Sample records for mguza dam elements

  1. A comparison of metal levels and antioxidant enzymes in freshwater snails, Lymnaea natalensis, exposed to sediment and water collected from Wright Dam and Lower Mguza Dam, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    Siwela, A H; Nyathi, C B; Naik, Y S


    We compared the bioaccumulation of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) with antioxidant enzyme activity in tissues of the snails, Lymnaea natalensis, exposed to elements of two differently polluted dams. 45 snails were exposed to sediment and water collected from Wight Dam (reference) whilst another 45 snails were also exposed to sediment and water collected from Lower Mguza Dam (polluted dam). Except for Fe in sediment and Pb in water, metal concentrations were statistically higher in sediment and water collected from Lower Mguza Dam. Lead, Cd and Zn were two times higher in tissues of snails exposed to Lower Mguza Dam elements. On one hand, superoxide dismutase (SOD), diphosphotriphosphodiaphorase (DTD) and catalase (CAT) activities were significantly lower whilst malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly higher in tissues of snails exposed to Lower Mguza Dam sediment and water. On the other hand, selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GPX) activity was significantly elevated in tissues of snails exposed to Lower Mguza Dam sediment and water. Snails exposed to Lower Mguza Dam elements seem to have responded to pollution by increasing CAT and Se-GPX specific activity in an effort to detoxify peroxides produced as a result of metal induced oxidative stress.

  2. Stochastic Boundary Element Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam

    张明; 吴清高


    Stochastic boundary integral equations for analyzing large structures are obtained from the partial derivatives of basic random variables. A stochastic boundary element method based on the equations is developed to solve engineering problems of gravity dams using random factors including material parameters of the dam body and the foundation, the water level in the upper reaches, the anti-slide friction coefficient of the dam base, etc. A numerical example shows that the stochastic boundary element method presented in this paper to calculate the reliability index of large construction projects such as a large concrete gravity dam has the advantages of less input data and more precise computational results.

  3. Assessment of some heavy elements in Galma dam, Zaria, Nigeria

    Butu, A.W


    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the levels of concentration and distribution of Pb, Cr, Fe, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn and Cu in Galma dam, Zaria, Nigeria which spanned to 35Km. The main source of data was the surface water from the lower and the upper regions of the dam. The samples were collected and prepared in the laboratory according to standard method, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS technique was used to analyze the data. The results showed concentration of Pb, Cr, Fe, Cd, Co, Zn and Cu at various levels and the concentration of Ni below detectable level. The results also showed the distribution of these elements at lower and upper regions of Galma dam. The enrichment of these heavy elements in the dam could be explained by the loading of the dam with debris and effluents produced by various human activities within the dam catchment area through overland and base flows and the release of elements from geologic processes. The concentration of Pb, Cr and Fe were observed to be slightly above NIS and WHO standards for drinking water. To minimize pollution of the reserviour, it is strongly recommended that there should be reduction in levels of some unhealthy practices such as indiscriminate discharge of effluents like, engine oil, lubricants, used batteries, electric bulbs/fluorescent tubes, electronic and electrical appliances and high level use of chemicals on the farms are recommended to be discouraged.

  4. Collapse Modeling of a Masonry Arch Dam Using the Cohesive Interface Elements

    Jianwen Pan


    Full Text Available A finite element (FE approach with zero-thickness cohesive interface elements is presented to simulate collapse of continuum structures. The element removal technique merged with the general contact algorithm is adapted in the FE approach to achieve modeling for a transition from continua to discontinua, that is, fracture, fragmentation, and collapse. Collapse process of Meihua masonry arch dam, which is a famous disaster in dam engineering in China, is simulated and the failure mechanism is studied. The collapse process obtained from the presented procedure coincides with the field observation after the dam failure. The failure of Meihua arch dam can be attributed to reducing shear strength of the peripheral joint between the dam body and the concrete pedestal by daubing a layer of asphalt there. With low sliding resistance strength, the masonry dam body may slide upwards along the peripheral joint under hydrostatic pressure, leading to weakening of the arch action, fracturing, and final collapse of the dam.


    Mahmud GÜNGÖR


    Full Text Available Dams can store billions and billions m3 of water in their reservoirs. So leakage phenomenon which threats the stabilitiy of building sould be well examined. In this paper, flow that occurs in the dam's body and at the bottom of dam as a result of leaking water from the earth filled dam's reservoir is examined numericaly. For this purpose, the finite elements model of the phenomenon has been set up with the help of a computer program, the mathematical equation for whole area was calculated, velocity and potential distribution of the flow in the dam's body and at the bottom were obtained. The values of pore water and leak pressure which were previously calculated by graphical method and hand drown flow net can be obtained more precisely by the use of velocity and potential valves obtained by finite element method which is used in this study.

  6. Nonlinear simulation of arch dam cracking with mixed finite element method

    Ren Hao


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new, simple and efficient method for nonlinear simulation of arch dam cracking from the construction period to the operation period, which takes into account the arch dam construction process and temperature loads. In the calculation mesh, the contact surface of pair nodes is located at places on the arch dam where cracking is possible. A new effective iterative method, the mixed finite element method for friction-contact problems, is improved and used for nonlinear simulation of the cracking process. The forces acting on the structure are divided into two parts: external forces and contact forces. The displacement of the structure is chosen as the basic variable and the nodal contact force in the possible contact region of the local coordinate system is chosen as the iterative variable, so that the nonlinear iterative process is only limited within the possible contact surface and is much more economical. This method was used to simulate the cracking process of the Shuanghe Arch Dam in Southwest China. In order to prove the validity and accuracy of this method and to study the effect of thermal stress on arch dam cracking, three schemes were designed for calculation. Numerical results agree with actual measured data, proving that it is feasible to use this method to simulate the entire process of nonlinear arch dam cracking.

  7. Failure mode analysis of a post-tension anchored dam using linear finite element analysis

    Corn, Aimee

    There are currently over 84,000 dams in the United States, and the average age of those dams is 52 years. Concrete gravity dams are the second most common dam type, with more than 3,000 in the United States. Current engineering technology and technical understanding of hydrologic and seismic events has resulted in significant increases to the required design loads for most dams; therefore, many older dams do not have adequate safety for extreme loading events. Concrete gravity dams designed and constructed in the early 20th century did not consider uplift pressures beneath the dam, which reduces the effective weight of the structure. One method that has been used to enhance the stability of older concrete gravity dams includes the post-tension anchor (PTA) system. Post-tensioning infers modifying cured concrete and using self-equilibrating elements to increase the weight of the section, which provides added stability. There is a lack of historical evidence regarding the potential failure mechanisms for PTA concrete gravity dams. Of particular interest, is how these systems behave during large seismic events. The objective of this thesis is to develop a method by which the potential failure modes during a seismic event for a PTA dam can be evaluated using the linear elastic finite element method of analysis. The most likely potential failure modes (PFM) for PTA designs are due to tensile failure and shear failure. A numerical model of a hypothetical project was developed to simulate PTAs in the dam. The model was subjected to acceleration time-history motions that simulated the seismic loads. The results were used to evaluate the likelihood of tendon failure due to both tension and shear. The results from the analysis indicated that the PTA load increased during the seismic event; however, the peak load in the tendons was less than the gross ultimate tensile strength (GUTS) and would not be expected to result in tensile failure at the assumed project. The analysis

  8. Air demand estimation in bottom outlets with the particle finite element method. Susqueda Dam case study

    Salazar, Fernando; San-Mauro, Javier; Celigueta, Miguel Ángel; Oñate, Eugenio


    Dam bottom outlets play a vital role in dam operation and safety, as they allow controlling the water surface elevation below the spillway level. For partial openings, water flows under the gate lip at high velocity and drags the air downstream of the gate, which may cause damages due to cavitation and vibration. The convenience of installing air vents in dam bottom outlets is well known by practitioners. The design of this element depends basically on the maximum air flow through the air vent, which in turn is a function of the specific geometry and the boundary conditions. The intrinsic features of this phenomenon makes it hard to analyse either on site or in full scaled experimental facilities. As a consequence, empirical formulas are frequently employed, which offer a conservative estimate of the maximum air flow. In this work, the particle finite element method was used to model the air-water interaction in Susqueda Dam bottom outlet, with different gate openings. Specific enhancements of the formulation were developed to consider air-water interaction. The results were analysed as compared to the conventional design criteria and to information gathered on site during the gate operation tests. This analysis suggests that numerical modelling with the PFEM can be helpful for the design of this kind of hydraulic works.

  9. Air demand estimation in bottom outlets with the particle finite element method - Susqueda Dam case study

    Salazar, Fernando; San-Mauro, Javier; Celigueta, Miguel Ángel; Oñate, Eugenio


    Dam bottom outlets play a vital role in dam operation and safety, as they allow controlling the water surface elevation below the spillway level. For partial openings, water flows under the gate lip at high velocity and drags the air downstream of the gate, which may cause damages due to cavitation and vibration. The convenience of installing air vents in dam bottom outlets is well known by practitioners. The design of this element depends basically on the maximum air flow through the air vent, which in turn is a function of the specific geometry and the boundary conditions. The intrinsic features of this phenomenon makes it hard to analyse either on site or in full scaled experimental facilities. As a consequence, empirical formulas are frequently employed, which offer a conservative estimate of the maximum air flow. In this work, the particle finite element method was used to model the air-water interaction in Susqueda Dam bottom outlet, with different gate openings. Specific enhancements of the formulation were developed to consider air-water interaction. The results were analysed as compared to the conventional design criteria and to information gathered on site during the gate operation tests. This analysis suggests that numerical modelling with the PFEM can be helpful for the design of this kind of hydraulic works.

  10. Finite Element Analysis of Dam-Reservoir Interaction Using High-Order Doubly Asymptotic Open Boundary

    Yichao Gao


    Full Text Available The dam-reservoir system is divided into the near field modeled by the finite element method, and the far field modeled by the excellent high-order doubly asymptotic open boundary (DAOB. Direct and partitioned coupled methods are developed for the analysis of dam-reservoir system. In the direct coupled method, a symmetric monolithic governing equation is formulated by incorporating the DAOB with the finite element equation and solved using the standard time-integration methods. In contrast, the near-field finite element equation and the far-field DAOB condition are separately solved in the partitioned coupled methodm, and coupling is achieved by applying the interaction force on the truncated boundary. To improve its numerical stability and accuracy, an iteration strategy is employed to obtain the solution of each step. Both coupled methods are implemented on the open-source finite element code OpenSees. Numerical examples are employed to demonstrate the performance of these two proposed methods.

  11. Sediment depositions upstream of open check dams: new elements from small scale models

    Piton, Guillaume; Le Guern, Jules; Carbonari, Costanza; Recking, Alain


    numbers that the flows tend to adopt? New small scale model experiments have been undertaken focusing on depositions processes and their related hydraulics. Accurate photogrammetric measurements allowed us to better describe the deposition processes3. Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LS-PIV) was performed to determine surface velocity fields in highly active channels with low grain submersion4. We will present preliminary results of our experiments showing the new elements we observed in massive deposit dynamics. REFERENCES 1.Armanini, A., Dellagiacoma, F. & Ferrari, L. From the check dam to the development of functional check dams. Fluvial Hydraulics of Mountain Regions 37, 331-344 (1991). 2.Piton, G. & Recking, A. Design of sediment traps with open check dams: a review, part I: hydraulic and deposition processes. (Accepted by the) Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 1-23 (2015). 3.Le Guern, J. Ms Thesis: Modélisation physique des plages de depot : analyse de la dynamique de remplissage.(2014) . 4.Carbonari, C. Ms Thesis: Small scale experiments of deposition processes occuring in sediment traps, LS-PIV measurments and geomorphological descriptions. (in preparation).

  12. Structural safety evaluation of Karun III Dam and calibration of its finite element model using instrumentation and site observation

    H. Mirzabozorg


    Full Text Available In the present paper, a comprehensive finite element model of Karun III double curvature arch dam is calibrated based on the micro geodesies measurements and instrumentation. Thermal properties of concrete are obtained by transient thermal analysis and the results are compared with those obtained from thermometers. Thermal analysis features include air temperature, water layers temperatures, and the solar radiation on the exposed faces. Structural calibration features include thermal distribution within the dam body, dam self-weight, hydrostatic pressure, and silt load applied on the model of dam–reservoir–foundation system. Finite element model calibration provides updated information related to the current dam status and can be used for further safety evaluations.

  13. Comparative Study on Interface Elements, Thin-Layer Elements, and Contact Analysis Methods in the Analysis of High Concrete-Faced Rockfill Dams

    Xiao-xiang Qian


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the numerical performance of three contact simulation methods, namely, the interface element, thin-layer element, and contact analysis methods, through the analysis of the contact behavior between the concrete face slab and the dam body of a high concrete-faced rockfill dam named Tianshengqiao-I in China. To investigate the accuracy and limitations of each method, the simulation results are compared in terms of the dam deformation, contact stress along the interface, stresses in the concrete face slab, and separation of the concrete face slab from the cushion layer. In particular, the predicted dam deformation and slab separation are compared with the in-situ observation data to classify these methods according to their agreement with the in-situ observations. It is revealed that the interface element and thin-layer element methods have their limitations in predicting contact stress, slab separation, and stresses in the concrete face slab if a large slip occurs. The contact analysis method seems to be the best choice whether the separation is finite or not.


    Huawei Zhou


    Full Text Available Achieving an effective combination of various temperature control measures is critical for temperature control and crack prevention of concrete dams. This paper presents a procedure for optimizing the temperature control scheme of roller compacted concrete (RCC dams that couples the finite element method (FEM with a sensitivity analysis method. In this study, seven temperature control schemes are defined according to variations in three temperature control measures: concrete placement temperature, water-pipe cooling time, and thermal insulation layer thickness. FEM is employed to simulate the equivalent temperature field and temperature stress field obtained under each of the seven designed temperature control schemes for a typical overflow dam monolith based on the actual characteristics of a RCC dam located in southwestern China. A sensitivity analysis is subsequently conducted to investigate the degree of influence each of the three temperature control measures has on the temperature field and temperature tensile stress field of the dam. Results show that the placement temperature has a substantial influence on the maximum temperature and tensile stress of the dam, and that the placement temperature cannot exceed 15 °C. The water-pipe cooling time and thermal insulation layer thickness have little influence on the maximum temperature, but both demonstrate a substantial influence on the maximum tensile stress of the dam. The thermal insulation thickness is significant for reducing the probability of cracking as a result of high thermal stress, and the maximum tensile stress can be controlled under the specification limit with a thermal insulation layer thickness of 10 cm. Finally, an optimized temperature control scheme for crack prevention is obtained based on the analysis results.

  15. Chemical element transfer of weathering granite regolith in the Three Gorges Dam region of Yangtze River


    Clearing up sediment and regolith on the foundation of the dam in the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River in 1999, riverbed were exposed. On the basis of weathering granite regolith sampled from different portions of the valley landforms, by analysing total chemical contents with X rays fluorescent slice and calculating proper value of chemical element transferring ratio and intensity, the transferring law of chemical elements in different portions of the landforms were concluded: 1) In various landforms of the river valley, the process of desilication is not distinct; 2) in weathering granite regolith of riverbed, easy soluble CaO and MgO are relatively enriched whereas A1203 tends to decrease. The enriching rate of Fe203 is the greatest in various landforms of the river valley; 3) in weathering granite regolith of flood-plain, K20 and MgO contents are relatively enriched; 4) the weathering granite regolith of valley slope is a typical north subtropical weathering regolith, and its chemical weathering degree is in the transition phase from early to middle period; and 5) there is an opposite layer where K20 is relatively leaching and Na20 relatively enriching in 6.5 m depth of all weathering granite regolith.

  16. Evaluation Standard for Safety Coefficient of Roller Compacted Concrete Dam Based on Finite Element Method

    Bo Li


    Full Text Available The lack of evaluation standard for safety coefficient based on finite element method (FEM limits the wide application of FEM in roller compacted concrete dam (RCCD. In this paper, the strength reserve factor (SRF method is adopted to simulate gradual failure and possible unstable modes of RCCD system. The entropy theory and catastrophe theory are used to obtain the ultimate bearing resistance and failure criterion of the RCCD. The most dangerous sliding plane for RCCD failure is found using the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS and auxiliary analysis of partial least squares regression (PLSR. Finally a method for determining the evaluation standard of RCCD safety coefficient based on FEM is put forward using least squares support vector machines (LSSVM and particle swarm optimization (PSO. The proposed method is applied to safety coefficient analysis of the Longtan RCCD in China. The calculation shows that RCCD failure is closely related to RCCD interface strength, and the Longtan RCCD is safe in the design condition. Considering RCCD failure characteristic and combining the advantages of several excellent algorithms, the proposed method determines the evaluation standard for safety coefficient of RCCD based on FEM for the first time and can be popularized to any RCCD.

  17. Seismic damage analysis of the outlet piers of arch dams using the finite element sub-model method

    Song, Liangfeng; Wu, Mingxin; Wang, Jinting; Xu, Yanjie


    This study aims to analyze seismic damage of reinforced outlet piers of arch dams by the nonlinear finite element (FE) sub-model method. First, the dam-foundation system is modeled and analyzed, in which the effects of infinite foundation, contraction joints, and nonlinear concrete are taken into account. The detailed structures of the outlet pier are then simulated with a refined FE model in the sub-model analysis. In this way the damage mechanism of the plain (unreinforced) outlet pier is analyzed, and the effects of two reinforcement measures (i.e., post-tensioned anchor cables and reinforcing bar) on the dynamic damage to the outlet pier are investigated comprehensively. Results show that the plain pier is damaged severely by strong earthquakes while implementation of post-tensioned anchor cables strengthens the pier effectively. In addition, radiation damping strongly alleviates seismic damage to the piers.

  18. Ambient Vibration Tests of an Arch Dam with Different Reservoir Water Levels: Experimental Results and Comparison with Finite Element Modelling

    Sergio Vincenzo Calcina


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the ambient vibration tests performed in an arch dam in two different working conditions in order to assess the effect produced by two different reservoir water levels on the structural vibration properties. The study consists of an experimental part and a numerical part. The experimental tests were carried out in two different periods of the year, at the beginning of autumn (October 2012 and at the end of winter (March 2013, respectively. The measurements were performed using a fast technique based on asynchronous records of microtremor time-series. In-contact single-station measurements were done by means of one single high resolution triaxial tromometer and two low-frequency seismometers, placed in different points of the structure. The Standard Spectral Ratio method has been used to evaluate the natural frequencies of vibration of the structure. A 3D finite element model of the arch dam-reservoir-foundation system has been developed to verify analytically determined vibration properties, such as natural frequencies and mode shapes, and their changes linked to water level with the experimental results.

  19. Rare Earth Element Behaviour in Apatite from the Olympic Dam Cu–U–Au–Ag Deposit, South Australia

    Sasha Krneta


    Full Text Available Apatite is a common magmatic accessory in the intrusive rocks hosting the giant ~1590 Ma Olympic Dam (OD iron-oxide copper gold (IOCG ore system, South Australia. Moreover, hydrothermal apatite is a locally abundant mineral throughout the altered and mineralized rocks within and enclosing the deposit. Based on compositional data for zoned apatite, we evaluate whether changes in the morphology and the rare earth element and Y (REY chemistry of apatite can be used to constrain the fluid evolution from early to late hydrothermal stages at OD. The ~1.6 Ga Roxby Downs granite (RDG, host to the OD deposit, contains apatite as a magmatic accessory, locally in the high concentrations associated with mafic enclaves. Magmatic apatite commonly contains REY-poor cores and REY-enriched margins. The cores display a light rare earth element (LREE-enriched chondrite-normalized fractionation pattern with a strong negative Eu anomaly. In contrast, later hydrothermal apatite, confined to samples where magmatic apatite has been obliterated due to advanced hematite-sericite alteration, displays a conspicuous, convex, middle rare earth element (MREE-enriched pattern with a weak negative Eu anomaly. Such grains contain abundant inclusions of florencite and sericite. Within high-grade bornite ores from the deposit, apatite displays an extremely highly MREE-enriched chondrite-normalized fractionation trend with a positive Eu anomaly. Concentrations of U and Th in apatite mimic the behaviour of ∑REY and are richest in magmatic apatite hosted by RDG and the hydrothermal rims surrounding them. The shift from characteristic LREE-enriched magmatic and early hydrothermal apatite to later hydrothermal apatite displaying marked MREE-enriched trends (with lower U, Th, Pb and ∑REY concentrations reflects the magmatic to hydrothermal transition. Additionally, the strong positive Eu anomaly in the MREE-enriched trends of apatite in high-grade bornite ores are attributable to

  20. Dynamic Sliding Analysis of a Gravity Dam with Fluid-Structure-Foundation Interaction Using Finite Elements and Newmark's Sliding Block Analysis

    Goldgruber, Markus; Shahriari, Shervin; Zenz, Gerald


    To reduce the natural hazard risks—due to, e.g., earthquake excitation—seismic safety assessments are carried out. Especially under severe loading, due to maximum credible or the so-called safety evaluation earthquake, critical infrastructure, as these are high dams, must not fail. However, under high loading local failure might be allowed as long as the entire structure does not collapse. Hence, for a dam, the loss of sliding stability during a short time period might be acceptable if the cumulative displacements after an event are below an acceptable value. This performance is not only valid for gravity dams but also for rock blocks as sliding is even more imminent in zones with higher seismic activity. Sliding modes cannot only occur in the dam-foundation contact, but also in sliding planes formed due to geological conditions. This work compares the qualitative possible and critical displacements for two methods, the well-known Newmark's sliding block analysis and a Fluid-Foundation-Structure Interaction simulation with the finite elements method. The results comparison of the maximum displacements at the end of the seismic event of the two methods depicts that for high friction angles, they are fairly close. For low friction angles, the results are differing more. The conclusion is that the commonly used Newmark's sliding block analysis and the finite elements simulation are only comparable for high friction angles, where this factor dominates the behaviour of the structure. Worth to mention is that the proposed simulation methods are also applicable to dynamic rock wedge problems and not only to dams.

  1. Dams (National)

    Department of Transportation — This map layer portrays major dams of the United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (NTAD 2015). The map layer was created by extracting dams...

  2. 土石坝安全监测与有限元模拟%Safety Monitoring for Earth Rock Dam and Finite Element Method Simulation

    王其勇; 王义重; 潘孝城; 傅旭东


    The safety monitoring for earth rock dam consists of two parts. One is the monitoring of stress which is mainly about pore water pressure monitoring. The other is about deformation monitoring including observation of surface subsidence, deep layer ground subsidence and horizontal displacement on the abutment of the dam. The actual project shows that the water pressure and the horizontal displacement on the abutment of the dam will be significantly larger than normal status before the dam is in danger. It can give early warning with combination of the results of surface subsidence and deep displacement monitoring. In order to research the whole deformation of the dam and settlement of the soft foundation, the parameters of Duncan-Chang model for undisturbed soil are gained by using triaxial compression test, and the subroutine of the Duncan-Chang nonlinear constitutive model is embedded into the ABAQUS based on the secondary development platform of ABAQUS effectively. Using the ABAQUS finite element software the stress-deformation and the construction areas of the dam in each grading loading are simulated. The comparison between monitoring and simulating results shows that the model can present the trends of the dam deformation well. Calibrating model parameters with the parameters of observation, the trend of dam deformation could be reflected more accurately and give real-time monitoring.%土石坝的安全监测包括两个部分,一是关于应力的监测,主要是孔隙水压力的监测;二是变形的监测,包括地表沉降、地基深层分层沉降、坝肩水平位移等.实际工程表明,土石坝在填筑施工中出现安全问题时,超孔隙水压力与坝肩水平位移会明显偏大,结合地表沉降与坝基深层位移监测结果能够对坝体施工安全有效预警.为研究土石坝坝体与软弱地基的沉降、变形规律,取现场原状土样进行室内三轴压缩试验,得到了原状土样的Duncan-Chang模型参数;基

  3. Rescue archaeology heritage valuation in Europe’s largest dam - Alqueva: ex‑situ products as elements of creative tourism

    Idalina Dias Sardinha


    Full Text Available The study aims to determine how the knowledge obtained from the study of prehistoric heritage found during the construction of the Alqueva dam and irrigation system (Portugal can enhance the current tourist experience of the destination. A new approach is necessary given the inaccessibility of the archeological remains, thus creative tourims and experience economy frame the theoretical basis of this paper. Semi-directed interviews were carried out to 35 tourism stakeholders in order to assess their view of the regional tourism experience, their interest in ex-situ and virtual products based on the archeological knowledge and how these may add to the Alqueva destination. Findings show that stakeholders are still firmly attached to the conventional approach to archaeology but that, even though unaware of the archaeological findings, they believe that they could benefit form the introduction of creative products as a way of complementing the current offer.

  4. Adaptability to geological faulted foundation of Hardfill dam

    Kun XIONG; Yunlong HE; Yunfeng PENG


    Hardfill dam is a new type of dam which has the advantages of low stress level and even stress distri-bution in a dam body, resulting in low demands to foun-dations. Based on 2D linear elastic and elasto-plastic calculations of gravity dam and Hardfill dam using finite element method (FEM), the stress distribution in a dam body and anti-sliding stabilization is analyzed on the geo-logical faulted foundations with weak weathered rock and soft interlayers. It is concluded that Hardfill dams have better adaptability to geological faulted foundations than gravity dams and is more secure and economically sound.

  5. Finite Element Analysis of Earth-rockfill Dam Based on Plaxis Software%基于Plaxis的土石坝有限元分析

    杨国范; 李强; 张同军; 张兴华; 金丹


    以小孤家水库土石坝为例,基于Plaxis软件,采用Mohr-Coulomb模型、修正Cam-Clay模型和HardeningSoil模型进行有限元计算分析.结果表明,Mohr-Coulomb模型、修正Cam-Clay模型和Hardening-Soil模型的孔隙水压力最大值分别为-274.47、-276.24、-277.97 kN/m2,超静孔隙水压力最大值分别为-169.76、-176.24、-193.79 kN/m2,消散速度由快到慢分别为Mohr-Coulomb模型、Hardening-Soil模型、修正Cam-Clay模型.%Taking the earth-rockfill dam for an example, Mohr-Coulomb model, modified Cam-Clay model and Hard-ening-Soil model are used to finite element analysis of Xiaogujia dam with Plaxis software. The results show that the maximum pore water pressure with Mohr-Coulomb model, modified Cam-Clay model and Hardening-Soil model are -274. 47, - 276.24, -277. 97 Kn/m2, respectively; the maximum excess pore water pressure are -169. 76, -176. 24, -193. 79 Kn/m2. Respectively) dissipation speed from fast to slow is ranked by Mohr-Coulomb model, Hardening-Soil model and modified Cam-Clay model.

  6. Heavy metal and trace elements in various fish samples from Sir Dam Lake, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey.

    Erdoğrul, Ozlem; Erbilir, Feryal


    Achanthobrama marmid (thorn-bream) (n:24), Chondrostoma regium (nose-carp) (n:33) and Silurus glanis (wels) (n:21), and Cyprinus carpio (carp) (n:30) were collected from Sir Dam Lake in Kahramanmaraş Province. The iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) levels were determined in the total of 108 fish samples by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The concentrations of heavy metals were expressed as mg kg(-1) wet weight of tissue. The mean Fe and Mn levels of muscle and gill of C. carpio were 0.8-5.71 and 0.30-1.96, respectively. The mean of the Fe and Mn levels of muscle and gill of A. marmid were 1.22, 5.07 and 0.38, 0.85 mg kg(-1), respectively. The ranges of mean concentrations of Fe and Mn levels in muscle and gill of C. regium were 0.91, 5.61 and 0.27, 3.42 mg kg(-1), respectively. The mean value of Fe in S. glanis gill was 1.03, which of Mn was 0.17 mg kg(-1). Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, and Pb were not detected in the muscle of S. glanis. The mean values for Co in muscle of thorn-bream, carp, and nose-carp were 0.005, 0.01, 0.0 mg kg(-1), respectively. Nickel values in the muscle were ranged between 0.38 and 1.93 in thorn-bream, 0.06 and 1.34 in carp, 0.14 and 1.89 in nose-carp, in that order. The mean Pb levels of muscle and gill of A. marmid were 0.14 and 0.29 mg kg(-1), respectively. The mean values of Pb concentration of muscle and gill for C. carpio were 0.13 and 0.50 mg kg(-1), respectively. In C. regium mean values for Pb in muscle and gill were 0.06 and 0.06 mg kg(-1), respectively. The mean value of Pb in S. glanis gill was 0.42, ranged between 0.0-0.92 mg kg(-1).

  7. Seismic failure modes and seismic safety of Hardfill dam

    Kun XIONG; Yong-hong WENG; Yun-long HE


    Based on microscopic damage theory and the finite element method, and using the Weibull distribution to characterize the random distribution of the mechanical properties of materials, the seismic response of a typical Hardfill dam was analyzed through numerical simulation during the earthquakes with intensities of 8 degrees and even greater. The seismic failure modes and failure mechanism of the dam were explored as well. Numerical results show that the Hardfill dam remains at a low stress level and undamaged or slightly damaged during an earthquake with an intensity of 8 degrees. During overload earthquakes, tensile cracks occur at the dam surfaces and extend to inside the dam body, and the upstream dam body experiences more serious damage than the downstream dam body. Therefore, under the seismic conditions, the failure pattern of the Hardfill dam is the tensile fracture of the upstream regions and the dam toe. Compared with traditional gravity dams, Hardfill dams have better seismic performance and greater seismic safety.

  8. Dam Safety Concepts

    Duricic, J.


    The majority of dams constructed in the world are dams that can be categorized as embankment dams. Throughout history we can point to many failures of dams, and embankment dams in particular. Nowadays it is clear that the goal to construct stable dams has not been achieved, even with advanced techno

  9. Dam Safety Concepts

    Duricic, J.


    The majority of dams constructed in the world are dams that can be categorized as embankment dams. Throughout history we can point to many failures of dams, and embankment dams in particular. Nowadays it is clear that the goal to construct stable dams has not been achieved, even with advanced

  10. Dam Safety Concepts

    Duricic, J.


    The majority of dams constructed in the world are dams that can be categorized as embankment dams. Throughout history we can point to many failures of dams, and embankment dams in particular. Nowadays it is clear that the goal to construct stable dams has not been achieved, even with advanced techno


    王大国; Tham Leslie George; 水庆象; 刘霞


    用基于特征线的算子分裂(CBOS)有限元法求解Naiver-Stokes方程:即在每一个时间层上,采用算子分裂法将N-S方程的对流项与扩散项分开求解,对流项离散采用特征线-Galerkin法,显式求解.流体自由表面跟踪采用浓度法,建立了新的水波模型.经过下游河床有水、无水溃坝模型的验证,表明该模型能精确模拟带自由表面流体运动问题.同时,研究了下游河床无水时溃坝模型自由水面运动特征;探讨了下游河床有水时溃坝模型中涌浪波形成原因、波浪翻卷形成过程,并分析了涌浪波与下游河床水体冲击接触瞬间,下游河床压力突然增大这一现象.%A new finite element method, which is the characteristic-based operator-splitting (CBOS) algorithm, is adopted to solve Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations. In each time step, the equations are split into a diffusive part and a convective part. The convective part is discretized using the characteristic Galerkin method and solved explicitly. The moving interface is captured by the pseudo-concentration method, thus, a new wave model is established. Through the validation of dam break failure onto a downstream dry bed or a wet bed, it is shown that the present model can accurately simulate the generation and the transmission of the dam breaking flow. We also study the evolution characteristics of the free surface in the dry bed case. Meanwhile, the generation of surge waves and the formation of curling waves are discussed for the wet bed case. In addition, it is analyzed that the pressure of the downstream bed suddenly increases under the impact of the surge waves on the water body of the downstream wet bed.

  12. Modelling of a gravity dam with mixed foundation by gravity method and linear finite element analysis; Modelisations d'un barrage-poids avec fondation mixte par la methode de gravite et l'analyse lineaire par elements finis

    Auzolles, E. [Centre d' Expertise Hydrique du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada); Degueldre, L.; Semler, C. [ROI Engineering Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Leclerc, M. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada)


    The gravity method is usually the only analysis tool used to determine the stability and stress of gravity dams. This paper reported on a study of a dam that was subjected to extreme and sudden floods. The entire structure was evaluated using the gravity method combined with a linear finite element analysis. The progressive cracking in the concrete during the hydrostatic loads was investigated using CADAM-3D, developed at Montreal's Ecole Polytechnique. The commercial code ANSYS was used to perform the finite element based stability analysis. The tight schedule for this type of analysis can be met using different pre- and post-processing wizards. It was concluded that the combination of these 2 methods provided better insight of the dam structural behaviour when subjected to a submersion flood, and improved the confidence level in terms of safety factors. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Strength Reducing Elastic-Plastic Finite Element Method to Analyze the Deep Stability of Gravity Dam%重力坝深层抗滑稳定强度折减弹塑性有限元法

    孙伟; 庞俊蕊; 苏龙; 孙建生


    Combined with engineering requirements of the Qingyu Reservoir,the ANSYS finite element software was used to establish overflow grav-ity dam deep sliding stability elastic-plastic calculation model which considered the mechanical properties of weak structural plane of rock in the dam foundation. An analysis of the continuous variation of the distribution of horizontal displacement of dam foundation rock,the characteristics of the magnitude of change of feature points’displacement and the process of the dam foundation rock plastic zones developing to through the founda-tion was took to get the deep sliding stability safety factor of gravity dam by gradually increasing the shear strength reduction coefficient. The safety factor of Qingyu gravity dam analyzed by the strength reducing elastic-plastic finite element method is 3. 0-3. 2,and it is consistent with the limit equilibrium dual ramp stability calculation results 3. 039-3. 667 recommended by specifications. It shows that taking the slip plane displacement mutation and plastic zone perforation as the criterion to judge dam foundation instability and failure is reasonable.%结合清峪水库实际工程设计要求,运用ANSYS有限元软件,建立考虑坝基岩体软弱结构面力学特性的溢流重力坝深层抗滑稳定弹塑性计算模型。通过逐步增大抗剪强度的折减系数,分析研究坝基岩体的水平位移分布连续性变化规律、特征点位移变化幅度特性和坝基岩体塑性区域发展贯通过程。清峪水库重力坝深层抗滑稳定使用强度折减弹塑性有限元分析得到的安全系数为3.0~3.2,与规范推荐的刚体极限平衡双斜面稳定计算结果3.039~3.667具有一致性,表明采用滑移面上位移发生突变及塑性区贯通作为坝基失稳破坏的判断准则是合理的。

  14. Safety Aspects of Sustainable Storage Dams and Earthquake Safety of Existing Dams

    Martin Wieland


    Full Text Available The basic element in any sustainable dam project is safety, which includes the following safety elements: ① structural safety, ② dam safety monitoring, ③ operational safety and maintenance, and ④ emergency planning. Long-term safety primarily includes the analysis of all hazards affecting the project; that is, hazards from the natural environment, hazards from the man-made environment, and project-specific and site-specific hazards. The special features of the seismic safety of dams are discussed. Large dams were the first structures to be systematically designed against earthquakes, starting in the 1930s. However, the seismic safety of older dams is unknown, as most were designed using seismic design criteria and methods of dynamic analysis that are considered obsolete today. Therefore, we need to reevaluate the seismic safety of existing dams based on current state-of-the-art practices and rehabilitate deficient dams. For large dams, a site-specific seismic hazard analysis is usually recommended. Today, large dams and the safety-relevant elements used for controlling the reservoir after a strong earthquake must be able to withstand the ground motions of a safety evaluation earthquake. The ground motion parameters can be determined either by a probabilistic or a deterministic seismic hazard analysis. During strong earthquakes, inelastic deformations may occur in a dam; therefore, the seismic analysis has to be carried out in the time domain. Furthermore, earthquakes create multiple seismic hazards for dams such as ground shaking, fault movements, mass movements, and others. The ground motions needed by the dam engineer are not real earthquake ground motions but models of the ground motion, which allow the safe design of dams. It must also be kept in mind that dam safety evaluations must be carried out several times during the long life of large storage dams. These features are discussed in this paper.

  15. Stability Analysis of A Gravity Arch Dam Using Three-dimensional Finite Element Method%重力拱坝坝体三维有限元稳定分析

    彭成山; 于丽红; 范冰


    Because the gravity arch dam is gravity based which puts great stress on the beams ,so stability issue becomes the main problem of these dams .In order to verify the safety and feasibility of the gravity arch dam design of a reservoir , the finite element software ADINA was adopted to carry out a three dimensional stability analysis for the dam .The defor-mation of the dam under different stress at the normal storage level ,the design flood level and check flood level were cal-culated through the simulation .The results indicate that the distribution of stress and strain of the dam body are in line with the actual situation and the values are within the allowed range .This study will not only provide an important techni-cal support for practical engineering design and construction ,but also an effective reference for the similar engineering constructions .%由于重力拱坝主要依靠梁的作用即以重力作用为主,所以稳定问题显得更重要。为了验证某水库重力拱坝坝体设计的安全性与可行性,采用有限元计算软件 ADINA 对该重力拱坝进行了三维稳定分析,模拟计算出了正常蓄水位、设计洪水位、校核洪水位下的坝体应力变形情况。从计算结果可以看出,该坝坝体的应力应变分布规律均符合实际情况且应力值都在允许的范围内。不仅为实际工程的设计和修建提供了重要的技术依据,同时也为同类工程建设提供了有效的参考。

  16. 基于弹性有限元的高拱坝安全度敏感性分析%Sensitivity Analysis of High Arch Dam Safety Based on Elastic Finite Element

    王志强; 李同春; 沈德才


    以溪洛渡高拱坝为例,针对弹性有限元评价高拱坝安全度存在的问题,以基本荷载组合作为基本研究工况,考虑整体自重、分缝自重及施工浇筑过程自重三种自重荷载作用方式,研究可能的水荷载与温度荷载变化、地质条件变化及大坝材料的抗力变化,分析变化量对大坝安全度的敏感性.计算结果表明,对温降工况,影响建基面相对受拉面积的因素从大到小依次为水荷载、混凝土弹模、地基弹模、自重作用方式、温度荷载.%The elastic finite element has drawbacks for evaluating high arch dam safety. Taking Xiluodu high arch dam for an example, based on the conditions of basic load combination, possible water load change, temperature load change, possible geological condition change and dam material resisting force change are studied by considering three dead weight load function ways of overall weight, parting weight and weight in process of construction. And the sensitivity of above-mentioned change to dam safety is analyzed. The results show that for the temperature falling conditions, the fac tors influencing foundation plane relative tension area rank from large to small as follows: water load, concrete elastic modulus, foundation elastic modulus, weight function way and temperature load.

  17. Three-dimensional Finite Element Optimization Analysis of Different Seepage Control Schemes of Lizhou RCC Arch Dam%立洲RCC拱坝渗控方案的三维有限元优化分析

    行亚楠; 胡升伟; 王滔; 吴震宇; 陈建康


    The seepage control measures were investigated for the dam area of Lizhou hydroelectric project in Muli River of Si‐chuan Province .A three‐dimensional finite element seepage model was developed using ANSYS12 .1 to analyze the seepage char‐acteristics and variations of seepage pressure under different seepage control schemes .The seepage gradient and seepage amount of key positions and the seepage pressure and groundwater level of typical profiles of seepage field for different seepage control schemes were compared .The results showed that (1) the impervious curtain and drainage hole in the design scheme of seepage control measures of Lizhou arch dam can decrease the seepage saturation line effectively ,lower the uplift pressure on dam foun‐dation and dam abutment ,and improve the stress conditions of dam foundation and dam abutment ;(2) the deepening curtain , drainage hole ,and thickening curtain have insignificant effects on decreasing the seepage pressure ;and (3) increasing the depth of impervious curtain near the f 5 fault can prevent the formation of leakage passage in the f 5 fault .In addition ,removing the drainage hole in the first layer and decreasing the extending length of the impervious curtain of dam abutment can save the cost of seepage control measures without breaking seepage safety .%  以四川木里河立洲水电枢纽工程为研究对象,对坝区的渗控措施展开研究.利用ANSYS12.1建立三维有限元渗流模型,计算分析得到了各渗控方案的渗流特征和渗透压力变化规律.对各方案中关键部位的渗透比降、渗漏量和典型剖面渗流场的渗压、地下水位等特征量进行比较分析后,得知:(1)立洲拱坝渗控措施设计方案的防渗帷幕和排水孔幕能有效降低坝后渗流浸润线,对于减小坝基、坝肩扬压力、改善坝基和坝肩受力条件起到了良好的作用;(2)加深帷幕和排水孔幕、增厚帷幕对降低坝



    With the characteristics of seepage flow in earth-rock dams, a seepage monitoring model was established based on the finite element method for 3-D seepage flow together with observed data and was used to analyze and monitor the seepage of dams. In order to find out and monitor the seepage status of the whole dam, the separation of seepage amount for dam body, dam foundation and side banks was made theoretically by using the model. Practical example shows that the accuracy of computed results is satisfactory and the separation results are more objective.

  19. Alpine dams

    Alain Marnezy


    Full Text Available Les barrages-réservoirs de montagne ont été réalisés initialement dans les Alpes pour répondre à la demande d’énergie en période hivernale. Une certaine diversification des usages de l’eau s’est ensuite progressivement développée, en relation avec le développement touristique des collectivités locales. Aujourd’hui, la participation des ouvrages d’Électricité De France à la production de neige de culture représente une nouvelle étape. Dans les régions où les aménagements hydroélectriques sont nombreux, les besoins en eau pour la production de neige peuvent être résolus par prélèvements à partir des adductions EDF. Les gestionnaires de stations échappent ainsi aux inconvénients liés à la construction et à la gestion des « retenues collinaires ». Cette évolution, qui concerne déjà quelques régions alpines comme la haute Maurienne ou le Beaufortin, apparaît comme une forme renouvelée d’intégration territoriale de la ressource en eau.Mountain reservoirs were initially built in the Alps to meet energy needs in the winter. A certain diversification in the uses of water then gradually developed, related to tourism development in the local communities. Today, the use of facilities belonging to EDF (French Electricity Authority to provide water for winter resorts to make artificial snow represents a new phase. By taking water from EDF resources to supply snow-making equipment, resort managers are thus able to avoid the problems related to the construction and management of small headwater dams. This new orientation in the use of mountain water resources already affects a number of alpine regions such as the Upper Maurienne valley and Beaufortain massif and represents a renewed form of the territorial integration of water resources.

  20. Iran funds dam completion


    Iran has signed a contract with unnamed foreign financiers for US$300M to fund two half-finished dam schemes, according to Tehran radio. The schemes are the Ostur dam in Mianeh in East Azerbaijan province and the Molla Sadra dam in Fars province. The Ostur dam will have a storage capacity of 2B m3 and a 160 MW hydro power station.

  1. Determination of Seepage and Analysis of Earth Dams (Case Study: Karkheh Dam

    A. Kamanbedast


    Full Text Available Because of the increasing trend of building dam throughout Iran; it is necessary to optimize dam buildings and operations. Dam or Hydropower industry has two types of buildings; normally: (1 Concrete dams (2 Embankment (earth dams. Generally, scientists and engineers use different methods to enhance safety and decrease any errors in calculation due to maintenance of water storage especially hydro structure of the dam. It is necessary to investigate the dam seepage control; commonly used by several methods. Seepage is one of the important issues for design, build and maintenance of dams awareness. Seepage problem and its rules helps scientist to select a suitable method of monitoring and solving such problem. These methods of analysis were carried out at civil and construction project. In this study, one of latest method of investigation of seepage behavior were analytically evaluated and compared with the actual rules. Based on determine results; several suggestions and optimization method were suggested. Therefore, an optimum method was scientifically selected. Besides that, flow condition of porous environment with application of numeric program was analyzed. Finally, all the results were lunched out from seep/w soft which is the most significant program about this matter; use of finite elements method is specified for saturated and unsaturated environment. Thus; leakage and seepage were defined as function of (time and position. Subsequently, the best seepage solutions for the dam constructing were scientifically identified.

  2. Analysis of seismic disaster failure mechanism and dam-break simulation of high arch dam

    Zhang, Jingkui; Zhang, Liaojun


    Based on a Chinese national high arch dam located in a meizoseismal region, a nonlinear numerical analysis model of the damage and failure process of a dam-foundation system is established by employing a 3-D deformable distinct element code (3DEC) and its re-development functions. The proposed analysis model considers the dam-foundation-reservoir coupling effect, influence of nonlinear contact in the opening and closing of the dam seam surface and abutment rock joints during strong earthquakes, and radiation damping of far field energy dissipation according to the actual workability state of an arch dam. A safety assessment method and safety evaluation criteria is developed to better understand the arch dam system disaster process from local damage to ultimate failure. The dynamic characteristics, disaster mechanism, limit bearing capacity and the entire failure process of a high arch dam under a strong earthquake are then analyzed. Further, the seismic safety of the arch dam is evaluated according to the proposed evaluation criteria and safety assessment method. As a result, some useful conclusions are obtained for some aspects of the disaster mechanism and failure process of an arch dam. The analysis method and conclusions may be useful in engineering practice.

  3. Hoover Dam Learning Packet.

    Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This learning packet provides background information about Hoover Dam (Nevada) and the surrounding area. Since the dam was built at the height of the Depression in 1931, people came from all over the country to work on it. Because of Hoover Dam, the Colorado River was controlled for the first time in history and farmers in Nevada, California, and…

  4. Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam

    Noble, C R


    The main objective of this study is to perform nonlinear dynamic earthquake time history analyses on Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado. This project poses many significant technical challenges, one of which is to model the entire Morrow Point Dam/Foundation Rock/Reservoir system which includes accurate geology topography. In addition, the computational model must be initialized to represent the existing dead loads on the structure and the stress field caused by the dead loads. To achieve the correct dead load stress field due to gravity and hydrostatic load, the computer model must account for the manner in which the dams were constructed. Construction of a dam finite element model with the correct as-built geometry of the dam structure and simply ''turning on'' gravity in the computer model will generally lead to an incorrect initial stress field in the structure. The sequence of segmented lifts typical of dam construction has a significant impact on the static stress fields induced in the dam. In addition, the dam model must also account for the interaction between the adjacent dam segments across the dam contraction joints. As a result of these challenges, it was determined that a significant amount of code development was required in order to accurately simulate the motion of the dam structure. Modifications to the existing slide surfaces are needed to allow for appropriate modeling of the shear keys across the contraction joints. Furthermore, a model for hydrodynamic interaction was also implemented into NIKE3D and DYNA3D for fluid representation in the 3D dam system finite element model. Finally, the modeling of the 3D dam system results in a very large computational model, which makes it difficult to perform a static initialization using an implicit code. Traditionally, for these large models, the model has been initialized over a long time scale using an explicit code. However, recent advancements

  5. Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam

    Noble, C R; Nuss, L K


    This research and development project was sponsored by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), who are best known for the dams, power plants, and canals it constructed in the 17 western states. The mission statement of the USBR's Dam Safety Office, located in Denver, Colorado, is ''to ensure Reclamation dams do not present unacceptable risk to people, property, and the environment.'' The Dam Safety Office does this by quickly identifying the dams which pose an increased threat to the public, and quickly completing the related analyses in order to make decisions that will safeguard the public and associated resources. The research study described in this report constitutes one element of USBR's research and development work to advance their computational and analysis capabilities for studying the response of dams to strong earthquake motions. This project focused on the seismic response of Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado.

  6. Seismic failure modes and seismic safety of Hardfill dam

    Kun XIONG


    Full Text Available Based on microscopic damage theory and the finite element method, and using the Weibull distribution to characterize the random distribution of the mechanical properties of materials, the seismic response of a typical Hardfill dam was analyzed through numerical simulation during the earthquakes with intensities of 8 degrees and even greater. The seismic failure modes and failure mechanism of the dam were explored as well. Numerical results show that the Hardfill dam remains at a low stress level and undamaged or slightly damaged during an earthquake with an intensity of 8 degrees. During overload earthquakes, tensile cracks occur at the dam surfaces and extend to inside the dam body, and the upstream dam body experiences more serious damage than the downstream dam body. Therefore, under the seismic conditions, the failure pattern of the Hardfill dam is the tensile fracture of the upstream regions and the dam toe. Compared with traditional gravity dams, Hardfill dams have better seismic performance and greater seismic safety.

  7. Use and application of inflatable dam seals in large concrete dams

    Dickes, G. [Structural Preservation Systems Inc., Hanover, MD (United States)


    The successful installation of inflatable dam seals has been accomplished at several large concrete dams in the United States. This accomplishment was recently realized for the first time in Canada. The minimization of water intrusion caused by failed water stops in monolithic dams by a small diameter inflatable seal is one of the many uses for the device. Many problems encountered at large concrete dams are related to stress control of alkali-aggregate or alkali silica reaction (AAR, ASR), and the inflatable dam seal fits in as part of this control system. Many of the problems with concrete dams are due to AAR which causes concrete to expand, resulting in cracking of concrete and misalignment of equipment as two of the most important issues. A transverse vertical saw cut through the upper section of the concrete structure was one of the methods used to alleviate the stresses brought about by AAR. This method has been used on a number of occasions in both Canada and the United States. Once the saw cut is complete, from the upstream face to the downstream face, controlling the water flow in the kerf (13-19 millimeter) presents a major challenge. Successfully sealing failed water stops and saw cuts was accomplished by installing inflatable dam seals with vertical heights in excess of 38 meters. A specific seal must be designed in each case. Several elements of the composite construction seal meet the engineering requirements set forth by Dam Safety Officials and Engineers and Owners. Some case histories were presented, namely the Harry S. Truman Dam in Missouri, the Tennessee Valley Authority at several sites, the Hiwassee Dam in North Carolina, the Fontana Dam in Tennessee, and the Mactaquac Generating Station in New Brunswick. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  8. Numerical Modeling of Sliding Stability of RCC dam

    Mughieda, O.; Hazirbaba, K.; Bani-Hani, K.; Daoud, W.


    Stability and stress analyses are the most important elements that require rigorous consideration in design of a dam structure. Stability of dams against sliding is crucial due to the substantial horizontal load that requires sufficient and safe resistance to develop by mobilization of adequate shearing forces along the base of the dam foundation. In the current research, the static sliding stability of a roller-compacted-concrete (RCC) dam was modelled using finite element method to investigate the stability against sliding. A commercially available finite element software (SAP 2000) was used to analyze stresses in the body of the dam and foundation. A linear finite element static analysis was performed in which a linear plane strain isoperimetric four node elements was used for modelling the dam-foundation system. The analysis was carried out assuming that no slip will occur at the interface between the dam and the foundation. Usual static loading condition was applied for the static analysis. The greatest tension was found to develop in the rock adjacent to the toe of the upstream slope. The factor of safety against sliding along the entire base of the dam was found to be greater than 1 (FS>1), for static loading conditions.

  9. Dam removal: Listening in

    Foley, Melissa M.; Bellmore, James; O'Connor, James E.; Duda, Jeff; East, Amy E.; Grant, Gordon G.; Anderson, Chauncey; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Collins, Mathias J.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Craig, Laura S.; Evans, James E.; Greene, Samantha; Magilligan, Francis J.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Major, Jon J.; Pess, George R.; Randle, Timothy J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Torgersen, Christian; Tullos, Desiree D.; Wilcox, Andrew C.


    Dam removal is widely used as an approach for river restoration in the United States. The increase in dam removals—particularly large dams—and associated dam-removal studies over the last few decades motivated a working group at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis to review and synthesize available studies of dam removals and their findings. Based on dam removals thus far, some general conclusions have emerged: (1) physical responses are typically fast, with the rate of sediment erosion largely dependent on sediment characteristics and dam-removal strategy; (2) ecological responses to dam removal differ among the affected upstream, downstream, and reservoir reaches; (3) dam removal tends to quickly reestablish connectivity, restoring the movement of material and organisms between upstream and downstream river reaches; (4) geographic context, river history, and land use significantly influence river restoration trajectories and recovery potential because they control broader physical and ecological processes and conditions; and (5) quantitative modeling capability is improving, particularly for physical and broad-scale ecological effects, and gives managers information needed to understand and predict long-term effects of dam removal on riverine ecosystems. Although these studies collectively enhance our understanding of how riverine ecosystems respond to dam removal, knowledge gaps remain because most studies have been short (methods in the U.S.

  10. Seismic potential failure mode analysis of concrete gravity dam based on extended finite element method%基于扩展有限元法的重力坝强震潜在失效模式分析

    张社荣; 王高辉; 孙博; 王超


    The extended finite element method (XFEM) can make the characterization of discontinuous displacement field independent of cell boundaries by enriching discontinuous displacement mode on the influence domain of related nodes. Therefore XFEM possesses the capacity of effective describing the crack propagation in concrete. The damaged process and failure mode of Koyna gravity dam subjected to earthquake was analyzed using XFEM. The computed distribution of cracking damage is consistent with the actual condition and the model test results in literature, which verifies the validity of the calculation model. Considering the spectral characteristics of ground motion, we conducted numerical simulation of the dynamic damaged process of a concrete gravity dam based on a reasonable seismic wave. The potential failure mode of the dam under strong earthquake ground motion was generalized from the simulation results. Our work can provides the basis for the seismic design, construction safety hazard rate analysis under particular failure mode and flood routing.%扩展有限元法(XFEM)通过在相关节点的影响域上富集非连续位移模式,使得对非连续位移场的表征独立于单元边界,可以有效描述混凝土中的裂纹扩展。以Koyna重力坝为例,采用XFEM分析了大坝地震渐进破坏过程和失效模式,数值模拟结果与文献中的模型试验结果基本一致,验证了计算模型的有效性。考虑地震动频谱特性的影响,采用合理的地震波对国内某混凝土重力坝强震下的动力破坏过程进行了数值仿真分析,得到了不同水平地震作用下的大坝破坏形态,并概化出强震作用下混凝土重力坝的潜在失效模式,为大坝抗震设计、特定失事模式下的工程安全风险率分析及洪水演进提供计算基础。

  11. Dam to the Rescue


    The Three Gorges Dam relieves the summer drought in south and central China,but may contribute to other problems The Three Gorges Dam played an important role in relieving China’s drought in central and eastern prov-inces that had been using increased water discharges from the Dam to irrigate dry farmlands facing the worst drought int he last 60 years in 2011.

  12. Design and construction of Nemiscau-1 Dam, the first asphalt core rockfill dam in North America

    Alicescu, V.; Tournier, J.P. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Vannobel, P. [Societe d' Energie de la Baie James, Montreal, PQ (Canada)


    The concept of asphalt as a waterproofing medium inside embankment dams was originally developed in Germany in the 1960s. More than 100 asphalt core rockfill (ACRD) dams have been completed or are under construction. They all have a strong record without any seepage problems or required maintenance. After using the glacial till as waterproofing material for its embankment dams for more than 50 years, Hydro-Quebec is now looking to develop new dam concepts, mainly for the zones where natural waterproofing materials do not exist. In order to do so, the company has decided to design and construct the Nemiscau-1 Dam as a prototype ACRD. This paper presented the detailed design criteria, technical specifications as well as some information concerning the construction of the dam such as asphalt mix design. The given dam site, geology and materials is well suited for a dam with an asphalt core and the chosen core thickness of minimum 400 mm was found to be appropriate, given the small net water head. The main reservoir levels as well as the characteristics of the dam were also listed. Information on the general construction of the dam was provided. It was concluded that the longitudinal profile of the rock excavation and concrete plinth must be optimized, with an optimum balance between the rock excavation, the volume and shape of the concrete plinth and finally, the placement of the asphalt core with the manual method. Several combinations of these 3 elements must be analyzed at the design stage and the most cost effective one should be applied on site. 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  13. Design of tailing dam using red mud

    Rout, Subrat; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat


    Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

  14. Living with dams

    H.L.F. Saeijs (Henk); K.D. Schuijt (Kirsten)


    textabstractDams have proven their usefulness in preventing and mitigating floods, and water scarcity and generating electricity. They are indispensable in present society. But at the same time, they cause serious ecological, social and economical problems. Consequently we have to live with a dams

  15. International small dam safety assurance policy benchmarks to avoid dam failure flood disasters in developing countries

    Pisaniello, John D.; Dam, Tuyet Thi; Tingey-Holyoak, Joanne L.


    In developing countries small dam failure disasters are common yet research on their dam safety management is lacking. This paper reviews available small dam safety assurance policy benchmarks from international literature, synthesises them for applicability in developing countries, and provides example application through a case study of Vietnam. Generic models from 'minimum' to 'best' practice (Pisaniello, 1997) are synthesised with the World Bank's 'essential' and 'desirable' elements (Bradlow et al., 2002) leading to novel policy analysis and design criteria for developing countries. The case study involved 22 on-site dam surveys finding micro level physical and management inadequacies that indicates macro dam safety management policy performs far below the minimum benchmark in Vietnam. Moving assurance policy towards 'best practice' is necessary to improve the safety of Vietnam's considerable number of hazardous dams to acceptable community standards, but firstly achieving 'minimum practice' per the developed guidance is essential. The policy analysis/design process provides an exemplar for other developing countries to follow for avoiding dam failure flood disasters.

  16. 土坝动力应变局部化与渐进破坏的自适应有限元分析%An adaptive finite element method for strain localization and progressive failure of earth dam under earthquake

    黄茂松; 钱建固; 吴世明


    为合理描述土坝由于地震荷载引起的应变局部化与渐进破坏现象,本文采用了一种基于类似位移梯度的误差指示的自适应网格有限元技术,同时还将快速的、无条件稳定的分步时域解法与自适应技术结合起来。文中对美国著名的Lower San Fernando土坝的分析,显示了本文提出的有限元新技术的有效性。%An adaptive finite element method for localized deformation and progressive failure of fluid-infiltrated soils under earthquake loading is presented. The present paper is a direct extension of the research reported by Zienkiewicz and the first author[12]. The adaptive technique has been extended to the problems incorporating dynamic loading and effects of the fluid phases. An efficient computation involving adaptive remeshing has been achieved through the introduction of an unconditionally stable staggered time-stepping algorithm. A re-analysis of the Lower San Fernando dam slide under earthquake has demonstrated the ability of the proposed approach to dealing with more complicated strain localization problems.

  17. DAM-LAKEFRONT PLAZA: Revitalization of an Agriculture Reservoir Dam in Kashar-Tirana/Albania

    Valbona Koçi


    Full Text Available The Dam-Lakefront Plaza in Kashar-Tirana/Albania is a research project that proposes not only the re-consideration and reinforcement of the artificial Reservoirs Dams built during Socialism in Albania, but envisions the maintenance of dams and revitalization of the lakeside area promoting the public-private collaboration. In addition, it envisions the generation of qualitative and lively public spaces in sub-urban areas as well. Admitting the artificial lakes as specific nodes of man-made infrastructure in the landscape, and consequently the dams (together with the drainage channels as important hydrotechnic elements of the flood protection infrastructure, this research intends to elaborate on one type of landscape infrastructure - the vertical screens, offering a mediation between the natural and built landscape.

  18. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  19. Dams: Pros and Cons


    The Dam was built for the main purpose of water supply to university community. Data on .... The decision on who is to participate in a full EIA on a water ... METHOD AND MATERIALS ..... Development”, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems,.

  20. Wear and Thermal Stress Analysis of Side Dam for Twin Roll Strip Casting

    LI Chao-feng; DI Hong-shuang; ZHANG Xiao-ming; WANG Guo-dong; LIU Xiang-hua


    The side dam technology for twin roll strip casting was discussed. The effect of pre-heating temperature, material and design of side dam on the process stability and surface quality of products was analyzed. The wear and erosion of side dam for different steel grades were described. Two types of side dam designs, namely integral type and combined type, were used in the experiment, and the suitable position of side dam was determined by experiment. The results show that the combined side dam is better than the integral one in process stability and long service life. The temperature fields and thermal stress fields in side dam during strip casting were analyzed using the finite element analysis software, and the causes of side dam cracking were explained.

  1. Investigation on the Causes of Cracking in Earth Dams (Case study: Mahmood-Abad Earth Dam

    H. Rahimi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Cracking of earth dams is a one of the main threat causes of stability of embankment dams. In this research by modeling of the behavior of an embankment dam and employing conditions of the earthquake, the reasons of cracking were inspected using by modeling of earth dam behavior. Based on the literature, one of the main causes of dam failures is sliding and cracking of the dam structure during earthquake. Localized liquefaction of foundation soils was one of the causes of the observed post-earthquake distress within these dams. Material and Methods: In order to study the causes and the results of crack on earth dams, Mahmoodabad earthen dam with a height of 19 m, is located in Zanjan province, northwest of Iran, which suffered a longitudinal crack on the crest and slight sliding of the upstream slope due to 2001 Avaj earthquake was studied. This dam has faced earthquake two times with an interval of two years. During the first earthquake with the magnitude about 6.6 in Richter scale small longitudinal cracks had created on the crest. The developed cracks had been repaired by injecting the cement and then has been hidden by passing the time. After the second earthquake with the magnitude about 6.5 in Richter scale the hidden cracks had been appeared again and the slight movement of the upper slopes of dam reported. Based on the site investigation and documented information about dam, including maps and parameter data, the behavior of the dam has modeled by using Plaxis as a finite element model. In order to check the accuracy of the design of dam, the stability analysis has been conducted using by Xslope as a limit equilibrium model. The foundation conditions and the Geotechnical properties of the layer beneath the dam has been inspected by open excavation. Results and Discussion: Underground investigation about Geotechnical properties of dam foundation has showed that there is a thin sandy layer confined in alluvium material of the

  2. Earthquake safety assessment of concrete arch and gravity dams

    Lin Gao; Hu Zhiqiang


    Based on research studies currently being carried out at Dalian University of Technology, some important aspects for the earthquake safety assessment of concrete dams are reviewed and discussed. First, the rate-dependent behavior of concrete subjected to earthquake loading is examined, emphasizing the properties of concrete under cyclic and biaxial loading conditions. Second, a modified four-parameter Hsieh-Ting-Chen viscoplastic consistency model is developed to simulate the rate-dependent behavior of concrete. The earthquake response of a 278m high arch dam is analyzed, and the results show that the strain-rate effects become noticeable in the inelastic range. Third, a more accurate non-smooth Newton algorithm for the solution of three-dimensional frictional contact problems is developed to study the joint opening effects of arch dams during strong earthquakes. Such effects on two nearly 300m high arch dams have been studied. It was found that the canyon shape has great influence on the magnitude and distribution of the joint opening along the dam axis. Fourth, the scaled boundary finite element method presented by Song and Wolf is employed to study the dam-reservoir-foundation interaction effects of concrete dams. Particular emphases were placed on the variation of foundation stiffness and the anisotropic behavior of the foundation material on the dynamic response of concrete dams. Finally, nonlinear modeling of concrete to study the damage evolution of concrete dams during strong earthquakes is discussed. An elastic-damage mechanics approach for damage prediction of concrete gravity dams is described as an example. These findings are helpful in understanding the dynamic behavior of concrete dams and promoting the improvement of seismic safety assessment methods.

  3. Research advance in safety analysis methods for high concrete dam

    REN; QingWen; XU; LanYu; WAN; YunHui


    High tensile stresses occurred in high concrete dams and in their foundation lead to the growing importance of their safety with the increase of concrete dam height.Without any exiting specification or successful experiences of concrete dams up to 300 m at home and abroad for reference,experts feel obliged to figure out how to perform safety analysis on high concrete dam.This paper involves the main contents and mechanical features of the safety analysis on high concrete dam and shows the current state and progress of the analysis methods.For the insufficiency and problems existing in normative methods,study on modern numerical method such as finite element method must be strengthened to find out the stress control criterion which is in accordance with the methods.Two aspects of the safety analysis of high dam--local damage from material level and integral destruction from structure level--should be considered.For the local damage,we should consider the non-homogeneity of material and strengthen the research of meso-damage mechanics.While for integral destruction of the system of high dam and its foundation,a study on non-strength theory should receive enough concerns.Further,attention should be paid to the research on the failure modes and criterions of high concrete dam failure analysis and safety evaluation,and the effect of uncertainty and classification of safety should be considered too.

  4. Integrated Analysis of the Formation Mechanism of Cracks in a Concrete Dam Using Microseismic Monitoring and Numerical Simulation

    Gang He; Biao Li; Xuben Wang; Nuwen Xu


    The dam of Guanyinyan hydropower station is composed of a concrete gravity dam in the left bank and a rockfill dam in the right bank. During the operation of the hydropower station, several surface cracks occurred in the concrete gravity dam, which threatened the stability of the dam. To evaluate the evolution trend of the cracks and forecast the potential risk of the dam, the microseismic (MS) monitoring technique and finite-element method were used. First, the concrete three-point bending f...

  5. Parallel computing analysis of arch dam and foundation system using 3-D FEM with element-by-element approach%拱坝-地基系统的三维有限元并行计算

    刘耀儒; 周维垣; 刘福深; 强天驰



  6. Seismic rehabilitation and analysis of Chaohe earth dam

    Lei Fu; Xiangwu Zeng


    Stability of earth dams during earthquakes has been a major concern for geotechnical engineers in seismic active regions. Liquefaction induced slope failure occurred at the upstream slope of a major earth dam in the suburb of Beijing, China, during the 1976 Tangshan Earthquake. The gravelly soil with loose initial condition liquefied under relatively small ground vibration. In recent years, a major seismic rehabilitation project was carried out on a similar earth dam nearby using dumped quarry stone. Seismic stability analysis was carried out using model test, finite element simulation, and pseudostatic slope stability program after taking into account the influence of excess pore pressure.

  7. Characteristics of stress distribution in trapezoid-shaped CSG dam during earthquake

    Kondo, M.; Kawasaki, H. [Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (Japan). Water Management and Dam Division; Sasaki, T. [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan). Hydraulic Engineering Research Group


    There is currently a shortage of dam sites with optimal conditions in Japan. Dam design and construction technologies must also respond to a growing demand for cost reductions and environmental concerns. Cemented Sand and Gravel (CSG) is a new dam construction material that reduces the costs of material production. However, it is not as strong as concrete. The trapezoid shape was proposed to resolve this problem, as a trapezoidal cross section can minimize stress inside the dam body and reduce fluctuations during earthquakes. This paper examines the effects of dam size and the deformability of the foundation ground on the dynamic behavior of a trapezoid-shaped CSG dam during an earthquake, as well as examining the differences between the dynamic behaviors of trapezoid-shaped CSG dams and conventional concrete gravity dams. Finite element models of both dams were used to conduct the comparison. Analysis results included stress distribution during usual loading conditions. It was concluded that stress generated inside the dam body of trapezoid-shaped CSG during earthquakes is considerably lower than concrete gravity dams with a conventional triangle shape. In addition, stress distribution inside the dam body is affected largely by the relative deformability of the foundation to CSG. 4 refs., 2 tabs.,12 figs.

  8. Dam safety in British Columbia

    Hunt, H.M.; Round, R.P.D.


    Many dams in British Columbia were built before 1900, and a comprehensive inspection and surveillance program has been developed. The background and implementation of this program are described. Topics discussed include program responsibilities, classification of dams, organization, the dam safety program, and coordination with other agencies. (PMA)

  9. Stability of earth dam with a vertical core

    Orekhov Vyacheslav Valentinovich


    Full Text Available Earth dam with impervious element in the form of asphaltic concrete core is currently the most promising type of earth dams (due to simple construction technology and universal service properties of asphaltic concrete and is widely used in the world. However, experience in the construction and operation of high dams (above 160 m is not available, and their work is scarcely explored. In this regard, the paper discusses the results of computational prediction of the stress-strain state and stability of a high earth dam (256 m high with the core. The authors considered asphaltic concrete containing 7 % of bitumen as the material of the core. Gravel was considered as the material of resistant prisms. Design characteristics of the rolled asphaltic concrete and gravel were obtained from the processing of the results of triaxial tests. The calculations were performed using finite element method in elastoplastic formulation and basing on the phased construction of the dam and reservoir filling. The research shows, that the work of embankment dam with vertical core during filling of the reservoir is characterized by horizontal displacement of the lower resistant prism in the tailrace and the formation of a hard wedge prism descending along the core in the upper resistant prism. The key issue of the safety assessment is to determine the safety factor of the overall stability of the dam, for calculation of which the destruction of the earth dam is necessary, which can be done by reducing the strength properties of the dam materials. As a results of the calculations, the destruction of the dam occurs with a decrease in the strength characteristics of the materials of the dam by 2.5 times. The dam stability depends on the stability of the lower resistant prism. The destruction of its slope occurs on the classical circular-cylindrical surface. The presence of a potential collapse surface in the upper resistant prism (on the edges of the descending wedge does

  10. Effective stress analysis method of seismic response for high tailings dam

    LIU Hou-xiang; LI Ning; LIAO Xue; WU Cong-shi; PAN Xu-dong


    Based on the analysis method for tailings dam in upstream raising method presently used in metallurgy and nonferrous metals tailings depository in the world, an effective stress analysis method of seismic response for high tailings dam was developed according to the results of engineering geological exploration, static and dynamic test and stability analysis on Baizhishan tailing dam 113.5 m high. The law of generation, diflusion and dissipation of seismic pore water pressure during and after earthquake was investigated, and the results of tailings dam's acceleration, seismic dynamic stress and pore water pressure were obtained.The results show that the seismic stability and liquefaction resistance of high tailings dam are strengthened remarkably, and the scope and depth of liquefaction area at the top of dam are reduced greatly.The interior stress is compressive stress.the stress level of every element is less than 1.0 and the safety coefficient of every element is greater than 1.O. The safety coefficient against liquefaction of every element of tailing dam is greater than 1.5 according to the effective stress analysis of seismic response by finite element method.The calculated results prove that liquefaction is the main reason of seismic failure of high tailing dams, and the effect of seismic inertia forces on high tailing dams'stability during earthquake is secondary reason.

  11. Study on Rock Bolt Reinforcement for a Gravity Dam Foundation

    Chen, S. H.; Yang, Z. M.; Wang, W. M.; Shahrour, I.


    In this article, the rock bolt reinforcement mechanism is discussed, and the gravity method as well as the finite element method for the bolted rock is presented. These methods are applied to study the gravity dam foundation of the Xiaoxi Hydropower Project, which is influenced by the presence of a large fault with a cracked zone over 180 m wide. Rock bolt reinforcement was used to improve the stability of the dam foundation, and the reinforcement parameters were determined from a semi-empirical equation controlled by in situ test. The stability analysis was conducted using the above methods, and the improvement in terms of deformation and stress as well as stability of the dam foundation due to the reinforcement is assessed. Rock bolt reinforcement was completed successfully, and the dam started normal operations in January 2008.

  12. Parallel computation of seismic analysis of high arch dam

    Chen Houqun; Ma Huaifa; Tu Jin; Cheng Guangqing; Tang Juzhen


    Parallel computation programs are developed for three-dimensional meso-mechanics analysis of fully-graded dam concrete and seismic response analysis of high arch dams (ADs), based on the Parallel Finite Element Program Generator (PFEPG). The computational algorithms of the numerical simulation of the meso-structure of concrete specimens were studied. Taking into account damage evolution, static preload, strain rate effect, and the heterogeneity of the meso-structure of dam concrete, the fracture processes of damage evolution and configuration of the cracks can be directly simulated. In the seismic response analysis of ADs, all the following factors are involved, such as the nonlinear contact due to the opening and slipping of the contraction joints, energy dispersion of the far-field foundation, dynamic interactions of the dam-foundation-reservoir system, and the combining effects of seismic action with all static loads. The correctness, reliability and efficiency of the two parallel computational programs are verified with practical illustrations.

  13. Earthquake response of concrete arch dams with layered rock foundation in time domain with a case study of an arch dam in Iran

    Barikani, A. [Tabriz Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Hashemiravan, M. [Varamin Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    This study examined the dynamic behaviour of an arch dam and the interactions between the dam and its layered rock foundation. The seismic response of the Amir Kabir dam located in Iran was investigated using a 3-D finite element model. The rock foundation of the dam was divided into 3 areas: high resistance rock, medium resistance rock, and low resistance rock. The hydrodynamic effects of water were modelled using an added mass method with concentrate masses in nodes of elements on the upstream face of the dam body. Earthquake response of the dam was demonstrated using a time history of displacement at the dam crest, contours of maximum tensile stresses, and maximum pressure stresses on the upstream and downstream face of the dam. The study also examined issues concerning tensile cracks that occurred as a result of an actual earthquake. Results showed that the maximum tensile stress in the upstream face of the dam was 2.5 times more than allowable limits for tensile stress in concrete. The maximum pressure stress was lower than allowable limits. A comparison between the time history of the principal stresses at different points of the dam demonstrated that maximum tensile stress occurred in the middle of the dam. However pressure was highest near the foundation level. Results showed that the tensile cracks in the dam crest area were caused by the excessive amounts of tensile stress. It was also concluded that the earthquake used in the study was in the design basis earthquake (DBE) category, with a return period of approximately 200 years. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  14. USGS Dam Removal Science Database

    Bellmore, J. Ryan; Vittum, Katherine; Duda, Jeff J.; Greene, Samantha L.


    This database is the result of an extensive literature search aimed at identifying documents relevant to the emerging field of dam removal science. In total the database contains 179 citations that contain empirical monitoring information associated with 130 different dam removals across the United States and abroad. Data includes publications through 2014 and supplemented with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Inventory of Dams database, U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System and aerial photos to estimate locations when coordinates were not provided. Publications were located using the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Clearinghouse for Dam Removal Information.

  15. A new technique of combining accretion by cyclone separator and scattertube for tailings dams

    柳厚祥; 李宁; 廖雪; 龚锦林; 方风华


    A new technique of combining accretion by cyclone separator and scattertube for tailings dams was developed according to laboratory experiment, model experiment and spot experiment technology. Three tailings dams were successfully constructed by the new technique. The results of engineering geological exploration, static and dynamic test and stability analysis on Baizhishan tailings dams prove that the new technique improves structure and stability of the dams and working conditions compared with the traditional technique. The thin layers of fine-grained soils are greatly reduced, fine tailings sand is solid to make the dam stable and seepage conditions are well improved; the immersing line of the dam descends. In addition, the stability and liquefaction resistance of tailings dams are strengthened remarkably. The interior stress is compressive stress, stress level of every element is less than 1.0 and safety coefficient of every element is greater than 1.0. The safety coefficient against liquefaction of every element of tailings dams is greater than 1.5 according to the analysis of seismic response by finite element method.

  16. 基于块体元的塑性极限下限法在拱坝坝肩稳定分析中的应用%Application of plastic limit lower bound method to stability analysis of arch dam abutment based on block elements

    任顺; 王均星; 邓念武


    A block element lower bound limit analysis method for the stability of arch dam abutment is presented through combining block element method with lower bound limit analysis method.By utilizing block element method to disperse calculation areas,and satisfying some conditions for the block system static field in structure surface such as Mohr-Coulomb yield conditions,stress boundary conditions and the force vector and moment balance principle in block elements,a mathematical programming model solving lower bound solution of arch dam abutment strength reserve coefficient can be constituted.The interior point algorithm is employed to solve the model.Finally,a wedge example and a test of Qinglong arch dam left abutment are researched.The calculated results obtained by block element lower bound method are compared with rigid body limit equilibrium method;it is shown that the proposed method is feasible.%将块体单元法与极限分析下限法相结合,提出了拱坝坝肩稳定的块体单元极限分析下限法.借助于块体单元法离散计算区域,通过块体系统静力场在结构面上满足Mohr-Coulomb屈服条件、应力边界条件以及在块体单元上的力矢力矩平衡原理,构成求解拱坝坝肩强度储备安全系数下限解的数学规划模型,模型的求解采用内点法.最后研究了一个楔形体算例和青龙拱坝左岸坝肩实例,通过比较块体单元下限法计算结果与刚体极限平衡法计算结果,验证了该方法的可行性.

  17. Application of material strength reserve method to the stability analysis of earth dam of feilaixia multipurpose project

    YAO Hui-qin; DUAN Ya-hui


    The material strength reserve method is practical in the study of the stability and failure mechanism of earth dam by analysing the development of failure zone of different shear strength parameters of the earth mass of the dam. The stability in the concrete dam and ensemble architecture has got general application while analysing. In combination with Feilaixia Multipurpose Project, application of this method to earth dam stability analysis was studied by plane Finite Element Method(FEM) for the first time. Through plane FEM, we can get the failure mechanism of earth dam and appraise to the security, for operating and managing put forward some reference suggestions.

  18. Dynamic dam-reservoir interaction analysis including effect of reservoir boundary absorption

    LIN; Gao; DU; JianGuo; HU; ZhiQiang


    Based on the scaled boundary finite-element method,the governing equations for the analysis of dam-reservoir interaction including the reservoir boundary absorption are developed.Coupling with the equation of dam-unbounded foundation interaction,it can effectively carry out the earthquake response analysis of dam-reservoir-foundation system.The proposed approach has the advantages that the effect of compressibility of reservoir water as well as the energy absorption of reservoir boundary on the earthquake response of arch dams and gravity dams can be efficiently evaluated and higher accuracy can be achieved.In comparison with the methods available in the literature,the computational cost can be reduced to a great extent.It facilitates the application of earthquake response analysis of dam-reservoir-foundation system including reservoir boundary absorption to the engineering practice.

  19. Seismic stability analysis of concrete gravity dams with penetrated cracks

    Shou-yan JIANG


    Full Text Available The seismic stability of a cracked dam was examined in this study. Geometric nonlinearity and large deformations, as well as the contact condition at the crack site, were taken into consideration. The location of penetrated cracks was first identified using the concrete plastic-damage model based on the nonlinear finite element method (FEM. Then, the hard contact algorithm was used to simulate the crack interaction in the normal direction, and the Coloumb friction model was used to simulate the crack interaction in the tangential direction. After verification of numerical models through a case study, the seismic stability of the Koyna Dam with two types of penetrated cracks is discussed in detail with different seismic peak accelerations, and the collapse processes of the cracked dam are also presented. The results show that the stability of the dam with two types of penetrated cracks can be ensured in an earthquake with a magnitude of the original Koyna earthquake, and the cracked dam has a large earthquake-resistant margin. The failure processes of the cracked dam in strong earthquakes can be divided into two stages: the sliding stage and the overturning stage. The sliding stage ends near the peak acceleration, and the top block slides a long distance along the crack before the collapse occurs. The maximum sliding displacement of the top block will decrease with an increasing friction coefficient at the crack site.

  20. Ecosystem Response During the Removal of the Elwha River Dams

    Pess, G. R.; McHenry, M.; Liermann, M. C.; Moses, R.; Denton, K.; McMillan, J.; Brenkman, S.; Duda, J.; Peters, R.; Anderson, J.; Quinn, T.


    Over the last century, the two dams blocked the upstream movement of anadromous fish to over 90% of the Elwha River watershed on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. These dams also restricted the downstream movement of sediment, wood, and other organic materials to the lower river and estuary. Populations of all Pacific salmon species and steelhead in the Elwha became critically low, habitat complexity decreased below the dams, and downstream coastal habitats became sediment starved. Simultaneous deconstruction of the two dams began in September 2011 was completed in September of 2014. The recent removal of the dams has been an opportunity to explore linkages among changes in sediment supply, salmonid populations, and ecosystem attributes. Preliminary findings focus on the delivery of millions of metric tonnes of sediment to the main river, its floodplain, and nearshore, the re-establishment of a natural wood delivery regime, the re-colonization of the upper watershed by anadromous fish, insights into functional relationships among salmonid populations and life history strategies, and the associated effects of all these elements on the aquatic and terrestrial foodwebs. This talk will provide an overview of the Elwha restoration project, and highlight recent changes observed during dam removal.

  1. The dam design of Three Gorges Project

    Wang Xiaomao; Xu Linxiang; Liao Renqiang


    The dam of Three Gorges Project is a concrete gravity dam with the crest elevation of 185 m, the maximum height of 181 m and dam axis length of 2 309.5 m. The dam consists of spillway, powerhouse, non-over flow, ship-lift, temporary ship-lock, left diversion wall and longitudinal cofferdam blocks. Some key techniques relating to dam structure design are presented, including hydraulics of flood discharge structure, dam joint design, layout and structural type of penstock, deep anti-sliding stability of dam foundation, reconstruction of temporary ship-lock and closed drainage and pumping of dam foundation.

  2. Tarbela Dam Project

    Khan, B.A. [WAPDA Tarbela Dam Project (Pakistan); Ahmad, W. [Siemens Pakistan Ltd., Islamabad (Pakistan)


    Construction of one of the world's largest water resource development project is discussed. The Tarbela project is built on the Indus River, (itself one of the largest rivers of the world) and consists of a 9,000 feet long and 465 feet high earth and rockfill embankment across the entire width of the river with two spillways cutting through the left bank. On the left bank valley there are two auxiliary embankment dams to close the gap. A total of five tunnels, each a mile long, have been constructed for irrigation releases and power generation. Electricity is being generated by two power generating plants constructed on three of these tunnels. They have a generating capacity of 3,478 MW, supplying 40 per cent of all Pakistani demand. Several 'firsts' are identified. For example, the dam is the world's largest, containing over 200 million cubic yards of earth and rock, as are the five tunnels (14 meters in diameter), as well as the outlet gates. The energy release by the water gushing through the five tunnels at maximum level is more than 13 million KW, approximately equivalent to 10 million horsepower. 1 ref.

  3. Determination of Seepage and Analysis of Earth Dams (Case Study: Karkheh Dam)

    A. Kamanbedast; M. Shahosseini


    Because of the increasing trend of building dam throughout Iran; it is necessary to optimize dam buildings and operations. Dam or Hydropower industry has two types of buildings; normally: (1) Concrete dams (2) Embankment (earth) dams. Generally, scientists and engineers use different methods to enhance safety and decrease any errors in calculation due to maintenance of water storage especially hydro structure of the dam. It is necessary to investigate the dam seepage control; commonly use...

  4. Simulation of the thermal behaviour of a concrete dam using in situ measurements : case of Daniel-Johnson dam

    Thibeault, N. [Tecsult Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Lariviere, R. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)


    The Daniel-Johnson Dam is the largest multiple-arch dam in the world. It was completed in 1969 at a height of 214 metres. The dam has faced many challenges related to severe thermal conditions, presence of plunging cracks in many arches and opening at the rock-concrete interface. Major concerns lie with the shear resistance in the plane of the plunging cracks. It has been determined that the main cause of arch degradation is related to the thermal behaviour of the dam. A thermal shelter was therefore constructed in the lower part of the arches. This protection has proved to be very effective. A decision was later taken to grout the plunging cracks of some arches. This involved the verification of the structural stability of the arch base. To accomplish this, the shear safety factor during the proposed injection had to be validated. This paper discussed the complex challenge of simulating the thermal behaviour of a concrete dam. It presented an alternative to the conventional methods to implement a thermal profile in a finite element model. Synthetic curves of the thermal profile were used for different thicknesses and boundary conditions. The curves were then interpolated for intermediate thicknesses. A numerical model developed for this project has been verified according to the recommendations of Bulletin 94 of ICOLD (Computer Software for Dams). The loads to consider within the framework study of the Daniel-Johnson Dam gravity; thermal gradient in summer and winter; thermal protection; hydrostatic pressure; uplift pressure in cracks; hydrostatic pressure at upstream on the grout curtain; rock-concrete contact opening; and grout pressures. The proposed method has proven to be simple, efficient and easily implemented to rapidly determine the thermal behaviour of the structures. It is also particularly well suited for multiple-arch dams. The thermal structure analysis was used to determine deformation which was compared with measurements of the pendulums. 8 refs

  5. Numerical Simulation of Two Types of Electromagnetic Edge Dam Used in Twin Roll Strip Casting

    Peiwei BAO; Peijie LI; Hongshuang DI; Xianghua LIU; Guodong WANG


    Two types of electromagnetic edge dams were analyzed by using finite element method in present paper. The magnetic vector potential method and edge element method were used. The distributions of the magnetic field, the eddy current intensity and the magnetic force were obtained from the computing. The differences in these fields were explained according to the two types of electromagnetic dam, and characters of their application in twin roll casting were also discussed.

  6. Landscape Evolution Modelling of naturally dammed rivers

    Gorp, van W.; Temme, A.J.A.M.; Baartman, J.E.M.; Schoorl, J.M.


    Natural damming of upland river systems, such as landslide or lava damming, occurs worldwide. Many dams fail shortly after their creation, while other dams are long-lived and therefore have a long-term impact on fluvial and landscape evolution. This long-term impact is still poorly understood and

  7. Landscape Evolution Modelling of naturally dammed rivers

    van Gorp, Wouter; Temme, Arnaud J. A. M.; Baartman, Jantiene E. M.; Schoorl, Jeroen M.


    Natural damming of upland river systems, such as landslide or lava damming, occurs worldwide. Many dams fail shortly after their creation, while other dams are long-lived and therefore have a long-term impact on fluvial and landscape evolution. This long-term impact is still poorly understood and la

  8. 76 FR 12094 - Whitman River Dam, Inc.


    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Whitman River Dam, Inc. Notice of Application Tendered for Filing.... Applicant: Whitman River Dam, Inc. e. Name of Project: Crocker Dam Hydro Project. f. Location: On the... analysis at this time. n. The Crocker Dam Hydro Project would consist of: (1) The existing...

  9. Optimization design of foundation excavation for Xiluodu super-high arch dam in China

    Qixiang Fan; Shaowu Zhou; Ning Yang


    With better understanding of the quality and physico-mechanical properties of rocks of dam foundation, and the physico-mechanical properties and structure design of arch dam in association with the foun-dation excavation of Xiluodu arch dam, the excavation optimization design was proposed for the foundation surface on the basis of feasibility study. Common analysis and numerical analysis results demonstrated the feasibility of using the weakly weathered rocks III1 and III2 as the foundation surface of super-high arch dam. In view of changes in the geological conditions at the dam foundation along the riverbed direction, the design of extending foundation surface excavation area and using consolidating grouting and optimizing structure of dam bottom was introduced, allowing for harmonization of the arch dam and foundation. Three-dimensional (3D) geomechanics model test and finite element analysis re-sults indicated that the dam body and foundation have good overload stability and high bearing capacity. The monitoring data showed that the behaviors of dam and foundation correspond with the designed patterns in the construction period and the initial operation period.

  10. Optimization design of foundation excavation for Xiluodu super-high arch dam in China

    Qixiang Fan


    Full Text Available With better understanding of the quality and physico-mechanical properties of rocks of dam foundation, and the physico-mechanical properties and structure design of arch dam in association with the foundation excavation of Xiluodu arch dam, the excavation optimization design was proposed for the foundation surface on the basis of feasibility study. Common analysis and numerical analysis results demonstrated the feasibility of using the weakly weathered rocks III1 and III2 as the foundation surface of super-high arch dam. In view of changes in the geological conditions at the dam foundation along the riverbed direction, the design of extending foundation surface excavation area and using consolidating grouting and optimizing structure of dam bottom was introduced, allowing for harmonization of the arch dam and foundation. Three-dimensional (3D geomechanics model test and finite element analysis results indicated that the dam body and foundation have good overload stability and high bearing capacity. The monitoring data showed that the behaviors of dam and foundation correspond with the designed patterns in the construction period and the initial operation period.


    Costa, John E.; Schuster, Robert L.


    Of the numerous kinds of dams that form by natural processes, dams formed from landslides, glacial ice, and late-neoglacial moraines present the greatest threat to people and property. Landslide dams form a wide range of physiographic settings. The most common types of mass movements that form landslide dams are rock and debris avalanches; rock and soil slumps and slides; and mud, debris, and earth flows. The most common initiation mechanisms for dam-forming landslides are excessive rainfall and snowmelt and earthquakes. Natural dams may cause upstream flooding as the lake rises and downstream flooding as a result of failure of the dam. Although data are few, for the same potential energy at the dam site, downstream flood peaks from the failure of glacier-ice dams are smaller than those from landslide, moraine, and constructed earth-fill and rock-fill dam failures.

  12. Big Lake Dam Inspection Report

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes an inspection of the Big Lake Dam that was done in September of 1983. The inspection did not reveal any conditions that constitute and...

  13. Analysis of the behaviour of the Toulnoustouc CFRD Dam

    Bouzaiene, H.; Chartrand, C. [RSW Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Hammamji, Y. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)


    Concrete-face rockfill dams (CFRD) are typically designed using empirical methods which occasionally lead to leakage problems and the need for remedial measures. This paper argued that the application of numerical simulations in dam design may provide a greater understanding of CFRD dam behaviour. A 3D finite element method was used for the basic design of the Toulnustouc dam in Quebec. The interaction between the face concrete slabs, rockfill, and the rigid foundation was modelled with a specific emphasis on discontinuities of the concrete slabs. Data from a topographical survey was used to consider the rock excavation, dental concrete and the plinth alignment discontinuities. The rockfill modulus was calibrated using a 2D non-linear elastic model with plane deformation. Results of the modelling study were used to confirm the location of compression and tension joints for water stops design. The study showed that most of the joint sealing defects of CFRD dams were located at joints between slabs and at the plinth perimeter joint. Various analyses were then conducted to evaluate stress concentration in the reinforced concrete slabs and the variation of stresses with the rockfill deformation modulus as well as the contact points between the slab and the fill. It was observed that changes in plinth alignment introduced important tension stresses in the upstream face of the slabs within a band of 12 meters along the perimeter joint. Stresses were governed by the difference of rigidity of the fill and the developed friction forces between the fill and the slabs. It was concluded that the finite element model was useful in determining the behaviour of the CFRD dam. 3 refs., 15 figs.

  14. Numerical Modelling of Tailings Dam Thermal-Seepage Regime Considering Phase Transitions

    Aniskin Nikolay Alekseevich


    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem. The article describes the problem of combined thermal-seepage regime for earth dams and those operated in the permafrost conditions. This problem can be solved using the finite elements method based on the local variational formulation. Results. A thermal-seepage regime numerical model has been developed for the “dam-foundation” system in terms of the tailings dam. The effect of heat-and-mass transfer and liquid phase transition in soil interstices on the dam state is estimated. The study with subsequent consideration of these factors has been undertaken. Conclusions. The results of studying the temperature-filtration conditions of the structure based on the factors of heat-and-mass transfer and liquid phase transition have shown that the calculation results comply with the field data. Ignoring these factors or one of them distorts the real situation of the dam thermal-seepage conditions.

  15. Zoning Modulus Inversion Method for Concrete Dams Based on Chaos Genetic Optimization Algorithm

    Hao Gu


    Full Text Available For dams and rock foundations of ages, the actual mechanical parameters sometimes differed from the design and the experimental values. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out the inversion analysis on main physical and mechanical parameters of dams and rock foundations. However, only the integrated deformation modulus can be inversed by utilizing the conventional inversion method, and it does not meet the actual situation. Therefore, a new method is developed in this paper to inverse the actual initial zoning deformation modulus and to determine the inversion objective function for the actual zoning deformation modulus, based on the dam displacement measured data and finite element calculation results. Furthermore, based on the chaos genetic optimization algorithm, the inversion method for zoning deformation modulus of dam, dam foundation and, reservoir basin is proposed. Combined with the project case, the feasibility and validity of the proposed method are verified.

  16. Conflicts Associated with Dam Removal in Sweden

    Anna G. C. Lejon


    Full Text Available The increasing number of deteriorating old dams that need renovation or have lost their function make dam removal a viable management option. There are at least four major reasons for dam removal: safety, law and policy, economy, and ecology. Here we discuss 17 Swedish dams that were recently considered for removal. Because dam removal usually causes controversy, dam removal initiatives may succeed, fail, or result in a compromise such as a bypass channel for migrating fish. We identify and discuss three major obstructions to dam removal: funding, cultural-historical values, and threatened species. To facilitate dam removal, the reasons for, and the effects of, dam removal must be carefully explained, and the public and stakeholders must be kept informed. In complicated cases in which compromise solutions may be the most feasible outcome, the integration of the knowledge of different stakeholders is crucial. The involvement of diverse stakeholders increases their willingness to find compromises, thus avoiding conflicts and failures.

  17. Advanced numerical simulation of collapsible earth dams

    De Farias, M.M.; Cordao Neto, M.P. [Brasilia Univ., Federal District (Brazil). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering


    This paper discussed a systematic methodology for the hydromechanical coupled numerical analysis of earth dams constructed with unsaturated collapsible soil. Every design stage was considered, including construction, reservoir filling, and advance of saturation front until the steady-state flow condition is attained. A transient analysis of safety factors applicable to 3-dimensional conditions was presented, giving consideration to unsaturated materials and the interrelation between hydraulic and mechanical phenomena by solving equilibrium and continuity conditions at the same time. The finite element method was used to formulate equilibrium and continuity conditions for both soil skeleton and pore water, which necessitated a realistic mechanical model for the stress-strain-suction relation in unsaturated porous material and adequate constitutive models related to water flow and storage, giving special consideration to imposing appropriate boundary conditions for each simulation stage. The methodology was applied to the analysis of earth dams composed of soils at optimum, dry of optimum, and mixed compaction conditions. The dry section simulated dams constructed using poorly compacted, dry material, which are prone to collapse. By strategically placing the optimum materials in the areas of the earth fill that are most stressed, the mixed section could be designed less expensively with the same or better performance as the homogenous section at optimum conditions. The coupled analysis provides a higher safety factor than uncoupled analysis and a realistic picture of end-of-construction pore pressure distribution. The simulation of reservoir filling and saturation front advance permitted clear identification of the initialization, development, and evolution of internal failure mechanisms. 21 refs., 6 tabs., 19 figs.

  18. Optimal positioning of sensors for the monitoring of water dams; Optimale Positionierung von Messeinrichtungen an Staumauern zur Bauwerksueberwachung

    Lahmer, Tom [Bauhaus-Univ. Weimar (Germany). DFG-Graduiertenkolleg 1462; Koenke, Carsten [Bauhaus-Univ. Weimar (Germany). Inst. fuer Strukturmechanik; Bettzieche, Volker [Ruhrverband, Essen (Germany)


    This article discusses cases of damages of water dams and describes well proven methods for the monitoring of the structures. Additionally, the effects of damages are investigated with the help of a multifield Finite Element Simulation. Using an inverse approach these damages are identified from the combined consideration of mechanical and hydraulic measurements. An optimal positioning of sensors monitoring the dams is proposed. (orig.)

  19. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Dunne, Thomas; Park, Edward; Baker, Victor R.; D'Horta, Fernando M.; Wight, Charles; Wittmann, Florian; Zuanon, Jansen; Baker, Paul A.; Ribas, Camila C.; Norgaard, Richard B.; Filizola, Naziano; Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stevaux, Jose C.


    More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin’s floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for collective action among nations and states to avoid cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of Amazon rivers.

  20. Dam risk assistant analysis system design


    In order to reduce the labor intensity and task difficulty of dam risk analysis and to meet the actual requirement of dam risk analysis,it is necessary to establish a dam risk assistant analysis system.The program structure and the implementation ways of the dam risk assistant analysis system are analyzed,and a procedural framework with "three-tier and multi-database" structure and "level structure" is established.The concept of dam risk assessment system modular development is proposed and the coupled mode of function module and data is improved.Finally,the dam risk assistant analysis system is developed using Delphi visual programming language.

  1. Performance of heterogeneous earthfill dams under earthquakes: optimal location of the impervious core

    S. López-Querol


    Full Text Available Earthfill dams are man-made geostructures which may be especially damaged by seismic loadings, because the soil skeleton they are made of suffers remarkable modifications in its mechanical properties, as well as changes of pore water pressure and flow of this water inside their pores, when subjected to vibrations. The most extreme situation is the dam failure due to soil liquefaction. Coupled finite element numerical codes are a useful tool to assess the safety of these dams. In this paper the application of a fully coupled numerical model, previously developed and validated by the authors, to a set of theoretical cross sections of earthfill dams with impervious core, is presented. All these dams are same height and have the same volume of impervious material at the core. The influence of the core location inside the dam on its response against seismic loading is numerically explored. The dams are designed as strictly stable under static loads. As a result of this research, a design recommendation on the location of the impervious core is obtained for this type of earth dams, on the basis of the criteria of minor liquefaction risk, minor soil degradation during the earthquake and minor crest settlement.

  2. Integrated Analysis of the Formation Mechanism of Cracks in a Concrete Dam Using Microseismic Monitoring and Numerical Simulation

    Gang He


    Full Text Available The dam of Guanyinyan hydropower station is composed of a concrete gravity dam in the left bank and a rockfill dam in the right bank. During the operation of the hydropower station, several surface cracks occurred in the concrete gravity dam, which threatened the stability of the dam. To evaluate the evolution trend of the cracks and forecast the potential risk of the dam, the microseismic (MS monitoring technique and finite-element method were used. First, the concrete three-point bending field test was performed to prove the reliability of the MS technique in monitoring the concrete cracks. The MS monitoring results were consistent with the simulation results. Then, the MS monitoring system was installed in the dam body. By analysing the MS activities before and after the impoundment, the evolution trend of the cracks and potential risk of the dam were evaluated and forecasted. The simulation results were also consistent with the monitoring results. These results can provide significant references for the operation safety of the dam and also present a new thought for the risk evaluation of similar dam engineering.

  3. Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction: A Case Study of Embankment Dam Safety Assessment in Sweden.

    Ferdos, F.; Dargahi, B.


    Seepage, when excessive and unimpeded, can cause embankment dam failure. Such failures are often initiated by internal erosion and piping. Modelling these phenomena in embankment dams, accounting for the groundwater-surface water interactions, is crucial when performing dam safety assessments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of modelling seepage flows in multi-region dams using a finite element based multi-physics model. The model was applied to the Trängslet dam, the largest dam in Sweden. The objectives were to analyze the characteristics of both the flow and the surface-ground water interactions occurring in the dam, including: i) the saturated and unsaturated laminar flow regimes within the dam body, ii) the non-linear through-flow in the dam shoulders' coarse material, iii) the influence of the surface waves in the reservoir on the seepage flow by coupling the physics to a hydrodynamic interface, and iv) the influence of a conceptual "erosion tunnel" on the seepage flow and its interaction with the surface water flow by coupling the physics to a CFD interface. The focus of the study was on the influence of the transient water head boundary condition, surface waves and the internal erosion tunnel on the location of the phreatic line and the seepage flow rate. The simulated seepage flow of the dam in its original condition tallied with the monitoring measurements (40-70 l/s). The main feature found was the relatively high position of the phreatic line, which could compromise the stability of the dam. The combination of the seepage model with the reservoir hydrodynamics indicated a negligible influence of the surface waves on seepage flow. Results from the combination of the seepage model with fluid dynamics indicated that a conceptual "erosion tunnel" placed within the dam, even as high as in the unsaturated zone, significantly affects the phreatic line's position. This also causes the seepage flow to increase by several orders of

  4. Douglas County Dam Breach Inundation Areas

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Dam breach analysis provides a prediction of the extent and timing of flooding from a catastrophic breach of the dams. These results are sufficient for developing...

  5. VT High Risk Dam Inundation Areas

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Preliminary release Storm-Day dam inundation areas digitized from various source Emergency Action Plans. These dams were prioritized for...

  6. Dams and Obstructions along Iowa's Canoe Routes

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This dataset represents obstruction to canoe and boat users of the canoe routes of Iowa. This may represent actual dams, rock dams (natural or man made), large...

  7. 78 FR 53494 - Dam Safety Modifications at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams


    ... Dam Safety Modifications at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams AGENCY: Tennessee... preferred alternative in its final environmental impact statement (EIS) for the dam safety modifications at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams. The notice of availability (NOA) of the...

  8. The Layout and Simulation of Logarithmic Spiral Double Curved Arch Dam Transverse Joints%The Layout and Simulation of Logarithmic Spiral Double Curved Arch Dam Transverse Joints

    DU Ting-na; DU Qi-lu; HUI Yuan


    Because of its good condition with mechanics, logarithmic spiral double curve arch bam has been widely used in the practical engineering. The introduction of a new method in how to divide transverse joint in arch dam will be given and the further research of its calculation has been done. The C++ is used in electronic procedure and the 3D simulation has been finished with AutoCAD, which will provide the object model for computer simulation of the arch dam and the division of finite element mesh. Meanwhile, this method in dividing the transverse joint in arch dam also can be taken as the calculated basis for the design and calculation of arch dam, construction lofting and the calculation of the work amount.

  9. Stress and Sliding Stability Analysis of Songlin Rock-Filled Concrete Gravity Dam

    Sundström, Max; Ivedal, Max


    The construction of Songlin rock-filled concrete gravity dam, located in the Yunnan province, China began in the end of 2015. In this master thesis the finite element method (FEM) based software Abaqus has been used to perform a computational analysis on tension stresses, compression stresses and sliding stability for static conditions. One overflow section and one non-overflow section of the dam have been analysed. The results of the analysis have been evaluated by comparing with Chinese sta...


    Avazbek Ishbaev


    Full Text Available The dams have very important roles to agricultural activities. Especially, West Java with 240,000 hectares of agricultural land, needs a good dam structure that can be used sustainably. Jatiluhur dam in Purwakarta, West Java is one of big dams in Indonesia which has important rules not only for Purwakarta but also for Jakarta, Karawang and Bekasi residents. A study and observation about safety and dam stability is needed to prevent any damage. The purpose of this research were to identify parameters that influenced dam safety and to evaluate dam reliability based on index tools. Analysis was done using risk index tools. The result showed that the condition of the dam of Jatiluhur is still satisfied with indicators, "Idam"-750. The total index risk was 127.22 and the safety factor was 83.04 out of 100. Therefore, Jatiluhur dam could be classified as safe and no need for particular treatments. Jatiluhur dam can be operated in normal condition or abnormal condition with periodic monitoring. Keywords: dam safety, evaluation, Jatiluhur Dam, risk index tools

  11. Webinar: Stepped chute design for embankment dams

    Changing demographics in the vicinity of dams have led to hazard creep in a number of dams worldwide. Many of these dams now have insufficient spillway capacity as a result of these changes in hazard classification from low to significant or high hazard. Stepped chutes applied to the embankment da...

  12. Dams life; La vie des barrages



    The paper reports on the conclusions of decennial and annual inspections of French dams. Dams surveillance is performed by the operators and consists in visual examinations and measurements. Concrete dams, in particular, always have more or less developed fissures with water sweating threw the concrete mass or the foundations. Old concrete often show low swelling phenomena which are measured too. (J.S.)

  13. The formation and failure of natural dams

    Costa, J.E.; Schuster, R.L.


    Of the numerous kinds of dams that form by natural processes, dams formed from landslides, glacial ice, and neoglacial moraines present the greatest threat to people and property. The most common types of mass movements that form landslide dams are rock and debris avalanches, rock and soil slumps and slides, and mud, debris, and earth flows. The most common initiation mechanisms for dam-forming landslides are excessive rainfall and snowmelt and earthquakes. Landslide dams can be classified into six categories based on their relation with the valley floor. Type I dams (11%) of the 81 landslide dams around the world that were classifed do not reach from one valley side to the other. Type II dams (44%) span the entire valley flood, occasionally depositing material high up on opposite valley sides. Type III dams (41%) move considerable distances both upstream and downstream from the landslide failure. Type IV dams (1%) are rare and involve the contemporaneous failure of material from both sides of a valley. Type V dams (1%) are also rare, and are created when a single landslide sends multiple tongues of debris into a valley forming two or more landslide dams in the same surfaces, that extend under the stream or valley and emerge on the opposite valley side. Many landslide dams fail shortly after formation. Overtopping is by far the most common cause of failure. Glacial ice dams can produce at least nine kinds of ice-dammed lakes. The most dangerous are lakes formed in main valleys dammed by tributary glaciers. Failure can occur by erosion of a drainage tunnel under or through the ice dam or by a channel over the ice dam. Cold polar ice dams generally drain supraglacially or marginally by downmelting of an outlet channel. Warmer temperate-ice dams tend to fail by sudden englacial or subglacial breaching and drainage. Late neoglacial moraine-dammed lakes are located in steep mountain areas affected by the advances and retreats of valley glaciers in the last several

  14. Numerical dynamic analysis of Chiti single arch dam related to hydroelectric power generation

    Abbasi, H. [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Y.; Jalaly, H. [Ab-Niru Consulting Engineers, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghajani, K. [Elam Univ., Elam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The Chiti dam is a single arch hydroelectric power generation dam located on the Taloogh River in Iran. This paper provided details of the response spectrum method used to design the optimal load conditions and slope of the dam in relation to earthquake protection. The amount of horizontal earthquake acceleration at the dam site was determined based on local calculations of scenarios of an operating basis earthquake (OBE), a maximum design earthquake (MDE) and a maximum credible earthquake (MCE). The response spectrum was defined with 5 per cent damping as the basis of the earthquake calculation. Hydrodynamic pressure was applied in loadings and the dam was analyzed with and without the effect of hydrodynamic pressure. The compressive strength of the concrete was considered as 28 MPa, and the properties of bed rock were determined on geotechnical and geological studies. Hydrodynamic pressure was calculated based on upstream water levels in the reservoir of the arch dam and applied to the model as added mass. The model also considered the weight of the dam body, uplift pressure, and heat changes in stable conditions. The hydrodynamic pressure of water was applied as additional mass to the upstream face of the arch dam. The additional mass was determined based on dam height. The dynamic analysis of the dam was performed using response spectrum data. The model analysis was performed with and without the effect of hydrodynamic pressure. The 3-D model of the dam body was made using the ANSYS finite element program which combined the response spectrum method with temperature load, uplift pressure and water pressure parameters. Results showed that the maximum displacement of the dam body for the various earthquake levels measured was 11.6, 14, and 15.6 mm respectively. The response spectrum analysis performed with hydrodynamic pressure showed displacement values of 22.4, 24.8, and 26.4 mm. Stress and strain values obtained by the model were within allowable amount for

  15. Modelling autogenous expansion for magnesia concrete in arch dams

    Feng JIN; Guoxin ZHANG; Xiaoqing LUO; Chuhan ZHANG


    Magnesia Concrete is a kind of expansive con-crete used in Chinese hydraulic engineering more and more widely. To evaluate the effects of autogenous expan-sion on the stresses of arch dams, a simple model of auto-genous expansion for Magnesia Concrete in dam engineering is presented. This model is based on three assumptions: 1) the total amount of autogenous expan-sion of Magnesia Concrete is related only to the properties of materials and mixing of concrete; 2) the autogenous expansion of Magnesia Concrete is irreversible due to the irreversibility of hydration reaction of Magnesia in the concrete; 3) the autogenous expansion strain rates of Magnesia Concrete bear a relation between temperature and residual Magnesia per unit volume of concrete. The model is verified by some experimental data of autogen-ous expansion of Magnesia Concrete and field-measured data of an arch dam in China. Embedded into finite ele-ment arch dam simulation software, this model is employed to simulate the effects of autogenous expansion of Magnesia Concrete in hydraulic engineering.

  16. Research on shape optimization of CSG dams

    Xin CAI


    Full Text Available The multi-objective optimization method was used for shape optimization of cement sand and gravel (CSG dams in this study. The economic efficiency, the sensitivities of maximum horizontal displacement and maximum settlement of the dam to water level changes, the overall stability, and the overall strength security were taken into account during the optimization process. Three weight coefficient selection schemes were adopted to conduct shape optimization of a dam, and the case studies lead to the conclusion that both the upstream and downstream dam slope ratios for the optimal cross-section equal 1:0.7, which is consistent with the empirically observed range of 1:0.6 to 1:0.8 for the upstream and downstream dam slope ratios of CSG dams. Therefore, the present study is of certain reference value for designing CSG dams.

  17. Future directions of dam safety in Canada

    Verzeni, Gerard [Hydro Quebec, QC, (Canada)


    Gerard Verzeni, former director of the dam safety & environment at Hydro-Quebec introduced the future directions of dam safety in Canada. New and numerous challenges are emerging for the dam safety community. Measurable effects of climate changes illustrate that hydraulic forecasts would change drastically. Loads with times and amplitudes which are different from the actual knowledge will apply on dams. The development of new types of dams using recent technologies raises several issues, for example the longevity of such installations. The installations are becoming old and soon will require complete renovation and update for regulation and standards compliance. Concrete dams already need efforts and investment to maintain then in a safe state. Various factors will influence these challenges such as human resources in the dam safe community. In these conditions, it is important that organizations like CDA play an important role in providing support and reference and in being a driver for the whole industry.

  18. Study of Dam-break Due to Overtopping of Four Small Dams in the Czech Republic

    Zakaraya Alhasan


    Full Text Available Dam-break due to overtopping is one of the most common types of embankment dam failures. During the floods in August 2002 in the Czech Republic, several small dams collapsed due to overtopping. In this paper, an analysis of the dam break process at the Luh, Velký Bělčický, Melín, and Metelský dams breached during the 2002 flood is presented. Comprehensive identification and analysis of the dam shape, properties of dam material and failure scenarios were carried out after the flood event to assemble data for the calibration of a numerical dam break model. A simple one-dimensional mathematical model was proposed for use in dam breach simulation, and a computer code was compiled. The model was calibrated using the field data mentioned above. Comparison of the erodibility parameters gained from the model showed reasonable agreement with the results of other authors.

  19. Nonlinear Seismic Analysis of Morrow Point Dam: A Study for the United States Bureau of Reclamation

    Noble, C R; Solberg, J


    This research and development project was sponsored by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), who are best known for the dams, power plants, and canals it constructed in the 17 western states. The mission statement of the USBR's Dam Safety Office, located in Denver, Colorado, is ''to ensure Reclamation dams do not present unacceptable risk to people, property, and the environment.'' The Dam Safety Office does this by quickly identifying the dams which pose an increased threat to the public, and quickly completing the related analyses in order to make decisions that will safeguard the public and associated resources. The research study described in this report constitutes one element of USBR's research and development work to advance their computational and analysis capabilities for studying the response of dams to strong earthquake motions. This project focused on the seismic response of Morrow Point Dam, which is located 263 km southwest of Denver, Colorado.

  20. Dam safety review using non-destructive methods for reinforced concrete structure

    Philibert, Alain; Saint-Pierre, Francois; Turcotte, Bernard [Le Groupe S.M. International Inc., Sherbrooke, (Canada)


    Dams built at the beginning of the twentieth century include concrete structures that were put in under rehabilitation works. In some cases, the details of the structures are not well documented. In other cases, concrete damage can be hidden under new layers of undamaged material. This requires that the dam safety review in a real investigation gather the information necessary for carrying out the hydraulic and stability studies required by the Dam Safety Act. This paper presented the process of dam safety review using non-destructive methods for reinforced concrete structures. Two reinforced concrete dams built in the 1900's, the Eustic dam on the Coaticook River and the Frontenac dam on the Magog River near Sherbrooke, were evaluated by S.M. International using non-destructive methods such as sonic and ground penetrating radar methods. The studies allowed mapping of concrete damage and provided geometric information on some non visible structure elements that were part of previous reinforcement operations.

  1. Analysis of foundation sliding of an arch dam considering the hydromechanical behavior

    Maria; Luísa; Braga; FARINHA; José; Vieira; de; LEMOS; Emanuel; MARANHA; DAS; NEVES


    This paper presents the application of a methodology which can be used to assess arch dam foundation stability,using the discrete element method (DEM) and the code 3DEC.A global three-dimensional model of a dam foundation was developed,in which some discontinuities were simulated and both the grout and drainage curtains were represented.The model,calibrated taking into account recorded data,was used to carry out nonlinear mechanical analysis.The same model was employed to perform a hydraulic analysis,based on equivalent continuum concepts,which allowed the water pressure pattern within the foundation to be obtained.These water pressures were applied on discontinuities involved in the possible sliding mechanism along the dam/foundation interface,and the safety of the dam/foundation system was evaluated using a process of reduction of strength characteristics,with the aim of calculating the minimum safety factors that ensure stability.Results were compared with those obtained with the usual bi-linear uplift pressure distribution at the base of the dam,commonly used in concrete dam design.The relevance of carrying out hydraulic analysis in arch dam foundation failure studies is highlighted.

  2. Management of dams for the next Millennium: proceedings of the 1999 Canadian Dam Association



    The meeting featured seven sessions with 18 papers abstracted/indexed therein as follows: keynote address: tailings dams safety - implications for the dam safety community; 1 - design and performance: performance monitoring of dams: are we doing what we should be doing?; tailings dams from the perspective of conventional dam engineering; and design overview of Syncrude's Mildred Lake east toe berm; 2 - design and modelling: use of a 2D model for a dam break study on the ALCAN hydroelectric complex in Quebec; and spillway design implications resulting from changes in rainfall extremes; 3 - risk and dam safety I: closing the gaps in the dam safety guidelines; the reality of life safety consequence classification; and surveillance practices for the next millenium; 4 - risk and dam safety II: quantitative risk-assessment using the capacity-demand analysis; and new guidelines for dam safety classification; 5 - millenium issues: expectations of immortality, dam safety management into the next millenium; 6 - rehabilitation techniques: the unconventional application of conventional materials; nondestructive testing technology to characterize concrete dam/bedrock interface; method and instrument for detecting crack in concrete; and grouting of the cracks in the Arch 5-6 - Daniel Johnson Dam; and 7 - case studies: rehabilitation of an 80 year old Ambursen type dam; and debris booms for the protection of spillways.

  3. Brazil's Amazonian dams: Ecological and socioeconomic impacts

    Fearnside, P. M.


    Brazil's 2015-2024 Energy Expansion Plan calls for 11 hydroelectric dams with installed capacity ≥ 30 MW in the country's Amazon region. Dozens of other large dams are planned beyond this time horizon, and dams with consumers. Population displacement is a major impact; for example, the Marabá Dam would displace 40,000 people, mostly traditional riverside dwellers (ribeirinhos). Various dams impact indigenous peoples, such as the Xingu River dams (beginning with Belo Monte) and the São Luiz do Tapajós and Chacorão Dams on the Tapajós River. Brazil has many energy options other than dams. Much energy use has little benefit for the country, such as exporting aluminum. Electric showerheads use 5% of the country's power. Losses in transmission lines (20%) are far above global averages and can be expected to increase as Amazonian hydroelectric dams far from consumer centers come on line. Brazil has tremendous wind and solar potential, but these do not have the same priority as dams. At the root of many questionable policies is a decision-making process in need of reform.

  4. Small Displacement Coupled Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam Foundations: Static and Dynamic Conditions

    Farinha, Maria Luísa Braga; Azevedo, Nuno Monteiro; Candeias, Mariline


    The explicit formulation of a small displacement model for the coupled hydro-mechanical analysis of concrete gravity dam foundations based on joint finite elements is presented. The proposed coupled model requires a thorough pre-processing stage in order to ensure that the interaction between the various blocks which represent both the rock mass foundation and the dam is always edge to edge. The mechanical part of the model, though limited to small displacements, has the advantage of allowing an accurate representation of the stress distribution along the interfaces, such as rock mass joints. The hydraulic part and the mechanical part of the model are fully compatible. The coupled model is validated using a real case of a dam in operation, by comparison of the results with those obtained with a large displacement discrete model. It is shown that it is possible to assess the sliding stability of concrete gravity dams using small displacement models under both static and dynamic conditions.

  5. Development and implementation of a dam safety program for Manitoba Infrastructure and Transportation

    Gonzalez, Ninel S.; McLean, Angela D. [Manitoba infrastructure and transportation, Winnipeg, (Canada)


    Responsibility for the operation and maintenance of provincial dams has been transferred, at the province's initiative, to Manitoba Infrastructure and Transportation (MIT). MIT used the 2007 CDA guidelines as reference in the development of a dam safety program for provincial dams in response to the lack of provincial legislation for the regulation and management of dams in Manitoba. This paper presented the work of the MIT to develop and implement a management system, with emphasis on the planning and implementation elements. MIT focused on both the prioritization of work and the implementation of an inspection program. To develop a prioritization scheme, a risk assessment was performed with the estimation of risk based on the impact of an event occurring and integrating the quality of the controls in place. Multiple account analysis (MAA) was also used to develop a second prioritization plan.

  6. Studies on the detection of leaks from Tapacura dam

    Menezes, Marco O.A.; Andrade Lima, Ricardo de; Antonino, Antonio C.D.; Villar, Heldio P.; Oliveira Lira, Carlos A.B. de [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Badeira, Jefferson V. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Viana, Afonso A. [Companhia Pernambucana de Saneamento e Agua, Recife, PE (Brazil); Plata-Bedmar, Antonio [Centro de Estudios y Experimentaciones de Obras Publicas (Spain); Garcia-Agudo, Edmundo [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)


    One of the many applications of stable isotope analyses is in hydrological studies. as the isotope concentration of elements in water vary as a result of fractionation due to physicochemical processes, each water has its own fingerprints, so that identification of its origin is made possible. This technique has been used in the investigation of the possible leaks through the geologic formation underneath the Tapacura Dam, near Recife, Brazil. Samples were collected from the reservoir and from several collection points downstream. These samples have been analysed for their deuterium, {sup 18} O and {sup 13} C concentrations. The comparison between results from these analyses indicated that water from the reservoir and from the other collection points had distinct origins. These finding were corroborated from standard chemical analyses and tracer studies, thus pointing to the absence of any significant underflow at the Tapacura Dam. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.


    Qingqing GUO


    Full Text Available Earth-rock dam is commonly used in the high-dam engineering around the world. It has been widely accepted that the analysis on structural and seepage stability plays a very important role, and it is necessary to take into account while designing the earth-rock dam. In performing the analysis of structural and seepage stability, many remarkable methods are available at current stage. However, there are still some important issues remaining unsolved, including: (1 Finite element methods (FEMs is a means of solutions to analysis seepage process, but it is often a difficult task to determine the so-called seepage coefficient, because the common-used water injection test is limited in the practical work due to the high cost and complex procedure. (2 It has long been discussed that the key parameters for structural stability analysis show a significant spatial and temporal variations. It may be partly explained by the inhomogeneous dam-filling during construction work and the developing seepage process. The consequence is that one constant value of the parameter cannot represent the above variations. In this context, we solve the above issues and introduce the solution with a practical earth-rock dam project. For determining the seepage coefficient, the data from the piezo metric tube is used to calculate the potential value, based on which the seepage coefficient can be back-analysed. Then the seepage field, as well as the seepage stability are numerically analysed using the FEM-based SEEP/W program. As to the structural safety, we take into account the spatial and temporal variations of the key parameters, and incorporate the Monte-Carlo simulation method into the commonly used M-P method to calculate the frequency distribution of the obtained structural safety factor. In this way, the structural and seepage safety can be well analysed. This study is also beneficial to provide a mature method and a theoretical insight into the earth-rock dam design

  8. National Dam Safety Program. Stubblefield Lake Dam (MO 30363), Mississippi - Kaskaskia - St. Louis River Basin, Crawford County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.


    appropriate corporate division, school, laboratory, etc., of the author. List city, state, and ZIP Code. Block 10 Program Element, Project, Task Area, and Work...INVENTORY NO. 30363 PEASE 1 INSPECION REPRT~ NATIONAL DAM SAETY PROGRAM Prepared By Anderson Engineering, Inc., Springfield, Missouri Hanson Engineers, Inc

  9. Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.

    McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole


    In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas.

  10. Dam safety review, classification of dams for the Novia Scotia Power Inc. Black River hydroelectric system

    Alderman, Aaron; Small, Andy [AMEC Earth and environmental, Fredericton, (Canada); O' Neil, Ellis [Nova Scotia Power Inc., Halifax, (Canada)


    In 2009, AMEC was retained by Nova Scotia Power Inc. (NSPI) to conduct a dam safety review of the dams that are part of the Black River Hydroelectric System. This paper presented the results of this dam classification exercise which was carried out for the Bear River hydroelectric system in Nova Scotia, based on the 2007 Canadian Dam Association (CDA) dam safety guidelines. Flood mapping and dam-break analysis were performed for events ranging from the 1:100 year to PMF flood events, including cascading events. These results were used to draw up a classification of the dams. Associated design criteria were then developed. Following the assessment of the dam sites, conclusions and recommendations were discussed. The recommendations were presented in terms of regular maintenance items and reconstruction items, which are now used by NSPI to determine the party responsible for undertaking the recommendation and for evaluation of the maintenance and reconstruction schedules.

  11. Dam Inventory, dams, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Dam Inventory dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'dams'. Data...

  12. Measurement of Dam Deformations: Case Study of Obruk Dam (Turkey)

    Gulal, V. Engin; Alkan, R. Metin; Alkan, M. Nurullah; İlci, Veli; Ozulu, I. Murat; Tombus, F. Engin; Kose, Zafer; Aladogan, Kayhan; Sahin, Murat; Yavasoglu, Hakan; Oku, Guldane


    In the literature, there is information regarding the first deformation and displacement measurements in dams that were conducted in 1920s Switzerland. Todays, deformation measurements in the dams have gained very different functions with improvements in both measurement equipment and evaluation of measurements. Deformation measurements and analysis are among the main topics studied by scientists who take interest in the engineering measurement sciences. The Working group of Deformation Measurements and Analysis, which was established under the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), carries out its studies and activities with regard to this subject. At the end of the 1970s, the subject of the determination of fixed points in the deformation monitoring network was one of the main subjects extensively studied. Many theories arose from this inquiry, as different institutes came to differing conclusions. In 1978, a special commission with representatives of universities has been established within the FIG 6.1 working group; this commission worked on the issue of determining a general approach to geometric deformation analysis. The results gleaned from the commission were discussed at symposiums organized by the FIG. In accordance with these studies, scientists interested in the subject have begun to work on models that investigate cause and effect relations between the effects that cause deformation and deformation. As of the scientist who interest with the issue focused on different deformation methods, another special commission was established within the FIG engineering measurements commission in order to classify deformation models and study terminology. After studying this material for a long time, the official commission report was published in 2001. In this prepared report, studies have been carried out by considering the FIG Engineering Surveying Commission's report entitled, 'MODELS AND TERMINOLOGY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GEODETIC MONITORING OBSERVATIONS

  13. Study on dynamic anti-sliding stability of a high gravity dam considering complex dam foundation

    Deng-hong CHEN; Cheng-bin DU


    There existed some limitations when analyzing the anti-sliding seismic stability of dam-foundation system by traditional pseudo-static method and response spectrum method. The dynamic strength reduction method was used to study on the deep anti-sliding stability of a high gravity dam considering complex dam foundation under strong earthquake-induced ground action. The static analysis was firstly carried out by reducing the shear strength parameters of the dam foundation’s rock mass with equal...

  14. 78 FR 60271 - Hollow Dam Power Company; Ampersand Hollow Dam Hydro, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of...


    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Hollow Dam Power Company; Ampersand Hollow Dam Hydro, LLC; Notice of..., Hollow Dam Power Company (transferor) and Ampersand Hollow Dam Hydro, LLC (transferee) filed an application for transfer of license for the Hollow Dam Project, FERC No. 6972, located on the West Branch...

  15. Numerical modelling for stability of tailings dams

    Auchar, Muhammad; Mattsson, Hans; Knutsson, Sven


    A tailings dam is a large embankment structure that is constructed to store the waste from the mining industry. Stability problems may occur in a tailings dam due to factors such as quick rate of raising, internal erosion and liquefaction. The failure of a tailings dam may cause loss of human life and environmental degradation. Tailings Dams must not only be stable during the time the tailings storage facility is in operation, but also long time after the mine is closed. In Sweden, the licens...

  16. Debris Flow Dam Formation in Southeast Tibet

    CHENG Zunlan; WU Jishan; GENG Xueyong


    Glaciers with their deposits abound in the alpine areas of Southeast Tibet. Large debris flows occur frequently from these deposits and form dams that block streams. In this paper, 3 events of large debris flows reported in Peilong Valley located in Southeast Tibet, and which resulted 2 blocking dams resulted, are discussed in details, focusing on the major factors controlling dam formation. The results shows that the first surge group caused by snow and ice avalanches, ice-lake breaks, and large-scale landslides, with a high peak discharge and high velocity, and an abundance of boulders, are most likely to form blocking dams.

  17. Comprehensive evaluation methods for dam service status

    WU ZhongRu; XU Bo; GU ChongShi; LI ZhanChao


    More than 87000 dams have been built in China,and about one third of them are risky projects.A number of high and ultra-high dams are being constructed in China's western region.The current dam construction practice tends to focus on socio-economic benefits and neglect the environment and ecology.Furthermore,periodic examinations are intended to ensure the structural safety of dams.This paper proposes a general evaluation principle for dam service.This principle stipulates that dam projects should have maximum socio-economic benefits and minimum negative effects on the environment and ecology.To satisfy the general principle of mutual harmony,socio-economic benefits,dam safety,environment,and ecology are analyzed,and the evaluation methods for dam service status are discussed.Then,a fusion algorithm of interlayer assessment is proposed on the basis of evidence theory and the fuzzy comprehensive analysis method.Finally,a comprehensive evaluation model is established.Example analysis shows that the proposed theories and methods can fulfill scientific assessment of the service status of dams.

  18. Reservoir water effects on earthquake performance evaluation of Torul Concrete-Faced Rockfill Dam

    Alemdar BAYRAKTAR; Murat Emre KARTAL; Hasan Basri BASAGA


    This study presents earthquake performance analysis of the Torul Concrete-Faced Rockfill (CFR) Dam with two-dimensional dam-soil and dam-soil-reservoir finite element models. The Lagrangian approach was used with fluid elements to model impounded water. The interface elements were used to simulate the slippage between the concrete face slab and the rockfill. The horizontal component of the 1992 Erzincan earthquake, with a peak ground acceleration of 0.515g, was considered in time-history analysis. The Drucker-Prager model was preferred in nonlinear analysis of the concrete slab, rockfill and foundation soil. The maximum principal stresses and the maximum displacements in two opposite directions were compared by the height of the concrete slab according to linear time-history analysis to reveal the effect of reservoir water. The changes of critical displacements and principal stresses with time are also shown in this paper. According to linear and nonlinear time-history analysis, the effect of the reservoir water on the earthquake performance of the Torul CFR Dam was investigated and the possible damage situation was examined. The results show that the hydrodynamic pressure of reservoir water leads to an increase in the maximum displacements and principal stresses of the dam and reduces the earthquake performance of the dam. Although the linear time-history analysis demonstrates that the earthquake causes a momentous damage to the concrete slab of the Torul CFR Dam, the nonlinear time-history analysis shows that no evident damage occurs in either reservoir case.

  19. Assessment of dam removal from geochemical examination of Kuma River sediment, Kyushu, Japan.

    Young, Sansfica M; Ishiga, Hiroaki


    The aim of this study was to determine if Arase dam gate removal and flushing elevated concentrations of any trace elements in Kuma River and Yatsushiro Bay sediments or caused riverine environmental change. The Arase dam gate on the Kuma River was opened in April 2010. Surface and bottom sediments were compared using 10-cm-long cores (2011) and two grain size fractions. Surface sediment data from 2002, 2012, and 2013 from the Kuma River and Yatsushiro Bay were also compared. The sediments were analyzed using XRF for 23 elements, and the grain size analysis was done. The short core surface and bottom sediments do not show major chemical changes, and therefore, may not represent post-and pre-dam sediments. Results based on 2011 samples show that the removal of the Arase dam gates in 2010 has been geoenvironmentally beneficial due to the decrease of environmentally related trace elements Pb and Zn in 2013. However, a slight increase in the levels of Cr, Cu, Zr, and Nb in 2013 indicates that periodic flushing in winter leads to elevation in these elements due to an increase in the fine fraction. Metal enrichment factors (EF) in 2002 are higher and these have decreased by 2013. Some elements exceed environmental guidelines, but this is due to natural background values, and there is no anthropogenic contamination. Thus, the environment of the river and bay has been significantly improved due to the dam opening. This result suggests that assessment and environmental monitoring studies are very important for dam management and future decision making.

  20. Monitoring of Erosion Preventive Structures Based on Eco-Engineering Approaches: The Case of the Mixed Check Dams of Masonry and Forest Residues

    Guillermo Tardio Cerrillo


    Full Text Available The mixed check dams were conceived in late 2007, during actions to control the onset of erosion processes in Teide National Park subsequent to a forest fire. A simplified scheme of these mixed check dams consists of a structure of horizontal and vertical wooden elements creating a core that is filled with fine branches and forest residues. Besides this, rocks are placed on both sides of the check dam. The mixed check dam technique follows an eco-engineering design approach. These check dams are temporary structures because their cores will decompose in a few years (from 5-10 years depending on the size of the forest residues used. After our last visit to Tenerife (August 2012, it could be checked that the mixed check dams are providing the predicted results. The sedimentation processes achieved are satisfactory. Based on the collected data during the monitoring stage, the performance of this technique can be already characterised successful.

  1. Ambient modal testing of a double-arch dam: the experimental campaign and model updating

    García-Palacios, Jaime H.; Soria, José M.; Díaz, Iván M.; Tirado-Andrés, Francisco


    A finite element model updating of a double-curvature-arch dam (La Tajera, Spain) is carried out hereof using the modal parameters obtained from an operational modal analysis. That is, the system modal dampings, natural frequencies and mode shapes have been identified using output-only identification techniques under environmental loads (wind, vehicles). A finite element model of the dam-reservoir-foundation system was initially created. Then, a testing campaing was then carried out from the most significant test points using high-sensitivity accelerometers wirelessly synchronized. Afterwards, the model updating of the initial model was done using a Monte Carlo based approach in order to match it to the recorded dynamic behaviour. The updated model may be used within a structural health monitoring system for damage detection or, for instance, for the analysis of the seismic response of the arch dam- reservoir-foundation coupled system.

  2. Mechanical effects of excavation rebound of arch dam bedrock and better concreting time of dam body


    In high ground stress zone, rebound deformation of excavation of arch dam bedrock has a significant impact on the structural behavior, design and construction of arch dam. Based on the analysis of mechanical effects of excavation rebound, with both stress and deformation as two constraint conditions and deformation modulus as a controlling condition, the method to determine a better concreting time of dam body was put forward. All of these play an important guiding role in the excavation of dam bedrock and the construction of dam body.


    LAI Wencong; KHAN Abdul A.


    A well-balanced numerical model is presented for two-dimensional,depth-averaged,shallow water flows based on the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method.The model is applied to simulate dam-brcak flood in natural rivers with wet/dry bed and complex topography.To eliminate numerical imbalance,the pressure force and bed slope terms are combined in the shallow water flow equations.For partially wet/dry elements,a treatment of the source term that preserves the well-balanced property is presented.A treatment for modeling flow over initially dry bed is presented.Numerical results show that the time step used is related to the dry bed criterion.The intercell numerical flux in the DG method is computed by the Harten-Lax-van Contact (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver.A two-dimensional slope limiting procedure is employed to prevent spurious oscillation.The robustness and accuracy of the model are demonstrated through several test cases,including dam-break flow in a channel with three bumps,laboratory dam-break tests over a triangular bump and an L-shape bend,dam-break flood in the Paute River,and the Malpasset dam-break case.Numerical results show that the model is robust and accurate to simulate dam-break flood over natural rivers with complex geometry and wet/dry beds.

  4. McNary Dam, Ice Harbor Dam, and Lower Monumental Dam Smolt Monitoring Program; 1996 Annual Report.

    Hillson, Todd; Lind, Sharon; Price, William (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)


    The Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW) assumed responsibility for the Smolt Monitoring Program at McNary Dam on the Columbia River in 1990 and at the new juvenile collection facility at Lower Monumental Dam on the Snake River in 1993. In 1996, Smolt Monitoring Program activities also began at the new juvenile collection facility located at Ice Harbor Dam. This report summarizes the 1996 Smolt Monitoring work at all three sites. The work at Ice Harbor consisted of Gas Bubble Trauma (GBT) monitoring only. In general, the 1996 passage season at both the McNary and Lower Monumental sites can be characterized by reduced passage of juveniles through the collection systems due to elevated river flows and spill, and low (<1%) overall facility mortality rates most likely resulting from cooler water temperatures. In accordance with the National Marine Fisheries Service recommendations (NMFS, 1995) all spring migrants were bypassed at McNary Dam in 1996. Mechanical problems within the McNary collection system resulted in collection and sampling activities being delayed until April 18 at this site, while sampling and collection began on the scheduled starting date of April 1 at Lower Monumental Dam. Monitoring operations were conducted through December 14 at McNary Dam and through October 28 at Lower Monumental Dam. An ongoing transportation evaluation summer migrant marking program was conducted at McNary Dam in 1996 by the NMFS. This necessitated the sampling of 394,211 additional fish beyond the recommended sampling guidelines. All total, 509,237 and 31,219 juvenile salmonids were anesthetized and individually counted, examined for scale loss, injuries, and brands by WDFW Smolt Monitoring personnel in 1996 at McNary Dam and Lower Monumental Dam, respectively.

  5. Vulnerability of aged concrete gravity dams

    Gogoi, I. [Assam Engineering Institute, Guwahati (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Maity, D. [Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    This paper presented an analysis procedure to predict the effects of aging on the behavior of concrete gravity dams. A time dependent isotropic damage index was determined, presenting the performance of the dam with increasing age. Results revealed that the degradation process is dependent on the design life of the structure. The influence of damage along the dam height was greater than damage observed along its width. In order to consider the time dependent degradation of concrete owing to environmental factors and mechanical loading, an algorithm was presented in order to forecast the behavior of existing dams and to assess the necessity of retrofitting or decommissioning. It was concluded that dam behavior during seismic excitation is influenced by the effects of both the dam reservoir system and initial earthquake damage. With increasing age, dam displacement increases, but hydrodynamic pressures and stresses exerted by reservoirs decrease. It was recommended that more accurate behavior could be determined if further research into the coupled effect of foundation-dam-reservoir interaction with material non-linearity was considered. 15 refs.,15 figs.

  6. Upgrading of Boundary Dam spillway

    McPhail, Gordon; MacMillan, Dave; Smith, Bert [KGS Group, Winnipeg, (Canada); Lacelle, Justin [SaskPower, Regina, (Canada)


    An initial dam safety review was performed in 2005 and identified a number of concerns; the most critical were insufficient spillway capacity and deficiencies in the condition of the existing spillways. This paper described the challenges faced by the upgrading operation on the 50 year old Boundary Dam spillway started in 2008. SaskPower retained the KGS Group to increase the design spillway capacity to 1200 m3/s and remedy observed defects. The construction project involved maintaining the reservoir at full supply level while the 20m long spillway chute and stilling basin below were completely replaced. The difficulties came from the need to complete each year's construction such that the spillway could potentially pass spring flood flows. This paper showed that the upgrade measures selected for implementation were developed through close dialogue between the owner and the designer, with valuable input provided by a panel of external experts as well as from contractors participating in the design process.

  7. Restoring Environmental Flows by Modifying Dam Operations

    Gregory A. Thomas


    Full Text Available The construction of new dams has become one of the most controversial issues in global efforts to alleviate poverty, improve human health, and strengthen regional economies. Unfortunately, this controversy has overshadowed the tremendous opportunity that exists for modifying the operations of existing dams to recover many of the environmental and social benefits of healthy ecosystems that have been compromised by present modes of dam operation. The potential benefits of dam "re-operation" include recovery of fish, shellfish, and other wildlife populations valued both commercially and recreationally, including estuarine species; reactivation of the flood storage and water purification benefits that occur when floods are allowed to flow into floodplain forests and wetlands; regaining some semblance of the naturally dynamic balance between river erosion and sedimentation that shapes physical habitat complexity, and arresting problems associated with geomorphic imbalances; cultural and spiritual uses of rivers; and many other socially valued products and services. This paper describes an assessment framework that can be used to evaluate the benefits that might be restored through dam re-operation. Assessing the potential benefits of dam re-operation begins by characterizing the dam's effects on the river flow regime, and formulating hypotheses about the ecological and social benefits that might be restored by releasing water from the dam in a manner that more closely resembles natural flow patterns. These hypotheses can be tested by implementing a re-operation plan, tracking the response of the ecosystem, and continually refining dam operations through adaptive management. The paper highlights a number of land and water management strategies useful in implementing a dam re-operation plan, with reference to a variety of management contexts ranging from individual dams to cascades of dams along a river to regional energy grids. Because many of the

  8. Research progress on dam-break floods

    Wu, Jiansong


    Because of the catastrophic effects downstream of dam-break failure, more and more researchers around the world have been working on the study of dam-break flows to accurately forecast the downstream inundation mapping. With the rapid development of computer hardware and computing techniques, numerical study on dam-break flows has been a popular research subject. In the paper, the numerical methodologies used to solve the governing partial differential equations of dam-break flows are classified and summarized, and their characteristics and applications are discussed respectively. Furthermore, the fully-developed mathematical models developed in recent decades are reviewed, and also introduced the authors\\' on-going work. Finally, some possible future developments on modeling the dam-break flows and some solutions are presented and discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  9. Do we need construct more dams?

    Chen, J.; Shi, H.


    This paper reviews global dam development in association with the growths of global population, economy, and energy consumption in the past several decades, and also evaluates contributions of dam development to future world sustainable development. Eventually, this paper answers whether we need more dams in the future or not. The world population has rapidly increased from 1.6 billion in 1900, 2.5 billion in 1950, 6.1 billion in 2000, to 7.0 billion in 2011, and is projected to reach 9.5 billion in 2050; similarly, the world economy has dramatically expanded. To maintain socioeconomic development, the consumption of water, food and energy has increased rapidly as well. However, the total volume of available water resource over the world is limited, the food production largely depends on water supply, and the main energy sources are still oil, coal and gas at present, which are regarded as non-renewable resources. Accordingly, it is expected that we will face serious problems to deal with the challenges of water crisis, food security and energy shortage in the near future. In order to enhance the capability of regulating water resource, a great number of global dams (and related reservoirs) have been constructed in the last one hundred years; currently, almost all large rivers over the world have been regulated by dams. The reservoirs can supply sufficient water for irrigated land to ensure food production, and the associated hydropower stations can generate electricity. This article collects the dam data from the ICOLD (International Commission on Large Dams) and GRanD (Global Reservoir and Dam) databases, and some socioeconomic data, including population, economy, and consumptions of water, food and energy over the world. Analysis of these data reveals that global dam development has a great impact on the world sustainable development. Further, it is concluded that we need further dam development to maintain our future development.

  10. Integral stability of Hardfill dam%Hardfill坝的整体稳定安全度

    熊堃; 何蕴龙; 刘俊林


    根据Hardfill坝的设计理念,研究适合Hardfill坝的整体稳定安全度考察方法,基于弹塑性有限元方法对典型Hardfill坝进行了计算,并就Hardfill坝材料参数及结构特征对大坝整体稳定安全度的影响进行了敏感性分析.结果表明:以强度储备为主的综合法考察大坝的整体安全度,Hardfill 坝一般存在沿坝基面的整体失稳破坏机理,其破坏模式为剪切屈服区自坝趾开始,沿坝基面向上游扩展,从而导致大坝滑移失稳;与相同地基条件下的重力坝结构相比,梯形结构的Hardfill坝的整体稳定安全度有较大提高;坝体与坝基的弹性模量比对Hardfill坝的破坏模式及整体安全度影响较小,而坝体的抗剪强度对其则有显著的影响,同时坝坡坡比和坝高对Hardfill坝的破坏模式影响也较小;坝趾部位为大坝安全的薄弱部位,在设计与施工中应在该位置适当加大水泥用量以提高其强度.%An appropriate dam safety evaluation method was studied according to the design concept of the Hardfill dam. Based on the elasto-plastic finite element method, the integral stability of a typical Hardfill dam was analyzed, and the sensitivity analysis was made to assess the effects of the material parameters and structural characteristics on the integral stability of the dam. The results show that the failure mode of the Hardfill dam is mostly integral sliding along the interface between the dam and foundation when the synthesis method based on the intensity reserve is used. The shear yield zone expands from the dam toe towards upstream along the interface, which leads to the slide failure of the dam. Compared with the gravity dam on the same foundation, the trapezoid Hardfill dam is much more stable. The failure mode and integral stability of the Hardfill dam are affected little by elastic modulus, but dramatically by shear strength of the dam. The slope radio and height of the dam have small impact on the

  11. Newfoundland and Labrador hydro dam safety management system : case study Long Pond Reservoir dam safety review[Includes the CSCE forum on professional practice and career development : 1. international engineering mechanics and materials specialty conference : 1. international/3. coastal, estuarine and offshore engineering specialty conference : 2. international/8. construction specialty conference

    Poole, G. [Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Woolgar, R. [Hatch Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada)


    Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro (Hydro) has an active Dam Safety Management (DSM) as part of its overall commitment to safety. The DSM is managed through Hydro's Engineering Department to ensure that all dams and hydraulic structures are operated and maintained in a safe manner to minimize risk to the public. Key elements of the program include employing a Dyke Board of Consultants to inspect structures annually, maintaining a dam inventory record, and surveillance, maintenance, and monitoring plans. The DSM program has recently been updated to include Dam Safety Reviews (DSR) in accordance with the Canadian Dam Association (CDA) Dam Safety Guidelines. A DSR is a systematic review and evaluation of all aspects of design, construction, operation, maintenance, processes, and other systems affecting a dam's safety. A DSR evaluates all components of the dams and hydraulic structures such dams, spillways, foundations, abutments, reservoir, and tailraces. In 2008, Hydro employed Hatch to conduct a DSR for Long Pond Reservoir that will form the basis of additional reviews to be completed in the future on other systems. The DSR showed that Hydro has an excellent DSM and the dams on Long Pond Reservoir are in compliance with the 2007 CDA Guidelines. 1 fig.


    Gheorghe ROMANESCU


    Full Text Available The dams represent hydrotechnical constructions meant to ensure a judicious use of water resources. The international literature is extremely rich in data regarding the large dams on Earth. In this context, a hierarchy of the main dams is attempted and the role they play in the economic development of the regions they were built in is underlined. The largest dams are built on the big rivers in Asia, North America, South America and Africa. The reservoirs have multiple roles: electricity production, drinking or industrial water supply, irrigations, recreation, etc. High costs and land fragility do not allow the construction of dams in the places most affected by drought or flood. This is why they are usually built in mountainous areas, at great distance from the populated centres. On the Romanian territory, there are 246 large dams, built in the hydrographical basins of Siret, Olt, Arges, Somes, etc. The largest rivers on Earth, by discharge, (Amazon and Zair do not also include the largest dams because the landform and the type of flow have not allowed such constructions.

  13. Ririe Dam Release Test Assessment


    72 Lyme Road Hanover, NH 03755-1290 Stephen Hall and Jeremy Giovando US Army Engineer District, Walla Walla 201 North Third Avenue Walla Walla...11/2013 at 0330 2/12/2013 at 1410 10120114 95th St. (1) 10120115 55th St. (2) 2/11/2013 at 1010 2/12/2013 at 2120 10120111 55th St. (1) 9737377...Ririe Dam 2/10/2013 at 1440 0 hr 64,700 N 95th E 2/12/2013 at 1410 47 hr 30 min 0.32 0.32 33,020 55th St. Bridge 2/12/2013 at 2120 54 hr 40 min

  14. The geomorphic legacy of small dams — An Austrian study

    Poeppl, R.E.; Keesstra, S.D.; Hein, T.


    Dams represent one of the most dominant forms of human impact upon fluvial systems during the Anthropocene, as they disrupt the downstream transfer of water and sediments. Removing dams restores river continuity and channel morphology. Both dam construction and dam removal induce geomorphic channel

  15. Mechanical analysis of a gravity dam

    Bergant, Urša


    In the first part of our work we will present the water supply project in Obala and backend Karst regions. The use of the river Reka and its tributary Suhorka is essential, since an amassment is going to be built on it. We decided to build the dam from rolled concrete, which is economically and environmentally better than a paved barrier or a classic concrete dam. The second part of our work includes tension and stability program calculations. The primary dimensions of the dam-taken from a te...

  16. Sustainability of dams-an evaluation approach

    Petersson, E.


    Situated in the stream bed of a river, dams and reservoirs interrupt the natural hydrological cycle. They are very sensitive to all kinds of changes in the catchment, among others global impacts on land use, climate, settlement structures or living standards. Vice versa dams strongly affect the spatially distributed, complex system of ecology, economy and society in the catchment both up- and downstream of the reservoir. The occurrence of negative impacts due to large dams led to serious conflicts about future dams. Nevertheless, water shortages due to climatic conditions and their changes, that are faced by enormous water and energy demands due to rising living standards of a growing world population, seem to require further dam construction, even if both supply and demand management are optimised. Although environmental impact assessments are compulsory for dams financed by any of the international funding agencies, it has to be assumed that the projects lack sustainability. Starting from an inventory of today's environmental impact assessments as an integral part of a feasibility study the presentation will identify their inadequacies with regard to the sustainability of dams. To improve the sustainability of future dams and avoid the mistakes of the past, the planning procedures for dams have to be adapted. The highly complex and dynamical system of interrelated physical and non-physical processes, that involves many different groups of stakeholders, constitutes the need for a model-oriented decision support system. In line with the report of the World Commission of Dams an integrated analysis and structure of the complex interrelations between dams, ecology, economy and society will be presented. Thus the system, that a respective tool will be based on, is analysed. Furthermore an outlook will be given on the needs of the potential users of a DSS and how it has to be embedded in the overall planning process. The limits of computer-based decision-support in the

  17. Geophysics Methods in Electrometric Assessment of Dams

    Davydov, V. A., E-mail:; Baidikov, S. V., E-mail:; Gorshkov, V. Yu., E-mail:; Malikov, A. V., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Geophysical Institute, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)


    The safety assessment of hydraulic structures is proposed to be conducted via geoelectric measurements, which are capable of assessing the health of earth dams in their natural bedding without intervention in their structure. Geoelectric measurements are shown as being capable of pinpointing hazardous parts of a dam, including areas of elevated seepage. Applications of such methods are shown for a number of mini-dams in the Sverdlovsk region. Aparameter (effective longitudinal conductivity) that may be used to monitor the safety of hydraulic structures is proposed. Quantitative estimates of this parameter are given in terms of the degree of safely.

  18. Reliablity analysis of gravity dams by response surface method

    Humar, Nina; Kryžanowski, Andrej; Brilly, Mitja; Schnabl, Simon


    A dam failure is one of the most important problems in dam industry. Since the mechanical behavior of dams is usually a complex phenomenon existing classical mathematical models are generally insufficient to adequately predict the dam failure and thus the safety of dams. Therefore, numerical reliability methods are often used to model such a complex mechanical phenomena. Thus, the main purpose of the present paper is to present the response surface method as a powerful mathematical tool used to study and foresee the dam safety considering a set of collected monitoring data. The derived mathematical model is applied to a case study, the Moste dam, which is the highest concrete gravity dam in Slovenia. Based on the derived model, the ambient/state variables are correlated with the dam deformation in order to gain a forecasting tool able to define the critical thresholds for dam management.

  19. Discussion on construction and type selection of China high dams

    Zhou Jianping; Yang Zeyan; Chen Guanfu


    At the beginning of 21st century, with the rapid and steady development of China economy, a lot of large scale hydropower projects with large dams from 200 m to 300 m high are being or to be buih. China dam constructions are reaching the level of 300 m high arch dam, 250 high CFRD (concrete face rockfill dam) and 200 m high RCC (roller compacted concrete) gravity dam. Due to the safety and the economy, the type selection for high dams has become the key issue during the argumentation for the hydropower projects, and further efforts are still needed in this aspect for high dams. After reviewing the high dam constructions in China and abroad, authors proposed some advices for the selection of dam types, and hope that it can provide some helpful information for the researches and the design of high dams.

  20. 76 FR 34799 - Permanent Dam Safety Modification at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams, TN


    ... Permanent Dam Safety Modification at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams, TN AGENCY... various alternatives for permanent modifications to the existing dam facilities at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar dams in Tennessee. The level of review will be determined after the public...

  1. The Scientific and Institutional Context for the Removal of Marmot Dam, Sandy River, Oregon

    Grant, G. E.; Major, J. J.; O'Connor, J.; Wallick, J. R.; Marr, J.; Wilcock, P.; Podolack, C.


    the National Center for Earth Surface Dynamics (NCED) helped project engineers design the breach scenario. A multi-agency initiative, including scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Forest Service, Oregon State University, Johns Hopkins University, Stillwater Sciences, NCED, Graham Mathews and Associates, and the Bureau of Reclamation organized to conduct pre-, during, and post-event monitoring of channel evolution and sediment transport. Individual study elements included event-based measurements of sediment flux, and repeat channel and LIDAR surveys to capture three-dimensional changes. High-resolution time-lapse photography recorded changes occurring during and subsequent to the breach. These data have provided and will continue to provide a treasure trove of measurements useful for evaluating models of sediment transport and geomorphic change that are applicable not only to future dam removals, but to a wide range of geomorphic problems, including the fate of landslide dams and river response to changing base level.

  2. Long-term dam safety monitoring of Punt dal Gall arch dam in Switzerland



    The 130 m high Punt dal Gall dam is located at the Swiss-Italian border in the South-eastern part of Switzerland and was completed in 1969.The dam is founded on highly folded and partially crushed dolomite and limestone formations.A grout curtain with an area of 120,000 m 2 was provided for controlling seepage.For the monitoring of the dam deformations five inverted pendulums were installed in the dam and three in the rock foundation of the right abutment outside of the dam.For a seasonal water level fluctuation in the reservoir of about 60 m the maximum amplitude of the radial displacement is 25 mm,which includes both the effects of the water load and temperature effects.Furthermore a comprehensive geodetic network was established,57 joint meters were installed and cracks in the crest gallery are monitored by crack meters.There are also thermometers,piezometers and rocmeters.Springs at the left and right banks of the dam are monitored and chemical analyses of the seepage water and springs are performed regularly.The dam is equipped with strong motion instruments and several near-field earthquakes have been recorded in the past.The paper describes the long-term safety monitoring of this 42 years old arch dam.A short description of the Swiss practice in dam safety monitoring and emergency planning is also given.

  3. Numerical Study of Two-Dimensional Viscous Flow over Dams

    王利兵; 刘宇陆; 涂敏杰


    In this paper, the characteristics of two-dimensional viscous flow over two dams were numerically investigated. The results show that the behavior of the vortices is closely related to the space between two dams, water depth, Fr number and Reynolds number. In addition, the flow properties behind each dam are different, and the changes over two dams are more complex than over one dam. Finally, the relevant turbulent characteristics were analyzed.

  4. Research on Dam Simulation System Based on OpenGL

    Li, Kairong; Wang, Juanni; Zuo, Kui; Yun, Jian

    Dam, not only has great ability to alleviate water shortages especially during the dry season which improve hydropower capacity, but also plays an imporant rule in the river ecosystem. Dam has significant effect in improving our water environment and protecting ecological system.This paper copes with the three-dimensional model of dams and discusses OpenGL modeling, lighting, material, model transformation, perspective transformation technologies to achieve visualization of the dam, and eventually we visualize the dam through concrete examples.

  5. Survival of Migrating Salmon Smolts in Large Rivers With and Without Dams

    Welch, David W; Rechisky, Erin L; Melnychuk, Michael C; Porter, Aswea D; Walters, Carl J; Clements, Shaun; Clemens, Benjamin J; McKinley, R. Scott; Schreck, Carl


    The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We measured the survival of salmon smolts during their migration to sea using elements of the large-scale acoustic telemetry system, the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) array. Survival measurements using acoustic tags were comparable to those obtained independently using the Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag system, which is operational at Columbia and Snake River dams. Because the technology underlying the POST array works in both freshwater and the ocean, it is therefore possible to extend the measurement of survival to large rivers lacking dams, such as the Fraser, and to also extend the measurement of survival to the lower Columbia River and estuary, where there are no dams. Of particular note, survival during the downstream migration of at least some endangered Columbia and Snake River Chinook and steelhead stocks appears to be as high or higher than that of the same species migrating out of the Fraser River in Canada, which lacks dams. Equally surprising, smolt survival during migration through the hydrosystem, when scaled by either the time or distance migrated, is higher than in the lower Columbia River and estuary where dams are absent. Our results raise important questions regarding the factors that are preventing the recovery of salmon stocks in the Columbia and the future health of stocks in the Fraser River. PMID:18959485

  6. Survival of migrating salmon smolts in large rivers with and without dams.

    David W Welch


    Full Text Available The mortality of salmon smolts during their migration out of freshwater and into the ocean has been difficult to measure. In the Columbia River, which has an extensive network of hydroelectric dams, the decline in abundance of adult salmon returning from the ocean since the late 1970s has been ascribed in large measure to the presence of the dams, although the completion of the hydropower system occurred at the same time as large-scale shifts in ocean climate, as measured by climate indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We measured the survival of salmon smolts during their migration to sea using elements of the large-scale acoustic telemetry system, the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST array. Survival measurements using acoustic tags were comparable to those obtained independently using the Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag system, which is operational at Columbia and Snake River dams. Because the technology underlying the POST array works in both freshwater and the ocean, it is therefore possible to extend the measurement of survival to large rivers lacking dams, such as the Fraser, and to also extend the measurement of survival to the lower Columbia River and estuary, where there are no dams. Of particular note, survival during the downstream migration of at least some endangered Columbia and Snake River Chinook and steelhead stocks appears to be as high or higher than that of the same species migrating out of the Fraser River in Canada, which lacks dams. Equally surprising, smolt survival during migration through the hydrosystem, when scaled by either the time or distance migrated, is higher than in the lower Columbia River and estuary where dams are absent. Our results raise important questions regarding the factors that are preventing the recovery of salmon stocks in the Columbia and the future health of stocks in the Fraser River.

  7. Final Design Analysis : Lake Ladora Dam Repair

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is intended to present Rocky Mountain Arsenal with details concerning the remedial repair for Ladora Dam to meet the geotechnical concerns and hydrologic...

  8. Chemical - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  9. Dams life; La vie des barrages



    This paper summarizes the conclusions of the annual inspections of French dams in operation (fissures, water oozing, concrete swelling etc..). Only the observations which require a special attention are reported. (J.S.)

  10. White Sturgeon Passage at The Dalles Dam



    Researchers at the USGS Western Fisheries Research Center's Columbia River Research Laboratory, working with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, sought to better understand upstream and downstream passage of white sturgeon at dams. A study at The Dalles Dam provided the opportunity to compare two fish ladders; one that passes sturgeon upstream to one that does not, to determine if subtle differences in construction result in better passage of white sturgeon. Researchers conducted a study using a combination of acoustic and radio telemetry technologies to obtain information on juvenile and adult white sturgeon near The Dalles Dam, with the objectives of characterizing the distribution and movements of white sturgeon in the immediate vicinity of the dam and to determine timing and routes of upstream and downstream passage.

  11. Physical - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  12. Biological - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  13. Micropolar Lubricant Effects on the Performance of a Two- Lobe Bearing with Pressure Dam



    Full Text Available Two lobe bearings are commonly used in the high speed rotating machineries industries. The use of two lobe bearings, considered to be more stable than ordinary plain cylindrical bearings. In the upper half the dam is provided and relief track in the lower half. Performance of two lobe pressure dam bearings under micropolarfluid is evaluated. Finite element method is used to solve the modified Reynolds equation. . Fluid film pressures are obtained by solving modified Reynolds equation, thus pressure obtained is used to find performance characteristics of this bearing. Results are obtained for various micropolar parameter like coupling number andnon-dimensional characteristics length. The results show that Two-lobe Pressure dam bearing is superior to twolobe bearing,

  14. Stability evaluation of slopes of earth dams with account of soil rheological properties

    M.M. Mirsaidov


    Full Text Available Numeric model, methods and algorithm to evaluate the strength of earth dams were developed in the paper using Boltzmann-Volterra hereditary theory of viscoelasticity and Rzhanitsyn relaxation kernel. The estimated results of stress-strain state and strength of earth dams under dynamic effects are considered. The basis of this method is finite-element discretization of structure’s model, which leads to solvable system of integral differential equations and further to step-by-step method of its solution. Reliability of worked out algorithms and programs of design was checked by test examples. Study results of stress-strain state of three (different in height dams under various effects permit to obtain stresses appearing in them and to reveal the most stressed parts of the structure in both resonant and above resonant modes.

  15. Research of air-cushion isolation effects on high arch dam reservoir

    Zhang, Shao-Jie; Chen, Jiang; Zhang, Yuan-Ze; Liu, Hao-Wu


    A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of air-cushion isolated arch dam is presented with the nonlinear gas-liquid-solid multi-field dynamic coupling effect taken into account. In this model, the displacement formulation in Lagrange method, pressure formulation in Euler method, nonlinear contact model based on Coulomb friction law are applied to the air-cushion, reservoir and contraction joint domain, respectively. The dynamic response of Jinping I arch dam with a height of 305 m is analyzed using the seismic records of the Wenchuan Earthquake in 2008. Numerical results show that the air-cushion isolation reduces significantly the hydrodynamic pressure as well as the opening width for the contraction joints of high arch dam.

  16. Risk assessment of tailings facility dam failure

    Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Mirakovski, Dejan; Stefanova, Violeta


    This paper presents the consequences of tailings facility dam failure and therefore the needs for its risk assessment. Tailings are fine-grained wastes of the mining industry, output as slurries, due to mixing with water during mineral processing. Tailings dams vary a lot as it is affected by: tailings characteristics and mill output, site characteristics as: topography, hydrology, geology, groundwater, seismicity and available material and disposal methods. The talings which accumulat...

  17. Stability and performance of older dams

    Dharmawardene, W.; Herbig, A.; Morrison, J. [Alberta Environment, AB (Canada); Chan, D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering


    There are 1300 licensed dams in Alberta. Most were designed and constructed between the late 1940s and the early 1960s. As a rule, compacted earthfill in preglacial and interglacial valleys in southern Alberta was used to construct all dams of moderate height. At these dam sites, the foundations are of valley infill alluvial soils underlain by weak rocks. The best prevailing engineering practices at the time were used to design these dams. It included drilling, soil testing prior to and during construction, and some stability analyses. Despite these measures, a number of the dams built on soft clays suffered significant deformations and cracking of the embankment during construction. A re-examination of the stability of some of the older dams in Alberta, owned by the provincial department of the Environment, was undertaken six years ago using currently accepted design practices. Allowance was made in the new analyses for the presence of shear zones and fissures in the foundation soils, as well as softening caused by wetting. Despite many years of apparently satisfactory service, Factors of Safety that were marginal or deficient were discovered at many dams. The authors presented case histories of three older dams (North and South McGregor, and North Ridge, all located in southern Alberta) for which the long term Factors of Safety were marginal under normal loading. A number of criteria, such as deformation, stress strain curves of foundation materials and the consequence of failure were taken into consideration in assessing and confirming the requirement for repair before any structural modifications were undertaken. Some of the repairs that were carried out were also briefly described. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Walter Bouldin Dam failure and reconstruction



    Walter Bouldin is one of several hydroelectric developments of Alabama Power Company. On February 10, 1975, an earth embankment section of Walter Bouldin Dam was breached, causing total evacuation of the forebay reservoir and rendering the 225-MW power plant inoperable. The Federal Power Commission instituted an investigation of the dam failure, and a report on the investigation was published in February 1976. Subsequently, an evidentiary hearing was held before an administrative law judge who issued his initial decision on August 19, 1976. The Commission, on April 21, 1977, issued its Opinion No. 795 in which it adopted the initial decision with modifications and terminated the investigation of failure of Walter Bouldin Dam. Opinion No. 795 directs the staff of the Bureau of Power to prepare, for the future guidance of the Commission, a report on the deficiencies which were found in its investigation, together with advice as to how such deficiencies have been and should be remedied. Also, it directs the staff of the Bureau of Power to address certain general recommendations included in the initial decision. This report was prepared in response to that directive and summaries information on the dam failure and its investigation; the evidentiary hearing; the judge's recommendations, the reconstruction of the Bouldin Dam; and the evalution and status of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Dam safety program. (LCL)

  19. Reliability Analysis of High Rockfill Dam Stability

    Ping Yi


    Full Text Available A program 3DSTAB combining slope stability analysis and reliability analysis is developed and validated. In this program, the limit equilibrium method is utilized to calculate safety factors of critical slip surfaces. The first-order reliability method is used to compute reliability indexes corresponding to critical probabilistic surfaces. When derivatives of the performance function are calculated by finite difference method, the previous iteration’s critical slip surface is saved and used. This sequential approximation strategy notably improves efficiency. Using this program, the stability reliability analyses of concrete faced rockfill dams and earth core rockfill dams with different heights and different slope ratios are performed. The results show that both safety factors and reliability indexes decrease as the dam’s slope increases at a constant height and as the dam’s height increases at a constant slope. They decrease dramatically as the dam height increases from 100 m to 200 m while they decrease slowly once the dam height exceeds 250 m, which deserves attention. Additionally, both safety factors and reliability indexes of the upstream slope of earth core rockfill dams are higher than that of the downstream slope. Thus, the downstream slope stability is the key failure mode for earth core rockfill dams.



    Traditionally gully erosion has been identified with the dissection of the landscape in agricultural settings but it is also recognized as a prevalent erosion feature in earthen dam auxiliary spillways and embankments. Flows through earthen spillways and over dam embankments, due to large rainfall events, have the potential to erode and breach the dam or spillway and result in catastrophic releases from the reservoir. The gully erosion process in an earthen spillway or on an embankment can be characterized by stages of initiation, development, and migration of a headcut. A headcut is defined as a near vertical drop at the upstream end of a gully. The rate of headcut migration is important in determining the breach potential of an earthen spillway and dam embankment. A research program is being conducted to examine the gully erosion processes of earthen dam auxiliary spillways and embankments. This paper describes: 1) the unique test facilities constructed to examine the dominant factors affecting the erosion of earthen spillways and embankments; 2) the observations of the erosion processes and results to date; and 3) the predictive relationships that have been developed for dam gully erosion research at the ARS Hydraulic Engineering Research Unit laboratory in Stillwater, OK.

  1. Distributional Impacts of Large Dams in China

    Bao, X.


    Dams on a river are believed to have heterogeneous impacts to the upstream, local and downstream areas. Generally, irrigation dams will bring benefits to the downstream by facilitating more irrigation, while it will bring negative impacts to upstream due to inundation or no impact to local area as a combination result of population dislocation and economic benefits. This paper checked the impacts of large dams (above 100 meters) on the upstream, downstream and local area, using 2000-2008 county level data in China. Robust heterogeneous impacts of different categories of dams (mainly dams serving for irrigation, hydropower, or other purposes) were found on different areas, using IV regression approaches. Dams higher than 100 meters are significantly and heterogeneously impacting agricultural production, urban employment and rural per capita income. Its beneficial impact on agriculture production is significant for downstream especially in continuous drought years. But its impacts on social welfare indicators, such as primary school enrollment and hospital beds, are not heterogeneously different across regions.

  2. Estimating flood inundation caused by dam failures

    Mocan, N. [Crozier and Associates Inc., Collingwood, ON (Canada); Joy, D.M. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). School of Engineering; Rungis, G. [Grand River Conservation Authority, Cambridge, ON (Canada)


    Recent advancements in modelling inundation due to dam failures have allowed easier and more illustrative analyses of potential outcomes. This paper described new model and mapping capabilities available using the HEC-RAS hydraulic model in concert with geographic information systems (GIS). The study area was the upper reaches of Canagagigue Creek and the Woolwich Dam near Elmira, Ontario. A hydraulic analysis of a hypothetical dam failure was developed based on the summer probable maximum flood (PMF) event. Limits extended from Woolwich Dam to downstream of the Town of Elmira. An incoming summer PMF hydrograph was set as the upstream boundary condition in the upstream model. Simulation parameters include simulation time-step; implicit weighting factor; water surface calculation tolerance; and output calculation interval. Peak flows were presented, as well as corresponding flood inundation results through the Town of Elmira. The hydraulic model results were exported to a GIS in order to develop inundation maps for emergency management planning. Results from post-processing included inundation maps for each of the simulated time-steps as well as an inundation animation for the duration of the dam breach. It was concluded that the modelling tools presented in the study can be applied to other dam safety assessment projects in order to develop effective and efficient emergency preparedness plans through public consultation and the establishment of impact zones. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  3. Re-evaluation of the concrete faced rockfill dams in Turkey

    Tosun, H. [Dam Safety Association, Ankara (Turkey); Turkoz, M. [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkey)


    One of the most popular types of dams in the world is the concrete faced rockfill dam (CFRD). In the 1940s, it was used for moderate height structures, however with the application of the vibratory roller, it quickly advanced. The concrete-faced rockfill dam is being constructed with increasing frequency, because it does not have settlement problems as a result of the use of compacted rockfill. It is thought that the entire rockfill mass increases the overall stability of the dam, since the water pressure acts on the upstream face. One of its advantages is that there can be no pore water pressure due to earthquake shaking, because the embankment does not include water inside. Therefore, it is not necessary to consider a strength reduction for embankment materials and have a high resistance to seismic loading when well compacted. Currently, CFRD's are designed with an upstream zone of small rock particles and soil materials without any permeability problems. The stability of slopes of concrete-faced rockfill dams can be analysed under different levels of seismic loading. In Turkey, the CFRD is increasingly popular. This paper described evaluation of design principles for CFRD's in Turkey and introduced the results of a study including deformation and stress analyses of the Kurtun Dam using the Finite Element Method and compared the calculated and measured values of settlement. The predicted values of settlement were compared with actual ones. It was concluded that settlement analysis using the finite element model is a credible method when suitable parameters of embankment materials are used in the analysis. 11 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  4. Cold weather challenges during construction of a rockfill dam with a polypropylene liner in the Canadian Arctic

    Grapel, C.K.; Valeriote, M.A. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Cross, F. [Layfield Environmental Systems Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    The development of an open mine pit at the Misery site of the Ekati Diamond Mine in the Northwest Territories required the construction of several water retention dams for surface water management. One dam was needed to retain runoff water from a waste rock storage pile and to ensure that discharge from the site met the requirements of the water licence that governs mining operations at Ekati. This paper described the exceptional challenges of constructing a dam during Arctic winter conditions, particularly when permafrost is used for all or part of the impervious elements of the dam. A 15 metre high rock fill dam with a composite liner system and a frozen key trench was constructed during the winter of 2001-2002. The dam was designed to be a zero discharge mine water runoff collection dam. It was designed to incorporate permafrost to supplement the composite geosynthetic liners in the retention of water. Therefore, thermal considerations were an important component of the design process. The composite liner system consisted of a polypropylene primary liner, geosynthetic clay liner and a downstream and upstream cushion. Polypropylene was chosen because of its flexibility in extremely cold temperatures. However, cracking did occur in the liner during the first phase of placement when temperatures were below -40 degrees C. Construction was halted to address the issue, and was resumed when field observations revealed that the liner placement would not result in additional cracking. The dam has impounded water to elevations above the lower liner segment each year since completion without any observed seepage at the toe of the dam. 12 figs.

  5. Game model of safety monitoring for arch dam deformation


    Arch dam deformation is comprehensively affected by water pressure,temperature,dam’s structural behavior and material properties as well as other factors.Among them the water pressure and temperature are external factors(source factors) that cause dam deformation,and dam’s structural behavior and material properties are the internal factors of deformation(resistance factors).The dam deformation is the result of the mutual game playing between source factors and resistance factors.Therefore,resistance factors of structure and materials that reflect resistance character of arch dam structure are introduced into the traditional model,where structure factor is embodied by the flexibility coefficient of dam body and the maximum dam height,and material property is embodied by the elastic modulus of dam.On the basis of analyzing the correlation between dam deformation and resistance factors,the game model of safety monitoring for arch dam deformation is put forward.

  6. The interplay of activists and dam developers : the case of Myanmar’s mega-dams

    Kirchherr, Julian; J. Charles, Katrina; Walton, Matthew J.


    Scholars investigating activism against large dam developments in Asia usually focus on those campaigning, but not on those the campaigns are aimed at–the dam developers. Yet the developers’ perspective is crucial to comprehensively understand the dynamics of social and environmental activism in

  7. Challenges of high dam construction to computational mechanics

    ZHANG Chuhan


    The current situations and growing prospects of China's hydro-power development and high dam construction are reviewed,giving emphasis to key issues for safety evaluation of large dams and hydro-power plants,especially those associated with application of state-of-the-art computational mechanics.These include but are not limited to:stress and stability analysis of dam foundations under external loads;earthquake behavior of dam-foundation-reservoir systems,mechanical properties of mass concrete for dams,high velocity flow and energy dissipation for high dams,scientific and technical problems of hydro-power plants and underground structures,and newly developed types of dam-Roll Compacted Concrete (RCC) dams and Concrete Face Rock-fill (CFR)dams.Some examples demonstrating successful utilizations of computational mechanics in high dam engineering are given,including seismic nonlinear analysis for arch dam foundations,nonlinear fracture analysis of arch dams under reservoir loads,and failure analysis of arch dam-foundations.To make more use of the computational mechanics in high dam engineering,it is pointed out that much research including different computational methods,numerical models and solution schemes,and verifications through experimental tests and filed measurements is necessary in the future.

  8. A conceptual model of check dam hydraulics for gully control

    C. Castillo


    Full Text Available There is little information in scientific literature regarding the modifications induced by check dam systems in flow regimes in restored gully reaches, despite it being a crucial issue for the design of conservation measures. Here, we develop a conceptual model to classify flow regimes in straight rectangular channels for initial and dam-filling conditions as well as a method of estimating efficiency in order to provide guidelines for optimal design. The model integrates several previous mathematical approaches for assessing the main processes involved (hydraulic jump HJ, impact flow, gradually varied flows. Its performance was compared with the simulations obtained from IBER, a bi-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The impact of check dam spacing (defined by the geometric factor of influence c on efficiency was explored. Eleven main classifications of flow regimes were identified depending on the element and level of influence. The model produced similar results when compared with IBER, but led to higher estimations of HJ and impact lengths. Total influence guaranteed maximum efficiency and HJ control defining the location of the optimal c. Geometric total influence (c = 1 was a valid criterion for the different stages of the structures in a wide range of situations provided that hydraulic roughness conditions remained high within the gully, e.g. through revegetation. Our total influence criterion involved shorter spacing than that habitually recommended in technical manuals for restoration, but was in line with those values found in spontaneous and stable step-pools systems, which might serve as a reference for man-made interventions.

  9. Concentration Assessment of Chromium and Arsenic Heavy Metals in Rivers Basins of Baft and Rabor Dams

    M Malakootian


    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals are regarded as toxic stable elements in the environment that with the entry into water sources, finally it enters into the biological cycle of life and develops some adverse effects. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the concentration of chromium and arsenic heavy metals in the river basins of Baft and Ravar dams. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2013 to June 2014. During the field surveys of the river basins, 4 sampling stations of river basins of Baft and Rabor dams were selected. One combined sample was taken on 15th of each month from the mentioned river basins as well as Baft and Rabor dams. The chromium and arsenic concentrations were measured for 12 months in river basins of Baft and Rabar dams by Furnace Atomic Absorption device, and the study data were analyzed applying SPSS software. Results:. The mean concentration of chromium was reported 5.01 and 5.19 in the river basins of Baft dam and 5.44, 5.5, 5.42 and 5.45 ppb in river basins of Rabor dam. The mean concentration of arsenic in the river basins was demonstrated to be 16.52 and 11.71 ppb in Baft dam, and 12.28, 13.6, 7.13 and 8.78 ppb in Rabor dam. In addition, the mean concentration of chromium was reported 5.02 and 5.38, and arsenic concentration was obtained 23.53 and 9.12 ppb, respectively in Baft and Rabar dams. Conclusion: Based on the study results, the chromium concentration in the studied stations was demonstrated to be significantly less than guidelines of WHO, EPA and Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran, whereas arsenic concentration was demonstrated to be significantly higher compared to these guidelines(p<0.0001. As a result, this difference needs to be diminished via implementing the required plans.

  10. The impact of damming on riverine fluxes to the ocean: A case study from Eastern Iceland.

    Eiriksdottir, Eydis Salome; Oelkers, Eric H; Hardardottir, Jorunn; Gislason, Sigurdur Reynir


    Anthropogenic water management has extensively altered the world's river systems through impoundments and channel diversions to meet the human's need for water, energy and transportation. To illuminate the effect of such activities on the environment, this study describes the impact of the installation of the Kárahnjúkar Dam in Eastern Iceland on the transport of riverine dissolved- and particulate material to the ocean by the Jökulsá á Dal and the Lagarfljót rivers. This dam, completed in 2007, collects water into the 2.2 km(3) Hálslón reservoir and diverts water from the glacial Jökulsá á Dal river into the partially glaciated Lagarfljót lagoon via a headrace tunnel. The impact of the damming was evaluated by sampling water from both the Jökulsá á Dal and the Lagarfljót rivers over a 15 year period spanning from 1998 to 2013. The annual flux of most dissolved elements increased substantially due to the damming. The fluxes of dissolved Zn, Al, Co, Ti and Fe increased most by damming; these fluxes increased by 46-391%. These differences can be attributed to changed saturation states of common secondary minerals in the Jökulsá á Dal due to reduced discharge, increased residence time and dissolution of suspended material, and, to a lesser degree, reduced photosynthesis due to less transparency in the Lagarfljót lagoon. The removal of particulate material and thus decreasing adsorption potential in the Jökulsá á Dal is the likely reason for the Fe flux increase. In contrast, approximately 85% of the original riverine transported mass of particulate material is trapped by the dam; that which passes tends to be relatively fine grained, increasing the average specific surface area of that which continues to flow towards the ocean. Consequently, the particulate geometric surface area flux is decreased by only 50% due to the damming. The blooming of silica diatoms during the spring consumes dissolved silica from the coastal waters until it becomes


    NIU Zhi-pan; XU Wei-lin; LI Nai-wen; XUE Yang; CHEN Hua-yong


    This paper preseuts results of model tests for the landslide dam failure of a single dam and cascade dams in a sloping channel.The dams were designed to be regular trapezoid with fine sand.A new measuring method named the labeled line locating method was used to digitalize the captured instantaneous pictures.Under two differem inflow discharges,the morphological evolution and the flow patterns during one dam failure and the failure of cascade dams were investigated.The results indicate that when the inflow discharge is large,the deformation pattern of the downstream dam is similar to that of the upstream dam,and both dams are characterized with the overtopping scour throughout the dam failure process.When the inflow discharge is small,the upstream dam is scoured mainly through a sluice slot formed by the longitudinal incision,and the downstream dam is characterized with the overtopping scour.The data set presented in this paper can be used for the validation of numerical models and provide a reference for the flood risk management of cascade landslide dams.

  12. Toward policies and decision-making for dam removal.

    Doyle, Martin W; Harbor, Jon M; Stanley, Emily H


    Dam removal has emerged as a critical issue in environmental management. Agencies responsible for dams face a drastic increase in the number of potential dam removals in the near future. Given limited resources, these agencies need to develop ways to decide which dams should be removed and in what order. The underlying science of dam removal is relatively undeveloped and most agencies faced with dam removal lack a coherent purpose for removing dams. These shortcomings can be overcome by the implementation of two policies by agencies faced with dam removal: (1) the development and adoption of a prioritization scheme for what constitutes an important dam removal, and (2) the establishment of minimum levels of analysis prior to decision-making about a dam removal. Federal and state agencies and the scientific community must encourage an initial experimental phase of dam removal during which only a few dams are removed, and these are studied intensively. This will allow for the development of the fundamental scientific understanding needed to support effective decision-making in the future and minimize the risk of disasters arising from poorly thought out dam removal decisions.

  13. Evaluation of Senior Dental Students’ General Attitude towards the Use of Rubber Dam: A Survey among Two Dental Schools

    Jale Tanalp


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the general attitude of senior dental students towards rubber dam use, specifically focusing on endodontic practices prior to starting to serve community. Questionnaires were distributed to senior year students of a private school and a state school in Istanbul. Questions were asked about areas where the students used rubber dam, its advantages and difficulties, and whether they agreed or disagreed with some aspects of the rubber dam. The private school students rated isolation whereas those of the state school selected prevention of aspiration which the top advantage rubber dam provides. Students of the state school agreed with the opinion that isolation cannot be achieved without rubber dam and it extended the procedure with a significantly higher ratio compared to the private school. Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that the perceptions of dental students on rubber dam needs to be improved and strategies should be developed so that this valuable adjunct will comprise one of the indispensable elements of dental care.

  14. Re-grouting of Maroon Dam foundation

    Palassi, M. [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Sharghi, A. [JTMA Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The Maroon dam, built on the Maroon River in the Khoozestan province (southwest) of Iran, has a height of 176 metres and a 1.2 billion cubic metre reservoir. It is one of the largest embankment dams in Iran. A number of unpredicted inflows of water into tunnels and other underground openings occurred during the first impoundment of the Maroon dam. Impoundment was halted and the reservoir was emptied to correct the problem. This paper reviews the measures that were implemented during the remediation process, and presented an evaluation of the effectiveness of the process. The foundation treatment involved placing concrete in the caverns, constructing a concrete lining, and extending the grout curtain. The grouting procedure was also described. The overall effectiveness of the concrete work and grouting resulted in a reduction in leakage from 8.5 cubic metres per second to a more acceptable 10 litres per second. 8 figs.

  15. Channel changes downstream from a dam

    Hadley, R.F.; Emmett, W.W.


    A flood-control dam was completed during 1979 on Bear Creek, a small tributary stream to the South Platte River in the Denver, Colorado, area. Before and after dam closure, repetitive surveys between 1977 and 1992 at five cross sections downstream of the dam documented changes in channel morphology. During this 15-year period, channel width increased slightly, but channel depth increased by more than 40 percent. Within the study reach, stream gradient decreased and median bed material sizes coarsened from sand in the pools and fine gravel on the riffle to a median coarse gravel throughout the reach. The most striking visual change was from a sparse growth of streamside grasses to a dense growth of riparian woody vegetation.

  16. The future role of dams in the United States of America

    Ho, Michelle; Lall, Upmanu; Allaire, Maura; Devineni, Naresh; Kwon, Hyun Han; Pal, Indrani; Raff, David; Wegner, David


    xml:id="wrcr22481-sec-1001" numbered="no">Storage and controlled distribution of water have been key elements of a human strategy to overcome the space and time variability of water, which have been marked by catastrophic droughts and floods throughout the course of civilization. In the United States, the peak of dam building occurred in the mid-20th century with knowledge limited to the scientific understanding and hydrologic records of the time. Ecological impacts were considered differently than current legislative and regulatory controls would potentially dictate. Additionally, future costs such as maintenance or removal beyond the economic design life were not fully considered. The converging risks associated with aging water storage infrastructure and uncertainty in climate in addition to the continuing need for water storage, flood protection, and hydropower result in a pressing need to address the state of dam infrastructure across the nation. Decisions regarding the future of dams in the United States may, in turn, influence regional water futures through groundwater outcomes, economic productivity, migration, and urban growth. We advocate for a comprehensive national water assessment and a formal analysis of the role dams play in our water future. We emphasize the urgent need for environmentally and economically sound strategies to integrate surface and groundwater storage infrastructure in local, regional, and national water planning considerations. A research agenda is proposed to assess dam failure impacts and the design, operation, and need for dams considering both paleo and future climate, utilization of groundwater resources, and the changing societal values toward the environment.

  17. Study on dynamic anti-sliding stability of a high gravity dam considering complex dam foundation

    Deng-hong CHEN


    Full Text Available There existed some limitations when analyzing the anti-sliding seismic stability of dam-foundation system by traditional pseudo-static method and response spectrum method. The dynamic strength reduction method was used to study on the deep anti-sliding stability of a high gravity dam considering complex dam foundation under strong earthquake-induced ground action. The static analysis was firstly carried out by reducing the shear strength parameters of the dam foundation’s rock mass with equal proportion. Then, the time-history seismic analysis was carried out based on the static analysis. It was proposed as one of dynamic instability criterions that the peak values of the dynamic displacements and plastic strain energy change suddenly with increasing strength reduction coefficient. The elasto-plastic behavior of the dam foundation was idealized using Drucker–Prager yield criterion based on associated flow rule assumption. Through the static, dynamic strength reduction analysis and dynamic linear elastic analysis of the overflow dam monolith of a high gravity dam, the results’ reliability of elastic-plastic time history analysis was confirmed. The results also showed that the rock mass strength of the high gravity dam foundation has higher strength reserve coefficient. The instability criterions of dynamic strength reduction method proposed were feasible. Although the static anti-slide analysis methods and standards of gravity dam based on the numerical methods are being discussed at present, the dynamic calculation method and instability criterions proposed in this paper would provide some meaningful suggestions for the dynamic analysis of the similar projects.

  18. Optimizing the dammed: water supply losses and fish habitat gains from dam removal in California.

    Null, Sarah E; Medellín-Azuara, Josué; Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lent, Michelle; Lund, Jay R


    Dams provide water supply, flood protection, and hydropower generation benefits, but also harm native species by altering the natural flow regime and degrading aquatic and riparian habitat. Restoring some rivers reaches to free-flowing conditions may restore substantial environmental benefits, but at some economic cost. This study uses a systems analysis approach to preliminarily evaluate removing rim dams in California's Central Valley to highlight promising habitat and unpromising economic use tradeoffs for water supply and hydropower. CALVIN, an economic-engineering optimization model, is used to evaluate water storage and scarcity from removing dams. A warm and dry climate model for a 30-year period centered at 2085, and a population growth scenario for year 2050 water demands represent future conditions. Tradeoffs between hydropower generation and water scarcity to urban, agricultural, and instream flow requirements were compared with additional river kilometers of habitat accessible to anadromous fish species following dam removal. Results show that existing infrastructure is most beneficial if operated as a system (ignoring many current institutional constraints). Removing all rim dams is not beneficial for California, but a subset of existing dams are potentially promising candidates for removal from an optimized water supply and free-flowing river perspective. Removing individual dams decreases statewide delivered water by 0-2282 million cubic meters and provides access to 0 to 3200 km of salmonid habitat upstream of dams. The method described here can help prioritize dam removal, although more detailed, project-specific studies also are needed. Similarly, improving environmental protection can come at substantially lower economic cost, when evaluated and operated as a system.

  19. Predicting Water Levels at Kainji Dam Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Predicting Water Levels at Kainji Dam Using Artificial Neural Networks. ... The aim of this study is to develop artificial neural network models for predicting water levels at Kainji Dam, which supplies water to Nigeria's largest ... Article Metrics.

  20. Inventory of Dams in the State of Iowa

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Permitted dams in Iowa and associated attributes, as recorded by the Floodplain Section of the DNR. The dams regulated are those with the parameters listed below: a....

  1. National Inventory of Dams Coastal California Extract 2010

    California Department of Resources — The National Inventory of Dams (NID) is a congressionally authorized database, which documents dams in the U.S. and its territories. The NID was most recently...

  2. Research review of the cement sand and gravel (CSG) dam


    The cement sand and gravel (CSG) dam is a new style of dam that owes the advantages both of the concrete faced rock-fill dam (CRFD) and roller compacted concrete (RCC) gravity dam,because of which it has attracted much attention of experts home and abroad.At present,some researches on physic-mechanical property of CSG material and work behavior of CSG dam have been done.This paper introduces the development and characteristics of CSG dam systematically,and summarizes the progress of the study on basic tests,constitutive relation of CSG material and numerical analysis of CSG dam,in addition,indicates research and application aspect of the dam.

  3. Computational Aspects of Dam Risk Analysis: Findings and Challenges

    Ignacio Escuder-Bueno


    Full Text Available In recent years, risk analysis techniques have proved to be a useful tool to inform dam safety management. This paper summarizes the outcomes of three themes related to dam risk analysis discussed in the Benchmark Workshops organized by the International Commission on Large Dams Technical Committee on “Computational Aspects of Analysis and Design of Dams.” In the 2011 Benchmark Workshop, estimation of the probability of failure of a gravity dam for the sliding failure mode was discussed. Next, in 2013, the discussion focused on the computational challenges of the estimation of consequences in dam risk analysis. Finally, in 2015, the probability of sliding and overtopping in an embankment was analyzed. These Benchmark Workshops have allowed a complete review of numerical aspects for dam risk analysis, showing that risk analysis methods are a very useful tool to analyze the risk of dam systems, including downstream consequence assessments and the uncertainty of structural models.

  4. Harvesting river water through small dams promote positive environmental impact.

    Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Chaudhary, Sunita; Chinnasamy, Pennan; Hsu, Minna J


    While deliberations relating to negative consequences of large dams on the environment continue to dominate world attention, positive benefits provided by small dams, also known as check dams, go unobserved. Besides, little is known about the potential of check dams in mitigating global warming impacts due to less data availability. Small dams are usually commissioned to private contractors who do not have clear mandate from their employers to post their work online for public scrutiny. As a result, statistics on the design, cost, and materials used to build check dams are not available in public domain. However, this review paper presents data for the first time on the often ignored potential of check dams mitigating climate-induced hydrological threats. We hope that the scientific analysis presented in this paper will promote further research on check dams worldwide to better comprehend their eco-friendly significance serving society.

  5. Dams and transnational advocacy: Political opportunities in transnational collective action

    Fu, Teng

    Possible arguments to explain the gradual decline in big dam development and its site transferring from developed to developing countries include technical, economic, and political factors. This study focuses on the political argument---the rise of transnational anti-dam advocacy and its impact on state policy-making. Under what conditions does transnational anti-dam advocacy matter? Under what conditions does transnational advocacy change state dam policies (delay, scale down, or cancel)? It examines the role of transnational anti-dam actors in big dam building in a comparative context in Asia. Applying the social movement theory of political opportunity structure (POS) and using the qualitative case-study method, the study provides both within-case and cross-case analyses. Within-case analysis is utilized to explain the changing dynamics of big dam building in China (Three Gorges Dam and proposed Nu/Salween River dam projects), and to a lesser extent, Sardar Sarovar Project in India and Nam Theun 2 Dam in Laos. Different domestic and international POS (DPOS and IPOS) impact the strategies and outcomes of anti-dam advocacies in these countries. The degree of openness of the POS directly affects the capacity of transnational efforts in influencing state dam policies. The degree of openness or closure is measured by specific laws, institutions, discourse, or elite allies (or the absence of these) for the participation of non-state actors on big dam issues at a particular moment. This degree of openness is relative, varying over time, across countries and regions. This study finds that the impact of transnational anti-dam activism is most effective when both DPOS and IPOS are relatively open. Transnational anti-dam advocacy is least effective in influencing state dam policies when both DPOS and IPOS are relatively closed. Under a relatively open DPOS and closed IPOS, transnational anti-dam advocacy is more likely to successfully change state dam policies and even

  6. Lac Courte Oreilles Hydro Dam Assessment

    Weaver, Jason [Lac Courte Oreilles, Hayward, WI (United States); Meyers, Amy [Kiser Hydro, LLC, Norway, MI (United States)


    The main objective of this project was to investigate upgrading the existing hydro power generating system at the Winter Dam. The tribe would like to produce more energy and receive a fair market power purchase agreement so the dam is no longer a drain on our budget but a contributor to our economy. We contracted Kiser Hydro, LLC Engineering for this project and received an engineering report that includes options for producing more energy with cost effective upgrades to the existing turbines. Included in this project was a negotiation of energy price sales negotiations.

  7. Research on Dam Perspective Based on Numerical Solution

    WANGZi-ru; ZHOUHui-cheng; LIMing-qiu


    The numerical solution of dam toe line is solved based on the dam data and topographic map of dam located. The display of dam perspective is also realized by programming of using VC++ and OpenGL. The research results above provide the foundation of construction design, construction lofting and information inquiry, which avoids the drawbacks of only using blueprints to do the same work in the past. The method used is useful in practical engineering.

  8. National Dam Safety Inspection. D and R Pipeline Construction Company Lake (MO 20396), Osage - Gasconade Basin, Greene County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.


    school, laboratory, etc., of the author. List city, state, and ZIP Code. d Block Prgram Element, Project, Task Area, and Work Unit Numbers. Enter here...Phase I Inspection Report This report presents the results of field inspection and evaluation of the D & R Pipeline Construction Company Lake Dam: It was...dwellings. our inspection and evaluation indicates that the com- bined spillways do not meet the criteria set forth in the guidelines for a dam having

  9. Major dams of the United States, Geographic NAD83, USGS (2006) [dams00x020_USGS_2006

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This map layer portrays major dams of the United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting dams 50 feet or...

  10. 43 CFR 418.18 - Diversions at Derby Dam.


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diversions at Derby Dam. 418.18 Section... Operations and Management § 418.18 Diversions at Derby Dam. (a) Diversions of Truckee River water at Derby Dam must be managed to maintain minimum terminal flow to Lahontan Reservoir or the Carson River...

  11. 25 CFR 173.16 - Reserved area, Coolidge Dam.


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserved area, Coolidge Dam. 173.16 Section 173.16... area, Coolidge Dam. No permit for any commercial business or other activity (except boating concessions...-fourths of a mile from the center of the Coolidge Dam, Arizona....

  12. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber dam and accessories. 872.6300 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in...


    Bycroft, G.N.; Mork, P.N.


    An analytical solution to the response of a long trapezoidal-section dam on a foundation consisting of an elastic half-space and subjected to simulated earthquake motion is developed. An optimum seismic design is achieved when the cross section of the dam is triangular. The effect of soil structure interaction is to lower the strain occurring in the dam.

  14. The expected collapse of a large dam Saddam Dam in Iraq; Un grand barrage a haut risque Saddam Dam en Irak

    Mesny, M. [Conseil general du genie rural, des eaux et des forets, 75 - Paris (France)


    The Saddam dam is a very large dam in Iraq on the Tigris River, 80 kilometres upstream from the city of Mosul. It is a fill dam with a clayey silt core. The height of the dam is 120 meters and the capacity of the reservoir is 11 billions m3. But this dam has been built on foundations of gypsum that is a rock soluble in water. The impounding of the reservoir in 1986 has shown that, in spite of the grout curtain, substantial seepage has occurred (up to 1.4 m{sup 3}/s), as well as the dissolution of minerals from foundations (up to 80 tons per day). The substantial increase in permeability and seepage through the dam foundations results in a severe concern about the stability of the dam. The program of injection has been stopped in 1991, due to the circumstances. So there is a real risk that this dam would collapse through a quickly developing leak in the dike, resulting in the devastation of the rich agricultural valley of the Tigris River and in potential human losses at Mosul. A 10 to 20-meter high submersion wave would reach this town 3 to 4 hours after the collapse of the dam. An international action is urgently required to check the conditions of the dam and to propose remedial solutions, which may be a 120-meter deep concrete wall down to the calcareous floor existing below the soluble layers of the foundations. (author)

  15. Dams life. Dams in operation; La vie des barrages. Barrages en exploitation



    This paper summarizes the conclusions of the annual inspections of French dams in operation (fissures, water oozing, concrete swelling etc..). Only the observations which require a special attention are reported. (J.S.)

  16. 7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.


    ... result from encountering unanticipated or unusual conditions during construction. (5) The independent review of construction shall include: (i) Foundation preparation and treatment. When the foundation has... construction. The reviewer must have demonstrated experience in the design and construction of dams of...

  17. Aquifer performance under the Mactaquac Dam

    Tawil, A.H. [Acres International, Niagara Falls, ON (Canada); Harriman, F.B. [New Brunswick Power, Fredericton, NB (Canada)


    The highest dam in the whole of the Maritimes and New Brunswick in particular is the Mactaquac Dam, with a height of 58 m above the foundation. It forms an integral part of the Mactaquac Hydroelectric Development and the construction of the dam was completed in 1967. Composed of a central core of clay till and external shells of rockfill, it is a zoned embankment. The high artesian pressure rising 6 m above the Saint John River dominates, and the foundation under the dam is composed of a stratum of stiff glacial till underlain with a thick, water bearing aquifer. The aquifer needed to be depressurized during the construction phase and in the long term, and special measures were required to accomplish this. Measurements obtained over a period exceeding 30 years were used to describe the performance of the aquifer, which is discussed in this presentation. A continuous reduction in the yield from the six permanent relief wells in the aquifer was indicated by the instrumentation data. The outflow from the wells diminished by two-thirds over the thirty-four years since first filling the reservoir. The piezometric pressure in the aquifer remained constant over the same period. The sparse results of a two-hour pump test had formed the basis for the design decision not to install a costly foundation seepage cut-off to bedrock, as the conclusions drawn from the pump test were that the aquifer was hydrogeologically confined. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  18. Increasing dam safety with multi beam sonar

    Bartsch, M. [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Cederstrom, M.O. [Vattenfall AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Deborg, J. [SwedPower AB, Alvkarleby (Sweden)


    Multi-beam sonar technology has been introduced to Vattenfall's dam safety program. Vattenfall is the major energy producer in Sweden and the third largest utility in Europe. Embankment dams are subject to processes such as erosion, settlement and sinkholes. The new portable multi-beam echo sounder system is an important tool to detect minor damages and to intervene before they evolve into expensive or hazardous situations. A first survey of the upstream slope of a rockfill dam with this method provides a topographic map indicating the location of anomalies such as internal erosion or piping. Multi-beam sonar works by combining GPS-RTK positioning, gyro motion sensing, a multi-beam sonar and 3-dimensional digital terrain programs. Vattenfall is using the system to verify and monitor all high hazard rockfill dams in Sweden to ensure long-term stability. The data will be stored as a fingerprint for comparison with future surveys in 15 to 20 years as part of routine safety evaluation. This new technology can also be used to survey breakwaters, erosion of rivers and to locate submerged debris in harbours. 6 figs.

  19. A Final Test for the Big Dam

    LI LI


    @@ The water level at the Three Gorges Dam,the world's largest water control and utilization project,reached its designed highest mark on October 26,which will enable the project to fulfill its functions of flood control,power generation,navigation and water diversion.

  20. Will We. . .? Thai Dam Resource Book.

    Murphy, Richard, Ed.; And Others

    This resource book is intended as an aid to persons working with Thai Dam refugees. To help the language teacher, some differences between Lao and English are discussed, specifically tonal inflections, positioning, declension of pronouns, conjugation of verbs, interrogatives, classifiers and predicate adjectives. An outline of cultural differences…

  1. Resilience scales of a dammed tropical river

    Calamita, Elisa; Schmid, Martin; Wehrli, Bernhard


    Artificial river impoundments disrupt the seasonality and dynamics of thermal, chemical, morphological and ecological regimes in river systems. These alterations affect the aquatic ecosystems in space and time and specifically modify the seasonality and the longitudinal gradients of important biogeochemical processes. Resilience of river systems to anthropogenic stressors enables their recovery along the flow path; however little is known about the longitudinal distance that rivers need to partially restore their physical, chemical and biological integrity. In this study, the concept of a "resilience scale" will be explored for different water quality parameters downstream of Kariba dam, the largest artificial lake in the Zambezi basin (South-East Africa). The goal of this project is to develop a modelling framework to investigate and quantify the impact of large dams on downstream water quality in tropical context. In particular, we aim to assess the degree of reversibility of the main downstream alterations (temperature, oxygen, nutrients) and consequently the quantification of their longitudinal extent. Coupling in-situ measurements with hydraulic and hydrological parameters such as travel times, will allow us to define a physically-based parametrization of the different resilience scales for tropical rivers. The results will be used for improving future dam management at the local scale and assessing the ecological impact of planned dams at the catchment scale.

  2. Fish reproductive guilds downstream of dams.

    Vasconcelos, L P; Alves, D C; Gomes, L C


    Fish reproductive guilds were used to evaluate the responses of species with different reproductive strategies during two different periods of post-dam construction. The data used for the comparisons were collected in the upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil), downstream of the Porto Primavera dam, 2 and 10 years after impoundment. The abundance (catch per unit effort, CPUE), species richness, evenness and structure of communities, all within reproductive guilds, were used to test the hypothesis that these metrics vary spatially and temporally. The influence of damming on species structure and the diversity of fish reproductive guilds varied spatiotemporally, and species with opportunistic reproductive strategies tended to be less affected. Conversely, long-distance migratory species responded more markedly to spatiotemporal variations, indicating that the ecosystem dynamics exert greater effects on populations of these species. Thus, the effects of a dam, even if attenuated, may extend over several years, especially downstream. This finding emphasizes the importance of maintaining large undammed tributaries downstream of reservoirs.

  3. Modelling approach for gravity dam break analysis

    Boussekine Mourad


    Full Text Available The construction of dams in rivers can provide considerable benefits such as the supply of drinking and irrigation water; however the consequences which would result in the event of their failure could be catastrophic. They vary dramatically depending on the extent of the inundation area, the size of the population at risk.

  4. Experimental research on the dam-break mechanisms of the Jiadanwan landslide dam triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake in China.

    Xu, Fu-gang; Yang, Xing-guo; Zhou, Jia-wen; Hao, Ming-hui


    Dam breaks of landslide dams are always accompanied by large numbers of casualties, a large loss of property, and negative influences on the downstream ecology and environment. This study uses the Jiadanwan landslide dam, created by the Wenchuan earthquake, as a case study example. Several laboratory experiments are carried out to analyse the dam-break mechanism of the landslide dam. The different factors that impact the dam-break process include upstream flow, the boulder effect, dam size, and channel discharge. The development of the discharge channel and the failure of the landslide dam are monitored by digital video and still cameras. Experimental results show that the upstream inflow and the dam size are the main factors that impact the dam-break process. An excavated discharge channel, especially a trapezoidal discharge channel, has a positive effect on reducing peak flow. The depth of the discharge channel also has a significant impact on the dam-break process. The experimental results are significant for landslide dam management and flood disaster prevention and mitigation.

  5. 吴家沟赤泥尾矿库初期坝稳定性分析%Stability Analysis of Initial Dam in Wujiagou Red Mud Tailings

    靳晓光; 吴庚林; 陈绍清; 谢园丁


    吴家沟尾矿库初期坝包括下部天然岩土体初期坝和上部土石混填初期坝两部分。在分析初期坝基本特征的基础上,把初期坝视作重力式挡土墙结构,采用极限平衡法计算堆积坝对初期坝的静止土压力和主动土压力,应用抗剪强度公式分析上部初期坝与基岩之间坝基面的抗滑稳定性,得到无水和有水工况下静止土压力和主动土压力作用下坝基面抗滑稳定安全系数,其安全系数值明显大于规范规定的安全系数。采用ABAQUS有限元软件对初期坝应力特征进行分析,初期坝(包括天然坝体和堆石坝体)的最大剪应力及最大竖向应力分别小于坝体的抗剪强度和抗压强度,初期坝是稳定的。%The initial dam of Wujiagou tailings consists of the lower natural rock initial dam and the upper rock-soil mixed initial dam.Based on the analysis of the basic characteristics of the initial dam,the initial dam is considered as gravity retai-ning wall structure.The static earth pressure and active earth pressure of the fill dam to the initial dam are calculated by limit equilibrium method.The shear strength formula is used to study the stability against sliding of the interface between the upper initial dam and the bedrock.Then,the interface stability factor of static earth pressure and active earth pressure are respectively calculated under aqueous and anhydrous conditions.As a result,the interface stability factor is much greater than the safety factor of specification.The stress characteristic of initial dam is analyzed by adopting ABAQUS finite element software.The shear and vertical stress of the initial dam including natural dam and fill dam are both less than shear strength and compressive strength of the dam.It can be inferred the initial dam is stable.

  6. Expectations of immortality: dam safety management into the next millennium

    Palmer, M.D. [Tonkin and Taylor International Ltd., Auckland, (New Zealand)


    Topics concerning the problems associated with older and aging dams are considered including: what can be done to extent the lifetime of an old dam, the decision to decommission a dam based on a value judgment that the risk of maintaining the dam is too great for society's acceptance, the possibility of change in the level of risk tolerance with time in a technological environment, traditional surveillance methods used by dam owners in the Y2K situation, and the unreality of dam immortality. Trends and means for preserving older dams for their owner's purposes are outlined, as well as their lifetime compared to that of the downstream systems they serve. Despite the fact that we live in a throwaway society, dam owners cannot just leave their dam asset when they are through with using it. Someone has to maintain the dam, or ensure that it is safely decommissioned when the owner is finished with it. On a worldwide scale the available pool of experienced dam engineers is shrinking. This problem needs to be addressed by a shift towards operating and dam safety management skills based on a firm awareness of dam design principles. A shift in society's expectations has occurred such that dam designers and owners must now recognize the impact a dam can have both on its natural and social environments. Because of the increasing emphasis on paying attention to the impacts of people's activities on the planet, engineers more than anyone else must have a significant influence in that direction. 9 refs.

  7. Socioeconomic and Institutional Dimensions of Dam Removals: The Wisconsin Experience

    Born; Genskow; Filbert; Hernandez-Mora; Keefer; White


    / There are tens of thousands of small dams in the United States; many of these aging structures are deteriorating. Governments and dam owners face decisions regarding repair or removal of these structures. Along with the many benefits society derives from dams and their impoundments, numerous recent ecological studies are revealing the extensive alteration and degradation of river ecosystems by dams. Dam removal-a principal restoration strategy-is an infrequent event. The major reasons for removal have been public safety and the high costs associated with repair; the goal of river ecosystem restoration now warrants greater attention. Substantial study is being given to the environmental aspects of dams and dam removals, but very little attention has been given to the socioeconomic and institutional dimensions associated with the removal of dams, although these factors play a significant role in the removal decision-making process. Based on a case study of dam removals in Wisconsin-where more than 30 of the state's 3600 small dams have been removed in the past few decades-legal, financial, and socioeconomic issues associated with dam removal are documented and assessed. Dam removal has been complex and contentious, with limited community-based support for removal and loss of the impounded waters. In cases examined here, the estimated costs of repairing a dam averaged more than three times the cost of removal. The availability of governmental financing has been a key determinant in removal decisions. Watershed-scale ecological considerations are not major factors for most local interests. As watershed management and restoration increasingly include dam removal options as part of an integrated strategy, more attention will need to be focused on socioeconomic factors and stakeholder perspectives-variables that strongly influence the viability of this management alternative.KEY WORDS: Dam removal; River restoration; Institutions; Stakeholders

  8. River restoration by dam removal: Enhancing connectivity at watershed scales

    F.J. Magilligan


    Full Text Available Abstract The prolonged history of industrialization, flood control, and hydropower production has led to the construction of 80,000 dams across the U.S. generating significant hydrologic, ecological, and social adjustments. With the increased ecological attention on re-establishing riverine connectivity, dam removal is becoming an important part of large-scale river restoration nationally, especially in New England, due to its early European settlement and history of waterpower-based industry. To capture the broader dimensions of dam removal, we constructed a GIS database of all inventoried dams in New England irrespective of size and reservoir volume to document the magnitude of fragmentation. We compared the characteristics of these existing dams to the attributes of all removed dams over the last ∼25 years. Our results reveal that the National Inventory of Dams significantly underestimates the actual number of dams (4,000 compared to >14,000. To combat the effects of these ecological barriers, dam removal in New England has been robust with 127 dams having been removed between ca. 1990–2013. These removed dams range in size, with the largest number (30% ranging between 2–4 m high, but 22% of the removed dams were between 4–6 m. They are not isolated to small drainage basins: most drained watersheds between 100–1,000 km2. Regionally, dam removal has re-connected ∼3% (3,770 river km of the regional river network although primarily through a few select dams where abundant barrier-free river lengths occur, suggesting that a more strategic removal approach has the opportunity to enhance the magnitude and rate of river re-connection. Given the regional-scale restoration of forest cover and water quality over the past century, dam removal offers a significant opportunity to capitalize on these efforts, providing watershed scale restoration and enhancing watershed resilience in the face of significant regional and global anthropogenic

  9. Seismic stability safety evaluation of gravity dam with shear strength reduction method

    Da-sheng WANG


    Full Text Available A new method of numerical seismic stability safety evaluation for a rock slope is proposed based on the analysis of a gravity dam foundation subjected to earthquake loading. The shear strengths of the weak discontinuities are divided by different shear strength reduction ratios (K and numerical seismic analysis is carried out after the static analysis is completed. With different K values, the curves of the permanent horizontal displacement of key points of the dam foundation (K-displacement curves are studied. According to the curve change, the distribution of plastic zones in the foundation, and the slow convergence of the finite element method (FEM, the seismic stability safety factor is defined as K when the gravity dam is in the limit equilibrium state subjected to earthquake loading. These concepts were applied to the evaluation of seismic stability safety of a gravity dam for a hydropower project. The analysis of the example shows that the proposed method is feasible and is an effective method of seismic stability safety evaluation.

  10. An Interactive Tool for Automatic Predimensioning and Numerical Modeling of Arch Dams

    D. J. Vicente


    Full Text Available The construction of double-curvature arch dams is an attractive solution from an economic viewpoint due to the reduced volume of concrete necessary for their construction as compared to conventional gravity dams. Due to their complex geometry, many criteria have arisen for their design. However, the most widespread methods are based on recommendations of traditional technical documents without taking into account the possibilities of computer-aided design. In this paper, an innovative software tool to design FEM models of double-curvature arch dams is presented. Several capabilities are allowed: simplified geometry creation (interesting for academic purposes, preliminary geometrical design, high-detailed model construction, and stochastic calculation performance (introducing uncertainty associated with material properties and other parameters. This paper specially focuses on geometrical issues describing the functionalities of the tool and the fundamentals of the design procedure with regard to the following aspects: topography, reference cylinder, excavation depth, crown cantilever thickness and curvature, horizontal arch curvature, excavation and concrete mass volume, and additional elements such as joints or spillways. Examples of application on two Spanish dams are presented and the results obtained analyzed.

  11. Effects of shear keys on nonlinear seismic responses of an arch-gravity dam


    In the paper,the added tangential nonlinear springs are introduced to represent the effects of one-way and two-way shear keys. The added tangential stiffness coefficient is relative to the joint opening and the relative tangential movement and determined numerically by using a refined model of shear keys.The user subroutine of nonlinear spring elements has been implemented into ABAQUS program.The seismic responses of an arch-gravity dam are mainly examined.It is shown by the results that a significant increase of about 17%-30%in joint opening can be observed for the dam with one-way shear keys;the two-way shear keys are beneficial to restrain the sliding displacement along both the radial and vertical directions,whereas the one-way shear keys mainly restrain the displacement along the radial direction;for the dam with shear keys,the maximum arch stress is increased,the cantilever stress is reduced,and the location of the maximum cantilever stress is also moved from the dam heel to the midheight of the cantilever.

  12. Seismic stability safety evaluation of gravity dam with shear strength reduction method

    Da-sheng WANG; Liao-jun ZHANG; Jian-jun XU; Ming-jie HE; Wei-di ZHANG


    A new method of numerical seismic stability safety evaluation for a rock slope is proposed based on the analysis of a gravity dam foundation subjected to earthquake loading. The shear strengths of the weak discontinuities are divided by different shear strength reduction ratios (K) and numerical seismic analysis is carried out after the static analysis is completed. With different K values, the curves of the permanent horizontal displacement of key points of the dam foundation (K-displacement curves) are studied. According to the curve change, the distribution of plastic zones in the foundation, and the slow convergence of the finite element method (FEM), the seismic stability safety factor is defined as K when the gravity dam is in the limit equilibrium state subjected to earthquake loading. These concepts were applied to the evaluation of seismic stability safety of a gravity dam for a hydropower project. The analysis of the example shows that the proposed method is feasible and is an effective method of seismic stability safety evaluation.

  13. Numerical Analyses of Earthquake Induced Liquefaction and Deformation Behaviour of an Upstream Tailings Dam

    Muhammad Auchar Zardari


    Full Text Available Much of the seismic activity of northern Sweden consists of micro-earthquakes occurring near postglacial faults. However, larger magnitude earthquakes do occur in Sweden, and earthquake statistics indicate that a magnitude 5 event is likely to occur once every century. This paper presents dynamic analyses of the effects of larger earthquakes on an upstream tailings dam at the Aitik copper mine in northern Sweden. The analyses were performed to evaluate the potential for liquefaction and to assess stability of the dam under two specific earthquakes: a commonly occurring magnitude 3.6 event and a more extreme earthquake of magnitude 5.8. The dynamic analyses were carried out with the finite element program PLAXIS using a recently implemented constitutive model called UBCSAND. The results indicate that the magnitude 5.8 earthquake would likely induce liquefaction in a limited zone located below the ground surface near the embankment dikes. It is interpreted that stability of the dam may not be affected due to the limited extent of the liquefied zone. Both types of earthquakes are predicted to induce tolerable magnitudes of displacements. The results of the postseismic slope stability analysis, performed for a state after a seismic event, suggest that the dam is stable during both the earthquakes.

  14. The effect of material properties on the seismic performance of Arch Dams

    Sevim, B.


    The paper investigates the effect of material properties on the seismic performance of arch dam-reservoir-foundation interaction systems based on the Lagrangian approach using demand-capacity ratios. Type-5 arch dam is selected as a numerical application. The linear time history analyses of the arch dam-reservoir-foundation interaction system are carried out for different material properties. The foundation is taken into account as massless; behaviour of the reservoir is assumed to be linearly elastic, inviscid and irrotational. The north-south component of the Erzincan earthquake in 1992 is chosen as a ground motion. Dynamic equations of motions obtained from 3-D finite element modelling of the coupled system are solved by using the Newmark integration algorithm. The damage levels of the coupled system for the different material properties are demonstrated by using demand-capacity ratios and cumulative inelastic durations. The time histories and maximum values of the displacements and principal stresses, and performance curves, are obtained from linear analyses. It is clearly seen from the study that the different material properties affect the seismic behaviour of the dam.

  15. Mining dams safety regulations : where does Canada stand?

    Priscu, C. [AMEC, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Small, A. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Lupo, J. [AMEC, Englewood, CO (United States); Diaz, M. [AMEC, Ashford, Kent (United Kingdom); Davies, M. [AMEC, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Musse, M. [AMEC, Santiago (Chile)


    While many jurisdictions in Canada use the Canadian Dam Association (CDA) dam safety guidelines, their applicability to the safety of mining dams is limited. Mining dams are some of the largest containment structures in the world, and impound millions of cubic meters of mine process residues in both solid and liquid form. This study presented a review of dam safety regulatory frameworks for mining dams located in various countries. The aim of the study was to compare the Canadian framework with various dam safety legislations in order to evaluate Canada's current status and recommend best practices in dam safety regulations. The study reviewed incremental consequence classifications; best practices in operation, surveillance and maintenance manuals and procedures; emergency preparedness plans; and dam safety inspections. The study showed that Canada has limited documentation regulating the safe management of tailings facilities, and does not have an all-encompassing national guideline for mining dams. It was concluded that an incremental consequence classification (ICC) system should be developed specifically for mining dams. 12 refs.

  16. Dam failure analysis for the Lago El Guineo Dam, Orocovis, Puerto Rico

    Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta; Heriberto Torres-Sierra,


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, completed hydrologic and hydraulic analyses to assess the potential hazard to human life and property associated with the hypothetical failure of the Lago El Guineo Dam. The Lago El Guineo Dam is within the headwaters of the Río Grande de Manatí and impounds a drainage area of about 4.25 square kilometers.The hydrologic assessment was designed to determine the outflow hydrographs and peak discharges for Lago El Guineo and other subbasins in the Río Grande de Manatí hydrographic basin for three extreme rainfall events: (1) a 6-hour probable maximum precipitation event, (2) a 24-hour probable maximum precipitation event, and (3) a 24-hour, 100-year recurrence rainfall event. The hydraulic study simulated a dam failure of Lago El Guineo Dam using flood hydrographs generated from the hydrologic study. The simulated dam failure generated a hydrograph that was routed downstream from Lago El Guineo Dam through the lower reaches of the Río Toro Negro and the Río Grande de Manatí to determine water-surface profiles developed from the event-based hydrologic scenarios and “sunny day” conditions. The Hydrologic Engineering Center’s Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC–HMS) and Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) computer programs, developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were used for the hydrologic and hydraulic modeling, respectively. The flow routing in the hydraulic analyses was completed using the unsteady flow module available in the HEC–RAS model.Above the Lago El Guineo Dam, the simulated inflow peak discharges from HEC–HMS resulted in about 550 and 414 cubic meters per second for the 6- and 24-hour probable maximum precipitation events, respectively. The 24-hour, 100-year recurrence storm simulation resulted in a peak discharge of about 216 cubic meters per second. For the hydrologic analysis, no dam failure conditions are

  17. Gabcikovo dam and Liptovska Mara dam - statistical analysis of measurement data

    Hakac, J.; Sabo, M.


    Introduction: Water level in the observation wells is measured regularly and one of the reasons is evaluation of the safety of the water constructions. In this paper we are exploring the reliability of the measuring devices that are responsible for evaluation of the safety of the two largest and the most important dams in Slovakia. We test ability of selected statistical methods to detect early inaccuracies of measuring devices and thus improve the evaluation of the safety of the water constructions. As a follow-up study, we used the time series model (Neural network) to predict water levels in the observation wells that were considered to be without defects. Neural Network is also able to show dynamics of the filtration stability of the observational well. Methods: On the Liptovska Mara dam weekly data was used as a monitoring tool. On the Gabcikovo dam five minute time series of the measurements of the water level in observation wells around the right lock chamber were used. Data from the measuring devices of the dams were explored with boxplots, correlations, neural network, etc. The mentioned statistical tools analyze time series and detect the errors that measuring devices make when generating data and can be used to predict errors even in real time. In the second step, agreement between predicted data from neural network and measured data in the real time was evaluated. We used grid search for finding the optimal number of neurons and then predicted errors by using this model. The ability of the neural network in evaluation of the sealing of the dilatation joints on the filtration stability in the years 2009 - 2011 is presented. Results: From the 18 selected measuring devices on the Liptovska Mara dam there are only 3 devices which can be considered as reliable. On the Gabcikovo dam, 8 of 9 measuring devices (observation wells around right lock chamber) were considered as a reliable. There was very good agreement between the predicted and measured data at the

  18. Potential interface slip analysis of Peribonka Dam plastic concrete cut-off wall

    Morency, J.Y.; Chahde, J.; Bigras, A. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Garand, P.; Rattue, A. [SNC-Lavalin Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)


    The Peribonka hydroelectric development is currently under construction near the confluence of the Manouane River with the Peribonka River in Quebec. It includes an 80 m high dam and two dykes of zoned earth fills with a till core, an underground power house with an installed capacity of 385 MW, a diversion tunnel and a spillway. The Peribonka dam will be built on a highly permeable alluvial foundation. The design includes a 10 m high working platform in the river between the cofferdams and a plastic concrete cut-off wall (COW) down to bedrock. The maximum depth of the COW in a narrow canyon will be 115 m. A bi-dimensional finite element stress and deformation analysis software (SDAS) was used to model the stress-strain behaviour of the foundation soils and the COW under the dam. The SDAS software made it possible to determine the vertical deformations as well as the horizontal stress distribution in the foundation soils. It was shown that due to the oedometric nature of the loading of the soil, no significant shear stress was generated due to the soil deformations in the foundation below the axis of the dam. However, the finite element program did not allow hyperbolic model slip elements. As such, it was not possible to evaluate if negative skin friction occurred at the soilplastic concrete interface. For that reason, a one-dimensional model allowing the simulation of negative or positive friction between the soil and the COW was developed. This model considered the elastic-plastic behaviour of the COW using a hyperbolic model. It showed that nowhere, except in the upper 2 to 3 m of the COW embedment in the core, was negative friction able to mobilize the full value of the internal friction angle of the soil. 4 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  19. Damned If You Do, Dammed If You Don't: Debates on Dam Removal in the Swedish Media

    Dolly Jørgensen


    Full Text Available Dam removal is an increasingly common practice. Dams are removed for various reasons, with safety, economics, and ecosystem restoration being the most common. However, dam removals often cause controversy. Riparian land owners and local communities often have a negative view of removal, and their reasons vary. It may be the loss of recreational benefits such as swimming and boating, loss of cultural and historical context tied to the dam, or fear that removal may have a negative effect on aesthetic values. Because controversies are often picked up by local media, and media in itself is an important channel to build support around a cause, the way in which dam removals are reported and discussed in the media is likely to influence the debate. Here, we examine the ways in which proponents and opponents of dam removal frame the services provided by two contrasting ecosystems, i.e., an existing dam and the potential stream without a dam, by performing a media discourse analysis of the reasons given for removal and the reasons presented for the dam to remain in place. Our source material includes Internet-based newspaper articles and their associated public comments in four dam removal controversies in Sweden. Our analysis indicates that public opposition is not based on knowledge deficiency, where more information will lead to better ecological decision-making, as is sometimes argued in dam removal science; it is instead a case of different understandings and valuation of the environment and the functions it provides.

  20. Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for selected dams in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and near Atoka, Oklahoma

    Shivers, Molly J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Grout, Trevor S.; Lewis, Jason M.


    Dams provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, and storage of water supplies, but they also entail risk; dam breaches and resultant floods can cause substantial property damage and loss of life. The State of Oklahoma requires each owner of a high-hazard dam, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines as dams for which failure or improper operation probably will cause loss of human life, to develop an emergency action plan specific to that dam. Components of an emergency action plan are to simulate a flood resulting from a possible dam breach and map the resulting downstream flood-inundation areas. The resulting flood-inundation maps can provide valuable information to city officials, emergency managers, and local residents for planning an emergency response if a dam breach occurs.

  1. GIS inundation mapping and dam breach analysis of Woolwich Dam using HEC-geoRAS

    Mocan, N. [Crozier and Associates Inc., Collingwood, ON (Canada); Joy, D.M. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Rungis, G. [Grand River Conservation Authority, Cambridge, ON (Canada)


    A study was conducted to determine the extent of flood inundation given a hypothetical dam breach scenario of the Woolwich Dam located in the Grand River Watershed, 2.5 km north of the Town of Elmira, Ontario. The dam is operated by the Grand River Conservation Authority and was constructed to provide low-flow augmentation to Canagagigue Creek. Advances in the computational capabilities of numerical models along with the availability of fine resolution geospatial data has lead to significant advances in the evaluation of catastrophic consequences due to the ensuing flood waters when dams fail. The hydraulic models HEC-RAS and HEC-GeoRAS were used in this study along with GIS to produce high resolution spatial and temporal flood inundation mapping. Given the proximity to the Town of Elmira, the dam is classified as having a high hazard potential. The large size and high hazard potential of the dam suggests that the Inflow Design Flood (IDF) is the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) event. The outlet structure of the spillway consists of 4 ogee-type concrete spillways equipped with radial gates. A low-level concrete pipe located within the spillway structure provides spillage for maintenance purposes. The full flow capacity of the spillway structure is 297 cubic metres per second at the full supply level of 364.8 metres. In addition to GIS flood inundation maps, this paper included the results of flood hydrographs, water surface profiles and peak flow data. It was concluded that techniques used in this analysis should be considered for use in the development of emergency management planning and dam safety assessments across Canada. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. National Dam Inspection Program. Lake Housatonic Dam and Dike (CT 00026 and CT 01714). Connecticut Coastal Basin, Housatonic River, Derby-Shelton, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.


    8217;’,.-+-.-. ""’"" . .•• "•;. - NATIONAL DAM INSPECTION PROGRAM PHASE I INSPECTION REPORT Identification No.: CT 00026, CT 01714 N *~ Name of Dam: Lake Housatonic Dam and Dike " Town...approach was used between 1868 and 1870 to strengthen the Holyoke dam. The dam that existed there at the time was a timber crib dam, 1,017 feet long and 30




    Full Text Available Raising of problem. At the problem solving about determination of deflected mode (DM of build constructions by the finite element method (FEM on accuracy of solving substantial influence is rendered by the sizes of effective area of foundation. It is suggested to develop the criteria of determining the size of effective area. Presently at the calculation of vertical fallouts of earth dams with the trapeziform section (fig. 1, is assumed that the epure of contact pressures has a rectangular form [2, 6]. Thus actual epure of contact pressures on the sole of dam has form of trapezoid (fig. 1. Thus, there is a disparity between actual and accepted in the normative documents in the contact pressures on the sole of earth dams. Purpose. At writing of this article we were pursue a purpose to calculate the value of damping coefficient of vertical dead stress on the depth of foundation, trapeziform loading determined and to foundation attached. About it has been already written not a bit in scientific literature [2; 5; 6; 7; 13]. In our view, for determination of vertical fallouts of foundation of earth dams it is necessary to use the formula of D-1 DBN [7], corrected in it the damping coefficient of vertical stress on a depth, conditioned of dam weight, that is to calculate a trapezoidal form of environmental stress (fig. 1. Conclusion. The damping coefficients of vertical stress calculated by us on a depth (tablas. 1 allow more exactly to determine their values, than coefficients, presented in normative documents [7]. This is caused by more complete, than it takes a place in normative documents, in the light of configuration of the environmental stress.

  4. Estimation of permanent displacements of the Tehri dam in the Himalayas due to future strong earthquakes

    Aniruddha Sengupta


    The objective of this paper is to estimate permanent displacements of Tehri dam due to an earthquake of magnitude $M_w = 8·5$, the occurrence of which has a high probability in the region, and for an earthquake of magnitude $M_w = 7·0$, for which the dam has been currently designed. A two-dimensional finite element analysis and five different semi-empirical and empirical methods, like, Seed and Makdisi’s method, Newmark’s double integration method, Jansen’s method, Swaisgood’s method and Bureau’s method have been utilized to study the probable dynamic behaviour of the dam and their results are compared to get a range of values within which, the permanent displacement of the dam, is estimated to lie. The present study shows that the predicted displacements due to an earthquake of magnitude $M_w = 7·0$ are significant but not enough to compromise the safety of the dam. However, the displacements predicted for an earthquake of magnitude $M_w = 8·5$ are quite high and might cause rupture of filter zones. The maximum deformations (755 cm for $M_w = 8·5$ and 43 cm for $M_w = 7·0$) are predicted by Seed and Makdisi’s method while the minimum deformations (14 cm for $M_w = 8·5$ and 2·5 cm for $M_w = 7·0$) are computed by Jansen’s method.

  5. Distribution of pore water pressure in an earthen dam considering unsaturated-saturated seepage analysis

    Venkatesh Kumar


    Full Text Available The variation of pore water pressure in earthen dams plays an important role in maintaining its stability. The pore water pressure within the dam are altered by the external loading conditions like rapid drawdown of reservoir water, earthquake loading and raise of water table caused by infiltration of rainfall. The seepage through an earthen dam involves saturated and unsaturated flows but to avoid complexity in solving the non-linear partial differential equations, the flow in unsaturated zone is neglected and seepage analysis is carried by constructing the flow net in which the pore water pressures beyond the free surface is taken as zero. In actual conditions negative pore water pressure develops beyond the free surface due to the capillarity which leads development to the matrix suction of the soil. In this paper a comparative study on distribution of pore pressure in a zoned earthen dam under steady state and transient conditions had been carried out considering unsaturated-saturated seepage theory. To solve the non-linear partial differential equations, finite element method has been adopted in the present study. The earthen dam has been modeled in different stages. At each stage a new parameter was added and parametric analysis was carried out. The results indicate that negative pore water pressure developed at the downstream side and the pore pressures at the mid-levels of the core are high. This specifies that, soils with low permeability have higher pore pressure. The pore pressures appeared to be higher in upstream side during rapid drawdown compared to steady state.

  6. How Big of an Effect Do Small Dams Have? Using Geomorphological Footprints to Quantify Spatial Impact of Low-Head Dams and Identify Patterns of Across-Dam Variation.

    Fencl, Jane S; Mather, Martha E; Costigan, Katie H; Daniels, Melinda D


    Longitudinal connectivity is a fundamental characteristic of rivers that can be disrupted by natural and anthropogenic processes. Dams are significant disruptions to streams. Over 2,000,000 low-head dams (dams on geomorphology and ecology are largely untested. Progress for research and conservation is impaired by not knowing the magnitude of low-head dam impacts. Based on the geomorphic literature, we refined a methodology that allowed us to quantify the spatial extent of low-head dam impacts (herein dam footprint), assessed variation in dam footprints across low-head dams within a river network, and identified select aspects of the context of this variation. Wetted width, depth, and substrate size distributions upstream and downstream of six low-head dams within the Upper Neosho River, Kansas, United States of America were measured. Total dam footprints averaged 7.9 km (3.0-15.3 km) or 287 wetted widths (136-437 wetted widths). Estimates included both upstream (mean: 6.7 km or 243 wetted widths) and downstream footprints (mean: 1.2 km or 44 wetted widths). Altogether the six low-head dams impacted 47.3 km (about 17%) of the mainstem in the river network. Despite differences in age, size, location, and primary function, the sizes of geomorphic footprints of individual low-head dams in the Upper Neosho river network were relatively similar. The number of upstream dams and distance to upstream dams, but not dam height, affected the spatial extent of dam footprints. In summary, ubiquitous low-head dams individually and cumulatively altered lotic ecosystems. Both characteristics of individual dams and the context of neighboring dams affected low-head dam impacts within the river network. For these reasons, low-head dams require a different, more integrative, approach for research and management than the individualistic approach that has been applied to larger dams.

  7. Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments

    Koś Karolina


    Full Text Available Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments. Every municipal solid waste landfill has to be properly secured to protect the natural environment from possible leachate. Most often an artificial sealing is used, which is based on a soil liner from cohesive soils (clays, silts. Usability evaluation of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir for building these liners was presented in the paper. Sediments from dam reservoirs, gathered as a result of the siltation process, can be a valuable material for earthworks purposes. Determination of their possible ways of usage is important, especially before the planned dredging, because thanks to that this material will not be put on a heap. Based on the analysis of the geotechnical parameters of these sediments it was stated that this material can be preliminary allowed for using in liners.

  8. Augmented Reality to Access Dam Cracks Information

    Fabiana Frata Furlan Peres


    Full Text Available Augmented reality technology is a tool with great potential for application in several areas, including engineering. During the early phases of the enterprise life cycle, as design and construction, augmented reality has been widely used. Concrete dams, during operation and maintenance phase, require regular inspections as part of the necessary activities to keep their structural safety. Cracks are common pathology in these structures that must be detected, mapped and measured as their evolution may evidence structure compromising, need for maintenance or intervention. In this context this paper aims to present a prototype to access in situ the dam cracks information through the use of augmented reality, thus giving a contribution to the effectiveness and efficiency of inspections

  9. Temporal and spatial distribution of dam failure events in China



    Reservoirs play a vital role in economic development and flood control.Nevertheless,both human and natural factors may lead to dam failures with catastrophic consequences.Analyzing the data of dam failure events from 1954 to 2003 and using the method of energy spectrum analysis,this paper studies the periodicity of dam failures.The rate of failure of different dam ages is analyzed.The climate is the main factor affecting the rate of dam failure.Climate diagrams are used to analyze the spatial distribution of dam failure events in China.High rate of dam failure occurs with 25-year and 12.5-year periods.The distribution of the percentage of dam failure shows an L-shape as a function of service age.The first 5 years of operation is known as the "infant period",during which,the probability of dam failure is much higher than during any other periods.The failure rate in areas near or north to the 400 mm annual isopluvial line is notably higher than other areas.In areas with high temperature difference among seasons have a high annual average dam failure rate.

  10. Crack status analysis for concrete dams based on measured entropy

    WU BangBin; WU ZhongRu; CHEN Bo; SU HuaiZhi; BAO TengFei; WANG ShaoWei


    The integrity and safety of concrete dams are seriously affected by the existing cracks in dam bodies,and some serious cracks may cause dam failure or disaster.The propagation of cracks in concrete dams is accompanied by changes in energy distribution,which can be represented by changes in the structure's system entropy.Therefore,the entropy theory can be used in analyzing the behavior of dam cracks.Due to the randomness and locality of crack propagation,it is difficult to predict the location of cracks by traditional monitoring methods.To solve this problem,the influence of spatial positions of monitoring points on inspection zones is represented by a weight index,and the weight index is determined by the distance measure method proposed in this paper.Through the weighted linear fusion method,the entropy of multiple monitoring points is obtained for analyzing the behavior of dam cracks in the selected zones.Meanwhile,the catastrophe theory is used as the variation criterion of an entropy sequence in order to predict the instability time of dam cracks.Case studies are put forward on a high arch dam,and the fusion entropy is calculated according to the monitoring data from strain gauges.Results show that the proposed method can effectively predict the occurrence time and location of dam cracks regardless of the layout of monitoring instruments,and it is a new way to analyze the occurrence and propagation of dam cracks.

  11. Dam removal increases American eel abundance in distant headwater streams

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Eyler, Sheila; Wofford, John E.B.


    American eel Anguilla rostrata abundances have undergone significant declines over the last 50 years, and migration barriers have been recognized as a contributing cause. We evaluated eel abundances in headwater streams of Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, to compare sites before and after the removal of a large downstream dam in 2004 (Embrey Dam, Rappahannock River). Eel abundances in headwater streams increased significantly after the removal of Embrey Dam. Observed eel abundances after dam removal exceeded predictions derived from autoregressive models parameterized with data prior to dam removal. Mann–Kendall analyses also revealed consistent increases in eel abundances from 2004 to 2010 but inconsistent temporal trends before dam removal. Increasing eel numbers could not be attributed to changes in local physical habitat (i.e., mean stream depth or substrate size) or regional population dynamics (i.e., abundances in Maryland streams or Virginia estuaries). Dam removal was associated with decreasing minimum eel lengths in headwater streams, suggesting that the dam previously impeded migration of many small-bodied individuals (dams may influence eel abundances in headwater streams up to 150 river kilometers distant, and that dam removal may provide benefits for eel management and conservation at the landscape scale.

  12. Will Dam Removal Increase Nitrogen Flux to Estuaries?

    Arthur J. Gold


    Full Text Available To advance the science of dam removal, analyses of functions and benefits need to be linked to individual dam attributes and effects on downstream receiving waters. We examined 7550 dams in the New England (USA region for possible tradeoffs associated with dam removal. Dam removal often generates improvements for safety or migratory fish passage but might increase nitrogen (N flux and eutrophication in coastal watersheds. We estimated N loading and removal with algorithms using geospatial data on land use, stream flow and hydrography. We focused on dams with reservoirs that increase retention time at specific points of river reaches, creating localized hotspots of elevated N removal. Approximately 2200 dams with reservoirs had potential benefits for N removal based on N loading, retention time and depth. Across stream orders, safety concerns on these N removal dams ranged between 28% and 44%. First order streams constituted the majority of N removal dams (70%, but only 3% of those were classified as high value for fish passage. In cases where dam removal might eliminate N removal function from a particular reservoir, site-specific analyses are warranted to improve N delivery estimates and examine alternatives that retain the reservoir while enhancing fish passage and safety.

  13. Impulsive force of debris flow on a curved dam

    Chjeng-Lun SHIEH; Chia-Hsien TING; Hung-Wen PAN


    Although Sabo dams are an efficient method for river and basin management,traditional Sabo dams have a great impact on ecology and landscape.Moreover,such dams are hit and often damaged by great impulsive force when they block the debris flow.Therefore,alternative shapes for Sabo dam deserve thorough investigation.In this investigation,a curved dam was designed by changing the upstream-dam-surface geometric shape to reduce the impulsive force of the debris flow,with enhanced stability and reduced concrete mass being the anticipated outcomes.In this study,the flume and laboratory facilities simulated the impulsive force of the debris flow to the Sabo dams.Three geometric forms,including vertical,slanted and curved Sabo dams,were used to determine the impulsive force.Impulsive force theories of the debris flow were derived from the momentum equation and the Bernoulli equation.In these,the impulsive force was balanced by the friction force of the Sabo dam and the opposite force of the load cell behind the dam as it was hit by the debris flow.Positive correlations were found when comparing the experimental data with the theoretical results.These findings suggest that our impulsive force theory has predictive validity with regard to the experimental data.The results from both theory and experimental data clearly show that curved dams were sustained less force than the other dams under the same debris flow.This comparison demonstrates the importance of curved geometry for a well-designed Sabo dam.

  14. A climate impact of dam lake and Recep Yazicioglu Gokpinar dam lake sample

    Ülker Güner BACANLI


    Full Text Available Dams have both positive and negative effects on the environment. The most important effect can be defined as the regional climate change. In this study, the impact on Denizli city climate of Vali Recep Yazıcıoğlu Gökpınar Dam Lake was determined. In this study, Denizli city meteorological station (maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, total precipitation and wind speed data were used. Before and after from the dam construction; absolute changes are examined. After the dam construction; maximum, minimum and average temperature increase was observed in all months. A rainfall was observed to be increased in January, February and October on after dam construction, but another times was observed to be decreased. The evaporation and wind speed parameter has been little change. Linear regression, the Mann-Kendall and Sen’s Method for trend analysis were used. All techniques considered here consistently reveal that there are upward trend in maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, wind speed, no trend in precipitation and evaporation.

  15. Distribution of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings dams at Obuasi Municipality of Ghana

    Crentsil Kofi Bempah


    Full Text Available This present study investigated the issue of gold mine tailings dams as a potential source of arsenic and other trace elements contamination and their dissolution into the adjoining environmental media in Obuasi Municipality of Ghana. One active (Sanso tailings dam and two abandoned (Pompora and Dokyiwa mine tailings dams in Obuasi gold mine site, were selected for the collection and analysis of the tailings. The concentrations of As, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were determined using an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS, Varian Models 240FS. The total concentrations of elements in the mine tailings were up to 1752 mg/kg As, 75.16 wt.% Fe, 1848.12 mg/kg Mn, 92.17 mg/kg Cu and 7850 177.56 mg/kg Zn. Sulfate was the dominant anion throughout the leachate, reaching a maximum dissolved concentration of 58.43 mg/L. The mine tailings were contaminated with much higher concentrations of As and heavy metals than the Netherlands soil protection guideline values. Leaching levels of As were in the range of 0.04–0.56 %, presenting high proportions for the total arsenic content in the mine tailings

  16. Seismic performance evaluation of concrete gravity dams

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Kanenawa, K. [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba City (Japan); Hall, R.; Yule, D. [United States Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS (United States); Matheu, E. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Chudgar, A. [United States Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC (United States)


    This paper addresses technical issues related to seismic design practices and current evaluation methods in Japan and the United States. Nonlinear analysis procedures can identify the ultimate capacity of existing concrete dams, taking into account the most critical nonlinear phenomena controlling the response. A numerical model of a non-overflow monolith of Koyna Dam, subject to earthquake motion, is used as a case study to compare the different approaches for seismic evaluation of concrete gravity dams currently employed in the two countries. The complexity of nonlinear analysis procedures and the scarcity of appropriate calibration strategies force analysts to frequently interpret results using their own judgment. It was concluded that the influence of the input parameters and ground excitation on the nonlinear dynamic response should be investigated in order to identify the most critical conditions. It was also suggested that methodologies for qualitative damage estimation based on results from linear analyses could be used to develop a systematic assessment tool and reference framework for the adequate interpretation of results. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  17. Simulating dam-breach flood scenarios of the Tangjiashan landslide dam induced by the Wenchuan Earthquake

    X. Fan


    Full Text Available Floods from failures of landslide dams can pose a hazard to people and property downstream, which have to be rapidly assessed and mitigated in order to reduce the potential risk. The Tangjiashan landslide dam induced by the Mw = 7.9 2008 Wenchuan earthquake had impounded the largest lake in the earthquake affected area with an estimated volume of 3 × 108 m3, and the potential catastrophic dam breach posed a serious threat to more than 2.5 million people in downstream towns and Mianyang city, located 85 km downstream. Chinese authorities had to evacuate parts of the city until the Tangjiashan landslide dam was artificially breached by a spillway, and the lake was drained. We propose an integrated approach to simulate the dam-breach floods for a number of possible scenarios, to evaluate the severity of the threat to Mianyang city. Firstly, the physically-based BREACH model was applied to predict the flood hydrographs at the dam location, which were calibrated with observational data of the flood resulting from the artificial breaching. The output hydrographs from this model were inputted into the 1-D–2-D SOBEK hydrodynamic model to simulate the spatial variations in flood parameters. The simulated flood hydrograph, peak discharge and peak arrival time at the downstream towns fit the observations. Thus this approach is capable of providing reliable predictions for the decision makers to determine the mitigation plans. The sensitivity analysis of the BREACH model input parameters reveals that the average grain size, the unit weight and porosity of the dam materials are the most sensitive parameters. The variability of the dam material properties causes a large uncertainty in the estimation of the peak flood discharge and peak arrival time, but has little influence on the flood inundation area and flood depth downstream. The effect of cascading breaches of smaller dams downstream of the Tangjiashan dam was

  18. Do Hydroelectric Dams Mitigate Global Warming? The Case of Brazil's Curuna Dam

    Fearnside, P.M. [National Institute for Research in the Amazon (INPA), C.P. 478, 69011-970 Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil)


    Hydroelectric dams in tropical forest areas emit greenhouse gases, as illustrated by the Curuna dam in the Amazonian portion of Brazil. Emissions include carbon dioxide from decay of the above-water portions of trees that are left standing in the reservoir and methane from soft vegetation that decays under anaerobic conditions on the bottom of the reservoir, especially macrophytes (water weeds) and vegetation that grows in the drawdown zone and is flooded when the reservoir water level rises. Some methane is released from the reservoir surface through bubbling and diffusion, but larger amounts are released from water passing through the turbines and spillway. Methane concentration in the water increases with depth, and the turbines and spillway draw water from sufficient depth to have substantial methane content. In 1990 (13 years after filling), the Curuna Dam emitted 3.6 times more greenhouse gases than would have been emitted by generating the same amount of electricity from oil.

  19. Assessment model of dam operation risk based on monitoring data


    Although the dams produce remarkable social and economic benefits,the threat made by unsafe dams to the life and property of people who live in the lower river area is un-negligible.Based on the monitoring data which reflect the safety condition of dams,the risk degree concept is proposed and the analysis system and model for evaluating risk degree (rate) are established in this paper by combining the reliability theory and field monitoring data.The analysis method for risk degree is presented based on Bayesian approach.A five-grade risk degree system for dam operation risk and corresponding risk degree is put forward according to the safety condition of dams.The operation risks of four cascade dams on some river are analyzed by the model and approach presented here and the result is adopted by the owner.

  20. Predicting surfacing internal erosion in moraine core dams


    Dams that comprise broadly and widely graded glacial materials, such as moraines, have been found to be susceptible to internal erosion, perhaps more than dams of other soil types. Internal erosion washes out fine-grained particles from the filling material; the erosion occurs within the material itself or at an interface to another dam zone, depending on the mode of initiation. Whether or not internal erosion proceeds depend on the adequacy of the filter material. If internal erosion is allo...

  1. Environmental impacts of increased hydroelectric development at existing dams

    Railsback, S. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, G. F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petrich, C. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sale, M. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shaakir-Ali, J. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watts, J. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Webb, J. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    This report describes the environmental impacts of a proposed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiative to promote the development of hydropower resources at existing dams. Hydropower development at existing dams has, in general, fewer impacts than development of additional fossil-fueled resources or hydropower at new dams, although potential cumulative impacts of developing multiple hydropower projects have not been explicitly addressed. Environmental review of project impacts and mitigation needs can ensure that additional hydropower development at existing dams can provide a renewable resource with fewer impacts than alternative resources.

  2. Effects of a thin liquefiable foundation layer on deformations of a rockfill dam subjected to earthquake shaking

    Seid-Karbasi, M.; Atukorala, U. [Golder Associates Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada); Gowan, M.; Barrett, A. [Golder Associates Pty, Toowong, Queensland (Australia)


    This paper discussed a coupled stress-flow dynamic analysis procedure designed to predict the stability and seismic deformations of an 85 meter high earth dam located near a polymetallic mine in Vietnam. The procedure was developed to capture sand element behaviours observed in previous laboratory tests. The analysis was conducted using a UBCSAND model to capture the liquefiable soil response. Nonlinear behaviour of the non-liquefiable materials was modelled using the UBCHYST simulation tool. Both models were incorporated within the FLAC model. Dam specifications, foundation characteristics, and predicted behaviours were discussed. The dam body and its foundation were analyzed under gravity loads with drained conditions in order to establish the pre-earthquake stress state. A dynamic analysis was then conducted using undrained properties for fine-grained soils. The FLAC model finite difference analysis was used to examine stress-flow under static and dynamic loading conditions. Earthquake motions were applied as a time history of excitation at the model's boundaries. Volumetric strains were controlled by the compressibility of the pore fluid and the flow of water through the soil elements. The model was calibrated using laboratory and centrifuge data. Results of the study showed that the tailings and downstream free-field alluvial soils developed high excess pore water pressures and liquefied during strong shaking motions. Results suggested that the seismic performance of the Oxide dam were satisfactory. 41 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  3. Dam operations affect route-specific passage and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon at a main-stem diversion dam

    Perry, Russell W.; Kock, Tobias J.; Couter, Ian I; Garrison, Thomas M; Hubble, Joel D; Child, David B


    Diversion dams can negatively affect emigrating juvenile salmon populations because fish must pass through the impounded river created by the dam, negotiate a passage route at the dam and then emigrate through a riverine reach that has been affected by reduced river discharge. To quantify the effects of a main-stem diversion dam on juvenile Chinook salmon in the Yakima River, Washington, USA, we used radio telemetry to understand how dam operations and river discharge in the 18-km reach downstream of the dam affected route-specific passage and survival. We found evidence of direct mortality associated with dam passage and indirect mortality associated with migration through the reach below the dam. Survival of fish passing over a surface spill gate (the west gate) was positively related to river discharge, and survival was similar for fish released below the dam, suggesting that passage via this route caused little additional mortality. However, survival of fish that passed under a sub-surface spill gate (the east gate) was considerably lower than survival of fish released downstream of the dam, with the difference in survival decreasing as river discharge increased. The probability of fish passing the dam via three available routes was strongly influenced by dam operations, with passage through the juvenile fish bypass and the east gate increasing with discharge through those routes. By simulating daily passage and route-specific survival, we show that variation in total survival is driven by river discharge and moderated by the proportion of fish passing through low-survival or high-survival passage routes.

  4. Monitoring health in African dams : the Kamburu dam (Kenya) as a test case

    J.M.V. Oomen


    textabstractDams are among the obvious efforts to improve the economic situation in a developing country. They aim at using locally available natural resources. At present they are among the most popular means for promoting socio-economic development. A significant number of these programmes have be

  5. Quasi-stable Slope-Failure Dams in High Asia

    Shroder, J. F.


    Collapses of steep mountain slopes in the Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir, Hindu Kush, and Tibetan Plateau are well known as a result of:(1) generally high seismicity in active tectonic areas; (2) prior deglaciation leaving undercut, unstable cliffs; (3) present-day debuttressing of rock cliffs by glacial down-wasting in conditions of global warming; and (4) degradation of permafrost cohesion and water-ice cementation in high mountain slopes. Landslide dams across mountain rivers are also well known worldwide and generally do not endure for long because of the common landslide-lake outburst floods (LLOF) whose discharge is commonly sufficiently large to remove much of the dam in a short time. A number of massive slope-failure dams in south High Asia, however, have endured for centuries and require explanations for the length of duration, whereas recent examples require robust assessment for better predictive hazard analysis. Three main factors contribute to longevity of slope-failure dams: (1) mega-rocks >15-30 m that inhibit dam failure in overflow breaches; (2) mega-porosity wherein incoming discharge to the landslide lake is balanced by subterranean water through-flow within the landslide dam; (3) impermeable clay fills caused by remobilization of prior lacustrine-dammed sediment that impart dam strength to allow lasting integrity for a time, and (4) climate-change induced lake-level lowering. Several examples of long-lived or unusually stable, slope-failure dams associated with pronounced structural/tectonic associations include: (1) Pangong Tso, Ladakh and Tibet; (2) Lake Shewa, Afghanistan; (3) Sarez Lake, Tajikistan; and (4) Lake Hunza, Pakistan. Pangong Tso and Lake Shewa were emplaced thousands of years ago and only Lake Shewa shows some instability of the dam front where percolating water maintains lake level but may be causing new slumping. Sarez Lake behind the Usoi landslide dam was emplaced by an earthquake in 1911 and maintains its level by seepage. Lake

  6. Evaluation Model of Life Loss Due to Dam Failure

    Huang, Dongjing


    Dam failure poses a serious threat to human life, however there is still lack of systematic research on life loss which due to dam failure in China. From the perspective of protecting human life, an evaluation model for life loss caused by dam failure is put forward. The model building gets three progressive steps. Twenty dam failure cases in China are preferably chosen as the basic data, considering geographical location and construction time of dams, as well as various conditions of dam failure. Then twelve impact factors of life loss are selected, including severity degree of flood, population at risk, understanding of dam failure, warning time, evacuation condition, number of damaged buildings, water temperature, reservoir storage, dam height, dam type, break time and distance from flood area to dam. And through principal component analysis, it gets four principal components consisting of the first flood character principle component, the second warning system principle component, the third human character principle component and the fourth space-time impact principle component. After multivariate nonlinear regression and ten-fold validation in combination, the evaluation model for life loss is finally established. And the result of the proposed model is closer to the true value and better in fitting effect in comparison with the results of RESCDAM method and M. Peng method. The proposed model is not only applied to evaluate life loss and its rate under various kinds of dam failure conditions in China, but also provides reliable cause analysis and prediction approach to reduce the risk of life loss.

  7. The World Commission on Dams + 10: Revisiting the Large Dam Controversy

    Deborah Moore


    Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams (WCD was an experiment in multi-stakeholder dialogue and global governance concerned with a subject area – large dams – that was fraught with conflict and controversy. The WCD Report, Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making, was published in 2000 and accompanied by hopes that broad-based agreements would be forged on how to better manage water and energy development. Ten years later, this special issue of Water Alternatives revisits the WCD and its impacts, exploring the question: Is the WCD still relevant? The editorial team and the Guest Editors of this special issue of Water Alternatives have selected a range of 20 papers, 6 viewpoints, and 4 book reviews that help to illustrate the evolution in the dams debate. The goal of this special issue is to examine the influence and the impacts of the WCD on the dam enterprise, in general, and on the policies and practices of key stakeholders and institutions, and on the development outcomes for affected communities and environments, in particular. In this introduction, the Guest Editors provide an overview of the special issue, exploring the new drivers of dam development that have emerged during the last decade, including climate change and new financiers of dams, and describing the themes emerging from this diverse set of papers and viewpoints. This special issue demonstrates the need for a renewed multi-stakeholder dialogue at multiple levels. This would not be a redo of the WCD, but rather a rekindling and redesigning of processes and forums where mutual understanding, information-sharing, and norm-setting can occur. One of the most promising developments of the last decade is the further demonstration, in case studies described here, that true partnership amongst key stakeholders can produce transformative resource-sharing agreements, showing that many of the WCD recommendations around negotiated decision making are working in practice. We hope

  8. Minimum Reservoir Water Level in Hydropower Dams

    Sarkardeh, Hamed


    Vortex formation over the intakes is an undesirable phenomenon within the water withdrawal process from a dam reservoir. Calculating the minimum operating water level in power intakes by empirical equations is not a safe way and sometimes contains some errors. Therefore, current method to calculate the critical submergence of a power intake is construction of a scaled physical model in parallel with numerical model. In this research some proposed empirical relations for prediction of submergence depth in power intakes were validated with experimental data of different physical and numerical models of power intakes. Results showed that, equations which involved the geometry of intake have better correspondence with the experimental and numerical data.

  9. Hovercraft drill probes Saraji tailings dam


    In early operations at BHP-Utah's Saraji Mine in central Queensland, quantities of coking coal were pumped into the tailings dam because the preparation plant's flotation circuit was unable to handle ultra-fines. A reverse circulating drilling rig mounted on a hovercraft was used to recover 22 samples (representing 9 metres of tailings from 11 x 8 x 0.09 metre cores) in an investigation into whether the tailings can now be treated economically. 1 fig.

  10. Thermal effects of dams in the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    Rounds, Stewart A.


    Methods were developed to assess the effects of dams on streamflow and water temperature in the Willamette River and its major tributaries. These methods were used to estimate the flows and temperatures that would occur at 14 dam sites in the absence of upstream dams, and river models were applied to simulate downstream flows and temperatures under a no-dams scenario. The dams selected for this study include 13 dams built and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as part of the Willamette Project, and 1 dam on the Clackamas River owned and operated by Portland General Electric (PGE). Streamflows in the absence of upstream dams for 2001-02 were estimated for USACE sites on the basis of measured releases, changes in reservoir storage, a correction for evaporative losses, and an accounting of flow effects from upstream dams. For the PGE dam, no-project streamflows were derived from a previous modeling effort that was part of a dam-relicensing process. Without-dam streamflows were characterized by higher peak flows in winter and spring and much lower flows in late summer, as compared to with-dam measured flows. Without-dam water temperatures were estimated from measured temperatures upstream of the reservoirs (the USACE sites) or derived from no-project model results (the PGE site). When using upstream data to estimate without-dam temperatures at dam sites, a typical downstream warming rate based on historical data and downstream river models was applied over the distance from the measurement point to the dam site, but only for conditions when the temperature data indicated that warming might be expected. Regressions with measured temperatures from nearby or similar sites were used to extend the without-dam temperature estimates to the entire 2001-02 time period. Without-dam temperature estimates were characterized by a more natural seasonal pattern, with a maximum in July or August, in contrast to the measured patterns at many of the tall dam sites

  11. Dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management – Part 2: Application to Tangjiashan landslide dam failure

    M. Peng


    Full Text Available Tangjiashan landslide dam, which was triggered by the Ms = 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 in China, threatened 1.2 million people downstream of the dam. All people in Beichuan Town 3.5 km downstream of the dam and 197 thousand people in Mianyang City 85 km downstream of the dam were evacuated 10 days before the breaching of the dam. Making such an important decision under uncertainty was difficult. This paper applied a dynamic decision-making framework for dam-break emergency management (DYDEM to help rational decision in the emergency management of the Tangjiashan landslide dam. Three stages are identified with different levels of hydrological, geological and social-economic information along the timeline of the landslide dam failure event. The probability of dam failure is taken as a time series. The dam breaching parameters are predicted with a set of empirical models in stage 1 when no soil property information is known, and a physical model in stages 2 and 3 when knowledge of soil properties has been obtained. The flood routing downstream of the dam in these three stages is analyzed to evaluate the population at risk (PAR. The flood consequences, including evacuation costs, flood damage and monetized loss of life, are evaluated as functions of warning time using a human risk analysis model based on Bayesian networks. Finally, dynamic decision analysis is conducted to find the optimal time to evacuate the population at risk with minimum total loss in each of these three stages.

  12. Major Dams of the United States - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays major dams of the United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting dams 50 feet or...

  13. Safety of Italian dams in the face of flood hazard

    Bocchiola, Daniele; Rosso, Renzo


    Most rivers in Italy are segmented by dams that need rehabilitation because of (1) safety requirements by increasingly risk-averse societies, (2) changes in the downstream river and riparian system after dams building, (3) poor initial design at the time of completion and (4) modified priorities of watershed management. Safe design of flood spillways is a major concern, and requires to cope with low frequency flood hazard. One must estimate flood figures with high return periods (R ⩾ 1000-10,000 years) but statistical methods involve large uncertainties because of the short length of the available records. This paper investigates the return period of the design flood of existing spillways RS of large dams in Italy. We used re-normalized flood frequency approach and regionalization using the Generalized Extreme Value distribution. The estimation of the site specific index flood is carried out by simple scaling with basin area at the regional level. The result show that 55% (245) of the 448 examined dams are equipped by spillway with RS > 10,000; and 71% (315) of the dams have RS > 1000. Conversely, 29% (130) of the dams display RS routing may dampen the outflow hydrograph, but one should carefully account for the need of achieving accurate dam safety assessment of these dams based on site specific investigations, also accounting for global change forcing.

  14. Measures of struggle against appearance of cracks in earth dams

    Ibraeva Yulia


    Full Text Available The article describes a method calculation of the basic parameters of the transverse rows of pile of simple printed or precast dam. As well, in this article have been shown all the necessary formulas for this calculation and have been proposed solutions to prevent cracking in the dams.

  15. Geophysical methods for the assessment of earthen dams

    Dams and levees are an integral part of the fluvial system in watersheds. Their stability is of utmost concern to the Nation and to those directly impacted should failure occur. There are some 88,000 dams and 110,000 miles of levees in the USA. Many of those are earthen embankments and structures su...

  16. 33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of...

  17. 78 FR 7810 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group.... L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work...

  18. 75 FR 34476 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Interior (Secretary) is renewing the charter for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and to provide recommendations to the...

  19. 78 FR 21415 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group..., the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and...

  20. 77 FR 43117 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and...

  1. 77 FR 9265 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and...

  2. Institutionalizing the option of dam removal: the New Hampshire initiative.

    Lindloff, S D


    For two years, the State of New Hampshire has worked to institutionalize the option of dam removal. The high gradient streams that flow through the granite hills and mountains of this small northeastern state provided ideal conditions for dam construction, particularly during America's Industrial Revolution of the 1800s when mills were constructed throughout the area. With more than 4,800 dams in the state's database, there are many opportunities for the removal of dams that no longer serve a useful purpose, have become a public safety hazard and impact the river environment. Efforts to facilitate removal of dams in New Hampshire include the formation of a River Restoration Task Force and the creation of a dam removal program within the state agency responsible for regulating dams. This has led to the removal of two dams in the past year, with approximately ten additional projects in various stages of planning. A history of this agency-led initiative, as well as a discussion of the program's strengths, challenges and goals for the future are presented.

  3. How to manage the cumulative flood safety of catchment dams


    Sep 15, 2008 ... Sustainable Law and Engineering Group, Centre for Accounting, Governance and Sustainability, ... associated with small-dam safety and practical feedback from ... catchment dams nor the supervision over the management of .... same time in an extreme design flood event of only 1-in-200 ..... These guide-.

  4. Will the Three Gorges Dam Stand The Test of Time?


    @@ Netizens have collected several ar-ticles about the flood-control capacity of the Three Gorges Dam. In these articles, its capacity was differently described as tackling flooding "once-in-10,000-years" "once-in- l,O00-years" or "once-in-a-century" Can you give the specifics of the flood control capacity of the dam?

  5. INTRODUCTION All earth dams in their natural state experience ...

    Earth Dam constructed within the Precambrian Basement Complex terrain of Southwestern Nigeria. The study was aimed at ... The 2-D resistivity structure revealed that the core of the dam embankment is .... within the rain forest region of Nigeria. The ..... (citrus Sinensis Osbeck) Stored at Ambient Tropical Condition. 251.

  6. Seepage problem in Papan dam and the treatment

    Sharghi, A. [JTMA Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Palassi, M. [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    The Papan dam in the Krygyz Republic is 97 metres high. It is located in the Osh Oblast, within a narrow and steep sided gorge on the Ak-Bura River, approximately 20 kilometres south of the City of Osh. The impoundment of the dam revealed large inflows of water to the downstream dam through the upper half of the dam and through the joints in the right abutment. A number of options were considered before a treatment method was selected. The causes of the leakage were poor grouting, and joints and fissures in the abutment. The remedial process involved the use of a plastic concrete cutoff wall extended from the crest of the dam to a depth of approximately 70 metres, in addition to the use of a grouting curtain in the right abutment. 2 figs.

  7. Sediment settling in the Latian Dam in Iran

    Farhang BEHRANGI; Mohammad Ali BANIHASHEMI; Shayesteh MAHANI; Mohammad Reza RAHMANIAN


    Among the difficulties that influence future dam operations, reservoir sedimentation is the most problematic for engineers. This study predicted the amount and pattern of sedimentation for use in estimation of the useful lifespan of reservoirs and identification of optimal locations for outlets and intakes at the initial stages of dam design. Hydrographic surveys of different dams can provide better insight into this phenomenon. Latian Dam in Iran has conducted hydrographic surveys during 7 time periods. The amount and process of sedimentation in this reservoir were determined, and predictions of distribution of sediments were validated by well-known, common methods. The formation of a delta in the reservoir was investigated for different time periods after operation. Future problems due to the impacts of sedimentation on dam operation and the useful lifespan of the reservoir were predicted. In addition, the study results may be used for developing empirical methods to predict sedimentation patterns in other reservoirs.

  8. Management of dam safety at BC Hydro: the database tool

    Oswell, Terry [BC Hydrom Burnaby, (Canada)


    BC Hydro has a wide range of dams, which raises a wide range of issues at many unique sites. A dam safety database was developed in 2000 to deal with the complexity and volume of information provided by deficiency investigations and surveillances. The database contains all documented deficiencies and non-conformances identified in the past 10 years. It records the risk ratings assigned to each issue. This paper described the implementation of the database tool, from the characterization of a dam safety issue to the use of the database itself. The dam safety database is now a key tool in managing the dam safety program at BC Hydro and has been useful for the last 10 years or so in prioritizing the program of deficiency investigations and capital projects. The development of a process to rate non-conformances is currently under study and will be implemented soon to aid in more efficient prioritization of maintenance activities.

  9. Modeling Experiment of Break of Debris-Flow Dam

    CHENG Zunlan; GENG Xueyong; DANG Chao; LIU Jingjing


    Glaciers are extensively developed in the southwest of Tibet and the moraines are widely distributed with large depth. Large-scale debris flows are often reported which blocked rivers and formed dams. In this paper, seven large debris flows in four valleys are discussed, among which five dams developed. 13 sets of experiments have been conducted in laboratory to simulate the formation and failure of the dam. Finally, a model of dam failure is proposed and a formula is established to calculate the flood discharge:Q = kbhhk/T (B)/LG0.41, where bk is the outlet width of the dam atthe original water level, ht the erosive depth, T the time fromoverflow to final state of failure, the average width of lake; L thelength of the lake, and G the total potential energy of the water inthe lake.

  10. An Australian experience with a constructed wetland to treat ash dam water

    M.W. Jensen; K.W. Riley [Delta Electricity (Australia)


    In this paper, the effectiveness of a wetland system to treat water from a power station ash dam is discussed. The wetlands were constructed during 1996 and 1997. The length of the canals within the system is 1700 metres. There was a total planting of 35,000 tube stock of nine different species. In the summer of 1998, Typha orientalis colonised the system and is now the dominant species of emergent plant present. Water is introduced to the wetland from the return channel of the power station. The ash dam water is acidic (pH 4.5 5.5) and contains elevated levels of some trace elements including selenium, boron and fluorine. Of these three trace elements, selenium is regarded as the element of particular environmental concern. Since June 2000, there has been periodic sampling and analysis of both the inlet and outlet waters. The analytes include conductivity, pH, total organic carbon, Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cl, K, F, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, selenite, total selenium, Si, Sr, sulfate and Zn. As well, plant material (stems and roots of the Typha) and sediments have been analysed for selenium. The results indicate boron and fluorine are not removed from the ash dam water by the processes occurring in the wetland. Selenium is partly removed. It appears that selenite is removed in preference to selenate. The development and operation of this experimental wetland is discussed in the context of a sustainable and ecologically sound system of minimising detrimental effects of the discharge of ash water. 26 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Stability Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam Based on ANSYS%基于ANSYS的混凝土重力坝稳定性分析

    马飞; 陈岚亭; 李向辉


    For a certain storage period gravity dam, using the large-scale finite element software ANSYS finite element model is established, through the analysis of the deformation of the structure, the stress, strain and other factors to study the stability of concrete gravity dam, concrete crack prop-agation. Simulation results show that the maximum deformation of the concrete gravity dam filling in the center of the crest;maximum tensile stress distribution in the dam abutment, the maximum ten-sile stress values appear in close to the position of the center of the bottom of the dam, the maximum tensile stress values for 3. 53 MPa, less than concrete tensile strength. Meet the dam safety stand-ards. Simulation results and the actual engineering agree well can provide a reference for the design of concrete gravity dam.%针对某蓄水期重力坝,利用大型有限元软件ANSYS建立有限元模型,通过分析其结构的变形、应力、应变等因素来研究混凝土重力坝的稳定性、混凝土的开裂情况。模拟结果表明,蓄水期该混凝土重力坝的最大变形在坝顶中心位置;最大拉应力主要分布在坝肩,最大拉应力值出现在接近坝底中心位置,其最大拉应力值为3.53 MPa,小于混凝土的抗拉强度,符合大坝安全标准。模拟结果与实际工程较好吻合,可以为混凝土重力坝设计工作提供借鉴。

  12. Dam Inventory - DAMS_1996_EPA_IN: Inventory of Dams in Indiana, Derived from EPA BASINS (United States Environmental Protection Agency, Point Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — DAMS_1996_EPA_IN is a point shapefile developed by the USEPA BASINS 3.0 program and clipped by Bernardin, Lochmueller and Associates. Clips were performed using the...

  13. Quick release stoplog design for the Nova Scotia Power Harmony Dam

    Hibbs, R. [Hatch Energy, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Snyder, G. [Hatch Energy, Fredericton, NB (Canada); McEwen, D. [Hatch Energy, Niagara Falls, ON (Canada); Locke, E. [Nova Scotia Power, Halifax, NS (Canada)


    In 2003 Nova Scotia Power conducted a dam safety evaluation for the Harmony Hydro System on the Medway River. Flood control at the main dam was performed using crest boards on the overflow section and stoplogs in the sluiceway bays. This process was time consuming, labour intensive and possibly dangerous. A flood analysis had demonstrated that the spillway could not handle the design flood with adequate freeboard, even assuming that all crest boards and stoplogs could be removed. The flood handling capacity of the dam was therefore redesigned, so that infrequent flood events could be passed without any user intervention and larger floods could be passed with the use of quick-release stoplogs. In 2006 and 2007, six bays of quick-release stoplogs, a sluice gate and upgraded overflow spillway were installed. The quick-release stoplogs featured a novel release mechanism consisting of a roller and lever arm, which significantly reduced the effort to release the stoplogs when compared with a typical pull-pin release mechanism. This paper described the novel quick-release mechanism that utilized a lever and roller instead of a pull-pin. The paper discussed the successful design, installation and testing of the quick-release mechanism at the main sluiceway on the Harmony Main Dam in Nova Scotia. The paper described the facility and discussed engineering work that was performed by Hatch Energy between 2003 and 2006. The disadvantages of quick-release stoplogs were also identified. Other topics that were discussed included fabrication and installation as well as commissioning and operation. It was concluded that quick-release stoplog spillways could be cost-effective and efficient elements for flood handling. A difficult design component of traditional quick-release designs has been the pull-pin which releases the central column. Under load conditions, the pull pin can jam and prevent release of the stoplogs. 9 figs.

  14. 再筑坝过程中上部荷载对原有尾矿坝体的影响%Influence of Upper Loads on Original Tailings Dam in the Process of Dam Construction

    吴艳霞; 于广明; 宋传旺; 潘永战; 李冉


    尾矿坝稳定与否是尾矿库能否安全的关键所在,尾矿坝又是随着生产过程而不断加高的特殊岩土工程体,各种因素处于动态变化过程中,这使得尾矿坝工程的不确定性尤为明显,工程难度较其他类型的边坡工程有增无减.运用FLAC模拟某尾矿坝的筑坝施工过程,分析了再筑坝过程中,逐级加载时上部荷载对原有尾矿坝体安全性能的影响,考虑了由下至上逐步形成重力荷载,最后叠加得到的便是最终内力和变形.为尾矿坝工程建设提供可参考的依据,减少溃坝事故的发生.%The stability of tailings dam is important to the safety of tailings pond. The tailings dam is a kind of particular geotechnical engineering body,which gets higher and higher with the course of construction and many factors are varying all the time,so the tailings dam is in a more dynamic situation,and the difficulty of building tailings dam is far larger than other kinds of slope engineering projects. This article modifies a process of building dams with the software-FLAC,analyzing the influence of load addition on the dam body that has been built. And the course of form ing the gravity load is considered from the bottom step by step,superposition of all elements to get the ultimate force and deformation. So the article can provide a referential basis for building tailings dam,and decrease the possibility of tailings dam failure.

  15. Channel evolution on the dammed Elwha River, Washington, USA

    Draut, A.E.; Logan, J.B.; Mastin, M.C.


    Like many rivers in the western U.S., the Elwha River, Washington, has changed substantially over the past century in response to natural and human forcing. The lower river is affected by two upstream dams that are slated for removal as part of a major river restoration effort. In preparation for studying the effects of dam removal, we present a comprehensive field and aerial photographic analysis of dam influence on an anabranching, gravel-bed river. Over the past century with the dams in place, loss of the upstream sediment supply has caused spatial variations in the sedimentary and geomorphic character of the lower Elwha River channel. Bed sediment is armored and better sorted than on the naturally evolving bed upstream of the dams. On time scales of flood seasons, the channel immediately below the lower dam is fairly stable, but progresses toward greater mobility downstream such that the lowermost portion of the river responded to a recent 40-year flood with bank erosion and bed-elevation changes on a scale approaching that of the natural channel above the dams. In general, channel mobility in the lowest 4 km of the Elwha River has not decreased substantially with time. Enough fine sediment remains in the floodplain that – given sufficient flood forcing – the channel position, sinuosity, and braiding index change substantially. The processes by which this river accesses new fine sediment below the dams (rapid migration into noncohesive banks and avulsion of new channels) allow it to compensate for loss of upstream sediment supply more readily than would a dammed river with cohesive banks or a more limited supply of alluvium. The planned dam removal will provide a valuable opportunity to evaluate channel response to the future restoration of natural upstream sediment supply.

  16. Check dam and polyacrylamide performance under simulated stormwater runoff.

    Kang, Jihoon; McCaleb, Melanie M; McLaughlin, Richard A


    High levels of turbidity and fine suspended sediments are often found in stormwater discharges from construction sites even when best management practices (BMPs) for sediment control are in place. This study evaluated turbidity reduction by three check dam types: 1) rock check dam representing a standard BMP, 2) excelsior wattle representing a fiber check dam (FCD), and 3) rock check dam wrapped with excelsior erosion control blanket (rock + excelsior ECB) representing an alternative FCD. Three check dams (all same type) were installed in a lined, 24-m ditch on a 5-7% slope and three consecutive simulated stormwater flows were run in the ditch. Additional tests were performed by adding granular polyacrylamide (PAM) on the check dams in the same manner using two sediment sources differing in clay content. Without PAM treatment, significantly higher effluent turbidity (>900 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)) exited the ditch with rock check dams than with excelsior wattles or rock + excelsior ECBs (dam types was in the order of excelsior wattle > rock + excelsior ECB > rock check dam, indicating better water pooling behind the wattle. The PAM treatment reduced turbidity substantially (>75% relative to no PAM treatment) for all check dam types and it was very effective in excelsior wattles (<57 NTU) and rock + excelsior ECBs (<90 NTU) even during the third storm event. This study demonstrates that the passive treatment of runoff with PAM on FCDs (or rock + excelsior ECB) in construction site ditches can be very effective for sediment retention and turbidity reduction.

  17. Geophysical Investigations at Hidden Dam, Raymond, California Flow Simulations

    Minsley, Burke J.; Ikard, Scott


    Numerical flow modeling and analysis of observation-well data at Hidden Dam are carried out to supplement recent geophysical field investigations at the site (Minsley and others, 2010). This work also is complementary to earlier seepage-related studies at Hidden Dam documented by Cedergren (1980a, b). Known seepage areas on the northwest right abutment area of the downstream side of the dam was documented by Cedergren (1980a, b). Subsequent to the 1980 seepage study, a drainage blanket with a sub-drain system was installed to mitigate downstream seepage. Flow net analysis provided by Cedergren (1980a, b) suggests that the primary seepage mechanism involves flow through the dam foundation due to normal reservoir pool elevations, which results in upflow that intersects the ground surface in several areas on the downstream side of the dam. In addition to the reservoir pool elevations and downstream surface topography, flow is also controlled by the existing foundation geology as well as the presence or absence of a horizontal drain in the downstream portion of the dam. The current modeling study is aimed at quantifying how variability in dam and foundation hydrologic properties influences seepage as a function of reservoir stage. Flow modeling is implemented using the COMSOL Multiphysics software package, which solves the partially saturated flow equations in a two-dimensional (2D) cross-section of Hidden Dam that also incorporates true downstream topography. Use of the COMSOL software package provides a more quantitative approach than the flow net analysis by Cedergren (1980a, b), and allows for rapid evaluation of the influence of various parameters such as reservoir level, dam structure and geometry, and hydrogeologic properties of the dam and foundation materials. Historical observation-well data are used to help validate the flow simulations by comparing observed and predicted water levels for a range of reservoir elevations. The flow models are guided by, and

  18. Safety and coping strategy for high dam under complex natural conditions

    Niu Xinqiang


    In respect to current situation and new challenges for high dam construction in China, safety problems are an- alyzed for high dam construction under complex natural conditions such as high elevation, cold area, high seismic inten- sity, large-seale landslide and high dam and huge reservoirs with dam types such as concrete surface rock-fill, asphalt concrete core, roller compacted concrete (RCC) arch dam and so on. From several aspects, including risk response measures for high dam, strengthening safety awareness for high dam design and construction, improving high dam con- struetion technique, intelligent dam safety management system based on IT, developing dam rehabilitation and mainte- nance technologies, useful dam safety and coping strategy is proposed.

  19. The Political Ecology of Chinese Large Dams in Cambodia: Implications, Challenges and Lessons Learnt from the Kamchay Dam

    Giuseppina Siciliano


    Full Text Available Given the opportunities offered by foreign investment in energy infrastructure mostly by Chinese firms, the Government of Cambodia is giving high priority to developing hydropower resources for reducing energy poverty and powering economic growth. Using a “Political ecology of the Asian drivers” framework, this paper assesses China’s involvement in the development of large dams’ in Cambodia and its impacts on the access of natural resources such as water and energy by dam builders, local communities and the government. This analysis is based on 61 interviews and 10 focus group discussions with affected communities, institutional actors, Chinese dam builders and financiers in relation to the first large Chinese dam built in Cambodia: the Kamchay dam. Based on the results of the analysis this paper makes recommendations on how to improve the planning, implementation and governance of future large dams in Cambodia.

  20. Estimating Snow Budget of Karaj Dam Reservoir

    Manijeh G. Tali


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Most of the cold period precipitation of Karaj Basin falls in the form of snow. This snow and its run off are important to the dam and the local needs such as agriculture and the drinking water of Tehran. But due to the scarcity and in some elevations the lack of weather stations, measuring this snow cover and its run off is difficult. We have decided to estimate the amount of this snow cover by using surrogate methods such as satellite images of MODIS and temperature thresholds. Approach: To estimate the snow water budget of the Karaj Dam Reservoir Basin, first a temperature threshold of 3° Celsius was defined according to the analysis of daily temperature and precipitation values of Nesa station during 1960-2000. The elevation of this temperature was as low as 1590 m in February and 5734 m in August. During each month the melting snow was computed over the area between 3 and zero degrees Celsius and precipitation below zero degrees was considered as permanent snow cover. The precipitation of areas above 3° was computed as rain. Using this temperature threshold and the DEM map of the basin we estimated the snow cover and snow melt water of the basin. The snow cover area on the MODIS images was estimated and compared with that computed from temperature threshold. Both methods gave relatively similar results. At the end the snow melt water of the whole cold period was calculated and added up to estimate the total snow water budget. Results: The results showed that during the study months most (67.7% of the precipitation comes in the form of snow. And most of this snow (97.5% melts during months March and onward. Its monthly distributions are 3.8% in March, 22.7% in April and 71% in May. The total snow water entering the dam was about 181.73 million cubic meters. Conclusion: The comparison of the results from temperature thresholds with the MODIS images snow cover showed very little and negligible discrepancy. Therefore, this

  1. Dam overtopping risk using probabilistic concepts – Case study: The Meijaran Dam, Iran

    Ehsan Goodarzi


    Full Text Available Hydrologic risk assessment and uncertainty analysis by mathematical and statistical methods provide useful information for decision makers. This study presents the application of risk and uncertainty analysis to dam overtopping due to various inflows and wind speeds for the Meijaran Dam in the north of Iran. The procedure includes univariate flood and wind speed frequency analyses, reservoir routing, and integration of wind set-up and run-up to calculate the reservoir water elevation. Afterwards, the probability of overtopping was assessed by applying two uncertainty analysis methods (Monte Carlo simulation and Latin hypercube sampling, and considering the quantile of flood peak discharge, initial depth of water in the reservoir, and spillway discharge coefficient as uncertain variables. The results revealed that rising water level in the reservoir is the most important factor in overtopping risk analysis and that wind speed also has a considerable impact on reservoirs that are placed in windy areas.

  2. Fosfortab fra det dyrkede areal til Stevning Dam, Hindemaj og Haderslev Dam

    Andersen, Hans Estrup; Heckrath, Goswin; Thodsen, Hans;

    Størrelsen af dyrkningsbidraget til søerne i Haderslev Dam-systemet er vurderet med to forskellige metoder til at udgøre ca. 42 % af den samlede tilførsel. En risikokortlægning med det nye, danske P-indeks viser, at i alt 15 % af det dyrkede areal er i højrisiko mht. fosfortab. P-indeks-kortlægni......Størrelsen af dyrkningsbidraget til søerne i Haderslev Dam-systemet er vurderet med to forskellige metoder til at udgøre ca. 42 % af den samlede tilførsel. En risikokortlægning med det nye, danske P-indeks viser, at i alt 15 % af det dyrkede areal er i højrisiko mht. fosfortab. P...

  3. Seepage and stress analysis of anti-seepage structures constructed with different concrete materials in an RCC gravity dam

    Ming-chao Li


    Full Text Available This study used the finite element method (FEM to analyze the stress field and seepage field of a roller-compacted concrete (RCC dam, with an upstream impervious layer constructed with different types of concrete materials, including three-graded RCC, two-graded RCC, conventional vibrated concrete (CVC, and grout-enriched vibrated RCC (GEVR, corresponding to the design schemes S1 through S4. It also evaluated the anti-seepage performance of the imperious layer in the four design schemes under the normal water level and flood-check level. Stress field analysis of a retaining section and discharge section shows that the maximum tensile stress occurs near the dam heel, the maximum compressive stress occurs near the dam toe, and the stress distributions in the four schemes can satisfy the stress control criteria. Seepage field analysis shows that the uplift pressure heads in schemes S3 and S4 descend rapidly in the anti-seepage region, and that the calculated results of daily seepage flow under the steady seepage condition in these two schemes are about 30% to 50% lower than those in the other two schemes, demonstrating that CVC and GEVR show better anti-seepage performance. The results provide essential parameters such as the uplift pressure head and seepage flow for physical model tests and anti-seepage structure selection in RCC dams.

  4. Evaluating temporal changes in hydraulic conductivities near karst-terrain dams: Dokan Dam (Kurdistan-Iraq)

    Dafny, Elad; Tawfeeq, Kochar Jamal; Ghabraie, Kazem


    Dam sites provide an outstanding opportunity to explore dynamic changes in the groundwater flow regime because of the high hydraulic gradient rapidly induced in their surroundings. This paper investigates the temporal changes of the hydraulic conductivities of the rocks and engineered structures via a thorough analysis of hydrological data collected at the Dokam Dam, Iraq, and a numerical model that simulates the Darcian component of the seepage. Analysis of the data indicates increased seepage with time and suggests that the hydraulic conductivity of the rocks increased as the conductivity of the grout curtain decreased. Conductivity changes on the order of 10-8 m/s, in a 20-yr period were quantified using the numerical analysis. It is postulated that the changes in hydraulic properties in the vicinity of Dokan Dam are due to suspension of fine materials, interbedded in small fissures in the rocks, and re-settlement of these materials along the curtain. Consequently, the importance of the grout curtain to minimize the downstream seepage, not only as a result of the conductivity contrast with the rocks, but also as a barrier to suspended clay sediments, is demonstrated. The numerical analysis also helped us to estimate the proportion of the disconnected karstic conduit flow to the overall flow.

  5. Estimates o the risks associated with dam failure

    Ayyaswamy, P.; Hauss, B.; Hseih, T.; Moscati, A.; Hicks, T.E.; Okrent, D.


    The probabilities and potential consequences of dam failure in California, primarily due to large earthquakes, was estimated, taking as examples eleven dams having a relatively large population downstream. Mortalities in the event of dam failure range from 11,000 to 260,000, while damage to property may be as high as $720 million. It was assumed that an intensity IX or X earthquake (on the Modified Mercalli Scale) would be sufficient to completely fail earthen dams. Predictions of dam failure were based on the recurrence times of such earthquakes. For the dams studied, the recurrence intervals for an intensity IX earthquake varied between 20 and 800 years; for an intensity X between 50 and 30,000 years. For the Lake Chabot and San Pablo dams (respectively 20, 30 years recurrent earthquake times for a intensity X) the associated consequences are: 34,000 (Lake Chabot) and 30,000 (San Pablo) people killed; damage $140 million and $77 million. Evaculation was found to ameliorate the consequences slightly in most cases because of the short time available. Calculations are based on demography, and assume 10 foot floodwaters will drown all in their path and destroy all one-unit homes in the flood area. Damage estimates reflect losses incurred by structural damage to buildings and do not include loss of income. Hence the economic impact is probably understated.

  6. Environmental and dam effects on cannibalism in Wistar rat litters

    Graziela Tarôco


    Full Text Available The factors related to cannibalistic behavior of dams in a Wistar rat colony are identified and analyzed. The maternal genetic effects were tested as a random effect by the method of generalized linear models. The season at parturition, the dam´s age at parturition and the density of the room at parturition were tested as fixed effects, whereas the litter size at birth was tested as a co-variable. The genetic effect of the dam was significant for the number of cannibalized pups. Although the season at parturition, the dam´s age and room density on the day of parturition were not individually significant (p > 0.05, most of the interactions between the variation sources were significant (p < 0.05. Cannibalism occurred mostly in dams aged over 241 days, with parturition during spring. So that occurrences of cannibalism could be avoided, dams with the smallest number of cannibalized pups should be selected, coupled to dams younger than 241 days, breeding during spring. The above strategies may reduce the number of couples in the vivarium and increase their production efficiency.

  7. Responses of riparian reptile communities to damming and urbanization

    Hunt, Stephanie D.; Guzy, Jacquelyn C.; Price, Steven J.; Halstead, Brian J.; Eskew, Evan A.; Dorcas, Michael E.


    Various anthropogenic pressures, including habitat loss, threaten reptile populations worldwide. Riparian zones are critical habitat for many reptile species, but these habitats are also frequently modified by anthropogenic activities. Our study investigated the effects of two riparian habitat modifications-damming and urbanization-on overall and species-specific reptile occupancy patterns. We used time-constrained search techniques to compile encounter histories for 28 reptile species at 21 different sites along the Broad and Pacolet Rivers of South Carolina. Using a hierarchical Bayesian analysis, we modeled reptile occupancy responses to a site's distance upstream from dam, distance downstream from dam, and percent urban land use. The mean occupancy response by the reptile community indicated that reptile occupancy and species richness were maximized when sites were farther upstream from dams. Species-specific occupancy estimates showed a similar trend of lower occupancy immediately upstream from dams. Although the mean occupancy response of the reptile community was positively related to distance downstream from dams, the occupancy response to distance downstream varied among species. Percent urban land use had little effect on the occupancy response of the reptile community or individual species. Our results indicate that the conditions of impoundments and subsequent degradation of the riparian zones upstream from dams may not provide suitable habitat for a number of reptile species.

  8. The collapse of the Sella Zerbino gravity dam.

    Petaccia, G; Lai, C G; Milazzo, C; Natale, L


    When a severe flood wave completely filled the Ortiglieto reservoir on August 13, 1935, the 14 m high "Sella Zerbino" secondary dam failed catastrophically causing > 100 casualties. Both of the dams, Sella Zerbino-Zerbino Saddle and Bric Zerbino-Zerbino Peak (Fig. 1) were overtopped but only the Sella Zerbino failed whereas the main barrage did not suffer any damage. The lawsuit that followed this tragic event ended with a full acquittal of the dam's designers since the plaintiff experts succeeded in demonstrating that the collapse was due to an extreme rainfall storm of unpredictable intensity. The case was then officially closed and still today the failure of the Sella Zerbino dam is attributed to the unpredictable hydrological event. Recently, Natale and Petaccia (2013) re-examined the case assessing the capacity of the flood spillways which equipped the Bric Zerbino dam. This paper thoroughly reviews the mechanics of the collapse of the Sella Zerbino dam focusing on the stability of the structure. The water pressure underneath the dam and the poor quality of the foundation rock is believed to have played a major role in the sequence of events that ended in the collapse of the barrage.

  9. Characterization of colostrum from dams of BLV endemic dairy herds.

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Lomonaco, Marina; Alvarez, Irene; Fernandez, Fernando; Trono, Karina


    Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is endemic in Argentina, where the individual prevalence is higher than 80% in dairy farms. The aim of this work was to find preliminary evidence to know if the high level of infection of the dam would implicate a higher challenge to her own offspring. We collected 65 sets of samples consisting of dam's blood and colostrum from two heavily infected dairy farms, and investigated the correlation between the dam's blood proviral load and the presence of provirus in colostrum. We also described the dual antibody/provirus profile in the colostrum. Provirus was detected in 69.23% of the colostrum samples, mostly from dams with a high proviral load, 36/45 (80%). Colostrum proviral load was significantly higher in dams with high blood proviral load (pcolostrum samples all along the antibody distribution, even in those with a low amount of antibodies. These results show that even when high blood proviral load dams offer higher levels of infected cells to their offspring through colostrum they also offer higher levels of protection of antibodies. On the contrary, low blood proviral load dams also offer infected cells but a poor content of antibodies, suggesting that these animals could play an important role in the epidemiological cycle of transmission.

  10. Safety of small and medium dams in permafrost regions

    Rudolf V.Zhang; Sergey A.Velikin


    Safe operation and performance of dams is one of the key issues in permafrost regions. At present, the existing dams are 40 45 years old and they are reaching their design life limit. Intensive geocryological processes (thermokarst, thermal erosion, frost heaving, suffosion, concentrated seepage along the voids left by melt ice and others) begin to develop at the early stages of construction. These processes are even more intensive under severe climatic conditions of the permafrost zone due to the large thermal and moisture gradients and the resulting complex thermal stress strain state in the structures. Determining safety criteria is a critical and difficult task in dam safety management. The existing procedures need to be continuously refined and improved depending on dam importance class. Some researchers recommend introducing process development criteria (stability, destabilization, and extremality) for more objective assessment of dam safety, in addition to the existing two condition criteria. In other words, they call for a multi factor dam environment interaction system. A case study of safety declaration for an existing dam is presented.

  11. Deformation reinforcement theory and its application to high arch dams


    In this paper,the deformation reinforcement theory(DRT) proposed by the authors is elaborated with a new definition of instability that an elasto-plastic structure is not stable if it cannot satisfy simultaneously equilibrium condition,kinematical admissibility and constitutive equations under the prescribed loading.Starting from the definition,a proof is established to the principle of minimum plastic complementary energy for failured structures.It is revealed that the principle of mini-mum plastic complementary energy results in relaxed constitutive equations,especially,yield conditions.It is demonstrated with case studies that many key issues in arch dam design,e.g.,global stability,dam-toe reinforcement,dam-toe cracking,dam-abut-ment reinforcement,can be well solved within the framework of the deformation reinforcement theory.The structural global stability can be described by the curve of the plastic complementary energy vs overloading factor.The unbalanced-forces obtained by elasto-plastic FEM can be used as the basis of analysis of global stability,dam-heel cracking,dam-toe anchorage and reinforcement of faults of high arch dams and their foundations.

  12. Minidoka Dam Wildlife Impact Assessment: Final Report.

    Martin, Robert C.; Meuleman, G. Allyn


    A wildlife impact assessment has been developed for the US Bureau of Reclamation's Minidoka Dam and Reservoir in south central Idaho. This assessment was conducted to fulfill requirements of the Fish and Wildlife Program. Specific objectives of this study included the following: select target wildlife species, and identify their current status and management goals; estimate the net effects on target wildlife species resulting from hydroelectric development and operation; recommend protection, mitigation, and enhancement goals for target wildlife species affected by hydroelectric development and operation; and consult and coordinate impact assessment activities with the Northwest Power Planning Council, Bonneville Power Administration, US Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Land Management, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee, and other entities expressing interest in the project. 62 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Toxic Elements

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen


    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....

  14. Risk Perception Analysis Related To Existing Dams In Italy

    Solimene, Pellegrino


    In the first part of this work, the progress of Italian National Rules about dams design, construction and operation are presented to highlight the strong connection existing between the promulgation of new decrees, as a consequence of a dam accidents, and the necessity to prevent further loss of lives and goods downstream. Following the Gleno Dam failure (1923), a special Ministerial Committee wrote out the first Regulations and made the proposal to establish, within the High Council of Public Works, a special department that become soon the "Dam Service", with the tasks of control and supervision about construction and operation phases of the dams and their reservoirs. A different definition of tasks and the structure of Dam Service were provided in accordance with law n° 183/1989, which transferred all the technical services to the Office of the Prime Minister; the aim was to join the Dam Office with the Department for National Technical Services, with the objective of increasing the knowledge of the territory and promoting the study on flood propagation downstream in case of operations on bottom outlet or hypothetical dam-break. In fact, population living downstream is not ready to accept any amount of risk because has not a good knowledge of the efforts of experts involved in dam safety, both from the operators and from the safety Authority. So it's important to optimize all the activities usually performed in a dam safety program and improve the emergency planning as a response to people's primary needs and feeling about safety from Civil Protection Authority. In the second part of the work, a definition of risk is provided as the relationship existing between probability of occurrence and loss, setting out the range within to plan for prevention (risk mitigation), thanks to the qualitative assessment of the minimum safety level that is suited to assign funds to plan for Civil Protection (loss mitigation). The basic meaning of the reliability of a zoned

  15. On monolithic stability and reinforcement analysis of high arch dams


    Monolithic stability safety and reinforcement based on monolithic stability are very important for arch dam design.In this paper,the issue is addressed based on deformation reinforcement theory.In this approach,plastic complementary energy norm can be taken as safety Index for monolithic stability.According to deformation reinforcement theory,the areas where unbalanced force exists require reinforcement,and the required reinforcement forces are just the unbalanced forces with opposite direction.Results show that areas with unbalanced force mainly concentrate in dam-toes,dam-heels and faults.

  16. River turbidity and sediment loads during dam removal

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Curran, Chris A.


    Dam decommissioning has become an important means for removing unsafe or obsolete dams and for restoring natural fluvial processes, including discharge regimes, sediment transport, and ecosystem connectivity [Doyle et al., 2003]. The largest dam-removal project in history began in September 2011 on the Elwha River of Washington State (Figure 1a). The project, which aims to restore the river ecosystem and increase imperiled salmon populations that once thrived there, provides a unique opportunity to better understand the implications of large-scale river restoration.

  17. Accuracy Analysis of a Dam Model from Drone Surveys

    Elena Ridolfi; Giulia Buffi; Sara Venturi; Piergiorgio Manciola


    This paper investigates the accuracy of models obtained by drone surveys. To this end, this work analyzes how the placement of ground control points (GCPs) used to georeference the dense point cloud of a dam affects the resulting three-dimensional (3D) model. Images of a double arch masonry dam upstream face are acquired from drone survey and used to build the 3D model of the dam for vulnerability analysis purposes. However, there still remained the issue of understanding the real impact of a...

  18. An element

    Nakamura, K.; Iidzima, K.


    An anode of a light metal is used in the element, along with an electrolyte which consists of an ether solvent and an ionogenic additive in the form of a salt of dithiocarbamic acid. The element has good discharge characteristics.

  19. Geodetic and Non-Geodetic Methods for Deformation Monitoring of Rock-Fill Dams, a Case Study at Ataturk DAM

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.


    Necessity to water is increasing day by day with respect to the World population, rising of living standards and destruction of nature. Water resources have to be controlled and supplied for agricultural uses, drinking and industrial purposes by the countries having limited water resources. This situation is also considerable for Turkey which has a location in the middle zone of World and having limited water sources. Dams are among the most important engineering structures which are used for these purposes. However, the functioning life of dams is as important as the investment and construction. Nevertheless, in order to provide safety of human life living around, well planned monitoring is essential for dams. Deformation measurements have an important status among various engineering surveying. Considering the time and labor consumed by long-term measurements, processing and analysis of measured data, importance of the horizontal and vertical small structural motions at regular intervals could be comprehended. Ataturk Dam in Turkey is the 6th largest dam of world considering the filling volume of embankment. Deformation of Ataturk Dam is being monitoring yearly since 2006 by Istanbul Technical University Department of Geomatics Engineering. We apply both GPS and conventional techniques. In this study, we present the result of radial deformations on Ataturk Dam between 2006 and 2010. The results show significant horizontal movements among the 72% of object points. Maximum movement is found as 14.12 cm (with a radial component of 14.08 cm) in 4.5 years.

  20. The Effects of the Anti-Dam Movement on the Environmental Protection in American West



    This paper examines the far - reaching influence of anti - dam movement on the protection of environment in the second half of the 20th century in American West. It first introduces the historical background of dams built along the Colorado Biver - the most important river in the West, especially the construction of Hoover Dam and Glen Canyon Dam. Then, the criticism of dams on the Colorado is examined with the emphasis on the anti - dam movement resulting from the awareness of the negative ecological impacts on the Colorado. In the conclusion, the author demonstrates the unparallel historical significance of the anti -dam movement in the en-vironmentalism in developing the American West.

  1. Lessons learned from Wenchuan earthquake for seismic safety of large dams

    Chen Houqun


    This paper describes some special features of the Wenchuan earthquake that affected dam safety. Damage and performance of dams, primarily for four dams over 100 m high located in the affected earthquake area, are briefly described.Lessons learned related to dam safety from this devastating earthquake are preliminarily drawn. As the seismic safety of high dams during strong earthquakes has gained more attention around the world, some critical issues related to dam construction in China are considered and extensively discussed. Questions such as "Why is dam construction necessary in earthquake prone countries such as China?", "Can we accurately evaluate the seismic safety of high dams in China?", "Did reservoir impounding of the Zipingpu and Three Gorges Projects trigger the Wenchuan Earthquake in some way?" and "What is the strategic priority of dam safety for large dams in China?" are discussed. Finally, the corresponding tactics with response to the challenge are suggested and recent preliminary progress mainly achieved in IWHR is briefly introduced.

  2. Dam design can impede adaptive management of environmental flows: a case study from the Opuha Dam, New Zealand.

    Lessard, JoAnna; Hicks, D Murray; Snelder, Ton H; Arscott, David B; Larned, Scott T; Booker, Doug; Suren, Alastair M


    The Opuha Dam was designed for water storage, hydropower, and to augment summer low flows. Following its commissioning in 1999, algal blooms (dominated first by Phormidium and later Didymosphenia geminata) downstream of the dam were attributed to the reduced frequency and magnitude of high-flow events. In this study, we used a 20-year monitoring dataset to quantify changes associated with the dam. We also studied the effectiveness of flushing flows to remove periphyton from the river bed. Following the completion of the dam, daily maximum flows downstream have exceeded 100 m(3) s(-1) only three times; two of these floods exceeded the pre-dam mean annual flood of 203 m(3) s(-1) (compared to 19 times >100 m(3) s(-1) and 6 times >203 m(3) s(-1) in the 8 years of record before the dam). Other changes downstream included increases in water temperature, bed armoring, frequency of algal blooms, and changes to the aquatic invertebrate community. Seven experimental flushing flows resulted in limited periphyton reductions. Flood wave attenuation, bed armoring, and a shortage of surface sand and gravel, likely limited the effectiveness of these moderate floods. Floods similar to pre-dam levels may be effective for control of periphyton downstream; however, flushing flows of that magnitude are not possible with the existing dam infrastructure. These results highlight the need for dams to be planned and built with the capacity to provide the natural range of flows for adaptive management, particularly high flows.

  3. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program. Underwater Stilling Basin Repair Techniques Using Precast or Prefabricated Elements


    Stilling Basins* Training Wall Estimated Low Height Water Depth** Dam ft ft Old River Low Sill Structure 45 16 Arkabutla Dam 29 Enid Dam 30 Pomme De... Terre Dam 32 Pomona Dam 20 ruttle Creek Dam 48 18t Curwensville Lake Dam 32 28 Lac Qui Parle Dam 23 Chief Joseph Dam - 26 Libby Dam 69 20t Dworshak Dam 67

  4. National Dam Inspection Program. Converse Lake Dam (CT 00044). Connecticut Coastal Basin, Greenwich, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.


    Rosenstiel Estate. S-: f. Operator - Mr. Fredrick Jansen (Estate Superintendent) (203)661-9168 -’ .g. Purpose of Dam - Recreational - The dam was originally...cut from the downstream slope of the dam by Mr. Jansen , the estate superintendent. N 4.3 MAINTENANCE OF OPERATING FACILITIES ft There is no known...a bre in the blooi’pn.Ts cn o esosn ,71 ncut drainn theo lake or e;: v.atng7 oac C" t J C n o -2 alor A’J 1 Ian toWld that a considerable flow

  5. Engineering and Design: Geotechnical Analysis by the Finite Element Method


    used it to determine stresses and movements in embank- ments, and Reyes and Deer described its application to analysis of underground openings in rock...3-D steady-state seepage analysis of permeability of the cutoff walls was varied from 10 to Cerrillos Dam near Ponce , Puerto Rico, for the U.S.-6 10...36 Hughes, T. J. R. (1987). The Finite Element Reyes , S. F., and Deene, D. K. (1966). “Elastic Method, Linear Static and Dynamic Finite Element

  6. Route-Specific Passage Proportions and Survival Rates for Fish Passing through John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.


    This report fulfills a request of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Portland, Oregon, to produce an interim report of estimates of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates for lower Columbia River dams in 2010 and 2011. The estimates are needed to update the Compass Model for the Columbia River Treaty and the new Biological Opinion before detail technical reports are published in late 2012. This report tabulates route-specific fish-passage proportions and survival rates for steelhead and Chinook salmon smolts passing through various sampled routes at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011. Results were compiled from analyses of data acquired in spring 2010 and 2011 studies that were specifically designed to estimate dam-passage and forebay-to-tailrace survival rates, travel time metrics, and spill passage efficiency, as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The study designs allowed for estimation of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates as well as estimation of forebay-passage survival, all of which are summarized herein.

  7. Intelligent compaction theory of high roller compacted concrete dam

    Liu Donghai


    The concept and realization process of intelligent compaction for the construction of high roller compacted concrete dam were presented, as well as the theory of monitoring and intelligent feedback control. Based on the real-time analysis of the compaction index, a multiple regression model of the dam compactness was established and a realime estimation method of compaction quality for the entire work area of roller compacted concrete dam was proposed finally. The adaptive adjustment of the roiling process parameters was achieved, with the speed, the exciting force, the roller pass and the compaction thickness meeting the standards during the whole construction process. As a result, the compaction quality and construction efficiency can be improved. The research provides a new way for the construction quality control of roller compacted concrete dam.

  8. Geologic and field investigations Dorris Dam Modoc National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of a. geologic and field investigation of Dorris Dam performed to evaluate embankment and foundation conditions. The work included...

  9. Elwha Master Datafile - Elwha Dam Removal - Nearshore monitoring

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Removal of two dams on the Elwha River, Washington will help restore natural sediment processes to the coastal environment near the river mouth. We are interested in...

  10. FULCRUM - A dam safety management and alert system

    Butt, Cameron; Greenaway, Graham [Knight Piesold Ltd., Vancouver, (Canada)


    Efficient management of instrumentation, monitoring and inspection data are the keys to safe performance and dam structure stability. This paper presented a data management system, FULCRUM, developed for dam safety management. FULCRUM is a secure web-based data management system which simplifies the process of data collection, processing and analysis of the information. The system was designed to organize and coordinate dam safety management requirements. Geotechnical instrumentation such as piezometers or inclinometers and operating data can be added to the database. Data from routine surveillance and engineering inspection can also be incorporated into the database. The system provides users with immediate access to historical and recent data. The integration of a GIS system allows for rapid assessment of the project site. Customisable alerting protocols can be set to identify and respond quickly to significant changes in operating conditions and potential impacts on dam safety.

  11. Will the Three Gorges Dam Stand The Test of Time?


    After successfully containing the biggest flood this century, the Three Gorges Dam,on the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in central China’s Hubei Province, has encountered another flood, that of public opinion:Will this dam be able to hold floods that are "once-in-10,000-years" or "once-in-1,000-years" or "once-in-a-century"? Should numerous hazards this year, including land and mudslides and mountain torrents,be blamed on accumulation of sediment caused by the construction of the Three Gorges Dam? To get answers to these questions,journalists from Xinhua News Agency interviewed Cao Guangjing, Board Chairman of the China Three Gorges Corp., the operator of the Three Gorges Dam.

  12. Water quality of Flag Boshielo Dam, Olifants River, South Africa ...


    Jul 24, 2013 ... the dam wall coincided with the end of a drought that lasted .... was estimated by dividing the mean annual runoff by the res- ...... column was approximately holomictic. There was ... Alternatively, internal N loss associated with.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from Brazil’s Amazonian hydroelectric dams

    Fearnside, Philip M.


    Tropical dams are often falsely portrayed as ‘clean’ emissions-free energy sources. The letter by de Faria et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 124019) adds to evidence questioning this myth. Calculations are made for 18 dams that are planned or under construction in Brazilian Amazonia and show that emissions from storage hydroelectric dams would exceed those from electricity generation based on fossil fuels. Fossil fuels need not be the alternative, because Brazil has vast potential for wind and solar power as well as opportunities for energy conservation. Because dam-building is rapidly shifting to humid tropical areas, where emissions are higher than in other climatic zones, the impact of these emissions needs to be given proper weight in energy-policy decisions.

  14. Evaluating segregation in granular filters for earth dams

    Sutherland, K. [Cambridge Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Grabinsky, M. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)


    This paper presented some case studies to illustrate the relationship between seepage problems encountered with earth dams and segregation of the dams' granular filters during construction. A literature review of segregation mechanisms was presented along with a laboratory investigation. The case studies showed that the current understanding of the impact of a given degree of segregation is relatively poor. The literature reveals that although segregation mechanisms are identified and analyzed, very few are likely to be predominant during earth dam construction. Laboratory studies show that a mathematical relationship can be established between the filter's grain size distribution curve and the potential degree of segregation. Therefore, a mathematical relationship can also be established with the potential for adverse dam performance. The authors proposed a field procedure which allows for the monitoring of segregation during construction by contractors and engineers. It also helps in deciding whether any segregated zones require replacement. 5 refs., 7 figs.


    Hui-Pang LIEN


    A new method to a slit dam for controlling the stony debris flow has been derived based on the mass conservation law of the stony debris flow passing through a slit dam and the laboratory experiment results.This new method is then combined with three primary efficiency expressions: the dimensionless sediment outflow ratio,the sediment concentration ratio,and the sediment storage rate to develop a simple module,with which the height and the spacing of the posts,as well as the total spacing of slit dam are determined.Furthermore,these expressions can also be applied to check those slit dams that have already been constructed with their effectiveness against various magnitudes of the debris flow. The comparison between these expressions and laboratory data is in reasonable agreement.

  16. Calculation Model of Equivalent Strength for Induced Crack Based on Double-K Fracture Theory and Its Optimizing Setting in RCC Arch Dam

    ZHANG Xiaogang; SONG Yupu; WU Zhimin


    By means of fracture testing on roller-compacted concrete (RCC) three-point bending beams with two different specimen sizes, the P-CMOD complete curve for RCC was gained. Furthermore, by applying double-K fracture theory, KiniⅠC,KunⅠC, as well as the critical effective crack length and the critical crack tip opening displacement, were evaluated. Based on the double-K fracture parameters above, the calculation model of equivalent strength for induced crack was established, thus the calculation method on its initiation, stable propagation and unstable fracture was ascertained. Moreover, the finite element simulation analysis of stress field in ShaPai arch dam and the on-site observational splaying points of induced crack at different altitudes validated the reliability of the model. Finally, crack inducer's optimal setting in RCC arch dam was studied. It improves the design level of induced crack in RCC arch dam and satisfies the necessity of engineering practice.

  17. Tailings dam-break flow - Analysis of sediment transport

    Aleixo, Rui; Altinakar, Mustafa


    A common solution to store mining debris is to build tailings dams near the mining site. These dams are usually built with local materials such as mining debris and are more vulnerable than concrete dams (Rico et al. 2008). of The tailings and the pond water generally contain heavy metals and various toxic chemicals used in ore extraction. Thus, the release of tailings due to a dam-break can have severe ecological consequences in the environment. A tailings dam-break has many similarities with a common dam-break flow. It is highly transient and can be severely descructive. However, a significant difference is that the released sediment-water mixture will behave as a non-Newtonian flow. Existing numerical models used to simulate dam-break flows do not represent correctly the non-Newtonian behavior of tailings under a dam-break flow and may lead to unrealistic and incorrect results. The need for experiments to extract both qualitative and quantitative information regarding these flows is therefore real and actual. The present paper explores an existing experimental data base presented in Aleixo et al. (2014a,b) to further characterize the sediment transport under conditions of a severe transient flow and to extract quantitative information regarding sediment flow rate, sediment velocity, sediment-sediment interactions a among others. Different features of the flow are also described and analyzed in detail. The analysis is made by means of imaging techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry and Particle Tracking Velocimetry that allow extracting not only the velocity field but the Lagrangian description of the sediments as well. An analysis of the results is presented and the limitations of the presented experimental approach are discussed. References Rico, M., Benito, G., Salgueiro, AR, Diez-Herrero, A. and Pereira, H.G. (2008) Reported tailings dam failures: A review of the European incidents in the worldwide context , Journal of Hazardous Materials, 152, 846

  18. Riparian Vegetation Encroachment Ratios in rivers below large Dams

    Garcia de Jalón, Diego; Martínez-Fernández, Vanesa; González del Tánago, Marta


    Large Dams and reservoirs change the natural flow regime and consequently cause many alterations in riparian vegetation dynamics which may be assessed at different spatial and temporal scales. In Mediterranean regions flow regulation is frequently associated with irrigation. Regulated rivers with this purpose very often show reduced discharges during the wet season when the reservoir is being filled and increased discharges during the dry season when irrigation takes place. This type of regulation frequently promotes riparian vegetation growth as soil moisture levels are increased during summer when a natural drought would otherwise limit its growth. Additionally, flow regulation by large dams promotes the aging of late seral riparian vegetation reducing the frequency of flood disturbance and consequently, the potential recruitment of pioneer species. In this work we study the response of woody riparian vegetation to flow regulation by large dams in four rivers from Central Spain: Jarama, Manzanares, Guadalix and Alberche. The aim is to quantify the annual vegetation encroachment ratios and to develop a model to understand the main controlling factors, such as floodplain and channel traits; flow regulation intensity; type of regulation; present vegetation canopy; distance to the dam; and time since dam commissioning. A temporal comparison using aerial photographs from 1956, 1966, 1972, 1991, 2011 and 2014 was done in thirteen river reaches downstream from large dams, to evaluate their morphological evolution.. Floodplain dimensions and channel and riparian vegetation changes were assessed by comparing different pre-dam and post-dam conditions. Recent coloured photographs with 0.5 m spatial resolution and older black-and-white photographs at 1:33 000 spatial scale were supplied by the National Geographic Institute of Spain ( and the Statistical Institute ( from Madrid Community. Similar visual scales were used to cope

  19. Dam Inventory, Dams in 9 county region in South Georgia, Published in 2006, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Dam Inventory dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. It is described as 'Dams...

  20. Emergy evaluation perspectives of a multipurpose dam proposal in Korea.

    Kang, Daeseok; Park, Seok Soon


    The 'emergy' concept was used to evaluate the economy of Korea and the contributions of a multipurpose dam proposal to the real wealth of the Korean economy. Emergy is defined as the available energy of one kind previously used up directly and indirectly to make a product or service. The indices for Korea calculated from the emergy evaluation were close to those of developed countries. Even though its monetary balance of payments was negative in 1997, the economy of Korea showed positive balance in trade when exports and imports were expressed in emergy. The emergy evaluation showed that the Korean economy places a large stress on its environment. Water supply and generation of electricity were the most important contributions of the proposed dam in terms of emergy; 46.5 and 45.1% of the total benefit, respectively. Flood control contributed 8.4% of the total benefit. Major costs associated with the proposed dam were from sediments (33.2% of the total cost), construction services (22.8%), and social disruption of the region (21.6%). In terms of emergy, the ratio of benefits to costs of the proposed dam was 2.78 if sediments are not included, and 1.86 if sediments are included, which result in more benefits than costs in both cases. The benefit to cost ratio of the dam was larger than that of the current system (1.42) without the dam whether sediments are included in the total cost or not. The environmental stress of the proposed dam was considerably lower than that of the Korean economy, but the dam might increase stress on local environment.

  1. Liquefaction evaluation of dam foundation soils considering overlying structure

    Gang Wang; Xing Wei; Hanlong Liu


    The liquefaction analysis procedure conducted at a dam foundation associated with a layer of liquefiable sand is presented. In this case, the effects of the overlying dam and an embedded diaphragm wall on liquefaction potential of foundation soils are considered. The analysis follows the stress-based approach which compares the earthquake-induced cyclic stresses with the cyclic resistance of the soil, and the cyclic resistance of the sand under complex stress condition is the key issue. Compr...

  2. The Changing Political Dynamics of Dam Building on the Mekong

    Philip Hirsch


    Full Text Available This paper explores political dynamics surrounding dam building in the Mekong river basin, prior to, and following, the World Commission on Dams (WCD. Since the 1950s, dam building in the Mekong river basin has been enmeshed in a complex and shifting geopolitical and eco-political landscape. The broad geopolitical sweep of US hegemony, Cold War, regional rapprochement and the rise of China has been superimposed on eco-political shifts between modernist belief in progress as mastery over nature, concerns of global and national environmental movements over dams and their impacts, and a galvanised Mekong environmentalism. During the first decade of the 21st century, mainstream dams on the Lower Mekong have returned to the agenda after having almost disappeared in favour of tributary projects. The growing strength and assertiveness of regional economic players has fundamentally altered the context of energy demand, planning and investment. New sources of finance have relocated the points of political leverage. Environment has been mustered in favour of, as well as in opposition to, dam construction in the contexts of climate-change discourses, protected-area linkage with dam projects, and an industry push for sustainability protocols and certification. Despite the Mekong being one of its focal basins, WCD has not played a prominent role in this transformed arena, yet many of the social and environmental concerns, stakeholder-based processes and safeguard-oriented approaches to hydropower planning that WCD brought to the fore have persisted in the wider ethos of politics around dams in the region.

  3. Analysis of irreversible displacements of Daniel-Johnson dam

    Chouinard, L.; Zhao, W. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Lariviere, R. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Cote, P. [Hydro-Quebec Production, Baie-Comeau, PQ (Canada)


    Irreversible displacements in dams are associated with alkali-aggregate reaction, creep, and other damaging effects that compromise the safety of dams. An identification of the nature of irreversible displacements is needed to predict the future behaviour of dams as well as to select appropriate remedial measures. This paper provided details of a principal component analysis (PCA) used to investigate swelling and small irreversible displacements observed at the Daniel-Johnson dam in Quebec. PCA is a multivariate statistical method that performs the analysis of correlations or covariances between several random variables simultaneously. Three datasets were used: (1) reservoir water level; (2) air temperature; and (3) pendulum displacements. Standard linear regression analyses (HST) were performed for each variable in order to eliminate outliers and replace missing values. The multivariate dataset was then used to perform PCA on the entire dataset as well as on subsets from the original data. Displacement data from pendulums were used in the multivariate statistical analysis in which each component was treated as a separate variable. The comparison of irreversible displacements of the dam from HST analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that results were consistent with the data. The PCA analysis identified dominant patterns of behaviour and detected 2 distinct components of irreversible deformations arising from creep and swelling of concrete. Results of the study showed that the PCA analysis led to a better understanding of the overall behaviour of the dam and of individual arches and buttresses. It was concluded that the PCA analysis method will help to improve dam safety in addition to more accurately predicting the future behaviour of dams. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  4. Phytoplankton composition of Sazlidere Dam lake, Istanbul, Turkey

    Nese Yilmaz


    Full Text Available The phytoplankton composition of Sazlidere Dam lake was studied at 5 sampling sites between December 2003 - November 2005. A total of 67 taxa were recorded, representing Bacillariophyta (31, Chlorophyta (18, Cyanophyta (9, Chrysophyta (1, Cryptophyta (1, Dinophyta (3 and Euglenophyta (4. Bacillariophyta members constituted the dominant phytoplankton group in terms of species number. Nygaard’s compound index value and composition of phytoplankton indicate that the trophic state of Sazlidere Dam lake was changing from oligotrophic to mesotrophic.

  5. Water resource management in Japan: Forest management or dam reservoirs?

    Komatsu, Hikaru; Kume, Tomonori; Otsuki, Kyoichi


    Researchers and journalists in Japan recently proposed forest management as an alternative to dam reservoir development for water resource management. To examine the validity of the proposal, we compared the potential low-flow increase due to forest clearcutting with the increase due to dam reservoir development. Here, we focused on forest clearcutting as an end member among various types of forest management. We first analyzed runoff data for five catchments and found a positive correlation between annual precipitation and the low-flow increase due to deforestation. We then examined the increase in low-flow rates due to dam reservoir development (dQ(d)) using inflow and outflow data for 45 dam reservoirs across Japan. Using the relationship between annual precipitation and the low-flow increase due to deforestation, we estimated the potential increase in the low-flow rate for each dam reservoir watershed if forests in the watershed were clearcut (dQ(f)). Only 6 of the 45 samples satisfied dQ(f)>dQ(d), indicating that the potential increase in the low-flow rate due to forest clearcutting was less than the increase due to dam reservoir development in most cases. Twenty-five of the 45 samples satisfied dQ(f)<0.2 dQ(d), indicating the potential increase in the low-flow rate due to forest clearcutting was less than 20% of the increase due to dam reservoir development in more than half the cases. Therefore, forest management is far less effective for water resource management than dam reservoir development is in Japan.

  6. Back analysis of mechanical parameters of roller compacted concrete dam


    In view of the diversity and complexity of mechanical parameters of roller compacted concrete dam(RCCD),the uniform design method,partial least-squares regression(PLS)and least squares support vector machine(LSSVM)were applied to the back analysis of RCCD with the use of the complex nonlinear relationship between dam mechanical parameters and dam displacements.During the process of back analysis,the initial samples of parameters were designed with uniform design method.Then,a transversely isotropic model of RCCD was established by MSC.Marc software.Through this model,training samples of LSSVM model could be obtained.And then,the complex nonlinear relationship between relative values of hydraulic components of dam displacements and mechanical parameters was established.Finally,actual relative values of dam hydraulic components are isolated from the measured data of dam displacements by using PLS.By inputting the isolated relative values into LSSVM model,the back analysis values of RCCD mechanical parameters can be obtained.The example analysis showed that mechanical parameters obtained by the above-mentioned back analysis method are reasonable,and the back analysis method is feasible.

  7. Assessing Otter Presence In Dams: A Methodological Proposal

    Margarida Santos-Reis


    Full Text Available Standard otter survey methodology proposed by the IUCN Otter Specialist Group enables comparisons in present/absence data in different countries or in different regions. However, otter presence and distribution assessment in dry areas, such as the Mediterranean region, which are characterized by highly marked seasonal climate with intermittent water flow coupled with different types of habitats or systems such as dams, may gain from adjustment to the methodology. Pressure for dam building still occurs in these regions and the need for studies on ecological communities and species protection is increasing. Dams are very different from usual otter riverine habitat and we need to understand their influence on otter populations. Variation of dam location, reservoir characteristics and season will all influence spraint detectability. Environmental Impact Assessment Studies and ecological studies are frequently limited by both budget and time requiring field researchers to apply more efficient methodologies. Based on experience from studies conducted in Portugal we propose adjustments to the standard survey methodology (using spraints surveying otter presence in dams to be applied specifically to Mediterranean-type ecosystems. We define aspects to be considered regarding survey season, survey length and width, number and location of survey sites, among others. This paper will allow researchers to plan more effective field surveys based on standard otter survey methodology for the purpose of dam surveys, be that to detect otter presence/absence, a more in-depth comparative studies of otter presence, or simply improving the collecting of fresh spraints for molecular spraint analysis.

  8. The Social, Historical, and Institutional Contingencies of Dam Removal

    Magilligan, F. J.; Sneddon, C. S.; Fox, C. A.


    Environmental managers in the United States and elsewhere are increasingly perceiving dam removal as a critical tool for river restoration and enhancing watershed resilience. In New England, over 125 dams have been dismantled for ecological and economic rationales. A surprising number of these removals, including many that are ongoing, have generated heated conflicts between restoration proponents and local communities who value their dammed landscapes. Using a comparative case study approach, we examine the environmental conflict around efforts to remove six dams in New England. Each of these removal efforts followed quite different paths and resultant outcomes: successful removal, stalled removal, and failure despite seemingly favorable institutional conditions. Lengthy conflicts often transpired in instances where removals occurred, but these were successfully arbitrated by paying attention to local historical-geographical conditions conducive to removal and by brokering effective compromises between dam owners and the various local actors and stakeholders involved in the removal process. Yet our results across all cases suggest that these are necessary, but not sufficient conditions for restoration through dam removal since a similar set of conditions typified cases where removals are continuously stalled or completely halted. Scholars examining the intersection between ecological restoration and environmental politics should remain vigilant in seeking patterns and generalities across cases of environmental conflict in order to promote important biophysical goals, but must also remain open to the ways in which those goals are thwarted and shaped by conflicts that are deeply contingent on historical-geographical conditions and broader institutional networks of power and influence.

  9. The Social, Historical, and Institutional Contingencies of Dam Removal.

    Magilligan, F J; Sneddon, C S; Fox, C A


    Environmental managers in the United States and elsewhere are increasingly perceiving dam removal as a critical tool for river restoration and enhancing watershed resilience. In New England, over 125 dams have been dismantled for ecological and economic rationales. A surprising number of these removals, including many that are ongoing, have generated heated conflicts between restoration proponents and local communities who value their dammed landscapes. Using a comparative case study approach, we examine the environmental conflict around efforts to remove six dams in New England. Each of these removal efforts followed quite different paths and resultant outcomes: successful removal, stalled removal, and failure despite seemingly favorable institutional conditions. Lengthy conflicts often transpired in instances where removals occurred, but these were successfully arbitrated by paying attention to local historical-geographical conditions conducive to removal and by brokering effective compromises between dam owners and the various local actors and stakeholders involved in the removal process. Yet our results across all cases suggest that these are necessary, but not sufficient conditions for restoration through dam removal since a similar set of conditions typified cases where removals are continuously stalled or completely halted. Scholars examining the intersection between ecological restoration and environmental politics should remain vigilant in seeking patterns and generalities across cases of environmental conflict in order to promote important biophysical goals, but must also remain open to the ways in which those goals are thwarted and shaped by conflicts that are deeply contingent on historical-geographical conditions and broader institutional networks of power and influence.

  10. Effect of rubber dam on mercury exposure during amalgam removal.

    Kremers, L; Halbach, S; Willruth, H; Mehl, A; Welzl, G; Wack, F X; Hickel, R; Greim, H


    It was the aim of this investigation to treat 20 volunteers with maximally 5 amalgam fillings by the same comprehensive protocol in which all removals with (n = 8) and without (n = 12) rubber dam had been performed within a few months. Nine amalgam-related parameters indicated a close matching of both groups before removal. In the group without rubber dam, mercury (Hg) levels in plasma increased significantly above preremoval values at days 1 and 3 after removal; they decreased significantly below preremoval values at day 30 in the rubber-dam group and at day 100 in both groups. Excretion rates did not increase significantly in either group, but decreased significantly at day 100 in the protected group. Peak plasma-Hg was 0.6 ng/mL on average at day one and decreased with halftimes of 3 and 43 d in subjects protected by rubber dam. The results indicated that concentrations of total mercury in plasma responded rapidly to changes in the amalgam status and reflected the actual absorption most reliably. Notably, plasma-Hg levels were sensitive enough to detect a transient attenuation of the additional exposure by using rubber dam during the removal of only a few fillings. However, being small in magnitude and lasting 100 d at best, the rubber-dam effect had minor toxicological relevance.

  11. Elwha River dam removal-Rebirth of a river

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.


    After years of planning for the largest project of its kind, the Department of the Interior will begin removal of two dams on the Elwha River, Washington, in September 2011. For nearly 100 years, the Elwha and Glines Canyon Dams have disrupted natural processes, trapping sediment in the reservoirs and blocking fish migrations, which changed the ecology of the river downstream of the dams. All five Pacific salmon species and steelhead-historically present in large numbers-are locally extirpated or persist in critically low numbers. Upstream of the dams, more than 145 kilometers of pristine habitat, protected inside Olympic National Park, awaits the return of salmon populations. As the dams are removed during a 2-3 year project, some of the 19 million cubic meters of entrapped sediment will be carried downstream by the river in the largest controlled release of sediment into a river and marine waters in history. Understanding the changes to the river and coastal habitats, the fate of sediments, and the salmon recolonization of the Elwha River wilderness will provide useful information for society as future dam removals are considered.



    In this study, a semi-analytical formulation based on the Scaled Boundary Finite Element Method (SBFEM) was proposed and used to obtain the solution for the characteristics of a two-dimensional dam-reservoir system with absorptive reservoir bottom in the frequency domain. For simplicity, the dam with arbitrary upstream faces was assumed to be rigid and was subjected to a horizontal ground acceleration, while the reservoir with absorptive bottom was assumed to be semi-infinite. The reservoir was divided into two sub-domains: a near-field sub-domain and a far-field sub-domain. The near-field sub-domain with arbitrary geometry was modelled by the Finite Element Method (FEM), while the effects of the far-field sub-domain which was assumed to be horizontal were described by a semi-analytical formation. The semi-analytical formulation involved the effect of absorptive reservoir bottom, as well as the radiation damping effect of a semi-infinite reservoir. A FEM/SBFEM coupling formulation was presented to solve dam-reservoir coupled problems. The accuracy and efficiency of the coupling formulation were demonstrated by computing some benchmark examples. Highly accurate results are produced even if the near-field sub-domain is very small.

  13. Dissolved heavy metal concentrations of the Kralkızı, Dicle and Batman dam reservoirs in the Tigris River basin, Turkey.

    Varol, Memet


    Water samples were collected at monthly intervals during 1 year of monitoring from Kralkızı, Dicle and Batman dam reservoirs in the Tigris River basin to assess the concentrations of dissolved heavy metals and to determine their spatial and seasonal variations. The results indicated that dissolved heavy metal concentrations in the reservoirs were very low, reflecting the natural background levels. The lowest total metal concentrations in the three dam reservoirs were detected at sampling sites close to the dam wall. However, the highest total concentrations were observed at sites, which are located at the entrance of the streams to the reservoirs. Fe, Cr and Ni were the most abundant elements in the reservoirs, whereas Cd and As were the less abundant. The mean concentrations of dissolved metals in the dam reservoirs never exceeded the maximum permitted concentrations established by EC (European Community), WHO and USEPA drinking water quality guidelines. All heavy metals showed significant seasonal variations. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb displayed higher values in the dry season, while higher values for Zn in the wet season. Cluster analysis grouped all ten sampling sites into three clusters. Clusters 1 and 2, and cluster 3 corresponded to relatively low polluted and moderate polluted regions, respectively. PCA/FA demonstrated the dissolved metals in the dam reservoirs controlled by natural sources.

  14. National Dam Safety Program. Woodridge Lake Dam (MO 11005), Mississippi - Kaskaskia - St. Louis Basin, Warren County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.


    KASKASKIA. ST. LOUIS BAS WOODRIDGE LAKE DAM WARREN COUNTY, MISSOURI MO 11005 (9) Final rept., DACW43-79-C.-#A)75 J (i) Sep 79 (10) Walter G. /Shifrin...Dam Inspection Report National Dam Safety Program Final Report Woodridge Lake Dam (MO 11005) 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER Warren County, Missouri 7...Norvell Construction of 3320 Hermoso St., St. Louis, MO. After the structure was completed, a 2 inch water- line with a water faucet was installed on the

  15. Dam failure analysis for the Lago de Matrullas Dam, Orocovis, Puerto Rico

    Torres-Sierra, Heriberto; Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, completed a hydrologic and hydraulic study to assess the potential hazard to human life and property associated with the hypothetical failure of the Lago de Matrullas Dam, located within the headwaters of the Río Grande de Manatí. The hydrologic study yielded outflow hydrographs and peak discharges for Lago de Matrullas and other subbasins in the Río Grande de Manatí hydrographic basin for three extreme rainfall events: (1) a 6-hour probable maximum precipitation (PMP) event, (2) a 24-hour PMP event, and (3) a 100-year-recurrence, 24-hour rainfall event. The hydraulic study simulated the hypothetical dam failure of Lago de Matrullas using hypothetical flood hydrographs generated from the hydrologic study and selected dam breach parameters. The flood wave resulting from the failure was downstream-routed through the lower reaches of the Río Matrullas, the Río Toro Negro, and the Río Grande de Manatí for determination of water-surface profiles developed from the event-based hydrologic scenarios and “sunny day” (no precipitation) conditions. The Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC–HMS) and the River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) computer programs, developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were used for the hydrologic and hydraulic modeling, respectively. The flow routing in the hydraulic analyses was performed using the unsteady-state flow module available in the HEC–RAS model.

  16. Dam Inventory, diversion dams, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Dam Inventory dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'diversion...

  17. Qu'Appelle River Dam, dam break analysis using advanced GIS tools for rapid modelling and inundation mapping

    Bonin, D. [Hatch Energy, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Campbell, C. [Saskatchewan Watershed Authority, Moose Jaw, SK (Canada); Groeneveld, J. [Hatch Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The South Saskatchewan River Project (SSRP) comprises a multi-purpose reservoir that provides water for conservation and irrigation, flood control, power generation, recreation, and municipal and industrial water supply. In addition to the 64 m high Gardiner Dam, the 27 m high Qu'Appelle River Dam and the 22 km long Lake Diefenbaker Reservoir, the SSRP also includes ancillary works. The Qu'Appelle River valley extends for 458 km before connecting to the Assiniboine River. The valley is incised up to 90 m in depth and is a popular cottaging and recreational area with several major communities located in the flood plain. In the event of a breach of the Qu'Appelle Dam, the discharge will increase from a normal maximum discharge of under 60 m{sup 3} per second to over 50,000 m{sup 3} per second. The Saskatchewan Watershed Authority (SWA) is responsible for ensuring safe development of the Province's water resources, without affecting reservoir or lake operations, and preventing damage from flooding, erosion or land slides. It is in the process of developing Hazard Assessments and emergency preparedness plans for each of their dams in accordance with the Canadian Dam Safety Guidelines. Studies using GIS technology and the hydrodynamic routing model HEC-RAS have been completed to evaluate the potential inundation that may result in the event of failure of the Qu'Appelle River Dam. These studies involved the development of a breach parameter model using a breach data set revised to better reflect the Qu'Appelle River Dam; the development of a dam break model for the Qu'Appelle River Dam and downstream river and flood plain; and, the use of this model to simulate two potential dam failure scenarios for the Qu'Appelle River Dam, notably failure during passage of the PMF and failure during fair weather conditions. Inundation maps have been prepared for the downstream Qu'Appelle River valley for each of the above events. 3 refs., 4

  18. Dam that social networking: connecting South Africa's major dams to social media

    Butgereit, L


    Full Text Available , embarrassingly so, a marital bed. 2. Research Question and Methodology The data provided by the South African Department of Water Affairs is excellent and accurate [4, 5]. Unfortunately, the majority of South Africans are not aware of the data which... provides a nice fly-in approach to viewing the Vaal Dam. The data provided in the description field of the KML is reproduced in the side bar. 5. Twitter All communication with Twitter was done via the Twitter4J library. Twitter4J is a Java...

  19. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Nichols Pond Dam (VT 00184), Richelieu River Basin, Woodbury, Vermont. Phase I Inspection Report.


    on pages B-12 through B-14. A letter report by ’fr. Barranco describes some of the history on page B-15. 3. Plans and sketches prepared by DuBois...Peter Barranco , Jr., P.E., Dam Safety Engineer I Subject: Nichols Pond Dam - Woodbury (252-1) The writer inspected subject dam, obtained dimensions and

  20. 5. decennial inspection of Tignes dam. Draining of the higher french dam; 5. inspection decennale du barrage de Tignes. Vidange du plus haut barrage de France



    This document deals with the 5. decennial inspection of the Tignes dam. The Tignes dam has been drained to allow EDF and the public authorities to verify the dam wall, of 180 m high, in order to validate the next decade. The four steps of the drainage are described as the maintenance policy of such building. (A.L.B.)

  1. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam Sluiceway, 2005

    Johnson, Gary E.; Khan, Fenton; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.


    Dalles Dam sluiceway to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. 6) Consider the following elements for surface flow bypasses during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: Form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than ~7% of total project discharge) at both west and east ends of the dam; Create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration < 1 m/s per meter); Make water velocities at an entrance high enough (> 3 m/s) to entrain the subject juvenile fishes, e.g., 10,000 cfs or so; Adapt the shape and orientation of the surface entrance(s) to fit site-specific features, i.e., test a Removable Sluiceway Weir. 7)The Dalles Dam sluiceway has potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. We recommend tapping this potential with enhancements to the sluiceway.

  2. Combating Poverty by Irrigation from Large Dams in Arid Countries: A Case Study of Minab Dam, Iran



    Full Text Available A set of indicators for sustainable development were identified to be employed in developing countries. The selected indicators provided a good understanding of social and engineering outputs of a water resources project. Results of the study revealed that there are significant positive impacts of dam construction but they were not same as the targeted objectives envisaged in the feasibility report of the project. It means that after construction of the dam and irrigation system, development didn?t match with the targeted goals of the project. This study argues the world-wide controversy against construction of dam in arid zone which is ill-founded and based on a few short term, mitigable negative impacts, ignoring many positive long term inputs alleviating chronic poverty in arid regions. The study meticulously looks into the pre dam bio-physical and socio-economic conditions in one of the arid region of Iran under the area commanded by Minab dam. This dam was constructed in Hormozgan province of Iran in 1983 and its irrigation system was completed in 1986 which was followed by progressive expansion of irrigated agriculture which almost doubled in year 2006. Literacy rate has increased from 41% (pre-project to 74% in 2006. Similarly, significant improvements were observed in health care, sanitation, education, and other disciplines.

  3. Case Study of the Chaq-Chaq Dam Failure: Parameter Estimation and Evaluation of Dam Breach Prediction Models

    Dr. KawaZedanAbdulrahman


    Full Text Available On 4th of February, 2006 at about 10:00 pm.Chaq-Chaq dam failed due to overtopping. The fall of 131.2 mm of rain over a 24-hour period was recorded at Sulaimani metrological gage station, which is located about 7.5Kmsouth-east of the dam. As a result, the reservoir level rose, the dam has been overtopped and finally breached near the spillway at the right abutment. Fortunately no human lives loss nor important structure destruction were reporteddue to the dam failure. The aim of this paper is to estimate the flood hydrograph passing through Chaq-Chaq dam breach using measured breach geometry as input to unsteady option of HEC RAS 4.1.0 and calibrating the breach formation time to obtain the measured maximum water surface at Chaq-Chaq Bridge (1.36 km downstream of dam axis. In addition the recent breach prediction models were evaluated to check their accuracy in predicting the breach geometry, breach formation time and peak breach discharge.

  4. Geophysical evaluation of the Success Dam foundation, Porterville, California

    Hunter, L.E.; Powers, M.H.; Haines, S.; Asch, T.; Burton, B.L.; Serafini, D.C.


    Success Dam is a zonedearth fill embankment located near Porterville, CA. Studies of Success Dam by the recent Dam Safety Assurance Program (DSAP) have demonstrated the potential for seismic instability and large deformation of the dam due to relatively low levels of earthquake shaking. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers conducted several phases of investigations to determine the properties of the dam and its underlying foundation. Detailed engineering studies have been applied using a large number of analytical techniques to estimate the response of the dam and foundation system when subjected to earthquake loading. Although a large amount of data have been acquired, most are 'point' data from borings and results have to be extrapolated between the borings. Geophysical techniques were applied to image the subsurface to provide a better understanding of the spatial distribution of key units that potentially impact the stability. Geophysical investigations employing seismic refraction tomography, direct current (DC) resistivity, audio magnetotellurics (AMT) and self-potential (SP) were conducted across the location of the foundation of a new dam proposed to replace the existing one. Depth to bedrock and the occurrence of beds potentially susceptible to liquefaction were the focus of the investigations. Seismic refraction tomography offers a deep investigation of the foundation region and looks at compressional and shear properties of the material. Whereas resistivity surveys determines conductivity relationships in the shallow subsurface and can produce a relatively high-resolution image of geological units with different electrical properties. AMT was applied because it has the potential to look considerably deeper than the other methods, is useful for confirming depth to bedrock, and can be useful in identifying deep seated faults. SP is a passive electrical method that measures the electrical streaming potential in the subsurface that responds to the movement of

  5. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam

    Paluch, Mark; Scholz, Allan; McLellan, Holly [Eastern Washington University Department of Biology; Olson, Jason [Kalispel Tribe of Indians Natural Resources Department


    This study was designed to monitor movements of bull trout that were provided passage above Albeni Falls Dam, Pend Oreille River. Electrofishing and angling were used to collect bull trout below the dam. Tissue samples were collected from each bull trout and sent to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center Conservation Genetics Lab, Washington. The DNA extracted from tissue samples were compared to a catalog of bull trout population DNA from the Priest River drainage, Lake Pend Oreille tributaries, and the Clark Fork drainage to determine the most probable tributary of origin. A combined acoustic radio or radio tag was implanted in each fish prior to being transported and released above the dam. Bull trout relocated above the dam were able to volitionally migrate into their natal tributary, drop back downstream, or migrate upstream to the next dam. A combination of stationary radio receiving stations and tracking via aircraft, boat, and vehicle were used to monitor the movement of tagged fish to determine if the spawning tributary it selected matched the tributary assigned from the genetic analysis. Seven bull trout were captured during electrofishing surveys in 2008. Of these seven, four were tagged and relocated above the dam. Two were tagged and left below the dam as part of a study monitoring movements below the dam. One was immature and too small at the time of capture to implant a tracking tag. All four fish released above the dam passed by stationary receivers stations leading into Lake Pend Oreille and no fish dropped back below the dam. One of the radio tags was recovered in the tributary corresponding with the results of the genetic test. Another fish was located in the vicinity of its assigned tributary, which was impassable due to low water discharge at its mouth. Two fish have not been located since entering the lake. Of these fish, one was immature and not expected to enter its natal tributary in the fall of 2008. The other



    1-D and 2-D mathematical models for dam break flow were established and verified with the measured data in laboratory. The 1-D and 2-D models were then coupled, and used to simulate the dam break flow from the reservoir tail to the dam site, the propagation of dam break waves in the downstream channel, and the submergence of dam break flow in the downstream town with the hydrodynamics method. As a numerical example, the presented model was employed to simulate dam break flow of a hydropower station under construction. In simulation, different dam-break durations, upstream flows and water levels in front of dam were considered, and these influencing factors of dam break flow were analyzed, which could be referenced in planning and designing hydropower stations.

  7. Microtremor response of the Cheongcheon dam in Korea

    Kim, Ki Young; Park, Young-Gyu


    Microtremors were analysed using the reference-dependent horizontal spectral (H/H) method and the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (H/V) method to estimate site effects of the Cheongcheon earthen dam in Korea. Seismic vibrations were recorded on the dam's crest, at the toe of the dam, and in a downstream borehole using three-component accelerometers. The H/H peaks for crest versus toe-of-dam accelerations occurred at 3.1, 6.7 and 13.1 Hz with ratios of 6.9, 11.4 and 8.9, respectively. The H/V peaks for the crest of the dam occurred at 3.0, 7.0 and 13.4 Hz with ratios of 6.7, 7.8 and 5.6, respectively. The peak near 3 Hz may correspond to depth to bedrock, whereas the other peaks at higher frequencies may reflect the geometrical effect of the dam or overtone responses to the thickness of dam fill overlying the clay core. For the toe data, from the H/V spectral ratio method, the basement boundary appeared as double peaks near 8 and 10 Hz with corresponding amplification factors of 5.2 and 6.2. These may indicate a gradual change in velocity across the basement boundary at ~10 m depth. The third resonance, which occurred at 15 Hz, may correlate with the refraction boundary at 5-6 m depth in the overburden layer. Both the frequencies and magnitudes of resonance derived from the H/H and H/V methods are reasonably well matched to the theoretical response curves computed by the reflection and transmission matrix and the two-dimensional finite difference methods.

  8. The behaviour of a large dam at severe frost

    M. C. SPADEA


    Full Text Available Synthesizing the problem, the action of the thrusts in the
    behaviour of t h e dam of Pieve di Cadore, makes itself conspicuous expecially
    during three periods of the year:
    1. - About the end of June, the air temperature, 011 t h e average, overcomes
    the water one in the watershed upstream the dam: the bending of
    t h e dam upstream increases from the bottom to the top.
    2. - About the end of October, the thermal conditions change; the
    mean air temperature grows lower than the mean water temperature; the
    dam begins her bending dowstream.
    3. - When the air temperature is distinctly below 0 °C, the action of
    t h e t h r u s t s grows more complexe; t h e rocky waterlogged system downstream
    of t h e dam, while cooling, swells and pushes t h e bottom of t h e dam upstream;
    at t h e higher quote, on the contrary, the t h r u s t downstream continues.
    When the strenght limit of the medium is surpassed, arises a contrast
    between the rocky system and the concrete structure: this contrast can origin
    a t e very small fractures, revealed from seismic station installed into the
    central ashlar (XIV a t 660 metres height of t h e dam, under t h e form of microshocks
    which energy is of about 10I0-10U erg.

  9. Dam foundation excavation techniques in China:A review

    Yuzhu Zhang; Wenbo Lu; Ming Chen; Peng Yan; Yingguo Hu


    A protective layer (PL) is commonly reserved above foundation surface to protect the underlying rock mass during dam foundation excavation. In China, the PL of dam foundation is conventionally subdivided into two or three thin layers and excavated with the shallow-hole blasting method, even by pneumatic pick method in case of soft rock mass. The aforementioned layered excavation of the PL delays the con-struction of the whole project. After nearly 30-year practices, several safe and efficient methods for the PL excavation of dam foundation are gradually developed. They include shallow-hole bench blasting with cushion material (SBC) at the bottom of the hole, and horizontal smooth blasting (HSB). The PL is even can-celled on the condition that horizontal pre-split technique is employed during dam foundation excavation. This paper introduces the aforementioned two PL excavation methods (shallow-hole blasting and bench blasting) and horizontal pre-split technique of dam foundation without protective layer (HPP). The basic principles of blasting method, blasting geometry, charge structure, drill-and-blast parameters of typical projects are examined. Meanwhile, the merits and limitations of each method are compared. Engineering practices in China show that HSB is basically the optimal method for dam foundation PL excavation in terms of foundation damage control and rapid construction. Some new problems for dam foundation PL excavation arising, such as strong unloading and relaxation phenomenon that encountered in the gorge region of southwest China, are needed to be addressed; and the corresponding countermeasures are discussed as well.

  10. Dynamic analysis of intake tower in Darab Dam located on limestone

    Abbasi, H. [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Y.; Jalaly, H. [Ab-Niru Consulting Engineers, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghajani, K. [Elam Univ., Elam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The Darab dam is located on the Roodbal River in Iran. This paper provided details of the dry intake tower which was designed using 3-D dynamic analysis with the response spectrum method. The intake tower has a 7 meter inner diameter and is 57 meters high with a 70 cm concrete lining connected to the inlet structure of the diversion tunnel. Seismic design criteria were obtained using the annual exceedance probability of 1:500 years. The tower was designed to maintain normal operating conditions after an operating basis earthquake (OBE), maximum design earthquake (MDE) and maximum credible earthquake (MCE). Design accelerogram were derived for the dam site for various return periods. The intake tower was analyzed for 3 accelerograms to cover a range of dam responses. Material and strength properties used for the intake tower were presented. The stress-strain relationship was used for concrete with a limiting concrete compressive strain of 0.004 to avoid excessive damage and spalling of cover concrete. The model included the confining effect provided by transverse steel. The hydrodynamic interaction effect of the surrounding and contained water in the analysis were approximated using an equivalent added mass of water. The tower was modelled using a finite element method. The calculated shear and moment were compared with base shear and base moment. The response spectrum analysis showed that the maximum displacement at the top point of the intake tower with hydrodynamic pressure was 55.21, and 25.10 without hydrodynamic pressure. The time history analysis showed a maximum compressive strain limit of 0.004. The ultimate thickness of the concrete was calculated based on the response spectrum analysis result and compared with the time history analysis. It was concluded that the appropriate thickness of the concrete was determined as 70 cm for the entire height of the tower. 9 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  11. Dams. Bulletin of the technical service of electric power and big dams; Barrages. Bulletin du service technique de l`energie electrique et des grands barrages

    Davard, J.


    The Dams bulletin reports on technical news concerning big French dams in operation. This issue comprises 5 papers. Two of them are examples of granting problems which led to the dismantling of the dams of Kernansquillec (Cotes d`Armor, France) and Maisons-Rouges (Indre-et-Loire, France) for economical and environmental reasons. The 3 other papers concern the life of French dams (technical control reports of the French dams in operation), the activities of the control service (annual inspections, preparation of draining operations, renewing of granting), and some general information (organisation of competent authorities, colloquium reports, hydro-power production during the first quarter of 1997). (J.S.)

  12. Antiknock performance of concrete gravity dam subjected to underwater explosion%水下爆炸冲击荷载下混凝土重力坝的抗爆性能

    张社荣; 王高辉


    在水下爆炸冲击荷载作用下,结构动力响应较之静态荷载和地震荷载作用下要复杂得多.通过大量的数值模拟,探讨了混凝土重力坝在水下爆炸冲击荷载作用下,大坝高度、库前水位对大坝抗爆性能的影响,为大坝抗爆性能评估和防护设计提供基础.数值计算中,构建了重力坝水下爆炸全耦合数值模型,并考虑爆炸冲击作用下混凝土的高应变率效应.研究结果表明:对于混凝土重力坝,随着大坝高度的增加,大坝的抗爆性能增强;库前水位对大坝的抗爆性能影响较大,通过降低库前水位可有效提高大坝的抗爆性能.%The dynamic responses of structures under blast loading are much more complicated than those under other loadings such as static and earthquake loadings.In order to fully realize the blast resistances of concrete gravity dams,a great many numerical simulations were implemented by using three-dimensional nonlinear finite element models.The influences of dam height and water level before the dams on the blast resistance of the dams were analyzed,and a theoretical basis was provided for antiknock performance evaluation and protection design.Strain rate effects of concrete dams were taken into consideration in the establishment of the fully-coupled model for the gravity dams.For this kind of concrete gravity dams,numerical results indicate that the blast resistance of the low dams is weaker than that of the high dams,that the water level before the dams plays an important role on the antiknock performances of the dams,and that the antiknock performances of the dams can be effectively improved by reducing the water level.

  13. Large Dam Effects on Flow Regime and Hydraulic Parameters of river (Case study: Karkheh River, Downstream of Reservoir Dam

    Farhang Azarang


    Full Text Available Introduction: The critical role of the rivers in supplying water for various needs of life has led to engineering identification of the hydraulic regime and flow condition of the rivers. Hydraulic structures such dams have inevitable effects on their downstream that should be well investigated. The reservoir dams are the most important hydraulic structures which are the cause of great changes in river flow conditions. Materials and Methods: In this research, an accurate assessment was performed to study the flow regime of Karkheh river at downstream of Karkheh Reservoir Dam as the largest dam in Middle East. Karkheh River is the third waterful river of Iran after Karun and Dez and the third longest river after the Karun and Sefidrud. The Karkheh Dam is a large reservoir dam built in Iran on the Karkheh River in 2000. The Karkheh Reservoir Dam is on the Karkheh River in the Northwestern Khouzestan Province, the closest city being Andimeshk to the east. The part of Karkheh River, which was studied in this research is located at downstream of Karkheh Reservoir Dam. This interval is approximately 94 km, which is located between PayePol and Abdolkhan hydrometric stations. In this research, 138 cross sections were used along Karkheh River. Distance of cross sections from each other was 680m in average. The efficient model of HEC-RAS has been utilized to simulate the Karkheh flow conditions before and after the reservoir dam construction using of hydrometric stations data included annually and monthly mean discharges, instantaneous maximum discharges, water surface profiles and etc. Three defined discharges had been chosen to simulate the Karkheh River flow; maximum defined discharge, mean defined discharge and minimum defined discharge. For each of these discharges values, HEC-RAS model was implemented as a steady flow of the Karkheh River at river reach of study. Water surface profiles of flow, hydraulic parameters and other results of flow regime in

  14. Putting Roman Dams in Context: a Virtual Approach

    Decker, M. J.; Du Vernay, J. P.; Mcleod, J. B.


    Water resources and management have become a critical global issue. During the half-millennium of its existence, the Roman Empire developed numerous strategies to cope with water management, from large-scale urban aqueduct systems, to industrial-scale water mills designed to cope with feeding growing city populations. Roman engineers encountered, adopted, and adapted indigenous hydraulic systems, and left lasting imprints on the landscape of the Mediterranean and temperate Western Europe by employing a range of water technologies. A recent academic study has enabled the identification of remains of and references to seventy-two dams from the Roman era, constructed in Spain between the 1st and 4th century AD. Such unique heritage, without comparisons in the Mediterranean makes Spain an emblematic case study for the analysis of Roman hydraulic engineering and water management policies. Fifty dams have been located and detailed. The twenty-two outstanding, although identified on the ground, have not been able to be acceptably characterized, due in some cases to their being ruins in a highly degraded state, others due to their being masked by repairs and reconstructions subsequent to the Roman era. A good example of such neglected dams is the buttress dam of Consuegra , in Toledo province (Castilla-La Mancha). Dating to the 3rd - 4th century AD, the Dam of Consuegra, on the basin of the Guadiana, with its over 600 metres length and 4,80 metres height, is a remarkable case of Roman engineering mastery. It had a retaining wall upstream, numerous buttresses and perhaps an embankment downstream, of which no remains are left. The application of 3D digital imaging technique to create a high quality virtual model of such monuments has proved to be successful especially for the study of the technological aspects related its construction. The case study of the Roman dam of Muel (Zaragoza) has shown, in fact, as best practices in digital archaeology can provide an original and

  15. Experiences from the small historical dams failures during heavy floods

    Vaníček, I.; Vaníček, M.; Jirásko, D.; Pecival, T.


    Roughly between 400 and 600 years ago many small earth dams were constructed mainly in the south part of the Czech Republic. They were used for fish production and flood protection. To our days roughly one third survived, which means about 25 000 of them. During catastrophic floods in 2002 many of them had some problems but less than 0.3% failed. Experiences gained from the failure evaluation are presented. Firstly from the view of limit states of failures, when limit states of internal erosion and surface erosion played most important role and were the main reason of failures. Secondly, from the view of so called domino effect of failure, when the most important dam on the catchment basin failed and after that the other ones, situated below, had limited chance to survive. The failures are described for catchment basin of the small river Lomnice in south part of the Czech Republic close to the town Blatna. The experiences obtained there led to the evaluation of other catchment basins where domino effect of failure can play also very important role. For the evaluation of potential risk, the numerical modelling was used to study the flood wave propagation below the critical dam, especially at the moment when this wave is reaching the dam situated below the critical one. Finally, the recommendations are specified, not only for individual dams but also for catchment basin, where the risk of domino effect failure is very high.

  16. Geophysical investigation of seepage beneath an earthen dam.

    Ikard, S J; Rittgers, J; Revil, A; Mooney, M A


    A hydrogeophysical survey is performed at small earthen dam that overlies a confined aquifer. The structure of the dam has not shown evidence of anomalous seepage internally or through the foundation prior to the survey. However, the surface topography is mounded in a localized zone 150 m downstream, and groundwater discharges from this zone periodically when the reservoir storage is maximum. We use self-potential and electrical resistivity tomography surveys with seismic refraction tomography to (1) determine what underlying hydrogeologic factors, if any, have contributed to the successful long-term operation of the dam without apparent indicators of anomalous seepage through its core and foundation; and (2) investigate the hydraulic connection between the reservoir and the seepage zone to determine whether there exists a potential for this success to be undermined. Geophysical data are informed by hydraulic and geotechnical borehole data. Seismic refraction tomography is performed to determine the geometry of the phreatic surface. The hydro-stratigraphy is mapped with the resistivity data and groundwater flow patterns are determined with self-potential data. A self-potential model is constructed to represent a perpendicular profile extending out from the maximum cross-section of the dam, and self-potential data are inverted to recover the groundwater velocity field. The groundwater flow pattern through the aquifer is controlled by the bedrock topography and a preferential flow pathway exists beneath the dam. It corresponds to a sandy-gravel layer connecting the reservoir to the downstream seepage zone.

  17. Applying Mechanistic Dam Breach Models to Historic Levee Breaches

    Risher Paul


    Full Text Available Hurricane Katrina elevated levee risk in the US national consciousness, motivating agencies to assess and improve their levee risk assessment methodology. Accurate computation of the flood flow magnitude and timing associated with a levee breach remains one of the most difficult and uncertain components of levee risk analysis. Contemporary methods are largely empirical and approximate, introducing substantial uncertainty to the damage and life loss models. Levee breach progressions are often extrapolated to the final width and breach formation time based on limited experience with past breaches or using regression equations developed from a limited data base of dam failures. Physically based embankment erosion models could improve levee breach modeling. However, while several mechanistic embankment breach models are available, they were developed for dams. Several aspects of the levee breach problem are distinct, departing from dam breach assumptions. This study applies three embankments models developed for dam breach analysis (DL Breach, HR BREACH, and WinDAM C to historic levee breaches with observed (or inferred breach rates, assessing the limitations, and applicability of each model to the levee breach problem.

  18. A Method for Probabilistic Stability Analysis of Earth Dams

    T. R. Mafioleti


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new probabilistic methodology for analyzing the stability of Earth Dams, based on the technique of the First Order Reliability Method for Structural Reliability. Differently from others methodologies present in literature, the proposed method interprets the involved variables as random ones. So, three results are provided here: the Structural Reliability Index, the Probability of Rupture and the most probable values of the random variables for the occurrence of a dam break. In order to illustrate it, real data from a cross section of the Left Bank Earthfill Dam of Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant (IHPP, located on the city of Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil were used. The numerical results achieved by the proposed methodology evidence that IHPP dam has currently good structural conditions, confirming that the safety procedures adopted in Itaipu Dam may be considered as appropriate. The use of the proposed method enables to complement the previously existing knowledge about the structural conditions, improving the process of risk management.

  19. Dynamic probability evaluation of safety levels of earth-rockfill dams using Bayesian approach

    Zi-wu FAN; Shu-hai JIANG; Ming ZHANG


    In order to accurately predict and control the aging process of dams, new information should be collected continuously to renew the quantitative evaluation of dam safety levels. Owing to the complex structural characteristics of dams, it is quite difficult to predict the time-varying factors affecting their safety levels. It is not feasible to employ dynamic reliability indices to evaluate the actual safety levels of dams. Based on the relevant regulations for dam safety classification in China, a dynamic probability description of dam safety levels was developed. Using the Bayesian approach and effective information mining, as well as real-time information, this study achieved more rational evaluation and prediction of dam safety levels. With the Bayesian expression of discrete stochastic variables, the a priori probabilities of the dam safety levels determined by experts were combined with the likelihood probability of the real-time check information, and the probability information for the evaluation of dam safety levels was renewed. The probability index was then applied to dam rehabilitation decision-making. This method helps reduce the difficulty and uncertainty of the evaluation of dam safety levels and complies with the current safe decision-making regulations for dams in China. It also enhances the application of current risk analysis methods for dam safety levels.

  20. Flood hydrology and dam-breach hydraulic analyses of five reservoirs in Colorado

    Stevens, Michael R.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.


    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service has identified hazard concerns for areas downstream from five Colorado dams on Forest Service land. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Forest Service, initiated a flood hydrology analysis to estimate the areal extent of potential downstream flood inundation and hazard to downstream life, property, and infrastructure if dam breach occurs. Readily available information was used for dam-breach assessments of five small Colorado reservoirs (Balman Reservoir, Crystal Lake, Manitou Park Lake, McGinnis Lake, and Million Reservoir) that are impounded by an earthen dam, and no new data were collected for hydraulic modeling. For each reservoir, two dam-breach scenarios were modeled: (1) the dam is overtopped but does not fail (break), and (2) the dam is overtopped and dam-break occurs. The dam-breach scenarios were modeled in response to the 100-year recurrence, 500-year recurrence, and the probable maximum precipitation, 24-hour duration rainstorms to predict downstream flooding. For each dam-breach and storm scenario, a flood inundation map was constructed to estimate the extent of flooding in areas of concern downstream from each dam. Simulation results of the dam-break scenarios were used to determine the hazard classification of the dam structure (high, significant, or low), which is primarily based on the potential for loss of life and property damage resulting from the predicted downstream flooding.

  1. Modeling of Long-Term Fate of Mobilized Fines due to Dam-Embankment Interfacial Dislocations

    Glascoe, L. G.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Kanarska, Y.; Lomov, I.; Antoun, T. H.


    Transverse cracks in embankment dams can develop as a result of post-construction settlements, earthquake deformations, or anthropogenic loads such as emplaced explosives. During these dislocations, fine particles are released from the damaged zones and can create unwanted inertial erosion and piping through the transverse cracks. These processes are equally critical to the overall stability of the dam. We present numerical results related to the problem of the fluid flow, transport, and filtration of particulates from damaged zones between the concrete sections of a gravity dam and the embankment wraparound sections. The model solves simultaneously the flow, attachment, and washout of fine particles within a wraparound heterogeneous porous media. We used a state-of-the-art finite element method with adaptive mesh refinement to capture 1) the interface between water dense with fines and clear water, and 2) the non-linearity of the free surface itself. A few scenarios of sediment entrapment in the filter layers of a gravity dam were considered. Several parameterizations of the filtration model and constitutive laws of soil behavior were also investigated. Through these analyses, we concluded that the attachment kinetic isotherm is the key function of the model. More parametric studies need to be conducted to assess the sensitivity of the kinetic isotherm parameters on the overall stability of the embankment. These kinetic parameters can be obtained, for example, through numerical micro- and meso-scale studies. It is worth mentioning that the current model, for the more realistic non-linear kinetic isotherms, has predicted a self-rehabilitation of the breached core with retention of 50% of the mobilized fines using a very conservative filtration length. A more realistic value should exceed the assumed one, resulting in a retention exceeding 50%. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under

  2. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004

    Johnson, Gary E.; Hanks, Michael E.; Khan, Fenton; Cook, Chris B.; Hedgepeth, J; Mueller, Robert P.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Sargeant, Susan L.; Serkowski, John A.; Skalski, John R.


    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Portland District engaged the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to evaluate juvenile salmon passage at The Dalles Dam in 2004 to inform decisions about long-term measures and operations to enhance sluiceway and spill passage and reduce turbine passage to improve smolt survival at the dam. PNNL used fixed-location hydroacoustic sampling across the entire project, especially at the sluiceway and spillway, using multiple split-beam transducers at selected locations. At the sluiceway nearfield, we used an acoustic camera to track fish. The fish data were interpreted and integrated with hydraulic data from a CFD model and in-field ADCP measurements. Two sluiceway operations were compared: West only (SL 1) vs. West+East (SL 1 + SL 18). Based on our findings, we concluded that The Dalles Dam sluiceway has the potential to be highly efficient and effective at passing juvenile salmonids. This potential could be tapped with hydraulic and entrance enhancements to the sluiceway. We recommended the following: (1) six rather than three sluice gates should be opened to take advantage of the maximum hydraulic capacity of the sluiceway. (2) The turbine units below open sluice gates should be operated as a standard fish operations procedure. (3) In 2005, the Corps and fisheries agencies should consider operating sluice gates in one or more of the following combinations of six gates: (a) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 18-1, 18-2, 18-3 (repeat 2004 operation), (b) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 11-1, 11-2, 11-3, or (c) SL 1-1, 1-2, 1-3 and SL 2-1, 2-2, 2-3. The following elements for surface flow bypasses which should be considered during design of any sluiceway enhancements at The Dalles Dam: (1) form an extensive surface flow bypass flow net (surface bypass discharge greater than {approx}7% of total project discharge), (2) create a gradual increase in water velocity approaching the surface flow bypass (ideally, acceleration < 1 m/s/m), (3) make water

  3. Vortices in dam reservoir: A case study of Karun III dam

    Maryam Azarpira; Hamed Sarkardeh; Sasan Tavakkol; Reza Roshan; Hossein Bakhshi


    The present study focuses on the effect of vortex formation on plane velocities in a reservoir. Velocity measurements are performed in the hydraulic model of Karun III dam and hydropower plant. Different vortices were produced at the horizontal intake by changing the submerged depth. Tangential velocities were measured on a rectangular mesh in the reservoir. The results were then processed to plot the contour lines of the plane velocities and study the effect of vortex formation on the flow condition in the reservoir. Contour lines in different submerged depths show that circulation zones are formed in different potential locations over the intakes causing vortex formation. These results were correlated with the location of the appearing vortices observed in the experiments. Experimental data of this study could be useful for numerical modelling of vortex in the reservoirs.

  4. Sediment trapping by dams creates methane emission hot spots

    Maeck, A.; Delsontro, T.; McGinnis, Daniel F.


    Inland waters transport and transform substantial amounts of carbon and account for similar to 18% of global methane emissions. Large reservoirs with higher areal methane release rates than natural waters contribute significantly to freshwater emissions. However, there are millions of small dams...... worldwide that receive and trap high loads of organic carbon and can therefore potentially emit significant amounts of methane to the atmosphere. We evaluated the effect of damming on methane emissions in a central European impounded river. Direct comparison of riverine and reservoir reaches, where...... sedimentation in the latter is increased due to trapping by dams, revealed that the reservoir reaches are the major source of methane emissions (similar to 0.23 mmol CH4 m(-2) d(-1) vs similar to 19.7 mmol CH4 m(-2) d(-1), respectively) and that areal emission rates far exceed previous estimates for temperate...

  5. Social Discounting of Large Dams with Climate Change Uncertainty

    Marc Jeuland


    This paper reviews the recent discounting controversy and examines its implications for the appraisal of an illustrative hydropower project in Ethiopia. The analysis uses an integrated hydro-economic model that accounts for how the dam’s transboundary impacts vary with climate change. The real value of the dam is found to be highly sensitive to assumptions about future economic growth. The argument for investment is weakest under conditions of robust global economic growth, particularly if these coincide with unfavourable hydrological or development factors related to the project. If however long-term growth is reduced, the value of the dam tends to increase. There may also be distributional or local arguments favouring investment, if growth in the investment region lags behind that of the rest of the globe. In such circumstances, a large dam can be seen as a form of insurance that protects future vulnerable generations against the possibility of macroeconomic instability or climate shocks.

  6. Roles for Dam methylation in bacterial chromosome replication

    Charbon, Godefroid; Koch, Birgit; Skovgaard, Ole;

    GATC sequences in the DNA of Escherichia coli and related species are methylated at the adenine residue by DNA adenine methyltransferase (DamMT). These methylated residues and/or the level of DamMT influence initiation of chromosome replication from the replication origin, oriC, which contain...... an over-representation of GATC sites, in at least two ways. First, full methylation of oriC promotes duplex opening and hence certain oriC mutants are dependent on Dam methylation for initiation. Second, newly replicated and hemimethylated origins, are bound by SeqA (‘sequestered’) and remain inactive...... for initiation is not affected by additional SeqA whereas DnaA binding to sites outside the origin is inhibited by increased sequestration and/or hemimethylation....


    Kholopov Igor' Serafimovich


    Full Text Available The following conclusions were made upon completion of the testing of crane beams: The lowest rigidity is demonstrated by welded beams exposed to temporary mobile loads; the maximal buckling caused by temporary mobile loads is equal to 12 mm, or 1/1,1790 of the span; the rigidity of crane beams of an overflow dam meets the requirements set by Section E2.1 of Construction Rules 20.13330.2011 "Loads and Actions". In general, the authors state that the crane beams of the span structure of the overflow dam are in a serviceable operating condition, according to their opinion issued upon completion of examination and testing procedures. The recommendation is to regularly tighten screw nuts and to install high-strength bolts in the points of missing rivets. The authors also recommend applying a rust-proofing coating to all metal structures of the dam spans.

  8. A Hidden-Removal Model of Dam Perspective Drawing

    WANG Zi-ru; ZHOU Hui-cheng; LI Ming-qiu


    Aming at water conservancy project visualization, a hidden-removal method of dam perspective drawings is realized by building a hidden-removal mathematical model for overlapping points location to set up the hidden relationship among point and plane, plane and plane in space. On this basis, as an example of panel rockfill dam, a dam hidden-removal perspective drawing is generated in different directions and different visual angles through adapting VC++ and OpenGL visualizing technology. The results show that the data construction of the model is simple which can overcome the disadvantages of considerable and complicated calculation. This method also provides the new means to draw hidden-removal perspective drawings for those landforms and ground objects.

  9. Environmental Risk Assessment System for Phosphogypsum Tailing Dams

    Xin Sun


    Full Text Available This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams.

  10. Environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams.

    Sun, Xin; Ning, Ping; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Li, Kai; Zhou, Lianbi; Xu, Xianmang


    This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams.

  11. Detection of subcritical crack propagation for concrete dams

    BAO TengFei; YU Hong


    Subcritical propagation of cracks is a warning sign of fracture.If such propagation is detected at an early stage,timely maintenance measures can be taken to prevent the failure of structures.To detect the subcritical propagation of a crack,the crack needs to be monitored continuously in a long term,which is not realistic under certain conditions.However,cracks in concrete dams can be monitored continuously by dam monitoring to offer possible detection for subcritical propagation.In this paper,with measured crack openings from dam monitoring,a state equation for characterizing crack development is established based on the grey system theory.The relation between the stability of the equation and the subcritical crack propagation is investigated,then a criterion is proposed for detecting subcritical propagation.An example demonstrates the validity of the criterion and its potential for practical application.

  12. Evaluation of Groundwater Leakage into a Drainage Tunnel in Jinping-I Arch Dam Foundation in Southwestern China: A Case Study

    Chen, Yi-Feng; Hong, Jia-Min; Zheng, Hua-Kang; Li, Yi; Hu, Ran; Zhou, Chuang-Bing


    The Jinping-I double-curvature arch dam, located in the middle reach of Yalong River and with a maximum height of 305 m, is the world's highest dam of this type that has been completed. Since the second stage of reservoir impounding, after which the reservoir water level was gradually raised by about 232 m, a significant amount of leakage was observed from the drainage holes drilled in the lowest drainage tunnel at the left bank abutment at an elevation of 1595 m a.s.l. (above sea level), with an observed maximum pressure of about 0.3 MPa. A number of investigations, including water quality analysis, digital borehole imaging, tunnel geological mapping, and in situ groundwater monitoring, were performed to examine the source of leaking, the groundwater flow paths, and the performance of the grouting curtains. By defining two objective functions using the in situ time series measurements of flow rate and hydraulic head, respectively, a multiobjective inverse modeling procedure was proposed to evaluate the permeability of the foundation rocks that was underestimated in the design stage. This procedure takes advantage of the orthogonal design, finite element forward modeling of the transient groundwater flow, artificial neural network, and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, hence significantly reducing the computational cost and improving the reliability of the inversed results. The geological structures that lead to the leakage were identified and the seepage flow behaviors in the dam foundation and the left bank abutment were assessed. Based on the field measurements and the inverse modeling results, the effects of the engineering treatments of the leakage event on the dam safety were analyzed. It has been demonstrated that the seepage control system is effective in lowering the groundwater level and limiting the amount of seepage in the dam foundation, and the leakage event does not pose a threat to the safety of the dam.

  13. Iodine supplementation of the pregnant dam alters intestinal gene expression and immunoglobulin uptake in the newborn lamb.

    McGovern, F M; Magee, D A; Browne, J A; MacHugh, D E; Boland, T M


    Excess iodine intake by the pregnant dam reduces lamb serum antibody concentration, specifically immunoglobulin G (IgG). An experiment was conducted to investigate the mechanisms under pinning the reduced serum IgG concentration at 24 h postpartum in the progeny of iodine supplemented dams. Forty-five mature twin bearing ewes (n=15/treatment) were allocated to one of three dietary treatments as follows: basal diet (Control); basal diet plus 26.6 mg of iodine per ewe per day as calcium iodate (CaIO3); or potassium iodide (KI). Ewes were individually housed and fed from d 119 of gestation until parturition. All lambs received colostrum at 1, 10 and 18 h postpartum via stomach tube. At 1 h postpartum lambs from the control and an iodine supplemented treatment (n=10 per treatment from control and CaIO3) were euthanised before colostrum consumption and ileal segments isolated to determine the gene expression profile of a panel of genes identified as having a role in antibody transfer. Preceding euthanasia, lambs were blood sampled for determination of serum IgG, total thyroxine and free tri-iodothyronine concentrations. Progeny of CaIO3 supplemented dams had lower tri-iodothyronine concentrations (P<0.01) at 1 h postpartum and lower serum IgG concentrations (P<0.001) at 24 h postpartum when compared with the progeny of control dams. Iodine (CaIO3) supplementation of the dam increased the relative expression (P<0.05) of the B2M, PIGR and MYC genes in the ileum of the lamb, before colostrum consumption; while the expression of THRB declined when compared with the progeny of C dams (P<0.01). In conclusion, the results of this study show that it is the actual inclusion of excess iodine in the diet of the ewe, regardless of the carrier element, that negatively affects passive transfer in the newborn lamb. This study presents novel data describing the relationship between maternal iodine nutrition and its effect on the thyroid hormone status and subsequent gene expression in

  14. Environmental risk assessment of a dam during construction phase

    S. Rezaian


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to assess the possible risks induced by construction of Gavi Dam in Ilam Province; western part of Iran, using MIKE-11 model and technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution. For this purpose, vulnerable zone of the dam site against the flooding risk of Gavi River was calculated for different return periods. The flooding zones were stimulated by MIKE-11 model. In order to check whether or not the dam construction could affect the quality of the Gavi River, the physicochemical quality of the river water was also tested. Afterwards, a questionnaire was prepared containing an inventory of possible risks supposed to be induced by construction of Gavi Dam. The questionnaires were placed at disposal of experts to score the items based on their importance. The questionnaires were then analyzed using SPSS Software, version 16. According to which, a total number of 12 risk factors were identified. The dam construction risks were qualitatively assessed by preliminary hazard analysis. Based on the results, 3 of 12 identified risks were recognized unacceptable. The shortlisted risks were prioritized at final step using technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution. "Habitat fragmentation" with a weight of 0.3002, "water pollution" with a weight of 0.295, and "impacts on aquatics" with a weight of 0.293 were identified as three top priority flooding risks. Among the most important corrective measures for mitigation of the risks at construction phase can be pointed to "restoration of the land cover", “conservation of areas surrounding the dam as a new wildlife habitat", “prevention of water contamination”, and "conservation of fish spawning sites".

  15. Introduction of an Emergency Response Plan for flood loading of Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in Malaysia

    Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Muda, R. S.; Razad, A. Z. Abdul


    Sultan Abu Bakar Dam Emergency Response Plan (ERP) is designed to assist employees for identifying, monitoring, responding and mitigation dam safety emergencies. This paper is outlined to identification of an organization chart, responsibility for emergency management team and triggering level in Sultan Abu Bakar Dam ERP. ERP is a plan that guides responsibilities for proper operation of Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in respond to emergency incidents affecting the dam. Based on this study four major responsibilities are needed for Abu Bakar Dam owing to protect any probable risk for downstream which they can be Incident Commander, Deputy Incident Commander, On-Scene Commander, Civil Engineer. In conclusion, having organization charts based on ERP studies can be helpful for decreasing the probable risks in any projects such as Abu Bakar Dam and it is a way to identify and suspected and actual dam safety emergencies.

  16. Crucial technologies in High the design of Xiluodu Super Arch Dam

    Wang Renkun


    Some super high arch dams ( SHADs), like Xiluodu Arch Dam, after their heights reaching the magnitude of 300 m, confront lots of technical challenges in design and construction. Several crucial technologies of 6 SHADs will be reviewed and discussed in this and consecutive papers, including Xiluodu, Jinping I in China, Baktiary in Iran, ete. , on the topics of the research method, criterion for evaluation and engineering application of dam safety analysis and evaluation, reasonable dam base interface, dam shape optimization, comprehensive treatments of complex foundation, anti-seismic engineering, dam construction material, concrete placement and temperature control, instrumentation and monitoring of dam operation, etc. This paper will mainly focus on the overall safety of SHADs, reasonable dam base interface analysis and evaluation and their engineering application.

  17. Prediction of downstream geomorphological changes after dam construction: A stream power approach

    Brandt, Anders


    physical geography, hydrology, reservoirs, sediment transport, erosion, sedimentation, fluvial geomorphology, dams, river channel geometry......physical geography, hydrology, reservoirs, sediment transport, erosion, sedimentation, fluvial geomorphology, dams, river channel geometry...

  18. EnviroAtlas - National Inventory of Dams for the Conterminous United States

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of the National Dams Inventory data from 2009 survey. The file contains counts of inventoried dams by 12-digit hydrologic...

  19. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water, Sediment, and Fishes of a Large Tropical Hydroelectric Dam in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Siong Fong Sim


    Full Text Available Bakun Hydroelectric Dam in Sarawak is one of the world highest concrete rock filled dams. This paper reports the heavy metals concentrations in water, sediment, and fishes of Bakun Dam. Water and sediment samples were collected from 11 stations and 6 fish species were caught. The samples were digested with open acid digestion and the metals contents were analysed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and mercury analyser. The method was validated based on certified reference materials. A higher concentration of Fe and Mn was detected in downstream water with significant longitudinal variation. Cu, Zn, and Hg were present in trace amount. All elements analysed were consistently found in sediment with no risk of contamination. For fish, Hemibagrus planiceps was characterised by higher affinity for Hg accumulation. The concentrations detected in all fish species were within the permissible guideline of 0.5 mg/kg. The health risk assessment suggested that Barbonymus schwanenfeldii, Puntioplites waandersii, Cyclocheilichthys apogon, and Hemibagrus planiceps were characterised by hazard index > 1 implying possible adverse effects. The amount of fish recommended for adults and children was in the range of 500–775 g/week and 33–135 g/week, respectively.

  20. Thermal margin comparison between DAM and simple model

    Cha, Jeonghun; Yook, Daesik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The nuclear industry in Korea, has considered using a detail analysis model (DAM), which described each rod, to get more thermal margin with the design a dry storage facility for nuclear spent fuel (NSF). A DAM is proposed and a thermal analysis to determine the cladding integrity is performed using test conditions with a homogenized NSF assembly analysis model(Simple model). The result show that according to USA safety criteria, temperature of canister surface has to keep below 500 K in normal condition and 630 K in excess condition. A commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) called ANSYS Fluent version 14.5 was used.

  1. Merowe Dam and the inundation of paleochannels of the Nile

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina


    The course of the Nile in northern Sudan follows a contorted path through bedrocks, creating the Great Bend. Few years ago, the satellite images showed a fertile strip of land with villages, where paleochannels of the river hosted many fields with cultivations and archaeological sites. Now, a huge part of this valley is under the waters of Merowe Dam reservoir. Comparing the images of the region before and after the dam gates were closed, we can see that the reservoir created itself through flooding the paleochannels.

  2. Rollers in low-head dams - Challenges and solutions

    Zamankhan, Piroz


    Low-head dams exist in many rivers for the purposes of diverting water for open-channel irrigation and providing power plants with cooling water. Flow over low-head dams is quite complex and dangerous rollers often develop down-stream that tend to trap and submerge floating objects. This paper presents an analysis of the problem based on physical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and the result of this analysis in the form of design suggestions intended to diminish the hazards associated with rollers.

  3. Large dams and alluvial rivers in the Anthropocene: The impacts of the Garrison and Oahe Dams on the Upper Missouri River

    Skalak, Katherine; Benthem, Adam J.; Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Galloway, Joel M.; Nustad, Rochelle A.; Wiche, Gregg J.


    The Missouri River has had a long history of anthropogenic modification with considerable impacts on river and riparian ecology, form, and function. During the 20th century, several large dam-building efforts in the basin served the needs for irrigation, flood control, navigation, and the generation of hydroelectric power. The managed flow provided a range of uses, including recreation, fisheries, and habitat. Fifteen dams impound the main stem of the river, with hundreds more on tributaries. Though the effects of dams and reservoirs are well-documented, their impacts have been studied individually, with relatively little attention paid to their interaction along a river corridor. We examine the morphological and sedimentological changes in the Upper Missouri River between the Garrison Dam in ND (operational in 1953) and Oahe Dam in SD (operational in 1959). Through historical aerial photography, stream gage data, and cross sectional surveys, we demonstrate that the influence of the upstream dam is still a major control of river dynamics when the backwater effects of the downstream reservoir begin. In the “Anthropocene”, dams are ubiquitous on large rivers and often occur in series, similar to the Garrison Dam Segment. We propose a conceptual model of how interacting dams might affect river geomorphology, resulting in distinct and recognizable morphologic sequences that we term “Inter-Dam sequence” characteristic of major rivers in the US.

  4. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Smolt Survival and Passage at Bonneville Dam, Summer 2012

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.


    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at Bonneville Dam during summer 2012, as required by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion. The study also estimated smolt passage survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam to the tailrace 1 km below the dam, as well as forebay residence time, tailrace egress, and spill passage efficiency, as required in the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  5. Seismic Fortification Analysis of the Guoduo Gravity Dam in Tibet, China

    Peng Lin; Wenwei Zheng; Bo Huang; Haichao Zhang


    The primary aim of this research was to analyze the seismic performance of the Guoduo gravity dam. A nonlinear FEM method was implemented to study the deformation, stress, and overall stability of dam under both static and dynamic loading conditions, including both normal and overloading conditions. A dam seismic failure risk control method is proposed based on the cracking mechanism induced by the dynamic load to ensure dam safety and stability. Numerical simulation revealed that (1) under n...

  6. Past, Present, and Future Nutrient Quality of a Small Southeastern River: A Pre-Dam Assessment

    Stewart, Paul M.; Miller, Jonathan M


    Riverine dams alter both the physical environment and water chemistry, thus affecting species assemblages within these environments. In the United States, dam construction is on the decline and there is a growing trend for dam removal. The Choctawhatchee, Pea, and Yellow Rivers Watershed Management Authority had initiated the permitting process for placing a reservoir dam on the Little Choctawhatchee River (LCR), a tributary to the Choctawhatchee River. The purpose of the proposed reservoir w...

  7. A continous Bayesian network for earth dams' risk assessment: methodology and quantification

    Morales-Napoles, O.; Delgado-Hernadez-D.J.; De-Leon-Escobedo, D.; Arteaga-Arcos, J.C.


    Dams’ safety is highly important for authorities around the world. The impacts of a dam failure can be enormous. Models for investigating dam safety are required for helping decision-makers to mitigate the possible adverse consequences of flooding. A model for earth dam safety must specify clearly p

  8. The Cemented Material Dam: A New, Environmentally Friendly Type of Dam

    Jinsheng Jia Michel Lino Feng Jin Cuiying Zheng


    The first author proposed the concept of the cemented material dam (CMD) in 2009. This concept was aimed at building an environmentally friendly dam in a safer and more economical way for both the dam and the area downstream...

  9. Landscape context and the biophysical response of rivers to dam removal in the United States

    Foley, Melissa M.; Magilligan, Francis J.; Torgersen, Christian; Major, Jon J.; Anderson, Chauncey; Connolly, Patrick J.; Wieferich, Daniel; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Evans, James E.; Infante, Dana M.; Craig, Laura


    Dams have been a fundamental part of the U.S. national agenda over the past two hundred years. Recently, however, dam removal has emerged as a strategy for addressing aging, obsolete infrastructure and more than 1,100 dams have been removed since the 1970s. However, only 130 of these removals had any ecological or geomorphic assessments, and fewer than half of those included before- and after-removal (BAR) studies. In addition, this growing, but limited collection of dam-removal studies is limited to distinct landscape settings. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the landscape context of existing and removed dams and assessed the biophysical responses to dam removal for 63 BAR studies. The highest concentration of removed dams was in the Northeast and Upper Midwest, and most have been removed from 3rd and 4th order streams, in low-elevation (landscape settings, which limits predictive capacity in other environmental settings. Biophysical responses to dam removal varied by landscape cluster, indicating that landscape features are likely to affect biophysical responses to dam removal. However, biophysical data were not equally distributed across variables or clusters, making it difficult to determine which landscape features have the strongest effect on dam-removal response. To address the inconsistencies across dam-removal studies, we provide suggestions for prioritizing and standardizing data collection associated with dam removal activities.

  10. 77 FR 2970 - Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC, Montana; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental...


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC, Montana; Notice of Availability of... 47897), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed the application for license for the Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Project, located at the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation's Gibson dam on...

  11. 75 FR 81464 - Safety Zone; Columbia River, The Dalles Lock and Dam


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Columbia River, The Dalles Lock and Dam... temporary safety zone on the waters of the Columbia River in the vicinity of The Dalles Lock and Dam while... Dalles Lock and Dam (a) Location. The following is a safety zone: All waters of the Columbia...

  12. 76 FR 20707 - Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas County, WA


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction... FEIS on the proposed Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project....

  13. 75 FR 30805 - Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice Soliciting Comments, and Final Terms and Conditions...


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice Soliciting Comments, and Final... Commission and is available for public inspection. a. Type of Application: Major Project--Existing Dam. b. Project No.: P-12478-003. c. Date filed: August 28, 2009. d. Applicant: Gibson Dam Hydroelectric...

  14. 78 FR 35630 - Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact...


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project and Intention To Hold Public Meetings In... reviewed the application for license for the Martin Dam Hydroelectric Project (FERC No. 349), located...

  15. 76 FR 26718 - Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Availability of Draft... Energy Projects has reviewed the application for license for the Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Project, located at the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation's, Gibson dam on the Sun River...

  16. 76 FR 54487 - Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of... the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group... of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group is in the public interest in connection...

  17. 78 FR 54482 - Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of... the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group... Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group is in the public interest in connection with the performance...

  18. A continous Bayesian network for earth dams' risk assessment: methodology and quantification

    Morales-Napoles, O.; Delgado-Hernadez-D.J.; De-Leon-Escobedo, D.; Arteaga-Arcos, J.C.


    Dams’ safety is highly important for authorities around the world. The impacts of a dam failure can be enormous. Models for investigating dam safety are required for helping decision-makers to mitigate the possible adverse consequences of flooding. A model for earth dam safety must specify clearly p

  19. Fish assemblage response to a small dam removal in the Eightmile River system, Connecticut, USA.

    Poulos, Helen M; Miller, Kate E; Kraczkowski, Michelle L; Welchel, Adam W; Heineman, Ross; Chernoff, Barry


    We examined the effects of the Zemko Dam removal on the Eightmile River system in Salem, Connecticut, USA. The objective of this research was to quantify spatiotemporal variation in fish community composition in response to small dam removal. We sampled fish abundance over a 6-year period (2005-2010) to quantify changes in fish assemblages prior to dam removal, during drawdown, and for three years following dam removal. Fish population dynamics were examined above the dam, below the dam, and at two reference sites by indicator species analysis, mixed models, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and analysis of similarity. We observed significant shifts in fish relative abundance over time in response to dam removal. Changes in fish species composition were variable, and they occurred within 1 year of drawdown. A complete shift from lentic to lotic fishes failed to occur within 3 years after the dam was removed. However, we did observe increases in fluvial and transition (i.e., pool head, pool tail, or run) specialist fishes both upstream and downstream from the former dam site. Our results demonstrate the importance of dam removal for restoring river connectivity for fish movement. While the long-term effects of dam removal remain uncertain, we conclude that dam removals can have positive benefits on fish assemblages by enhancing river connectivity and fluvial habitat availability.

  20. Examination of physical and regulatory variables leading to small dam removal in Wisconsin.

    Orr, Cailin H; Roth, Brian M; Forshay, Kenneth J; Gonzales, James D; Papenfus, Michael M; Wassell, Rebecca D G


    The decision to remove or repair a dam depends on multiple variables, many of which encompass both physical and social factors. In Wisconsin, the Department of Natural Resources is mandated to inspect small dams every ten years. A safety inspection often acts as a trigger event to a dam removal or repair decision. Although the issues surrounding a dam removal decision are often couched as ecological, these decisions are influenced by their social and regulatory context. In this work, we examine descriptive variables of Wisconsin dams that were inspected and consequently removed or maintained between 1985 and 1990. We hypothesize that geographic location, height of dam, size of impoundment, age of dam, and type of ownership determine the likelihood of a safety inspection, and the subsequent likelihood of removal. Using a logistic model, we find that publicly owned dams had the greatest probability of inspection after 1985. Of these dams, older dams and those with smaller impoundments were most likely to be removed. We were unable to build a strong predictive model for dam removal with our suite of variables, suggesting that a community's decision to remove or maintain a dam is complex and heterogeneous.

  1. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation..., shall operate Hetch Hetchy Dam and Reservoir and Cherry Valley Dam and Reservoir in the interest...

  2. Geotechnical sounding of the UTE-Uruguay dams; La auscultacion geotecnica de las presas de UTE

    Patrone Matteo, Julio C.; Rosriguez Pastorino, Sandra; Mandia Bica, Magdalena [Administracion Nacional de Usinas e Transmisiones Electricas (UTE), Montevideo (Uruguay)]. E-mail:


    This paper addresses specifically to the soil dams, and soil dikes of the Constitucion Dam, which is presently the most instrumented, considering that the set of inspection routine and instrumentation data, including the interpretation and behaviour evaluation, are the basis for the dam sounding.


    Tani, Laurits


    To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.

  4. Numerical simulation of MHD for electromagnetic edge dam in continuous casting.

    Chang, F. C.


    A computer model was developed to predict eddy currents and fluid flows in molten steel. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid-metal containment and fluid flow in electromagnetic (EM) edge dams (EMDs) designed at Inland Steel for twin-roll casting. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive, time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA is able to predict the eddy-current distribution and the electromagnetic forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM is capable of modeling fluid flows with free surfaces. Results of the numerical simulation compared measurements obtained from a static test.

  5. Dam-induced and natural channel changes in the Saskatchewan River below the E.B. Campbell Dam, Canada

    Smith, Norman D.; Morozova, Galina S.; Pérez-Arlucea, Marta; Gibling, Martin R.


    The E.B. Campbell Dam on the Saskatchewan River, east-central Saskatchewan, was constructed in 1962, forming Tobin Lake (2.2 billion m3 capacity), which today impounds most fluvial sediment and disrupts normal outflow patterns. Thirty-five kilometers below the dam, the river diverts into a 500 km2 belt of alluvial sediment initiated by an avulsion 140 years ago, rejoining the parent channel 108 km from the dam. Effects of the dam on channel geomorphology, including the historical channel (reach I) and the more recent avulsion-affected channels, were investigated by pre- and post-dam cross section surveys combined with grain-size and bedload measurements. Twenty-three sites were surveyed at least twice, and 14 were resurveyed annually in 2003-2014 (except 2007) during which significant floods occurred in 2005, 2011, and 2013. All channel cross sections up to 81 km below the dam have coarsened and enlarged since closure, resulting in excavation of 35.4 × 106 m3 of channel-perimeter sediment since 1962. The most proximal segment is armored and has changed little in recent years. Since 2003, channel enlargement has been greatest in the 35-81 km segment between the avulsion site and the Forks (reaches II, III), manifested as widening and deepening. Enlargement rates were greatest during the three floods, and the paucity of bedload has prevented degraded portions of the channel bed from replenishment following flooding. Budget calculations based on bedload measurements and channel cross-section areas suggest that > 30 years would be required to replace the sediment removed between 2003 and 2014, assuming all available bedload remains in the affected reach. Dam effects appear to be absent or uncertain beyond 81 km, a multichanneled region of varied stages of activity (reach IV), recombining and eventually rejoining the parent Saskatchewan River channel at km 108 (reach V). Sediment evacuated from reaches I-III is sufficient to sustain modest aggradation in some distal

  6. Plugs or flood-makers? The unstable landslide dams of eastern Oregon

    Safran, E. B.; O'Connor, J. E.; Ely, L. L.; House, P. K.; Grant, G.; Harrity, K.; Croall, K.; Jones, E.


    Landslides into valley bottoms can affect longitudinal profiles of rivers, thereby influencing landscape evolution through base-level changes. Large landslides can hinder river incision by temporarily damming rivers, but catastrophic failure of landslide dams may generate large floods that could promote incision. Dam stability therefore strongly modulates the effects of landslide dams and might be expected to vary among geologic settings. Here, we investigate the morphometry, stability, and effects on adjacent channel profiles of 17 former and current landslide dams in eastern Oregon. Data on landslide dam dimensions, former impoundment size, and longitudinal profile form were obtained from digital elevation data constrained by field observations and aerial imagery; while evidence for catastrophic dam breaching was assessed in the field. The dry, primarily extensional terrain of low-gradient volcanic tablelands and basins contrasts with the tectonically active, mountainous landscapes more commonly associated with large landslides. All but one of the eastern Oregon landslide dams are ancient (likely of order 103 to 104 years old), and all but one has been breached. The portions of the Oregon landslide dams blocking channels are small relative to the area of their source landslide complexes (0.4-33.6 km2). The multipronged landslides in eastern Oregon produce marginally smaller volume dams but affect much larger channels and impound more water than do landslide dams in mountainous settings. As a result, at least 14 of the 17 (82%) large landslide dams in our study area appear to have failed cataclysmically, producing large downstream floods now marked by boulder outwash, compared to a 40-70% failure rate for landslide dams in steep mountain environments. Morphometric indices of landslide dam stability calibrated in other environments were applied to the Oregon dams. Threshold values of the Blockage and Dimensionless Blockage Indices calibrated to worldwide data sets

  7. Plugs or flood-makers? the unstable landslide dams of eastern Oregon

    Safran, Elizabeth B.; O'connor, James; Ely, Lisa L.; House, Kyle; Grant, Gordon E.; Harrity, Kelsey; Croall, Kelsey; Jones, Emily


    Landslides into valley bottoms can affect longitudinal profiles of rivers, thereby influencing landscape evolution through base-level changes. Large landslides can hinder river incision by temporarily damming rivers, but catastrophic failure of landslide dams may generate large floods that could promote incision. Dam stability therefore strongly modulates the effects of landslide dams and might be expected to vary among geologic settings. Here, we investigate the morphometry, stability, and effects on adjacent channel profiles of 17 former and current landslide dams in eastern Oregon. Data on landslide dam dimensions, former impoundment size, and longitudinal profile form were obtained from digital elevation data constrained by field observations and aerial imagery; while evidence for catastrophic dam breaching was assessed in the field. The dry, primarily extensional terrain of low-gradient volcanic tablelands and basins contrasts with the tectonically active, mountainous landscapes more commonly associated with large landslides. All but one of the eastern Oregon landslide dams are ancient (likely of order 103 to 104 years old), and all but one has been breached. The portions of the Oregon landslide dams blocking channels are small relative to the area of their source landslide complexes (0.4–33.6 km2). The multipronged landslides in eastern Oregon produce marginally smaller volume dams but affect much larger channels and impound more water than do landslide dams in mountainous settings. As a result, at least 14 of the 17 (82%) large landslide dams in our study area appear to have failed cataclysmically, producing large downstream floods now marked by boulder outwash, compared to a 40–70% failure rate for landslide dams in steep mountain environments. Morphometric indices of landslide dam stability calibrated in other environments were applied to the Oregon dams. Threshold values of the Blockage and Dimensionless Blockage Indices calibrated to worldwide

  8. 复杂地基重力坝深层抗滑模拟研究%Simulation of deep anti-sliding of gravity dam on complex foundation

    王振; 韩春; 宋志斌; 王延梅


    The anti-sliding stability of gravity dam is always related to the overall safety of reservoir,and is very important.The paper adopted discrete element method to simulate the stability of dam base of complex structure surface that included bedding and joints.It also calculated the stability of dam body under two conditions of empty and full reservoir in different geological conditions.Study shows that the stability of dam is good when the reservoir is empty,while the reservoir is full of water,the stability of dam is affect significantly by the geological condition.Multiple sliding surface form are more better than double sliding surface form for the stability of dam.The stability is related to the position of the gravity dam centre.The results can be used for the design of gravity dam under complex geological condition.%重力坝抗滑稳定性关系到水库地整体安全,极为重要.本文采用离散元法对含层理、节理等复杂结构面的坝基抗滑稳定性进行了数值模拟研究,计算了不同地质条件下水库无蓄水、水库蓄满两种工况的坝体稳定性.研究表明:水库在无蓄水时,坝体稳定性都比较好,但当水库蓄满后,坝体稳定性受地质环境影响显著,多滑动面形式比双滑动面形式更有利益坝体稳定,并且与重力坝的重心位置有关.本文提出的方法与计算结果,可供复杂地质条件下重力坝设计参考.

  9. 有渗透水作用时混凝土坝的实测应力分析%Measured Stress for Concrete Dams with Seepage Water Effect



    The stress and strain monitoring of concrete dam is the one of monitoring for dam safety, the dam heel is the furthest sensitive emphases place for stress and strain. Recur to elasticity mechanical analysis for porous material, processed research for component elements at measured stress and strain in stress gauge and strain gauge embedded concrete dams. The available stress, that act on framework of concrete and part of pore water pressure rip included in measured stress by stress gauge, and the pore water pressure is full hydraulic head(lifting pressure) p for stress gauge, that embedded on the seam with body of dam and it's foundation or the seamed face of body are Indicated. The strain gauge embedded with the same body of dam, the available stress-strain will only included in measured strain, and the part of strain by the pore water pressure without proceed. The theoretic basis provided that rightly applying monitoring data at stress and strain of concrete dams for evaluating character of dam safety.%混凝土坝的应力、应变监测是大坝安全监测的项目之一,大坝坝踵是应力、应变最敏感的重点部位。借助于多孔材料弹性力学的分析,对埋设于混凝土坝中的应力计和应变计实测应力、应变中的构成成分进行了研究,指出了应力计实测应力中包含有作用于混凝土骨架的有效应力和部分孔隙水压力;埋设在建基面和接缝面上的应力计,其孔隙水压力为全水头扬压力。同样埋设在坝体混凝土中的应变计,实测应变中则仅包含有效应力应变,而没有因孔隙水压力产生的变形分量,为正确应用混凝土坝应力、应变监测成果评估大坝安全性状提供了理论依据。

  10. Element Research.

    Herald, Christine


    Describes a research assignment for 8th grade students on the elements of the periodic table. Students use web-based resources and a chemistry handbook to gather information, construct concept maps, and present the findings to the full class using the mode of their choice: a humorous story, a slideshow or gameboard, a brochure, a song, or skit.…

  11. Eutrophication levels of some South African impoundments III. Roodeplaat Dam

    Steyn, DJ


    Full Text Available Algal bioassays indicated that the waters of Roodeplaat dam are severely eutrophied since algal growth potentials (AGP) of up to 200 mg/l and batch culture algal growth rate of up to 2,2 d were registered with selemastrm capricornutum as test alga...

  12. Liquefaction evaluation of dam foundation soils considering overlying structure

    Gang Wang a; Xing Wei b; Hanlong Liu a


    The liquefaction analysis procedure conducted at a dam foundation associated with a layer of liquefiable sand is presented. In this case, the effects of the overlying dam and an embedded diaphragm wall on liquefaction potential of foundation soils are considered. The analysis follows the stress-based approach which compares the earthquake-induced cyclic stresses with the cyclic resistance of the soil, and the cyclic resistance of the sand under complex stress condition is the key issue. Comprehensive laboratory monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests are conducted to evaluate the static characteristics, dynamic char-acteristics and the cyclic resistance against liquefaction of the foundation soils. The distribution of the factor of safety considering liquefaction is given. It is found that the zones beneath the dam edges and near the upstream of the diaphragm wall are more susceptible to liquefaction than in free field, whereas the zone beneath the center of the dam is less susceptible to liquefaction than in free field. According to the results, the strategies of ground improvement are proposed to mitigate the liquefaction hazards.

  13. Colorado River Basin Hover Dam - Review of Flood Control Regulation.


    Percichthyidae Striped bass 1ile sxiiis Pocilldae Mosquito fish Cainbusia affnus Sailfin mollie Poecilia latipin a Mexican mollie Poecila mexicana Salmonidae...Colorado River Basin Progress Report No. 8, 195 pp. Vitt, L.J. and R.D. Ohmart, 1978. Herpetofauna of the Lower Colorado River: Davis Dam to the

  14. Liquefaction evaluation of dam foundation soils considering overlying structure

    Gang Wang


    Full Text Available The liquefaction analysis procedure conducted at a dam foundation associated with a layer of liquefiable sand is presented. In this case, the effects of the overlying dam and an embedded diaphragm wall on liquefaction potential of foundation soils are considered. The analysis follows the stress-based approach which compares the earthquake-induced cyclic stresses with the cyclic resistance of the soil, and the cyclic resistance of the sand under complex stress condition is the key issue. Comprehensive laboratory monotonic and cyclic triaxial tests are conducted to evaluate the static characteristics, dynamic characteristics and the cyclic resistance against liquefaction of the foundation soils. The distribution of the factor of safety considering liquefaction is given. It is found that the zones beneath the dam edges and near the upstream of the diaphragm wall are more susceptible to liquefaction than in free field, whereas the zone beneath the center of the dam is less susceptible to liquefaction than in free field. According to the results, the strategies of ground improvement are proposed to mitigate the liquefaction hazards.

  15. Sliding response of gravity dams including vertical seismic accelerations

    Constantin Christopoulos; Pierre Léger; André Filiatrault


    Seismic safety assessment of gravity dams has become a major concern in many regions of the world while the effects of vertical seismic accelerations on the response of structures remain poorly understood. This paper first investigates the effect of including vertical accelerations in the sliding response analysis of gravity dams subjected to a range of historical ground motion records separated in two groups according to their source-to-site distance. Analyses showed that the incidence of vertical accelerations on the sliding response of gravity dams is significantly higher for near-source records than for farsource records. The pseudo-static 30% load combination rule, commonly used in practice to account for the non-simultaneous occurrence of the peak horizontal and vertical accelerations, yielded good approximations of the minimum safety factors against sliding computed from time-history analyses. A method for empirically estimating the vertical response spectra based on horizontal spectra, accounting for the difference in frequency content and amplitudes between the two components is investigated. Results from analyses using spectrum compatible horizontal and vertical synthetic records also approximated well the sliding response of a gravity dam subjected to series of simultaneous horizontal and vertical historical earthquake records.

  16. Montgomery Point Lock and Dam, White River, Arkansas


    accurate and economical engineering solutions to coastal and hydraulic problems. This will strengthen and improve design criteria, enhance... Fischer , and J. Mewes. 2011. Montgomery Point Lock and Dam HSR model, White River miles 4.0 – 0.0; Hydraulic sediment response model investigation

  17. Enloe Dam Passage Project, Volume I, 1984 Annual Report.

    Fanning, M.L.


    This report discusses issues related to the provision of fish passage facilities at Enloe Dam and the introduction of anadromous salmonid fish to the upper Similkameen River basin. The species of fish being considered is a summer run of steelhead trout adapted to the upper Columbia basin. (ACR)

  18. Characterisation of gold tailings dams of the Witwatersrand Basin ...


    Oct 4, 2006 ... gen in the Witwatersrand tailings dams is controlled by secondary porosity (i.e. cracks caused .... different properties and characteristics of tailings material. .... Z o n e. O. Z. T. Z. U. Z 1. U. Z 2. O. Z 1. O. Z 2. T. Z. U. Z. O. Z 1. O.

  19. Chromosomal replication incompatibility in Dam methyltransferase deficient Escherichia coli cells

    Freiesleben, Ulrik Von


    Dam methyltransferase deficient Escherichia coli cells containing minichromosomes were constructed. Free plasmid DNA could not be detected in these cells and the minichromosomes were found to be integrated in multiple copies in the origin of replication (oriC) region of the host chromosome...

  20. The Aswan Dam: A Lesson on Man's Environmental Impact.

    Peterson, Burnell

    This curriculum unit was prepared for senior high classroom use to teach geography, history, and environmental issues. The objective of the lesson is to illustrate the historical man/river relationship between Egypt and the Nile River, and the impact of the Aswan dam on the agricultural and economic needs of the country today. The lesson requires…

  1. Optimization of Hydroacoustic Equipment Deployment at Foster Dam, 2013

    Hughes, James S.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Fischer, Eric S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.


    The goal of the study was to optimize performance of the fixed-location hydroacoustic systems at Foster Dam (FOS) by determining deployment and data acquisition methods that minimized structural, electrical, and acoustic interference. Optimization of the hydroacoustic systems will establish methodology for sampling by active acoustic methods during this year-long evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage at FOS.

  2. 77 FR 67813 - Sam Rayburn Dam Project Power Rate


    ..., Assistant Administrator, Southwestern Power Administration, Department of Energy, Williams Center Tower I... Southwestern Power Administration Sam Rayburn Dam Project Power Rate AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Rate Order Approving an Extension of Power Rate on an Interim Basis....

  3. 77 FR 22801 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group


    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon... AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon...

  4. Effects of the Ben Franklin Dam on the Hanford Site

    Harty, H.


    A previous assessment of the effects of a Ben Franklin Dam on the Hanford Site made in 1967 was updated so that the potential adverse effects may be better understood in light of existing operations, current environmental and safety standards, and proposed facilities and operations. The major effects would probably arise from flooding of portions of the site by the reservoir associated with the dam and by the raising of the ground water table under the site. A preliminary analysis of the effects of the dam is presented, and a number of studies are recommended in order to fully evaluate and understand these potential impacts. The following seven tasks are identified and discussed: groundwater - hydrology analysis; soil liquefaction analysis; hydrostatic uplift and soil effects on structures; assessment of the potential for landsliding and sloughing; facility decommissioning; hydrothermal analysis; and, meteorological effects. Four other aspects commented upon in this report are: aquatic ecology, terrestrial ecology, socioeconomic effects, and public interaction. Possible effects on ongoing DOE-sponsored R and D are also noted. To the extent possible, cost estimates are developed for corrective actions which must be taken on the Hanford Site to accommodate the dam. Where this was not possible, appropriate courses of action leading to cost estimates are presented.

  5. Simulation and control of sediment transport due to dam removal

    This paper presents two case studies of post dam removal sedimentation in the United States. Two different one-dimensional channel evolution simulation models were used: CCHE1D and CONCEPTS, respectively. The first case is the application of CCHE1D to assess a long-term morphological response to the...

  6. Simulation of morphological changes due to dam removal

    In this chapter, a brief review of numerical models and their applications for impact assessment of dam removal on sediment transport and morphological changes in alluvial rivers is given. As an example, a one-dimensional river flow and sediment transport model, CCHE1D, is applied to assess morpholo...

  7. Hydroelectric power potential, Woonsocket Falls Dam, Woonsocket, Rhode Island

    Daly, J C; Dowdell, R B; Kelly, W E; Koveos, P E; Krikorian, Jr, J S; Lengyel, G; Prince, M J; Seely, S; Tromp, L; Urish, D W


    The feasibility of developing a hydroelectric power plant at an existing flood control dam of the city of Woonsocket, RI was examined considering environmental, economic, technical and engineering factors. It was concluded that the City should proceed with plans to develop a hydro plant. (LCL)

  8. Optimization of Hydroacoustic Equipment Deployment at Foster Dam, 2013

    Hughes, James S.; Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Fischer, Eric S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.


    The goal of the study was to optimize performance of the fixed-location hydroacoustic systems at Foster Dam (FOS) by determining deployment and data acquisition methods that minimized structural, electrical, and acoustic interference. Optimization of the hydroacoustic systems will establish methodology for sampling by active acoustic methods during this year-long evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage at FOS.

  9. Aquatic Toxicity of the Decontamination Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) decontamination Solution


    DECONTAMINATION SOLUTION ELETI M.V. Holey •I• E LF- , C.W. Kurnas J •i W.T. Muse B RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE May 1994 Approved for public release...FUNDING NUMBERS Aquatic Toxicity of the Decontaminating S.O.-2FK4 Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution 6. AUTHOR(S) Haley, M.V.; Kurnas

  10. Accuracy Analysis of a Dam Model from Drone Surveys.

    Ridolfi, Elena; Buffi, Giulia; Venturi, Sara; Manciola, Piergiorgio


    This paper investigates the accuracy of models obtained by drone surveys. To this end, this work analyzes how the placement of ground control points (GCPs) used to georeference the dense point cloud of a dam affects the resulting three-dimensional (3D) model. Images of a double arch masonry dam upstream face are acquired from drone survey and used to build the 3D model of the dam for vulnerability analysis purposes. However, there still remained the issue of understanding the real impact of a correct GCPs location choice to properly georeference the images and thus, the model. To this end, a high number of GCPs configurations were investigated, building a series of dense point clouds. The accuracy of these resulting dense clouds was estimated comparing the coordinates of check points extracted from the model and their true coordinates measured via traditional topography. The paper aims at providing information about the optimal choice of GCPs placement not only for dams but also for all surveys of high-rise structures. The knowledge a priori of the effect of the GCPs number and location on the model accuracy can increase survey reliability and accuracy and speed up the survey set-up operations.

  11. Accuracy Analysis of a Dam Model from Drone Surveys

    Elena Ridolfi


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the accuracy of models obtained by drone surveys. To this end, this work analyzes how the placement of ground control points (GCPs used to georeference the dense point cloud of a dam affects the resulting three-dimensional (3D model. Images of a double arch masonry dam upstream face are acquired from drone survey and used to build the 3D model of the dam for vulnerability analysis purposes. However, there still remained the issue of understanding the real impact of a correct GCPs location choice to properly georeference the images and thus, the model. To this end, a high number of GCPs configurations were investigated, building a series of dense point clouds. The accuracy of these resulting dense clouds was estimated comparing the coordinates of check points extracted from the model and their true coordinates measured via traditional topography. The paper aims at providing information about the optimal choice of GCPs placement not only for dams but also for all surveys of high-rise structures. The knowledge a priori of the effect of the GCPs number and location on the model accuracy can increase survey reliability and accuracy and speed up the survey set-up operations.

  12. Potential effects of hydroelectric dam development in the Mekong River basin on the migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus elucidated by otolith microchemistry.

    Michio Fukushima

    Full Text Available The migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus, two of the most economically important fish species in the Mekong River, was studied using an otolith microchemistry technique. Fish and river water samples were collected in seven regions throughout the whole basin in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia over a 4 year study period. There was coherence between the elements in the ambient water and on the surface of the otoliths, with strontium (Sr and barium (Ba showing the strongest correlation. The partition coefficients were 0.409-0.496 for Sr and 0.055 for Ba. Otolith Sr-Ba profiles indicated extensive synchronized migrations with similar natal origins among individuals within the same region. H. siamensis movement has been severely suppressed in a tributary system where a series of irrigation dams has blocked their migration. H. lobatus collected both below and above the Khone Falls in the mainstream Mekong exhibited statistically different otolith surface elemental signatures but similar core elemental signatures. This result suggests a population originating from a single natal origin but bypassing the waterfalls through a passable side channel where a major hydroelectric dam is planned. The potential effects of damming in the Mekong River are discussed.

  13. Environment Changes of Lampao Dam Communities in Northeast Thailand

    Winyoo Sata


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this research was to study the environment change of Lampao Dam communities in Northeast Thailand, being a case study of the Sa-Adnathom community, Lamklong sub-district, Muang, Kalasin province, adjacent to the Lampao Dam. Approach: A qualitative research, it started with a review of literature and related researches. Field data were collected by way of interviews and both participant and non-participant observations, involving 15 informants including senior-villagers, who had lived in the village some 10-20 years. The research data were descriptively analyzed and presented. Results: As a result its was found that the Lampao Dam communities date back 200 years to the era of Chiangsom Kingdom. Deserted due to deadly epidemics, the area was later on repopulated by migrants from Yang Talad district, Kalasin province. A new community, called Sa-Adnathom, was born. Prior to the inception of the National Plan for Social and Economic Development in 1961, the environment of this community was complete with fertile land and natural resource abundance. People lived in harmony with nature and relied on resources from it for their livelihood, especially from Nong Waeng reservoir, Phan and Yang streams and Khoke Ngoo forest. But with the implementation of the first Plan for Social and Economic Development in 1961-1966 the Thai government started the construction of the Lampao Dam in 1963. Completed in 1968, the Dam took land from the villagers, part of which were simply flooded. This forced the village farmers to change their means of livelihood from relying on forest and rivers to production methods which by necessity involved purchase of machines and usage of chemical fertilizers. In short, a change from farming to fishing in Lampao Dam. Their values also changed from local exchanges of goods to money economy, which only led to household debts, increasing with rising degree of consumerism. Eventually people in the

  14. Rubber dam may increase the survival time of dental restorations.

    Keys, William; Carson, Susan J


    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health's Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, LILACS, SciELO, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure,, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, OpenGrey and Sciencepaper Online databases. Handsearches in a number of journals.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials, including split-mouth studies assessing the effects of rubber dam isolation for restorative treatments in dental patients.Data extraction and synthesisTwo review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies.ResultsFour studies involving a total of 1,270 patients were included. The studies were at high risk of bias. One trial was excluded from the analysis due to inconsistencies in the presented data. Restorations had a significantly higher survival rate in the rubber dam isolation group compared to the cotton roll isolation group at six months in participants receiving composite restorative treatment of non-carious cervical lesions (risk ratio (RR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 1.37, very low-quality evidence). The rubber dam group had a lower risk of failure at two years in children undergoing proximal atraumatic restorative treatment in primary molars (hazard ratio (HR) 0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.97, very low-quality evidence). One trial reported limited data showing that rubber dam usage during fissure sealing might shorten the treatment time. None of the included studies mentioned adverse effects or reported the direct cost of the treatment, or the level of patient acceptance/satisfaction. There was also no evidence evaluating the effects of rubber dam usage on the quality of the restorations.ConclusionsWe found some very low-quality evidence, from single studies, suggesting that rubber dam usage in dental direct

  15. Klamath River Water Quality Data from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, Oregon, 2008

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Deas, Michael L.; Asbill, Jessica; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Butler, Kenna D.; Vaughn, Jennifer


    This report documents sampling and analytical methods and presents field data from a second year of an ongoing study on the Klamath River from Link River Dam to Keno Dam in south central Oregon; this dataset will form the basis of a hydrodynamic and water quality model. Water quality was sampled weekly at six mainstem and two tributary sites from early April through early November, 2008. Constituents reported herein include field-measured water-column parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, specific conductance); total nitrogen and phosphorus; particulate carbon and nitrogen; total iron; filtered orthophosphate, nitrite, nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, organic carbon, and iron; specific UV absorbance at 254 nanometers; chlorophyll a; phytoplankton and zooplankton enumeration and species identification; and bacterial abundance and morphological subgroups. Sampling program results indicated: *Most nutrient and carbon concentrations were lowest in spring, increased starting in mid-June, remained elevated in the summer, and decreased in fall. Dissolved nitrite plus nitrate had a different seasonal cycle and was below detection or at low concentration in summer. *Although total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations did not show large differences from upstream to downstream, filtered ammonia and orthophosphate concentrations increased in the downstream direction and particulate carbon and particulate nitrogen generally decreased in the downstream direction. *Large bacterial cells made up most of the bacteria biovolume, though cocci were the most numerous bacteria type. Cocci, with diameters of 0.1 to 0.2 micrometers, were smaller than the filter pore sizes used to separate dissolved from particulate matter. *Phytoplankton biovolumes were dominated by diatoms in spring and by the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae after mid-June. Another blue-green, Anabaena flos-aquae, was noted in samples from late May to late June. Phytoplankton

  16. National Dam Safety Program. Lock 4 Embankment Waterford Flight Dam (Inventory Number N.Y. 968). Mohawk River Basin, Saratoga County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,


    ENGINEERING DATA 2.1 GEOTECHNICAL DATA a. Geology Lock 4 Embankment Waterford Flight Dam is located in the Hudson Valley section of the Valley and Ridge...River are controlled by the up- stream locks (Nos. 5 and 6) and by the Crescent Dam which forms the im- poundment for the navigation channel above Lock...River above Crescent Dan may contribute flow through the canal system. b. Discharge at Dam Site JNo discharge records are available for this site

  17. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Forest Park Upper Dam (MA 00568), Connecticut River Basin, Springfield, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.



  18. National Dam Safety Program. Von Der Ahe Dam (MO 31077), Mississippi - Kaskaskia - St. Louis Basin, Franklin County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.


    from Controlling Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of thia rePort) National Darn Safety Program. Von der UNLSSFE(~ Ahe Dam (MO 31V77), Mississippi - ISa ...34;TAT1 MiNT I Apro’,,,, for ;,.blhc yele(so |: ’ --- __ ~ ~~ii[ , - rtu : ’ lrrJl": ’,d PHASE I REPORT NATIONAL DAM SAFETY PROGRAM Name of Dam: Von Der Ahe

  19. Analvsis of Cause of Abnormal Seepage for Xixi RCC Dam%西溪水库碾压混凝土坝渗流异常成因分析

    吴光耀; 张勇; 李子阳; 刘成栋


    以西溪水库碾压混凝土重力坝为例,针对坝基扬压力突然增大的异常现象,基于扬压力监测资料系统分析扬压力增大的成因,并结合大坝有限元渗流正反分析,提出了加强观测分析、对渗流异常部位采取灌浆、排水等渗流控制工程措施建议,以消除渗流隐患.结果表明,坝基防渗体系防渗功能现阶段总体良好,渗流异常不会对工程安全构成较大威胁.%The abnormal foundation uplift pressure increases suddenly for the Xixi RCC gravity dam. Therefore, monitoring data are used to systematically analyze the cause of uplift pressure. Then combined with positive and negative analysis of dam seepage with finite element, some suggestions are proposed to remove seepage hidden peril, such as strengthening observation and analysis, grouting and drainage for seepage abnormal position. The results show that the current seepage control function of the dam foundation is good on the whole and the abnormal seepage does not pose great threat to the dam.

  20. Radiometric survey of radioactive minerals in the Matias Romero dam, in Oaxaca; Exploracion radiometrica de minerales radiactivos en la presa Matias Romero, en Oaxaca

    Flores, J.H.; Pena, P.; Balcazar, M.; Lopez, A.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Juarez, S.F.; Cabrera, M.O. [IGEFUNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Huizar, R. [IGEUNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    Migration of radioactive Uranium and Thorium minerals from the old mine El Muerto, to the dam Matias Romero in Oaxaca was detected in dam sediments. The identified elements were Th and U, from the decay series of the last one; {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa and {sup 214}Bi from the radioactive series of {sup 238}U. The mineral was in the past extracted from high fractured zones. Total activity measurements in sediments from the dam increases as the particle size decrease, which indicates that main reason of the movement is produced by erosion of small particles from high altitude deposits to lower parts where the dam is located. Geo statistical analysis gives a general picture of mineral distribution. ICP-MS, Ge(hp) detector, and X-ray diffraction techniques were used for associated minerals and radioactive content evaluation. Oaxaca State presents a complex geology. Pre cambric metamorphic rocks (600 ma) are present at the southern part, covering 25% of the state surface; intrusive metamorphic and igneous rocks form the Paleozoic (375 m.a.) cover 6 % of the surface. (Author)

  1. Compliance Monitoring of Subyearling Chinook Salmon Survival and Passage at The Dalles Dam, Summer 2012

    Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Seaburg, Adam; Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.


    The purpose of this compliance study was to estimate dam passage survival of subyearling Chinook salmon at The Dalles Dam during summer 2012. Under the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion, dam passage survival is required to be greater than or equal to 0.93 and estimated with a standard error (SE) less than or equal to 0.015. The study also estimated survival from the forebay 2 km upstream of the dam and through the tailrace to 2 km downstream of the dam, forebay residence time, tailrace egress time, spill passage efficiency (SPE), and fish passage efficiency (FPE), as required by the 2008 Columbia Basin Fish Accords.

  2. Proceedings of the Canadian Dam Association conference 2010: partnering for a safer future



    New and numerous challenges faced by the the dam safety community and dams were discussed at this conference. Hydraulic resources availability, the durability of the installations, modes of operation and processes, the business environment and human resources in the dam safety community are factors which will influence and impact these challenges. New types of dams have been constructed or are being built. Research is needed and knowledge sharing needs to be promoted to ensure the development of safe and reliable projects. This conference brought together samll dam owners and larger utilities looking for the latest in technology developments.

  3. A review of proposed Glen Canyon Dam interim operating criteria

    LaGory, K.; Hlohowskyj, I.; Tomasko, D.; Hayse, J.; Durham, L.


    Three sets of interim operating criteria for Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River have been proposed for the period of November 1991, to the completion of the record of decision for the Glen Canyon Dam environmental impact statement (about 1993). These criteria set specific limits on dam releases, including maximum and minimum flows, up-ramp and down-ramp rates, and maximum daily fluctuation. Under the proposed interim criteria, all of these parameters would be reduced relative to historical operating criteria to protect downstream natural resources, including sediment deposits, threatened and endangered fishes, trout, the aquatic food base, and riparian plant communities. The scientific bases of the three sets of proposed operating criteria are evaluated in the present report:(1) criteria proposed by the Research/Scientific Group, associated with the Glen Canyon Environmental Studies (GCES); (2) criteria proposed state and federal officials charged with managing downstream resources; and (3) test criteria imposed from July 1991, to November 1991. Data from Phase 1 of the GCES and other sources established that the targeted natural resources are affected by dam operations, but the specific interim criteria chosen were not supported by any existing studies. It is unlikely that irreversible changes to any of the resources would occur over the interim period if historical operating criteria remained in place. It is likely that adoption of any of the sets of proposed interim operating criteria would reduce the levels of sediment transport and erosion below Glen Canyon Dam; however, these interim criteria could result in some adverse effects, including the accumulation of debris at tributary mouths, a shift of new high-water-zone vegetation into more flood-prone areas, and further declines in vegetation in the old high water zone.

  4. Reliability and Robustness Analysis of the Masinga Dam under Uncertainty

    Hayden Postle-Floyd


    Full Text Available Kenya’s water abstraction must meet the projected growth in municipal and irrigation demand by the end of 2030 in order to achieve the country’s industrial and economic development plan. The Masinga dam, on the Tana River, is the key to meeting this goal to satisfy the growing demands whilst also continuing to provide hydroelectric power generation. This study quantitatively assesses the reliability and robustness of the Masinga dam system under uncertain future supply and demand using probabilistic climate and population projections, and examines how long-term planning may improve the longevity of the dam. River flow and demand projections are used alongside each other as inputs to the dam system simulation model linked to an optimisation engine to maximise water availability. Water availability after demand satisfaction is assessed for future years, and the projected reliability of the system is calculated for selected years. The analysis shows that maximising power generation on a short-term year-by-year basis achieves 80%, 50% and 1% reliability by 2020, 2025 and 2030 onwards, respectively. Longer term optimal planning, however, has increased system reliability to up to 95% in 2020, 80% in 2025, and more than 40% in 2030 onwards. In addition, increasing the capacity of the reservoir by around 25% can significantly improve the robustness of the system for all future time periods. This study provides a platform for analysing the implication of different planning and management of Masinga dam and suggests that careful consideration should be given to account for growing municipal needs and irrigation schemes in both the immediate and the associated Tana River basin.

  5. Influences of local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics on fish assemblages within impoundments of low-head dams in the tributaries of the Qingyi River, China.

    Li, Xian; Li, Yu-Ru; Chu, Ling; Zhu, Ren; Wang, Li-Zhu; Yan, Yun-Zhi


    Low-head dam impoundments modify local habitat and alter fish assemblages; however, to our knowledge, the pattern of how fish assemblages in the impoundments relate to local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics is still unclear. We used data collected in 62 impoundments created by low-head dams in headwater streams of the Qingyi River, China, to examine relationships between fish assemblages and local habitat, tributary position, and dam characteristics. We also assessed the relative importance of the three groups of factors in determining fish species richness and composition. Linear regression models showed that fish species richness was related to substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, and dam number upstream. Redundancy analysis showed that fish species compositions were influenced by substrate heterogeneity, confluence link, dam height, dam numbers upstream and downstream. Overall, dam characteristics were more important in affecting fish species richness but less important in determining fish species composition than local habitat (i.e., substrate heterogeneity) and tributary position. Our results suggest that low-head dam may affect fish species richness in impoundments by modifying local habitat and constraining fish movement, and the relative abundances of those fish species may depend more on species habitat presences and stream size than on impoundment size and number.

  6. Dams. Bulletin of the Technical Service of Electric Power and Big Dams; Barrages. Bulletin du Service Technique de l`Energie Electrique et des Grands Barrages



    Three papers were selected in this issue of the bulletin of the Technical Service of Electric Power and Big Dams. The first one concerns the experience feedback gained from the accident of the Drac river near Grenoble (France) due to a spillover at the Notre-Dame-de-Commiers` dam and which led to the death of 6 children and their teacher. The second one is a report of the conclusions of decennial and annual safety inspections of French dams, while the third one is a report of the Control Services activities for the third quarter of the year 1996 concerning the French dams in operation. (J.S.)

  7. National Dam Safety Program. Lac Marseilles Dam (MO 30282), Mississippi - Kaskaskia - St. Louis Basin, St. Francois County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.


    DACW4-81--OJTnTA 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS TAREA WORK UNIT NUMBERS K U.S. Army Engineer District, St. Louis Dam Inventory and...The dam was constructed without a set of plans or "as built" records, but we understand that its construction was observed and directed by a...Drainage Basin and Site Topography 3A. Plan and Crest Profile of Dam 3B. Sections of Dam and Spillway 4. Regional Geologic Map APPENDICES A Figure A-I

  8. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam...


    ... Coast Guard-National Park Service agreement exists for both the Glen Canyon and Lake Mead National..., Nevada, from the Pioneer Hotel to the Edgewater Hotel. Laughlin Aquamoto Sports Challenge and Expo.... PDT. Where: That portion of the Colorado River near Laughlin, Nevada, from Davis Dam to Harrah's Hotel...

  9. A comparison of different rubber dam systems on a dental simulator.

    Kapitan, Martin; Sustova, Zdenka; Ivancakova, Romana; Suchanek, Jakub


    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that more recently developed rubber dam systems (OptraDam ® Plus and OptiDam™) are faster and easier to handle, and that the quality of isolation is not decreased. The rubber dam systems were applied in standard conditions on a dental simulator in several model clinical situations. The time of preparation, application and removal were measured and the quality of isolation was evaluated. The median time of rubber dam placement was 51 s (Q1 = 38 s; Q3 = 79 s). The shortest median time of application was with OptiDam™ (42 s), followed by a conventional rubber dam (53 s), and finally the longest was with OptraDam® Plus (58 s). The median volume of fluid remaining in the isolated space after 5 minutes was 9.5 mL (Q1 = 8 mL; Q3 = 10 mL). The largest median volume of remaining water was with OptiDam™ (10 mL), followed by a conventional rubber dam (9.5 mL) and the least with OptraDam® Plus (8.5 mL). The afore-stated hypothesis about the advantages of modern rubber dam isolation systems was accepted for OptiDam™, but rejected for OptraDam® Plus. The results could contribute to decision-making concerning the choice of rubber dam system.

  10. Removing Dams, Constructing Science: Coproduction of Undammed Riverscapes by Politics, Finance, Environment, Society and Technology

    Zbigniew J. Grabowski


    Full Text Available Dam removal in the United States has continued to increase in pace and scope, transitioning from a dam-safety engineering practice to an integral component of many large-scale river restoration programmes. At the same time, knowledge around dam removals remains fragmented by disciplinary silos and a lack of knowledge transfer between communities of practice around dam removal and academia. Here we argue that dam removal science, as a study of large restoration-oriented infrastructure interventions, requires the construction of an interdisciplinary framework to integrate knowledge relevant to decision-making on dam removal. Drawing upon infrastructure studies, relational theories of coproduction of knowledge and social life, and advances within restoration ecology and dam removal science, we present a preliminary framework of dams as systems with irreducibly interrelated political, financial, environmental, social, and technological dimensions (PFESTS. With this framework we analyse three dam removals occurring over a similar time period and within the same narrow geographic region (the Mid-Columbia Region in WA and OR, USA to demonstrate how each PFESTS dimension contributed to the decision to remove the dam, how it affected the process of removing the dam, and how those dimensions continue to operate post removal in each watershed. We conclude with a discussion of a joint research and practice agenda emerging out of the PFESTS framing.

  11. Stability analysis on Tingzikou gravity dam along deep-seated weak planes during earthquake


    The stability of a gravity dam against sliding along deep-seated weak planes is a universal and important problem encountered in the construction of dams.There is no recommended method for stability analysis of the dam on deep-seated weak planes under earthquake condition in Chinese design codes.Taking Tingzikou dam as an example,the research in this paper is focused on searching a proper way to evaluate the seismic safety of the dam against sliding along deep-seated weak planes and the probable failure modes of dam on deep-seated weak planes during earthquake.It is concluded that there are two probable failure modes of the dam along the main weak geological planes in the foundation.In the first mode,the concrete tooth under the dam will be cut and then the dam together with part foundation will slide along the muddy layer;in the second mode,the dam together with part foundation will slide along the path consist of the weak rock layer under the tooth and the muddy layer downstream the tooth.While there is no geological structure planes to form the second slip surface,the intersection of the main and the second slip surface is 40 to 80 m downstream from dam toe,and the angle between the second slip surface and the horizontal plane probably be 25 to 45 degrees.

  12. Dam safety risk analysis, assessment and management in the Duero River Basin (Spain)

    Ardiles, Liana; Moreno, Pedro; Jenaro, Esther [Duero River Authority, Valladolid, (Spain); Fleitz, Jurgen [OFITECO, Madrid, (Spain); Escuder, Ignacio [Universidad Politecnica Valencia, Valencia, (Spain)


    The Duero River Authority (DRA) integrated risk management into state of the art dam safety activities in Spain. An analysis was performed on the DRA system of 26 state-owned dams. A quantitative analysis on two pilot schemes (the Carrion and Pisuerga systems) was done. It included quantitative estimations of the probability of occurrence of different events, the identification of the potential failure modes, the probabilities of failure related to each event and the estimation of resulting consequences. A current risk analysis is being adopted as a tool for dam safety management of the whole portfolio of the DRA dams. The systematic framework developed by the DRA for integrating risk analysis and evaluation in overall dam safety management is focused on three activities. The development of risk models for 7 dam systems as a helpful tool for overall dam safety management is presented in this paper.

  13. Potential Risk Analysis of Tailings Dam under Preloading Condition and Its Countermeasures

    Shuren Wang


    Full Text Available It is very important for mine production safety to ensure the stability of the tailings dam. Taking a flatland tailings pond as the background, a threedimensional computational model was built based on a tailings dam under mullock heap preloading condition. Considering the current operating water level conditions, a liquid-solid coupling analysis of the model was conducted.The deformation characteristics of the tailings dam were revealed during successive preloading at the front of the dam. The safety factor and the potential slide face of the tailings dam were calculated under different conditions using the strength reduction method. The results show that the tailings dam in its current condition is basically stable, but if the mullock heap continues to be heightened, the tailings dam will become unstable. Therefore, in order to limit the height of the mullock heap, establishing a monitor and early warning mechanism are put forward to ensure mine production safety.

  14. Theoretical research on construction quality real-time monitoring and system integration of core rockfill dam


    With the enlargement of core rockfill dam construction scale and the improvement of construction mechanization level, the traditional manual construction quality control method is now difficult to meet the quality and safety demands of modern dam construction, so automatic and real-time dam construction quality monitoring with high-techs is urgently needed. The paper makes theoretical research on construction quality real-time monitoring and system integration of core rockfill dam, proposes implementation method and integrated solution of construction quality real-time monitoring of core rockfill dam construction process, realizes refining, all-whether, entire-process and real-time control and analysis on key links of dam construction, and introduces the application of the construction quality real-time monitoring and system integration technology to a practical core rockfill dam project.

  15. Theoretical research on construction quality real-time monitoring and system integration of core rockfill dam

    ZHONG DengHua; CUI Bo; LIU DongHai; TONG DaWei


    With the enlargement of core rockfill dam construction scale and the Improvement of construction mechanization level, the traditional manual construction quality control method is now difficult to meet the quality and safety demands of modern dam construction, so automatic and real-time dam con-struction quality monitoring with high-techs is urgently needed.The paper makes theoretical research on construction quality real-time monitoring and system integration of core rock/ill dam, proposes im-plementation method and integrated solution of construction quality real-time monitoring of core rock-fill dam construction process, realizes refining, all-whether, entire-process and real-time control and analysis on key links of dam construction, and introduces the application of the construction quality real-time monitoring and system integration technology to a practical core rockfill dam project.

  16. Loess Plateau check dams can potentially sequester eroded soil organic carbon

    Zhang, Haicheng; Liu, Shuguang; Yuan, Wenping; Dong, Wenjie; Xia, Jiangzhou; Cao, Yaojun; Jia, Yanwei


    Check dams are special soil and water conservation structures in the Loess Plateau, China. They play an important role in intercepting sediments and soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the decomposition of intercepted SOC and the environmental regulations at check dams have not been investigated. We conducted several paired field experiments at both check dams and slope lands in the Yanhe Watershed of the Loess Plateau to examine the characteristics of SOC decomposition at check dams. On average, the SOC mineralization rate in slope lands was approximately three times higher than in check dams. Increased soil moisture and compaction in check dams can constrain carbon mineralization by limiting the oxygen availability of SOC and can isolate substrate carbon from heterotrophic microorganisms. Our results indicate that check dams display a considerable potential for eroded SOC sequestration via reducing the soil respiration rate and highlight the important implications of lateral carbon redistribution and human engineering projects when estimating regional or global ecosystem carbon cycles.

  17. After Three Gorges Dam: What have we learned?

    Natali, J.; Williams, P.; Wong, R.; Kondolf, G. M.


    China is at a critical point in its development path. By investing heavily in large-scale infrastructure, the rewards of economic growth weigh against long-term environmental and social costs. The construction of Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest hydroelectric project, began in 1994. Between 2002 and 2010, its 660 kilometer reservoir filled behind a 181 meter dam, displacing at least 1.4 million people and transforming Asia's longest river (the Yangtze) while generating nearly 100 billion kWh/yr of electricity -- 2.85% of China's current electric power usage. As the mega-project progenitor in a cascade of planned dams, the Three Gorges Dam emerges as a test case for how China will plan, execute and mitigate its development pathway and the transformation of its environment. Post-Project Assessments (PPA) provide a systematic, scientific method for improving the practice of environmental management - particularly as they apply to human intervention in river systems. In 2012, the Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning at University of California, Berkeley organized a symposium-based PPA for the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River. Prior to this symposium, the twelve invited Chinese scientists, engineers and economists with recent research on Three Gorges Dam had not had the opportunity to present their evaluations together in an open, public forum. With a 50-year planning horizon, the symposium's five sessions centered on impacts on flows, geomorphology, geologic hazards, the environment and socioeconomic effects. Three Gorges' project goals focused on flood control, hydropower and improved navigation. According to expert research, major changes in sediment budget and flow regime from reservoir operation have significantly reduced sediment discharge into the downstream river and estuary, initiating a series of geomorphic changes with ecological and social impacts. While the dam reduces high flow stages from floods originating above the

  18. Determination of heavy metals and metals levels in five fish species from Işıklı Dam Lake and Karacaören Dam Lake (Turkey).

    Kalyoncu, Leyla; Kalyoncu, Hasan; Arslan, Gülşin


    The concentrations of heavy metals and metals (Zn, Pb, Bi, Cd, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, Mg, Cu, Cr, Ca, Sr, Na, Li, K) were measured in muscle of five species Cyprinus carpio (from Işıklı dam), Scardinius erythrophthalmus (from Işıklı dam), Tinca tinca (from Işıklı dam), C. carpio (from Karacaören dam), Carassius carassius (from Karacaören dam) caught from Işıklı and Karacaören. The highest metal was Na (466.95 μg/g) in C. carassius, while the lowest levels were Fe (0.37 μg/g) and Cu (0.37 μg/g) in C. carpio from Işıklı dam. The mean concentrations μg/g d.w. some of heavy metals in muscle of C. carpio (from Işıklı dam), S. erythrophthalmus (from Işıklı dam), T. tinca (from Işıklı dam), C. carpio (from Karacaören dam), C. carassius (from Karacaören dam) were as follows: Cd 2.00-2.10-1.95-2.06-2.27, Zn 4.36-2.64-13.13-13.33-24.47, Pb 1.65-1.24-1.90-2.37-2.41, Co 2.46-2.37-2.48-2.58-2.80, Mg 138.51-154.35-218.59-204.58-202.16, Fe 0.37-2.62-3.17-3.01-12.33, respectively.

  19. Dam Removal Information Portal (DRIP)—A map-based resource linking scientific studies and associated geospatial information about dam removals

    Duda, Jeffrey J.; Wieferich, Daniel J.; Bristol, R. Sky; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Hutchison, Vivian B.; Vittum, Katherine M.; Craig, Laura; Warrick, Jonathan A.


    The removal of dams has recently increased over historical levels due to aging infrastructure, changing societal needs, and modern safety standards rendering some dams obsolete. Where possibilities for river restoration, or improved safety, exceed the benefits of retaining a dam, removal is more often being considered as a viable option. Yet, as this is a relatively new development in the history of river management, science is just beginning to guide our understanding of the physical and ecological implications of dam removal. Ultimately, the “lessons learned” from previous scientific studies on the outcomes dam removal could inform future scientific understanding of ecosystem outcomes, as well as aid in decision-making by stakeholders. We created a database visualization tool, the Dam Removal Information Portal (DRIP), to display map-based, interactive information about the scientific studies associated with dam removals. Serving both as a bibliographic source as well as a link to other existing databases like the National Hydrography Dataset, the derived National Dam Removal Science Database serves as the foundation for a Web-based application that synthesizes the existing scientific studies associated with dam removals. Thus, using the DRIP application, users can explore information about completed dam removal projects (for example, their location, height, and date removed), as well as discover sources and details of associated of scientific studies. As such, DRIP is intended to be a dynamic collection of scientific information related to dams that have been removed in the United States and elsewhere. This report describes the architecture and concepts of this “metaknowledge” database and the DRIP visualization tool.

  20. Check dams effects on sediment transport in steep slope flume

    Piton, Guillaume; Recking, Alain


    Depending on many influences (geology, relief, hydrology, land use, etc.) some mountainous watershed are prone to cause casualties and facilities damages. Large amounts of sediments episodically released by torrents are often the biggest problem in torrent related hazard mitigation. Series of transversal structures as check dams and ground sills are often used in the panel of risk mitigation technics. A large literature exits on check dams and it mainly concerns engineering design, e.g. toe scouring, stability stress diagram, changes in upper and lower reaches equilibrium slopes. Check dams in steep slope rivers constitute fixed points in the bed profile and prevent general bed incision. However their influence on sediment transport once they are filled is not yet clear. Two flume test campaigns, synthetize in Table 1, were performed to investigate this question: Table 1 : experiment plan Run (duration) Ref1 (50h)CD1a (30h)CD1b (30h)Ref2 (92h)CD2 (18h) Solid feeding discharge (g.s^-1) 44 44 44 60 60 Number of check dams none 1 3 none 2 A nearly 5-m-long, 10-cm-wide and 12%-steep flume was used. The water discharge was set to 0,55 l/s in all runs. A mixture of poorly sorted natural sediments with diameters between 0.8 and 40 mm was used. An open solid-discharge-feeding circuit kept the inlet sediment flux constant during all experiments. As both feeding rates did not present variation, changes in outlet solid discharge were assumed to be due to bed variations in the bed storage. We observed strong fluctuations of solid flux and slope in each reaches of all runs between: (i) steep aggradating armoured bed and (ii) less steep and finer bed releasing bedload sheets during erosion events and inducing bedload pulses. All experiments showed consistent results: transported volume associated with erosion event decreased with the length between two subsequent check dams. Solid transversal structures shorten the upstream erosion-propagation and avoid downstream change in the

  1. Analysis of forces acting on bottom outlet structure and measures for tensile stress on upstream dam surface%导流底孔结构受力分析与坝上游面拉应力控制措施

    程宵; 苏凯; 伍鹤皋


    Based on a bottom outlet project, with regard to the characteristics of forces acting on the structure during the blocking period, the stress distributions of the structure and upstream dam surface were studied by means of the 3D finite element method. The results show that a wide range of tensile stress along the dam axis will appear at the upstream dam surface when the position of the seam which links the orifice of the bottom outlet and the dam is arranged in front of the upstream dam surface. In order to reduce the tensile stress along the dam axis efficiently, measures of filling materials in the seams at both sides of the dam or moving the position of the seam which links the orifice and the dam to the parallel position of the upstream dam surface should be taken. In this way, the possibility of concrete crack on the upstream dam surface during the construction, operation and blocking periods may be reduced.%结合某导流底孔工程,针对封堵期结构的受力特征,采用三维有限单元法对导流底孔坝段结构和坝上游面的应力分布情况进行计算分析.结果表明:导流底孔进水口段和坝内孔身段的分缝布置于坝面上游时,坝上游面将出现较大范围的横河向拉应力,当考虑大坝两侧分缝内填充材料作用或将导流底孔进水口段与坝内孔身段的分缝位置下移至与大坝上游面平齐时,能够有效地减小坝上游面拉应力的数值与范围,降低坝上游面混凝土受拉开裂的可能性.

  2. 水坝绕流的数值研究%Numerical Study of Two-Dimensional Viscous Flow over Dams

    王利兵; 刘宇陆; 涂敏杰


    In this paper, the characteristics of two-dimensional viscous flow over two dams were numerically investigated. The results show that the behavior of the vortices is closely related to the space between two dams, water depth, Fr number and Reynolds number. In addition, the flow properties behind each dam are different, and the changes over two dams are more complex than over one dam. Finally, the relevant turbulent characteristics were analyzed.

  3. Evolution of the subglacial hydrologic system beneath the rapidly decaying Cordilleran Ice Sheet caused by ice-dammed lake drainage: implications for meltwater-induced ice acceleration

    Burke, Matthew J.; Brennand, Tracy A.; Perkins, Andrew J.


    A positive correlation between ice-dammed lake drainage and ice acceleration at Antarctic Ice Sheets (AIS) and land-terminating sections of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been implicated in enhanced ice sheet decay. However, the paucity of direct measurements at the ice sheet bed restricts our understanding of subglacial drainage system evolution in response to transient water inputs. We present evidence that two meltwater corridors on the former bed of the thin (˜600 m at Last Glacial Maximum over the interior Plateaus of British Columbia) and rapidly decaying Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) were generated subglacially in response to the drainage of an ice-dammed lake and operated as canals (tunnel channels). Geomorphological, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data reveal a simple event sequence that includes initial propagation of a broad (at least 2.5 km wide) floodwave (inefficient drainage) from an ice-dammed lake, over relatively short (3-24 km) zones at the corridor heads that collapsed into efficient canals (large (up to 0.25-2.5 km wide) channels incised down into the sediment bed and up into the ice) downglacier. Canal formation on the southern Fraser Plateau involved synchronous (along the full canal length) system development, including elements of headward erosion and plunge pool formation. Our data suggest that ice-dammed lake drainage beneath a rapidly decaying thin ice mass that has an efficient antecedent drainage network is not conducive to large-scale ice acceleration. These data may aid better assessment of the role of ice-dammed lake drainage on the dynamics of former, as well as contemporary, ice sheets.

  4. 黄河源水电站工程大坝渗流安全分析%Analysis on dam seepage safety of Huangheyuan hydropower station

    孙玮玮; 庄德利; 张士辰; 郑昊尧


    According to the specific circumstance of Huangheyuan hydropower project, through the analysis of the two different forms of the typical cross section's finite element seepage, the seepage safety of Huangheyuan hydropower project is evaluated comprehensively. The results show that there are some defects in the dam seepage system. The joints between horizontal anti-seepage and L-shaped vertical anti-seepage are not closed. The natural seepage condition of the right bank dam basis is poor and anti-seepage treatment is not completely, which lead to large leakage and failure by seepage behind the dam, so the seepage stability of the dam does not meet the regulatory requirements. The grade of dam seepage is C, so appropriate reinforcement measures should be taken and the flow monitoring facilities should be improved too.%根据黄河源水电站工程的具体情况,通过对两种不同防渗形式的典型断面进行渗流有限元计算分析,全面评价了黄河源水电站工程的渗流安全状况.计算结果表明:整个大坝防渗系统存在缺陷,库内水平防渗与“L”型垂直防渗连接部位未封闭,右岸坝段基础天然防渗条件差、防渗处理不彻底,导致坝后渗漏量大,且已发生渗透破坏,大坝渗透稳定性不满足规范要求.大坝渗流评价为“C”级,建议采取相应加固处理措施,并完善渗流监测设施.

  5. Owyhee River intracanyon lava flows: does the river give a dam?

    Ely, Lisa L.; Brossy, Cooper C.; House, P. Kyle; Safran, Elizabeth B.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Champion, Duane E.; Fenton, Cassandra R.; Bondre, Ninad R.; Orem, Caitlin A.; Grant, Gordon E.; Henry, Christopher D.; Turrin, Brent D.


    Rivers carved into uplifted plateaus are commonly disrupted by discrete events from the surrounding landscape, such as lava flows or large mass movements. These disruptions are independent of slope, basin area, or channel discharge, and can dominate aspects of valley morphology and channel behavior for many kilometers. We document and assess the effects of one type of disruptive event, lava dams, on river valley morphology and incision rates at a variety of time scales, using examples from the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon. Six sets of basaltic lava flows entered and dammed the river canyon during two periods in the late Cenozoic ca. 2 Ma–780 ka and 250–70 ka. The dams are strongly asymmetric, with steep, blunt escarpments facing up valley and long, low slopes down valley. None of the dams shows evidence of catastrophic failure; all blocked the river and diverted water over or around the dam crest. The net effect of the dams was therefore to inhibit rather than promote incision. Once incision resumed, most of the intracanyon flows were incised relatively rapidly and therefore did not exert a lasting impact on the river valley profile over time scales >106 yr. The net long-term incision rate from the time of the oldest documented lava dam, the Bogus Rim lava dam (≤1.7 Ma), to present was 0.18 mm/yr, but incision rates through or around individual lava dams were up to an order of magnitude greater. At least three lava dams (Bogus Rim, Saddle Butte, and West Crater) show evidence that incision initiated only after the impounded lakes filled completely with sediment and there was gravel transport across the dams. The most recent lava dam, formed by the West Crater lava flow around 70 ka, persisted for at least 25 k.y. before incision began, and the dam was largely removed within another 35 k.y. The time scale over which the lava dams inhibit incision is therefore directly affected by both the volume of lava forming the dam and the time required for sediment

  6. Role of the check dam in land development on the Loess Plateau, China

    Xu, Xiang-Zhou; Zhang, Luo-Hao; Zhu, Tongxin; Dang, Tian-Min; Zhang, Hong-Wu; Xu, Shi-Guo


    Check dam is one of the most effective measures to reduce flow connectivity, which can retain soil and water, and increase land productivity. More than 100,000 check dams have been built on the Loess Plateau since 1950s. However, quantifying the effect of check dams on water resources and water environments remains a challenge. In this study, an in-depth field investigation together with a credible statistical analysis was carried out in two representative catchments on the Loess Plateau, Nanxiaohegou Catchment and Jiuyuangou Catchment, to assess the effectiveness of check dams in soil, water and nutrients conservation. The results show: (1) Check dam plays an important role in conserving water, soil, and nutrients on the Loess Plateau. About half of the total transported water and more than 80 % of the total transported soil and nutrients, had been locally retained in the selected catchments. Hence check dams had a significant benefit to improve soil fertility in the small watersheds, and reducing water pollution downstream of dams. (2) Compared to terrace farmlands, forest lands and grasslands, check-dam lands were much more important in conserving water, soil and nutrients in the catchments. Nearly 50% of the reduced water and more than 70% of the stored soil and nutrients in the study catchments were solely retained by the check dams, whereas the area of the dam lands was less than 7% of the total conservation land area. (3) Check dams are still effective in large storms even if dams were damaged by floods. It is often assumed that check dams could only retain sediment in small flood events whereas most of the stored soil may be washed out as the dams may be destroyed in a disastrous flood. Furthermore, if a major check dam, namely the key project dam, was built in the gully outlet, the flood could be controlled, and thereupon the dam-break can be also avoided. We suggest that a compensation and incentive policy be implemented on dam building to realize the

  7. Particle Clogging in Filter Media of Embankment Dams: A Numerical and Experimental Study

    Antoun, T.; Kanarska, Y.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Lomov, I.; Glascoe, L. G.; Smith, J.; Hall, R. L.; Woodson, S. C.


    The safety of dam structures requires the characterization of the granular filter ability to capture fine-soil particles and prevent erosion failure in the event of an interfacial dislocation. Granular filters are one of the most important protective design elements of large embankment dams. In case of cracking and erosion, if the filter is capable of retaining the eroded fine particles, then the crack will seal and the dam safety will be ensured. Here we develop and apply a numerical tool to thoroughly investigate the migration of fines in granular filters at the grain scale. The numerical code solves the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and uses a Lagrange multiplier technique which enforces the correct in-domain computational boundary conditions inside and on the boundary of the particles. The numerical code is validated to experiments conducted at the US Army Corps of Engineering and Research Development Center (ERDC). These laboratory experiments on soil transport and trapping in granular media are performed in constant-head flow chamber filled with the filter media. Numerical solutions are compared to experimentally measured flow rates, pressure changes and base particle distributions in the filter layer and show good qualitative and quantitative agreement. To further the understanding of the soil transport in granular filters, we investigated the sensitivity of the particle clogging mechanism to various parameters such as particle size ratio, the magnitude of hydraulic gradient, particle concentration, and grain-to-grain contact properties. We found that for intermediate particle size ratios, the high flow rates and low friction lead to deeper intrusion (or erosion) depths. We also found that the damage tends to be shallower and less severe with decreasing flow rate, increasing friction and concentration of suspended particles. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under

  8. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Ludlow Dam (MA 00547) and Cherry Valley Dam (MA 00548), Chicopee River Basin, Ludlow, Massachusetts. Phase I Inspection Report.


    11. I~iid ia-;stft[cation 1.dwDam. Al ong tile flow path of Higher Brook downstream of SLudlow Damr artL several single family residencies on Miller...dozen * sinp,le family units are located near the water surface around the perimeter of this pond. Based upon the above potential loss of life and...complete failure. No. of people 20 -30 If flood reached school during session mNo. of homes 4-5 No. of businessse ’ None No. of industries b~one Dypp

  9. National Dam Safety Program. Hilliard Estates Lake Dam (MO 20473), Osage - Gasconade River Basin, Greene County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.


    Tributary of the Little Pomme de Terre Date of Inspection: November 19, 1980 Hlilliard Estates Lake Dam was inspected by an interdiscip)- linary team... Terre River. The dam and lake are within the Strafford, Missouri 7.5 minute quadrangle sheet (Section 15, T3ON, R20W - latitude 37°19.1’ longitude

  10. National Dam Safety Program. Deimeke Lake Dam (MO 11163), Mississippi - Salt - Quincy River Basin, Audrain County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.


    1980 Dam Inventory and Inspection Section, LMSED-PD 13. NUMBER OF PAGES 210 Tucker Blvd., North, St. Louis, Mo. 63101 Approximately 80 T4. MONITOR -J I K LA EDA Ou113 PLA AN LVTO -- PLATE 3 RESERVOIR WArER SURFACE TOP OF DAM, EL. 773 (ASSUMED) ON JULY 1, 1980, EL

  11. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Grafton Pond Dam (NH 00119) NHWRB 96.01, Connecticut River Basin, Grafton, New Hampshire. Phase I Inspection Report.


    training of local officials in dam operations to decrease response time in operating the dam in the event of an emergency. The structural...horizontal cracks, seepage, leaching, stalactites , exudation, , and encrustation. In general, the horizontal cracks ..... are located in well defined...erosion, disintegra- --- - tion, scaling, leaching, stalactites , exudation and encrustation. The deteriorated condition of these structural

  12. National Dam Safety Program. Lake Montowese Dam (M0 30151), Mississippi - Kaskaskia - St. Louis Basin, Jefferson County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.


    including installation of the casing pipe and grouting of the annular space about the carrier pipes, was performed under subcontract by the I Karston...inch diameter steel casing pipe extending through the dam and under the road downstream of the I dam. Due to the fact that the piping on the upstream

  13. Internal erosion under spillway rested on an embankment dam

    Mohammad Sedghi-Asl


    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the mechanism of internal erosion caused in the right abutment of the Shahghasem dam’s spillway. Shahghasem dam is an earthen dam located in Yasouj, in southwest of Iran. A significant hole and pipe have been observed in the corner of the right abutment from upstream view. The foundation is Marlstone, which has low cohesion and susceptible for internal erosion and piping in some conditions. Going through details of the design maps has shown that Lane’s criteria for selecting safe dimensions of the seepage control measures have not been considered properly. A series of the supportive walls are designed to attach to the right part of the spillway in order to increase the length of seepage. The pipe route of the erosion should also be grouted with high quality concrete.

  14. Optimizing Earth Allocation for Rock-Fill Dam Construction

    ZHONG Denghua; HU Chengshun; ZHANG Jing


    An optimal allocation of earth is of great significance to reduce the project cost and duration in the construction of rock-fill dams. The earth allocation is a dynamic system affected by various time-space constraints. Based on previous studies, a new method of optimizing this dynamic system as a static one is presented. In order to build a generalized and flexible model of the problem, some man-made constraints were investigated in building the mathematic model. Linear programming and simplex method are introduced to solve the optimization problem of earth allocation. A case study in a large-scale rock-fill dam construction project is presented to demonstrate the proposed method and its successful application shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  15. Wind-Driven Ecological Flow Regimes Downstream from Hydropower Dams

    Kern, J.; Characklis, G. W.


    Conventional hydropower can be turned on and off quicker and less expensively than thermal generation (coal, nuclear, or natural gas). These advantages enable hydropower utilities to respond to rapid fluctuations in energy supply and demand. More recently, a growing renewable energy sector has underlined the need for flexible generation capacity that can complement intermittent renewable resources such as wind power. While wind power entails lower variable costs than other types of generation, incorporating it into electric power systems can be problematic. Due to variable and unpredictable wind speeds, wind power is difficult to schedule and must be used when available. As a result, integrating large amounts of wind power into the grid may result in atypical, swiftly changing demand patterns for other forms of generation, placing a premium on sources that can be rapidly ramped up and down. Moreover, uncertainty in wind power forecasts will stipulate increased levels of 'reserve' generation capacity that can respond quickly if real-time wind supply is less than expected. These changes could create new hourly price dynamics for energy and reserves, altering the short-term financial signals that hydroelectric dam operators use to schedule water releases. Traditionally, hourly stream flow patterns below hydropower dams have corresponded in a very predictable manner to electricity demand, whose primary factors are weather (hourly temperature) and economic activity (workday hours). Wind power integration has the potential to yield more variable, less predictable flows at hydro dams, flows that at times could resemble reciprocal wind patterns. An existing body of research explores the impacts of standard, demand-following hydroelectric dams on downstream ecological flows; but weighing the benefits of increased reliance on wind power against further impacts to ecological flows may be a novel challenge for the environmental community. As a preliminary step in meeting this

  16. Nepal’s Constructive Dialogue on Dams and Development

    Ajaya Dixit


    The findings of the two consultative reviews meant little to either subsequent governments of Nepal or to the international aid industry, despite the opportunity for change that the dramatic democratic movement of 2005/2006 offered – government hydrocracy and the political parties guiding it, as well as international donors, continued to favour the conventional model of dam building. Their silence about the review is inexplicable, especially in light of the flaws in, and controversy surrounding, the ADB-funded Kali Gandaki A and German-funded Middle Marsyangdi dams, both of which followed conventional practice. A new electricity act currently tabled in the parliament also fails to take into account many of the lessons that should have been learnt so easily from past mistakes.

  17. Reliability Analysis of Free Jet Scour Below Dams

    Chuanqi Li


    Full Text Available Current formulas for calculating scour depth below of a free over fall are mostly deterministic in nature and do not adequately consider the uncertainties of various scouring parameters. A reliability-based assessment of scour, taking into account uncertainties of parameters and coefficients involved, should be performed. This paper studies the reliability of a dam foundation under the threat of scour. A model for calculating the reliability of scour and estimating the probability of failure of the dam foundation subjected to scour is presented. The Maximum Entropy Method is applied to construct the probability density function (PDF of the performance function subject to the moment constraints. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS is applied for uncertainty analysis. An example is considered, and there liability of its scour is computed, the influence of various random variables on the probability failure is analyzed.

  18. Geochemical modeling of cyanide in tailing dam gold processing plant

    Khodadadi, Ahmad; Monjezi, M.; Mehrpouya, H.; Dehghani, H.


    This research is aimed at investigating possible neutralization of cyanide in tailing dam of Muteh gold processing plant in Isfahan, Iran at various conditions such as pH and temperature using USEPA Visual MINTEQ geochemical model simulation. The model is based on geochemical equilibrium which uses the simultaneous solution of the non-linear mass action expressions and linear mass balance relationships to formulate and solve the multiple-component chemical equilibrium problems. In this study the concentration of aqueous species in tailing dam as an aqueous, solid and gaseous were used as input in the model. Temperature and pH variation were simulated. The results of the model indicated that cyanide may be complexes in 10 < pH < 5. In other pH values complexation is not important. The results also indicated that cyanide reduction mechanism in acidic pH and temperature above 30°C is due to cyanide acid formation which is vaporized.

  19. Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries

    Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.


    Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

  20. Theory and practice of construction simulation for high rockfill dam

    ZHONG; DengHua; ZHANG; Ping; WU; KangXin


    Construction simulation for high rockfill dam (CSHRD) is the technology that takes advantage of computer simulation to observe and analyze a complex construction process,which is useful for construction design and management.In this paper,the domestic and oversea research status of CSHRD is reviewed firstly,along with introduction of their present achievementa and deficiencies,and the CSHRD theory is also described.Then,considering the influence of many stochastic factors,integrated simulation for high rockfill dam construction (HRDC) is presented with technologies of cycle operation network (CYCLONE) and computer rationally combines two subsystems in HRDC,namely haulage and placement of rockfill subsystem,which reflects the actual construction objectively.important parameters,such as the haulage intensity and traffic density,are obtained,and the process of CSHRD is represented intuitively in dynamic visualization.All of these help engineers to make rapid decisions in HRDC scientifically.