnitude of magnetic fluctuations or lower, the scale-dependent alignment is weakened. Implications for observations of solar wind turbulence will be discussed.

  10. Turbulent Kinetic Energy Spectra of Solar Convection from NST Observations and Realistic MHD Simulations

    Kitiashvili, I N; Goode, P R; Kosovichev, A G; Lele, S K; Mansour, N N; Wray, A A; Yurchyshyn, V B


    Turbulent properties of the quiet Sun represent the basic state of surface conditions, and a background for various processes of solar activity. Therefore understanding of properties and dynamics of this `basic' state is important for investigation of more complex phenomena, formation and development of observed phenomena in the photosphere and atmosphere. For characterization of the turbulent properties we compare kinetic energy spectra on granular and sub-granular scales obtained from infrared TiO observations with the New Solar Telescope (Big Bear Solar Observatory) and from 3D radiative MHD numerical simulations ('SolarBox' code). We find that the numerical simulations require a high spatial resolution with 10 - 25 km grid-step in order to reproduce the inertial (Kolmogorov) turbulence range. The observational data require an averaging procedure to remove noise and potential instrumental artifacts. The resulting kinetic energy spectra show a good agreement between the simulations and observations, opening...

  11. MHD Turbulence and Magnetic Dynamos

    Shebalin, John V


    Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and magnetic dynamos, which occur in magnetofluids with large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers, will be discussed. When Reynolds numbers are large and energy decays slowly, the distribution of energy with respect to length scale becomes quasi-stationary and MHD turbulence can be described statistically. In the limit of infinite Reynolds numbers, viscosity and resistivity become zero and if these values are used in the MHD equations ab initio, a model system called ideal MHD turbulence results. This model system is typically confined in simple geometries with some form of homogeneous boundary conditions, allowing for velocity and magnetic field to be represented by orthogonal function expansions. One advantage to this is that the coefficients of the expansions form a set of nonlinearly interacting variables whose behavior can be described by equilibrium statistical mechanics, i.e., by a canonical ensemble theory based on the global invariants (energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity) of ideal MHD turbulence. Another advantage is that truncated expansions provide a finite dynamical system whose time evolution can be numerically simulated to test the predictions of the associated statistical mechanics. If ensemble predictions are the same as time averages, then the system is said to be ergodic; if not, the system is nonergodic. Although it had been implicitly assumed in the early days of ideal MHD statistical theory development that these finite dynamical systems were ergodic, numerical simulations provided sufficient evidence that they were, in fact, nonergodic. Specifically, while canonical ensemble theory predicted that expansion coefficients would be (i) zero-mean random variables with (ii) energy that decreased with length scale, it was found that although (ii) was correct, (i) was not and the expected ergodicity was broken. The exact cause of this broken ergodicity was explained, after much

  12. A parallel implementation of an MHD code for the simulation of mechanically driven, turbulent dynamos in spherical geometry

    Reuter, K.; Jenko, F.; Forest, C. B.; Bayliss, R. A.


    A parallel implementation of a nonlinear pseudo-spectral MHD code for the simulation of turbulent dynamos in spherical geometry is reported. It employs a dual domain decomposition technique in both real and spectral space. It is shown that this method shows nearly ideal scaling going up to 128 CPUs on Beowulf-type clusters with fast interconnect. Furthermore, the potential of exploiting single precision arithmetic on standard x86 processors is examined. It is pointed out that the MHD code thereby achieves a maximum speedup of 1.7, whereas the validity of the computations is still granted. The combination of both measures will allow for the direct numerical simulation of highly turbulent cases ( 1500


    Malapaka, Shiva Kumar; Mueller, Wolf-Christian [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)


    Statistical properties of the Sun's photospheric turbulent magnetic field, especially those of the active regions (ARs), have been studied using the line-of-sight data from magnetograms taken by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and several other instruments. This includes structure functions and their exponents, flatness curves, and correlation functions. In these works, the dependence of structure function exponents ({zeta}{sub p}) of the order of the structure functions (p) was modeled using a non-intermittent K41 model. It is now well known that the ARs are highly turbulent and are associated with strong intermittent events. In this paper, we compare some of the observations from Abramenko et al. with the log-Poisson model used for modeling intermittent MHD turbulent flows. Next, we analyze the structure function data obtained from the direct numerical simulations (DNS) of homogeneous, incompressible 3D-MHD turbulence in three cases: sustained by forcing, freely decaying, and a flow initially driven and later allowed to decay (case 3). The respective DNS replicate the properties seen in the plots of {zeta}{sub p} against p of ARs. We also reproduce the trends and changes observed in intermittency in flatness and correlation functions of ARs. It is suggested from this analysis that an AR in the onset phase of a flare can be treated as a forced 3D-MHD turbulent system in its simplest form and that the flaring stage is representative of decaying 3D-MHD turbulence. It is also inferred that significant changes in intermittency from the initial onset phase of a flare to its final peak flaring phase are related to the time taken by the system to reach the initial onset phase.

  14. Dipole Alignment in Rotating MHD Turbulence

    Shebalin, John V.; Fu, Terry; Morin, Lee


    We present numerical results from long-term CPU and GPU simulations of rotating, homogeneous, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, and discuss their connection to the spherically bounded case. We compare our numerical results with a statistical theory of geodynamo action that has evolved from the absolute equilibrium ensemble theory of ideal MHD turbulence, which is based on the ideal MHD invariants are energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity. However, for rotating MHD turbulence, the cross helicity is no longer an exact invariant, although rms cross helicity becomes quasistationary during an ideal MHD simulation. This and the anisotropy imposed by rotation suggests an ansatz in which an effective, nonzero value of cross helicity is assigned to axisymmetric modes and zero cross helicity to non-axisymmetric modes. This hybrid statistics predicts a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field due to broken ergodicity , as well as dipole vector alignment with the rotation axis, both of which are observed numerically. We find that only a relatively small value of effective cross helicity leads to the prediction of a dipole moment vector that is closely aligned (less than 10 degrees) with the rotation axis. We also discuss the effect of initial conditions, dissipation and grid size on the numerical simulations and statistical theory.

  15. Kinetic cascade beyond MHD of solar wind turbulence in two-dimensional hybrid simulations

    Verscharen, Daniel; Motschmann, Uwe; Müller, Joachim


    The nature of solar wind turbulence in the dissipation range at scales much smaller than the large MHD scales remains under debate. Here a two-dimensional model based on the hybrid code abbreviated as A.I.K.E.F. is presented, which treats massive ions as particles obeying the kinetic Vlasov equation and massless electrons as a neutralizing fluid. Up to a certain wavenumber in the MHD regime, the numerical system is initialized by assuming a superposition of isotropic Alfv\\'en waves with amplitudes that follow the empirically confirmed spectral law of Kolmogorov. Then turbulence develops and energy cascades into the dispersive spectral range, where also dissipative effects occur. Under typical solar wind conditions, weak turbulence develops as a superposition of normal modes in the kinetic regime. Spectral analysis in the direction parallel to the background magnetic field reveals a cascade of left-handed Alfv\\'en/ion-cyclotron waves up to wave vectors where their resonant absorption sets in, as well as a cont...

  16. A nonlinear structural subgrid-scale closure for compressible MHD Part II: a priori comparison on turbulence simulation data

    Grete, P; Schmidt, W; Schleicher, D R G


    Even though compressible plasma turbulence is encountered in many astrophysical phenomena, its effect is often not well understood. Furthermore, direct numerical simulations are typically not able to reach the extreme parameters of these processes. For this reason, large-eddy simulations (LES), which only simulate large and intermediate scales directly, are employed. The smallest, unresolved scales and the interactions between small and large scales are introduced by means of a subgrid-scale (SGS) model. We propose and verify a new set of nonlinear SGS closures for future application as an SGS model in LES of compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We use 15 simulations (without explicit SGS model) of forced, isotropic, homogeneous turbulence with varying sonic Mach number $\\mathrm{M_s} = 0.2$ to $20$ as reference data for the most extensive \\textit{a priori} tests performed so far in literature. In these tests we explicitly filter the reference data and compare the performance of the new closures against th...

  17. Direct numerical simulation of the turbulent MHD channel flow at low magnetic Reynolds number for electric correlation characteristics

    LEE; ChunHian


    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent channel flow has been performed under the low magnetic Reynolds number assumption.The velocity-electric field and electric-electric field correlations were studied in the present work for different magnetic field orientations.The Kenjeres-Hanjalic (K-H) model was validated with the DNS data in a term by term manner.The numerical results showed that the K-H model makes good predictions for most components of the velocity-electric field correlations.The mechanisms of turbulence suppression were also analyzed for different magnetic field orientations utilizing the DNS data and the K-H model.The results revealed that the dissipative MHD source term is responsible for the turbulence suppression for the case of streamwise and spanwise magnetic orientation,while the Lorentz force which speeds up the near-wall fluid and decreases the production term is responsible for the turbulence suppression for the case of the wall normal magnetic orientation.

  18. Three-Dimensional Relativistic MHD Simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability: Magnetic Field Amplification by a Turbulent Dynamo

    Zhang, Weiqun; Wang, Peng


    Magnetic field strengths inferred for relativistic outflows including gamma-ray bursts (GRB) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) are larger than naively expected by orders of magnitude. We present three-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations demonstrating amplification and saturation of magnetic field by a macroscopic turbulent dynamo triggered by the Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instability. We find rapid growth of electromagnetic energy due to the stretching and folding of field lines in the turbulent velocity field resulting from non-linear development of the instability. Using conditions relevant for GRB internal shocks and late phases of GRB afterglow, we obtain amplification of the electromagnetic energy fraction to $\\epsilon_B \\sim 5 \\times 10^{-3}$. This value decays slowly after the shear is dissipated and appears to be largely independent of the initial field strength. The conditions required for operation of the dynamo are the presence of velocity shear and some seed magnetization b...

  19. Electron MHD: dynamics and turbulence

    Lyutikov, Maxim


    (Abridged) We consider dynamics and turbulent interaction of whistler modes within the framework of inertialess electron MHD (EMHD). We argue there is no energy principle in EMHD: any stationary closed configuration is neutrally stable. We consider the turbulent cascade of whistler modes. We show that (i) harmonic whistlers are exact non-linear solutions; (ii) co-linear whistlers do not interact (including counter-propagating); (iii) waves with the same value of the wave vector, $k_1=k_2$, do not interact; (iv) whistler modes have a dispersion that allows a three-wave decay, including into a zero frequency mode; (v) the three-wave interaction effectively couples modes with highly different wave numbers and propagation angles. In addition, linear interaction of a whistler with a single zero-mode can lead to spatially divergent structures via parametric instability. All these properties are drastically different from MHD, so that the qualitative properties of the Alfven turbulence cannot be transferred to the E...

  20. A 3D MHD simulation of SN 1006: a polarized emission study for the turbulent case

    Velázquez, P. F.; Schneiter, E. M.; Reynoso, E. M.; Esquivel, A.; De Colle, F.; Toledo-Roy, J. C.; Gómez, D. O.; Sieyra, M. V.; Moranchel-Basurto, A.


    Three dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations were carried out in order to perform a new polarization study of the radio emission of the supernova remnant SN 1006. These simulations consider that the remnant expands into a turbulent interstellar medium (including both magnetic field and figuredensity perturbations). Based on the referenced-polar angle technique, a statistical study was done on observational and numerical magnetic field position-angle distributions. Our results show that a turbulent medium with an adiabatic index of 1.3 can reproduce the polarization properties of the SN 1006 remnant. This statistical study reveals itself as a useful tool for obtaining the orientation of the ambient magnetic field, previous to be swept up by the main supernova remnant shock.

  1. 3D MHD simulation of post--flare supra--arcade downflows in a turbulent current sheet medium

    Cécere, M; Costa, A; Schneiter, M


    Supra--arcade downflows (SADs) are sunward, generally dark, plasma density depletions originated above posteruption flare arcades. In this paper using 3D MHD simulations we investigate if the SAD cavities can be produced by a direct combination of the tearing mode and Kelvin--Helmholtz instabilities leading to a turbulent current sheet (CS) medium or if the current sheet is merely the background where SADs are produced triggered by an impulsive deposition of energy. We find that to give account of the observational dark lane structures an addition of local energy provided by a reconnection event is required. This local reconnection can trigger a nonlinear internal wave dynamic, generated by the bouncing and interfering of shocks and expansion waves that compose relatively stable voids.

  2. Turbulence evolution in MHD plasmas

    Wisniewski, M; Spanier, F


    Turbulence in the interstellar medium has been an active field of research in the last decade. Numerical simulations are the tool of choice in most cases. But while there are a number of simulations on the market some questions have not been answered finally. In this paper we are going to examine the influence of compressible and incompressible driving on the evolution of turbulent spectra in a number of possible interstellar medium scenarios. We conclude that the driving not only has an influence on the ratio of compressible to incompressible component but also on the anisotropy of turbulence.

  3. Cosmic ray transport in MHD turbulence

    Yan, Huirong


    Numerical simulations shed light onto earlier not trackable problem of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. They allowed to test the predictions of different models and choose the correct ones. Inevitably, this progress calls for revisions in the picture of cosmic ray (CR) transport. It also shed light on the problems with the present day numerical modeling of CR. In this paper we focus on the analytical way of describing CR propagation and scattering, which should be used in synergy with the numerical studies. In particular, we use recently established scaling laws for MHD modes to obtain the transport properties for CRs. We include nonlinear effects arising from large scale trapping, to remove the 90 degree divergence. We determine how the efficiency of the scattering and CR mean free path depend on the characteristics of ionized media, e.g. plasma $\\beta$, Coulomb collisional mean free path. Implications for particle transport in interstellar medium and solar corona are discussed. We also examine the perp...

  4. Numerical study of Cosmic Ray Diffusion in MHD turbulence

    Beresnyak, A.; Yan, H.; Lazarian, A.


    We study diffusion of Cosmic Rays (CRs) in turbulent magnetic fields using test particle simulations. Electromagnetic fields are produced in direct numerical MHD simulations of turbulence and used as an input for particle tracing, particle feedback on turbulence being ignored. Statistical transport coefficients from the test particle runs are compared with earlier analytical predictions. We find qualitative correspondence between them in various aspects of CR diffusion. In the incompressible ...

  5. MHD Turbulence in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers

    Chan, Chi-kwan


    The physical modeling of the accretion disk boundary layer, the region where the disk meets the surface of the accreting star, usually relies on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity, widely adopted in astrophysics, satisfies this assumption by construction. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability is inefficient in this inner disk region. I will discuss the results of a recent study on the generation of hydromagnetic stresses and energy density in the boundary layer around a weakly magnetized star. Our findings suggest that although magnetic energy density can be significantly amplified in this region, angular momentum transport is rather inefficient. This seems consistent with the results obtained in numerical simulations...

  6. A new Jeans resolution criterion for (M)HD simulations of self-gravitating gas: Application to magnetic field amplification by gravity-driven turbulence

    Federrath, Christoph; Schleicher, Dominik R G; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S


    Cosmic structure formation is characterized by the complex interplay between gravity, turbulence, and magnetic fields. The processes by which gravitational energy is converted into turbulent and magnetic energies, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we show with high-resolution, adaptive-mesh simulations that MHD turbulence is efficiently driven by extracting energy from the gravitational potential during the collapse of a dense gas cloud. Compressible motions generated during the contraction are converted into solenoidal, turbulent motions, leading to a natural energy ratio of E_sol/E_tot of approximately 2/3. We find that the energy injection scale of gravity-driven turbulence is close to the local Jeans scale. If small seeds of the magnetic field are present, they are amplified exponentially fast via the small-scale dynamo process. The magnetic field grows most efficiently on the smallest scales, for which the stretching, twisting, and folding of field lines, and the turbulent vortices are sufficientl...

  7. Resistive MHD jet simulations with large resistivity

    Cemeljic, Miljenko; Vlahakis, Nektarios; Tsinganos, Kanaris


    Axisymmetric resistive MHD simulations for radially self-similar initial conditions are performed, using the NIRVANA code. The magnetic diffusivity could occur in outflows above an accretion disk, being transferred from the underlying disk into the disk corona by MHD turbulence (anomalous turbulent diffusivity), or as a result of ambipolar diffusion in partially ionized flows. We introduce, in addition to the classical magnetic Reynolds number Rm, which measures the importance of resistive effects in the induction equation, a new number Rb, which measures the importance of the resistive effects in the energy equation. We find two distinct regimes of solutions in our simulations. One is the low-resistivity regime, in which results do not differ much from ideal-MHD solutions. In the high-resistivity regime, results seem to show some periodicity in time-evolution, and depart significantly from the ideal-MHD case. Whether this departure is caused by numerical or physical reasons is of considerable interest for nu...

  8. Drag reduction in turbulent MHD pipe flows

    Orlandi, P.


    This is a preliminary study devoted to verifying whether or not direct simulations of turbulent Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) flows in liquid metals reproduce experimental observations of drag reduction. Two different cases have been simulated by a finite difference scheme which is second order accurate in space and time. In the first case, an external azimuthal magnetic field is imposed. In this case, the magnetic field acts on the mean axial velocity and complete laminarization of the flow at N(sub a) = 30 has been achieved. In the second case, an axial magnetic field is imposed which affects only fluctuating velocities, and thus the action is less efficient. This second case is more practical, but comparison between numerical and experimental results is only qualitative.

  9. Planck intermediate results. XX. Comparison of polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust with simulations of MHD turbulence

    Ade, P A R; Alves, M I R; Aniano, G; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Arzoumanian, D; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bracco, A; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fanciullo, L; Ferrière, K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Guillet, V; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D L; Helou, G; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Huffenberger, K M; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Pelkonen, V -M; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Scott, D; Soler, J D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Zonca, A


    Polarized emission observed by Planck HFI at 353 GHz towards a sample of nearby fields is presented, focusing on the statistics of polarization fractions $p$ and angles $\\psi$. The polarization fractions and column densities in these nearby fields are representative of the range of values obtained over the whole sky. We find that: (i) the largest polarization fractions are reached in the most diffuse fields; (ii) the maximum polarization fraction $p_\\mathrm{max}$ decreases with column density $N_\\mathrm{H}$ in the more opaque fields with $N_\\mathrm{H} > 10^{21}\\,\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}$; and (iii) the polarization fraction along a given line of sight is correlated with the local spatial coherence of the polarization angle. These observations are compared to polarized emission maps computed in simulations of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) turbulence in which we assume a uniform intrinsic polarization fraction of the dust grains. We find that an estimate of this parameter may be recovered from the maximum pol...

  10. Eigenanalysis of Ideal Hall MHD Turbulence

    Fu, T.; Shebalin, J. V.


    Ideal, incompressible, homogeneous, Hall magnetohydrodynamic (HMHD) turbulence may be investigated through a Fourier spectral method. In three-dimensional periodic geometry, the independent Fourier coefficients represent a canonical ensemble described by a Gaussian probability density. The canonical ensemble is based on the conservation of three invariants: total energy, generalized helicity, and magnetic helicity. Generalized helicity in HMHD takes the place of cross helicity in MHD. The invariants determine the modal probability density giving the spectral structure and equilibrium statistics of ideal HMHD, which are compared to known MHD results. New results in absolute equilibrium ensemble theory are derived using a novel approach that involves finding the eigenvalues of a Hermitian covariance matrix for each modal probability density. The associated eigenvectors transform the original phase space variables into eigenvariables through a special unitary transformation. These are the normal modes which facilitate the analysis of ideal HMHD non-linear dynamics. The eigenanalysis predicts that the low wavenumber modes with very small eigenvalues may have mean values that are large compared to their standard deviations, contrary to the ideal ensemble prediction of zero mean values. (Expectation values may also be relatively large at the highest wave numbers, but the addition of even small levels of dissipation removes any relevance this may have for real-world turbulence.) This behavior is non-ergodic over very long times for a numerical simulation and is termed 'broken ergodicity'. For fixed values of the ideal invariants, the effect is seen to be enhanced with increased numerical grid size. Broken ergodicity at low wave number modes gives rise to large-scale, quasi-stationary, coherent structure. Physically, this corresponds to plasma relaxation to force-free states. For real HMHD turbulence with dissipation, broken ergodicity and coherent structure are still

  11. The structure of MHD turbulence under an external magnetic field: results from simulations on elongated domains

    Zhai, X. M.; Yeung, P. K.


    Turbulence in an electrically conducting fluid in the limit of low magnetic Reynolds number is, because of the Lorentz force due to an external magnetic field, very different from classical turbulence at both the large scales and the small scales. The importance of minimizing finite domain-size effects on the large scale development has often tended to limit the Reynolds number reached in the past. In this work we use periodic domains stretched along the magnetic field with aspect ratio up to 8 and beyond. The initial state is obtained from decaying isotropic turbulence with large-eddy length scales of order 1% of the length of the domain. After a transient period the kinetic energy returns to a power law decay while the integral length scales in the direction parallel to the magnetic field show preferential growth. At early times the parallel velocity component becomes stronger than the other two but this anisotropy is subsequently reversed under the combined effects of anisotropic Joule dissipation and viscous dissipation. The small scales show characteristics of quasi two-dimensional behavior in the transverse plane. Results over a range of magnetic interaction parameters and Reynolds numbers are compared with known theoretical predictions. Supported by NSF Grant CBET-1510749 and supercomputer resources at TACC/XSEDE and ALCF.

  12. The Statistical Mechanics of Ideal MHD Turbulence

    Shebalin, John V.


    Turbulence is a universal, nonlinear phenomenon found in all energetic fluid and plasma motion. In particular. understanding magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and incorporating its effects in the computation and prediction of the flow of ionized gases in space, for example, are great challenges that must be met if such computations and predictions are to be meaningful. Although a general solution to the "problem of turbulence" does not exist in closed form, numerical integrations allow us to explore the phase space of solutions for both ideal and dissipative flows. For homogeneous, incompressible turbulence, Fourier methods are appropriate, and phase space is defined by the Fourier coefficients of the physical fields. In the case of ideal MHD flows, a fairly robust statistical mechanics has been developed, in which the symmetry and ergodic properties of phase space is understood. A discussion of these properties will illuminate our principal discovery: Coherent structure and randomness co-exist in ideal MHD turbulence. For dissipative flows, as opposed to ideal flows, progress beyond the dimensional analysis of Kolmogorov has been difficult. Here, some possible future directions that draw on the ideal results will also be discussed. Our conclusion will be that while ideal turbulence is now well understood, real turbulence still presents great challenges.

  13. Type I Planetary Migration with MHD Turbulence

    Laughlin, G; Adams, F; Laughlin, Gregory; Steinacker, Adriane; Adams, Fred


    This paper examines how type I planet migration is affected by the presence of turbulent density fluctuations in the circumstellar disk. For type I migration, the planet does not clear a gap in the disk and its secular motion is driven by torques generated by the wakes it creates in the surrounding disk fluid. MHD turbulence creates additional density perturbations that gravitationally interact with the planet and can dominate the torques produced by the migration mechanism itself. This paper shows that conventional type I migration can be readily overwhelmed by turbulent perturbations and hence the usual description of type I migration should be modified in locations where the magnetorotational instability is active. In general, the migrating planet does not follow a smooth inward trned, but rather exhibits a random walk through phase space. Our main conclusion is that MHD turbulence will alter the time scales for type I planet migration and -- because of chaos -- requires the time scales to be described by ...

  14. Simulating solar MHD

    M. Schüssler

    Full Text Available Two aspects of solar MHD are discussed in relation to the work of the MHD simulation group at KIS. Photospheric magneto-convection, the nonlinear interaction of magnetic field and convection in a strongly stratified, radiating fluid, is a key process of general astrophysical relevance. Comprehensive numerical simulations including radiative transfer have significantly improved our understanding of the processes and have become an important tool for the interpretation of observational data. Examples of field intensification in the solar photosphere ('convective collapse' are shown. The second line of research is concerned with the dynamics of flux tubes in the convection zone, which has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the solar dynamo. Simulations indicate that the field strength in the region where the flux is stored before erupting to form sunspot groups is of the order of 105 G, an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates based on equipartition with the kinetic energy of convective flows.

    Key words. Solar physics · astrophysics and astronomy (photosphere and chromosphere; stellar interiors and dynamo theory; numerical simulation studies.

  15. Characterisation of the turbulent electromotive force and its magnetically-mediated quenching in a global EULAG-MHD simulation of solar convection

    Simard, C; Dube, C


    We perform a mean-field analysis of the EULAG-MHD millenium simulation of global magnetohydrodynamical convection presented in Passos et al. 2014. The turbulent electromotive force operating in the simulation is assumed to be linearly related to the cyclic axisymmetric mean magnetic field and its first spatial derivatives. At every grid point in the simulation's meridional plane, this assumed relationship involves 27 independent tensorial coefficients. Expanding on Racine et al. 2011, we extract these coefficients from the simulation data through a least-squares minimization procedure based on singular value decomposition. The reconstructed alpha-tensor shows good agreement with that obtained by Racine et al. 2011, who did not include derivatives of the mean-field in their fit, as well as with the alpha-tensor extracted by Augustson et al. 2015 from a distinct ASH MHD simulation. The isotropic part of the turbulent magnetic diffusivity tensor beta is positive definite and reaches values of 5.0x10^7 m2s-1 in t...

  16. Application of rank-ordered multifractal analysis (ROMA) to intermittent fluctuations in 3D turbulent flows, 2D MHD simulation and solar wind data

    Wu, C.; Chang, T.


    A new method in describing the multifractal characteristics of intermittent events was introduced by Cheng and Wu [Chang T. and Wu C.C., Physical Rev, E77, 045401(R), 2008]. The procedure provides a natural connection between the rank-ordered spectrum and the idea of one-parameter scaling for monofractals. This technique has been demonstrated using results obtained from a 2D MHD simulation. It has also been successfully applied to in-situ solar wind observations [Chang T., Wu, C.C. and Podesta, J., AIP Conf Proc. 1039, 75, 2008], and the broadband electric field oscillations from the auroral zone [Tam, S.W.Y. et al., Physical Rev, E81, 036414, 2010]. We take the next step in this procedure. By using the ROMA spectra and the scaled probability distribution functions (PDFs), raw PDFs can be calculated, which can be compared directly with PDFs from observations or simulation results. In addition to 2D MHD simulation results and in-situ solar wind observation, we show clearly using the ROMA analysis the multifractal character of the 3D fluid simulation data obtained from the JHU turbulence database cluster at In particular, we show the scaling of the non-symmetrical PDF for the parallel-velocity fluctuations of this 3D fluid data.

  17. Characterisation of the turbulent electromotive force and its magnetically-mediated quenching in a global EULAG-MHD simulation of solar convection

    Simard, Corinne; Charbonneau, Paul; Dubé, Caroline


    We perform a mean-field analysis of the EULAG-MHD millenium simulation of global magnetohydrodynamical convection presented in Passos and Charbonneau (2014). The turbulent electromotive force (emf) operating in the simulation is assumed to be linearly related to the cyclic axisymmetric mean magnetic field and its first spatial derivatives. At every grid point in the simulation's meridional plane, this assumed relationship involves 27 independent tensorial coefficients. Expanding on Racine et al. (2011), we extract these coefficients from the simulation data through a least-squares minimization procedure based on singular value decomposition. The reconstructed α -tensor shows good agreement with that obtained by Racine et al. (2011), who did not include derivatives of the mean-field in their fit, as well as with the α -tensor extracted by Augustson et al. (2015) from a distinct ASH MHD simulation. The isotropic part of the turbulent magnetic diffusivity tensor β is positive definite and reaches values of 5.0 ×107 m2 s-1 in the middle of the convecting fluid layers. The spatial variations of both αϕϕ and βϕϕ component are well reproduced by expressions obtained under the Second Order Correlation Approximation, with a good matching of amplitude requiring a turbulent correlation time about five times smaller than the estimated turnover time of the small-scale turbulent flow. By segmenting the simulation data into epochs of magnetic cycle minima and maxima, we also measure α - and β -quenching. We find the magnetic quenching of the α -effect to be driven primarily by a reduction of the small-scale flow's kinetic helicity, with variations of the current helicity playing a lesser role in most locations in the simulation domain. Our measurements of turbulent diffusivity quenching are restricted to the βϕϕ component, but indicate a weaker quenching, by a factor of ≃ 1.36, than of the α -effect, which in our simulation drops by a factor of three between

  18. Observational Tests of Recent MHD Turbulence Perspectives

    Ghosh, Sanjoy


    This grant seeks to analyze the Heliospheric Missions data to test current theories on the angular dependence (with respect to mean magnetic field direction) of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the solar wind. Solar wind turbulence may be composed of two or more dynamically independent components. Such components include magnetic pressure-balanced structures, velocity shears, quasi-2D turbulence, and slab (Alfven) waves. We use a method, developed during the first two years of this grant, for extracting the individual reduced spectra of up to three separate turbulence components from a single spacecraft time series. The method has been used on ISEE-3 data, Pioneer Venus Orbiter, Ulysses, and Voyager data samples. The correlation of fluctuations as a function of angle between flow direction and magnetic-field direction is the focus of study during the third year.

  19. Spectral slope and Kolmogorov constant of MHD turbulence.

    Beresnyak, A


    The spectral slope of strong MHD turbulence has recently been a matter of controversy. While the Goldreich-Sridhar model predicts a -5/3 slope, shallower slopes have been observed in numerics. We argue that earlier numerics were affected by driving due to a diffuse locality of energy transfer. Our highest-resolution simulation (3072(2)×1024) exhibited the asymptotic -5/3 scaling. We also discover that the dynamic alignment, proposed in models with -3/2 slope, saturates and cannot modify the asymptotic, high Reynolds number slope. From the observed -5/3 scaling we measure the Kolmogorov constant C(KA)=3.27±0.07 for Alfvénic turbulence and C(K)=4.2±0.2 for full MHD turbulence, which is higher than the hydrodynamic value of 1.64. This larger C(K) indicates inefficient energy transfer in MHD turbulence, which is in agreement with diffuse locality.

  20. Intermittency in MHD turbulence and coronal nanoflares modelling

    P. Veltri


    Full Text Available High resolution numerical simulations, solar wind data analysis, and measurements at the edges of laboratory plasma devices have allowed for a huge progress in our understanding of MHD turbulence. The high resolution of solar wind measurements has allowed to characterize the intermittency observed at small scales. We are now able to set up a consistent and convincing view of the main properties of MHD turbulence, which in turn constitutes an extremely efficient tool in understanding the behaviour of turbulent plasmas, like those in solar corona, where in situ observations are not available. Using this knowledge a model to describe injection, due to foot-point motions, storage and dissipation of MHD turbulence in coronal loops, is built where we assume strong longitudinal magnetic field, low beta and high aspect ratio, which allows us to use the set of reduced MHD equations (RMHD. The model is based on a shell technique in the wave vector space orthogonal to the strong magnetic field, while the dependence on the longitudinal coordinate is preserved. Numerical simulations show that injected energy is efficiently stored in the loop where a significant level of magnetic and velocity fluctuations is obtained. Nonlinear interactions give rise to an energy cascade towards smaller scales where energy is dissipated in an intermittent fashion. Due to the strong longitudinal magnetic field, dissipative structures propagate along the loop, with the typical speed of the Alfvén waves. The statistical analysis on the intermittent dissipative events compares well with all observed properties of nanoflare emission statistics. Moreover the recent observations of non thermal velocity measurements during flare occurrence are well described by the numerical results of the simulation model. All these results naturally emerge from the model dynamical evolution without any need of an ad-hoc hypothesis.

  1. Planck intermediate results. XX. Comparison of polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust with simulations of MHD turbulence

    Cardoso, J. F.; Delabrouille, J.; Ganga, K.


    with the local spatial coherence of the polarization angle. These observations are compared to polarized emission maps computed in simulations of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamical turbulence in which we assume a uniform intrinsic polarization fraction of the dust grains. We find that an estimate...

  2. Quasi-isotropic cascade in MHD turbulence with mean field

    Grappin, Roland; Gürcan, Özgür


    We propose a phenomenological theory of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the presence of a strong large-scale magnetic field, which establishes a link between the known anisotropic models of strong and weak MHD turbulence We argue that the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan isotropic cascade develops naturally within the plane perpendicular to the mean field, while oblique-parallel cascades with weaker amplitudes can develop, triggered by the perpendicular cascade, with a reduced flux resulting from a quasi-resonance condition. The resulting energy spectrum $E(k_\\parallel,k_\\bot)$ has the same slope in all directions. The ratio between the extents of the inertial range in the parallel and perpendicular directions is equal to $b_{rms}/B_0$. These properties match those found in recent 3D MHD simulations with isotropic forcing reported in [R. Grappin and W.-C. M\\"uller, Phys. Rev. E \\textbf{82}, 26406 (2010)].

  3. Wavelet transforms and their applications to MHD and plasma turbulence: a review

    Farge, Marie


    Wavelet analysis and compression tools are reviewed and different applications to study MHD and plasma turbulence are presented. We introduce the continuous and the orthogonal wavelet transform and detail several statistical diagnostics based on the wavelet coefficients. We then show how to extract coherent structures out of fully developed turbulent flows using wavelet-based denoising. Finally some multiscale numerical simulation schemes using wavelets are described. Several examples for analyzing, compressing and computing one, two and three dimensional turbulent MHD or plasma flows are presented.

  4. Applications of continuous and orthogonal wavelet transforms to MHD and plasma turbulence

    Farge, Marie; Schneider, Kai


    Wavelet analysis and compression tools are presented and different applications to study MHD and plasma turbulence are illustrated. We use the continuous and the orthogonal wavelet transform to develop several statistical diagnostics based on the wavelet coefficients. We show how to extract coherent structures out of fully developed turbulent flows using wavelet-based denoising and describe multiscale numerical simulation schemes using wavelets. Several examples for analyzing, compressing and computing one, two and three dimensional turbulent MHD or plasma flows are presented. Details can be found in M. Farge and K. Schneider. Wavelet transforms and their applications to MHD and plasma turbulence: A review. Support by the French Research Federation for Fusion Studies within the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) is thankfully acknowledged.

  5. Dynamo action in dissipative, forced, rotating MHD turbulence

    Shebalin, John V.


    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is an inherent feature of large-scale, energetic astrophysical and geophysical magnetofluids. In general, these are rotating and are energized through buoyancy and shear, while viscosity and resistivity provide a means of dissipation of kinetic and magnetic energy. Studies of unforced, rotating, ideal (i.e., non-dissipative) MHD turbulence have produced interesting results, but it is important to determine how these results are affected by dissipation and forcing. Here, we extend our previous work and examine dissipative, forced, and rotating MHD turbulence. Incompressibility is assumed, and finite Fourier series represent turbulent velocity and magnetic field on a 643 grid. Forcing occurs at an intermediate wave number by a method that keeps total energy relatively constant and allows for injection of kinetic and magnetic helicity. We find that 3-D energy spectra are asymmetric when forcing is present. We also find that dynamo action occurs when forcing has either kinetic or magnetic helicity, with magnetic helicity injection being more important. In forced, dissipative MHD turbulence, the dynamo manifests itself as a large-scale coherent structure that is similar to that seen in the ideal case. These results imply that MHD turbulence, per se, may play a fundamental role in the creation and maintenance of large-scale (i.e., dipolar) stellar and planetary magnetic fields.

  6. Non-ideal MHD turbulent decay in molecular clouds

    Downes, T P


    It is well known that non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects are important in the dynamics of molecular clouds: both ambipolar diffusion and possibly the Hall effect have been identified as significant. We present the results of a suite of simulations with a resolution of 512-cubed of turbulent decay in molecular clouds incorporating a simplified form of both ambipolar diffusion and the Hall effect simultaneously. The initial velocity field in the turbulence is varied from being super-Alfv\\'enic and hypersonic, through to trans-Alfv\\'enic but still supersonic. We find that ambipolar diffusion increases the rate of decay of the turbulence increasing the decay from $t^{-1.25}$ to $t^{-1.4}$. The Hall effect has virtually no impact in this regard. The power spectra of density, velocity and the magnetic field are all affected by the non-ideal terms, being steepened significantly when compared with ideal MHD turbulence with exponents. The density power spectra components change from about 1.4 to about 2.1 for the i...

  7. Achieving Fast Reconnection in Resistive MHD Models via Turbulent Means

    Lapenta, Giovanni


    Astrophysical fluids are generally turbulent and this preexisting turbulence must be taken into account for the models of magnetic reconnection which are attepmted to be applied to astrophysical, solar or heliospheric environments. In addition, reconnection itself induces turbulence which provides an important feedback on the reconnection process. In this paper we discuss both theoretical model and numerical evidence that magnetic reconnection gets fast in the approximation of resistive MHD. We consider the relation between the Lazarian & Vishniac turbulent reconnection theory and Lapenta's numerical experiments testifying of the spontaneous onset of turbulent reconnection in systems which are initially laminar.

  8. MHD Turbulent Mixing Layers: Equilibrium Cooling Models

    Esquivel, A; Cho, J; Lazarian, A; Leitner, S N


    We present models of turbulent mixing at the boundaries between hot (T~10^{6-7} K) and warm material (T~10^4 K) in the interstellar medium, using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical code, with radiative cooling. The source of turbulence in our simulations is a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, produced by shear between the two media. We found, that because the growth rate of the large scale modes in the instability is rather slow, it takes a significant amount of time (~1 Myr) for turbulence to produce effective mixing. We find that the total column densities of the highly ionized species (C IV, N V, and O VI) per interface (assuming ionization equilibrium) are similar to previous steady-state non-equilibrium ionization models, but grow slowly from log N ~10^{11} to a few 10^{12} cm^{-2} as the interface evolves. However, the column density ratios can differ significantly from previous estimates, with an order of magnitude variation in N(C IV)/N(O VI) as the mixing develops.

  9. Limitations of Hall MHD as a model for turbulence in weakly collisional plasmas

    G. G. Howes


    Full Text Available The limitations of Hall MHD as a model for turbulence in weakly collisional plasmas are explored using quantitative comparisons to Vlasov-Maxwell kinetic theory over a wide range of parameter space. The validity of Hall MHD in the cold ion limit is shown, but spurious undamped wave modes exist in Hall MHD when the ion temperature is finite. It is argued that turbulence in the dissipation range of the solar wind must be one, or a mixture, of three electromagnetic wave modes: the parallel whistler, oblique whistler, or kinetic Alfvén waves. These modes are generally well described by Hall MHD. Determining the applicability of linear kinetic damping rates in turbulent plasmas requires a suite of fluid and kinetic nonlinear numerical simulations. Contrasting fluid and kinetic simulations will also shed light on whether the presence of spurious wave modes alters the nonlinear couplings inherent in turbulence and will illuminate the turbulent dynamics and energy transfer in the regime of the characteristic ion kinetic scales.

  10. Lattice Boltzmann Large Eddy Simulation Model of MHD

    Flint, Christopher


    The work of Ansumali \\textit{et al.}\\cite{Ansumali} is extended to Two Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in which energy is cascaded to small spatial scales and thus requires subgrid modeling. Applying large eddy simulation (LES) modeling of the macroscopic fluid equations results in the need to apply ad-hoc closure schemes. LES is applied to a suitable mesoscopic lattice Boltzmann representation from which one can recover the MHD equations in the long wavelength, long time scale Chapman-Enskog limit (i.e., the Knudsen limit). Thus on first performing filter width expansions on the lattice Boltzmann equations followed by the standard small Knudsen expansion on the filtered lattice Boltzmann system results in a closed set of MHD turbulence equations provided we enforce the physical constraint that the subgrid effects first enter the dynamics at the transport time scales. In particular, a multi-time relaxation collision operator is considered for the density distribution function and a single rel...

  11. MHD-effects in a turbulent medium of nonuniform density

    Vaynshteyn, S.I.


    Turbulence in a medium of nonuniform density, such as the convective solar layer, is analyzed with the assumption that Del rho = rho lambda (exponential stratification). Considered are first the simplest case of a quasi-isotropic turbulence, then addition of a scalar factor such as the temperature, and finally anisotropic turbulence. The magnetic field and MHD-effects are then calculated without diffusion, and with two-dimensional turbulence as a special case. Also the values of the essential parameters in this problem are estimated. 7 references.

  12. Dissipation and Heating in Supersonic Hydrodynamic and MHD Turbulence

    Lemaster, M Nicole


    We study energy dissipation and heating by supersonic MHD turbulence in molecular clouds using Athena, a new higher-order Godunov code. We analyze the dependence of the saturation amplitude, energy dissipation characteristics, power spectra, sonic scaling, and indicators of intermittency in the turbulence on factors such as the magnetic field strength, driving scale, energy injection rate, and numerical resolution. While convergence in the energies is reached at moderate resolutions, we find that the power spectra require much higher resolutions that are difficult to obtain. In a 1024^3 hydro run, we find a power law relationship between the velocity dispersion and the spatial scale on which it is measured, while for an MHD run at the same resolution we find no such power law. The time-variability and temperature intermittency in the turbulence both show a dependence on the driving scale, indicating that numerically driving turbulence by an arbitrary mechanism may not allow a realistic representation of these...

  13. Role of Cross Helicity in Cascade Processes of MHD turbulence

    Mizeva, Irina; Frick, Peter; 10.1134/S1028335809020128


    The purpose of this work is to investigate the spectral properties of the developed isotropic (non-Alfven) MHD turbulence stationary excited by an external force, which injects the cross helicity into the flow simultaneously with the energy. It is shown that the cross helicity blocks the spectral energy transfer in MHD turbulence and results in energy accumulation in the system. This accumulation proceeds until the vortex intensification compensates the decreasing efficiency of nonlinear interactions. The formula for estimating the average turbulence energy is obtained for the set ratio between the injected helicity and energy. It is remarkable that the turbulence accumulates the injected cross helicity at its low rate injection -- the integral correlation coefficient significantly exceeds the ratio between the injected helicity and the energy. It is shown that the spectrum slope gradually increases from "5/3" to "2" with the cross helicity level.

  14. Numerical simulation of MHD duct flow about laminar and turbulence model%磁流体管流的层流与湍流模型数值模拟

    侯俊; 毛洁; 潘华辰


    采用FLUENT软件分别对外加均匀横向磁场的等截面三维充分发展液态金属管流的层流模型和低雷诺数湍流Lam/Bremhost(LB)模型进行了数值模拟,分析了外加磁场对普通方管LB模型速度分布和压降的影响.比较在相同哈特曼数下,层流和湍流模型方管截面上速度分布和管道中MHD压降.其中,对电流的计算采用磁感应方程来求得.数值模拟结果证明了用低雷诺数LB湍流模型解决方管磁流体流动的可行性.通过层流模型和湍流模型的对比可知,层流模型有较短的入口长度,但管内流体的压降却很大;而湍流模型管内速度更加平均化,管内压降较小,但管内入口长度较长.%The numerical analysis of full-developed flow of a liquid metal in a rectangular duct of constant cross-section with a uniform transverse magnetic field was proceeded in laminar and low-Reynolds number Lam/Bremhost turbulence model (for short LB model) using FLUENT software. The paper analyzed the influence of external magnetic field for velocity distribution and MHD pressure drop in turbulence model. Under the same Hartmann number conductions, the paper compared the velocity distribution and MHD pressure drop of laminar model and turbulent model. The solution of current density was obtained by means of induced magnetic field formulation. The result of numerical simulation proved that this was a feasible scheme to use the low-Reynolds LB turbulence model to calculate MHD duct flow. Comparison between laminar model and turbulent model show that laminar model made shorter entrance length, but the pressure drop in the duct increased. Turbulent model had more average speed and smaller pressure drop, but entrance length was longer.

  15. Nanoflares and MHD turbulence in coronal loops: a hybrid shell model.

    Nigro, Giuseppina; Malara, Francesco; Carbone, Vincenzo; Veltri, Pierluigi


    A model to describe injection, due to footpoint motions, storage, and dissipation of MHD turbulence in coronal loops, is presented. The model is based on the use of the shell technique in the wave vector space applied to the set of reduced MHD equations. Numerical simulation showed that the energy injected is efficiently stored in the loop where a significant level of magnetic and velocity fluctuations is obtained. Nonlinear interactions among these fluctuations give rise to an energy cascade towards smaller scales where energy is dissipated in an intermittent fashion. The statistical analysis performed on the intermittent dissipative events compares well with all observed properties of nanoflare emission statistics.

  16. Turbulent MHD transport coefficients - An attempt at self-consistency

    Chen, H.; Montgomery, D.


    In this paper, some multiple scale perturbation calculations of turbulent MHD transport coefficients begun in earlier papers are first completed. These generalize 'alpha effect' calculations by treating the velocity field and magnetic field on the same footing. Then the problem of rendering such calculations self-consistent is addressed, generalizing an eddy-viscosity hypothesis similar to that of Heisenberg for the Navier-Stokes case. The method also borrows from Kraichnan's direct interaction approximation. The output is a set of integral equations relating the spectra and the turbulent transport coefficients. Previous 'alpha effect' and 'beta effect' coefficients emerge as limiting cases. A treatment of the inertial range can also be given, consistent with a -5/3 energy spectrum power law. In the Navier-Stokes limit, a value of 1.72 is extracted for the Kolmogorov constant. Further applications to MHD are possible.

  17. Enhanced MHD transport in astrophysical accretion flows: turbulence, winds and jets

    Dobbie, Peter B; Bicknell, Geoffrey V; Salmeron, Raquel


    Astrophysical accretion is arguably the most prevalent physical process in the Universe; it occurs during the birth and death of individual stars and plays a pivotal role in the evolution of entire galaxies. Accretion onto a black hole, in particular, is also the most efficient mechanism known in nature, converting up to 40% of accreting rest mass energy into spectacular forms such as high-energy (X-ray and gamma-ray) emission and relativistic jets. Whilst magnetic fields are thought to be ultimately responsible for these phenomena, our understanding of the microphysics of MHD turbulence in accretion flows as well as large-scale MHD outflows remains far from complete. We present a new theoretical model for astrophysical disk accretion which considers enhanced vertical transport of momentum and energy by MHD winds and jets, as well as transport resulting from MHD turbulence. We also describe new global, 3D simulations that we are currently developing to investigate the extent to which non-ideal MHD effects may...

  18. A MHD-turbulence model for solar corona

    Romeou, Z.; Velli, M.; Einaudi, G.


    The disposition of energy in the solar corona has always been a problem of great interest. It remains an open question how the low temperature photosphere supports the occurence of solar extreme phenomena. In this work, a turbulent heating mechanism for the solar corona through the framework of reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) is proposed. Two-dimensional incompressible long time simulations of the average energy disposition have been carried out with the aim to reveal the characteristics of the long time statistical behavior of a two-dimensional cross-section of a coronal loop and the importance of the photospheric time scales in the understanding of the underlying mechanisms. It was found that for a slow, shear type photospheric driving the magnetic field in the loop self-organizes at large scales via an inverse MHD cascade. The system undergoes three distinct evolutionary phases. The initial forcing conditions are quickly “forgotten” giving way to an inverse cascade accompanied with and ending up to electric current dissipation. Scaling laws are being proposed in order to quantify the nonlinearity of the system response which seems to become more impulsive for decreasing resistivity. It is also shown that few, if any, qualitative changes in the above results occur by increasing spatial resolution.

  19. DNS of MHD turbulent flow via the HELIOS supercomputer system at IFERC-CSC

    Satake, Shin-ichi; Kimura, Masato; Yoshimori, Hajime; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Takase, Kazuyuki


    The simulation plays an important role to estimate characteristics of cooling in a blanket for such high heating plasma in ITER-BA. An objective of this study is to perform large -scale direct numerical simulation (DNS) on heat transfer of magneto hydro dynamic (MHD) turbulent flow on coolant materials assumed from Flibe to lithium. The coolant flow conditions in ITER-BA are assumed to be Reynolds number and Hartmann number of a higher order. The maximum target of the DNS assumed by this study based on the result of the benchmark of Helios at IFERC-CSC for Project cycle 1 is 116 TB (2048 nodes). Moreover, we tested visualization by ParaView to visualize directly the large-scale computational result. If this large-scale DNS becomes possible, an essential understanding and modelling of a MHD turbulent flow and a design of nuclear fusion reactor contributes greatly.

  20. Simulation of wave interactions with MHD

    Batchelor, D; Bernholdt, D; Berry, L; Elwasif, W; Jaeger, E; Keyes, D; Klasky, S [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37331 (United States); Alba, C; Choi, M [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Bateman, G [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Bonoli, P [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MTT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bramley, R [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Breslau, J; Chance, M; Chen, J; Fu, G; Jardin, S [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Harvey, R [CompX, Del Mar, CA 92014 (United States); Jenkins, T [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kruger, S [Tech-X, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)], E-mail: (and others)


    The broad scientific objectives of the SWIM (Simulation 01 Wave Interaction with MHD) project are twofold: (1) improve our understanding of interactions that both radio frequency (RF) wave and particle sources have on extended-MHD phenomena, and to substantially improve our capability for predicting and optimizing the performance of burning plasmas in devices such as ITER: and (2) develop an integrated computational system for treating multiphysics phenomena with the required flexibility and extensibility to serve as a prototype for the Fusion Simulation Project. The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) has been implemented. Presented here are initial physics results on RP effects on MHD instabilities in tokamaks as well as simulation results for tokamak discharge evolution using the IPS.

  1. Simulation of wave interactions with MHD

    Batchelor, Donald B [ORNL; Abla, G [General Atomics, San Diego; Bateman, Glenn [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Bernholdt, David E [ORNL; Berry, Lee A [ORNL; Bonoli, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Bramley, R [Indiana University; Breslau, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Chance, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Chen, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Choi, M. [General Atomics; Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Fu, GuoYong [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Harvey, R. W. [CompX, Del Mar, CA; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick [ORNL; Jardin, S. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Jenkins, T [University of Wisconsin; Keyes, David E [Columbia University; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Kruger, Scott [Tech-X Corporation; Ku, Long-Poe [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; McCune, Douglas [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ramos, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Schissel, D. [General Atomics; Schnack, [University of Wisconsin; Wright, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)


    The broad scientific objectives of the SWIM (Simulation of Wave Interaction with MHD) project are twofold: (1) improve our understanding of interactions that both radio frequency (RF) wave and particle sources have on extended-MHD phenomena, and to substantially improve our capability for predicting and optimizing the performance of burning plasmas in devices such as ITER: and (2) develop an integrated computational system for treating multiphysics phenomena with the required flexibility and extensibility to serve as a prototype for the Fusion Simulation Project. The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) has been implemented. Presented here are initial physics results on RF effects on MHD instabilities in tokamaks as well as simulation results for tokamak discharge evolution using the IPS.


    Sokolov, Igor V.; Van der Holst, Bart; Oran, Rona; Jin, Meng; Manchester, Ward B. IV; Gombosi, Tamas I. [Department of AOSS, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Downs, Cooper [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Roussev, Ilia I. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Evans, Rebekah M., E-mail: [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Space Weather Lab, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    We present a new global model of the solar corona, including the low corona, the transition region, and the top of the chromosphere. The realistic three-dimensional magnetic field is simulated using the data from the photospheric magnetic field measurements. The distinctive feature of the new model is incorporating MHD Alfven wave turbulence. We assume this turbulence and its nonlinear dissipation to be the only momentum and energy source for heating the coronal plasma and driving the solar wind. The difference between the turbulence dissipation efficiency in coronal holes and that in closed field regions is because the nonlinear cascade rate degrades in strongly anisotropic (imbalanced) turbulence in coronal holes (no inward propagating wave), thus resulting in colder coronal holes, from which the fast solar wind originates. The detailed presentation of the theoretical model is illustrated with the synthetic images for multi-wavelength EUV emission compared with the observations from SDO AIA and STEREO EUVI instruments for the Carrington rotation 2107.

  3. MHD turbulence-Star Formation Connection: from pc to kpc scales

    Pino, E M de Gouveia Dal; Lazarian, A; Leão, M R M; Falceta-Gonçalves, D; Kowal, G


    The transport of magnetic flux to outside of collapsing molecular clouds is a required step to allow the formation of stars. Although ambipolar diffusion is often regarded as a key mechanism for that, it has been recently argued that it may not be efficient enough. In this review, we discuss the role that MHD turbulence plays in the transport of magnetic flux in star forming flows. In particular, based on recent advances in the theory of fast magnetic reconnection in turbulent flows, we will show results of three-dimensional numerical simulations that indicate that the diffusion of magnetic field induced by turbulent reconnection can be a very efficient mechanism, especially in the early stages of cloud collapse and star formation. To conclude, we will also briefly discuss the turbulence-star formation connection and feedback in different astrophysical environments: from galactic to cluster of galaxy scales.


    Lawson, Nicolas; Strugarek, Antoine; Charbonneau, Paul, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Qc H3C 3J7 (Canada)


    We investigate the possible development of magnetohydrodynamical instabilities in the EULAG-MHD “millennium simulation” of Passos and Charbonneau. This simulation sustains a large-scale magnetic cycle characterized by solar-like polarity reversals taking place on a regular multidecadal cadence, and in which zonally oriented bands of strong magnetic fields accumulate below the convective layers, in response to turbulent pumping from above in successive magnetic half-cycles. Key aspects of this simulation include low numerical dissipation and a strongly sub-adiabatic fluid layer underlying the convectively unstable layers corresponding to the modeled solar convection zone. These properties are conducive to the growth and development of two-dimensional instabilities that are otherwise suppressed by stronger dissipation. We find evidence for the action of a non-axisymmetric magnetoshear instability operating in the upper portions of the stably stratified fluid layers. We also investigate the possibility that the Tayler instability may be contributing to the destabilization of the large-scale axisymmetric magnetic component at high latitudes. On the basis of our analyses, we propose a global dynamo scenario whereby the magnetic cycle is driven primarily by turbulent dynamo action in the convecting layers, but MHD instabilities accelerate the dissipation of the magnetic field pumped down into the overshoot and stable layers, thus perhaps significantly influencing the magnetic cycle period. Support for this scenario is found in the distinct global dynamo behaviors observed in an otherwise identical EULAG-MHD simulations, using a different degree of sub-adiabaticity in the stable fluid layers underlying the convection zone.

  5. Pseudo-reconnection in MHD numerical simulation


    A class of pseudo-reconnections caused by a shifted mesh in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations is reported. In terms of this mesh system, some non-physical results may be obtained in certain circumstances, e.g. magnetic reconnection occurs without resistivity. After comparison, another kind of mesh is strongly recommended.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation of reconnection in turbulent astrophysical plasmas

    Widmer, Fabien


    Turbulence is ubiquitous at large-Reynolds-number astrophysical plasmas like in the Solar corona. In such environments, the turbulence is thought to enhance the energy conversion rate by magnetic reconnection above the classical model predictions. Since turbulence cannot be simulated together with the large scale behaviour of the plasma, magnetic reconnection is studied through the average properties of turbulence. A Reynolds-averaged turbulence model is explored in which turbulence is self-sustained and -generated by the large scales (mean-) field inhomogeneities. Employing that model, the influence of turbulence is investigated by large-scale MHD numerical simulations solving evolution equations of the energy and cross-helicity of the turbulence together with the MHD equations. Magnetic reconnection is found to be either rapidly enhanced or suppressed by turbulence depending on the turbulence timescale. If the turbulence timescale is self-consistently calculated, reconnection is always strongly enhanced. Since the solar corona bears strong guide magnetic fields perpendicular to the reconnecting magnetic fields, the influences of a strong guide field on turbulent reconnection is separately investigated. A slow down of reconnection, obtained in the presence of a finite guide field, can be understood by a finite residual helicity working against the enhancement of reconnection by the turbulence. The influence of turbulence on magnetic reconnection is further studied by means of high resolution simulations of plasmoid-unstable current sheets. These simulations revealed the importance of turbulence for reaching fast reconnection.

  7. Magnetosheath Turbulence at MHD Scales: A Statistical Study

    Huang, Shiyong; Sahraoui, Fouad; Hadid, Lina; Yuan, Zhigang


    Turbulence is ubiquitous in space plasmas, such as terrestrial magnetotail and magnetosheath, solar wind, or the interstellar medium. In the solar wind, it is well established that at MHD scales, the magnetic energy spectra generally follow the so-called Kolmogorov's spectrum f-5/3. In the magnetosheath, Alexandrova et al. [2006] observed a Kolmogorov-like inertial range in the frequency range f < fci. In this study, we used three years data from the Cluster mission to statistically investigate the existence of the Kolmogorov inertial range in the whole magnetosheath, including flanks and subsolar regions. Statistical results show that most spectra are shallower than the Kolmogorov one, and have a scaling ~ f-1recalling the energy containing scales of solarwind turbulence. These spectra were found to be populated by uncorrelated fluctuations. The Kolmogorov scaling is observed only away from the bock shock and in the flanks region. These results suggest that random-like fluctuations are generated behind the shock, which reach a fully developed turbulence state only after some time corresponding to their propagation (or advection) away from the shock. At kinetic scales no dependence of the turbulence scaling on the location in the magnetosheath was found.

  8. Modeling Statistical Properties of Solar Active Regions through DNS of 3D-MHD Turbulence

    Malapaka, Shiva Kumar


    Statistical properties of the Sun's photospheric turbulent magnetic field, especially those of the Active Regions (ARs), have been studied using the line-of-sight data from magnetograms taken by SOHO and several other instruments (see e.g. Abramenko et al (2002, 2003),Abramenko and Yurchyshyn (2010)). This includes structure functions and their exponents, flatness curves and correlation functions. In these works, the dependence of structure function exponents ($\\zeta_p$) of the order of the structure functions ($\\it{p}$) was modeled using a non-intermittent K41 model. It is now well known that the ARs are highly turbulent and are associated with strong intermittent events. In this paper we compare some of the observations from Abramenko et al (2003) with the log-Poisson model (Biskamp 2003) used for modeling intermittent MHD turbulent flows. Next, we analyze the structure function data obtained from the direct numerical simulations (DNS) of homogeneous, incompressible 3D-MHD turbulence in three cases: sustain...

  9. Large-scale Magnetic Structure Formation in 3D-MHD Turbulence

    Malapaka, Shiva Kumar


    The inverse cascade of magnetic helicity in 3D-MHD turbulence is believed to be one of the processes responsible for large scale magnetic structure formation in astrophysical systems. In this work we present an exhaustive set of high resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS) of both forced and decaying 3D-MHD turbulence, to understand this structure formation process. It is first shown that an inverse cascade of magnetic helicity in small-scale driven turbulence does not necessarily generate coherent large-scale magnetic structures. The observed large-scale magnetic field, in this case, is severely perturbed by magnetic fluctuations generated by the small-scale forcing. In the decaying case, coherent large-scale structure form similar to those observed astronomically. Based on the numerical results the formation of large-scale magnetic structures in some astrophysical systems, is suggested to be the consequence of an initial forcing which imparts the necessary turbulent energy into the system, which, afte...

  10. The Efficiency of Second-Order Fermi Acceleration by Weakly Compressible MHD Turbulence

    Lynn, Jacob W; Chandran, Benjamin D G; Parrish, Ian J


    We investigate the effects of pitch-angle scattering on the efficiency of particle heating and acceleration by MHD turbulence using phenomenological estimates and simulations of non-relativistic test particles interacting with strong, subsonic MHD turbulence. We include an imposed pitch-angle scattering rate, which is meant to approximate the effects of high frequency plasma waves and/or velocity space instabilities. We focus on plasma parameters similar to those found in the near-Earth solar wind, though most of our results are more broadly applicable. An important control parameter is the size of the particle mean free path lambda_{mfp} relative to the scale of the turbulent fluctuations L. For small scattering rates, particles interact quasi-resonantly with turbulent fluctuations in magnetic field strength. Scattering increases the long-term efficiency of this resonant heating by factors of a few-10, but the distribution function does not develop a significant non-thermal power-law tail. For higher scatter...

  11. Formation of Rotational Discontinuities in Compressive three-dimensional MHD Turbulence

    Yang, Liping; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Wang, Linghua; Marsch, Eckart; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Shaohua; Feng, Xueshang


    Measurements of solar wind turbulence reveal the ubiquity of discontinuities. In this study, we investigate how the discontinuities, especially rotational discontinuities (RDs), are formed in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. In a simulation of the decaying compressive three-dimensional (3-D) MHD turbulence with an imposed uniform background magnetic field, we detect RDs with sharp field rotations and little variations of magnetic field intensity as well as mass density. At the same time, in the de Hoffman-Teller (HT) frame, the plasma velocity is nearly in agreement with the Alfv\\'{e}n speed, and is field-aligned on both sides of the discontinuity. We take one of the identified RDs to analyze in details its 3-D structure and temporal evolution. By checking the magnetic field and plasma parameters, we find that the identified RD evolves from the steepening of the Alfv\\'{e}n wave with moderate amplitude, and that steepening is caused by the nonuniformity of the Alfv\\'{e}n speed in the ambient turbulence.

  12. Damping of MHD turbulence in partially ionized plasma: implications for cosmic ray propagation

    Xu, Siyao; Lazarian, A


    We study the damping from neutral-ion collisions of both incompressible and compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in partially ionized medium. We start from the linear analysis of MHD waves applying both single-fluid and two-fluid treatments. The damping rates derived from the linear analysis are then used in determining the damping scales of MHD turbulence. The physical connection between the damping scale of MHD turbulence and cutoff boundary of linear MHD waves is investigated. Our analytical results are shown to be applicable in a variety of partially ionized interstellar medium (ISM) phases and solar chromosphere. As a significant astrophysical utility, we introduce damping effects to propagation of cosmic rays in partially ionized ISM. The important role of turbulence damping in both transit-time damping and gyroresonance is identified.

  13. Transition from weak to strong cascade in MHD turbulence.

    Verdini, Andrea; Grappin, Roland


    The transition from weak to strong turbulence when passing from large to small scales in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with guide field is a cornerstone of anisotropic turbulence theory. We present the first check of this transition, using the Shell-RMHD, which combines a shell model of perpendicular nonlinear coupling and linear propagation along the guide field. This model allows us to reach Reynolds numbers around 10(6). We obtain surprisingly good agreement with the theoretical predictions, with a reduced perpendicular energy spectrum scaling as k(⊥)(-2) at large scales and as k(⊥)(-5/3) at small scales, where critical balance between nonlinear and propagation time is reached. However, even in the strong regime, a high level of excitation is found in the weak coupling region of Fourier space, which is due to the rich frequency spectrum of large eddies. A corollary is that the reduced parallel spectral slope is not a definite test of the spectral anisotropy, contrary to standard belief.

  14. 3D MHD Simulations of Tokamak Disruptions

    Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James


    Two disruption scenarios are modeled numerically by use of the CORSICA 2D equilibrium and NIMROD 3D MHD codes. The work follows the simulations of pressure-driven modes in DIII-D and VDEs in ITER. The aim of the work is to provide starting points for simulation of tokamak disruption mitigation techniques currently in the CDR phase for ITER. Pressure-driven instability growth rates previously observed in simulations of DIIID are verified; Halo and Hiro currents produced during vertical displacements are observed in simulations of ITER with implementation of resistive walls in NIMROD. We discuss plans to exercise new code capabilities and validation.

  15. Inductive ionospheric solver for magnetospheric MHD simulations

    H. Vanhamäki


    Full Text Available We present a new scheme for solving the ionospheric boundary conditions required in magnetospheric MHD simulations. In contrast to the electrostatic ionospheric solvers currently in use, the new solver takes ionospheric induction into account by solving Faraday's law simultaneously with Ohm's law and current continuity. From the viewpoint of an MHD simulation, the new inductive solver is similar to the electrostatic solvers, as the same input data is used (field-aligned current [FAC] and ionospheric conductances and similar output is produced (ionospheric electric field. The inductive solver is tested using realistic, databased models of an omega-band and westward traveling surge. Although the tests were performed with local models and MHD simulations require a global ionospheric solution, we may nevertheless conclude that the new solution scheme is feasible also in practice. In the test cases the difference between static and electrodynamic solutions is up to ~10 V km−1 in certain locations, or up to 20-40% of the total electric field. This is in agreement with previous estimates. It should also be noted that if FAC is replaced by the ground magnetic field (or ionospheric equivalent current in the input data set, exactly the same formalism can be used to construct an inductive version of the KRM method originally developed by Kamide et al. (1981.

  16. Inductive ionospheric solver for magnetospheric MHD simulations

    Vanhamäki, H.


    We present a new scheme for solving the ionospheric boundary conditions required in magnetospheric MHD simulations. In contrast to the electrostatic ionospheric solvers currently in use, the new solver takes ionospheric induction into account by solving Faraday's law simultaneously with Ohm's law and current continuity. From the viewpoint of an MHD simulation, the new inductive solver is similar to the electrostatic solvers, as the same input data is used (field-aligned current [FAC] and ionospheric conductances) and similar output is produced (ionospheric electric field). The inductive solver is tested using realistic, databased models of an omega-band and westward traveling surge. Although the tests were performed with local models and MHD simulations require a global ionospheric solution, we may nevertheless conclude that the new solution scheme is feasible also in practice. In the test cases the difference between static and electrodynamic solutions is up to ~10 V km-1 in certain locations, or up to 20-40% of the total electric field. This is in agreement with previous estimates. It should also be noted that if FAC is replaced by the ground magnetic field (or ionospheric equivalent current) in the input data set, exactly the same formalism can be used to construct an inductive version of the KRM method originally developed by Kamide et al. (1981).

  17. Understanding Accretion Disks through Three Dimensional Radiation MHD Simulations

    Jiang, Yan-Fei

    I study the structures and thermal properties of black hole accretion disks in the radiation pressure dominated regime. Angular momentum transfer in the disk is provided by the turbulence generated by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI), which is calculated self-consistently with a recently developed 3D radiation magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) code based on Athena. This code, developed by my collaborators and myself, couples both the radiation momentum and energy source terms with the ideal MHD equations by modifying the standard Godunov method to handle the stiff radiation source terms. We solve the two momentum equations of the radiation transfer equations with a variable Eddington tensor (VET), which is calculated with a time independent short characteristic module. This code is well tested and accurate in both optically thin and optically thick regimes. It is also accurate for both radiation pressure and gas pressure dominated flows. With this code, I find that when photon viscosity becomes significant, the ratio between Maxwell stress and Reynolds stress from the MRI turbulence can increase significantly with radiation pressure. The thermal instability of the radiation pressure dominated disk is then studied with vertically stratified shearing box simulations. Unlike the previous results claiming that the radiation pressure dominated disk with MRI turbulence can reach a steady state without showing any unstable behavior, I find that the radiation pressure dominated disks always either collapse or expand until we have to stop the simulations. During the thermal runaway, the heating and cooling rates from the simulations are consistent with the general criterion of thermal instability. However, details of the thermal runaway are different from the predictions of the standard alpha disk model, as many assumptions in that model are not satisfied in the simulations. We also identify the key reasons why previous simulations do not find the instability. The thermal


    Li, Pak Shing; Klein, Richard I. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Martin, Daniel F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McKee, Christopher F., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Physics Department and Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    Performing a stable, long-duration simulation of driven MHD turbulence with a high thermal Mach number and a strong initial magnetic field is a challenge to high-order Godunov ideal MHD schemes because of the difficulty in guaranteeing positivity of the density and pressure. We have implemented a robust combination of reconstruction schemes, Riemann solvers, limiters, and constrained transport electromotive force averaging schemes that can meet this challenge, and using this strategy, we have developed a new adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) MHD module of the ORION2 code. We investigate the effects of AMR on several statistical properties of a turbulent ideal MHD system with a thermal Mach number of 10 and a plasma {beta}{sub 0} of 0.1 as initial conditions; our code is shown to be stable for simulations with higher Mach numbers (M{sub rms}= 17.3) and smaller plasma beta ({beta}{sub 0} = 0.0067) as well. Our results show that the quality of the turbulence simulation is generally related to the volume-averaged refinement. Our AMR simulations show that the turbulent dissipation coefficient for supersonic MHD turbulence is about 0.5, in agreement with unigrid simulations.

  19. Intermittent heating of the solar corona by MHD turbulence

    É. Buchlin


    Full Text Available As the dissipation mechanisms considered for the heating of the solar corona would be sufficiently efficient only in the presence of small scales, turbulence is thought to be a key player in the coronal heating processes: it allows indeed to transfer energy from the large scales to these small scales. While Direct numerical simulations which have been performed to investigate the properties of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the corona have provided interesting results, they are limited to small Reynolds numbers. We present here a model of coronal loop turbulence involving shell-models and Alfvén waves propagation, allowing the much faster computation of spectra and turbulence statistics at higher Reynolds numbers. We also present first results of the forward-modelling of spectroscopic observables in the UV.

  20. A heuristic model for MRI turbulent stresses in Hall MHD

    Lingam, M


    Although the Shakura-Sunyaev $\\alpha$ viscosity prescription has been highly successful in characterizing myriad astrophysical environments, it has proven to be partly inadequate in modelling turbulent stresses driven by the MRI. Hence, we adopt the approach employed by \\citet{GIO03}, but in the context of Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), to study MRI turbulence. We utilize the exact evolution equations for the stresses, and the non-linear terms are closed through the invocation of dimensional analysis and physical considerations. We demonstrate that the inclusion of the Hall term leads to non-trivial results, including the modification of the Reynolds and Maxwell stresses, as well as the (asymptotic) non-equipartition between the kinetic and magnetic energies; the latter issue is also addressed via the analysis of non-linear waves. The asymptotic ratio of the kinetic and magnetic energies is shown to be \\emph{independent} of the choice of initial conditions, but it is governed by the \\emph{Hall parameter}. W...

  1. Reproducing the Solar Wind proton temperature profile via DNS of MHD turbulence

    Montagud-Camps, Victor; Grappin, Roland; Verdini, Andrea


    Context: The Solar Wind proton temperature Tp shows a radial profile R-0.9 significantly shallower than the adiabatic R-4/3 profile [Totten et al 1996]. This temperature profile has been attributed to turbulent heating, which requires a dissipation rate equal to Q = 3.610-5TpU/R[J/(kg s)] (1) [Vasquez et al 2007]. The possibility of a turbulent heating large enough to modify the radial profile of the temperature has not been verified yet via direct numerical simulations. Aim: We want to test if MHD turbulence developing in the range [0.2,1] AU is able to reproduce the observed R-0.9 temperature profile. Method: We use the expanding box model (EBM) [Grappin & Velli 1996] which incorporates the effects of expansion into the compressible MHD equations, and so allows to follow the evolution of the plasma advected by the solar wind between 0.2 and 1 AU. In the absence of turbulence, the R-4/3 temperature profile is obtained. We start at 0.2 AU with mean field almost aligned with the radial and k⊥-1 spectrum perpendicular to the mean field [Verdini, Grappin 2016]. Simple phenomenology (Kolmogorov) suggests that the ratio between turbulent heating and the required heating (1) is close to M2/ɛ, where M is the Mach number of the large eddies and ɛ is the nonlinear time normalized by the transport time of the plasma by the wind. We thus explore the (M,ɛ) parameter space and examine whether a large enough value of M2/ɛ indeed allows to recover the temperature profile observed by Totten et al (1996). Results: We have obtained significant slowing down of the adiabatic cooling by considering increasing Mach numbers and/or decreasing ɛ and approach in some cases the R-0.9 temperature profile. The role of the compressibility in the cascade is examined.

  2. Hall MHD Stability and Turbulence in Magnetically Accelerated Plasmas

    H. R. Strauss


    The object of the research was to develop theory and carry out simulations of the Z pinch and plasma opening switch (POS), and compare with experimental results. In the case of the Z pinch, there was experimental evidence of ion kinetic energy greatly in excess of the ion thermal energy. It was thought that this was perhaps due to fine scale turbulence. The simulations showed that the ion energy was predominantly laminar, not turbulent. Preliminary studies of a new Z pinch experiment with an axial magnetic field were carried out. The axial magnetic is relevant to magneto - inertial fusion. These studies indicate the axial magnetic field makes the Z pinch more turbulent. Results were also obtained on Hall magnetohydrodynamic instability of the POS.

  3. Global MHD Modelling of the ISM - From large towards small scale turbulence

    D'Avillez, M A; Avillez, Miguel A. de; Breitschwerdt, Dieter


    Dealing numerically with the turbulent nature and non-linearity of the physical processes involved in the ISM requires the use of sophisticated numerical schemes coupled to HD and MHD mathematical models. SNe are the main drivers of the interstellar turbulence by transferring kinetic energy into the system. This energy is dissipated by shocks (which is more efficient) and by molecular viscosity. We carried out adaptive mesh refinement simulations (with a finest resolution of 0.625 pc) of the turbulent ISM embedded in a magnetic field with mean field components of 2 and 3 $\\mu$G. The time scale of our run was 400 Myr, sufficiently long to avoid memory effects of the initial setup, and to allow for a global dynamical equilibrium to be reached in case of a constant energy input rate. It is found that the longitudinal and transverse turbulent length scales have a time averaged (over a period of 50 Myr) ratio of 0.52-0.6, almost similar to the one expected for isotropic homogeneous turbulence. The mean characteris...

  4. Impact of observational uncertainties on universal scaling of MHD turbulence

    Gogoberidze, G; Hnat, B; Dunlop, M W


    Scaling exponents are the central quantitative prediction of theories of turbulence and in-situ satellite observations of the high Reynolds number solar wind flow have provided an extensive testbed of these. We propose a general, instrument independent method to estimate the uncertainty of velocity field fluctuations. We obtain the systematic shift that this uncertainty introduces into the observed spectral exponent. This shift is essential for the correct interpretation of observed scaling exponents. It is sufficient to explain the contradiction between spectral features of the Elsasser fields observed in the solar wind with both theoretical models and numerical simulations of Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

  5. Evolution of self-gravitating magnetized disks. II- Interaction between MHD turbulence and gravitational instabilities

    Fromang, S; Terquem, C; De Villiers, J P; Fromang, Sebastien; Balbus, Steven A.; Terquem, Caroline; Villiers, Jean-Pierre De


    We present 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations of the evolution of self--gravitating and weakly magnetized disks with an adiabatic equation of state. Such disks are subject to the development of both the magnetorotational and gravitational instabilities, which transport angular momentum outward. As in previous studies, our hydrodynamical simulations show the growth of strong m=2 spiral structure. This spiral disturbance drives matter toward the central object and disappears when the Toomre parameter Q has increased well above unity. When a weak magnetic field is present as well, the magnetorotational instability grows and leads to turbulence. In that case, the strength of the gravitational stress tensor is lowered by a factor of about~2 compared to the hydrodynamical run and oscillates periodically, reaching very small values at its minimum. We attribute this behavior to the presence of a second spiral mode with higher pattern speed than the one which dominates in the hydrodynamical simulations...

  6. Multilevel turbulence simulations

    Tziperman, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)


    The authors propose a novel method for the simulation of turbulent flows, that is motivated by and based on the Multigrid (MG) formalism. The method, called Multilevel Turbulence Simulations (MTS), is potentially more efficient and more accurate than LES. In many physical problems one is interested in the effects of the small scales on the larger ones, or in a typical realization of the flow, and not in the detailed time history of each small scale feature. MTS takes advantage of the fact that the detailed simulation of small scales is not needed at all times, in order to make the calculation significantly more efficient, while accurately accounting for the effects of the small scales on the larger scale of interest. In MTS, models of several resolutions are used to represent the turbulent flow. The model equations in each coarse level incorporate a closure term roughly corresponding to the tau correction in the MG formalism that accounts for the effects of the unresolvable scales on that grid. The finer resolution grids are used only a small portion of the simulation time in order to evaluate the closure terms for the coarser grids, while the coarse resolution grids are then used to accurately and efficiently calculate the evolution of the larger scales. The methods efficiency relative to direct simulations is of the order of the ratio of required integration time to the smallest eddies turnover time, potentially resulting in orders of magnitude improvement for a large class of turbulence problems.

  7. The flux tube paradigm and its role in MHD turbulence in the solar atmosphere

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Greco, A.; Servidio, S.; Wan, M.; Osman, K.; Ruffolo, D. J.


    Descriptions of magnetic field and plasma structures in terms of flux tubes, plasmoids and other bundles of magnetic field lines are familiar in the vocabulary of observational and theoretical space physics. "Spaghetti models" and flux ropes are well known examples. Flux tubes and families of field lines can also be defined in a medium that admits magnetic fluctuations, including strong MHD turbulence, but their behavior can become complicated. In 3D fluctuations the smooth flux tube description itself becomes in some sense unstable, as nearby field lines diverge and flux surfaces shred. This lends complexity to the structure of flux tubes, and can give rise to temporarily trapped field lines and charged test particle trajectories, with immediate implications for transport, e.g., of solar energetic particles. The properties of the turbulent magnetic field can also be strongly influenced by the dynamics of turbulence. Large scale self organizing behavior, or inverse cascade, can enhance very long wavelength structure, favoring Bohm scaling of diffusion coefficients. Meanwhile smaller scale flux tube structures are integral features of the inertial range of turbulence, giving rise to a cellularization of the plasma due to rapid dynamical relaxation processes. These drive the turbulent system locally towards low-acceleration states, including Alfvenic, Beltrami and force-free states. Cell boundaries are natural positions for formation of near discontinuous boundaries, where dynamical activity can be enhanced. A primary example is appearance of numerous discontinuities and active reconnection sites in turbulence, which appear to support a wide distribution of reconnection rates associated with coherent current structures. These discontinuities are also potential sites of enhanced heating, as expected in Kolmogorov's Refined Similarity Hypothesis. All of these features are related to self organization, cascade and intermittency of the turbulence. Examples of these

  8. Coupled simulation of kinetic pedestal growth and MHD ELM crash

    Park, G [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Cummings, J [California Institute of Technology (United States); Chang, C S [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Podhorszki, N [Univ. California at Davis (United States); Klasky, S [ORNL (United States); Ku, S [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Pankin, A [Lehigh Univ. (United States); Samtaney, R [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); Shoshani, A [LBNL (United States); Snyder, P [General Atomics (United States); Strauss, H [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Sugiyama, L [MIT (United States)


    Edge pedestal height and the accompanying ELM crash are critical elements of ITER physics yet to be understood and predicted through high performance computing. An entirely self-consistent first principles simulation is being pursued as a long term research goal, and the plan is planned for completion in time for ITER operation. However, a proof-of-principle work has already been established using a computational tool that employs the best first principles physics available at the present time. A kinetic edge equilibrium code XGC0, which can simulate the neoclassically dominant pedestal growth from neutral ionization (using a phenomenological residual turbulence diffusion motion superposed upon the neoclassical particle motion) is coupled to an extended MHD code M3D, which can perform the nonlinear ELM crash. The stability boundary of the pedestal is checked by an ideal MHD linear peeling-ballooning code, which has been validated against many experimental data sets for the large scale (type I) ELMs onset boundary. The coupling workflow and scientific results to be enabled by it are described.

  9. CUDA Simulation of Homogeneous, Incompressible Turbulence

    Morin, Lee; Shebalin, John V.; Shum, Victor; Fu, Terry


    We discuss very fast Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) simulations of ideal homogeneous incompressible turbulence based on Fourier models. These models have associated statistical theories that predict that Fourier coefficients of fluid velocity and magnetic fields (if present) are zero-mean random variables. Prior numerical simulations have shown that certain coefficients have a non-zero mean value that can be very large compared to the associated standard deviation. We review the theoretical basis of this "broken ergodicity" as applied to 2-D and 3-D fluid and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of homogeneous turbulence. Our new simulations examine the phenomenon of broken ergodicity through very long time and large grid size runs performed on a state-of-the-art CUDA platform. Results comparing various CUDA hardware configurations and grid sizes are discussed. NS and MHD results are compared.

  10. 3D simulations of fluctuation spectra in the hall-MHD plasma.

    Shaikh, Dastgeer; Shukla, P K


    Turbulent spectral cascades are investigated by means of fully three-dimensional (3D) simulations of a compressible Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (H-MHD) plasma in order to understand the observed spectral break in the solar wind turbulence spectra in the regime where the characteristic length scales associated with electromagnetic fluctuations are smaller than the ion gyroradius. In this regime, the results of our 3D simulations exhibit that turbulent spectral cascades in the presence of a mean magnetic field follow an omnidirectional anisotropic inertial-range spectrum close to k(-7/3). The latter is associated with the Hall current arising from nonequal electron and ion fluid velocities in our 3D H-MHD plasma model.

  11. Nonlinear evolution of parallel propagating Alfven waves: Vlasov - MHD simulation

    Nariyuki, Y; Kumashiro, T; Hada, T


    Nonlinear evolution of circularly polarized Alfv\\'en waves are discussed by using the recently developed Vlasov-MHD code, which is a generalized Landau-fluid model. The numerical results indicate that as far as the nonlinearity in the system is not so large, the Vlasov-MHD model can validly solve time evolution of the Alfv\\'enic turbulence both in the linear and nonlinear stages. The present Vlasov-MHD model is proper to discuss the solar coronal heating and solar wind acceleration by Alfve\\'n waves propagating from the photosphere.

  12. Simulations and Transport Models for Imbalanced Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    Ng, Chung-Sang; Dennis, T.


    We present results from a series of three-dimensional simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence based on reduced MHD equations. Alfven waves are launched from both ends of a long tube along the background uniform magnetic field so that turbulence develops due to collision between counter propagating Alfven waves in the interior region. Waves are launched randomly with specified correlation time Tc such that the length of the tube, L, is greater than (but of the same order of) VA *Tc such that turbulence can fill most of the tube. While waves at both ends are launched with equal power, turbulence generated is imbalanced in general, with normalized cross-helicity gets close to -1 at one end and 1 at the other end. This simulation setup allows easier comparison of turbulence properties with one-dimensional turbulence transport models, which have been applied rather successfully in modeling solar wind turbulence. However, direct comparison of such models with full simulations of solar wind turbulence is difficult due to much higher level of complexity involved. We will present our latest simulations at different resolutions with decreasing dissipation (resistivity and viscosity) levels and compare with model outputs from turbulence transport models. This work is supported by a NASA Grant NNX15AU61G.

  13. Global MHD simulations of Neptune's magnetosphere

    Mejnertsen, L.; Eastwood, J. P.; Chittenden, J. P.; Masters, A.


    A global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation has been performed in order to investigate the outer boundaries of Neptune's magnetosphere at the time of Voyager 2's flyby in 1989 and to better understand the dynamics of magnetospheres formed by highly inclined planetary dipoles. Using the MHD code Gorgon, we have implemented a precessing dipole to mimic Neptune's tilted magnetic field and rotation axes. By using the solar wind parameters measured by Voyager 2, the simulation is verified by finding good agreement with Voyager 2 magnetometer observations. Overall, there is a large-scale reconfiguration of magnetic topology and plasma distribution. During the "pole-on" magnetospheric configuration, there only exists one tail current sheet, contained between a rarefied lobe region which extends outward from the dayside cusp, and a lobe region attached to the nightside cusp. It is found that the tail current always closes to the magnetopause current system, rather than closing in on itself, as suggested by other models. The bow shock position and shape is found to be dependent on Neptune's daily rotation, with maximum standoff being during the pole-on case. Reconnection is found on the magnetopause but is highly modulated by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and time of day, turning "off" and "on" when the magnetic shear between the IMF and planetary fields is large enough. The simulation shows that the most likely location for reconnection to occur during Voyager 2's flyby was far from the spacecraft trajectory, which may explain the relative lack of associated signatures in the observations.

  14. MHD turbulence, cloud formation and star formation in the ISM

    Vázquez-Semadeni, E; Pouquet, A


    We discuss the role of turbulence in cloud and star formation, as observed in numerical simulations of the interstellar medium. Turbulent compression at the interfaces of colliding gas streams is responsible for the formation of intermediate (\\simlt 100 pc) and small clouds (a few tens of pc), although the smallest clouds can also form from fragmentation of expanding shells around stellar heating centers. The largest cloud complexes (several hundred pc) seem to form by slow, gravitational instability-driven merging of individual clouds, which can actually be described as a large-scale tendency towards homogenization of the flow due to gravity rather than cloud collisions. These mechanisms operate as well in the presence of a magnetic field and rotation, although slight variations on the compressibility and cloud morphology are present which depend on the strength and topology of the field. In summary, the role of turbulence in the life-cycle of clouds appears to be twofold: small-scale modes contribute to clo...

  15. Cascades and Spectra of Elastic Turbulence in 2D: Spinodal Decomposition & MHD

    Fan, Xiang; Diamond, Patrick; Chacon, Luis


    We report on studies of turbulence in 2D spinodal decompositions of symmetric binary mixtures. This study emphasizes a comparison and contrast of the physics of spinodal turbulence with that of 2D MHD turbulence. The important similarities include basic equations, ideal quadratic conserved quantities, cascade directions and elastic waves. Turbulence in spinodal decomposition exhibits an elastic range when the Hinze scale is sufficiently larger than the dissipation scale, i.e. LH k (analogous to HkA ≡k in MHD) scales as k - 7 / 3. This suggests an inverse cascade of Hψ, corresponding to the case in MHD. However, we also show that, the kinetic energy spectrum scales as k-3, as in the direct enstrophy cascade range for a 2D fluid (not MHD!). The resolution of this dilemma is that capillarity acts only at blob boundaries. This is in contrast to B in MHD. Thus, as blob merger progresses, the packing fraction of interfaces decreases, thus explaining the outcome for the kinetic energy spectrum. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under Award Number DE-FG02-04ER54738.

  16. Simulation of MHD collimation from differential rotation

    Carey, Christopher


    Recent observations indicate that astrophysical outflows from active galactic nuclei are permeated with helical magnetic fields[1]. The most promising theory for the formation of the magnetic configurations in these magnetically driven jets is the coiling of an initial seed field by the differential rotation of the accretion disk surrounding the central object. We have begun simulations that are relevant to these Poynting jets using the NIMROD code[2]. To simulate dynamics on length scales that are significantly larger than the accretion disk, the non-relativistic MHD equations are evolved on a hemispherical logarithmic mesh. The accretion disk is treated as a condition on the lower boundary by applying a Keplerian velocity to the azimuthal component of the fluid velocity and a prescribed flux of mass through the boundary. The magnetic field configuration is initialized to a dipole like field. Formation of a jet outflow is observed later in time. The initial field is coiled up and collimated, driving a large current density on the axis of symmetry. Slipping of magnetic field lines due to non-ideal effects has been investigated. 1. Asada K. et. al., Pub. of the Astr. Soc. of Japan, 54, L39-L43, 2002 2. Sovinec C. et. al., J. Comp. Phys., 195, 355-386, 2004

  17. Turbulent magnetic Prandtl numbers obtained with MHD Taylor-Couette flow experiments

    Gellert, M


    The stability problem of MHD Taylor-Couette flows with toroidal magnetic fields is considered in dependence on the magnetic Prandtl number. Only the most uniform (but not current-free) field with B\\_in = B\\_out has been considered. For high enough Hartmann numbers the toroidal field is always unstable. Rigid rotation, however, stabilizes the magnetic (kink-)instability. The axial current which drives the instability is reduced by the electromotive force induced by the instability itself. Numerical simulations are presented to probe this effect as a possibility to measure the turbulent conductivity in a laboratory. It is shown numerically that in a sodium experiment (without rotation) an eddy diffusivity 4 times the molecular diffusivity appears resulting in a potential difference of ~34 mV/m. If the cylinders are rotating then also the eddy viscosity can be measured. Nonlinear simulations of the instability lead to a turbulent magnetic Prandtl number of 2.1 for a molecular magnetic Prandtl number of 0.01. The...

  18. Temporal and Spatial Turbulent Spectra of MHD Plasma and an Observation of Variance Anisotropy

    Schaffner, D A; Lukin, V S


    The nature of MHD turbulence is analyzed through both temporal and spatial magnetic fluctuation spectra. A magnetically turbulent plasma is produced in the MHD wind-tunnel configuration of the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX). The power of magnetic fluctuations is projected into directions perpendicular and parallel to a local mean field; the ratio of these quantities shows the presence of variance anisotropy which varies as a function of frequency. Comparison amongst magnetic, velocity, and density spectra are also made, demonstrating that the energy of the turbulence observed is primarily seeded by magnetic fields created during plasma production. Direct spatial spectra are constructed using multi-channel diagnostics and are used to compare to frequency spectra converted to spatial scales using the Taylor Hypothesis. Evidence for the observation of dissipation due to ion inertial length scale physics is also discussed as well as the role laboratory experiment can play in understanding turbulence typica...

  19. Extreme-value statistics from Lagrangian convex hull analysis I. Validation for homogeneous turbulent Boussinesq convection and MHD convection

    Pratt, J; Müller, W -C; Chapman, S C; Watkins, N W


    We investigate the utility of the convex hull to analyze physical questions related to the dispersion of a group of much more than four Lagrangian tracer particles in a turbulent flow. Validation of standard dispersion behaviors is a necessary preliminary step for use of the convex hull to describe turbulent flows. In simulations of statistically homogeneous and stationary Navier-Stokes turbulence, neutral fluid Boussinesq convection, and MHD Boussinesq convection we show that the convex hull can be used to reasonably capture the dispersive behavior of a large group of tracer particles. We validate dispersion results produced with convex hull analysis against scalings for Lagrangian particle pair dispersion. In addition to this basic validation study, we show that convex hull analysis provides information that particle pair dispersion does not, in the form of a extreme value statistics, surface area, and volume for a cluster of particles. We use the convex hull surface area and volume to examine the degree of...

  20. Energy Cascades in MHD

    Alexakis, A.


    Most astrophysical and planetary systems e.g., solar convection and stellar winds, are in a turbulent state and coupled to magnetic fields. Understanding and quantifying the statistical properties of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) turbulence is crucial to explain the involved physical processes. Although the phenomenological theory of hydro-dynamic (HD) turbulence has been verified up to small corrections, a similar statement cannot be made for MHD turbulence. Since the phenomenological description of Hydrodynamic turbulence by Kolmogorov in 1941 there have been many attempts to derive a similar description for turbulence in conducting fluids (i.e Magneto-Hydrodynamic turbulence). However such a description is going to be based inevitably on strong assumptions (typically borrowed from hydrodynamics) that do not however necessarily apply to the MHD case. In this talk I will discuss some of the properties and differences of the energy and helicity cascades in turbulent MHD and HD flows. The investigation is going to be based on the analysis of direct numerical simulations. The cascades in MHD turbulence appear to be a more non-local process (in scale space) than in Hydrodynamics. Some implications of these results to turbulent modeling will be discussed

  1. Wave damping by MHD turbulence and its effect upon cosmic ray propagation in the ISM

    Farmer, A J; Farmer, Alison J.; Goldreich, Peter


    Cosmic rays scatter off magnetic irregularities (Alfven waves) with which they are resonant, that is waves of wavelength comparable to their gyroradii. These waves may be generated either by the cosmic rays themselves, if they stream faster than the Alfven speed, or by sources of MHD turbulence. Waves excited by streaming cosmic rays are ideally shaped for scattering, whereas the scattering efficiency of MHD turbulence is severely diminished by its anisotropy. We show that MHD turbulence has an indirect effect on cosmic ray propagation by acting as a damping mechanism for cosmic ray generated waves. The hot (``coronal'') phase of the interstellar medium is the best candidate location for cosmic ray confinement by scattering from self-generated waves. We relate the streaming velocity of cosmic rays to the rate of turbulent dissipation in this medium, for the case in which turbulent damping is the dominant damping mechanism. We conclude that cosmic rays with up to 10^2 GeV could not stream much faster than the ...

  2. A Stable, Accurate Methodology for High Mach Number, Strong Magnetic Field MHD Turbulence with Adaptive Mesh Refinement: Resolution and Refinement Studies

    Li, Pak Shing; Klein, Richard I; McKee, Christopher F


    Performing a stable, long duration simulation of driven MHD turbulence with a high thermal Mach number and a strong initial magnetic field is a challenge to high-order Godunov ideal MHD schemes because of the difficulty in guaranteeing positivity of the density and pressure. We have implemented a robust combination of reconstruction schemes, Riemann solvers, limiters, and Constrained Transport EMF averaging schemes that can meet this challenge, and using this strategy, we have developed a new Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) MHD module of the ORION2 code. We investigate the effects of AMR on several statistical properties of a turbulent ideal MHD system with a thermal Mach number of 10 and a plasma $\\beta_0$ of 0.1 as initial conditions; our code is shown to be stable for simulations with higher Mach numbers ($M_rms = 17.3$) and smaller plasma beta ($\\beta_0 = 0.0067$) as well. Our results show that the quality of the turbulence simulation is generally related to the volume-averaged refinement. Our AMR simulati...

  3. Application of ADER Scheme in MHD Simulation

    ZHANG Yanyan; FENG Xueshang; JIANG Chaowei; ZHOU Yufen


    The Arbitrary accuracy Derivatives Riemann problem method(ADER) scheme is a new high order numerical scheme based on the concept of finite volume integration,and it is very easy to be extended up to any order of space and time accuracy by using a Taylor time expansion at the cell interface position.So far the approach has been applied successfully to flow mechanics problems.Our objective here is to carry out the extension of multidimensional ADER schemes to multidimensional MHD systems of conservation laws by calculating several MHD problems in one and two dimensions: (ⅰ) Brio-Wu shock tube problem,(ⅱ) Dai-Woodward shock tube problem,(ⅲ) Orszag-Tang MHD vortex problem.The numerical results prove that the ADER scheme possesses the ability to solve MHD problem,remains high order accuracy both in space and time,keeps precise in capturing the shock.Meanwhile,the compared tests show that the ADER scheme can restrain the oscillation and obtain the high order non-oscillatory result.

  4. Exploring reconnection, current sheets, and dissipation in a laboratory MHD turbulence experiment

    Schaffner, D. A.


    The Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX) can serve as a testbed for studying MHD turbulence in a controllable laboratory setting, and in particular, explore the phenomena of reconnection, current sheets and dissipation in MHD turbulence. Plasma with turbulently fluctuating magnetic and velocity fields can be generated using a plasma gun source and launched into a flux-conserving cylindrical tunnel. No background magnetic field is applied so internal fields are allowed to evolve dynamically. Point measurements of magnetic and velocity fluctuations yield broadband power-law spectra with a steepening breakpoint indicative of the onset of a dissipation scale. The frequency range at which this steepening occurs can be correlated to the ion inertial scale of the plasma, a length which is characteristic of the size of current sheets in MHD plasmas and suggests a connection to dissipation. Observation of non-Gaussian intermittent jumps in magnetic field magnitude and angle along with measurements of ion temperature bursts suggests the presence of current sheets embedded within the turbulent plasma, and possibly even active reconnection sites. Additionally, structure function analysis coupled with appeals to fractal scaling models support the hypothesis that current sheets are associated with dissipation in this system.

  5. MHD simulations on an unstructured mesh

    Strauss, H.R. [New York Univ., NY (United States); Park, W.; Belova, E.; Fu, G.Y. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Longcope, D.W. [Univ. of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States); Sugiyama, L.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Two reasons for using an unstructured computational mesh are adaptivity, and alignment with arbitrarily shaped boundaries. Two codes which use finite element discretization on an unstructured mesh are described. FEM3D solves 2D and 3D RMHD using an adaptive grid. MH3D++, which incorporates methods of FEM3D into the MH3D generalized MHD code, can be used with shaped boundaries, which might be 3D.

  6. On the nature of MHD and kinetic scale turbulence in the magnetosheath of Saturn: Cassini observations

    Hadid, L.; Sahraoui, F.; Kiyani, K. H.; Retino, A.; Modolo, R.; Masters, A.; Dougherty, M.


    Low frequency turbulence in Saturn's magnetosheath is investigated using in-situ measurements of the Cassini spacecraft. We focus on the magnetic energy spectra computed in the frequency range # [10-4, 1]Hz. Three main results are reported: 1) The magnetic energy spectra showed a # f-1 scaling at MHD scales followed by an # f-2.6 scaling at the sub-ion scales without forming the so-called inertial range, breaking the universality of the Kolmogorov spectrum in the magnetosheath; 2) The magnetic compressibility and the cross-correlation between the parallel component of the magnetic field and density fluctuations C(#n, #B||) indicate the dominance of the compressible magnetosonic slow modes at MHD scales rather than the Alfvén mode [3] ; 3) Higher order statistics revealed a monofractal (resp. multifractal) behaviour of the turbulent flow behind a quasiperpendicular (resp. quasi-parallel) shock at the subion scales.

  7. Advances in Simulation of Wave Interactions with Extended MHD Phenomena

    Batchelor, Donald B [ORNL; D' Azevedo, Eduardo [ORNL; Bateman, Glenn [ORNL; Bernholdt, David E [ORNL; Bonoli, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Bramley, Randall B [ORNL; Breslau, Joshua [ORNL; Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Foley, S. [Indiana University; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick [ORNL; Jardin, S. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Kruger, Scott E [ORNL; Ku, Long-Poe [ORNL; McCune, Douglas [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ramos, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Schissel, David P [ORNL; Schnack, Dalton D [ORNL


    The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) provides a framework within which some of the most advanced, massively-parallel fusion modeling codes can be interoperated to provide a detailed picture of the multi-physics processes involved in fusion experiments. The presentation will cover four topics: (1) recent improvements to the IPS, (2) application of the IPS for very high resolution simulations of ITER scenarios, (3) studies of resistive and ideal MHD stability in tokamak discharges using IPS facilities, and (4) the application of RF power in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies to control slowly growing MHD modes in tokamaks and initial evaluations of optimized location for RF power deposition.

  8. Advances in Simulation of Wave Interaction with Extended MHD Phenomena

    Batchelor, Donald B [ORNL; Abla, Gheni [ORNL; D' Azevedo, Ed F [ORNL; Bateman, Glenn [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Bernholdt, David E [ORNL; Berry, Lee A [ORNL; Bonoli, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Bramley, R [Indiana University; Breslau, Joshua [ORNL; Chance, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Chen, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Choi, M. [General Atomics; Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Foley, S. [Indiana University; Fu, GuoYong [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Harvey, R. W. [CompX, Del Mar, CA; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick [ORNL; Jardin, S. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Jenkins, T [University of Wisconsin; Keyes, David E [Columbia University; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Kruger, Scott [Tech-X Corporation; Ku, Long-Poe [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL; McCune, Douglas [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ramos, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Schissel, D. [General Atomics; Schnack, [University of Wisconsin; Wright, J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)


    The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) provides a framework within which some of the most advanced, massively-parallel fusion modeling codes can be interoperated to provide a detailed picture of the multi-physics processes involved in fusion experiments. The presentation will cover four topics: 1) recent improvements to the IPS, 2) application of the IPS for very high resolution simulations of ITER scenarios, 3) studies of resistive and ideal MHD stability in tokamk discharges using IPS facilities, and 4) the application of RF power in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies to control slowly growing MHD modes in tokamaks and initial evaluations of optimized location for RF power deposition.

  9. Advances in simulation of wave interactions with extended MHD phenomena

    Batchelor, D; D' Azevedo, E; Bernholdt, D E; Berry, L; Elwasif, W; Jaeger, E [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Abla, G; Choi, M [General Atomics (United States); Bateman, G [Lehigh University (United States); Bonoli, P [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Bramley, R; Foley, S [Indiana University (United States); Breslau, J; Chance, M; Chen, J; Fu, G; Jardin, S [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); Harvey, R [CompX International (United States); Jenkins, T [University of Wisconsin (United States); Keyes, D, E-mail: batchelordb@ornl.go [Columbia University (United States)


    The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) provides a framework within which some of the most advanced, massively-parallel fusion modeling codes can be interoperated to provide a detailed picture of the multi-physics processes involved in fusion experiments. The presentation will cover four topics: 1) recent improvements to the IPS, 2) application of the IPS for very high resolution simulations of ITER scenarios, 3) studies of resistive and ideal MHD stability in tokamk discharges using IPS facilities, and 4) the application of RF power in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies to control slowly growing MHD modes in tokamaks and initial evaluations of optimized location for RF power deposition.


    Stepanov, R.; Frick, P.; Mizeva, I. [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Korolyov str. 1, 614013 Perm (Russian Federation)


    We show that oppositely directed fluxes of energy and magnetic helicity coexist in the inertial range in fully developed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with small-scale sources of magnetic helicity. Using a helical shell model of MHD turbulence, we study the high Reynolds number MHD turbulence for helicity injection at a scale that is much smaller than the scale of energy injection. In a short range of scales larger than the forcing scale of magnetic helicity, a bottleneck-like effect appears, which results in a local reduction of the spectral slope. The slope changes in a domain with a high level of relative magnetic helicity, which determines that part of the magnetic energy is related to the helical modes at a given scale. If the relative helicity approaches unity, the spectral slope tends to –3/2. We show that this energy pileup is caused by an inverse cascade of magnetic energy associated with the magnetic helicity. This negative energy flux is the contribution of the pure magnetic-to-magnetic energy transfer, which vanishes in the non-helical limit. In the context of astrophysical dynamos, our results indicate that a large-scale dynamo can be affected by the magnetic helicity generated at small scales. The kinetic helicity, in particular, is not involved in the process at all. An interesting finding is that an inverse cascade of magnetic energy can be provided by a small-scale source of magnetic helicity fluctuations without a mean injection of magnetic helicity.

  11. Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics Simulations of Protostellar Jets and Turbulent Dynamos

    Tricco, Terrence S; Federrath, Christoph; Bate, Matthew R


    We presents results from Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics simulations of collapsing molecular cloud cores, and dynamo amplification of the magnetic field in the presence of Mach 10 magnetised turbulence. Our star formation simulations have produced, for the first time ever, highly collimated magnetised protostellar jets from the first hydrostatic core phase. Up to 40% of the initial core mass may be ejected through this outflow. The primary difficulty in performing these simulations is maintaining the divergence free constraint of the magnetic field, and to address this issue, we have developed a new divergence cleaning method which has allowed us to stably follow the evolution of these protostellar jets for long periods. The simulations performed of supersonic MHD turbulence are able to exponentially amplify magnetic energy by up to 10 orders of magnitude via turbulent dynamo. To reduce numerical dissipation, a new shock detection algorithm is utilised which is able to track magnetic shocks throughout ...

  12. Modeling of MHD turbulent heat transfer in channel flows imposed wall-normal magnetic fields under the various Prandtl number fluids

    Yamamoto, Yoshinobu, E-mail: [Division of Mechanical Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Kunugi, Tomoaki, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, C3-d2S06, Kyoto-Daigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-Ku 615-8540, Kyoto (Japan)


    Highlights: • We show the applicability to predict the heat transfer imposed on a uniform wall-normal magnetic field by means of the zero-equation heat transfer model. • Quasi-theoretical turbulent Prandtl numbers with various molecular Prandtl number fluids were obtained. • Improvements of the prediction accuracy in turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dissipation rate under the magnetic fields were accomplished. - Abstract: Zero-equation heat transfer models based on the constant turbulent Prandtl number are evaluated using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data for fully developed channel flows imposed on a uniform wall-normal magnetic field. Quasi-theoretical turbulent Prandtl numbers are estimated by DNS data of various molecular Prandtl number fluids. From the viewpoint of highly-accurate magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) heat transfer prediction, the parameters of the turbulent eddy viscosity of the k–É› model are optimized under the magnetic fields. Consequently, we use the zero-equation model based on a constant turbulent Prandtl number to demonstrate MHD heat transfer, and show the applicability of using this model to predict the heat transfer.

  13. Global MHD Simulations of Accretion Disks in Cataclysmic Variables (CVs): I. The Importance of Spiral Shocks

    Ju, Wenhua; Zhu, Zhaohuan


    We present results from the first global 3D MHD simulations of accretion disks in Cataclysmic Variable (CV) systems in order to investigate the relative importance of angular momentum transport via turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) compared to that driven by spiral shock waves. Remarkably, we find that even with vigorous MRI turbulence, spiral shocks are an important component to the overall angular momentum budget, at least when temperatures in the disk are high (so that Mach numbers are low). In order to understand the excitation, propagation, and damping of spiral density waves in our simulations more carefully, we perform a series of 2D global hydrodynamical simulations with various equation of states and both with and without mass inflow via the Lagrangian point (L1). Compared with previous similar studies, we find the following new results. 1) Linear wave dispersion relation fits the pitch angles of spiral density waves very well. 2) We demonstrate explicitly that mass accreti...

  14. From Weakly to Strongly Magnetized Isotropic MHD Turbulence

    Alexakis, Alexandros


    High Reynolds number isotropic magneto-hydro-dynamic turbulence in the presence of large scale magnetic fields is investigated as a function of the magnetic field strength. For a variety of flow configurations the energy dissipation rate \\epsilon, follows the Kolmogorov scaling \\epsilon ~ U^3/L even when the large scale magnetic field energy is twenty times larger than the kinetic. Further increase of the magnetic energy showed a transition to the \\epsilon ~ U^2 B / L scaling implying that magnetic shear becomes more efficient at this point at cascading the energy than the velocity fluctuations. Strongly helical configurations form helicity condensates that deviate from these scalings. Weak turbulence scaling was absent from the investigation. Finally, the magnetic energy spectra showed support for the Kolmogorov spectrum k^{-5/3} while kinetic energy spectra are closer to the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan spectrum k^{-3/2}.

  15. Global and Kinetic MHD Simulation by the Gpic-MHD Code

    Hiroshi NAITOU; Yusuke YAMADA; Kenji KAJIWARA; Wei-li LEE; Shinji TOKUDA; Masatoshi YAGI


    In order to implement large-scale and high-beta tokamak simulation, a new algorithm of the electromagnetic gyrokinetic PIC (particle-in-cell) code was proposed and installed on the Gpic-MHD code [Gyrokinetic PIC code for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation]. In the new algorithm, the vorticity equation and the generalized Ohm's law along the magnetic field are derived from the basic equations of the gyrokinetic Vlasov, Poisson, and Ampere system and are used to describe the spatio-temporal evolution of the field quantities of the electrostatic potential φ and the longitudinal component of the vector potential Az. The basic algorithm is equivalent to solving the reduced-MHD-type equations with kinetic corrections, in which MHD physics related to Alfven modes are well described. The estimation of perturbed electron pressure from particle dynamics is dominant, while the effects of other moments are negligible. Another advantage of the algorithm is that the longitudinal induced electric field, ETz = -δAz/δt, is explicitly estimated by the generalized Ohm's law and used in the equations of motion. Furthermore, the particle velocities along the magnetic field are used (vz-formulation) instead of generalized momentums (pz-formulation), hence there is no problem of 'cancellation', which would otherwise appear when Az is estimated from the Ampere's law in the pz-formulation. The successful simulation of the collisionless internal kink mode by the new Gpic-MHD with realistic values of the large-scale and high-beta tokamaks revealed the usefulness of the new algorithm.

  16. Direct numerical simulation of dynamo transition for nonhelical MHD

    Nath, Dinesh; Verma, Mahendra K [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Lessinnes, Thomas; Carati, Daniele [Physique Statistique et Plasmas, Universite Libre de Bruxellers, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Sarris, Ioannis [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Thessaly, Volos (Greece)


    Pseudospectral Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) has been performed to simulate dynamo transition for nonhelical magnetohydrodynamics turbulence. The numerical results are compared with a recent low-dimensional model [Verma et al. [13

  17. Extended MHD Turbulence and Its Applications to the Solar Wind

    Abdelhamid, Hamdi M.; Lingam, Manasvi; Mahajan, Swadesh M.


    Extended MHD is a one-fluid model that incorporates two-fluid effects such as electron inertia and the Hall drift. This model is used to construct fully nonlinear Alfvénic wave solutions, and thereby derive the kinetic and magnetic spectra by resorting to a Kolmogorov-like hypothesis based on the constant cascading rates of the energy and generalized helicities of this model. The magnetic and kinetic spectra are derived in the ideal (k\\lt 1/{λ }i), Hall (1/{λ }i\\lt k\\lt 1/{λ }e), and electron inertia (k\\gt 1/{λ }e) regimes; k is the wavenumber and {λ }s=c/{ω }{ps} is the skin depth of species “s.” In the Hall regime, it is shown that the emergent results are fully consistent with previous numerical and analytical studies, especially in the context of the solar wind. The focus is primarily on the electron inertia regime, where magnetic energy spectra with power-law indexes of -11/3 and -13/3 are always recovered. The latter, in particular, is quite close to recent observational evidence from the solar wind with a potential slope of approximately -4 in this regime. It is thus plausible that these spectra may constitute a part of the (extended) inertial range, as opposed to the standard “dissipation” range paradigm.

  18. Extended MHD turbulence and its applications to the solar wind

    Abdelhamid, Hamdi M; Mahajan, Swadesh M


    Extended MHD is a one-fluid model that incorporates two-fluid effects such as electron inertia and the Hall drift. This model is used to construct fully nonlinear Alfv\\'enic wave solutions, and thereby derive the kinetic and magnetic spectra by resorting to a Kolmogorov-like hypothesis based on the constant cascading rates of the energy and generalized helicities of this model. The magnetic and kinetic spectra are derived in the ideal $\\left(k 1/\\lambda_e\\right)$ regimes; $k$ is the wavenumber and $\\lambda_s = c/\\omega_{p s}$ is the skin depth of species `$s$'. In the Hall regime, it is shown that the emergent results are fully consistent with previous numerical and analytical studies, especially in the context of the solar wind. The focus is primarily on the electron inertia regime, where magnetic energy spectra with power-law indexes of $-11/3$ and $-13/3$ are always recovered. The latter, in particular, is quite close to recent observational evidence from the solar wind with a potential slope of approxima...

  19. Nature of the MHD and Kinetic Scale Turbulence in the Magnetosheath of Saturn: Cassini Observations

    Hadid, L. Z.; Sahraoui, F.; Kiyani, K. H.; Retinò, A.; Modolo, R.; Canu, P.; Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K.


    Low-frequency turbulence in Saturn’s magnetosheath is investigated using in situ measurements of the Cassini spacecraft. Focus is put on the magnetic energy spectra computed in the frequency range of ˜[10-4, 1]Hz. A set of 42 time intervals in the magnetosheath were analyzed, and three main results that contrast with known features of solar wind turbulence are reported. (1) The magnetic energy spectra showed a ˜f-1 scaling at MHD scales followed by an ˜ {f}-2.6 scaling at sub-ion scales without forming the so-called inertial range. (2) The magnetic compressibility and the cross-correlation between the parallel component of the magnetic field and density fluctuations C(δ n,δ {B}| | ) indicate the dominance of the compressible magnetosonic slow-like modes at MHD scales rather than the Alfvén mode. (3) Higher-order statistics revealed a monofractal (multifractal) behavior of the turbulent flow downstream of a quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel) shock at sub-ion scales. Implications of these results on theoretical modeling of space plasma turbulence are discussed.

  20. Evidence for Decay of Turbulence by MHD Shocks in Molecular Clouds via CO Emission

    Larson, Rebecca L; Green, Joel D; Yang, Yao-Lun


    We utilize observations of sub-millimeter rotational transitions of CO from a Herschel Cycle 2 open time program ("COPS", PI: J. Green) to identify previously predicted turbulent dissipation by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in molecular clouds. We find evidence of the shocks expected for dissipation of MHD turbulence in material not associated with any protostar. Two models fit about equally well: model 1 has a density of 10$^{3}$ cm$^{-3}$, a shock velocity of 3 km s$^{-1}$, and a magnetic field strength of 4 ${\\mu}$G; model 2 has a density of 10$^{3.5}$ cm$^{-3}$, a shock velocity of $2$ km s$^{-1}$, and a magnetic field strength of 8 $\\mu$G. Timescales for decay of turbulence in this region are comparable to crossing times. Transitions of CO up to $J$ of 8, observed close to active sites of star formation, but not within outflows, can trace turbulent dissipation of shocks stirred by formation processes. Although the transitions are difficult to detect at individual positions, our Herschel-SPIRE survey o...

  1. On soft stability loss in rotating turbulent MHD flows

    Kapusta, Arkady [Center for MHD Studies, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Mikhailovich, Boris, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev PO Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)


    The problem of the stability of turbulent flows of liquid metal in a cylindrical cavity against small velocity disturbances under the action of a rotating magnetic field (RMF) has been studied. The flow is considered in the induction-free approximation using the ‘external’ friction model. A system of dimensionless equations is examined in cylindrical coordinates. The results of computations performed on the basis of this mathematical model using the exchange of stabilities principle have shown a good consistency between the critical values of computed and experimental Reynolds numbers. (paper)

  2. The world's largest turbulence simulations

    Federrath, Christoph; Iapichino, Luigi; Hammer, Nicolay J


    Understanding turbulence is critical for a wide range of terrestrial and astrophysical applications. Here we present first results of the world's highest-resolution simulation of turbulence ever done. The current simulation has a grid resolution of 10048^3 points and was performed on 65536 compute cores on SuperMUC at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ). We present a scaling test of our modified version of the FLASH code, which updates the hydrodynamical equations in less than 3 micro seconds per cell per time step. A first look at the column density structure of the 10048^3 simulation is presented and a detailed analysis is provided in a forthcoming paper.

  3. Investigating Magnetic Activity in the Galactic Centre by Global MHD Simulation

    Suzuki, Takeru K; Torii, Kazufumi; Machida, Mami; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Kakiuchi, Kensuke


    By performing a global magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulation for the Milky Way with an axisymmetric gravitational potential, we propose that spatially dependent amplification of magnetic fields possibly explains the observed noncircular motion of the gas in the Galactic centre (GC) region. The radial distribution of the rotation frequency in the bulge region is not monotonic in general. The amplification of the magnetic field is enhanced in regions with stronger differential rotation, because magnetorotational instability and field-line stretching are more effective. The strength of the amplified magnetic field reaches >~ 0.5 mG, and radial flows of the gas are excited by the inhomogeneous transport of angular momentum through turbulent magnetic field that is amplified in a spatially dependent manner. As a result, the simulated position-velocity diagram exhibits a time-dependent asymmetric parallelogram-shape owing to the intermittency of the magnetic turbulence; the present model provides a viable alternati...

  4. Observational Diagnostics of Self-Gravitating MHD Turbulence in Giant Molecular Clouds

    Burkhart, Blakesley; Lazarian, Alex


    We study the observable signatures of self-gravitating MHD turbulence by applying the probability density functions (PDFs) and the spatial density power spectrum to synthetic column density maps. We find that there exists three characterizable stages of the evolution of the collapsing cloud which we term "early," "intermediate," and "advanced." At early times, i.e. $t0.35t_{ff}$, the power spectral slope is positive valued, and a dramatic increase is observed in the PDF moments and the Tsallis incremental PDF parameters, which gives rise to deviations between PDF-sonic Mach number relations. Finally, we show that the imprint of gravity on the density power spectrum can be replicated in non-gravitating turbulence by introducing a delta-function with amplitude equivalent to the maximum valued point in a given self-gravitating map. We find that the turbulence power spectrum restored through spatial filtering of the high density material.

  5. Numerical analysis of the average MHD flow within a cylindrical region on the basis of applicable hypotheses about turbulent stresses

    Mikel' son, Yu.Ya.; Yakovich, A.T.; Pavlov, S.I.


    Turbulent stresses are considered in an incompressible fluid due to MHD flow induced within an axisymmetric region by electromagnetic forces on the basis of the linearized equation of motion as well as on the basis of the stress tensor in terms of average velocities and turbulent viscosity. The turbulent viscosity is treated according to the Boussinesq hypothesis (constant turbulent viscosity), according to the generalized Karman hypothesis (turbulent viscosity a function of the derivatives of the velocity components with respect to the respective coordinates), or as the product of its coordinate functions. The results of numerical calculations indicate a close agreement between all these formulas for an average MHD flow and experimental data. Calculations including this additional turbulent force, appropriately related to the flow parameters, are applicable to the design of liquid-metal devices. 7 references, 3 figures.

  6. Direct numerical simulations of helical dynamo action: MHD and beyond

    D. O. Gómez


    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic dynamo action is often invoked to explain the existence of magnetic fields in several astronomical objects. In this work, we present direct numerical simulations of MHD helical dynamos, to study the exponential growth and saturation of magnetic fields. Simulations are made within the framework of incompressible flows and using periodic boundary conditions. The statistical properties of the flow are studied, and it is found that its helicity displays strong spatial fluctuations. Regions with large kinetic helicity are also strongly concentrated in space, forming elongated structures. In dynamo simulations using these flows, we found that the growth rate and the saturation level of magnetic energy and magnetic helicity reach an asymptotic value as the Reynolds number is increased. Finally, extensions of the MHD theory to include kinetic effects relevant in astrophysical environments are discussed.

  7. Model for Simulation Atmospheric Turbulence

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik


    A method that produces realistic simulations of atmospheric turbulence is developed and analyzed. The procedure makes use of a generalized spectral analysis, often called a proper orthogonal decomposition or the Karhunen-Loève expansion. A set of criteria, emphasizing a realistic appearance, a co....... The method is unique in modeling the three velocity components simultaneously, and it is found that important cross-statistical features are reasonably well-behaved. It is concluded that the model provides a practical, operational simulator of atmospheric turbulence.......A method that produces realistic simulations of atmospheric turbulence is developed and analyzed. The procedure makes use of a generalized spectral analysis, often called a proper orthogonal decomposition or the Karhunen-Loève expansion. A set of criteria, emphasizing a realistic appearance......, a correct spectral shape, and non-Gaussian statistics, is selected in order to evaluate the model turbulence. An actual turbulence record is analyzed in detail providing both a standard for comparison and input statistics for the generalized spectral analysis, which in turn produces a set of orthonormal...

  8. Nature of the MHD and kinetic scale turbulence in the magnetosheath of Saturn: Cassini observations

    Hadid, L Z; Kiyani, K H; Retinò, A; Modolo, R; Canu, P; Masters, A; Dougherty, M K


    Low frequency turbulence in Saturn's magnetosheath is investigated using in-situ measurements of the Cassini spacecraft. Focus is put on the magnetic energy spectra computed in the frequency range $\\sim[10^{-4}, 1]$Hz. A set of 42 time intervals in the magnetosheath were analyzed and three main results that contrast with known features of solar wind turbulence are reported: 1) The magnetic energy spectra showed a $\\sim f^{-1}$ scaling at MHD scales followed by an $\\sim f^{-2.6}$ scaling at the sub-ion scales without forming the so-called inertial range; 2) The magnetic compressibility and the cross-correlation between the parallel component of the magnetic field and density fluctuations $ C(\\delta n,\\delta B_{||}) $ indicates the dominance of the compressible magnetosonic slow-like modes at MHD scales rather than the Alfv\\'en mode; 3) Higher order statistics revealed a monofractal (resp. multifractal) behaviour of the turbulent flow downstream of a quasi-perpendicular (resp. quasi-parallel) shock at the sub-i...

  9. Large- and small-scale turbulent spectra in MHD and atmospheric flows

    O. G. Chkhetiani


    Full Text Available In the present review we discuss certain studies of large- and small-scale turbulent spectra in MHD and atmospheric flows performed by S. S. Moiseev and his co-authors during the last years of his life and continued by his co-authors after he passed away. It is shown that many ideas developed in these works have not lost their novelty and urgency until now, and can form the basis of future studies in this field.

  10. Simulations of MHD flows with moving interfaces

    Gerbeau, J F; Le Bris, C


    We report on the numerical simulation of a two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics problem arising in the industrial production of aluminium. The motion of the two non-miscible fluids is modeled through the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the Maxwell equations. Stabilized finite elements techniques and an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation (for the motion of the interface separating the two fluids) are used in the numerical simulation. With a view to justifying our strategy, details on the numerical analysis of the problem, with a special emphasis on conservation and stability properties and on the surface tension discretization, as well as results on tests cases are provided. Examples of numerical simulations of the industrial case are eventually presented.

  11. Divergence-free MHD Simulations with the HERACLES Code

    Vides J.


    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD equations have played a significant role in plasma research over the years. The need of obtaining physical and stable solutions to these equations has led to the development of several schemes, all requiring to satisfy and preserve the divergence constraint of the magnetic field numerically. In this paper, we aim to show the importance of maintaining this constraint numerically. We investigate in particular the hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique applied to the ideal MHD equations on a collocated grid and compare it to the constrained transport technique that uses a staggered grid to maintain the property. The methods are implemented in the software HERACLES and several numerical tests are presented, where the robustness and accuracy of the different schemes can be directly compared.

  12. Comparisons of Cosmological MHD Galaxy Cluster Simulations to Radio Observations

    Xu, Hao; Murgia, Matteo; Li, Hui; Collins, David C; Norman, Michael L; Cen, Renyue; Feretti, Luigina; Giovannini, Gabriele


    Radio observations of galaxy clusters show that there are $\\mu$G magnetic fields permeating the intra-cluster medium (ICM), but it is hard to accurately constrain the strength and structure of the magnetic fields without the help of advanced computer simulations. We present qualitative comparisons of synthetic VLA observations of simulated galaxy clusters to radio observations of Faraday Rotation Measure (RM) and radio halos. The cluster formation is modeled using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations with the assumption that the initial magnetic fields are injected into the ICM by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at high redshift. In addition to simulated clusters in Xu et al. (2010, 2011), we present a new simulation with magnetic field injections from multiple AGNs. We find that the cluster with multiple injection sources is magnetized to a similar level as in previous simulations with a single AGN. The RM profiles from simulated clusters, both $|RM|$ and the dispersion of RM (...

  13. 3D MHD Simulations of Spheromak Compression

    Stuber, James E.; Woodruff, Simon; O'Bryan, John; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; Darpa Spheromak Team


    The adiabatic compression of compact tori could lead to a compact and hence low cost fusion energy system. The critical scientific issues in spheromak compression relate both to confinement properties and to the stability of the configuration undergoing compression. We present results from the NIMROD code modified with the addition of magnetic field coils that allow us to examine the role of rotation on the stability and confinement of the spheromak (extending prior work for the FRC). We present results from a scan in initial rotation, from 0 to 100km/s. We show that strong rotational shear (10km/s over 1cm) occurs. We compare the simulation results with analytic scaling relations for adiabatic compression. Work performed under DARPA grant N66001-14-1-4044.

  14. Intensity contrast from MHD simulations and from HINODE observations

    Afram, N; Solanki, S K; Schuessler, M; Lagg, A; Voegler, A


    Changes in the solar surface area covered by small-scale magnetic elements are thought to cause long-term changes in the solar spectral irradiance, which are important for determining the impact on Earth's climate. To study the effect of small-scale magnetic elements on total and spectral irradiance, we derive their contrasts from 3-D MHD simulations of the solar atmosphere. Such calculations are necessary since measurements of small-scale flux tube contrasts are confined to a few wavelengths and suffer from scattered light and instrument defocus, even for space observations. To test the contrast calculations, we compare rms contrasts from simulations with those obtained with the broad-band filter imager mounted on the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard the Hinode satellite and also analyse centre-to-limb variations (CLV). The 3-D MHD simulations include the interaction between convection and magnetic flux tubes. They have been run with non-grey radiative transfer using the MURaM code. Simulations have an ...

  15. 3D MHD simulation of polarized emission in SN 1006

    Schneiter, E M; Reynoso, E M; Esquivel, A; De Colle, F


    We use three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to model the supernova remnant SN 1006. From our numerical results, we have carried out a polarization study, obtaining synthetic maps of the polarized intensity, the Stokes parameter $Q$, and the polar-referenced angle, which can be compared with observational results. Synthetic maps were computed considering two possible particle acceleration mechanisms: quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular. The comparison of synthetic maps of the Stokes parameter $Q$ maps with observations proves to be a valuable tool to discern unambiguously which mechanism is taking place in the remnant of SN 1006, giving strong support to the quasi-parallel model.

  16. MHD simulation studies of z-pinch shear flow stabilization

    Paraschiv, I.; Bauer, B. S.; Sotnikov, V. I.; Makhin, V.; Siemon, R. E.


    The development of the m=0 instability in a z-pinch in the presence of sheared plasma flows is investigated with the aid of a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation code (MHRDR). The linear growth rates are compared to the results obtained by solving the ideal MHD linearized equations [1] and to the results obtained using a 3D hybrid simulation code [2]. The instability development is followed into the nonlinear regime where its growth and saturation are examined. [1] V.I. Sotnikov, I. Paraschiv, V. Makhin, B.S. Bauer, J.-N. Leboeuf, and J.M. Dawson, "Linear analysis of sheared flow stabilization of global magnetohydrodynamic instabilities based on the Hall fluid mode", Phys. Plasmas 9, 913 (2002). [2] V.I. Sotnikov, V. Makhin, B.S. Bauer, P. Hellinger, P. Travnicek, V. Fiala, J.-N. Leboeuf, "Hybrid Simulations of Current-Carrying Instabilities in Z-pinch Plasmas with Sheared Axial Flow", AIP Conference Proceedings, Volume 651, Dense Z-Pinches: 5th International Conference on Dense Z-Pinches, edited by J. Davis et al., page 396, June 2002.

  17. Local 4/5-law and energy dissipation anomaly in turbulence of incompressible MHD Equations

    Guo, Shanshan; Tan, Zhong


    In this paper, we establish the longitudinal and transverse local energy balance equation of distributional solutions of the incompressible three-dimensional MHD equations. In particular, we find that the functions D_L^ɛ (u,B) and D_T^ɛ (u,B) appeared in the energy balance, all converging to the defect distribution (in the sense of distributions) D(u,B) which has been defined in Gao et al. (Acta Math Sci 33:865-871, 2013). Furthermore, we give a simpler form of defect distribution term, which is similar to the relation in turbulence theory, called the "4 / 3-law." As a corollary, we give the analogous "4 / 5-law" holds in the local sense.

  18. Features of collisionless turbulence in the intracluster medium from simulated Faraday rotation maps II: the effects of instabilities feedback

    Santos-Lima, R; Falceta-Gonçalves, D A; Nakwacki, M S; Kowal, G


    Statistical analysis of Faraday Rotation Measure (RM) maps of the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters provides a unique tool to evaluate some spatial features of the magnetic fields there. Its combination with numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence allows the diagnosis of the ICM turbulence. Being the ICM plasma weakly collisional, the thermal velocity distribution of the particles naturally develops anisotropies as a consequence of the large scale motions and the conservation of the magnetic moment of the charged particles. A previous study (Paper I) analyzed the impact of large scale thermal anisotropy on the statistics of RM maps synthesized from simulations of turbulence; these simulations employed a collisionless MHD model which considered a tensor pressure with uniform anisotropy. In the present work, we extend that analysis to a collisionless MHD model in which the thermal anisotropy develops according to the conservation of the magnetic moment of the thermal particles. ...

  19. On the characterization of magnetic reconnection in global MHD simulations

    T. V. Laitinen


    Full Text Available The conventional definition of reconnection rate as the electric field parallel to an x-line is problematic in global MHD simulations for several reasons: the x-line itself may be hard to find in a non-trivial geometry such as at the magnetopause, and the lack of realistic resistivity modelling leaves us without reliable non-convective electric field. In this article we describe reconnection characterization methods that avoid those problems and are practical to apply in global MHD simulations. We propose that the reconnection separator line can be identified as the region where magnetic field lines of different topological properties meet, rather than by local considerations. The global convection associated with reconnection is then quantified by calculating the transfer of mass, energy or magnetic field across the boundary of closed and open field line regions. The extent of the diffusion region is determined from the destruction of electromagnetic energy, given by the divergence of the Poynting vector. Integrals of this energy conversion provide a way to estimate the total reconnection efficiency.

  20. Global simulations of magnetorotational turbulence II: turbulent energetics

    Parkin, E R


    Magnetorotational turbulence draws its energy from gravity and ultimately releases it via dissipation. However, the quantitative details of this energy flow have not been assessed for global disk models. In this work we examine the energetics of a well-resolved, three-dimensional, global magnetohydrodynamic accretion disk simulation by evaluating statistically-averaged mean-field equations for magnetic, kinetic, and internal energy using simulation data. The results reveal that turbulent magnetic (kinetic) energy is primarily injected by the correlation between Maxwell (Reynolds) stresses and shear in the (almost Keplerian) mean flow, and removed by dissipation. This finding differs from previous work using local (shearing-box) models, which indicated that turbulent kinetic energy was primarily sourced from the magnetic energy reservoir. Lorentz forces provide the bridge between the magnetic and kinetic energy reservoirs, converting ~ 1/5 of the total turbulent magnetic power input into turbulent kinetic ener...

  1. Simulation and modeling of turbulent flows

    Gatski, Thomas B; Lumley, John L


    This book provides students and researchers in fluid engineering with an up-to-date overview of turbulent flow research in the areas of simulation and modeling. A key element of the book is the systematic, rational development of turbulence closure models and related aspects of modern turbulent flow theory and prediction. Starting with a review of the spectral dynamics of homogenous and inhomogeneous turbulent flows, succeeding chapters deal with numerical simulation techniques, renormalization group methods and turbulent closure modeling. Each chapter is authored by recognized leaders in their respective fields, and each provides a thorough and cohesive treatment of the subject.

  2. 3D-MHD simulations of the evolution of magnetic fields in FR II radio sources

    Huarte-Espinosa, Martin; Alexander, Paul


    3D-MHD numerical simulations of bipolar, hypersonic, weakly magnetized jets and synthetic synchrotron observations are presented to study the structure and evolution of magnetic fields in FR II radio sources. The magnetic field setup in the jet is initially random. The power of the jets as well as the observational viewing angle are investigated. We find that synthetic polarization maps agree with observations and show that magnetic fields inside the sources are shaped by the jets' backflow. Polarimetry statistics correlates with time, the viewing angle and the jet-to-ambient density contrast. The magnetic structure inside thin elongated sources is more uniform than for ones with fatter cocoons. Jets increase the magnetic energy in cocoons, in proportion to the jet velocity. Both, filaments in synthetic emission maps and 3D magnetic power spectra suggest that turbulence develops in evolved sources.

  3. Gyrokinetic simulations of ETG Turbulence*

    Nevins, William


    Recent gyrokinetic simulations of electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence [1,2] produced different results despite similar plasma parameters. Ref.[1] differs from Ref.[2] in that [1] eliminates magnetically trapped particles ( r/R=0 ), while [2] retains magnetically trapped particles ( r/R 0.18 ). Differences between [1] and [2] have been attributed to insufficient phase-space resolution and novel physics associated with toroidicity and/or global simulations[2]. We have reproduced the results reported in [2] using a flux-tube, particle-in-cell (PIC) code, PG3EQ[3], thereby eliminating global effects as the cause of the discrepancy. We observe late-time decay of ETG turbulence and the steady-state heat transport in agreement with [2], and show this results from discrete particle noise. Discrete particle noise is a numerical artifact, so both the PG3EQ simulations reported here and those reported in Ref.[2] have little to say about steady-state ETG turbulence and the associated anomalous electron heat transport. Our attempts to benchmark PIC and continuum[4] codes at the plasma parameters used in Ref.[2] produced very large, intermittent transport. We will present an alternate benchmark point for ETG turbulence, where several codes reproduce the same transport levels. Parameter scans about this new benchmark point will be used to investigate the parameter dependence of ETG transport and to elucidate saturation mechanisms proposed in Refs.[1,2] and elsewhere[5-7].*In collaboration with A. Dimits (LLNL), J. Candy, C. Estrada-Mila (GA), W. Dorland (U of MD), F. Jenko, T. Dannert (Max-Planck Institut), and G. Hammett (PPPL). Work at LLNL performed for US DOE under Contract W7405-ENG-48.[1] F. Jenko and W. Dorland, PRL 89, 225001 (2002).[2] Z. Lin et al, 2004 Sherwood Mtg.; 2004 TTF Mtg.; Fusion Energy 2004 (IAEA, Vienna, 2005); Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (November, 2004); 2005 TTF Mtg.; 2005 Sherwood Mtg.; Z. Lin, et al, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056125 (2005). [3] A.M. Dimits

  4. MHD Simulations of Core Collapse Supernovae with Cosmos++

    Akiyama, Shizuka


    We performed 2D, axisymmetric, MHD simulations with Cosmos++ in order to examine the growth of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in core--collapse supernovae. We have initialized a non--rotating 15 solar mass progenitor, infused with differential rotation and poloidal magnetic fields. The collapse of the iron core is simulated with the Shen EOS, and the parametric Ye and entropy evolution. The wavelength of the unstable mode in the post--collapse environment is expected to be only ~ 200 m. In order to achieve the fine spatial resolution requirement, we employed remapping technique after the iron core has collapsed and bounced. The MRI unstable region appears near the equator and angular momentum and entropy are transported outward. Higher resolution remap run display more vigorous overturns and stronger transport of angular momentum and entropy. Our results are in agreement with the earlier work by Akiyama et al. (2003) and Obergaulinger et al. (2009).

  5. Sunspot Modeling: From Simplified Models to Radiative MHD Simulations

    Rolf Schlichenmaier


    Full Text Available We review our current understanding of sunspots from the scales of their fine structure to their large scale (global structure including the processes of their formation and decay. Recently, sunspot models have undergone a dramatic change. In the past, several aspects of sunspot structure have been addressed by static MHD models with parametrized energy transport. Models of sunspot fine structure have been relying heavily on strong assumptions about flow and field geometry (e.g., flux-tubes, "gaps", convective rolls, which were motivated in part by the observed filamentary structure of penumbrae or the necessity of explaining the substantial energy transport required to maintain the penumbral brightness. However, none of these models could self-consistently explain all aspects of penumbral structure (energy transport, filamentation, Evershed flow. In recent years, 3D radiative MHD simulations have been advanced dramatically to the point at which models of complete sunspots with sufficient resolution to capture sunspot fine structure are feasible. Here overturning convection is the central element responsible for energy transport, filamentation leading to fine-structure and the driving of strong outflows. On the larger scale these models are also in the progress of addressing the subsurface structure of sunspots as well as sunspot formation. With this shift in modeling capabilities and the recent advances in high resolution observations, the future research will be guided by comparing observation and theory.

  6. MHD Simulation of the Inner-Heliospheric Magnetic Field

    Wiengarten, T; Fichtner, H; Cameron, R; Jiang, J; Kissmann, R; Scherer, K; 10.1029/2012JA018089


    Maps of the radial magnetic field at a heliocentric distance of ten solar radii are used as boundary conditions in the MHD code CRONOS to simulate a 3D inner-heliospheric solar wind emanating from the rotating Sun out to 1 AU. The input data for the magnetic field are the result of solar surface flux transport modelling using observational data of sunspot groups coupled with a current sheet source surface model. Amongst several advancements, this allows for higher angular resolution than that of comparable observational data from synoptic magnetograms. The required initial conditions for the other MHD quantities are obtained following an empirical approach using an inverse relation between flux tube expansion and radial solar wind speed. The computations are performed for representative solar minimum and maximum conditions, and the corresponding state of the solar wind up to the Earths orbit is obtained. After a successful comparison of the latter with observational data, they can be used to drive outer-helio...

  7. Why, how and when electrically driven flows and MHD turbulence become three-dimensional

    Pothérat, A


    The dimensionality of electrically driven flows and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence at low Magnetic Reynolds number is analysed by driving a square array of vortices of alternate spin in a cubic vessel filled with liquid metal, placed in a high homogeneous, static magnetic field $\\mathbf B$. A wide range of steady and unsteady flows is generated by varying the intensity $I$ of the DC current injected to drive them, and their dimensionality is influenced by increasing or decreasing the magnetic field intensity. It is shown theoretically, and then experimentally that three-dimensionality is characterised by scaling laws linking the core velocity $U_b$ near the wall where current is injected to the current intensity $I$, of either forms $U_b\\sim I$ or $U_b\\sim I^{2/3}$, depending on whether three-dimensionality originates from viscous or inertial effects. In turbulent flows. The opposite wall is found to be either active or passive depending whether the ratio of its distance to the bottom wall $h$ to the le...

  8. Imposing resolved turbulence in CFD simulations

    Gilling, L.; Sørensen, Niels N.


    In large‐eddy simulations, the inflow velocity field should contain resolved turbulence. This paper describes and analyzes two methods for imposing resolved turbulence in the interior of the domain in Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations. The intended application of the methods is to impose...... resolved turbulence immediately upstream of the region or structure of interest. Comparing to the alternative of imposing the turbulence at the inlet, there is a large potential to reduce the computational cost of the simulation by reducing the total number of cells. The reduction comes from a lower demand...... of modifying the source terms. None of the two methods can impose synthetic turbulence with good results, but it is shown that by running the turbulence field through a short precursor simulation, very good results are obtained. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  9. Formation and collimation of relativistic MHD jets - simulations and radio maps

    Fendt, Christian; Sheikhnezami, Somayeh


    We present results of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of jet formation and propagation, discussing a variety of astrophysical setups. In the first approach we consider simulations of relativistic MHD jet formation, considering jets launched from the surface of a Keplerian disk, demonstrating numerically - for the first time - the self-collimating ability of relativistic MHD jets. We obtain Lorentz factors up to about 10 while acquiring a high degree of collimation of about 1 degree. We then present synchrotron maps calculated from the intrinsic jet structure derived from the MHD jet formation simulation. We finally present (non-relativistic) MHD simulations of jet lauching, treating the transition between accretion and ejection. These setups include a physical magnetic diffusivity which is essential for loading the accretion material onto the outflow. We find relatively high mass fluxes in the outflow, of the order of 20-40 % of the accretion rate.

  10. Investigating Magnetic Activity in the Galactic Centre by Global MHD Simulation

    Suzuki, Takeru K.; Fukui, Yasuo; Torii, Kazufumi; Machida, Mami; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Kakiuchi, Kensuke


    By performing a global magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulation for the Milky Way with an axisymmetric gravitational potential, we propose that spatially dependent amplification of magnetic fields possibly explains the observed noncircular motion of the gas in the Galactic centre (GC) region. The radial distribution of the rotation frequency in the bulge region is not monotonic in general. The amplification of the magnetic field is enhanced in regions with stronger differential rotation, because magnetorotational instability and field-line stretching are more effective. The strength of the amplified magnetic field reaches >~ 0.5 mG, and radial flows of the gas are excited by the inhomogeneous transport of angular momentum through turbulent magnetic field that is amplified in a spatially dependent manner. As a result, the simulated position-velocity diagram exhibits a time-dependent asymmetric parallelogram-shape owing to the intermittency of the magnetic turbulence; the present model provides a viable alternative to the bar-potential-driven model for the parallelogram shape of the central molecular zone. In addition, Parker instability (magnetic buoyancy) creates vertical magnetic structure, which would correspond to observed molecular loops, and frequently excited vertical flows. Furthermore, the time-averaged net gas flow is directed outward, whereas the flows are highly time dependent, which would contribute to the outflow from the bulge.

  11. MHD Remote Numerical Simulations: Evolution of Coronal Mass Ejections

    Hernandez-Cervantes, L; Gonzalez-Ponce, A R


    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are solar eruptions into interplanetary space of as much as a few billion tons of plasma, with embedded magnetic fields from the Sun's corona. These perturbations play a very important role in solar--terrestrial relations, in particular in the spaceweather. In this work we present some preliminary results of the software development at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico to perform Remote MHD Numerical Simulations. This is done to study the evolution of the CMEs in the interplanetary medium through a Web-based interface and the results are store into a database. The new astrophysical computational tool is called the Mexican Virtual Solar Observatory (MVSO) and is aimed to create theoretical models that may be helpful in the interpretation of observational solar data.

  12. 3D MHD disruptions simulations of tokamaks plasmas

    Paccagnella, Roberto; Strauss, Hank; Breslau, Joshua


    Tokamaks Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs) and disruptions simulations in toroidal geometry by means of a single fluid visco-resistive magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) model are presented in this paper. The plasma model, implemented in the M3D code [1], is completed with the presence of a 2D homogeneous wall with finite resistivity. This allows the study of the relatively slowly growing magneto-hydro-dynamical perturbation, the resistive wall mode (RWM), which is, in this work, the main drive of the disruptions. Amplitudes and asymmetries of the halo currents pattern at the wall are also calculated and comparisons with tokamak experimental databases and predictions for ITER are given. [1] W. Park, E.V. Belova, G.Y. Fu, X.Z. Tang, H.R. Strauss, L.E. Sugiyama, Phys. Plasmas 6 (1999) 1796.

  13. MHD simulations with resistive wall and magnetic separatrix

    Strauss, H. R.; Pletzer, A.; Park, W.; Jardin, S.; Breslau, J.; Sugiyama, L.


    A number of problems in resistive MHD magnetic fusion simulations describe plasmas with three regions: the core, the halo region, and the resistive boundary. Treating these problems requires maintenance of an adequate resistivity contrast between the core and halo. This can be helped by the presence of a magnetic separatrix, which in any case is required for reasons of realistic modeling. An appropriate mesh generation capability is also needed to include the halo region when a separatrix is present. Finally a resistive wall boundary condition is required, to allow both two dimensional and three dimensional magnetic perturbations to penetrate the wall. Preliminary work is presented on halo current simulations in ITER. The first step is the study of VDE (vertical displacement event) instabilities. The growth rate is consistent with scaling inversely proportional to the resistive wall penetration time. The simulations have resistivity proportional to the -3/2 power of the temperature. Simulations have been done with resistivity contrast between the plasma core and wall of 1000 times, to model the vacuum region between the core and resistive shell. Some 3D simulations are shown of disruptions competing with VDEs. Toroidal peaking factors are up to about 3.

  14. Realistic radiative MHD simulation of a solar flare

    Rempel, Matthias D.; Cheung, Mark; Chintzoglou, Georgios; Chen, Feng; Testa, Paola; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Sainz Dalda, Alberto; DeRosa, Marc L.; Viktorovna Malanushenko, Anna; Hansteen, Viggo H.; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats; Gudiksen, Boris; McIntosh, Scott W.


    We present a recently developed version of the MURaM radiative MHD code that includes coronal physics in terms of optically thin radiative loss and field aligned heat conduction. The code employs the "Boris correction" (semi-relativistic MHD with a reduced speed of light) and a hyperbolic treatment of heat conduction, which allow for efficient simulations of the photosphere/corona system by avoiding the severe time-step constraints arising from Alfven wave propagation and heat conduction. We demonstrate that this approach can be used even in dynamic phases such as a flare. We consider a setup in which a flare is triggered by flux emergence into a pre-existing bipolar active region. After the coronal energy release, efficient transport of energy along field lines leads to the formation of flare ribbons within seconds. In the flare ribbons we find downflows for temperatures lower than ~5 MK and upflows at higher temperatures. The resulting soft X-ray emission shows a fast rise and slow decay, reaching a peak corresponding to a mid C-class flare. The post reconnection energy release in the corona leads to average particle energies reaching 50 keV (500 MK under the assumption of a thermal plasma). We show that hard X-ray emission from the corona computed under the assumption of thermal bremsstrahlung can produce a power-law spectrum due to the multi-thermal nature of the plasma. The electron energy flux into the flare ribbons (classic heat conduction with free streaming limit) is highly inhomogeneous and reaches peak values of about 3x1011 erg/cm2/s in a small fraction of the ribbons, indicating regions that could potentially produce hard X-ray footpoint sources. We demonstrate that these findings are robust by comparing simulations computed with different values of the saturation heat flux as well as the "reduced speed of light".

  15. Dispersive Magnetosonic Waves and Turbulence in the Heliosheath: Multi-Fluid MHD Reconstruction of Voyager 2 Observations

    Zieger, B.; Opher, M.; Toth, G.


    Recently we demonstrated that our three-fluid MHD model of the solar wind plasma (where cold thermal solar wind ions, hot pickup ions, and electrons are treated as separate fluids) is able to reconstruct the microstructure of the termination shock observed by Voyager 2 [Zieger et al., 2015]. We constrained the unknown pickup ion abundance and temperature and confirmed the presence of a hot electron population at the termination shock, which has been predicted by a number of previous theoretical studies [e.g. Chasei and Fahr, 2014; Fahr et al., 2014]. We showed that a significant part of the upstream hydrodynamic energy is transferred to the heating of pickup ions and "massless" electrons. As shown in Zieger et al., [2015], three-fluid MHD theory predicts two fast magnetosonic modes, a low-frequency fast mode or solar wind ion (SW) mode and a high-frequency fast mode or pickup ion (PUI) mode. The coupling of the two ion populations results in a quasi-stationary nonlinear mode or oscilliton, which appears as a trailing wave train downstream of the termination shock. In single-fluid plasma, dispersive effects appear on the scale of the Debye length. However, in a non-equilibrium plasma like the solar wind, where solar wind ions and PUIs have different temperatures, dispersive effects become important on fluid scales [see Zieger et al., 2015]. Here we show that the dispersive effects of fast magnetosonic waves are expected on the scale of astronomical units (AU), and dispersion plays an important role producing compressional turbulence in the heliosheath. The trailing wave train of the termination shock (the SW-mode oscilliton) does not extend to infinity. Downstream propagating PUI-mode waves grow until they steepen into PUI shocklets and overturn starting to propagate backward. The upstream propagating PUI-mode waves result in fast magnetosonic turbulence and limit the downstream extension of the oscilliton. The overturning distance of the PUI-mode, where these waves

  16. MHD Simulations of the Plasma Flow in the Magnetic Nozzle

    Smith, T. E. R.; Keidar, M.; Sankaran, K.; olzin, K. A.


    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of plasma through a magnetic nozzle is simulated by solving the governing equations for the plasma flow in the presence of an static magnetic field representing the applied nozzle. This work will numerically investigate the flow and behavior of the plasma as the inlet plasma conditions and magnetic nozzle field strength are varied. The MHD simulations are useful for addressing issues such as plasma detachment and to can be used to gain insight into the physical processes present in plasma flows found in thrusters that use magnetic nozzles. In the model, the MHD equations for a plasma, with separate temperatures calculated for the electrons and ions, are integrated over a finite cell volume with flux through each face computed for each of the conserved variables (mass, momentum, magnetic flux, energy) [1]. Stokes theorem is used to convert the area integrals over the faces of each cell into line integrals around the boundaries of each face. The state of the plasma is described using models of the ionization level, ratio of specific heats, thermal conductivity, and plasma resistivity. Anisotropies in current conduction due to Hall effect are included, and the system is closed using a real-gas equation of state to describe the relationship between the plasma density, temperature, and pressure.A separate magnetostatic solver is used to calculate the applied magnetic field, which is assumed constant for these calculations. The total magnetic field is obtained through superposition of the solution for the applied magnetic field and the self-consistently computed induced magnetic fields that arise as the flowing plasma reacts to the presence of the applied field. A solution for the applied magnetic field is represented in Fig. 1 (from Ref. [2]), exhibiting the classic converging-diverging field pattern. Previous research was able to demonstrate effects such as back-emf at a super-Alfvenic flow, which significantly alters the shape of the

  17. Features of collisionless turbulence in the intracluster medium from simulated Faraday rotation maps - II. The effects of instabilities feedback

    Santos-Lima, R.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Falceta-Gonçalves, D. A.; Nakwacki, M. S.; Kowal, G.


    Statistical analysis of Faraday rotation measure (RM) maps of the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters provides a unique tool to evaluate some spatial features of the magnetic fields there. Its combination with numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence allows the diagnosis of the ICM turbulence. Being the ICM plasma weakly collisional, the thermal velocity distribution of the particles naturally develops anisotropies as a consequence of the large-scale motions and the conservation of the magnetic moment of the charged particles. A previous study (Paper I) analysed the impact of large-scale thermal anisotropy on the statistics of RM maps synthesized from simulations of turbulence; these simulations employed a collisionless MHD model that considered a tensor pressure with uniform anisotropy. In this work, we extend that analysis to a collisionless MHD model in which the thermal anisotropy develops according to the conservation of the magnetic moment of the thermal particles. We also consider the effect of anisotropy relaxation caused by the microscale mirror and firehose instabilities. We show that if the relaxation rate is fast enough to keep the anisotropy limited by the threshold values of the instabilities, the dispersion and power spectrum of the RM maps are indistinguishable from those obtained from collisional MHD. Otherwise, there is a reduction in the dispersion and steepening of the power spectrum of the RM maps (compared to the collisional case). Considering the first scenario, the use of collisional MHD simulations for modelling the RM statistics in the ICM becomes better justified.

  18. Simulating Supersonic Turbulence in Galaxy Outflows

    Scannapieco, Evan


    We present three-dimensional, adaptive mesh simulations of dwarf galaxy out- flows driven by supersonic turbulence. Here we develop a subgrid model to track not only the thermal and bulk velocities of the gas, but also its turbulent velocities and length scales. This allows us to deposit energy from supernovae directly into supersonic turbulence, which acts on scales much larger than a particle mean free path, but much smaller than resolved large-scale flows. Unlike previous approaches, we are able to simulate a starbursting galaxy modeled after NGC 1569, with realistic radiative cooling throughout the simulation. Pockets of hot, diffuse gas around individual OB associations sweep up thick shells of material that persist for long times due to the cooling instability. The overlapping of high-pressure, rarefied regions leads to a collective central outflow that escapes the galaxy by eating away at the exterior gas through turbulent mixing, rather than gathering it into a thin, unstable shell. Supersonic, turbul...

  19. Global simulations of protoplanetary disks with net magnetic flux. I. Non-ideal MHD case

    Béthune, William; Lesur, Geoffroy; Ferreira, Jonathan


    Context. The planet-forming region of protoplanetary disks is cold, dense, and therefore weakly ionized. For this reason, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is thought to be mostly absent, and another mechanism has to be found to explain gas accretion. It has been proposed that magnetized winds, launched from the ionized disk surface, could drive accretion in the presence of a large-scale magnetic field. Aims: The efficiency and the impact of these surface winds on the disk structure is still highly uncertain. We present the first global simulations of a weakly ionized disk that exhibits large-scale magnetized winds. We also study the impact of self-organization, which was previously demonstrated only in non-stratified models. Methods: We perform numerical simulations of stratified disks with the PLUTO code. We compute the ionization fraction dynamically, and account for all three non-ideal MHD effects: ohmic and ambipolar diffusions, and the Hall drift. Simplified heating and cooling due to non-thermal radiation is also taken into account in the disk atmosphere. Results: We find that disks can be accreting or not, depending on the configuration of the large-scale magnetic field. Magnetothermal winds, driven both by magnetic acceleration and heating of the atmosphere, are obtained in the accreting case. In some cases, these winds are asymmetric, ejecting predominantly on one side of the disk. The wind mass loss rate depends primarily on the average ratio of magnetic to thermal pressure in the disk midplane. The non-accreting case is characterized by a meridional circulation, with accretion layers at the disk surface and decretion in the midplane. Finally, we observe self-organization, resulting in axisymmetric rings of density and associated pressure "bumps". The underlying mechanism and its impact on observable structures are discussed.

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence and the Geodynamo

    Shebalin, John V.


    Recent research results concerning forced, dissipative, rotating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence will be discussed. In particular, we present new results from long-time Fourier method (periodic box) simulations in which forcing contains varying amounts of magnetic and kinetic helicity. Numerical results indicate that if MHD turbulence is forced so as to produce a state of relatively constant energy, then the largest-scale components are dominant and quasistationary, and in fact, have an effective dipole moment vector that aligns closely with the rotation axis. The relationship of this work to established results in ideal MHD turbulence, as well as to models of MHD turbulence in a spherical shell will also be presented. These results appear to be very pertinent to understanding the Geodynamo and the origin of its dominant dipole component. Our conclusion is that MHD turbulence, per se, may well contain the origin of the Earth's dipole magnetic field.

  1. Wave turbulence in magnetized plasmas

    S. Galtier


    Full Text Available The paper reviews the recent progress on wave turbulence for magnetized plasmas (MHD, Hall MHD and electron MHD in the incompressible and compressible cases. The emphasis is made on homogeneous and anisotropic turbulence which usually provides the best theoretical framework to investigate space and laboratory plasmas. The solar wind and the coronal heating problems are presented as two examples of application of anisotropic wave turbulence. The most important results of wave turbulence are reported and discussed in the context of natural and simulated magnetized plasmas. Important issues and possible spurious interpretations are also discussed.

  2. MHD Simulations of Magnetospheric Accretion, Ejection and Plasma-field Interaction

    Romanova M. M.


    Full Text Available We review recent axisymmetric and three-dimensional (3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD numerical simulations of magnetospheric accretion, plasma-field interaction and outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary.

  3. Simulated annealing for three-dimensional low-beta reduced MHD equilibria in cylindrical geometry

    Furukawa, M


    Simulated annealing (SA) is applied for three-dimensional (3D) equilibrium calculation of ideal, low-beta reduced MHD in cylindrical geometry. The SA is based on the theory of Hamiltonian mechanics. The dynamical equation of the original system, low-beta reduced MHD in this study, is modified so that the energy changes monotonically while preserving the Casimir invariants in the artificial dynamics. An equilibrium of the system is given by an extremum of the energy, therefore SA can be used as a method for calculating ideal MHD equilibrium. Previous studies demonstrated that the SA succeeds to lead to various MHD equilibria in two dimensional rectangular domain. In this paper, the theory is applied to 3D equilibrium of ideal, low-beta reduced MHD. An example of equilibrium with magnetic islands, obtained as a lower energy state, is shown. Several versions of the artificial dynamics are developed that can effect smoothing.

  4. On the scaling features of magnetic field fluctuations at non-MHD scales in turbulent space plasmas

    Consolini, G.; Giannattasio, F.; Yordanova, E.; Vörös, Z.; Marcucci, M. F.; Echim, M.; Chang, T.


    In several different contexts space plasmas display intermittent turbulence at magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) scales, which manifests in anomalous scaling features of the structure functions of the magnetic field increments. Moving to smaller scales, i.e. below the ion-cyclotron and/or ion inertial length, these scaling features are still observed, even though its is not clear if these scaling features are still anomalous or not. Here, we investigate the nature of scaling properties of magnetic field increments at non-MHD scales for a period of fast solar wind to investigate the occurrence or not of multifractal features and collapsing of probability distribution functions (PDFs) using the novel Rank-Ordered Multifractal Analysis (ROMA) method, which is more sensitive than the traditional structure function approach. We find a strong evidence for the occurrence of a near mono-scaling behavior, which suggests that the observed turbulent regime at non-MHD scales mainly displays a mono-fractal nature of magnetic field increments. The results are discussed in terms of a non-compact fractal structure of the dissipation field.

  5. The MHD simulations of 3D magnetic reconnection near null point of magnetic configurations

    Bulanov, S.V. [Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Echkina, E.Yu; Inovenkov, I.N.; Pichushkin, V.V. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pegoraro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universit' a di Pisa and INFM (Italy)


    We investigate 3D plasma flow in the vicinities of critical points of magnetic configurations. The study is based on the analysis of exact self-similar solution of the MHD equations and 3D computer simulations. Both the analytical solution and 3D MHD simulations demonstrate appearance of singular distribution of the electric current density near the magnetic field separatrix surfaces of the form of the current and vortex sheets. (author)

  6. Current systems of coronal loops in 3D MHD simulations

    Warnecke, Jörn; Bingert, Sven; Peter, Hardi


    We study the magnetic field and current structure associated with a coronal loop. Through this we investigate to what extent the assumptions of a force-free magnetic field break down. We analyse a three-dimensional MHD model of the solar corona in an emerging active region with the focus on the structure of the forming coronal loops. The lower boundary of this simulation is taken from a model of an emerging active region. As a consequence of the emerging magnetic flux a coronal loop formes self-consistently. We investigate the current density along magnetic field lines inside (and outside) this loop and study the magnetic and plasma properties in and around this loop. The loop is defined as the bundle of field lines that coincides with enhanced emission in extreme UV. We find that the total current along the emerging loop changes its sign from being antiparallel to parallel to the magnetic field. Around the loop the currents form a complex non-force-free helical structure. This is directly related to a bipola...

  7. Relativistic MHD Simulations of Poynting Flux-Driven Jets

    Guan, Xiaoyue; Li, Shengtai


    Relativistic, magnetized jets are observed to propagate to very large distances in many Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). We use 3D relativistic MHD (RMHD) simulations to study the propagation of Poynting flux-driven jets in AGN. These jets are assumed already being launched from the vicinity ($\\sim 10^3$ gravitational radii) of supermassive black holes. Jet injections are characterized by a model described in Li et al. (2006) and we follow the propagation of these jets to ~ parsec scales. We find that these current-carrying jets are always collimated and mildly relativistic. When $\\alpha$, the ratio of toroidal-to-poloidal magnetic flux injection, is large the jet is subject to non-axisymmetric current-driven instabilities (CDI) which lead to substantial dissipation and reduced jet speed. However, even with the presence of instabilities, the jet is not disrupted and will continue to propagate to large distances. We suggest that the relatively weak impact by the instability is due to the nature of the instability...

  8. Global 3D MHD Simulations of Waves in Accretion Discs

    Romanova M.M.


    Full Text Available We discuss results of the first global 3D MHD simulations of warp and density waves in accretion disks excited by a rotating star with a misaligned dipole magnetic field. A wide range of cases are considered. We find for example that if the star’s magnetosphere corotates approximately with the inner disk, then a strong one-arm bending wave or warp forms. The warp corotates with the star and has a maximum amplitude (|zw|/r ~ 0.3 between the corotation radius and the radius of the vertical resonance. If the magnetosphere rotates more slowly than the inner disk, then a bending wave is excited at the disk-magnetosphere boundary, but it does not form a large-scale warp. In this case the angular rotation of the disk [Ω(r] has a maximum as a function of r so that there is an inner region where dΩ/dr > 0. In this region we observe radially trapped density waves in approximate agreement with the theoretical prediction of a Rossby wave instability in this region.

  9. Simulation of turbulent magnetic reconnection in the smallscale solar wind

    魏奉思; 胡强; R.Schwen; 冯学尚


    Some observational examples for the possible occurrence of the turbulent magnetic reconnection in the solar wind are found by analysing Helios spacecraft’s high resolution data. The phenom-ena of turbulent magnetic reconnections in small scale solar wind are simulated by introducing a third order accuracy upwind compact difference scheme to the compressible two-dimensional MHD flow. Numerical results verify that the turbulent magnetic reconnection process could occur in small scale in-terplanetary solar wind, which is a basic feature characterizing the magnetic reconnection in high-mag-netie Peynolds number ( RM = 2 000-10 000) solar wind. The configurations of the magnetic reconnection could evolve from a single X-line to a multiple X-line reconnection, exhibiting a complex picture of the formation, merging and evolution of magnetic islands, and finally the magnetic reconnection would evolve into a low-energy state. Its life-span of evolution is about one hour order of magnitude. Various magnetic and f

  10. Cosmological MHD simulations of cluster formation with anisotropic thermal conduction

    Ruszkowski, M; Bruggen, M; Parrish, I; Oh, S Peng


    (abridged) The ICM has been suggested to be buoyantly unstable in the presence of magnetic field and anisotropic thermal conduction. We perform first cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formation that simultaneously include magnetic fields, radiative cooling and anisotropic thermal conduction. In isolated and idealized cluster models, the magnetothermal instability (MTI) tends to reorient the magnetic fields radially. Using cosmological simulations of the Santa Barbara cluster we detect radial bias in the velocity and magnetic fields. Such radial bias is consistent with either the inhomogeneous radial gas flows due to substructures or residual MTI-driven field rearangements that are expected even in the presence of turbulence. Although disentangling the two scenarios is challenging, we do not detect excess bias in the runs that include anisotropic thermal conduction. The anisotropy effect is potentially detectable via radio polarization measurements with LOFAR and SKA and future X-ray spectroscopic stu...

  11. Large eddy simulation of stably stratified turbulence


    Stable stratification turbulence, as a common phenomenon in atmospheric and oceanic flows, is an important mechanism for numerical prediction of such flows. In this paper the large eddy simulation is utilized for investigating stable stratification turbulence numerically. The paper is expected to provide correct statistical results in agreement with those measured in the atmosphere or ocean. The fully developed turbulence is obtained in the stable stratification fluid by large eddy simulation with different initial velocity field and characteristic parameters, i.e. Reynolds number Re and Froude number Fr. The evolution of turbulent kinetic energy, characteristic length scales and parameters is analyzed for investigating the development of turbulence in stable stratification fluid. The three-dimensional energy spectra, horizontal and vertical energy spectrum, are compared between numerical simulation and real observation in the atmosphere and ocean in order to test the reliability of the numerical simulation. The results of numerical cases show that the large eddy simulation is capable of predicting the properties of stable stratification turbulence in consistence with real measurements at less computational cost. It has been found in this paper that the turbulence can be developed under different initial velocity conditions and the internal wave energy is dominant in the developed stable stratification turbulence. It is also found that the characteristic parameters must satisfy certain conditions in order to have correct statistical property of stable stratification turbulence in the atmosphere and ocean. The Reynolds number and Froude number are unnecessarily equal to those in atmosphere or ocean, but the Reynolds number must be large enough, say, greater than 10 2 , and Froude number must be less than 0.1. The most important parameter is ReFr 2 which must be greater than 10.

  12. Numerical simulations of turbulent ionized gas flows in the circumsolar protoplanetary disk

    Marov, M. Ya.; Kuksa, M. M.


    An axisymmetric protoplanetary disk model that takes into account the interaction of turbulent gas flows with the magnetic field is considered. A closed system of equations of homogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamics in the regime of developed turbulence in the gravitational and magnetic fields of a star has been constructed. Apart from the traditional probability-theoretical averaging of the MHD equations, the weighted Favre averaging is used. The approach by A.V. Kolesnichenko and M.Ya. Marov to modeling the turbulent transport coefficients in a weakly ionized disk has been implemented. It allows the inverse effects of the generated magnetic field on a turbulent gas flow and the dissipation of turbulence through kinematic and magnetic viscosities to be taken into account. A parallel code for numerically solving the system of averaged MHD equations has been developed. The averaged gas density and velocity distributions as well as the configuration of the disk's intrinsic magnetic field at a distance of 1 AU from the star have been obtained through numerical simulations. The assumption that the vertical (parallel to the disk's rotation axis) magnetic induction component changes much more profoundly in height than in radius and, hence, gives grounds to take into account its gradient in the model of the turbulent kinematic viscosity coefficient has been confirmed.

  13. Attempts to Simulate Anisotropies of Solar Wind Fluctuations Using MHD with a Turning Magnetic Field

    Ghosh, Sanjoy; Roberts, D. Aaron


    We examine a "two-component" model of the solar wind to see if any of the observed anisotropies of the fields can be explained in light of the need for various quantities, such as the magnetic minimum variance direction, to turn along with the Parker spiral. Previous results used a 3-D MHD spectral code to show that neither Q2D nor slab-wave components will turn their wave vectors in a turning Parker-like field, and that nonlinear interactions between the components are required to reproduce observations. In these new simulations we use higher resolution in both decaying and driven cases, and with and without a turning background field, to see what, if any, conditions lead to variance anisotropies similar to observations. We focus especially on the middle spectral range, and not the energy-containing scales, of the simulation for comparison with the solar wind. Preliminary results have shown that it is very difficult to produce the required variances with a turbulent cascade.

  14. Direct numerical simulation of compressible isotropic turbulence

    LI; Xinliang(李新亮); FU; Dexun(傅德薰); MAYanwen(马延文)


    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of decaying compressible isotropic turbulence at tur-bulence Mach numbers of Mt = 0.2-0.7 and Taylor Reynolds numbers of 72 and 153 is per-formed by using the 7th order upwind-biased difference and 8th order center difference schemes.Results show that proper upwind-biased difference schemes can release the limit of "start-up"problem to Mach numbers.Compressibility effects on the statistics of turbulent flow as well as the mechanics of shockletsin compressible turbulence are also studied, and the conclusion is drawn that high Mach numberleads to more dissipation. Scaling laws in compressible turbulence are also analyzed. Evidence isobtained that scaling laws and extended self similarity (ESS) hold in the compressible turbulentflow in spite of the presence of shocklets, and compressibility has little effect on scaling exponents.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Pulse Detonation Rocket-Induced MHD Ejector (PDRIME) Concepts for Advanced Propulsion Systems


    Engineering, 2010. 8 Roth, T., “ Modeling and Numerical Simulations of Pulse Detonation Engines with MHD Thrust Augmentation”, M.S. thesis, Department of...throat, at time 2.3ms. Results are shown for the PDE (blow-down model ) with and without MHD generation in the region between 0.4 and 0.8m from the...down model ) for different values of the exit- to-throat area ratio and for different altitudes, without MHD generation and without the presence of the

  16. MRI-driven Accretion onto Magnetized stars: Axisymmetric MHD Simulations

    Romanova, Marina M; Koldoba, Alexander V; Lovelace, Richard V E


    We present the first results of a global axisymmetric simulation of accretion onto rotating magnetized stars from a turbulent, MRI-driven disk. The angular momentum is transported outward by the magnetic stress of the turbulent flow with a rate corresponding to a Shakura-Sunyaev viscosity parameter alpha\\approx 0.01-0.04. The result of the disk-magnetosphere interaction depends on the orientation of the poloidal field in the disk relative to that of the star at the disk-magnetosphere boundary. If fields have the same polarity, then the magnetic flux is accumulated at the boundary and blocks the accretion which leads to the accumulation of matter at the boundary. Subsequently, this matter accretes to the star in outburst before accumulating again. Hence, the cycling, `bursty' accretion is observed. If the disc and stellar fields have opposite polarity, then the field reconnection enhances the penetration of the disk matter towards the deeper field lines of the magnetosphere. However, the magnetic stress at the...

  17. Simulation of three-dimensional nonideal MHD flow at high magnetic Reynolds number


    A conservative TVD scheme is adopted to solve the equations governing the three-dimensional flow of a nonideal compressible conducting fluid in a magnetic field.The eight-wave equations for magnetohydrodynamics(MHD) are proved to be a non-strict hyperbolic system,therefore it is difficult to develop its eigenstructure.Powell developed a new set of equations which cannot be numerically simulated by conservative TVD scheme directly due to its non-conservative form.A conservative TVD scheme augmented with a new set of eigenvectors is proposed in the paper.To validate this scheme,1-D MHD shock tube,unsteady MHD Rayleigh problem and steady MHD Hartmann problem for different flow conditions are simulated.The simulated results are in good agreement with the existing analytical results.So this scheme can be used to effectively simulate high-conductivity fluids such as cosmic MHD problem and hypersonic MHD flow over a blunt body,etc.

  18. Equilibrium disks, MRI mode excitation, and steady state turbulence in global accretion disk simulations

    Parkin, E R


    Global three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of turbulent accretion disks are presented which start from fully equilibrium initial conditions in which the magnetic forces are accounted for and the induction equation is satisfied. The local linear theory of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is used as a predictor of the growth of magnetic field perturbations in the global simulations. The linear growth estimates and global simulations diverge when non-linear motions - perhaps triggered by the onset of turbulence - upset the velocity perturbations used to excite the MRI. The saturated state is found to be independent of the initially excited MRI mode, showing that once the disk has expelled the initially net flux field and settled into quasi-periodic oscillations in the toroidal magnetic flux, the dynamo cycle regulates the global saturation stress level. Furthermore, time-averaged measures of converged turbulence, such as the ratio of magnetic energies, are found to be in agreement with...

  19. Large-Eddy Simulations of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in Heliophysics and Astrophysics

    Miesch, Mark; Matthaeus, William; Brandenburg, Axel; Petrosyan, Arakel; Pouquet, Annick; Cambon, Claude; Jenko, Frank; Uzdensky, Dmitri; Stone, James; Tobias, Steve; Toomre, Juri; Velli, Marco


    We live in an age in which high-performance computing is transforming the way we do science. Previously intractable problems are now becoming accessible by means of increasingly realistic numerical simulations. One of the most enduring and most challenging of these problems is turbulence. Yet, despite these advances, the extreme parameter regimes encountered in space physics and astrophysics (as in atmospheric and oceanic physics) still preclude direct numerical simulation. Numerical models must take a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach, explicitly computing only a fraction of the active dynamical scales. The success of such an approach hinges on how well the model can represent the subgrid-scales (SGS) that are not explicitly resolved. In addition to the parameter regime, heliophysical and astrophysical applications must also face an equally daunting challenge: magnetism. The presence of magnetic fields in a turbulent, electrically conducting fluid flow can dramatically alter the coupling between large and small scales, with potentially profound implications for LES/SGS modeling. In this review article, we summarize the state of the art in LES modeling of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. After discussing the nature of MHD turbulence and the small-scale processes that give rise to energy dissipation, plasma heating, and magnetic reconnection, we consider how these processes may best be captured within an LES/SGS framework. We then consider several specific applications in heliophysics and astrophysics, assessing triumphs, challenges, and future directions.

  20. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows

    Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.

  1. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent liquid metal flow entering a magnetic field

    Albets-Chico, X., E-mail:; Grigoriadis, D.G.E.; Votyakov, E.V.; Kassinos, S.


    Highlights: • Analysis of turbulence persistence of fully developed MHD pipe flow at Re{sub b} = 4000. • Turbulence decay of fully developed turbulence flow entering low, moderate and strong magnetic fields. • Analysis of the wall conductivity on the aforementioned phenomena. • Discovering and further analysis of flow instabilities of the flow entering a strong magnetic field. -- Abstract: This paper presents direct numerical simulations (DNS) of fully developed turbulent liquid-metal flow in a circular duct entering a magnetic field. The case of a magnetohydrodynamic flow leaving a strong magnetic field has been extensively studied experimentally and numerically owing to its similarity to typical flow configurations appearing in liquid metal blankets of nuclear fusion reactors. Although also relevant to the design of fusion reactor blankets, the flow entering the fringing field of a magnet remains unexplored because its high intricacy precludes any simplification of the governing equations. Indeed, the complexity of the magnetohydrodynamic–turbulence interaction can only be analysed by direct numerical simulations or experiments. With that purpose, this paper addresses the case of a fully developed turbulent flow (Re{sub τ} ≈ 520) entering low, intermediate and strong magnetic fields under electrically insulating and poorly conducting walls by means of three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. Purely hydrodynamic computations (without the effect of the magnetic field) reveal an excellent agreement against previous experimental and numerical results. Current MHD results provide a very detailed information of the turbulence decay and reveal new three-dimensional features related to liquid-metal flow entering strong increasing magnetic fields, such as flow instabilities due to the effect of the Lorentz forces within the fringing region at high Ha numbers.

  2. Spin-Up Instability of a Levitated Molten Drop in MHD-Flow Transition to Turbulence

    Abedian, B.; Hyers, R. W.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)


    When an alternating magnetic field interacts with induced eddy currents in a conducting body, there will be a repulsive force between the body and the driving coil system generating the field. This repulsive force is the basis of electromagnetic levitation, which allows containerless processing of different materials. The eddy currents in the conducting body also generate Joule heating. Axial rotation of electromagnetically levitated objects is a common observation in levitation systems and often an undesirable side effect of such experiments on 1-g and -g. There have been recent efforts to use magnetic damping and suppress this tendency of body rotation. The first report of rotation in EML drops was attributed to a slight asymmetry of the shape and location of the levitation coils could change the axis and speed of rotation. Other theories of sample rotation include a frequency difference in the traveling electromagnetic waves and a phase difference in two different applied fields of the same frequency. All of these different mechanisms share the following characteristics: the torque is small, constant for constant field strength, and very weakly dependent on the sample's temperature and phase (solid or liquid). During experiments on the MSL-1 (First Microgravity Science Laboratory) mission of the Space Shuttle (STS-83 and STS-94, April and July 1997), a droplet of palladium-silicon alloy was electromagnetically levitated for viscosity measurements. For the non-deforming droplet, the resultant MHD flow inside the drop is inferred from motion of impurities on the surface. These observations indicate formation of a pair of co-rotating toroidal flow structures inside the spheroidal levitated drop that undergo secondary flow instabilities. As rise in the fluid temperature rises, the viscosity falls and the internal flow accelerates and becomes oscillatory; and beyond a point in the experiments, the surface impurities exhibit non-coherent chaotic motion signifying

  3. MHD-EPIC: Extended Magnetohydrodynamics with Embedded Particle-in-Cell Simulation of Ganymede's Magnetosphere.

    Toth, G.; Daldorff, L. K. S.; Jia, X.; Gombosi, T. I.; Lapenta, G.


    We have recently developed a new modeling capability to embed theimplicit Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model iPIC3D into the BATS-R-USmagnetohydrodynamic model. The PIC domain can cover the regions wherekinetic effects are most important, such as reconnection sites. TheBATS-R-US code, on the other hand, can efficiently handle the rest ofthe computational domain where the MHD or Hall MHD description issufficient. As one of the very first applications of the MHD-EPICalgorithm (Daldorff et al. 2014, JCP, 268, 236) we simulate theinteraction between Jupiter's magnetospheric plasma with Ganymede'smagnetosphere, where the separation of kinetic and global scalesappears less severe than for the Earth's magnetosphere. Because theexternal Jovian magnetic field remains in an anti-parallel orientationwith respect to Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field, magneticreconnection is believed to be the major process that couples the twomagnetospheres. As the PIC model is able to describe self-consistentlythe electron behavior, our coupled MHD-EPIC model is well suited forinvestigating the nature of magnetic reconnection in thisreconnection-driven mini-magnetosphere. We will compare the MHD-EPICsimulations with pure Hall MHD simulations and compare both modelresults with Galileo plasma and magnetic field measurements to assess therelative importance of ion and electron kinetics in controlling theconfiguration and dynamics of Ganymede's magnetosphere.

  4. Depletion of Nonlinearity in Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence: Insights from Analysis and Simulations

    Gibbon, J; Krstulovic, G; Pandit, R; Politano, H; Ponty, Y; Pouquet, A; Sahoo, G; Stawarz, J


    We build on recent developments in the study of fluid turbulence [Gibbon \\textit{et al.} Nonlinearity 27, 2605 (2014)] to define suitably scaled, order-$m$ moments, $D_m^{\\pm}$, of $\\omega^\\pm= \\omega \\pm j$, where $\\omega$ and $j$ are, respectively, the vorticity and current density in three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We show by mathematical analysis, for unit magnetic Prandtl number $P_M$, how these moments can be used to identify three possible regimes for solutions of the MHD equations; these regimes are specified by inequalities for $D_m^{\\pm}$ and $D_1^{\\pm}$. We then compare our mathematical results with those from our direct numerical simulations (DNSs) and thus demonstrate that 3D MHD turbulence is like its fluid-turbulence counterpart insofar as all solutions, which we have investigated, remain in \\textit{only one of these regimes}; this regime has depleted nonlinearity. We examine the implications of our results for the exponents $q^{\\pm}$ that characterize the power-law dependences of...

  5. Vortex Simulation of Turbulent Combustion


    TURBULENT COMBUSTION (AFOSR Grant No. 89-0491) Principal Investigator: Ahmed F. Ghoniem Department of Mechanical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of...Heavy Industries, Nagoya, Japan.(talk and discussion). 17. 1990, Mazda Motor Co., Yokohama, Japan, (talk and discussion). 18. 1990, American Math Society...VORTICITY LAYERS UNDER NON-SYMMETRIC CONDITIONS Omar M. Kniot and Ahmed F. Ghoniem Department of Mechanical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of

  6. Simulation and optimisation of turbulence in stellarators

    Xanthopoulos, Pavlos; Helander, Per; Turkin, Yuriy; Plunk, Gabriel G.; Bird, Thomas; Proll, Josefine H.E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Mynick, Harry [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Jenko, Frank; Goerler, Tobias; Told, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)


    In tokamaks and stellarators - two leading types of devices used in fusion research - magnetic field lines trace out toroidal surfaces on which the plasma density and temperature are constant, but turbulent fluctuations carry energy across these surfaces to the wall, thus degrading the plasma confinement. Using petaflop-scale simulations, we calculate for the first time the pattern of turbulent structures forming on stellarator magnetic surfaces, and find striking differences relative to tokamaks. The observed sensitivity of the turbulence to the magnetic geometry suggests that there is room for further confinement improvement, in addition to measures already taken to minimise the laminar transport. With an eye towards fully optimised stellarators, we present a proof-of-principle configuration with substantially reduced turbulence compared to an existing design.

  7. The Heating of Test Particles in Numerical Simulations of Alfvenic Turbulence

    Lehe, Remi; Quataert, Eliot


    We study the heating of charged test particles in three-dimensional numerical simulations of weakly compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence (``Alfvenic turbulence''); these results are relevant to particle heating and acceleration in the solar wind, solar flares, accretion disks onto black holes, and other astrophysics and heliospheric environments. The physics of particle heating depends on whether the gyrofrequency of a particle is comparable to the frequency of a turbulent fluctuation that is resolved on the computational domain. Particles with these frequencies nearly equal undergo strong perpendicular heating (relative to the local magnetic field) and pitch angle scattering. By contrast, particles with large gyrofrequency undergo strong parallel heating. Simulations with a finite resistivity produce additional parallel heating due to parallel electric fields in small-scale current sheets. Many of our results are consistent with linear theory predictions for the particle heating produced by the ...

  8. Estimating a planetary magnetic field with time-dependent global MHD simulations using an adjoint approach

    Nabert, Christian; Othmer, Carsten; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz


    The interaction of the solar wind with a planetary magnetic field causes electrical currents that modify the magnetic field distribution around the planet. We present an approach to estimating the planetary magnetic field from in situ spacecraft data using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation approach. The method is developed with respect to the upcoming BepiColombo mission to planet Mercury aimed at determining the planet's magnetic field and its interior electrical conductivity distribution. In contrast to the widely used empirical models, global MHD simulations allow the calculation of the strongly time-dependent interaction process of the solar wind with the planet. As a first approach, we use a simple MHD simulation code that includes time-dependent solar wind and magnetic field parameters. The planetary parameters are estimated by minimizing the misfit of spacecraft data and simulation results with a gradient-based optimization. As the calculation of gradients with respect to many parameters is usually very time-consuming, we investigate the application of an adjoint MHD model. This adjoint MHD model is generated by an automatic differentiation tool to compute the gradients efficiently. The computational cost for determining the gradient with an adjoint approach is nearly independent of the number of parameters. Our method is validated by application to THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) magnetosheath data to estimate Earth's dipole moment.

  9. Simulation of three-dimensional nonideal MHD flow at low magnetic Reynolds number

    LU HaoYu; LEE ChunHian


    A numerical procedure based on a five-wave model associated with non-ideal,low magnetic Reynolds number magnetohydrodynamic(MHD)flows was developed.It is composed of an entropy conditioned scheme for solving the non-homogeneous Navier-Stokes equations,in conjunction with an SOR method for solving the elliptic equation governing the electrical potential of flow field.To validate the developed procedure,two different test cases were used which included MHD Rayleigh problem and MHD Hartmann problem.The simulations were performed under the assumption of low magnetic Reynolds number.The simulated results were found to be in good agreement with the closed form analytical solutions deduced in the present study,showing that the present algorithm could simulate engineering MHD flow at low magnetic Reynolds number effectively.In the end,a flow field between a pair of segmented electrodes in a three dimensional MHD channel was simulated using the present algorithm with and without including Hall effects.Without the introduction of Hall effects,no distortion was observed in the current and potential lines.By taking the Hall effects into account,the potential lines distorted and clustered at the upstream and downstream edges of the cathode and anode,respectively.

  10. Boundary Plasma Turbulence Simulations for Tokamaks

    Xu, X; Umansky, M; Dudson, B; Snyder, P


    The boundary plasma turbulence code BOUT models tokamak boundary-plasma turbulence in a realistic divertor geometry using modified Braginskii equations for plasma vorticity, density (ni), electron and ion temperature (T{sub e}; T{sub i}) and parallel momenta. The BOUT code solves for the plasma fluid equations in a three dimensional (3D) toroidal segment (or a toroidal wedge), including the region somewhat inside the separatrix and extending into the scrape-off layer; the private flux region is also included. In this paper, a description is given of the sophisticated physical models, innovative numerical algorithms, and modern software design used to simulate edge-plasmas in magnetic fusion energy devices. The BOUT code's unique capabilities and functionality are exemplified via simulations of the impact of plasma density on tokamak edge turbulence and blob dynamics.

  11. Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Turbulence Simulation

    Collis, S. Scott


    A discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is formulated, implemented, and tested for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The method is applied to turbulent channel flow at low Reynolds number, where it is found to successfully predict low-order statistics with fewer degrees of freedom than traditional numerical methods. This reduction is achieved by utilizing local hp-refinement such that the computational grid is refined simultaneously in all three spatial coordinates with decreasing distance from the wall. Another advantage of DG is that Dirichlet boundary conditions can be enforced weakly through integrals of the numerical fluxes. Both for a model advection-diffusion problem and for turbulent channel flow, weak enforcement of wall boundaries is found to improve results at low resolution. Such weak boundary conditions may play a pivotal role in wall modeling for large-eddy simulation.

  12. Comparison of solar photospheric bright points between SUNRISE observations and MHD simulations

    Riethmüller, T L; Berdyugina, S V; Schüssler, M; Pillet, V Mart\\'\\inez; Feller, A; Gandorfer, A; Hirzberger, J


    Bright points (BPs) in the solar photosphere are radiative signatures of magnetic elements described by slender flux tubes located in the darker intergranular lanes. They contribute to the ultraviolet (UV) flux variations over the solar cycle and hence may influence the Earth's climate. Here we combine high-resolution UV and spectro-polarimetric observations of BPs by the SUNRISE observatory with 3D radiation MHD simulations. Full spectral line syntheses are performed with the MHD data and a careful degradation is applied to take into account all relevant instrumental effects of the observations. It is demonstrated that the MHD simulations reproduce the measured distributions of intensity at multiple wavelengths, line-of-sight velocity, spectral line width, and polarization degree rather well. Furthermore, the properties of observed BPs are compared with synthetic ones. These match also relatively well, except that the observations display a tail of large and strongly polarized BPs not found in the simulation...

  13. Numerical simulation of turbulent slurry flows

    Haghgoo, Mohammad Reza; Spiteri, Reymond J.; Bergstrom, Donlad J.


    Slurry flows, i.e., the flow of an agglomeration of liquid and particles, are widely employed in many industrial applications, such as hydro-transport systems, pharmaceutical batch crystallizers, and wastewater disposal. Although there are numerous studies available in the literature on turbulent gas-particle flows, the hydrodynamics of turbulent liquid-particle flows has received much less attention. In particular, the fluid-phase turbulence modulation due to the particle fluctuating motion is not yet well understood and remains challenging to model. This study reports the results of a numerical simulation of a vertically oriented slurry pipe flow using a two-fluid model based on the kinetic theory of granular flows. The particle stress model also includes the effects of frictional contact. Different turbulence modulation models are considered, and their capability to capture the characteristic features of the turbulent flow is assessed. The model predictions are validated against published experimental data and demonstrate the significant effect of the particles on the fluid-phase turbulence.

  14. Contrasting Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence with alpha-Viscosity in Simulations of Black Hole Accretion

    Fragile, P. Christopher Christopher; Etheridge, Sarina Marie; Anninos, Peter; Mishra, Bhupendra


    Many analytic, semi-analytic, and even some numerical treatments of black hole accretion parametrize the stresses within the disk as an effective viscosity, even though the true source of stresses is likely to be turbulence driven by the magneto-rotational instability. Despite some attempts to quantify the differences between these treatments, it remains unclear exactly what the consequences of a viscous treatment are, especially in the context of the temporal and spatial variability of global disk parameters. We use the astrophysics code, Cosmos++, to create two accretion disk simulations using alpha-viscosity, one thin and one thick. These simulations are then compared to similar work done using MHD in order to analyze the extent of the validity of the alpha-model. One expected result, which we, nevertheless, demonstrate is the greater spatial and temporal variability of MHD.

  15. Integrated Physics Advances in Simulation of Wave Interactions with Extended MHD Phenomena

    Batchelor, Donald B [ORNL; D' Azevedo, Eduardo [ORNL; Bateman, Glenn [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Bernholdt, David E [ORNL; Berry, Lee A [ORNL; Bonoli, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Bramley, R [Indiana University; Breslau, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Chance, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Chen, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Choi, M. [General Atomics; Elwasif, Wael R [ORNL; Fu, GuoYong [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Harvey, R. W. [CompX, Del Mar, CA; Houlberg, Wayne A [ORNL; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick [ORNL; Jardin, S. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Keyes, David E [Columbia University; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Kruger, Scott [Tech-X Corporation; Ku, Long-Poe [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); McCune, Douglas [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Schissel, D. [General Atomics; Schnack, D. [University of Wisconsin; Wright, J. C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)


    The broad scientific objectives of the SWIM (Simulation of Wave Interaction with MHD) project are: (A) To improve our understanding of interactions that both RF wave and particle sources have on extended-MHD phenomena, and to substantially improve our capability for predicting and optimizing the performance of burning plasmas in devices such as ITER: and (B) To develop an integrated computational system for treating multi-physics phenomena with the required flexibility and extensibility to serve as a prototype for the Fusion Simulation Project (FSP).

  16. Integrated physics advances in simulation of wave interactions with extended MHD phenomena

    Batchelor, D B [ORNL (United States); D' Azevedo, E [ORNL (United States); Bateman, G [Lehigh (United States)] (and others)


    The broad scientific objectives of the SWIM (Simulation of Wave Interaction with MHD) project are: (A) To improve our understanding of interactions that both RF wave and particle sources have on extended-MHD phenomena, and to substantially improve our capability for predicting and optimizing the performance of burning plasmas in devices such as ITER: and (B) To develop an integrated computational system for treating multi-physics phenomena with the required flexibility and extensibility to serve as a prototype for the Fusion Simulation Project (FSP)

  17. Simulation of atmospheric turbulence layers with phase screens by JAVA

    Zhang, Xiaofang; Chen, Wenqin; Yu, Xin; Yan, Jixiang


    In multiconjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO), the phase screens are used to simulate atmospheric turbulence layers to study the optimal turbulence delamination and the determination of layer boundary position. In this paper, the method of power spectrum inversion and sub-harmonic compensation were used to simulate atmospheric turbulence layers and results can be shown by grey map. The simulation results showed that, with the increase of turbulence layers, the RMS of adaptive system decreased, but the amplitude diminished. So the atmospheric turbulence can be split into 2-3 layers and be modeled by phase screens. Otherwise, a small simulation atmospheric turbulence delamination system was realized by JAVA.

  18. Forced Reconnection in the Near Magnetotail: Onset and Energy Conversion in PIC and MHD Simulations

    Birn, J.; Hesse, Michael


    Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) together with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Q1 simulations of magnetotail dynamics, we investigate the evolution toward onset of reconnection and the subsequent energy transfer and conversion. In either case, reconnection onset is preceded by a driven phase, during which magnetic flux is added to the tail at the high-latitude boundaries, followed by a relaxation phase, during which the configuration continues to respond to the driving. The boundary deformation leads to the formation of thin embedded current sheets, which are bifurcated in the near tail, converging to a single sheet farther out in the MHD simulations. The thin current sheets in the PIC simulation are carried by electrons and are associated with a strong perpendicular electrostatic field, which may provide a connection to parallel potentials and auroral arcs and an ionospheric signal even prior to the onset of reconnection. The PIC simulation very well satisfies integral entropy conservation (intrinsic to ideal MHD) during this phase, supporting ideal ballooning stability. Eventually, the current intensification leads to the onset of reconnection, the formation and ejection of a plasmoid, and a collapse of the inner tail. The earthward flow shows the characteristics of a dipolarization front: enhancement of Bz, associated with a thin vertical electron current sheet in the PIC simulation. Both MHD and PIC simulations show a dominance of energy conversion from incoming Poynting flux to outgoing enthalpy flux, resulting in heating of the inner tail. Localized Joule dissipation plays only a minor role.

  19. Large Eddy Simulations of an Airfoil in Turbulent Inflow

    Gilling, Lasse; Sørensen, Niels


    Wind turbines operate in the turbulent boundary layer of the atmosphere and due to the rotational sampling effect the blades experience a high level of turbulence [1]. In this project the effect of turbulence is investigated by large eddy simulations of the turbulent flow past a NACA 0015 airfoil...

  20. Flamelet Regime Diagram for Turbulent Combustion Simulations

    Chan, Wai Lee; Ihme, Matthias; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jacqueline


    The flamelet model has been widely used in numerical combustion investigations, particularly for the closure of large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent reacting flows. In most cases, the simulation results demonstrated good agreements with their experimental counterparts. However, a systematic analysis of the flamelet model's applicability, as well as its potential limitations, is seldom conducted, and the model performance is usually based only on a-posteriori comparisons. The objective of this work is to derive a metric that can formally quantify the suitability of the flamelet model in different flame configurations. For this purpose, a flamelet regime diagram has been developed and studied in the context of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a turbulent lifted jet flame. The implementation of the regime diagram in LES has been investigated through explicit filtering of the DNS results.

  1. On Challenges for Hypersonic Turbulent Simulations

    Yee, H C; Sjogreen, B


    This short note discusses some of the challenges for design of suitable spatial numerical schemes for hypersonic turbulent flows, including combustion, and thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flows. Often, hypersonic turbulent flows in re-entry space vehicles and space physics involve mixed steady strong shocks and turbulence with unsteady shocklets. Material mixing in combustion poses additional computational challenges. Proper control of numerical dissipation in numerical methods beyond the standard shock-capturing dissipation at discontinuities is an essential element for accurate and stable simulations of the subject physics. On one hand, the physics of strong steady shocks and unsteady turbulence/shocklet interactions under the nonequilibrium environment is not well understood. On the other hand, standard and newly developed high order accurate (fourth-order or higher) schemes were developed for homogeneous hyperbolic conservation laws and mixed hyperbolic and parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs) (without source terms). The majority of finite rate chemistry and thermal nonequilibrium simulations employ methods for homogeneous time-dependent PDEs with a pointwise evaluation of the source terms. The pointwise evaluation of the source term might not be the best choice for stability, accuracy and minimization of spurious numerics for the overall scheme.

  2. The intensity contrast of solar granulation: comparing Hinode SP results with MHD simulations

    Danilovic, S.; Gandorfer, A.; Lagg, A.; SchÜssler, M.; Solanki, S.K.; Vögler, A.; Katsukawa, Y.; Tsuneta, S.


    Context. The contrast of granulation is an important quantity characterizing solar surface convection. Aims. We compare the intensity contrast at 630 nm, observed using the Spectro-Polarimeter (SP) aboard the Hinode satellite, with the 3D radiative MHD simulations of Vögler & Schüssler (2007, A&A, 4

  3. Energy dynamics and current sheet structure in fluid and kinetic simulations of decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Makwana, K D; Li, H; Daughton, W; Cattaneo, F


    Simulations of decaying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence are performed with a fluid and a kinetic code. The initial condition is an ensemble of long-wavelength, counter-propagating, shear-Alfv\\'{e}n waves, which interfere and rapidly generate strong MHD turbulence. The total energy is conserved and the rate of turbulent energy decay is very similar in both codes, although the fluid code has numerical dissipation whereas the kinetic code has kinetic dissipation. The inertial range power spectrum index is similar in both the codes. The fluid code shows a perpendicular wavenumber spectral slope of $k_{\\perp}^{-1.3}$. The kinetic code shows a spectral slope of $k_{\\perp}^{-1.5}$ for smaller simulation domain, and $k_{\\perp}^{-1.3}$ for larger domain. We estimate that collisionless damping mechanisms in the kinetic code can account for the dissipation of the observed nonlinear energy cascade. Current sheets are geometrically characterized. Their lengths and widths are in good agreement between the two codes. T...

  4. Numerical simulation study of disk MHD generator for nonequilibrium plasma (NPG) system

    Tsunoda, Kazumi [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Harada, Nob [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology (Japan)


    Design and performance prediction of a disk-shaped magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator, which is applied to the nonequilibrium plasma generator (NPG) system, have been carried out by means of a quasi-one-dimensional numerical simulation. The calculations have been performed for generator with constant height which is planned to be used for NPG-MHD disk generator pulse power demonstration. A maximum enthalpy extraction ratio obtained from the present calculation reached up to 20%, and, in this case, the electron temperature of working plasma fluctuated in the unstable regime against ionization instability. Taking into account this phenomenon, in order to obtain much higher generator performance, the MHD channel, in which electron temperature was kept at 5000 K, was designed. With this channel, enthalpy extraction ratio of 40% and output power of 7.2 MW were achieved without major modification of the supersonic nozzle, the inlet swirl vanes and the configuration of magnet system.

  5. Coexistence of weak and strong wave turbulence in incompressible Hall MHD

    Meyrand, Romain; Kiyani, Khurom; Galtier, Sebastien


    We report a numerical investigation of 3D Hall Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with a strong mean magnetic field. By using a helicity decomposition and a cross-bicoherence analysis, we observe that the nonlinear 3-wave coupling is substantial among ion cyclotron and whistler waves. By studying in detail the degree of nonlinearity of these two populations we show that ion cyclotron and whistler turbulent fluctuations belong respectively to strong and weak wave turbulence. The non trivial blending of these two regime give rise to anomalous anisotropy and scaling properties. The separation of the weak random wave and strong coherent turbulence component can however be effectively done using simultaneous space and time Fourier transforms. Using this techniques we show that it is possible to recover some statistical prediction of weak turbulent theory.

  6. MHD-kinetic transition in imbalanced Alfv$\\'{e}$nic turbulence

    Voitenko, Yuriy


    Alfvenic turbulence in space is usually imbalanced: amplitudes of waves propagating parallel and anti-parallel to the mean magnetic field $B_0$ are unequal. It is commonly accepted that the turbulence is driven by (counter-) collisions between these counter-propagating wave fractions. Contrary to this, we found a new ion-scale dynamical range of the turbulence established by (co-) collisions among waves co-propagating in the same direction along $B_0$. The turbulent cascade is accelerated there and power spectra are steep and non-universal. The spectral indexes vary around -3 (-4) in the strong (weak) turbulence, such that steeper spectra follow larger imbalances. Intermittency steepens spectra further, up to -3.7 (-4.5). Our theoretical predictions are compatible with steep variable spectra observed in the solar wind at ion kinetic scales.

  7. High fidelity studies of exploding foil initiator bridges, Part 3: ALEGRA MHD simulations

    Neal, William; Garasi, Christopher


    Simulations of high voltage detonators, such as Exploding Bridgewire (EBW) and Exploding Foil Initiators (EFI), have historically been simple, often empirical, one-dimensional models capable of predicting parameters such as current, voltage, and in the case of EFIs, flyer velocity. Experimental methods have correspondingly generally been limited to the same parameters. With the advent of complex, first principles magnetohydrodynamic codes such as ALEGRA and ALE-MHD, it is now possible to simulate these components in three dimensions, and predict a much greater range of parameters than before. A significant improvement in experimental capability was therefore required to ensure these simulations could be adequately verified. In this third paper of a three part study, the experimental results presented in part 2 are compared against 3-dimensional MHD simulations. This improved experimental capability, along with advanced simulations, offer an opportunity to gain a greater understanding of the processes behind the functioning of EBW and EFI detonators.

  8. Ideal evolution of MHD turbulence when imposing Taylor-Green symmetries

    Brachet, M E; Krstulovic, G; Mininni, P D; Pouquet, A; Rosenberg, D


    We investigate the ideal and incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in three space dimensions for the development of potentially singular structures. The methodology consists in implementing the four-fold symmetries of the Taylor-Green vortex generalized to MHD, leading to substantial computer time and memory savings at a given resolution; we also use a re-gridding method that allows for lower-resolution runs at early times, with no loss of spectral accuracy. One magnetic configuration is examined at an equivalent resolution of 6144^3 points, and three different ones on grids of 4096^3 points. We find that at the highest resolution, two different current and vorticity sheet systems collide, producing two successive accelerations in the development of small scales with, at the latest time, a convergence of magnetic field lines to the location of maximum current, probably leading locally to a strong bending and directional variability of such lines.

  9. Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Combustion


    Application to an HCCI Engine . Proceedings of the 4th Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute, 2005. [34] K. Fieweger...LARGE EDDY SIMULATION OF TURBULENT COMBUSTION Principle Investigator: Heinz Pitsch Flow Physics and Computation Department of Mechanical Engineering ...burners and engines found in modern, industrially relevant equipment. In the course of this transition of LES from a scientifically interesting method

  10. Observational Diagnostics for Two-Fluid Turbulence in Molecular Clouds As Suggested by Simulations

    Meyer, Chad D; Burkhart, Blakesely; Lazarian, Alex


    We present high resolution simulations of two-fluid (ion-neutral) MHD turbulence with resolutions as large as 512^3. The simulations are supersonic and mildly sub-Alfvenic, in keeping with the conditions present in molecular clouds. Such turbulence is thought to influence star formation processes in molecular clouds because typical cores form on length scales that are comparable to the dissipation scales of this turbulence in the ions. The simulations are motivated by the fact that recent studies of isophotologue lines in molecular clouds have found significant differences in the linewidth-size relationship for neutral and ion species. The goals of this paper are to explain those observations using simulations and analytic theory, present a new set of density-based diagnostics by drawing on similar diagnostics that have been obtained by studying single-fluid turbulence, and show that our two-fluid simulations play a vital role in reconciling alternative models of star formation. The velocity-dependent diagnos...

  11. Large Eddy Simulation of SGS Turbulent Kinetic Energy and SGS Turbulent Dissipation in a Backward-Facing Step Turbulent Flow

    王兵; 张会强; 王希麟


    The instantaneous and time-averaged statistic characteristics of the sub-grid scale (SGS) turbulent kinetic energy and SGS dissipation in a backward-facing step turbulent flow have been studied bylarge eddy simulation. The SGS turbulent kinetic energy and SGS turbulent dissipation vary in different flow regions and decrease with the flow developing spatially. The fluid molecular dissipation shares about 14% to 28% of the whole dissipation.

  12. Turbulence

    Bailly, Christophe


    This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including  physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...

  13. MHD simulations of radiative jets from young stellar objects: Halpha emission

    De Colle, F; Colle, Fabio De; Raga, Alejandro


    We study the H$\\alpha$ emission from jets using two-dimensional axisymmetrical simulations. We compare the emission obtained from hydrodynamic (HD) simulations with that obtained from magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. The magnetic field is supposed to be present in the jet only, and with a toroidal configuration. The simulations have time-dependent ejection velocities and different intensities for the initial magnetic field. The results show an increase in the H$\\alpha$ emission along the jet for the magnetized cases with respect to the HD case. The increase in the emission is due to a better collimation of the jet in the MHD case, and to a small increase in the shock velocity. These results could have important implications for the interpretation of the observations of jets from young stellar objects.

  14. Magnetic fields in protoplanetary disks: from MHD simulations to ALMA observations

    Bertrang, Gesa H -M; Wolf, Sebastian


    Magnetic fields significantly influence the evolution of protoplanetary disks and the formation of planets, following the predictions of numerous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. However, these predictions are yet observationally unconstrained. To validate the predictions on the influence of magnetic fields on protoplanetary disks, we apply 3D radiative transfer simulations of the polarized emission of aligned aspherical dust grains that directly link 3D global non-ideal MHD simulations to ALMA observations. Our simulations show that it is feasible to observe the predicted toroidal large-scale magnetic field structures, not only in the ideal observations but also with high-angular resolution ALMA observations. Our results show further that high angular resolution observations by ALMA are able to identify vortices embedded in outer magnetized disk regions.

  15. Magnetic fields in protoplanetary discs: from MHD simulations to ALMA observations

    Bertrang, G. H.-M.; Flock, M.; Wolf, S.


    Magnetic fields significantly influence the evolution of protoplanetary discs and the formation of planets, following the predictions of numerous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. However, these predictions are yet observationally unconstrained. To validate the predictions on the influence of magnetic fields on protoplanetary discs, we apply 3D radiative transfer simulations of the polarized emission of aligned aspherical dust grains that directly link 3D global non-ideal MHD simulations to Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations. Our simulations show that it is feasible to observe the predicted toroidal large-scale magnetic field structures, not only in the ideal observations but also with high-angular resolution ALMA observations. Our results show further that high-angular resolution observations by ALMA are able to identify vortices embedded in outer magnetized disc regions.

  16. Comparison of empirical magnetic field models and global MHD simulations: The near-tail currents

    Pulkkinen, T. I.; Baker, D. N.; Walker, R. J.; Raeder, J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.


    The tail currents predicted by empirical magnetic field models and global MHD simulations are compared. It is shown that the near-Earth currents obtained from the MHD simulations are much weaker than the currents predicted by the Tsyganenko models, primarily because the ring current is not properly represented in the simulations. On the other hand, in the mid-tail and distant tail the lobe field strength predicted by the simulations is comparable to what is observed at about 50 R(sub E) distance, significantly larger than the very low lobe field values predicted by the Tsyganenko models at that distance. Ways to improve these complementary approaches to model the actual magnetospheric configuration are discussed.

  17. The effect of subgrid-scale models on grid-scale/subgrid-scale energy transfers in large-eddy simulation of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Kessar, M.; Balarac, G.; Plunian, F.


    In this work, the accuracy of various models used in large-eddy simulations (LES) of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is evaluated. Particular attention is devoted to the capabilities of models to reproduce the transfers between resolved grid- and subgrid-scales. The exact global balance of MHD turbulent flows is first evaluated from direct numerical simulation (DNS) database. This balance is controlled by the transfers between scales and between kinetic and magnetic energies. Two cases of forced homogeneous isotropic MHD turbulent flows are considered, with and without injecting large scale helicity. The strong helical case leads to domination of the magnetic energy due to an inverse cascade [A. Brandenburg, Astrophys. J. 550(2), 824 (2001); N. E. Haugen et al., Phys. Rev. E 70(1), 016308 (2004)]. The energy transfers predicted by various models are then compared with the transfer extracted from DNS results. This allows to discriminate models classically used for LES of MHD turbulence. In the non-helical case, the Smagorinsky-like model [M. L. Theobald et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 3016 (1994)] and a mixed model are able to perform stable LES, but the helical case is a more demanding test and all the models lead to unstable simulations.

  18. Properties of the First-order Fermi acceleration in fast magnetic reconnection driven by turbulence in collisional MHD flows

    del Valle, M V; Kowal, G


    Fast magnetic reconnection may occur in different astrophysical sources, producing flare-like emission and particle acceleration. Currently, this process is being studied as an efficient mechanism to accelerate particles via a first-order Fermi process. In this work we analyse the acceleration rate and the energy distribution of test particles injected in three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) domains with large-scale current sheets where reconnection is made fast by the presence of turbulence. We study the dependence of the particle acceleration time with the relevant parameters of the embedded turbulence, i.e., the Alfv\\'en speed $V_{\\rm A}$, the injection power $P_{\\rm inj}$ and scale $k_{\\rm inj}$ ($k_{\\rm inj} = 1/l_{\\rm inj}$). We find that the acceleration time follows a power-law dependence with the particle kinetic energy: $t_{acc} \\propto E^{\\alpha}$, with $0.2 < \\alpha < 0.6$ for a vast range of values of $c / V_{\\rm A} \\sim 20 - 1000$. The acceleration time decreases with the Alfv\\'en...

  19. Direct numerical simulation of axisymmetric turbulence

    Qu, Bo; Bos, Wouter J. T.; Naso, Aurore


    The dynamics of decaying, strictly axisymmetric, incompressible turbulence is investigated using direct numerical simulations. It is found that the angular momentum is a robust invariant of the system. It is further shown that long-lived coherent structures are generated by the flow. These structures can be associated with stationary solutions of the Euler equations. The structures obey relations in agreement with predictions from selective decay principles, compatible with the decay laws of the system. Two different types of decay scenarios are highlighted. The first case results in a quasi-two-dimensional flow with a dynamical behavior in the poloidal plane similar to freely decaying two-dimensional turbulence. In a second regime, the long-time dynamics is dominated by a single three-dimensional mode.

  20. Efficient Turbulence Modeling for CFD Wake Simulations

    van der Laan, Paul

    , that can accurately and efficiently simulate wind turbine wakes. The linear k-ε eddy viscosity model (EVM) is a popular turbulence model in RANS; however, it underpredicts the velocity wake deficit and cannot predict the anisotropic Reynolds-stresses in the wake. In the current work, nonlinear eddy...... viscosity models (NLEVM) are applied to wind turbine wakes. NLEVMs can model anisotropic turbulence through a nonlinear stress-strain relation, and they can improve the velocity deficit by the use of a variable eddy viscosity coefficient, that delays the wake recovery. Unfortunately, all tested NLEVMs show...... numerically unstable behavior for fine grids, which inhibits a grid dependency study for numerical verification. Therefore, a simpler EVM is proposed, labeled as the k-ε - fp EVM, that has a linear stress-strain relation, but still has a variable eddy viscosity coefficient. The k-ε - fp EVM is numerically...

  1. Hermes: Global plasma edge fluid turbulence simulations

    Dudson, Ben


    The transport of heat and particles in the relatively collisional edge regions of magnetically confined plasmas is a scientifically challenging and technologically important problem. Understanding and predicting this transport requires the self-consistent evolution of plasma fluctuations, global profiles and flows, but the numerical tools capable of doing this in realistic (diverted) geometry are only now being developed. Here a 5-field reduced 2-fluid plasma model for the study of instabilities and turbulence in magnetised plasmas is presented, built on the BOUT++ framework. This cold ion model allows the evolution of global profiles, electric fields and flows on transport timescales, with flux-driven cross-field transport determined self-consistently by electromagnetic turbulence. Developments in the model formulation and numerical implementation are described, and simulations are performed in poloidally limited and diverted tokamak configurations.

  2. Relativistic MHD Simulations of Collision-induced Magnetic Dissipation in Poynting-flux-dominated Jets/outflows

    Deng, Wei; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bing; Li, Shengtai


    We perform 3D relativistic ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations to study the collisions between high-σ (Poynting-flux-dominated (PFD)) blobs which contain both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components. This is meant to mimic the interactions inside a highly variable PFD jet. We discover a significant electromagnetic field (EMF) energy dissipation with an Alfvénic rate with the efficiency around 35%. Detailed analyses show that this dissipation is mostly facilitated by the collision-induced magnetic reconnection. Additional resolution and parameter studies show a robust result that the relative EMF energy dissipation efficiency is nearly independent of the numerical resolution or most physical parameters in the relevant parameter range. The reconnection outflows in our simulation can potentially form the multi-orientation relativistic mini jets as needed for several analytical models. We also find a linear relationship between the σ values before and after the major EMF energy dissipation process. Our results give support to the proposed astrophysical models that invoke significant magnetic energy dissipation in PFD jets, such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence model for gamma-ray bursts, and reconnection triggered mini jets model for active galactic nuclei. The simulation movies are shown in∼deng/simulation1.html.

  3. Adaptive LES Methodology for Turbulent Flow Simulations

    Oleg V. Vasilyev


    Although turbulent flows are common in the world around us, a solution to the fundamental equations that govern turbulence still eludes the scientific community. Turbulence has often been called one of the last unsolved problem in classical physics, yet it is clear that the need to accurately predict the effect of turbulent flows impacts virtually every field of science and engineering. As an example, a critical step in making modern computational tools useful in designing aircraft is to be able to accurately predict the lift, drag, and other aerodynamic characteristics in numerical simulations in a reasonable amount of time. Simulations that take months to years to complete are much less useful to the design cycle. Much work has been done toward this goal (Lee-Rausch et al. 2003, Jameson 2003) and as cost effective accurate tools for simulating turbulent flows evolve, we will all benefit from new scientific and engineering breakthroughs. The problem of simulating high Reynolds number (Re) turbulent flows of engineering and scientific interest would have been solved with the advent of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) techniques if unlimited computing power, memory, and time could be applied to each particular problem. Yet, given the current and near future computational resources that exist and a reasonable limit on the amount of time an engineer or scientist can wait for a result, the DNS technique will not be useful for more than 'unit' problems for the foreseeable future (Moin & Kim 1997, Jimenez & Moin 1991). The high computational cost for the DNS of three dimensional turbulent flows results from the fact that they have eddies of significant energy in a range of scales from the characteristic length scale of the flow all the way down to the Kolmogorov length scale. The actual cost of doing a three dimensional DNS scales as Re{sup 9/4} due to the large disparity in scales that need to be fully resolved. State-of-the-art DNS calculations of isotropic

  4. Detached Eddy Simulations of an Airfoil in Turbulent Inflow

    Gilling, Lasse; Sørensen, Niels; Davidson, Lars


    The effect of resolving inflow turbulence in detached eddy simulations of airfoil flows is studied. Synthetic turbulence is used for inflow boundary condition. The generated turbulence fields are shown to decay according to experimental data as they are convected through the domain with the free ...

  5. Testing turbulent closure models with convection simulations

    Snellman, J E; Mantere, M J; Rheinhardt, M; Dintrans, B


    Aims: To compare simple analytical closure models of turbulent Boussinesq convection for stellar applications with direct three-dimensional simulations both in homogeneous and inhomogeneous (bounded) setups. Methods: We use simple analytical closure models to compute the fluxes of angular momentum and heat as a function of rotation rate measured by the Taylor number. We also investigate cases with varying angles between the angular velocity and gravity vectors, corresponding to locating the computational domain at different latitudes ranging from the pole to the equator of the star. We perform three-dimensional numerical simulations in the same parameter regimes for comparison. The free parameters appearing in the closure models are calibrated by two fit methods using simulation data. Unique determination of the closure parameters is possible only in the non-rotating case and when the system is placed at the pole. In the other cases the fit procedures yield somewhat differing results. The quality of the closu...

  6. MHD simulations of three-dimensional Resistive Reconnection in a cylindrical plasma column

    Striani, Edoardo; Vaidya, Bhargav; Bodo, Gianluigi; Ferrari, Attilio


    Magnetic reconnection is a plasma phenomenon where a topological rearrangement of magnetic field lines with opposite polarity results in dissipation of magnetic energy into heat, kinetic energy and particle acceleration. Such a phenomenon is considered as an efficient mechanism for energy release in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. An important question is how to make the process fast enough to account for observed explosive energy releases. The classical model for steady state magnetic reconnection predicts reconnection times scaling as $S^{1/2}$ (where $S$ is the Lundquist number) and yields times scales several order of magnitude larger than the observed ones. Earlier two-dimensional MHD simulations showed that for large Lundquist number the reconnection time becomes independent of $S$ ("fast reconnection" regime) due to the presence of the secondary tearing instability that takes place for $S \\gtrsim 1 \\times 10^4$. We report on our 3D MHD simulations of magnetic reconnection in a magnetically confin...

  7. Gas Core Reactor Numerical Simulation Using a Coupled MHD-MCNP Model

    Kazeminezhad, F.; Anghaie, S.


    Analysis is provided in this report of using two head-on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks to achieve supercritical nuclear fission in an axially elongated cylinder filled with UF4 gas as an energy source for deep space missions. The motivation for each aspect of the design is explained and supported by theory and numerical simulations. A subsequent report will provide detail on relevant experimental work to validate the concept. Here the focus is on the theory of and simulations for the proposed gas core reactor conceptual design from the onset of shock generations to the supercritical state achieved when the shocks collide. The MHD model is coupled to a standard nuclear code (MCNP) to observe the neutron flux and fission power attributed to the supercritical state brought about by the shock collisions. Throughout the modeling, realistic parameters are used for the initial ambient gaseous state and currents to ensure a resulting supercritical state upon shock collisions.

  8. Turbulence in collisionless plasmas: statistical analysis from numerical simulations with pressure anisotropy

    Kowal, Grzegorz; Lazarian, A


    In the past years we have experienced an increasing interest in understanding of the physical properties of collisionless plasmas, mostly because of the large number of astrophysical environments, e.g. the intracluster medium (ICM), containing magnetic fields which are strong enough to be coupled with the ionized gas and characterized by densities sufficiently low to prevent the pressure isotropization with respect to the magnetic line direction. Under these conditions a new class of kinetic instabilities arises, such as firehose and mirror ones, which were extensively studied in the literature. Their role in the turbulence evolution and cascade process in the presence of pressure anisotropy, however, is still unclear. In this work we present the first statistical analysis of turbulence in collisionless plasmas using three dimensional double isothermal magnetohydrodynamical with the Chew-Goldberger-Low closure (CGL-MHD) numerical simulations. We study models with different initial conditions to account for th...

  9. Nonlocal bottleneck effect in two-dimensional turbulence

    Biskamp, D; Schwarz, E


    The bottleneck pileup in the energy spectrum is investigated for several two-dimensional (2D) turbulence systems by numerical simulation using high-order diffusion terms to amplify the effect, which is weak for normal diffusion. For 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, 2D electron MHD (EMHD) turbulence and 2D thermal convection, which all exhibit direct energy cascades, a nonlocal behavior is found resulting in a logarithmic enhancement of the spectrum.

  10. Relativistic MHD simulations of collision-induced magnetic dissipation in Poynting-flux-dominated jets/outflows

    Deng, Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The question of the energy composition of the jets/outflows in high-energy astrophysical systems, e.g. GRBs, AGNs, is taken up first: Matter-flux-dominated (MFD), σ < 1, and/or Poynting-flux-dominated (PFD), σ >1? The standard fireball IS model and dissipative photosphere model are MFD, while the ICMART (Internal-Collision-induced MAgnetic Reconnection and Turbulence) model is PFD. Motivated by ICMART model and other relevant problems, such as “jets in a jet” model of AGNs, the author investigates the models from the EMF energy dissipation efficiency, relativistic outflow generation, and σ evolution points of view, and simulates collisions between high-σ blobs to mimic the situation of the interactions inside the PFD jets/outflows by using a 3D SRMHD code which solves the conservative form of the ideal MHD equations. σb,f is calculated from the simulation results (threshold = 1). The efficiency obtained from this hybrid method is similar to the efficiency got from the energy evolution of the simulations (35.2%). Efficiency is nearly σ independent, which is also confirmed by the hybrid method. σb,i - σb,f provides an interesting linear relationship. Results of several parameter studies of EMF energy dissipation efficiency are shown.

  11. High-resolution hybrid simulations of kinetic plasma turbulence at proton scales

    Franci, Luca; Matteini, Lorenzo; Verdini, Andrea; Hellinger, Petr


    We investigate properties of plasma turbulence from magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) to sub-ion scales by means of two-dimensional, high-resolution hybrid particle-in-cell simulations. We impose an initial ambient magnetic field, perpendicular to the simulation box, and we add a spectrum of large-scale magnetic and kinetic fluctuations, with energy equipartition and vanishing correlation. Once the turbulence is fully developed, we observe a MHD inertial range, where the spectra of the perpendicular magnetic field and the perpendicular proton bulk velocity fluctuations exhibit power-law scaling with spectral indices of -5/3 and -3/2, respectively. This behavior is extended over a full decade in wavevectors and is very stable in time. A transition is observed around proton scales. At sub-ion scales, both spectra steepen, with the former still following a power law with a spectral index of ~-3. A -2.8 slope is observed in the density and parallel magnetic fluctuations, highlighting the presence of compressive effects ...

  12. SHOCKFIND - An algorithm to identify magnetohydrodynamic shock waves in turbulent clouds

    Lehmann, Andrew; Wardle, Mark


    The formation of stars occurs in the dense molecular cloud phase of the interstellar medium. Observations and numerical simulations of molecular clouds have shown that supersonic magnetised turbulence plays a key role for the formation of stars. Simulations have also shown that a large fraction of the turbulent energy dissipates in shock waves. The three families of MHD shocks --- fast, intermediate and slow --- distinctly compress and heat up the molecular gas, and so provide an important probe of the physical conditions within a turbulent cloud. Here we introduce the publicly available algorithm, SHOCKFIND, to extract and characterise the mixture of shock families in MHD turbulence. The algorithm is applied to a 3-dimensional simulation of a magnetised turbulent molecular cloud, and we find that both fast and slow MHD shocks are present in the simulation. We give the first prediction of the mixture of turbulence-driven MHD shock families in this molecular cloud, and present their distinct distributions of s...

  13. Polarimetric studies of magnetic turbulence with interferometer

    Lee, Hyeseung; Cho, Jungyeon


    We study statistical properties of synchrotron polarization emitted from media with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We use both synthetic and MHD turbulence simulation data for our studies. We obtain the spatial spectrum and its derivative with respect to wavelength of synchrotron polarization arising from both synchrotron radiation and Faraday rotation fluctuations. In particular, we investigate how the spectrum changes with frequency. We find that our simulations agree with the theoretical predication in Lazarian \\& Pogosyan (2016). We conclude that the spectrum of synchrotron polarization and it derivative can be very informative tools to get detailed information about the statistical properties of MHD turbulence from radio observations of diffuse synchrotron polarization. Especially, they are useful to recover the statistics of turbulent magnetic field as well as turbulent density of electrons. We also simulate interferometric observations that incorporate the effects of noise and finite telesco...

  14. 3D simulations of disc-winds extending radially self-similar MHD models

    Stute, Matthias; Vlahakis, Nektarios; Tsinganos, Kanaris; Mignone, Andrea; Massaglia, Silvano


    Disc-winds originating from the inner parts of accretion discs are considered as the basic component of magnetically collimated outflows. The only available analytical MHD solutions to describe disc-driven jets are those characterized by the symmetry of radial self-similarity. However, radially self-similar MHD jet models, in general, have three geometrical shortcomings, (i) a singularity at the jet axis, (ii) the necessary assumption of axisymmetry, and (iii) the non-existence of an intrinsic radial scale, i.e. the jets formally extend to radial infinity. Hence, numerical simulations are necessary to extend the analytical solutions towards the axis, by solving the full three-dimensional equations of MHD and impose a termination radius at finite radial distance. We focus here on studying the effects of relaxing the (ii) assumption of axisymmetry, i.e. of performing full 3D numerical simulations of a disc-wind crossing all magnetohydrodynamic critical surfaces. We compare the results of these runs with previou...


    Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Abramenko, V.; Goode, P. R.; Cao, W. [Big Bear Solar Observatory, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States); Rempel, M. [High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Kitai, R.; Watanabe, H. [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Kyoto 607-8417 (Japan)


    We studied bright umbral dots (UDs) detected in a moderate size sunspot and compared their statistical properties to recent MHD models. The study is based on high-resolution data recorded by the New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory and three-dimensional (3D) MHD simulations of sunspots. Observed UDs, living longer than 150 s, were detected and tracked in a 46 minute long data set, using an automatic detection code. A total of 1553 (620) UDs were detected in the photospheric (low chromospheric) data. Our main findings are (1) none of the analyzed UDs is precisely circular, (2) the diameter-intensity relationship only holds in bright umbral areas, and (3) UD velocities are inversely related to their lifetime. While nearly all photospheric UDs can be identified in the low chromospheric images, some small closely spaced UDs appear in the low chromosphere as a single cluster. Slow-moving and long-living UDs seem to exist in both the low chromosphere and photosphere, while fast-moving and short-living UDs are mainly detected in the photospheric images. Comparison to the 3D MHD simulations showed that both types of UDs display, on average, very similar statistical characteristics. However, (1) the average number of observed UDs per unit area is smaller than that of the model UDs, and (2) on average, the diameter of model UDs is slightly larger than that of observed ones.

  16. Extension of the MURaM radiative MHD code for coronal simulations

    Rempel, Matthias


    We present a new version of the MURaM radiative MHD code that allows for simulations spanning from the upper convection zone into the solar corona. We implemented the relevant coronal physics in terms of optically thin radiative loss, field aligned heat conduction and an equilibrium ionization equation of state. We artificially limit the coronal Alfv{\\'e}n and heat conduction speeds to computationally manageable values using an approximation to semi-relativistic MHD with an artificially reduced speed of light (Boris correction). We present example solutions ranging from quiet to active Sun in order to verify the validity of our approach. We quantify the role of numerical diffusivity for the effective coronal heating. We find that the (numerical) magnetic Prandtl number determines the ratio of resistive to viscous heating and that owing to the very large magnetic Prandtl number of the solar corona, heating is expected to happen predominantly through viscous dissipation. We find that reasonable solutions can be...

  17. FTE Dependence on IMF Orientation and Presence of Hall Physics in Global MHD Simulations

    Maynard, K. M.; Germaschewski, K.; Lin, L.; Raeder, J.


    Flux Transfer Events (FTEs) are poleward traveling flux ropes that form in the dayside magnetopause and represent significant coupling of the solar wind to the magnetosphere during times of southward IMF. In the 35 years since their discovery, FTEs have been extensively observed and modeled; however, there is still no consensus on their generation mechanism. Previous modeling efforts have shown that FTE occurrence and size depend on the resistivity model that is used in simulations and the structure of X-lines in the magnetopause. We use Hall OpenGGCM, a global Hall-MHD code, to study the formation and propagation of FTEs in the dayside magnetopause using synthetic solar wind conditions. We examine large scale FTE structure and nearby magnetic separators for a range of IMF clock angles and dipole tilts. In addition, we investigate how FTE formation and recurrence rate depends on the presence of the Hall term in the generalized Ohm's law compared with resistive MHD.

  18. Linear Simulations of the Cylindrical Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability in Hydrodynamics and MHD

    Gao, Song


    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability occurs when density-stratified interfaces are impulsively accelerated, typically by a shock wave. We present a numerical method to simulate the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in cylindrical geometry. The ideal MHD equations are linearized about a time-dependent base state to yield linear partial differential equations governing the perturbed quantities. Convergence tests demonstrate that second order accuracy is achieved for smooth flows, and the order of accuracy is between first and second order for flows with discontinuities. Numerical results are presented for cases of interfaces with positive Atwood number and purely azimuthal perturbations. In hydrodynamics, the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability growth of perturbations is followed by a Rayleigh-Taylor growth phase. In MHD, numerical results indicate that the perturbations can be suppressed for sufficiently large perturbation wavenumbers and magnetic fields.

  19. 4. Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Channel Flow

    Yasuaki, DOI; Tsukasa, KIMURA; Hiroshima University; Mitsubishi Precision


    Turbulent channel flow is studied numerically by using Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). Finite difference method is employed in the LES. The simulation is stably executed by using the 3rd order upwind difference scheme which dissipate numerical errors. Several pilot tests are performed in order to investigate the effect of numerical dissipation and the wall damping function on the calculated results. Time dependent feature and turbulent flow structures in a turbulent channel flow are numerically ...

  20. 3-D Simulations of MHD Jets - The Stability Problem

    Nakamura, M; Nakamura, Masanori; Meier, David L.


    Non-relativistic three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of Poynting-flux-dominated (PFD) jets are presented. Our study focuses on the propagation of strongly magnetized hypersonic but sub-Alfv\\'enic flow ($C_{\\rm s}^2 1$), driven in large part by the radial component of the Lorentz force.

  1. A comparative study on 3-D solar wind structure observed by Ulysses and MHD simulation

    FENG Xueshang; XIANG Changqing; ZHONG Dingkun; FAN Quanlin


    During Ulysses' first rapid pole-to-pole transit from September 1994 to June 1995, its observations showed that middle- or high-speed solar winds covered all latitudes except those between -20° and +20° near the ecliptic plane,where the velocity was 300-450 km/s. At poleward 40°,however, only fast solar winds at the speed of 700-870 km/s were observed. In addition, the transitions from low-speed wind to high-speed wind or vice versa were abrupt. In this paper, the large-scale structure of solar wind observed by Ulysses near solar minimum is simulated by using the three-dimensional numerical MHD model. The model combines TVD Lax-Friedrich scheme and MacCormack Ⅱ scheme and decomposes the calculation region into two regions: one from 1 to 22 Rs and the other from 18 Rs to 1 AU.Based on the observations of the solar photospheric magnetic field and an addition of the volumetric heating to MHD equations, the large-scale solar wind structure mentioned above is reproduced by using the three-dimensional MHD model and the numerical results are roughly consistent with Ulysses' observations. Our simulation shows that the initial magnetic field topology and the addition of volume heating may govern the bimodal structure of solar wind observed by Ulysses and also demonstrates that the three-dimensional MHD numerical model used here is efficient in modeling the large-scale solar wind structure.

  2. Axisymmetric Vortex Simulations with Various Turbulence Models

    Brian Howard Fiedler


    Full Text Available The CFD code FLUENTTM has been applied to a vortex within an updraft above a frictional lower boundary. The sensitivity of vortex intensity and structure to the choice of turbulent model is explored. A high Reynolds number of 108 is employed to make the investigation relevant to the atmospheric vortex known as a tornado. The simulations are axisymmetric and are integrated forward in time to equilibrium.  In a variety of turbulence models tested, the Reynolds Stress Model allows for the greatest intensification of the vortex, with the azimuthal wind speed near the surface being 2.4 times the speed of the updraft, consistent with the destructive nature of tornadoes.  The Standard k-e Model, which is simpler than the Reynolds Stress Model but still more detailed than what is commonly available in numerical weather prediction models, produces an azimuthal wind speed near the surface of at most 0.6 times the updraft speed.        

  3. Large Eddy Simulations of Severe Convection Induced Turbulence

    Ahmad, Nash'at; Proctor, Fred


    Convective storms can pose a serious risk to aviation operations since they are often accompanied by turbulence, heavy rain, hail, icing, lightning, strong winds, and poor visibility. They can cause major delays in air traffic due to the re-routing of flights, and by disrupting operations at the airports in the vicinity of the storm system. In this study, the Terminal Area Simulation System is used to simulate five different convective events ranging from a mesoscale convective complex to isolated storms. The occurrence of convection induced turbulence is analyzed from these simulations. The validation of model results with the radar data and other observations is reported and an aircraft-centric turbulence hazard metric calculated for each case is discussed. The turbulence analysis showed that large pockets of significant turbulence hazard can be found in regions of low radar reflectivity. Moderate and severe turbulence was often found in building cumulus turrets and overshooting tops.

  4. Depletion of nonlinearity in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence: Insights from analysis and simulations.

    Gibbon, J D; Gupta, A; Krstulovic, G; Pandit, R; Politano, H; Ponty, Y; Pouquet, A; Sahoo, G; Stawarz, J


    It is shown how suitably scaled, order-m moments, D_{m}^{±}, of the Elsässer vorticity fields in three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) can be used to identify three possible regimes for solutions of the MHD equations with magnetic Prandtl number P_{M}=1. These vorticity fields are defined by ω^{±}=curlz^{±}=ω±j, where z^{±} are Elsässer variables, and where ω and j are, respectively, the fluid vorticity and current density. This study follows recent developments in the study of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes fluid turbulence [Gibbon et al., Nonlinearity 27, 2605 (2014)NONLE50951-771510.1088/0951-7715/27/10/2605]. Our mathematical results are then compared with those from a variety of direct numerical simulations, which demonstrate that all solutions that have been investigated remain in only one of these regimes which has depleted nonlinearity. The exponents q^{±} that characterize the inertial range power-law dependencies of the z^{±} energy spectra, E^{±}(k), are then examined, and bounds are obtained. Comments are also made on  (a) the generalization of our results to the case P_{M}≠1 and (b) the relation between D_{m}^{±} and the order-m moments of gradients of magnetohydrodynamic fields, which are used to characterize intermittency in turbulent flows.

  5. Nonstationary multiscale turbulence simulation based on local PCA.

    Beghi, Alessandro; Cenedese, Angelo; Masiero, Andrea


    Turbulence simulation methods are of fundamental importance for evaluating the performance of control strategies for Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. In order to obtain a reliable evaluation of the performance a statistically accurate turbulence simulation method has to be used. This work generalizes a previously proposed method for turbulence simulation based on the use of a multiscale stochastic model. The main contributions of this work are: first, a multiresolution local PCA representation is considered. In typical operating conditions, the computational load for turbulence simulation is reduced approximately by a factor of 4, with respect to the previously proposed method, by means of this PCA representation. Second, thanks to a different low resolution method, based on a moving average model, the wind velocity can be in any direction (not necessarily that of the spatial axes). Finally, this paper extends the simulation procedure to generate, if needed, turbulence samples by using a more general model than that of the frozen flow hypothesis.

  6. Turbulence in collisionless plasmas: statistical analysis from numerical simulations with pressure anisotropy

    Kowal, G [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Falceta-Goncalves, D A; Lazarian, A, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)


    In recent years, we have experienced increasing interest in the understanding of the physical properties of collisionless plasmas, mostly because of the large number of astrophysical environments (e.g. the intracluster medium (ICM)) containing magnetic fields that are strong enough to be coupled with the ionized gas and characterized by densities sufficiently low to prevent the pressure isotropization with respect to the magnetic line direction. Under these conditions, a new class of kinetic instabilities arises, such as firehose and mirror instabilities, which have been studied extensively in the literature. Their role in the turbulence evolution and cascade process in the presence of pressure anisotropy, however, is still unclear. In this work, we present the first statistical analysis of turbulence in collisionless plasmas using three-dimensional numerical simulations and solving double-isothermal magnetohydrodynamic equations with the Chew-Goldberger-Low laws closure (CGL-MHD). We study models with different initial conditions to account for the firehose and mirror instabilities and to obtain different turbulent regimes. We found that the CGL-MHD subsonic and supersonic turbulences show small differences compared to the MHD models in most cases. However, in the regimes of strong kinetic instabilities, the statistics, i.e. the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of density and velocity, are very different. In subsonic models, the instabilities cause an increase in the dispersion of density, while the dispersion of velocity is increased by a large factor in some cases. Moreover, the spectra of density and velocity show increased power at small scales explained by the high growth rate of the instabilities. Finally, we calculated the structure functions of velocity and density fluctuations in the local reference frame defined by the direction of magnetic lines. The results indicate that in some cases the instabilities significantly increase the anisotropy of

  7. Global MHD modeling of resonant ULF waves: Simulations with and without a plasmasphere

    Claudepierre, S. G.; Toffoletto, F. R.; Wiltberger, M.


    We investigate the plasmaspheric influence on the resonant mode coupling of magnetospheric ultralow frequency (ULF) waves using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. We present results from two different versions of the model, both driven by the same solar wind conditions: one version that contains a plasmasphere (the LFM coupled to the Rice Convection Model, where the Gallagher plasmasphere model is also included) and another that does not (the stand-alone LFM). We find that the inclusion of a cold, dense plasmasphere has a significant impact on the nature of the simulated ULF waves. For example, the inclusion of a plasmasphere leads to a deeper (more earthward) penetration of the compressional (azimuthal) electric field fluctuations, due to a shift in the location of the wave turning points. Consequently, the locations where the compressional electric field oscillations resonantly couple their energy into local toroidal mode field line resonances also shift earthward. We also find, in both simulations, that higher-frequency compressional (azimuthal) electric field oscillations penetrate deeper than lower frequency oscillations. In addition, the compressional wave mode structure in the simulations is consistent with a radial standing wave oscillation pattern, characteristic of a resonant waveguide. The incorporation of a plasmasphere into the LFM global MHD model represents an advance in the state of the art in regard to ULF wave modeling with such simulations. We offer a brief discussion of the implications for radiation belt modeling techniques that use the electric and magnetic field outputs from global MHD simulations to drive particle dynamics.

  8. Global MHD modeling of resonant ULF waves: Simulations with and without a plasmasphere.

    Claudepierre, S G; Toffoletto, F R; Wiltberger, M


    We investigate the plasmaspheric influence on the resonant mode coupling of magnetospheric ultralow frequency (ULF) waves using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. We present results from two different versions of the model, both driven by the same solar wind conditions: one version that contains a plasmasphere (the LFM coupled to the Rice Convection Model, where the Gallagher plasmasphere model is also included) and another that does not (the stand-alone LFM). We find that the inclusion of a cold, dense plasmasphere has a significant impact on the nature of the simulated ULF waves. For example, the inclusion of a plasmasphere leads to a deeper (more earthward) penetration of the compressional (azimuthal) electric field fluctuations, due to a shift in the location of the wave turning points. Consequently, the locations where the compressional electric field oscillations resonantly couple their energy into local toroidal mode field line resonances also shift earthward. We also find, in both simulations, that higher-frequency compressional (azimuthal) electric field oscillations penetrate deeper than lower frequency oscillations. In addition, the compressional wave mode structure in the simulations is consistent with a radial standing wave oscillation pattern, characteristic of a resonant waveguide. The incorporation of a plasmasphere into the LFM global MHD model represents an advance in the state of the art in regard to ULF wave modeling with such simulations. We offer a brief discussion of the implications for radiation belt modeling techniques that use the electric and magnetic field outputs from global MHD simulations to drive particle dynamics.

  9. Constrained Transport vs. Divergence Cleanser Options in Astrophysical MHD Simulations

    Lindner, Christopher C.; Fragile, P.


    In previous work, we presented results from global numerical simulations of the evolution of black hole accretion disks using the Cosmos++ GRMHD code. In those simulations we solved the magnetic induction equation using an advection-split form, which is known not to satisfy the divergence-free constraint. To minimize the build-up of divergence error, we used a hyperbolic cleanser function that simultaneously damped the error and propagated it off the grid. We have since found that this method produces qualitatively and quantitatively different behavior in high magnetic field regions than results published by other research groups, particularly in the evacuated funnels of black-hole accretion disks where Poynting-flux jets are reported to form. The main difference between our earlier work and that of our competitors is their use of constrained-transport schemes to preserve a divergence-free magnetic field. Therefore, to study these differences directly, we have implemented a constrained transport scheme into Cosmos++. Because Cosmos++ uses a zone-centered, finite-volume method, we can not use the traditional staggered-mesh constrained transport scheme of Evans & Hawley. Instead we must implement a more general scheme; we chose the Flux-CT scheme as described by Toth. Here we present comparisons of results using the divergence-cleanser and constrained transport options in Cosmos++.

  10. Role of Loss of Equilibrium and Magnetic Reconnection in Coronal Eruptions: Resistive and Hall MHD simulations

    Yang, H.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Forbes, T. G.


    It has long been suggested that eruptive phenomena such as coronal mass ejections, prominence eruptions, and large flares might be caused by a loss of equilibrium in a coronal flux rope (Van Tend and Kuperus, 1978). Forbes et al. (1994) developed an analytical two-dimensional model in which eruptions occur due to a catastrophic loss of equilibrium and relaxation to a lower-energy state containing a thin current sheet. Magnetic reconnection then intervenes dynamically, leading to the release of magnetic energy and expulsion of a plasmoid. We have carried out high-Lundquist-number simulations to test the loss-of equilibrium mechanism, and demonstrated that it does indeed occur in the quasi-ideal limit. We have studied the subsequent dynamical evolution of the system in resistive and Hall MHD models for single as well as multiple arcades. The typical parallel electric fields are super-Dreicer, which makes it necessary to include collisionless effects via a generalized Ohm's law. It is shown that the nature of the local dissipation mechanism has a significant effect on the global geometry and dynamics of the magnetic configuration. The presence of Hall currents is shown to alter the length of the current sheet and the jets emerging from the reconnection site, directed towards the chromosphere. Furthermore, Hall MHD effects break certain symmetries of resistive MHD dynamics, and we explore their observational consequences.

  11. Laser-Plasma Modeling Using PERSEUS Extended-MHD Simulation Code for HED Plasmas

    Hamlin, Nathaniel; Seyler, Charles


    We discuss the use of the PERSEUS extended-MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas in modeling laser-plasma interactions in relativistic and nonrelativistic regimes. By formulating the fluid equations as a relaxation system in which the current is semi-implicitly time-advanced using the Generalized Ohm's Law, PERSEUS enables modeling of two-fluid phenomena in dense plasmas without the need to resolve the smallest electron length and time scales. For relativistic and nonrelativistic laser-target interactions, we have validated a cycle-averaged absorption (CAA) laser driver model against the direct approach of driving the electromagnetic fields. The CAA model refers to driving the radiation energy and flux rather than the fields, and using hyperbolic radiative transport, coupled to the plasma equations via energy source terms, to model absorption and propagation of the radiation. CAA has the advantage of not requiring adequate grid resolution of each laser wavelength, so that the system can span many wavelengths without requiring prohibitive CPU time. For several laser-target problems, we compare existing MHD results to extended-MHD results generated using PERSEUS with the CAA model, and examine effects arising from Hall physics. This work is supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration stewardship sciences academic program under Department of Energy cooperative agreements DE-FOA-0001153 and DE-NA0001836.

  12. A Mechanism for the Loading-Unloading Substorm Cycle Missing in MHD Global Magnetospheric Simulation Models

    Klimas, A. J.; Uritsky, V.; Vassiliadis, D.; Baker, D. N.


    Loading and consequent unloading of magnetic flux is an essential element of the substorm cycle in Earth's magnetotail. We are unaware of an available global MHD magnetospheric simulation model that includes a loading- unloading cycle in its behavior. Given the central role that MHD models presently play in the development of our understanding of magnetospheric dynamics, and given the present plans for the central role that these models will play in ongoing space weather prediction programs, it is clear that this failure must be corrected. A 2-dimensional numerical driven current-sheet model has been developed that incorporates an idealized current- driven instability with a resistive MHD system. Under steady loading, the model exhibits a global loading- unloading cycle. The specific mechanism for producing the loading-unloading cycle will be discussed. It will be shown that scale-free avalanching of electromagnetic energy through the model, from loading to unloading, is carried by repetitive bursts of localized reconnection. Each burst leads, somewhat later, to a field configuration that is capable of exciting a reconnection burst again. This process repeats itself in an intermittent manner while the total field energy in the system falls. At the end of an unloading interval, the total field energy is reduced to well below that necessary to initiate the next unloading event and, thus, a loading-unloading cycle results. It will be shown that, in this model, it is the topology of bursty localized reconnection that is responsible for the appearance of the loading-unloading cycle.

  13. You’re Cut Off: HD and MHD Simulations of Truncated Accretion Disks

    Hogg, J. Drew; Reynolds, Christopher S.


    Truncated accretion disks are commonly invoked to explain the spectro-temporal variability from accreting black holes in both small systems, i.e. state transitions in galactic black hole binaries (GBHBs), and large systems, i.e. low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). In the canonical truncated disk model of moderately low accretion rate systems, gas in the inner region of the accretion disk occupies a hot, radiatively inefficient phase, which leads to a geometrically thick disk, while the gas in the outer region occupies a cooler, radiatively efficient phase that resides in the standard geometrically thin disk. Observationally, there is strong empirical evidence to support this phenomenological model, but a detailed understanding of the disk behavior is lacking. We present well-resolved hydrodynamic (HD) and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical models that use a toy cooling prescription to produce the first sustained truncated accretion disks. Using these simulations, we study the dynamics, angular momentum transport, and energetics of a truncated disk in the two different regimes. We compare the behaviors of the HD and MHD disks and emphasize the need to incorporate a full MHD treatment in any discussion of truncated accretion disk evolution.

  14. A Resistive MHD Simulation of the Shear Flow Effects on the Structure of Reconnection Layer

    SUN Xiaoxia; WANG Chunhua; LIN Yu; WANG Xiaogang


    By using a one-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, the Rie-mann problem is solved numerically for the structure of the reconnection layer under a sheared flow along the anti-parallel magnetic field components. The simulation is carried out for general cases with symmetric or asymmetric plasma densities and magnetic fields on the two sides of the initial current sheet, and cases with or without a guide magnetic field, as in various space and fusion plasmas. The generation of MHD discontinuities in the reconnection layer is discussed, including time-dependent intermediate shocks, intermediate shocks, slow shocks, slow expansion waves, and the contact discontinuity. It is shown that the structure of the reconnection layer is significantly affected by the presence of the shear flow. For an initial symmetric current sheet, the symmetry condition is altered due to the shear flow. For cases with an asymmetric initial current sheet, as at the Earth's magnetopause, the strengths of MHD discontinuities change significantly with the shear flow speed. Moreover, the general results for the reconnection layers in the outflow regions on either side of the X line are discussed systematically for the first time.

  15. Some unsteady turbulent MHD flows in flat channels and circular pipes

    Nemirovskiy, Yu.V.; Kheynloo, Ya.L.


    An analysis is made of the kinematic characteristics of turbulent pulsating flow of an electrically conductive fluid in a flat channnel and in a circular pipe in longitudinal and azimuthal magnetic fields. It is assumed that walls are impermeable, and that all averaged flow characteristics depend only on the transverse coordinate in accordance with the equation of continuity (the medium is taken as incompressible) and equations of motion of electrically conductive media. Disregarding the Hall effect, a system of equations is derived for the averaged velocity components and the motion of the medium. The calculations are based on a semiempirical method developed by the authors. The theoretical results agree satisfactorily with experimental data. 4 references, 2 figures.

  16. Extragalactic jets with helical magnetic fields: relativistic MHD simulations

    Keppens, R; van der Holst, B; Casse, F


    Extragalactic jets are inferred to harbor dynamically important, organized magnetic fields which presumably aid in the collimation of the relativistic jet flows. We here explore by means of grid-adaptive, high resolution numerical simulations the morphology of AGN jets pervaded by helical field and flow topologies. We concentrate on morphological features of the bow shock and the jet beam behind the Mach disk, for various jet Lorentz factors and magnetic field helicities. We investigate the influence of helical magnetic fields on jet beam propagation in overdense external medium. We use the AMRVAC code, employing a novel hybrid block-based AMR strategy, to compute ideal plasma dynamics in special relativity. The helicity of the beam magnetic field is effectively transported down the beam, with compression zones in between diagonal internal cross-shocks showing stronger toroidal field regions. In comparison with equivalent low-relativistic jets which get surrounded by cocoons with vortical backflows filled by ...

  17. Photon Scattering in 3D Radiative MHD Simulations

    Hayek, Wolfgang


    Recent results from 3D time-dependent radiative hydrodynamic simulations of stellar atmospheres are presented, which include the effects of coherent scattering in the radiative transfer treatment. Rayleigh scattering and electron scattering are accounted for in the source function, requiring an iterative solution of the transfer equation. Opacities and scattering coefficients are treated in the multigroup opacity approximation. The impact of scattering on the horizontal mean temperature structure is investigated, which is an important diagnostic for model atmospheres, with implications for line formation and stellar abundance measurements. We find that continuum scattering is not important for the atmosphere of a metal-poor Sun with metailicity [Fe/H] = -3.0, similar to the previously investigated photosphere at solar metallicity.

  18. Simulation of turbulent magnetic reconnection in the small-scale solar wind


    Some observational examples for the possible occurrence of the turbulent magnetic reconnection in the solar wind are found by analysing Helios spacecraft's high resolution data. The phenomena of turbulent magnetic reconnections in small scale solar wind are simulated by introducing a third order accuracy upwind compact difference scheme to the compressible two_dimensional MHD flow. Numerical results verify that the turbulent magnetic reconnection process could occur in small scale interplanetary solar wind, which is a basic feature characterizing the magnetic reconnection in high_magnetic Reynolds number (RM=2 000-10 000) solar wind. The configurations of the magnetic reconnection could evolve from a single X_line to a multiple X-line reconnection, exhibiting a complex picture of the formation, merging and evolution of magnetic islands, and finally the magnetic reconnection would evolve into a low_energy state. Its life_span of evolution is about one hour order of magnitude. Various magnetic and flow signatures are recorded in the numerical test for different evolution stages and along different crossing paths, which could in principle explain and confirm the observational samples from the Helios spacecraft. These results are helpful for revealing the basic physical processes in the solar wind turbulence.

  19. Weak turbulence theory and simulation of the gyro-water-bag model.

    Besse, Nicolas; Bertrand, Pierre; Morel, Pierre; Gravier, Etienne


    The thermal confinement time of a magnetized fusion plasma is essentially determined by turbulent heat conduction across the equilibrium magnetic field. To achieve the study of turbulent thermal diffusivities, Vlasov gyrokinetic description of the magnetically confined plasmas is now commonly adopted, and offers the advantage over fluid models (MHD, gyrofluid) to take into account nonlinear resonant wave-particle interactions which may impact significantly the predicted turbulent transport. Nevertheless kinetic codes require a huge amount of computer resources and this constitutes the main drawback of this approach. A unifying approach is to consider the water-bag representation of the statistical distribution function because it allows us to keep the underlying kinetic features of the problem, while reducing the Vlasov kinetic model into a set of hydrodynamic equations, resulting in a numerical cost comparable to that needed for solving multifluid models. The present paper addresses the gyro-water-bag model derived as a water-bag-like weak solution of the Vlasov gyrokinetic models. We propose a quasilinear analysis of this model to retrieve transport coefficients allowing us to estimate turbulent thermal diffusivities without computing the full fluctuations. We next derive another self-consistent quasilinear model, suitable for numerical simulation, that we approximate by means of discontinuous Galerkin methods.

  20. Parsec-scale Faraday Rotation Measures from General Relativistic MHD Simulations of Active Galactic Nuclei Jets

    Broderick, Avery E


    For the first time it has become possible to compare global 3D general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) jet formation simulations directly to very-long baseline interferometric multi-frequency polarization observations of the pc-scale structure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets. Unlike the jet emission, which requires post hoc modeling of the non-thermal electrons, the Faraday rotation measures (RMs) depend primarily upon simulated quantities and thus provide a robust way in which to confront simulations with observations. We compute RM distributions of 3D global GRMHD jet formation simulations, with which we explore the dependence upon model and observational parameters, emphasizing the signatures of structures generic to the theory of MHD jets. With typical parameters, we find that it is possible to reproduce the observed magnitudes and many of the structures found in AGN jet RMs, including the presence of transverse RM gradients. In our simulations the RMs are generated within a smooth extensio...

  1. Cyclic thermal signature in a global MHD simulation of solar convection

    Cossette, J.; Charbonneau, P.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.


    Space-based observations have clearly established that total solar irradiance (TSI) varies on time scales from minutes to days and months as well as on the longer time scale of the 11-year solar cycle. The most conspicuous of these variations is arguably the slight increase of TSI (0.1%) at solar maxima relative to solar minima. Models that include contributions from surface solar magnetism alone (i.e. sunspots, faculae and magnetic network) have been very successful at reproducing the observed TSI fluctuations on time scales shorter than a year, but leave some doubts as to the origin of the longer decadal fluctuations. In particular, one school of thought argues that surface magnetism alone can explain the entire TSI variance; see (Lean & al. 1998, ApJ, 492, 390), whereas; the other emphasizes on taking into account the effect of a global modulation of solar thermal structure by magnetic activity; see (Li & al. 2003, ApJ, 591, 1267). Observationally, the potential for the occurrence of magnetically-modulated global structural changes is supported by a positive correlation between p-mode oscillation frequencies and the TSI cycle as well as by recent evidence for a long-term trend in the TSI record that is not seen in indicators of surface magnetism; see (Bhatnagar & al. 1999, ApJ, 521, 885; Fröhlich 2013, Space Sci Rev,176, 237). Additionally, 1D structural solar models have demonstrated that the inclusion of a magnetically-modulated turbulent mechanism could explain the observed p-mode oscillation frequency changes with great accuracy. However, these models relied upon an ad-hoc parametrization of the alleged process and therefore obtaining a complete physical picture of the modulating mechanism requires solving the equations governing the self-consistent evolution of the solar plasma. Here we present a global magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulation of solar convection extending over more than a millennium that produces large-scale solar-like axisymmetric magnetic

  2. Effects of including electrojet turbulence in LFM-RCM simulations of geospace storms

    Oppenheim, M. M.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Merkin, V. G.; Zhang, B.; Toffoletto, F.; Wang, W.; Lyon, J.; Liu, J.; Dimant, Y. S.


    Global geospace system simulations need to incorporate nonlinear and small-scale physical processes in order to accurately model storms and other intense events. During times of strong magnetospheric disturbances, large-amplitude electric fields penetrate from the Earth's magnetosphere to the E-region ionosphere where they drive Farley-Buneman instabilities (FBI) that create small-scale plasma density turbulence. This induces nonlinear currents and leads to anomalous electron heating. Current global Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere (MIT) models disregard these effects by assuming simple laminar ionospheric currents. This paper discusses the effects of incorporating accurate turbulent conductivities into MIT models. Recently, we showed in Liu et al. (2016) that during storm-time, turbulence increases the electron temperatures and conductivities more than precipitation. In this talk, we present the effect of adding these effects to the combined Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global MHD magnetosphere simulator and the Rice Convection Model (RCM). The LFM combines a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the magnetosphere with a 2D electrostatic solution of the ionosphere. The RCM uses drift physics to accurately model the inner magnetosphere, including a storm enhanced ring current. The LFM and coupled LFM-RCM simulations have previously shown unrealistically high cross-polar-cap potentials during strong solar wind driving conditions. We have recently implemented an LFM module that modifies the ionospheric conductivity to account for FBI driven anomalous electron heating and non-linear cross-field current enhancements as a function of the predicted ionospheric electric field. We have also improved the LFM-RCM code by making it capable of handling dipole tilts and asymmetric ionospheric solutions. We have tested this new LFM version by simulating the March 17, 2013 geomagnetic storm. These simulations showed a significant reduction in the cross-polar-cap potential

  3. MHD Simulations of a Moving Subclump with Heat Conduction

    Asai, N; Matsumoto, R; Asai, Naoki; Fukuda, Naoya; Matsumoto, Ryoji


    High resolution observations of cluster of galaxies by Chandra have revealed the existence of an X-ray emitting comet-like galaxy C153 in the core of cluster of galaxies A2125. The galaxy C153 moving fast in the cluster core has a distinct X-ray tail on one side, obviously due to ram pressure stripping, since the galaxy C153 crossed the central region of A2125. The X-ray emitting plasma in the tail is substantially cooler than the ambient plasma. We present results of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the time evolution of a subclump like C153 moving in magnetized intergalactic matter. Anisotropic heat conduction is included. We found that the magnetic fields are essential for the existence of the cool X-ray tail, because in non-magnetized plasma the cooler subclump tail is heated up by isotropic heat conduction from the hot ambient plasma and does not form such a comet-like tail.

  4. Simulations of Energetic Particles Interacting with Dynamical Magnetic Turbulence

    Hussein, M.; Shalchi, A.


    We explore the transport of energetic particles in interplanetary space by using test-particle simulations. In previous work such simulations have been performed by using either magnetostatic turbulence or undamped propagating plasma waves. In the current paper we simulate for the first time particle transport in dynamical turbulence. To do so we employ two models, namely the damping model of dynamical turbulence and the random sweeping model. We compute parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients and compare our numerical findings with solar wind observations. We show that good agreement can be found between simulations and the Palmer consensus range for both dynamical turbulence models if the ratio of turbulent magnetic field and mean field is δB/B0 = 0.5.

  5. Connecting magnetic fields from sub-galactic scale to clusters of galaxies and beyond with cosmological MHD simulations

    Dolag, Klaus; Beck, Alexander M.; Arth, Alexander

    Using the MHD version of Gadget3 (Stasyszyn, Dolag & Beck 2013) and a model for the seeding of magnetic fields by supernovae (SN), we performed simulations of the evolution of the magnetic fields in galaxy clusters and study their effects on the heat transport within the intra cluster medium (ICM). This mechanism - where SN explosions during the assembly of galaxies provide magnetic seed fields - has been shown to reproduce the magnetic field in Milky Way-like galactic halos (Beck et al. 2013). The build up of the magnetic field at redshifts before z = 5 and the accordingly predicted rotation measure evolution are also in good agreement with current observations. Such magnetic fields present at high redshift are then transported out of the forming protogalaxies into the large-scale structure and pollute the ICM (in a similar fashion to metals transport). Here, complex velocity patterns, driven by the formation process of cosmic structures are further amplifying and distributing the magnetic fields. In galaxy clusters, the magnetic fields therefore get amplified to the observed μG level and produce the observed amplitude of rotation measures of several hundreds of rad/m2. We also demonstrate that heat conduction in such turbulent fields on average is equivalent to a suppression factor around 1/20th of the classical Spitzer value and in contrast to classical, isotropic heat transport leads to temperature structures within the ICM compatible with observations (Arth et al. 2014).

  6. MHD simulation of solar wind and multiple coronal mass ejections with internal magnetic flux ropes

    Shiota, Daiko


    Solar wind and CMEs are the main drivers of various types of space weather disturbance. The profile of IMF Bz is the most important parameter for space weather forecasts because various magnetospheric disturbances are caused by the southward IMF brought on the Earth. Recently, we have developed MHD simulation of the solar wind, including a series of multiple CMEs with internal spheromak-type magnetic fields on the basis of observations of photospheric magnetic fields and coronal images. The MHD simulation is therefore capable of predicting the time profile of the IMF at the Earth, in relation to the passage of a magnetic cloud within a CME. In order to evaluate the current ability of our simulation, we demonstrate a test case: the propagation and interaction process of multiple CMEs associated with the highly complex active region NOAA 10486 in October to November 2003. The results of a simulation successfully reproduced the arrival at the Earth’s position of a large amount of southward magnetic flux, which is capable of causing an intense magnetic storm, and provided an implication of the observed complex time profile of the solar wind parameters at the Earth as a result of the interaction of a few specific CMEs.

  7. Coupled Kinetic-MHD Simulations of Divertor Heat Load with ELM Perturbations

    Cummings, Julian; Chang, C. S.; Park, Gunyoung; Sugiyama, Linda; Pankin, Alexei; Klasky, Scott; Podhorszki, Norbert; Docan, Ciprian; Parashar, Manish


    The effect of Type-I ELM activity on divertor plate heat load is a key component of the DOE OFES Joint Research Target milestones for this year. In this talk, we present simulations of kinetic edge physics, ELM activity, and the associated divertor heat loads in which we couple the discrete guiding-center neoclassical transport code XGC0 with the nonlinear extended MHD code M3D using the End-to-end Framework for Fusion Integrated Simulations, or EFFIS. In these coupled simulations, the kinetic code and the MHD code run concurrently on the same massively parallel platform and periodic data exchanges are performed using a memory-to-memory coupling technology provided by EFFIS. The M3D code models the fast ELM event and sends frequent updates of the magnetic field perturbations and electrostatic potential to XGC0, which in turn tracks particle dynamics under the influence of these perturbations and collects divertor particle and energy flux statistics. We describe here how EFFIS technologies facilitate these coupled simulations and discuss results for DIII-D, NSTX and Alcator C-Mod tokamak discharges.

  8. Numerical investigation of the turbulent MHD flow in a circular pipe with transverse magnetic field

    Dechamps, Xavier; Rasquin, Michel; Degrez, Gérard


    In modern industrial metallurgical processes, external magnetic fields are often applied to control the motion of liquid metals by a non-intrusive means. The desired results are for example the damping of unwanted motions or the homogenization of a liquid zone in a partially solidified ingot. Because of the commonly appearing parameters in these processes, one can assume the quasi-static assumption for the magnetohydrodynamic equations. Here we are interested in the numerical study of the turbulent flow of a liquid metal inside an electrically insulated pipe with a transverse uniform magnetic field. For this purpose, we will use a hybrid spectral/finite element solver, which allows to study complex flows in Cartesian and axisymmetric geometries. For the case of interest, we consider a bulk Reynolds number of 8200 and a Hartmann number ranging between 5 and 30. Here, the main points of interest are the evolution of the skin friction coefficient as a function of the ratio of the Hartmann number Ha over the Reynolds number Re (with 0 FNRS) is aknowledged.

  9. MHD flow in a cylindrical vessel of finite size with turbulent boundary layers

    Gorbachev, L.P.; Nikitin, N.V.


    The hydrodynamic characteristics of flows generated by electromagnetic forces in a cylindrical vessel of finite size, for the case of large values of the hydrodynamic and small values of the magnetic Reynolds numbers have been inadequately analyzed in previous literature, since neither the nonlinear nor the linear theory adequately accounts for secondary flows due to the strong action of boundary layers formed at the end faces of the cylinders at large Reynolds numbers and the results do not agree with experimental data. This paper generalizes the previously more accurate nonlinear scheme of the same authors, the basis for which was the fact that viscosity at large Reynolds numbers is manifest only close to solid surfaces. Two cases are treated: crossed fields and a rotating magnetic field in the cylindrical vessel, where the entire flow region is broken down into an inviscid core and end face boundary layers. It is assumed that the velocity distribution near the end surfaces obeys an empirical one-seventh power law, which is applicable to turbulent liquid flow in a tube in a range of Re = 3 x 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 5/ simple engineering formulas are derived for the angular velocity, which exhibit good agreement with the experimental data for Hartmann numbers less than 10. The procedure can be generalized to the case of a rotating magnetic field having several pairs of poles. 6 references, 2 figures.

  10. Study of Nonlinear Interaction and Turbulence of Alfven Waves in LAPD Experiments

    Boldyrev, Stanislav; Perez, Jean Carlos


    The complete project had two major goals — investigate MHD turbulence generated by counterpropagating Alfven modes, and study such processes in the LAPD device. In order to study MHD turbulence in numerical simulations, two codes have been used: full MHD, and reduced MHD developed specialy for this project. Quantitative numerical results are obtained through high-resolution simulations of strong MHD turbulence, performed through the 2010 DOE INCITE allocation. We addressed the questions of the spectrum of turbulence, its universality, and the value of the so-called Kolmogorov constant (the normalization coefficient of the spectrum). In these simulations we measured with unprecedented accuracy the energy spectra of magnetic and velocity fluctuations. We also studied the so-called residual energy, that is, the difference between kinetic and magnetic energies in turbulent fluctuations. In our analytic work we explained generation of residual energy in weak MHD turbulence, in the process of random collisions of counterpropagating Alfven waves. We then generalized these results for the case of strong MHD turbulence. The developed model explained generation of residual energy is strong MHD turbulence, and verified the results in numerical simulations. We then analyzed the imbalanced case, where more Alfven waves propagate in one direction. We found that spectral properties of the residual energy are similar for both balanced and imbalanced cases. We then compared strong MHD turbulence observed in the solar wind with turbulence generated in numerical simulations. Nonlinear interaction of Alfv´en waves has been studied in the upgraded Large Plasma Device (LAPD). We have simulated the collision of the Alfven modes in the settings close to the experiment. We have created a train of wave packets with the apltitudes closed to those observed n the experiment, and allowed them to collide. We then saw the generation of the second harmonic, resembling that observed in the

  11. 3D MHD VDE and disruptions simulations of tokamaks plasmas including some ITER scenarios

    Paccagnella, R.; Strauss, H. R.; Breslau, J.


    Tokamaks vertical displacement events (VDEs) and disruptions simulations in toroidal geometry by means of a single fluid visco-resistive magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) model are presented in this paper. The plasma model is completed with the presence of a 2D wall with finite resistivity which allows the study of the relatively slowly growing magnetic perturbation, the resistive wall mode (RWM), which is, in this paper, the main drive of the disruption evolution. Amplitudes and asymmetries of the halo currents pattern at the wall are also calculated and comparisons with tokamak experimental databases and predictions for ITER are given.

  12. Hybrid modeling of the lower corona using Faraday rotation observations and a MHD thermodynamic simulation

    Wexler, David B.; Hollweg, Joseph V.; Jensen, Elizabeth; Lionello, Roberto; Macneice, Peter J.; Coster, Anthea J.


    Study of coronal MHD wave energetics relies upon accurate representation of plasma particle number densities (ne) and magnetic field strengths. In the lower corona, these parameters are obtained indirectly, and typically presented as empirical equations as a function of heliocentric radial distance (solar offset, SO). The development of coronal global models using synoptic solar surface magnetogram inputs has provided refined characterization of the coronal plasma organization and magnetic field. We present a cross-analysis between a MHD thermodynamic simulation and Faraday rotation (FR) observations over SO 1.63-1.89 solar radii (Rs) near solar minimum. MESSENGER spacecraft radio signals with a line of sight (LOS) passing through the lower corona were recorded in dual polarization using the Green Bank Telescope in November 2009. Polarization position angle changes were obtained from Stokes parameters. The magnetic field vector (B) and ne along the LOS were obtained from a MHD thermodynamic simulation provided by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center. The modeled FR was computed as the integrated product of ne and LOS-aligned B component. The observations over the given SO range yielded an FR change of 7 radians. The simulation reproduced this change when the modeled ne was scaled up by 2.8x, close to values obtained using the Allen-Baumbach equation. No scaling of B from the model was necessary. A refined fit to the observations was obtained when the observationally based total electron content (TEC) curves were introduced. Changes in LOS TEC were determined from radio frequency shifts as the signal passed to successively lower electron concentrations during egress. A good fit to the observations was achieved with an offset of 7e21 m-2 added. Back-calculating ne along the LOS from the TEC curves, we found that the equivalent ne scaling compared to the model output was higher by a factor of 3. The combination of solar surface magnetogram-based MHD coronal

  13. Inertial Current Generators of Poynting Flux in MHD Simulations of Black Hole Ergospheres

    Punsly, B


    This Letter investigates the physics that is responsible for creating the current system that supports the outgoing Poynting flux emanating from the ergosphere of a rotating black hole in the limit that the magnetic energy density greatly exceeds the plasma rest mass density (magnetically dominated limit). The underlying physics is derived from published three-dimensional simulations that obey the general relativistic equations of perfect magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). It is found that the majority of the Poynting flux emitted from the magnetically dominated regions of the ergosphere has a source associated with inertial effects outside of the event horizon.

  14. One year in the Earth's magnetosphere: A global MHD simulation and spacecraft measurements

    Facsko, G; Zivkovic, T; Palin, L; Kallio, E; Agren, K; Opgenoorth, H; Tanskanen, E I; Milan, S E


    The response of the Earth's magnetosphere to changing solar wind conditions are studied with a 3D Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model. One full year (155 Cluster orbits) of the Earth's magnetosphere is simulated using Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling simulation (GUMICS-4) magnetohydrodynamic code. Real solar wind measurements are given to the code as input to create the longest lasting global magnetohydrodynamics simulation to date. The applicability of the results of the simulation depends critically on the input parameters used in the model. Therefore, the validity and the variance of the OMNIWeb data is first investigated thoroughly using Cluster measurement close to the bow shock. The OMNIWeb and the Cluster data were found to correlate very well before the bow shock. The solar wind magnetic field and plasma parameters are not changed significantly from the $L_1$ Lagrange point to the foreshock, therefore the OMNIWeb data is appropriate input to the GUMICS-4. The Cluster SC3 footprints are dete...

  15. Relativistic modeling capabilities in PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for HED plasmas

    Hamlin, Nathaniel D., E-mail: [438 Rhodes Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 (United States); Seyler, Charles E., E-mail: [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 (United States)


    We discuss the incorporation of relativistic modeling capabilities into the PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas, and present the latest hybrid X-pinch simulation results. The use of fully relativistic equations enables the model to remain self-consistent in simulations of such relativistic phenomena as X-pinches and laser-plasma interactions. By suitable formulation of the relativistic generalized Ohm’s law as an evolution equation, we have reduced the recovery of primitive variables, a major technical challenge in relativistic codes, to a straightforward algebraic computation. Our code recovers expected results in the non-relativistic limit, and reveals new physics in the modeling of electron beam acceleration following an X-pinch. Through the use of a relaxation scheme, relativistic PERSEUS is able to handle nine orders of magnitude in density variation, making it the first fluid code, to our knowledge, that can simulate relativistic HED plasmas.

  16. Global simulations of magnetorotational turbulence I: convergence and the quasi-steady state

    Parkin, E R


    Magnetorotational turbulence provides a viable mechanism for angular momentum transport in accretion disks. We present global, three dimensional (3D), MHD accretion disk simulations that investigate the dependence of the turbulent stresses on resolution. Convergence in the time-and-volume-averaged stress-to-gas-pressure ratio, at a value of $\\sim0.04$, is found for a model with radial, vertical, and azimuthal resolution of 12-51, 27, and 12.5 cells per scale-height (the simulation mesh is such that cells per scale-height varies in the radial direction). A control volume analysis is performed on the main body of the disk (|z|<2H) to examine the production and removal of magnetic energy. Maxwell stresses in combination with the mean disk rotation are mainly responsible for magnetic energy production, whereas turbulent dissipation (facilitated by numerical resistivity) predominantly removes magnetic energy from the disk. Re-casting the magnetic energy equation in terms of the power injected by Maxwell stresse...

  17. Nonlinear Terms of MHD Equations for Homogeneous Magnetized Shear Flow

    Dimitrov, Z D; Hristov, T S; Mishonov, T M


    We have derived the full set of MHD equations for incompressible shear flow of a magnetized fluid and considered their solution in the wave-vector space. The linearized equations give the famous amplification of slow magnetosonic waves and describe the magnetorotational instability. The nonlinear terms in our analysis are responsible for the creation of turbulence and self-sustained spectral density of the MHD (Alfven and pseudo-Alfven) waves. Perspectives for numerical simulations of weak turbulence and calculation of the effective viscosity of accretion disks are shortly discussed in k-space.

  18. A Coupled MHD and Thermal Model Including Electrostatic Sheath for Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster Simulation

    Kawasaki, Akira; Kubota, Kenichi; Funaki, Ikkoh; Okuno, Yoshihiro


    Steady-state and self-field magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster, which utilizes high-intensity direct-current (DC) discharge, is one of the prospective candidates of future high-power electric propulsion devices. In order to accurately assess the thrust performance and the electrode temperature, input electric power and wall heat flux must correctly be evaluated where electrostatic sheaths formed in close proximity of the electrodes affect these quantities. Conventional model simulates only plasma flows occurring in MPD thrusters with the absence of electrostatic sheath consideration. Therefore, this study extends the conventional model to a coupled magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and thermal model by incorporating the phenomena relevant to the electrostatic sheaths. The sheaths are implemented as boundary condition of the MHD model on the walls. This model simulated the operation of the 100-kW-class thruster at discharge current ranging from 6 to 10 kA with argon propellant. The extended model reproduced the discharge voltages and wall heat load which are consistent with past experimental results. In addition, the simulation results indicated that cathode sheath voltages account for approximately 5-7 V subject to approximately 20 V of discharge voltages applied between the electrodes. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 26289328 and 15J10821.

  19. MHD simulations of three-dimensional resistive reconnection in a cylindrical plasma column

    Striani, E.; Mignone, A.; Vaidya, B.; Bodo, G.; Ferrari, A.


    Magnetic reconnection is a plasma phenomenon where a topological rearrangement of magnetic field lines with opposite polarity results in dissipation of magnetic energy into heat, kinetic energy and particle acceleration. Such a phenomenon is considered as an efficient mechanism for energy release in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. An important question is how to make the process fast enough to account for observed explosive energy releases. The classical model for steady state magnetic reconnection predicts reconnection times scaling as S1/2 (where S is the Lundquist number) and yields time-scales several order of magnitude larger than the observed ones. Earlier two-dimensional MHD simulations showed that for large Lundquist number the reconnection time becomes independent of S (`fast reconnection' regime) due to the presence of the secondary tearing instability that takes place for S ≳ 1 × 104. We report on our 3D MHD simulations of magnetic reconnection in a magnetically confined cylindrical plasma column under either a pressure balanced or a force-free equilibrium and compare the results with 2D simulations of a circular current sheet. We find that the 3D instabilities acting on these configurations result in a fragmentation of the initial current sheet in small filaments, leading to enhanced dissipation rate that becomes independent of the Lundquist number already at S ≃ 1 × 103.


    ZOU Li-yong; LIU Nan-sheng; LU Xi-yun


    Pulsating turbulent open channel flow has been investigated by the use of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique coupled with dynamic Sub-Grid-Scale (SGS) model for turbulent SGS stress to closure the governing equations. Three-dimensional filtered Navier-Stokes equations are numerically solved by a fractional-step method. The objective of this study is to deal with the behavior of the pulsating turbulent open channel flow and to examine the reliability of the LES approach for predicting the pulsating turbulent flow. In this study, the Reynolds number (Reτ ) is chosen as 180 based on the friction velocity and the channel depth. The frequency of the driving pressure gradient for the pulsating turbulent flow ranges low, medium and high value. Statistical turbulence quantities as well as the flow structures are analyzed.

  1. Small scale magnetosphere: Laboratory experiment, physical model and Hall MHD simulation

    Shaikhislamov, I F; Zakharov, Yu P; Boyarintsev, E L; Melekhov, A V; Posukh, V G; Ponomarenko, A G


    A problem of magnetosphere formation on ion inertia scale around weakly magnetized bodies is investigated by means of laboratory experiment, analytical analysis and 2.5D Hall MHD simulation. Experimental evidence of specific magnetic field generated by the Hall term is presented. Direct comparison of regimes with small and large ion inertia length revealed striking differences in measured magnetopause position and plasma stand off distance. Analytical model is presented, which explains such basic features of mini-magnetosphere observed in previous kinetic simulations as disappearance of bow shock and plasma stopping at Stoermer particle limit instead of pressure balance distance. Numerical simulation is found to be in a good agreement with experiments and analytical model. It gives detailed spatial structure of Hall field and reveals that while ions penetrate deep inside mini-magnetosphere electrons overflow around it along magnetopause boundary.

  2. Angular Momentum Transport by Acoustic Modes Generated in the Boundary Layer II: MHD Simulations

    Belyaev, Mikhail A; Stone, James M


    We perform global unstratified 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations of an astrophysical boundary layer (BL) -- an interface region between an accretion disk and a weakly magnetized accreting object such as a white dwarf -- with the goal of understanding the effects of magnetic field on the BL. We use cylindrical coordinates with an isothermal equation of state and investigate a number of initial field geometries including toroidal, vertical, and vertical with zero net flux. Our initial setup consists of a Keplerian disk attached to a non-rotating star. In a previous work, we found that in hydrodynamical simulations, sound waves excited by shear in the BL were able to efficiently transport angular momentum and drive mass accretion onto the star. Here we confirm that in MHD simulations, waves serve as an efficient means of angular momentum transport in the vicinity of the BL, despite the magnetorotational instability (MRI) operating in the disk. In particular, the angular momentum current due to waves is at times...

  3. Extension of the MURaM Radiative MHD Code for Coronal Simulations

    Rempel, M.


    We present a new version of the MURaM radiative magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code that allows for simulations spanning from the upper convection zone into the solar corona. We implement the relevant coronal physics in terms of optically thin radiative loss, field aligned heat conduction, and an equilibrium ionization equation of state. We artificially limit the coronal Alfvén and heat conduction speeds to computationally manageable values using an approximation to semi-relativistic MHD with an artificially reduced speed of light (Boris correction). We present example solutions ranging from quiet to active Sun in order to verify the validity of our approach. We quantify the role of numerical diffusivity for the effective coronal heating. We find that the (numerical) magnetic Prandtl number determines the ratio of resistive to viscous heating and that owing to the very large magnetic Prandtl number of the solar corona, heating is expected to happen predominantly through viscous dissipation. We find that reasonable solutions can be obtained with values of the reduced speed of light just marginally larger than the maximum sound speed. Overall this leads to a fully explicit code that can compute the time evolution of the solar corona in response to photospheric driving using numerical time steps not much smaller than 0.1 s. Numerical simulations of the coronal response to flux emergence covering a time span of a few days are well within reach using this approach.

  4. FLASH MHD simulations of experiments that study shock-generated magnetic fields

    Tzeferacos, P.; Fatenejad, M.; Flocke, N.; Graziani, C.; Gregori, G.; Lamb, D. Q.; Lee, D.; Meinecke, J.; Scopatz, A.; Weide, K.


    We summarize recent additions and improvements to the high energy density physics capabilities in FLASH, highlighting new non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) capabilities. We then describe 3D Cartesian and 2D cylindrical FLASH MHD simulations that have helped to design and analyze experiments conducted at the Vulcan laser facility. In these experiments, a laser illuminates a carbon rod target placed in a gas-filled chamber. A magnetic field diagnostic (called a Bdot) employing three very small induction coils is used to measure all three components of the magnetic field at a chosen point in space. The simulations have revealed that many fascinating physical processes occur in the experiments. These include megagauss magnetic fields generated by the interaction of the laser with the target via the Biermann battery mechanism, which are advected outward by the vaporized target material but decrease in strength due to expansion and resistivity; magnetic fields generated by an outward expanding shock via the Biermann battery mechanism; and a breakout shock that overtakes the first wave, the contact discontinuity between the target material and the gas, and then the initial expanding shock. Finally, we discuss the validation and predictive science we have done for this experiment with FLASH.

  5. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of thermofluidic transport phenomena in a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump.

    Chatterjee, Dipankar; Amiroudine, Sakir


    A comprehensive non-isothermal Lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm is proposed in this article to simulate the thermofluidic transport phenomena encountered in a direct-current (DC) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump. Inside the pump, an electrically conducting fluid is transported through the microchannel by the action of an electromagnetic Lorentz force evolved out as a consequence of the interaction between applied electric and magnetic fields. The fluid flow and thermal characteristics of the MHD micropump depend on several factors such as the channel geometry, electromagnetic field strength and electrical property of the conducting fluid. An involved analysis is carried out following the LB technique to understand the significant influences of the aforementioned controlling parameters on the overall transport phenomena. In the LB framework, the hydrodynamics is simulated by a distribution function, which obeys a single scalar kinetic equation associated with an externally imposed electromagnetic force field. The thermal history is monitored by a separate temperature distribution function through another scalar kinetic equation incorporating the Joule heating effect. Agreement with analytical, experimental and other available numerical results is found to be quantitative.

  6. Multiwavelength polarimetry and integrated MHD+Polarized Radiation simulation reveal the blazar flaring mechanism

    Zhang, Haocheng; Li, Hui; Taylor, Gregory B.


    In addition to multiwavelength variability, blazar polarization signatures are highly variable. Optical polarimetry has shown two distinct features: first, in both quiescent and flaring states, blazar polarization degree generally stays around 10% to 30%; second, after major polarization variations, such as polarization angle swings, the polarization degree quickly restores to its initial state. We have performed integrated relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) + radiation and polarization simulations of the blazar emission region. Our approach evolves the magnetic fields and flows using the first principles, so we can calculate the spatial and temporal dependent polarization signatures and compare them with observations.Our results show that the above two observational trends indicate the blazar flaring region should be strongly magnetized with the magnetic energy density higher than the plasma rest mass energy density. In such an environment, the 3D kink instability may trigger magnetic reconnection to accelerate particles and give rise to flares. In view of future high-energy polarimetry, this integrated MHD+polarization simulation technique will deliver new constraints on jet’s physical conditions and particle acceleration mechanisms.

  7. HIDENEK: An implicit particle simulation of kinetic-MHD phenomena in three-dimensional plasmas

    Tanaka, Motohiko


    An advanced 'kinetic-MHD' simulation method and its applications to plasma physics are given in this lecture. This method is quite stable for studying strong nonlinear, kinetic processes associated with large space-scale, low-frequency electromagnetic phenomena of plasmas. A full set of the Maxwell equations, and the Newton-Lorentz equations of motion for particle ions and guiding-center electrons are adopted. In order to retain only the low-frquency waves and instabilities, implicit particle-field equations are derived. The present implicit-particle method is proved to reproduce the MHD eigenmodes such as Alfven, magnetosonic and kinetic Alfven waves in a thermally near-equilibrium plasma. In the second part of the lecture, several physics applications are shown. These include not only the growth of the instabilities of beam ions against the background plasmas and helical link of the current, but they also demonstrate nonlinear results such as pitch-angle scattering of the ions. Recent progress in the simulation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is also presented with a special emphasis on the mixing of the plasma particles.

  8. MHD simulations of Plasma Jets and Plasma-surface interactions in Coaxial Plasma Accelerators

    Subramaniam, Vivek; Raja, Laxminarayan


    Coaxial plasma accelerators belong to a class of electromagnetic acceleration devices which utilize a self-induced Lorentz force to accelerate magnetized thermal plasma to large velocities ( 40 Km/s). The plasma jet generated as a result, due to its high energy density, can be used to mimic the plasma-surface interactions at the walls of thermonuclear fusion reactors during an Edge Localized Mode (ELM) disruption event. We present the development of a Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation tool to describe the plasma acceleration and jet formation processes in coaxial plasma accelerators. The MHD model is used to study the plasma-surface impact interaction generated by the impingement of the jet on a target material plate. The study will characterize the extreme conditions generated on the target material surface by resolving the magnetized shock boundary layer interaction and the viscous/thermal diffusion effects. Additionally, since the plasma accelerator is operated in vacuum conditions, a novel plasma-vacuum interface tracking algorithm is developed to simulate the expansion of the high density plasma into a vacuum background in a physically consistent manner.

  9. Cyber-Based Turbulent Combustion Simulation


    Stanfield, Electrodynamic Field of Dielectric Barrier Discharge, 17th International Conference on MHD Energy Conversion, Kanagawa, Japan, 14-17 July 2009...Application to Aerospace Science, The Aeronautical Journal , Vol. 113 No. 1148, Oct. 2009, pp. 619-632. 2. Peters, N., Length Scales in Laminar and...Kinetics,” AIAA Journal , Vol. 46, 2008, pp. 1640-1650. 10. Shang, J.S. and Katta, V.R., Vorticity Structure in Hydrogen-Air Jet Diffusion Flames

  10. Flow Matching Results of an MHD Energy Bypass System on a Supersonic Turbojet Engine Using the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) Environment

    Benyo, Theresa L.


    Flow matching has been successfully achieved for an MHD energy bypass system on a supersonic turbojet engine. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment helped perform a thermodynamic cycle analysis to properly match the flows from an inlet employing a MHD energy bypass system (consisting of an MHD generator and MHD accelerator) on a supersonic turbojet engine. Working with various operating conditions (such as the applied magnetic field, MHD generator length and flow conductivity), interfacing studies were conducted between the MHD generator, the turbojet engine, and the MHD accelerator. This paper briefly describes the NPSS environment used in this analysis. This paper further describes the analysis of a supersonic turbojet engine with an MHD generator/accelerator energy bypass system. Results from this study have shown that using MHD energy bypass in the flow path of a supersonic turbojet engine increases the useful Mach number operating range from 0 to 3.0 Mach (not using MHD) to a range of 0 to 7.0 Mach with specific net thrust range of 740 N-s/kg (at ambient Mach = 3.25) to 70 N-s/kg (at ambient Mach = 7). These results were achieved with an applied magnetic field of 2.5 Tesla and conductivity levels in a range from 2 mhos/m (ambient Mach = 7) to 5.5 mhos/m (ambient Mach = 3.5) for an MHD generator length of 3 m.

  11. Gyrokinetic Simulation of Global Turbulent Transport Properties in Tokamak Experiments

    Wang, W.X.; Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.; Ethier, S.; Lewandowski, J.L.V.; Rewoldt, G.; Hahm, T.S.; Manickam, J.


    A general geometry gyro-kinetic model for particle simulation of plasma turbulence in tokamak experiments is described. It incorporates the comprehensive influence of noncircular cross section, realistic plasma profiles, plasma rotation, neoclassical (equilibrium) electric fields, and Coulomb collisions. An interesting result of global turbulence development in a shaped tokamak plasma is presented with regard to nonlinear turbulence spreading into the linearly stable region. The mutual interaction between turbulence and zonal flows in collisionless plasmas is studied with a focus on identifying possible nonlinear saturation mechanisms for zonal flows. A bursting temporal behavior with a period longer than the geodesic acoustic oscillation period is observed even in a collisionless system. Our simulation results suggest that the zonal flows can drive turbulence. However, this process is too weak to be an effective zonal flow saturation mechanism.

  12. Angular Momentum Transport by MHD Turbulence in Accretion Disks: Gas Pressure Dependence of the Saturation Level of the Magnetorotational Instability

    Sano, T; Turner, N J; Stone, J M; Sano, Takayoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Turner, Neal J.; Stone, James M.


    The saturation level of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is investigated using three-dimensional MHD simulations. The shearing box approximation is adopted and the vertical component of gravity is ignored, so that the evolution of the MRI is followed in a small local part of the disk. We focus on the dependence of the saturation level of the stress on the gas pressure, which is a key assumption in the standard alpha disk model. From our numerical experiments it is found that there is a weak power-law relation between the saturation level of the Maxwell stress and the gas pressure in the nonlinear regime; the higher the gas pressure, the larger the stress. Although the power-law index depends slightly on the initial field geometry, the relationship between stress and gas pressure is independent of the initial field strength, and is unaffected by Ohmic dissipation if the magnetic Reynolds number is at least 10. The relationship is the same in adiabatic calculations, where pressure increases over time, an...

  13. Parallel Simulation of 3-D Turbulent Flow Through Hydraulic Machinery

    徐宇; 吴玉林


    Parallel calculational methods were used to analyze incompressible turbulent flow through hydraulic machinery. Two parallel methods were used to simulate the complex flow field. The space decomposition method divides the computational domain into several sub-ranges. Parallel discrete event simulation divides the whole task into several parts according to their functions. The simulation results were compared with the serial simulation results and particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental results. The results give the distribution and configuration of the complex vortices and illustrate the effectiveness of the parallel algorithms for numerical simulation of turbulent flows.

  14. Numerical simulation of wall-bounded turbulent shear flows

    Moin, P.


    Developments in three dimensional, time dependent numerical simulation of turbulent flows bounded by a wall are reviewed. Both direct and large eddy simulation techniques are considered within the same computational framework. The computational spatial grid requirements as dictated by the known structure of turbulent boundary layers are presented. The numerical methods currently in use are reviewed and some of the features of these algorithms, including spatial differencing and accuracy, time advancement, and data management are discussed. A selection of the results of the recent calculations of turbulent channel flow, including the effects of system rotation and transpiration on the flow are included.

  15. GMC Collisions as Triggers of Star Formation. II. 3D Turbulent, Magnetized Simulations

    Wu, Benjamin; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Van Loo, Sven; Christie, Duncan; Collins, David


    We investigate giant molecular cloud (GMCs) collisions and their ability to induce gravitational instability and thus star formation. This mechanism may be a major driver of star formation activity in galactic disks. We carry out a series of three dimensional, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulations to study how cloud collisions trigger formation of dense filaments and clumps. Heating and cooling functions are implemented based on photo-dissociation region (PDR) models that span the atomic to molecular transition and can return detailed diagnostic information. The clouds are initialized with supersonic turbulence and a range of magnetic field strengths and orientations. Collisions at various velocities and impact parameters are investigated. Comparing and contrasting colliding and non-colliding cases, we characterize morphologies of dense gas, magnetic field structure, cloud kinematic signatures, and cloud dynamics. We present key observational diagnostics of cloud collisions, e...

  16. Three Dimensional MHD Simulation of Circumbinary Accretion Disks -2. Net Accretion Rate

    Shi, Ji-Ming


    When an accretion disk surrounds a binary rotating in the same sense, the binary exerts strong torques on the gas. Analytic work in the 1D approximation indicated that these torques sharply diminish or even eliminate accretion from the disk onto the binary. However, recent 2D and 3D simulational work has shown at most modest diminution. We present new MHD simulations demonstrating that for binaries with mass ratios of 1 and 0.1 there is essentially no difference between the accretion rate at large radius in the disk and the accretion rate onto the binary. To resolve the discrepancy with earlier analytic estimates, we identify the small subset of gas trajectories traveling from the inner edge of the disk to the binary and show how the full accretion rate is concentrated onto them.

  17. 3-d resistive MHD simulations of magnetic reconnection and the tearing mode instability in current sheets

    Murphy, G C; Pelletier, Guy


    Magnetic reconnection plays a critical role in many astrophysical processes where high energy emission is observed, e.g. particle acceleration, relativistic accretion powered outflows, pulsar winds and probably in dissipation of Poynting flux in GRBs. The magnetic field acts as a reservoir of energy and can dissipate its energy to thermal and kinetic energy via the tearing mode instability. We have performed 3d nonlinear MHD simulations of the tearing mode instability in a current sheet. Results from a temporal stability analysis in both the linear regime and weakly nonlinear (Rutherford) regime are compared to the numerical simulations. We observe magnetic island formation, island merging and oscillation once the instability has saturated. The growth in the linear regime is exponential in agreement with linear theory. In the second, Rutherford regime the island width grows linearly with time. We find that thermal energy produced in the current sheet strongly dominates the kinetic energy. Finally preliminary ...

  18. Radiative transfer with scattering for domain-decomposed 3D MHD simulations of cool stellar atmospheres

    Hayek, W; Carlsson, M; Trampedach, R; Collet, R; Gudiksen, B V; Hansteen, V H; Leenaarts, J


    We present the implementation of a radiative transfer solver with coherent scattering in the new BIFROST code for radiative magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) simulations of stellar surface convection. The code is fully parallelized using MPI domain decomposition, which allows for large grid sizes and improved resolution of hydrodynamical structures. We apply the code to simulate the surface granulation in a solar-type star, ignoring magnetic fields, and investigate the importance of coherent scattering for the atmospheric structure. A scattering term is added to the radiative transfer equation, requiring an iterative computation of the radiation field. We use a short-characteristics-based Gauss-Seidel acceleration scheme to compute radiative flux divergences for the energy equation. The effects of coherent scattering are tested by comparing the temperature stratification of three 3D time-dependent hydrodynamical atmosphere models of a solar-type star: without scattering, with continuum scattering only, and with bo...

  19. Nonlinear excitation of low-n harmonics in reduced MHD simulations of edge-localized modes

    Krebs, Isabel; Lackner, Karl; Guenter, Sibylle


    Nonlinear simulations of the early ELMphase based on a typical type-I ELMy ASDEX Upgrade discharge have been carried out using the reduced MHD code JOREK. The analysis is focused on the evolution of the toroidal Fourier spectrum. It is found that during the nonlinear evolution, linearly subdominant low-n Fourier components, in particular the n = 1, grow to energies comparable with linearly dominant harmonics. A simple model is developed, based on the idea that energy is transferred among the toroidal harmonics via second order nonlinear interaction. The simple model reproduces and explains very well the early nonlinear evolution of the toroidal spectrum in the JOREK simulations. Furthermore, it is shown for the n = 1 harmonic, that its spatial structure changes significantly during the transition from linear to nonlinearly driven growth. The rigidly growing structure of the linearly barely unstable n = 1 reaches far into the plasma core. In contrast, the nonlinearly driven n = 1 has a rigidly growing structur...

  20. Coherent Structures in Numerically Simulated Plasma Turbulence

    Kofoed-Hansen, O.; Pécseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.


    Low level electrostatic ion acoustic turbulence generated by the ion-ion beam instability was investigated numerically. The fluctuations in potential were investigated by a conditional statistical analysis revealing propagating coherent structures having the form of negative potential wells which...

  1. Secondary Models for Radio Mini-Halos in Galaxy Clusters with MHD Simulations of Gas Sloshing

    ZuHone, John; Giacintucci, Simona; Markevitch, Maxim


    We present simulations of a radio minihalo in a galaxy cluster core with sloshing cold fronts, under the assumption that the source of the synchrotron-emitting electrons is hadronic interactions between cosmic-ray protons with the thermal intracluster gas. This is an alternative to the hypothesis where the cosmic ray electrons are reaccelerated by the intracluster turbulence, which we have discussed in an earlier work. We follow the evolution of cosmic-ray electron spectra associated with passive tracer particles, taking into account the time-dependent injection of new electrons from the hadronic interactions and energy losses along each particle's trajectory. We then simulate the radio emission from these particles. The drop in radio emission at the cold front surfaces is less prominent than that in our previous simulations, based on electron reacceleration from sloshing-induced turbulence, where the emission is definitively confined to the regions within cold fronts. The result is that the emission is overa...

  2. Proposal of a brand-new gyrokinetic algorithm for global MHD simulation

    Naitou, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Hiroki; Andachi, Takehisa; Lee, Wei-Li; Tokuda, Shinji; Yagi, Masatoshi


    A new algorithm for the gyrokinetic PIC code is proposed. The basic equations are energy conserving and composed of (1) the gyrokinetic Vlasov (GKV) equation, (2) the Vortex equation, and (3) the generalized Ohm's law along the magnetic field. Equation (2) is used to advance electrostatic potential in time. Equation (3) is used to advance longitudinal component of vector potential in time as well as estimating longitudinal induced electric field to accelerate charged particles. The particle information is used to estimate pressure terms in equation (3). The idea was obtained in the process of reviewing the split-weight-scheme formalism. This algorithm was incorporated in the Gpic-MHD code. Preliminary results for the m=1/n=1 internal kink mode simulation in the cylindrical geometry indicate good energy conservation, quite low noise due to particle discreteness, and applicability to larger spatial scale and higher beta regimes. The advantage of new Gpic-MHD is that the lower order moments of the GKV equation are estimated by the moment equation while the particle information is used to evaluate the second order moment.

  3. Three-dimensional MHD simulation for the solar wind structure observed by Ulysses


    Ulysses has been the first spacecraft to explore the high latitudinal regions of the heliosphere till now. During its first rapid pole-to-pole transit from September 1994to June 1995, Ulysses observed a fast speed flow with magnitude reaching 700-800 km/s at high latitudinal region except + 20° area near the ecliptic plane where the velocity is 300-400 km/s. The observations also showed a sudden jump of the velocity across the two regions. In this note,based on the characteristic and representative observations of the solar magnetic field and K-coronal polarized brightness, the large-scale solar wind structure mentioned above is reproduced by using a three-dimensional MHD model. The numerical results are basically consistent with those of Ulysses observations. Our results also show that the distributions of magnetic field and plasma number density on the solar source surface play an important role in governing this structure. Furthermore, the three-dimensional MHD model used here has a robust ability to simulate this kind of large-scale wind structure.

  4. Nonlinear MHD simulation of current drive by multi-pulsed coaxial helicity injection in spherical torus

    Kanki, Takashi; Nagata, Masayoshi; Kagei, Yasuhiro


    The dynamics of structures of magnetic field, current density, and plasma flow generated during multi-pulsed coaxial helicity injection in spherical torus is investigated by 3-D nonlinear MHD simulations. During the driven phase, the flux and current amplifications occur due to the merging and magnetic reconnection between the preexisting plasma in the confinement region and the ejected plasma from the gun region involving the n = 1 helical kink distortion of the central open flux column (COFC). Interestingly, the diamagnetic poloidal flow which tends toward the gun region is then observed due to the steep pressure gradients of the COFC generated by ohmic heating through an injection current winding around the inboard field lines, resulting in the formation of the strong poloidal flow shear at the interface between the COFC and the core region. This result is consistent with the flow shear observed in the HIST. During the decay phase, the configuration approaches the axisymmetric MHD equilibrium state without flow because of the dissipation of magnetic fluctuation energy to increase the closed flux surfaces, suggesting the generation of ordered magnetic field structure. The parallel current density λ concentrated in the COFC then diffuses to the core region so as to reduce the gradient in λ, relaxing in the direction of the Taylor state.

  5. A computer-based simulator of the atmospheric turbulence

    Konyaev, Petr A.


    Computer software for modeling the atmospheric turbulence is developed on the basis of a time-varying random medium simulation algorithm and a split-step Fourier transform method for solving a wave propagation equation. A judicious choice of the simulator parameters, like the velocity of the evolution and motion of the medium, turbulence spectrum and scales, enables different effects of a random medium on the optical wavefront to be simulated. The implementation of the simulation software is shown to be simple and efficient due to parallel programming functions from the MKL Intel ® Parallel Studio libraries.

  6. Initial Flow Matching Results of MHD Energy Bypass on a Supersonic Turbojet Engine Using the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) Environment

    Benyo, Theresa L.


    Preliminary flow matching has been demonstrated for a MHD energy bypass system on a supersonic turbojet engine. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment was used to perform a thermodynamic cycle analysis to properly match the flows from an inlet to a MHD generator and from the exit of a supersonic turbojet to a MHD accelerator. Working with various operating conditions such as the enthalpy extraction ratio and isentropic efficiency of the MHD generator and MHD accelerator, interfacing studies were conducted between the pre-ionizers, the MHD generator, the turbojet engine, and the MHD accelerator. This paper briefly describes the NPSS environment used in this analysis and describes the NPSS analysis of a supersonic turbojet engine with a MHD generator/accelerator energy bypass system. Results from this study have shown that using MHD energy bypass in the flow path of a supersonic turbojet engine increases the useful Mach number operating range from 0 to 3.0 Mach (not using MHD) to an explored and desired range of 0 to 7.0 Mach.

  7. DNSLab: A gateway to turbulent flow simulation in Matlab

    Vuorinen, V.; Keskinen, K.


    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research is increasingly much focused towards computationally intensive, eddy resolving simulation techniques of turbulent flows such as large-eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS). Here, we present a compact educational software package called DNSLab, tailored for learning partial differential equations of turbulence from the perspective of DNS in Matlab environment. Based on educational experiences and course feedback from tens of engineering post-graduate students and industrial engineers, DNSLab can offer a major gateway to turbulence simulation with minimal prerequisites. Matlab implementation of two common fractional step projection methods is considered: the 2d Fourier pseudo-spectral method, and the 3d finite difference method with 2nd order spatial accuracy. Both methods are based on vectorization in Matlab and the slow for-loops are thus avoided. DNSLab is tested on two basic problems which we have noted to be of high educational value: 2d periodic array of decaying vortices, and 3d turbulent channel flow at Reτ = 180. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is possibly the first to investigate efficiency of a 3d turbulent, wall bounded flow in Matlab. The accuracy and efficiency of DNSLab is compared with a customized OpenFOAM solver called rk4projectionFoam. Based on our experiences and course feedback, the main contribution of DNSLab consists of the following features. (i) The very compact Matlab implementation of present Navier-Stokes solvers provides a gateway to efficient learning of both, physics of turbulent flows, and simulation of turbulence. (ii) Only relatively minor prerequisites on fluid dynamics and numerical methods are required for using DNSLab. (iii) In 2d, interactive results for turbulent flow cases can be obtained. Even for a 3d channel flow, the solver is fast enough for nearly interactive educational use. (iv) DNSLab is made openly available and thus contributing to

  8. Large-eddy simulations of contrails in a turbulent atmosphere

    J. Picot


    Full Text Available In this work, the evolution of contrails in the vortex and dissipation regimes is studied by means of fully three-dimensional large-eddy simulation (LES coupled to a Lagrangian particle tracking method to treat the ice phase. This is the first paper where fine-scale atmospheric turbulence is generated and sustained by means of a stochastic forcing that mimics the properties of stably stratified turbulent flows as those occurring in the upper troposphere lower stratosphere. The initial flow-field is composed by the turbulent background flow and a wake flow obtained from separate LES of the jet regime. Atmospheric turbulence is the main driver of the wake instability and the structure of the resulting wake is sensitive to the intensity of the perturbations, primarily in the vertical direction. A stronger turbulence accelerates the onset of the instability, which results in shorter contrail decent and more effective mixing in the interior of the plume. However, the self-induced turbulence that is produced in the wake after the vortex break-up dominates over background turbulence at the end of the vortex regime and dominates the mixing with ambient air. This results in global microphysical characteristics such as ice mass and optical depth that are be slightly affected by the intensity of atmospheric turbulence. On the other hand, the background humidity and temperature have a first order effect on the survival of ice crystals and particle size distribution, which is in line with recent and ongoing studies in the literature.

  9. Laboratory simulation of atmospheric turbulence-induced optical wavefront distortion

    Taylor, Travis S.; Gregory, Don A.


    Real-time liquid crystal television-based technique for simulating optical wavefront distortion due to atmospheric turbulence is presented and demonstrated. A liquid crystal television (LCTV) operating in the "phase mostly" mode was used as an array of spatially correlated phase delays. A movie of the arrays in motion was then generated and displayed on the LCTV. The turbulence simulation system was verified by passing a collimated and doubled diode pumped Nd:YVO 4 laser beam (532 nm) through the transparent LCTV screen. The beam was then passed through a lens and the power spectra of the turbulence information carrying beam was detected as a measure of the far-field distribution. The same collimated laser beam, without the LCTV, was also transmitted down an open-air range and the power spectra detected as a measure of a real far-field distribution. Accepted turbulence parameters were measured for both arrangements and then compared.

  10. Self-organisation in protoplanetary disks: global, non-stratified Hall-MHD simulations

    Béthune, William; Ferreira, Jonathan


    Recent observations revealed organised structures in protoplanetary disks, such as axisymmetric rings or horseshoe concen- trations evocative of large-scale vortices. These structures are often interpreted as the result of planet-disc interactions. However, these disks are also known to be unstable to the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) which is believed to be one of the dominant angular momentum transport mechanism in these objects. It is therefore natural to ask if the MRI itself could produce these structures without invoking planets. The nonlinear evolution of the MRI is strongly affected by the low ionisation fraction in protoplanetary disks. The Hall effect in particular, which is dominant in dense and weakly ionised parts of these objects, has been shown to spontaneously drive self- organising flows in shearing box simulations. Here, we investigate the behaviour of global MRI-unstable disc models dominated by the Hall effect and characterise their dynamics. We perform 3D unstratified Hall-MHD simu...

  11. Unstable Disk Accretion to Magnetized Stars: First Global 3D MHD Simulations

    Romanova, Marina M; Lovelace, Richard V E


    We report the first global three-dimensional (3D) MHD simulations of disk accretion onto a rotating magnetized star through the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In this regime, the accreting matter typically forms 2 to 7 vertically elongated "tongues" which penetrate deep into the magnetosphere, until they are stopped by the strong field. Subsequently, the matter is channeled along the field lines to the surface of the star, forming hot spots. The number, position and shape of the hot spots vary with time, so that the light-curves associated with the hot spots are stochastic. A magnetized star may be in the stable (with funnel streams) or unstable (with random tongues) regime of accretion, and consequently have significantly different observational properties. A star may switch between these two regimes depending on the accretion rate.

  12. Investigating the reliability of coronal emission measure distribution diagnostics using 3D radiative MHD simulations

    Testa, Paola; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats


    Determining the temperature distribution of coronal plasmas can provide stringent constraints on coronal heating. Current observations with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph onboard Hinode and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory provide diagnostics of the emission measure distribution (EMD) of the coronal plasma. Here we test the reliability of temperature diagnostics using 3D radiative MHD simulations. We produce synthetic observables from the models, and apply the Monte Carlo Markov chain EMD diagnostic. By comparing the derived EMDs with the "true" distributions from the model we assess the limitations of the diagnostics, as a function of the plasma parameters and of the signal-to-noise of the data. We find that EMDs derived from EIS synthetic data reproduce some general characteristics of the true distributions, but usually show differences from the true EMDs that are much larger than the estimated uncertainties suggest, especially when structures with signif...

  13. A discontinuous Galerkin method for solving the fluid and MHD equations in astrophysical simulations

    Mocz, Philip; Sijacki, Debora; Hernquist, Lars


    A discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method suitable for large-scale astrophysical simulations on Cartesian meshes as well as arbitrary static and moving Voronoi meshes is presented. Most major astrophysical fluid dynamics codes use a finite volume (FV) approach. We demonstrate that the DG technique offers distinct advantages over FV formulations on both static and moving meshes. The DG method is also easily generalized to higher than second-order accuracy without requiring the use of extended stencils to estimate derivatives (thereby making the scheme highly parallelizable). We implement the technique in the AREPO code for solving the fluid and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. By examining various test problems, we show that our new formulation provides improved accuracy over FV approaches of the same order, and reduces post-shock oscillations and artificial diffusion of angular momentum. In addition, the DG method makes it possible to represent magnetic fields in a locally divergence-free way, improving th...

  14. Photospheric Magnetic Flux Emergence: A comparative study between Hinode/SOT Observations and MHD simulations

    Cheung, M. C.; Schüssler, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Tarbell, T. D.


    With high angular resolution, high temporal cadence and a stable point spread function, the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard the Hinode satellite is the ideal instrument for the study of magnetic flux emergence and its manifestations on the solar surface. In this presentation, we focus on the development of ephemeral regions and small active regions. In many instances, SOT has been able to capture the entire emergence process from beginning to end: i.e. from the initial stages of flux appearance in granule interiors, through the intermediate stages of G-band bright point formation, and finally to the coalescence of small vertical flux elements to form pores. To investigate the physics of the flux emergence process, we performed 3D numerical MHD simulations with the MURaM code. The models are able to reproduce, and help us explain, various observational signatures of magnetic flux emergence.

  15. Numerical simulation of multi-fluid shock-turbulence interaction

    Tian, Yifeng; Jaberi, Farhad; Livescu, Daniel; Li, Zhaorui


    Accurate numerical simulation of multi-fluid Shock-Turbulence Interaction (STI) is conducted by a hybrid monotonicity preserving-compact finite difference scheme for a detailed study of STI in variable density flows. Theoretical and numerical assessments of data confirm that all turbulence scales as well as the STI are well captured by the computational method. Comparison of multi-fluid and single-fluid data indicates that the turbulent kinetic energy is amplified more and the scalar mixing is enhanced more by the shock in flows involving two different fluids/densities when compared with those observed in single-fluid flows.

  16. Computational Methods for Predictive Simulation of Stochastic Turbulence Systems


    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0363 Computational Methods for Predictive Simulation of Stochastic Turbulence Systems Catalin Trenchea UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH...STOCHASTIC TURBULENCE SYSTEMS AFOSR GRANT FA 9550-12-1-0191 William Layton and Catalin Trenchea Department of Mathematics University of Pittsburgh...During Duration of Grant Nan Jian Graduate student, Univ . of Pittsburgh (currently Postdoc at FSU) Sarah Khankan Graduate student, Univ . of Pittsburgh

  17. On numerical turbulence generation for test-particle simulations

    Tautz, R. C.; Dosch, A.


    A modified method is presented to generate artificial magnetic turbulence that is used for test-particle simulations. Such turbulent fields are obtained from the superposition of a set of wave modes with random polarizations and random directions of propagation. First, it is shown that the new method simultaneously fulfils requirements of isotropy, equal mean amplitude and variance for all field components, and vanishing divergence. Second, the number of wave modes required for a stochastic p...

  18. Simulation of atmospheric turbulence for optical systems with extended sources.

    Safari, Majid; Hranilovic, Steve


    In this paper, the method of random wave vectors for simulation of atmospheric turbulence is extended to 2D×2D space to provide spatial degrees of freedom at both input and output planes. The modified technique can thus simultaneously simulate the turbulence-induced log-amplitude and phase distortions for optical systems with extended sources either implemented as a single large aperture or multiple apertures. The reliability of our simulation technique is validated in different conditions and its application is briefly investigated in a multibeam free-space optical communication scenario.

  19. Observations and Simulations of Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence in the Solar Wind

    Goldstein, M. L.


    Alfvénic fluctuations are a ubiquitous component of the solar wind. Evidence from many spacecraft indicates that the fluctuations are convected out of the solar corona with relatively flat power spectra and constitute a source of free energy for a turbulent cascade of magnetic and kinetic energy to high wave numbers. Observations and simulations support the conclusion that the cascade evolves most rapidly in the vicinity of velocity shears and current sheets. Numerical solutions of the magnetohydrodynamic equations have elucidated the role of expansion on the evolution of the turbulence. Such studies are clarifying not only how a turbulent cascade develops, but also the nature of the symmetries of the turbulence. Of particular interest is the origin of the two-component correlation function of magnetic fluctuations that was deduced from ISEE-3 data. A central issue to be resolved is whether the correlation function indicates the existence of a quasi-two- dimensional component of the turbulence, or reflects another origin, such as pressure-balanced structures or small velocity shears. In our efforts to simulate solar wind turbulence we have included a tilted rotating current heliospheric sheet as well as variety of waves (e.g., Alfvénic, quasi-two-dimensional, pressure balance structures) and microstreams. These simulations have replicated many of the observations, but challenges remain.

  20. Turbulence dissipation challenge: particle-in-cell simulations

    Roytershteyn, V.; Karimabadi, H.; Omelchenko, Y.; Germaschewski, K.


    We discuss application of three particle in cell (PIC) codes to the problems relevant to turbulence dissipation challenge. VPIC is a fully kinetic code extensively used to study a variety of diverse problems ranging from laboratory plasmas to astrophysics. PSC is a flexible fully kinetic code offering a variety of algorithms that can be advantageous to turbulence simulations, including high order particle shapes, dynamic load balancing, and ability to efficiently run on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Finally, HYPERS is a novel hybrid (kinetic ions+fluid electrons) code, which utilizes asynchronous time advance and a number of other advanced algorithms. We present examples drawn both from large-scale turbulence simulations and from the test problems outlined by the turbulence dissipation challenge. Special attention is paid to such issues as the small-scale intermittency of inertial range turbulence, mode content of the sub-proton range of scales, the formation of electron-scale current sheets and the role of magnetic reconnection, as well as numerical challenges of applying PIC codes to simulations of astrophysical turbulence.

  1. Quantification of Modelling Uncertainties in Turbulent Flow Simulations

    Edeling, W.N.


    The goal of this thesis is to make predictive simulations with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models, i.e. simulations with a systematic treatment of model and data uncertainties and their propagation through a computational model to produce predictions of quantities of interest w

  2. Quantification of Modelling Uncertainties in Turbulent Flow Simulations

    Edeling, W.N.


    The goal of this thesis is to make predictive simulations with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models, i.e. simulations with a systematic treatment of model and data uncertainties and their propagation through a computational model to produce predictions of quantities of interest

  3. Numerical simulation of the characteristics of turbulent Taylor vortex flow

    ZHOU Xiantao; PAN Jiazhen; CHEN Liqing; SHI Yan; CHEN Wenmei; CHU Liangyin


    Turbulent Taylor vortex flow,which is contained between a rotating inner cylinder and a coaxial fixed outer cylinder with fixed ends,is simulated by applying the development in Reynolds stress equations mold (RSM) of the micro-perturbation.This resulted from the truncation error between the numerical solution and exact solution of the Reynolds stress equations.Based on the numerical simulation results of the turbulent Taylor vortex flow,its characteristics such as the fluctuation of the flow field,the precipitous drop of azimuthal velocity,the jet flow of radial velocity,the periodicity of axial velocity,the wave periodicity of pressure distribution,the polarization of shear stress on the walls,and the turbulence intensity in the jet region,are discussed.Comparing the pilot results measured by previous methods,the relative error of the characteristics predicted by simulation is less than 30%.


    周力行; 乔丽; 张健


    A unified second-order moment (USM) turbulence-chemistry model for simulating NOx formation in turbulent combustion is proposed.All of correlations,including the correlation of the reaction-rate coefficient fluctuation with the concentration fluctuation,are closed by the transport equations in the same form.This model discards the approximation of series expansion of the exponential function or the approximation of using the product of several 1-D PDF's instead of a joint PDF.It is much simpler than other refined models,such as the PDF transport equation model and the conditional moment closure model.The proposed model is used to simulate methane-air swirling turbulent combustion and NOx formation.The prediction results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Compressible Jets

    Semlitsch, Bernhard


    Acoustic noise pollution is an environmental aggressor in everyday life. Aero- dynamically generated noise annoys and was linked with health issues. It may be caused by high-speed turbulent free flows (e.g. aircraft jet exhausts), by airflow interacting with solid surfaces (e.g. fan noise, wind turbine noise), or it may arise within a confined flow environment (e.g. air ventilation systems, refrigeration systems). Hence, reducing the acoustic noise levels would result in a better life quality...

  6. Data-driven MHD simulation of a solar eruption observed in NOAA Active Region 12158

    Lee, Hwanhee; Magara, Tetsuya; Kang, Jihye


    We present a data-driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of a solar eruption where the dynamics of a background solar wind is incorporated. The background solar wind exists in the real solar atmosphere, which continuously transports magnetized plasma toward the interplanetary space. This suggests that it may play a role in producing a solar eruption. We perform a simulation for NOAA AR 12158 accompanied with X1.6-class flare and CME on 2014 September 10. We construct a magnetohydrostatic state used as the initial state of data-driven simulation, which is composed of a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) derived from observation data of photospheric vector magnetic field and a hydrostatic atmosphere with prescribed distributions of temperature and gravity. We then reduce the gas pressure well above the solar surface to drive a solar wind. As a result, a magnetic field gradually evolves during an early phase, and eventually eruption is observed. To figure out what causes the transition from gradual evolution to eruption, we analyze the temporal development of force distribution and geometrical shape of magnetic field lines. The result suggests that the curvature and the scale height of a coronal magnetic field play an important role in determining its dynamic state.

  7. Flux Emergence In The Solar Photosphere - Diagnostics Based On 3-D Rradiation-MHD Simulations

    Yelles Chaouche, L.; Cheung, M.; Lagg, A.; Solanki, S.


    We investigate flux tube emergence in the solar photosphere using a diagnostic procedure based on analyzing Stokes signals from different spectral lines calculated in 3-D radiation-MHD simulations. The simulations include the effects of radiative transport and partial ionization and cover layers both above and below the solar surface. The simulations consider the emergence of a twisted magnetic flux tube through the solar surface. We consider different stages in the emergence process, starting from the early appearance of the flux tube at the solar surface, and following the emergence process until the emerged flux looks similar to a normal bipolar region. At every stage we compute line profiles by numerically solving the Unno-Rachkovsky equations at every horizontal grid point. Then, following observational practice, we apply Milne-Eddington-type inversions to the synthetic spectra in order to retrieve different atmospheric parameters. We include the influence of spatial smearing on the deduced atmospheric parameters to identify signatures of different stages of flux emergence in the solar photosphere.

  8. Time-dependent simulation of oblique MHD cosmic-ray shocks using the two-fluid model

    Frank, Adam; Jones, T. W.; Ryu, Dongsu


    Using a new, second-order accurate numerical method we present dynamical simulations of oblique MHD cosmic-ray (CR)-modified plane shock evolution. Most of the calculations are done with a two-fluid model for diffusive shock acceleration, but we provide also comparisons between a typical shock computed that way against calculations carried out using the more complete, momentum-dependent, diffusion-advection equation. We also illustrate a test showing that these simulations evolve to dynamical equilibria consistent with previously published steady state analytic calculations for such shocks. In order to improve understanding of the dynamical role of magnetic fields in shocks modified by CR pressure we have explored for time asymptotic states the parameter space of upstream fast mode Mach number, M(sub f), and plasma beta. We compile the results into maps of dynamical steady state CR acceleration efficiency, epsilon(sub c). We have run simulations using constant, and nonisotropic, obliquity (and hence spatially) dependent forms of the diffusion coefficient kappa. Comparison of the results shows that while the final steady states achieved are the same in each case, the history of CR-MHD shocks can be strongly modified by variations in kappa and, therefore, in the acceleration timescale. Also, the coupling of CR and MHD in low beta, oblique shocks substantially influences the transient density spike that forms in strongly CR-modified shocks. We find that inside the density spike a MHD slow mode wave can be generated that eventually steepens into a shock. A strong layer develops within the density spike, driven by MHD stresses. We conjecture that currents in the shear layer could, in nonplanar flows, results in enhanced particle accretion through drift acceleration.

  9. Direct simulation of a turbulent oscillating boundary layer

    Spalart, Philippe R.; Baldwin, Barrett S.


    The turbulent boundary layer driven by a freestream velocity that varies sinusoidally in time around a zero mean is considered. The flow has a rich behavior including strong pressure gradients, inflection points, and reversal. A theory for the velocity and stress profiles at high Reynolds number is formulated. Well-resolved direct Navier-Stokes simulations are conducted over a narrow range of Reynolds numbers, and the results are compared with the theoretical predictions. The flow is also computed over a wide range of Reynolds numbers using a new algebraic turbulence model; the results are compared with the direct simulations and the theory.

  10. Three-Dimensional Simulations of Magnetized Superbubbles: New Insights into the Importance of MHD Effects on Observed Quantities

    Stil, J M; Ouyed, R; Taylor, A R


    We present three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of superbubbles, to study the importance of MHD effects in the interpretation of images from recent surveys of the Galactic plane. These simulations focus mainly on atmospheres defined by an exponential density distribution and the Dickey & Lockman (1990) density distribution. In each case, the magnetic field is parallel to the Galactic plane and we investigate cases with either infinite scale height (constant magnetic field) or a constant ratio of gas pressure to magnetic pressure. The three-dimensional structure of superbubbles in these simulations is discussed with emphasis on the axial ratio of the cavity as a function of magnetic field strength and the age of the bubble. We investigate systematic errors in the age of the bubble and scale height of the surrounding medium that may be introduced by modeling the data with purely hydrodynamic models. Age estimates derived with symmetric hydrodynamic models fitted to an asymmetric magnetize...

  11. Statistical Theory of the Ideal MHD Geodynamo

    Shebalin, J. V.


    A statistical theory of geodynamo action is developed, using a mathematical model of the geodynamo as a rotating outer core containing an ideal (i.e., no dissipation), incompressible, turbulent, convecting magnetofluid. On the concentric inner and outer spherical bounding surfaces the normal components of the velocity, magnetic field, vorticity and electric current are zero, as is the temperature fluctuation. This allows the use of a set of Galerkin expansion functions that are common to both velocity and magnetic field, as well as vorticity, current and the temperature fluctuation. The resulting dynamical system, based on the Boussinesq form of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, represents MHD turbulence in a spherical domain. These basic equations (minus the temperature equation) and boundary conditions have been used previously in numerical simulations of forced, decaying MHD turbulence inside a sphere [1,2]. Here, the ideal case is studied through statistical analysis and leads to a prediction that an ideal coherent structure will be found in the form of a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field that results from broken ergodicity, an effect that has been previously studied both analytically and numerically for homogeneous MHD turbulence [3,4]. The axial dipole component becomes prominent when there is a relatively large magnetic helicity (proportional to the global correlation of magnetic vector potential and magnetic field) and a stationary, nonzero cross helicity (proportional to the global correlation of velocity and magnetic field). The expected angle of the dipole moment vector with respect to the rotation axis is found to decrease to a minimum as the average cross helicity increases for a fixed value of magnetic helicity and then to increase again when average cross helicity approaches its maximum possible value. Only a relatively small value of cross helicity is needed to produce a dipole moment vector that is aligned at approx.10deg with the

  12. Turbulent Plasmoid Reconnection

    Widmer, Fabien; Yokoi, Nobumitsu


    The plasmoid instability may lead to fast magnetic reconnection through long current sheets(CS). It is well known that large-Reynolds-number plasmas easily become turbulent. We address the question whether turbulence enhances the energy conversion rate of plasmoid-unstable current sheets. We carry out appropriate numerical MHD simulations, but resolving simultaneously the relevant large-scale (mean-) fields and the corresponding small-scale, turbulent, quantities by means of direct numerical simulations (DNS) is not possible. Hence we investigate the influence of small scale turbulence on large scale MHD processes by utilizing a subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence model. We verify the applicability of our SGS model and then use it to investigate the influence of turbulence on the plasmoid instability. We start the simulations with Harris-type and force-free CS equilibria in the presence of a finite guide field in the direction perpendicular to the reconnection plane. We use the DNS results to investigate the growt...

  13. MHD Simulations of the ISM: The Importance of the Galactic Magnetic Field on the ISM "Phases"

    D'Avillez, M A


    We have carried out 1.25 pc resolution MHD simulations of the ISM, on a Cartesian grid of $0 \\leq (x,y) \\leq 1$ kpc size in the galactic plane and $-10 \\leq z \\leq 10$ kpc into the halo, thus being able to fully trace the time-dependent evolution of the galactic fountain. The simulations show that large scale gas streams emerge, driven by SN explosions, which are responsible for the formation and destruction of shocked compressed layers. The shocked gas can have densities as high as 800 cm$^{-3}$ and lifetimes up to 15 Myr. The cold gas is distributed into filaments which tend to show a preferred orientation due to the anisotropy of the flow induced by the galactic magnetic field. Ram pressure dominates the flow in the unstable branch $10^{2}<$T$\\leq 10^{3.9}$ K, while for T$\\leq 100$ K (stable branch) magnetic pressure takes over. Near supernovae thermal and ram pressures determine the dynamics of the flow. Up to 80% of the mass in the disk is concentrated in the thermally unstable regime $10^{2}<$T$\\l...

  14. Spicule-like structures observed in 3D realistic MHD simulations

    Martinez-Sykora, J; De Pontieu, B; Carlsson, M


    We analyze features that resemble type i spicules in two different 3D numerical simulations in which we include horizontal magnetic flux emergence in a computational domain spanning the upper layers of the convection zone to the lower corona. The two simulations differ mainly in the preexisting ambient magnetic field strength and in the properties of the inserted flux tube. We use the Oslo Staggered Code (OSC) to solve the full MHD equations with non-grey and non-LTE radiative transfer and thermal conduction along the magnetic field lines. We find a multitude of features that show a spatiotemporal evolution that is similar to that observed in type i spicules, which are characterized by parabolic height vs. time profiles, and are dominated by rapid upward motion at speeds of 10-30 km/s, followed by downward motion at similar velocities. We measured the parameters of the parabolic profile of the spicules and find similar correlations between the parameters as those found in observations. The values for height (...

  15. MHD simulation of the formation of clumps and filaments in quiescent diffuse clouds by thermal instability

    Wareing, C J; Falle, S A E G; Van Loo, S


    We have used the AMR hydrodynamic code, MG, to perform 3D MHD simulations of the formation of clumpy and filamentary structure in a thermally unstable medium. A stationary thermally unstable spherical diffuse cloud with uniform density in pressure equilibrium with low density surroundings was seeded with random density variations and allowed to evolve. A range of magnetic field strengths threading the cloud have been explored, from beta=0.1 to beta=1.0 to the zero magnetic field case (beta=infinity), where beta is the ratio of thermal pressure to magnetic pressure. Once the density inhomogeneities had developed to the point where gravity started to become important, self-gravity was introduced to the simulation. With no magnetic field, clumps form within the cloud with aspect ratios of around unity, whereas in the presence of a relatively strong field (beta=0.1) these become filaments, then evolve into interconnected corrugated sheets that are predominantly perpendicular to the magnetic field. With magnetic a...

  16. 3D MHD Simulations of Laser Plasma Guiding in Curved Magnetic Field

    Roupassov, S.; Rankin, R.; Tsui, Y.; Capjack, C.; Fedosejevs, R.


    The guiding and confinement of laser produced plasma in a curved magnetic field has been investigated numerically. These studies were motivated by experiments on pulsed laser deposition of diamond-like films [1] in which a 1kG magnetic field in a curved solenoid geometry was utilized to steer a carbon plasma around a curved trajectory and thus to separate it from unwanted macroparticles produced by the laser ablation. The purpose of the modeling was to characterize the plasma dynamics during the propagation through the magnetic guide field and to investigate the effect of different magnetic field configurations. A 3D curvilinear ADI code developed on the basis of an existing Cartesian code [2] was employed to simulate the underlying resistive one-fluid MHD model. Issues such as large regions of low background density and nonreflective boundary conditions were addressed. Results of the simulations in a curved guide field will be presented and compared to experimental results. [1] Y.Y. Tsui, D. Vick and R. Fedosejevs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70 (15), pp. 1953-57, 1997. [2] R. Rankin, and I. Voronkov, in "High Performance Computing Systems and Applications", pp. 59-69, Kluwer AP, 1998.

  17. MHD simulations of protostellar jets: formation and stability of shock diamonds

    Ustamujic, Sabina


    The early stages of a star birth are characterised by a variety of mass ejection phenomena, including outflows and collimated jets, that are strongly related with the accretion process developed in the context of the star-disc interaction. After been ejected, jets move through the ambient medium, interacting and producing shocks and complex structures that are observed at different wavelength bands. In particular, X-ray observations show evidence of strong shocks heating the plasma up to temperatures of a few million degrees. In some cases, the shocked features appear to be stationary and have been interpreted as shock diamonds. We aim at investigating the physical properties of the shocked plasma and the role of the magnetic field on the collimation performing 2.5D MHD simulations, including the effects of the thermal conduction and the radiative losses. We modelled the propagation of a jet ramming with a supersonic speed into an initially isothermal and homogeneous magnetized medium. We studied the physics that guides the formation of a stationary shock (for instance a shock diamond) and compared the results with observations, via the emission measure distribution vs. temperature and the luminosity synthesised from the simulations.

  18. A new method for simulating atmospheric turbulence for rotorcraft applications

    Prasad, J. V. R.; Schrage, D. P.; Gaonkar, G. H.; Riaz, J.


    Simulation of atmospheric turbulence as seen by a rotating blade element involves treatment of cyclostationary processes. Conventional filtering techniques do not lend themselves well to the generation of such turbulence sample functions as are required in rotorcraft flight dynamics simulation codes. A method to generate sample functions containing second-order statistics of mean and covariance is presented. Compared to ensemble averaging involving excessive computer time, the novelty is to exploit cycloergodicity and thereby, replace ensemble averaging by averaging over a single-path sample function of long duration. The method is validated by comparing its covariance results with the analytical and ensemble-averaged results for a widely used one-dimensional turbulence approximation.

  19. Gyrokinetic simulations of turbulent transport: size scaling and chaotic behaviour

    Villard, L.; Bottino, A.; Brunner, S.; Casati, A.; Chowdhury, J.; Dannert, T.; Ganesh, R.; Garbet, X.; Görler, T.; Grandgirard, V.; Hatzky, R.; Idomura, Y.; Jenko, F.; Jolliet, S.; Khosh Aghdam, S.; Lapillonne, X.; Latu, G.; McMillan, B. F.; Merz, F.; Sarazin, Y.; Tran, T. M.; Vernay, T.


    Important steps towards the understanding of turbulent transport have been made with the development of the gyrokinetic framework for describing turbulence and with the emergence of numerical codes able to solve the set of gyrokinetic equations. This paper presents some of the main recent advances in gyrokinetic theory and computing of turbulence. Solving 5D gyrokinetic equations for each species requires state-of-the-art high performance computing techniques involving massively parallel computers and parallel scalable algorithms. The various numerical schemes that have been explored until now, Lagrangian, Eulerian and semi-Lagrangian, each have their advantages and drawbacks. A past controversy regarding the finite size effect (finite ρ*) in ITG turbulence has now been resolved. It has triggered an intensive benchmarking effort and careful examination of the convergence properties of the different numerical approaches. Now, both Eulerian and Lagrangian global codes are shown to agree and to converge to the flux-tube result in the ρ* → 0 limit. It is found, however, that an appropriate treatment of geometrical terms is necessary: inconsistent approximations that are sometimes used can lead to important discrepancies. Turbulent processes are characterized by a chaotic behaviour, often accompanied by bursts and avalanches. Performing ensemble averages of statistically independent simulations, starting from different initial conditions, is presented as a way to assess the intrinsic variability of turbulent fluxes and obtain reliable estimates of the standard deviation. Further developments concerning non-adiabatic electron dynamics around mode-rational surfaces and electromagnetic effects are discussed.

  20. Direct Numerical Simulations of Statistically Stationary Turbulent Premixed Flames

    Im, Hong G.


    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent combustion have evolved tremendously in the past decades, thanks to the rapid advances in high performance computing technology. Today’s DNS is capable of incorporating detailed reaction mechanisms and transport properties of hydrocarbon fuels, with physical parameter ranges approaching laboratory scale flames, thereby allowing direct comparison and cross-validation against laser diagnostic measurements. While these developments have led to significantly improved understanding of fundamental turbulent flame characteristics, there are increasing demands to explore combustion regimes at higher levels of turbulent Reynolds (Re) and Karlovitz (Ka) numbers, with a practical interest in new combustion engines driving towards higher efficiencies and lower emissions. The article attempts to provide a brief overview of the state-of-the-art DNS of turbulent premixed flames at high Re/Ka conditions, with an emphasis on homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flow configurations. Some important qualitative findings from numerical studies are summarized, new analytical approaches to investigate intensely turbulent premixed flame dynamics are discussed, and topics for future research are suggested. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

  1. A New Code for Numerical Simulation of MHD Astrophysical Flows With Chemistry

    Kulikov, Igor; Protasov, Viktor


    The new code for numerical simulation of magnetic hydrodynamical astrophysical flows with consideration of chemical reactions is given in the paper. At the heart of the code - the new original low-dissipation numerical method based on a combination of operator splitting approach and piecewise-parabolic method on the local stencil. The details of the numerical method are described; the main tests and the scheme of parallel implementation are shown. The chemodynamics of the hydrogen while the turbulent formation of molecular clouds is modeled.

  2. Magnetized Accretion-Ejection Structures 2.5D MHD simulations of continuous Ideal Jet launching from resistive accretion disks

    Keppens, R


    We present numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of a magnetized accretion disk launching trans-Alfvenic jets. These simulations, performed in a 2.5 dimensional time-dependent polytropic resistive MHD framework, model a resistive accretion disk threaded by an initial vertical magnetic field. The resistivity is only important inside the disk, and is prescribed as eta = alpha_m V_AH exp(-2Z^2/H^2), where V_A stands for Alfven speed, H is the disk scale height and the coefficient alpha_m is smaller than unity. By performing the simulations over several tens of dynamical disk timescales, we show that the launching of a collimated outflow occurs self-consistently and the ejection of matter is continuous and quasi-stationary. These are the first ever simulations of resistive accretion disks launching non-transient ideal MHD jets. Roughly 15% of accreted mass is persistently ejected. This outflow is safely characterized as a jet since the flow becomes super-fastmagnetosonic, well-collimated and reaches a q...

  3. Direct numerical simulation of particles in a turbulent channel flow

    Tyagi, Ankit; Kumaran, Vishwanathan


    Goswami and Kumaran(2009a,b,2011a) studied the effect of fluid turbulence on particle phase in DNS.However,their studies were restricted to one way coupling where the effect of particles on fluid turbulence was not incorporated. We have extended their work by formulating a reverse force treatment through multipole expansion for the particle disturbance to the fluid turbulence.Here,the fluid velocity, strain rate and rotation rate at the particle position are used,as a far field,to calculate the disturbance caused by the particle and relaxing the point particle approximation.The simulations are done at high Stokes number where the fluid velocity fluctuations are uncorrelated over time scales of the particle dynamics.The results indicate that the particle mean velocity and stress are reduced when reverse force is incorporated.Level of reduction increases with mass loading and Stokes number.The variance of particle distribution function is reduced due to reduction in the fluid turbulent intensities.The particle velocity,angular velocity distribution function and stresses are compared for simulations where only the reverse force is incorporated, and where the dipoles are also incorporated, to examine the effect of force dipoles on the fluid turbulence and the particle distributions.

  4. A Numerical Study of Resistivity and Hall Effects for a Compressible MHD Model

    Yee, H. C.; Sjogreen, B.


    The effect of resistive, Hall, and viscous terms on the flow structure compared with compressible ideal MHD is studied numerically for a one-fluid non-ideal MHD model. The goal of the present study is to shed some light on the emerging area of non-ideal MHD modeling and simulation. Numerical experiments are performed on a hypersonic blunt body flow with future application to plasma aerodynamics flow control in reentry vehicles. Numerical experiments are also performed on a magnetized time-developing mixing layer with possible application to magnetic/turbulence mixing.

  5. Simulations of Turbulent Flows with Strong Shocks and Density Variations

    Zhong, Xiaolin


    In this report, we present the research efforts made by our group at UCLA in the SciDAC project Simulations of turbulent flows with strong shocks and density variations. We use shock-fitting methodologies as an alternative to shock-capturing schemes for the problems where a well defined shock is present. In past five years, we have focused on development of high-order shock-fitting Navier-Stokes solvers for perfect gas flow and thermochemical non-equilibrium flow and simulation of shock-turbulence interaction physics for very strong shocks. Such simulation has not been possible before because the limitation of conventional shock capturing methods. The limitation of shock Mach number is removed by using our high-order shock-fitting scheme. With the help of DOE and TeraGrid/XSEDE super computing resources, we have obtained new results which show new trends of turbulence statistics behind the shock which were not known before. Moreover, we are also developing tools to consider multi-species non-equilibrium flows. The main results are in three areas: (1) development of high-order shock-fitting scheme for perfect gas flow, (2) Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of interaction of realistic turbulence with moderate to very strong shocks using super computing resources, and (3) development and implementation of models for computation of mutli-species non-quilibrium flows with shock-fitting codes.

  6. Simulating tidal turbines with mesh optimisation and RANS turbulence models

    Abolghasemi, A.; Piggott, M.D.; Spinneken, J.; Vire, A.; Cotter, C.J.


    A versatile numerical model for the simulation of flow past horizontal axis tidal turbines has been developed. Currently most large-scale marine models employed to study marine energy use the shallow water equations and therefore can fail to account for important turbulent physics. The model present

  7. Scaling laws in magnetized plasma turbulence

    Boldyrev, Stanislav [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    Interactions of plasma motion with magnetic fields occur in nature and in the laboratory in an impressively broad range of scales, from megaparsecs in astrophysical systems to centimeters in fusion devices. The fact that such an enormous array of phenomena can be effectively studied lies in the existence of fundamental scaling laws in plasma turbulence, which allow one to scale the results of analytic and numerical modeling to the sized of galaxies, velocities of supernovae explosions, or magnetic fields in fusion devices. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provides the simplest framework for describing magnetic plasma turbulence. Recently, a number of new features of MHD turbulence have been discovered and an impressive array of thought-provoking phenomenological theories have been put forward. However, these theories have conflicting predictions, and the currently available numerical simulations are not able to resolve the contradictions. MHD turbulence exhibits a variety of regimes unusual in regular hydrodynamic turbulence. Depending on the strength of the guide magnetic field it can be dominated by weakly interacting Alfv\\'en waves or strongly interacting wave packets. At small scales such turbulence is locally anisotropic and imbalanced (cross-helical). In a stark contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, which tends to ``forget'' global constrains and become uniform and isotropic at small scales, MHD turbulence becomes progressively more anisotropic and unbalanced at small scales. Magnetic field plays a fundamental role in turbulent dynamics. Even when such a field is not imposed by external sources, it is self-consistently generated by the magnetic dynamo action. This project aims at a comprehensive study of universal regimes of magnetic plasma turbulence, combining the modern analytic approaches with the state of the art numerical simulations. The proposed study focuses on the three topics: weak MHD turbulence, which is relevant for laboratory devices

  8. Proceedings of the workshop on nonlinear MHD and extended MHD



    Nonlinear MHD simulations have proven their value in interpreting experimental results over the years. As magnetic fusion experiments reach higher performance regimes, more sophisticated experimental diagnostics coupled with ever expanding computer capabilities have increased both the need for and the feasibility of nonlinear global simulations using models more realistic than regular ideal and resistive MHD. Such extended-MHD nonlinear simulations have already begun to produce useful results. These studies are expected to lead to ever more comprehensive simulation models in the future and to play a vital role in fully understanding fusion plasmas. Topics include the following: (1) current state of nonlinear MHD and extended-MHD simulations; (2) comparisons to experimental data; (3) discussions between experimentalists and theorists; (4) /equations for extended-MHD models, kinetic-based closures; and (5) paths toward more comprehensive simulation models, etc. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  9. Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows in Wind Energy

    Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak

    This research is devoted to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), and to lesser extent, wind tunnel measurements of turbulent flows in wind energy. It starts with an introduction to the LES technique associated with the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, discretized using a finite...... Reynolds numbers, and thereafter, the fully-developed infinite wind farm boundary later simulations are performed. Sources of inaccuracy in the simulations are investigated and it is found that high Reynolds number flows are more sensitive to the choice of the SGS model than their low Reynolds number...... of attack. Laminar-turbulent transition, generation of laminar boundary layer separation, and formation of stall cells are investigated. The simulated airfoil characteristics are validated against measurements. It is concluded that the LES computations and wind tunnel measurements are in good agreement...

  10. Lyapunov Exponents and Covariant Vectors for Turbulent Flow Simulations

    Blonigan, Patrick; Murman, Scott; Fernandez, Pablo; Wang, Qiqi


    As computational power increases, engineers are beginning to use scale-resolving turbulent flow simulations for applications in which jets, wakes, and separation dominate. However, the chaotic dynamics exhibited by scale-resolving simulations poses problems for the conventional sensitivity analysis and stability analysis approaches that are vital for design and control. Lyapunov analysis is used to study the chaotic behavior of dynamical systems, including flow simulations. Lyapunov exponents are the growth or a decay rate of specific flow field perturbations called the Lyapunov covariant vectors. Recently, the authors have used Lyapunov analysis to study the breakdown in conventional sensitivity analysis and the cost of new shadowing-based sensitivity analysis. The current work reviews Lyapunov analysis and presents new results for a DNS of turbulent channel flow, wall-modeled channel flow, and a DNS of a low pressure turbine blade. Additionally, the implications of these Lyapunov analyses for computing sensitivities of these flow simulations will be discussed.

  11. Nonlinear instability in simulations of Large Plasma Device turbulence

    Friedman, B; Umansky, M V; Schaffner, D; Joseph, I


    Several simulations of turbulence in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Inst. 62, 2875 (1991)] are energetically analyzed and compared with each other and with the experiment. The simulations use the same model, but different axial boundary conditions. They employ either periodic, zero-value, zero-derivative, or sheath axial boundaries. The linear stability physics is different between the scenarios because the various boundary conditions allow the drift wave instability to access different axial structures, and the sheath boundary simulation contains a conducting wall mode instability which is just as unstable as the drift waves. Nevertheless, the turbulence in all the simulations is relatively similar because it is primarily driven by a robust nonlinear instability that is the same for all cases. The nonlinear instability preferentially drives $k_\\parallel = 0$ potential energy fluctuations, which then three-wave couple to $k_\\parallel \



    Stepped spillways have increasingly become a very important measure for flood discharge and energy dissipation. Therefore, the velocity, pressure and other characteristics of the flow on the stepped spillway should be known clearly. But so far the study for the stepped spillway overflow is only based on the model test. In this paper, the stepped spillway overflow was simulated by the Reynolds stress turbulence model. The simulation results were analyzed and compared with measured data, which shows they are satisfactory.

  13. Simulation of shear and turbulence impact on wind turbine performance

    Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael; Larsen, Torben J.;

    Aerodynamic simulations (HAWC2Aero) were used to investigate the influence of the speed shear, the direction shear and the turbulence intensity on the power output of a multi-megawatt turbine. First simulation cases with laminar flow and power law wind speed profiles were compared to the case of ...... may get from a LIDAR mounted on the nacelle of the turbine (measuring upwind) and we investigated different ways of deriving an equivalent wind speed from such measurements....

  14. An asynchronous and parallel time-marching method: Application to three-dimensional MHD simulation of solar wind


    An asynchronous and parallel time-marching method for three-dimensional (3D) time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation is used for large-scale solar wind simulation. It uses different local time steps in the corona and the heliosphere according to the local Courant-Friedrichs-Levy (CFL) conditions. The solar wind background with observed solar photospheric magnetic field as input is first presented. The simulation time for the background solar wind by using the asynchronous method is <1/6 of that by using the normal synchronous time-marching method with the same computation precision. Then, we choose the coronal mass ejection (CME) event of 13 November, 2003 as a test case. The time-dependent variations of the pressure and the velocity configured from a CME model at the inner boundary are applied to generate transient structures in order to study the dynamical interaction of a CME with the background solar wind flow between 1 and 230 Rs. This time-marching method is very effective in terms of computation time for large-scale 3D time-dependent numerical MHD problem. In this validation study, we find that this 3D MHD model, with the asynchronous and parallel time-marching method, provides a relatively satisfactory comparison with the ACE spacecraft obser- vations at L1 point.

  15. Roles of initial current carrier in the distribution of field-aligned current in 3-D Hall MHD simulations

    ZHANG XianGuo; PU ZuYin; MA ZhiWei; ZHOU XuZhi


    A three-dimensional (3-D) Hall MHD simulation is carried out to study the roles of initial current carrier in the topology of magnetic field,the generation and distribuering the contribution of ions to the initial current,the topology of the obtained magnetic field turns to be more complex. In some cases,it is found that not only the traditional By quadrupole structure but also a reversal By quadrupole structure appears in the simulation box. This can explain the observational features near the diffusion region,which are inconsistent with the Hall MHD theory with the total initial current carried by electrons. Several other interesting features are also emerged. First,motions of electrons and ions are decoupled from each other in the small plasma region (Hall effect region) with a scale less than or comparable with the ion inertial length or ion skin depth di=c/ωp. In the non-Hall effect region,the global magnetic structure is shifted in +y direction under the influence of ions with initial y directional motion. However,in the Hall effect region,magnetic field lines are bent in -y direction,mainly controlled by the motion of electrons,then By is generated. Second,FACs emerge as a result of the appearance of By. Compared with the prior Hall MHD simulation results,the generated FACs shift in +y direction,

  16. Analysis of Voyager Observed High-Energy Electron Fluxes in the Heliosheath Using MHD Simulations

    Washimi, Haruichi; Webber, W. R.; Zank, Gary P.; Hu, Qiang; Florinski, Vladimir; Adams, James; Kubo, Yuki


    The Voyager spacecraft (V1 and V2) observed electrons of 6-14 MeV in the heliosheath which showed several incidences of flux variation relative to a background of gradually increasing flux with distance from the Sun. The increasing flux of background electrons is thought to result from inward radial diffusion. We compare the temporal electron flux variation with dynamical phenomena in the heliosheath that are obtained from our MHD simulations. Because our simulation is based on V2 observed plasma data before V2 crossed the termination shock, this analysis is effective up to late 2008, i.e., about a year after the V2-crossing, during which disturbances, driven prior to the crossing time, survived in the heliosheath. Several electron flux variations correspond to times directly associated with interplanetary shock events. One noteworthy example corresponds to various times associated with the March 2006 interplanetary shock, these being the collision with the termination shock, the passage past the V1 spacecraft, and the collision with the region near the heliopause, as identified by W.R. Webber et al. for proton/helium of 7-200 MeV. Our simulations indicate that all other electron flux variations, except one, correspond well to the times when a shock-driven magneto-sonic pulse and its reflection in the heliosheath either passed across V1/V2, or collided with the termination shock or with the plasma sheet near the heliopause. This result suggests that variation in the electron flux should be due to either direct or indirect effects of magnetosonic pulses in the heliosheath driven by interplanetary shocks

  17. Blanket-relevant liquid metal MHD channel flows: Data base and optimization simulation development

    Evtushenko, I.A.; Kirillov, I.R.; Sidorenkov, S.I. [D.V. Efremov Inst. of Electrophysical Apparatus, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    The problems of generalization and integration of test, theoretical and design data relevant to liquid metal (LM) blanket are discussed in present work. First results on MHD data base and LM blanket optimization codes are presented.

  18. Effect of the Interplanetary Electric Field on the Magnetopause From Global MHD Simulations

    HUANG Zhaohui; DING Kai; WANG Chi


    The north-south component B_z of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field(IMF) and solar wind dynamic pressure P_d are generally treated as the two main factors in the solar wind that determine the geometry of the magnetosphere.By using the 3D global MHD simulations,we investigate the effect of the Interplanetary Electric Field(IEF) on the size and shape of magnetopause quantitatively. Our numerical experiments confirm that the geometry of the magnetopause are mainly determined by P_d and B_z,as expected.However,the dawn-dusk IEFs have great impact on the magnetopause erosion because of the magnetic reconnection,thus affecting the size and shape of the magnetopause.Higher solar wind speed with the same B_z will lead to bigger dawn-dusk IEFs,which means the higher reconnection rate,and then results in more magnetic flux removal from the dayside. Consequently,the dayside magnetopause moves inward and flank magnetopause moves outward.

  19. Constraints on particle acceleration sites in the Crab Nebula from relativistic MHD simulations

    Olmi, Barbara; Amato, Elena; Bucciantini, Niccolò


    The Crab Nebula is one of the most efficient accelerators in the Galaxy and the only galactic source showing direct evidence of PeV particles. In spite of this, the physical process behind such effective acceleration is still a deep mystery. While particle acceleration, at least at the highest energies, is commonly thought to occur at the pulsar wind termination shock, the properties of the upstream flow are thought to be non-uniform along the shock surface, and important constraints on the mechanism at work come from exact knowledge of where along this surface particles are being accelerated. Here we use axisymmetric relativistic MHD simulations to obtain constraints on the acceleration site(s) of particles of different energies in the Crab Nebula. Various scenarios are considered for the injection of particles responsible for synchrotron radiation in the different frequency bands, radio, optical and X-rays. The resulting emission properties are compared with available data on the multi wavelength time varia...

  20. Numerical Simulation of Excitation and Propagation of Helioseismic MHD Waves in Magnetostatic Models of Sunspots

    Parchevsky, K; Khomenko, E; Olshevsky, V; Collados, M


    We present comparison of numerical simulations of propagation of MHD waves,excited by subphotospheric perturbations, in two different ("deep" and "shallow") magnetostatic models of the sunspots. The "deep" sunspot model distorts both the shape of the wavefront and its amplitude stronger than the "shallow" model. For both sunspot models, the surface gravity waves (f-mode) are affected by the sunspots stronger than the acoustic p-modes. The wave amplitude inside the sunspot depends on the photospheric strength of the magnetic field and the distance of the source from the sunspot axis. For the source located at 9 Mm from the center of the sunspot, the wave amplitude increases when the wavefront passes through the central part of the sunspot. For the source distance of 12 Mm, the wave amplitude inside the sunspot is always smaller than outside. For the same source distance from the sunspot center but for the models with different strength of the magnetic field, the wave amplitude inside the sunspot increases with...

  1. MHD simulations of near-surface convection in cool main-sequence stars

    Beeck, Benjamin; Reiners, Ansgar


    The solar photospheric magnetic field is highly structured owing to its interaction with the convective flows. Its local structure has a strong influence on the profiles of spectral lines not only by virtue of the Zeeman effect, but also through the modification of the thermodynamical structure (e.g. line weakening in hot small-scale magnetic structures). Many stars harbor surface magnetic fields comparable to or larger than the Sun at solar maximum. Therefore, a strong influence of the field on the surface convection and on spectral line profiles can be expected. We carried out 3D local-box MHD simulations of unipolar magnetized regions (average fields of 20, 100, and 500G) with parameters corresponding to six main-sequence stars (spectral types F3V to M2V). The influence of the magnetic field on the convection and the local thermodynamical structure were analyzed in detail. For three spectral lines, we determined the impact of the magnetic field on the disc-integrated Stokes-I profiles. Line weakening has i...

  2. Numerical simulation of MHD for electromagnetic edge dam in continuous casting.

    Chang, F. C.


    A computer model was developed to predict eddy currents and fluid flows in molten steel. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid-metal containment and fluid flow in electromagnetic (EM) edge dams (EMDs) designed at Inland Steel for twin-roll casting. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive, time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA is able to predict the eddy-current distribution and the electromagnetic forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM is capable of modeling fluid flows with free surfaces. Results of the numerical simulation compared measurements obtained from a static test.

  3. Resolving high Reynolds numbers in SPH simulations of subsonic turbulence

    Price, Daniel J


    Accounting for the Reynolds number is critical in numerical simulations of turbulence, particularly for subsonic flow. For Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) with constant artificial viscosity coefficient alpha, it is shown that the effective Reynolds number in the absence of explicit physical viscosity terms scales linearly with the Mach number - compared to mesh schemes, where the effective Reynolds number is largely independent of the flow velocity. As a result, SPH simulations with alpha=1 will have low Reynolds numbers in the subsonic regime compared to mesh codes, which may be insufficient to resolve turbulent flow. This explains the failure of Bauer and Springel (2011, arXiv:1109.4413v1) to find agreement between the moving-mesh code AREPO and the GADGET SPH code on simulations of driven, subsonic (v ~ 0.3 c_s) turbulence appropriate to the intergalactic/intracluster medium, where it was alleged that SPH is somehow fundamentally incapable of producing a Kolmogorov-like turbulent cascade. We show tha...

  4. Mesoscale Optical Turbulence simulations at Dome C

    Lascaux, F; Hagelin, S; Stoesz, J


    These last years ground-based astronomy has been looking towards Antarctica, especially its summits and the internal continental plateau where the optical turbulence (OT) appears to be confined in a shallow layer close to the surface. Preliminary measurements have so far indicated pretty good value for the seeing above 30-35 m: 0.36" (Agabi et al. 2006), 0.27" (Lawrence et al. 2004) and 0.3" (Trinquet et al. 2008) at Dome C. Site testing campaigns are however extremely expensive, instruments provide only local measurements and atmospheric modeling might represent a step ahead towards the search and selection of astronomical sites thanks to the possibility to reconstruct 3D Cn2 maps over a surface of several kilometers. The Antarctic Plateau represents therefore an important benchmark test to evaluate the possibility to discriminate sites on the same plateau. Our group (Hagelin et al. 2008) has proven that the analyses from the ECMWF global model do not describe with the required accuracy the antarctic boundar...

  5. Direct simulation of the stably stratified turbulent Ekman layer

    Coleman, G. N.; Ferziger, J. H.; Spalart, P. R.


    The Navier-Stokes equations and the Boussinesq approximation were used to compute a 3D time-dependent turbulent flow in the stably stratified Ekman layer over a smooth surface. The simulation data are found to be in very good agreement with atmospheric measurements when nondimensionalized according to Nieuwstadt's local scaling scheme. Results suggest that, when Reynolds number effects are taken into account, the 'constant Froud number' stable layer model (Brost and Wyngaard, 1978) and the 'shearing length' stable layer model (Hunt, 1985) for the dissipitation rate of turbulent kinetic energy are both valid. It is concluded that there is good agreement between the direct numerical simulation results and large-eddy simulation results obtained by Mason and Derbyshire (1990).

  6. Large plasmoids in global MHD simulations: Solar wind dependence and ionospheric mapping

    Honkonen, Ilja; Palmroth, Minna; Pulkkinen, T.; Janhunen, Pekka

    The energy from the solar wind drives magnetospheric dynamics. An important, but the most difficult to measure, factor is the energy released in plasmoids. Plasmoids are large magnetic structures that form in the Earth's magnetotail during substorms, which are the main mecha-nism of extracting and releasing solar wind energy from the magnetosphere. During plasmoid formation the 3-d structure of the magnetotail becomes complicated, with spatially alternating closed and open magnetic topologies. While the formation and the release of plasmoids are unresolved, they are classically thought to detach from the magnetotail at the substorm onset. Using our global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation GUMICS-4, we investigate how different parameters of the solar wind affect the formation of plasmoids. Specifically we con-centrate on the role of the solar wind magnetic field parameters. We also investigate the solar wind dependence of plasmoid foot points, which are the end points of the plasmoid magnetic field in the ionosphere. Preliminary results suggest that plasmoid formation and plasmoid foot point location in the ionosphere strongly depend on the solar wind magnetic field param-eters. Our work may be of importance when interpreting some observed, but unexplained, ionospheric phenomena. We also present an operational definition of plasmoids, which enables their automatic detection in simulations. The project has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) / ERC Starting Grant agree-ment number 200141-QuESpace. The work of IH and MP is supported by the Academy of Finland.

  7. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability during northward IMF conditions: Global 3-Dimensional MHD simulations (Invited)

    Merkin, V. G.; Lyon, J.; Claudepierre, S. G.


    The Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (KHI) has long been suggested to operate on the magnetospheric boundary, where the magnetosheath plasma streams past the magnetosphere. The instability is thought to be responsible for inducing various wave populations in the magnetosphere and for mass, momentum and energy transport across the magnetospheric boundary. Waves attributed to the KHI have been observed at the Earth's magnetosphere flanks as well as at Saturn and Mercury during spacecraft crossings, and remotely at boundaries of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Recent high-resolution global 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the magnetosphere confirm the existence of pronounced perturbations of the magnetospheric boundary, which are thought to be due to KHI. Such global simulations had been challenging in the past because of the need to encompass the entire magnetosphere, while sufficiently resolving the boundary layer. Here we present results of such a high-resolution simulation of the magnetosphere, using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) model, under steady northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) conditions. We find the magnetospheric boundary to be globally unstable, including the high-latitude boundary layer (meridional plane), where magnetic tension is apparently not sufficient to stabilize the growth of oscillations. Roughly beyond the terminator, global modes, coupled into the surface modes, become apparent, so that the entire body of the magnetosphere is engaged in an oscillatory motion. The wave vector of the surface oscillations has a component perpendicular to the background flow and tangential to the shear layer (in the equatorial plane, k_z component of the wave vector), which is consistent with the generation of field-aligned currents that flow on closed field lines between the inner portion of the boundary layer and the ionosphere. We calculate the distribution of wave power in the equatorial plane and find it consistent with the existence of a

  8. The Local Variational Multiscale Method for Turbulence Simulation.

    Collis, Samuel Scott; Ramakrishnan, Srinivas


    Accurate and efficient turbulence simulation in complex geometries is a formidable chal-lenge. Traditional methods are often limited by low accuracy and/or restrictions to simplegeometries. We explore the merger of Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) spatial discretizationswith Variational Multi-Scale (VMS) modeling, termed Local VMS (LVMS), to overcomethese limitations. DG spatial discretizations support arbitrarily high-order accuracy on un-structured grids amenable for complex geometries. Furthermore, high-order, hierarchicalrepresentation within DG provides a natural framework fora prioriscale separation crucialfor VMS implementation. We show that the combined benefits of DG and VMS within theLVMS method leads to promising new approach to LES for use in complex geometries.The efficacy of LVMS for turbulence simulation is assessed by application to fully-developed turbulent channelflow. First, a detailed spatial resolution study is undertakento record the effects of the DG discretization on turbulence statistics. Here, the localhp[?]refinement capabilites of DG are exploited to obtain reliable low-order statistics effi-ciently. Likewise, resolution guidelines for simulating wall-bounded turbulence using DGare established. We also explore the influence of enforcing Dirichlet boundary conditionsindirectly through numericalfluxes in DG which allows the solution to jump (slip) at thechannel walls. These jumps are effective in simulating the influence of the wall commen-surate with the local resolution and this feature of DG is effective in mitigating near-wallresolution requirements. In particular, we show that by locally modifying the numericalviscousflux used at the wall, we are able to regulate the near-wall slip through a penaltythat leads to improved shear-stress predictions. This work, demonstrates the potential ofthe numerical viscousflux to act as a numerically consistent wall-model and this successwarrents future research.As in any high-order numerical method some


    Khudheyer S Mushatet


    Full Text Available Simulation is presented for a backward facing step flow and heat transfer inside a channel with ribs turbulators. The problem was investigated for Reynolds numbers up to 32000. The effect of a step height, the number of ribs and the rib thickness on the flow and thermal field were investigated. The computed results are presented as streamlines counters, velocity vectors and graphs of Nusselt number and turbulent kinetic energy variation. A control volume method employing a staggered grid techniques was imposed to discretize the governing continuity, full Navier Stockes and energy equations. A computer program using a SIMPLE algorithm was developed to handle the considered problem. The effect of turbulence was modeled by using a k-є model with its wall function formulas. The obtained results show that the strength and size of the re-circulation zones behind the step are increased with the increase of contraction ratio(i.e. with the increase of a step height. The size of recirculation regions and the reattachment length after the ribs are decreased with increasing of the contraction ratio. Also the results show that the Reynolds number and contraction ratio have a significant effect on the variation of turbulent kinetic energy and Nusselt number

  10. Advanced Unsteady Turbulent Combustion Simulation Capability for Space Propulsion Systems Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is a high performance, high fidelity simulation capability to enable accurate, fast and robust simulation of unsteady turbulent,...

  11. 3-D MHD disk wind simulations of jets and outflows from high-mass protostars

    Staff, Jan E.; Tanaka, Kei; Tan, Jonathan C.; Zhang, Yichen; Liu, Mengyao


    We present the results of a series of nested, large scale, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations of disk winds with a Blandford-Payne like magnetic field configuration, resolving scales from the stellar surface to beyond the core. The goal is to understand the structure of massive protostellar cores at various stages of their formation as the protostellar mass grows from a massive core. At each stage of a given protostellar mass, first, we study how jets and winds develop from the inner accretion disk to ~100 AU scales. We use the results from these simulations to dictate the inner boundary condition of a set of simulation extending to the core boundary at ~10,000 AU of an initially 60 solar mass core. We run separate simulations where the protostellar mass is 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 Msun, and we are working on making a small grid of models in the context of the Turbulent Core Model with three different core masses and three different core surface densities. The wind is blown into the simulation box with properties derived from the previous jet simulations. We examine the opening angle of the outflow cavity and thus the star formation efficiency from the core due to outflow feedback. We find that the opening angle increases as the protostellar mass grows, but it is always less than 10 degrees, which is surprisingly small compared with previous analytic models. This is caused by the core which confines the outflow. Finally, we use our simulation results as input to a radiative transfer calculation, to compare with observations made by the SOMA survey.

  12. A lower bound on adiabatic heating of compressed turbulence for simulation and model validation

    Davidovits, Seth


    The energy in turbulent flow can be amplified by compression, when the compression occurs on a timescale shorter than the turbulent dissipation time. This mechanism may play a part in sustaining turbulence in various astrophysical systems, including molecular clouds. The amount of turbulent amplification depends on the net effect of the compressive forcing and turbulent dissipation. By giving an argument for a bound on this dissipation, we give a lower bound for the scaling of the turbulent velocity with compression ratio in compressed turbulence. That is, turbulence undergoing compression will be enhanced at least as much as the bound given here, subject to a set of caveats that will be outlined. Used as a validation check, this lower bound suggests that some simulations and models of compressing astrophysical turbulence are too dissipative. The technique used highlights the relationship between compressed turbulence and decaying turbulence.

  13. 3D Relativistic MHD Simulation of a Tilted Accretion Disk Around a Rapidly Rotating Black Hole

    Fragile, P Chris; Blaes, Omer M; Salmonson, Jay D


    We posit that accreting compact objects, including stellar mass black holes and neutron stars as well as supermassive black holes, may undergo extended periods of accretion during which the angular momentum of the disk at large scales is misaligned with that of the compact object. In such a scenario, Lense-Thirring precession caused by the rotating compact object can dramatically affect the disk. In this presentation we describe results from a three-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulation of an MRI turbulent disk accreting onto a tilted rapidly rotating black hole. For this case, the disk does not achieve the commonly described Bardeen-Petterson configuration; rather, it remains nearly planar, undergoing a slow global precession. Accretion from the disk onto the hole occurs predominantly through two opposing plunging streams that start from high latitudes with respect to both the black-hole and disk midplanes. This is a consequence of the non-sphericity of the gravitational spacetime of the bl...

  14. Computer Simulation of Turbulent Reactive Gas Dynamics

    Bjørn H. Hjertager


    Full Text Available A simulation procedure capable of handling transient compressible flows involving combustion is presented. The method uses the velocity components and pressure as primary flow variables. The differential equations governing the flow are discretized by integration over control volumes. The integration is performed by application of up-wind differencing in a staggered grid system. The solution procedure is an extension of the SIMPLE-algorithm accounting for compressibility effects.

  15. Large-eddy simulation of turbulent circular jet flows

    Jones, S. C. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sotiropoulos, F. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sale, M. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This report presents a numerical method for carrying out large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent free shear flows and an application of a method to simulate the flow generated by a nozzle discharging into a stagnant reservoir. The objective of the study was to elucidate the complex features of the instantaneous flow field to help interpret the results of recent biological experiments in which live fish were exposed to the jet shear zone. The fish-jet experiments were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems program. The experiments were designed to establish critical thresholds of shear and turbulence-induced loads to guide the development of innovative, fish-friendly hydropower turbine designs.

  16. Using Two-Ribbon Flare Observations and MHD Simulations to Constrain Flare Properties

    Kazachenko, Maria D.; Lynch, Benjamin J.; Welsch, Brian


    Flare ribbons are emission structures that are frequently observed during flares in transition-region and chromospheric radiation. These typically straddle a polarity inversion line (PIL) of the radial magnetic field at the photosphere, and move apart as the flare progresses. The ribbon flux - the amount of unsigned photospheric magnetic flux swept out by flare ribbons - is thought to be related to the amount coronal magnetic reconnection, and hence provides a key diagnostic tool for understanding the physical processes at work in flares and CMEs. Previous measurements of the magnetic flux swept out by flare ribbons required time-consuming co-alignment between magnetograph and intensity data from different instruments, explaining why those studies only analyzed, at most, a few events. The launch of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), both aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), presented a rare opportunity to compile a much larger sample of flare-ribbon events than could readily be assembled before. We created a dataset of 363 events of both flare ribbon positions and fluxes, as a function of time, for all C9.-class and greater flares within 45 degrees of disk center observed by SDO from June 2010 till April 2015. For this purpose, we used vector magnetograms (2D magnetic field maps) from HMI and UV images from AIA. A critical problem with using unprocessed AIA data is the existence of spurious intensities in AIA data associated with strong flare emission, most notably "blooming" (spurious smearing of saturated signal into neighboring pixels, often in streaks). To overcome this difficulty, we have developed an algorithmic procedure that effectively excludes artifacts like blooming. We present our database and compare statistical properties of flare ribbons, e.g. evolutions of ribbon reconnection fluxes, reconnection flux rates and vertical currents with the properties from MHD simulations.

  17. Using random walk models to simulate the vertical distribution of particles in a turbulent water column

    Visser, Andre


    Random walk simulation has the potential to be an extremely powerful tool in the investigation of turbulence in environmental processes. However, care must be taken in applying such simulations to the motion of particles in turbulent marine systems where turbulent diffusivity is commonly spatially...

  18. CFD simulation of vented explosion and turbulent flame propagation

    Tulach Aleš


    Full Text Available Very rapid physical and chemical processes during the explosion require both quality and quantity of detection devices. CFD numerical simulations are suitable instruments for more detailed determination of explosion parameters. The paper deals with mathematical modelling of vented explosion and turbulent flame spread with use of ANSYS Fluent software. The paper is focused on verification of preciseness of calculations comparing calculated data with the results obtained in realised experiments in the explosion chamber.

  19. Applications of weakly compressible model to turbulent flow problem towards adaptive turbulence simulation

    Tsuji, Takuya; Yokomine, Takehiko; Shimizu, Akihiko


    We have been engaged in the development of multi-scale adaptive simulation technique for incompressible turbulent flow. This is designed as that important scale components in the flow field are detected automatically by lifting wavelet and solved selectively. In conventional incompressible scheme, it is very common to solve Poisson equation of pressure to meet the divergence free constraints of incompressible flow. It may be not impossible to solve the Poisson eq. in the adaptive way, but this is very troublesome because it requires generation of control volume at each time step. We gave an eye on weakly compressible model proposed by Bao(2001). This model was derived from zero Mach limit asymptotic analysis of compressible Navier-Stokes eq. and does not need to solve the Poisson eq. at all. But it is relatively new and it requires demonstration study before the combination with the adaptation by wavelet. In present study, 2-D and 3-D Backstep flow were selected as test problems and applicability to turbulent flow is verified in detail. Besides, combination of adaptation by wavelet with weakly compressible model towards the adaptive turbulence simulation is discussed.

  20. Sub-Grid-Scale Description of Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection in Magnetohydrodynamics

    Widmer, Fabien; Yokoi, Nobumitsu


    Magnetic reconnection requires, at least locally, a non-ideal plasma response. In collisionless space and astrophysical plasmas, turbulence could permit this instead of the too rare binary collisions. We investigated the influence of turbulence on the reconnection rate in the framework of a single fluid compressible MHD approach. The goal is to find out, whether unresolved, sub-grid for MHD simulations, turbulence can enhance the reconnection process in high Reynolds number astrophysical plasma. We solve, simultaneously with the grid-scale MHD equations, evolution equations for the sub-grid turbulent energy and cross helicity according to Yokoi's model (Yokoi (2013)) where turbulence is self-generated and -sustained through the inhomogeneities of the mean fields. Simulations of Harris and force free sheets confirm the results of Higashimori et al. (2013) and new results are obtained about the dependence on resistivity for large Reynolds number as well as guide field effects. The amount of energy transferred f...

  1. Stochastic Simulation of Lagrangian Particle Transport in Turbulent Flows

    Sun, Guangyuan

    This dissertation presents the development and validation of the One Dimensional Turbulence (ODT) multiphase model in the Lagrangian reference frame. ODT is a stochastic model that captures the full range of length and time scales and provides statistical information on fine-scale turbulent-particle mixing and transport at low computational cost. The flow evolution is governed by a deterministic solution of the viscous processes and a stochastic representation of advection through stochastic domain mapping processes. The three algorithms for Lagrangian particle transport are presented within the context of the ODT approach. The Type-I and -C models consider the particle-eddy interaction as instantaneous and continuous change of the particle position and velocity, respectively. The Type-IC model combines the features of the Type-I and -C models. The models are applied to the multi-phase flows in the homogeneous decaying turbulence and turbulent round jet. Particle dispersion, dispersion coefficients, and velocity statistics are predicted and compared with experimental data. The models accurately reproduces the experimental data sets and capture particle inertial effects and trajectory crossing effect. A new adjustable particle parameter is introduced into the ODT model, and sensitivity analysis is performed to facilitate parameter estimation and selection. A novel algorithm of the two-way momentum coupling between the particle and carrier phases is developed in the ODT multiphase model. Momentum exchange between the phases is accounted for through particle source terms in the viscous diffusion. The source term is implemented in eddy events through a new kernel transformation and an iterative procedure is required for eddy selection. This model is applied to a particle-laden turbulent jet flow, and simulation results are compared with experimental measurements. The effect of particle addition on the velocities of the gas phase is investigated. The development of

  2. A new framework for simulating forced homogeneous buoyant turbulent flows

    Carroll, Phares L.; Blanquart, Guillaume


    This work proposes a new simulation methodology to study variable density turbulent buoyant flows. The mathematical framework, referred to as homogeneous buoyant turbulence, relies on a triply periodic domain and incorporates numerical forcing methods commonly used in simulation studies of homogeneous, isotropic flows. In order to separate the effects due to buoyancy from those due to large-scale gradients, the linear scalar forcing technique is used to maintain the scalar variance at a constant value. Two sources of kinetic energy production are considered in the momentum equation, namely shear via an isotropic forcing term and buoyancy via the gravity term. The simulation framework is designed such that the four dimensionless parameters of importance in buoyant mixing, namely the Reynolds, Richardson, Atwood, and Schmidt numbers, can be independently varied and controlled. The framework is used to interrogate fully non-buoyant, fully buoyant, and partially buoyant turbulent flows. The results show that the statistics of the scalar fields (mixture fraction and density) are not influenced by the energy production mechanism (shear vs. buoyancy). On the other hand, the velocity field exhibits anisotropy, namely a larger variance in the direction of gravity which is associated with a statistical dependence of the velocity component on the local fluid density.


    M I El Khazen


    Full Text Available In this paper we simulate a turbulent premixed V-shape flame stabilized on a hot wire. The device used is composed of a vertical combustion chamber where the methane-air mixture is convected upwards with a mean velocity of 4ms-1. The flow was simulated running Fluent 6.3, which numerically solved the stationary Favre-averaged mass balance; Navier-Stokes equations; combustion progress variable, and k-ε equations on a two-dimensional numerical mesh. We model gaseous mixture, ignoring Soret and Dufour effects and radiation heat transfer. The progress variable balance equation was closed using Eddy Break Up model. The results of our simulations allow us to analyze the influence of equivalence ratio and the turbulent intensity on the properties of the flame (velocity, fluctuation, progress variable and Thickness of flame.This work gives us an idea on the part which turbulence can play to decrease the risks of extinction and instabilities caused by the lean premixed combustion.

  4. Numerical simulations of turbulent jet ignition and combustion

    Validi, Abdoulahad; Irannejad, Abolfazl; Jaberi, Farhad


    The ignition and combustion of a homogeneous lean hydrogen-air mixture by a turbulent jet flow of hot combustion products injected into a colder gas mixture are studied by a high fidelity numerical model. Turbulent jet ignition can be considered as an efficient method for starting and controlling the reaction in homogeneously charged combustion systems used in advanced internal combustion and gas turbine engines. In this work, we study in details the physics of turbulent jet ignition in a fundamental flow configuration. The flow and combustion are modeled with the hybrid large eddy simulation/filtered mass density function (LES/FMDF) approach, in which the filtered form the compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a high-order finite difference scheme for the turbulent velocity and the FMDF transport equations are solved with a Lagrangian stochastic method to obtain the scalar (temperature and species mass fractions) field. The hydrogen oxidation is described by a detailed reaction mechanism with 37 elementary reactions and 9 species.

  5. RANS Simulation of Turbulent Diffusive Combustion using Open Foam

    Luis Felipe Gutiérrez


    Full Text Available Schemes to write the flow equations in discreet form, solution solvers, pre and post data processing utilitiesprovidedbyOpenFoamlibraries, areusedtobuildafinitevolumeexecutableforsimulatinga low speed, turbulent and rate controlled diffusive CH4-Air combustion. Unsteady Favre’s averaged turbulent conservation equations (total mass, momentum, energy and species mass fractions, are used to describe the combustion gas dynamics, and to handle turbulence a modified k- ε model is applied. Several global kinetic mechanisms, one step, two and four steps have been considered to describe the oxidation process of CH4 in a free jet type flame. The interaction between chemistry and turbulence, is modeled according to the partially stirred reactor (PaSR concept. To improve convergence and accuracy in solving low speed fluid dynamic equations, a pressure implicit with splitting of operators (PISO technique extended to cover high temperature flows, is utilized. The exponential dependence of the chemical kinetics from temperature, makes stiffs the ODE’s needed to determine source average values with which the species conservation equations are solved. To deal with the stiffness issue, OpenFoam provides numerical schemes that guaranties the stability of the computation. Comparisons between results of numerical simulations and experimental data obtained with the benchmark known as flame “D”, are presented.

  6. Roles of initial current carrier in the distribution of field-aligned current in 3-D Hall MHD simulations


    A three-dimensional (3-D) Hall MHD simulation is carried out to study the roles of initial current carrier in the topology of magnetic field, the generation and distribu- tion of field aligned currents (FACs), and the appearance of Alfvén waves. Consid- ering the contribution of ions to the initial current, the topology of the obtained magnetic field turns to be more complex. In some cases, it is found that not only the traditional By quadrupole structure but also a reversal By quadrupole structure appears in the simulation box. This can explain the observational features near the diffusion region, which are inconsistent with the Hall MHD theory with the total ini- tial current carried by electrons. Several other interesting features are also emerged. First, motions of electrons and ions are decoupled from each other in the small plasma region (Hall effect region) with a scale less than or comparable with the ion inertial length or ion skin depth di=c/ωp. In the non-Hall effect region, the global magnetic structure is shifted in +y direction under the influence of ions with initial y directional motion. However, in the Hall effect region, magnetic field lines are bent in ?y direction, mainly controlled by the motion of electrons, then By is generated. Second, FACs emerge as a result of the appearance of By. Compared with the prior Hall MHD simulation results, the generated FACs shift in +y direction, and hence the dawn-dusk symmetry is broken. Third, the Walén relation in our simulations is consistent with the Walén relation in Hall plasma, thus the presence of Alfvén wave is confirmed.

  7. Scaling properties of small-scale fluctuations in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Perez, J C; Boldyrev, S; Cattaneo, F


    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the majority of natural systems, including the interstellar medium, the solar corona, and the solar wind, has Reynolds numbers far exceeding the Reynolds numbers achievable in numerical experiments. Much attention is therefore drawn to the universal scaling properties of small-scale fluctuations, which can be reliably measured in the simulations and then extrapolated to astrophysical scales. However, in contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, where the universal structure of the inertial and dissipation intervals is described by the Kolmogorov self-similarity, the scaling for MHD turbulence cannot be established based solely on dimensional arguments due to the presence of an intrinsic velocity scale -- the Alfven velocity. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the Kolmogorov first self-similarity hypothesis cannot be formulated for MHD turbulence in the same way it is formulated for the hydrodynamic case. Besides profound consequences for the analytical consideration, this...

  8. Turbulent magnetic fields in the quiet Sun: implications of Hinode observations and small-scale dynamo simulations

    Graham, Jonathan Pietarila; Schuessler, Manfred


    Using turbulent MHD simulations (magnetic Reynolds numbers up to 8000) and Hinode observations, we study effects of turbulence on measuring the solar magnetic field outside active regions. Firstly, from synthetic Stokes V profiles for the FeI lines at 630.1 and 630.2 nm, we show that a peaked probability distribution function (PDF) for observationally-derived field estimates is consistent with a monotonic PDF for actual vertical field strengths. Hence, the prevalence of weak fields is greater than would be naively inferred from observations. Secondly, we employ the fractal self-similar geometry of the turbulent solar magnetic field to derive two estimates (numerical and observational) of the true mean vertical unsigned flux density. We also find observational evidence that the scales of magnetic structuring in the photosphere extend at least down to an order of magnitude smaller than 200 km: the self-similar power-law scaling in the signed measure from a Hinode magnetogram ranges (over two decades in length s...

  9. Gyrokinetic δ particle simulation of trapped electron mode driven turbulence

    Lang, Jianying


    Turbulent transport driven by collisionless trapped electron modes (CTEM) is systematically studied using gyrokinetic delta-f particle-in-cell simulation. Scaling with local plasma parameters, including density gradient, electron temperature gradient, magnetic shear, temperature ratio and aspect ratio, is investigated. Simulation results are compared with previous simulations and theoretical predictions. Nonlinearly the transport level increases with increasing magnetic shear. We explain the nonlinear magnetic shear scaling by differences in the radial correlation lengths caused by toroidal coupling. The turbulence is more radially elongated at higher magnetic shear compared with low magnetic shear. We show that the suppression effect of zonal flow on CTEM transport depends on both the electron temperature gradient and the electron to ion temperature ratio. This helps explain the previous contradictory conclusions on the importance of zonal flows in different parameter regimes.ootnotetextT. Dannert, F. Jenko, Phys. Plasmas 12, 072309 (2005); D. Ernst, et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2637 (2004). Zonal flow suppression is consistent with the rate of EXB shearing from the ambient turbulence as well as the radial broadening of the spectra. Strong geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) are generated along with zonal flows and the frequency of the GAMs agrees well with kinetic theory.ootnotetextT. Watari, et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 062504 (2006). We further explore the nonlinear saturation mechanism when the zonal flows are not important. We find that when only a single toroidal mode (and its conjugate) is kept, reasonable nonlinear saturation is obtained. Investigating a range of n, modes with larger mode number n saturate at a higher level relative to lower n modes, indicating a turbulent inverse cascade process.

  10. Turbulent Flow Simulations in Complex Multilouvered Fins

    Tafti, Danesh


    Air-side resistance makes up roughly 80resistance in compact heat exchangers. Multilouvered fins find widespread use in the automotive and HVAC industry for heat transfer augmentation. We will describe the computational methodology for simulating the complex three-dimensional geometry and present results at a Reynolds number of 1100 based on louver pitch and the average flow velocity. The three-dimensionality in the louver geometry occurs along the height of the fin, where the angled louver transitions to the flat landing and joins with the tube surface. The transition region is characterized by a swept leading edge and decreasing flow area between louvers. Results show the formation of spanwise vortices at the leading edge of the angled portion of the louver which convect downstream in the vicinity of the louver surface. Further there is evidence of a separate louver wake instability which interacts with the vortices shed from the leading edge. In the transition region, a high energy streamwise vortex jet is formed. The jet forms in the vicinity of the louver junction with the flat landing and is drawn under the louver in the transition region. The passage of the jet in the vicinity of the louver surface produces a high pressure stagnant zone directly under the jet with a net effect of reducing heat transfer. On the other hand, the top surface of the louver in the transition region experiences high velocities in the vicinity of the surface and exhibits much higher heat transfer coefficients than the bottom surface.

  11. Assessment of ionospheric Joule heating by GUMICS-4 MHD simulation, AMIE, and satellite-based statistics: towards a synthesis

    M. Palmroth


    Full Text Available We investigate the Northern Hemisphere Joule heating from several observational and computational sources with the purpose of calibrating a previously identified functional dependence between solar wind parameters and ionospheric total energy consumption computed from a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD simulation (Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling Simulation, GUMICS-4. In this paper, the calibration focuses on determining the amount and temporal characteristics of Northern Hemisphere Joule heating. Joule heating during a substorm is estimated from global observations, including electric fields provided by Super Dual Auroral Network (SuperDARN and Pedersen conductances given by the ultraviolet (UV and X-ray imagers on board the Polar satellite. Furthermore, Joule heating is assessed from several activity index proxies, large statistical surveys, assimilative data methods (AMIE, and the global MHD simulation GUMICS-4. We show that the temporal and spatial variation of the Joule heating computed from the GUMICS-4 simulation is consistent with observational and statistical methods. However, the different observational methods do not give a consistent estimate for the magnitude of the global Joule heating. We suggest that multiplying the GUMICS-4 total Joule heating by a factor of 10 approximates the observed Joule heating reasonably well. The lesser amount of Joule heating in GUMICS-4 is essentially caused by weaker Region 2 currents and polar cap potentials. We also show by theoretical arguments that multiplying independent measurements of averaged electric fields and Pedersen conductances yields an overestimation of Joule heating.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere; Modeling and forecasting; Electric fields and currents

  12. Assessment of ionospheric Joule heating by GUMICS-4 MHD simulation, AMIE, and satellite-based statistics: towards a synthesis

    Palmroth, M.; Janhunen, P.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Aksnes, A.; Lu, G.; Østgaard, N.; Watermann, J.; Reeves, G. D.; Germany, G. A.


    We investigate the Northern Hemisphere Joule heating from several observational and computational sources with the purpose of calibrating a previously identified functional dependence between solar wind parameters and ionospheric total energy consumption computed from a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation (Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling Simulation, GUMICS-4). In this paper, the calibration focuses on determining the amount and temporal characteristics of Northern Hemisphere Joule heating. Joule heating during a substorm is estimated from global observations, including electric fields provided by Super Dual Auroral Network (SuperDARN) and Pedersen conductances given by the ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray imagers on board the Polar satellite. Furthermore, Joule heating is assessed from several activity index proxies, large statistical surveys, assimilative data methods (AMIE), and the global MHD simulation GUMICS-4. We show that the temporal and spatial variation of the Joule heating computed from the GUMICS-4 simulation is consistent with observational and statistical methods. However, the different observational methods do not give a consistent estimate for the magnitude of the global Joule heating. We suggest that multiplying the GUMICS-4 total Joule heating by a factor of 10 approximates the observed Joule heating reasonably well. The lesser amount of Joule heating in GUMICS-4 is essentially caused by weaker Region 2 currents and polar cap potentials. We also show by theoretical arguments that multiplying independent measurements of averaged electric fields and Pedersen conductances yields an overestimation of Joule heating. Keywords. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere; Modeling and forecasting; Electric fields and currents)

  13. GMC Collisions as Triggers of Star Formation. II. 3D Turbulent, Magnetized Simulations

    Wu, Benjamin; Tan, Jonathan C.; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Van Loo, Sven; Christie, Duncan; Collins, David


    We investigate giant molecular cloud collisions and their ability to induce gravitational instability and thus star formation. This mechanism may be a major driver of star formation activity in galactic disks. We carry out a series of 3D, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), adaptive mesh refinement simulations to study how cloud collisions trigger formation of dense filaments and clumps. Heating and cooling functions are implemented based on photo-dissociation region models that span the atomic-to-molecular transition and can return detailed diagnostic information. The clouds are initialized with supersonic turbulence and a range of magnetic field strengths and orientations. Collisions at various velocities and impact parameters are investigated. Comparing and contrasting colliding and non-colliding cases, we characterize morphologies of dense gas, magnetic field structure, cloud kinematic signatures, and cloud dynamics. We present key observational diagnostics of cloud collisions, especially: relative orientations between magnetic fields and density structures, like filaments; 13CO(J = 2-1), 13CO(J = 3-2), and 12CO(J = 8-7) integrated intensity maps and spectra; and cloud virial parameters. We compare these results to observed Galactic clouds.

  14. Simulation of the inherent turbulence and wake interaction inside an infinitely long row of wind turbines

    Andersen, Søren Juhl; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming


    The turbulence in the interior of awind farmis simulated using large eddy simulation and the actuator line technique implemented in the Navier–Stokes equations. The simulations are carried out for an infinitely long row of turbines simulated by applying cyclic boundary conditions at the inlet...... and outlet. The simulations investigate the turbulence inherent to the wind turbines as no ambient turbulence or shear is added to this idealised case. The simulated data give insight into the performance of thewind turbines operating in thewake of others aswell as details on key turbulent quantities. One...

  15. Numerical simulation of turbulent flow in corrugated pipes

    Azevedo, Henrique S. de; Morales, Rigoberto E.M.; Franco, Admilson T.; Junqueira, Silvio L.M.; Erthal, Raul H. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. Academico de Mecanica (DAMEC)]. E-mails:;;;;; Goncalves, Marcelo de Albuquerque Lima [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)]. E-mail:


    Corrugated pipes are used in various engineering applications such heat exchangers and oil transport. In most cases these pipes consist of periodically distributed grooves at the duct inner wall. Numerical and experimental works reported the influence of grooves height and length in the turbulent flow by inspection of several turbulent properties such as velocity fluctuations and Reynolds stress. The present article aims to investigate the influence of grooves height and length in the global friction factor of turbulent flow through periodically corrugated pipes. Mass and momentum conservation equations are revised and specific boundary conditions are set to characterize a periodic fully developed regime in a single axisymmetric bidimensional module which represents the periodically corrugated duct geometry. The set of algebraic equations is discretized through the Finite Volume Method, with the Hybrid interpolation scheme applied to the convective terms, and solved using the commercial software PHOENICS CFD. The simulation of turbulent, incompressible, isothermal and single-phase flow is considered. The algebraic turbulence model LVEL is used. Four geometric configurations are assumed, including grooves height and length variations, in order to compare their influence on the friction factor. The obtained numerical friction factors show good agreement with previous experimental results, specially for Reynolds numbers over 20000. Numerical results for corrugated pipes compared to the Blasius smooth pipe correlation shows that the friction factor increases compared to smooth pipes, and such increase is more significant for higher Reynolds numbers and for larger grooves as well. These trends appear to be related to an enhancement of the momentum transport over the corrugated wall due to the recirculating pattern inside the grooves, in accordance with previous experimental works (author)

  16. Large Scale Earth’s Bow Shock with Northern IMF as Simulated by PIC Code in Parallel with MHD Model

    Suleiman Baraka


    In this paper, we propose a 3D kinetic model (particle-in-cell, PIC) for the description of the large scale Earth’s bow shock. The proposed version is stable and does not require huge or extensive computer resources. Because PIC simulations work with scaled plasma and field parameters, we also propose to validate our code by comparing its results with the available MHD simulations under same scaled solar wind (SW) and (IMF) conditions. We report new results from the two models. In both codes the Earth’s bow shock position is found to be $\\approx 14.8 R_{{\\rm E}}$ along the Sun–Earth line, and $\\approx 29 R_{{\\rm E}}$ on the dusk side. Those findings are consistent with past in situ observations. Both simulations reproduce the theoretical jump conditions at the shock. However, the PIC code density and temperature distributions are inflated and slightly shifted sunward when compared to the MHD results. Kinetic electron motions and reflected ions upstream may cause this sunward shift. Species distributions in the foreshock region are depicted within the transition of the shock (measured $\\approx$2$c/\\omega_{pi}$ for $ \\Theta_{Bn}=90^{\\circ}$ and $M_{{\\rm MS}} = 4.7 $) and in the downstream. The size of the foot jump in the magnetic field at the shock is measured to be ($1.7 c/ \\omega_{pi} $). In the foreshocked region, the thermal velocity is found equal to 213 km $s^{−1}$ at $15R_{{\\rm E}}$ and is equal to $63 km s^{-1}$ at $12 R_{{\\rm E}}$ (magnetosheath region). Despite the large cell size of the current version of the PIC code, it is powerful to retain macrostructure of planets magnetospheres in very short time, thus it can be used for pedagogical test purposes. It is also likely complementary with MHD to deepen our understanding of the large scale magnetosphere.

  17. Using Coronal Hole Maps to Constrain MHD Models

    Caplan, Ronald M.; Downs, Cooper; Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran


    In this presentation, we explore the use of coronal hole maps (CHMs) as a constraint for thermodynamic MHD models of the solar corona. Using our EUV2CHM software suite (, we construct CHMs from SDO/AIA 193Å and STEREO-A/EUVI 195Å images for multiple Carrington rotations leading up to the August 21st, 2017 total solar eclipse. We then contruct synoptic CHMs from synthetic EUV images generated from global thermodynamic MHD simulations of the corona for each rotation. Comparisons of apparent coronal hole boundaries and estimates of the net open flux are used to benchmark and constrain our MHD model leading up to the eclipse. Specifically, the comparisons are used to find optimal parameterizations of our wave turbulence dissipation (WTD) coronal heating model.

  18. Turbulent Simulations of Divertor Detachment Based On BOUT + + Framework

    Chen, Bin; Xu, Xueqiao; Xia, Tianyang; Ye, Minyou


    China Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor is under conceptual design, acting as a bridge between ITER and DEMO. The detached divertor operation offers great promise for a reduction of heat flux onto divertor target plates for acceptable erosion. Therefore, a density scan is performed via an increase of D2 gas puffing rates in the range of 0 . 0 ~ 5 . 0 ×1023s-1 by using the B2-Eirene/SOLPS 5.0 code package to study the heat flux control and impurity screening property. As the density increases, it shows a gradually change of the divertor operation status, from low-recycling regime to high-recycling regime and finally to detachment. Significant radiation loss inside the confined plasma in the divertor region during detachment leads to strong parallel density and temperature gradients. Based on the SOLPS simulations, BOUT + + simulations will be presented to investigate the stability and turbulent transport under divertor plasma detachment, particularly the strong parallel gradient driven instabilities and enhanced plasma turbulence to spread heat flux over larger surface areas. The correlation between outer mid-plane and divertor turbulence and the related transport will be analyzed. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675075.

  19. Large Eddy Simulations of turbulent flows at supercritical pressure

    Kunik, C.; Otic, I.; Schulenberg, T., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Karlsruhe Inst. of Tech. (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)


    A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method is used to investigate turbulent heat transfer to CO{sub 2} at supercritical pressure for upward flows. At those pressure conditions the fluid undergoes strong variations of fluid properties in a certain temperature range, which can lead to a deterioration of heat transfer (DHT). In this analysis, the LES method is applied on turbulent forced convection conditions to investigate the influence of several subgrid scale models (SGS-model). At first, only velocity profiles of the so-called inflow generator are considered, whereas in the second part temperature profiles of the heated section are investigated in detail. The results are statistically analyzed and compared with DNS data from the literature. (author)

  20. Direct Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Autoigniting Hydrogen Jets

    Asaithambi, Rajapandiyan

    Autoignition is an important phenomenon and a tool in the design of combustion engines. To study autoignition in a canonical form a direct numerical simulation of a turbulent autoigniting hydrogen jet in vitiated coflow conditions at a jet Reynolds number of 10,000 is performed. A detailed chemical mechanism for hydrogen-air combustion and non-unity Lewis numbers for species transport is used. Realistic inlet conditions are prescribed by obtaining the velocity eld from a fully developed turbulent pipe flow simulation. To perform this simulation a scalable modular density based method for direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) of compressible reacting flows is developed. The algorithm performs explicit time advancement of transport variables on structured grids. An iterative semi-implicit time advancement is developed for the chemical source terms to alleviate the chemical stiffness of detailed mechanisms. The algorithm is also extended from a Cartesian grid to a cylindrical coordinate system which introduces a singularity at the pole r = 0 where terms with a factor 1/r can be ill-defined. There are several approaches to eliminate this pole singularity and finite volume methods can bypass this issue by not storing or computing data at the pole. All methods however face a very restrictive time step when using a explicit time advancement scheme in the azimuthal direction (theta) where the cell sizes are of the order DelrDeltheta. We use a conservative finite volume based approach to remove the severe time step restriction imposed by the CFL condition by merging cells in the azimuthal direction. In addition, fluxes in the radial direction are computed with an implicit scheme to allow cells to be clustered along the jet's shear layer. This method is validated and used to perform the large scale turbulent reacting simulation. The resulting flame structure is found to be similar to a turbulent diusion flame but stabilized by autoignition at the

  1. Multi-particle Lagrangian statistics of turbulent dispersion from simulations of isotropic turbulence at Rλ 1100

    Hackl, J. F.; Yeung, P. K.; Sawford, B. L.


    Numerical simulations at up to (4096^3) grid resolution have been conducted on machines with very large processor counts to obtain the statistics of Lagrangian particle pairs and tetrads in turbulent relative dispersion. Richardson-Obukhov scaling for mean-square pair separation adjusted for initial conditions is observed for intermediate initial separations, in support of prior estimates of about 0.6 for Richardson's constant. Simulations at (Rλ 650) have also been conducted for sufficient duration to obtain fully converged exit time statistics for independently moving particles at very large scales. The fact that all particle pairs reach such large scales of separation means the inertial subrange of exit times is also captured accurately. The results show Kolmogorov scaling for positive moments of exit time, but a strong dependence on initial separations for inverse moments. Inertial-range estimates of tetrad shape factors are reinforced by simulations at Taylor-scale Reynolds numbers up to about 1100. Tetrad shape parameters conditioned on cluster size are also examined in order to understand geometric features of turbulent dispersion in more detail.

  2. The role of MHD turbulence in magnetic self-excitation: A study of the Madison Dynamo Experiment

    Nornberg, Mark D.


    Determining the onset conditions for magnetic field growth in magnetohydrodynamics is fundamental to understanding how astrophysical dynamos such as the Earth, the Sun, and the galaxy self-generate magnetic fields. The Madison Dynamo Experiment was constructed to explore the role of turbulence in changing these onset conditions for an impeller-driven flow of liquid sodium. The flow generates intermittent magnetic bursts with the spatial structure predicted from kinematic dynamo theory. A model of the mean flow was constructed from laser Doppler velocimetry measurements of the flow in an identical-scale water experiment. A kinematic eigenvalue code predicted that the flow would generate a predominantly dipolar magnetic field perpendicular to the symmetry axis for sufficiently high impeller speeds. The flow amplifies the magnetic field by stretching field lines. The field lines are then twisted back onto themselves creating a feedback loop for dynamo growth. The same flow was generated in the sodium experiment and was found to amplify an applied magnetic field oriented perpendicular to the drive shaft axis of the experiment. The amplification increased with motor rotation rate as the induced field became more closely aligned with the applied field, though a reduction in the amplitude is attributed to an enhanced resistivity due to turbulent diffusion. The turbulence was characterized by measurements of the velocity and magnetic power spectra. The velocity spectra have a Kolmogorov scaling. The wavenumber at which resistive dissipation range becomes dominant was observed to increase with flow speed indicating that smaller scale magnetic structures were generated. No amplification due to a small-scale dynamo was observed. The intermittent bursts were analyzed using conditional averaging. The growth rate was found to increase linearly with impeller rotation rate resulting in stronger bursts. The average duration decreased so that the bursts continued to satisfy Poisson

  3. MHD simulation of the evolution of the solar corona around August 1st 2010 using the HMI solar magnetic field data

    Hayashi, K.; Hmi Team


    We will report results of the MHD simulation of the solar corona and solar wind using the HMI magnetic field data, especially focusing on a simulated eruption of a coronal streamer that reasonably corresponds to a large-scale coronal eruption event observed on August 1, 2010. The pre-event coronal situation is prepared through the time-relaxation MHD simulation using the synoptic map data of the solar surface magnetic field for a period of the Carrington Rotation 2098. Then, the global magnetic field evolutions from CR 2098 to 2099 are introduced in the simulation by means of a boundary model we recently developed, which enable to trace the sub-Alfvenic MHD responses of the corona numerically. The simulated coronal features include the formation of the two twisted coronal magnetic field structures along the magnetically inversion lines at the lowermost corona (coinciding the two observed filaments at west-north part of the solar disk) and the large-scale outward motions and decay of the closed-field streamer above the two twisted-field regions. Our MHD simulation model did not include the triggering event directly, and our simulations were done in somewhat low resolution in space. However, the reasonable success in reproducing coronal features relating a specific event in a well-known manner (using the synoptic map format data and the MHD simulation model) shows that the new dataset from HMI will be useful for the models, such as the MHD and the potential field models, as the previous dataset by SOHO/MDI.

  4. Turbulence in a Global Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of the Earth's Magnetosphere during Northward and Southward Interplanetary Magnetic Field

    El-Alaoui, M.; Richard, R. L.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Walker, R. J.; Goldstein, M. L.


    We report the results of MHD simulations of Earth's magnetosphere for idealized steady solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. The simulations feature purely northward and southward magnetic fields and were designed to study turbulence in the magnetotail plasma sheet. We found that the power spectral densities (PSDs) for both northward and southward IMF had the characteristics of turbulent flow. In both cases, the PSDs showed the three scale ranges expected from theory: the energy-containing scale, the inertial range, and the dissipative range. The results were generally consistent with in-situ observations and theoretical predictions. While the two cases studied, northward and southward IMF, had some similar characteristics, there were significant differences as well. For southward IMF, localized reconnection was the main energy source for the turbulence. For northward IMF, remnant reconnection contributed to driving the turbulence. Boundary waves may also have contributed. In both cases, the PSD slopes had spatial distributions in the dissipative range that reflected the pattern of resistive dissipation. For southward IMF there was a trend toward steeper slopes in the dissipative range with distance down the tail. For northward IMF there was a marked dusk-dawn asymmetry with steeper slopes on the dusk side of the tail. The inertial scale PSDs had a dusk-dawn symmetry during the northward IMF interval with steeper slopes on the dawn side. This asymmetry was not found in the distribution of inertial range slopes for southward IMF. The inertial range PSD slopes were clustered around values close to the theoretical expectation for both northward and southward IMF. In the dissipative range, however, the slopes were broadly distributed and the median values were significantly different, consistent with a different distribution of resistivity.

  5. Large Scale Earth's Bow Shock with Northern IMF as simulated by PIC code in parallel with MHD model

    Baraka, Suleiman M


    In this paper, we propose a 3D kinetic model (Particle-in-Cell PIC ) for the description of the large scale Earth's bow shock. The proposed version is stable and does not require huge or extensive computer resources. Because PIC simulations work with scaled plasma and field parameters, we also propose to validate our code by comparing its results with the available MHD simulations under same scaled Solar wind ( SW ) and ( IMF ) conditions. We report new results from the two models. In both codes the Earth's bow shock position is found to be ~14.8 RE along the Sun-Earth line, and ~ 29 RE on the dusk side. Those findings are consistent with past in situ observations. Both simulations reproduce the theoretical jump conditions at the shock. However, the PIC code density and temperature distributions are inflated and slightly shifted sunward when compared to the MHD results. Kinetic electron motions and reflected ions upstream may cause this sunward shift. Species distributions in the foreshock region are depicted...

  6. Toward the Theory of Turbulence in Magnetized Plasmas

    Boldyrev, Stanislav [University of Wisconsin - Madison


    The goal of the project was to develop a theory of turbulence in magnetized plasmas at large scales, that is, scales larger than the characteristic plasma microscales (ion gyroscale, ion inertial scale, etc.). Collisions of counter-propagating Alfven packets govern the turbulent cascade of energy toward small scales. It has been established that such an energy cascade is intrinsically anisotropic, in that it predominantly supplies energy to the modes with mostly field-perpendicular wave numbers. The resulting energy spectrum of MHD turbulence, and the structure of the fluctuations were studied both analytically and numerically. A new parallel numerical code was developed for simulating reduced MHD equations driven by an external force. The numerical setting was proposed, where the spectral properties of the force could be varied in order to simulate either strong or weak turbulent regimes. It has been found both analytically and numerically that weak MHD turbulence spontaneously generates a “condensate”, that is, concentration of magnetic and kinetic energy at small k{sub {parallel}}. A related topic that was addressed in the project is turbulent dynamo action, that is, generation of magnetic field in a turbulent flow. We were specifically concentrated on the generation of large-scale magnetic field compared to the scales of the turbulent velocity field. We investigate magnetic field amplification in a turbulent velocity field with nonzero helicity, in the framework of the kinematic Kazantsev-Kraichnan model.

  7. Tsallis statistics as a tool for studying interstellar turbulence

    Esquivel, A


    We used magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of interstellar turbulence to study the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of increments of density, velocity, and magnetic field. We found that the PDFs are well described by a Tsallis distribution, following the same general trends found in solar wind and Electron MHD studies. We found that the PDFs of density are different in subsonic and supersonic turbulence. In order to extend this work to ISM observations we studied maps of column density obtained from 3D MHD simulations. From the column density maps we found the parameters that fit to Tsallis distributions and demonstrated that these parameters vary with the Mach and Alfvenic Mach numbers of turbulence. This opens avenues for using Tsallis distributions to study the dynamical and magnetic states of interstellar gas.

  8. Simulation of inertial fibre orientation in turbulent flow

    Njobuenwu, Derrick O.; Fairweather, Michael


    The spatial and orientational behaviour of fibres within a suspension influences the rheological and mechanical properties of that suspension. An Eulerian-Lagrangian framework to simulate the behaviour of fibres in turbulent flows is presented. The framework is intended for use in simulations of non-spherical particles with high Reynolds numbers, beyond the Stokesian regime, and is a computationally efficient alternative to existing Stokesian models for fibre suspensions in turbulent flow. It is based on modifying available empirical drag correlations for the translation of non-spherical particles to be orientation dependent, accounting for the departure in shape from a sphere. The orientational dynamics of a particle is based on the framework of quaternions, while its rotational dynamics is obtained from the solution of the Euler equation of rotation subject to external torques on the particle. The fluid velocity and turbulence quantities are obtained using a very high-resolution large eddy simulation with dynamic calibration of the sub-grid scale energy containing fluid motions. The simulation matrix consists of four different fibre Stokes numbers (St = 1, 5, 25, and 125) and five different fibre aspect ratios (λ = 1.001, 3, 10, 30, and 50), with results considered at four distances from a channel wall (in the viscous sub-layer, buffer, and fully turbulent regions), which are taken as a measure of the flow velocity gradient, all at a constant fibre to fluid density ratio (ρp/ρ = 760) and shear Reynolds number Reτ = 150. The simulated fibre orientation, concentration, and streakiness confirm previous experimentally observed characteristics of fibre behaviour in turbulence, and that of direct numerical simulations of fibres in Stokesian, or creeping flow, regimes. The fibres exhibit translational motion similar to spheres, where they tend to accumulate in the near-wall (viscous sub-layer and buffer) region and preferentially concentrate in regions of low

  9. Numerical simulation of flare energy build-up and release via Joule dissipation. [solar MHD model

    Wu, S. T.; Bao, J. J.; Wang, J. F.


    A new numerical MHD model is developed to study the evolution of an active region due to photospheric converging motion, which leads to magnetic-energy buildup in the form of electric current. Because this new MHD model has incorporated finite conductivity, the energy conversion occurs from magnetic mode to thermal mode through Joule dissipation. In order to test the causality relationship between the occurrence of flare and photospheric motion, a multiple-pole configuration with neutral point is used. Using these results it is found that in addition to the converging motion, the initial magnetic-field configuration and the redistribution of the magnetic flux at photospheric level enhance the possibility for the development of a flare.

  10. Spectral large-eddy simulations and vortex dynamics in turbulence

    Lesieur, M


    We present a point of view of large-eddy simulations (LES) in Fourier space, where the eddy coefficients are expressed thanks to a two- point spectral closure of isotropic turbulence, the EDQNM theory. Returning to real space, this leads to models of the structure- function family (plain, selective or filtered). These models are applied with success to predict the statistical distributions and coherent-vortex dynamics for a wide variety of turbulent flows. In three-dimensional decaying isotropic turbulence, we confirm the existence of a k/sup 4/ infrared backscatter in the kinetic-energy spectrum, and predict a new k/sup 2/ law for the pressure spectrum in this range. In the mixing layer (temporal or spatial), we show how to manipulate the topology of Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices, from quasi two- dimensionality to helical pairing. The latter vortex organization is found in a backward-facing step just behind the step, and yields big staggered Lambda -vortices which are carried away downstream. In a developed turb...

  11. Direct numerical simulation of turbulence in a bent pipe

    Schlatter, Philipp; Noorani, Azad


    A series of direct numerical simulations of turbulent flow in a bent pipe is presented. The setup employs periodic (cyclic) boundary conditions in the axial direction, leading to a nominally infinitely long pipe. The discretisation is based on the high-order spectral element method, using the code Nek5000. Four different curvatures, defined as the ratio between pipe radius and coil radius, are considered: κ = 0 (straight), 0.01 (mild curvature), 0.1 and 0.3 (strong curvature), at bulk Reynolds numbers of up to 11700 (corresponding to Reτ = 360 in the straight pipe case). The result show the turbulence-reducing effect of the curvature (similar to rotation), leading close to relaminarisation in the inner side; the outer side, however, remains fully turbulent. Prpoer orthogonal decomposition (POD) is used to extract the dominant modes, in an effort to explain low-frequency switching of sides inside the pipe. A number of additional interesting features are explored, which include sub-straight and sub-laminar drag for specific choices of curvature and Reynolds number: In particular the case with sub-laminar drag is investigated further, and our analysis shows the existence of a spanwise wave in the bent pipe, which in fact leads to lower overall pressure drop.

  12. Large eddy simulation of vertical turbulent jets under JONSWAP waves

    Jun Lu; Ling-Ling Wang; Hong-Wu Tang; Hui-Chao Dai


    The effect of random waves on vertical plane turbulent jets is studied numerically and the mechanism behind the interaction of the jet and waves is analyzed. The large eddy simulation method is used and the σ-coordinate system is adopted. Turbulence is modeled by a dynamic coherent eddy model. The σ-coordinate transformation is introduced to map the irregular physical domain with a wavy free surface and an uneven bottom onto a regular computational domain. The fractional step method is used to solve the filtered Navier-Stokes equations. Results presented include the distribution of velocity, the decay law of the mean velocity along the jet axis, self-similar characteristics and volume flux per unit width. In particular, the role of coherent structures on the momentum transfer along the jet centerline and the jet instantaneous characteristics in JONSWAP waves are a special focus of this research. The numerical results obtained are of great theoretical importance in understanding the behavior of turbulent jets in random wave environments.


    Muhammad Abid


    Full Text Available Tarbela dam is one of the largest earth filled dam in the world. The sediments inflow in the Tarbela reservoir has resulted in reduction in water storage capacity. During the recent years, a reasonable increase of sediment particles in the tunnel is observed. This is damaging tunnels, power generating units and is a severe threat to the plant equipment. To the authors knowledge, to-date no comprehensive simulation studies are performed for flooding in the reservoir or turbulent flows in the tunnels. In this paper, turbulent flow using Reynolds Stress Model in Tunnel 3 of the Tarbela Dam is analyzed with and without considering the effect of sediments particle. Results are presented for three different water heads in the reservoir i.e. considering summer, winter and average seasons and for one-way and two-way/full coupling for sediments particle tracking/deposition. The effect of cavitation erosion and damage to the tunnels due to erosion is investigated and results are compared with the experimental erosion results for similar geometries and are found in good agreement. Sediments particulate analysis is also performed for the validation of the samples collected from WAPDA. Moreover, pressure, velocity and erosion rate results are discussed to get complete behavior of the turbulent flow of water in the tunnel.

  14. Numerical simulations of compressively driven interstellar turbulence: I. Isothermal gas

    Schmidt, Wolfram; Hupp, Markus; Kern, Sebastian; Niemeyer, Jens C


    We performed numerical simulations of supersonic isothermal turbulence driven by mostly compressive large-scale forcing, using both a static grid and adaptive mesh refinement with an effective resolution N=768^3. After a transient phase dominated by shocks, turbulence evolves into a steady state with an RMS Mach number about 2.5, in which cloud-like structures of over-dense gas are surrounded by highly rarefied gas. The index of the turbulence energy spectrum function beta = 2.0 in the shock-dominated phase. As the flow approaches statistical equilibrium, the spectrum flattens, with beta = 1.9. For the scaling exponent of the root mean square velocity fluctuation, we obtain gamma = 0.43 from the velocity structure functions of second order. These results are well within the range of observed scaling properties for the velocity dispersion in molecular clouds. Calculating structure functions of order p=1,...,5, we find for all scaling exponents significant deviations from the Kolmogorov-Burgers model proposed b...

  15. Large Eddy Simulations of Turbulent Flow Over a Wavy Wall

    Sundaram, Shivshankar; Avva, Ram


    Turbulent, separated flow over a wavy wall was simulated using CFD-ACE, a general purpose Navier-Stokes code. The code employs finite-volume formulation and body-fitted curvilinear (BFC) grids. The flow channel consists of a flat upper wall at a mean distance, H, from a sinusoidally varying lower wall (amplitude of 0.05H and a wavelength of 1H). The Reynolds number in terms of bulk velocity and H was 6760. Computations used both a coarse grid (40x40x20;4waves) and a fine grid (60x40x40;2 waves). The spanwise extent was 2H. Periodic boundary conditions were enforced in the streamwise and spanwise directions. Both Smagorinsky (with van Driest damping) and Dynamic models were employed. The Dynamic model yielded better overall results. Present separation and reattachment lengths of 0.13 and 0.64 are in excellent agreement with prior DNS and experiment. Pressure, friction velocity over the wavy wall and mean cross-channel profiles were indistinguishable from prior data. A turbulent mixing layer and a growing boundary layer downstream of reattachment were identified using peaks in turbulence intensities. The level and location of these peaks were in good agreement with DNS.

  16. Multifluid magnetohydrodynamic turbulent decay

    Downes, Turlough P


    It is generally believed that turbulence has a significant impact on the dynamics and evolution of molecular clouds and the star formation which occurs within them. Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects are known to influence the nature of this turbulence. We present the results of a suite of 512-cubed resolution simulations of the decay of initially super-Alfvenic and supersonic fully multifluid MHD turbulence. We find that ambipolar diffusion increases the rate of decay of the turbulence while the Hall effect has virtually no impact. The decay of the kinetic energy can be fitted as a power-law in time and the exponent is found to be -1.34 for fully multifluid MHD turbulence. The power spectra of density, velocity and magnetic field are all steepened significantly by the inclusion of non-ideal terms. The dominant reason for this steepening is ambipolar diffusion with the Hall effect again playing a minimal role except at short length scales where it creates extra structure in the magnetic field. Interestingl...

  17. Cosmic Ray transport in turbulent magnetic field

    Yan, Huirong


    Cosmic ray (CR) transport and acceleration is determined by the properties of magnetic turbulence. Recent advances in MHD turbulence call for revisions in the paradigm of cosmic ray transport. We use the models of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that were tested in numerical simulation, in which turbulence is injected at large scale and cascades to to small scales. We shall address the issue of the transport of CRs, both parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. We shall demonstrate compressible fast modes are dominant cosmic ray scatterer from both quasilinear and nonlinear theories. We shall also show that the self-generated wave growth by CRs are constrained by preexisting turbulence and discuss the process in detail in the context of shock acceleration at supernova remnants and their implications. In addition, we shall dwell on the nonlinear growth of kinetic gyroresonance instability of cosmic rays induced by large scale compressible turbulence. This gyroresonance of cosmic rays on turbulence is d...

  18. Observational signatures of numerically simulated MHD waves in small-scale fluxtubes

    Khomenko, E; Felipe, T


    We present some results obtained from the synthesis of Stokes profiles in small-scale flux tubes with propagating MHD waves. To that aim, realistic flux tubes showing internal structure have been excited with 5 min period drivers, allowing non-linear waves to propagate inside the magnetic structure. The observational signatures of these waves in Stokes profiles of several spectral lines that are commonly used in spectropolarimetric measurements are discussed.

  19. Three-dimensional Hall MHD simulation of lunar minimagnetosphere: General characteristics and comparison with Chang'E-2 observations

    Xie, Lianghai; Li, Lei; Zhang, Yiteng; Feng, Yongyong; Wang, Xinyue; Zhang, Aibing; Kong, Linggao


    Lunar minimagnetosphere formed by the interaction between the solar wind and a local crustal field often has a scale size comparable to the ion inertia length, in which the Hall effect is very important. In this paper, the general characteristics of lunar minimagnetosphere are investigated by three-dimensional Hall MHD simulations. It is found that the solar wind ions can penetrate across the magnetopause to reduce the density depletion and cause the merging of the shock and magnetopause, but the electrons are still blocked at the boundary. Besides, asymmetric convection occurs, resulting in the magnetic field piles up on one side while the plasma gathers on the other side. The size of the minimagnetosphere is determined by both the solar zenith angle and the magnetosonic Mach number, while the Hall effect is determined by the ratio of the pressure balance distance to the ion inertia length. When the ratio gets small, the shock may disappear. Finally, we present a global Hall MHD simulation for comparison with the observation from Chang'E-2 satellite on 11 October 2010 and confirm that Chang'E-2 flew across compression regions of two separate minimagnetospheres.

  20. On integrating large eddy simulation and laboratory turbulent flow experiments.

    Grinstein, Fernando F


    Critical issues involved in large eddy simulation (LES) experiments relate to the treatment of unresolved subgrid scale flow features and required initial and boundary condition supergrid scale modelling. The inherently intrusive nature of both LES and laboratory experiments is noted in this context. Flow characterization issues becomes very challenging ones in validation and computational laboratory studies, where potential sources of discrepancies between predictions and measurements need to be clearly evaluated and controlled. A special focus of the discussion is devoted to turbulent initial condition issues.

  1. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of Hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Meyrand, Romain; Galtier, Sébastien


    Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is investigated through three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. We show that the Hall effect induces a spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the turbulent dynamics. The normalized magnetic polarization is introduced to separate the right- (R) and left-handed (L) fluctuations. A classical k(-7/3) spectrum is found at small scales for R magnetic fluctuations which corresponds to the electron MHD prediction. A spectrum compatible with k(-11/3) is obtained at large-scales for the L magnetic fluctuations; we call this regime the ion MHD. These results are explained heuristically by rewriting the Hall MHD equations in a succinct vortex dynamical form. Applications to solar wind turbulence are discussed.

  2. Comparing Numerical Methods for Isothermal Magnetized Supersonic Turbulence

    Kritsuk, Alexei G; Collins, David; Padoan, Paolo; Norman, Michael L; Abel, Tom; Banerjee, Robi; Federrath, Christoph; Flock, Mario; Lee, Dongwook; Li, Pak Shing; Mueller, Wolf-Christian; Teyssier, Romain; Ustyugov, Sergey D; Vogel, Christian; Xu, Hao


    We employ simulations of supersonic super-Alfv\\'enic turbulence decay as a benchmark test problem to assess and compare the performance of nine astrophysical MHD methods actively used to model star formation. The set of nine codes includes: ENZO, FLASH, KT-MHD, LL-MHD, PLUTO, PPML, RAMSES, STAGGER, and ZEUS. We present a comprehensive set of statistical measures designed to quantify the effects of numerical dissipation in these MHD solvers. We compare power spectra for basic fields to determine the effective spectral bandwidth of the methods and rank them based on their relative effective Reynolds numbers. We also compare numerical dissipation for solenoidal and dilatational velocity components to check for possible impacts of the numerics on small-scale density statistics. Finally, we discuss convergence of various characteristics for the turbulence decay test and impacts of various components of numerical schemes on the accuracy of solutions. We show that the best performing codes employ a consistently high...

  3. Detection of the phenomenon of turbulent thermal diffusion in numerical simulations

    Haugen, N E L; Rogachevskii, I; Brandenburg, A


    The phenomenon of turbulent thermal diffusion causing a non-diffusive turbulent flux of particles in the direction of the turbulent heat flux, is found using direct numerical simulations (DNS) in temperature-stratified turbulence. In simulations with and without gravity, a peak in the particle number density is found around the minimum of the mean fluid temperature for small Stokes numbers due to the phenomenon of turbulent thermal diffusion. This implies that this phenomenon causes formation of large-scale inhomogeneities in the spatial distribution of particles. For Stokes numbers larger than unity, this effect decreases with increasing Stokes number.

  4. Aeroelastic large eddy simulations using vortex methods: unfrozen turbulent and sheared inflow

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre; Papadakis, G.; Gaunaa, Mac


    Vortex particles methods are applied to the aeroelastic simulation of a wind turbine in sheared and turbulent inflow. The possibility to perform large-eddy simulations of turbulence with the effect of the shear vorticity is demonstrated for the first time in vortex methods simulations. Most vorte...

  5. Turbulent jumps and shock-structure in shock-turbulence interactions using shock-resolving direct numerical simulations

    Chen, Chang-Hsin; Donzis, Diego


    Substantial efforts have been made to understand the canonical interaction between isotropic turbulence and a normal shock. Evidence from theories, experiments and simulations, however, has shown that the interaction is complex and that the outcome is determined not only by mean flow behavior, as suggested by early theories, but also by characteristics of turbulence fluctuations typically quantified by parameters such as the Reynolds (Rλ) and the turbulent Mach number (Mt). An important, yet unresolved, issue is the accurate determination of departures from Rankine-Hugoniot relations due to turbulent fluctuations upstream of the shock. We present an analytic study, based on the quasi-equilibrium assumption, that yield turbulent jumps that depend not only on the mean flow but also on turbulence characteristics. In particular, the focus will be on thermodynamic jumps. Our analytical results agree well with new shock-resolving simulations at a range of Reynolds and Mach numbers. In the context of these results we also present a comparison of previous theory on the dilatation at the shock with the new DNS data. This is further discussed in the context of the transition from wrinkled to broken regimes and the difficulties associated with identifying a shock for very vigorous turbulence. Support from AFOSR is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Relativistic MHD simulations of collision-induced magnetic dissipation in Poynting-flux-dominated jets/outflows

    Deng, Wei; Zhang, Bing; Li, Shengtai


    We perform 3D relativistic ideal MHD simulations to study the collisions between high-$\\sigma$ (Poynting-flux-dominated) blobs which contain both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components. This is meant to mimic the interactions inside a highly variable Poynting-flux-dominated jet. We discover a significant electromagnetic field (EMF) energy dissipation with an Alfv\\'enic rate with the efficiency around 35\\%. Detailed analyses show that this dissipation is mostly facilitated by the collision-induced magnetic reconnection. Additional resolution and parameter studies show a robust result that the relative EMF energy dissipation efficiency is nearly independent of the numerical resolution or most physical parameters in the relevant parameter range. The reconnection outflows in our simulation can potentially form the multi-orientation relativistic mini-jets as needed for several analytical models. We also find a linear relationship between the $\\sigma$ values before and after the major EMF energy dissipatio...

  7. Four-fluid MHD Simulations of the Plasma and Neutral Gas Environment of Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko Near Perihelio

    Huang, Z.; Toth, G.; Gombosi, T. I.; Jia, X.; Rubin, M.; Hansen, K. C.; Fougere, N.; Bieler, A. M.; Shou, Y.; Altwegg, K.; Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V.


    The neutral and plasma environment is critical in understanding the interaction of comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG), the target of the Rosetta mission, and the solar wind. To serve this need and support the Rosetta mission, we develop a 3-D four fluid model, which is based on BATS-R-US within the SWMF (Space Weather Modeling Framework) that solves the governing multi-fluid MHD equations and the Euler equations for the neutral gas fluid. These equations describe the behavior and interactions of the cometary heavy ions, the solar wind protons, the electrons, and the neutrals. This model incorporates different mass loading processes, including photo and electron impact ionization, charge exchange, dissociative ion-electron recombination, and collisional interactions between different fluids. We simulate the near nucleus plasma and neutral gas environment near perihelion with a realistic shape model of CG and compare our simulation results with Rosetta observations.

  8. MHD simulations of formation and eruption of a magnetic flux rope in an active region with a delta-sunspot

    Yokoyama, Takaaki; Oi, Yoshiaki; Toriumi, Shin


    Active regions holding a delta-sunspot are known to produce the largest class of solar flares. How, where, and when such large flares occur above a delta-sunspot are still under debate. For studying this, 3D MHD simulations of the emergence of a subsurface flux tube at two locations in a simulation box modeling the convection zone to the corona were conducted. We found that a flux rope is formed as a consequence of magnetic reconnection of two bipolar loops and sunspot rotation caused by the twist of the subsurface flux tube. Moreover, the flux rope stops ascending when the initial background is not magnetized, whereas it rises up to the upper boundary when a reconnection favorably oriented pre-existing field is introduced to the initial background.

  9. Mesoscale optical turbulence simulations at Dome C: refinements

    Lascaux, Franck; Hagelin, Susanna


    In a recent paper the authors presented an extended study aiming at simulating the classical meteorological parameters and the optical turbulence at Dome C during the winter with the atmospherical mesoscale model Meso-NH. A statistical analysis has been presented and the conclusions of that paper have been very promising. Wind speed and temperature fields revealed to be very well reconstructed by the Meso-NH model with better performances than what has been achieved with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) global model, especially near the surface. All results revealed to be resolution-dependent and it has been proved that a grid-nesting configuration (3 domains) with a high horizontal resolution (1km) for the innermost domain is necessary to reconstruct all the optical turbulence features with a good correlation to measurements. High resolution simulations provided an averaged surface layer thickness just ~14 m higher than what is estimated by measurements, the seeing in the free at...

  10. Quantum speed-up for turbulent mixing simulation

    Xu, Guanglei; Daley, Andrew; Givi, Peyman; Somma, Rolando


    Quantum computing techniques have the potential in the future to generate revolutionary advances in many types of computation. The necessary hardware is under rapid development, making it an opportune time to identify possible specific applications across a range of fields, and properly identify the potential of this new paradigm of computing. Turbulent mixing simulation is important in a variety of fields, and is typically accomplished by Monte Carlo methods. To reach high precision in estimating parameters often requires vast computational resources. We have developed a quantum algorithm for turbulent mixing simulation that provides a quadratic speed-up over Monte Carlo methods in terms of number of repetitions needed to achieve designated accuracy. Taking the example of binary scalar mixing process described by a coaslescence/dispersion model, we demonstrate the advantages of our quantum algorithm by illustrating comparisons of statistical error scaling to repetition number between Monte Carlo method and quantum algorithm. This is an important starting point to further understand how quantum algorithms can be directly applied in fluid dynamics, and to estimate the timescales on which quantum hardware will have useful applications in this area of science. This work was supported by AFOSR Grant FA9550-12-1-0057.

  11. CFD simulation of bubbly turbulent Tayor-Couette flow☆

    Xi Gao; Bo Kong; R. Dennis Vigil


    Bubbly gas–liquid Taylor–Couette vortex flow has been the subject of several recent investigations both because of interest in bubble-induced drag reduction and because such devices have potential applications to a variety of chemical and biochemical processing problems. In order to quantitatively describe the hydrodynamics of highly turbulent two phase Taylor–Couette flow, a rigorous two-fluid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed and compared with previously published experimental data. This model includes a comprehensive description of the constitutive closure for inter-phase forces and turbulence was simulated using both the k–εand k–ωmodels. In addition, the mechanism by which the dispersed fluid attains a non-uniform radial and axial distribution is analyzed and the relative importance of various interphase forces is discussed. Lastly the model was validated by comparison of simulation predictions with experimental data, and it is shown that the CFD model correctly predicts phase velocity, velocity fluctuation, and gas distribution, and may provide guidance for reactor design and scale-up.

  12. Direct simulations of chemically reacting turbulent mixing layers, part 2

    Metcalfe, Ralph W.; Mcmurtry, Patrick A.; Jou, Wen-Huei; Riley, James J.; Givi, Peyman


    The results of direct numerical simulations of chemically reacting turbulent mixing layers are presented. This is an extension of earlier work to a more detailed study of previous three dimensional simulations of cold reacting flows plus the development, validation, and use of codes to simulate chemically reacting shear layers with heat release. Additional analysis of earlier simulations showed good agreement with self similarity theory and laboratory data. Simulations with a two dimensional code including the effects of heat release showed that the rate of chemical product formation, the thickness of the mixing layer, and the amount of mass entrained into the layer all decrease with increasing rates of heat release. Subsequent three dimensional simulations showed similar behavior, in agreement with laboratory observations. Baroclinic torques and thermal expansion in the mixing layer were found to produce changes in the flame vortex structure that act to diffuse the pairing vortices, resulting in a net reduction in vorticity. Previously unexplained anomalies observed in the mean velocity profiles of reacting jets and mixing layers were shown to result from vorticity generation by baroclinic torques.

  13. Dynamic multiscaling in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Ray, Samriddhi Sankar; Pandit, Rahul


    We present the first study of the multiscaling of time-dependent velocity and magnetic-field structure functions in homogeneous, isotropic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in three dimensions. We generalize the formalism that has been developed for analogous studies of time-dependent structure functions in fluid turbulence to MHD. By carrying out detailed numerical studies of such time-dependent structure functions in a shell model for three-dimensional MHD turbulence, we obtain both equal-time and dynamic scaling exponents.

  14. Dynamic multiscaling in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Ray, Samriddhi Sankar; Sahoo, Ganapati; Pandit, Rahul


    We present a study of the multiscaling of time-dependent velocity and magnetic-field structure functions in homogeneous, isotropic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in three dimensions. We generalize the formalism that has been developed for analogous studies of time-dependent structure functions in fluid turbulence to MHD. By carrying out detailed numerical studies of such time-dependent structure functions in a shell model for three-dimensional MHD turbulence, we obtain both equal-time and dynamic scaling exponents.

  15. Generalized Local Induction Equation, Elliptic Asymptotics, and Simulating Superfluid Turbulence

    Strong, Scott A


    We prove the generalized induction equation and the generalized local induction equation (GLIE), which replaces the commonly used local induction approximation (LIA) to simulate the dynamics of vortex lines and thus superfluid turbulence. We show that the LIA is, without in fact any approximation at all, a general feature of the velocity field induced by any length of a curved vortex filament. Specifically, the LIA states that the velocity field induced by a curved vortex filament is asymmetric in the binormal direction. Up to a potential term, the induced incompressible field is given by the Biot-Savart integral, where we recall that there is a direct analogy between hydrodynamics and magnetostatics. Series approximations to the Biot-Savart integrand indicate a logarithmic divergence of the local field in the binormal direction. While this is qualitatively correct, LIA lacks metrics quantifying its small parameters. Regardless, LIA is used in vortex filament methods simulating the self-induced motion of quan...

  16. Statistical Mechanics of Turbulent Dynamos

    Shebalin, John V.


    Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and magnetic dynamos, which occur in magnetofluids with large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers, will be discussed. When Reynolds numbers are large and energy decays slowly, the distribution of energy with respect to length scale becomes quasi-stationary and MHD turbulence can be described statistically. In the limit of infinite Reynolds numbers, viscosity and resistivity become zero and if these values are used in the MHD equations ab initio, a model system called ideal MHD turbulence results. This model system is typically confined in simple geometries with some form of homogeneous boundary conditions, allowing for velocity and magnetic field to be represented by orthogonal function expansions. One advantage to this is that the coefficients of the expansions form a set of nonlinearly interacting variables whose behavior can be described by equilibrium statistical mechanics, i.e., by a canonical ensemble theory based on the global invariants (energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity) of ideal MHD turbulence. Another advantage is that truncated expansions provide a finite dynamical system whose time evolution can be numerically simulated to test the predictions of the associated statistical mechanics. If ensemble predictions are the same as time averages, then the system is said to be ergodic; if not, the system is nonergodic. Although it had been implicitly assumed in the early days of ideal MHD statistical theory development that these finite dynamical systems were ergodic, numerical simulations provided sufficient evidence that they were, in fact, nonergodic. Specifically, while canonical ensemble theory predicted that expansion coefficients would be (i) zero-mean random variables with (ii) energy that decreased with length scale, it was found that although (ii) was correct, (i) was not and the expected ergodicity was broken. The exact cause of this broken ergodicity was explained, after much

  17. Simulation of inhomogeneous, non-stationary and non-Gaussian turbulent winds

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose


    Turbulence time series are needed for wind turbine load simulation. The multivariate Fourier simulation method often used for this purpose is extended for inhomogeneous and non-stationary processes of general probability distribution. This includes optional conditional simulation matching simulated...... series to field measurements at selected points. A probability model for the application of turbine wind loads is discussed, and finally the technique for non-stationary processes is illustrated by turbulence simulation during a front passage....

  18. Reducing Wind Turbine Load Simulation Uncertainties by Means of a Constrained Gaussian Turbulence Field

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov


    We demonstrate a method for incorporating wind measurements from multiple-point scanning lidars into the turbulence fields serving as input to wind turbine load simulations. The measurement values are included in the analysis by applying constraints to randomly generated turbulence fields. A numerical study shows the application of the constrained turbulence method to load simulations on a 10MW wind turbine model, using two example lidar patterns – a 5-point pattern forming a square with a ce...

  19. Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.


    The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.

  20. Multiscale nature of the dissipation range in solar wind turbulence

    Told, D; TenBarge, J M; Howes, G G; Hammett, G W


    Nonlinear energy transfer and dissipation in Alfv\\'en wave turbulence are analyzed in the first gyrokinetic simulation spanning all scales from the tail of the MHD range to the electron gyroradius scale. For typical solar wind parameters at 1 AU, about 30% of the nonlinear energy transfer close to the electron gyroradius scale is mediated by modes in the tail of the MHD cascade. Collisional dissipation occurs across the entire kinetic range $k_\\perp\\rho_i\\gtrsim 1$. Both mechanisms thus act on multiple coupled scales, which have to be retained for a comprehensive picture of the dissipation range in Alfv\\'enic turbulence.

  1. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent plane Couette flow

    Lee, Moon Joo


    Turbulent plane Couette flow was numerically simulated at a Reynolds number (U(sub w)h/nu) of 6000, where U(sub w) is the relative wall speed and h is half the channel-height. Unlike in Poiseuille flow, where the mean shear rate changes its sign at the centerline, the sign of mean shear rate in plane Couette flow remains the same across the whole channel. This difference is expected to yield several differences between the two flows, especially in the core region. The most significant and dramatic difference observed was the existence of large-scale structures in the core region of the plane Couette flow. The large eddies are extremely long in the flow direction and fill the entire channel (i.e., their vertical extent is 2h). The large-scale structures have the largest contribution from the wavenumber (k(sub x)h,k(sub z)h) = (0, plus or minus 1.5), corresponding to a wavelength lambda(sub z)/h is approximately equal to 4. The secondary motion associated with the k(sub x)h = 0 mode consists of the large-scale vortices. The large eddies contribute about 30 percent of turbulent kinetic energy.

  2. Mathematics of large eddy simulation of turbulent flows

    Berselli, L.C. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Applied Mathematics ' ' U. Dini' ' ; Iliescu, T. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Layton, W.J. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics


    Large eddy simulation (LES) is a method of scientific computation seeking to predict the dynamics of organized structures in turbulent flows by approximating local, spatial averages of the flow. Since its birth in 1970, LES has undergone an explosive development and has matured into a highly-developed computational technology. It uses the tools of turbulence theory and the experience gained from practical computation. This book focuses on the mathematical foundations of LES and its models and provides a connection between the powerful tools of applied mathematics, partial differential equations and LES. Thus, it is concerned with fundamental aspects not treated so deeply in the other books in the field, aspects such as well-posedness of the models, their energy balance and the connection to the Leray theory of weak solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. The authors give a mathematically informed and detailed treatment of an interesting selection of models, focusing on issues connected with understanding and expanding the correctness and universality of LES. This volume offers a useful entry point into the field for PhD students in applied mathematics, computational mathematics and partial differential equations. Non-mathematicians will appreciate it as a reference that introduces them to current tools and advances in the mathematical theory of LES. (orig.)

  3. Nonlinear MHD dynamo operating at equipartition

    Archontis, V.; Dorch, Bertil; Nordlund, Åke


    Context.We present results from non linear MHD dynamo experiments with a three-dimensional steady and smooth flow that drives fast dynamo action in the kinematic regime. In the saturation regime, the system yields strong magnetic fields, which undergo transitions between an energy-equipartition a......Context.We present results from non linear MHD dynamo experiments with a three-dimensional steady and smooth flow that drives fast dynamo action in the kinematic regime. In the saturation regime, the system yields strong magnetic fields, which undergo transitions between an energy......-equipartition and a turbulent state. The generation and evolution of such strong magnetic fields is relevant for the understanding of dynamo action that occurs in stars and other astrophysical objects. Aims.We study the mode of operation of this dynamo, in the linear and non-linear saturation regimes. We also consider...... the effect of varying the magnetic and fluid Reymolds number on the non-linear behaviour of the system. Methods.We perform three-dimensional non-linear MHD simulations and visualization using a high resolution numerical scheme. Results.We find that this dynamo has a high growth rate in the linear regime...

  4. 3D two-fluid simulations of turbulence in LAPD

    Fisher, Dustin M.

    The Large Plasma Device (LAPD) is modeled using a modified version of the 3D Global Braginskii Solver code (GBS) for a nominal Helium plasma. The unbiased low-flow regime is explored in simulations where there is an intrinsic E x B rotation of the plasma. In the simulations this rotation is caused primarily by sheath effects with the Reynolds stress and J x B torque due to a cross-field Pederson conductivity having little effect. Explicit biasing simulations are also explored for the first time where the intrinsic rotation of the plasma is modified through boundary conditions that mimic the biasable limiter used in LAPD. Comparisons to experimental measurements in the unbiased case show strong qualitative agreement with the data, particularly the radial dependence of the density fluctuations, cross-correlation lengths, radial flux dependence outside of the cathode edge, and camera imagery. Kelvin Helmholtz (KH) turbulence at relatively large scales is the dominant driver of cross-field transport in these simulations with smaller-scale drift waves and sheath modes playing a secondary role. Plasma holes and blobs arising from KH vortices are consistent with the scale sizes and overall appearance of those in LAPD camera images. The addition of ion-neutral collisions in the unbiased simulations at previously theorized values reduces the radial particle flux due to a modest stabilizing contribution of the collisions on the KH-modes driving the turbulent transport. In the biased runs the ion-neutral collisions have a much smaller effect due to the modification of the potential from sheath terms. In biasing the plasma to increase the intrinsic rotation, simulations show the emergence of a nonlinearly saturated coherent mode of order m = 6. In addition, the plasma inside of the cathode edge becomes quiescent due to the strong influence of the wall bias in setting up the equilibrium plasma potential. Biasing in the direction opposite to the intrinsic flow reduces the

  5. A uniquely defined entropy stable matrix dissipation operator for high Mach number ideal MHD and compressible Euler simulations

    Winters, Andrew R.; Derigs, Dominik; Gassner, Gregor J.; Walch, Stefanie


    We describe a unique averaging procedure to design an entropy stable dissipation operator for the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and compressible Euler equations. Often in the derivation of an entropy conservative numerical flux function much care is taken in the design and averaging of the entropy conservative numerical flux. We demonstrate in this work that if the discrete dissipation operator is not carefully chosen as well it can have deleterious effects on the numerical approximation. This is particularly true for very strong shocks or high Mach number flows present, for example, in astrophysical simulations. We present the underlying technique of how to construct a unique averaging technique for the discrete dissipation operator. We also demonstrate numerically the increased robustness of the approximation.

  6. Investigation of Force-Freeness of Solar Emerging Magnetic Field via Application of the Virial Theorem to MHD Simulations

    Kang, Jihye


    Force-freeness of a solar magnetic field is a key to reconstructing invisible coronal magnetic structure of an emerging flux region on the Sun where active phenomena such as flares and coronal mass ejections frequently occur. We have performed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations which are adjusted to investigate force-freeness of an emerging magnetic field by using the virial theorem. Our focus is on how the force-free range of an emerging flux region develops and how it depends on the twist of a pre-emerged magnetic field. As an emerging flux region evolves, the upper limit of the force-free range continuously increases while the lower limit is asymptotically reduced to the order of a photospheric pressure scale height above the solar surface. As the twist becomes small the lower limit increases and then seems to be saturated. We also discuss the applicability of the virial theorem to an evolving magnetic structure on the Sun.

  7. Magnetic discontinuities in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and in the solar wind.

    Zhdankin, Vladimir; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Mason, Joanne; Perez, Jean Carlos


    Recent measurements of solar wind turbulence report the presence of intermittent, exponentially distributed angular discontinuities in the magnetic field. In this Letter, we study whether such discontinuities can be produced by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We detect the discontinuities by measuring the fluctuations of the magnetic field direction, Δθ, across fixed spatial increments Δx in direct numerical simulations of MHD turbulence with an imposed uniform guide field B(0). A large region of the probability density function (pdf) for Δθ is found to follow an exponential decay, proportional to exp(-Δθ/θ(*)), with characteristic angle θ(*)≈(14°)(b(rms)/B(0))(0.65) for a broad range of guide-field strengths. We find that discontinuities observed in the solar wind can be reproduced by MHD turbulence with reasonable ratios of b(rms)/B(0). We also observe an excess of small angular discontinuities when Δx becomes small, possibly indicating an increasing statistical significance of dissipation-scale structures. The structure of the pdf in this case closely resembles the two-population pdf seen in the solar wind. We thus propose that strong discontinuities are associated with inertial-range MHD turbulence, while weak discontinuities emerge from dissipation-range turbulence. In addition, we find that the structure functions of the magnetic field direction exhibit anomalous scaling exponents, which indicates the existence of intermittent structures.

  8. Verification of Gyrokinetic Particle of Turbulent Simulation of Device Size Scaling Transport

    LIN Zhihong; S. ETHIER; T. S. HAHM; W. M. TANG


    Verification and historical perspective are presented on the gyrokinetic particle simulations that discovered the device size scaling of turbulent transport and indentified the geometry model as the source of the long-standing disagreement between gyrokinetic particle and continuum simulations.

  9. Turbulence

    Z. Lin; R.E. Waltz


    @@ Turbulent transport driven by plasma pressure gradients [Tangl978] is one of the most important scientific challenges in burning plasma experiments since the balance between turbulent transport and the self-heating by the fusion products (a-particles) determines the performance of a fusion reactor like ITER.

  10. Anisotropic turbulence in weakly stratified rotating magnetoconvection

    Giesecke, A


    Numerical simulations of the 3D MHD-equations that describe rotating magnetoconvection in a Cartesian box have been performed using the code NIRVANA. The characteristics of averaged quantities like the turbulence intensity and the turbulent heat flux that are caused by the combined action of the small-scale fluctuations are computed. The correlation length of the turbulence significantly depends on the strength and orientation of the magnetic field and the anisotropic behavior of the turbulence intensity induced by Coriolis and Lorentz force is considerably more pronounced for faster rotation. The development of isotropic behavior on the small scales -- as it is observed in pure rotating convection -- vanishes even for a weak magnetic field which results in a turbulent flow that is dominated by the vertical component. In the presence of a horizontal magnetic field the vertical turbulent heat flux slightly increases with increasing field strength, so that cooling of the rotating system is facilitated. Horizont...

  11. Simulating radially outward winds within a turbulent gas clump

    Arreaga-Garcia, Guillermo


    By using the particle-based code Gadget2, we follow the evolution of a gas clump, in which a gravitational collapse is initially induced. The particles representing the gas clump have initially a velocity according to a turbulent spectrum built in a Fourier space of 64$^3$ grid elements. In a very early stage of evolution of the clump, a set of gas particles representing the wind, suddenly move outwards from the clump's center. We consider only two kinds of winds, namely: one with spherical symmetry and a second one being a bipolar collimated jet. In order to assess the dynamical change in the clump due to interaction with the winds, we show iso-velocity and iso-density plots for all our simulations.

  12. Simulating Turbulence Using the Astrophysical Discontinuous Galerkin Code TENET

    Bauer, Andreas; Springel, Volker; Chandrashekar, Praveen; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Klingenberg, Christian


    In astrophysics, the two main methods traditionally in use for solving the Euler equations of ideal fluid dynamics are smoothed particle hydrodynamics and finite volume discretization on a stationary mesh. However, the goal to efficiently make use of future exascale machines with their ever higher degree of parallel concurrency motivates the search for more efficient and more accurate techniques for computing hydrodynamics. Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods represent a promising class of methods in this regard, as they can be straightforwardly extended to arbitrarily high order while requiring only small stencils. Especially for applications involving comparatively smooth problems, higher-order approaches promise significant gains in computational speed for reaching a desired target accuracy. Here, we introduce our new astrophysical DG code TENET designed for applications in cosmology, and discuss our first results for 3D simulations of subsonic turbulence. We show that our new DG implementation provides ac...

  13. Direct numerical simulation of turbulence using GPU accelerated supercomputers

    Khajeh-Saeed, Ali; Blair Perot, J.


    Direct numerical simulations of turbulence are optimized for up to 192 graphics processors. The results from two large GPU clusters are compared to the performance of corresponding CPU clusters. A number of important algorithm changes are necessary to access the full computational power of graphics processors and these adaptations are discussed. It is shown that the handling of subdomain communication becomes even more critical when using GPU based supercomputers. The potential for overlap of MPI communication with GPU computation is analyzed and then optimized. Detailed timings reveal that the internal calculations are now so efficient that the operations related to MPI communication are the primary scaling bottleneck at all but the very largest problem sizes that can fit on the hardware. This work gives a glimpse of the CFD performance issues will dominate many hardware platform in the near future.

  14. Magnetic reconnection as an element of turbulence

    S. Servidio


    Full Text Available In this work, recent advances on the study of reconnection in turbulence are reviewed. Using direct numerical simulations of decaying incompressible two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD, it was found that in fully developed turbulence complex processes of reconnection locally occur (Servidio et al., 2009, 2010a. In this complex scenario, reconnection is spontaneous but locally driven by the fields, with the boundary conditions provided by the turbulence. Matching classical turbulence analysis with a generalized Sweet-Parker theory, the statistical features of these multiple-reconnection events have been identified. A discussion on the accuracy of our algorithms is provided, highlighting the necessity of adequate spatial resolution. Applications to the study of solar wind discontinuities are reviewed, comparing simulations to spacecraft observations. New results are shown, studying the time evolution of these local reconnection events. A preliminary study on the comparison between MHD and Hall MHD is reported. Our new approach to the study of reconnection as an element of turbulence has broad applications to space plasmas, shedding a new light on the study of magnetic reconnection in nature.

  15. Non-thermal emission from relativistic MHD simulations of PWNe: from synchrotron to inverse Compton

    Volpi, D; Amato, E; Bucciantini, N


    In this paper we complete the set of diagnostic tools for synchrotron emitting sources presented by Del Zanna et al. (Astron. Astrophys. 453, 621, 2006) with the computation of inverse Compton radiation from the same relativistic particles. Moreover we investigate, for the first time, the gamma-ray emission properties of Pulsar Wind Nebulae in the light of the axisymmetric jet-torus scenario. The method consists in evolving the relativistic MHD equations and the maximum energy of the emitting particles. The particle energy distribution function is split in two components: the radio one connected to a relic population born at the outburst of the supernova and the other associated to the wind population continuously accelerated at the termination shock and emitting up to the gamma-ray band. We consider the general Klein-Nishina cross section and three different photon targets: the nebular synchrotron photons, far-infrared thermal ones and the cosmic microwave background. The overall synchrotron spectrum is fitt...

  16. Numerical Simulation of Entropy Generation with Thermal Radiation on MHD Carreau Nanofluid towards a Shrinking Sheet

    Muhammad Mubashir Bhatti


    Full Text Available In this article, entropy generation with radiation on non-Newtonian Carreau nanofluid towards a shrinking sheet is investigated numerically. The effects of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD are also taken into account. Firstly, the governing flow problem is simplified into ordinary differential equations from partial differential equations with the help of similarity variables. The solution of the resulting nonlinear differential equations is solved numerically with the help of the successive linearization method and Chebyshev spectral collocation method. The influence of all the emerging parameters is discussed with the help of graphs and tables. It is observed that the influence of magnetic field and fluid parameters oppose the flow. It is also analyzed that thermal radiation effects and the Prandtl number show opposite behavior on temperature profile. Furthermore, it is also observed that entropy profile increases for all the physical parameters.

  17. Morphology and dynamics of solar prominences from 3D MHD simulations

    Terradas, J; Luna, M; Oliver, R; Ballester, J L


    In this paper we present a numerical study of the time evolution of solar prominences embedded in sheared magnetic arcades. The prominence is represented by a density enhancement in a background stratified atmosphere and is connected to the photosphere through the magnetic field. By solving the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in three dimensions we study the dynamics for a range of parameters representative of real prominences. Depending on the parameters considered, we find prominences that are suspended above the photosphere, i.e., detached prominences, but also configurations resembling curtain or hedgerow prominences whose material continuously connects to the photosphere. The plasma$-\\beta$ is an important parameter that determines the shape of the structure. In many cases magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instabilities and oscillatory phenomena develop. Fingers and plumes are generated, affecting the whole prominence body and producing vertical structures in an essentially horizontal magnetic fie...

  18. 2D-simulation of stationary MHD flows in the ducts of rectangular cross-section

    Khalzov, Ivan; Ilgisonis, Victor


    The numerical code for a calculation of 2D stationary MHD flows of incompressible conducting viscous fluids (liquid metals) in straight and circular ducts of rectangular cross-section is developed. The flows are driven by the electrical current perpendicular both to the duct axis and to the external magnetic field. The code generalizes the well-known iterative Gauss-Seidel method for the case of systems of elliptic equations. The algorithm developed allows us to carry out the calculations of stationary flows in a wide range of Hartmann (Ha=110^3) and Reynolds (Re=110^6) numbers. The numerical results are presented for the experimental device, which is under construction in Russia.

  19. Scale locality of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Aluie, Hussein; Eyink, Gregory L


    We investigate the scale locality of cascades of conserved invariants at high kinetic and magnetic Reynold's numbers in the "inertial-inductive range" of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, where velocity and magnetic field increments exhibit suitable power-law scaling. We prove that fluxes of total energy and cross helicity-or, equivalently, fluxes of Elsässer energies-are dominated by the contributions of local triads. Flux of magnetic helicity may be dominated by nonlocal triads. The magnetic stretching term may also be dominated by nonlocal triads, but we prove that it can convert energy only between velocity and magnetic modes at comparable scales. We explain the disagreement with numerical studies that have claimed conversion nonlocally between disparate scales. We present supporting data from a 1024{3} simulation of forced MHD turbulence.

  20. Dissipation of Molecular Cloud Turbulence by Magnetohydrodynamic Shockwaves

    Lehmann, Andrew; Wardle, Mark


    The character of star formation is intimately related to the supersonic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent dynamics of the giant molecular clouds in which stars form. A significant amount of the turbulent energy dissipates in low velocity shock waves. These shocks cause molecular line cooling of the compressed and heated gas, and so their radiative signatures probe the nature of the turbulence. In MHD fluids the three distinct families of shocks—fast, intermediate and slow—differ in how they compress and heat the molecular gas, and so observational differences between them may also distinguish driving modes of turbulent regions.Here we use a two-fluid model to compare the characteristics of one-dimensional fast and slow MHD shocks. Fast MHD shocks are magnetically driven, forcing ion species to stream through the neutral gas ahead of the shock front. This magnetic precursor heats the gas sufficiently to create a large, warm transition zone where all the fluid variables only weakly change in the shock front. In contrast, slow MHD shocks are driven by gas pressure where neutral species collide with ion species in a thin hot slab that closely resembles an ordinary gas dynamic shock.We computed observational diagnostics for fast and slow shocks at velocities vs = 2-4 km/s and preshock Hydrogen nuclei densities n(H) = 102-4 cm-3. We followed the abundances of molecules relevant for a simple oxygen chemistry and include cooling by CO, H2 and H2O. Estimates of intensities of CO rotational lines show that high-J lines, above J = 6→5, are more strongly excited in slow MHD shocks. We discuss how these shocks could help interpret recently observed anomalously strong mid- and high-J CO lines emitted by warm gas in the Milky Way and external galaxies, and implications for simulations of MHD turbulence.

  1. Longitudinal and transverse structure functions in high Reynolds-number magneto-hydrodynamic turbulence

    Friedrich, J; Schäfer, T; Grauer, R


    We investigate the scaling behavior of longitudinal and transverse structure functions in homogeneous and isotropic magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence by means of an exact hierarchy of structure function equations as well as by direct numerical simulations of two- and three-dimensional MHD turbulence. In particular, rescaling relations between longitudinal and transverse structure functions are derived and utilized in order to compare different scaling behavior in the inertial range. It is found that there are no substantial differences between longitudinal and transverse structure functions in MHD turbulence. This finding stands in contrast to the case of hydrodynamic turbulence which shows persistent differences even at high Reynolds numbers. We propose a physical picture that is based on an effective reduction of pressure contributions due to local regions of same magnitude and alignment of velocity and magnetic field fluctuations. Finally, our findings underline the importance of the pressure term for ...

  2. Wave optics approach for incoherent imaging simulation through distributed turbulence

    Underwood, Thomas A.; Voelz, David G.


    An approach is presented for numerically simulating incoherent imaging using coherent wave optics propagation methods. The approach employs averaging of irradiance from uncorrelated coherent waves to produce incoherent results. Novel aspects of the method include 1) the exploitation of a spatial windowing feature in the wave optics numerical propagator to limit the angular spread of the light and 2) a simple propagation scaling concept to avoid aliased field components after the focusing element. Classical linear systems theory is commonly used to simulate incoherent imaging when it is possible to incorporate aberrations and/or propagation medium characteristics into an optical transfer function (OTF). However, the technique presented here is useful for investigating situations such as "instantaneous" short-exposure imaging through distributed turbulence and phenomena like anisoplanatism that are not easily modeled with the typical linear systems theory. The relationships between simulation variables such as spatial sampling, source and aperture support, and intermediate focal plane are discussed and the requirement or benefits of choosing these in certain ways are demonstrated.

  3. Turbulence Resolving Flow Simulations of a Francis Turbine in Part Load using Highly Parallel CFD Simulations

    Krappel, Timo; Riedelbauch, Stefan; Jester-Zuerker, Roland; Jung, Alexander; Flurl, Benedikt; Unger, Friedeman; Galpin, Paul


    The operation of Francis turbines in part load conditions causes high fluctuations and dynamic loads in the turbine and especially in the draft tube. At the hub of the runner outlet a rotating vortex rope within a low pressure zone arises and propagates into the draft tube cone. The investigated part load operating point is at about 72% discharge of best efficiency. To reduce the possible influence of boundary conditions on the solution, a flow simulation of a complete Francis turbine is conducted consisting of spiral case, stay and guide vanes, runner and draft tube. As the flow has a strong swirling component for the chosen operating point, it is very challenging to accurately predict the flow and in particular the flow losses in the diffusor. The goal of this study is to reach significantly better numerical prediction of this flow type. This is achieved by an improved resolution of small turbulent structures. Therefore, the Scale Adaptive Simulation SAS-SST turbulence model - a scale resolving turbulence model - is applied and compared to the widely used RANS-SST turbulence model. The largest mesh contains 300 million elements, which achieves LES-like resolution throughout much of the computational domain. The simulations are evaluated in terms of the hydraulic losses in the machine, evaluation of the velocity field, pressure oscillations in the draft tube and visual comparisons of turbulent flow structures. A pre-release version of ANSYS CFX 17.0 is used in this paper, as this CFD solver has a parallel performance up to several thousands of cores for this application which includes a transient rotor-stator interface to support the relative motion between the runner and the stationary portions of the water turbine.

  4. Direct Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer with Spanwise Wall Oscillation

    Weidan Ni


    Full Text Available Direct numerical simulations (DNS of Mach = 2.9 supersonic turbulent boundary layers with spanwise wall oscillation (SWO are conducted to investigate the turbulent heat transport mechanism and its relation with the turbulent momentum transport. The turbulent coherent structures are suppressed by SWO and the drag is reduced. Although the velocity and temperature statistics are disturbed by SWO differently, the turbulence transports of momentum and heat are simultaneously suppressed. The Reynolds analogy and the strong Reynolds analogy are also preserved in all the controlled flows, proving the consistent mechanisms of momentum transport and heat transport in the turbulent boundary layer with SWO. Despite the extra dissipation and heat induced by SWO, a net wall heat flux reduction can be achieved with the proper selected SWO parameters. The consistent mechanism of momentum and heat transports supports the application of turbulent drag reduction technologies to wall heat flux controls in high-speed vehicles.

  5. Plasmoid Instabilities Mediated Three-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulent Reconnection

    Huang, Yi-min [Princeton University; Guo, Fan [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    After some introductory remarks on fast reconnection in resistive MHD due to plasmoid instability, oblique tearing modes in 3D, and previous studies on 3D turbulent reconnection, the subject is presented under the following topics: 3D simulation setup, time evolution of the 3D simulation, comparison with Sweet-Parker and 2D plasmoid reconnection, and diagnostics of the turbulent state (decomposition of mean fields and fluctuations, power spectra of energy fluctuations, structure function and eddy anisotropy with respect to local magnetic field). Three primary conclusions were reached: (1) The results suggest that 3D plasmoid instabilities can lead to self-generated turbulent reconnection (evidence of energy cascade and development of inertial range, energy fluctuations preferentially align with the local magnetic field, which is one of the characteristics of MHD turbulence); (2) The turbulence is highly inhomogeneous, due to the presence of magnetic shear and outflow jets (conventional MHD turbulence theories or phenomenologies may not be applicable – e.g. scale-dependent anisotropy as predicted by Goldreich & Sridhar is not found); (3) 3D turbulent reconnection is different from 2D plasmoid-dominated reconnection in many aspects. However, in fully developed state, reconnection rates in 2D and 3D are comparable — this result needs to be further checked in higher S.

  6. Polar Cap Potential Saturation during the Bastille Day Storm using Next Generation Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Global MHD Simulation

    Kubota, Y.; Nagatsuma, T.; Den, M.; Tanaka, T.; Fujita, S.


    We are developing a real-time numerical simulator for the solar-wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system using next generation magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling global MHD simulation called REPPU (REProduce Plasma Universe) code. The feature of simulation has an advanced robustness to strong solar wind case because a triangular grid is used, which is able to calculate in the uniform accuracy over the whole region. Therefore we can simulate extreme event such as the Bastille day storm. The resolution is 7682 grids in the horizontal direction and 240 grids in the radial direction. The inner boundary of the simulation box is set at 2.6 Re. We investigate the reproduction of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling simulation in strong solar wind case. Therefore we compared the simulation results with the observation of the Bastille day storm event (2000/7/15), in which the solar wind velocity is above 1000 km/s and the value of Bz reached -60 nT. Especially, we focus the cross polar cap potential (CPCP) saturation and time variation because the CPCP represents the value of magnetospheric - ionospheric convection strength via region 1 current. The CPCP depends on solar wind electric field, dynamic pressure and ionospheric conductivity [Siscoe et al., 2002; Kivelson et al., 2008]. The model of Kivelson et al. [2008] shows a good reproduction to the CPCP variation. However their study assumes that the ionospheric conductivity is constant. The conductivity in our simulation of the Bastille day event is varied by the auroral activity. In this lecture, we discuss the effect of both the auroral conductance and solar EUV-driven conductance to CPCP saturation.

  7. Numerical simulation of the vertical migration of Microcystis (cyanobacteria colonies based on turbulence drag

    Hongru Zhao


    Full Text Available The vertical migration and accumulation of Microcystis is an important process in water blooms, and colony migration is influenced by colony size and wind-wave disturbance. The vertical migration of Microcystis colonies in turbulence can be simulated in a numerical model. In this study, we model such migration by coupling the colony size and hydrodynamics, including the gravity, colony buoyancy, and the viscous drag force of turbulence. The turbulence intensity was represented by the turbulent kinetic energy (KZ; the larger the KZ, the stronger the wind-wave disturbance. The simulated vertical distribution of Microcystis well agreed with the measured values in a laboratory experiment indicating that our model can simulate the vertical distribution of Microcystis under different hydrodynamic conditions. We also found a size-dependent critical turbulent kinetic energy (TKZ, such that if the turbulent kinetic energy of water exceeds the critical value (i.e., KZ > TKZ, the colonies sink under the drag forces of turbulence; conversely, if KZ < TKZ, the colonies can overcome the turbulent mixing and float. The TKZ of each colony was linearly related to colony diameter. The model is crucial for prediction and prevention of water blooms. The simulated threshold turbulent kinetic energy, at which water blooms disappear in Lake Taihu (a large freshwater lake in the Yangtze Delta, Jiangsu Province, China, was 55.5 cm2 s−2. 

  8. Direct numerical simulation of stationary lean premixed methane-air flames under intense turbulence

    Sankaran, Ramanan [ORNL; Hawkes, Evatt R [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Yoo, Chun S [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Chen, Jacqueline H [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Lu, Tianfeng [Princeton University; Law, Chung K [Princeton University


    Direct numerical simulation of a three-dimensional spatially- developing turbulent Bunsen flame has been performed at three different turbulence intensities. The simulations are performed using a reduced methane-air chemical mechanism which is specifically tailored for the lean premixed conditions simulated here. A planar-jet turbulent Bunsen flame configuration is used in which turbulent preheated methane-air mixture at 0.7 equivalence ratio issues through a central jet and is surrounded by a hot laminar coflow of burned products. The turbulence characteristics at the jet inflow are selected such that combustion occurs in the thin reaction zones (TRZ) regime. At the lowest turbulence intensity the conditions fall on the boundary between the TRZ regime and the corrugated flamelet regime. At the highest turbulence intensity the conditions correspond to the boundary between the TRZ regime and the broken reaction zones regime. The data from the three simulations is analyzed to understand the effect of turbulent stirring on the flame structure and thickness. Statistical analysis of the data shows that the thermal preheat layer of the flame is thickened due to the action of turbulence, but the reaction zone is not significantly affected.


    Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Goldstein, Melvyn L., E-mail: [Code 672, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    We have developed a four-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium. The unique features of the model are: (a) a three-fluid description for the charged components of the solar wind and interstellar plasmas (thermal protons, electrons, and pickup protons), (b) the built-in turbulence transport equations based on Reynolds decomposition and coupled with the mean-flow Reynolds-averaged equations, and (c) a solar corona/solar wind model that supplies inner boundary conditions at 40 au by computing solar wind and magnetic field parameters outward from the coronal base. The three charged species are described by separate energy equations and are assumed to move with the same velocity. The fourth fluid in the model is the interstellar hydrogen which is treated by separate continuity, momentum, and energy equations and is coupled with the charged components through photoionization and charge exchange. We evaluate the effects of turbulence transport and pickup protons on the global heliospheric structure and compute the distribution of plasma, magnetic field, and turbulence parameters throughout the heliosphere for representative solar minimum and maximum conditions. We compare our results with Voyager 1 observations in the outer heliosheath and show that the relative amplitude of magnetic fluctuations just outside the heliopause is in close agreement with the value inferred from Voyager 1 measurements by Burlaga et al. The simulated profiles of magnetic field parameters in the outer heliosheath are in qualitative agreement with the Voyager 1 observations and with the analytical model of magnetic field draping around the heliopause of Isenberg et al.

  10. Influence of turbulence on the wake of a marine current turbine simulator.

    Blackmore, T; Batten, W M J; Bahaj, A S


    Marine current turbine commercial prototypes have now been deployed and arrays of multiple turbines under design. The tidal flows in which they operate are highly turbulent, but the characteristics of the inflow turbulence have not being considered in present design methods. This work considers the effects of inflow turbulence on the wake behind an actuator disc representation of a marine current turbine. Different turbulence intensities and integral length scales were generated in a large eddy simulation using a gridInlet, which produces turbulence from a grid pattern on the inlet boundary. The results highlight the significance of turbulence on the wake profile, with a different flow regime occurring for the zero turbulence case. Increasing the turbulence intensity reduced the velocity deficit and shifted the maximum deficit closer to the turbine. Increasing the integral length scale increased the velocity deficit close to the turbine due to an increased production of turbulent energy. However, the wake recovery was increased due to the higher rate of turbulent mixing causing the wake to expand. The implication of this work is that marine current turbine arrays could be further optimized, increasing the energy yield of the array when the site-specific turbulence characteristics are considered.

  11. A Gas-Kinetic Scheme For The Simulation Of Compressible Turbulent Flows

    Righi, Marcello


    A gas-kinetic scheme for the continuum regime is applied to the simulation of turbu- lent compressible flow, by replacing the molecular relaxation time with a turbulent relaxation time in the BGK model. The turbulence dynamics is modelled on the basis of a standard, linear two-equation turbulence model. The hydrodynamic limit of the resulting turbulence model is linear in smooth flow and non-linear in the presence of stronger flow gradients. The non-linear correction terms in the numerical flux are weighed as a function of "rarefaction" - referred to turbulence dynamics and not to molecular dynamics, i.e. measured by the ratio of turbulence to mean flow scales of motion. Even though no assumptions on the nature of the turbulence have been made and a linear two-equation turbulence model is used, the turbulence gas-kinetic scheme seems able to correct the turbulent stress tensor in an effective way; on the basis of a number of turbulence modelling benchmark flow cases, characterized by strong shock - boundary l...

  12. Phase space structures in gyrokinetic simulations of fusion plasma turbulence

    Ghendrih, Philippe; Norscini, Claudia; Cartier-Michaud, Thomas; Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem; Abiteboul, Jérémie; Dong, Yue; Garbet, Xavier; Gürcan, Ozgür; Hennequin, Pascale; Grandgirard, Virginie; Latu, Guillaume; Morel, Pierre; Sarazin, Yanick; Storelli, Alexandre; Vermare, Laure


    Gyrokinetic simulations of fusion plasmas give extensive information in 5D on turbulence and transport. This paper highlights a few of these challenging physics in global, flux driven simulations using experimental inputs from Tore Supra shot TS45511. The electrostatic gyrokinetic code GYSELA is used for these simulations. The 3D structure of avalanches indicates that these structures propagate radially at localised toroidal angles and then expand along the field line at sound speed to form the filaments. Analysing the poloidal mode structure of the potential fluctuations (at a given toroidal location), one finds that the low modes m = 0 and m = 1 exhibit a global structure; the magnitude of the m = 0 mode is much larger than that of the m = 1 mode. The shear layers of the corrugation structures are thus found to be dominated by the m = 0 contribution, that are comparable to that of the zonal flows. This global mode seems to localise the m = 2 mode but has little effect on the localisation of the higher mode numbers. However when analysing the pulsation of the latter modes one finds that all modes exhibit a similar phase velocity, comparable to the local zonal flow velocity. The consequent dispersion like relation between the modes pulsation and the mode numbers provides a means to measure the zonal flow. Temperature fluctuations and the turbulent heat flux are localised between the corrugation structures. Temperature fluctuations are found to exhibit two scales, small fluctuations that are localised by the corrugation shear layers, and appear to bounce back and forth radially, and large fluctuations, also readily observed on the flux, which are associated to the disruption of the corrugations. The radial ballistic velocity of both avalanche events if of the order of 0.5ρ∗c0 where ρ∗ = ρ0/a, a being the tokamak minor radius and ρ0 being the characteristic Larmor radius, ρ0 = c0/Ω0. c0 is the reference ion thermal velocity and Ω0 = qiB0/mi the reference

  13. Simulation of spatially evolving turbulence and the applicability of Taylor's hypothesis in compressible flow

    Lee, Sangsan; Lele, Sanjiva K.; Moin, Parviz


    For the numerical simulation of inhomogeneous turbulent flows, a method is developed for generating stochastic inflow boundary conditions with a prescribed power spectrum. Turbulence statistics from spatial simulations using this method with a low fluctuation Mach number are in excellent agreement with the experimental data, which validates the procedure. Turbulence statistics from spatial simulations are also compared to those from temporal simulations using Taylor's hypothesis. Statistics such as turbulence intensity, vorticity, and velocity derivative skewness compare favorably with the temporal simulation. However, the statistics of dilatation show a significant departure from those obtained in the temporal simulation. To directly check the applicability of Taylor's hypothesis, space-time correlations of fluctuations in velocity, vorticity, and dilatation are investigated. Convection velocities based on vorticity and velocity fluctuations are computed as functions of the spatial and temporal separations. The profile of the space-time correlation of dilatation fluctuations is explained via a wave propagation model.

  14. Numerical simulation of flow around square cylinder using different low-Reynolds number turbulence models

    ZHANG Ling; ZHOU Jun-li; CHEN Xiao-chun; LAN Li; ZHANG Nan


    ABE-KONDOH-NAGANO, ABID, YANG-SHIH and LAUNDER-SHARMA low-Reynolds number turbulence models were applied to simulating unsteady turbulence flow around a square cylinder in different phases flow field and time-averaged unsteady flow field. Meanwhile, drag and lift coefficients of the four different low-Reynolds number turbulence models were analyzed. The simulated results of YANG-SHIH model are close to the large eddy simulation results and experimental results, and they are significantly better than those of ABE-KONDOH-NAGANO, ABID and LAUNDER-SHARMR models. The modification of the generation of turbulence kinetic energy is the key factor to a successful simulation for YANG-SHIH model, while the correction of the turbulence near the wall has minor influence on the simulation results. For ABE-KONDOH-NAGANO, ABID and LAUNDER-SHARMA models satisfactory simulation results cannot be obtained due to lack of the modification of the generation of turbulence kinetic energy. With the joint force of wall function and the turbulence models with the adoption of corrected swirl stream,flow around a square cylinder can be fully simulated with less grids by the near-wall.

  15. Test-particle simulations in increasingly strong turbulence

    Pontius, D. H., Jr.; Gray, P. C.; Matthaeus, W. H.


    Quasi-linear theory supposes that the energy in resonant fluctuations is small compared to that in the mean magnetic field. This is evident in the fact that the zeroth-order particle trajectories are helices about a mean field B(sub o) that is spatially uniform over many correlation lengths. However, in the solar wind it is often the case that the fluctuating part of the field is comparable in magnitude to the mean part. It is generally expected that quasi-linear theory remains viable for particles that are in resonance with a region of the fluctuation spectrum having only small energy density, but even so, care must be taken when comparing simulations to theoretical predictions. We have performed a series of test-particle simulations to explore the evolution of ion distributions in turbulent situations with varying levels of magnetic fluctuations. As delta-B/B(sub o) is increased the distinctions among absolute pitch angle (defined relative to B(sub o)), local pitch angle (defined relative to B(x)), and magnetic moment become important, some of them exhibiting periodic sloshing unrelated to the nonadiabatic processes of interest. Comparing and contrasting the various runs illustrates the phenomena that must be considered when the premise underlying quasi-linear theory are relaxed.

  16. Simulation of plasma turbulence in scrape-off layer conditions: the GBS code, simulation results and code validation

    Ricci, P.; Halpern, F. D.; Jolliet, S.; Loizu, J.; Mosetto, A.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Theiler, C.


    Based on the drift-reduced Braginskii equations, the Global Braginskii Solver, GBS, is able to model the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma turbulence in terms of the interplay between the plasma outflow from the tokamak core, the turbulent transport, and the losses at the vessel. Model equations, the GBS numerical algorithm, and GBS simulation results are described. GBS has been first developed to model turbulence in basic plasma physics devices, such as linear and simple magnetized toroidal devices, which contain some of the main elements of SOL turbulence in a simplified setting. In this paper we summarize the findings obtained from the simulation carried out in these configurations and we report the first simulations of SOL turbulence. We also discuss the validation project that has been carried out together with the GBS development.

  17. Comparison of helioseismic cut-off frequency formulations by the means of MHD simulation results

    Bourdin, Philippe-A.; Thaler, Irina; Roth, Markus


    The discussion of helioseismic wave phenomena requires a self-consistent description of the plasma pressure. Magnetically active regions on the Sun are observed to have distinct wave phenomena as compared to quiet regions. With better helioseismologic diagnostics near active regions one may also better understand not only the chromospheric energy budget, but also halo formation and running penumbral waves. The line formation height (with respect to the beta=1 level) and the magnetic field inclination near the solar surface are in the same time difficult to measure and important to correctly interpret observations. With the help of a large-scale 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model, that features an active region as bottom boundary and has shown good agreement to various observations, we may compute values for theoretically derived formulations of cut-off frequencies from the model plasma parameters. Our results show strongly varying vertical atmospheric profiles and we give estimates of their influence on the expected cut-off frequencies.

  18. The Effects of Differential Rotation on the Magnetic Structure of the Solar Corona: MHD Simulations

    Lionello, Roberto; Riley, Pete; Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran


    Coronal holes are magnetically open regions from which the solar wind streams. Magnetic reconnection has been invoked to reconcile the apparently rigid rotation of coronal holes with the differential rotation of magnetic flux in the photosphere. This mechanism might also be relevant to the formation of the slow solar wind, the properties of which seem to indicate an origin from the opening of closed magnetic field lines. We have developed a global MHD model to study the effect of differential rotation on the coronal magnetic field. Starting from a magnetic flux distribution similar to that of Wang et al., which consists of a bipolar magnetic region added to a background dipole field, we applied differential rotation over a period of 5 solar rotations. The evolution of the magnetic field and of the boundaries of coronal holes are in substantial agreement with the findings of Wang et al.. We identified examples of interchange reconnection and other changes of topology of the magnetic field. Possible consequences for the origin of the slow solar wind are also discussed.

  19. High Resolution Simulation of Turbulent Flow in a Channel.


    chosen to maintain the original Poiseuille flow . The introduction of highly unstable disturbances causes transition to turbulence so that the wall...for Turbulent Channel Flow ," Phys. Rev. Lett, Vol. 47, 832-835 (1981). 2. S.A. Orszag and L.C. Kells, "Transition to turbulence in plane Poiseuille and...plane Couette Flow ," J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 96, pp. 159-205. 3. Kreplin, H.-P. and Eckelmann, H., "Behavior of the Three Fluctucting Velocity

  20. Numerical simulation of turbulent flow in helically coiled open-channels with compound cross-sections

    SHAO; Xuejun; WANG; Hong; CHEN; Zhi


    Turbulence structure in a helically coiled open channel flow is numerically simulated using three different turbulence models--the Launder and Ying model, the Naot and Rodi model, and the nonlinear k-ε Model (SY model). Simulation results were compared with observation of (i) turbulent flows in alternating point-bar type channel bends with rectangular sections, and (ii) straight open channel flows with compound cross-sections. Based on calculations of the impact of various channel curvatures on turbulence characteristics, accuracy of the three turbulence models was analyzed with observed data as a qualitative reference. It has been found out that the Launder and Ying model and the nonlinear k-ε Model are able to predict the same general trend as measured data, and the simulation of the effect of the centrifugal force on the formation of secondary currents produces a correct pattern.

  1. A global MHD simulation study of the vortices at the magnetosphere boundary under the southward IMF condition

    Park, K.; Ogino, T.; Lee, D.; Walker, R. J.; Kim, K.


    One of the significant problems in magnetospheric physics concerns the nature and properties of the processes which occur at the magnetopause boundary; in particular how energy, momentum, and plasma the magnetosphere receives from the solar wind. Basic processes are magnetic reconnection [Dungey, 1961] and viscouslike interaction, such as Kelvin-Helmholtz instability [Dungey 1955, Miura, 1984] and pressure-pulse driven [Sibeck et al. 1989]. In generally, magnetic reconnection occurs efficiently when the IMF is southward and the rate is largest where the magnetosheath magnetic field is antiparallel to the geomagnetic field. [Sonnerup, 1974; Crooker, 1979; Luhmann et al., 1984; Park et al., 2006, 2009]. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is driven by the velocity shear at the boundary, which occur frequently when the IMF is northward. Also variation of the magnetic field and the plasma properties is reported to be quasi-periodic with 2-3min [Otto and Fairfield, 2000] and period of vortex train with 3 to 4 minutes by global MHD simulation [Ogino, 2011]. The pressure-pulse is driven by the solar wind. And the observations of the magnetospheric magnetic field response show quasi-periodic with a period of 8 minutes [Sibeck et al., 1989; Kivelson and Chen, 1995]. There have been few studies of the vortices in the magnetospheric boundary under southward IMF condition. However it is not easy to find the generation mechanism and characteristic for vortices in complicated 3-dimensional space. Thus we have performed global MHD simulation for the steady solar wind and southward IMF conditions. From the simulation results, we find that the vortex occurs at R= 11.7Re (IMF Bz = -2 nT) and R= 10.2Re (IMF Bz = -10 nT) in the dayside magnetopause boundary. Also the vortex rotates counterclockwise in duskside magnetopause (clockwise in dawnside) and propagates tailward. Across the vortex, magnetic field and plasma properties clearly show quasi-periodic fluctuations with a period of 8

  2. Reducing Wind Turbine Load Simulation Uncertainties by Means of a Constrained Gaussian Turbulence Field

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov


    We demonstrate a method for incorporating wind measurements from multiple-point scanning lidars into the turbulence fields serving as input to wind turbine load simulations. The measurement values are included in the analysis by applying constraints to randomly generated turbulence fields...

  3. Simulation of Helical Flow Hydrodynamics in Meanders and Advection-Turbulent Diffusion Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    Gusti, T. P.; Hertanti, D. R.; Bahsan, E.; Soeryantono, H.


    Particle-based numerical methods, such as Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), may be able to simulate some hydrodynamic and morphodynamic behaviors better than grid-based numerical methods. This study simulates hydrodynamics in meanders and advection and turbulent diffusion in straight river channels using Microsoft Excel and Visual Basic. The simulators generate three-dimensional data for hydrodynamics and one-dimensional data for advection-turbulent diffusion. Fluid at rest, sloshing, and helical flow are simulated in the river meanders. Spill loading and step loading are done to simulate concentration patterns associated with advection-turbulent diffusion. Results indicate that helical flow is formed due to disturbance in morphology and particle velocity in the stream and the number of particles does not have a significant effect on the pattern of advection-turbulent diffusion concentration.

  4. Comparison of two turbulent models in simulating evaporating liquid film in a wiped molecular distillator

    XIANG Aishuang; XU Songlin


    Velocity field of evaporating liquid film in a wiped molecular distillator was simulated with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, and two turbulent models treating near-wall flow were compared. Differences between wiped and other molecular distillations were introduced to explain why turbulent model should be used in this simulation. Three assumptions were made in order to simplify simulating processes. In rotating coordinate system, fixed other settings, the above two turbulent models were used, and the volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase model was also applied to tracking the liquid-gas surface. Both of the simulating results are basically identical with real situation and were compared in several aspects. It was concluded that both of the turbulent models are suitable in this simulation.

  5. Setting up a liquid crystal phase screen to simulate atmospheric turbulence

    Giles, Michael K.; Seward, Anthony J.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Rha, Jungtae; Jimenez, Ray


    Phase screens are often used to simulate atmospheric turbulence in systems designed to test adaptive optics techniques. This paper presents the design and implementation of a dynamic phase screen using a simple and inexpensive twisted nematic liquid crystal display taken from a video projector and placed in a pupil plane. The details of the optical system layout, the system alignment procedure, and the operating parameters of the liquid crystal display are discussed. Examples of turbulence (having strength and statistics similar to measured values of atmospheric turbulence in a variety of scenarios) are written to the phase screen, and the effects of the turbulence on image quality are measured and presented.

  6. Temporal intermittency of energy dissipation in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Zhdankin, Vladimir; Uzdensky, Dmitri A; Boldyrev, Stanislav


    Energy dissipation in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is known to be highly intermittent in space, being concentrated in sheetlike coherent structures. Much less is known about intermittency in time, another fundamental aspect of turbulence which has great importance for observations of solar flares and other space or astrophysical phenomena. In this Letter, we investigate the temporal intermittency of energy dissipation in numerical simulations of MHD turbulence. We consider four-dimensional spatiotemporal structures, "flare events," responsible for a large fraction of the energy dissipation. We find that although the flare events are often highly complex, they exhibit robust power-law distributions and scaling relations. We find that the probability distribution of dissipated energy has a power-law index close to α≈1.75, similar to observations of solar flares, indicating that intense dissipative events dominate the heating of the system. We also discuss the temporal asymmetry of flare events as a signature of the turbulent cascade.

  7. Non Axi-symmetric Anisotropy of Solar Wind Turbulence

    Turner, A J; Chapman, S C; Hnat, B; Mueller, W -C


    A key prediction of turbulence theories is frame-invariance, and in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, axisymmetry of fluctuations with respect to the background magnetic field. Paradoxically the power in fluctuations in the turbulent solar wind are observed to be ordered with respect to the bulk macroscopic flow as well as the background magnetic field. Here, non- axisymmetry across the inertial and dissipation ranges is quantified using in-situ observations from Cluster. The observed inertial range non- axisymmetry is reproduced by a 'fly through' sampling of a Direct Numerical Simulation of MHD turbulence. Furthermore, 'fly through' sampling of a linear superposition of transverse waves with axisymmetric fluctuations generates the trend in non- axisymmetry with power spectral exponent. The observed non-axisymmetric anisotropy may thus simply arise as a sampling effect related to Taylor's hypothesis and is not related to the plasma dynamics itself.

  8. Anisotropic Characteristics of Turbulence Dissipation in Swirling Flow: A Direct Numerical Simulation Study

    Xingtuan Yang


    Full Text Available This study investigates the anisotropic characteristics of turbulent energy dissipation rate in a rotating jet flow via direct numerical simulation. The turbulent energy dissipation tensor, including its eigenvalues in the swirling flows with different rotating velocities, is analyzed to investigate the anisotropic characteristics of turbulence and dissipation. In addition, the probability density function of the eigenvalues of turbulence dissipation tensor is presented. The isotropic subrange of PDF always exists in swirling flows relevant to small-scale vortex structure. Thus, with remarkable large-scale vortex breakdown, the isotropic subrange of PDF is reduced in strongly swirling flows, and anisotropic energy dissipation is proven to exist in the core region of the vortex breakdown. More specifically, strong anisotropic turbulence dissipation occurs concentratively in the vortex breakdown region, whereas nearly isotropic turbulence dissipation occurs dispersively in the peripheral region of the strong swirling flows.

  9. Simulations of Energetic Particles Interacting with Nonlinear Anisotropic Dynamical Turbulence

    Heusen, Martin


    We investigate test-particle diffusion in dynamical turbulence based on a numerical approach presented before. For the turbulence we employ the nonlinear anisotropic dynamical turbulence model which takes into account wave propagation effects as well as damping effects. We compute numerically diffusion coefficients of energetic particles along and across the mean magnetic field. We focus on turbulence and particle parameters which should be relevant for the solar system and compare our findings with different interplanetary observations. We vary different parameters such as the dissipation range spectral index, the ratio of the turbulence bendover scales, and the magnetic field strength in order to explore the relevance of the different parameters. We show that the bendover scales as well as the magnetic field ratio have a strong influence on diffusion coefficients whereas the influence of the dissipation range spectral index is weak. The best agreement with solar wind observations can be found for equal bend...

  10. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow over porous walls

    Rosti, Marco E; Cortelezzi, Luca


    We perform direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a turbulent channel flow over porous walls. In the fluid region the flow is governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, while in the porous layers the Volume-Averaged Navier-Stokes (VANS) equations are used, which are obtained by volume-averaging the microscopic flow field over a small volume that is larger than the typical dimensions of the pores. In this way the porous medium has a continuum description, and can be specified via global properties like permeability and porosity, without the need of a detailed knowledge of the pore microstructure. At the interface between the porous material and the fluid region, following literature momentum-transfer conditions are applied, in which an available coefficient related to the unknown structure of the interface can be used as an error estimate. To formulate the numerical problem, the velocity-vorticity formulation of the coupled Navier--Stokes and VANS equations is derived and implement into a pseudo-sp...

  11. Vorticity, Shocks and Magnetic Fields in Subsonic, ICM-like Turbulence

    Porter, David H; Ryu, Dongsu


    We analyze high resolution simulations of compressible, MHD turbulence with properties resembling conditions in galaxy clusters. The flow is driven to turbulence Mach number $\\mathcal{M}_t \\sim 1/2$ in an isothermal medium with an initially very weak, uniform seed magnetic field ($\\beta = P_g/P_B = 10^6$). Since cluster turbulence is likely to result from a mix of sheared (solenoidal) and compressive forcing processes, we examine the distinct turbulence properties for both cases. In one set of simulations velocity forcing is entirely solenoidal ($\

  12. Numerical simulation of the turbulent convective buoyant flow of sodium over a backward- facing step

    Schumm, T.; Frohnapfel, B.; Marocco, L.


    A forced convective and a buoyancy-aided turbulent liquid sodium flow over a backward-facing step with a constant heat flux applied on the indented wall is simulated. Linear eddy viscosity models are used for the Reynolds stresses. Turbulent heat fluxes are modelled with a single gradient diffusion hypotheses with two different approaches to evaluate the turbulent Prandtl number. Moreover, the influence of turbulence on heat transfer to sodium is also assessed through simulations with zero turbulent thermal diffusivity. The results are compared with DNS data from literature. The velocity and turbulent kinetic energy profiles predicted by all models are in good agreement with the DNS data. The local Nusselt number trend is qualitatively well captured, however, its magnitude is underestimated by all models for the mixed convection case. For forced convection, the heat transfer is overestimated by all heat flux models. The simulation with neglected turbulent heat transfer shows the best overall agreement for the forced convection case. For the mixed convection best agreement is obtained using a correlation to locally evaluate the turbulent thermal diffusivity.

  13. Direct numerical simulation and statistical analysis of turbulent convection in lead-bismuth

    Otic, I.; Grotzbach, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut fuer Kern-und Energietechnik (Germany)


    Improved turbulent heat flux models are required to develop and analyze the reactor concept of an lead-bismuth cooled Accelerator-Driven-System. Because of specific properties of many liquid metals we have still no sensors for accurate measurements of the high frequency velocity fluctuations. So, the development of the turbulent heat transfer models which are required in our CFD (computational fluid dynamics) tools needs also data from direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows. We use new simulation results for the model problem of Rayleigh-Benard convection to show some peculiarities of the turbulent natural convection in lead-bismuth (Pr = 0.025). Simulations for this flow at sufficiently large turbulence levels became only recently feasible because this flow requires the resolution of very small velocity scales with the need for recording long-wave structures for the slow changes in the convective temperature field. The results are analyzed regarding the principle convection and heat transfer features. They are also used to perform statistical analysis to show that the currently available modeling is indeed not adequate for these fluids. Basing on the knowledge of the details of the statistical features of turbulence in this convection type and using the two-point correlation technique, a proposal for an improved statistical turbulence model is developed which is expected to account better for the peculiarities of the heat transfer in the turbulent convection in low Prandtl number fluids. (authors)

  14. Test of Shi et al. Method to Infer the Magnetic Reconnection Geometry from Spacecraft Data: MHD Simulation with Guide Field and Antiparallel Kinetic Simulation

    Denton, R.; Sonnerup, B. U. O.; Swisdak, M.; Birn, J.; Drake, J. F.; Heese, M.


    When analyzing data from an array of spacecraft (such as Cluster or MMS) crossing a site of magnetic reconnection, it is desirable to be able to accurately determine the orientation of the reconnection site. If the reconnection is quasi-two dimensional, there are three key directions, the direction of maximum inhomogeneity (the direction across the reconnection site), the direction of the reconnecting component of the magnetic field, and the direction of rough invariance (the "out of plane" direction). Using simulated spacecraft observations of magnetic reconnection in the geomagnetic tail, we extend our previous tests of the direction-finding method developed by Shi et al. (2005) and the method to determine the structure velocity relative to the spacecraft Vstr. These methods require data from four proximate spacecraft. We add artificial noise and calibration errors to the simulation fields, and then use the perturbed gradient of the magnetic field B and perturbed time derivative dB/dt, as described by Denton et al. (2010). Three new simulations are examined: a weakly three-dimensional, i.e., quasi-two-dimensional, MHD simulation without a guide field, a quasi-two-dimensional MHD simulation with a guide field, and a two-dimensional full dynamics kinetic simulation with inherent noise so that the apparent minimum gradient was not exactly zero, even without added artificial errors. We also examined variations of the spacecraft trajectory for the kinetic simulation. The accuracy of the directions found varied depending on the simulation and spacecraft trajectory, but all the directions could be found within about 10 for all cases. Various aspects of the method were examined, including how to choose averaging intervals and the best intervals for determining the directions and velocity. For the kinetic simulation, we also investigated in detail how the errors in the inferred gradient directions from the unmodified Shi et al. method (using the unperturbed gradient

  15. Numerical simulation of incompressible turbulent flows in presence of laminar to turbulent transition

    Satish, G.; Vashista, G. A.; Majumdar, Sekhar


    Most of the widely used popular mathematical models of turbulence use a judicious combination of intuition, empiricism and the governing equations of instantaneous and mean motion-valid strictly for fully developed turbulence without any laminar region. In reality however, any wall bounded or free shear flow may consist of some laminar flow patches which eventually undergo transition over a finite length to grow into fully turbulent flows. Most of the turbulence models used in commercial CFD codes, are unable to predict the dynamics of turbulent flows with laminar patches. However, accurate prediction of transitional flows is often essential to estimate the pressure losses and/or heat transfer in industrial applications. The present paper implements two different transition models in an existing finite volume URANS-based code RANS3D, developed in house and validated against reliable measurement data for flow past flat plates with different free stream turbulence levels and flow past SD7003 aerofoil at a chord-based Reynolds number of 60,000.



    In this paper, the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) was used to study the free-surface turbulent channel flow with passive heat transfer. The three-dimensional filtered incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and energy equation were numerically solved with dynamic Subgrid Scale (SGS) models for modeling turbulent stresses and heat flux. To compare the turbulent behavior of the free-surface and two-walled channel flows, the LES of two-walled turbulent channel flow was performed. The statistical quantities and flow structures of the free-surface turbulence with heat transfer in the vicinity of the free-surface were investigated. The results are also in good agreement with theoretical analysis and available results by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS).

  17. Outcomes from the DOE Workshop on Turbulent Flow Simulation at the Exascale

    Sprague, Michael; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Chang, Choong-Seock; Fischer, Paul F.; Grout, Ray; Gustafson, William I.; Hittinger, Jeffrey A.; Merzari, Elia; Moser, Robert


    This paper summarizes the outcomes from the Turbulent Flow Simulation at the Exascale: Opportunities and Challenges Workshop, which was held 4-5 August 2015, and was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research. The workshop objective was to define and describe the challenges and opportunities that computing at the exascale will bring to turbulent-flow simulations in applied science and technology. The need for accurate simulation of turbulent flows is evident across the U.S. Department of Energy applied-science and engineering portfolios, including combustion, plasma physics, nuclear-reactor physics, wind energy, and atmospheric science. The workshop brought together experts in turbulent-flow simulation, computational mathematics, and high-performance computing. Building upon previous ASCR workshops on exascale computing, participants defined a research agenda and path forward that will enable scientists and engineers to continually leverage, engage, and direct advances in computational systems on the path to exascale computing.

  18. An Investigation of a Hybrid Mixing Timescale Model for PDF Simulations of Turbulent Premixed Flames

    Zhou, Hua; Kuron, Mike; Ren, Zhuyin; Lu, Tianfeng; Chen, Jacqueline H.


    Transported probability density function (TPDF) method features the generality for all combustion regimes, which is attractive for turbulent combustion simulations. However, the modeling of micromixing due to molecular diffusion is still considered to be a primary challenge for TPDF method, especially in turbulent premixed flames. Recently, a hybrid mixing rate model for TPDF simulations of turbulent premixed flames has been proposed, which recovers the correct mixing rates in the limits of flamelet regime and broken reaction zone regime while at the same time aims to properly account for the transition in between. In this work, this model is employed in TPDF simulations of turbulent premixed methane-air slot burner flames. The model performance is assessed by comparing the results from both direct numerical simulation (DNS) and conventional constant mechanical-to-scalar mixing rate model. This work is Granted by NSFC 51476087 and 91441202.

  19. Turbulent geodynamo simulations: a leap towards Earth's core

    Schaeffer, N.; Jault, D.; Nataf, H.-C.; Fournier, A.


    We present an attempt to reach realistic turbulent regime in direct numerical simulations of the geodynamo. We rely on a sequence of three convection-driven simulations in a rapidly rotating spherical shell. The most extreme case reaches towards the Earth's core regime by lowering viscosity (magnetic Prandtl number Pm = 0.1) while maintaining vigorous convection (magnetic Reynolds number Rm > 500) and rapid rotation (Ekman number E = 10-7) at the limit of what is feasible on today's supercomputers. A detailed and comprehensive analysis highlights several key features matching geomagnetic observations or dynamo theory predictions—all present together in the same simulation—but it also unveils interesting insights relevant for Earth's core dynamics. In this strong-field, dipole-dominated dynamo simulation, the magnetic energy is one order of magnitude larger than the kinetic energy. The spatial distribution of magnetic intensity is highly heterogeneous, and a stark dynamical contrast exists between the interior and the exterior of the tangent cylinder (the cylinder parallel to the axis of rotation that circumscribes the inner core). In the interior, the magnetic field is strongest, and is associated with a vigorous twisted polar vortex, whose dynamics may occasionally lead to the formation of a reverse polar flux patch at the surface of the shell. Furthermore, the strong magnetic field also allows accumulation of light material within the tangent cylinder, leading to stable stratification there. Torsional Alfvén waves are frequently triggered in the vicinity of the tangent cylinder and propagate towards the equator. Outside the tangent cylinder, the magnetic field inhibits the growth of zonal winds and the kinetic energy is mostly non-zonal. Spatio-temporal analysis indicates that the low-frequency, non-zonal flow is quite geostrophic (columnar) and predominantly large-scale: an m = 1 eddy spontaneously emerges in our most extreme simulations, without any

  20. Turbulent Velocity Structure in Molecular Clouds

    Ossenkopf, V; Ossenkopf, Volker; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac


    We compare velocity structure observed in the Polaris Flare molecular cloud at scales ranging from 0.015 pc to 20 pc to the velocity structure of a suite of simulations of supersonic hydrodynamic and MHD turbulence computed with the ZEUS MHD code. We examine different methods of characterising the structure, including a scanning-beam size-linewidth relation, structure functions, velocity and velocity difference probability distribution functions (PDFs), and the Delta-variance wavelet transform, and use them to compare models and observations. The Delta-variance is most sensitive in detecting characteristic scales and varying scaling laws, but is limited in the observational application by its lack of intensity weighting. We compare the true velocity PDF in our models to simulated observations of velocity centroids and average line profiles in optically thin lines, and find that the line profiles reflect the true PDF better. The observed velocity structure is consistent with supersonic turbulence showing a com...