Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandra, Avinash
1980-01-01
The concept of MHD power generation, principles of operation of the MHD generator, its design, types, MHD generator cycles, technological problems to be overcome, the current state of the art in USA and USSR are described. Progress of India's experimental 5 Mw water-gas fired open cycle MHD power generator project is reported in brief. (M.G.B.)
MHD generator performance analysis for the Advanced Power Train study
Pian, C. C. P.; Hals, F. A.
1984-01-01
Comparative analyses of different MHD power train designs for early commercial MHD power plants were performed for plant sizes of 200, 500, and 1000 MWe. The work was conducted as part of the first phase of a planned three-phase program to formulate an MHD Advanced Power Train development program. This paper presents the results of the MHD generator design and part-load analyses. All of the MHD generator designs were based on burning of coal with oxygen-enriched air preheated to 1200 F. Sensitivities of the MHD generator design performance to variations in power plant size, coal type, oxygen enrichment level, combustor heat loss, channel length, and Mach number were investigated. Basd on these sensitivity analyses, together with the overall plant performance and cost-of-electricity analyses, as well as reliability and maintenance considerations, a recommended MHD generator design was selected for each of the three power plants. The generators for the 200 MWe and 500 MWe power plant sizes are supersonic designs. A subsonic generator design was selected for the 1000 MWe plant. Off-design analyses of part-load operation of the supersonic channel selected for the 200 MWe power plant were also conductd. The results showed that a relatively high overall net plant efficiency can be maintained during part-laod operation with a supersonic generator design.
Report on studies on closed cycle MHD power generation; Closed cycle MHD hatsuden kento hokokusho
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1991-04-01
Summarized herein are results of the studies on closed cycle MHD (CCMHD) power generation by the study committee. The studied system is based on the MHD gas turbine combined Brayton cycle of about 500,000 kW in output power, firing natural gas as the fuel, and the conceptual design works therefor are completed. The major findings are: the overall plant efficiency: 54.2% at the power transmission side, plot area required per unit power output: 0.04 m{sup 2}/KW, unit construction cost: 251,000 yen/KW, and unit power generation cost: 10.2 yen/KWh. This system will be more operable than the gas turbine combined cycle with steam system, because start-up time, output change rate, optimum load and so on are constrained not on the power generator side but on the gas turbine side. The expected environmental effects include the exhaust gas NOX concentration being equivalent with that associated with the conventional power generator of 2-stage combustion system, quantity of combustion gases to be treated being approximately 40% of that associated with the gas turbine combined cycle, and reduced CO2 gas emissions, resulting from enhanced power generation efficiency. It is expected that the CCMHD system can exhibit higher efficiency than the high-temperature gas turbine combined cycle system. (NEDO)
Study on closed cycle MHD generation systems; Closed cycle MHD hatsuden system no kento
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1988-03-01
The closed cycle noble gas MHD generation systems are surveyed and studied. The concept of closed cycle noble gas MHD generation is confirmed to extract high enthalpy, and now going into the engineering demonstration stage from the basic research stage. These systems have various characteristics. The highest working temperature is around 1,700 degrees C, which is close to that associated with the existing techniques. Use of helium or argon gas as the working fluid makes the system relatively free of various problems, e.g., corrosion. It can attain a much higher efficiency than the combined cycle involving gas turbine. It suffers less heat loss in the passages, is suitable for small- to medium-capacity power generation systems, and copes with varying load. The compact power generation passages decrease required size of the superconducting magnet. The technical problems to be solved include optimization of power generation conditions, demonstration of durability of the power generation passages, injection/recovery of the seed material, treatment of the working gas to remove molecular impurities, and development of heat exchangers serviceable at high temperature produced by direct combustion of coal. The conceptual designs of the triple combined system are completed. (NEDO)
Studies of MHD generator performance with oxygen enriched coal combustion
Wormhoudt, J.; Yousefian, V.; Kolb, C. E.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.
1980-07-01
This paper presents calculations made using the Aerodyne PACKAGE (Plasma Analysis, Chemical Kinetics, and Generator Efficiency) computer code which bear on two questions which arise in connection with choices between oxygen enrichment and air preheating to attain the high combustion temperatures needed for open-cycle, coal-fired MHD power generation. The first question is which method produces the highest enthalpy extraction per unit channel length. The second is, in test facilities intended to study tradeoffs between oxygen enrichment and preheated air, can good generator performance be obtained from the same physical channel for different combustor compositions. The answer to the first question is found to depend on what combustor conditions are taken to be comparable. As for the second question, it is found that operation with channel input from off-design combustor conditions can cause serious problems, which can be partially alleviated by changing the channel load factors.
Equations of state for self-excited MHD generator studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rogers, F.J.; Ross, M.; Haggin, G.L.; Wong, L.K.
1980-02-26
We have constructed a state-of-the-art equation of state (EOS) for argon covering the temperature density range attainable by currently proposed self-excited MHD generators. The EOS for conditions in the flow channel was obtained primarily by a non-ideal plasma code (ACTEX) that is based on a many body activity expansion. For conditions in the driver chamber the EOS was primarily obtained from a fluid code (HDFP) that calculates the fluid properties from perturbation theory based on the insulator interatomic pair potential but including electronic excitations. The results are in agreement with several sets of experimental data in the 0.6 - 91 GPa pressure range.
Petrick, Michael; Pierson, Edward S.; Schreiner, Felix
1980-01-01
According to the present invention, coal combustion gas is the primary working fluid and copper or a copper alloy is the electrodynamic fluid in the MHD generator, thereby eliminating the heat exchangers between the combustor and the liquid-metal MHD working fluids, allowing the use of a conventional coalfired steam bottoming plant, and making the plant simpler, more efficient and cheaper. In operation, the gas and liquid are combined in a mixer and the resulting two-phase mixture enters the MHD generator. The MHD generator acts as a turbine and electric generator in one unit wherein the gas expands, drives the liquid across the magnetic field and thus generates electrical power. The gas and liquid are separated, and the available energy in the gas is recovered before the gas is exhausted to the atmosphere. Where the combustion gas contains sulfur, oxygen is bubbled through a side loop to remove sulfur therefrom as a concentrated stream of sulfur dioxide. The combustor is operated substoichiometrically to control the oxide level in the copper.
Design study of superconducting magnets for a combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator
Thome, R. J.; Ayers, J. W.
1977-01-01
Design trade off studies for 13 different superconducting magnet systems were carried out. Based on these results, preliminary design characteristics were prepared for several superconducting magnet systems suitable for use with a combustion driven MHD generator. Each magnet generates a field level of 8 T in a volume 1.524 m (60 in.) long with a cross section 0.254 m x 0.254 m (10 in. x 10 in.) at the inlet and 0.406 m x .406 m (16 in. x 16 in.) at the outlet. The first design involves a racetrack coil geometry intended for operation at 4.2 K; the second design uses a racetrack geometry at 2.0 K; and the third design utilizes a rectangular saddle geometry at 4.2 K. Each case was oriented differently in terms of MHD channel axis and main field direction relative to gravity in order to evaluate fabrication ease. All cases were designed such that the system could be disassembled to allow for alteration of field gradient in the MHD channel by changing the angle between coils. Preliminary design characteristics and assembly drawings were generated for each case.
A study of some recent advances in the concept and design of MHD generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vakilian, M.
1976-02-01
Direct conversion of energy and high temperature working fluid making Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power plants potentially much more efficient than steam power stations. The study indicates an overall efficiency of 50% to 60%. This compares with most modern fossil-fuel plants at 40% efficiency. Advances in design and construction of experimental and commercial MHD plants developed in various countries are presented. Environmental effects and advantages of the MHD power plants over the more conventional fossil and nuclear plants are discussed
Generation of compressible modes in MHD turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Jungyeon [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea); Lazarian, A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
2005-05-01
Astrophysical turbulence is magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) in nature. We discuss fundamental properties of MHD turbulence and in particular the generation of compressible MHD waves by Alfvenic turbulence and show that this process is inefficient. This allows us to study the evolution of different types of MHD perturbations separately. We describe how to separate MHD fluctuations into three distinct families: Alfven, slow, and fast modes. We find that the degree of suppression of slow and fast modes production by Alfvenic turbulence depends on the strength of the mean field. We review the scaling relations of the modes in strong MHD turbulence. We show that Alfven modes in compressible regime exhibit scalings and anisotropy similar to those in incompressible regime. Slow modes passively mimic Alfven modes. However, fast modes exhibit isotropy and a scaling similar to that of acoustic turbulence both in high and low {beta} plasmas. We show that our findings entail important consequences for star formation theories, cosmic ray propagation, dust dynamics, and gamma ray bursts. We anticipate many more applications of the new insight to MHD turbulence and expect more revisions of the existing paradigms of astrophysical processes as the field matures. (orig.)
Experimental and theoretical studies of the effects of nonuniformities in equilibrium MHD generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenbaum, M.; Shamma, S.E.; Louis, J.F.
1980-01-01
An experimental study of the effects of thermal and velocity nonuniformities is performed in an equilibrium plasma for a range of Hall parameters. An electrodeless MHD disk generator with radial flow is chosen as the ideal geometry for these experiments. By introducing equally spaced cold blades in the flow, it is possible to create well defined two-dimensional wake nonuniformities with strong variations of the plasma properties in the direction normal to the magnetic field and the flow. This type of nonuniformity is predicted to provide the strongest reduction of Hall coefficient and effective conductivity for high values of Hall parameter. This degradation is controlled by both the level of nonuniformities and the value of the ideal Hall parameter. The former is dependent upon the number of blades (root mean square deviation of the conductivity), and the latter is dependent upon the values of the magnetic field intensities. The results provide basic quantitative information about the effects of conductivity and velocity nonuniformities on the performance of equilibrium MHD generators over a wide range of Hall coefficients, between 2 and 7. Reduction formulae are established between the effective and ideal Hall parameters for different levels of nonuniformities intensities. Theoretical predictions are derived from a detailed two-dimensional electrodynamic analysis and a simplified engineering model based on a generalization of Rosa's layer model. These experiments validate the analytical studies and support the use of the theoretical layer models in describing the effect of boundary layers on the performance of linear generators
Design of MHD generator systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buende, R.; Raeder, J.
1975-01-01
By assessment of the influence of the combustion efficiency on the electric output of the MHD generator, it can be shown that the construction and efficiency of the generator strongly depend on these parameters. The solutions of this system of equations are discussed. Following a derivation of criteria and boundary conditions of the design and a determination of the specific construction costs of individual system components, it is shown how the single design parameters influence the operational characteristics of such a system, especially the output, efficiency and energy production costs. (GG/LH) [de
Advanced energy utilization MHD power generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2008-01-01
The 'Technical Committee on Advanced Energy Utilization MHD Power Generation' was started to establish advanced energy utilization technologies in Japan, and has been working for three years from June 2004 to May 2007. This committee investigated closed cycle MHD, open cycle MHD, and liquid metal MHD power generation as high-efficiency power generation systems on the earth. Then, aero-space application and deep space exploration technologies were investigated as applications of MHD technology. The spin-off from research and development on MHD power generation such as acceleration and deceleration of supersonic flows was expected to solve unstart phenomena in scramjet engine and also to solve abnormal heating of aircrafts by shock wave. In addition, this committee investigated researches on fuel cells, on secondary batteries, on connection of wind power system to power grid, and on direct energy conversion system from nuclear fusion reactor for future. The present technical report described results of investigations by the committee. (author)
Liquid metal MHD generator systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satyamurthy, P.; Dixit, N.S.; Venkataramani, N.; Rohatgi, V.K.
1985-01-01
Liquid Metal MHD (LMMHD) Generator Systems are becoming increasingly important in space and terrestrial applications due to their compactness and versatility. This report gives the current status and economic viability of LMMHD generators coupled to solar collectors, fast breeder reactors, low grade heat sources and conventional high grade heat sources. The various thermodynamic cycles in the temperatures range of 100degC-2000degC have been examined. The report also discusses the present understanding of various loss mechanisms inherent in LMMHD systems and the techniques for overcoming these losses. A small mercury-air LMMHD experimental facility being set up in Plasma Physics Division along with proposals for future development of this new technology is also presented in this report. (author)
Design study of superconducting magnets for a combustion magnetohydrodynamic /MHD/ generator
Thome, R. J.; Ayers, J. W.; Hrycaj, T. M.; Burkhart, J. A.
1978-01-01
Results are presented for a trade-off and preliminary design study on concepts of a superconducting magnet system for a combustion MHD generator test facility. The main objective is to gain insight into the magnitude of the project in terms of physical characteristics and cost. The net result of a first-phase evaluation of attractive design alternatives is to concentrate subsequent efforts on (1) a racetrack coil geometry with an operating temperature of 4.2 K, (2) a racetrack coil geometry with an operating temperature of 2.0 K, and (3) a rectangular saddle coil geometry with an operating temperature of 4.2 K. All three systems are to produce 8 T, and use NbTi superconductor and iron for field enhancement. Design characteristics of the three systems are described. It is shown that the racetrack and rectangular saddle coil geometries seem most suitable for this application, the former because of its simplicity and the latter because of its efficient use of material. Advantages of the rectangular saddle over the two other systems are stressed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1979-01-01
Progress is reported on the following tasks: characterization of coal for open-cycle MHD power generation systems; compressive creep and strength studies of MHD preheater materials; preparation of coals for utilization in direct coal-fired MHD generation; characterization of volatile matter in coal; MHD materials evaluation; operability of the Moderate Temperature Slag Flow Facility; slag-seed equilibria and separations related to the MHD system; thermionic emission of coal and electrode materials; MHD instrumentation, consolidated inversion simulator, and data acquisition; combined MHD-steam plant cycle analysis and control; and slag physical properties - electrical and thermal conductivity. (WHK)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1970-07-01
Compiled are the results of studies conducted in fiscal 1970 on MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation. In the operation test and modification of the 1000kW-class MHD power generator, modification is carried out involving the combustion system, seed collecting method, and power generation channel, and reviews through experiments are conducted about the analysis and control of the boundary layer structure. In the operation test of the MHD power generator designed for prolonged operation, a test operation for resistance to heat and seeds continues more than 100 hours using a cold wall type power generation channel constituted of water cooled ceramics, and the ceramics are analyzed for failure and loss. Studies are also conducted involving MHD power generator heat exchangers, seed collecting methods, electrode materials for MHD power generators, heat-resistant materials for MHD power generators, thermal performance rating for MHD power plants, etc. In the research and development of superconductive electromagnets, superconductive electromagnets are developed and tested for 1000kW-class MHD power generators, and studies are conducted on turbine type helium liquefiers, superinsulated superconductive electromagnetic field generators, etc. (NEDO)
Principal characteristics of SFC type MHD generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kayukawa, Naoyuki; Oikawa, Shun-ichi; Aoki, Yoshiaki; Seidou, Tadashi; Okinaka, Noriyuki
1988-01-01
This paper describes the experimental and analytical results obtained for an MHD channel with a two dimensionally shaped magnetic field configuration called 'the SFC-type'. The power generating performance was examined under various load conditions and B-field intensities with a 2 MWt shock tunnel MHD facility. It is demonstrated that the power output performance and the enthalpy extraction scaling law of the conventional uniform B-field MHD generator (UFC-type) were significantly improved by the SFC-design of the spatial distribution of the magnetic field. The arcing processes were also examined by a high speed camera and the post-test observation of arc spot traces on electrodes. Further, the characteristic frequencies of each of the so-called micro and constricted arcs were clarified by spectral analyses. The critical current densities, which define the transient conditions of each from the diffuse-to micro arc, and from the micro-to constricted arc modes could be clearly obtained by the present spectral analysis method. We also investigated the three-dimensional behavior under strong magnetic field based on the coupled electrical and hydrodynamical equations for both of the middle scale SFC-and UFC-type generators. Finally, it is concluded from the above mentioned various aspects that the shaped 2-D magnetic field design will offer a most useful means for the realization of a compact, high efficiency and a long duration open-cycle MHD generator. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1969-07-01
Compiled are the results of studies conducted in fiscal 1969 on MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation. In the operation test and modification of the 1,000kW-class MHD power generator, the operation test continues from the preceding fiscal year using high-temperature air as oxidant, and the growth of boundary layer in the channel is determined. In the operation test of the MHD power generator designed for prolonged operation, insulation walls, electrode materials, and structures capable of prolonged operation are developed and tested. In the research of MHD power generator heat exchangers, studies are made about the bulkhead type and heat accumulator types (stationary type, rotary type, and falling-grain type). In addition, studies are conducted about seed collecting methods, MHD power generator electrode materials, heat-resisting insulators, and thermal performance rating. In the research and development of superconductive electromagnets, studies are conducted about superconductive electromagnets for 1kW MHD power generators, ferromagnetic superconductive electromagnets for 1,000kW-class MHD power generators, 45-kilogauss col type superconductive electromagnets, turbine type helium liquefier, high current density col type superconductive electromagnets, superinsulated magnetic field generators, etc. (NEDO)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, Masaki
2001-03-01
Feasibility study of the liquid-metal MHD power generation system combined with the high-density two-phase natural circulation has been performed for the applicability to the simple, autonomic energy conversion system of the liquid-metal cooled fast reactor. The present system has many promising aspects not only in the energy conversion process, but also in safety and economical improvements of the liquid-metal cooled fast reactor. In the previous report, as the first step of the feasibility study, the cycle analyses were performed to examine the effects of the main system parameters on the fundamental characteristics of the system. It was found that the cycle efficiency of the present system is enough competitive with that of the conventional steam turbine system. It was also found that the cycle efficiency depends strongly on the gas-liquid slip ratio in the two-phase flow channel. However, it is very difficult to estimate the gas-liquid slip ratio theoretically, especially in the heavy liquid metal two-phase natural circulation. For example, the effects of MHD load on the two-phase flow characteristics, such as the void fraction and gas-liquid slip ratio are not known well. In the present study, therefore, as the second step of the feasibility study, a series of the experiments were performed to investigate, especially, the effect of MHD load at the single-phase shown-comer flow channel on the characteristics of the two-phase natural circulation. In the first series of the experiments, Woods-metal (Density: 9517 Kg/m 3 ) and nitrogen gas were chosen as the two-phase working fluids. The MHD pressure drop was simulated by the ball valve. The experiments with water and nitrogen gas were also performed to check the effects of the physical properties. From the present experiments, it is found that the average void fraction in the two-phase flow channel is determined by the force balance between the MHD pressure drop, frictional and pressure losses in the tube, and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, Masaki
2000-03-01
Feasibility study of the liquid-metal MHD power generation system combined with the high-density two-phase natural circulation has been performed for the applicability to the simple, autonomic energy conversion system of the liquid-metal cooled fast reactor. The present system has many promising aspects not only in the energy conversion process, but also in safety and economical improvements of the liquid-metal cooled fast reactor. For example, the high cycle efficiency can be expected because of the similarity of the present cycle to the Ericsson cycle. Sodium-Water Interaction problem can be excluded by proper combination of the working fluids. As the economical feature, the present system is so simple that the liquid-metal main circular pump, the steam turbine generator, and even the steam generator can be excluded if the thermodynamic working fluid is injected directly into the high temperature liquid metal MHD working fluid. In addition, the present system has the potential to be applied to various heat sources including solar energy because of the high flexibility of the operation temperature. In the present paper, as the first step of the feasibility study, the cycle analyses were performed to examine the effects of the main system parameters on the fundamental characteristics of the system. It is found that the cycle efficiency of the present system is enough competitive with that of the conventional steam turbine system. It is, however, found that the cycle efficiency depends strongly on the gas-liquid slip ratio in the two-phase flow channel. As the conclusions, it is recommended to perform experimental study to obtain the fundamental data, such as the gas-liquid slip ratio in the high-density liquid-metal two-phase natural circulation. (author)
A Parametric Study of a Constant-Mach-Number MHD Generator with Nuclear Ionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braun, J.
1965-03-01
The influence of electrical and gas dynamical parameters on the length, of a linear constant-Mach-number MHD duct has been investigated. The gas has been assumed to be ionized by neutron irradiation in the expansion nozzle preceding the MHD duct. Inside the duct the electron recombination is assumed to be governed, by volume recombination. It is found that there exists a distinct domain from which the parameters must be chosen, pressure and Mach number being the most critical ones. If power densities in the order of magnitude 100 MW/m 3 are desired, high magnetic fields and Mach numbers in the supersonic range are needed. The influence of the variation of critical parameters on the channel length is given as a product of simple functions, each containing one parameter
A Parametric Study of a Constant-Mach-Number MHD Generator with Nuclear Ionization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braun, J
1965-03-15
The influence of electrical and gas dynamical parameters on the length, of a linear constant-Mach-number MHD duct has been investigated. The gas has been assumed to be ionized by neutron irradiation in the expansion nozzle preceding the MHD duct. Inside the duct the electron recombination is assumed to be governed, by volume recombination. It is found that there exists a distinct domain from which the parameters must be chosen, pressure and Mach number being the most critical ones. If power densities in the order of magnitude 100 MW/m{sup 3} are desired, high magnetic fields and Mach numbers in the supersonic range are needed. The influence of the variation of critical parameters on the channel length is given as a product of simple functions, each containing one parameter.
Research report on a study in MHD power generators - end effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittal, M.L.
In MHD devices, there are significant losses due to end effects, boundary layers and instabilities. The present investigations concern the estimation of losses due to end effects. The basic equations and boundary conditions for the analysis of end effects are derived. Using a sinusoidal and exponential termination, at the entrance region of a rectangular MHD channel with continuous electrodes, the end effect phenomenon is analysed. The normal current density on the electrode walls, is examined and the effects of the Hall currents on end losses is discussed. The end effects with diverging electrode walls are also investigated. The normal current distribution on the electrodes and the efficiency are calculated for two different velocity profiles - one with viscosity and the other with source velocity. (K.M.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1980-03-01
Examination was conducted in detail on an MHD generation system by coal combustion, with the results reported. Concerning a gas table calculation program in coal combustion, it was prepared assuming 100% slag removal ratio in the combustor as the primary approximation. A combustor for MHD generation needs to efficiently burn fuel using high temperature pre-heated air as the oxidant, to fully dissociate/electrolytically dissociate seed, and to supply to the generation channel a high speed combustion gas plasma having a high electrical conductivity which is required for MHD generation. This year, an examination was conducted on technological problems in burning coal in an MHD combustor. As for the NOx elimination system in an MHD generation plant, an examination was made if the method studied so far in MHD generation using heavy oil as the fuel is applicable to coal. Also investigated and reviewed were various characteristics, change in physical properties, recovery method, etc., in a mixed state of seed and slag in the case of coal combustion MHD. (NEDO)
MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC EQUATIONS (MHD GENERATION CODE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco Frutos Alfaro
2017-04-01
Full Text Available A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program uses the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the magnetohydrodynamic equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a magnetohydrodynamic code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of the output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1981-03-01
'Research on MHD generation system' was implemented by its expert committee in the electric joint study group, with the results of fiscal 1980 reported. This year, a detailed conceptual design was carried out on a coal fired MHD generation system, with points for the technological development concretely examined. In addition, investigation was conducted on the progress of MHD generation technology, development situation of other generation systems, state of energy resources, etc., in various foreign countries. In the conceptual design of the coal fired MHD generation plant, the system structure of a 2,000 MWt class commercial MHD generation plant was explained, as were the conceptual design of the structural elements and proposals for a 500 MWt class demonstration plant and an 100 MWt class experimental plant, for example. In the overseas trend of R and D on MHD generation, investigations were made concerning the U.S., Soviet Union, and China, with details compiled for such items as generation plants, combustors, generation channels, heat resisting materials, superconducting magnets, heat exchangers, seed slags, inverters, boilers and environments, and commercial plants. (NEDO)
Mechanism of power generation - the MHD way
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rangachari, S.; Ramash, V.R.; Subramanian, C.K.
1975-01-01
The basic physical principles of magnetohydrodynamics and the application of this principle for power generation (direct energy conversion) are explained. A magnetohydrodynamic generator (MHDG) is described both in the Faraday and Hall modes. The advantages of the Faraday mode and the Hall mode for different geometries of the generator are mentioned. The conductor used is a fluid - an ionised gas (plasma) or a liquid metal at high temperature. The difficulties in maintaining high temperature and high velocity for the gas and very low temperature at the same time side by side for superconducting magnets to produce a strong magnetic field, are pointed out. The most commonly used gas is purified air. The advantages of MHD generators and the present power crisis have compelled further research in this field in spite of the high costs involved. (A.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1968-01-01
Proceedings of a Symposium on Magnetohydrodynamic Electrical Power Generation held by the IAEA at Warsaw, 24-30 July 1968. The meeting was attended by some 300 participants from 21 countries and three international organizations. In contrast to the Symposium held two years ago, much more emphasis was placed on the economic aspects of using MHD generators in large-scale power generation. Among closed- cycle systems, the prospects of linking an ultra-high-temperature reactor with an MHD generator were explored, and the advantages gained by having a liquid-metal generator as a 'topper' in a conventional steam generating plant were presented. Comments were made about the disproportionate effect of end and boundary conditions in experimental MHD generators on the main plasma parameters, and estimates were made of the interrelationship to be expected in real generators. The estimates will have to await confirmation until results are obtained on large-scale prototype MHD systems. Progress in materials research, in design and construction of auxiliary equipment such as heat exchangers, supercooled magnets (which are- now commercially available), etc., is accompanied by sophisticated ideas of plant design. The Proceedings are complemented by three Round Table Discussions in which chosen experts from various countries discuss the outlook for closed-cycle gas, closed-cycle liquid-metal and open-cycle MHD, and give their views as to the most fruitful course to follow to achieve economic full-scale power generation. Contents: (Vol. I) 1. Closed-Cycle MHD with Gaseous Working Fluids: (a) Diagnostics (3 papers); (b) Steady-state non-equilibrium ionization (8 papers); (c) Transient non-equilibrium ionization (7 papers); (d) Pre-ionization and gas discharge (4 papers); (e) Fields and flow in MHD channels (10 papers); (0 Instabilities (8 papers); (g) Generator design and performance studies (6 papers); (Vol. II) (h) Shock waves (6 papers); (i) Power generation experiments (13 papers
Analysis of Linear MHD Power Generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witalis, E A
1965-02-15
The finite electrode size effects on the performance of an infinitely long MHD power generation duct are calculated by means of conformal mapping. The general conformal transformation is deduced and applied in a graphic way. The analysis includes variations in the segmentation degree, the Hall parameter of the gas and the electrode/insulator length ratio as well as the influence of the external circuitry and loading. A general criterion for a minimum of the generator internal resistance is given. The same criterion gives the conditions for the occurrence of internal current leakage between adjacent electrodes. It is also shown that the highest power output at a prescribed efficiency is always obtained when the current is made to flow between exactly opposed electrodes. Curves are presented showing the power-efficiency relations and other generator properties as depending on the segmentation degree and the Hall parameter in the cases of axial and transverse power extraction. The implications of limiting the current to flow between a finite number of identical electrodes are introduced and combined with the condition for current flow between opposed electrodes. The characteristics of generators with one or a few external loads can then be determined completely and examples are given in a table. It is shown that the performance of such generators must not necessarily be inferior to that of segmented generators with many independent loads. However, the problems of channel end losses and off-design loading have not been taken into consideration.
Present state of research and development of MHD power generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikeda, Shigeru
1978-01-01
MHD power generation can obtain electric energy directly from the heat energy of high speed plasma flow, and the power generating plant of 1 million kW can be realized by this method. When the MHD power generation method is combined before conventional thermal power generation method, the thermal efficiency can be raised to about 60% as compared with 38% in thermal power generation plants. The research and development of MHD power generation are in progress in USA and USSR. The research and development in Japan are in the second stage now after the first stage project for 10 years, and the Mark 7 generator with 100 kW electric output for 200 hr continuous operation is under construction. The MHD power generation is divided into three types according to the conductive fluids used, namely combustion type for thermal power generation, unequilibrated type and liquid metal type for nuclear power generation. The principle of MHD power generation and the constitution of the plant are explained. In Japan, the Mark 2 generator generated 1,180 kW for 1 min in 1971, and the Mark 3 generator generated 1.9 kW continuously for 110 hr in 1967. The MHD generator with superconducting magnet succeeded in 1969 to generate 25 kW for 6 min. The second stage project aimes at collecting design data and obtaining operational experience for the construction of 10 MW class pilot plant, and the Mark 7 and 8 generators are planned. (Kako, I.)
Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric power generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sens, P.F.
1992-01-01
Since 1986 Directorate-General XII 'Science, Research and Development' of the Commission of the European Communities has kept a watching brief on the development of coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric power generation from the 'solid fuels' section of its non-nuclear energy R and D programme. It established, in 1987, the Faraday Working Group (FWG) to assess the development status of coal-fired MHD and to evaluate its potential contribution to the future electricity production in the Community. The FWG expressed as its opinion, at the end of 1987, that in sufficient data were available to justify a final answer to the question about MHD's potential contribution to future electricity production and recommended that studies be undertaken in three areas; (i) the lifetime of the generator, (ii) cost and performance of direct air preheating, (iii) cost and efficiency of seed recovery/reprocessing. These studies were contracted and results were presented in the extended FWG meeting on 15 November 1990, for an audience of about 70 people. The present volume contains the proceedings of this meeting. The introduction describes the reasons for establishing the FWG, its activities and the content of its extended meeting followed by the summary of the discussions and the concluding remarks of this meeting. The main part of the volume consists of the text either of the oral presentations during the meeting or of the final reports resulting from the studies under contract
MHD power generation for the synthetic-fuels industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, M.S. Jr.
1982-01-01
The integration of open cycle MHD with various processes for the recovery of hydrocarbons for heavy oil deposits, oil sands, and oil shales are examined along with its use in producing medium Btu gas, synthetic natural gas and solvent refined coal. The major features of the MHD cycle which are of interest are: (a) the ability to produce hydrogen through the shift reaction by introducing H 2 O into the substoichiometric combustion product flow exiting the MHD diffuser, (b) the use of high temperature waste heat in the MHD exhaust, and (c) the ability of the seed in the MHD flow to remove sulfur from the combustion products. Therefore the use of the MHD cycle allows coal to be used in an environmentally acceptable manner in place of hydrocarbons which are now used to produce process heat and hydrogen. The appropriate plant sizes are in the range of 25 to 50 MWe and the required MHD generator enthalpy extraction efficiencies are low. Sale of electricity produced, over and above that used in the process, can provide a revenue stream which can improve the economics of the hydrocarbon processing. This, coupled with the replacement of coal for hydrocarbons in certain phases of the process, should improve the overall economics, while not requiring a high level of performance by the MHD components. Therefore, this area should be an early target of opportunity for the commercialization of MHD
Loading factor and inclination parameter of diagonal type MHD generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, Motoo
1979-01-01
Regarding diagonal type MHD generators is studied the relation between the loading factor and inclination parameter which is required for attaining the maximum power density with a given electrical efficiency on the assumption of infinitely segmented electrodes. The average current density on electrodes is calculated against the Hall parameter, loading factor, and inclination parameter. The diagonal type generator is compared with Faraday type generator regarding the average current density. Decreasing the loading factor from inlet to outlet is appropriate to small size generators but increasing to large size generators. The inclination parameter had better decrease in both generators, being smaller for small generators than for large ones. The average current density on electrodes of diagonal type generators varies less with the loading factor than the Faraday type. In large size generators its value can become smaller compared with that of the Faraday type. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1968-09-01
Compiled are the results of studies conducted in fiscal 1967 on MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation. In the test operation and modification of a 1,000kW-class MHD power generator at the Electrical Research Laboratory, a test is conducted using Faraday-type electrodes. It is then found that this configuration results in a maximum output of approximately 700kW, which is less than expected. In the experimental construction at the Hitachi, Ltd., of a machine capable of a long-term operation, an MHD power generator is built for a continuous operation of 100 hours with an maximum output of 2kW, and a 110-hour power generation is successfully achieved with a maximum output of 1.9kW. In the research and development of heat exchangers, tests are conducted for a bulkhead type heat exchanger, heat accumulator type heat exchanger, molten slag type heat exchanger, and a gas/liquid 2-phase flow type heat exchanger. In the study of heat-resisting insulators, materials based on zirconate, magnesia, thoria, zirconia, etc., are tested. In addition, studies are conducted on electrode materials, superconductive electromagnets (small superconductive electromagnets for MHD power generators, turbine type helium liquefiers, superconductive wires for 70-kilogauss electromagnets, etc.), and thermal performance rating. (NEDO)
Electric potential behaviour in segmented Faraday-type MHD generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
James, M.I.; Mittal, M.L.; Gupta, G.P.; Rohatgi, V.K.
1985-01-01
The potential distribution in the transverse cross-section of a segmented Faraday-type MHD generator is studied. The governing elliptic equation, derived with allowance for the finite electrode segmentation effect and nonuniformity of the gas in the channel, is solved numerically using the Alternating Direction Implicit method in the finite difference scheme, instead of the successive over-relaxation method. The computed potential distribution and the potential drops are found to compare well with experimental results. The potential drops at the electrodes are found to increase with increasing current density. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1982-03-01
'Research on MHD generation system' was implemented by its expert committee in the electric joint study group, with the results of fiscal 1981 reported. This year, technological reexamination was conducted for a 2,000 MWt commercial MHD generation plant, with evaluation carried out on the cost performance including the construction and operation cost. In addition, for the purpose of intermediate R and D towards the practicability, examination was also conducted on a system structure, concrete specifications of component element, cost of R and D including operation expenses for example, concerning an 100 MWt class experimental plant and a 500 MWt class plant. In the investigation of the overseas trend, information was summarized in detail on the experimental devices, combustors, generation channels, electrode materials, electrode phenomena, theoretical analyses, seeds, slag, component equipment, instrumental technologies, conceptual designs of generation plant, commercial plant, etc., in Soviet Union, China, Holland, India and EPRI, on the basis of the materials from the 19th MHD symposium held in UTSI and from the coal MHD specialist conference held in Sydney. (NEDO)
Experimental rigs for MHD studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venkataramani, N.; Jayakumar, R.; Iyer, D.R.; Dixit, N.S.
1976-01-01
An MHD experimental rig is a miniature MHD installation consisting of basic equipments necessary for specific investigations. Some of the experimental rigs used in the investigations being carried out at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India) are dealt with. The experiments included diagnostics and evaluation of materials in seeded combustion plasmas and argon plasmas. The design specifications, schematics and some of the results of the investigations are also mentioned. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1980-03-01
Examination was conducted in detail on an MHD generation system by coal combustion, with the results reported. Concerning a gas table calculation program in coal combustion, it was prepared assuming 100% slag removal ratio in the combustor as the primary approximation. A combustor for MHD generation needs to efficiently burn fuel using high temperature pre-heated air as the oxidant, to fully dissociate/electrolytically dissociate seed, and to supply to the generation channel a high speed combustion gas plasma having a high electrical conductivity which is required for MHD generation. This year, an examination was conducted on technological problems in burning coal in an MHD combustor. As for the NOx elimination system in an MHD generation plant, an examination was made if the method studied so far in MHD generation using heavy oil as the fuel is applicable to coal. Also investigated and reviewed were various characteristics, change in physical properties, recovery method, etc., in a mixed state of seed and slag in the case of coal combustion MHD. (NEDO)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1987-03-01
A research study was done on MHD generation by coal gasificating combustion. MHD generation is a very attractive power generation system such that efficiency is as high as 55%, that preservation of the environment is superior, and that coal can be used as fuel. The open cycle seems suitable for a one million kW class as a base load following up load fluctuation of approximately 20%, while the closed cycle for 200-300 thousand kW class doing daily start-stop. With a mind to a scale of 30 MWt, in the open cycle, R and D is required in such items as a coal gas combustor, generation channel, high temperature air heater, and seed/slag recovery device. In the closed cycle, R and D is required in the generation channel, high temperature helium heater/high temperature valve, seed injection/recovery device, operation technique of helium closed loop, etc.. Moreover, as a total system, development is necessary in the areas of conceptual design and optimization method, partial load operation and DSS operation method, for example. (NEDO)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1981-03-01
'Research on MHD generation system' was implemented by its expert committee in the electric joint study group, with the results of fiscal 1980 reported. This year, a detailed conceptual design was carried out on a coal fired MHD generation system, with points for the technological development concretely examined. In addition, investigation was conducted on the progress of MHD generation technology, development situation of other generation systems, state of energy resources, etc., in various foreign countries. In the conceptual design of the coal fired MHD generation plant, the system structure of a 2,000 MWt class commercial MHD generation plant was explained, as were the conceptual design of the structural elements and proposals for a 500 MWt class demonstration plant and an 100 MWt class experimental plant, for example. In the overseas trend of R and D on MHD generation, investigations were made concerning the U.S., Soviet Union, and China, with details compiled for such items as generation plants, combustors, generation channels, heat resisting materials, superconducting magnets, heat exchangers, seed slags, inverters, boilers and environments, and commercial plants. (NEDO)
Helium refrigerator-liquefier system for MHD generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akiyama, Y.; Ishii, H.; Mori, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Wada, R.; Ando, M.
1974-01-01
MHD power generators have been investigated in the Electro-Technical Laboratory as one of the National Research and Development Programmes. A helium refrigerator-liquefier system has been developed to cool the superconducting magnet for a 1000 kW class MHD power generator. The turboexpander with low temperature gas bearings and an alternator had been developed for the MHD project at the Electro-Technical Laboratory previously. The liquefaction capacity is 250 iota/h and the refrigeration power is 2.9 kW at 20 K. The superconducting magnet is 50 tons and the cryostat has a liquid helium volume of 2700 iota. The evaporation rate is 60 to 80 iota/h. It takes, in all 2 to 3 weeks to fill the cryostat with liquid helium. (author)
Conducting grids to stabilize MHD generator plasmas against ionization instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veefkind, A.
1972-09-01
Ionization instabilities in MHD generators may be suppressed by the use of grids that short circuit the AC electric field component corresponding to the direction of maximum growth. An analysis of the influence of the corresponding boundary conditions has been performed in order to obtain more quantitative information about the stabilizing effect of this system
Numerical Calculation of the Output Power of a MHD Generator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrian CARABINEANU
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Using Lazăr Dragoş’s analytic solution for the electric potential we perform some numerical calculations in order to find the characteristics of a Faraday magnetohydrodymamics (MHD power generator (total power, useful power and Joule dissipation power.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1978-08-01
This is the summary of results of the research on MHD generation in fiscal 1977. In the experimental studies on MHD generators using a copper/iron magnet, the combustor of the Mark 7 generator was manufactured and installed, as were the supply systems of fuel, oxygen, air, seed, sulfur dioxide, cooling water, etc., respectively of the Mark 7 generator based on the design implemented in the previous year. In the studies on element technologies, various tests were performed, namely, immersion tests by K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution for electrode materials; tests of corrosion resistance, thermal shock resistance, and compatibility with electrode materials, for insulation wall materials; and material selection tests, based on a dynamic state, for consumption quantity and distribution, surface temperature and heat flow, measurement of arc spot generating critical current and electrode lowering voltage, etc.. In the research on the MHD generation system, examinations were carried out on the position of MHD generation as a total system, as well as on a system of a practical plant, MHD generation for peak load, superconducting magnet, etc. In addition, examinations were also conducted on the Mark 7 calculation, Mark 8 plan, surveys on overseas trend, etc. (NEDO)
Preliminary project definition for long duration. Tests of coal fired MHD generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van der Laken, R.A.
1992-01-01
In its final report the Faraday Working Group recommended the CEC amongst others to explore the possibility of a long duration test of a 'state-of-the-art', MHD-generator in order to remove uncertainties concerning the lifetime and availability of such a generator design. The duration of the test should be several thousands of hours, considerably more than the duration tests carried out until now. The scope of the present study is to prepare a project definition document for a long duration test of a coal fired, state-of-the-art MHD-generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1973-08-01
This report covers the MHD power generation research and development project which has been under way for 7 years since fiscal 1966, and contains guidelines to follow in the next 3 years during which studies will continue toward the consummation of the project. Subjected to research and development under this project are the development of superconductive magnets and helium refrigeration/liquefaction equipment, clarification of the power generation characteristics of the 1,000kW-class MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generator and of a test machine designed for a long-term operation, etc. Since they contain many basic studies, the efforts are being exerted primarily by the Electrotechnical Laboratory. In the research and development of MHD power generation characteristics, a power generation experiment is conducted through oxygen combustion in a hot wall channel, with the combustor and insulation against the Hall voltage improved. In this test, a maximum output of 1,182kW is achieved under the conditions of a flow rate of 2.9kg/s, a thermal input of 24.6MW, and a flux density of 3.2T. Since there are some problems to solve in connection with the stability of MHD power generation characteristics, durability of the MHD power generation channel, characteristics of heat exchanger system, measures for NOx reduction, etc., some more deliberation is necessary before taking the next research and development step. (NEDO)
3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, W.; Chang, Z.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.Y.
1996-01-01
The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented; high-β disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code, ω *i stabilization and nonlinear island saturation of TAE mode using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code, and unstructured mesh MH3D ++ code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree which agree well with experimental data
Design of an Open-Cycle, Vortex MHD Generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thalimer, J. R.; Kurtzrock, R. C.; Simons, W. H.; Bienstock, D. [Pittsburgh Coal Research Center, US Bureau Of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hughes, W. F. [Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
1968-11-15
The US Bureau of Mines has built a vortex MHD generator which combines the combustor-nozzle-duct combination into one integral unit. The vortex MHD generator consists of a cyclone burner, 7.5 in. diameter, 21 in. in length, with the inner wall used as one electrode together with a coaxial centre electrode. Power is obtained by impressing an axial field of 3000 G from an air solenoid magnet. Electrical output is expected to be one kilowatt. For the initial runs natural gas will be burned in oxygen-enriched, preheated air with a subsequent change to coal as a fuel. A theoretical analysis has been completed which predicts the velocity profiles and the electrical output characteristics of the generator. This analysis assumes variations in the radial and axial directions for all variables, steady state inviscid flow, constant electrical conductivity and a small magnetic Reynolds number. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baryshev, Yu.V.; Morozov, V.N.
1988-01-01
It is shown that MHD turbulence can be generated by collisionless shock waves due to anisotropy of the pressure behind the front of the reverse sock at the hot spot of a powerful radio galaxy. The energy density of the MHD turbulence generated behind the shock front is estimated. Analysis of the theoretical studies and experimental data on collisionless shock waves in the solar wind indicates that an important part is played by streams of ions reflected by the shock fronts, the streams generating plasma and MHD turbulence in the region ahead of the front. The extension of these ideas to shock waves in powerful radio galaxies must be made with care because of the great difference between the parameters of the shock waves in the two cases
Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Liquid Metal MHD Power Generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elliott, D. G.; Cerini, D. J.; Hays, L. G.; Weinberg, E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)
1966-11-15
Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power generation for space is studied. Closed- loop circulation of liquid metal without moving mechanical parts, and generation of electric power from the circulating metal, have been investigated analytically and experimentally, and the attainable cycle efficiencies have been calculated. Recent literature has pointed out the possibility of efficient a.c. generators with liquid metal as the working fluid, and this type of generator is under study. Analysis indicates that efficiencies up to 65% are attainable in a travelling-wave induction generator at the available liquid metal velocities of 100-200 m/sec, provided the generator has a length/gap ratio of no more than 50 for low friction loss, has an electrical length of no more than three wavelengths for low winding loss, and has end-effect compensation for cancelling finite-length effects in the power-generating region. The analysis leading to these conclusions is presented. The type of end-effect correction being studied is the ''compensating-pole'' technique in which an oscillating magnetic field is applied to the fluid entering and leaving the generator to make the flux linkages within the generator the same as those in a rotating or ''infinite'' generator. An experimental one-wavelength generator employing compensating poles has been fabricated, and empty-channel magnetic field measurements have been completed in preparation for tests with NaK. Two types of field measurements were made: d.c. measurements to determine the field profile as a function of phase angle and a.c. measurements to investigate the synchronization of the compensating poles with the travelling wave. The d.c. results showed that the flux linkages in the power generating region can be held close to those in a rotating machine, and the a.c. results showed that the compensating poles can be accurately synchronized with the travelling wave through transformer coupling. The component efficiencies from the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1983-03-01
'Research on MHD generation system' was implemented by its expert committee in the electric joint study group, with the results of fiscal 1982 reported. This year is the final year of this research; therefore, reexamination was made from the practical standpoint on the R and D of coal fired MHD generation, evaluating the present technological level as well as clarifying the development procedures, with proposals made as to the R and D from now on. The present technological level in the practicability is still in the basic stage, where the essential problem is the development of combustors, air heaters and generation channels in particular. An examination was conducted for the problems, procedures and period of the development for each component equipment, with the results provided as materials for studying the path to the experimental plant of 100 MW heat input. In the method of proceeding with the R and D in the future, it was decided as essential, in order to enter the stage of the experimental plant from the element technology development, that R and D is carried out on the unestablished component technology, making sure that no excessive risk is taken in scaling up to the next stage. (NEDO)
MHD instability studies in ISX-B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pare, V.K.; Dunlap, J.L.; Navarro, A.P.; Burris, R.D.
1979-01-01
MHD instabilities in Ohmically and beam heated ISX-B plasmas have been studied using collimated x-ray and Mirnov loop diagnostics. The diagnostic systems will be described and the instability signals will be illustrated for a variety of discharges. The latter will include those observed in connection with low and high β operation, density clamping, pellet injection, and deliberate introduction of toroidal field ripple
Some Fluid Dynamic Effects in Large-Scale MHD Generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hunt, J. C.R. [University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom)
1966-10-15
At the present time we are unable to carry out a complete analysis of the fluid dynamics and electrodynamics of an MHD generator. However, various aspects of the behaviour of an MHD generator may be examined by the use of simplified models, for example: (1) one-dimensional gas dynamics (Louis et al. 1964); (2) the current distribution can be found if the velocity is assumed constant across the duct (Witalis, 1965); (3) the skin friction and heat transfer to the walls can be calculated by boundary layer analysis if the flow is assumed to be laminar (Kerrebrock, 1961), and (4) a complete description of the velocity and current distribution across the duct can be given if the flow is assumed to be uniform, laminar, incompressible and not varying in the flow direction (Hunt and Stewartson, 1965). Taken together, these and other models will enable us to describe most of the effects in an MHD generator. In this paper another simplification is considered in which the electromagnetic forces are assumed to be much larger than the inertial forces. The ratio of these two forces is measured by the parameter, S = aB{sup 2}{sub 0}d/pU, where o is the conductivity, B{sub 0} the magnetic field, d the width of the duct, p the density and U the mean velocity. Thus S >> 1. We also assume that the magnetic Reynolds number is very much less than one. In the largest experimental generators now being built S {approx} 2 . Thus, though the results of this model are not immediately applicable, they should indicate the effects of increasing the magnetic field strength and the size of MHD generators. When S >> 1, one can can consider the duct to be divided into 2 regions: (1) a core region where electromagnetic forces are balanced by the pressure gradient and where inertial as well as viscous forces are negligible, and (2) boundary layers on the walls where again inertial forces are negligible but where the viscous, electromagnetic and pressure forces are of the same order. We show how it is
High pressure gas driven liquid metal MHD homopolar generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Yasuyuki
1988-01-01
A liquid metal MHD homopolar generator is proposed to be used as a high repetition rate pulsed power supply. In the generator, the thermal energy stored in a high pressure gas (He) reservoir is rapidly converted into kinetic energy of a rotating liquid metal (NaK) cylinder which is contracted by a gas driven annular free piston. The rotational kinetic energy is converted into electrical energy by making use of the homopolar generator principle. The conversion efficiency is calculated to be 47% in generating electrical energy of 20 kJ/pulse (1.7 MW peak power) at a repetition rate of 7 Hz. From the viewpoint of energy storage, the high pressure gas reservoir with a charging pressure of 15 MPa is considered to ''electrically'' store the energy at a density of 10 MJ/m 3 . (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1984-03-01
Evaluation was conducted concerning R and D on magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) generation, with proposals made for the future R and D. As a result of the experimental operation and studies of the Mark 7 machine for MHD generation, a cold wall type generation channel was found promising in the long-term durability under MHD generation conditions. In addition, R and D was conducted on the exhaust gas control system that fulfilled an environmental standard, seed recovery method, grasp of seed coagulation state, etc. The R and D on element technologies were carried out along with the R and D of the Mark 7 and played a role in the backup of its experiment. MHD generation presents a large number of attractive characteristics, with its development expected in the future. However, it seems too early to immediately move on to the next step. Examinations should be made on such matters as comparisons with various kinds of new power generation systems using coal, trends in foreign countries particularly the U-500 project of the Soviet Union, the ideal system for more efficient development, and possibility of international cooperation. (NEDO)
3D simulation studies of tokamak plasmas using MHD and extended-MHD models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, W.; Chang, Z.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.Y.; Pomphrey, N.; Sugiyama, L.E.
1997-01-01
The M3D (Multi-level 3D) tokamak simulation project aims at the simulation of tokamak plasmas using a multi-level tokamak code package. Several current applications using MHD and Extended-MHD models are presented; high-β disruption studies in reversed shear plasmas using the MHD level MH3D code, ω *i stabilization and nonlinear island rotation studies using the two-fluid level MH3D-T code, studies of nonlinear saturation of TAE modes using the hybrid particle/MHD level MH3D-K code, and unstructured mesh MH3D ++ code studies. In particular, three internal mode disruption mechanisms are identified from simulation results which agree well with experimental data
SCMS-1, Superconducting Magnet System for an MHD generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zenkevich, V.B.; Kirenin, I.A.; Tovma, V.A.
1977-01-01
The research and development effort connected with the building of the superconducting magnet systems for MHD generators at the Institute for High Temperatures of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences included the designing, fabrication and testing of the superconducting magnet system for an MHD generator (SCMS-1), producing a magnetic field up to 4 Tesla in a warm bore tube 300 mm in diameter and 1000 mm long (the nonuniformity of the magnetic field in the warm bore did not exceed +-5%. The superconducting magnet system is described. The design selected consisted of a dipole, saddle-form coil, wound around a tube. The cooling of the coils is of the external type with helium access to each layer of the winding. For winding of the superconducting magnet system a 49-strand cable was used consisting of 42 composition conductors, having a diameter of 0.3 mm each, containing six superconducting strands with a niobium-titanium alloy base (the superconducting strands were 70 microns in diameter), and seven copper conductors of the same diameter as the composite conductors. The cable is made monolithic with high purity indium and insulated with lavsan fiber. The cable diameter with insulation is 3.5 mm
Experimental Evaluation of MHD Generators Operating at High Hall Coefficients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barthelemy, R.R.; Stephan, B.G.; Cooper, R.F.
1966-01-01
The experimental evaluation of such open-cycle MHD generator operation, particularly at large values of the Hall parameter and Mach number, is scarce. A flexible combustion-driven MHD generator test facility is being constructed to investigate various generator-operating parameters, generator configurations and designs, and component materials. The plasma source is a combustion chamber in which toluene, or another suitable fuel, is burned with gaseous oxygen diluted with nitrogen. Potassium hydroxide seed is injected with the fuel to produce the necessary plasma conductivity. The gas stream is accelerated in a supersonic nozzle and then flows through the channel. The Hall channel is constructed of water-cooled Inconel rings suitably grooved for the zirconia electrode material. The rings are insulated from each other with Teflon spacers which are shielded from the high temperature gas by a layer of alumina refractory. The channel consists of 54 water-cooled rings assembled in three independent sections. Provisions for instrumentation consist of 15 points for static pressure measurement along the nozzle, channel and diffuser; 20 thermocouple measurements; 3 split rings for transverse current measurements; a voltmeter panel for all 54 electrodes; and all necessary fluid and electrical monitoring instruments. The channel is followed by a diffuser in which some of the dynamic pressure of the gas stream is recovered. The magnet is an iron core design with coils wound of hollow conductor to permit of water-cooling for high power operation. The magnet can operate at field strengths of up to 23 kG. Details of the test programme planned for the generator (commissioning at the end of 1966) are given. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niemann, R.C.; Mataya, K.F.; Smith, R.P.; McWilliams, D.A.; Borden, R.; Streeter, M.H.; Wickson, R.; Privalov, N.P.
1978-01-01
In order to facilitate the rapid development of MHD technology for the generation of electrical energy, the U.S. and U.S.S.R. are jointly conducting research within the framework of the Program of Scientific and Technical Cooperation. The Institute for High Temperature (IVTAN) of the U.S.S.R. has designed and fabricated a special MHD facility which uses as its base much of the equipment of the existing U-25 Facility. The new MHD fow train consisting of a combustor, magnet, channel, and diffuser is named U-25B. The U.S. has provided a superconducting magnet system for the U-25B MHD Facility. As a result of these joint efforts, a unique and broad range of experimental test conditions similar to those that will exist in operation of commercial MHD generators has been created. The United States Superconducting Magnet System (U.S. SCMS) was designed, fabricated, and delivered to the U-25B Facility by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy. The following description focuses on the cryogenic-related aspects of the magnet system commissioning and operation in the U.S.S.R
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1982-03-01
'Research on MHD generation system' was implemented by its expert committee in the electric joint study group, with the results of fiscal 1981 reported. This year, technological reexamination was conducted for a 2,000 MWt commercial MHD generation plant, with evaluation carried out on the cost performance including the construction and operation cost. In addition, for the purpose of intermediate R and D towards the practicability, examination was also conducted on a system structure, concrete specifications of component element, cost of R and D including operation expenses for example, concerning an 100 MWt class experimental plant and a 500 MWt class plant. In the investigation of the overseas trend, information was summarized in detail on the experimental devices, combustors, generation channels, electrode materials, electrode phenomena, theoretical analyses, seeds, slag, component equipment, instrumental technologies, conceptual designs of generation plant, commercial plant, etc., in Soviet Union, China, Holland, India and EPRI, on the basis of the materials from the 19th MHD symposium held in UTSI and from the coal MHD specialist conference held in Sydney. (NEDO)
Iqbal, Z.; Mehmood, Zaffar; Ahmad, Bilal
2018-05-01
This paper concerns an application to optimal energy by incorporating thermal equilibrium on MHD-generalised non-Newtonian fluid model with melting heat effect. Highly nonlinear system of partial differential equations is simplified to a nonlinear system using boundary layer approach and similarity transformations. Numerical solutions of velocity and temperature profile are obtained by using shooting method. The contribution of entropy generation is appraised on thermal and fluid velocities. Physical features of relevant parameters have been discussed by plotting graphs and tables. Some noteworthy findings are: Prandtl number, power law index and Weissenberg number contribute in lowering mass boundary layer thickness and entropy effect and enlarging thermal boundary layer thickness. However, an increasing mass boundary layer effect is only due to melting heat parameter. Moreover, thermal boundary layers have same trend for all parameters, i.e., temperature enhances with increase in values of significant parameters. Similarly, Hartman and Weissenberg numbers enhance Bejan number.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welch, G.E.; Dugan, E.T.; Lear, W.E. Jr.; Appelbaum, J.G.
1990-01-01
A gas core nuclear reactor (GCR)/disk magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator direct closed Rankine space power system concept is described. The GCR/disk MHD generator marriage facilitates efficient high electric power density system performance at relatively high operating temperatures. The system concept promises high specific power levels, on the order of 1 kW e /kg. An overview of the disk MHD generator component magnetofluiddynamic and plasma physics theoretical modeling is provided. Results from a parametric design analysis of the disk MHD generator are presented and discussed
Numerical simulation of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow with internal heat generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bokade, Vipin; Bhandarkar, U.V.; Bodi, Kowsik
2016-01-01
A strong magnetic field is used to confine the plasma in a fusion reactor. This magnetic field also affects the flow of Lead-Lithium (breeder/coolant) in the breeding blanket. So it is important to study MHD flow of Lead-Lithium (Pb-Li). Open-source toolbox, OpenFOAM, is used to study single phase behaviour of Pb-Li. As the induced magnetic field is very small, Ni et al. electric potential algorithm is employed in OpenFOAM and validated with analytical results. This solver can also solve the temperature field with heat source term. Simulations are carried out in 2D straight channel for various values of Hartmann Number ranging from 100 to 5000 and velocity profile, temperature, current density and pressure drop are studied. (author)
Generation of sheet currents by high frequency fast MHD waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Núñez, Manuel, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.es
2016-07-01
The evolution of fast magnetosonic waves of high frequency propagating into an axisymmetric equilibrium plasma is studied. By using the methods of weakly nonlinear geometrical optics, it is shown that the perturbation travels in the equatorial plane while satisfying a transport equation which enables us to predict the time and location of formation of shock waves. For plasmas of large magnetic Prandtl number, this would result into the creation of sheet currents which may give rise to magnetic reconnection and destruction of the original equilibrium. - Highlights: • Regular solutions of quasilinear hyperbolic systems may evolve into shocks. • The shock location is found for high frequency fast MHD waves. • The result is applied to static axisymmetric equilibria. • The previous process may lead to the formation of sheet currents and destruction of the equilibrium.
Radiation heat transfer within an open-cycle MHD generator channel
Delil, A. A. M.
1983-05-01
Radiation heat transfer in an MHD generator was modeled using the Sparrow and Cess model for radiation in an emitting, absorbing and scattering medium. The resulting general equations can be considerably reduced by introducing simplifying approximations for the channel and MHD gas properties. The simplifications lead to an engineering model, which is very useful for one-dimensional channel flow approximation. The model can estimate thermo-optical MHD gas properties, which can be substituted in the energy equation. The model considers the contribution of solid particles in the MHD gas to radiation heat transfer, considerable in coal-fired closed cycle MHD generators. The modeling is applicable also for other types of flow at elevated temperatures, where radiation heat transfer is an important quantity.
Gasdynamic performance in relation to the power extraction of an MHD generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Massee, P.
1983-01-01
A study of the gasdynamical processes in MHD generators has been made both theoretically and experimentally. A core flow and boundary layer model has been developed. In order to obtain a fast computer code which can be used for engineering purposes the quasi-one-dimensional approximation is used. It is shown in this thesis that the boundary layers have to be calculated from integral equations describing momentum, kinetic energy and stagnation enthalpy respectively, when the MHD effects in the boundary layers are properly taken into account. Calculations with the developed core flow and boundary layer model have shown that the electrical power output is limited by the design of the existing facility and have indicated possibilities to circumvent this limitation. (Auth.)
Electrode materials for an open-cycle MHD generator channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Telegin, G.P.; Romanov, A.I.; Akopov, F.A.; Gokhshtejn, Ya.P.; Rekov, A.I.
1983-01-01
The results of investigations, technological developments and tests of high temperature materials for MHD electrodes on the base of zirconium dioxide, stabilized with oxides of calcium, yttrium, neodymium, and dioxide of cerium, chromites, tamping masses from stabilized dioxide of zirconium, cermets are considered. It is established that binary and ternary solutions on the base of zirconium dioxide and alloyed chromites are the perspective materials for the MHD electrodes on pure fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tempelmeyer, K.E.; Sokolov, Y.N.
1979-04-01
The third joint test with a Soviet U-25B MHD generator and a US superconducting magnet system (SCMS) was conducted in the Soviet U-25B Facility. The primary objectives of the 3rd test were: (1) to operate the facility and MHD channel over a wider range of test parameters, and (2) to study the performance of all components and systems of the flow train at increased mass flow rates of combustion products (up to 4 kg/s), at high magnetic-field induction (up to 5 T), and high values of the electrical field in the MHD generator. The third test has demonstrated that all components and systems of the U-25B facility performed reliably. The electric power generated by the MHD generaor reached a maximum of 575 kW during this test. The MHD generator was operated under electrical loading conditions for 9 hours, and the combustor for a total of approximately 14 hours. Very high Hall fields (2.1 kV/m) were produced in the MHD channel, with a total Hall voltage of 4.24 kV. A detailed description is given of (1) performance of all components and systems of the U-25B facility, (2) analysis of the thermal, gasdynamic, and electrical characteristics of the MHD generator, (3) results of plasma diagnostic studies, (4) studies of vibrational characteristics of the flow train, (5) fluctuation of electrodynamic and gasdynamic parameters, (6) interaction of the MHD generator with the superconducting magnet, and (7) an operational problem, which terminated the test
Insulating wall materials for MHD electric power generating channels, 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Kazuo; Okubo, Tsutomu; Maeda, Minoru
1984-01-01
The various kinds of ceramic specimens were soaked in molten K 2 SO 4 at 1300 0 C for 300 hrs, the changes in porosity, volume and weight before and after the tests (hereafter, referred as the amount of change) were measured and the corrosion resistance was examined from the calculated corrosion velocity. 1) MgO and MgO-Al 2 O 3 System. Reaction products were not found, the amount of change was small, and the electrical resistivity and corrosion resistance were good. 2) MgO-BN, ZrO 2 -BN and MgO-SrZrO 3 -BN System. Of all these systems, BN in the specimens disappeared, and it turned into B 2 O 3 or other boron compounds. This reaction caused the cracking and collapse of the specimens. 3) MgO-Si 3 N 4 and MgAl 2 O 4 -Si 3 N 4 System. The specimens were attacked by molten K 2 SO 4 , resulting in the large amount of change, and the reaction layer was formed on the surface. 4) Al 2 O 3 -AlN-Si 3 N 4 System. Although the specimens were attacked by molten K 2 SO 4 , the dense specimens with about 40 mol % Si 3 N 4 showed a very small amount of change, and the deterioration of electrical resistivity was small. The durability of MHD power generating operation might be improved by further controlling the production process and composition. (author)
Influence of slag-seed interaction on MHD generator performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luongo, C.A.; Kruger, C.M.
1984-01-01
An overview of past work in the field of slag/seed interaction is presented. The ideal solution model for the slag and its failure to lead to accurate predictions are discussed. The non-ideal solution model is introduced. Data on potassium vapor pressure over slags taken at the National Bureau of Standards and Montana State University were compiled and compared. Large disagreement between these sources was observed. The shortcomings of the complete thermodynamic equilibrium models led to over predictions in the fraction of seed lost to the slag. A model including non-equilibrium effects is introduced. The heat/mass transfer analogy is invoked to calculate the mass transfer rate of potassium towards the slag. Using typical conditions for a large MHD generator, an integral method is used to evaluate the potassium concentration boundary layer thickness. The calculations are performed with the slag runoff (ash rejection) as a parameter. The increase in boundary layer resistance due to potassium depletion is calculated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davison, J.E.; Eldershaw, C.E.
1992-01-01
This document forms the final report on a study of a coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)/steam electric power generation system carried out by British Coal Corporation for the Commission of the European Communities. The study objective was to provide mass and energy balances and overall plant efficiency predictions for MHD to assist the Commission in their evaluation of advanced power generation technologies. In early 1990 the British Coal Corporation completed a study for the Commission in which a computer flowsheet modelling package was used to predict the performance of a conceptual air blown MHD plant. Since that study was carried out increasing emphasis has been placed on the possible need to reduce CO 2 emissions to counter the so-called greenhouse effect. Air blown MHD could greatly reduce CO 2 emissions per KWh by virtue of its high thermal efficiency. However, if even greater reductions in CO 2 emissions were required the CO 2 produced by coal combustion may have to be disposed of, for example into the deep ocean or underground caverns. To achieve this at minimum cost a concentrated CO 2 flue gas would be required. This could be achieved in an MHD plant by using a mixture of high purity oxygen and recycled CO 2 flue gas in the combustor. To assess this plant concept the European Commission awarded British Coal a contract to produce performance predictions using the access computer program
Numerical study of MHD supersonic flow control
Ryakhovskiy, A. I.; Schmidt, A. A.
2017-11-01
Supersonic MHD flow around a blunted body with a constant external magnetic field has been simulated for a number of geometries as well as a range of the flow parameters. Solvers based on Balbas-Tadmor MHD schemes and HLLC-Roe Godunov-type method have been developed within the OpenFOAM framework. The stability of the solution varies depending on the intensity of magnetic interaction The obtained solutions show the potential of MHD flow control and provide insights into for the development of the flow control system. The analysis of the results proves the applicability of numerical schemes, that are being used in the solvers. A number of ways to improve both the mathematical model of the process and the developed solvers are proposed.
Pulsed power sources based on MHD generators (A state-of-art review)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, A.K.; Venkatramani, N.; Rohatgi, V.K.
1986-01-01
pulsed Power sources are finding increased applications in powering plasma experiments, CTF devices, investigations of structure of earth's crust or self-contained compact power supplies for military applications. This report reviews the development of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power systems for pulsed power applications. The major critical components, which are analysed in detail, include the combustor, high energy fuel development, high field magnet, high power density channel and power conditioning unit. The report concludes that the MHD research has now reached a stage, where it is possible to design and achieve requisite performance from short duration high power compact MHD generators. (author)
Transient behavior of high-interaction MHD generator following external loading faults
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, Motoo
1983-01-01
Transient behavior consequent to external loading faults is studied numerically on four configurations of high-interaction MHD generators-subsonic Faraday, supersonic Faraday, subsonic diagonal and supersonic diagonal, to provide a variable data base to serve in selecting the type of large-scale MHD generator. Time-dependent one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved with the 1969 MacCormack method, in combination with the Maxwell equations and the generalized Ohm's law. An artificial viscosity term is added to the Navier-Stokes equations to maintain numerical stability. It is shown that, with both supersonic and subsonic flows, the Faraday generator is liable to sustain more harmful effect from short than from open faults of the external loading circuit. For large-scale diagonal types, on the other hand, open faults are more dangerous. With subsonic flow, a shock wave propagating upstream is induced by short fault in the Faraday, and by open fault in the diagonal-type generator. In the case of supersonic flow, propagation upstream of the disturbance is completely obstructed. Larger electrical stress is foreseen for Faraday than for diagonal configuration. (author)
Two dimensional analysis of MHD generator by means of equivalent circuit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Masaharu; Umoto, Juro
1975-01-01
The authors report on the method analyzing generally the MHD generator by means of the equivalent circuit including the negative resistance. At first, they divide the duct space into many space elements, and for each space element they derive the fundamental equivalent four-terminal circuit which satisfies the two-dimensional Ohm's law. Next, they make an attempt to apply the equivalent circuits to the typical MHD generators such as diagonal, Faraday and Hall generators considering the boundary layer in the duct and the wall leakage current. Using their analysis, the current density, Joul's heat, generated and output electrical powers, electrical efficiency etc. in the generator can be fairly easily calculated. (auth.)
Experiments on MHD Generation with ETL Mark II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mori, F.; Fushimi, K.; Ikeda, S. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Tokyo (Japan)
1968-11-15
The experimental results of the ETL Mark II combustion-driven Faraday-type MHD generator are described. The cross-sectional area of the generator duct is 9 x 11 cm{sup 2} at the inlet and 9 x 25 cm{sup 2} at the outlet. The insulating wall of the duct is made of magnesia and the electrode of carbon. There are 30 electrode pairs. The length of the duct is 120 cm and the width of an electrode is 3 cm. The combustion chamber is of cylindrical shape, and from the bottom of the chamber the fuel, the seeding material and the oxidizer are injected. The fuel is diesel oil and the seeding material potassium hydroxide dissolved in methyl alcohol. The oxidizer is oxygen, but air or oxygen-enriched air can be used. In the latter case, the air is pre-heated up to about 1700 Degree-Sign K by a pebble heater containing alumina pebbles to about 7 tons in weight. The heater, which incorporates a propane burner, supplies the pre-heated air to the combustion chamber at a pressure of 5 atm(g) and at a rate of 2.6 kg/s for a period of 5 minutes. The maximum temperature of the air is 1700 Degree-Sign K at the outlet of the heater and the temperature falls by 20 Degree-Sign K after 5 minutes. If pre-heated air (or oxygen-enriched air) is used as the oxidizer, only the methyl alcohol containing the dissolved potassium hydroxide is used as the fuel. The electromagnet, which has an iron core of about 80 tons weight, can generate a maximum flux density of 3.4 T with an air gap of 16 cm. The exciting ampere-turns of the copper coil are then 1.4 x 10{sup 6} AT. The experimental procedure with the generator is as follows. The combustion chamber and the generator duct are heated to about 1300 Degree-Sign K by the combustion products of propane and air, and then the electromagnet is excited and the fuel, oxidizer and seeding material are injected. The load.resistances of each of the 30 electrode pairs are varied and the output voltages and the currents of every second electrode pair are measured
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Kiyasatfar
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In the present study, simulation of steady state, incompressible and fully developed laminar flow has been conducted in a magneto hydrodynamic (MHD pump. The governing equations are solved numerically by finite-difference method. The effect of the magnetic flux density and current on the flow and temperature distributions in a MHD pump is investigated. The obtained results showed that controlling the flow and the temperature is possible through the controlling of the applied current and the magnetic flux. Furthermore, the effects of the magnetic flux density and current on entropy generation in MHD pump are considered. Our presented numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data showed in literature.
Discharges in the inlet region of a noble gas MHD generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borghi, C.A.
1982-01-01
In this work the onset of the development of the non-equilibrium conductivity in the entrance region of a noble gas MHD generator is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. At low electron densities the discharge seems to be affected by a non-Maxwellian electron distribution. In Chapter II a self-consistent model of a stationary discharge in an Ar-Cs mixture at atmospheric pressure, is set up. It includes the possibility of deviations from a Maxwellian electron energy distribution. The model allows to calculate at what discharge parameters deviations from the Maxwellian electron distribution will become important. In Chapter III the relaxation of the plasma to a new equilibrium situation following a sudden change in the electron thermal energy is calculated by a model which can take radiation and a non-Maxwellian distribution into account. In Chapter IV an Ar-Cs discharge experiment is described with plasma parameters similar to those present in the entrance region of the generator. The ionization relaxation process in a noble gas MHD generator is experimentally studied and described in Chapter V. In this chapter the relaxation ionization region with and without pre-ionization is investigated. Current voltage characteristics are obtained by varying the applied voltage or the external load. The results are confronted with the theoretical results of the non-Maxwellian model developed in Chapter II. Conclusions of this work are drawn in Chapter VI. (Auth.)
Effects of induced magnetic field on large scale pulsed MHD generator with two phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, M.; Koshiba, Y.; Matsushita, T.
2004-01-01
A large pulsed MHD generator 'SAKHALIN' was constructed in Russia (the former Soviet-Union) and operated with solid fuels. The 'SAKHALIN' with the channel length of 4.5 m could demonstrate the electric power output of 510 MW. The effects of induced magnetic field and two phase flow on the shock wave within the 'SAKHALIN' generator have been studied by time dependent, one dimensional analyses. It has been shown that the magnetic Reynolds number is about 0.58 for Run No. 1, and the induced magnetic flux density is about 20% at the entrance and exit of the MHD channel. The shock wave becomes stronger when the induced magnetic field is taken into account, when the operation voltage becomes low. The working gas plasma contains about 40% of liquid particles (Al 2 O 3 ) in weight, and the present analysis treats the liquid particles as another gas. In the case of mono-phase flow, the sharp shock wave is induced when the load voltage becomes small such as 500 V with larger Lorentz force, whereas in the case of two phase flow, the shock wave becomes less sharp because of the interaction with liquid particles
MHD oxidant intermediate temperature ceramic heater study
Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Saari, D. P.; Marksberry, C. L.
1981-09-01
The use of three types of directly fired ceramic heaters for preheating oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1144K was investigated. The three types of ceramic heaters are: (1) a fixed bed, periodic flow ceramic brick regenerative heater; (2) a ceramic pebble regenerative heater. The heater design, performance and operating characteristics under conditions in which the particulate matter is not solidified are evaluated. A comparison and overall evaluation of the three types of ceramic heaters and temperature range determination at which the particulate matter in the MHD exhaust gas is estimated to be a dry powder are presented.
A MHD channel study for the ETF conceptual design
Wang, S. Y.; Staiger, P. J.; Smith, J. M.
1981-01-01
The procedures and computations used to identify an MHD channel for a 540 mW(I) EFT-scale plant are presented. Under the assumed constraints of maximum E(x), E(y), J(y) and Beta; results show the best plant performance is obtained for active length, L is approximately 12 M, whereas in the initial ETF studies, L is approximately 16 M. As MHD channel length is reduced from 16 M, the channel enthalpy extraction falls off, slowly. This tends to reduce the MHD power output; however, the shorter channels result in lower heat losses to the MHD channel cooling water which allows for the incorporation of more low pressure boiler feedwater heaters into the system and an increase in steam plant efficiency. The net result of these changes is a net increase in the over all MHD/steam plant efficiency. In addition to the sensitivity of various channel parameters, the trade-offs between the level of oxygen enrichment and the electrical stress on the channel are also discussed.
Resistive MHD studies of TFTR discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, M.H.; Phillips, M.W.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Budny, R.V.
1991-01-01
MHD instabilities, thought to be resistive in character, are frequently observed in the supershot operating regime of TFTR (var-epsilon β p ≤ 0.7). These instabilities are always accompanied by substantial degradation of the confinement. Similarly of interest are recent experiments at much larger β p (var-epsilon β p ≤ 1.6), achieved through ramping the current during the beam heating phase of the discharge. In this latter regime the confinement can exceed three times the corresponding L-mode value and the β value normalized to I/aB can be as large as 4.7. Representative discharges from each of these operating regimes have been analyzed using a linear resistive MHD stability code with equilibrium pressure and q profiles obtained initially from the TRANSP analysis code. The main difference between the two types of discharge, as far as stability is concerned is shown to be the shape of the current density profile. The sensitivity to the assumed parameters is discussed. 1 ref
Numerical study of the axisymmetric ideal MHD stability of Extrap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benda, M.
1993-04-01
A numerical study of the free-boundary axisymmetric (n=0) ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) motions of the Extrap device is presented. The dependence of stability on current profiles in the plasma and currents in the external conductors is investigated. Results are shown for linear growth-rates and nonlinear saturation amplitudes and their dependence on plasma radius as well as on the conducting shell radius. A method combined of two different algorithms has been developed and tested. The interior region of the plasma is simulated by means of a Lagrangian Finite Element Method (FEM) for ideal magnetohydrodynamics, The method is based on a nonlinear radiation principle for the Lagrangian description of ideal MHD. The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is used together with the Lagrangian FEM to simulate nonlinear motion of an ideal MHD plasma behaviour in a vacuum region under the influence of external magnetic fields. 31 refs
Variation in excess oxidant factor in combustion products of MHD generator. [Natural gas fuel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pinkhasik, M S; Mironov, V D; Zakharko, Yu A; Plavinskii, A I
1977-12-01
Methods and difficulties associated with determining the excess oxidant factor for natural gas-fired MHD generators are discussed. The measurement of this factor is noted to be essential for the optimization of the combustion chamber and operation of MHD generators. A gas analyzer of electrochemical type is considered as a quick - response sensor capable of analyzing the composition of the combustion products and thus determining accurately the excess oxidant factor. The principle of operation of this sensor is discussed and the dependence of the electrochemical sensor emf on excess oxidant factor is shown. Three types of sensors are illustrated and tables of test results are provided.
Subsonic Constant-Area MHD Generator Experiments with the CNEN Blow-Down Loop Facility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertolini, E.; Gasparotto, M.; Gay, P.; Toschi, R. [Laboratorio Conversione Diretta, CNEN, Frascati (Italy)
1968-11-15
The design of the facility, described at the Salzburg Symposium, was somewhat modified following the results of the commissioning tests; the changes were mainly concerned with the thermal insulation, duct materials and caesium recovery system. The facility went into full operation in March 1967 and since then two series of MHD experiments, a total of twenty-six runs, have been performed. During the MHD runs the facility has been working mostly under the following operating conditions: stagnation temperature 1500 to 1800 Degree-Sign K; stagnation pressure-1 to 3 atm. abs.; mass How 50 to 150 g/sec; seeding 2 to 5 at.%- ; magnetic field 0 to 45 k G; Mach number 0.4 to 0.8; Hall parameter up to 6. The main purpose of the experiments was to study the performance of relatively small generators (cross-section 3 x 5 cm{sup 2}, length 8-20 cm) both when the non-equilibrium ionization is expected to be negligible and when it should be, in a very idealized model, relevant. As a first step, efforts were made to ascertain whether any of the unsatisfactory results reported in Salzburg, both for equilibrium and non-equilibrium generators, stemmed not from the basic functioning principle of an MHD small-scale generator but rather from some inadequacy of the experimental apparatus. Therefore particular attention was paid to: ceasium vaporization and mixing with helium; plasma insulation from ground; electrical insulation from ground and from each other of those electrically conductive parts of the facility which may, during the functioning, come into contact with the plasma; temperature control of the duct; purity level; duct materials; measurement system and control. In the equilibrium regime the Faraday field measured is very close to the ideal value and it reaches 80 V/cm (400 volts between electrodes); the Hall field still remains below the ideal value uB{beta}L (50% at {beta} = 3). The maximum Hall field was about 35 V/cm for a corresponding voltage of 600 V. Preionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapron, H.
1976-01-01
The investigations of pulsation in the MHD generators are described. The influence of termodynamic parameters pulsation on electric parameters of the MHD generator is presented using the method of little disturbances. The results of this investigation are formulas for momentary and average values of: electrical conductivity, the Hall parameter, current density and intensity of electrical field. Analitical investigations were verified by the experiments. (author)
Observation of voltage fluctuations in a superconducting magnet during MHD power generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, R.P.; Niemann, R.C.; Kraimer, M.R.; Zinneman, T.E.
1978-01-01
Fluctuating voltage signals on the potential taps of the ANL 5.0 T MHD Superconducting Dipole Magnet have been observed during MHD power generation at the U-25B Facility at the High Temperature Institute (IVTAN) Moscow, USSR. Various other thermodynamic and electrical parameters of the U-25B flow train have been recorded, and statistical analysis concerning correlations between the phenomena with a view of discerning causal interdependence is in progress. Voltage fluctuations observed at the magnet terminals are analyzed with special emphasis on magnet stability
Arc damage characteristics of inter-anode insulators in MHD generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, Ken; Takano, Kiyonami
1990-01-01
The inter-anode arc caused by a Hall field is driven by a magnetic field into the anode-wall in an MHD generator, which limits the lifetime and performance of the generator. The arc damage to inter-anode insulators of an MHD generator has been studied experimentally, in order to obtain basic data for the design of the inter-anode insulation. The experiment was conducted using a pair of electrodes with an insulator between them. Arc currents was supplied from a DC power source and magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the arc current. Experimental parameters are the insulator thickness, arc current, magnetic field and insulator materials. Quartz glass, boron nitride, magnesia, alumina, silicon carbide, silicon nitride etc. were tested and evaluated. The following conclusions are evident from the experiments. Boron nitride and quartz glass are the most promising inter-anode insulators. Boron nitride has a higher arc voltage and longer cutting time than quartz glass, and it is the best material. Cutting time is approximately proportional to the -0.4 th power of the magnetic field. Loss of insulator is approximately proportional to the 0.7 th power of the arc current. The arc voltage increases linearly with the inter anode gap length. It also increases with magnetic field, but decreases with increase of arc current. An equation which approximates to such relations of arc voltage versus inter-anode gap length, arc current and magnetic field has been obtained. The standard deviation of the error of this equation is 12 % for boron nitride and 15 % for quartz glass. (author)
Tests and studies of USSR materials at the US coal burning MHD facility UTSI-2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Telegin, G P; Romanov, A I; Rekov, A I; Spiridonov, E G; Barodina, T I; Vysotsky, D A
1978-10-01
In accordance with the overall program of the US--USSR cooperation in the field of MHD power generation tests of Soviet electrode materials were conducted at the coal burning MHD facility UTSI-2 of the University of Tennessee Space Institute. The main purposes of the tests are evaluation of electrode materials behavior in the channel of the MHD generator operating with combustion products of coal containing ionizing alkali seed, study of thermal and physical stability of materials in the presence of corrosive slag, study of electrophysical characteristics of electrode materials when they are subjected to the passage of current through the plasma-slag-electrode system. Tests were conducted on electrodes made of silicon carbide doped with titanium and LaCrO/sub 3/--Cr cermet. Results are reported on the phase and chemical composition and structure of these two materials, their thermophysical and electrophysical properties, and the electrode fabrication methods. The MHD facility UTSI-2, where the tests were conducted is one of few utilizing actual coal as the fuel. A description of this facility is given, and its main operating parameters and the methods used to conduct electrode tests with and without an applied current are described.
Studies on the crossed flow type MHD turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hori, Toshihiro; Katsurai, Makoto
1981-01-01
The studies on crossed flow type MHD turbines were performed to improve its characteristics. Two-dimensional models were considered for the analytical studies. To compensate the edge effect of magnetic field, the magnetic field gradient by tapering was considered. An iron-core structure and an air-core structure were investigated. It was found that the ideal characteristics can be obtained when there is the tapered length more than one wave length. Various methods for the improvement of magnetic field were studied in the case of practical crossed flow type MHD turbines. The methods were the adjustment with an iron-core, and the adoption of a curved channel. It can be expected to obtain the internal efficiency of more than 70 percent, when the number of pole-pairs is more than 10 and the radius of curvature of a few times of rotor radius is given to a curved channel. (Kato, T.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, G.P.; Rohatgi, V.K.
1982-01-01
Following a simplified approach, an expression is derived for the gas-dynamic voltage drop in a finitely segmented Faraday-type combustion MHD generator, taking into account the non-uniform Hall parameter across the channel. Combining the electrical sheath voltage drop, discussed briefly, with the gas-dynamic voltage drop, the effect of a non-uniform Hall parameter on the electrode voltage drop is studied using the theoretical and experimental input parameters of the Indian MHD channel test. The condition for the validity of the usual assumption of uniform Hall parameter across the channel is pointed out. Analysis of the measured electrode voltage drop predicts the real gas conductivity in the core to be in the range of 60 to 75 per cent of the theoretically calculated core conductivity. (author)
End Effects on the Linear Induction MHD Generator Calculated by Two-Sided Laplace Transform
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Engeln, F.; Peschka, W. [Deutsche Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Institut fuer Energiewandlung und Elektrische Antriebe, Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)
1966-11-15
In induction MHD systems special problems occur where the flow enters or leaves the magnetic field. These problems are generally described as end effects. Large gradients of the magnetic field are present at the inlet and also at the outlet of an MHD induction engine, these generating electric current systems in the fluid which may spoil the performance characteristics of the generator due to the interaction with the primary field of the engine. The two-dimensional induction MHD generator of finite length, using a polyphase winding system to obtain a travelling magnetic field, is treated as a boundary value problem by two-sided Laplace transform. For simplicity incompressibility is assumed. The two- dimensional boundary value problem of the induction engine is solved for - {infinity} Less-Than-Over-Equal-To x Less-Than-Over-Equal-To {infinity}. x is parallel to the flow direction of the linear MHD generator. In the region 0 Less-Than-Over-Equal-To x Less-Than-Over-Equal-To L the magnetic travelling wave is sinusoidal with a cyclical frequency {omega} and a phase-velocity v{sub s}. At x = 0 the conducting incompressible working fluid enters the field region and leaves it at the point-x = L. Two mathematical methods can be used to solve the boundary value problem, the Fourier transform or the two-sided Laplace transform. The latter offers the advantage of representing a complex analytical function in the image space. Moreover, it is possible to obtain the characteristics of the generator in the image space (e. g. field configuration, power flow function, etc.). That implies a large simplification of mathematical treatment. The solution in the original space then is given by asymptotic expansion of the known image function. (author)
Ghasemi, Kasra; Siavashi, Majid
2017-11-01
MHD natural convection of Cu-water nanofluid in a square porous enclosure is investigated using a parallel LBM code, considering temperature dependence of viscosity and viscous dissipation. Effects of nanofluid concentration (φ = 0 - 0.12), Rayleigh (Ra =103 -106), Hartmann (Ha = 0-20) and porous-fluid thermal conductivity ratio (K∗ = 1-70) on heat transfer and entropy generation are investigated. It is shown that K∗ is a very important parameter, and porous media with low K∗ numbers can confine convection effects, but by increasing K∗ both conduction and convection effects can substantially improve. Also, magnetic field always has negative impact on Nu, however this impact can be controlled by φ and K∗. A magnetic instability has also observed in Ra = 104, and Nu exhibits a sinusoidal variation with Ha. It is proved that, depending on K∗, Ra and Ha values, use of nanofluid with porous media to enhance heat transfer can be either beneficial or detrimental. Also, for given K∗, Ra and Ha numbers an optimal φ exists to improve heat transfer. Finally, entropy generation study performed and results state that in low and high Ra values the thermal and frictional entropy generation are respectively dominant, while for moderate Ra they have the same order of magnitude.
Arc discharge characteristics of molten salts used in an MHD generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korenaga, Sadayoshi; Mohri, Motoichi.
1981-01-01
The seed arc discharge phenomena in an MHD generator were studied. The behavior of arc was observed, which was generated by using K 2 CO 3 and K 2 SO 4 heated up to 1150 degree C as cathodes and a water-cooled copper as an anode. The generated arcs were classified into 3 types, such as free spot arc (point arc), line emission arc (line arc) and plane arc. The estimated temperature of arc foot was lower than the boiling point of seed material. The relation between arc voltage and arc length and that between arc voltage and arc current were measured. From these data, the potential gradient of arc was obtained. The gradients were same for almost all materials of cathode. The potential drop at cathodes depended remarkably on the kinds of molten salt, and also depended on the shapes of cathodes. The evaporation rate of cathode materials was larger when the cathode potential drop was larger and the arc current was larger. (Kato, T.)
Entropy generation in MHD flow of a uniformly stretched vertical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper reports the analytical calculation of the entropy generation due to heat and mass transfer and fluid friction in steady state of a uniformly stretched vertical permeable surface with heat and mass diffusive walls, by solving analytically the mass, momentum, species concentration and energy balance equation, using ...
Study of MHD events initiated by pellet injection into T-10 plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuteev, B.; Khimchenko, L.; Krylov, S.; Pavlov, Y.; Pustovitov, V.; Sarychev, D.; Sergeev, V.; Skokov, V.; Timokhin, V.
2005-01-01
There are several events which might be responsible for ultra fast transport of heat and particles during pellet ablation stage in a tokamak. Those are jumps of transport coefficients, plasma drifts in the pellet vicinity and MHD events with time scale significantly shorter than the pellet ablation time. The role of the latter is still not very well understood due to a lack of studies. This paper is devoted to detailed study of the effects during the pellet ablation phase (∼ one millisecond) with main objective to determine the relation between pellet (material Li, C., KCl, size and velocity) and plasma parameters ( q-value a the pellet position, plasma density and temperature) which initiate microsecond MHD events in plasma. The pellets were injected into both into Ohmic and ECE heated plasmas (up to 3 MW) in the T-10 tokamak at various stages of the plasma discharge, in a wide range from the very beginning up to the post-disruption stage. It is observed that at some conditions a pellet ablates in the plasma without accompanying MHD events. This occurs at the highest plasma densities even if a pellet penetrates through q=1 magnetic surface. The ablation rate corresponds to NGSM in this case. Small scale events may occur near rational magnetic surfaces and the ablation rate fluctuations may be explained by reconnection. Both increase of the longitudinal heat flow due to plasma conventional from higher temperature region and growth of the electric field generation supra-thermal electrons may be responsible for the enhanced ablation. Large scale MHD events envelop a region inside q<3. It is observed that the MHD-cooled area is not poloidally symmetric. Mechanisms of the phenomena observed and their consequences on tokamak operation are discussed. (Author)
Linear and nonlinear instability theory of a noble gas MHD generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mesland, A.J.
1982-01-01
This thesis deals with the stability of the working medium of a seeded noble gas magnetohydrodynamic generator. The aim of the study is to determine the instability mechanism which is most likely to occur in experimental MHD generators and to describe its behaviour with linear and nonlinear theories. In chapter I a general introduction is given. The pertinent macroscopic basic equations are derived in chapter II, viz. the continuity, the momentum and the energy equation for the electrons and the heavy gas particles, consisting of the seed particles and the noble gas atoms. Chapter III deals with the linear plane wave analysis of small disturbances of a homogeneous steady state. The steady state is discussed in chapter IV. The values for the steady state parameters used for the calculations both for the linear analysis as for the nonlinear analysis are made plausible with the experimental values. Based on the results of the linear plane wave theory a nonlinear plane wave model of the electrothermal instability is introduced in chapter V. (Auth.)
Characteristics of Linear MHD Generators with One or a Few Loads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witalis, E.A.
1966-02-01
The theoretical performance of linear series segmented MHD generators with finite size electrodes and one or a few identical external loads is investigated. The analysis is an extension of our conformal mapping investigation previously reported. The electrical characteristics are evaluated as functions of the segmentation degree, the Hall parameter and the relative position of short-circuited electrodes. Special consideration is given to the influence of staggering the electrodes, i. e. shifting the relative positions of short-circuited electrodes. General electrical terminal characteristics, i. e. the full current-voltage relation, can not be obtained by the exact analytical method, which is applicable only to so-called design load conditions or infinitely long MHD channels. However, it is shown how the general properties can be explained qualitatively and calculated approximately by describing off-design modes of operation in terms of a fictitious 'effective' number of external loads
Characteristics of Linear MHD Generators with One or a Few Loads
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witalis, E A
1966-02-15
The theoretical performance of linear series segmented MHD generators with finite size electrodes and one or a few identical external loads is investigated. The analysis is an extension of our conformal mapping investigation previously reported. The electrical characteristics are evaluated as functions of the segmentation degree, the Hall parameter and the relative position of short-circuited electrodes. Special consideration is given to the influence of staggering the electrodes, i. e. shifting the relative positions of short-circuited electrodes. General electrical terminal characteristics, i. e. the full current-voltage relation, can not be obtained by the exact analytical method, which is applicable only to so-called design load conditions or infinitely long MHD channels. However, it is shown how the general properties can be explained qualitatively and calculated approximately by describing off-design modes of operation in terms of a fictitious 'effective' number of external loads.
Development program for MHD power generation. Interim technical report June 1974
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1974-06-01
A total of 33,000 kilowatt hours of accumulated operating experience has been built up on the Mark VI MHD generator experiment. A total absence of arcing during the last 68 hours indicates that this major determinant of long-duration reliability has been brought under control, and a new Avco-designed burner has been put in service which has made possible, on a routine basis, power-levels in the Mark VI of from 400 to 500 kilowatts. A metal tubular air preheater and compressor have been ordered for the purpose of reducing the hourly consumption of liquid oxidizer, thus allowing more hours of operation between refills. Testing of the high-temperature air heater has also yielded highly satisfactory results. To date, air preheat temperatures of 3000 0 F and higher have been reached in continuous cyclic operation for more than 600 hours. Alumina cored brick is the heater matrix and the mode of operation corresponds to separate firing. Air preheat temperature strongly influences the overall efficiency of an MHD plant and an efficiency of between 55-60 percent is possible with the performance obtained to date. Detailed analysis of the radiation cooling and kinetics of the MHD generator exhaust gas in the radiant section of the downstream boiler, have shown that the level of NO/sub x/ can be reduced to a fraction of the corresponding EPA standard in a furnace of reasonable size
Wetting layer and void fraction nonuniformity in a liquid-metal MHD generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Branover, H.; Yakhot, A.
1981-01-01
The quetion of the effect of a liquid layer on the walls of an MHD channel in the case of uniform void fraction distribution in the flow core was first considered several years ago. More recently an analytic solution for high Hartmann numbers was obtained, which led to the conclusion that this layer does not have a significant effect on the efficiency of large generators. This paper postulates an analytic model which makes it possible to estimate the effect of a void fraction nonuniformity, in the presence of the wetting layer on the walls, on the generator performance. 3 refs
Swarnalathamma, B. V.; Krishna, M. Veera
2017-07-01
We studied heat transfer on MHD convective flow of viscous electrically conducting heat generating/absorbing fluid through porous medium in a rotating channel under uniform transverse magnetic field normal to the channel and taking Hall current. The flow is governed by the Brinkman's model. The diagnostic solutions for the velocity and temperature are obtained by perturbation technique and computationally discussed with respect to flow parameters through the graphs. The skin friction and Nusselt number are also evaluated and computationally discussed with reference to pertinent parameters in detail.
Numerical study of spherical Torus MHD equilibrium configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Faying; Dong Jiaqi; Wang Aike
2003-01-01
Tokamak equilibrium code SWEQU has been modified so that it can be used for the MHD equilibrium study of low aspect ratio device. Evolution of plasma configuration in start-up phase and double-null divertor configuration in steady-state phase has been simulated using the modified code. Results show that the new code can be used not only to obtain the equilibrium configuration of spherical Torus in steady-state phase, but also to simulate the evolution of plasma in the start-up phase
Study of MHD stability beta limit in LHD by hierarchy integrated simulation code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, M.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Nakamura, Y.
2008-10-01
The beta limit by the ideal MHD instabilities (so-called 'MHD stability beta limit') for helical plasmas is studied by a hierarchy integrated simulation code. A numerical model for the effect of the MHD instabilities is introduced such that the pressure profile is flattened around the rational surface due to the MHD instabilities. The width of the flattening of the pressure gradient is determined from the width of the eigenmode structure of the MHD instabilities. It is assumed that there is the upper limit of the mode number of the MHD instabilities which directly affect the pressure gradient. The upper limit of the mode number is determined using a recent high beta experiment in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The flattening of the pressure gradient is calculated by the transport module in a hierarchy integrated code. The achievable volume averaged beta value in the LHD is expected to be beyond 6%. (author)
Analysis of voltage-drop near cold-electrodes of a combustion MHD generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satyamurthy, P.; Venkatramani, N.; Rohatgi, V.K.
1983-01-01
In this paper turbulent compressible boundary layer equations for mass, momentum and energy are solved near the cold electrode wall of a combustion MHD generator. Arcs are simulated by freezing the electron temperature (and hence electrical conductivity) to a temperature called Tsub(arc) when gas temperature is less than Tsub(arc). Theoretical near electrode drop for various current densities along the flow direction is analysed for various Tsub(arc) temperatures and compared with experimentally obtained near electrode drop. It is found that the Tsub(arc) temperature increases as a square root along the flow direction and has linear dependency on current density. (author)
Staiger, P. J.; Penko, P. F.
1982-01-01
The conceptual design study of a potential early commercial MHD power plant (CSPEC) is described and the results are summarized. Each of two contractors did a conceptual design of an approximtely 1000 MWe open-cycle MHD/steam plant with oxygen enriched combustion air preheated to an intermediate temperatue in a metallic heat exchanger. The contractors were close in their overall plant efficiency estimates but differed in their capital cost and cost of electricity estimates, primarily because of differences in balance-of-plant material, contingency, and operating and maintenance cost estimates. One contractor concluded that its MHD plant design compared favorably in cost of electricity with conventional coal-fired steam plants. The other contractor is making such a comparison as part of a follow-on study. Each contractor did a preliminary investigation of part-load performance and plant availability. The results of NASA studies investigating the effect of plant size and oxidizer preheat temperature on the performance of CSPEC-type MHD plants are also described. The efficiency of a 1000 MWe plant is about three points higher than of a 200 MWe plant. Preheating to 1600 F gives an efficiency about one and one-half points higher than preheating to 800 F for all plant sizes. For each plant size and preheat temperature there is an oxidizer enrichment level and MHD generator length that gives the highest plant efficiency.
Engineering design and development of lead lithium loop for thermo-fluid MHD studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, M.; Patel, Anita; Jaiswal, A.; Ranjan, A.; Mohanta, D.; Sahu, S.; Saraswat, A.; Rao, T.S.; Mehta, V.; Bhattacharyay, R.; Rajendra Kumar, E.
2017-01-01
In the frame of the design and development of LLCB TBM, number of R and D activities is in progress in the area of Pb-Li technology development. Molten Pb-Li is used as a tritium breeder and also as a coolant for the internals of the TBM structure. In presence of strong plasma confining toroidal magnetic field, motion of electrically conducting Pb-Li leads to Magneto Hydro Dynamic (MHD) phenomena, as a consequence of which the flow profile of Pb-Li is significantly modified inside the Pb-Li channels of TBM. This causes additional pressure drop inside TBM and affects the heat transfer from internal structure. The detail studies of these MHD effects are of prime importance for successful design of LLCB TBM and its performance evaluation. Although, various numerical MHD codes have been developed, validated in simple flow configuration and are being used to study MHD phenomena in LLCB TBM, experimental validation of these codes in TBM relevant complex flow geometry is yet to be performed. A Pb-Li MHD experimental loop is, therefore, being developed at IPR to perform thermo-fluid MHD experiments in various LLCB TBM relevant flow configuration. MHD experiments are planned with different test sections instrumented with potential pins, thermo couples, etc. under a uniform magnetic field of ∼1.4 T. The obtained experimental data will be analyzed to understand the MHD phenomena in TBM like flow configuration and also for validation of MHD codes. This paper describes the detailed process as well as engineering design of the Pb-Li MHD loop and its major components along with the plan of MHD experiments in various test mock ups. (author)
Resistive MHD studies of high-β-tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynch, V.E.; Carreras, B.A.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Garcia, L.
1981-01-01
Numerical calculations have been performed to study the MHD activity in high-β tokamaks such as ISX-B. These initial value calculations built on earlier low β techniques, but the β effects create several new numerical issues. These issues are discussed and resolved. In addition to time-stepping modules, our system of computer codes includes equilibrium solvers (used to provide an initial condition) and output modules, such as a magnetic field line follower and an X-ray diagnostic code. The transition from current driven modes at low β to predominantly pressure driven modes at high β is described. The nonlinear studies yield X-ray emissivity plots which are compared with experiment
Studies of MHD stability using data mining technique in helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, Satoshi; Pretty, David; Blackwell, Boyd
2010-01-01
Data mining techniques, which automatically extract useful knowledge from large datasets, are applied to multichannel magnetic probe signals of several helical plasmas in order to identify and classify MHD instabilities in helical plasmas. This method is useful to find new MHD instabilities as well as previously identified ones. Moreover, registering the results obtained from data mining in a database allows us to investigate the characteristics of MHD instabilities with parameter studies. We introduce the data mining technique consisted of pre-processing, clustering and visualizations using results from helical plasmas in H-1 and Heliotron J. We were successfully able to classify the MHD instabilities using the criterion of phase differences of each magnetic probe and identify them as energetic-ion-driven MHD instabilities using parameter study in Heliotron J plasmas. (author)
Numerical studies of the MHD spectrum of an elliptic plasma column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chance, M.S.; Greene, J.M.; Grimm, R.C.; Johnson, J.L.
1976-05-01
A numerical procedure is described for determining the MHD spectrum associated with small perturbations about an analytic equilibrium. This configuration has magnetic flux surfaces which are nested similar elliptical cylinders generated by a uniform axial current. Since the system is periodic, it models the essential features of a toroid. The code is used to study the properties of modes in the continuous shear Alfven and slow acoustic spectra as well as the discrete modes associated with the fast magnetosonic waves and kinks. Modes where the interchange criterion is violated, or nearly violated, are investigated
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1989-07-28
This report summarizes results of the phase II R and D program of MHD electrical power generation (FY 1976 - 1983), which has been now completed. The phase II R and D efforts were concentrated on development of the durable power generation channels, where the designs and manufacture of the Mark II system were started, and the elementary techniques were simultaneously studied for, e.g., phenomena occurring around the electrodes, seed condensation and its effects on the electrode phenomena, and electrode and insulator materials for the power generation channels. The power generation channel was tested for its durability for a total of 430 hours, after it was incorporated in the Mark II system. The MHD power generation can incorporate direct combustion of coal, and will hold a dominant position in coal-fired power generation, which is expected to grow in the future. For this reason, the basic research schedules were revised in March, 1983, and the Mark II system was operated by firing a mixed fuel of kerosene and finely divided coal in a kerosene combustor, in line with the revised project, to understand the basic power generation characteristics with the combustion gases containing coal slag. (NEDO)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1990-07-01
Experimental disk MHD facilities are predesigned, and commercial-scale (1,000 MWt) MHD/steam systems are investigated. The predesigns of the disk MHD facilities indicate that enthalpy extraction is 8.7% for a 10 MWt open cycle MHD generator, and increases to 37% for a 5 MWt closed cycle MHD generator. Commercial (1,000 MWt) MHD/steam systems are studied for 4 types. Of these types, the open cycle disk MHD generator shows the lowest efficiency of 42.8%, while the closed cycle disk MHD generator the highest efficiency of 50.0%. The open cycle linear generator, although showing an efficiency of 49.4%, may be the lowest-cost type, when the necessary heat source, heat exchangers and the like are taken into consideration. For the design of superconducting magnet, it is necessary to further investigate whether the one for the test facility is applicable to the commercial systems. (NEDO)
Interaction between MHD generator and DC-AC power conversion system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, D.
1982-01-01
Transient characteristics of an MHD power generating system including a DC-AC inverter are analyzed using a time-dependent quasi-one-dimensional approximation. The generator model considered is Faraday type of U-25 class with heavy-oil and air combustion gas. It is found that a short-circuited fault of the invertor may become more serious than an open-circuited fault, resulting in significant gas velocity reduction. An open-circuited fault, if retained for more than 5-8 ms, can substantially increase the gas velocity at the upstream end of the fault region. A protection system composed of a fast-acting DC circuit-breaker and an emergency load resistance is proposed. The switching speed of the DC breaker must be about 500 microsec to stop a pressure increase, resulting, for example, from the short-circuiting of 20 electrode pairs, before it reaches 120% of the initial level
An improvement of SiC insulator performances for MHD generator channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okuo, T.; Ookouchi, T.; Aoki, Y.
1988-01-01
A water cooled ceramic-metal bonded wall element has been developed for a coal combustion MHD generator channels. It was shown to have excellent characters of stability under high heat flux and thermal shock conditions and good electrical insulation performance in the splash test stand and the small scale MHD simulation channel of ETL COM Fired Facility. Temperature of the compliant and brazed layer rises significantly with heat flux, and cause troubles such as oxidation, corrosion and deterioration of strength of the compliant material. Not only an application for the ceramics-metal bonding with high reliability, but also an improvement of allowable heat flux is possible. New compliant material made of grooved copper and a high reliable metallizing and brazing method were developed. It will make possible raising the limitation of allowable heat flux up to 1,000 W/cm 2 . Through this research, the compatibility of the grooved copper compliant structure was proved and a design concept obtained to construct a highly efficient, water cooled SiC insulator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed Almakki
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The entropy generation in unsteady three-dimensional axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD nanofluid flow over a non-linearly stretching sheet is investigated. The flow is subject to thermal radiation and a chemical reaction. The conservation equations are solved using the spectral quasi-linearization method. The novelty of the work is in the study of entropy generation in three-dimensional axisymmetric MHD nanofluid and the choice of the spectral quasi-linearization method as the solution method. The effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis are also taken into account. The nanofluid particle volume fraction on the boundary is passively controlled. The results show that as the Hartmann number increases, both the Nusselt number and the Sherwood number decrease, whereas the skin friction increases. It is further shown that an increase in the thermal radiation parameter corresponds to a decrease in the Nusselt number. Moreover, entropy generation increases with respect to some physical parameters.
Internal Short-Circuiting Phenomena In An Open-Cycle MHD Generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sasaki, Y.; Ishibashi, E. [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kasahara, T.; Kazawa, Y. [Hitachi Works, Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)
1968-11-15
The influence of internal electrical leakage due to circulating currents flowing through velocity boundary layers and due to metallic elements in insulating walls (peg walls) is experimentally investigated. For this purpose a combustion-driven MHD generator is utilized. The active part of the generator test section is 60 cm in length with a constant cross-section of 3 x 12 cm{sup 2}. At typical operating conditions about 70 g/s of diesel light oil is burned with oxygen-enriched air, resulting in a thermal input of 3 MW, a fluid velocity of 500 to 700 m/s and a gas temperature of 2700 to 2900 Degree-Sign K at the channel inlet. KOH is used as the seed material. The magnetic field can be raised up to 1.95 Teslas. In the range of lower magnetic fields (B < 0.8T) it is shown that an observed open-circuit voltage agrees well with the theoretical value OBh which is defined in a one-dimensional MHD model. In other words, the circulating currents scarcely affect the open-circuit voltage. The theoretical basis for this fact is obtained by the use of a simple model. Experimental results obtained in several runs using three sets of insulating walls show that thermal boundary layers at water-cooled metals are more conductive than expected and that the open- circuit voltage decreases because of leakage currents flowing through metal pegs, when the internal resistance of the generator is relatively large. Also, it is shown that an alumina coating is effective in reducing the leakage currents. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Mubashir Bhatti
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In this article, entropy generation with radiation on non-Newtonian Carreau nanofluid towards a shrinking sheet is investigated numerically. The effects of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD are also taken into account. Firstly, the governing flow problem is simplified into ordinary differential equations from partial differential equations with the help of similarity variables. The solution of the resulting nonlinear differential equations is solved numerically with the help of the successive linearization method and Chebyshev spectral collocation method. The influence of all the emerging parameters is discussed with the help of graphs and tables. It is observed that the influence of magnetic field and fluid parameters oppose the flow. It is also analyzed that thermal radiation effects and the Prandtl number show opposite behavior on temperature profile. Furthermore, it is also observed that entropy profile increases for all the physical parameters.
Reduction of impurity contamination in a working gas for closed-cycle MHD power generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endo, N.; Yoshikawa, K.; Shioda, S.
1989-01-01
The reduction of impurity contamination in a working inert gas for closed-cycle MHD power generation is examined. A conceptual operation system of regenerative heat exchangers is proposed for minimizing the amount of combustion gas which mixes in the working inert gas. Experiments have shown that this mixing can be reduced significantly by evacuating and flushing the heat exchangers after being heated by combustion gas. Calculations have shown that, among the main molecular contaminants in the working inert gas, CO 2 , H 2 O and O 2 can be removed as compounds with the seed material, while N 2 and H 2 can be reduced by a partial purification of the circulating working inert gas. (author)
Improvements of characteristics of open cycle Faraday type MHD power generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Masaharu; Umoto, Juro; Aoki, Sigeo
1982-01-01
MHD power generators are classified into two types: Faraday type and diagonal type (including Hall type). It is considered also in Faraday type generators that the characteristics can be improved further by selecting the aspect ratio appropriately, and employing cap electrodes which approach diagonal conducting side-wall type from parallel plate electrodes. First, the three-dimensional analysis using a new equivalent circuit is introduced, in which finite electrode division and working gas boundary layer are considered using the generalized Ohm's law, Maxwell's electromagnetic equations and others. The above described improvement of characteristics is investigated numerically fully applying this analyzing method. If the wall temperature is low, the increase in the aspect ratio of a generating duct cross-section considerably improves the characteristics because plasma non-uniformity decreases. If the cap electrodes having an optimum side-wall length are used, the output increases considerably because the load current is given and received through the side-wall electrodes. Efficiency is a little lower than the case using parallel plate electrodes. Therefore, if the aspect ratio is taken sufficiently large, and the cap electrodes with optimum side-wall electrode length are used, the generator characteristics are greatly improved since the above mentioned effects are multiplied. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Numerical MHD study for plasmoid instability in uniform resistivity
Shimizu, Tohru; Kondoh, Koji; Zenitani, Seiji
2017-11-01
The plasmoid instability (PI) caused in uniform resistivity is numerically studied with a MHD numerical code of HLLD scheme. It is shown that the PI observed in numerical studies may often include numerical (non-physical) tearing instability caused by the numerical dissipations. By increasing the numerical resolutions, the numerical tearing instability gradually disappears and the physical tearing instability remains. Hence, the convergence of the numerical results is observed. Note that the reconnection rate observed in the numerical tearing instability can be higher than that of the physical tearing instability. On the other hand, regardless of the numerical and physical tearing instabilities, the tearing instability can be classified into symmetric and asymmetric tearing instability. The symmetric tearing instability tends to occur when the thinning of current sheet is stopped by the physical or numerical dissipations, often resulting in the drastic changes in plasmoid chain's structure and its activity. In this paper, by eliminating the numerical tearing instability, we could not specify the critical Lundquist number Sc beyond which PI is fully developed. It suggests that Sc does not exist, at least around S = 105.
Simulation study of MHD relaxation and reconnection processes in RFP plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kusano, Kanya; Kunimoto, Kaito; Suzuki, Yoshio; Tamano, Teruo; Sato, Tetsuya
1991-01-01
The authors have studied several nonlinear processes in RFP plasma through the use of 3D MHD simulations. In particular, they have shed light on: (1) dynamo and self-sustainment in reversed-field pinch (RFP), (2) phase locking process in MHD relaxation, and (3) the heating and acceleration in magnetic reconnection process. First, the contributions of the kink (m = 1) mode (linearly unstable) and of the m = 0 mode (driven by nonlinear coupling) to the dynamo are qualitatively evaluated using a high accuracy simulation. It is found that, if the free energy to drive kink instabilities is as small as that in the actual experimental plasma, the m = 0 modes, driven nonlinearly, play a more important role for the flux generation than the kink modes. Secondly, numerical simulations of the self-sustainment process in a RFP are performed. It is confirmed that the self-sustainment process is a coherent oscillating process composed of the MHD relaxation and the resistive diffusion processes. Toroidal phase locking process of kink modes is numerically observed in simulations of self-reversal and self-sustainment processes. It has characteristics similar to the slinky mode observed in the OHTE experiment. A detailed investigation reveals that nonlinear coupling between the most unstable two kink modes governs the entire dynamics in all kink modes and leads to the phase locking process. They find that reconnection can accelerate plasma over a local Alfven speed. This is a result of the fact that the magnetic field in the downstream area plays a similar role to de Laval nozzle. They also investigate the heating mechanisms in reconnection process. It is revealed that the viscous heating rate is as large as the joule heating rate in the reconnection process. This result implies that the viscous heating in the reconnection process is an important candidate for the mechanism to explain the RFP experiments where the ion temperatures is higher than the electron temperature
MHD simulation study of compact toroid injection into magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Yoshio; Kishimoto, Yasuaki
2000-01-01
To understand the fuelling process in a fusion device by a compact toroid (CT) plasmoid injection method, we have carried out MHD numerical simulations where a spheromak-like CT (SCT) is injected into a magnetized target plasma region. So far, we revealed that the penetration depth of the SCT plasma becomes shorter than that estimated from the conducting sphere (CS) model, because in the simulation the Lorentz force of the target magnetic field sequentially decelerates the injected SCT while in the CS model only the magnetic pressure force acts as the deceleration mechanism. In this study, we represent the new theoretical model where the injected SCT is decelerated by both the magnetic pressure force and the magnetic tension force (we call it the non-slipping sphere (NS) model) and investigate in detail the deceleration mechanism of the SCT by comparison with simulation results. As a result, it is found that the decrease of the SCT kinetic energy in the simulation coincides with that in the NS model more than in the CS model. It means that not only the magnetic pressure force but also the magnetic tension force acts as the deceleration mechanism of the SCT. Furthermore, it is revealed that magnetic reconnection between the SCT magnetic field and the target magnetic field plays a role to relax the SCT deceleration. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1976-03-01
Described in detail involving the results of component development, assessment, and the indication of problems are the power generation channel, superconductive magnets and a helium refrigeration and liquefaction unit, seeds collector, heat exchanger, combustor, etc. Described involving the result and effect of power generation system research and development and the indication of problems is the research on Mark V and Mark VI operation tests. Described in relation to thermal performance calculation, economic effectiveness calculation, and environmental conservation involving an MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power plant are the combustion of heavy oil, combustion of natural gas, plant having a 1,000MW power generator as its base load, control of NOx and sulfur in MHD power generation, etc. As for planning for the next stage, the configuration of a 10MW MHD power generation plant, its equipment, construction cost, and preliminary element research, etc., are described. Furthermore, propositions are presented concerning future plans and the prospect of commercial MHD power generators, technological ripple effects due to MHD power generation research and development, and research and development in the future. (NEDO)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Ying-Ming; Simmons, G.A.; Nelson, G.L.
1995-01-01
A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) funded research study to evaluate the feasibility of using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) body force accelerators to produce true air simulation for hypersonic propulsion ground testing is discussed in this paper. Testing over the airbreathing portion of a transatmospheric vehicle (TAV) hypersonic flight regime will require high quality air simulation for actual flight conditions behind a bow shock wave (forebody, pre-inlet region) for flight velocities up to Mach 16 and perhaps beyond. Material limits and chemical dissociation at high temperature limit the simulated flight Mach numbers in conventional facilities to less than Mach 12 for continuous and semi-continuous testing and less than Mach 7 for applications requiring true air chemistry. By adding kinetic energy directly to the flow, MHD accelerators avoid the high temperatures and pressures required in the reservoir region of conventional expansion facilities, allowing MHD to produce true flight conditions in flight regimes impossible with conventional facilities. The present study is intended to resolve some of the critical technical issues related to the operation of MHD at high pressure. Funding has been provided only for the first phase of a three to four year feasibility study that would culminate in the demonstration of MHD acceleration under conditions required to produce true flight conditions behind a bow shock wave to flight Mach numbers of 16 or greater. MHD critical issues and a program plan to resolve these are discussed
Entropy generation minimization of a MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) flow in a microchannel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibanez, Guillermo [Universidad de Ciencias y Artes de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas 29000 (Mexico); Cuevas, Sergio [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico A.P. 34, Temixco, Mor. 62580 (Mexico)
2010-10-15
The dissipative processes that arise in a microchannel flow subjected to electromagnetic interactions, as occurs in a MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) micropump, are analyzed. The entropy generation rate is used as a tool for the assessment of the intrinsic irreversibilities present in the microchannel owing to viscous friction, heat flow and electric conduction. The flow in a parallel plate microchannel produced by a Lorentz force created by a transverse magnetic field and an injected electric current is considered assuming a thermally fully developed flow and conducting walls of finite thickness. The conjugate heat transfer problem in the fluid and solid walls is solved analytically using thermal boundary conditions of the third kind at the outer surfaces of the walls and continuity of temperature and heat flux across the fluid-wall interfaces. Velocity, temperature and current density fields in the fluid and walls are used to calculate the global entropy generation rate. Conditions under which this quantity is minimized are determined for specific values of the geometrical and physical parameters of the system. The Nusselt number is also calculated and explored for different conditions. Results can be used to determine optimized conditions that lead to a minimum dissipation consistent with the physical constraints demanded by the microdevice. (author)
MHD pilot industrial applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freeman, M.; Riviere-Wekstein, G.
1994-01-01
MHD industrial applications (and their historical developments) are sketched in the fields of nuclear fission, nuclear fusion and marine vehicles propelling. Nuclear fission projects resulted in promising prototypes between 1972 and 1980, especially for liquid-metal MHD generators. All of them have been stopped by the scientific policies of the governments. Nuclear fusion projects used mainly the equilibrium plasma of tokamak type reactors; some military projects used pulsed plasma to perform pulsed MHD generators. Marine vehicle propelling is the most advanced field. By june 1992, the japanese sea-going boat 'Yamato 1' was sailing with two MHD propellers. A few months later, the building of 'Yamato 2' has begun
Thermal resistance of buffer layer in a ceramic wall of MHD generation channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nomura, Osami; Ebata, Yoshihiro; Hijikata, Kenichi.
1982-01-01
A wal l model is composed for obtaining the thermal resistance of the buffer layer. A buffer layer of the model is consisted to an adhesive layer and a buffer body. The adhesive layer is made of a copper plate, which is 0.3 mm thick, and adhered to the element by Refractory Method. The adhesive layer is consisted to three layers, i.e., Cu, Cu 2 O and CuO. These three layers seems to give rise to the thermal resistance. The buffer body is made of nickel wires of which radious is 0.4 mm and purity is 99.7%. All of the nickel wires are assembled in one direction which is parallel to a center line of the element, and bundled all together. Occupation ratio of nickel is about 78% in a sectional area of the buffer body. One end of the buffer body is soldered to adhesive layer by silver solder and opposite and is soldered to holder by lead solder. An element of the model is made of magnesia ceramics of which purity is about 99.9% and porosity is about 3%. A holder of the model is made of copper block. Results are as follows: (1) Thermal resistance of the buffer layer is from 1.9 to 2.5K/(W/cm 2 ). (2) Thermal resistance of the adhesive layer is from 0.43 to 0.87K/(W/cm 2 ). (3) Thermal resistance of the buffer body is calculated to about 0.7K/(W/cm 2 ) under the estimation at which the heat flows in the nickel wires only. (4) From above results, thermal resistance of silver soldering layer seems to be same as that of the adhesive layers. The buffer layer needs more value of the thermal resistance in order to apply to the MHD generation channel. Value of the thermal resistance is easily satisfied by changing of material of the buffer body, increase of thickness of the buffer layer and etc. Then this wall appears to be useful to an MHD generation channel wall. (author)
Study of MHD problems in liquid metal blankets of fusion reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michael, I.
1984-12-01
This study describes in a concise form the state of knowledge regarding MHD problems to be expected in case of use of liquid metal in the blankets of fusion reactors with magnetic confinement. MHD pressure losses and MHD friction coefficients in the straight channel, in bent sections and in case of variation of the channel cross section play a major role because the high MHD flow resistances call for high pumping powers. Influencing the velocity profile transverse to the main flow direction of the liquid metal by application of an external, strong magnetic field bears consequences on the release and transport of corrosion products in the liquid metal circuit and on the heat transfer. Possibilities of reducing the MHD effects are discussed. However, it becomes obvious that an account of the lack of experimental results there are still major gaps in the knowledge of MHD effects occurring in strong magnetic fields. These gaps can be greatly reduced by implementation of an experimental program as proposed in this report. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velikhov, E.P.; Golubev, V.S.; Dykhne, A.M.
1976-01-01
The paper assesses the position in 1975 of theoretical and experimental work on the physics of a magnetohydrodynamic generator with non-equilibrium plasma conductivity. This research started at the beginning of the 1960s; as work on the properties of thermally non-equilibrium plasma in magnetic fields and also in MHD generator ducts progressed, a number of phenomena were discovered and investigated that had either been unknown in plasma physics or had remained uninvestigated until that time: ionization instability and ionization turbulence of plasma in a magnetic field, acoustic instability of a plasma with anisotropic conductivity, the non-equilibrium ionization wave and the energy balance of a non-equilibrium plasma. At the same time, it was discovered what physical requirements an MHD generator with non-equilibrium conductivity must satisfy to achieve high efficiency in converting the thermal or kinetic energy of the gas flow into electric energy. The experiments on MHD power generation with thermally non-equilibrium plasma carried out up to 1975 indicated that it should be possible to achieve conversion efficiencies of up to 20-30%. (author)
Rare-earth hafnium oxide materials for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marchant, D. D; Bates, J. L.
1979-01-01
Several ceramic materials based on rare-earth hafnium oxides have been identified as potential high-temperature electrodes and low-temperature current leadouts for open cycle coal-fired MHD generator channels. The electrode-current leadouts combination must operate at temperatures between 400 and 2000K with an electrical conductivity greater than 10/sup -2/ ohm/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/. The electrodes will be exposed to flowing (linear flow rates up to 100 m/s) potassium seeded coal combustion gases (plasma core temperatures between 2400 to 3200/sup 0/K) and coal slag. During operation the electrodes must conduct direct electric current at densities near 1.5 amp/cm/sup 2/. Consequently, the electrodes must be resistant to electrochemical decompositions and interactions with both the coal slag and potassium salts (e.g., K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/). The current leadout materials are placed between the hot electrodes and the water-cooled copper structural members and must have electrical conductivities greater than 10/sup -2/ ohm/sup -1/ cm/sup -1/ between 1400 and 400/sup 0/K. The current leadouts must be thermally and electrochemically compatible with the electrode, copper, and potassium salts. Ideally, the electrodes and current leadouts should exhibit minimal ionic conductivity. The fabrication, electrical conductivity, and electrochemical corrosion of rare-earth hafnium oxide materials are discussed. (WHK)
Influences of coal slag on electrical characteristics of a Faraday MHD generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, M.; Umoto, J.
1989-01-01
In order to clarify the influence of coal slag on the electrical characteristics of a large scale Faraday MHD generator, numerical analysis by a new equivalent circuit method is performed. At first, an equivalent circuit for a space element in the Faraday channel and a slag layer element are derived. Next, the numerical results are compared with the experimental ones obtained from the ETL Mark VII. The results are: (1) when the thickness, conductivity, etc. of the slag are nonuniform the distribution of not only the load voltage, but also the voltage between adjacent electrodes, becomes nonuniform, and the latter may cause interelectrode breakdown; (2) when shorting over several cathodes occurs a typical distribution of the load voltage appears near the shorted region, in which, at first, the load voltage rises a little, then decreases gradually, and finally, recovers rapidly to the normal voltage along the gas flow. As a result of the short-circuit, the distribution of the voltage between adjacent electrodes is made significantly nonuniform, and this may lead to another inter-electrode breakdown. (author)
Solar furnace experiments for thermophysical properties studies of rare-earth oxide MHD materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coutures, J.P.
1978-01-01
Some high temperature work performed with solar furnaces on rare earth oxides is reviewed. Emphasis is on the thermophysical properties (refractoriness, vaporization behavior) and the nature of solid solution on materials which could be used as electrodes for the MHD process. As new sources of energy are being developed due to the world energy crisis, MHD conversion could be useful. The development of MHD systems requires new efforts to develop and optimize materials properties. These materials must have good mechanical and electrical properties (if possible, pure electronic conduction with good emission). Because of the high temperature in MHD generators, the materials for electrodes must have good refractoriness and also must resist vaporization and corrosion at high temperature (T approx. 2000 0 C). Rare-earth oxides are the basic components for most of the MHD electrode materials and it is important to know their thermophysical properties (solidification point phase transitions, heat of fusion and of phase transition, vapor pressure). Because of the high temperature range and the nature of the atmosphere in which these experiments must be performed, special equipment adapted to solar furnaces was developed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1981-11-01
Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal-fired, closed-cycle MHD power generation are reported. This volume contains the following appendices: (A) user's manual for 2-dimensional MHD generator code (2DEM); (B) performance estimates for a nominal 30 MW argon segmented heater; (C) the feedwater cooled Brayton cycle; (D) application of CCMHD in an industrial cogeneration environment; (E) preliminary design for shell and tube primary heat exchanger; and (F) plant efficiency as a function of output power for open and closed cycle MHD power plants. (WHK)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burenkov, D.K.; Borodina, T.I.; Vysotsky, D.A.; Zalkind, V.I.; Kirillov, V.V.; Romanov, A.I.; Telegin, G.P.; Strekalov, N.V.
1978-10-01
In accordance with the US--USSR Cooperative Program in MHD joint US--USSR tests were conducted in May 1978 at the U-02 facility of an MHD generator section consisting of U.S.-built electrode blocks and USSR-built insulating walls. The main purpose of the experiment was to conduct continuous 100-hour duration tests of materials and structures of electrode blocks; in particular, to study the behavior of ceramic electrodes and insulators in operating conditions of an MHD generator, the electro-physical and thermal characteristics of the working section as a whole and electrodes in particular, and to analyze the change in the phase composition and structure of materials during the test. The main thrust of the experiment was a study of electrode material behavior. Six varieties of electrodes based on doped lanthanum chromite were tested and investigated. The electrodes were made of fine grained, hot-pressed mass (the porosity of the ceramic was 2 to 3%). The interelectrode insulators were made of magnesial and magnesial-spinel ceramic also manufactured by the hot pressing method. Results are presented and discussed
O'Connell, R.; Forest, C. B.; Plard, F.; Kendrick, R.; Lovell, T.; Thomas, M.; Bonazza, R.; Jensen, T.; Politzer, P.; Gerritsen, W.; McDowell, M.
1997-11-01
A MHD experiment is being constructed which will have the possibility of showing dynamo action: the self--generation of currents from fluid motion. The design allows sufficient experimental flexibility and diagnostic access to study a variety of issues central to dynamo theory, including mean--field electrodynamics and saturation (backreaction physics). Initially, helical flows required for dynamo action will be driven by propellers embedded in liquid sodium. The flow fields will first be measured using laser doppler velocimetry in a water experiment with an identical fluid Reynolds number. The magnetic field evolution will then be predicted using a MHD code, replacing the water with sodium; if growing magnetic fields are found, the experiment will be repeated with sodium.
Conceptual design study of potential early commercial MHD powerplant. Report of task 2 results
Hals, F. A.
1981-03-01
The conceptual design of one of the potential early commercial MHD power plants was studied. The plant employs oxygen enrichment of the combustion air and preheating of this oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1200 F attainable with a tubular type recuperative heat exchanger. Conceptual designs of plant componets and equipment with performance, operational characteristics, and costs are reported. Plant economics and overall performance including full and part load operation are reviewed. The projected performance and estimated cost of this early MHD plant are compared to conventional power plants, although it does not offer the same high efficiency and low costs as the mature MHD power plant. Environmental aspects and the methods incorporated in plant design for emission control of sulfur and nitrogen are reviewed.
Liquid metal MHD studies with non-magnetic and ferro-magnetic structural material
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patel, A., E-mail: anipatel2009@gmail.com [Institute of Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India); Bhattacharyay, R. [Institute of Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India); Swain, P.K.; Satyamurthy, P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400085, Maharashtra (India); Sahu, S.; Rajendrakumar, E. [Institute of Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India); Ivanov, S.; Shishko, A.; Platacis, E.; Ziks, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Latvia, Salaspils 2169 (Latvia)
2014-10-15
Highlights: • Effect of structural material on liquid metal MHD phenomena is studied. • Two identical test sections, one made of SS316L (non-magnetic) and other made of SS430 (ferromagnetic) structural material, are considered. • Wall electric potential and liquid metal pressure drop are compared under various experimental conditions. • Experimental results suggest screening of external magnetic field for SS430 material below the saturation magnetic field. - Abstract: In most of the liquid metal MHD experiments reported in the literature to study liquid breeder blanket performance, SS316/SS304 grade steels are used as the structural material which is non-magnetic. On the other hand, the structural material for fusion blanket systems has been proposed to be ferritic martensitic grade steel (FMS) which is ferromagnetic in nature. In the recent experimental campaign, liquid metal MHD experiments have been carried out with two identical test sections: one made of SS316L (non-magnetic) and another with SS430 (ferromagnetic), to compare the effect of structural materials on MHD phenomena for various magnetic fields (up to 4 T). The maximum Hartmann number and interaction number are 1047 and 300, respectively. Each test section consists of square channel (25 mm × 25 mm) cross-section with two U bends, with inlet and outlet at the middle portion of two horizontal legs, respectively. Pb–Li enters into the test section through a square duct and distributed into two parallel paths through a partition plate. In each parallel path, it travels ∼0.28 m length in plane perpendicular to the magnetic field and faces two 90° bends before coming out of the test section through a single square duct. The wall electrical potential and MHD pressure drop across the test sections are compared under identical experimental conditions. Similar MHD behavior is observed with both the test section at higher value of the magnetic field (>2 T)
Investigations on high speed MHD liquid flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamasaki, Takasuke; Kamiyama, Shin-ichi.
1982-01-01
Lately, the pressure drop problem of MHD two-phase flow in a duct has been investigated theoretically and experimentally in conjunction with the problems of liquid metal MHD two-phase flow power-generating cycle or of liquid metal boiling two-phase flow in the blanket of a nuclear fusion reactor. Though many research results have been reported so far for MHD single-phase flow, the hydrodynamic studies on high speed two-phase flow are reported only rarely, specifically the study dealing with the generation of cavitation is not found. In the present investigation, the basic equation was derived, analyzing the high speed MHD liquid flow in a diverging duct as the one-dimensional flow of homogeneous two-phase fluid of small void ratio. Furthermore, the theoretical solution for the effect of magnetic field on cavitation-generating conditions was tried. The pressure distribution in MHD flow in a duct largely varies with load factor, and even if the void ratio is small, the pressure distribution in two-phase flow is considerably different from that in single-phase flow. Even if the MHD two-phase flow in a duct is subsonic flow at the throat, the critical conditions may be achieved sometimes in a diverging duct. It was shown that cavitation is more likely to occur as magnetic field becomes more intense if it is generated downstream of the throat. This explains the experimental results qualitatively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunn, P.F.
1978-01-01
The basic features of the two-phase liquid-metal MHD energy conversion under development at Argonne National Laboratory are presented. The results of system studies on the Rankine-cycle and the open-cycle coal-fired cycle options are discussed. The liquid-metal MHD experimental facilities are described in addition to the system's major components, the generator, mixer and nozzle-separator-diffuser
Experimental study of MHD effects on turbulent flow of flibe simulant fluid in a circular pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeuchi, Junichi; Morley, N.B.; Abdou, M.A.; Satake, Shin-ichi; Yokomine, Takehiko
2007-01-01
Experimental studies of MHD turbulent pipe flow of Flibe simulant fluid have been conducted as a part of US-Japan JUPITER-II collaboration. Flibe is considered as a promising candidate for coolant and tritium breeder in some fusion reactor design concepts because of its low electrical conductivity compared to liquid metals. This reduces the MHD pressure drop to a negligible level; however, turbulence can be significantly suppressed by MHD effects in fusion reactor magnetic field conditions. Heat transfer in the Flibe coolant is characterized by its high Prandtl number. In order to achieve sufficient heat transfer and to prevent localized heat concentration in a high Prandtl number coolant, high turbulence is essential. Even though accurate prediction of the MHD effects on heat transfer for high Prandtl number fluids in the fusion environment is very important, reliable data is not available. In these experiments, an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide is used as a simulant fluid for Flibe. This paper presents the experimental results obtained by flow field measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The PIV measurements provide 2-dimensional 2-velocity component information on the MHD flow field. The test section is a circular pipe with 89 mm inner diameter and 7.0 m in length, which is 79 times pipe diameter. This relatively large diameter pipe is selected in order to maximize the MHD effects measured by Hartmann number (Ha=BL(sigma/mu)1/2), and to allow better resolution of the flow in the near-wall region. The test section is placed under maximum 2 Tesla magnetic fields for 1.4m of the axial length. The hydrodynamic developing length under the magnetic field is expected to be 1.2 m. In order to apply PIV technique in the magnetic field condition, special optical devices and visualization sections were created. PIV measurements are performed for Re = 11600 with variable Hartmann numbers. The turbulence statistics of the MHD turbulent flow
MHD studies conducted at the U-25 Facility (V)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1977-01-01
The U-25 facility research status is summarized. The main rated parameters of the U-25 facility have been attained, and the main stages of the facility shakedown are briefly discussed. Experimental studies have recently been focused on design of the RM frame channel, development of a method for processing experimental data obtained at the U-25 facility, study of the seed injection/removal system, and steam generator studies
Study on MHD instabilities in the CECI plasma device using Fourier probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosal, A.C.; Aso, Y.; Ueda, M.
1991-01-01
A magnetic diagnostics called Fourier analyser aiming to study MHD instabilities by Fourier series expansion of poloidal magnetic field for m ≤ 3 modes was developed and tested. The diagnostics will be used in the RFP (reversed field pinch) type toroidal plasma device. (M.C.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falgarone, Edith; Rieutord, Michel; Richard, Denis; Zahn, Jean-Paul; Dauchot, Olivier; Daviaud, Francois; Dubrulle, Berengere; Laval, Jean-Philippe; Noullez, Alain; Bourgoin, Mickael; Odier, Philippe; Pinton, Jean-Francois; Leveque, Emmanuel; Chainais, Pierre; Abry, Patrice; Mordant, Nicolas; Michel, Olivier; Marie, Louis; Chiffaudel, Arnaud; Daviaud, Francois; Petrelis, Francois; Fauve, Stephan; Nore, C.; Brachet, M.-E.; Politano, H.; Pouquet, A.; Leorat, Jacques; Grapin, Roland; Brun, Sacha; Delour, Jean; Arneodo, Alain; Muzy, Jean-Francois; Magnaudet, Jacques; Braza, Marianna; Boree, Jacques; Maurel, S.; Ben, L.; Moreau, J.; Bazile, R.; Charnay, G.; Lewandowski, Roger; Laveder, Dimitri; Bouchet, Freddy; Sommeria, Joel; Le Gal, P.; Eloy, C.; Le Dizes, S.; Schneider, Kai; Farge, Marie; Bottausci, Frederic; Petitjeans, Philippe; Maurel, Agnes; Carlier, Johan; Anselmet, Fabien
2001-05-01
This publication gathers extended summaries of presentations proposed during two days on astrophysics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The first session addressed astrophysics and MHD: The cold interstellar medium, a low ionized turbulent plasma; Turbulent convection in stars; Turbulence in differential rotation; Protoplanetary disks and washing machines; gravitational instability and large structures; MHD turbulence in the sodium von Karman flow; Numerical study of the dynamo effect in the Taylor-Green eddy geometry; Solar turbulent convection under the influence of rotation and of the magnetic field. The second session addressed the description of turbulence: Should we give up cascade models to describe the spatial complexity of the velocity field in a developed turbulence?; What do we learn with RDT about the turbulence at the vicinity of a plane surface?; Qualitative explanation of intermittency; Reduced model of Navier-Stokes equations: quickly extinguished energy cascade; Some mathematical properties of turbulent closure models. The third session addressed turbulence and coherent structures: Alfven wave filamentation and formation of coherent structures in dispersive MHD; Statistical mechanics for quasi-geo-strophic turbulence: applications to Jupiter's coherent structures; Elliptic instabilities; Physics and modelling of turbulent detached unsteady flows in aerodynamics and fluid-structure interaction; Intermittency and coherent structures in a washing machine: a wavelet analysis of joint pressure/velocity measurements; CVS filtering of 3D turbulent mixing layer using orthogonal wavelets. The last session addressed experimental methods: Lagrangian velocity measurements; Energy dissipation and instabilities within a locally stretched vortex; Study by laser imagery of the generation and breakage of a compressed eddy flow; Study of coherent structures of turbulent boundary layer at high Reynolds number
The energy associated with MHD waves generation in the solar wind plasma
delaTorre, A.
1995-01-01
Gyrotropic symmetry is usually assumed in measurements of electron distribution functions in the heliosphere. This prevents the calculation of a net current perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. Previous theoretical results derived by one of the authors for a collisionless plasma with isotropic electrons in a strong magnetic field have shown that the excitation of MHD modes becomes possible when the external perpendicular current is non-zero. We consider then that any anisotropic electron population can be thought of as 'external', interacting with the remaining plasma through the self-consistent electromagnetic field. From this point of view any perpendicular current may be due to the anisotropic electrons, or to an external source like a stream, or to both. As perpendicular currents cannot be derived from the measured distribution functions, we resort to Ampere's law and experimental data of magnetic field fluctuations. The transfer of energy between MHD modes and external currents is then discussed.
Contribution to the study of rotating disc induced MHD flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herve, P.
1983-01-01
Influence of a magnetic field on electroconductor viscous fluid flow generated by disks in rotation is studied here. Flow in rectilinear conduct is first studied, together with velocity, force and current line repartition. Then a case more general is dealt with a toroidal conduct with disk drive. The influence of electric conductivity and of the thickness of the mobile disk are detailed. Couple study leads to think to a transmission by fluid variable by magnetic field variations. At last, a radial flow with a source in the middle of it is studied with a disk rotation. Analysis of velocity and pressure evolution shows a pump effect [fr
Newtonian CAFE: a new ideal MHD code to study the solar atmosphere
González-Avilés, J. J.; Cruz-Osorio, A.; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; Guzmán, F. S.
2015-12-01
We present a new code designed to solve the equations of classical ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in three dimensions, submitted to a constant gravitational field. The purpose of the code centres on the analysis of solar phenomena within the photosphere-corona region. We present 1D and 2D standard tests to demonstrate the quality of the numerical results obtained with our code. As solar tests we present the transverse oscillations of Alfvénic pulses in coronal loops using a 2.5D model, and as 3D tests we present the propagation of impulsively generated MHD-gravity waves and vortices in the solar atmosphere. The code is based on high-resolution shock-capturing methods, uses the Harten-Lax-van Leer-Einfeldt (HLLE) flux formula combined with Minmod, MC, and WENO5 reconstructors. The divergence free magnetic field constraint is controlled using the Flux Constrained Transport method.
MHD stability studies in the Proto S-1 A/B device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munson, C.; Janos, A.; Newhouse, M.; Salberta, E.; Wysocki, F.; Yamada, M.
1982-01-01
An experimental study of the gross MHD stability properties of Spheromak plasmas in the Proto S-1 A/B device is presented. Utilizing the previously demonstrated S-1 slow formation technique, plasmas have been produced which exhibit the predicted tilting instability in a regime of slightly negative field index. A relatively simple passive coil system suggested by numerical stability studies has proven to be effective in stabilizing the observed tilting mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, Shunji; Ishii, Shozo; Kawamoto, Shigeshi; Hayashi, Izumi
1981-01-01
Experimental study on the dynamic stabilization of MHD instability with a pinch plasma generator was done, and the results were compared with the theoretical works. The previous results of theoretical analysis showed that a conducting shell worked effectively for the dynamic stabilization of MHD instability. The present experiment was carried out with a linear plasma generator which consisted of a discharge tube, a coil and a conducting shell. The macroscopic behavior of plasma was observed with an image converter camera, and the phenomena due to the instability was measured by a magnetic probe. A sine-cosine coil was employed for the observation of the growth of instability. The following results were obtained. When the frequency of RF current for dynamic stabilization was larger than the growth rate of instability, the experimental results were in agreement with the theoretical ones. The effect of a conducting shell was clearly seen. For the helical instability of short wave length, the dynamic stabilization was easily obtained even without a conducting shell. The self-reversal phenomena due to the helical instability of short wave length was suppressed by the RF current along the axis of a discharge tube. (Kato, T.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu Zengyu [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)]. E-mail: xuzy@swip.ac.cn; Pan Chuanjie [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Wei Wenhao [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Kang Weishan [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)
2006-02-15
MHD phenomena in a duct flow were studied experimentally by using copper electrodes inserted into the wall of a perfectly insulated duct. The electrodes were connected using a copper wire to imitate different insulator coating imperfection conditions. The experimental results show instabilities of electric potential at the wall (surface instabilities) as well as instabilities in the pressure and velocity (bulk instabilities). The instabilities are strongly dependent on the scale of the copper wire. Three different cases were studied (at the same flow regimes, but with different electrode connections), where the potential at the duct wall is smaller, equal to or higher than the product of duct diameter 2a and transverse magnetic field B and average velocity V . MHD pressure drop {delta}P also exhibits significant changes.
Impact of uniform electrode current distribution on ETF. [Engineering Test Facility MHD generator
Bents, D. J.
1982-01-01
A basic reason for the complexity and sheer volume of electrode consolidation hardware in the MHD ETF Powertrain system is the channel electrode current distribution, which is non-uniform. If the channel design is altered to provide uniform electrode current distribution, the amount of hardware required decreases considerably, but at the possible expense of degraded channel performance. This paper explains the design impacts on the ETF electrode consolidation network associated with uniform channel electrode current distribution, and presents the alternate consolidation designs which occur. They are compared to the baseline (non-uniform current) design with respect to performance, and hardware requirements. A rational basis is presented for comparing the requirements for the different designs and the savings that result from uniform current distribution. Performance and cost impacts upon the combined cycle plant are discussed.
MHD studies in FTU plasmas with low and negative magnetic shear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buratti, P.; Alladio, F.; Bracco, G.
1999-01-01
Fast current ramps with central ECRH and pellet injection in ohmic plasmas allowed to study several kinds of MHD instabilities in plasmas with peaked pressure profile and low or negative magnetic shear. Double tearing modes were systematically observed when the minimum q value crossed the q min =2 value; such modes either ended into full core reconnection, or saturated at a large amplitude, with a displacement involving more than one third of the plasma radius. Macroscopic fluctuations clamp the peak temperature during central ECRH; the cause of such fluctuations is attributed to MHD modes that are excited when q min is close to a low order rational value; gaps in the distribution of such values can explain the effective transport barriers observed near integer q min values. When q min ∼1 either sawteeth or saturated internal kink modes are observed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niemann, R.C.; Mataya, K.F.; McWilliams, D.A.; Borden, R.; Streeter, M.H.; Wickson, R.; Smelser, P.; Privalov, N.P.
1978-01-01
The design features and accumulated operating experience, from a cryogenics point of view, of the United States Superconducting Magnet System (U.S. SCMS) are presented. The principal cryogenic system design parameters are enumerated. Details of the cryogenic aspects of magnetic system commissioning, standby mode, and operation with MHD generators are discussed. Included are system operation, problems encountered and corrective actions taken, and measured operating parameters which include liquid helium boiloff, cryostat pressure and level versus time, etc. The aspects of the transition between operation in the laboratory and in an MHD plant are elaborated
Algorithm and exploratory study of the Hall MHD Rayleigh-Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gardiner, Thomas Anthony
2010-01-01
This report is concerned with the influence of the Hall term on the nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability. This begins with a review of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations including the Hall term and the wave modes which are present in the system on time scales short enough that the plasma can be approximated as being stationary. In this limit one obtains what are known as the electron MHD (EMHD) equations which support two characteristic wave modes known as the whistler and Hall drift modes. Each of these modes is considered in some detail in order to draw attention to their key features. This analysis also serves to provide a background for testing the numerical algorithms used in this work. The numerical methods are briefly described and the EMHD solver is then tested for the evolution of whistler and Hall drift modes. These methods are then applied to study the nonlinear evolution of the MHD RT instability with and without the Hall term for two different configurations. The influence of the Hall term on the mixing and bubble growth rate are analyzed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dabrowski, K.
1988-07-01
This paper contains: comparison of the influence of the I=const. and U=const. regulation on the gasdynamic characteristics of the MHD-generator Faraday's type with segmented electrodes, comparison of the influence of the I=const. and U=const. regulation on choice of the compressor which causes the gas flow in the MHD generator, analysis of the influence of the I=const. regulation on the mutual work of the MHD-generator and electric power network in nonsteady states caused by the stagnation temperature drop at the MHD-duct inlet. In the work was assumed: one dimensional mathematical model of the MHD-generator, mathematical model of the inverter was constructed by means of the ''zero-one'' model of the thyristor, multichannel, synchronous control system of the inverters, inflexible electric power network. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Aghaei
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Natural convection heat transfer has many applications in different fields of industry; such as cooling industries, electronic transformer devices and ventilation equipment; due to simple process, economic advantage, low noise and renewed retrieval. Recently, heat transfer of nanofluids have been considered because of higher thermal conductivity coefficient compared with those of ordinary fluids. In this study; natural convection and entropy generation in a triangular enclosure filled by Al2O3 –water nanofluid affected by magnetic field considering Brownian motion is investigated numerically. Two inclined walls are maintained at constant cold temperature (Tc while the bottom wall is kept at constant high temperature (Th with (Th>Tc. In order to investigate natural convection, a computer program (FORTRAN language based on finite volume method and SIMPLER algorithm has been used. Analyses is performed for volume fraction of nanoparticles 0, 0.02, 0.04, Hartmann number 0, 50,100, Rayleigh numbers 103,104,105 and angle of inclined walls 450. In investigated angles and Rayleigh numbers; average Nusselt number is increased by enhancement of volume fraction of nanoparticles in a fixed Hartmann number. It is also observed that total entropy generation variations by increasing volume fraction of nanoparticles is similar to that of Nusselt number. By the results; effect of friction is always insignificant on generated entropy. It is observed that natural convection of nanofluid is decreased by enhancement of Hartmann number and its behavior is close to thermal conduction. It is also concluded that average Nusselt number and total generated entropy are decreased.
Studying MHD and radiative processes in Sgr A*
Dibi, S.
2014-01-01
This thesis details four different studies of accretion and emission processes around the Galactic Center Sgr A*. We are studying Sgr A* in particular because it is the closest supermassive black hole and therefore we have incomparable observational data to test our theories and predictions.
Study of the processes resulting from the use of alkaline seed in natural gas-fired MHD facilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Styrikovich, M.A.; Mostinskii, I.L.
1977-01-01
Various ways of ionizing seed injection and recovery, applicable to open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation facilities, operating on sulfur-free gaseous fossil fuel, are discussed and experimentally verified. The physical and chemical changes of the seed and the heat and mass transfer processes resulting from seed application are investigated using the U-02 experimental MHD facility and laboratory test facilities. Engineering methods for calculating the processes of seed droplet vaporization, condensation and the precipitation of submicron particles of K 2 CO 3 on the heat exchange surface are also included
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burenkov, D.K.; Borodina, T.I.; Vysotsky, D.A.; Zalkind, V.I.; Kirillov, V.V.; Romanov, A.I.; Telegin, G.P.; Strekalov, N.V.
1978-10-01
In accordance with the US--USSR Cooperative Program in MHD joint US--USSR tests were conducted in May 1978 at the U-02 facility of an MHD generator section consisting of U.S.-built electrode blocks and USSR-built insulating walls. The main purpose of the experiment was to conduct continuous 100-hour duration tests of materials and structures of electrode blocks; in particular, to study the behavior of ceramic electrodes and insulators in operating conditions of an MHD generator, the electro-physical and thermal characteristics of the working section as a whole and electrodes in particular, and to analyze the change in the phase composition and structure of materials during the test. The main thrust of the experiment was a study of electrode material behavior. Six varieties of electrodes based on doped lanthanum chromite were tested and investigated. The electrodes were made of fine grained, hot-pressed mass (the porosity of the ceramic was 2 to 3%). The interelectrode insulators were made of magnesial and magnesial-spinel ceramic also manufactured by the hot pressing method. Results are presented and discussed.
MHD equilibrium of heliotron J plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Yuji; Kondo, Katsumi; Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Hayashi, Takaya
2004-01-01
MHD equilibria of Heliotron J plasma are investigated by using HINT code. By assuming some profiles of the current density, effects of the net toroidal currents on the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibrium are investigated. If the rotational transform can be controlled by the currents, the generation of good flux surfaces is expected. In order to study equilibria with self-consistent bootstrap current, the boozer coordinates are constructed by converged HINT equilibrium as a preliminary study. Obtained spectra are compared with ones of VMEC code and both results are consistent. (author)
Studies of energetic-ion-driven MHD instabilities in helical plasmas with low magnetic shear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, S.; Ascasibar, E.; Jimenez-Gomez, R.
2012-11-01
We discuss the features of energetic-ion-driven MHD instabilities such as Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) in three-dimensional magnetic configuration with low magnetic shear and low toroidal field period number (N p ) that are characteristic of advanced helical plasmas. Comparison of experimental and numerical studies in Heliotron J with those in TJ-II indicates that the most unstable AE is global AE (GAE) in low magnetic shear configuration in spite of the iota and the helicity-induced AE (HAE) is also the most unstable AE in the high iota configuration. (author)
Results from study of potential early commercial MHD power plants and from recent ETF design work
Hals, F.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.; Westra, L.; Zar, J.; Morgan, W.; Bozzuto, C.
1980-06-01
The study deals with different 'moderate technology' entry-level commercial MHD power plants. Two of the reference plants are based on combustion of coal with air preheated in a high-temperature regenerative air heater separately fired with a low-BTU gas produced in a gasifier integrated with the power plant. The third reference plant design is based on the use of oxygen enriched combustion air. Performance calculations show that an overall power plant efficiency of the order of 44% can be reached with the use of oxygen enrichment.
Proceedings of the workshop on nonlinear MHD and extended MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-01-01
Nonlinear MHD simulations have proven their value in interpreting experimental results over the years. As magnetic fusion experiments reach higher performance regimes, more sophisticated experimental diagnostics coupled with ever expanding computer capabilities have increased both the need for and the feasibility of nonlinear global simulations using models more realistic than regular ideal and resistive MHD. Such extended-MHD nonlinear simulations have already begun to produce useful results. These studies are expected to lead to ever more comprehensive simulation models in the future and to play a vital role in fully understanding fusion plasmas. Topics include the following: (1) current state of nonlinear MHD and extended-MHD simulations; (2) comparisons to experimental data; (3) discussions between experimentalists and theorists; (4) /equations for extended-MHD models, kinetic-based closures; and (5) paths toward more comprehensive simulation models, etc. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database
Proceedings of the workshop on nonlinear MHD and extended MHD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1998-12-01
Nonlinear MHD simulations have proven their value in interpreting experimental results over the years. As magnetic fusion experiments reach higher performance regimes, more sophisticated experimental diagnostics coupled with ever expanding computer capabilities have increased both the need for and the feasibility of nonlinear global simulations using models more realistic than regular ideal and resistive MHD. Such extended-MHD nonlinear simulations have already begun to produce useful results. These studies are expected to lead to ever more comprehensive simulation models in the future and to play a vital role in fully understanding fusion plasmas. Topics include the following: (1) current state of nonlinear MHD and extended-MHD simulations; (2) comparisons to experimental data; (3) discussions between experimentalists and theorists; (4) /equations for extended-MHD models, kinetic-based closures; and (5) paths toward more comprehensive simulation models, etc. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pain, H. J.; Fearn, D. G.; Distefano, E. [Imperial College. London (United Kingdom)
1966-10-15
(a) Electrode conduction processes have been investigated using a plasma produced in an electromagnetic shock tube operating with argon at 70 {mu}mHg pressure. Complete voltage-current characteristics were obtained by the variation of load and applied voltage. These indicated the existence of two conduction regimes with a complex transition region. In the first regime the current, controlled by ion mobility, rose linearly with voltage to saturate between 10 mA and 1 A depending on conditions. Electrode contamination was significant. The second regime involved large currents controlled by electron mobility and emission from the cathode. The current again increased linearly with voltage and reached 200 A. Observation of induced voltages in transverse magnetic fields and of plasma deceleration in non-uniform fields showed that in the electromagnetic shock tube the plasma was heated predominantly by the driver discharge. Its conductivity was calculated using properties measured by a Langmuir double probe. In both regimes the plasma conductivity was also found from the gradient of the voltage current characteristics using experimental electric field fringing factors and the experimental values were compared with theory. (b) Larger-scale experiments used a combustion-driven shock tube where argon plasma flow, magnetic field and induced current flow were mutually orthogonal. The supersonic flow velocity and thermodynamic parameters of the plasma were accurately known. The electrode channel consisted of a segmented system of 12 electrode pairs with an electrode insulator ratio ranging from 1 to 21, with electrode plus insulator length remaining constant, and with maximum Hall parameter values of unity. Different electrode load combinations (Faraday and Hall generators) have been studied in measuring the power generated and the flow of longitudinal currents between adjacent electrodes. A maximum power of 0,8 MW was obtained, the power output decreasing inversely with the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pain, H.J.; Fearn, D.G.; Distefano, E.
1966-01-01
(a) Electrode conduction processes have been investigated using a plasma produced in an electromagnetic shock tube operating with argon at 70 μmHg pressure. Complete voltage-current characteristics were obtained by the variation of load and applied voltage. These indicated the existence of two conduction regimes with a complex transition region. In the first regime the current, controlled by ion mobility, rose linearly with voltage to saturate between 10 mA and 1 A depending on conditions. Electrode contamination was significant. The second regime involved large currents controlled by electron mobility and emission from the cathode. The current again increased linearly with voltage and reached 200 A. Observation of induced voltages in transverse magnetic fields and of plasma deceleration in non-uniform fields showed that in the electromagnetic shock tube the plasma was heated predominantly by the driver discharge. Its conductivity was calculated using properties measured by a Langmuir double probe. In both regimes the plasma conductivity was also found from the gradient of the voltage current characteristics using experimental electric field fringing factors and the experimental values were compared with theory. (b) Larger-scale experiments used a combustion-driven shock tube where argon plasma flow, magnetic field and induced current flow were mutually orthogonal. The supersonic flow velocity and thermodynamic parameters of the plasma were accurately known. The electrode channel consisted of a segmented system of 12 electrode pairs with an electrode insulator ratio ranging from 1 to 21, with electrode plus insulator length remaining constant, and with maximum Hall parameter values of unity. Different electrode load combinations (Faraday and Hall generators) have been studied in measuring the power generated and the flow of longitudinal currents between adjacent electrodes. A maximum power of 0,8 MW was obtained, the power output decreasing inversely with the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samim Anghaie
2002-01-01
Any reactor that utilizes fuel consisting of a fissile material in a gaseous state may be referred to as a gaseous core reactor (GCR). Studies on GCRs have primarily been limited to the conceptual phase, mostly due to budget cuts and program cancellations in the early 1970's. A few scientific experiments have been conducted on candidate concepts, primarily of static pressure fissile gas filling a cylindrical or spherical cavity surrounded by a moderating shell, such as beryllium, heavy water, or graphite. The main interest in this area of nuclear power generation is for space applications. The interest in space applications has developed due to the promise of significant enhancement in fuel utilization, safety, plant efficiency, special high-performance features, load-following capabilities, power conversion optimization, and other key aspects of nuclear power generation. The design of a successful GCR adapted for use in space is complicated. The fissile material studied in the pa st has been in a fluorine compound, either a tetrafluoride or a hexafluoride. Both of these molecules have an impact on the structural material used in the making of a GCR. Uranium hexafluoride as a fuel allows for a lower operating temperature, but at temperatures greater than 900K becomes essentially impossible to contain. This difficulty with the use of UF6 has caused engineers and scientists to use uranium tetrafluoride, which is a more stable molecule but has the disadvantage of requiring significantly higher operating temperatures. Gas core reactors have traditionally been studied in a steady state configuration. In this manner a fissile gas and working fluid are introduced into the core, called a cavity, that is surrounded by a reflector constructed of materials such as Be or BeO. These reactors have often been described as cavity reactors because the density of the fissile gas is low and criticality is achieved only by means of the reflector to reduce neutron leakage from the core
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yue Ji
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The magnetohydrodynamics angular rate sensor (MHD ARS has received much attention for its ultra-low noise in ultra-broad bandwidth and its impact resistance in harsh environments; however, its poor performance at low frequency hinders its work in long time duration. The paper presents a modified MHD ARS combining Coriolis with MHD effect to extend the measurement scope throughout the whole bandwidth, in which an appropriate radial flow velocity should be provided to satisfy simplified model of the modified MHD ARS. A method that can generate radial velocity by an MHD pump in MHD ARS is proposed. A device is designed to study the radial flow velocity generated by the MHD pump. The influence of structure and physical parameters are studied by numerical simulation and experiment of the device. The analytic expression of the velocity generated by the energized current drawn from simulation and experiment are consistent, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the method generating radial velocity. The study can be applied to generate and control radial velocity in modified MHD ARS, which is essential for the two effects combination throughout the whole bandwidth.
Rotation and impurity studies in the presence of MHD activity and internal transport barriers on TCV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Federspiel, L. I.
2014-07-01
high degree of momentum conservation, up to 80-90%, is measured, suggesting that a supplementary torque accompanying the ST crash is not required to explain the experimental observations. This study demonstrates the importance of including fast perturbing effects such as MHD modes in momentum transport models, since they are likely to generate strong and rapid fluxes inside the plasma. Extensive work on transport barriers has been performed to better understand the formation and characteristics of eITBs on TCV, using toroidal and poloidal rotation measurements. The poloidal rotation, E{sub r}, and the E×B shearing rate have been derived systematically from the asymmetry of the toroidal rotation measurements at the high field side (HFS) and low field side (LFS). ). Since the position of the CXRS diagnostic view is at Z = 0 cm, two scenarios, a central barrier and a strong off-axis eITB, were developed to facilitate CXRS analysis. The effect on the barrier strength and on the rotation profiles of several parameters, such as the central and total power, Ohmic current perturbations and MHD activity is investigated for both targets. The barrier strength increases with cnt-CD applied on axis, higher total power and negative Ohmic perturbations. For the strong co-CD off-axis eITB, a barrier in T{sub e} at 7 keV and n{sub e} with a 23 cm barrier width, confinement factor H{sub RLW} = 5.4 and ∣R/L{sub Te}∣ = 45 was achieved. No special dependence is found between the experimental ∣ω'{sub ExB}∣ ∝ 10{sup 4}s{sup -1} and the confinement factor H{sub RLW} or the maximum ∣R/L{sub Te}∣, confirming that on TCV, the barrier improvement is not linked to higher ∣ω'{sub ExB}∣ values. The experimental E×B shearing rates were compared with the growth rate of the most unstable mode for these discharges obtained with the GENE code. The growth rate is found always one order of magnitude larger than the measured E×B shearing rates, confirming that the E
Rotation and impurity studies in the presence of MHD activity and internal transport barriers on TCV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Federspiel, L. I.
2014-01-01
degree of momentum conservation, up to 80-90%, is measured, suggesting that a supplementary torque accompanying the ST crash is not required to explain the experimental observations. This study demonstrates the importance of including fast perturbing effects such as MHD modes in momentum transport models, since they are likely to generate strong and rapid fluxes inside the plasma. Extensive work on transport barriers has been performed to better understand the formation and characteristics of eITBs on TCV, using toroidal and poloidal rotation measurements. The poloidal rotation, E r , and the E×B shearing rate have been derived systematically from the asymmetry of the toroidal rotation measurements at the high field side (HFS) and low field side (LFS). ). Since the position of the CXRS diagnostic view is at Z = 0 cm, two scenarios, a central barrier and a strong off-axis eITB, were developed to facilitate CXRS analysis. The effect on the barrier strength and on the rotation profiles of several parameters, such as the central and total power, Ohmic current perturbations and MHD activity is investigated for both targets. The barrier strength increases with cnt-CD applied on axis, higher total power and negative Ohmic perturbations. For the strong co-CD off-axis eITB, a barrier in T e at 7 keV and n e with a 23 cm barrier width, confinement factor H RLW = 5.4 and ∣R/L Te ∣ = 45 was achieved. No special dependence is found between the experimental ∣ω' ExB ∣ ∝ 10 4 s -1 and the confinement factor H RLW or the maximum ∣R/L Te ∣, confirming that on TCV, the barrier improvement is not linked to higher ∣ω' ExB ∣ values. The experimental E×B shearing rates were compared with the growth rate of the most unstable mode for these discharges obtained with the GENE code. The growth rate is found always one order of magnitude larger than the measured E×B shearing rates, confirming that the E×B shearing rate is not the cause of the formation of eITBs on
Numerical study for determining PF coil system parameters in MHD equilibrium of KT-2 tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryu, J.; Hong, S.H.; Lee, K.W.; Hong, B.G.; In, S.R.; Kim, S.K.
1995-01-01
The KT-2 is a large-aspect-ratio medium-sized divertor tokamak in the conceptual design phase and planned to be operational in 1998 at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Plasma equilibrium in tokamak can be acquired by controlling the current of poloidal field (PF) coils in appropriate geometries and positions. In this study, the authors have performed numerical calculations to achieve the various equilibrium conditions fitting given plasma shapes and satisfying PF current limitations. Usually an ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equation is used to obtain the equilibrium solution of tokamak plasma, and it is practical to take advantage of a numerical method in solving the MHD equation because it has nonlinear source terms. Two equilibrium codes have been applied to find a double-null configuration of free-boundary tokamak plasma in KT-2: one is of the authors' own developing and the other is a free-boundary tokamak equilibrium code (FBT) that has been used mainly for the verification of developed code's results. PF coil system parameters including their positions and currents are determined for the optimization of input power required when the specifications of KT-2 tokamak are met. Then, several sets of equilibrium conditions during the tokamak operation are found to observe the changes of poloidal field currents with the passing of operation time step, and the basic stability problems related with the magnetic field structure is also considered
A new three-dimensional equivalent circuit of diagonal type MHD generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Masahrau; Komaya, Kiyotoshi; Umoto, Juro
1979-01-01
For a large scale diagonal type generator with oil combustion gas plasma, a new three-dimensional equivalent circuit is proposed, in which threre are considered the leakage resistance of the duct insulator surface, the boundary layer, the ion slip, the effect of the finite electrode segmentation etc. Next, through the relation between the Hall voltage per one electrode pitch region and the load current obtained by use of the equivalent circuit, a suitable size and number of the space elements per region and determined. Further, by comparing in detail the electrical performances of two types of the diagonal generators with diagonal conducting and insulating sidewalls, three-dimensional effects of the sidewalls are discussed. (author)
Visualization of the Flux Rope Generation Process Using Large Quantities of MHD Simulation Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y Kubota
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We present a new concept of analysis using visualization of large quantities of simulation data. The time development of 3D objects with high temporal resolution provides the opportunity for scientific discovery. We visualize large quantities of simulation data using the visualization application 'Virtual Aurora' based on AVS (Advanced Visual Systems and the parallel distributed processing at "Space Weather Cloud" in NICT based on Gfarm technology. We introduce two results of high temporal resolution visualization: the magnetic flux rope generation process and dayside reconnection using a system of magnetic field line tracing.
Sovie, R. J.; Winter, J. M.; Juhasz, A. J.; Berg, R. D.
A conceptual design study of the MHD/steam plant that incorporates the use of oxygen enriched air preheated in a metallic heat exchanger as the combustor oxidant showed that this plant is the most attractive for early commercial applications. The variation of performance and cost was investigated as a function of plant size. The contractors' results for the overall efficiencies are in reasonable agreement considering the slight differences in their plant designs. NASA LeRC is reviewing cost and performance results for consistency with those of previous studies, including studies of conventional steam plants. LeRC in house efforts show that there are still many tradeoffs to be considered for these oxygen enriched plants and considerable variations can be made in channel length and level of oxygen enrichment with little change in overall plant efficiency.
Linear ideal MHD stability calculations for ITER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hogan, J.T.
1988-01-01
A survey of MHD stability limits has been made to address issues arising from the MHD--poloidal field design task of the US ITER project. This is a summary report on the results obtained to date. The study evaluates the dependence of ballooning, Mercier and low-n ideal linear MHD stability on key system parameters to estimate overall MHD constraints for ITER. 17 refs., 27 figs
Preliminary Study of Ideal Operational MHD Beta Limit in HL-2A Tokamak Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Yong; Dong Jiaqi; He Hongda; Turnbull, A. D.
2009-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) n = 1 kink mode with n the toroidal mode number is studied and the operational beta limit, constrained by the mode, is calculated for the equilibrium of HL-2A by using the GATO code. Approximately the same beta limit is obtained for configurations with a value of the axial safety factor q 0 both larger and less than 1. Without the stabilization of the conducting wall, the beta limit is found to be 0.821% corresponding to a normalized beta value of β c N = 2.56 for a typical HL-2A discharge with a plasma current I p = 0.245 MA, and the scaling of β c N ∼constant is confirmed. (magnetically confined plasma)
MHD channel performance for potential early commercial MHD power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swallom, D.W.
1981-01-01
The commercial viability of full and part load early commercial MHD power plants is examined. The load conditions comprise a mass flow of 472 kg/sec in the channel, Rosebud coal, 34% by volume oxygen in the oxidizer preheated to 922 K, and a one percent by mass seeding with K. The full load condition is discussed in terms of a combined cycle plant with optimized electrical output by the MHD channel. Various electrical load parameters, pressure ratios, and magnetic field profiles are considered for a baseload MHD generator, with a finding that a decelerating flow rate yields slightly higher electrical output than a constant flow rate. Nominal and part load conditions are explored, with a reduced gas mass flow rate and an enriched oxygen content. An enthalpy extraction of 24.6% and an isentropic efficiency of 74.2% is predicted for nominal operation of a 526 MWe MHD generator, with higher efficiencies for part load operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kersale, Evy
2000-01-01
The first part of this work proposes a new version of the mathematical formalism used to describe pressure-driven instabilities in magnetized accretion-ejection structures. Such processes, occurring in magnetically confined plasmas, pose very stringent limits to thermonuclear fusion devices but their influence in astrophysical objects has rarely been considered. In a framework which eliminates fast magnetosonic waves one develops a system of equations allowing us to follow both ballooning and interchange modes. An application of this result to a cylindrical jet being subject to solid rotation shows that the inner parts of such structures are destabilized by magnetic shear. Furthermore, while clarifying somewhat previous studies, one finds that jets confined by a dominant toroidal magnetic field are generically unstable with respect to interchange modes. Moreover, one has written a numerical code to solve the MHD partial differential equations. Starting with a basic algorithm, one has assessed the effects of the geometry, boundary conditions and artificial dissipation on numerical computation. The code has been tested by solving classical hydrodynamic and MHD Riemann problems. A new mechanism of ultra high energy cosmic ray production in gamma-ray bursts composes the last part of this work. In these objects, particles are accelerated up to energies of the order of 10 21 eV, by means of relativistic Alfven perturbations crossings. A stream instability involving a highly relativistic shell of plasma, the fireball, and baryons going through it produces such Alfven fronts. Then, Brillouin-like backscattering processes redistribute the available energy between the forward and backward Alfven waves and the magnetosonic ones. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-10-01
The current MHD program being implemented is a result of a consensus established in public meetings held by the Department of Energy in 1984. Essential elements of the current program include: (1) develop technical and environmental data for the integrated MHD topping cycle system through POC testing (1,000 hours); (2) develop technical and environmental data for the integrated MHD bottoming cycle sub system through POC testing (4,000 hours); (3) design, construct, and operate a seed regeneration POC facility (SRPF) capable of processing spent seed materials from the MHD bottoming cycle; (4) prepare conceptual designs for a site specific MHD retrofit plant; and (5) continue system studies and supporting research necessary for system testing. The current MHD program continues to be directed toward coal fired power plant applications, both stand-alone and retrofit. Development of a plant should enhance the attractiveness of MHD for applications other than electrical power. MHD may find application in electrical energy intensive industries and in the defense sector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murakami, T.; Okuno, Y.; Kabashima, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)
1998-03-01
Validity of improvement in performance of a nonequilibrium disk-type MHD generator by applying an additional radio-frequency (rf) electromagnetic field is investigated with r-{theta} two-dimensional numerical simulation. In particular, the structure of the plasma is examined in relation to the generator performance. The inductively coupled pre-ionization at an upper region of the charmer results in the increase of the electron temperature of the plasma. Thus, the nonuniformity of the plasma caused by the ionization instability developing in a weakly ionized seed plasma can be relieved and the fluctuation of the electron temperature and the ionization degree of the seed atoms are also suppressed. As the coil current is increased, the plasma behavior changes from the nonuniform state to the uniform stable state through the unstable transient state. As a result, the enthalpy extraction of the generator is improved. The ratio of the required Joule heating by the rf electric field for the sufficient improvement in the performance to the thermal input of generator is estimated to be about 0.35%. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, Rida; Mustafa, M.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.
2016-01-01
Recent advancements in nanotechnology have led to the discovery of new generation coolants known as nanofluids. Nanofluids possess novel and unique characteristics which are fruitful in numerous cooling applications. Current work is undertaken to address the heat transfer in MHD three-dimensional flow of magnetic nanofluid (ferrofluid) over a bidirectional exponentially stretching sheet. The base fluid is considered as water which consists of magnetite–Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. Exponentially varying surface temperature distribution is accounted. Problem formulation is presented through the Maxwell models for effective electrical conductivity and effective thermal conductivity of nanofluid. Similarity transformations give rise to a coupled non-linear differential system which is solved numerically. Appreciable growth in the convective heat transfer coefficient is observed when nanoparticle volume fraction is augmented. Temperature exponent parameter serves to enhance the heat transfer from the surface. Moreover the skin friction coefficient is directly proportional to both magnetic field strength and nanoparticle volume fraction. - Highlights: • Nanofluid flow due to exponentially stretching sheet. • Exponentially varying surface temperature distribution is accounted. • Sparrow–Gregg type Hills (SGH) for temperature distribution exist. • Numerical values of local Nusselt number are presented. • Cooling performance of ferrofluid is superior to pure water.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1981-11-01
Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal fired, closed cycle, magnetohydrodynamic power generation are detailed. These accomplishments relate to all system aspects of a CCMHD power generation system including coal combustion, heat transfer to the MHD working fluid, MHD power generation, heat and cesium seed recovery and overall systems analysis. Direct coal firing of the combined cycle has been under laboratory development in the form of a high slag rejection, regeneratively air cooled cyclone coal combustor concept, originated within this program. A hot bottom ceramic regenerative heat exchanger system was assembled and test fired with coal for the purposes of evaluating the catalytic effect of alumina on NO/sub x/ emission reduction and operability of the refractory dome support system. Design, procurement, fabrication and partial installation of a heat and seed recovery flow apparatus was accomplished and was based on a stream tube model of the full scale system using full scale temperatures, tube sizes, rates of temperature change and tube geometry. Systems analysis capability was substantially upgraded by the incorporation of a revised systems code, with emphasis on ease of operator interaction as well as separability of component subroutines. The updated code was used in the development of a new plant configuration, the Feedwater Cooled (FCB) Brayton Cycle, which is superior to the CCMHD/Steam cycle both in performance and cost. (WHK)
Generalized reduced MHD equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kruger, S.E.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.
1998-07-01
A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general toroidal configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson
Hopes for commercial use of MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1968-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is the study of the motion of fluids and gases in magnetic fields. After 25 years of theoretical and experimental work, it seems commercially promising for a new type of power station, where heat would be converted directly into electricity by generators without moving parts. Nuclear reactors would be well suited as the heat sources. At an Agency symposium in Warsaw in July it was felt that international cooperation is essential to develop the technique for industrial use. (author)
MHD modeling of ATLAS experiments to study transverse shear interface interactions
Faehl, R J; Keinigs, R K; Lindemuth, I R
2001-01-01
Summary form only given. The transverse shear established at the interface of two solids moving at differential velocities on the order of the sound speed is being studied in experiments on the ATLAS capacitor bank at Los Alamos, beginning in August 2001. The ATLAS bank has finished certification tests and has demonstrated peak currents of 27.5 MA with a 5 microsecond risetime into an inductive load. One- and two-dimensional MHD calculations have been performed in support of these "friction-like" ATLAS experiments. Current flowing along the outer surface of a thick aluminum liner, roughly 8 mm thick, accelerates the solid liner to velocities ~1 km/s. This cylindrically imploding liner then impacts a target assembly, composed of alternating regions of high and low density materials. The different shock speeds in the two materials leads to a differential velocity along the interface. Shock heating, elastic- plastic flow, and stress transport are included in the calculations. Material strength properties are tre...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Townsend, S.J.; Koziak, W.W.
1975-01-01
The concept is presented of the MHD Energy Storage System, comprising a heavy-water producing electrolysis plant for electricity absorption, hydrogen/oxygen storage and a high-efficiency MHD generator/steam turbine unit for electricity production on demand from the grid. The overall efficiency at 56 to 60 percent is comparable to pumped storage hydro, but at only one-half to two-thirds the capital cost and at considerably greater freedom of location. The MHD Energy Storage System combined with the CANDU nuclear reactor in Canadian use can supply all-nuclear energy to the grid at a unit energy cost lower than when oil or coal fired plants are used in the same grid
Characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer in pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Z.Y.; Liu, Y.J.
2016-01-01
As gradually wide applications of MHD fluid, transportation as well as control with pumps and valves is unavoidable, which induces MHD fluid hammer. The paper attempts to combine MHD effect and fluid hammer effect and to investigate the characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer. A non-dimensional fluid hammer model, based on Navier–Stocks equations, coupling with Lorentz force is numerically solved in a reservoir–pipe–valve system with uniform external magnetic field. The MHD effect is represented by the interaction number which associates with the conductivity of the MHD fluid as well as the external magnetic field and can be interpreted as the ratio of Lorentz force to Joukowsky force. The transient numerical results of pressure head, average velocity, wall shear stress, velocity profiles and shear stress profiles are provided. The additional MHD effect hinders fluid motion, weakens wave front and homogenizes velocity profiles, contributing to obvious attenuation of oscillation, strengthened line packing and weakened Richardson annular effect. Studying the characteristics of MHD laminar fluid hammer theoretically supplements the gap of knowledge of rapid-transient MHD flow and technically provides beneficial information for MHD pipeline system designers to better devise MHD systems. - Highlights: • Characteristics of laminar MHD fluid hammer are discussed by simulation. • MHD effect has significant influence on attenuation of wave. • MHD effect strengthens line packing. • MHD effect inhibits Richardson annular effect.
Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tixador, P [CNRS/CRTBT-LEG, 38 - Grenoble (France)
1994-04-01
Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion are now attracting attention in several countries. Different superconducting MagLev and MHD systems will be described concentrating on, above all, the electromagnetic aspect. Some programmes occurring throughout the world will be described. Magnetic levitated trains could be the new high speed transportation system for the 21st century. Intensive studies involving MagLev trains using superconductivity have been carried our in Japan since 1970. The construction of a 43 km long track is to be the next step. In 1991 a six year programme was launched in the United States to evaluate the performances of MagLev systems for transportation. The MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamic) offers some interesting advantages (efficiency, stealth characteristics, ..) for naval propulsion and increasing attention is being paid towards it nowadays. Japan is also up at the top with the tests of Yamato I, a 260 ton MHD propulsed ship. (orig.).
Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tixador, P.
1994-01-01
Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion are now attracting attention in several countries. Different superconducting MagLev and MHD systems will be described concentrating on, above all, the electromagnetic aspect. Some programmes occurring throughout the world will be described. Magnetic levitated trains could be the new high speed transportation system for the 21st century. Intensive studies involving MagLev trains using superconductivity have been carried our in Japan since 1970. The construction of a 43 km long track is to be the next step. In 1991 a six year programme was launched in the United States to evaluate the performances of MagLev systems for transportation. The MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamic) offers some interesting advantages (efficiency, stealth characteristics, ..) for naval propulsion and increasing attention is being paid towards it nowadays. Japan is also up at the top with the tests of Yamato I, a 260 ton MHD propulsed ship. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolb, C.E.; Yousefian, V.; Wormhoudt, J.; Haimes, R.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Kerrebrock, J.L.
1978-01-30
Research has included theoretical modeling of important plasma chemical effects such as: conductivity reductions due to condensed slag/electron interactions; conductivity and generator efficiency reductions due to the formation of slag-related negative ion species; and the loss of alkali seed due to chemical combination with condensed slag. A summary of the major conclusions in each of these areas is presented. A major output of the modeling effort has been the development of an MHD plasma chemistry core flow model. This model has been formulated into a computer program designated the PACKAGE code (Plasma Analysis, Chemical Kinetics, And Generator Efficiency). The PACKAGE code is designed to calculate the effect of coal rank, ash percentage, ash composition, air preheat temperatures, equivalence ratio, and various generator channel parameters on the overall efficiency of open-cycle, coal-fired MHD generators. A complete description of the PACKAGE code and a preliminary version of the PACKAGE user's manual are included. A laboratory measurements program involving direct, mass spectrometric sampling of the positive and negative ions formed in a one atmosphere coal combustion plasma was also completed during the contract's initial phase. The relative ion concentrations formed in a plasma due to the methane augmented combustion of pulverized Montana Rosebud coal with potassium carbonate seed and preheated air are summarized. Positive ions measured include K/sup +/, KO/sup +/, Na/sup +/, Rb/sup +/, Cs/sup +/, and CsO/sup +/, while negative ions identified include PO/sub 3//sup -/, PO/sub 2//sup -/, BO/sub 2//sup -/, OH/sup -/, SH/sup -/, and probably HCrO/sub 3/, HMoO/sub 4//sup -/, and HWO/sub 3//sup -/. Comparison of the measurements with PACKAGE code predictions are presented. Preliminary design considerations for a mass spectrometric sampling probe capable of characterizing coal combustion plasmas from full scale combustors and flow trains are presented
MHD power conversion employing liquid metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houben, J.W.M.A.; Massee, P.
1969-02-01
The work performed in the field of MHD generation of electricity by means of liquid metals is described. It is shown that the study of two-phase flows is essential in this topic of research; two-phase flows are therefore described. Two types of generators which can be utilized with liquid metals have been studied. The results of this study are described. A short survey of the prospects of other liquid metal systems which emerge from a study of the literature is given. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning possibilities for further investigation
Closed cycle MHD specialist meeting. Progress report, 1971--1972
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rietjens, L.H.
1972-04-01
Abstracts of the conference papers on closed cycle MHD research are presented. The general areas of discussion are the following: results on closed cycle experiments; plasma properties, and instabilities and stabilization in nonequilibrium plasmas; loss mechanisms, current distributions, electrode effects, boundary layers, and gas dynamic effects; and design concepts of large MHD generators, and nuclear MHD power plants. (GRA)
Raju, R. Srinivasa; Ramesh, K.
2018-05-01
The purpose of this work is to study the grid independence of finite element method on MHD Casson fluid flow past a vertically inclined plate filled in a porous medium in presence of chemical reaction, heat absorption, an external magnetic field and slip effect has been investigated. For this study of grid independence, a mathematical model is developed and analyzed by using appropriate mathematical technique, called finite element method. Grid study discussed with the help of numerical values of velocity, temperature and concentration profiles in tabular form. avourable comparisons with previously published work on various special cases of the problem are obtained.
Nonequilibrium fluctuations in micro-MHD effects on electrodeposition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aogaki, Ryoichi; Morimoto, Ryoichi; Asanuma, Miki
2010-01-01
In copper electrodeposition under a magnetic field parallel to electrode surface, different roles of two kinds of nonequilibrium fluctuations for micro-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects are discussed; symmetrical fluctuations are accompanied by the suppression of three dimensional (3D) nucleation by micro-MHD flows (the 1st micro-MHD effect), whereas asymmetrical fluctuations controlling 2D nucleation yield secondary nodules by larger micro-MHD flows (the 2nd micro-MHD effect). Though the 3D nucleation with symmetrical fluctuations is always suppressed by the micro-MHD flows, due to the change in the rate-determining step from electron transfer to mass transfer, the 2D nucleation with asymmetrical fluctuations newly turns unstable, generating larger micro-MHD flows. As a result, round semi-spherical deposits, i.e., secondary nodules are yielded. Using computer simulation, the mechanism of the 2nd micro-MHD effect is validated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, J.D.; Pare, V.L.
1987-01-01
The data acquisition system assembled to study magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity on the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) tokamak at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is being revised for use on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). The new hardware and software architectures are based on ISX-B experience and will feature different modes of operation for storing various subsets of available data, a user interface that requires less routine activity than the earlier system, and continued support of calibration and testing measurement used on ISX-B. The new hardware organization and software components are described in detail. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab
Hals, F.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.; Westra, L.; Zar, J.; Morgan, W.; Bozzuto, C.
1980-01-01
The study deals with different 'moderate technology' entry-level commercial MHD power plants. Two of the reference plants are based on combustion of coal with air preheated in a high-temperature regenerative air heater separately fired with a low-BTU gas produced in a gasifier integrated with the power plant. The third reference plant design is based on the use of oxygen enriched combustion air. Performance calculations show that an overall power plant efficiency of the order of 44% can be reached with the use of oxygen enrichment.
MHD/gas turbine systems designed for low cooling water requirements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Annen, K.D.; Eustis, R.H.
1983-01-01
The MHD/gas turbine combined-cycle system has been designed specifically for applications where the availability of cooling water is very limited. The base case systems which were studied consist of a coal-fired MHD plant with an air turbine bottoming plant and require no cooling water. In addition to the base case systems, systems were considered which included the addition of a vapor cycle bottoming plant to improve the thermal efficiency. These systems require a small amount of cooling water. The results show that the MHD/gas turbine systems have very good thermal and economic performances. The base case I MHD/gas turbine system (782 MW /SUB e/ ) requires no cooling water, has a heat rate which is 13% higher, and a cost of electricity which is only 7% higher than a comparable MHD/steam system (878 MW /SUB e/ ) having a cooling tower heat load of 720 MW. The case I vapor cycle bottomed systems have thermal and economic performances which approach and even exceed those of the MHD/steam system, while having substantially lower cooling water requirements. Performances of a second-generation MHD/gas turbine system and an oxygen-enriched, early commercial system are also evaluated. An analysis of nitric oxide emissions shows compliance with emission standards
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
England, W.B.
1978-01-01
Uncorrelated and correlated potential energy curves and dipole moments are reported for linear KOH. The compound is found to be ionic, K + OH - . Minimum energy bond lengths are R/sub KO/=4.2913 au and R/sub OH/=1.7688 au, with an estimated accuracy of 2%. The corresponding dipole moment is 3.3 au (8.46 D) with a similar accuracy estimate. This is to our knowledge the first value ever reported for the KOH dipole moment, and the large value suggests that KOH will be an effective electron scatterer in MHD plasmas
Energetic particle effects on global MHD modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.
1990-01-01
The effects of energetic particles on MHD type modes are studied by analytical theories and the nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code (NOVA-K). In particular we address the problems of (1) the stabilization of ideal MHD internal kink modes and the excitation of resonant ''fishbone'' internal modes and (2) the alpha particle destabilization of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) via transit resonances. Analytical theories are presented to help explain the NOVA-K results. For energetic trapped particles generated by neutral-beam injection (NBI) or ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH), a stability window for the n=1 internal kink mode in the hot particle beat space exists even in the absence of core ion finite Larmor radius effect (finite ω *i ). On the other hand, the trapped alpha particles are found to resonantly excite instability of the n=1 internal mode and can lower the critical beta threshold. The circulating alpha particles can strongly destabilize TAE modes via inverse Landau damping associated with the spatial gradient of the alpha particle pressure. 23 refs., 5 figs
MHD turbulent dynamo in astrophysics: Theory and numerical simulation
Chou, Hongsong
2001-10-01
This thesis treats the physics of dynamo effects through theoretical modeling of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems and direct numerical simulations of MHD turbulence. After a brief introduction to astrophysical dynamo research in Chapter 1, the following issues in developing dynamic models of dynamo theory are addressed: In Chapter 2, nonlinearity that arises from the back reaction of magnetic field on velocity field is considered in a new model for the dynamo α-effect. The dependence of α-coefficient on magnetic Reynolds number, kinetic Reynolds number, magnetic Prandtl number and statistical properties of MHD turbulence is studied. In Chapter 3, the time-dependence of magnetic helicity dynamics and its influence on dynamo effects are studied with a theoretical model and 3D direct numerical simulations. The applicability of and the connection between different dynamo models are also discussed. In Chapter 4, processes of magnetic field amplification by turbulence are numerically simulated with a 3D Fourier spectral method. The initial seed magnetic field can be a large-scale field, a small-scale magnetic impulse, and a combination of these two. Other issues, such as dynamo processes due to helical Alfvénic waves and the implication and validity of the Zeldovich relation, are also addressed in Appendix B and Chapters 4 & 5, respectively. Main conclusions and future work are presented in Chapter 5. Applications of these studies are intended for astrophysical magnetic field generation through turbulent dynamo processes, especially when nonlinearity plays central role. In studying the physics of MHD turbulent dynamo processes, the following tools are developed: (1)A double Fourier transform in both space and time for the linearized MHD equations (Chapter 2 and Appendices A & B). (2)A Fourier spectral numerical method for direct simulation of 3D incompressible MHD equations (Appendix C).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1990-03-30
Summarized herein are the reports on the R and D of coal-fired magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD) electrical power generation, received by March 30, 1990. For the coal combustor, the air flow tests have been conducted using a 5MW-scale plastic model since 1984, and the model has been later scaled-up to 15MW. The actual combustion tests have been conducted using a 1MW-scale combustor, designed based on the results of air flow tests using the 15MW-scale model, mainly for the cyclone combustor in the first stage. For a coal-fired generation channel, the studies on the cathodes and insulation walls have been conducted since 1986, the research themes including causes for and measures against inter-cathode shorting, and insulating walls of SiC. The anode walls have been studied since 1986, deepening understanding of, e.g., the anode arc phenomenon and anode discharge phenomenon which relates to the causes for exhaustion of the inter-anode insulators and anode materials. For the high temperature regenerative heat exchanger, the existing materials have been screened since 1985, and the basic data related to, e.g., slag viscosity and its effects on material corrosion have been collected since 1986. (NEDO)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boileau, A.; Van Andel, H.W.H.; Hellermann, M. von; Rogister, A.
1987-01-01
A modulation of microturbulence is observed in TEXTOR during low mode number MHD activity using CO 2 laser collective scattering. This is accomplished by a strong enhancement of density fluctuations near ka s approx. = 3 at the end of soft landing discharges and a displacement of the frequency spectrum towards lower frequencies. The increase is most significant for rapid rampdown of the plasma current accompanied by strong MHD activity but also occurs when the latter is not detected. The evolution of microturbulence is also studied during major plasma disruptions. It was found that disruptions without MHD precursor oscillations are characterized by a rapid increase in the density fluctuations starting approx. 100 ms before plasma disruption. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Li
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioimpedance analysis (BIA has been reported as helpful in identifying hypervolemia. Observation data showed that hypervolemic maintenance hemodialysis (MHD patients identified using BIA methods have higher mortality risk. However, it is not known if BIA-guided fluid management can improve MHD patients’ survival. The objectives of the BOCOMO study are to evaluate the outcome of BIA guided fluid management compared with standard care. Methods This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. More than 1300 participants from 16 clinical sites will be included in the study. The enrolment period will last 6 months, and minimum length of follow-up will be 36 months. MHD patients aged between 18 years and 80 years who have been on MHD for at least 3 months and meet eligibility criteria will be invited to participate in the study. Participants will be randomized to BIA arm or control arm in a 1:1 ratio. A portable whole body bioimpedance spectroscopy device (BCM—Fresenius Medical Care D GmbH will be used for BIA measurement at baseline for both arms of the study. In the BIA arm, additional BCM measurements will be performed every 2 months. The primary intent-to-treat analysis will compare outcomes for a composite endpoint of death, acute myocardial infarction, stroke or incident peripheral arterial occlusive disease between groups. Secondary endpoints will include left ventricular wall thickness, blood pressure, medications, and incidence and length of hospitalization. Discussions Previous results regarding the benefit of strict fluid control are conflicting due to small sample sizes and unstable dry weight estimating methods. To our knowledge this is the first large-scale, multicentre, prospective, randomized controlled trial to assess whether BIS-guided volume management improves outcomes of MHD patients. The endpoints of the BOCOMO study are of utmost importance to health care providers. In order to obtain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Ishaq
2018-05-01
Full Text Available This research paper investigates entropy generation analysis on two-dimensional nanofluid film flow of Eyring–Powell fluid with heat amd mass transmission over an unsteady porous stretching sheet in the existence of uniform magnetic field (MHD. The flow of liquid films are taken under the impact of thermal radiation. The basic time dependent equations of heat transfer, momentum and mass transfer are modeled and converted to a system of differential equations by employing appropriate similarity transformation with unsteady dimensionless parameters. Entropy analysis is the main focus in this work and the impact of physical parameters on the entropy profile are discussed in detail. The influence of thermophoresis and Brownian motion has been taken in the nanofluids model. An optima approach has been applied to acquire the solution of modeled problem. The convergence of the HAM (Homotopy Analysis Method has been presented numerically. The disparity of the Nusslet number, Skin friction, Sherwood number and their influence on the velocity, heat and concentration fields has been scrutinized. Moreover, for comprehension, the physical presentation of the embedded parameters are explored analytically for entropy generation and discussed.
MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1992-01-01
The overall objective of the project is to design and construct prototypical hardware for an integrated MHD topping cycle, and conduct long duration proof-of-concept tests of integrated system at the US DOE Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering design data base on MHD power train reliability, availability, maintainability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up the topping cycle design to the next level of development, an early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include: A slagging coal combustor with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with an Eastern (Illinois {number sign}6) or Western (Montana Rosebud) coal, a segmented supersonic nozzle, a supersonic MHD channel capable of generating at least 1.5 MW of electrical power, a segmented supersonic diffuser section to interface the channel with existing facility quench and exhaust systems, a complete set of current control circuits for local diagonal current control along the channel, and a set of current consolidation circuits to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.
Qayyum, Sajid; Hayat, Tasawar; Shehzad, Sabir Ali; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2018-03-01
This article concentrates on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stagnation point flow of tangent hyperbolic nanofluid in the presence of buoyancy forces. Flow analysis caused due to stretching surface. Characteristics of heat transfer are examined under the influence of thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption. Newtonian conditions for heat and mass transfer are employed. Nanofluid model includes Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The governing nonlinear partial differential systems of the problem are transformed into a systems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations through appropriate variables. Impact of embedded parameters on the velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration fields are presented graphically. Numerical computations are made to obtain the values of skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. It is concluded that velocity field enhances in the frame of mixed convection parameter while reverse situation is observed due to power law index. Effect of Brownian motion parameter on the temperature and heat transfer rate is quite reverse. Moreover impact of solutal conjugate parameter on the concentration and local Sherwood number is quite similar.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Schüssler
Full Text Available Two aspects of solar MHD are discussed in relation to the work of the MHD simulation group at KIS. Photospheric magneto-convection, the nonlinear interaction of magnetic field and convection in a strongly stratified, radiating fluid, is a key process of general astrophysical relevance. Comprehensive numerical simulations including radiative transfer have significantly improved our understanding of the processes and have become an important tool for the interpretation of observational data. Examples of field intensification in the solar photosphere ('convective collapse' are shown. The second line of research is concerned with the dynamics of flux tubes in the convection zone, which has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the solar dynamo. Simulations indicate that the field strength in the region where the flux is stored before erupting to form sunspot groups is of the order of 10^{5} G, an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates based on equipartition with the kinetic energy of convective flows.
Key words. Solar physics · astrophysics and astronomy (photosphere and chromosphere; stellar interiors and dynamo theory; numerical simulation studies.
MHD simulation of Columbia HBT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, X.L.
1987-01-01
The plasma of Columbia High Beta Tokamak (HBT) is studied numerically by using the two dimensional resistive MHD model. The main object of this work is to understand the high beta formation process of HBT plasma and to compare the simulation with the experiments. 21 refs., 48 figs., 2 tabs
Nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bateman, G.; Hicks, H.R.; Wooten, J.W.; Dory, R.A.
1975-01-01
A 3-D nonlinear MHD computer code was used to study the time evolution of internal instabilities. Velocity vortex cells are observed to persist into the nonlinear evolution. Pressure and density profiles convect around these cells for a weak localized instability, or convect into the wall for a strong instability. (U.S.)
Effects of MHD slow shocks propagating along magnetic flux tubes in a dipole magnetic field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. V. Erkaev
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Variations of the plasma pressure in a magnetic flux tube can produce MHD waves evolving into shocks. In the case of a low plasma beta, plasma pressure pulses in the magnetic flux tube generate MHD slow shocks propagating along the tube. For converging magnetic field lines, such as in a dipole magnetic field, the cross section of the magnetic flux tube decreases enormously with increasing magnetic field strength. In such a case, the propagation of MHD waves along magnetic flux tubes is rather different from that in the case of uniform magnetic fields. In this paper, the propagation of MHD slow shocks is studied numerically using the ideal MHD equations in an approximation suitable for a thin magnetic flux tube with a low plasma beta. The results obtained in the numerical study show that the jumps in the plasma parameters at the MHD slow shock increase greatly while the shock is propagating in the narrowing magnetic flux tube. The results are applied to the case of the interaction between Jupiter and its satellite Io, the latter being considered as a source of plasma pressure pulses.
MHD power plants - a reality of the 80's
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pishchikov, S.
1981-01-01
A 300 MW MHD generator and a conventional turbogenerator of the same capacity will be used for the first MHD power block assembly projected in the USSR. The power plant's own consumption will not exceed 12% and the availability will be approximately 50%. Compared with a conventional power generating unit of a capacity of 500 MW the projected unit will provide fuel savings of at least 23%. The project is based on almost seven years long experience with the U-25 experimental MHD facility. Similar to the U-25, the MHD power plant projected will be fired with natural gas. (B.S.)
MHD power plants - a reality of the 80's
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pishchikov, S
1981-02-01
A 300 MW MHD generator and a conventional turbogenerator of the same capacity will be used for the first MHD power block assembly projected in the USSR. The power plant's own consumption will not exceed 12% and the availability will be approximately 50%. Compared with a conventional power generating unit of a capacity of 500 MW the projected unit will provide fuel savings of at least 23%. The project is based on almost seven years long experience with the U-25 experimental MHD facility. Similar to the U-25, the MHD power plant projected will be fired with natural gas.
Numerical study of shock waves in non-ideal magnetogasdynamics (MHD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Addepalli Ramu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available One-dimensional unsteady adiabatic flow of strong converging shock waves in cylindrical or spherical symmetry in MHD, which is propagating into plasma, is analyzed. The plasma is assumed to be non-ideal gas whose equation of state is of Mie–Gruneisen type. Suitable transformations reduce the governing equations into ordinary differential equations of Poincare type. In the present work, McQueen and Royce equations of state (EOS have been considered with suitable material constants and the spherical and cylindrical cases are worked out in detail to investigate the behavior and the influence on the shock wave propagation by energy input and β(ρ/ρ0, the measure of shock strength. The similarity solution is valid for adiabatic flow as long as the counter pressure is neglected. The numerical technique applied in this paper provides a global solution to the implosion problem for the flow variables, the similarity exponent α for different Gruneisen parameters. It is shown that increasing β(ρ/ρ0 does not automatically decelerate the shock front but the velocity and pressure behind the shock front increases quickly in the presence of the magnetic field and decreases slowly and become constant. This becomes true whether the piston is accelerated, is moving at constant speed or is decelerated. These results are presented through the illustrative graphs and tables. The magnetic field effects on the flow variables through a medium and total energy under the influence of strong magnetic field are also presented.
Neoclassical MHD equations for tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callen, J.D.; Shaing, K.C.
1986-03-01
The moment equation approach to neoclassical-type processes is used to derive the flows, currents and resistive MHD-like equations for studying equilibria and instabilities in axisymmetric tokamak plasmas operating in the banana-plateau collisionality regime (ν* approx. 1). The resultant ''neoclassical MHD'' equations differ from the usual reduced equations of resistive MHD primarily by the addition of the important viscous relaxation effects within a magnetic flux surface. The primary effects of the parallel (poloidal) viscous relaxation are: (1) Rapid (approx. ν/sub i/) damping of the poloidal ion flow so the residual flow is only toroidal; (2) addition of the bootstrap current contribution to Ohm's laws; and (3) an enhanced (by B 2 /B/sub theta/ 2 ) polarization drift type term and consequent enhancement of the perpendicular dielectric constant due to parallel flow inertia, which causes the equations to depend only on the poloidal magnetic field B/sub theta/. Gyroviscosity (or diamagnetic vfiscosity) effects are included to properly treat the diamagnetic flow effects. The nonlinear form of the neoclassical MHD equations is derived and shown to satisfy an energy conservation equation with dissipation arising from Joule and poloidal viscous heating, and transport due to classical and neoclassical diffusion
Liquid metal MHD research and development in Israel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Branover, H.
1993-01-01
The study of liquid metal MHD in Israel commenced in 1973. Initially it was concentrated mainly on laminar flows influenced by external magnetic fields. In 1978 a liquid metal MHD energy conversion program was started. This program was developed at the Center for MHD Studies at Ben-Gurion University in Beer-Sheva, with the participation of specialists from the Technion, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel Atomic Energy Commission, and others. The program was sponsored initially by the Israel Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure, and later by the Ministry of Industry and Trade. Since 1980, Solmecs, a private commercial company has become a major factor in the development of liquid metal MHD in Israel. From the very beginning the program was based on broad international cooperation. A number of overseas institutions and individuals became participants in the program. Through extensive research and evaluation of a number of concepts of liquid metal MHD power generation systems, It was established that the most promising concept, demanding a relatively short period of development, is the gravitational system using heavy metals (lead, lead alloys) as the magneto-hydrodynamic fluid and steam or gases as thermodynamic fluids. This concept was chosen for further development and industrial application, and the program related to such systems was named the Etgar Program. The main directions of research and development activities have been defined as follows: investigations of physical phenomena, development of universal numerical code for parametric studies, optimization and design of the system, material studies, development of engineering components, building and testing of integrated small-scale Etgar type systems, economic evaluation of the system and comparison with conventional technologies, development of moderate scale industrial demonstration plant. At this time 6 items have been fully implemented and activities on the last item were started. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1991-03-01
The pressurized coal partial combustion (PCPC) furnace is surveyed/studied for its incorporation in MHD generation. The technical development of the atmospheric CPC has been basically completed, and the concept is demonstrated using a test system of commercial size. Many techniques developed for the atmospheric CPC are applicable to the PCPC system. These include structures of the CPC furnace walls, and slag handling and simulation techniques. Combination of PFBC with PCPC or IGCC can bring about many merits, e.g., enhanced efficiency and abated NOx emissions for the combined cycle power generation. These topping cycles, therefore, should be developed in the early stage. MHD power generation is one of the concepts that can enhance efficiency. In particular, the techniques for closed cycle MHD generation have notably advanced recently. The PCPC techniques are useful for coal combustors for MHD generation. Full-scale development works for the direct coal combustion gas turbine systems have been just started for the IGCC systems of the next generation, and the PCPC-related techniques are expected to serve as the central techniques for these turbine systems. (NEDO)
Several hundred megawatt MHD units
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pishchikov, S.; Pinkhasik, D.; Sidorov, V.
1978-01-01
The features are described of the future MHD unit U-25 tested at the Institute of High Temperatures of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. The attainable thermal load of the combustion chamber is 290x10 6 kJ/m 3 .h. Three types of channel were tested, i.e., the Faraday channel divided into sections with modular insulating walls, the diagonal channel without metal body, and an improved Faraday channel with an output of 20 MW. The described MHD generator is equipped with an inverter which transforms direct current into alternating current, continuously adjusts the load from no-load operation to short-circuit connection and maintains the desired electrical voltage independently of the changes in loading. A new technique of connecting and disconnecting the oxygen equipment was developed which considerably reduces the time of start-up and shut-down. Natural gas is used for heating the air heaters. All equipment used in the operation of the MHD generator is remote controlled by computer or manually. (J.B.)
Several hundred megawatt MHD units
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pishchikov, S; Pinkhasik, D; Sidorov, V
1978-07-01
The features are described of the future MHD unit U-25 tested at the Institute of High Temperatures of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. The attainable thermal load of the combustion chamber is 290x10/sup 6/ kJ/m/sup 3/.h. Three types of channel were tested, i.e., the Faraday channel divided into sections with modular insulating walls, the diagonal channel without metal body, and an improved Faraday channel with an output of 20 MW. The described MHD generator is equipped with an inverter which transforms direct current into alternating current, continuously adjusts the load from no-load operation to short-circuit connection and maintains the desired electrical voltage independently of the changes in loading. A new technique of connecting and disconnecting the oxygen equipment was developed which considerably reduces the time of start-up and shut-down. Natural gas is used for heating the air heaters. All equipment used in the operation of the MHD generator is remote controlled by computer or manually.
A performance analysis for MHD power cycles operating at maximum power density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahin, Bahri; Kodal, Ali; Yavuz, Hasbi
1996-01-01
An analysis of the thermal efficiency of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power cycle at maximum power density for a constant velocity type MHD generator has been carried out. The irreversibilities at the compressor and the MHD generator are taken into account. The results obtained from power density analysis were compared with those of maximum power analysis. It is shown that by using the power density criteria the MHD cycle efficiency can be increased effectively. (author)
Chen, Xinxin; Gu, Ermin; Wang, Shuanghu; Zheng, Xiang; Chen, Mengchun; Wang, Li; Hu, Guoxin; Cai, Jian-ping; Zhou, Hongyu
2016-03-01
Oxcarbazepine (OXC), a second-generation antiepileptic drug, undergoes rapid reduction with formation of the active metabolite 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxy-carbazepine (MHD) in vivo. In this study, a method for simultaneous determination of OXC and MHD in rat plasma using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) was developed and validated. Under given chromatographic conditions, OXC, MHD and internal standard diazepam were separated well and quantified by electrospray positive ionization mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring transitions mode. The method validation demonstrated good linearity over the range of 10-2,000 ng/mL for OXC and 5-1,000 ng/mL for MHD. The lower limit of quantification was 5 ng/mL for OXC and 2.5 ng/mL for MHD, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of OXC and MHD in rats, with or without pretreatment by ketoconazole (KET) and voriconazole (VOR). Statistics indicated that KET and VOR significantly affected the disposition of OXC and MHD in vivo, whereas VOR predominantly interfered with the disposition of MHD. This method is suitable for pharmacokinetic study in small animals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imbert-Gérard Lise-Marie
2011-11-01
Full Text Available We propose numerical methods on Cartesian meshes for solving the 2-D axisymmetric two-temperature resistivive magnetohydrodynamics equations with self-generated magnetic field and Braginskii’s [1] closures. These rely on a splitting of the complete system in several subsystems according to the nature of the underlying mathematical operator. The hyperbolic part is solved using conservative high-order dimensionally split Lagrange-remap schemes whereas semi-implicit diffusion operators have been developed for the thermal and resistive conduction equations. Source terms are treated explictly. Numerical results on the deceleration phase of an ICF implosion test problem are proposed, a benchmark which was initially proposed in [2]. Nous proposons dans cet article des méthodes numériques pour les équations de la magnétohydrodynamique résistive à deux températures avec champ magnétique auto-généré et relations de fermeture de Braginskii [1] en géométrie 2-D axisymétrique sur maillage cartésien. Celles-ci sont basées sur une décomposition du système complet selon la nature des opérateurs mathématiques sous-jacents. La partie hyperbolique est résolue par des schémas conservatifs Lagrange-projection d’ordre élevé en directions alternées tandis que des opérateurs de diffusion semi-implicites ont été développés pour les équations de conduction thermique et résistive. Les termes sources sont traités de manière explicite. Des résultats numériques sur un cas-test simulant la phase de décélération d’une implosion de capsule FCI sont proposés, ce benchmark ayant été initialement présenté dans [2].
Experimental studies of the MHD stability of non-circular Extrap Z-pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.R.
1985-01-01
Extrap Z-pinches, which can be sustained for many Alfven times, can be characterized as non-circular Z-pinch discharges bounded by a magnetic separatrix acting somewhat like a limiter. The magnetic separatrix is produced when a vacuum magnetic field, generated by currents in external conductors, combines with the self-magnetic field produced by the discharge current. The separatrix deforms the pinch cross-section and affects the equilibrium at the pinch boundary; both effects improve stability. Experiments have been performed which indicate that both effects are necessary for the successful generation of sustained Extrap discharges. In one experiment, the importance of the non-circularity of the cross-section was investigated. The deformation provided by the vacuum field can provide regions in the discharge where field lines have good curvature, which improves the stability of the configuration against internal modes. In configurations apparently lacking good curvature, discharges could not be sustained. In a second experiment, the dependence of the amplitude of global kink instabilities on the discharge current density profile were studied. The behaviour of the modes was consistent with that which would be expected for surface current-driven modes. (orig.)
Experimental studies of the MHD stability of non-circular extrap Z-pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.R.
1984-12-01
Extrap Z-pinches, which can be sustained for many Alfven times, can be characterized as non-circular Z-pinch discharges bounded by a magnetic separatrix acting somewhat like a limiter. The magnetic separatrix is produced when a vacuum magnetic field, generated by currents in external conductors, combines with the self-magnetic field produced by the discharge current. The separatrix deforms the pinch cross-section and affects the equilibrium at the pinch boundary; both effects improve stability. Experiments have been performed which indicate that both effects are necessary for the successful generation of sustained Extrap discharges. In one experiment, the importance of the non-circularity of the cross-section was investigated. The deformation provided by the vacuum field can provide regions in the discharge where field lines have good curvature, which improves the stability of the configuration against internal modes. In configurations apparently lacking good curvature, discharges could not be sustained. In a second experiment, the dependence of the amplitude of global kink instabilities on the discharge current density profile were studied. The behaviour of the modes was consistent with that which would be expected for surface current-driven modes. (Author)
MHD stability analysis of helical system plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Yuji
2000-01-01
Several topics of the MHD stability studies in helical system plasmas are reviewed with respect to the linear and ideal modes mainly. Difference of the method of the MHD stability analysis in helical system plasmas from that in tokamak plasmas is emphasized. Lack of the cyclic (symmetric) coordinate makes an analysis more difficult. Recent topic about TAE modes in a helical system is also described briefly. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeda, Tatsuoki
1985-01-01
In this article analyses of the MHD stabilities which govern the global behavior of a fusion plasma are described from the viewpoint of the numerical computation. First, we describe the high accuracy calculation of the MHD equilibrium and then the analysis of the linear MHD instability. The former is the basis of the stability analysis and the latter is closely related to the limiting beta value which is a very important theoretical issue of the tokamak research. To attain a stable tokamak plasma with good confinement property it is necessary to control or suppress disruptive instabilities. We, next, describe the nonlinear MHD instabilities which relate with the disruption phenomena. Lastly, we describe vectorization of the MHD codes. The above MHD codes for fusion plasma analyses are relatively simple though very time-consuming and parts of the codes which need a lot of CPU time concentrate on a small portion of the codes, moreover, the codes are usually used by the developers of the codes themselves, which make it comparatively easy to attain a high performance ratio on the vector processor. (author)
Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion
Tixador, P.
1994-04-01
Magnetic levitation and MHD propulsion are now attracting attention in several countries. Different superconducting MagLev and MHD systems will be described concentrating on, above all, the electromagnetic aspect. Some programmes occurring throughout the world will be described. Magnetic levitated trains could be the new high speed transportation system for the 21st century. Intensive studies involving MagLev trains using superconductivity have been carried out in Japan since 1970. The construction of a 43 km long track is to be the next step. In 1991 a six year programme was launched in the United States to evaluate the performances of MagLev systems for transportation. The MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamic) offers some interesting advantages (efficiency, stealth characteristics, ...) for naval propulsion and increasing attention is being paid towards it nowadays. Japan is also up at the top with the tests of Yamato I, a 260 ton MHD propulsed ship. Depuis quelques années nous assistons à un redémarrage de programmes concernant la lévitation et la propulsion supraconductrices. Différents systèmes supraconducteurs de lévitation et de propulsion seront décrits en examinant plus particulièrement l'aspect électromagnétique. Quelques programmes à travers le monde seront abordés. Les trains à sustentation magnétique pourraient constituer un nouveau mode de transport terrestre à vitesse élevée (500 km/h) pour le 21^e siècle. Les japonais n'ont cessé de s'intéresser à ce système avec bobine supraconductrice. Ils envisagent un stade préindustriel avec la construction d'une ligne de 43 km. En 1991 un programme américain pour une durée de six ans a été lancé pour évaluer les performances des systèmes à lévitation pour le transport aux Etats Unis. La MHD (Magnéto- Hydro-Dynamique) présente des avantages intéressants pour la propulsion navale et un regain d'intérêt apparaît à l'heure actuelle. Le japon se situe là encore à la pointe des d
Visible-light imaging MHD studies of the edge plasma in the JIPP-T-IIU tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamazaki, K.; Haba, K.; Hirokura, S.
1984-06-01
MHD activity and turbulence near the plasma edge are studied on the JIPP-T-IIU tokamak using a new high-speed visible-light image-converter video-camera system. Different from conventional cinefilm and photo-diode array systems, this system is convenient for the instantaneous display of the high-speed optical plasma images after plasma discharges. The effectiveness of this instrument for the research of the plasma wall interaction is demonstrated in this experiment. The observed characteristics on the edge-plasma behavior are as follows: (1) The helical mode structure of the luminous plasma boundary suggesting plasma-surface interaction is identified in the case of OH or ICRF-heated discharge. (2) In the LH-current drive case, no clear large-scale coherent modes are identified, however, on the initial stage a medium-scale turbulence (lambda-- a few cm, f -- ten kHz) is found. (3) Before current disruptions, an m=2 or m=3 helical mode is found and up-down asymmetric light emissions are often observed during disruptions. (author)
Method of operating a MHD power plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wysk, S.R.
1982-01-01
A fossil fuel is burned substoichiometrically in the combustor of a mhd power plant to produce a high temperature, fuelrich product gas. The product gas is passed through a mhd channel to generate electricity. A reducing agent, preferably natural gas or hydrocarbon, is injected into the fuelrich product gas leaving the mhd generator; and the resulting mixture is held at a temperature in the range of 950 to 1500 0 C for about 1 second to permit the reducing agent to decompose a portion of the nitrogen oxides formed in the combustor. The fuel-rich product gas then passes thru an afterburner wherein combustion is completed and any excess reducing agent is consumed
Recent Progress in MHD Stability Calculations of Compact Stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, G.Y.; Ku, L.P.; Redi, M.H.; Kessel, C.; Monticello, D.A.; Reiman, A.; Cooper, W.A.; Nuehrenberg, C.; Sanchez, R.; Ware, A.; Hirshman, S.P.; Spong, D.A.
2000-01-01
A key issue for compact stellarators is the stability of beta-limiting MHD modes, such as external kink modes driven by bootstrap current and pressure gradient. We report here recent progress in MHD stability studies for low-aspect-ratio Quasi-Axisymmetric Stellarators (QAS) and Quasi-Omnigeneous Stellarators (QOS). We find that the N = 0 periodicity-preserving vertical mode is significantly more stable in stellarators than in tokamaks because of the externally generated rotational transform. It is shown that both low-n external kink modes and high-n ballooning modes can be stabilized at high beta by appropriate 3D shaping without a conducting wall. The stabilization mechanism for external kink modes in QAS appears to be an enhancement of local magnetic shear due to 3D shaping. The stabilization of ballooning mode in QOS is related to a shortening of the normal curvature connection length
Tsu, T. C.
1976-01-01
A closed-cycle MHD system for an electric power plant was studied. It consists of 3 interlocking loops, an external heating loop, a closed-cycle cesium seeded argon nonequilibrium ionization MHD loop, and a steam bottomer. A MHD duct maximum temperature of 2366 K (3800 F), a pressure of 0.939 MPa (9.27 atm) and a Mach number of 0.9 are found to give a topping cycle efficiency of 59.3%; however when combined with an integrated gasifier and optimistic steam bottomer the coal to bus bar efficiency drops to 45.5%. A 1978 K (3100 F) cycle has an efficiency of 55.1% and a power plant efficiency of 42.2%. The high cost of the external heating loop components results in a cost of electricity of 21.41 mills/MJ (77.07 mills/kWh) for the high temperature system and 19.0 mills/MJ (68.5 mills/kWh) for the lower temperature system. It is, therefore, thought that this cycle may be more applicable to internally heated systems such as some futuristic high temperature gas cooled reactor.
Investigation of the Hall MHD channel operating with the ionized instable plasma of inert gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasi'leva, R.V.; D'yakova, E.A.; Erofeev, A.V.; Zuev, A.D.; Lapushkina, T.A.; Markhotok, A.A.
1997-01-01
Possibility of applying ionization-instable plasma of pure inert gases as perspective working substance for closed-cycle MHD generators is studied. The experiment was produced in the model of the disk Hall MHD channel. The ionized gas flux was produced in a shock tube. Xenon was used as a working substance. Gas pressure, flux velocity, electron concentration and temperature, azimuthal current density, potential distribution in the channel and near-electrode voltage drop values were measured in the experiment. Volt-ampere characteristics were taken by various indices of magnetic field and load resistance
MHD power station with coal gasification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brzozowski, W.S.; Dul, J.; Pudlik, W.
1976-01-01
A description is given of the proposed operating method of a MHD-power station including a complete coal gasification into lean gas with a simultaneous partial gas production for the use of outside consumers. A comparison with coal gasification methods actually being used and full capabilities of power stations heated with coal-derived gas shows distinct advantages resulting from applying the method of coal gasification with waste heat from MHD generators working within the boundaries of the thermal-electric power station. (author)
The Biermann catastrophe of numerical MHD
Graziani, C.; Tzeferacos, P.; Lee, D.; Lamb, D. Q.; Weide, K.; Fatenejad, M.; Miller, J.
2016-05-01
The Biermann Battery effect is frequently invoked in cosmic magnetogenesis and studied in High-Energy Density laboratory physics experiments. Unfortunately, direct implementation of the Biermann effect in MHD codes is known to produce unphysical magnetic fields at shocks whose value does not converge with resolution. We show that this convergence breakdown is due to naive discretization, which fails to account for the fact that discretized irrotational vector fields have spurious solenoidal components that grow without bound near a discontinuity. We show that careful consideration of the kinetics of ion viscous shocks leads to a formulation of the Biermann effect that gives rise to a convergent algorithm. We note a novel physical effect a resistive magnetic precursor in which Biermann-generated field in the shock “leaks” resistively upstream. The effect appears to be potentially observable in experiments at laser facilities.
Averaged description of 3D MHD equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medvedev, S.Yu.; Drozdov, V.V.; Ivanov, A.A.; Martynov, A.A.; Pashekhonov, Yu.Yu.; Mikhailov, M.I.
2001-01-01
A general approach by S.A.Galkin et al. in 1991 to 2D description of MHD equilibrium and stability in 3D systems was proposed. The method requires a background 3D equilibrium with nested flux surfaces to generate the metric of a Riemannian space in which the background equilibrium is described by the 2D equation of Grad-Shafranov type. The equation can be solved then varying plasma profiles and shape to get approximate 3D equilibria. In the framework of the method both planar axis conventional stellarators and configurations with spatial magnetic axis can be studied. In the present report the formulation and numerical realization of the equilibrium problem for stellarators with planar axis is reviewed. The input background equilibria with nested flux surfaces are taken from vacuum magnetic field approximately described by analytic scalar potential
Priority pollutant analysis of MHD-derived combustion products
Parks, Katherine D.
An important factor in developing Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for commercial applications is environmental impact. Consequently, an effort was initiated to identify and quantify any possible undesirable minute chemical constituents in MHD waste streams, with special emphasis on the priority pollutant species. This paper discusses how priority pollutant analyses were used to accomplish the following goals at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI): comparison of the composition of solid combustion products collected from various locations along a prototypical MHD flow train during the firing of Illinois No. 6 and Montana Rosebud coals; comparison of solid waste products generated from MHD and conventional power plant technologies; and identification of a suitable disposal option for various MHD derived combustion products. Results from our ongoing research plans for gas phase sampling and analysis of priority pollutant volatiles, semi-volatiles, and metals are discussed.
A study on the fusion reactor - Development of MHD stability and transport code for KT-2 tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jae Koo; Shin, Kyo Jin [Pohang University of Science and Tecnology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)
1996-08-01
MHD Stability analyses for KT-2 Tokamak were carried out by using CART (Resistive 3-D) Code. Linear Growth rates and linear perturbed eigen function of both N=0 axisymmetric mode and N=1 kink modes of highly elongated tokamak plasmas, in the presence of a conducting wall at various distances are computed and linear and nonlinear evolution of N=0 axisymmetric modes are simulated. 26 refs., 25 figs. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1981-01-01
The members of MHD project examination subcommittee made an investigative tour of the U.S. on the state of development of MHD generation. This report of the 2nd part explains opinions and the present status of the R and D on MHD generation by each of the 19 institutions visited. The U.S. research on MHD generation is under the leadership of DOE, whereby the budget for the development is so large as nearly one hundred million dollars have been provided for several years. The purpose is the effective use of domestic coal. General Electric is of the opinion that a combined gas turbine system will be put to practical use earlier because MHD takes time for practicability despite its highest efficiency in coal-utilized power generation. Yet, GE thinks MHD will be more attractive in the future. Reynolds Metal is considering application of MHD generation to the electro-chemical industry at present. According to Reynolds, combined supply of electric output and heat of MHD can reduce the use of calorie per ton of aluminum from 240 MBTU to 100. Montana Power is promoting practicability through a combined plan with DOE-built MHD generation. (NEDO)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kako, T.; Watanabe, T.
1999-04-01
This is the proceeding of 'Study on Numerical Methods Related to Plasma Confinement' held in National Institute for Fusion Science. In this workshop, theoretical and numerical analyses of possible plasma equilibria with their stability properties are presented. These are also various talks on mathematical as well as numerical analyses related to the computational methods for fluid dynamics and plasma physics. The 14 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kako, T.; Watanabe, T. [eds.
1999-04-01
This is the proceeding of 'Study on Numerical Methods Related to Plasma Confinement' held in National Institute for Fusion Science. In this workshop, theoretical and numerical analyses of possible plasma equilibria with their stability properties are presented. These are also various talks on mathematical as well as numerical analyses related to the computational methods for fluid dynamics and plasma physics. The 14 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kako, T.; Watanabe, T.
2000-06-01
This is the proceeding of 'study on numerical methods related to plasma confinement' held in National Institute for Fusion Science. In this workshop, theoretical and numerical analyses of possible plasma equilibria with their stability properties are presented. There are also various lectures on mathematical as well as numerical analyses related to the computational methods for fluid dynamics and plasma physics. Separate abstracts were presented for 13 of the papers in this report. The remaining 6 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)
A study of heat and mass transfer on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD flow of nanoparticles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syed Tauseef Mohyud-Din
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Investigation of the flow, heat and mass transfer of a nanofluid over a suddenly moved flat plate is presented using Buongiorno's model. This study is different from some of the previous studies as the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis on nanoparticles volume fraction are passively controlled on the boundary rather than actively. The partial differential equations governing the flow are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Viable similarity transforms are used for this purpose. A well-known numerical scheme called Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method coupled with shooting procedure has been used to find the solution of resulting system of equations. Discussions on the effects of different emerging parameters is provided using graphical aid. A table is also given that provides the results of different parameters on local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. The passive control model can be used to control the boundary layer thickness as well as the rate of mass transfer at the wall. Keywords: Nanofluid, Brownian motion, Thermophoresis, Nusselt number, Sherwood number
Study of Nonlinear MHD Tribological Squeeze Film at Generalized Magnetic Reynolds Numbers Using DTM.
Rashidi, Mohammad Mehdi; Freidoonimehr, Navid; Momoniat, Ebrahim; Rostami, Behnam
2015-01-01
In the current article, a combination of the differential transform method (DTM) and Padé approximation method are implemented to solve a system of nonlinear differential equations modelling the flow of a Newtonian magnetic lubricant squeeze film with magnetic induction effects incorporated. Solutions for the transformed radial and tangential momentum as well as solutions for the radial and tangential induced magnetic field conservation equations are determined. The DTM-Padé combined method is observed to demonstrate excellent convergence, stability and versatility in simulating the magnetic squeeze film problem. The effects of involved parameters, i.e. squeeze Reynolds number (N1), dimensionless axial magnetic force strength parameter (N2), dimensionless tangential magnetic force strength parameter (N3), and magnetic Reynolds number (Rem) are illustrated graphically and discussed in detail. Applications of the study include automotive magneto-rheological shock absorbers, novel aircraft landing gear systems and biological prosthetics.
Study of Nonlinear MHD Tribological Squeeze Film at Generalized Magnetic Reynolds Numbers Using DTM.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi
Full Text Available In the current article, a combination of the differential transform method (DTM and Padé approximation method are implemented to solve a system of nonlinear differential equations modelling the flow of a Newtonian magnetic lubricant squeeze film with magnetic induction effects incorporated. Solutions for the transformed radial and tangential momentum as well as solutions for the radial and tangential induced magnetic field conservation equations are determined. The DTM-Padé combined method is observed to demonstrate excellent convergence, stability and versatility in simulating the magnetic squeeze film problem. The effects of involved parameters, i.e. squeeze Reynolds number (N1, dimensionless axial magnetic force strength parameter (N2, dimensionless tangential magnetic force strength parameter (N3, and magnetic Reynolds number (Rem are illustrated graphically and discussed in detail. Applications of the study include automotive magneto-rheological shock absorbers, novel aircraft landing gear systems and biological prosthetics.
Case Studies on MHD Wave Propagation by the Exos-D Electric Field Measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeong-Seon Hwang
1997-12-01
Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic wave phenomena have been investigated in the deep plasmasphere by the electric field measurements in the EXOS-D(Akebono satellite. EXOS-D has highly eccentric orbits(the perigee: 274km, the apogee: 10,500km, which allows relatively long observational time interval near the apogee region compared to othe satellites which pass by the same region with less eccentric orbits. Case studies are peformed on one month data of October in 1989 where the apogee is located near the equator and the magnetic local time is about 9:00-12:00 a.m. in the dayside plasmasphere. The observational region ranges from L=2 to L=3 and the magnetic latitude is restricted to less than 30 degress. The power spectrum is examined for each 128 point series of 8-sec averaged data through a FFT, which covers f=0-62.3 mHz frequency bands. The results are well consistent with field line resonances(FLRs and cavity modes in the plasmasphere.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berger, D.; Bernard, L.C.; Gruber, R.; Troyon, F.
1980-01-01
The Lausanne ideal MHD stability code ERATO is used to investigate spectral properties of Solovev's equilibrium at small aspect ratios. Two different elongations are considered. Both free and rigid boundary models are computed and compared. Modes characterized by a large radial extension have been found which appear to be due to coupling of m=1 and m=2 modes due to toricity. The internal modes spectrum is compared with the predictions of the full Mercier criterion, taking into account its spatial dependence, and with the ballooning modes stability criterion. (Auth.)
Preliminary results of MHD stability in HL-1 tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Yongzhen; Ma Tengcai; Xiao Zhenggui Cai Renfang
1987-01-01
In this paper, MHD activities of HL-1 tokamak plasma are studied with Fourier transform and correlatio analysis. The poloidal modes m = 1, 2, 3,4 and toroidal modes n of MHD magnetic fluctuation signals are detected. Methods for suppressing MHD instabilities are suggested and tested, after MHD instabilities are studied in HL-1. The effects of MHD characteristics in the beginning stage of discharge on the whole process of discharge are analyzed. The disruption, in HL-1 device could be divided into three kinds: internal disruption, minor disruption and major disruption. The result shows that HL-1 will have a better operation condition if internal disruption appears. In is end, the stable operation region of HL-1 tokamak is also given
Safety and reliability in superconducting MHD magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laverick, C.; Powell, J.; Hsieh, S.; Reich, M.; Botts, T.; Prodell, A.
1979-07-01
This compilation adapts studies on safety and reliability in fusion magnets to similar problems in superconducting MHD magnets. MHD base load magnet requirements have been identified from recent Francis Bitter National Laboratory reports and that of other contracts. Information relevant to this subject in recent base load magnet design reports for AVCO - Everett Research Laboratories and Magnetic Corporation of America is included together with some viewpoints from a BNL workshop on structural analysis needed for superconducting coils in magnetic fusion energy. A summary of design codes used in large bubble chamber magnet design is also included
Free-boundary perturbed MHD equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nührenberg, C
2012-01-01
The concept of perturbed ideal MHD equilibria [Boozer A H and Nuhrenberg C 2006 Phys. Plasmas 13 102501] is employed to study the influence of external error-fields and of small plasma-pressure changes on toroidal plasma equilibria. In tokamak and stellarator free-boundary calculations, benchmarks were successful of the perturbed-equilibrium version of the CAS3D stability code [Nührenberg C et al. 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 235001] with the ideal MHD equilibrium code NEMEC [Hirshman S P et al. 1986 Comput. Phys. Commun. 43 143].
Dynamics of nonlinear resonant slow MHD waves in twisted flux tubes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Erdélyi
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear resonant magnetohydrodynamic (MHD waves are studied in weakly dissipative isotropic plasmas in cylindrical geometry. This geometry is suitable and is needed when one intends to study resonant MHD waves in magnetic flux tubes (e.g. for sunspots, coronal loops, solar plumes, solar wind, the magnetosphere, etc. The resonant behaviour of slow MHD waves is confined in a narrow dissipative layer. Using the method of simplified matched asymptotic expansions inside and outside of the narrow dissipative layer, we generalise the so-called connection formulae obtained in linear MHD for the Eulerian perturbation of the total pressure and for the normal component of the velocity. These connection formulae for resonant MHD waves across the dissipative layer play a similar role as the well-known Rankine-Hugoniot relations connecting solutions at both sides of MHD shock waves. The key results are the nonlinear connection formulae found in dissipative cylindrical MHD which are an important extension of their counterparts obtained in linear ideal MHD (Sakurai et al., 1991, linear dissipative MHD (Goossens et al., 1995; Erdélyi, 1997 and in nonlinear dissipative MHD derived in slab geometry (Ruderman et al., 1997. These generalised connection formulae enable us to connect solutions obtained at both sides of the dissipative layer without solving the MHD equations in the dissipative layer possibly saving a considerable amount of CPU-time when solving the full nonlinear resonant MHD problem.
Williamson, P. R.; Banks, P. M.
1976-01-01
The objectives of the Tethered Balloon Current Generator experiment are to: (1) generate relatively large regions of thermalized, field-aligned currents, (2) produce controlled-amplitude Alfven waves, (3) study current-driven electrostatic plasma instabilities, and (4) generate substantial amounts of power or propulsion through the MHD interaction. A large balloon (a diameter of about 30 m) will be deployed with a conducting surface above the space shuttle at a distance of about 10 km. For a generally eastward directed orbit at an altitude near 400 km, the balloon, connected to the shuttle by a conducting wire, will be positive with respect to the shuttle, enabling it to collect electrons. At the same time, the shuttle will collect positive ions and, upon command, emit an electron beam to vary current flow in the system.
On the stability of dissipative MHD equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teichmann, J.
1979-04-01
The global stability of stationary equilibria of dissipative MHD is studied uisng the direct Liapunov method. Sufficient and necessary conditions for stability of the linearized Euler-Lagrangian system with the full dissipative operators are given. The case of the two-fluid isentropic flow is discussed. (orig.)
Towards a Scalable Fully-Implicit Fully-coupled Resistive MHD Formulation with Stabilized FE Methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shadid, J N; Pawlowski, R P; Banks, J W; Chacon, L; Lin, P T; Tuminaro, R S
2009-06-03
This paper presents an initial study that is intended to explore the development of a scalable fully-implicit stabilized unstructured finite element (FE) capability for low-Mach-number resistive MHD. The discussion considers the development of the stabilized FE formulation and the underlying fully-coupled preconditioned Newton-Krylov nonlinear iterative solver. To enable robust, scalable and efficient solution of the large-scale sparse linear systems generated by the Newton linearization, fully-coupled algebraic multilevel preconditioners are employed. Verification results demonstrate the expected order-of-acuracy for the stabilized FE discretization of a 2D vector potential form for the steady and transient solution of the resistive MHD system. In addition, this study puts forth a set of challenging prototype problems that include the solution of an MHD Faraday conduction pump, a hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Bernard linear stability calculation, and a magnetic island coalescence problem. Initial results that explore the scaling of the solution methods are presented on up to 4096 processors for problems with up to 64M unknowns on a CrayXT3/4. Additionally, a large-scale proof-of-capability calculation for 1 billion unknowns for the MHD Faraday pump problem on 24,000 cores is presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, J.; Zhuang, G., E-mail: ge-zhuang@hust.edu.cn; Li, Q.; Liu, Y.; Gao, L.; Zhou, Y. N.; Jian, X.; Xiong, C. Y.; Wang, Z. J. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)
2014-11-15
A high-performance Faraday-effect polarimeter-interferometer system has been developed for the J-TEXT tokamak. This system has time response up to 1 μs, phase resolution < 0.1° and minimum spatial resolution ∼15 mm. High resolution permits investigation of fast equilibrium dynamics as well as magnetic and density perturbations associated with intrinsic Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) instabilities and external coil-induced Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMP). The 3-wave technique, in which the line-integrated Faraday angle and electron density are measured simultaneously by three laser beams with specific polarizations and frequency offsets, is used. In order to achieve optimum resolution, three frequency-stabilized HCOOH lasers (694 GHz, >35 mW per cavity) and sensitive Planar Schottky Diode mixers are used, providing stable intermediate-frequency signals (0.5–3 MHz) with S/N > 50. The collinear R- and L-wave probe beams, which propagate through the plasma poloidal cross section (a = 0.25–0.27 m) vertically, are expanded using parabolic mirrors to cover the entire plasma column. Sources of systematic errors, e.g., stemming from mechanical vibration, beam non-collinearity, and beam polarization distortion are individually examined and minimized to ensure measurement accuracy. Simultaneous density and Faraday measurements have been successfully achieved for 14 chords. Based on measurements, temporal evolution of safety factor profile, current density profile, and electron density profile are resolved. Core magnetic and density perturbations associated with MHD tearing instabilities are clearly detected. Effects of non-axisymmetric 3D RMP in ohmically heated plasmas are directly observed by polarimetry for the first time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petit, J.P.
1995-01-01
Jean-Pierre PETIT, one of the best MHD specialists, is telling this technology story and he is insisting on its military consequences. Civil MHD is only one iceberg emerged part, including a lot of leader technologies, interesting he defense. 3 notes
1981-01-01
The reference conceptual design of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD, is summarized. Main elements of the design, systems, and plant facilities are illustrated. System design descriptions are included for closed cycle cooling water, industrial gas systems, fuel oil, boiler flue gas, coal management, seed management, slag management, plant industrial waste, fire service water, oxidant supply, MHD power ventilating
Annular MHD Physics for Turbojet Energy Bypass
Schneider, Steven J.
2011-01-01
The use of annular Hall type MHD generator/accelerator ducts for turbojet energy bypass is evaluated assuming weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges. The equations for a 1-D, axisymmetric MHD generator/accelerator are derived and numerically integrated to determine the generator/accelerator performance characteristics. The concept offers a shockless means of interacting with high speed inlet flows and potentially offers variable inlet geometry performance without the complexity of moving parts simply by varying the generator loading parameter. The cycle analysis conducted iteratively with a spike inlet and turbojet flying at M = 7 at 30 km altitude is estimated to have a positive thrust per unit mass flow of 185 N-s/kg. The turbojet allowable combustor temperature is set at an aggressive 2200 deg K. The annular MHD Hall generator/accelerator is L = 3 m in length with a B(sub r) = 5 Tesla magnetic field and a conductivity of sigma = 5 mho/m for the generator and sigma= 1.0 mho/m for the accelerator. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the generator is eta(sub sg) = 84 percent at an enthalpy extraction ratio, eta(sub Ng) = 0.63. The calculated isentropic efficiency for the accelerator is eta(sub sa) = 81 percent at an enthalpy addition ratio, eta(sub Na) = 0.62. An assessment of the ionization fraction necessary to achieve a conductivity of sigma = 1.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 1.90 X 10(exp -6), and for sigma = 5.0 mho/m is n(sub e)/n = 9.52 X 10(exp -6).
Combined effects of radiation and chemical reaction on MHD flow ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
(2016) have studied unsteady MHD flow in porous media over exponentially accelerated plate ... boundary layer flow of heat and mass transfer over a moving vertical plate with suction. ... flow considering free convection over a porous plate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ida, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Kasahara, H.; Yoshinuma, M.; Ohdachi, S.; Osakabe, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Sudo, S.; Yamada, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Mutoh, T.; Imagawa, S.; Mito, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Kaneko, O.; Komori, A.; Inagaki, S.; Evans, T.; Kamiya, Kensaku
2014-10-01
The progress of physics understanding and concurrent parameter extension since the last IAEA-FEC 2012 in the Large Helical Device is overviewed. High ion and electron temperature plasma (T i (0) ∼ T e (0) ∼ 6 keV) with simultaneous ion and electron internal transport barrier (ITB) is obtained by controlling recycling and heating deposition. Associated with the formation of a transport barrier, a sign flip of the non-diffusive term of impurity/momentum transport (residual stress and convection flow) is observed. The impact of the topology of 3-D magnetic fields (stochastic magnetic fields and magnetic islands) on heat momentum and particle/impurity transport and MHD stability is also discussed. In the steady state operation, a 48 min discharge with a line-averaged electron density of 1x10 19 m -3 and with high electron and ion temperatures (T i (0) ∼ T e (0) ∼ 2 keV) resulting in 3.36 GJ of input energy is achieved. (author)
MHD diffuser model test program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Idzorek, J J
1976-07-01
Experimental results of the aerodynamic performance of seven candidate diffusers are presented to assist in determining their suitability for joining an MHD channel to a steam generator at minimum spacing. The three dimensional diffusers varied in area ratio from 2 to 3.8 and wall half angle from 2 to 5 degrees. The program consisted of five phases: (1) tailoring a diffuser inlet nozzle to a 15 percent blockage; (2) comparison of isolated diffusers at enthalpy ratios 0.5 to 1.0 with respect to separation characteristics and pressure recovery coefficients; (3) recording the optimum diffuser exit flow distribution; (4) recording the internal flow distribution within the steam generator when attached to the diffuser; and (5) observing isolated diffuser exhaust dynamic characteristics. The 2 and 2-1/3 degree half angle rectangular diffusers showed recovery coefficients equal to 0.48 with no evidence of flow separation or instability. Diffusion at angles greater than these produced flow instabilities and with angles greater than 3 degrees random flow separation and reattachment.
MHD diffuser model test program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idzorek, J.J.
1976-07-01
Experimental results of the aerodynamic performance of seven candidate diffusers are presented to assist in determining their suitability for joining an MHD channel to a steam generator at minimum spacing. The three dimensional diffusers varied in area ratio from 2 to 3.8 and wall half angle from 2 to 5 degrees. The program consisted of five phases: (1) tailoring a diffuser inlet nozzle to a 15 percent blockage; (2) comparison of isolated diffusers at enthalpy ratios 0.5 to 1.0 with respect to separation characteristics and pressure recovery coefficients; (3) recording the optimum diffuser exit flow distribution; (4) recording the internal flow distribution within the steam generator when attached to the diffuser; and (5) observing isolated diffuser exhaust dynamic characteristics. The 2 and 2-1/3 degree half angle rectangular diffusers showed recovery coefficients equal to 0.48 with no evidence of flow separation or instability. Diffusion at angles greater than these produced flow instabilities and with angles greater than 3 degrees random flow separation and reattachment
Uganda Early Generation Seed Study
Mastenbroek, A.; Ntare, Bonny
2016-01-01
One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was
1990-10-01
The current magnetohydrodynamic MHD program being implemented is a result of a consensus established in public meetings held by the Department of Energy in 1984. The public meetings were followed by the formulation of a June 1984 Coal-Fired MHD Preliminary Transition and Program Plan. This plan focused on demonstrating the proof-of-concept (POC) of coal-fired MHD electric power plants by the early 1990s. MHD test data indicate that while there are no fundamental technical barriers impeding the development of MHD power plants, technical risk remains. To reduce the technical risk three key subsystems (topping cycle, bottoming cycle, and seed regeneration) are being assembled and tested separately. The program does not require fabrication of a complete superconducting magnet, but rather the development and testing of superconductor cables. The topping cycle system test objectives can be achieved using a conventional iron core magnet system already in place at a DOE facility. Systems engineering-derived requirements and analytical modeling to support scale-up and component design guide the program. In response to environmental, economic, engineering, and utility acceptance requirements, design choices and operating modes are tested and refined to provide technical specifications for meeting commercial criteria. These engineering activities are supported by comprehensive and continuing systems analyses to establish realistic technical requirements and cost data. Essential elements of the current program are to: develop technical and environmental data for the integrated MHD topping cycle and bottoming cycle systems through POC testing (1000 and 4000 hours, respectively); design, construct, and operate a POC seed regeneration system capable of processing spent seed materials from the MHD bottoming cycle; prepare conceptual designs for a site specific MHD retrofit plant; and continue supporting research necessary for system testing.
MHD simulations of coronal dark downflows considering thermal conduction
Zurbriggen, E.; Costa, A.; Esquivel, A.; Schneiter, M.; Cécere, M.
2017-10-01
While several scenarios have been proposed to explain supra-arcade downflows (SADs) observed descending through turbulent hot regions, none of them have systematically addressed the consideration of thermal conduction. The SADs are known to be voided cavities. Our model assumes that SADs are triggered by bursty localized reconnection events that produce non-linear waves generating the voided cavity. These subdense cavities are sustained in time because they are hotter than their surrounding medium. Due to the low density and large temperature values of the plasma we expect the thermal conduction to be an important process. Our main aim here is to study if it is possible to generate SADs in the framework of our model considering thermal conduction. We carry on 2D MHD simulations including anisotropic thermal conduction, and find that if the magnetic lines envelope the cavities, they can be isolated from the hot environment and be identified as SADs.
MHD instabilities in astrophysical plasmas: very different from MHD instabilities in tokamaks!
Goedbloed, J. P.
2018-01-01
The extensive studies of MHD instabilities in thermonuclear magnetic confinement experiments, in particular of the tokamak as the most promising candidate for a future energy producing machine, have led to an 'intuitive' description based on the energy principle that is very misleading for
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anghaie, S.; Saraph, G.
1995-01-01
A nuclear driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator system is proposed for the space nuclear applications of few hundreds of megawatts. The MHD generator is coupled to a vapor-droplet core reactor that delivers partially ionized fissioning plasma at temperatures in range of 3,000 to 4,000 K. A detailed MHD model is developed to analyze the basic electrodynamics phenomena and to perform the design analysis of the nuclear driven MHD generator. An incompressible quasi one dimensional model is also developed to perform parametric analyses
The MHD intermediate shock interaction with an intermediate wave: Are intermediate shocks physical?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, C.C.
1988-01-01
Contrary to the usual belief that MHD intermediate shocks are extraneous, the authors have recently shown by numerical solutions of dissipative MHD equations that intermediate shocks are admissible and can be formed through nonlinear steepening from a continuous wave. In this paper, he clarifies the differences between the conventional view and the results by studying the interaction of an MHD intermediate shock with an intermediate wave. The study reaffirms his results. In addition, the study shows that there exists a larger class of shocklike solutions in the time-dependent dissiaptive MHD equations than are given by the MHD Rankine-Hugoniot relations. it also suggests a mechanism for forming rotational discontinuities through the interaction of an intermediate shock with an intermediate wave. The results are of importance not only to the MHD shock theory but also to studies such as magnetic field reconnection models
Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jack [RePPAE LLC, Wexford, PA (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Gary [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2016-08-01
The Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest power systems in the world, and its size and complexity have historically made it difficult to study in high levels of detail in a modeling environment. In order to understand how this system might be impacted by high penetrations (30% of total annual generation) of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) during steady state operations, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS). This study investigates certain aspects of the reliability and economic efficiency problem faced by power system operators and planners. Specifically, the study models the ability to meet electricity demand at a 5-minute time interval by scheduling resources for known ramping events, while maintaining adequate reserves to meet random variation in supply and demand, and contingency events. To measure the ability to meet these requirements, a unit commitment and economic dispatch (UC&ED) model is employed to simulate power system operations. The economic costs of managing this system are presented using production costs, a traditional UC&ED metric that does not include any consideration of long-term fixed costs. ERGIS simulated one year of power system operations to understand regional and sub-hourly impacts of wind and PV by developing a comprehensive UC&ED model of the EI. In the analysis, it is shown that, under the study assumptions, generation from approximately 400 GW of combined wind and PV capacity can be balanced on the transmission system at a 5-minute level. In order to address the significant computational burdens associated with a model of this detail we apply novel computing techniques to dramatically reduce simulation solve time while simultaneously increasing the resolution and fidelity of the analysis. Our results also indicate that high penetrations of wind and PV (collectively variable generation (VG
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Akmal
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The present study gives an account of the heat transfer characteristics of the squeezing flow of a nanofluid between two flat plates with upper plate moving vertically and the lower in the horizontal direction. Tiwari and Das nanofluid model has been utilized to give a comparative analysis of the heat transfer in the Cu-water and Al2O3–water nanofluids with entropy generation. The modeling is carried out with the consideration of Lorentz forces to observe the effect of magnetic field on the flow. The Joule heating effect is included to discuss the heat dissipation in the fluid and its effect on the entropy of the system. The nondimensional ordinary differential equations are solved using the Keller box method to assess the numerical results which are presented by the graphs and tables. An interesting observation is that the entropy is generated more near the lower plate as compared with that at the upper plate. Also, the heat transfer rate is found to be higher for the Cu nanoparticles in comparison with the Al2O3 nanoparticles.
General Physical Problems Related to MHD. Shock Tubes. Introduction to Papers in Section 1-b
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1966-10-15
The papers which will be considered here are Nos. SM-74/26, 134, 172, 182 and 219. Each of the five papers will be discussed in turn, but before beginning this discussion, some general comments concerning shock tube studies of MHD generator plasmas seem in order. There is little doubt that the shock tube is an excellent facility-for the study of the basic processes which occur in the bulk of the plasma. It provides a large flow of uniform plasma with well-controlled properties. Because of the very short operating times, the materials problems, which plague continuously operating facilities, are eliminated. Depending upon the mode of operation of the shock tube, the gas dynamic conditions of an MHD generator may also be simulated more or less well. Three different modes have been used by the authors of the present papers. Abbas and Howatson have carried out their measurements in the driver plasma of an electrical shock tube. Both Zauderer and Mori, Kawada, Yamamoto and Imani have used the more conventional technique of experimenting in the plasma produced by the incident shock. Louis uses the plasma produced by reflection of the shock wave from the tube-end as a plasma source for the MHD channel.
Neoclassical MHD equilibria with ohmic current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokuda, Shinji; Takeda, Tatsuoki; Okamoto, Masao.
1989-01-01
MHD equilibria of tokamak plasmas with neoclassical current effects (neoclassical conductivity and bootstrap current) were calculated self-consistently. Neoclassical effects on JFT-2M tokamak plasmas, sustained by ohmic currents, were studied. Bootstrap currents flow little for L-mode type equilibria because of low attainable values of poloidal beta, β J . H-mode type equilibria give bootstrap currents of 30% ohmic currents for β J attained by JFT-2M and 100% for β J ≥ 1.5, both of which are sufficient to change the current profiles and the resultant MHD equilibria. Neoclassical conductivity which has roughly half value of the classical Spitzer conductivity brings peaked ohmic current profiles to yield low safety factor at the magnetic axis. Neoclassical conductivity reduces the value of effective Z(Z eff ) which is necessary to give the observed one-turn voltage but it needs impurities accumulating at the center when such peaked current profiles are not observed. (author)
Regular shock refraction in planar ideal MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delmont, P; Keppens, R
2010-01-01
We study the classical problem of planar shock refraction at an oblique density discontinuity, separating two gases at rest, in planar ideal (magneto)hydrodynamics. In the hydrodynamical case, 3 signals arise and the interface becomes Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable due to vorticity deposition on the shocked contact. In the magnetohydrodynamical case, on the other hand, when the normal component of the magnetic field does not vanish, 5 signals will arise. The interface then typically remains stable, since the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions in ideal MHD do not allow for vorticity deposition on a contact discontinuity. We present an exact Riemann solver based solution strategy to describe the initial self similar refraction phase. Using grid-adaptive MHD simulations, we show that after reflection from the top wall, the interface remains stable.
Statistical Theory of the Ideal MHD Geodynamo
Shebalin, J. V.
2012-01-01
A statistical theory of geodynamo action is developed, using a mathematical model of the geodynamo as a rotating outer core containing an ideal (i.e., no dissipation), incompressible, turbulent, convecting magnetofluid. On the concentric inner and outer spherical bounding surfaces the normal components of the velocity, magnetic field, vorticity and electric current are zero, as is the temperature fluctuation. This allows the use of a set of Galerkin expansion functions that are common to both velocity and magnetic field, as well as vorticity, current and the temperature fluctuation. The resulting dynamical system, based on the Boussinesq form of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, represents MHD turbulence in a spherical domain. These basic equations (minus the temperature equation) and boundary conditions have been used previously in numerical simulations of forced, decaying MHD turbulence inside a sphere [1,2]. Here, the ideal case is studied through statistical analysis and leads to a prediction that an ideal coherent structure will be found in the form of a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field that results from broken ergodicity, an effect that has been previously studied both analytically and numerically for homogeneous MHD turbulence [3,4]. The axial dipole component becomes prominent when there is a relatively large magnetic helicity (proportional to the global correlation of magnetic vector potential and magnetic field) and a stationary, nonzero cross helicity (proportional to the global correlation of velocity and magnetic field). The expected angle of the dipole moment vector with respect to the rotation axis is found to decrease to a minimum as the average cross helicity increases for a fixed value of magnetic helicity and then to increase again when average cross helicity approaches its maximum possible value. Only a relatively small value of cross helicity is needed to produce a dipole moment vector that is aligned at approx.10deg with the
NEXT GENERATION TURBINE SYSTEM STUDY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frank Macri
2002-02-28
Rolls-Royce has completed a preliminary design and marketing study under a Department of Energy (DOE) cost shared contract (DE-AC26-00NT40852) to analyze the feasibility of developing a clean, high efficiency, and flexible Next Generation Turbine (NGT) system to meet the power generation market needs of the year 2007 and beyond. Rolls-Royce evaluated the full range of its most advanced commercial aerospace and aeroderivative engines alongside the special technologies necessary to achieve the aggressive efficiency, performance, emissions, economic, and flexibility targets desired by the DOE. Heavy emphasis was placed on evaluating the technical risks and the economic viability of various concept and technology options available. This was necessary to ensure the resulting advanced NGT system would provide extensive public benefits and significant customer benefits without introducing unacceptable levels of technical and operational risk that would impair the market acceptance of the resulting product. Two advanced cycle configurations were identified as offering significant advantages over current combined cycle products available in the market. In addition, balance of plant (BOP) technologies, as well as capabilities to improve the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of industrial gas turbine engines, have been identified. A customer focused survey and economic analysis of a proposed Rolls-Royce NGT product configuration was also accomplished as a part of this research study. The proposed Rolls-Royce NGT solution could offer customers clean, flexible power generation systems with very high efficiencies, similar to combined cycle plants, but at a much lower specific cost, similar to those of simple cycle plants.
The CHEASE code for toroidal MHD equilibria
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luetjens, H. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique; Bondeson, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Inst. for Electromagnetic Field Theory and Plasma Physics; Sauter, O. [ITER-San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)
1996-03-01
CHEASE solves the Grad-Shafranov equation for the MHD equilibrium of a Tokamak-like plasma with pressure and current profiles specified by analytic forms or sets of data points. Equilibria marginally stable to ballooning modes or with a prescribed fraction of bootstrap current can be computed. The code provides a mapping to magnetic flux coordinates, suitable for MHD stability calculations or global wave propagation studies. The code computes equilibrium quantities for the stability codes ERATO, MARS, PEST, NOVA-W and XTOR and for the global wave propagation codes LION and PENN. The two-dimensional MHD equilibrium (Grad-Shafranov) equation is solved in variational form. The discretization uses bicubic Hermite finite elements with continuous first order derivates for the poloidal flux function {Psi}. The nonlinearity of the problem is handled by Picard iteration. The mapping to flux coordinates is carried out with a method which conserves the accuracy of the cubic finite elements. The code uses routines from the CRAY libsci.a program library. However, all these routines are included in the CHEASE package itself. If CHEASE computes equilibrium quantities for MARS with fast Fourier transforms, the NAG library is required. CHEASE is written in standard FORTRAN-77, except for the use of the input facility NAMELIST. CHEASE uses variable names with up to 8 characters, and therefore violates the ANSI standard. CHEASE transfers plot quantities through an external disk file to a plot program named PCHEASE using the UNIRAS or the NCAR plot package. (author) figs., tabs., 34 refs.
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of solar prominence formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao, J.
1987-01-01
Formation of Kippenhahn-Schluter type solar prominences by chromospheric mass injection is studied via numerical simulation. The numerical model is based on a two-dimensional, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. In addition, an analysis of gravitational thermal MHD instabilities related to condensation is performed by using the small-perturbation method. The conclusions are: (1) Both quiescent and active-region prominences can be formed by chromospheric mass injection, provided certain optimum conditions are satisfied. (2) Quiescent prominences cannot be formed without condensation, though enough mass is supplied from chromosphere. The mass of a quiescent prominence is composed of both the mass injected from the chromosphere and the mass condensed from the corona. On the other hand, condensation is not important to active region prominence formation. (3) In addition to channeling and supporting effects, the magnetic field plays another important role, i.e. containing the prominence material. (4) In the model cases, prominences are supported by the Lorentz force, the gas-pressure gradient and the mass-injection momentum. (5) Due to gravity, more MHD condensation instability modes appear in addition to the basic condensation mode
The CHEASE code for toroidal MHD equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luetjens, H.
1996-03-01
CHEASE solves the Grad-Shafranov equation for the MHD equilibrium of a Tokamak-like plasma with pressure and current profiles specified by analytic forms or sets of data points. Equilibria marginally stable to ballooning modes or with a prescribed fraction of bootstrap current can be computed. The code provides a mapping to magnetic flux coordinates, suitable for MHD stability calculations or global wave propagation studies. The code computes equilibrium quantities for the stability codes ERATO, MARS, PEST, NOVA-W and XTOR and for the global wave propagation codes LION and PENN. The two-dimensional MHD equilibrium (Grad-Shafranov) equation is solved in variational form. The discretization uses bicubic Hermite finite elements with continuous first order derivates for the poloidal flux function Ψ. The nonlinearity of the problem is handled by Picard iteration. The mapping to flux coordinates is carried out with a method which conserves the accuracy of the cubic finite elements. The code uses routines from the CRAY libsci.a program library. However, all these routines are included in the CHEASE package itself. If CHEASE computes equilibrium quantities for MARS with fast Fourier transforms, the NAG library is required. CHEASE is written in standard FORTRAN-77, except for the use of the input facility NAMELIST. CHEASE uses variable names with up to 8 characters, and therefore violates the ANSI standard. CHEASE transfers plot quantities through an external disk file to a plot program named PCHEASE using the UNIRAS or the NCAR plot package. (author) figs., tabs., 34 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogino, T.
1986-01-01
A global computer simulation of the interaction of the solar wind with the earth's magnetosphere was executed by using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model. As a result, we were able to reproduce quasi-steady-state magnetospheric configurations and a Birkeland field-aligned current system which depend on the polarity of the z component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Twin convection cells and a dawn to dusk electric potential of 30--100 kV appeared at the equator in the magnetosphere. Four types of field-aligned currents were observed. Region 1 and 2 field-aligned currents generated for all IMF conditions were 0.6--1.0 x 10 6 A and 0.15--0.61 x 10 6 A, respectively, in the total current. Region 1 currents at high latitudes are generated from the field-aligned vorticity at the flanks through a viscous interaction and are strengthened by a twisting of open magnetic field lines in the tail region for southward IMF. On the other hand, the low-latitude region 2 currents probably are generated mainly from the inner pressure gradient of the plasma sheet. The region 1 current obtained from the simulation was in good agreement with an estimate from our theoretical analysis of the localized Alfven mode. The other two types of field-aligned currents are the dayside magnetopause currents in the dayside cusp region, which increase for northward IMF, and the dayside cusp currents for southward IMF. The cusp currents are associated with a twisting of open magnetic field lines in the magnetopause region
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.M. Bhatti
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In this article, heat and mass transfer with Joule heating on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD peristaltic blood under the influence of Hall effect is examined. Mathematical modelling is based on momentum, energy and concentration which are taken into account using ohms law. The governing partial differential equations are further simplified by neglecting the inertial forces and long wavelength approximations. Exact solutions have been presented for velocity, temperature and concentration profile. The influence of all the physical pertinent parameters is taken into account with the help graphs. It is found that Hartmann number and Hall parameter shows opposite behaviour on velocity, temperature and concentration profile. It is worth mentioning that pressure rise also depicts opposite behaviour for Hartmann number and Hall parameter. The present analysis is also presented for Newtonian fluid (α→0 as a special case for our study. It is observed that Hall Effect and magnetic field shows opposite behaviour on velocity and temperature profile. Temperature profile increases due to the increment in Prandtl number and Eckert number. Numerical comparison is also presented between the existing published results by taking α=0,M=0 as a special case of our study.
High pressure MHD coal combustors investigation, phase 2
Iwata, H.; Hamberg, R.
1981-05-01
A high pressure MHD coal combustor was investigated. The purpose was to acquire basic design and support engineering data through systematic combustion experiments at the 10 and 20 thermal megawatt size and to design a 50 MW/sub t/ combustor. This combustor is to produce an electrically conductive plasma generated by the direct combustion of pulverized coal with hot oxygen enriched vitiated air that is seeded with potassium carbonate. Vitiated air and oxygen are used as the oxidizer, however, preheated air will ultimately be used as the oxidizer in coal fired MHD combustors.
A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump
Homsy, Alexandra; Koster, Sander; Hogen-Koster, S.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert; Lucklum, F.; Verpoorte, E.; de Rooij, Nico F.
2005-01-01
This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-µm-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a micromachined
A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump
Homsy, A; Koster, Sander; Eijkel, JCT; van den Berg, A; Lucklum, F; Verpoorte, E; de Rooij, NF
2005-01-01
This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-mu m-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a
Peraza-Rodriguez, H.; Reynolds-Barredo, J. M.; Sanchez, R.; Tribaldos, V.; Geiger, J.
2018-02-01
The recently developed free-plasma-boundary version of the SIESTA MHD equilibrium code (Hirshman et al 2011 Phys. Plasmas 18 062504; Peraza-Rodriguez et al 2017 Phys. Plasmas 24 082516) is used for the first time to study scenarios with considerable bootstrap currents for the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator. Bootstrap currents in the range of tens of kAs can lead to the formation of unwanted magnetic island chains or stochastic regions within the plasma and alter the boundary rotational transform due to the small shear in W7-X. The latter issue is of relevance since the island divertor operation of W7-X relies on a proper positioning of magnetic island chains at the plasma edge to control the particle and energy exhaust towards the divertor plates. Two scenarios are examined with the new free-plasma-boundary capabilities of SIESTA: a freely evolving bootstrap current one that illustrates the difficulties arising from the dislocation of the boundary islands, and a second one in which off-axis electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) is applied to compensate the effects of the bootstrap current and keep the island divertor configuration intact. SIESTA finds that off-axis ECCD is indeed able to keep the location and phase of the edge magnetic island chain unchanged, but it may also lead to an undesired stochastization of parts of the confined plasma if the EC deposition radial profile becomes too narrow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rath, Pravat Kumar; Dash, G.C.; Patra, Ajit Kumar
2010-01-01
Effect of Hall current on the unsteady free convection flow of an electrically conducting incompressible viscous fluid past an exponentially accelerated vertical porous flat plate with internal heat absorption/generation in the presence of foreign gases (such as H 2 , CO 2 , H 2 O, NH 3 ) and chemical reaction has been investigated. An uniform magnetic field transverse to the plate has been applied. The effects of the Hall current m, the hydromagnetic parameter Mt, the chemical reaction parameter K c the Grashof number for heat transfer G r , the Grashof number for mass transfer G c , the Schmidt number S c , the Prandtl number P r and the transpiration parameter α are discussed in detail. (author)
MHD waveguides in space plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazur, N. G.; Fedorov, E. N.; Pilipenko, V. A.
2010-01-01
The waveguide properties of two characteristic formations in the Earth's magnetotail-the plasma sheet and the current (neutral) sheet-are considered. The question of how the domains of existence of different types of MHD waveguide modes (fast and slow, body and surface) in the (k, ω) plane and their dispersion properties depend on the waveguide parameters is studied. Investigation of the dispersion relation in a number of particular (limiting) cases makes it possible to obtain a fairly complete qualitative pattern of all the branches of the dispersion curve. Accounting for the finite size of perturbations across the wave propagation direction reveals new additional effects such as a change in the critical waveguide frequencies, the excitation of longitudinal current at the boundaries of the sheets, and a change in the symmetry of the fundamental mode. Knowledge of the waveguide properties of the plasma and current sheets can explain the occurrence of preferred frequencies in the low-frequency fluctuation spectra in the magnetotail. In satellite observations, the type of waveguide mode can be determined from the spectral properties, as well as from the phase relationships between plasma oscillations and magnetic field oscillations that are presented in this paper.
Problems in nonlinear resistive MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turnbull, A.D.; Strait, E.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Chu, M.S.; Miller, R.L.
1998-01-01
Two experimentally relevant problems can relatively easily be tackled by nonlinear MHD codes. Both problems require plasma rotation in addition to the nonlinear mode coupling and full geometry already incorporated into the codes, but no additional physics seems to be crucial. These problems discussed here are: (1) nonlinear coupling and interaction of multiple MHD modes near the B limit and (2) nonlinear coupling of the m/n = 1/1 sawtooth mode with higher n gongs and development of seed islands outside q = 1
Tearing mode dynamics and sawtooth oscillation in Hall-MHD
Ma, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Sheng
2017-10-01
Tearing mode instability is one of the most important dynamic processes in space and laboratory plasmas. Hall effects, resulted from the decoupling of electron and ion motions, could cause the fast development and perturbation structure rotation of the tearing mode and become non-negligible. We independently developed high accuracy nonlinear MHD code (CLT) to study Hall effects on the dynamic evolution of tearing modes with Tokamak geometries. It is found that the rotation frequency of the mode in the electron diamagnetic direction is in a good agreement with analytical prediction. The linear growth rate increases with increase of the ion inertial length, which is contradictory to analytical solution in the slab geometry. We further find that the self-consistently generated rotation largely alters the dynamic behavior of the double tearing mode and the sawtooth oscillation. National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China under Grant No. 2013GB104004 and 2013GB111004.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forest, C. B.
2002-01-01
The project is designed to understand current and magnetic field generation in plasmas and other magnetohydrodynamic systems. The experiments will investigate the generation of a dynamo using liquid Na
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bates, J.L.; Marchant, D.D.
1979-10-01
The objectives of this program are to develop, test, characterize, and evaluate materials for open-cycle, coal-fired MHD power generators. The specific immediate goals emphasize electrode and insulator materials, including: (1) testing and evaluation of the enhanced effects of alkali seed on materials in a dc electric field; (2) development and testing of improved electrodes and insulators with controlled microstructures, compositions and properties; and (3) characterization and evaluation of materials relating to both the US MHD Program and the US-USSR Cooperative Program for MHD power generators. Progress is reported
MHD dynamo action in space plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faelthammar, C.G.
1984-05-01
Electric currents are now recognized to play a major role in the physical process of the Earths magnetosphere as well as in distant astrophysical plasmas. In driving these currents MHD dynamos as well as generators of a thermoelectric nature are important. The primary source of power for the Earths magnetospheric process is the solar wind, which supplies a voltage of the order of 200 kV across the magnetosphere. The direction of the large-scale solar wind electric field varies of many different time scales. The power input to the magnetosphere is closely correlated with the direction of the large-scale solar wind electric field in such a fashion as to mimick the response of a half-wave rectifier with a down-to-dusk conduction direction. Behind this apparently simple response there are complex plasma physical processes that are still very incompletely understood. They are intimately related to auroras, magnetic storms, radiation belts and changes in magnetospheric plasma populations. Similar dynamo actions should occur at other planets having magnetospheres. Recent observations seem to indicate that part of the power input to the Earths magnetosphere comes through MHD dynamo action of a forced plasma flow inside the flanks of the magnetopause and may play a role in other parts of the magnetosphere, too. An example of a cosmical MHD connected to a solid load is the corotating plasma of Jupiters inner magnetosphere, sweeping past the plants inner satelites. In particular the electric currents thereby driven to and from the satellite Io have attracted considerable interest.(author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, Akira; Aritomi, Masanori; Takahashi, Minoru; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo; Narita, Yoshihito; Yano, Toshikazu.
1987-01-01
Pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient of helium-lithium annular-mist flow in a rectangular duct were investigated experimentally under a transverse magnetic field at system pressure of 0.2 MPa. A ratio of MHD pressure drop to that of non-magnetic field increases with magnetic flux density and a mass flow rate ratio of lithium to helium in low helium velocity region. However, as increasing the helium velocity, the increment of MHD pressure drop with the magnetic flux density is much reduced and then becomes almost zero. At this condition, the MHD pressure drop of the annular-mist flow becomes much smaller than that of lithium single phase flow with the same lithium mass flow at the high magnetic flux density. Heat transfer coefficient ratio of the helium-lithium annular-mist flow to helium single phase in the non-magnetic field is well correlated by a ratio of the mass flow rate of lithium to helium. The heat transfer coefficient in the magnetic field increases with the magnetic flux density and then terminates at a certain value depending on the mass flow rate ratio and the helium velocity. These characteristics of the MHD pressure drop and the heat transfer in the magnetic field suggest that the helium-lithium annular-mist flow is effectively applicable to cooling of the high heat flux wall in a strong magnetic field like a first wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactors. (author)
Further analysis of MHD acceleration for a hypersonic wind tunnel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christiansen, M.J.; Schmidt, H.J.; Chapman, J.N.
1995-01-01
A previously completed MHD study of the use of an MHD accelerator with seeded air from a state-of-the-art arc heater, was generally hailed as showing that the system studied has some promise of meeting the most critical hypersonic testing requirements. However, some concerns existed about certain aspects of the results. This paper discusses some of these problems and presents analysis of potential solutions. Specifically the problems addressed are; reducing the amount of seed in the flow, reducing test chamber temperatures, and reducing the oxygen dissociation. Modeling techniques are used to study three design variables of the MHD accelerator. The accelerator channel inlet Mach number, the accelerator channel divergence angle, and the magnetic field strength are all studied. These variables are all optimized to meet the goals for seed, temperature, and dissociated oxygen reduction. The results of this paper are encouraging, showing that all three goals can be met. General relationships are observed as to how the design variables affect the performance of the MHD accelerator facility. This paper expands on the results presented in the UTSI report and further supports the feasibility of MHD acceleration as a means to provide hypersonic flight simulation
Kinetic-MHD simulations of gyroresonance instability driven by CR pressure anisotropy
Lebiga, O.; Santos-Lima, R.; Yan, H.
2018-05-01
The transport of cosmic rays (CRs) is crucial for the understanding of almost all high-energy phenomena. Both pre-existing large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and locally generated turbulence through plasma instabilities are important for the CR propagation in astrophysical media. The potential role of the resonant instability triggered by CR pressure anisotropy to regulate the parallel spatial diffusion of low-energy CRs (≲100 GeV) in the interstellar and intracluster medium of galaxies has been shown in previous theoretical works. This work aims to study the gyroresonance instability via direct numerical simulations, in order to access quantitatively the wave-particle scattering rates. For this, we employ a 1D PIC-MHD code to follow the growth and saturation of the gyroresonance instability. We extract from the simulations the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient Dμμ produced by the instability during the linear and saturation phases, and a very good agreement (within a factor of 3) is found with the values predicted by the quasi-linear theory (QLT). Our results support the applicability of the QLT for modelling the scattering of low-energy CRs by the gyroresonance instability in the complex interplay between this instability and the large-scale MHD turbulence.
Stabilities of MHD rotational discontinuities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, S.
1984-11-01
In this paper, the stabilities of MHD rotational discontinuities are analyzed. The results show that the rotational discontinuities in an incompressible magnetofluid are not always stable with respect to infinitesimal perturbation. The instability condition in a special case is obtained. (author)
MHD stability of tandem mirrors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poulsen, P.; Molvik, A.; Shearer, J.
1982-01-01
The TMX-Upgrade experiment was described, and the manner in which various plasma parameters could be affected was discussed. The initial analysis of the MHD stability of the tandem mirror was also discussed, with emphasis on the negative tandem configuration
Numerical computation of MHD equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atanasiu, C.V.
1982-10-01
A numerical code for a two-dimensional MHD equilibrium computation has been carried out. The code solves the Grad-Shafranov equation in its integral form, for both formulations: the free-boundary problem and the fixed boundary one. Examples of the application of the code to tokamak design are given. (author)
Khalil-Ur-Rehman; Malik, M. Y.; Bilal, S.; Bibi, M.
The current analysis reports the untapped characteristics of magneto-hydrodynamic dual convection boundary layer stagnation point flow of Powell-Eyring fluid by way of cylindrical surface. Flow exploration is carried out with the combined effects of thermal and solutal stratification. The strength of temperature and concentration adjacent to the cylindrical surface is assumed to be greater than the ambient fluid. Flow conducting mathematically modelled equations are fairly transformed into system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations with the aid of suitable transformations. The computations are made against these resultant coupled equations through shooting technique by the support of fifth order Runge-Kutta algorithm. A parametric study is performed to examine the effect logs of various pertinent flow controlling parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration flow regime. The achieved outcomes are validated by developing comparison with existing published literature. In addition, numerical values of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are presented graphically for two different geometries namely, plate and cylinder.
Laboratory Plasma Source as an MHD Model for Astrophysical Jets
Mayo, Robert M.
1997-01-01
The significance of the work described herein lies in the demonstration of Magnetized Coaxial Plasma Gun (MCG) devices like CPS-1 to produce energetic laboratory magneto-flows with embedded magnetic fields that can be used as a simulation tool to study flow interaction dynamic of jet flows, to demonstrate the magnetic acceleration and collimation of flows with primarily toroidal fields, and study cross field transport in turbulent accreting flows. Since plasma produced in MCG devices have magnetic topology and MHD flow regime similarity to stellar and extragalactic jets, we expect that careful investigation of these flows in the laboratory will reveal fundamental physical mechanisms influencing astrophysical flows. Discussion in the next section (sec.2) focuses on recent results describing collimation, leading flow surface interaction layers, and turbulent accretion. The primary objectives for a new three year effort would involve the development and deployment of novel electrostatic, magnetic, and visible plasma diagnostic techniques to measure plasma and flow parameters of the CPS-1 device in the flow chamber downstream of the plasma source to study, (1) mass ejection, morphology, and collimation and stability of energetic outflows, (2) the effects of external magnetization on collimation and stability, (3) the interaction of such flows with background neutral gas, the generation of visible emission in such interaction, and effect of neutral clouds on jet flow dynamics, and (4) the cross magnetic field transport of turbulent accreting flows. The applicability of existing laboratory plasma facilities to the study of stellar and extragalactic plasma should be exploited to elucidate underlying physical mechanisms that cannot be ascertained though astrophysical observation, and provide baseline to a wide variety of proposed models, MHD and otherwise. The work proposed herin represents a continued effort on a novel approach in relating laboratory experiments to
Results from a large-scale MHD propulsion experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrick, M.; Libera, J.; Bouillard, J.X.; Pierson, E.S.; Hill, D.
1992-01-01
This paper reports on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thrusters which have long been recognized as potentially attractive candidates for ship propulsion because such systems eliminate the conventional rotating drive components. The MHD thruster is essentially an electromagnet (EM) pump operating in seawater. An electrical current is passed directly through the seawater and interacts with an applied magnetic field; the interaction of the magnetic field and the electrode current in the seawater results in a Lorentz force acting on the water, and the reaction to this force propels the vessel forward. The concept of EM propulsion has been examined periodically during the past 35 years as an alternative method of propulsion for surface ships and submersibles. The conclusions reached in early studies were that MHD thrusters restricted to fields of 2T (the state-of-the-art at that time) were impractical and very inefficient. With the evolution of superconducting magnet technology, later studies investigated the performance of MHD thrusters with much higher magnetic field strengths and concluded that at higher fields (>6 T) practical MHD propulsion systems appear possible
Magnetohydrodynamic power generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheindlin, A.E.; Jackson, W.D.; Brzozowski, W.S.; Rietjens, L.H.Th.
1979-01-01
The paper describes research and development in the field of magnetohydrodynamic power generation technology, based on discussions held in the Joint IAEA/UNESCO International Liaison Group on MHD electrical power generation. Research and development programmes on open cycle, closed cycle plasma and liquid-metal MHD are described. Open cycle MHD has now entered the engineering development stage. The paper reviews the results of cycle analyses and economic and environmental evaluations: substantial agreement has been reached on the expected overall performance and necessary component specifications. The achievement in the Soviet Union on the U-25 MHD pilot plant in obtaining full rated electrical power of 20.4 MW is described, as well as long duration testing of the integrated operation of MHD components. Work in the United States on coal-fired MHD generators has shown that, with slagging of the walls, a run time of about one hundred hours at the current density and electric field of a commercial MHD generator has been achieved. Progress obtained in closed cycle plasma and liquid metal MHD is reviewed. Electrical power densities of up to 140 MWe/m 3 and an enthalpy extraction as high as 24 per cent have been achieved in noble gas MHD generator experiments. (Auth.)
Trip generation and data analysis study.
2015-09-01
Through the Trip Generation and Data Analysis Study, the District of Columbia Department of : Transportation (DDOT) is undertaking research to better understand multimodal urban trip generation : at mixed-use sites in the District. The study is helpi...
Saeidi, Sheida
Two important components of a liquid breeder blanket of a fusion power reactor are the liquid breeder/coolant and the steel structure that the liquid is enclosed in. One candidate combination for such components is Lead-Lithium (PbLi) eutectic alloy and advanced Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel. The research performed here is aimed at: (1) better understanding of corrosion processes in the system including RAFM steel and flowing PbLi in the presence of a strong magnetic field and (2) prediction of corrosion losses in conditions of a Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) blanket, which is at present the key liquid metal blanket concept in the US. To do this, numerical and analytical tools have been developed and then applied to the analysis of corrosion processes. First, efforts were taken to develop a computational suite called TRANSMAG (Transport phenomena in Magnetohydrodynamic Flows) as an analysis tool for corrosion processes in the PbLi/RAFM system, including transport of corrosion products in MHD laminar and turbulent flows. The computational approach in TRANSMAG is based on simultaneous solution of flow, energy and mass transfer equations with or without a magnetic field, assuming mass transfer controlled corrosion and uniform dissolution of iron in the flowing PbLi. Then, the new computational tool was used to solve an inverse mass transfer problem where the saturation concentration of iron in PbLi was reconstructed from the experimental data resulting in the following correlation: CS = e 13.604--12975/T, where T is the temperature of PbLi in K and CS is in wppm. The new correlation for saturation concentration was then used in the analysis of corrosion processes in laminar flows in a rectangular duct in the presence of a strong transverse magnetic field. As shown in this study, the mass loss increases with the magnetic field such that the corrosion rate in the presence of a magnetic field can be a few times higher compared to purely
Numerical analysis of three-dimensional MHD shock interactions in an inhomogeneous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prndergast, M.; Wu, S.T.
1987-01-01
Study of the formation and propagation of solar-originated shock waves in heliospheric space has attracted significant attention in the past decade. This attention is important because the propagation of shocks in heliospheric space has been thought of as one of the major physical processes for solar wind and cosmic ray modulations and their subsequent influence on the earth's environment. A version of the two step Lax-Wendroff difference method is used to seek solutions of the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for the study of a solar flare generated shock wave propagating through an inhomogeneous medium. 8 references
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hong, Sang Hee; Kang, Kyung Doo; Ryu, Ji Myung; Kim, Deok Kyu; Chung, TaeKyun; Chung, Mo Se [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Su Won [Kyungki University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)
1995-08-01
In the present project for developing the numerical codes of 2-D MHD equilibrium, edge plasma transport and neutral particle transport for the tokamak plasmas, we computed the MHD equilibria of single and double null configurations and determined the external coil currents and the plasma parameters used for operation and control data. Also we numerically acquired the distributions of edge plasma parameters in poloidal and radial directions= and the design-related values according to the various operating conditions using the developed plasma transport code. Furthermore, a neutral particle transport code for the edge region is developed and them used for the analysis of the neutral particle behavior yielding the source terms in the fluid transport equations, and expected to supply the input parameters for the edge plasma transport code. 53 refs., 12 tabs., 44 figs. (author)
Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot
Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.
2015-11-01
We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.
NONLINEAR MHD WAVES IN A PROMINENCE FOOT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ofman, L. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schmieder, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)
2015-11-10
We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ∼ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5–11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5–14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ∼20 km s{sup −1}, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.
MHD stability analyses of a tokamak plasma by time-dependent codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurita, Gen-ichi
1982-07-01
The MHD properties of a tokamak plasma are investigated by using time evolutional codes. As for the ideal MHD modes we have analyzed the external modes including the positional instability. Linear and nonlinear ideal MHD codes have been developed. Effects of the toroidicity and conducting shell on the external kink mode are studied minutely by the linear code. A new rezoning algorithm is devised and it is successfully applied to express numerically the axisymmetric plasma perturbation in a cylindrical geometry. As for the resistive MHD modes we have developed nonlinear codes on the basis of the reduced set of the resistive MHD equations. By using the codes we have studied the major disruption processes and properties of the low n resistive modes. We have found that the effects of toroidicity and finite poloidal beta are very important. Considering the above conclusion we propose a new scenario of the initiation of the major disruption. (author)
Benyo, Theresa Louise
Historically, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used rocket-powered vehicles as launch vehicles for access to space. A familiar example is the Space Shuttle launch system. These vehicles carry both fuel and oxidizer onboard. If an external oxidizer (such as the Earth's atmosphere) is utilized, the need to carry an onboard oxidizer is eliminated, and future launch vehicles could carry a larger payload into orbit at a fraction of the total fuel expenditure. For this reason, NASA is currently researching the use of air-breathing engines to power the first stage of two-stage-to-orbit hypersonic launch systems. Removing the need to carry an onboard oxidizer leads also to reductions in total vehicle weight at liftoff. This in turn reduces the total mass of propellant required, and thus decreases the cost of carrying a specific payload into orbit or beyond. However, achieving hypersonic flight with air-breathing jet engines has several technical challenges. These challenges, such as the mode transition from supersonic to hypersonic engine operation, are under study in NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program. One propulsion concept that is being explored is a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy- bypass generator coupled with an off-the-shelf turbojet/turbofan. It is anticipated that this engine will be capable of operation from takeoff to Mach 7 in a single flowpath without mode transition. The MHD energy bypass consists of an MHD generator placed directly upstream of the engine, and converts a portion of the enthalpy of the inlet flow through the engine into electrical current. This reduction in flow enthalpy corresponds to a reduced Mach number at the turbojet inlet so that the engine stays within its design constraints. Furthermore, the generated electrical current may then be used to power aircraft systems or an MHD accelerator positioned downstream of the turbojet. The MHD accelerator operates in reverse of the MHD generator, re-accelerating the
Spectrum of resistive MHD modes in cylindrical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryu, C.M.; Grimm, R.C.
1983-07-01
A numerical study of the normal modes of a compressible resistive MHD fluid in cylindrical geometry is presented. Resistivity resolves the shear Alfven and slow magnetosonic continua of ideal MHD into discrete spectra and gives rise to heavily damped modes whose frequencies lie on specific lines in the complex plane. Fast magnetosonic waves are less affected but are also damped. Overstable modes arise from the shear Alfven spectrum. The stabilizing effect of favorable average curvature is shown. Eigenfunctions illustrating the nature of typical normal modes are displayed
Present state of the theory of a MHD-dynamo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soward, A M; Roberts, P H
1976-01-01
A review is given of the state of the theory of a MHD-dynamo, that is, the theory of self-excited magnetic fields in homogeneous moving liquids. A description is given of two basic approaches-the turbulent dynamos of Steinbeck, Krause and Redler and the high-conductivity dynamo of Braginski, and a look is also taken at the relation between these dynamos. Finally a look is taken at the results of recent studies of the total problem of a MHD-dynamo, that is, at the results of recent attempts to solve the electro- and hydrodynamic equations and to obtain self-excited fields. 6 figs., 122 ref. (SJR)
Javed, T.; Ghaffari, A.; Ahmad, H.
2016-05-01
The unsteady stagnation point flow impinging obliquely on a flat plate in presence of a uniform applied magnetic field due to an oscillating stream has been studied. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into dimensionless form and the stream function is expressed in terms of Hiemenz and tangential components. The dimensionless partial differential equations are solved numerically by using well-known implicit finite difference scheme named as Keller-box method. The obtained results are compared with those available in the literature. It is observed that the results are in excellent agreement with the previous studies. The effects of pertinent parameters involved in the problem namely magnetic parameter, Prandtl number and impinging angle on flow and heat transfer characteristics are illustrated through graphs. It is observed that the influence of magnetic field strength increases the fluid velocity and by the increase of obliqueness parameter, the skin friction increases.
Generative perspectives for the study of language
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mauro Simões Santana
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a systematization of the evolution of generative linguistic studies. The paper initially describes the main arguments that support generative cognitivism and which ones distinguish it from the empiricist tradition. Following, some grammar models emerged from the generative theory are presented. Convergences and divergences between theoretical generative studies and the psycholinguistic studies are also referenced. Findings of psycholinguistics based on methods that consider real time speaker linguistic coding and interference of prosodic patterns suggest that the theoretical generative studies should improve research methods in order to make more grounded predictions.
Route analysis for MHD equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikuchi, Fumio; Aizawa, Tatsuhiko
1982-01-01
In Tokamak facilities which are promising in nuclear fusion reactor development, the plasma in the core is often described by MHD approximation. Specifically, since an axisymmetric torus is approximately assumed as the first wall (shell) shape in actual Tokamak facilities, the Grad-Shafranov equation to be satisfied by an axisymmetric equilibrium solution for ideal MHD fluid must be solved, and the characteristics of its solution must be clarified. This paper shows the outline of the numerical calculation which employs both the incremental method taking the particular incremental nodal point values as the control parameters and the interaction method in accordance with Newton method at the same time, the analysis objective being a non-linear eigenvalue problem dealing the boundary of plasma region with surrounding vacuum region as the free boundary. Next, the detailed route analysis of the equilibrium solution is performed, utilizing the above numerical calculation technique, to clarify the effect of shell shape on the behaviour of the equilibrium solution. As the shape of the shell, a rectangular section torus, which have a notch depression at a part of the shell inner boundary, is considered. In the paper, the fundamental MHD equation and its approximate solution by the finite element method, the behaviour of plasma equilibrium solution in a shell having a notch, and the effect of notch shapes on plasma behaviour are described. This analysis verifies the effectiveness of the calculation method. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kako, T.; Watanabe, T. [eds.
2000-06-01
This is the proceeding of 'study on numerical methods related to plasma confinement' held in National Institute for Fusion Science. In this workshop, theoretical and numerical analyses of possible plasma equilibria with their stability properties are presented. There are also various lectures on mathematical as well as numerical analyses related to the computational methods for fluid dynamics and plasma physics. Separate abstracts were presented for 13 of the papers in this report. The remaining 6 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)
A kinetic-MHD model for low frequency phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.
1991-07-01
A hybrid kinetic-MHD model for describing low-frequency phenomena in high beta anisotropic plasmas that consist of two components: a low energy core component and an energetic component with low density. The kinetic-MHD model treats the low energy core component by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description, the energetic component by kinetic approach such as the gyrokinetic equation, and the coupling between the dynamics of these two components through plasma pressure in the momentum equation. The kinetic-MHD model optimizes both the physics contents and the theoretical efforts in studying low frequency MHD waves and transport phenomena in general magnetic field geometries, and can be easily modified to include the core plasma kinetic effects if necessary. It is applicable to any magnetized collisionless plasma system where the parallel electric field effects are negligibly small. In the linearized limit two coupled eigenmode equations for describing the coupling between the transverse Alfven type and the compressional Alfven type waves are derived. The eigenmode equations are identical to those derived from the full gyrokinetic equation in the low frequency limit and were previously analyzed both analytically nd numerically to obtain the eigenmode structure of the drift mirror instability which explains successfully the multi-satellite observation of antisymmetric field-aligned structure of the compressional magnetic field of Pc 5 waves in the magnetospheric ring current plasma. Finally, a quadratic form is derived to demonstrate the stability of the low-frequency transverse and compressional Alfven type instabilities in terms of the pressure anisotropy parameter τ and the magnetic field curvature-pressure gradient parameter. A procedure for determining the stability of a marginally stable MHD wave due to wave-particle resonances is also presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yvars, M.
1979-10-01
The materials considered for the insulating walls of a M.H.D. converter are Al 2 O 3 , and the calcium or strontium zirconates. For the conducting walls electricity conducting oxides are being considered such as ZrO 2 or CrO 3 La essentially. The principle of M.H.D. systems is recalled, the materials considered are described as is their behaviour in the corrosive atmospheres of M.H.D. streams [fr
Rigo, H. S.; Bercaw, R. W.; Burkhart, J. A.; Mroz, T. S.; Bents, D. J.; Hatch, A. M.
1981-01-01
A description and the design requirements for the 200 MWe (nominal) net output MHD Engineering Test Facility (ETF) Conceptual Design, are presented. Performance requirements for the plant are identified and process conditions are indicated at interface stations between the major systems comprising the plant. Also included are the description, functions, interfaces and requirements for each of these major systems. The lastest information (1980-1981) from the MHD technology program are integrated with elements of a conventional steam electric power generating plant.
Prediction of transverse asymmetries in MHD ducts with zero net Hall current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swean, T.F. Jr.; Oliver, D.A.; Maxwell, C.D.; Demetriades, S.T.
1981-01-01
A new class of fluid-electrical asymmetries in MHD generator channel flow are predicted. It is shown that the existence of interelectrode asymmetries is not confined to generators in which there exists a nonzero net axial current, but rather they are induced even in the case of the Faraday generators. Also demonstrated is the impact of these asymmetries upon the generator and diffuser flow. It is concluded that in MHD generators, the net axial current in the cross plane is identically zero, while at any given point in the plane, the local Hall current density is in general nonzero
Extended MHD Effects in High Energy Density Experiments
Seyler, Charles
2016-10-01
The MHD model is the workhorse for computational modeling of HEDP experiments. Plasma models are inheritably limited in scope, but MHD is expected to be a very good model for studying plasmas at the high densities attained in HEDP experiments. There are, however, important ways in which MHD fails to adequately describe the results, most notably due to the omission of the Hall term in the Ohm's law (a form of extended MHD or XMHD). This talk will discuss these failings by directly comparing simulations of MHD and XMHD for particularly relevant cases. The methodology is to simulate HEDP experiments using a Hall-MHD (HMHD) code based on a highly accurate and robust Discontinuous Galerkin method, and by comparison of HMHD to MHD draw conclusions about the impact of the Hall term. We focus on simulating two experimental pulsed power machines under various scenarios. We examine the MagLIF experiment on the Z-machine at Sandia National Laboratories and liner experiments on the COBRA machine at Cornell. For the MagLIF experiment we find that power flow in the feed leads to low density plasma ablation into the region surrounding the liner. The inflow of this plasma compresses axial magnetic flux onto the liner. In MHD this axial flux tends to resistively decay, whereas in HMHD a force-free current layer sustains the axial flux on the liner leading to a larger ratio of axial to azimuthal flux. During the liner compression the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability leads to helical perturbations due to minimization of field line bending. Simulations of a cylindrical liner using the COBRA machine parameters can under certain conditions exhibit amplification of an axial field due to a force-free low-density current layer separated by some distance from the liner. This results in a configuration in which there is predominately axial field on the liner inside the current layer and azimuthal field outside the layer. We are currently attempting to experimentally verify the simulation
MHD simulations on an unstructured mesh
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strauss, H.R.; Park, W.
1996-01-01
We describe work on a full MHD code using an unstructured mesh. MH3D++ is an extension of the PPPL MH3D resistive full MHD code. MH3D++ replaces the structured mesh and finite difference / fourier discretization of MH3D with an unstructured mesh and finite element / fourier discretization. Low level routines which perform differential operations, solution of PDEs such as Poisson's equation, and graphics, are encapsulated in C++ objects to isolate the finite element operations from the higher level code. The high level code is the same, whether it is run in structured or unstructured mesh versions. This allows the unstructured mesh version to be benchmarked against the structured mesh version. As a preliminary example, disruptions in DIIID reverse shear equilibria are studied numerically with the MH3D++ code. Numerical equilibria were first produced starting with an EQDSK file containing equilibrium data of a DIII-D L-mode negative central shear discharge. Using these equilibria, the linearized equations are time advanced to get the toroidal mode number n = 1 linear growth rate and eigenmode, which is resistively unstable. The equilibrium and linear mode are used to initialize 3D nonlinear runs. An example shows poloidal slices of 3D pressure surfaces: initially, on the left, and at an intermediate time, on the right
Survey of linear MHD stability in tokamak configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wakatani, M.
1977-01-01
The results found by MHD stability studies for both low-beta and high-beta tokamaks are reviewed. The stability against kink-ballooning modes in equilibria surrounded by vacuum or a layer of force free currents is considered. Internal kink modes and the relation to interchange modes, which should be considered after external kink modes are suppressed, are surveyed
MHD Hele-Shaw flow of Rivlin-Ericksen fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, B.C.; Sengupta, P.R.
1995-01-01
In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the MHD Hele-Shaw flow of Rivlin-Ericksen visco-elastic fluid assuming the pressure gradient to be proportional to exp (-nt). The velocity components are obtained and the effect of visco-elasticity is discussed on velocity components. (author). 8 refs
Modified NASA-Lewis chemical equilibrium code for MHD applications
Sacks, R. A.; Geyer, H. K.; Grammel, S. J.; Doss, E. D.
1979-01-01
A substantially modified version of the NASA-Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Code was recently developed. The modifications were designed to extend the power and convenience of the Code as a tool for performing combustor analysis for MHD systems studies. The effect of the programming details is described from a user point of view.
Hoover, D. Q.
1976-01-01
Electric power plant costs and efficiencies are presented for three basic open-cycle MHD systems: (1) direct coal fired system, (2) a system with a separately fired air heater, and (3) a system burning low-Btu gas from an integrated gasifier. Power plant designs were developed corresponding to the basic cases with variation of major parameters for which major system components were sized and costed. Flow diagrams describing each design are presented. A discussion of the limitations of each design is made within the framework of the assumptions made.
MHD stability properties of a system of reduced toroidal MHD equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maschke, E.K.; Morros Tosas, J.; Urquijo, G.
1993-01-01
A system of reduced toroidal magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equations is derived from a general scalar representation of the complete MHD system, using an ordering in terms of the inverse aspect ratio ε of a toroidal plasma. It is shown that the energy principle for the reduced equations is identical with the usual energy principle of the complete MHD system, to the appropriate order in ε. Thus, the reduced equations have the same ideal MHD stability limits as the full MHD equations. (authors). 6 refs
The intense neutron generator study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lewis, W B
1966-07-01
The study has confirmed that a beam of 65 mA of protons at 1000 MeV, striking a molten lead-bismuth target surrounded by heavy water moderator, would give the desired flux of 10{sup 16} thermal neutrons per cm{sup 2} per second to provide intense beams of neutrons and also to produce radioisotopes. The proton beam passing through a thin auxiliary target would also produce beams of mesons. The design and construction of the ion source, injector, accelerator, target and auxiliaries present challenging technical problems. Moreover, continued development for improved life and economy promises to be rewarding. The high neutron intensity is sought for research in solid and liquid state physics and also for nuclear physics. Participation by universities and industry, both in development and use, is expected to be extensive. (author)
Study of a positron generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakahara, Kazuo; Enomoto, A.; Ikeda, M.; Ohsawa, S.; Kamitani, T.; Hosoyama, K.; Takei, H.; Emoto, T.; Tani, S.
1998-03-01
In the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), the following are examined as part of an application technology using a high power electron linac: monochromatic gamma ray sources, free electron lasers, and intense positron sources. This report presents the study of an intense positron source, which has been developed jointly by High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) and PNC. In this report, we describe following items for an adaptive estimate of a superconducting magnet in order to efficiently converge a positron beam. (1) The cryostat which included the superconducting magnet is manufactured. (2) An excitement test of the superconducting magnet is carried out with a magnetic substance such as the electromagnet yoke. (author)
The intense neutron generator study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewis, W.B.
1966-01-01
The study has confirmed that a beam of 65 mA of protons at 1000 MeV, striking a molten lead-bismuth target surrounded by heavy water moderator, would give the desired flux of 10 16 thermal neutrons per cm 2 per second to provide intense beams of neutrons and also to produce radioisotopes. The proton beam passing through a thin auxiliary target would also produce beams of mesons. The design and construction of the ion source, injector, accelerator, target and auxiliaries present challenging technical problems. Moreover, continued development for improved life and economy promises to be rewarding. The high neutron intensity is sought for research in solid and liquid state physics and also for nuclear physics. Participation by universities and industry, both in development and use, is expected to be extensive. (author)
Gas target neutron generator studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chatoorgoon, V.
1978-01-01
The need for an intense neutron source for the study of radiation damage on materials has resulted in the proposal of various solid, liquid, and gas targets. Among the gas targets proposed have been the transonic gas target, two types of hypersonic gas target, and the subsonic gas target (SGT). It has been suggested that heat deposition in a subsonic channel might create a gas density step which would constitute an attractive gas target type. The first part of the present study examines this aspect of the SGT and shows that gas density gradients are indeed formed by heat deposition in subsonic flow. The variation of beam voltage, gas density, gas pressure, and gas temperature within the channel have been calculated as functions of the system parameters: beam voltage, beam current, channel diameter, stagnation tank temperature and pressure. The analysis is applicable to any beam particle and target gas. For the case of T + on D 2 , which is relevant to the fusion application, the 14 MeV neutron profiles are presented as a function of system parameters. It is found that the SGT is compatible with concentrated intense source operation. The possibility of instability was investigated in detail using a non-linear analysis which made it possible to follow the complete time development of the SGT. It was found that the SGT is stable against all small perturbations and certain types of large perturbations. It appears that the SGT is the most advantageous type of gas target, operating at a lower mass flow and less severe stagnation tank conditions than the other types. The second part of the thesis examines a problem associated with the straight hypersonic target, the deuterium spill into the tritium port. The regime of practical operation for this target is established. (auth)
MHD stability limits in the TCV Tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reimerdes, H.
2001-07-01
discharges which are characterised by a low electron collisionality ν e* , a medium ion collisionality ν * , a medium value of beta and strongly peaked pressure and current profiles. In contrast to other tokamak experiments, where sawteeth, fishbones or ELMs generate the seed island, the required seed island is provided by a conventional tearing mode. The island clearly shows a conventional and a neoclassical growth phase. In conclusion, several local and a global stability limits are analyzed. These instabilities can limit the pressure gradient and thereby, the performance of the plasma. The presented results reveal several previously unobserved features of commonly observed instabilities. Since the most of the new observations can be explained by theory, they improve the predictive capabilities with respect to new experiments. The experiments have also shown some new interactions among different instabilities, which add to the already crowded complexities of MHD phenomena in fusion plasmas
NaK-nitrogen liquid metal MHD converter tests at 30 kw
Cerini, D. J.
1974-01-01
The feasibility of electrical power generation with an ambient temperature liquid-metal MHD separator cycle is demonstrated by tests in which a NaK-nitrogen LM-MHD converter was operated at nozzle inlet pressures ranging from 100 to 165 N/sq cm, NaK flow rates from 46 to 72 kg/sec, and nitrogen flow rates from 2.4 to 3.8 kg/sec. The generator was operated as an eight-phase linear induction generator, with two of the eight phases providing magnetic field compensation to minimized electrical end losses at the generator channel inlet and exit.
Axisymmetric MHD stable sloshing ion distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.; Dominguez, N.; Roslyakov, G.V.
1986-07-01
The MHD stability of a sloshing ion distribution is investigated in a symmetric mirror cell. Fokker-Planck calculations show that stable configurations are possible for ion injection energies that are at least 150 times greater than the electron temperture. Special axial magnetic field profiles are suggested to optimize the favorable MHD properties
Preliminary analysis of 500 MWt MHD power plant with oxygen enrichment
1980-04-01
An MHD Engineering Test Facility design concept is analyzed. A 500 MWt oxygen enriched MHD topping cycle integrated for combined cycle operation with a 400 MWe steam plant is evaluated. The MHD cycle uses Montana Rosebud coal and air enriched to 35 mole percent oxygen preheated to 1100 F. The steam plant is a 2535 psia/1000 F/1000 F reheat recycle that was scaled down from the Gilbert/Commonwealth Reference Fossil Plant design series. Integration is accomplished by blending the steam generated in the MHD heat recovery system with steam generated by the partial firing of the steam plant boiler to provide the total flow requirement of the turbine. The major MHD and steam plant auxiliaries are driven by steam turbines. When the MHD cycle is taken out of service, the steam plant is capable of stand-alone operation at turbine design throttle flow. This operation requires the full firing of the steam plant boiler. A preliminary feasibility assessment is given, and results on the system thermodynamics, construction scheduling, and capital costs are presented.
Ideal MHD stability analysis of KSTAR target AT mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yi, S.M.; Kim, J.H.; You, K.I.; Kim, J.Y.
2009-01-01
Full text: A main research objective of KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) device is to demonstrate the steady-state operation capability of high-performance AT (Advanced Tokamak) mode. To meet this goal, it is critical for KSTAR to have a good MHD stability boundary, particularly against the high-beta ideal instabilities such as the external kink and the ballooning modes. To support this MHD stability KSTAR has been designed to have a strong plasma shape and a close interval between plasma and passive- plate wall. During the conceptual design phase of KSTAR, a preliminary study was performed to estimate the high beta MHD stability limit of KSTAR target AT mode using PEST and VACUUM codes and it was shown that the target AT mode can be stable up to β N ∼ 5 with a well-defined plasma pressure and current profiles. Recently, a new calculation has been performed to estimate the ideal stability limit in various KSTAR operating conditions using DCON code, and it has been observed that there is some difference between the new and old calculation results, particularly in the dependence of the maximum β N value on the toroidal mode number. Here, we thus present a more detailed analysis of the ideal MHD stability limit of KSTAR target AT mode using various codes, which include GATO as well as PEST and DCON, in the comparison of calculation results among the three codes. (author)
Performance and flow characteristics of MHD seawater thruster
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doss, E.D.
1990-01-01
The main goal of the research is to investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the electrical and flow fields inside MHD thrusters. The results of this study is important in the assessment of the feasibility of MHD seawater propulsion for the Navy. To accomplish this goal a three-dimensional fluid flow computer model has been developed and applied to study the concept of MHD seawater propulsion. The effects of strong magnetic fields on the current and electric fields inside the MHD thruster and their interaction with the flow fields, particularly those in the boundary layers, have been investigated. The results of the three-dimensional computations indicate that the velocity profiles are flatter over the sidewalls of the thruster walls in comparison to the velocity profiles over the electrode walls. These nonuniformities in the flow fields give rise to nonuniform distribution of the skin friction along the walls of the thrusters, where higher values are predicted over the sidewalls relative to those over the electrode walls. Also, a parametric study has been performed using the three-dimensional MHD flow model to analyze the performance of continuous electrode seawater thrusters under different operating parameters. The effects of these parameters on the fluid flow characteristics, and on the thruster efficiency have been investigated. Those parameters include the magnetic field (10--20 T), thruster diameter, surface roughness, flow velocity, and the electric load factor. The results show also that the thruster performance improves with the strength of the magnetic field and thruster diameter, and the efficiency decreases with the flow velocity and surface roughness.
MHD (Magnetohydrodynamics) recovery and regeneration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McIlroy, R. A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Probert, P. B. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Lahoda, E. J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Swift, W. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jackson, D. M. [Univ. of Tennessee Space Inst. (UTSI), Tullahoma, TN (United States); Prasad, J. [Univ. of Tennessee Space Inst. (UTSI), Tullahoma, TN (United States); Martin, J. [Hudson Engineering (United States); Rogers, C. [Hudson Engineering (United States); Ho, K. K. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Senary, M. K. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)
1988-10-01
A two-phase program investigating MHD seed regeneration is described. In Phase I, bench scale experiments were carried out to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a proposed Seed Regeneration Process. The Phase I data has been used for the preliminary design of a Proof-of-Concept (POC) plant which will be built and tested in Phase II. The Phase I data will also be used to estimate the costs of a 300 Mw(t) demonstration plant for comparison with other processes. The Seed Regeneration Process consists of two major subprocesses; a Westinghouse Dry Reduction process and a modified Tampella (sulfur) Recovery process. The Westinghouse process reduces the recovered spent seed (i.e., potassium sulfate) to potassium polysulfide in a rotary kiln. The reduction product is dissolved in water to form green liquor, clarified to remove residual coal ash, and sent to the Tampella sulfur release system. The sulfur is released using carbon dioxide from flue gas in a two stage reaction. The sulfur is converted to elemental sulfur as a marketable by product. The potassium is crystallized from the green liquor and dried to the anhydrous form for return to the MHD unit.
Multimegawatt space nuclear power open-cycle MHD-facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavshuk, V.A.; Panchenko, V.P.
2008-01-01
Paper presents the results of the efforts to calculate the characteristics, the layout and the engineering design of the open cycle space power propulsion on the basis of the high-temperature nuclear reactor for a nuclear rocket engine and the Faraday 20 MW capacity MHD-generator. The IVG-1 heterogeneous channel-vessel reactor ensuring in the course of the experiments hydrogen heating up to 3100 K, up to 5 MPa pressure at the reactor core outlet, up to 5 kg/s flowsheet, up to 220 MW thermal power served as a reactor is considered. One determined the MHD-generator basic parameters, namely: the portion of Cs dope was equal to 20%, the outlet stagnation pressure - 2 MPa, the electric conductivity - ≅30 S/m, the Mach number - ≅0.7, the magnetic field induction - 6 T, the capacity - 20 MW, the specific power removal - ∼4 MJ/kg. Paper describes the design of the MHD-facility with the working fluid momentless discharge and its basic characteristics [ru
Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ovtcharova, I. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)
1995-12-31
In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.
Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ovtcharova, I [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)
1996-12-31
In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.
Program for parameter studies of steam generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathisen, R.P.
1982-11-01
R2-GEN is a computer code for stationary thermal parameter studies of steam generators. The geometry and data are valid for Ringhals-2 generators. Subroutines and relevant calculations are included. The program is based on a heterogeneous flow model and some applications on tubes with varying contamination are presented. (G.B.)
Measured MHD equilibrium in Alcator C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pribyl, P.A.
1986-03-01
A method of processing data from a set of partial Rogowski loops is developed to study the MHD equilibrium in Alcator C. Time dependent poloidal fields in the vicinity of the plasma are calculated from measured currents, with field penetration effects being accounted for. Fields from eddy currents induced by the plasma in the tokamak structure are estimated as well. Each of the set of twelve B/sub θ/ measurements can then be separated into a component from the plasma current and a component from currents external to the pickup loops. Harmonic solutions to Maxwell's equations in toroidal coordinates are fit to these measurements in order to infer the fields everywhere in the vacuum region surrounding the plasma. Using this diagnostic, plasma current, position, shape, and the Shafranov term Λ = β/sub p/ + l/sub i//2 - 1 may be computed, and systematic studies of these plasma parameters are undertaken for Alcator C plasmas
Ion temperature increase during MHD events on the TST-2 spherical tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ejiri, A.; Shiraiwa, S.; Takase, Y.; Yamada, T.; Nagashima, Y.; Kasahara, H.; Iijima, D.; Kobori, Y.; Nishi, T.; Taniguchi, T.; Aramasu, M.; Ohara, S.; Ushigome, M.; Yamagishi, K.
2003-01-01
Various types of MHD events including internal reconnection events are studied on the TST-2 spherical tokamak. In weak MHD events no positive current spike was observed, but in strong MHD events with positive current spikes, a rapid and significant impurity ion temperature increase was observed. The decrease in the poloidal magnetic energy is the most probable energy source for ion heating. The plasma current shows a stepwise change. The magnitude of this step correlates with the temperature increase and is found to be a good indicator of the strength of each event. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Xiujie; Pan, Chuanjie; Xu, Zengyu
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► 2D MHD code based on a fully developed modeling is developed and validated by Samad analytical results. ► The results of MHD effect of liquid metal through circular pipes at high Hartmann numbers are given. ► M type velocity profile is observed for MHD circular pipe flow at high wall conductance ratio condition. ► Non-uniform wall electrical conductivity leads to high jet velocity in Robert layers. -- Abstract: Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) laminar flows through circular pipes are studied in this paper by numerical simulation under the conditions of Hartmann numbers from 18 to 10000. The code is developed based on a fully developed modeling and validated by Samad's analytical solution and Chang's asymptotic results. After the code validation, numerical simulation is extended to high Hartmann number for MHD circular pipe flows with conducting walls, and numerical results such as velocity distribution and MHD pressure gradient are obtained. Typical M-type velocity is observed but there is not such a big velocity jet as that of MHD rectangular duct flows even under the conditions of high Hartmann numbers and big wall conductance ratio. The over speed region in Robert layers becomes smaller when Hartmann numbers increase. When Hartmann number is fixed and wall conductance ratios change, the dimensionless velocity is through one point which is in agreement with Samad's results, the locus of maximum value of velocity jet is same and effects of wall conductance ratio only on the maximum value of velocity jet. In case of Robert walls are treated as insulating and Hartmann walls as conducting for circular pipe MHD flows, there is big velocity jet like as MHD rectangular duct flows of Hunt's case 2
MHD stability limits in the TCV Tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reimerdes, H. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2001-07-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities can limit the performance and degrade the confinement of tokamak plasmas. The Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV), unique for its capability to produce a variety of poloidal plasma shapes, has been used to analyse various instabilities and compare their behaviour with theoretical predictions. These instabilities are perturbations of the magnetic field, which usually extend to the plasma edge where they can be detected with magnetic pick-up coils as magnetic fluctuations. A spatially dense set of magnetic probes, installed inside the TCV vacuum vessel, allows for a fast observation of these fluctuations. The structure and temporal evolution of coherent modes is extracted using several numerical methods. In addition to the setup of the magnetic diagnostic and the implementation of analysis methods, the subject matter of this thesis focuses on four instabilities, which impose local and global stability limits. All of these instabilities are relevant for the operation of a fusion reactor and a profound understanding of their behaviour is required in order to optimise the performance of such a reactor. Sawteeth, which are central relaxation oscillations common to most standard tokamak scenarios, have a significant effect on central plasma parameters. In TCV, systematic scans of the plasma shape have revealed a strong dependence of their behaviour on elongation {kappa} and triangularity {delta}, with high {kappa}, and low {delta} leading to shorter sawteeth with smaller crashes. This shape dependence is increased by applying central electron cyclotron heating. The response to additional heating power is determined by the role of ideal or resistive MHD in triggering the sawtooth crash. For plasma shapes where additional heating and consequently, a faster increase of the central pressure shortens the sawteeth, the low experimental limit of the pressure gradient within the q = 1 surface is consistent with ideal MHD predictions. The
Two dimensional MHD flows between porous boundaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gratton, F.T.
1994-01-01
Similarity solutions of dissipative MHD equations representing conducting fluids injected through porous walls and flowing out in both directions from the center of the channel, are studied as a function of four non dimensional parameters, Reynolds number R e , magnetic Reynolds number R m , Alfvenic Mach number, M A , and pressure gradient coefficient, C. The effluence is restrained by an external magnetic field normal to the walls. When R m m >>1, the solution may model a collision of plasmas of astrophysical interest. In this case the magnetic field lines help to drive the outflow acting jointly with the pressure gradient. The law for C as a function of the other parameters is given for several asymptotic limits. (author). 3 refs, 6 figs
Wind Generation Feasibility Study in Bethel, AK
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tom Humphrey, YKHC; Lance Kincaid, EMCOR Energy & Technologies
2004-07-31
This report studies the wind resources in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Health Corporation (YKHC) region, located in southwestern Alaska, and the applicability of wind generation technologies to YKHC facilities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Le Chen
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate calcitriol, cinacalcet plus comprehensive intervention on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P metabolism and parathyroid hormone (PTH effect. Methods: A total of 80 cases of patients with SHPT from January 2014 to January 2016 in our hospital were randomly divided into observation group and control group, control group to eat the whole piece of cinacalcet hydrochloride oral tablets, the initial dose of 25 mg/d, every 2 to 4 weeks, according to Ca×P, parathyroid hormone (iPTH test results adjust the dose, the maximum dose of not more than 75 mg/d, the observation group in the control group on the basis of oral administration of Calcitriol Soft Capsules 0.25 g/d, 3 times/week, 2 groups were given comprehensive intervention measures, to evaluate the curative effect after 3 months of treatment. The 2 groups before and after treatment collected fasting peripheral venous blood, the determination of Ca, P and alkaline phosphatase by colorimetric method (ALP, Ca, P product calculation (Ca×P, to detect the level of iPTH before and after treatment by ELISA method; TY-6858-HI type ultrasound instrument, measuring length, width and thickness of the parathyroid glands, and calculate the parathyroid gland volume. Results: in the observation group after treatment, Ca, Ca×P increased degree, P, ALP, iPTH lower than the control group, the size of the parathyroid gland was better than the control group. Conclusion: calcitriol, cinacalcet combined intervention therapy has good clinical effect in patients with MHD SHPT, Ca, P can effectively improve the metabolism, reduce the level of iPTH, reduce the parathyroid gland volume is worthy of promotion.
MHD intermediate shock discontinuities: Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kennel, C.F.; Blandford, R.D.; Coppi, P.
1989-01-01
Recent numerical investigations have focused attention once more on the role of intermediate shocks in MHD. Four types of intermediate shock are identified using a graphical representation of the MHD Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. This same representation can be used to exhibit the close relationship of intermediate shocks to switch-on shocks and rotational discontinuities. The conditions under which intermediate discontinuities can be found are elucidated. The variations in velocity, pressure, entropy and magnetic-field jumps with upstream parameters in intermediate shocks are exhibited graphically. The evolutionary arguments traditionally advanced against intermediate shocks may fail because the equations of classical MHD are not strictly hyperbolic. (author)
MHD equilibrium with toroidal rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, J.
1987-03-01
The present work attempts to formulate the equilibrium of axisymmetric plasma with purely toroidal flow within ideal MHD theory. In general, the inertial term Rho(v.Del)v caused by plasma flow is so complicated that the equilibrium equation is completely different from the Grad-Shafranov equation. However, in the case of purely toroidal flow the equilibrium equation can be simplified so that it resembles the Grad-Shafranov equation. Generally one arbitrary two-variable functions and two arbitrary single variable functions, instead of only four single-variable functions, are allowed in the new equilibrium equations. Also, the boundary conditions of the rotating (with purely toroidal fluid flow, static - without any fluid flow) equilibrium are the same as those of the static equilibrium. So numerically one can calculate the rotating equilibrium as a static equilibrium. (author)
Resonant MHD modes with toroidal coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connor, J.W.; Hastie, R.J.; Taylor, J.B.
1990-07-01
This is part 2 of a study of resonant perturbations, such as resistive tearing and ballooning modes, in a torus. These are described by marginal ideal mhd equations in the regions between resonant surfaces; matching across these surfaces provides the dispersion relation. In part 1 we described how all the necessary information from the ideal mhd calculations could be represented by a so-called E-matrix. We also described the calculation of this E-matrix for tearing modes (even parity in perturbed magnetic field) in a large aspect ratio torus. There the toroidal modes comprise coupled cylinder tearing modes and the E-matrix is a generalization of the familiar Δ' quantity in a cylinder. In the present paper we discuss resistive ballooning, or twisting-modes, which have odd-parity in perturbed magnetic field. We show that, unlike the tearing modes, these odd-parity modes are instrinsically toroidal and are not directly related to the odd-parity modes in a cylinder. This is evident from the analysis of the high-n limit in ballooning-space, where a transition from a stable Δ' to an unstable Δ' occurs for the twisting mode when the ballooning effect exceeds the interchange effect, which can occur even at large aspect ratio (as in a tokamak). Analysis of the high-n limit in coordinate space, rather than ballooning space, clarifies this singular behaviour and indicates how one may define twisting-mode Δ'. It also yields a prescription for treating low-n twisting modes and a method for calculating an E-matrix for resistive ballooning modes in a large aspect ratio tokamak. The elements of this matrix are given in terms of cylindrical tearing mode solutions
MHD biconvective flow of Powell Eyring nanofluid over stretched surface
Naseem, Faiza; Shafiq, Anum; Zhao, Lifeng; Naseem, Anum
2017-06-01
The present work is focused on behavioral characteristics of gyrotactic microorganisms to describe their role in heat and mass transfer in the presence of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) forces in Powell-Eyring nanofluids. Implications concerning stretching sheet with respect to velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentration and motile microorganism density were explored to highlight influential parameters. Aim of utilizing microorganisms was primarily to stabilize the nanoparticle suspension due to bioconvection generated by the combined effects of buoyancy forces and magnetic field. Influence of Newtonian heating was also analyzed by taking into account thermophoretic mechanism and Brownian motion effects to insinuate series solutions mediated by homotopy analysis method (HAM). Mathematical model captured the boundary layer regime that explicitly involved contemporary non linear partial differential equations converted into the ordinary differential equations. To depict nanofluid flow characteristics, pertinent parameters namely bioconvection Lewis number Lb, traditional Lewis number Le, bioconvection Péclet number Pe, buoyancy ratio parameter Nr, bioconvection Rayleigh number Rb, thermophoresis parameter Nt, Hartmann number M, Grashof number Gr, and Eckert number Ec were computed and analyzed. Results revealed evidence of hydromagnetic bioconvection for microorganism which was represented by graphs and tables. Our findings further show a significant effect of Newtonian heating over a stretching plate by examining the coefficient values of skin friction, local Nusselt number and the local density number. Comparison was made between Newtonian fluid and Powell-Eyring fluid on velocity field and temperature field. Results are compared of with contemporary studies and our findings are found in excellent agreement with these studies.
Towards Integrated Pulse Detonation Propulsion and MHD Power
Litchford, Ron J.; Thompson, Bryan R.; Lineberry, John T.
1999-01-01
with PDEs for integrated aerospace propulsion and MHD power. An effort is made to estimate the energy requirements for direct detonation initiation of potential fuel/oxidizer mixtures and to determine the electrical power requirements. This requirement is evaluated in terms of the possibility for MHD power generation using the combustion detonation wave. Small scale laboratory experiments were conducted using stoichiometric mixtures of acetylene and oxygen with an atomized spray of cesium hydroxide dissolved in alcohol as an ionization seed in the active MHD region. Time resolved thrust and MHD power generation measurements were performed. These results show that PDEs yield higher I(sub sp) levels than a comparable rocket engine and that MHD power generation is viable candidate for achieving self-excited engine operation.
A review on application of MHD theory to plasma boundary problems in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Kimitaka.
1992-08-01
A survey is made on the problems of the edge plasmas, to which the analyses based on the MHD theory have been successfully applied. Also discussed are the efforts to extend the model equation to more general (and important as well) problems such as H-mode physics. An overview is first made on the advantages of the MHD picture, and the necessary supplementary physics are examined. Next, one- and two-dimensional models of the spatial structure of the edge plasma is discussed. The results on the stationary structure, both analytical and numerical, are reviewed: Typical example as well as the scaling law are shown. The instabilities associated with edge plasma is next reviewed. The surface kink mode, ballooning mode, interchange mode, resistive interchange mode and thermal instability are discussed. Role of the geometry such as the location of the X-point is studied. Influences of the atomic processes, and those of the radial electric field are also discussed. The analysis of the H-mode transition physics is finally discussed. The boundary plasma is a nonlinear media which possesses the possibility for bifurcation in which the radial electric field plays a key role. The model of the ion viscosity is also studied. Transition physics is developed. Analysis on the self-generating oscillation is shown and the relation with ELMs is discussed. After reviewing these problems, several comments are made to what directions the study can be deepened. (author) 53 refs
Qualification of MHD effects in dual-coolant DEMO blanket and approaches to their modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mas de les Valls, E.; Batet, L.; Medina, V. de; Fradera, J.; Sedano, L.A.
2011-01-01
Design refinements of vertical insulated banana-shaped liquid metal channels are being considered as a progress of conceptual design of dual-coolant liquid metal blankets (DEMO specifications). Among them: (a) optimised channel geometry and (b) improvements on flow channel inserts. Progress of channel conceptual design is conducted in parallel with underlying physics of MHD models in diverse aspects: (1) MHD models, (2) MHD turbulence, (3) LM buoyancy effects, (4) three-dimensional flows, and (5) LM/FCI/wall electrical and thermal coupling; in order to progress on common liquid metal flow characterisation, pressure drop and three-dimensional flows. The analyses are assumed as extension of those previous carried out for the DCLL blankets for new design refinements. At the present stage of the conceptual design progress, a preliminary thermofluid MHD study is of crucial interest for further design improvements and future detailed modelling. The paper overviews the ongoing modelling studies, making model refinements explicit, and anticipates some modelling results.
Distributed generation - customer owned generation - Duke Energy case study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iung, Anderson M. [Duke Energy International, Geracao Paranapanema S.A., SP (Brazil). Market Analysis Dept.; Ribeiro, Paulo F. [Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Oliveira, A.R. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)
2009-07-01
Distributed generation (DG) is getting more attractive. Although unit costs show strong economies of scale for all generation technology types, there is a potential niche market for DG technology to drive growth in addition to environmental concern issues. Duke Energy encourages the installation of cost effective small scale costumer owned generation. The objective of this article is to evaluate some aspects of DG connection in the Duke's distribution system regarding power quality, voltage stability, system protection, power balance control policy and the economical viability. (author)
MHD instabilities in heliotron/torsatron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wakatani, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yuji; Ichiguchi, Katsuji
1992-01-01
Recent theoretical results on MHD instabilities in heliotron/torsatron are reviewed. By comparing the results with experimental data in Heliotron E, Heliotron DR and ATF, it is pointed out that resistive interchange modes are the most crucial instabilities, since the magnetic hill occupies a substantial region of the plasma column. Development of three-dimensional MHD equilibrium codes has made significant progress. By applying the local stability criteria shown by D 1 (ideal MHD mode) and D R (resistive MHD mode) to the equilibria given by the three-dimensional codes such as BETA and VMEC, stability thresholds for the low n ideal modes or the low n resistive modes may be estimated with resonable accuracy, where n is a toroidal mode number. (orig.)
Neoclassical MHD descriptions of tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callen, J.D.; Kim, Y.B.; Sundaram, A.K.
1988-01-01
Considerable progress has been made in extending neoclassical MHD theory and in exploring the linear instabilities, nonlinear behavior and turbulence models it implies for tokamak plasmas. The areas highlighted in this paper include: extension of the neoclassical MHD equations to include temperature-gradient and heat flow effects; the free energy and entropy evolution implied by this more complete description; a proper ballooning mode formalism analysis of the linear instabilities; a new rippling mode type instability; numerical simulation of the linear instabilities which exhibit a smooth transition from resistive ballooning modes at high collisionality to neoclassical MHD modes at low collisionality; numerical simulation of the nonlinear growth of a single helicity tearing mode; and a Direct-Interaction-Approximation model of neoclassical MHD turbulence and the anomalous transport it induces which substantially improves upon previous mixing length model estimates. 34 refs., 2 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Legro, J.R.; Abi-Samra, N.C.; Crouse, J.C.; Tesche, F.M.
1985-01-01
This paper summarizes a method to evaluate the possible effects of magnetohydrodynamic-electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) on power systems. This method is based on the approach adapted to study the impact of geomagnetic storms on power systems. The paper highlights the similarities and differences between the two phenomena. Also presented are areas of concern which are anticipated from MHD-EMP on the overall system operation. 12 refs., 1 fig
3-D resistive MHD calculations for tokamak plasmas: beyond the simple reduced set of equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.; Hender, T.C.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Masden, B.F.
1983-01-01
Numerical studies of the resistive stability of tokamak plasmas in cylindrical geometry have been performed using: (1) the full set of resistive Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations and (2) an extended version of the reduced set of resistive MHD equations including diamagnetic and electron temperature effects. In particular, the nonlinear interaction of tearing modes of many helicities has been investigated. The numerical results confirm many of the features uncovered previously using the simple reduced equations. (author)
3D MHD simulations of pellet injection and disruptions in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strauss, H.R.; Park, W.; Belova, E.; Fu, G.Y.; Sugiyama, L.E.
2001-01-01
Nonlinear MHD simulation results of pellet injection show that MHD forces can accelerate large pellets, injected on the high field side of a tokamak, to the plasma center. Magnetic reconnection can produce a reverse shear q profile. Ballooning instability caused by pellets is also reduced by high field side injection. Studies are also reported of the current quench phase of disruptions, which can cause 3D halo currents and runaway electrons. (author)
3D MHD simulations of pellet injection and disruptions in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strauss, H.R.; Park, W.; Belova, E.; Fu, G.Y.; Sugiyama, L.E.
1999-01-01
Nonlinear MHD simulation results of pellet injection show that MHD forces can accelerate large pellets, injected on the high field side of a tokamak, to the plasma center. Magnetic reconnection can produce a reverse shear q profile. Ballooning instability caused by pellets is also reduced by high field side injection. Studies are also reported of the current quench phase of disruptions, which can cause 3D halo currents and runaway electrons. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pandit K. K.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available An investigation of the effects of a chemical reaction and thermal radiation on unsteady MHD free convection heat and mass transfer flow of an electrically conducting, viscous, incompressible fluid past a vertical infinite flat plate embedded in a porous medium is carried out. The flow is induced by a general time-dependent movement of the vertical plate, and the cases of ramped temperature and isothermal plates are studied. An exact solution of the governing equations is obtained in closed form by the Laplace Transform technique. Some applications of practical interest for different types of plate motions are discussed. The numerical values of fluid velocity, temperature and species concentration are displayed graphically whereas the numerical values of skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented in a tabular form for various values of pertinent flow parameters for both ramped temperature and isothermal plates.
Pandit, K. K.; Sarma, D.; Singh, S. I.
2017-12-01
An investigation of the effects of a chemical reaction and thermal radiation on unsteady MHD free convection heat and mass transfer flow of an electrically conducting, viscous, incompressible fluid past a vertical infinite flat plate embedded in a porous medium is carried out. The flow is induced by a general time-dependent movement of the vertical plate, and the cases of ramped temperature and isothermal plates are studied. An exact solution of the governing equations is obtained in closed form by the Laplace Transform technique. Some applications of practical interest for different types of plate motions are discussed. The numerical values of fluid velocity, temperature and species concentration are displayed graphically whereas the numerical values of skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented in a tabular form for various values of pertinent flow parameters for both ramped temperature and isothermal plates.
Concept for a high performance MHD airbreathing-IEC fusion rocket
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froning, H.D. Jr.; Miley, G.H.; Nadler, J.; Shaban, Y.; Momota, H.; Burton, E.
2001-01-01
Previous studies have shown that Single-State-to-Orbit (SSTO) vehicle propellant can be reduced by Magnets-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) processes that minimize airbreathing propulsion losses and propellant consumption during atmospheric flight, and additional reduction in SSTO propellant is enabled by Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion, whose more energetic reactions reduce rocket propellant needs. MHD airbreathing propulsion during an SSTO vehicle's initial atmospheric flight phase and IEC fusion propulsion during its final exo-atmospheric flight phase is therefore being explored. Accomplished work is not yet sufficient for claiming such a vehicle's feasibility. But takeoff and propellant mass for an MHD airbreathing and IEC fusion vehicle could be as much as 25 and 40 percent less than one with ordinary airbreathing and IEC fusion; and as much as 50 and 70 percent less than SSTO takeoff and propellant mass with MHD airbreathing and chemical rocket propulsion
Concept for a high performance MHD airbreathing-IEC fusion rocket
Froning, H. D.; Miley, G. H.; Nadler, J.; Shaban, Y.; Momota, H.; Burton, E.
2001-02-01
Previous studies have shown that Single-State-to-Orbit (SSTO) vehicle propellant can be reduced by Magnets-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) processes that minimize airbreathing propulsion losses and propellant consumption during atmospheric flight, and additional reduction in SSTO propellant is enabled by Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion, whose more energetic reactions reduce rocket propellant needs. MHD airbreathing propulsion during an SSTO vehicle's initial atmospheric flight phase and IEC fusion propulsion during its final exo-atmospheric flight phase is therefore being explored. Accomplished work is not yet sufficient for claiming such a vehicle's feasibility. But takeoff and propellant mass for an MHD airbreathing and IEC fusion vehicle could be as much as 25 and 40 percent less than one with ordinary airbreathing and IEC fusion; and as much as 50 and 70 percent less than SSTO takeoff and propellant mass with MHD airbreathing and chemical rocket propulsion. .
Scaling, Intermittency and Decay of MHD Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazarian, A.; Cho, Jungyeon
2005-01-01
We discuss a few recent developments that are important for understanding of MHD turbulence. First, MHD turbulence is not so messy as it is usually believed. In fact, the notion of strong non-linear coupling of compressible and incompressible motions along MHD cascade is not tenable. Alfven, slow and fast modes of MHD turbulence follow their own cascades and exhibit degrees of anisotropy consistent with theoretical expectations. Second, the fast decay of turbulence is not related to the compressibility of fluid. Rates of decay of compressible and incompressible motions are very similar. Third, viscosity by neutrals does not suppress MHD turbulence in a partially ionized gas. Instead, MHD turbulence develops magnetic cascade at scales below the scale at which neutrals damp ordinary hydrodynamic motions. Forth, density statistics does not exhibit the universality that the velocity and magnetic field do. For instance, at small Mach numbers the density is anisotropic, but it gets isotropic at high Mach numbers. Fifth, the intermittency of magnetic field and velocity are different. Both depend on whether the measurements are done in a local system of reference oriented along the local magnetic field or in the global system of reference related to the mean magnetic field
Influence of the solar wind and IMF on Jupiter's magnetosphere: Results from global MHD simulations
Sarkango, Y.; Jia, X.; Toth, G.; Hansen, K. C.
2017-12-01
Due to its large size, rapid rotation and presence of substantial internal plasma sources, Jupiter's magnetosphere is fundamentally different from that of the Earth. How and to what extent do the external factors, such as the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), influence the internally-driven magnetosphere is an open question. In this work, we solve the 3D semi-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations using a well-established code, BATSRUS, to model the Jovian magnetosphere and study its interaction with the solar wind. Our global model adopts a non-uniform mesh covering the region from 200 RJ upstream to 1800 RJ downstream with the inner boundary placed at a radial distance of 2.5 RJ. The Io plasma torus centered around 6 RJ is generated in our model through appropriate mass-loading terms added to the set of MHD equations. We perform systematic numerical experiments in which we vary the upstream solar wind properties to investigate the impact of solar wind events, such as interplanetary shock and IMF rotation, on the global magnetosphere. From our simulations, we extract the location of the magnetopause boundary, the bow shock and the open-closed field line boundary (OCB), and determine their dependence on the solar wind properties and the IMF orientation. For validation, we compare our simulation results, such as density, temperature and magnetic field, to published empirical models based on in-situ measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redi, M.H.; Diallo, A.; Cooper, W.A.; Fu, G.Y.
2000-01-01
Concerns about the flexibility and robustness of a compact quasiaxial stellarator design are addressed by studying the effects of varied pressure and rotational transform profiles on expected performance. For thirty, related, fully three-dimensional configurations the global, ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability is evaluated as well as energetic particle transport. It is found that tokamak intuition is relevant to understanding the magnetohydrodynamic stability, with pressure gradient driving terms and shear stabilization controlling both the periodicity preserving, N=0, and the non-periodicity preserving, N=1, unstable kink modes. Global kink modes are generated by steeply peaked pressure profiles near the half radius and edge localized kink modes are found for plasmas with steep pressure profiles at the edge as well as with edge rotational transform above 0.5. Energetic particle transport is not strongly dependent on these changes of pressure and current (or rotational transform) profiles, although a weak inverse dependence on pressure peaking through the corresponding Shafranov shift is found. While good transport and MHD stability are not anticorrelated in these equilibria, stability only results from a delicate balance of the pressure and shear stabilization forces. A range of interesting MHD behaviors is found for this large set of equilibria, exhibiting similar particle transport properties
Feasibility study on volcanic power generation system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1977-07-01
Investigations were carried out to determine the feasibility of volcanic power generation on Satsuma Io Island. Earthquakes were studied, as were the eruptions of subaerial and submarine hot springs. Hydrothermal rock alteration was studied and electrical surveys were made. General geophysical surveying was performed with thermocameras and radiation monitoring equipment. In particular, the Toyoba mine was studied, both with respect to its hot spring and its subsurface temperatures.
MHD pressure drop of imperfect insulation of liquid metal flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horiike, H.; Nishiura, R.; Inoue, S.; Miyazaki, K.
2000-01-01
An experiment was performed to study magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure gradient in the case of an imperfect electric insulation coating when using NaK loop. Test channels with uniform defects in their coating were made by painting inner surface with acrylic lacquer insulation. It was found that the exponent to B -- which is 1 for insulated walls, and 2 for conducting ones, was very sensitive to crack fractions lower than 25%. The pressure gradient was found to increase almost linearly with the fraction
MAIA, Eigenvalues for MHD Equation of Tokamak Plasma Stability Problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Y.; Azumi, M.; Kurita, G.; Tsunematsu, T.; Takeda, T.
1986-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: This program solves an eigenvalue problem zBx=Ax where A and B are real block tri-diagonal matrices. This eigenvalue problem is derived from a reduced set of linear resistive MHD equations which is often employed to study tokamak plasma stability problem. 2 - Method of solution: Both the determinant and inverse iteration methods are employed. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The eigenvalue z must be real
Two-dimensional simulation of the MHD stability, (1)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurita, Gen-ichi; Amano, Tsuneo.
1976-03-01
The two-dimensional computer code has been prepared to study MHD stability of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma with and without the surrounding vacuum region. It also includes the effect of magnetic surfaces with non-circular cross sections. The linearized equations of motion are solved as an initial value problem. The results by computer simulation are compared with those by the theory for the cylindrical plasma; they are in good agreement. (auth.)
MHD stability, operational limits and disruptions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1999-01-01
The present physics understandings of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of tokamak plasmas, the threshold conditions for onset of MHD instability, and the resulting operational limits on attainable plasma pressure (beta limit) and density (density limit), and the consequences of plasma disruption and disruption related effects are reviewed and assessed in the context of their application to a future DT burning reactor prototype tokamak experiment such as ITER. The principal considerations covered within the MHD stability and beta limit assessments are (i) magnetostatic equilibrium, ideal MHD stability and the resulting ideal MHD beta limit; (ii) sawtooth oscillations and the coupling of sawtooth activity to other types of MHD instability; (iii) neoclassical island resistive tearing modes and the corresponding limits on beta and energy confinement; (iv) wall stabilization of ideal MHD instabilities and resistive wall instabilities; (v) mode locking effects of non-axisymmetric error fields; (vi) edge localized MHD instabilities (ELMs, etc.); and (vii) MHD instabilities and beta/pressure gradient limits in plasmas with actively modified current and magnetic shear profiles. The principal considerations covered within the density limit assessments are (i) empirical density limits; (ii) edge power balance/radiative density limits in ohmic and L-mode plasmas; and (iii) edge parameter related density limits in H-mode plasmas. The principal considerations covered in the disruption assessments are (i) disruption causes, frequency and MHD instability onset; (ii) disruption thermal and current quench characteristics; (iii) vertical instabilities (VDEs), both before and after disruption, and plasma and in-vessel halo currents; (iv) after disruption runaway electron formation, confinement and loss; (v) fast plasma shutdown (rapid externally initiated dissipation of plasma thermal and magnetic energies); (vi) means for disruption avoidance and disruption effect mitigation; and
Stability study in one step steam generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbate, P.
1990-01-01
The TWO program is presented developed for the behaviour limit calculation stable in one step steam generators for the case of Density Waves phenomenom. The program is based on a nodal model which, using Laplace transformation equations, allows to study the system's transfer functions and foresee the beginning of the unstable behaviour. This program has been satisfactorily validated against channels data uniformly heated in the range from 4.0 to 6.0 Mpa. Results on the CAREM reactor's steam generator analysis are presented. (Author) [es
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carrasse, J. [Societe Alsthom, Paris (France)
1966-12-15
This paper studies the energetic and chemical aspects of the operation of a combined MHD-steam power station using the combustion gases from a fossil fuel in an open circuit with potassium seeding. It describes a process for the recovery of energy by endothermal chemical gasification of the fuel. The author first recalls briefly the thermal and chemical conditions to be met throughout the length of the gas flow and points out that it is vital to ensure as much recycling of energy as possible from below to above the MHD generator, at the expense of the conventional power station located further on in the system. The paper then describes the various processes intended to ensure the thermal operating conditions required, including preheating of the air, oxygen enrichment etc. The last part of the paper, which goes into greater detail while taking the foregoing considerations into account, explains the principle and various feasible methods of application of a process at present under study and experimentation. In this process some of the heat energy of the gases discharged from the MHD duct is recycled, partly in chemical form and partly as a limited amount of gas preheat. For this purpose the fuel, mixed with oxidizing agents such as water vapour or carbon dioxide, is gasified, at about 950 Degree-Sign C and after a series of collectively endothermal reactions, into a gas composed mainly of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, nitrogen and excess water vapour and carbon dioxide. It is thus possible to avoid the employment of very high temperature heat exchangers working with seeded gas. The paper stresses the extraction of seeding material, which is simple and can here take place to a great extent in liquid form (fused salts) due to the fact that operation is in the temperature range around 1000 Degree-Sign C. Consideration is finally given to the use after treatment (cooling, extraction of seeding material, absorption of excess H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}, compression and re
Performance of the CNEN MHD Blow-Down Loop Facility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertolini, E.; Brown, R.; Gasparotto, M.; Gay, P.; Toschi, R. [Laboratorio Conversione Diretta, CNEN, Frascati (Italy)
1968-11-15
The CNEN facility has been designed, manufactured and used for alkali-seeded noble gas MHD energy conversion research, as the major experimental effort during the first five-year CNEN Research Programme on MHD. The main specifications and the general arrangement with information on preliminary commissioning tests of some components were given at the Salzburg Symposium. Since then the facility has been successfully commissioned and from March 1967 has been working on MHD experiments. Efforts were made to reduce any adverse effects on the experimental MHD results that were due to inherent limitations of an experimental apparatus (particularly under open-circuit conditions). Great emphasis was placed on problems of caesium vaporization and the mixing with helium, the purity level of the mixture, measurements and the control system. The insulation of the plasma from ground was carefully treated, increasing the ratio between insulator resistance and typical plasma resistance as much as possible. Fluidynamic tests at room and high temperatures have shown that stability in the gas parameters (temperature, pressure and mass flow) can be maintained within few per cent for tens of seconds after a transient, giving a behaviour similar to a continuously running system. The high- temperature, alumina pebble-bed heater has successfully operated, bringing the helium-caesium mixtures up to 2000 Degree-Sign K and up to 4 atm abs pressure, and undergoing seven thermal cycles, for a total of more than 2000 hours operation at top temperature. Preheated generator ducts using alumina as insulator and tantalum for electrodes performed satisfactorily, very much attention having been given in the design to reduction of thermal shocks and to obviating possible paths for caesium leakage and short-circuiting of electrode leads. The pulsed liquid nitrogen precooled magnet has been run for about 50 pulses at high field ( Asymptotically-Equal-To 4.5 tesla) with an operating time of about 10
Development of brazing procedure for refractory metals of MHD channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shibalov, M.V.; Belkin, E.Ya.
1983-01-01
A wide range of electric insulation oxidix materials for the channel of MHD-generator is considered. Insulators on the basis of magnesium, aluminium oxides, zirconates have practical value and application. Electromelted magnesium oxide is considered as electric insulation material for the channel, it is widely used for electric insulation in U-02 and U-25 installations at the temperature up to 1900 deg C. Ways of increasing heat resistance and improvement of other properties of magnesian ceramics are disclosed. Investigations into application of non-calcinated oxidic compositions as insulators are conducted
Design Study for Pulsed Proton Beam Generation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Han-Sung Kim
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Fast neutrons with a broad energy spectrum, with which it is possible to evaluate nuclear data for various research fields such as medical applications and the development of fusion reactors, can be generated by irradiating proton beams on target materials such as beryllium. To generate short-pulse proton beam, we adopted a deflector and slit system. In a simple deflector with slit system, most of the proton beam is blocked by the slit, especially when the beam pulse width is short. Therefore, the available beam current is very low, which results in low neutron flux. In this study, we proposed beam modulation using a buncher cavity to increase the available beam current. The ideal field pattern for the buncher cavity is sawtooth. To make the field pattern similar to a sawtooth waveform, a multiharmonic buncher was adopted. The design process for the multiharmonic buncher includes a beam dynamics calculation and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. In addition to the system design for pulsed proton generation, a test bench with a microwave ion source is under preparation to test the performance of the system. The design study results concerning the pulsed proton beam generation and the test bench preparation with some preliminary test results are presented in this paper.
MHD magnet technology development program summary, September 1982
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1983-11-01
The program of MHD magnet technology development conducted for the US Department of Energy by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology during the past five years is summarized. The general strategy is explained, the various parts of the program are described and the results are discussed. Subjects covered include component analysis, research and development aimed at improving the technology base, preparation of reference designs for commercial-scale magnets with associated design evaluations, manufacturability studies and cost estimations, the detail design and procurement of MHD test facility magnets involving transfer of technology to industry, investigations of accessory subsystem characteristics and magnet-flow-train interfacing considerations and the establishment of tentative recommendations for design standards, quality assurance procedures and safety procedures. A systematic approach (framework) developed to aid in the selection of the most suitable commercial-scale magnet designs is presented and the program status as of September 1982 is reported. Recommendations are made for future work needed to complete the design evaluation and selection process and to provide a sound technological base for the detail design and construction of commercial-scale MHD magnets. 85 references.
MHD magnet technology development program summary, September 1982
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-11-01
The program of MHD magnet technology development conducted for the US Department of Energy by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology during the past five years is summarized. The general strategy is explained, the various parts of the program are described and the results are discussed. Subjects covered include component analysis, research and development aimed at improving the technology base, preparation of reference designs for commercial-scale magnets with associated design evaluations, manufacturability studies and cost estimations, the detail design and procurement of MHD test facility magnets involving transfer of technology to industry, investigations of accessory subsystem characteristics and magnet-flow-train interfacing considerations and the establishment of tentative recommendations for design standards, quality assurance procedures and safety procedures. A systematic approach (framework) developed to aid in the selection of the most suitable commercial-scale magnet designs is presented and the program status as of September 1982 is reported. Recommendations are made for future work needed to complete the design evaluation and selection process and to provide a sound technological base for the detail design and construction of commercial-scale MHD magnets. 85 references
MHD-flow in slotted channels with conducting walls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evtushenko, I.A.; Kirillov, I.R.; Reed, C.B.
1994-07-01
A review of experimental results is presented for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow in rectangular channels with conducting walls and high aspect ratios (longer side parallel to the applied magnetic field), which are called slotted channels. The slotted channel concept was conceived at Efremov Institute as a method for reducing MHD pressure drop in liquid metal cooled blanket design. The experiments conducted by the authors were aimed at studying both fully developed MHD-flow, and the effect of a magnetic field on the hydrodynamics of 3-D flows in slotted channels. Tests were carried out on five models of the slotted geometry. A good agreement between test and theoretical results for the pressure drop in slotted channels was demonstrated. Application of a open-quotes one-electrode movable probeclose quotes for velocity measurement permitted measurement of the M-shape velocity profiles in the slotted channels. Suppression of 3-D inertial effects in slotted channels of complex geometry was demonstrated based on potential distribution data
Second Generation Waste Package Design Study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armijo, J.S.; Misra, M.; Kar, Piyush
2007-01-01
The following describes the objectives of Project Activity 023 ''Second Generation Waste Package Design Study'' under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC28-04RW12232. The objectives of this activity are: to review the current YMP baseline environment and establish corrosion test environments representative of the range of dry to intermittently wet conditions expected in the drifts as a function of time; to demonstrate the oxidation and corrosion resistance of A588 weathering steel and reference Alloy 22 samples in the representative dry to intermittently dry conditions; and to evaluate backfill and design features to improve the thermal performance analyses of the proposed second-generation waste packages using existing models developed at the University of Nevada, Reno(UNR). The work plan for this project activity consists of three major tasks: Task 1. Definition of expected worst-case environments (humidity, liquid composition and temperature) at waste package outer surfaces as a function of time, and comparison with environments defined in the YMP baseline; Task 2. Oxidation and corrosion tests of proposed second-generation outer container material; and Task 3. Second Generation waste package thermal analyses. Full funding was not provided for this project activity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Nabert
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The interaction of the solar wind with a planetary magnetic field causes electrical currents that modify the magnetic field distribution around the planet. We present an approach to estimating the planetary magnetic field from in situ spacecraft data using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD simulation approach. The method is developed with respect to the upcoming BepiColombo mission to planet Mercury aimed at determining the planet's magnetic field and its interior electrical conductivity distribution. In contrast to the widely used empirical models, global MHD simulations allow the calculation of the strongly time-dependent interaction process of the solar wind with the planet. As a first approach, we use a simple MHD simulation code that includes time-dependent solar wind and magnetic field parameters. The planetary parameters are estimated by minimizing the misfit of spacecraft data and simulation results with a gradient-based optimization. As the calculation of gradients with respect to many parameters is usually very time-consuming, we investigate the application of an adjoint MHD model. This adjoint MHD model is generated by an automatic differentiation tool to compute the gradients efficiently. The computational cost for determining the gradient with an adjoint approach is nearly independent of the number of parameters. Our method is validated by application to THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms magnetosheath data to estimate Earth's dipole moment.
Evaluation of MHD materials for use in high-temperature fuel cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guidotti, R.
1978-06-15
The MHD and high-temperature fuel cell literature was surveyed for data pertaining to materials properties in order to identify materials used in MHD power generation which also might be suitable for component use in high-temperature fuel cells. Classes of MHD-electrode materials evaluated include carbides, nitrides, silicides, borides, composites, and oxides. Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/-stabilized ZrO/sub 2/ used as a reference point to evaluate materials for use in the solid-oxide fuel cell. Physical and chemical properties such as electrical resistivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, and thermodynamic stability toward oxidation were used to screen candidate materials. A number of the non-oxide ceramic MHD-electrode materials appear promising for use in the solid-electrolyte and molten-carbonate fuel cell as anodes or anode constituents. The MHD-insulator materials appear suitable candidates for electrolyte-support tiles in the molten-carbonate fuel cells. The merits and possible problem areas for these applications are discussed and additional needed areas of research are delineated.
Electromagnetic properties of a modular MHD thruster
Kom, C. H.; Brunet, Y.
1999-04-01
The magnetic field of an annular MHD thruster made of independent superconducting modules has been studied with analytical and numerical methods. This configuration allows to obtain large magnetized volumes and high induction levels with rapidly decreasing stray fields. When some inductors are out of order, the thruster remains still operational, but the stray fields increase in the vicinity of the failure. For given structural materials and superconductors, it is possible to determine the size of the conductor in order to reduce the electromagnetic forces and the peak field supported by the conductors. For an active field of 10 T in a 6 m ray annular active channel of a thruster with 24 modules, the peak field is exactly 15.6 T in the Nb3Sn conductors and the structure has to sustain 10^8 N/m forces. The necessity to place some magnetic or superconducting shield is discussed, particularly when the thruster is in a degraded regime. Nous présentons une étude analytique et numérique du champ magnétique d'un propulseur MHD naval annulaire, constitué de secteurs inducteurs supraconducteurs. Cette configuration nécessite des champs magnétiques élevés dans des volumes importants, et permet une décroissance rapide des champs de fuite. Lorsque quelques inducteurs sont en panne, le propulseur reste toujours opérationnel, mais les champs de fuite sont importants aux environs des modules hors service. Étant donné un matériau supraconducteur, il est possible de déterminer la forme des inducteurs dans le but de réduire à la fois les forces électromagnétiques et le surchamp supporté par le bobinage. Pour un propulseur annulaire constitué de 24 modules inducteurs, et un champ actif de 10 T au centre de la partie active du canal (r = 6 m) on obtient avec du Nb3Sn un champ maximun sur le conducteur de 15,5 T et la structure supporte une force de 10^8 N/m. De plus, la nécessité de placer des écrans magnétique ou supraconducteur en régime dégradé (mise
Flow aerodynamics modeling of an MHD swirl combustor - calculations and experimental verification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, A.K.; Beer, J.M.; Louis, J.F.; Busnaina, A.A.; Lilley, D.G.
1981-01-01
This paper describes a computer code for calculating the flow dynamics of constant density flow in the second stage trumpet shaped nozzle section of a two stage MHD swirl combustor for application to a disk generator. The primitive pressure-velocity variable, finite difference computer code has been developed to allow the computation of inert nonreacting turbulent swirling flows in an axisymmetric MHD model swirl combustor. The method and program involve a staggered grid system for axial and radial velocities, and a line relaxation technique for efficient solution of the equations. Tue produces as output the flow field map of the non-dimensional stream function, axial and swirl velocity. 19 refs
MHD simulations of DC helicity injection for current drive in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sovinec, C.R.; Prager, S.C.
1994-12-01
MHD computations of DC helicity injection in tokamak-like configurations show current drive with no ''loop voltage'' in a resistive, pressureless plasma. The self-consistently generated current profiles are unstable to resistive modes that partially relax the profile through the MHD dynamo mechanism. The current driven by the fluctuations leads to closed contours of average poloidal flux. However, the 1% fluctuation level is large enough to produce a region of stochastic magnetic field. A limited Lundquist number (S) scan from 2.5 x 10 3 to 4 x 10 4 indicates that both the fluctuation level and relaxation increase with S
Electromagnetic interactions between the U-25 superconducting magnet and the U-25 B MHD flow train
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, R.P.; Niemann, R.C.; Kraimer, M.R.; Zinneman, T.E.
1978-01-01
Fluctuating voltage signals on the potential taps of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) 5.0 Tesla MHD Superconducting Dipole Magnet have been observed during MHD power generation at the U-25 B Facility at the High Temperature Institute (IVAN), Moscow, U.S.S.R. The voltage fluctuations are analyzed with special emphasis on magnet stability. Various other thermodynamic and electrical parameters of the U-25 B flow train have been recorded and statistical correlations between these signals and the signals observed at the magnet terminals are described
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galkowski, A. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)
1994-12-31
Non-linear ideal MHD equilibria in axisymmetric system with flows are examined, both in 1st and 2nd ellipticity regions. Evidence of the bifurcation of solutions is provided and numerical solutions of several problems in a tokamak geometry are given, exhibiting bifurcation phenomena. Relaxation of plasma in the presence of zero-order flows is studied in a realistic toroidal geometry. The field aligned flow allows equilibria with finite pressure gradient but with homogeneous temperature distribution. Numerical calculations have been performed for the 1st and 2nd ellipticity regimes of the extended Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equation. Numerical technique, alternative to the well-known Grad`s ADM methods has been proposed to deal with slow adiabatic evolution of toroidal plasma with flows. The equilibrium problem with prescribed adiabatic constraints may be solved by simultaneous calculations of flux surface geometry and original profile functions. (author). 178 refs, 37 figs, 5 tabs.
Linear MHD stability analysis of post-disruption plasmas in ITER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aleynikova, K., E-mail: ksenia.aleynikova@gmail.com [EURATOM Association, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (Germany); Huijsmans, G. T. A. [ITER Organization (France); Aleynikov, P. [EURATOM Association, Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (Germany)
2016-05-15
Most of the plasma current can be replaced by a runaway electron (RE) current during plasma disruptions in ITER. In this case the post-disruption plasma current profile is likely to be more peaked than the pre-disruption profile. The MHD activity of such plasma will affect the runaway electron generation and confinement and the dynamics of the plasma position evolution (Vertical Displacement Event), limiting the timeframe for runaway electrons and disruption mitigation. In the present paper, we evaluate the influence of the possible RE seed current parameters on the onset of the MHD instabilities. By varying the RE seed current profile, we search for subsequent plasma evolutions with the highest and the lowest MHD activity. This information can be applied to a development of desirable ITER disruption scenario.
Perturbed solutions of fixed boundary MHD equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Portone, A.
2004-01-01
In this study, the fixed boundary plasma MHD equilibrium problem is solved by the finite element method; then, by perturbing the flux at the plasma boundary nodes, linear formulae are derived linking the variation of several plasma parameters of interest to the variation of the currents flowing in the external circuits. On the basis of these formulae it is shown how it is possible to efficiently solve two central problems in plasma engineering, namely (1) the optimization of the currents in a given set of coils necessary to maintain a specified equilibrium configuration and (2) the derivation of a linear dynamic model describing the plasma axisymmetric displacement (n = 0 mode) about a given magnetic configuration. A case study-based on the ITER reference equilibrium magnetic configuration at burn-is analysed both in terms of equilibrium currents optimality as well as axisymmetric stability features. The results obtained by these formulae are also compared with the predictions of a non-linear free boundary code and of a linear, dynamic model. As shown, the formulae derived here are in good agreement with such predictions, confirming the validity of the present approach. (author)
Alpha particle effects on MHD ballooning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
During the period, as the first step towards the goal of detail understanding of the effects of alpha particle on MHD Ballooning Modes, a new numerical approach to investigate the stability of low-frequency fluctuations in high temperature tokamaks was developed by solving the gyrokinetic equations for the ion and electron directly as an initial value problem. The advantage of this approach is the inclusion of many important kinetic features of the problem without approximations and computationally more economical than particle-pushing simulation. The ion-temperature-gradient-mode was investigated to benchmark this new simulation technique. Previous results in literature were recovered. Both the adiabatic electron model and the full drift-kinetic electron model are studied. Numerical result shows that the full drift-kinetic electron model is more unstable. The development of subcycling technique to handle the fast electron bounce time is particularly significant to apply this new approach to the alpha particle problem since alpha particle bounce frequency is also significantly higher than the mode frequency. This new numerical technique will be the basis of future study of the microstability in high temperature tokamaks with alpha particles (or any energetic species). 15 refs., 13 figs
Generation and study of relativistic electron beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iyyengar, S.K.; Ron, P.H.; Mittal, K.C.; Goel, A.K.; Ramaswamy, V.; Rohatgi, V.K.
1977-01-01
Pulsed Electron Beam (REB) technology has progressed rapidly in recent years because of applications in various fields like radiation sources, high power laser development, plasma heating and fusion research. The REB development programme at the Plasma Physics Section of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, has been described. The design features of the 375 KV, 3500 A, 75 Joule REB generator are discussed. The diagnostic equipment developed for the studies is described. The present experimental studies and some preliminary results on beam characterisation are presented. (author)
Investigations of MHD activity in ASDEX discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stambaugh, R.; Gernhardt, J.; Klueber, O.; Wagner, F.
1984-06-01
This report makes a strong attempt to relate some specific observations of MHD activity in ADEX discharges to observations made on the Doublet III and PDX tokamaks and to theoretical work on high β MHD modes at GA and PPPL. Three topics are discussed. The first topic is the detailed analysis of the time history of MHD activity in a β discharge. The β limit discharge in ASDEX is identified as a discharge in which, during constant neutral beam power, β reaches a maximum and then decreases, often to a lower steady level if the heating pulse is long enough. During the L phase of this discharge, the MHD activity observed in the B coils is both a continuous and bursting coupled m >= 1 mode of the 'fishbone' type. When β is rising in the H phase, this mode disappears; only ELMs are present. At βsub(max), a different mode appears, the m=2, n=1 tearing mode, which grows rapidly as β decreases. The second topic is the very new observation of the fishbone-like mode in a discharge heated by combined neutral beam and ion cyclotron heating power. The mode characteristics are modulated by sawtooth oscillations in a manner consistent with the importance of q(0) in the stability of this mode. The third topic is the search for ELM precursors in discharges designed to have no other competing and complicating MHD activity. In these cases nonaxisymmetric precursors to the Hsub(α) spike were observed. Hence, it appears that an MHD mode, rather than an energy balance problem, must be the origin of the ELM. (orig./GG)
MHD instabilities in astrophysical plasmas: very different from MHD instabilities in tokamaks!
Goedbloed, J. P.
2018-01-01
The extensive studies of MHD instabilities in thermonuclear magnetic confinement experiments, in particular of the tokamak as the most promising candidate for a future energy producing machine, have led to an ‘intuitive’ description based on the energy principle that is very misleading for most astrophysical plasmas. The ‘intuitive’ picture almost directly singles out the dominant stabilizing field line bending energy of the Alfvén waves and, consequently, concentrates on expansion schemes that minimize that contribution. This happens when the wave vector {{k}}0 of the perturbations, on average, is perpendicular to the magnetic field {B}. Hence, all macroscopic instabilities of tokamaks (kinks, interchanges, ballooning modes, ELMs, neoclassical tearing modes, etc) are characterized by satisfying the condition {{k}}0 \\perp {B}, or nearly so. In contrast, some of the major macroscopic instabilities of astrophysical plasmas (the Parker instability and the magneto-rotational instability) occur when precisely the opposite condition is satisfied: {{k}}0 \\parallel {B}. How do those instabilities escape from the dominance of the stabilizing Alfvén wave? The answer to that question involves, foremost, the recognition that MHD spectral theory of waves and instabilities of laboratory plasmas could be developed to such great depth since those plasmas are assumed to be in static equilibrium. This assumption is invalid for astrophysical plasmas where rotational and gravitational accelerations produce equilibria that are at best stationary, and the associated spectral theory is widely, and incorrectly, believed to be non-self adjoint. These complications are addressed, and cured, in the theory of the Spectral Web, recently developed by the author. Using this method, an extensive survey of instabilities of astrophysical plasmas demonstrates how the Alfvén wave is pushed into insignificance under these conditions to give rise to a host of instabilities that do not
MHD deceleration of fusion reaction products
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chow, S.; Bohachevsky, I.O.
1979-04-01
The feasibility of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) deceleration of fuel pellet debris ions exiting from an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor cavity is investigated using one-dimensional flow equations. For engineering reasons, induction-type devices are emphasized; their performance characteristics are similar to those of electrode-type decelerators. Results of the analysis presented in this report indicate that MHD decelerators can be designed within conventional magnet technology to not only decelerate the high-energy fusion pellet debris ions but also to produce some net electric power in the process
Compact torus theory: MHD equilibrium and stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, D.C.; Seyler, C.E.; Anderson, D.V.
1979-01-01
Field reversed theta pinches have demonstrated the production and confinement of compact toroidal configurations with surprisingly good MHD stability. In these observations, the plasma is either lost by diffusion or by the loss of the applied field or is disrupted by an n = 2 (where n is the toroidal mode number) rotating instability only after 30 to 100 MHD times, when the configuration begins to rotate rigidly above a critical speed. These experiments have led one to investigate the equilibrium, stability, and rotation of a very elongated, toroidally axisymmetric configuration with no toroidal field. Many of the above observations are explained by recent results of these investigations which are summarized
Gravitational instability in isotropic MHD plasma waves
Cherkos, Alemayehu Mengesha
2018-04-01
The effect of compressive viscosity, thermal conductivity and radiative heat-loss functions on the gravitational instability of infinitely extended homogeneous MHD plasma has been investigated. By taking in account these parameters we developed the six-order dispersion relation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves propagating in a homogeneous and isotropic plasma. The general dispersion relation has been developed from set of linearized basic equations and solved analytically to analyse the conditions of instability and instability of self-gravitating plasma embedded in a constant magnetic field. Our result shows that the presence of viscosity and thermal conductivity in a strong magnetic field substantially modifies the fundamental Jeans criterion of gravitational instability.
Bifurcation theory for toroidal MHD instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maschke, E.K.; Morros Tosas, J.; Urquijo, G.
1992-01-01
Using a general representation of magneto-hydrodynamics in terms of stream functions and potentials, proposed earlier, a set of reduced MHD equations for the case of toroidal geometry had been derived by an appropriate ordering with respect to the inverse aspect ratio. When all dissipative terms are neglected in this reduced system, it has the same linear stability limits as the full ideal MHD equations, to the order considered. When including resistivity, thermal conductivity and viscosity, we can apply bifurcation theory to investigate nonlinear stationary solution branches related to various instabilities. In particular, we show that a stationary solution of the internal kink type can be found
PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION IN MAINTENANCE HEMODIALYSIS (MHD PATIENTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Zhang
2012-06-01
Conclusions: These findings indicate that adult MHD pts had a higher % body fat. Measures of physical performance were markedly reduced in MHD pts as compared to Normals. Physical performance in MHD, measured especially by 6-MW, correlated negatively with some measures of body composition, particularly with LBMI.
MHD stagnation point flow by a permeable stretching cylinder with Soret-Dufour effects
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M Ramzan; M Farooq; T Hayat; A Alsaedi; J Cao
2015-01-01
Combined effects of Soret (thermal-diffusion) and Dufour (diffusion-thermo) in MHD stagnation point flow by a permeable stretching cylinder were studied. Analysis was examined in the presence of heat generation/absorption and chemical reaction. The laws of conservation of mass, momentum, energy and concentration are found to lead to the mathematical development of the problem. Suitable transformations were used to convert the nonlinear partial differential equations into the ordinary differential equations. The series solutions of boundary layer equations through momentum, energy and concentration equations were obtained. Convergence of the developed series solutions was discussed via plots and numerical values. The behaviors of different physical parameters on the velocity components, temperature and concentration were obtained. Numerical values of Nusselt number, skin friction and Sherwood number with different parameters were computed and analyzed. It is found that Dufour and Soret numbers result in the enhancement of temperature and concentration distributions, respectively.
Analysis of Design Variables of Annular Linear Induction Electromagnetic Pump using an MHD Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwak, Jae Sik; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
The generated force is affected by lots of factors including electrical input, hydrodynamic flow, geometrical shape, and so on. These factors, which are the design variables of an ALIP, should be suitably analyzed to optimally design an ALIP. Analysis on the developed pressure and efficiency of the ALIP according to the change of design variables is required for the ALIP satisfying requirements. In this study, the design variables of the ALIP are analyzed by using ideal MHD analysis model. Electromagnetic force and efficiency are derived by analyzing the main design variables such as pump core length, inner core diameter, flow gap and turns of coils. The developed pressure and efficiency of the ALIP were derived and analyzed on the change of the main variables such as pump core length, inner core diameter, flow gap, and turns of coils of the ALIP.
Non-disruptive MHD dynamics in inward-shifted LHD configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miura, H.; Ichiguchi, K.; Nakajima, N.; Hayashi, T.; Carreras, B.A.
2005-01-01
Two kinds of nonlinear simulations are conducted to study behaviors of the pressure-driven modes in the Large Helical Device (LHD) plasma with the vacuum magnetic axis located at R ax =3.6 m (so called inward-shifted configuration). One is the three-field reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations. The other is the direct numerical simulations (DNS) of fully three-dimensional (3D) compressible MHD equations. The RMHD results suggest that the plasma behavior depends on the strength of the interaction between the unstable modes with different helicity. Similar plasma behaviors are also obtained in the DNS. In addition to some basic coincidence between RMHD and DNS, substantial toroidal flow generation is observed in the DNS. It is shown that toroidal flow can become stronger than the poloidal flow. (author)
Non-disruptive MHD dynamics in inward-shifted LHD configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miura, H.; Ichiguchi, K.; Nakajima, N.; Hayashi, T.; Carreras, B.A.
2005-01-01
Two kinds of nonlinear simulations are conducted to study behaviors of the pressure-driven modes in the Large Helical Device (LHD) plasma with the vacuum magnetic axis located at R ax = 3.6m (so called inward-shifted configuration). One is the three-field reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations. The other is the direct numerical simulations (DNS) of fully three-dimensional (3D) compressible MHD equations. The RMHD results suggest that the plasma behavior depends on the strength of the interaction between the unstable modes with different helicity. Similar plasma behaviors are also obtained in the DNS. In addition to some basic coincidence between RMHD and DNS, substantial toroidal flow generation is observed in the DNS. It is shown that toroidal flow can become stronger than the poloidal flow. (author)
MHD-Stabilization of Axisymmetric Mirror Systems Using Pulsed ECRH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Post, R.F.
2010-01-01
This paper, part of a continuing study of means for the stabilization of MHD interchange modes in axisymmertric mirror-based plasma confinement systems, is aimed at a preliminary look at a technique that would employ a train of plasma pressure pulses produced by ECRH to accomplish the stabilization. The purpose of using sequentially pulsed ECRH rather than continuous-wave ECRH is to facilitate the localization of the heated-electron plasma pulses in regions of the magnetic field with a strong positive field-line curvature, e. g. in the 'expander' region of the mirror magnetic field, outside the outermost mirror, or in other regions of the field with positive field-line curvature. The technique proposed, of the class known as 'dynamic stabilization,' relies on the time-averaged effect of plasma pressure pulses generated in regions of positive field-line curvature to overcome the destabilizing effect of plasma pressure in regions of negative field-line curvature within the confinement region. As will also be discussed in the paper, the plasma pulses, when produced in regions of the confining having a negative gradient, create transient electric potentials of ambipolar origin, an effect that was studied in 1964 in The PLEIDE experiment in France. These electric fields preserve the localization of the hot-electron plasma pulses for a time determined by ion inertia. It is suggested that it may be possible to use this result of pulsed ECRH not only to help to stabilize the plasma but also to help plug mirror losses in a manner similar to that employed in the Tandem Mirror.
MHD Effects of a Ferritic Wall on Tokamak Plasmas
Hughes, Paul E.
It has been recognized for some time that the very high fluence of fast (14.1MeV) neutrons produced by deuterium-tritium fusion will represent a major materials challenge for the development of next-generation fusion energy projects such as a fusion component test facility and demonstration fusion power reactor. The best-understood and most promising solutions presently available are a family of low-activation steels originally developed for use in fission reactors, but the ferromagnetic properties of these steels represent a danger to plasma confinement through enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and increased susceptibility to error fields. At present, experimental research into the effects of ferromagnetic materials on MHD stability in toroidal geometry has been confined to demonstrating that it is still possible to operate an advanced tokamak in the presence of ferromagnetic components. In order to better quantify the effects of ferromagnetic materials on tokamak plasma stability, a new ferritic wall has been installated in the High Beta Tokamak---Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) device. The development, assembly, installation, and testing of this wall as a modular upgrade is described, and the effect of the wall on machine performance is characterized. Comparative studies of plasma dynamics with the ferritic wall close-fitting against similar plasmas with the ferritic wall retracted demonstrate substantial effects on plasma stability. Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) are applied, demonstrating a 50% increase in n = 1 plasma response amplitude when the ferritic wall is near the plasma. Susceptibility of plasmas to disruption events increases by a factor of 2 or more with the ferritic wall inserted, as disruptions are observed earlier with greater frequency. Growth rates of external kink instabilities are observed to be twice as large in the presence of a close-fitting ferritic wall. Initial studies are made of the influence of mode rotation frequency
An MHD heat source based on intermetallic reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadjian, H.; Zavitsanos, P. (General Sciences, Inc., Souderton, PA (United States)); Marston, C.H. (Villanova Univ., PA (United States))
1991-05-06
The main objective of this program was the development of an MHD heat source of potential use in Space - Based Multi Megawatt, MHD Power Systems. The approach is based on extension of high temperature chemical/ion release technology developed by the General Sciences, Incorporated (GSI) team and successfully applied in other Space Applications. Solid state reactions have been identified which can deliver energy densities and electrons in excess of those from high energy explosives as well as other conventional fuels. The use of intermetallic reactions can be used to generate hot hydrogen plasma from the reaction, to create a high level of seedant ionization, can be packaged as a cartridge type fuels for discrete pulses. The estimated weight for energizing a (100 MW - 1000 sec) Pulsed MHD Power System can range from 12 to 25 {times} 10{sup 3} kg depending on reaction system and strength of the magnetic field. The program consisted of two major tasks with eight subtasks designed to systematically evaluate these concepts in order to reduce fuel weight requirements. Laboratory measurements on energy release, reaction product identification and levels of ionization were conducted in the first task to screen candidate fuels. The second task addressed the development of a reaction chamber in which conductivity, temperature and pressure were measured. Instrumentation was developed to measure these parameters under high temperature pulsed conditions in addition to computer programs to reduce the raw data. Measurements were conducted at GSI laboratories for fuel weights of up to 120 grams and at the Franklin Research Center* for fuel weights up to 1 kilogram. The results indicate that fuel weight can be scaled using modular packaging. Estimates are presented for fuel weight requirements. 15 refs.
MHD mode evolutions prior to minor and major disruptions in SST-1 plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dhongde, Jasraj; Pradhan, Subrata, E-mail: pradhan@ipr.res.in; Bhandarkar, Manisha
2017-01-15
Highlights: • Observation of different regimes of MHD phenomena in SST-1 plasma. • MHD mode (m/n = 1/1, m/n = 2/1) evolutions prior to minor and major disruptions in SST-1 plasma. • MHD mode characteristics such as mode frequency, mode number, island width etc. in different regimes. - Abstract: Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is a medium size Tokamak (R{sub 0} = 1.1 m, a = 0.2 m, B{sub T} = 1.5T, Ip ∼ 110 kA) in operation at the Institute for Plasma Research, India. SST-1 uniquely experiments large aspect ratio (∼5.5) plasma in different operation regimes. In these experiments, repeatable characteristic MHD phenomena have been consistently observed. As the large aspect ratio plasma pulse progresses, these MHD phenomena display minor-major disruptions ably indicated in Mirnov oscillations, Mirnov oscillations with saw teeth and locked modes etc. Even though somewhat similar observations have been found in some other machines, these observations are found for the first time in large aspect ratio plasma of SST-1. This paper elaborates the magnetic field perturbations and mode evolutions due to MHD activities from Mirnov coils (poloidal and toroidal), Soft X-ray diagnostics, ECE diagnostics etc. This work further, for the first time reports quantitatively different regimes of MHD phenomena observed in SST-1 plasma, their details of mode evolutions characteristics as well as the subsequently observed minor, major disruptions supported with the physical explanations. This study will help developing disruption mitigation and avoidance scenarios for having better confinement plasma experiments.
EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC POWER GENERATOR UNDER DC ARC PLASMA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayokunle Oluwaseun Ayeleso
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The generation of electric power through the conventional systems (thermal and hydroelectric is no longer sufficient to meet the increasing industrial and commercial usage. Therefore, an alternative energy conversion system is currently being sought. The aim of the presented study is to develop a direct energy conversion system (Magnetohydrodynamics, MHD generator to generate electric power using plasma. Additionally, the generator electric response is investigated based on the Faraday’s principle of electromagnetism and fluid dynamics. For this purpose, a rectangular MHD generator prototype with segmented electrodes was constructed and subjected to continuous plasma from a DC arc source at test facilities available in the Western Cape region (South Africa. Subsequently, the terminal voltages at the middle-electrodes were measured one after another across 1, 100 and 470 Ω load resistors. In all experiments, the absolute time-averages of the measured terminal voltage across each load resistor were similar, which indicates a generation of power. The maximum power of the order 0.203mW was obtained when 1 Ω resistor was connected to the middle-electrodes. Conclusively, these results validate the measurement approach of the MHD generator with segmented electrodes and could be used to design a large MHD unit that can be incorporated to the existing conventional thermal plant to improve their cyclic thermal efficiency.
Neutron generator (HIRRAC) and dosimetry study.
Endo, S; Hoshi, M; Takada, J; Tauchi, H; Matsuura, S; Takeoka, S; Kitagawa, K; Suga, S; Komatsu, K
1999-12-01
Dosimetry studies have been made for neutrons from a neutron generator at Hiroshima University (HIRRAC) which is designed for radiobiological research. Neutrons in an energy range from 0.07 to 2.7 MeV are available for biological irradiations. The produced neutron energies were measured and evaluated by a 3He-gas proportional counter. Energy spread was made certain to be small enough for radiobiological studies. Dose evaluations were performed by two different methods, namely use of tissue equivalent paired ionization chambers and activation of method with indium foils. Moreover, energy deposition spectra in small targets of tissue equivalent materials, so-called lineal energy spectrum, were also measured and are discussed. Specifications for biological irradiation are presented in terms of monoenergetic beam conditions, dose rates and deposited energy spectra.
Implementation of a 3-D nonlinear MHD [magnetohydrodynamics] calculation on the Intel hypercube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynch, V.E.; Carreras, B.A.; Drake, J.B.; Hicks, H.R.; Lawkins, W.F.
1987-01-01
The optimization of numerical schemes and increasing computer capabilities in the last ten years have improved the efficiency of 3-D nonlinear resistive MHD calculations by about two to three orders of magnitude. However, we are still very limited in performing these types of calculations. Hypercubes have a large number of processors with only local memory and bidirectional links among neighbors. The Intel Hypercube at Oak Ridge has 64 processors with 0.5 megabytes of memory per processor. The multiplicity of processors opens new possibilities for the treatment of such computations. The constraint on time and resources favored the approach of using the existing RSF code which solves as an initial value problem the reduced set of MHD equations for a periodic cylindrical geometry. This code includes minimal physics and geometry, but contains the basic three dimensionality and nonlinear structure of the equations. The code solves the reduced set of MHD equations by Fourier expansion in two angular coordinates and finite differences in the radial one. Due to the continuing interest in these calculations and the likelihood that future supercomputers will take greater advantage of parallelism, the present study was initiated by the ORNL Exploratory Studies Committee and funded entirely by Laboratory Discretionary Funds. The objectives of the study were: to ascertain the suitability of MHD calculation for parallel computation, to design and implement a parallel algorithm to perform the computations, and to evaluate the hypercube, and in particular, ORNL's Intel iPSC, for use in MHD computations
Detman, T. R.; Intriligator, D. S.; Dryer, M.; Sun, W.; Deehr, C. S.; Intriligator, J.
2012-01-01
We describe our 3-D, time ]dependent, MHD solar wind model that we recently modified to include the physics of pickup protons from interstellar neutral hydrogen. The model has a time-dependent lower boundary condition, at 0.1 AU, that is driven by source surface map files through an empirical interface module. We describe the empirical interface and its parameter tuning to maximize model agreement with background (quiet) solar wind observations at ACE. We then give results of a simulation study of the famous Halloween 2003 series of solar events. We began with shock inputs from the Fearless Forecast real ]time shock arrival prediction study, and then we iteratively adjusted input shock speeds to obtain agreement between observed and simulated shock arrival times at ACE. We then extended the model grid to 5.5 AU and compared those simulation results with Ulysses observations at 5.2 AU. Next we undertook the more difficult tuning of shock speeds and locations to get matching shock arrival times at both ACE and Ulysses. Then we ran this last case again with neutral hydrogen density set to zero, to identify the effect of pickup ions. We show that the speed of interplanetary shocks propagating from the Sun to Ulysses is reduced by the effects of pickup protons. We plan to make further improvements to the model as we continue our benchmarking process to 10 AU, comparing our results with Cassini observations, and eventually on to 100 AU, comparing our results with Voyager 1 and 2 observations.
MHD equilibrium and stability in heliotron plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ichiguchi, Katsuji [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
1999-09-01
Recent topics in the theoretical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis in the heliotron configuration are overviewed. Particularly, properties of three-dimensional equilibria, stability boundary of the interchange mode, effects of the net toroidal current including the bootstrap current and the ballooning mode stability are focused. (author)
MHD stability of vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalhed, H.E.; Grimm, R.C.; Johnson, J.L.
1981-03-01
The ideal MHD stability properties of a special class of vertically asymmetric tokamak equilibria are examined. The calculations confirm that no major new physical effects are introduced and the modifications can be understood by conventional arguments. The results indicate that significant departures from up-down symmetry can be tolerated before the reduction in β becomes important for reactor operation
MHD Ballooning Instability in the Plasma Sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.; Zaharia, S.
2003-01-01
Based on the ideal-MHD model the stability of ballooning modes is investigated by employing realistic 3D magnetospheric equilibria, in particular for the substorm growth phase. Previous MHD ballooning stability calculations making use of approximations on the plasma compressibility can give rise to erroneous conclusions. Our results show that without making approximations on the plasma compressibility the MHD ballooning modes are unstable for the entire plasma sheet where beta (sub)eq is greater than or equal to 1, and the most unstable modes are located in the strong cross-tail current sheet region in the near-Earth plasma sheet, which maps to the initial brightening location of the breakup arc in the ionosphere. However, the MHD beq threshold is too low in comparison with observations by AMPTE/CCE at X = -(8 - 9)R(sub)E, which show that a low-frequency instability is excited only when beq increases over 50. The difficulty is mitigated by considering the kinetic effects of ion gyrorad ii and trapped electron dynamics, which can greatly increase the stabilizing effects of field line tension and thus enhance the beta(sub)eq threshold [Cheng and Lui, 1998]. The consequence is to reduce the equatorial region of the unstable ballooning modes to the strong cross-tail current sheet region where the free energy associated with the plasma pressure gradient and magnetic field curvature is maximum
Stability calculations for MHD magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, L.R.; Wang, S.T.; Harrang, J.
1978-01-01
When a cryostable composite conductor carrying current experiences a heat input from a mechanical perturbation, a normal region develops which initially propagates and then either collapses or continues to propagate. A computer model has been devised to study this phenomenon. The model incorporates initial or continuing heat input from mechanical perturbations, heat conducted to the neighboring elements of the conductor and, if appropriate, heat conducted through insulation to neighboring turns. Heat is transferred to the helium coolant according to a specified heat transfer coefficient. If the element of conductor is in a normal or current-sharing state, resistive heating also occurs. The (unstable) equilibrium state of heat generation and conduction has been studied; results agree with those of a static calculation. The model has been validated against experimental measurements of response to heat pulses. The model suffers from uncertainties in transient heat transfer to the helium, but even more from uncertainties in the perturbing heat pulse which the magnet might be expected to suffer
Stability of a two-volume MRxMHD model in slab geometry
Tuen, Li Huey
Ideal MHD models are known to be inadequate to describe various physical attributes of a toroidal field with non-continuous symmetry, such as magnetic islands and stochastic regions. Motivated by this omission, a new variational principle MRXMHD was developed; rather than include an infinity of magnetic flux surfaces, MRxMHD has a finite number of flux surfaces, and thus supports partial plasma relaxation. The model comprises of relaxed plasma regions which are separated by nested ideal MHD interfaces (flux surfaces), and can be encased in a perfectly conducting wall. In each region the pressure is constant, but can jump across interfaces. The field and field pitch, or rotational transform, can also jump across the interfaces. Unlike ideal MHD, MRxMHD plasmas can support toroidally non-axisymmetric confined magnetic fields, magnetic islands and stochastic regions. In toroidally non-axisymmetric plasma, the existence of interfaces in MRxMHD is contingent on the irrationality of the rotational transform of flux surfaces. That is, the KAM theorem shows that invariant tori (flux surfaces) continue to exist for sufficiently small perturbations to an integrable system (which describes flux surfaces), provided that the rotational transform is sufficiently irrational. Building upon the MRxMHD stability model, we study the effects of irrationality of the rotational transform at interfaces in MRxMHD on plasma stability. We present an MRxMHD equilibrium model to investigate the effects of magnetic field pitch within the plasma and across the aforementioned flux surfaces within a chosen geometry. In this model, it is found that the 2D system stability conditions are dependent on the interface and resonant surface magnetic field pitch at minimised energy states, and the stability of a system as a function of magnetic field pitch destabilises at particular values of magnetic field pitch. We benchmark the treatment of a two-volume system, along with the calculations for
Performance study of thermo-electric generator
Rohit, G.; Manaswini, D.; Kotebavi, Vinod; R, Nagaraja S.
2017-07-01
Devices like automobiles, stoves, ovens, boilers, kilns and heaters dissipate large amount of waste heat. Since most of this waste heat goes unused, the efficiency of these devices is drastically reduced. A lot of research is being conducted on the recovery of the waste heat, among which Thermoelectric Generators (TEG) is one of the popular method. TEG is a semiconductor device that produces electric potential difference when a thermal gradient develops on it. This paper deals with the study of performance of a TEG module for different hot surface temperatures. Performance characteristics used here are voltage, current and power developed by the TEG. One side of the TEG was kept on a hot plate where uniform heat flux was supplied to that. And the other side was cooled by supplying cold water. The results show that the output power increases significantly with increase in the temperature of the hot surface.
The effects of imperfect insulator coatings on MHD and heat transfer in rectangular duct
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ying, A.Y.; Gaizer, A.A.
1994-01-01
In self cooled liquid metal blankets, the use of an insulator coating to reduce the flow of the eddy current to the structure leads to a significant reduction in MHD pressure drop. Furthermore, this insulating layer alters the velocity structure by reducing the potential difference between the side wall and boundary layer. The questions which arise are: (1) How the imperfections in the insulator coating affect the velocity profiles and their consequent impacts on heat transfer performance?; and, (2) How much crack can lead to an unacceptable MHD pressure drop? The dynamics of the crack healing in an insulator coating duct is one of the important subjects requiring study. The purpose of this work is to present numerical simulations of fully developed MHD flow and developing heat transfer characteristics in imperfectly insulated ducts, and to quantify the influences of crack locations, sizes and resistivities on 2-D MHD pressure drops. Comparisons of finite element solutions of pressure drops in partially insulated ducts with analytical solutions obtained from a circuit analogy show excellent agreement. In addition, the remarkable side layer velocity profile observed in a laminar MHD flow of a conducting duct gradually diminishes as the resistance of the insulating layer increases. The average side wall Nusselt number drops by a factor of 2 as the duct becomes fully insulated
An analysis of plasma ion toroidal rotation during large amplitude MHD activity in JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snipes, J.A.; Esch, H.P.L. de; Lazzaro, E.; Stork, D.; Hellermann, M. von; Galvao, R.; Hender, T.C.; Zasche, D.
1989-01-01
A detailed study of plasma ion toroidal rotation in JET during large amplitude MHD activity has revealed a strong viscous force that couples plasma ions to MHD modes. Depending on the MHD modes present, this force can couple across all of the plasma cross section, across only the central region, roughly within the q=1 surface, or across only the outer region outside the q=1.5 surface. The force acts to flatten the ion toroidal rotation frequency profile, measured by the JET active charge exchange spectroscopy diagnostic, across the coupled region of plasma. The frequency of rotation in this region agrees with the MHD oscillation frequency measured by magnetic pick-up coils at the wall. The strength of the force between the ions and modes becomes evident during high power NBI when the mode locks and drags the ion toroidal rotation frequency to zero, within the errors of the measurements. The present theories of plasma rotation either ignore MHD effects entirely, consider only moderate n toroidal field ripple, or low n ripple effects. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs
MHD instabilities and their effects on plasma confinement in the large helical device plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toi, K.
2002-01-01
MHD stability of NBI heated plasmas and impacts of MHD modes on plasma confinement are intensively studied in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Three characteristic MHD instabilities were observed, that is, (1) pressure driven modes excited in the plasma edge, (2) pressure driven mode in the plasma core, and (3) Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) driven by energetic ions. MHD mode excited in the edge region accompanies multiple satellites, and is called Edge Harmonic Modes (EHMs). EHM sometimes has a bursting character. The bursting EHM transiently decreases the stored energy by about 15 percent. In the plasma core region, m=2/n=1 pressure driven mode is typically destabilized. The mode often induces internal collapse in the higher beta regime more than 1 percent. The internal collapse appreciably affects the global confinement. Energetic ion driven AEs are often detected in NBI-heated LHD plasmas. Particular AE with the frequency 8-10 times larger than TAE-frequency was detected in high beta plasmas more than 2 percent. The AE may be related to helicity-induced AE. Excitation of these three types of MHD instabilities and their impacts on plasma confinement are discussed. (author)
A simplified MHD model of capillary Z-Pinch compared with experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shapolov, A.A.; Kiss, M.; Kukhlevsky, S.V. [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs (Hungary)
2016-11-15
The most accurate models of the capillary Z-pinches used for excitation of soft X-ray lasers and photolithography XUV sources currently are based on the magnetohydrodynamics theory (MHD). The output of MHD-based models greatly depends on details in the mathematical description, such as initial and boundary conditions, approximations of plasma parameters, etc. Small experimental groups who develop soft X-ray/XUV sources often use the simplest Z-pinch models for analysis of their experimental results, despite of these models are inconsistent with the MHD equations. In the present study, keeping only the essential terms in the MHD equations, we obtained a simplified MHD model of cylindrically symmetric capillary Z-pinch. The model gives accurate results compared to experiments with argon plasmas, and provides simple analysis of temporal evolution of main plasma parameters. The results clarify the influence of viscosity, heat flux and approximations of plasma conductivity on the dynamics of capillary Z-pinch plasmas. The model can be useful for researchers, especially experimentalists, who develop the soft X-ray/XUV sources. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Modeling extreme (Carrington-type) space weather events using three-dimensional MHD code simulations
Ngwira, C. M.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Glocer, A.
2013-12-01
There is growing concern over possible severe societal consequences related to adverse space weather impacts on man-made technological infrastructure and systems. In the last two decades, significant progress has been made towards the modeling of space weather events. Three-dimensional (3-D) global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models have been at the forefront of this transition, and have played a critical role in advancing our understanding of space weather. However, the modeling of extreme space weather events is still a major challenge even for existing global MHD models. In this study, we introduce a specially adapted University of Michigan 3-D global MHD model for simulating extreme space weather events that have a ground footprint comparable (or larger) to the Carrington superstorm. Results are presented for an initial simulation run with ``very extreme'' constructed/idealized solar wind boundary conditions driving the magnetosphere. In particular, we describe the reaction of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the associated ground induced geoelectric field to such extreme driving conditions. We also discuss the results and what they might mean for the accuracy of the simulations. The model is further tested using input data for an observed space weather event to verify the MHD model consistence and to draw guidance for future work. This extreme space weather MHD model is designed specifically for practical application to the modeling of extreme geomagnetically induced electric fields, which can drive large currents in earth conductors such as power transmission grids.
Third-harmonic generation for photoionization studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Compton, R.N.; Miller, J.C.
1982-01-01
Our group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has studied resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (MPI) of alkali atoms, rare gases, and small molecules using tightly focused dye laser beams (power densities of 10 9 to 10 11 W/cm 2 ). In the case of alkali atoms, some ionization signals appear as a result of gas density effects (dimers or quasi-collisions) as previously discovered by Collins and his collaborators. These have been termed hybrid-resonances. By contrast, in the case of the rare gases, certain resonance ionization signals disappear with increasing gas density. The disappearance of the ionization signals in the rare gases is due to the interference of excitation of the third-harmonic and fundamental laser beam. At low pressure (10 -7 to 10 -5 torr) we have studied (1) mass spectra, (2) kinetic energy released in ionic fragmentation, and (3) photoelectron kinetic energy spectra using time-of-flight mass analysis and a 160 0 spherical sector electrostatic energy analyzer. These experiments, combined with two-color dye laser experiments, can often offer an unambiguous and detailed description of the MPI and subsequent fragmentation events. The major part of this talk will be devoted to the production and the use of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light from third-harmonic generation (THG) in the rare gases
Variational formalism for kinetic-MHD instabilities in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edery, D.; Garbet, X.; Roubin, J.P.; Samain, A.
1991-07-01
A variational formalism that includes in a consistent way the tokamak plasma fluid response to an electromagnetic field as well as the particle-field resonant interaction effects is presented. The integrability of the unperturbed motion of the particles is used to establish a general functional similar to the classical Lagrangian for the electromagnetic field, which is extremum with respect to the field potentials. This functional is the sum of fluid terms closely related to the classical MHD energy and of resonant terms describing the kinetic effects. The formalism is used to study a critical issue in tokamak confinement, namely the sawteeth stabilization by energetic particles
MHD activity and energy loss during beta saturation and collapse at high beta poloidal in PBX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kugel, H.W.; Sesnic, S.; Bol, K.
1987-10-01
High-β experiments, in medium to high-q tokamak plasmas, exhibit a temporal β saturation and collapse. This behavior has been attributed to ballooning, ideal kink, or tearing modes. In PBX, a unique diagnostic capability allowed studies of the relation between MHD and energy loss for neutral-beam-heated (<6 MW), mildly indented (10 to 15%), nearly steady I/sub p/ discharges that approached the Troyon-Gruber limit. Under these conditions, correlations between MHD activity and energy losses have shown that the latter can be almost fully accounted for by various long wavelength MHD instabilities and that there is no need to invoke high-n ballooning modes in PBX. 6 refs., 4 figs
Density profile effects on confinement and MHD stability of currentless NBI plasmas in Heliotron E
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudo, Shigeru; Zushi, Hideki; Kondo, Katsumi
1993-01-01
Density profile effects on confinement and MHD stability of currentless NBI plasmas in Heliotron E are studied. The peaked density profile produced by pellet injection increases the stored energy by 20-30% compared to the gas puffed plasmas which obey the empirical stellarator/heliotron scaling in a moderate density range. In contrast to confinement, the peaked pressure profile tends to destabilize the plasma. By limiter insertion, MHD instability occurs (seems to locate near ι/2π=1) even in case of low β (β 0 ≤1%, where β 0 is the central β value) plasmas. On the other hand, the mode of m/n=3/2 at ι/2π=2/3, seems to be a key parameter to the major MHD instability in case of high β (β 0 ≥2%) plasmas. (author)
Simulation of the MHD stabilities of the experiment on HL-2A tokamak by GATO code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan Wei; Chen Liaoyuan; Dong Jiaqi; Shen Yong; Zhang Jinhua
2009-01-01
The ideal two-dimensional MHD stabilities code, GATO, has been successfully immigrated to the high-performance computing system of HL-2A and used to the simulation study of the ideal MHD stabilities of the plasmas produced by one of the pellets injection experiments on HL-2A tokamak. The EFIT code was used to reconstruct the equilibrium configures firstly and the GATO was used to compute their MHD stabilities secondly whose source data were obtained by the NO.4050 discharge of the experiments on HL-2A, and finally by analyzing these results the preliminary conclusion was devised that the confinement performance of the plasma was improved because of the stabilization effect of the anti-sheared configures created by the pellets injection. (authors)
MHD induced fast-ion losses on ASDEX Upgrade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
GarcIa-Munoz, M.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Bobkov, V.; Bruedgam, M.; Guenter, S.; Igochine, V.; Lauber, Ph.; Mantsinen, M.J.; Maraschek, M.; Poli, E.; Sassenberg, K.; Tardini, G.; Zohm, H.; Pinches, S.D.; Gobbin, M.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; Piovesan, P.
2009-01-01
A detailed knowledge of the interplay between MHD instabilities and energetic particles has been gained from direct measurements of fast-ion losses (FILs). Time-resolved energy and pitch angle measurements of FIL caused by neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) and toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) have been obtained using a scintillator based FIL detector. The study of FIL due to TAEs has revealed the existence of a new core-localized MHD fluctuation, the Sierpes mode. The Sierpes mode is a non-pure Alfvenic fluctuation which appears in the acoustic branch, dominating the transport of fast-ions in ICRF heated discharges. The internal structure of both TAEs and Sierpes mode has been reconstructed by means of highly resolved multichord soft x-ray measurements. A spatial overlapping of their eigenfunctions leads to a FIL coupling, showing the strong influence that a core-localized fast-ion driven MHD instability may have on the fast-ion transport. We have identified the FIL mechanisms due to NTMs as well as due to TAEs. Drift islands formed by fast-ions in particle phase space are responsible for the loss of NBI fast-ions due to NTMs. In ICRF heated plasmas, a resonance condition fulfilled by the characteristic trapped fast-ion orbit frequencies leads to a phase matching between fast-ion orbit and NTM or TAE magnetic fluctuation. The banana tips of a resonant trapped fast-ion bounce radially due to an E x B drift in the TAE case. The NTM radial bounce of the fast-ion banana tips is caused by the radial component of the perturbed magnetic field lines.
PIXIE3D: An efficient, fully implicit, parallel, 3D extended MHD code for fusion plasma modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chacon, L.
2007-01-01
PIXIE3D is a modern, parallel, state-of-the-art extended MHD code that employs fully implicit methods for efficiency and accuracy. It features a general geometry formulation, and is therefore suitable for the study of many magnetic fusion configurations of interest. PIXIE3D advances the state of the art in extended MHD modeling in two fundamental ways. Firstly, it employs a novel conservative finite volume scheme which is remarkably robust and stable, and demands very small physical and/or numerical dissipation. This is a fundamental requirement when one wants to study fusion plasmas with realistic conductivities. Secondly, PIXIE3D features fully-implicit time stepping, employing Newton-Krylov methods for inverting the associated nonlinear systems. These methods have been shown to be scalable and efficient when preconditioned properly. Novel preconditioned ideas (so-called physics based), which were prototypes in the context of reduced MHD, have been adapted for 3D primitive-variable resistive MHD in PIXIE3D, and are currently being extended to Hall MHD. PIXIE3D is fully parallel, employing PETSc for parallelism. PIXIE3D has been thoroughly benchmarked against linear theory and against other available extended MHD codes on nonlinear test problems (such as the GEM reconnection challenge). We are currently in the process of extending such comparisons to fusion-relevant problems in realistic geometries. In this talk, we will describe both the spatial discretization approach and the preconditioning strategy employed for extended MHD in PIXIE3D. We will report on recent benchmarking studies between PIXIE3D and other 3D extended MHD codes, and will demonstrate its usefulness in a variety of fusion-relevant configurations such as Tokamaks and Reversed Field Pinches. (Author)
Nonlinear MHD dynamo operating at equipartition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Archontis, V.; Dorch, Bertil; Nordlund, Åke
2007-01-01
Context.We present results from non linear MHD dynamo experiments with a three-dimensional steady and smooth flow that drives fast dynamo action in the kinematic regime. In the saturation regime, the system yields strong magnetic fields, which undergo transitions between an energy-equipartition a......Context.We present results from non linear MHD dynamo experiments with a three-dimensional steady and smooth flow that drives fast dynamo action in the kinematic regime. In the saturation regime, the system yields strong magnetic fields, which undergo transitions between an energy......, and that it can saturate at a level significantly higher than intermittent turbulent dynamos, namely at energy equipartition, for high values of the magnetic and fluid Reynolds numbers. The equipartition solution however does not remain time-independent during the simulation but exhibits a much more intricate...
Evolution of the MHD sheet pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matthaeus, W.H.; Montgomery, D.
1979-01-01
A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) problem of recurrent interest for both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas is the evolution of the unstable sheet pinch, a current sheet across which a dc magnetic field reverses sign. The evolution of such a sheet pinch is followed with a spectral-method, incompressible, two-dimensional, MHD turbulence code. Spectral diagnostics are employed, as are contour plots of vector potential (magnetic field lines), electric current density, and velocity stream function (velocity streamlines). The nonlinear effect which seems most important is seen to be current filamentation: the concentration of the current density onto sets of small measure near a mgnetic X point. A great deal of turbulence is apparent in the current distribution, which, for high Reynolds numbers, requires large spatial grids (greater than or equal to (64) 2 ). 11 figures, 1 table
Impulsive relaxation process in MHD driven reconnection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitabata, H.; Hayashi, T.; Sato, T.
1997-01-01
Compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation is carried out in order to investigate energy relaxation process of the driven magnetic reconnection in an open finite system through a long time calculation. It is found that a very impulsive energy release occurs in an intermittent fashion through magnetic reconnection for a continuous magnetic flux injection on the boundary. We focus our attention on the detailed process in the impulsive phase, which is the reconnection rate is remarkably enhanced up. (author)
MHD simulations on an unstructured mesh
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strauss, H.R.; Park, W.; Belova, E.; Fu, G.Y.; Sugiyama, L.E.
1998-01-01
Two reasons for using an unstructured computational mesh are adaptivity, and alignment with arbitrarily shaped boundaries. Two codes which use finite element discretization on an unstructured mesh are described. FEM3D solves 2D and 3D RMHD using an adaptive grid. MH3D++, which incorporates methods of FEM3D into the MH3D generalized MHD code, can be used with shaped boundaries, which might be 3D
Status report on the Indian MHD programme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambasankaran, C.
1978-03-01
MHD programme in India, which has been started recently as a collaborative effort by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd., with the technical consultation provided by the High Temperature Institute, Moscow, is described. The basic considerations which led to the launching of this project and the details of the experimental plant for R and D work are spelt out. (K.B.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1992-01-01
The overall objective of the project is to design and construct prototypical hardware for an integrated MHD topping cycle, and conduct long duration proof-of-concept tests of integrated system at the US DOE Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The results of the long duration tests will augment the existing engineering design data base on MHD power train reliability, availability, maintainability, and performance, and will serve as a basis for scaling up the topping cycle design to the next level of development, an early commercial scale power plant retrofit. The components of the MHD power train to be designed, fabricated, and tested include: A slagging coal combustor with a rated capacity of 50 MW thermal input, capable of operation with an Eastern (Illinois {number_sign}6) or Western (Montana Rosebud) coal, a segmented supersonic nozzle, a supersonic MHD channel capable of generating at least 1.5 MW of electrical power, a segmented supersonic diffuser section to interface the channel with existing facility quench and exhaust systems, a complete set of current control circuits for local diagonal current control along the channel, and a set of current consolidation circuits to interface the channel with the existing facility inverter.
Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H. S.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Odstrcil, D.; Kim, T. K.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Tokumaru, M.; Bisi, M. M.; Kim, J.; Yun, J.
2017-12-01
The University of California, San Diego has developed an iterative remote-sensing time-dependent three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction technique which provides volumetric maps of density, velocity, and magnetic field. We have applied this technique in near real time for over 15 years with a kinematic model approximation to fit data from ground-based interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations. Our modeling concept extends volumetric data from an inner boundary placed above the Alfvén surface out to the inner heliosphere. We now use this technique to drive 3-D MHD models at their inner boundary and generate output 3-D data files that are fit to remotely-sensed observations (in this case IPS observations), and iterated. These analyses are also iteratively fit to in-situ spacecraft measurements near Earth. To facilitate this process, we have developed a traceback from input 3-D MHD volumes to yield an updated boundary in density, temperature, and velocity, which also includes magnetic-field components. Here we will show examples of this analysis using the ENLIL 3D-MHD and the University of Alabama Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite (MS-FLUKSS) heliospheric codes. These examples help refine poorly-known 3-D MHD variables (i.e., density, temperature), and parameters (gamma) by fitting heliospheric remotely-sensed data between the region near the solar surface and in-situ measurements near Earth.
Variational Integration for Ideal MHD with Built-in Advection Equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Yao [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Qin, Hong [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Burby, J. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Bhattacharjee, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
2014-08-05
Newcomb's Lagrangian for ideal MHD in Lagrangian labeling is discretized using discrete exterior calculus. Variational integrators for ideal MHD are derived thereafter. Besides being symplectic and momentum preserving, the schemes inherit built-in advection equations from Newcomb's formulation, and therefore avoid solving them and the accompanying error and dissipation. We implement the method in 2D and show that numerical reconnection does not take place when singular current sheets are present. We then apply it to studying the dynamics of the ideal coalescence instability with multiple islands. The relaxed equilibrium state with embedded current sheets is obtained numerically.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bates, J.L.; Marchant, D.D.; Daniel, J.L.
1978-10-01
The objectives of this program are directed toward the development and characterization of high temperature ceramics for open-cycle, coal-fired MHD power generators. The current activities are directed to electrode and insulator materials, and include (1) determination of the effects of alkali seed on the behavior of ceramics in a dc electric field; (2) development and testing of improved high temperature ceramic electrodes and insulators with controlled composition, microstructure, and properties; and (3) characterization and evaluation of materials utilized in channels being tested for MHD power generator development. Research is reported on (1) evaluation of metal electrodes from 250 hour MHD test, (2) characterization and properties of USSR MgO insulating wall material, (3) thermal diffusivity/thermal conductivity of electrode and insulator materials, (4) coprecipitation of ceramic powders, (5) properties of yttria chromites, and (6) rare earth hafnates. (WHK)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azalbert, J. P.; Zettwoog, P. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)
1966-11-15
The authors examine the conditions governing the use of disc-type ducts for the MHD conversion of the thermal energy contained in a caesium-seeded noble gas. Hot source temperatures of between 1600 and 2000 Degree-Sign K and helium or argon pressures of 1-50 bars are envisaged. The total temperature of the MHD exit gas is fixed at 1250 Degree-Sign K, at which value the gas can be used in more conventional units. For each pressure level, determinations are made of the thermal power beyond which the viscous entropy losses per unit length of wall are negligible in relation to the volume Joule losses corresponding to the normal operation of the duct. It is assumed that the magnetic fields are obtained from superconductor coils; 5 and 6 tesla fields are considered. For the temperature range studied, efficient conversion is onlypossible with non-equilibrium ionization. This is assumed to exist under the effect of the induced electric field, and the conductivity, {sigma}, is.calculated on the basis of a two-fluid plasma model, the current density being known. In a Hall-type generator the electron heating conditions in a given section depend on the conditions in the duct as a whole, the connecting condition from one section to another being JA = constant. For each group of parameters defining the upstream conditions, an attempt is made to find a suitable conversion regime to ensure satisfactory isentropic efficiency and specific power. For this purpose it is necessary to choose the inlet Mach number which defines a specific power level and then the load current which defines the local isentropic efficiency at the duct inlet. Subsequently calculations are made of the length of the duct needed for the total temperature to drop to 1250 Degree-Sign K, the shape required to maintain an effective electric field, at the same time avoiding blocking, the evolution of the flow parameters and the final isentropic efficiency and thermal losses at the wall. As a result of the effect of
Next Generation Melter Optioneering Study - Interim Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gray, M.F.; Calmus, R.B.; Ramsey, G.; Lomax, J.; Allen, H.
2010-01-01
The next generation melter (NOM) development program includes a down selection process to aid in determining the recommended vitrification technology to implement into the WTP at the first melter change-out which is scheduled for 2025. This optioneering study presents a structured value engineering process to establish and assess evaluation criteria that will be incorporated into the down selection process. This process establishes an evaluation framework that will be used progressively throughout the NGM program, and as such this interim report will be updated on a regular basis. The workshop objectives were achieved. In particular: (1) Consensus was reached with stakeholders and technology providers represented at the workshop regarding the need for a decision making process and the application of the D 2 0 process to NGM option evaluation. (2) A framework was established for applying the decision making process to technology development and evaluation between 2010 and 2013. (3) The criteria for the initial evaluation in 2011 were refined and agreed with stakeholders and technology providers. (4) The technology providers have the guidance required to produce data/information to support the next phase of the evaluation process. In some cases it may be necessary to reflect the data/information requirements and overall approach to the evaluation of technology options against specific criteria within updated Statements of Work for 2010-2011. Access to the WTP engineering data has been identified as being very important for option development and evaluation due to the interface issues for the NGM and surrounding plant. WRPS efforts are ongoing to establish precisely data that is required and how to resolve this Issue. It is intended to apply a similarly structured decision making process to the development and evaluation of LAW NGM options.
Elms: MHD Instabilities at the transport barrier
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huysmans, G.T.A
2005-07-01
Significant progress has been made in recent years both on the experimental characterisation of ELMs (edge localized modes) and the theory and modelling of ELMs. The observed maximum pressure gradient is in good agreement with the calculated ideal MHD stability limits due to peeling-ballooning modes. The dependence on plasma current and plasma shape are also reproduced by the ideal MHD model. It will be a challenge to verify experimentally the influence of the extensions to the ideal MHD theory such as the possibly incomplete diamagnetic stabilisation, the influence of shear flow, finite resistivity or the stabilizing influence of the separatrix on peeling modes. The observations of the filamentary structures find their explanation in the theory and simulations of the early non-linear phase of the evolution of ballooning modes. One of the remaining open questions is what determines the size of the ELM and its duration. This is related to the loss mechanism of energy and density. Some heuristic descriptions of possible mechanisms have been proposed in literature but none of the models so far makes quantitative predictions on the ELM size. Also the numerical simulations are not yet advanced to the point where the full ELM crash can be modelled. The theory and simulations of the ELMs are necessary to decide between the possible parameters, such as the collisionality or the parallel transport time, that are proposed for the extrapolation of ELM sizes to ITER.
Elms: MHD Instabilities at the transport barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huysmans, G.T.A.
2005-01-01
Significant progress has been made in recent years both on the experimental characterisation of ELMs (edge localized modes) and the theory and modelling of ELMs. The observed maximum pressure gradient is in good agreement with the calculated ideal MHD stability limits due to peeling-ballooning modes. The dependence on plasma current and plasma shape are also reproduced by the ideal MHD model. It will be a challenge to verify experimentally the influence of the extensions to the ideal MHD theory such as the possibly incomplete diamagnetic stabilisation, the influence of shear flow, finite resistivity or the stabilizing influence of the separatrix on peeling modes. The observations of the filamentary structures find their explanation in the theory and simulations of the early non-linear phase of the evolution of ballooning modes. One of the remaining open questions is what determines the size of the ELM and its duration. This is related to the loss mechanism of energy and density. Some heuristic descriptions of possible mechanisms have been proposed in literature but none of the models so far makes quantitative predictions on the ELM size. Also the numerical simulations are not yet advanced to the point where the full ELM crash can be modelled. The theory and simulations of the ELMs are necessary to decide between the possible parameters, such as the collisionality or the parallel transport time, that are proposed for the extrapolation of ELM sizes to ITER
The Statistical Mechanics of Ideal MHD Turbulence
Shebalin, John V.
2003-01-01
Turbulence is a universal, nonlinear phenomenon found in all energetic fluid and plasma motion. In particular. understanding magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and incorporating its effects in the computation and prediction of the flow of ionized gases in space, for example, are great challenges that must be met if such computations and predictions are to be meaningful. Although a general solution to the "problem of turbulence" does not exist in closed form, numerical integrations allow us to explore the phase space of solutions for both ideal and dissipative flows. For homogeneous, incompressible turbulence, Fourier methods are appropriate, and phase space is defined by the Fourier coefficients of the physical fields. In the case of ideal MHD flows, a fairly robust statistical mechanics has been developed, in which the symmetry and ergodic properties of phase space is understood. A discussion of these properties will illuminate our principal discovery: Coherent structure and randomness co-exist in ideal MHD turbulence. For dissipative flows, as opposed to ideal flows, progress beyond the dimensional analysis of Kolmogorov has been difficult. Here, some possible future directions that draw on the ideal results will also be discussed. Our conclusion will be that while ideal turbulence is now well understood, real turbulence still presents great challenges.
MHD thrust vectoring of a rocket engine
Labaune, Julien; Packan, Denis; Tholin, Fabien; Chemartin, Laurent; Stillace, Thierry; Masson, Frederic
2016-09-01
In this work, the possibility to use MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) to vectorize the thrust of a solid propellant rocket engine exhaust is investigated. Using a magnetic field for vectoring offers a mass gain and a reusability advantage compared to standard gimbaled, elastomer-joint systems. Analytical and numerical models were used to evaluate the flow deviation with a 1 Tesla magnetic field inside the nozzle. The fluid flow in the resistive MHD approximation is calculated using the KRONOS code from ONERA, coupling the hypersonic CFD platform CEDRE and the electrical code SATURNE from EDF. A critical parameter of these simulations is the electrical conductivity, which was evaluated using a set of equilibrium calculations with 25 species. Two models were used: local thermodynamic equilibrium and frozen flow. In both cases, chlorine captures a large fraction of free electrons, limiting the electrical conductivity to a value inadequate for thrust vectoring applications. However, when using chlorine-free propergols with 1% in mass of alkali, an MHD thrust vectoring of several degrees was obtained.
Yang, Liping; Zhang, Lei; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Li, Shengtai; Wang, Xin; Wang, Linghua
2018-03-01
Multi-order structure functions in the solar wind are reported to display a monofractal scaling when sampled parallel to the local magnetic field and a multifractal scaling when measured perpendicularly. Whether and to what extent will the scaling anisotropy be weakened by the enhancement of turbulence amplitude relative to the background magnetic strength? In this study, based on two runs of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence simulation with different relative levels of turbulence amplitude, we investigate and compare the scaling of multi-order magnetic structure functions and magnetic probability distribution functions (PDFs) as well as their dependence on the direction of the local field. The numerical results show that for the case of large-amplitude MHD turbulence, the multi-order structure functions display a multifractal scaling at all angles to the local magnetic field, with PDFs deviating significantly from the Gaussian distribution and a flatness larger than 3 at all angles. In contrast, for the case of small-amplitude MHD turbulence, the multi-order structure functions and PDFs have different features in the quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular directions: a monofractal scaling and Gaussian-like distribution in the former, and a conversion of a monofractal scaling and Gaussian-like distribution into a multifractal scaling and non-Gaussian tail distribution in the latter. These results hint that when intermittencies are abundant and intense, the multifractal scaling in the structure functions can appear even if it is in the quasi-parallel direction; otherwise, the monofractal scaling in the structure functions remains even if it is in the quasi-perpendicular direction.
NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE (NGGT) SYSTEMS STUDY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Unknown
2001-12-05
to how they could serve multiple applications, both in terms of incorporation of technology into current products, as well as to an NGGT product. In summary, potential program costs are shown for development of the candidate systems along with the importance of future DOE enabling participation. Three main conclusions have been established via this study: (1) Rapid recent changes within the power generation regulatory environment and the resulting ''bubble'' of gas turbine orders has altered the timing and relative significance associated with the conclusions of the ADL study upon which the original DOE NGGT solicitation was based. (2) Assuming that the relevant technologies were developed and available for an NGGT market opportunity circa 2010, the top candidate system that meets or exceeds the DOE PRDA requirements was determined to be a hybrid aero-derivative/heavy duty concept. (3) An investment by DOE of approximately $23MM/year to develop NGGT technologies near/mid term for validation and migration into a reasonable fraction of the installed base of GE F-class products could be leveraged into $1.2B Public Benefit, with greatest benefits resulting from RAM improvements. In addition to the monetary Public Benefit, there is also significant benefit in terms of reduced energy consumption, and reduced power plant land usage.
Systemic study of knowledge generation at IPEN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monteiro, Carlos Anisio
2016-01-01
With the aim of providing subsidies to understand how scientific collaboration process occurs and develops into a research institution, particularly IPEN, this study used two methodological approaches. The first used the social networking analysis (SNA) technique to map the scientific collaboration networks in R&D of IPEN. The data used for the SNA technique were extracted from the technical and scientific publications database of IPEN, using a computer program, and were based on co-authorship from 2001 to 2010 period. These data were grouped into consecutive intervals of two years generating five biennial networks. This first approach showed several structural features related to collaborative networks, especially the most prominent authors, distribution of components, density, boundary spanners and aspects related to distance and clustering to define small world networks. In the second approach, partial least squares, a method to structure equation modeling, was used to evaluate and test a conceptual model based on personal, social, cultural and circumstantial factors to identify those that best explain the propensity of an IPENs author in establishing links of collaboration in R&D environments. From the consolidated model, we evaluated how much it explains the structural position of an author on the network based on SNA indicators. In this second part, the data were collected through a survey research using a questionnaire. The results showed that the model explains about 41% of the propensity of an IPEN author in collaborating with others authors, and in relation to the structural position of an author on the network, the explanation power of model ranged between 3% and 3.6%. Other results have shown that collaboration between IPEN authors have a positive correlation with moderate intensity to productivity, in the same way, the most central authors in the network tend to increase its visibility. Finally, several other bibliometric statistical indicators related
MHD pressure drop in ducts with imperfectly insulating coatings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malang, S.; Buehler, L.
1994-08-01
Liquid metal cooled blankets in fusion tokamak's are feasible only with electrically insulating coatings at the coolant channel walls. The requirements of such coatings are investigated and a simple analytical model is developed to determine the influence of imperfections in the coatings on the magneto-hydrodynamic pressure drop. This model is compared with the results of a 3D-MHD code based on the core flow approach. Both methods are in good agreement as long as the imperfections do not increase the pressure drop by more than 20%. The analytical model over-estimates the pressure drop for values larger than 20%. The importance of self-healing of coatings in case of cracking or flaking is quantified and an equation for the equilibrium conditions between the generation of imperfection and the healing of such spots is provided
Experimental Study of a Thermoelectric Generation System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Junpeng; Gao, Junling; Chen, Min
2011-01-01
. System-level simulation is carried out using a quasi-one-dimensional numerical model that enables direct comparison with experimental results. The results of both experiment and simulation will provide a foundation to improve and optimize complex thermoelectric generation systems....
Ullah, Imran; Bhattacharyya, Krishnendu; Shafie, Sharidan; Khan, Ilyas
2016-01-01
Numerical results are presented for the effect of first order chemical reaction and thermal radiation on mixed convection flow of Casson fluid in the presence of magnetic field. The flow is generated due to unsteady nonlinearly stretching sheet placed inside a porous medium. Convective conditions on wall temperature and wall concentration are also employed in the investigation. The governing partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations using suitable transformations and then solved numerically via Keller-box method. It is noticed that fluid velocity rises with increase in radiation parameter in the case of assisting flow and is opposite in the case of opposing fluid while radiation parameter has no effect on fluid velocity in the forced convection. It is also seen that fluid velocity and concentration enhances in the case of generative chemical reaction whereas both profiles reduces in the case of destructive chemical reaction. Further, increase in local unsteadiness parameter reduces fluid velocity, temperature and concentration. Over all the effects of physical parameters on fluid velocity, temperature and concentration distribution as well as on the wall shear stress, heat and mass transfer rates are discussed in detail.
Nonlinear dynamics of single-helicity neoclassical MHD tearing instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spong, D.A.; Shaing, K.C.; Carreras, B.A.; Callen, J.D.; Garcia, L.
1988-10-01
Neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects can significantly alter the nonlinear evolution of resistive tearing instabilities. This is studied numerically by using a flux-surface-averaged set of evolution equations that includes the lowest-order neoclassical MHD effects. The new terms in the equations are fluctuating bootstrap current, neoclassical modification of the resistivity, and neoclassical damping of the vorticity. Single-helicity tearing modes are studied in a cylindrical model over a range of neoclassical viscosities (μ/sub e//ν/sup e/) and values of the Δ' parameter of tearing mode theory. Increasing the neoclassical viscosity leads to increased growth rate and saturated island width as predicted analytically. The larger island width is caused by the fluctuating bootstrap current contribution in Ohm's law. The Δ' parameter no longer solely determines the island width, and finite-width saturated islands may be obtained even when Δ' is negative. The importance of the bootstrap current (/approximately/∂/rho///partial derivative/psi/) in the nonlinear dynamics leads us to examine the sensitivity of the results with respect to different models for the density evolution. 11 refs., 8 figs
MHD stability regimes for steady state and pulsed reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Pomphrey, N.
1994-02-01
A tokamak reactor will operate at the maximum value of β≡2μ 0 /B 2 that is compatible with MHD stability. This value depends upon the plasma current and pressure profiles, the plasma shape and aspect ratio, and the location of nearby conducting structures. In addition, a steady state reactor will minimize its external current drive requirements and thus achieve its maximum economic benefit with a bootstrap fraction near one, I bs /I p ∼ 1, which constrains the product of the inverse aspect ratio and the plasma poloidal beta to be near unity, ε β p ∼ 1. An inductively driven pulsed reactor has different constraints set by the steady-state Ohm's law which relates the plasma temperature and density profiles to the parallel current density. We present the results obtained during the ARIES I, II/IV, and III and the PULSAR reactor studies where these quantities were optimized subject to different design philosophies. The ARIES-II/IV and ARIES-III designs are both in the second stability regime, but differ in requirements on the form of the profiles at the plasma edge, and in the location of the conducting wall. The relation between these, as well as new attractive MHD regimes not utilized in the ARIES or PULSAR studies is also discussed
Ideal MHD B limits in the BIG DEE tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helton, F.J.; Bernard, L.C.; Greene, J.M.
1983-01-01
Using D-D reactions, tokamak reactors become economically attractive when B (the ratio of volume averaged pressure to magnetic pressure) exceeds 5 percent. Ideal MID instabilities are of great concern because they have the potential to limit B below this range and so extensive studies have been done to determine ideal MHD B limits. As B increases with inverse aspect ratio, elongation and triangularity, the Doublet III upgrade machine -- BIG DEE -- is particularly suited to study the possibility of very high B. The authors have done computations to determine ideal MHD B limits for various plasma shapes and elongations in BIG DEE. They have determined that for q at the plasma surface greater than 2, B is limited by the ballooning mode if the wall is reasonably close to the plasma surface (d/a < 1.5 where d and a are the wall and plasma radii respectively). On the other hand, for q at the plasma surface less than 2, the n=1 external kink is unstable even with a wall close by. Thus, relevant values of limiting B can be obtained by assuming that the external kink limits the value of q at the limiter to a value greater than 2 and that the ballooning modes limit B. Under this assumption, a relevant B limit for the BIG DEE would be over 18%. For such an equilibrium, the wall position necessary to stabilize the n=1 and n=2 modes is 2a and the equilibrium is stable for n=3
Electricity generation: a case study in Turkey
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaygusuz, K.
1999-01-01
Large-scale electricity generation provides versatile energy of the highest quality. Today, fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas are the primary sources of this energy. However, these fossil energy sources are limited and using fossil energy sources has the undesirable effect of releasing emissions that burden the environment and alter the climate. Therefore, governments and companies all over the world should find new and renewable energy sources. On the other hand, over the past two decades, power station construction programs in the developing countries accounted for nearly 30% of total public investment. In a large number of these countries, shortages of electricity have become a critical constraint to economic growth. In Turkey, from 1980 to 1995, the amount for electricity generated increased about fourfold from 23,275 Gwh to 86,247 Gwh, and annual growth rates were in the double digits. This is a good development, but not enough for Turkey. (author)
Fully developed MHD turbulence near critical magnetic Reynolds number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leorat, J.; Pouquet, A.; Frisch, U.
1981-01-01
Liquid-sodium-cooled breeder reactors may soon be operating at magnetic Reynolds numbers Rsup(M) where magnetic fields can be self-excited by a dynamo mechanism. Such flows have kinetic Reynolds numbers Rsup(V) of the order of 10 7 and are therefore highly turbulent. The behaviour of MHD turbulence with high Rsup(V) and low magnetic Prandtl numbers is investigated, using the eddy-damped quasi-normal Markovian closure applied to the MHD equations. For simplicity the study is restricted to homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, but includes helicity. A critical magnetic Reynolds number Rsub(c)sup(M) of the order of a few tens (non-helical case) is obtained above which magnetic energy is present. Rsub(c)sup(M) is practically independent of Rsup(V) (in the range 40 to 10 6 ) and can be considerably decreased by the presence of helicity. No attempt is made to obtain quantitative estimates for a breeder reactor, but discuss some of the possible consequences of exceeding Rsub(c)sup(M) such as decreased turbulent heat transport. (author)
On accelerated flow of MHD powell-eyring fluid via homotopy analysis method
Salah, Faisal; Viswanathan, K. K.; Aziz, Zainal Abdul
2017-09-01
The aim of this article is to obtain the approximate analytical solution for incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow for Powell-Eyring fluid induced by an accelerated plate. Both constant and variable accelerated cases are investigated. Approximate analytical solution in each case is obtained by using the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM). The resulting nonlinear analysis is carried out to generate the series solution. Finally, Graphical outcomes of different values of the material constants parameters on the velocity flow field are discussed and analyzed.
Design for an MHD power plant as a prime mover for a Naval Vessel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paluszek, M.A.
1981-01-01
A Magnetohydrodynamic Power Plant, designed to be the prime mover for a Naval Vessel, is presented. The system is an open cycle, fossil fueled, subsonic MHD Faraday generator with directly fired air preheaters. A superconducting electric transmission drives the propellers and a standard naval steam plant is used as a bottoming cycle. The increased overall efficiency achievable with this plant allows a lighter, smaller volume ship to accommodate the same payload and reduces the overall fuel cost of the vessel
Heating and ionization in MHD shock waves propagating into partially ionized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bighel, L.; Collins, A.R.; Cramer, N.F.; Watson-Munro, C.N.
1975-09-01
A model of the structure of MHD switch-on shocks propagating in a partially ionized plasma, in which the primary dissipation mechanism is friction between ions and neutrals, is here compared favourably with experimental results. Four degrees of upstream ionization were studied, ranging from almost complete to very small ionization. (author)
Impact of Heat and Mass Transfer on MHD Oscillatory Flow of Jeffery ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The objective of this paper is to study Dufour, Soret and thermal conductivity on unsteady heat and mass transfer of magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) oscillatory flow of Jeffery fluid through a porous medium in a channel. The partial differential equations governing the flow have been solved numerically using semi-implicit ...
Effect of slip velocity on oscillatory MHD flow of stretched surface ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study of unsteady magnetohydrodynamic heat and mass transfer in MHD flow of an incompressible, electrically conducting, viscous fluid past an infinite vertical porous plate along with porous medium of time dependent permeability with radiative heat transfer and variable suction has been made. Analytical solution of ...
Heating and ionization in MHD shock wave propagating into partially ionized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bighel, L.; Collins, A.R.; Cramer, N.F.; Watson-Munro, C.N.
1975-09-01
A model of the structure of MHD switch-on shocks propagating in a partially ionized plasma, in which the primary dissipation mechanism is friction between ions and neutrals, is here compared favourably with experimental results. Four degrees of upstream ionization were studied, ranging from almost complete to very small ionization. (author)
MHD free convection flow past an oscillating plate in the presence of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study of unsteady magnetohydrodynamic heat and mass transfer in MHD flow past an infinite vertical oscillating plate through porous medium, taking account of the presence of free convection and mass transfer. The energy and chemical species equations are solved in closed form by Laplace-transform technique and ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, W.; Akasofu, S.-I.; Smith, Z.K.; Dryer, M.
1985-01-01
An empirical kinematic method developed by Hakamada and Akasofu (1982) is calibrated on the basis of a one-dimensional MHD solution. The calibrated results are used to simulate the stream-stream interaction and the background corotating structure in a simple situation and also during 22 November-6 December 1977. The solar wind disturbances caused by solar activities during this period are then introduced into the above background stream in simulating the heliospheric disturbance event which was observed by an aligned set of spacecraft at distances between 0.6 and 1.6 a.u. The observations and the simulated results are satisfactory, and a little more refinement in the simulation could reconstruct reasonably well the data by filling the data gaps in the solar wind speed, the density and the IMF magnitude. (author)
MHD simulations of molybdenum X-pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanenkov, G.V.; Stepnevski, V.
2002-01-01
One investigates into compression of molybdenum X-pinches applying numerical MHD-models with parabolic and conical initial geometry. The second model describing plasma axial motion in greater detail offers a real geometry of a discharge and is applicable to loads characterized by higher masses in contrast to the first one. Both models enabled to describe all basic phases of compression including origination of a minidiode, occurrence of a narrow neck, microexplosion of a hot point and origination of shock waves followed by sausage instability [ru
MHD equilibrium identification on ASDEX-Upgrade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCarthy, P.J.; Schneider, W.; Lakner, K.; Zehrfeld, H.P.; Buechl, K.; Gernhardt, J.; Gruber, O.; Kallenbach, A.; Lieder, G.; Wunderlich, R.
1992-01-01
A central activity accompanying the ASDEX-Upgrade experiment is the analysis of MHD equilibria. There are two different numerical methods available, both using magnetic measurements which reflect equilibrium states of the plasma. The first method proceeds via a function parameterization (FP) technique, which uses in-vessel magnetic measurements to calculate up to 66 equilibrium parameters. The second method applies an interpretative equilibrium code (DIVA) for a best fit to a different set of magnetic measurements. Cross-checks with the measured particle influxes from the inner heat shield and the divertor region and with visible camera images of the scrape-off layer are made. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huysmans, G.
1998-03-01
One of the aims of the JET, the Joint European Torus, project is to optimise the maximum fusion performance as measured by the neutron rate. At present, two different scenarios are developed at JET to achieve the high performance the so-called Hot-Ion H-mode scenario and the more recent development of the Optimised Shear scenario. Both scenarios have reached similar values of the neutron rate in Deuterium plasmas, up to 5 10 17 neutrons/second. Both scenarios are characterised by a transport barrier, i.e., a region in the plasma where the confinement is improved. The Hot-Ion H-mode has a transport barrier at the plasma boundary just inside the separatrix, an Optimised Shear plasma exhibits a transport barrier at about mid radius. Associated with the improved confinement of the transport barriers are locally large pressure gradients. It is these pressure gradients which, either directly or indirectly, can drive MHD instabilities. The instabilities limit the maximum performance. In the optimised shear scenario a global MHD instability leads to a disruptive end of the discharge. In the Hot-Ion H-mode plasmas, so-called Outer Modes can occur which are localised at the plasma boundary and lead to a saturation of the plasma performance. In this paper, two examples of the MHD instabilities are discussed and identified by comparing the experimentally observed modes with theoretical calculations from the ideal MHD code MISHKA-1. Also, the MHD stability boundaries of the two scenarios are presented. Section 3 contains a discussion of the mode observed just before the disruption
Generation and characterization of gas bubbles in liquid metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Witke, W.
1996-01-01
There is an ongoing research performed in the RCR on local transport phenomena in turbulent liquid metal (LM) duct flows exposed to external magnetic fields. In this context so-called MHD flow phenomena can be observed, which are unknown in usual hydraulic engineering. The field of interest covers also the influence of magnetic fields on the behaviour of liquid metal - gas mixtures. Profound knowledge on these LMMHD two-phase flow plays an important role in a variety of technological applications, in particular, in the design of Liquid-Metal MHD generators or for several metallurgical processes employing gas-stirred reactors. However, the highly empirical nature of two-phase flow analysis gives little hope for the prediction of MHD two-phase flows without extensive experimental data. A summary is given about the authors research activities focussing on two directions: (a) Momentum transfer between gas and liquid metal in a bubbly flow regime to investigate the influence of the external magnetic field on the velocity slip ration S (b) Peculiarities of the MHD turbulence to use small gas bubbles as local tracers in order to study the turbulent mass transfer
Effect of electromagnetic coupling on MHD flow in the manifold of fusion liquid metal blanket
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Hongli, E-mail: hlchen1@ustc.edu.cn; Meng, Zi; Feng, Jingchao; He, Qingyun
2014-10-15
In fusion liquid metal (LM) blanket, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) effects will dominate the flow patterns and the heat transfer characteristics of the liquid metal flow. Manifold is a key component in LM blanket in charge of distributing or collecting the liquid metal coolant. In this region, the complex three dimensional MHD phenomena will be occurred, and the velocity, pressure and flow rate distributions may be dramatically influenced. One important aspect is the electromagnetic coupling effect resulting from an exchange of electric currents between two neighboring fluid domains that can lead to modifications of flow distribution and pressure drop compared to that in electrical separated channels. Understanding the electromagnetic coupling effect in manifold is necessary to optimize the liquid metal blanket design. In this work, a numerical study was carried out to investigate the effect of electromagnetic coupling on MHD flow in a manifold region. The typical manifold geometry in LM blanket was considered, a rectangular supply duct entering a rectangular expansion area, finally feeding into 3 rectangular parallel channels. This paper investigated the effect of electromagnetic coupling on MHD flow in a manifold region. Different electromagnetic coupling modes with different combinations of electrical conductivity of walls were studied numerically. The flow distribution and pressure drop of these modes have been evaluated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.BalaAnki Reddy
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on a theoretical analysis of a steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer flow of a Maxwell fluid over an exponentially stretching surface in the presence of velocity slip and convective boundary condition. This model is used for a nanofluid, which incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The resulting non-linear partial differential equations of the governing flow field are converted into a system of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations by using suitable similarity transformations, and the resultant equations are then solved numerically by using Runge-Kutta fourth order method along with shooting technique. A parametric study is conducted to illustrate the behavior of the velocity, temperature and concentration. The influence of significant parameters on velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number has been studied and numerical results are presented graphically and in tabular form. The reported numerical results are compared with previously published works on various special cases and are found to be an in excellent agreement. It is found that momentum boundary layer thickness decreases with the increase of magnetic parameter. It can also be found that the thermal boundary layer thickness increases with Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters.
On nonlinear MHD-stability of toroidal magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilgisonis, V.I.; Pastukhov, V.P.
1994-01-01
The variational approach to analyze the nonlinear MHD stability of ideal plasma in toroidal magnetic field is proposed. The potential energy functional to be used is expressed in terms of complete set of independent Lagrangian invariants, that allows to take strictly into account all the restrictions inherent in the varied functions due to MHD dynamic equations. (author). 3 refs
Najib, D.; Nagy, A.; Toth, G.; Ma, Y.-J.
2011-10-01
We use the latest version of our four species multifluid model to study the interaction of the solar wind with Venus. The model solves simultaneously the continuity, momentum and energy equations of the different ions. The lower boundary of our model is at 100 km, below the main ionospheric peak, and the radial resolution is about 10 km in the ionosphere, thus the model does a very good job in reproducing the ionosphere and the associated processes. We carry out calculations for high and low solar activity conditions and establish the importance of mass loading by the extended exosphere of Venus. We demonstrate the importance of using the multi-fluid rather than a single fluid model. We also calculate the atmospheric escape of the ionospheric species and compare our model results with the observed parameters from Pioneer Venus and Venus Express.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ali, M., E-mail: ali.mehidi93@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Department of Mathematics, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology, Chittagong-4349 (Bangladesh); Alim, M. A., E-mail: maalim@math.buet.ac.bd; Nasrin, R., E-mail: rehena@math.buet.ac.bd [Department of Mathematics, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Alam, M. S., E-mail: shahalammaths@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology, Chittagong-4349 (Bangladesh)
2016-07-12
An analysis is performed to study the free convection heat and mass transfer flow of an electrically conducting incompressible viscous fluid about a semi-infinite inclined porous plate under the action of radiation, chemical reaction in presence of magnetic field with variable viscosity. The dimensionless governing equations are steady, two-dimensional coupled and non-linear ordinary differential equation. Nachtsgeim-Swigert shooting iteration technique along with Runge-Kutta integration scheme is used to solve the non-dimensional governing equations. The effects of magnetic parameter, viscosity parameter and chemical reaction parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed numerically and shown graphically. Therefore, the results of velocity profile decreases for increasing values of magnetic parameter and viscosity parameter but there is no effect for reaction parameter. The temperature profile decreases in presence of magnetic parameter, viscosity parameter and Prandtl number but increases for radiation parameter. Also, concentration profile decreases for the increasing values of magnetic parameter, viscosity parameter and reaction parameter. All numerical calculations are done with respect to salt water and fixed angle of inclination of the plate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, M.; Alim, M. A.; Nasrin, R.; Alam, M. S.
2016-01-01
An analysis is performed to study the free convection heat and mass transfer flow of an electrically conducting incompressible viscous fluid about a semi-infinite inclined porous plate under the action of radiation, chemical reaction in presence of magnetic field with variable viscosity. The dimensionless governing equations are steady, two-dimensional coupled and non-linear ordinary differential equation. Nachtsgeim-Swigert shooting iteration technique along with Runge-Kutta integration scheme is used to solve the non-dimensional governing equations. The effects of magnetic parameter, viscosity parameter and chemical reaction parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed numerically and shown graphically. Therefore, the results of velocity profile decreases for increasing values of magnetic parameter and viscosity parameter but there is no effect for reaction parameter. The temperature profile decreases in presence of magnetic parameter, viscosity parameter and Prandtl number but increases for radiation parameter. Also, concentration profile decreases for the increasing values of magnetic parameter, viscosity parameter and reaction parameter. All numerical calculations are done with respect to salt water and fixed angle of inclination of the plate.
A Study in generative process : The art of theorizing
Zandee, D.P.
2005-01-01
This dissertation is an inquiry in the process of generativity. The study was inspired by the notion that generative process is vital for the continuous renewal of possibility in our personal, social and organized existence. Generativity is defined in the following two dimensions: an idea, event, or
Technical support for open-cycle MHD program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1978-05-01
The support program for open-cycle MHD at Argonne National Lab is developing the analytical tools needed to investigate the performance of the major components in the combined-cycle MHD/steam power system. The analytical effort is centered on the primary components of the system that are unique to MHD and also on the integration of these analytical representations into a model of the entire power producing system. The present project activities include modeling of the combustor, MHD channel, slag separator, and the high-temperature air preheater. In addition, these models are combined into a complete system model, which is at present capable of carrying out optimizations of the entire system on either thermodynamic efficiency or with less confidence, cost of electrical power. Also, in support of the open-cycle program, considerable effort has gone into the formulation of a CDIF Test Plan and a National MHD Test Program.
Combining MHD Airbreathing and Fusion Rocket Propulsion for Earth-to-Orbit Flight
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Froning, H. D. Jr; Yang, Yang; Momota, H.; Burton, E.; Miley, G. H.; Luo, Nie
2005-01-01
Previous studies have shown that Single-State-to-Orbit (SSTO) vehicle propellant can be reduced by Magnets-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) processes that minimize airbreathing propulsion losses and propellant consumption during atmospheric flight. Similarly additional reduction in SSTO propellant is enabled by Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion, whose more energetic reactions reduce rocket propellant needs. MHD airbreathing propulsion during an SSTO vehicle's initial atmospheric flight phase and IEC fusion propulsion during its final exo-atmospheric flight phase is therefore being explored. Accomplished work is not yet sufficient for claiming such a vehicle's feasibility. But takeoff and propellant mass for an MHD airbreathing and IEC fusion vehicle could be as much as 25 and 40 percent less than one with ordinary airbreathing and IEC fusion; and as much as 50 and 70 percent less than SSTO takeoff and propellant mass with MHD airbreathing and chemical rocket propulsion. Thus this unusual combined cycle engine shows great promise for performance gains beyond contemporary combined-cycle airbreathing engines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Junichi
1979-01-01
The study on the transient flow characteristics in MHD ducts under orthogonal magnetic field is divided into handling two problems: the problem of changing pressure gradient in a uniform orthogonal magnetic field and the problem in which the orthogonal magnetic field itself changes with time. The former has been investigated by many persons, but the latter has not been investigated so often as the former because of its difficulty of handling. In addition, if it is intended to grasp properly the transient flow characteristics in actual MHD ducts, it will be also important that the effects of the electric conductivity of side walls and aspect ratio are clarified. In other words, this paper deals with the problem in which a uniform orthogonal magnetic field is suddenly applied in such manner as Heaviside's step function to or removed from the conductive fluids flowing in sufficiently long rectangular MHD ducts. First, the MHD fundamental equations are described, then they are normalized to give boundary conditions and initial conditions. Next, the transient flow and the derived magnetic field characteristics are numerically analyzed by the difference calculus, and thus the effects of conductor, insulated wall, aspect ratio, Hartmann number, magnetic Prandtl number and others on the above characteristics are clarified. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
INCORPORATING AMBIPOLAR AND OHMIC DIFFUSION IN THE AMR MHD CODE RAMSES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masson, J.; Mulet-Marquis, C.; Chabrier, G.; Teyssier, R.; Hennebelle, P.
2012-01-01
We have implemented non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) effects in the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES, namely, ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation, as additional source terms in the ideal MHD equations. We describe in details how we have discretized these terms using the adaptive Cartesian mesh, and how the time step is diminished with respect to the ideal case, in order to perform a stable time integration. We have performed a large suite of test runs, featuring the Barenblatt diffusion test, the Ohmic diffusion test, the C-shock test, and the Alfvén wave test. For the latter, we have performed a careful truncation error analysis to estimate the magnitude of the numerical diffusion induced by our Godunov scheme, allowing us to estimate the spatial resolution that is required to address non-ideal MHD effects reliably. We show that our scheme is second-order accurate, and is therefore ideally suited to study non-ideal MHD effects in the context of star formation and molecular cloud dynamics.
de Jesus Antunes, Natalicia; Wichert-Ana, Lauro; Coelho, Eduardo Barbosa; Della Pasqua, Oscar; Alexandre, Veriano; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Tozatto, Eduardo; Lanchote, Vera Lucia
2013-12-01
Oxcarbazepine is a second-generation antiepileptic drug indicated as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures or generalized tonic-clonic seizures in adults and children. It undergoes rapid presystemic reduction with formation of the active metabolite 10-hydroxycarbazepine (MHD), which has a chiral center at position 10, with the enantiomers (S)-(+)- and R-(-)-MHD showing similar antiepileptic effects. This study presents the development and validation of a method of sequential analysis of oxcarbazepine and MHD enantiomers in plasma using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Aliquots of 100 μL of plasma were extracted with a mixture of methyl tert-butyl ether: dichloromethane (2:1). The separation of oxcarbazepine and the MHD enantiomers was obtained on a chiral phase Chiralcel OD-H column, using a mixture of hexane:ethanol:isopropanol (80:15:5, v/v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.3 mL/min with a split ratio of 1:5, and quantification was performed by LC-MS/MS. The limit of quantification was 12.5 ng oxcarbazepine and 31.25 ng of each MHD enantiomer/mL of plasma. The method was applied in the study of kinetic disposition of oxcarbazepine and the MHD enantiomers in the steady state after oral administration of 300 mg/12 h oxcarbazepine in a healthy volunteer. The maximum plasma concentration of oxcarbazepine was 1.2 µg/mL at 0.75 h. The kinetic disposition of MHD is enantioselective, with a higher proportion of the S-(+)-MHD enantiomer compared to R-(-)-MHD and an AUC(0-12) S-(+)/R-(-) ratio of 5.44. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Experimental study on ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation
Jiang Dongsheng; Bu Xueqin; Sun Bing; Lin Guiping; Zhao Hongtao; Cai Yan; Fang Ling
2016-01-01
The ceramic membrane oxygen generation technology has advantages of high concentration of produced oxygen and potential nuclear and biochemical protection capability. The present paper studies the ceramic membrane technology for onboard oxygen generation. Comparisons are made to have knowledge of the effects of two kinds of ceramic membrane separation technologies on oxygen generation, namely electricity driven ceramic membrane separation oxygen generation technology (EDCMSOGT) and pressure d...
Study of entropy generation in a slab with non-uniform internal heat generation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
El Haj Assad Mamdouh
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Analysis of entropy generation in a rectangular slab with a nonuniform internal heat generation is presented. Dimensionless local and total entropy generation during steady state heat conduction through the slab are obtained. Two different boundary conditions have been considered in the analysis, the first with asymmetric convection and the second with constant slab surface temperature. Temperature distribution within the slab is obtained analytically. The study investigates the effect of some relevant dimensionless heat transfer parameters on entropy generation. The results show that there exists a minimum local entropy generation but there does not exist a minimum total entropy generation for certain combinations of the heat transfer parameters. The results of calculations are presented graphically.
Modeling of LH current drive in self-consistent elongated tokamak MHD equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blackfield, D.T.; Devoto, R.S.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Bonoli, P.T.; Porkolab, M.; Yugo, J.
1989-01-01
Calculations of non-inductive current drive typically have been used with model MHD equilibria which are independently generated from an assumed toroidal current profile or from a fit to an experiment. Such a method can lead to serious errors since the driven current can dramatically alter the equilibrium and changes in the equilibrium B-fields can dramatically alter the current drive. The latter effect is quite pronounced in LH current drive where the ray trajectories are sensitive to the local values of the magnetic shear and the density gradient. In order to overcome these problems, we have modified a LH simulation code to accommodate elongated plasmas with numerically generated equilibria. The new LH module has been added to the ACCOME code which solves for current drive by neutral beams, electric fields, and bootstrap effects in a self-consistent 2-D equilibrium. We briefly describe the model in the next section and then present results of a study of LH current drive in ITER. 2 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs
A civil engineering approach to ideal MHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, V.O.
1992-01-01
It is well known that a magnetic field can be conceived as a medium where an isotropic compressive stress, B 2 /2μ 0 , is superimposed on a tensile stress, B 2 /μ 0 , parallel to the lines of force. When a stationary ideal MHD plasma is present in the magnetic field, the particle pressure adds to the magnetic stresses to form a combined stress tensor. Calculations of plasma equilibria based on this concept are very similar to calculations in civil engineering of static structures based on compressive, tensile, and shear stresses. Therefore the very simple physical pictures known from civil engineering when used in plasma physics provide simple physical understanding and facilitate the physical interpretation of the results. In an earlier paper the concept was used to derive and discuss the equilibrium equations for θ-, Z-, and screw pinches and the Grad-Shafranov shift in a tokamak plasma with circular cross sections of the flux surfaces. Here the concept is used to discuss the virial theorem and to obtain a simple physical interpretation of this theorem. We also reconsider the Grad-Shafranov shift in a tokamak plasma and show that a situation where all flux surfaces have circular cross sections cannot be an exact solution to the ideal MHD equations. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs
Gas Core Reactor Numerical Simulation Using a Coupled MHD-MCNP Model
Kazeminezhad, F.; Anghaie, S.
2008-01-01
Analysis is provided in this report of using two head-on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks to achieve supercritical nuclear fission in an axially elongated cylinder filled with UF4 gas as an energy source for deep space missions. The motivation for each aspect of the design is explained and supported by theory and numerical simulations. A subsequent report will provide detail on relevant experimental work to validate the concept. Here the focus is on the theory of and simulations for the proposed gas core reactor conceptual design from the onset of shock generations to the supercritical state achieved when the shocks collide. The MHD model is coupled to a standard nuclear code (MCNP) to observe the neutron flux and fission power attributed to the supercritical state brought about by the shock collisions. Throughout the modeling, realistic parameters are used for the initial ambient gaseous state and currents to ensure a resulting supercritical state upon shock collisions.
Bifurcated equilibria in two-dimensional MHD with diamagnetic effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ottaviani, M.; Tebaldi, C.
1998-12-01
In this work we analyzed the sequence of bifurcated equilibria in two-dimensional reduced magnetohydrodynamics. Diamagnetic effects are studied under the assumption of a constant equilibrium pressure gradient, not altered by the formation of the magnetic island. The formation of an island when the symmetric equilibrium becomes unstable is studied as a function of the tearing mode stability parameter Δ' and of the diamagnetic frequency, by employing fixed-points numerical techniques and an initial value code. At larger values of Δ' a tangent bifurcation takes place, above which no small island solutions exist. This bifurcation persists up to fairly large values of the diamagnetic frequency (of the order of one tenth of the Alfven frequency). The implications of this phenomenology for the intermittent MHD dynamics observed in tokamaks is discussed. (authors)
Seventh international conference on MHD electrical power generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dawson, A M; Overlan, D [eds.
1980-01-01
Separate entries were made in the data base for 59 of the 61 papers included. Two of the papers were previously entered in the data base and can be located in the report number index under number CONF-800617. (WHK)
Experimental power reactor dc generator energy storage study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heck, F.M.; Smeltzer, G.S.; Myers, E.H.; Kilgore, L.
1978-01-01
This study covers the use of dc generators for meeting the Experimental Power Reactor Ohmic Heating Energy Storage Requirements. The dc generators satisfy these requirements which are the same as defined in WFPS-TME-038 which covered the use of ac generators and homopolar generators. The costs of the latter two systems have been revised to eliminate first-of-a-kind factors. The cost figures for dc generators indicate a need to develop larger machines in order to take advantage of the economy-of-scale that the large ac machines have. Each of the systems has its own favorable salient features on which to base a system selection
Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Glocer, Alex
2014-06-01
There is a growing concern over possible severe societal consequences related to adverse space weather impacts on man-made technological infrastructure. In the last two decades, significant progress has been made toward the first-principles modeling of space weather events, and three-dimensional (3-D) global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models have been at the forefront of this transition, thereby playing a critical role in advancing our understanding of space weather. However, the modeling of extreme space weather events is still a major challenge even for the modern global MHD models. In this study, we introduce a specially adapted University of Michigan 3-D global MHD model for simulating extreme space weather events with a Dst footprint comparable to the Carrington superstorm of September 1859 based on the estimate by Tsurutani et. al. (2003). Results are presented for a simulation run with "very extreme" constructed/idealized solar wind boundary conditions driving the magnetosphere. In particular, we describe the reaction of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the associated induced geoelectric field on the ground to such extreme driving conditions. The model setup is further tested using input data for an observed space weather event of Halloween storm October 2003 to verify the MHD model consistence and to draw additional guidance for future work. This extreme space weather MHD model setup is designed specifically for practical application to the modeling of extreme geomagnetically induced electric fields, which can drive large currents in ground-based conductor systems such as power transmission grids. Therefore, our ultimate goal is to explore the level of geoelectric fields that can be induced from an assumed storm of the reported magnitude, i.e., Dst˜=-1600 nT.
Characteristics of low frequency MHD fluctuations in the PRETEXT tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kochanski, T.P.
1981-05-01
The temporal and spectral characteristics of low frequency (< 100KHz) MHD fluctuations, which are commonly associated with disruptions, have been investigated in the PRETEXT tokamak. There exists rigid phase coherence between the internal m = 1, and externally detected m = 2 modes indicative of strong mode coupling. A parametric study of the frequency of the mode, in the saturated state, indicates that the frequency scales with the toroidal magnetic field, and is inversely proportional to the plasma current. The frequency is observed to decrease abruptly as the mode amplitude rapidly increases prior to a plasma disruption. The burst type growth of the m = 2 mode appears to be inextricably linked to the occurrence of the disruptive instability
On MHD nonlinear stretching flow of Powell–Eyring nanomaterial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tasawar Hayat
Full Text Available This communication addresses the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD flow of Powell–Eyring nanomaterial bounded by a nonlinear stretching sheet. Novel features regarding thermophoresis and Brownian motion are taken into consideration. Powell–Eyring fluid is electrically conducted subject to non-uniform applied magnetic field. Assumptions of small magnetic Reynolds number and boundary layer approximation are employed in the mathematical development. Zero nanoparticles mass flux condition at the sheet is selected. Adequate transformation yield nonlinear ordinary differential systems. The developed nonlinear systems have been computed through the homotopic approach. Effects of different pertinent parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration fields are studied and analyzed. Further numerical data of skin friction and heat transfer rate is also tabulated and interpreted. Keywords: Powell–Eyring fluid, Magnetohydrodynamics, Nanomaterial, Nonlinear stretching surface
MHD stability properties of bean-shaped tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimm, R.C.; Chance, M.S.; Todd, A.M.M.
1984-03-01
A study of the MHD stability properties of bean-shaped tokamak plasmas is presented. For ballooning modes, while increased indentation gives larger β stable configurations, the existence and accessibility of the second stable region is sensitive to the pressure and safety factor profiles. The second stable region appears at lower β values for large aspect ratio and moderately high q-values. Finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) kinetic effects can significantly improve the stability properties. For low q (< 1) operation, long wavelength (n approx. 2,3) internal pressure driven modes occur at modest β/sub p/ values and accessibility to higher β operation is unlikely. Indentation modifies the nature of the usually vertical axisymmetric instability, but the mode can be passively stabilized by placing highly conducting plates near to the tips of the plasma bean. At constant q, indentation has a stabilizing effect on tearing modes
Alternating-current MHD conduction pump for ferrous metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nadezhnikov, N.M.; Krauya, V.M.; Yankop, E.K.
1979-01-01
Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies pertaining to an ac MHD conduction pump with separate excitation and a C-core magnet structure. Its mathematical model is based on the following assumptions: (1) During complete braking the liquid metal in the channel is stationary; (2) there is no current leakage in the channel beyond the interelectrode region; (3) during operation the longitudinal axis of the pump is in a vertical position; (4) the current density in the electrodes at a distance infinitely far from the active channel segment is uniformly distributed; (5) there are no magnetic leakage fluxes in the model; and (6) the left-hand electrode in the model can be brought out in two different ways, variant I or variant II. 7 references
Boundary effects on the MHD dynamo in laboratory plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, Y.L.; Prager, S.C.
1989-07-01
In recent laboratory experiments, a dynamo-like mechanism has been demonstrated in which a portion of the axisymmetric component of the magnetic field is believed to be sustained by 3D spatial fluctuations in the field and flow. With a conducting shell at the plasma surface, past MHD computation shows that sustainment arises from fluctuations which cause magnetic reconnection. If the conducting wall is retracted from the plasma surface, the fluctuations are amplified and the dynamo sustainment is still active for the times studied, but an increased energy input to the plasma is required through the applied electric field. The retraction of the conducting wall enhances the helicity dissipation rate by the intersection of the fields with the resistive surface which bounds the plasma. This enhanced helicity dissipation is balanced by the helicity injection that accompanies the increased applied electric field. 17 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab
MHD equilibrium of toroidal fusion plasma with stationary flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galkowski, A.
1994-01-01
Non-linear ideal MHD equilibria in axisymmetric system with flows are examined, both in 1st and 2nd ellipticity regions. Evidence of the bifurcation of solutions is provided and numerical solutions of several problems in a tokamak geometry are given, exhibiting bifurcation phenomena. Relaxation of plasma in the presence of zero-order flows is studied in a realistic toroidal geometry. The field aligned flow allows equilibria with finite pressure gradient but with homogeneous temperature distribution. Numerical calculations have been performed for the 1st and 2nd ellipticity regimes of the extended Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equation. Numerical technique, alternative to the well-known Grad's ADM methods has been proposed to deal with slow adiabatic evolution of toroidal plasma with flows. The equilibrium problem with prescribed adiabatic constraints may be solved by simultaneous calculations of flux surface geometry and original profile functions. (author). 178 refs, 37 figs, 5 tabs
A toroidal plasma MHD equilibrium code 'EQUCIR version 1'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Shinya, Kichiro; Kameari, Akihisa.
1980-10-01
A new free-boundary toroidal MHD equilibrium code ''EQUCIR version 1'' has been developed. The central problems approached by this code is as follows: 1) The magnetic flux distribution of a plasma at equilibrium is determined in the given external field. 2) A set of circuit equations between the plasma and the external conductors are constructed. These circuit equations and the Grad-Shafranov equation are solved self-consistently and the time evolutions of plasma equilibria and currents in external conductors are determined at the same time. 3) The currents in the external conductors are determined so that the plasma cross-section and plasma parameters are to be maintained with desired ones. It is shown that this code is very useful for study of the tokamak plasma equilibria, for design of the poloidal coil system and for investigation of experimental results. (author)
Transverse MHD shock waves in a partly ionized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathers, C.D.
1980-01-01
The structure of transverse MHD shock waves in a partly ionized hydrogen plasma is studied using a three-fluid model with collisional transport coefficients. The morphology of the various sublayers in the shock front is analyzed in detail and it is shown that strong shock waves have a characteristic viscous structure. Weak to moderate strength shock waves display a resistive structure in which the enhanced transverse resistivity due to ion-slip plays a significant role, leading to a pronounced peak in the ion temperature profile. Calculated shock structure profiles are also compared with experimental temperature data. Results in the form of tables and figures are presented for shock waves with fast Mach number ranging from 1-10 in hydrogen plasma with initial degree of ionization ranging from 5-100%. (author)
Observation of SOL Current Correlated with MHD Activity in NBI-heated DIII-D Tokamak Discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, H.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Schaffer, M.J.; Austin, M.E.; Evans, T.E.; Lao, L.L.; Watkins, J.G.
2004-01-01
This work investigates the potential roles played by the scrape-off-layer current (SOLC) in MHD activity of tokamak plasmas, including effects on stability. SOLCs are found during MHD activity that are: (1) slowly growing after a mode-locking-like event, (2) oscillating in the several kHz range and phase-locked with magnetic and electron temperature oscillations, (3) rapidly growing with a sub-ms time scale during a thermal collapse and a current quench, and (4) spiky in temporal behavior and correlated with spiky features in Da signals commonly identified with the edge localized mode (ELM). These SOLCs are found to be an integral part of the MHD activity, with a propensity to flow in a toroidally non-axisymmetric pattern and with magnitude potentially large enough to play a role in the MHD stability. Candidate mechanisms that can drive these SOLCs are identified: (a) toroidally non-axisymmetric thermoelectric potential, (b) electromotive force (EMF) from MHD activity, and (c) flux swing, both toroidal and poloidal, of the plasma column. An effect is found, stemming from the shear in the field line pitch angle, that mitigates the efficacy of a toroidally non-axisymmetric SOLC to generate a toroidally non-axisymmetric error field. Other potential magnetic consequences of the SOLC are identified: (i) its error field can introduce complications in feedback control schemes for stabilizing MHD activity and (ii) its toroidally non-axisymmetric field can be falsely identified as an axisymmetric field by the tokamak control logic and in equilibrium reconstruction. The radial profile of a SOLC observed during a quiescent discharge period is determined, and found to possess polarity reversals as a function of radial distance
Experimental study and quality control of a technetium-99 generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jimeno de Osso, F.
1981-01-01
The performarce of a generator of technetium-99m to be used in nuclear medicine is studied. The most interesting characteristic of this generator is the use of a U-shaped chromatographuc column so as to improve its efficiency and design without increasing the weight of its shield. With the aim of improving certain aspects of the generator, molibdenum-99 was applied to adecuate pH, pirogens were removed from the column set up before application, application was effected on a dry column, the smallest alumina particles were separated on the column, etc. The most important parameters of an isotopic generator are studied, and the corresponding quality controls performed. (author)
Ideal MHD properties for proposed noncircular tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helton, F.J.; Greene, J.M.
1986-01-01
We obtain Double Dee, TFXC-C, Big Dee, and JET equlibria which are optimized with respect to both shape and current profile for stability to ideal MHD modes. With a wall reasonably far from the plasma surface we find that the external kink constrains q 1 to be above two, where q 1 is the plasma surface value of the safety factor, and the ballooning mode limits the value of β. Then a relevant stable β value for the Double Dee reactor design is over 7%. Such a Double Dee equilibrium is not in a separated second stability region and thus does not have a problem with accessibility. A relevant stable β value for the TFCX-C reactor design is over 6%. Equivalent relevant stable β values for the Big Dee (17%) and JET (7%) are included for calibration purposes. We compare these relevant stable β values with the β's determined by two recent scaling laws
MHD simulation of the Bastille day event
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linker, Jon, E-mail: linkerj@predsci.com; Torok, Tibor; Downs, Cooper; Lionello, Roberto; Titov, Viacheslav; Caplan, Ronald M.; Mikić, Zoran; Riley, Pete [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego CA, USA 92121 (United States)
2016-03-25
We describe a time-dependent, thermodynamic, three-dimensional MHD simulation of the July 14, 2000 coronal mass ejection (CME) and flare. The simulation starts with a background corona developed using an MDI-derived magnetic map for the boundary condition. Flux ropes using the modified Titov-Demoulin (TDm) model are used to energize the pre-event active region, which is then destabilized by photospheric flows that cancel flux near the polarity inversion line. More than 10{sup 33} ergs are impulsively released in the simulated eruption, driving a CME at 1500 km/s, close to the observed speed of 1700km/s. The post-flare emission in the simulation is morphologically similar to the observed post-flare loops. The resulting flux rope that propagates to 1 AU is similar in character to the flux rope observed at 1 AU, but the simulated ICME center passes 15° north of Earth.