Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume...... is the proceedings of the conference of record in its fi eld, Advances in Modal Logic. Its contributions are state-of-the-art papers. The topics include decidability and complexity results for specifi c modal logics, proof theory of modal logic, logics for reasoning about time and space, provability logic, dynamic...... epistemic logic, and the logic of evidence....
Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume i...... epistemic logic, and the logic of evidence.......Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume...... is the proceedings of the conference of record in its fi eld, Advances in Modal Logic. Its contributions are state-of-the-art papers. The topics include decidability and complexity results for specifi c modal logics, proof theory of modal logic, logics for reasoning about time and space, provability logic, dynamic...
林作铨
1996-01-01
A modal nonmonotonic logic is presented based on an experiential modal semantics on typicality and exception.The syntactic and semantics of modal nonmonotonic logic are provided,and the completeness theorem and the theorems relating it to major nonmonotonic logics are proved.It directly formalizes the intuition of nonmonotonic reasoning.Among other things,it provides us a first-order extension of default logic and autoepistemic logic,and simultaneously has the capability of circumscription to infer universal statement.It has important applications in logic programming and deductive data base.As a result,it provides a uniform basis for various nonmonotonic logics,from which the correspondent relationship among major nonmonotonic logics can coincide.
Uckelman, S.L.
2009-01-01
This dissertation is an exercise in conceptual archeology. Using the tools of contemporary logic we analyse texts in medieval logic and reconstruct their logical theories by creating a formal framework which models them. Our focus is medieval texts which deal with various modalities: the writings on
2009-01-01
This dissertation is an exercise in conceptual archeology. Using the tools of contemporary logic we analyse texts in medieval logic and reconstruct their logical theories by creating a formal framework which models them. Our focus is medieval texts which deal with various modalities: the writings on alethic modalities by William of Sherwood, Pseudo-Aquinas, and St. Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century, St. Anselm of Canterbury’s writings on facere and debere in the late 11th century; Lambert of...
Bozzelli, Laura; French, Tim; Hales, James; Pinchinat, Sophie
2012-01-01
In this paper we present refinement modal logic. A refinement is like a bisimulation, except that from the three relational requirements only 'atoms' and 'back' need to be satisfied. Our logic contains a new operator 'forall' in additional to the standard modalities 'Box' for each agent. The operator 'forall' acts as a quantifier over the set of all refinements of a given model. We call it the refinement operator. As a variation on a bisimulation quantifier, it can be seen as a refinement quantifier over a variable not occurring in the formula bound by the operator. The logic combines the simplicity of multi-agent modal logic with some powers of monadic second order quantification. We present a sound and complete axiomatization of multiagent refinement modal logic. We also present an extension of the logic to the modal mu-calculus, and an axiomatization for the single-agent version of this logic. Examples and applications are also discussed: to software verification and design (the set of agents can also be s...
Three-valued logics in modal logic
Kooi, Barteld; Tamminga, Allard
2013-01-01
Every truth-functional three-valued propositional logic can be conservatively translated into the modal logic S5. We prove this claim constructively in two steps. First, we define a Translation Manual that converts any propositional formula of any three-valued logic into a modal formula. Second, we
Preferential reasoning for modal logics
Britz, K
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Modal logic is the foundation for a versatile and well-established class of knowledge representation formalisms in artificial intelligence. Enriching modal logics with non-monotonic reasoning capabilities such as preferential reasoning as developed...
Modal Logics for Cryptographic Processes
Frendrup, U.; Huttel, Hans; Jensen, N. J.
2002-01-01
We present three modal logics for the spi-calculus and show that they capture strong versions of the environment sensitive bisimulation introduced by Boreale et al. Our logics differ from conventional modal logics for process calculi in that they allow us to describe the knowledge of an attacker ...
Modal Calculus of Illocutionary Logic
Schumann, Andrew
2011-01-01
The aim of illocutionary logic is to explain how context can affect the meaning of certain special kinds of performative utterances. Recall that performative utterances are understood as follows: a speaker performs the illocutionary act (e.g. act of assertion, of conjecture, of promise) with the illocutionary force (resp. assertion, conjecture, promise) named by an appropriate performative verb in the way of representing himself as performing that act. In the paper I proposed many-valued interpretation of illocutionary forces understood as modal operators. As a result, I built up a non-Archimedean valued logic for formalizing illocutionary acts. A formal many-valued approach to illocutionary logic was offered for the first time.
PSPACE Bounds for Rank-1 Modal Logics
Schröder, Lutz
2007-01-01
For lack of general algorithmic methods that apply to wide classes of logics, establishing a complexity bound for a given modal logic is often a laborious task. The present work is a step towards a general theory of the complexity of modal logics. Our main result is that all rank-1 logics enjoy a shallow model property and thus are, under mild assumptions on the format of their axiomatisation, in PSPACE. This leads to a unified derivation of tight PSPACE-bounds for a number of logics including K, KD, coalition logic, graded modal logic, majority logic, and probabilistic modal logic. Our generic algorithm moreover finds tableau proofs that witness pleasant proof-theoretic properties including a weak subformula property. This generality is made possible by a coalgebraic semantics, which conveniently abstracts from the details of a given model class and thus allows covering a broad range of logics in a uniform way.
Strong Completeness of Coalgebraic Modal Logics
Schröder, Lutz
2009-01-01
Canonical models are of central importance in modal logic, in particular as they witness strong completeness and hence compactness. While the canonical model construction is well understood for Kripke semantics, non-normal modal logics often present subtle difficulties - up to the point that canonical models may fail to exist, as is the case e.g. in most probabilistic logics. Here, we present a generic canonical model construction in the semantic framework of coalgebraic modal logic, which pinpoints coherence conditions between syntax and semantics of modal logics that guarantee strong completeness. We apply this method to reconstruct canonical model theorems that are either known or folklore, and moreover instantiate our method to obtain new strong completeness results. In particular, we prove strong completeness of graded modal logic with finite multiplicities, and of the modal logic of exact probabilities.
First-order Logic: Modality and Intensionality
Majkic, Zoran
2011-01-01
Contemporary use of the term 'intension' derives from the traditional logical Frege-Russell's doctrine that an idea (logic formula) has both an extension and an intension. From the Montague's point of view, the meaning of an idea can be considered as particular extensions in different possible worlds. In this paper we analyze the minimal intensional semantic enrichment of the syntax of the FOL language, by unification of different views: Tarskian extensional semantics of the FOL, modal interpretation of quantifiers, and a derivation of the Tarskian theory of truth from unified semantic theory based on a single meaning relation. We show that not all modal predicate logics are intensional, and that an equivalent modal Kripke's interpretation of logic quantifiers in FOL results in a particular pure extensional modal predicate logic (as is the standard Tarskian semantics of the FOL). This minimal intensional enrichment is obtained by adopting the theory of properties, relations and propositions (PRP) as the unive...
Three 13th-century views of quantified modal logic
Uckelman, S.L.
2008-01-01
There are two reasons why medieval logic is of interest to modern logician: One is to see how similar it is to modern logic and the other is to see how different it is. We study three 13th-century works on modal logic and give two examples of how their views of modal logic differ from modern views o
A Modal Logic of Epistemic Games
François Schwarzentruber
2010-11-01
Full Text Available We propose some variants of a multi-modal of joint action, preference and knowledge that support reasoning about epistemic games in strategic form. The first part of the paper deals with games with complete information. We first provide syntactic proofs of some well-known theorems in the area of interactive epistemology that specify some sufficient epistemic conditions of equilibrium notions such as Nash equilibrium and Iterated Deletion of Strictly Dominated Strategies (IDSDS. Then, we present a variant of the logic extended with dynamic operators of Dynamic Epistemic Logic (DEL. We show that it allows to express the notion IDSDS in a more compact way. The second part of the paper deals with games with weaker forms of complete information. We first discuss several assumptions on different aspects of perfect information about the game structure (e.g., the assumption that a player has perfect knowledge about the players’ strategy sets or about the preference orderings over strategy profiles, and show that every assumption is expressed by a corresponding logical axiom of our logic. Then we provide a proof of Harsanyi’s claim that all uncertainty about the structure of a game can be reduced to uncertainty about payoffs. Sound and complete axiomatizations of the logics are given, as well as some complexity results for the satisfiability problem.
Three 13th-century views of quantified modal logic
2008-01-01
There are two reasons why medieval logic is of interest to modern logician: One is to see how similar it is to modern logic and the other is to see how different it is. We study three 13th-century works on modal logic and give two examples of how their views of modal logic differ from modern views of the same: the nature of modality and the truth conditions for modal sentences. Because of the different goals of the medieval logicians, modern logicians must take care in arguing for or against ...
A new coalgebraic semantics for positive modal logic
Palmigiano, A.
2002-01-01
Positive Modal Logic is the restriction of the modal local consequence relation defined by the class of all Kripke models to the propositional negation-free modal language. The class of positive modal algebras is the one canonically associated with PML according to the theory of Abstract Algebraic L
Product closure of some second-order modal logics
Zvesper, Jonathan
2010-01-01
Product update is an operation on models introduced into epistemic logic in order to represent a broad class of informational events. If adding modalities representing product update to a language does not alter its expressive power then we say that the language is "closed for product update." The basic modal language is known to be closed for product update. We establish that monadic second order logic is closed for product update (Theorem 5). Our technique is to pass via an intermediate language with what we call "action nominals." We obtain as corollaries that propositionally quantified modal logic is closed for product update, as is the modal mu-calculus.
On Multiplicative Linear Logic, Modality and Quantum Circuits
Ugo Dal Lago
2012-10-01
Full Text Available A logical system derived from linear logic and called QMLL is introduced and shown able to capture all unitary quantum circuits. Conversely, any proof is shown to compute, through a concrete GoI interpretation, some quantum circuits. The system QMLL, which enjoys cut-elimination, is obtained by endowing multiplicative linear logic with a quantum modality.
Many-dimensional modal logics theory and applications
Gabbay, D M; Wolter, F; Zakharyaschev, M
2003-01-01
Modal logics, originally conceived in philosophy, have recently found many applications in computer science, artificial intelligence, the foundations of mathematics, linguistics and other disciplines. Celebrated for their good computational behaviour, modal logics are used as effective formalisms for talking about time, space, knowledge, beliefs, actions, obligations, provability, etc. However, the nice computational properties can drastically change if we combine some of these formalisms into a many-dimensional system, say, to reason about knowledge bases developing in time or moving objects.
Model Checking Is Static Analysis of Modal Logic
Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2010-01-01
Flow Logic is an approach to the static analysis of programs that has been developed for functional, imperative and object-oriented programming languages and for concurrent, distributed, mobile and cryptographic process calculi. In this paper we extend it; to deal with modal logics and prove...
Model Checking Is Static Analysis of Modal Logic
Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2010-01-01
Flow Logic is an approach to the static analysis of programs that has been developed for functional, imperative and object-oriented programming languages and for concurrent, distributed, mobile and cryptographic process calculi. In this paper we extend it; to deal with modal logics and prove...
Realizability Semantics for Quantified Modal Logic : Generalizing Flagg's 1985 Construction
Rin, B.G.; Walsh, Sean
2016-01-01
A semantics for quantified modal logic is presented that is based on Kleene’s notion of realizability. This semantics generalizes Flagg’s 1985 construction of a model of a modal version of Church’s Thesis and first-order arithmetic. While the bulk of the paper is devoted to developing the details of
Certification of Prefixed Tableau Proofs for Modal Logic
Tomer Libal
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Different theorem provers tend to produce proof objects in different formats and this is especially the case for modal logics, where several deductive formalisms (and provers based on them have been presented. This work falls within the general project of establishing a common specification language in order to certify proofs given in a wide range of deductive formalisms. In particular, by using a translation from the modal language into a first-order polarized language and a checker whose small kernel is based on a classical focused sequent calculus, we are able to certify modal proofs given in labeled sequent calculi, prefixed tableaux and free-variable prefixed tableaux. We describe the general method for the logic K, present its implementation in a prolog-like language, provide some examples and discuss how to extend the approach to other normal modal logics
Mixing Categories and Modal Logics in the Quantum Setting
Cinà, Giovanni
The study of the foundations of Quantum Mechanics, especially after the advent of Quantum Computation and Information, has benefited from the application of category-theoretic tools and modal logics to the analysis of Quantum processes: we witness a wealth of theoretical frameworks casted in either of the two languages. This paper explores the interplay of the two formalisms in the peculiar context of Quantum Theory. After a review of some influential abstract frameworks, we show how different modal logic frames can be extracted from the category of finite dimensional Hilbert spaces, connecting the Categorical Quantum Mechanics approach to some modal logics that have been proposed for Quantum Computing. We then apply a general version of the same technique to two other categorical frameworks, the `topos approach' of Doering and Isham and the sheaf-theoretic work on contextuality by Abramsky and Brandenburger, suggesting how some key features can be expressed with modal languages.
A New Representation Theorem for Many-valued Modal Logics
Majkic, Zoran
2011-01-01
We propose a new definition of the representation theorem for many-valued logics, with modal operators as well, and define the stronger relationship between algebraic models of a given logic and relational structures used to define the Kripke possible-world semantics for it. Such a new framework offers a new semantics for many-valued logics based on the truth-invariance entailment. Consequently, it is substantially different from current definitions based on a matrix with a designated subset of logic values, used for the satisfaction relation, often difficult to fix. In the case when the many-valued modal logics are based on the set of truth-values that are complete distributive lattices we obtain a compact autoreferential Kripke-style canonical representation. The Kripke-style semantics for this subclass of modal logics have the joint-irreducible subset of the carrier set of many-valued algebras as set of possible worlds. A significant member of this subclass is the paraconsistent fuzzy logic extended by new...
Fuzzy approximation relations, modal structures and possibilistic logic
Esteva Massaguer, Francesc; Garcia, Pere; Godo Lacasa, Lluís; Rodríguez, Ricardo Óscar
1998-01-01
The paper introduces a general axiomatic notion of approximation mapping, a mapping that associates to each crisp proposition p a fuzzy set representing "approximately p". It is shown how it can be obtained through fuzzy relations, which are at least reflexive. We study the corresponding multi-modal systems depending on the properties satisfied by the approximate relation. Finally, we show some equivalences between possibilistic logical consequences and global/local logical consequences in...
Leo Esakia on duality in modal and intuitionistic logics
Bezhanishvili, Guram
2014-01-01
This volume is dedicated to Leo Esakia's contributions to the theory of modal and intuitionistic systems. Consisting of 10 chapters, written by leading experts, this volume discusses Esakia's original contributions and consequent developments that have helped to shape duality theory for modal and intuitionistic logics and to utilize it to obtain some major results in the area. Beginning with a chapter which explores Esakia duality for S4-algebras, the volume goes on to explore Esakia duality for Heyting algebras and its generalizations to weak Heyting algebras and implicative semilattices. The book also dives into the Blok-Esakia theorem and provides an outline of the intuitionistic modal logic KM which is closely related to the Gödel-Löb provability logic GL. One chapter scrutinizes Esakia's work interpreting modal diamond as the derivative of a topological space within the setting of point-free topology. The final chapter in the volume is dedicated to the derivational semantics of modal logic and other re...
A strong completeness theorem in intuitionistic quantified modal logic
无
2000-01-01
Based on the intuitionistic first order predicate calculus H given by Thomason with the modal machinery of MIPC put forward by Prior this paper obtains the intuitionistic quantified modal logic system MIPC*, gives it a semantic interpretation and proves its strong (thus also weak) completeness theorem and soundness theorem with respect to that semantic. Since Zorn lemma plays a decisive role in our discussion, methodologically, it was even farther from the intuitionistic point of view than Thomason's result.
A strong completeness theorem in intuitionistic quantified modal logic
高恒珊
2000-01-01
Based on the intuitionistic first order predicate calculus H given by Thomason with the modal machinery of MIPC put forward by Prior this paper obtains the intuitionistic quantified modal logic system MIPC* , gives it a semantic interpretation and proves its strong (thus also weak) completeness theorem and soundness theorem with respect to that semantic. Since Zom lemma plays a decisive role in our discussion, methodologically, it was even farther from the intuitionistic point of view than Thomason’s result.
Modal Inclusion Logic: Being Lax is Simpler than Being Strict
Hella, Lauri; Kuusisto, Antti Johannes; Meier, Arne;
2015-01-01
We investigate the computational complexity of the satisfiability problem of modal inclusion logic. We distinguish two variants of the problem: one for strict and another one for lax semantics. The complexity of the lax version turns out to be complete for EXPTIME, whereas with strict semantics, ...
Mixing Categories and Modal Logics in the Quantum Setting
Cinà, G.; Aerts, D.; de Ronde, C.; Freytes, H.; Giuntini, R.
2016-01-01
The study of the foundations of Quantum Mechanics, especially after the advent of Quantum Computation and Information, has benefited from the application of category-theoretic tools and modal logics to the analysis of Quantum processes: we witness a wealth of theoretical frameworks casted in either
Topological Completeness of First-Order Modal Logic
S. Awodey; K. Kishida
2012-01-01
As McKinsey and Tarski [20] showed, the Stone representation theorem for Boolean algebras extends to algebras with operators to give topological semantics for (classical) propositional modal logic, in which the "necessity" operation is modeled by taking the interior of an arbitrary subset of a topol
Theory of (n) truth degrees of formulas in modal logic and a consistency theorem
WANG GuoJun; DUAN QiaoLin
2009-01-01
The theory of (n) truth degrees of formulas is proposed in modal logic for the first time. A consistency theorem is obtained which says that the (n) truth degree of a modality-free formula equals the truth degree of the formula in two-valued propositional logic. Variations of (n) truth degrees of formulas w.r.t. n in temporal logic is investigated. Moreover, the theory of (n) similarity degrees among modal formulas is proposed and the (n) modal logic metric space is derived therefrom which contains the classical logic metric space as a subspace. Finally, a kind of approximate reasoning theory is proposed in modal logic.
The craft of model making: PSPACE bounds for non-iterative modal logics
Schröder, Lutz
2008-01-01
For lack of general algorithmic methods that apply to wide classes of logics, establishing a complexity bound for a given modal logic is often a laborious task. The present work is a step towards a general theory of the complexity of modal logics. Our main result is that all rank-1 logics enjoy a shallow model property and thus are, under mild assumptions on the format of their axiomatisation, in PSPACE. This leads to a unified derivation of tight PSPACE-bounds for a number of logics including K, KD, coalition logic, graded modal logic, majority logic, and probabilistic modal logic. Our generic algorithm moreover finds tableau proofs that witness pleasant proof-theoretic properties including a weak subformula property. This generality is made possible by a coalgebraic semantics, which conveniently abstracts from the details of a given model class and thus allows covering a broad range of logics in a uniform way.
Privacy Policies with Modal Logic: The Dynamic Turn
Aucher, Guillaume; Boella, Guido; van der Torre, Leendert
Privacy policies are often defined in terms of permitted messages. Instead, in this paper we derive dynamically the permitted messages from static privacy policies defined in terms of permitted and obligatory knowledge. With this new approach, we do not have to specify the permissions and prohibitions of all message combinations explicitly. To specify and reason about such privacy policies, we extend a multi-modal logic introduced by Cuppens and Demolombe with update operators modeling the dynamics of both knowledge and privacy policies. We show also how to determine the obligatory messages, how to express epistemic norms, and how to check whether a situation is compliant with respect to a privacy policy.We axiomatize and prove the decidability of our logic.
The Global Properties of Valid Formulas in Modal Logic K
孙吉贵; 程晓春; 等
1996-01-01
Global property is the necessary condition which must be satisfied by the provable formulas.It can help to find out some unprovable formula that does not satisfy some global property before proving it using formal automated reasoning systems,thus the efficiency of the whole system is improved.This paper presents some global properties of valid formulas in modal logic K.Such properties are structure characters of formulas,so they are simple and easy to check.At the same time,some global properties of K unsatisfiable formula set are also given.
Bi-modal G\\"odel logic over [0,1]-valued Kripke frames
Caicedo, Xavier
2011-01-01
We consider the G\\"odel bi-modal logic determined by fuzzy Kripke models where both the propositions and the accessibility relation are infinitely valued over the standard G\\"odel algebra [0,1] and prove strong completeness of Fischer Servi intuitionistic modal logic IK plus the prelinearity axiom with respect to this semantics. We axiomatize also the bi-modal analogues of $T,$ $S4,$ and $S5$ obtained by restricting to models over frames satisfying the [0,1]-valued versions of the structural properties which characterize these logics. As application of the completeness theorems we obtain a representation theorem for bi-modal G\\"odel algebras.
Systematic Verification of the Modal Logic Cube in Isabelle/HOL
Christoph Benzmüller
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We present an automated verification of the well-known modal logic cube in Isabelle/HOL, in which we prove the inclusion relations between the cube's logics using automated reasoning tools. Prior work addresses this problem but without restriction to the modal logic cube, and using encodings in first-order logic in combination with first-order automated theorem provers. In contrast, our solution is more elegant, transparent and effective. It employs an embedding of quantified modal logic in classical higher-order logic. Automated reasoning tools, such as Sledgehammer with LEO-II, Satallax and CVC4, Metis and Nitpick, are employed to achieve full automation. Though successful, the experiments also motivate some technical improvements in the Isabelle/HOL tool.
Klinge, Alex; Müller, Henrik Høeg
Modality: Studies in Form and Function reflects the diversity of theoretical frameworks and the heterogeneity of linguistic phenomena under the general heading of modality. Researchers in the fields of logic, philosophy and linguistics have for many years been pondering the elusive nature...
Basinger, Scott A.; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa; Cohen, David; Green, Joseph J.; Lou, John; Ohara, Catherine; Redding, David; Shi, Fang
2008-01-01
Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval software uses the Modified Gerchberg-Saxton (MGS) algorithm, an image-based sensing method that can turn any focal plane science instrument into a wavefront sensor, avoiding the need to use external metrology equipment. Knowledge of the wavefront enables intelligent control of active optical systems.
On the Expressive Power of Sub-Propositional Fragments of Modal Logic
Davide Bresolin
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Modal logic is a paradigm for several useful and applicable formal systems in computer science. It generally retains the low complexity of classical propositional logic, but notable exceptions exist in the domains of description, temporal, and spatial logic, where the most expressive formalisms have a very high complexity or are even undecidable. In search of computationally well-behaved fragments, clausal forms and other sub-propositional restrictions of temporal and description logics have been recently studied. This renewed interest on sub-propositional logics, which mainly focus on the complexity of the various fragments, raise natural questions on their the relative expressive power, which we try to answer here for the basic multi-modal logic Kn. We consider the Horn and the Krom restrictions, as well as the combined restriction (known as the core fragment of modal logic, and, orthogonally, the fragments that emerge by disallowing boxes or diamonds from positive literals. We study the problem in a very general setting, to ease transferring our results to other meaningful cases.
Modalities through the looking glass: a study on coalgebraic modal logics and their applications
Leal, R.A.
2011-01-01
Raúl Andrés Leal deed onderzoek naar coalgebra’s en modale logica’s. Coalgabra’s vormen de basis voor een wiskundig theorie van computersystemen. Met coalgabra’s kunnen systemen bestudeerd worden waartoe slechts beperkt toegang is, of waarvan de toestanden niet volledig bekend zijn. Dit heet het bla
Reduction of Many-valued into Two-valued Modal Logics
Majkic, Zoran
2011-01-01
In this paper we develop a 2-valued reduction of many-valued logics, into 2-valued multi-modal logics. Such an approach is based on the contextualization of many-valued logics with the introduction of higher-order Herbrand interpretation types, where we explicitly introduce the coexistence of a set of algebraic truth values of original many-valued logic, transformed as parameters (or possible worlds), and the set of classic two logic values. This approach is close to the approach used in annotated logics, but offers the possibility of using the standard semantics based on Herbrand interpretations. Moreover, it uses the properties of the higher-order Herbrand types, as their fundamental nature is based on autoreferential Kripke semantics where the possible worlds are algebraic truth-values of original many-valued logic. This autoreferential Kripke semantics, which has the possibility of flattening higher-order Herbrand interpretations into ordinary 2-valued Herbrand interpretations, gives us a clearer insight ...
Dynamic Order Algebras as an Axiomatization of Modal and Tense Logics
Chajda, Ivan; Paseka, Jan
2015-12-01
The aim of the paper is to introduce and describe tense operators in every propositional logic which is axiomatized by means of an algebra whose underlying structure is a bounded poset or even a lattice. We introduce the operators G, H, P and F without regard what propositional connectives the logic includes. For this we use the axiomatization of universal quantifiers as a starting point and we modify these axioms for our reasons. At first, we show that the operators can be recognized as modal operators and we study the pairs ( P, G) as the so-called dynamic order pairs. Further, we get constructions of these operators in the corresponding algebra provided a time frame is given. Moreover, we solve the problem of finding a time frame in the case when the tense operators are given. In particular, any tense algebra is representable in its Dedekind-MacNeille completion. Our approach is fully general, we do not relay on the logic under consideration and hence it is applicable in all the up to now known cases.
Accelerated Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval
Lam, Raymond K.; Ohara, Catherine M.; Green, Joseph J.; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa A.; Basinger, Scott A.; Redding, David C.; Shi, Fang
2011-01-01
The Modified Gerchberg-Saxton (MGS) algorithm is an image-based wavefront-sensing method that can turn any science instrument focal plane into a wavefront sensor. MGS characterizes optical systems by estimating the wavefront errors in the exit pupil using only intensity images of a star or other point source of light. This innovative implementation of MGS significantly accelerates the MGS phase retrieval algorithm by using stream-processing hardware on conventional graphics cards. Stream processing is a relatively new, yet powerful, paradigm to allow parallel processing of certain applications that apply single instructions to multiple data (SIMD). These stream processors are designed specifically to support large-scale parallel computing on a single graphics chip. Computationally intensive algorithms, such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), are particularly well suited for this computing environment. This high-speed version of MGS exploits commercially available hardware to accomplish the same objective in a fraction of the original time. The exploit involves performing matrix calculations in nVidia graphic cards. The graphical processor unit (GPU) is hardware that is specialized for computationally intensive, highly parallel computation. From the software perspective, a parallel programming model is used, called CUDA, to transparently scale multicore parallelism in hardware. This technology gives computationally intensive applications access to the processing power of the nVidia GPUs through a C/C++ programming interface. The AAMGS (Accelerated Adaptive MGS) software takes advantage of these advanced technologies, to accelerate the optical phase error characterization. With a single PC that contains four nVidia GTX-280 graphic cards, the new implementation can process four images simultaneously to produce a JWST (James Webb Space Telescope) wavefront measurement 60 times faster than the previous code.
Characterizing the NP-PSPACE Gap in the Satisfiability Problem for Modal Logic
2007-02-01
BEZHANISHVILI AND I. M. HODKINSON, All normal extensions of S5-squared are finitely axiomatizable, Studia Logica , 78 (2004), pp. 443–457. [3] P. BLACKBURN, M...complete, Studia Logica , 81 (2005), pp. 153–165. [11] M. C. NAGLE, The decidability of normal K5 logics, Journal of Symbolic Logic, 46 (1981), pp. 319–328
Levine, Shellie
2000-01-01
Describes a theory of a topology of awareness, in which higher levels organize reality through dialectical logic, whereas lower levels construct reality based on Aristotelian logic, binary oppositions, and experiencing entities as discreet and independent. Argues that metaphor, poetry, and narrative are linguistic tools that enable clients to…
Braüner, Torben
2011-01-01
Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....
Minimal semantics for transaction specifications in a multi-modal logic
Broersen, Jan; Feenstra, Remco; Wieringa, Roel
1996-01-01
This paper presents an extension of propositional dynamic database logic in which arbitrary database transactions can be specified declaratively. Typically, declaratively specified transactions are under-specified. Specifications are usually supplemented with a frame assumption about what does not c
On decidability and model checking for a first order modal logic for value-passing processes
薛锐; 林惠民
2003-01-01
A semantic interpretation of a first order extension of Hennessy-Milner logic for value-passing processes, named HML(FO), is presented. The semantics is based on symbolic transitiongraphs with assignment. It is shown that the satisfiability of the two-variable sub-logic HML(FO2) ofHML(FO) is decidable, and the complexity discussed. Finally, a decision procedure for model checkingthe value-passing processes with respect to HML(FO2) is obtained.
Conradie, W.; Goranko, Valentin; Vakarelov, D.
2009-01-01
In earlier papers we have introduced an algorithm, SQEMA, for computing first-order equivalents and proving canonicity of modal formulae. However, SQEMA is not complete with respect to the so called complex Sahlqvist formulae. In this paper we, first, introduce the class of complex inductive form...
Algorithmic correspondence and completeness in modal logic. V. Recursive extensions of SQEMA
Conradie, Willem; Goranko, Valentin; Vakarelov, Dimiter
2010-01-01
The previously introduced algorithm SQEMA computes first-order frame equivalents for modal formulae and also proves their canonicity. Here we extend SQEMA with an additional rule based on a recursive version of Ackermann's lemma, which enables the algorithm to compute local frame equivalents of m...
模糊模态逻辑中的永真式与准永真式%Tautologies and Quasi-Tautologies in Fuzzy Modal Logic
胡明娣; 王国俊
2009-01-01
Relationship between tautologies in fuzzy modal logic and valid formulas in basic modal logic is investigated. It is proved that modal tautologies are logically valid but not vice versa;Based on a class of continuous binary relations, the concept of quasi-tautology is introduced in fuzzy modal logic, basic properties of quasi-tautologies is obtained, and a class of tautologies and quasi-tautologies are constructed by means of theorems in the logic system￡~* .%研究了模糊模态逻辑中的永真式与基本模态逻辑中的有效公式之间的关系.证明了永真式一定是逻辑有效公式,但反之不真;在模糊模态逻辑中,针对一类重要的二元关系、即连续型二元关系引入了准永真式的概念,研究了准永真式的基本性质,并结合￡~*系统构造出了一类永真式和准永真式.
Expertise and reasoning with possibility: An explanation of modal logic and expert systems
Rochowiak, Daniel
1988-01-01
Recently systems of modal reasoning have been brought to the foreground of artificial intelligence studies. The intuitive idea of research efforts in this area is that in addition to the actual world in which sentences have certain truth values there are other worlds in which those sentences have different truth values. Such alternative worlds can be considered as possible worlds, and an agent may or may not have access to some or all of them. This approach to reasoning can be valuable in extending the expert system paradigm. Using the scheme of reasoning proposed by Toulmin, Reike and Janick and the modal system T, a scheme is proposed for expert reasoning that mitigates some of the criticisms raised by Schank and Nickerson.
An Interpretation of Belief Functions by means of a Probabilistic Multi-modal Logic
Dambreville, Frederic
2011-01-01
While belief functions may be seen formally as a generalization of probabilistic distributions, the question of the interactions between belief functions and probability is still an issue in practice. This question is difficult, since the contexts of use of these theory are notably different and the semantics behind these theories are not exactly the same. A prominent issue is increasingly regarded by the community, that is the management of the conflicting information. Recent works have introduced new rules for handling the conflict redistribution while combining belief functions. The notion of conflict, or its cancellation by an hypothesis of open world, seems by itself to prevent a direct interpretation of belief function in a probabilistic framework. This paper addresses the question of a probabilistic interpretation of belief functions. It first introduces and implements a theoretically grounded rule, which is in essence an adaptive conjunctive rule. It is shown, how this rule is derived from a logical i...
Complexity of validity for propositional dependence logics
Jonni Virtema
2014-01-01
We study the validity problem for propositional dependence logic, modal dependence logic and extended modal dependence logic. We show that the validity problem for propositional dependence logic is NEXPTIME-complete. In addition, we establish that the corresponding problem for modal dependence logic and extended modal dependence logic is NEXPTIME-hard and in NEXPTIME^NP.
Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard R.
2004-01-01
The dynamic modal logic DML is presented, featuring actions that change the interpretation of a propositional variable or a modality. The semantics is defined both in terms of modal structures and of labelled transition systems (Kripke models). The extension µDML with recursively defined actions aim
Quantitative Method for Multi-Value Modal Logics%多值模态逻辑的计量化方法
时慧娴; 王国俊
2012-01-01
在多值模态逻辑中构建了n-值模态模型及相应的语义理论,并指出这种语义是经典模态逻辑语义的推广.定义了n-型框架的概念,并在该框架下用归纳的方法构建了由模态公式诱导的局部化映射,给出公式的局部化真度的概念,并指出任意模态公式的局部化真度都可以转化为另一个不含模态词的公式在同一可能世界处的局部化真度.定义了模态公式的全局真度,并证明了当某模态公式不合模态词时,其全局真度与其在一般命题逻辑中的真度一致.%The concept of n-valued modal model for multi-value modal logics is introduced in this paper, and the corresponding semantics are constructed. The study points out this kind of semantics and generalizes the semantics for classical modal logics. The definition of (W,R)n-typed frame is presented, under which the localized mappings induced by modal formulae are constructed, and the concept of localized truth degree for modal formulae is introduced. It is obtained that the localized truth degree for any modal formula can be computed as the one for some modal formula without modalities in the same possible world. Based on these, the concept of global truth degree for modal formulae is introduced. It has been shown that whenever a modal formula contains no modalities, its global truth degree coincides with its truth degree in the common propositional logics.
Doberkat, Ernst-Erich
2009-01-01
Combining coalgebraic reasoning, stochastic systems and logic, this volume presents the principles of coalgebraic logic from a categorical perspective. Modal logics are also discussed, including probabilistic interpretations and an analysis of Kripke models.
WU Xia; SUN Jigui; LIN Hai; FENG Shasha
2005-01-01
Modal logics are good candidates for a formal theory of agents. The efficiency of reasoning method in modal logics is very important, because it determines whether or not the reasoning method can be widely used in systems based on agent. In this paper,we modify the extension rule theorem proving method we presented before, and then apply it to P-logic that is translated from modal logic by functional transformation. At last, we give the proof of its soundness and completeness.
Britz, K
2013-01-01
Full Text Available with a preference ordering on worlds in Kripke models. The resulting family of modal logics allow for the elegant expression of defeasible modalities. We also propose a tableau calculus which is sound and complete with respect to our preferential...
S.L. Uckelman
2009-01-01
The origins of treating agency as a modal concept go back at least to the 11th century when Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, provided a modal explication of the Latin facere ‘to do’, which can be formalized within the context of modern modal logic and neighborhood semantics. The agentive logic indu
Maria Nogin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider the topological interpretations of L□, the classical logic extended by a “box” operator □ interpreted as interior. We present extensions of S4 that are sound over some families of topological spaces, including particular point topological spaces, excluded point topological spaces, and quotient spaces of finite CW-complexes.
English Dynamic Modality for Logical Argumentation%英语动力情态语义与议论语篇逻辑生成
夏虹
2013-01-01
英语情态词语是必须把握但却最不容易把握的词汇语法项目之一。系统功能语言学情态意义更多是对句子层面人际功能的讨论，把情态语义被看成语篇主观化与主观性态度的标记，没有突出动力情态语义逻辑生成语篇的客观统一性。英语动力情态语法语义认知努力的客观性取向，在词汇和句法层面的表现很大程度上是虚化和弱化的。情态语义在语篇层次客观化和客观性的解释，可以实现和还原实化和强化的情态语义本身。加强议论语篇语法和议论文本模式研究，可以丰富英语议论语篇生成理论。%English modality in the weak meaning and form is not quite easy to be mastered in the comparison with other lexical grammar items. Epistemic modality is supported as objective orientation of logic indicatives in present argumentations which is even used to reveal and apply the strong meanings and forms of modality for computerized reproduction of English composition.
Discourse Preferences in Dynamic Logic
Jaspars, J; Jaspars, Jan; Kameyama, Megumi
1997-01-01
In order to enrich dynamic semantic theories with a `pragmatic' capacity, we combine dynamic and nonmonotonic (preferential) logics in a modal logic setting. We extend a fragment of Van Benthem and De Rijke's dynamic modal logic with additional preferential operators in the underlying static logic, which enables us to define defeasible (pragmatic) entailments over a given piece of discourse. We will show how this setting can be used for a dynamic logical analysis of preferential resolutions of ambiguous pronouns in discourse.
Constraint methods for modal satisfiability
Brand, S.; Gennari, R.; de Rijke, M.; Apt, K.R.; Fages, F.; Rossi, F.
2004-01-01
Modal and modal-like formalisms such as temporal or description logics go beyond propositional logic by introducing operators that allow for a guarded form of quantication over states or paths of transition systems. Thus, they are more expressive than propositional logic, yet computationally better
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria;
2014-01-01
Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....
Braüner, Torben
2011-01-01
Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...
Aiello, Marco; Bezhanishvili, Guram; Bloch, Isabelle
2012-01-01
of mathematical tools developed to represent and work with space. Here we take a special look at this evolution by considering the perspective of Logic. From the initial axiomatic efforts of Euclid, we revisit the major milestones in the logical representation of space and investigate current trends. In doing so......, we do not only consider classical logic, but we indulge ourselves with modal logics. These present themselves naturally by providing simple axiomatizations of different geometries, topologies, space-time causality, and vector spaces....
Mathematical logic for computer science
Zhong Wan Lu
1998-01-01
Mathematical logic is essentially related to computer science. This book describes the aspects of mathematical logic that are closely related to each other, including classical logic, constructive logic, and modal logic. This book is intended to attend to both the peculiarities of logical systems and the requirements of computer science.In this edition, the revisions essentially involve rewriting the proofs, increasing the explanations, and adopting new terms and notations.
An Adequate First Order Logic of Intervals
Chaochen, Zhou; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt
1998-01-01
This paper introduces left and right neighbourhoods as primitive interval modalities to define other unary and binary modalities of intervals in a first order logic with interval length. A complete first order logic for the neighbourhood modalities is presented. It is demonstrated how the logic c...
Modal Logics for Continuous Dynamics
1997-11-01
Translated by J. Jaworowski from the French 1958 edi- tion of Topologie , Volume 1, Polska Akademia Nauk Monografie Matem- atyczne, Tom 21 (Paristwowe...Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1992), 641-761. [Ta38] Alfred Tarski, "Der Aussagenkalkül und die Topologie ", Fundamenta Mathematicae 31 (1938) 103-134
Simultaneous Mars Express / MGS observations of plasma near Mars
Brain, D.; Luhmann, J.; Halekas, J.; Frahm, R.; Winningham, D.; Barabash, S.
2006-12-01
Since late 2003, Mars Express (MEX) and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) have been making complementary in situ measurements (in terms of both instrument and orbit) of the Martian plasma environment. Study of MGS and MEX data in tandem provides an opportunity to mitigate the shortcomings of each dataset and increase our overall understanding of the Martian solar wind interaction and atmospheric escape. Close passes of spacecraft (conjunctions) are one particularly powerful means of increasing the utility of measurements, as evidenced by the Cluster mission at Earth. At Mars, conjunctions might be used to obtain more complete simultaneous and/or co-located plasma measurements, which can be used to study a variety of phenomena, including measurements of auroral-like particle acceleration near crustal fields and the three-dimensional motion and shape of plasma boundaries. We will present an analysis of approximately forty conjunctions (instances with instantaneous spacecraft separation smaller than 400 km) of MEX and MGS identified between January 2004 and February 2006. The closest pass was ~40~km, near the South Pole. Conjunctions occur both at mid-latitudes (when the surface-projected orbit tracks of the two spacecraft nearly overlap), and at the poles. We will present comparisons of MEX Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) data with MGS Magnetometer and Electron Reflectometer (MAG/ER) data for these events. Our case studies include intercomparison of MEX and MGS electron data, the addition of MGS magnetic field and MEX ion data, and the inclusion of solar wind proxy information to establish context. In addition to these close conjunctions, we will present the preliminary results of a search for times when MEX and MGS pass through the same region of space separated by a delay (for time evolution of plasma populations in certain regions), and times when they occupy the same flux tube (for spatial evolution of particle distributions). Continued study of
Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
2012-01-01
Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates of the ...
Dynamic Logics of Dynamical Systems
Platzer, André
2012-01-01
We survey dynamic logics for specifying and verifying properties of dynamical systems, including hybrid systems, distributed hybrid systems, and stochastic hybrid systems. A dynamic logic is a first-order modal logic with a pair of parametrized modal operators for each dynamical system to express necessary or possible properties of their transition behavior. Due to their full basis of first-order modal logic operators, dynamic logics can express a rich variety of system properties, including safety, controllability, reactivity, liveness, and quantified parametrized properties, even about relations between multiple dynamical systems. In this survey, we focus on some of the representatives of the family of differential dynamic logics, which share the ability to express properties of dynamical systems having continuous dynamics described by various forms of differential equations. We explain the dynamical system models, dynamic logics of dynamical systems, their semantics, their axiomatizations, and proof calcul...
Lopez, Hugo Andres; Carbone, Marco; Hildebrandt, Thomas
2010-01-01
We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for speciﬁcation and veriﬁcation of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL...... ), a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service speciﬁcations. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a signiﬁcant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof...
Carbone, Marco; Hildebrandt, Thomas T; López, Hugo A; 10.4204/EPTCS.69.3
2011-01-01
We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for specification and verification of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL), a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service specifications. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a significant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof system for checking validity of formulae.
Marco Carbone
2011-10-01
Full Text Available We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for specification and verification of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL, a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service specifications. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a significant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof system for checking validity of formulae.
Wansing, Heinrich; Willkommen, Caroline; Recent Trends in Philosophical Logic
2014-01-01
This volume presents recent advances in philosophical logic with chapters focusing on non-classical logics, including paraconsistent logics, substructural logics, modal logics of agency and other modal logics. The authors cover themes such as the knowability paradox, tableaux and sequent calculi, natural deduction, definite descriptions, identity, truth, dialetheism, and possible worlds semantics. The developments presented here focus on challenging problems in the specification of fundamental philosophical notions, as well as presenting new techniques and tools, thereby contributing to the development of the field. Each chapter contains a bibliography, to assist the reader in making connections in the specific areas covered. Thus this work provides both a starting point for further investigations into philosophical logic and an update on advances, techniques and applications in a dynamic field. The chapters originate from papers presented during the Trends in Logic XI conference at the Ruhr University ...
Toward predicate approaches to modality
Stern, Johannes
2016-01-01
In this volume, the author investigates and argues for, a particular answer to the question: What is the right way to logically analyze modalities from natural language within formal languages? The answer is: by formalizing modal expressions in terms of predicates. But, as in the case of truth, the most intuitive modal principles lead to paradox once the modal notions are conceived as predicates. The book discusses the philosophical interpretation of these modal paradoxes and argues that any satisfactory approach to modality will have to face the paradoxes independently of the grammatical category of the modal notion. By systematizing modal principles with respect to their joint consistency and inconsistency, Stern provides an overview of the options and limitations of the predicate approach to modality that may serve as a useful starting point for future work on predicate approaches to modality. Stern also develops a general strategy for constructing philosophically attractive theories of modal notions conce...
Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer
A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students......A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students...
Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
2012-01-01
Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates...... characterizes stochastic bisimilarity and it supports the definition of a quantified extension of the satisfiability relation that measures the "compatibility" between a model and a property. In this context, the metaproperties allows us to prove two robustness theorems for the logic stating that one can...
Metaphysical Modality, Modality of Predicate and the Theory of
l nabavi
2010-05-01
This paper discusses the historical overview of the metaphysical modality firstly and then shows that the theory of "Decisive Necessity” is true and justified in a model of modal logic with equivalent accessibility relation and homogeneous possible world view (fixed domain.
Rocksalt MgS solar blind ultra-violet detectors
Ying-Hoi Lai
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Studies using in-situ Auger electron spectroscopy and reflection high energy electron diffraction, and ex-situ high resolution X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction reveal that a MgS thin film grown directly on a GaAs (100 substrate by molecular beam epitaxy adopts its most stable phase, the rocksalt structure, with a lattice constant of 5.20 Å. A Au/MgS/n+-GaAs (100 Schottky-barrier photodiode was fabricated and its room temperature photoresponse was measured to have a sharp fall-off edge at 235 nm with rejection of more than three orders at 400 nm and higher than five orders at 500 nm, promising for various solar-blind UV detection applications.
Reasoning About Space : The Modal Way
Aiello, Marco; Benthem, Johan van; Bezhanishvili, Guram
2003-01-01
We investigate the topological interpretation of modal logic in modern terms, using a new notion of bisimulation. We look at modal logics with interesting topological content, presenting, among others, a new proof of McKinsey and Tarski's theorem on completeness of S4 with respect to the real line,
Aslan, N.; Canbazoglu, M.; Ulusoy, U. [Cumhuriyet Universitesi, Sivas (Turkey). Maden Muhendisligi Bolumu
1999-07-01
Washability and ash removal from Gemerek lignite in a multi gravity separator (MGS) were investigated. Experimental studies were carried out on -0.5 mm coal samples containing 37.75% ash in a laboratory C-900 type MGS. Drum speed, shake amplitude, tilt angle, shake frequency, wash water quantity and feed solid ratio were investigated. Optimum operating conditions were determined. 8 refs., 7 figs.
Linear contextual modal type theory
Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten
Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that giv...... a mathematical account of the nature of logic variables. Our type theory is conservative over intuitionistic contextual modal type theory proposed by Nanevski, Pfenning, and Pientka. Our main contributions include a mechanically checked proof of soundness and a working implementation....
The conduction bands of MgO, MgS and HfO2
Boer, P.K. de; Groot, R.A. de
1998-01-01
Electronic structure calculations for MgO, MgS and HfO2 are reported. It is shown that the conduction bands of MgO and MgS have predominantly anion character, contrary to the common picture of the conduction band being derived from cation states. In transition metal oxides, unoccupied anion states a
Greek, Indian and Arabic logic
Gabbay, Dov M
2004-01-01
Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic marks the initial appearance of the multi-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. Additional volumes will be published when ready, rather than in strict chronological order. Soon to appear are The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege. Also in preparation are Logic From Russell to Gödel, Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century, and The Many-Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic. Further volumes will follow, including Mediaeval and Renaissance Logic and Logic: A History of its Central. In designing the Handbook of the History of Logic, the Editors have taken the view that the history of logic holds more than an antiquarian interest, and that a knowledge of logic's rich and sophisticated development is, in various respects, relevant to the research programmes of the present day. Ancient logic is no exception. The present volume attests to the distant origins of some of modern logic's most important features, such as can be found in the claim by the authors of t...
Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham
2000-01-01
Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...
Admissibility of logical inference rules
Rybakov, VV
1997-01-01
The aim of this book is to present the fundamental theoretical results concerning inference rules in deductive formal systems. Primary attention is focused on: admissible or permissible inference rules the derivability of the admissible inference rules the structural completeness of logics the bases for admissible and valid inference rules. There is particular emphasis on propositional non-standard logics (primary, superintuitionistic and modal logics) but general logical consequence relations and classical first-order theories are also considered. The book is basically self-contained and
MgS in detached shells around carbon stars. Mining the mass-loss history
Hony, S
2004-01-01
We investigate the dust composition of detached shells around carbon stars, with a focus to understand the origin of the cool magnesium-sulfide (MgS) material around warm carbon stars, which has been detected around several of these objects. We build a radiative transfer model of a carbon star surrounded by an expanding detached shell of dust. The shell contains amorphous carbon grains and MgS grains. We find that a small fraction of MgS dust (2% of the dust mass) can give a significant contribution to the IRAS 25 micron flux. However, the presence of MgS in the detached shell cannot be inferred from the IRAS broadband photometry alone but requires infrared spectroscopy. We apply the model to the detached-shell sources R Scl and U Cam, both exhibiting a cool MgS feature in their ISO/SWS spectra. We use the shell parameters derived for the molecular shell, using the CO submillimetre maps. The models, with MgS grains located in the detached shell, explain the MgS grain temperature, as derived from their ISO spe...
What Modals Are: Modal Verbs, Modal Words, and Auxiliary Modals
Fazira A. Kakzhanova
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The modals are a complicated grammatical phenomenon. As of today, the status of modals is still not precisely defined in the linguistics literature, and they are described under different names: modal verbs, modal words, auxiliary modals, or defective verbs. Modals express the result of the conversion of thought processes (deep structure about the realization of actions into surface structure. As articles determine the status of nouns as indefinite or definite things, modals determine the relation of a person to actions or the quality of an action as realizable or unrealizable. Modals cannot truly be ‘modal verbs’, because they lack the morphological characteristics of verbs (aspect, voice, mood, and tense, and the term ‘defective verb’ is flawed for the same reason. Furthermore, they cannot be ‘auxiliary modals’, because they don’t neutralize their main meanings when they become auxiliary. Thus, I propose to refer to these elements only as modals or modal words.
A predicate spatial logic for mobile processes
LIN Huimin
2004-01-01
A modal logic for describing temporal as well as spatial properties of mobile processes, expressed in the asynchronous π-calculus, is presented. The logic has recursive constructs built upon predicate-variables. The semantics of the logic is established and shown to be monotonic, thus guarantees the existence of fixpoints. An algorithm is developed to automatically check if a mobile process has properties described as formulas in the logic. The correctness of the algorithm is proved.
Rebuschi, Manuel
2009-01-01
One of the highlights of recent informal epistemology is its growing theoretical emphasis upon various notions of context. The present paper addresses the connections between knowledge and context within a formal approach. To this end, a "contextual epistemic logic", CEL, is proposed, which consists of an extension of standard S5 epistemic modal logic with appropriate reduction axioms to deal with an extra contextual operator. We describe the axiomatics and supply both a Kripkean and a dialogical semantics for CEL. An illustration of how it may fruitfully be applied to informal epistemological matters is provided.
The Inverse Method Application for Non-Classical Logics
Pavlov, V.; Paky, V.
2015-01-01
Maslov’s inverse method is an automated theorem proving method: it can be used to develop computer programs that prove theorems automatically (such programs are called theorem provers). The inverse method can be applied to a wide range of logical calculi: propositional logic, ﬁrst-order logic, intuitionistic logic, modal logics etc. We give a brief historical background of the inverse method, then discuss existing modiﬁcations and implementations of the inverse method for non-classical logics...
Smullyan, Raymond
2008-01-01
This book features a unique approach to the teaching of mathematical logic by putting it in the context of the puzzles and paradoxes of common language and rational thought. It serves as a bridge from the author's puzzle books to his technical writing in the fascinating field of mathematical logic. Using the logic of lying and truth-telling, the author introduces the readers to informal reasoning preparing them for the formal study of symbolic logic, from propositional logic to first-order logic, a subject that has many important applications to philosophy, mathematics, and computer science. T
Kleene, Stephen Cole
2002-01-01
Undergraduate students with no prior instruction in mathematical logic will benefit from this multi-part text. Part I offers an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order. Part II introduces some of the newer ideas and the more profound results of logical research in the 20th century. 1967 edition.
Extending Modal Transition Systems with Structured Labels
Bauer, Sebastian S.; Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand
2012-01-01
We introduce a novel formalism of label-structured modal transition systems that combines the classical may/must modalities on transitions with structured labels that represent quantitative aspects of the model. On the one hand, the specification formalism is general enough to include models like...... study modal and thorough refinement, determinization, parallel composition, conjunction, quotient, and logical characterization of label-structured modal transition systems....
Impossible Worlds and Logical Omniscience
Bjerring, Jens Christian Krarup
2013-01-01
the use of impossible worlds where the truths of logic can be false. As we shall see, if we admit impossible worlds where “anything goes” in modal space, it is easy to model extremely non-ideal agents that are incapable of performing even the most elementary logical deductions. A much harder...... falsehoods, they are nevertheless able to rule out blatantly impossible worlds that verify obvious logical falsehoods. To model moderately ideal agents, I argue, the job is to construct a modal space that contains only possible and non-trivially impossible worlds where it is not the case that “anything goes......In this paper, I investigate whether we can use a world-involving framework to model the epistemic states of non-ideal agents. The standard possible-world framework falters in this respect because of a commitment to logical omniscience. A familiar attempt to overcome this problem centers around...
A Modal-Logic Based Graph Abstraction
Bauer, J.; Boneva, I.B.; Kurban, M.E.; Rensink, A.; Ehrig, H.; Heckel, R.; Rozenberg, G.; Taentzer, G.
2008-01-01
Infinite or very large state spaces often prohibit the successful verification of graph transformation systems. Abstract graph transformation is an approach that tackles this problem by abstracting graphs to abstract graphs of bounded size and by lifting application of productions to abstract graphs
Sweet reason a field guide to modern logic
Henle, James M; Tymoczko, Thomas; Altreuter, Emily
2011-01-01
Sweet Reason: A Field Guide to Modern Logic, 2nd Edition offers an innovative, friendly, and effective introduction to logic. It integrates formal first order, modal, and non-classical logic with natural language reasoning, analytical writing, critical thinking, set theory, and the philosophy of logic and mathematics.An innovative introduction to the field of logic designed to entertain as it informsIntegrates formal first order, modal, and non-classical logic with natural language reasoning, analytical writing, critical thinking, set theory, and the philosophy of
Towards a formal logic of design rationalization
Galle, Per
1997-01-01
Certain extensions to standard predicate logic are proposed and used as a framework for critical logical study of patterns of inference in design reasoning. It is shown that within this framework a modal logic of design rationalization (suggested by an empirical study reported earlier) can...... be formally defined in terms of quantification over a universe of discourse of ‘relevant points of view’. Five basic principles of the extended predicate logic are listed, on the basis of which the validity of ten modal patterns of inference encountered in design rationalization is tested. The basic idea...... of reducing modality to quantification is traced back to the philosophy of von Wright, and the approach is compared to that of related work on logic in design....
Tugué, Tosiyuki; Slaman, Theodore
1989-01-01
These proceedings include the papers presented at the logic meeting held at the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, in the summer of 1987. The meeting mainly covered the current research in various areas of mathematical logic and its applications in Japan. Several lectures were also presented by logicians from other countries, who visited Japan in the summer of 1987.
Bridging learning theory and dynamic epistemic logic
Gierasimczuk, N.
2009-01-01
This paper discusses the possibility of modelling inductive inference (Gold 1967) in dynamic epistemic logic (see e.g. van Ditmarsch et al. 2007). The general purpose is to propose a semantic basis for designing a modal logic for learning in the limit. First, we analyze a variety of epistemological
Fibred Coalgebraic Logic and Quantum Protocols
Daniel Marsden
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Motivated by applications in modelling quantum systems using coalgebraic techniques, we introduce a fibred coalgebraic logic. Our approach extends the conventional predicate lifting semantics with additional modalities relating conditions on different fibres. As this fibred setting will typically involve multiple signature functors, the logic incorporates a calculus of modalities enabling the construction of new modalities using various composition operations. We extend the semantics of coalgebraic logic to this setting, and prove that this extension respects behavioural equivalence. We show how properties of the semantics of modalities are preserved under composition operations, and then apply the calculational aspect of our logic to produce an expressive set of modalities for reasoning about quantum systems, building these modalities up from simpler components. We then demonstrate how these modalities can describe some standard quantum protocols. The novel features of our logic are shown to allow for a uniform description of unitary evolution, and support local reasoning such as "Alice's qubit satisfies condition" as is common when discussing quantum protocols.
2014-10-03
that must be woven into proofs of security statements. 03-10-2014 Memorandum Report Logic System-on-a-Chip Distributed systems 9888 ASDR&EAssistant...can be removed without damaging the logic. For all propositional letters p, E1. p ⊃ [r] p From now on, a distributed logic contains at least the...a ∈ x iff 〈h〉 ∈ x. These same definitions work for the canonical relation R for r : h y k where now a ∈ MA(k), [r] a, 〈r〉 a ∈ MA(h), x ∈ CF(h), and
Fuzzy Versions of Epistemic and Deontic Logic
Gounder, Ramasamy S.; Esterline, Albert C.
1998-01-01
Epistemic and deontic logics are modal logics, respectively, of knowledge and of the normative concepts of obligation, permission, and prohibition. Epistemic logic is useful in formalizing systems of communicating processes and knowledge and belief in AI (Artificial Intelligence). Deontic logic is useful in computer science wherever we must distinguish between actual and ideal behavior, as in fault tolerance and database integrity constraints. We here discuss fuzzy versions of these logics. In the crisp versions, various axioms correspond to various properties of the structures used in defining the semantics of the logics. Thus, any axiomatic theory will be characterized not only by its axioms but also by the set of properties holding of the corresponding semantic structures. Fuzzy logic does not proceed with axiomatic systems, but fuzzy versions of the semantic properties exist and can be shown to correspond to some of the axioms for the crisp systems in special ways that support dependency networks among assertions in a modal domain. This in turn allows one to implement truth maintenance systems. For the technical development of epistemic logic, and for that of deontic logic. To our knowledge, we are the first to address fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic explicitly and to consider the different systems and semantic properties available. We give the syntax and semantics of epistemic logic and discuss the correspondence between axioms of epistemic logic and properties of semantic structures. The same topics are covered for deontic logic. Fuzzy epistemic and fuzzy deontic logic discusses the relationship between axioms and semantic properties for these logics. Our results can be exploited in truth maintenance systems.
Modalne argumenty teistyczne (Modal Theistic Arguments
Graham Oppy
2011-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of Oppy’s paper is to provide a general ground for rejecting all kinds of modal theistic arguments. The author claims that all such arguments are questionbegging – before proving the existence of God (defined as a being which exists in every possible world theistic modalist must assume it when choosing his account of logical space (no matter which modal theory it relies on: Lewis’ modal realism, ersatz modal realism, combinatorialism or fictionalism. Two concrete arguments, Plantinga’s ontological argument and Leftow’s cosmological argument, are examples given by Oppy – both have premises which justification must refer to a non-modal question “Does God actually exist?”, concerning the nature of logical space.Oppy rejects suggestion that problems with modal theistic arguments show that there is simply something wrong with our standard modal analyses in terms of possible worlds. According to Oppy, problems with higher-level judgments about the nature of logical space are problems with propositional attitudes, not with modality, andthey need an analysis distinct from the analysis of ground-level modal judgments.
Lengyel, Florian
2012-01-01
We define Denial Logic DL, a system of justification logic that models an agent whose justified beliefs are false, who cannot avow his own propositional attitudes and who can believe contradictions but not tautologies of classical propositional logic. Using Artemov's natural semantics for justification logic JL, in which justifications are interpreted as sets of formulas, we provide an inductive construction of models of DL, and prove soundness and completeness results for DL. Some logical notions developed for JL, such as constant specifications and the internalization property, are inconsistent with DL. This leads us to define negative constant specifications for DL, which can be used to model agents with justified false beliefs. Denial logic can therefore be relevant to philosophical skepticism. We use DL with what we call coherent negative constant specifications to model a Putnamian brain in a vat with the justified false belief that it is not a brain in a vat, and derive a model of JL in which "I am a b...
Dependence logic theory and applications
Kontinen, Juha; Väänänen, Jouko; Vollmer, Heribert
2016-01-01
In this volume, different aspects of logics for dependence and independence are discussed, including both the logical and computational aspects of dependence logic, and also applications in a number of areas, such as statistics, social choice theory, databases, and computer security. The contributing authors represent leading experts in this relatively new field, each of whom was invited to write a chapter based on talks given at seminars held at the Schloss Dagstuhl Leibniz Center for Informatics in Wadern, Germany (in February 2013 and June 2015) and an Academy Colloquium at the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (March 2014). Altogether, these chapters provide the most up-to-date look at this developing and highly interdisciplinary field and will be of interest to a broad group of logicians, mathematicians, statisticians, philosophers, and scientists. Topics covered include a comprehensive survey of many propositional, modal, and first-order variants of dependence logic; new results concerning ...
CIFOL: Case-intensional first order logic. (I) Toward a theory of sorts
Belnap, Nuel; Müller, Thomas
2012-01-01
This is Part I of a two-part essay introducing case-intensional ﬁrst-order logic (CIFOL), an easy-to-use, uniform, powerful, and useful combination of ﬁrst order logic with modal logic resulting from philosophical and technical modiﬁcations of Bressan’s General interpreted modal calculus (Yale Unive
Hongsheng QI; Daizhan CHENG
2008-01-01
This paper gives a matrix expression of logic. Under the matrix expression, a general description of the logical operators is proposed. Using the semi-tensor product of matrices, the proofs of logical equivalences, implications, etc., can be simplified a lot. Certain general properties are revealed. Then, based on matrix expression, the logical operators are extended to multi-valued logic, which provides a foundation for fuzzy logical inference. Finally, we propose a new type of logic, called mix-valued logic, and a new design technique, called logic-based fuzzy control. They provide a numerically computable framework for the application of fuzzy logic for the control of fuzzy systems.
Analysis on Modals and Semi-Modals
陈力
2014-01-01
The modal is a type of auxiliary verb that is used to indicate modality. There are thirteen modal auxiliaries including some past tense forms. In this paper, the modals and semi-modals will be studied through analyzing fifteen sample sentences and referring some grammar books. At last, some suggestions for ESL or ESL teacher to teach modals will be provided.
Zadeh, Lofti A.
1988-01-01
The author presents a condensed exposition of some basic ideas underlying fuzzy logic and describes some representative applications. The discussion covers basic principles; meaning representation and inference; basic rules of inference; and the linguistic variable and its application to fuzzy control.
Complexity of Non-Monotonic Logics
Thomas, Michael
2010-01-01
Over the past few decades, non-monotonic reasoning has developed to be one of the most important topics in computational logic and artificial intelligence. Different ways to introduce non-monotonic aspects to classical logic have been considered, e.g., extension with default rules, extension with modal belief operators, or modification of the semantics. In this survey we consider a logical formalism from each of the above possibilities, namely Reiter's default logic, Moore's autoepistemic logic and McCarthy's circumscription. Additionally, we consider abduction, where one is not interested in inferences from a given knowledge base but in computing possible explanations for an observation with respect to a given knowledge base. Complexity results for different reasoning tasks for propositional variants of these logics have been studied already in the nineties. In recent years, however, a renewed interest in complexity issues can be observed. One current focal approach is to consider parameterized problems and ...
Metaphysical Modality, Modality of Predicate and the Theory of "Decisive Necessity”
L. Nabavi
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Aristotle in the Organon (1949: 9,30 a ,15-19 explicitly states that in a categorical syllogism when the minor premise is absolute (without modality operator and the major is necessary, the conclusion will be necessary too. This Aristotle's view has been the source of many conflicts and disputes in the history of logic. The famous logicians and historians of logic in the twentieth century as "Nicholas Rescher" and "Becker" believe that Aristotle's view is justifiable and defensible (at least compared to the first figure only if, the modality of major premise is considered as the property of predicate (modality de re. Today, we know very well that the modality of predicate is closely linked to Metaphysical and philosophical Modality. “Shihab al-Din al- Suhrawardi” in the theory of "Decisive (Battateh Necessity” by accepting this base, explicitly states that, in the beginning, the modality must be mentioned as a part of the predicate and then the modality of relation or copula is summarized and reduced to necessity. The modern formalization of the most important part of this theory is as follows: ("x (àAx É à Bx º ("x □ (àAx É à BxThis paper discusses the historical overview of the metaphysical modality firstly and then shows that the theory of "Decisive Necessity” is true and justified in a model of modal logic with equivalent accessibility relation and homogeneous possible world view (fixed domain.
Tableau-based decision procedures for logics of strategic ability in multi-agent systems
Goranko, Valentin
2008-01-01
We develop decision procedures based on sound, complete, and terminating incremental tableaux for the satisfiability problem of the Alternating-time temporal logic ATL and related modal logics for reasoning about abilities of agents in multiagent systems.
Controversies about the Introduction of Non-Classical Logics
Angel Garrido
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Logic is a set of well-formed formulae, along with an inference relation. But the Classical Logic is bivalent; for this reason, very limited to solve problems with uncertainty on the data. It is well-known that Artificial Intelligence requires Logic. Because its Classical version shows too many insufficiencies, it is very necessary to introduce more sophisticated tools, as may be Non-Classical Logics; amongst them, Fuzzy Logic, Modal Logic, Non-Monotonic Logic, Para-consistent Logic, and so on. All them in the same line: against the dogmatism and the dualistic vision of the world: absolutely true vs. absolutely false, black vs. white, good or bad by nature, Yes vs. No, 0 vs.1, Full vs. Empty, etc. We attempt to analyze here some of these very interesting Classical andmodern Non-Classical Logics.
林作铨; 李未
1995-01-01
Parametric logic is introduced. The language, semantics and axiom system of parametric logic are defined. Completeness theorem of parametric logic is provided. Parametric logic has formal ability powerful enough to capture a wide class of logic as its special cases, and therefore can be viewed as a uniform basis for modern logics.
Malcolm, Norman; Altuner, Ilyas
2015-01-01
The paper deals exclusively with the doctrine called ‘Logical Behaviorism’. Although this position does not vogue it enjoyed in the 1930s and 1940s, it will always possess a compelling attraction for anyone who is perplexed by the psychological concepts, who has become aware of worthlessness of an appeal to introspection as an account of how we learn those concepts, and he has no inclination to identify mind with brain. There, of course, are other forms of behaviorism, and of reductionism, wh...
The interpretability logic of all reasonable arithmetical theories
Joosten, J.J.; Visser, A.
2008-01-01
This paper is a presentation of a status quæstionis, to wit of the problem of the interpretability logic of all reasonable arithmetical theories. We present both the arithmetical side and the modal side of the question.
A logic for specifying stochastic actions and observations
Rens, G
2014-03-01
Full Text Available We present a logic inspired by partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) theory for specifying agent domains where the agent's actuators and sensors are noisy (causing uncertainty). The language features modalities for actions...
The Gravity Field of Mars From MGS, Mars Odyssey, and MRO Radio Science
Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
2015-01-01
The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) missions have enabled NASA to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit for sixteen consecutive years. These radio systems on these spacecraft enabled radio science in orbit around Mars to improve the knowledge of the static structure of the Martian gravitational field. The continuity of the radio tracking data, which cover more than a solar cycle, also provides useful information to characterize the temporal variability of the gravity field, relevant to the planet's internal dynamics and the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere [1]. MGS operated for more than 7 years, between 1999 and 2006, in a frozen sun-synchronous, near-circular, polar orbit with the periapsis at approximately 370 km altitude. ODY and MRO have been orbiting Mars in two separate sun-synchronous orbits at different local times and altitudes. ODY began its mapping phase in 2002 with the periapis at approximately 390 km altitude and 4-5pm Local Solar Time (LST), whereas the MRO science mission started in November 2006 with the periapis at approximately 255 km altitude and 3pm LST. The 16 years of radio tracking data provide useful information on the atmospheric density in the Martian upper atmosphere. We used ODY and MRO radio data to recover the long-term periodicity of the major atmospheric constituents -- CO2, O, and He -- at the orbit altitudes of these two spacecraft [2]. The improved atmospheric model provides a better prediction of the annual and semi-annual variability of the dominant species. Therefore, the inclusion of the recovered model leads to improved orbit determination and an improved gravity field model of Mars with MGS, ODY, and MRO radio tracking data.
A LOGIC OF SPATIAL QUALIFICATION USING QUALITATIVE REASONING APPROACH
B. O. Akinkunmi
2014-03-01
Full Text Available specific aspect of qualification problem that deals with knowing the possibility of an agent’s presence at a specific location at a particular time as a qualification for carrying out an action or be participant in an event given its known location antecedents. A quantified modal logic was presented for reasoning with this problem. Logical axioms based on qualitative reasoning for inferring the possibility of an agent’s presence at a certain location and time were presented. A formal semantics that clarified the fact that our first order modal logic is a fixed domain logic was also presented. The resulting spatial qualification model was compared with existing S4 and S5 modal systems. The logic was seen to have all the properties of the S4 system but failed to satisfy axiom B in S5 system.
The Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Link Experiment (MGS/KaBLE-II)
Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.
1999-01-01
The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4-GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-m-diameter parabolic antenna on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) research and development (R&D) 34-meter a ntenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. This Ka-band link experiment (KaBLE-II) allows the performances of the Ka-band and X-band signals to be compared under nearly identical conditions. The two signals have been regularly tracked during the past 2 years. This article presents carrier-signal-level data (P_c/N_o) for both X-band and Ka-band acquired over a wide range of station elevation angles, weather conditions, and solar elongation angles. The cruise phase of the mission covered the period from launch (November 7, 1996) to Mars orbit capture (September 12, 1997). Since September 12, 1997, MGS has been in orbit around Mars. The measurements confirm that Ka-band could increase data capacity by at least a factor of three (5 dB) as compared with X-band. During May 1998, the solar corona experiment, in which the effects of solar plasma on the X-band and Ka-band links were studied, was conducted. In addition, frequency and difference frequency (f_x - f_(Ka)/3.8), ranging, and telemetry data results are presented. MGS/KaBLE-II measured signal strengths (for 54 percent of the experiments conducted) that were in reasonable agreement with predicted values based on preflight knowledge, and frequency residuals that agreed between bands and whose statistics were consistent with expected noise sources. For passes in which measured signal strengths disagreed with predicted values, the problems were traced to known deficiencies, for example, equipment operating under certain conditions, such as a cold Ka-band solid-state power amplifier (SSPA
The Complexity of Reasoning for Fragments of Autoepistemic Logic
Creignou, Nadia; Thomas, Michael; Vollmer, Heribert
2010-01-01
Autoepistemic logic extends propositional logic by the modal operator L. A formula that is preceded by an L is said to be "believed". The logic was introduced by Moore 1985 for modeling an ideally rational agent's behavior and reasoning about his own beliefs. In this paper we analyze all Boolean fragments of autoepistemic logic with respect to the computational complexity of the three most common decision problems expansion existence, brave reasoning and cautious reasoning. As a second contribution we classify the computational complexity of counting the number of stable expansions of a given knowledge base. To the best of our knowledge this is the first paper analyzing the counting problem for autoepistemic logic.
An interval logic for higher-level temporal reasoning
Schwartz, R. L.; Melliar-Smith, P. M.; Vogt, F. H.; Plaisted, D. A.
1983-01-01
Prior work explored temporal logics, based on classical modal logics, as a framework for specifying and reasoning about concurrent programs, distributed systems, and communications protocols, and reported on efforts using temporal reasoning primitives to express very high level abstract requirements that a program or system is to satisfy. Based on experience with those primitives, this report describes an Interval Logic that is more suitable for expressing such higher level temporal properties. The report provides a formal semantics for the Interval Logic, and several examples of its use. A description of decision procedures for the logic is also included.
Modal Indicators for Operational Modal Identification
Zhang, L.; Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.
2001-01-01
Modal validation is of paramount importance for all two-stage time domain modal identification algorithms. However, due to a higher noise/signal ratio in operational/ambient modal analysis, being able to determine the right model order and to distinguish between structural modes and computational...... modes become more significant than in traditional modal analysis. The two major modal indicators, i.e. Modal Confidence Factor (MCF) and Modal Amplitude Coherence (MAmC) are extended to two-stage time domain modal identification algorithms, together with a newly developed indicator, named as Modal...... Participation Indicator (MPI). The application of the three indicators is illustrated on different cases of operational/ambient modal identification. Three major time domain modal identification algorithms are used the Polyreference Complex Exponential (PRCE), Extended Ibrahim Time Domain (EITD), Eigensystem...
Carlton, David Bryan
The exponential improvements in speed, energy efficiency, and cost that the computer industry has relied on for growth during the last 50 years are in danger of ending within the decade. These improvements all have relied on scaling the size of the silicon-based transistor that is at the heart of every modern CPU down to smaller and smaller length scales. However, as the size of the transistor reaches scales that are measured in the number of atoms that make it up, it is clear that this scaling cannot continue forever. As a result of this, there has been a great deal of research effort directed at the search for the next device that will continue to power the growth of the computer industry. However, due to the billions of dollars of investment that conventional silicon transistors have received over the years, it is unlikely that a technology will emerge that will be able to beat it outright in every performance category. More likely, different devices will possess advantages over conventional transistors for certain applications and uses. One of these emerging computing platforms is nanomagnetic logic (NML). NML-based circuits process information by manipulating the magnetization states of single-domain nanomagnets coupled to their nearest neighbors through magnetic dipole interactions. The state variable is magnetization direction and computations can take place without passing an electric current. This makes them extremely attractive as a replacement for conventional transistor-based computing architectures for certain ultra-low power applications. In most work to date, nanomagnetic logic circuits have used an external magnetic clocking field to reset the system between computations. The clocking field is then subsequently removed very slowly relative to the magnetization dynamics, guiding the nanomagnetic logic circuit adiabatically into its magnetic ground state. In this dissertation, I will discuss the dynamics behind this process and show that it is greatly
小雨
2006-01-01
A teacher was giving her pu- pils a lesson on logic(逻辑)．“Here is the situation(情景),”she said,“a man is stand- ing up in a boat in the middle of a river,fishing．He loses his bal- ance(平衡),falls in,and begins splashing(泼水)and yelling(叫喊)for help．His wife hears the commotion(喧闹),knows that he can’t swim,and runs down to the bank (河岸)．Why did she run to the bank?” A girl raised her hand and asked,“To draw out(提取)all of his savings(存款)．”
A Decidable Recursive Logic for Weighted Transition Systems
Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian
2014-01-01
In this paper we develop and study the Recursive Weighted Logic (RWL), a multi-modal logic that expresses qualitative and quantitative properties of labelled weighted transition systems (LWSs). LWSs are transition systems labelled with actions and real-valued quantities representing the costs of ...
Paraconsistent Computational Logic
Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen
2012-01-01
In classical logic everything follows from inconsistency and this makes classical logic problematic in areas of computer science where contradictions seem unavoidable. We describe a many-valued paraconsistent logic, discuss the truth tables and include a small case study....
Eskolemization in intuitionistic logic
Baaz, Matthias; Iemhoff, R.
In [2] an alternative skolemization method called eskolemization was introduced that is sound and complete for existence logic with respect to existential quantifiers. Existence logic is a conservative extension of intuitionistic logic by an existence predicate. Therefore eskolemization provides a
Constraint programming for modelling and solving modal satisfiability
Brand, S.; Gennari, R.; de Rijke, M.
2003-01-01
We explore to what extent and how efficiently constraint programmingcan be used in the context of automated reasoning for modal logics. We encode modal satisfiability problems as constraint satisfactionproblems with non-boolean domains, together with suitable constraints.Experiments show that the ap
Constraint programming for modelling and solving modal satisfiability
Brand, S.; Gennari, R.; de Rijke, M.
2003-01-01
We explore to what extent and how efficiently constraint programmingcan be used in the context of automated reasoning for modal logics. We encode modal satisfiability problems as constraint satisfactionproblems with non-boolean domains, together with suitable constraints.Experiments show that the ap
Free Modal Algebras Revisited: The Step-by-Step Method
Bezhanishvili, N.; Ghilardi, Silvio; Jibladze, Mamuka
2012-01-01
We review the step-by-step method of constructing finitely generated free modal algebras. First we discuss the global step-by-step method, which works well for rank one modal logics. Next we refine the global step-by-step method to obtain the local step-by-step method, which is applicable beyond ran
Paraconsistent Computational Logic
Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen
2012-01-01
In classical logic everything follows from inconsistency and this makes classical logic problematic in areas of computer science where contradictions seem unavoidable. We describe a many-valued paraconsistent logic, discuss the truth tables and include a small case study.......In classical logic everything follows from inconsistency and this makes classical logic problematic in areas of computer science where contradictions seem unavoidable. We describe a many-valued paraconsistent logic, discuss the truth tables and include a small case study....
First-Order Hybrid Logic: Introduction and Survey
Braüner, Torben
2014-01-01
often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism...
The Logical Dimension of Argumentation and Its Semantic Appraisal in Bermejo-Luque’s Giving Reasons
James B. Freeman
2011-10-01
Full Text Available We critically examine Bermejo-Luque’s account of the logical dimension of argumentation and its logical or semantic evaluation. Our considerations concern her views on inference claims, validity, logical normativity, warrants, necessity, warrants and the justification of inferences, ontological versus epistemic modal qualifiers, ontological versus epistemic probability, and ontological versus conditional probability.
Determination of Net Martian Polar Dust Flux from MGS-TES Observations
Blackmon, M. A.; Murphy, J. R.
2003-01-01
Using atmospheric dust abundance and atmospheric temperature observation data from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), the net flux of dust into and out of the Martian polar regions will be examined. Mars polar regions possess layered terrain , believed to be comprised of a mixture of ice and dust, with the different layers possibly representing different past climate regimes. These changes in climate may reflect changes in the deposition of dust and volatiles through impacts, volcanism, changes in resources of ice and dust, and response to Milankovitch type cycles (changes in eccentricity of orbit, obliquity and precession of axis). Understanding how rapidly such layers can be generated is an important element to understanding Mars climate history. This study uses the observed vertical temperature data and dust content measurements from TES to analyze the sign (gain or loss) of dust at high latitudes.
Models of transfinite provability logic
Fernández-Duque, David
2012-01-01
For any ordinal \\Lambda, we can define a polymodal logic GLP(\\Lambda), with a modality [\\xi] for each \\xi<\\Lambda. These represent provability predicates of increasing strength. Although GLP(\\Lambda) has no Kripke models, Ignatiev showed that indeed one can construct a Kripke model of the variable-free fragment with natural number modalities. Later, Icard defined a topological model for the same fragment which is very closely related to Ignatiev's. In this paper we show how to extend these constructions for arbitrary \\Lambda. More generally, for each \\Theta,\\Lambda we build a Kripke model I(\\Theta,\\Lambda) and a topological model T(\\Theta,\\Lambda), and show that the closed fragment of GLP(\\Lambda) is sound for both of these structures, as well as complete, provided \\Theta is large enough.
Searching the Arcane Origins of Fuzzy Logic
Angel Garrido
2011-05-01
Full Text Available It is well-known that Artificial Intelligence requires Logic. But its Classical version shows too many insufficiencies. So, it is very necessary to introduce more sophisticated tools, as may be
Fuzzy Logic, Modal Logic, Non-Monotonic Logic, and so on. When you are searching the possible precedent of such new ideas, we may found that they are not totally new, because some ancient thinkers have suggested many centuries ago similar concepts, certainly without adequate mathematical formulation, but in the same line: against the dogmatism and the dualistic vision of
the world: absolutely true vs. absolutely false, black vs. white, good or bad by nature, 0 vs.1, etc. We attempt to analyze here some of these greatly unexplored, and very interesting early origins.
Probabilistic Dynamic Epistemic Logic
Kooi, B.P.
2003-01-01
In this paper I combine the dynamic epistemic logic of Gerbrandy (1999) with the probabilistic logic of Fagin and Halpern (1999). The result is a new probabilistic dynamic epistemic logic, a logic for reasoning about probability, information, and information change that takes higher order informatio
Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.
2006-12-15
This technical report concerns the basic theory and principles for experimental modal analysis. The sections within the report are: Output-only modal analysis software, general digital analysis, basics of structural dynamics and modal analysis and system identification. (au)
Metamathematics of fuzzy logic
Hájek, Petr
1998-01-01
This book presents a systematic treatment of deductive aspects and structures of fuzzy logic understood as many valued logic sui generis. Some important systems of real-valued propositional and predicate calculus are defined and investigated. The aim is to show that fuzzy logic as a logic of imprecise (vague) propositions does have well-developed formal foundations and that most things usually named `fuzzy inference' can be naturally understood as logical deduction.
Bentzen, Martin Mose
2014-01-01
A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning ar...... the benchmarks. Finally, possibilities for further research are indicated. In the appendix, decidability of the satisfiability of formulas is proved via a technique known from monadic First Order Logic....
Bridges between Dynamic Doxastic and Doxastic Temporal Logics
van Benthem, Johan; Dégremont, Cédric
This paper builds bridges between the two main families of modal logics of belief change, both based on plausibility pre-orders: dynamic doxastic logics computing stepwise updates, and temporal doxastic logics describing global system evolutions. Following earlier results linking dynamic-epistemic and epistemic-temporal logics, we prove representation theorems showing under which conditions a doxastic temporal model can be represented as the stepwise evolution of a doxastic model under successive 'priority updates'. This allows for merges, where, in particular, the notion of a 'temporal protocol' defining a global information process (for instance of communication or learning) can be introduced into the more local dynamic perspective.
Ariöz, Candan; Ye, Weihua; Bakali, Amin; Ge, Changrong; Liebau, Jobst; Götzke, Hansjörg; Barth, Andreas; Wieslander, Ake; Mäler, Lena
2013-08-20
Certain membrane proteins involved in lipid synthesis can induce formation of new intracellular membranes in Escherichia coli, i.e., intracellular vesicles. Among those, the foreign monotopic glycosyltransferase MGS from Acholeplasma laidlawii triggers such massive lipid synthesis when overexpressed. To examine the mechanism behind the increased lipid synthesis, we investigated the lipid binding properties of MGS in vivo together with the correlation between lipid synthesis and MGS overexpression levels. A good correlation between produced lipid quantities and overexpressed MGS protein was observed when standard LB medium was supplemented with four different lipid precursors that have significant roles in the lipid biosynthesis pathway. Interestingly, this correlation was highest concerning anionic lipid production and at the same time dependent on the selective binding of anionic lipid molecules by MGS. A selective interaction with anionic lipids was also observed in vitro by (31)P NMR binding studies using bicelles prepared with E. coli lipids. The results clearly demonstrate that the discriminative withdrawal of anionic lipids, especially phosphatidylglycerol, from the membrane through MGS binding triggers an in vivo signal for cells to create a "feed-forward" stimulation of lipid synthesis in E. coli. By this mechanism, cells can produce more membrane surface in order to accommodate excessively produced MGS molecules, which results in an interdependent cycle of lipid and MGS protein synthesis.
Synthesis of Communicating Process Skeletons from Temporal-Spatial Logic Specifications
无
1989-01-01
Temporal-spatial logic is a propositional logic with temporal and spatial modalities asserting on a network.In this paper,a tableau-like decision procedure for network satisfiability in the logic is presented and used in the synthesis of communicating skeletons of CSP-like programs.By explicitly introducing communication network in the logic system,our approach has some advantages over the temporal one.
Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey
2008-01-01
, such as Twelf, and yet they are often straightforward in proof assistants with stronger meta-logics. In this paper, we propose structural logical relations as a technique for conducting these proofs in systems with limited meta-logical strength by explicitly representing and reasoning about an auxiliary logic......Tait's method (a.k.a. proof by logical relations) is a powerful proof technique frequently used for showing foundational properties of languages based on typed lambda-calculi. Historically, these proofs have been extremely difficult to formalize in proof assistants with weak meta-logics...
Analysis of Properties of the North Polar Layered Deposits: THEMIS Data in Context of MGS Data
Ivanov, A. B.; Byrne, S.; Richardson, M. I.; Vasavada, A. R.; Titus, T. N.; Bell, J. F.; McConnochie, T. H.; Christensen, P. R.
2003-01-01
One of the many questions of Martian exploration is to uncover the history of Mars, through analysis of the polar layered deposits (PLD). Martian polar ice caps hold most of the exposed water on the surface on Mars and yet their history and physical processed involved in their formation are unclear. We will attempt to contribute to our knowledge of the composition and stratigraphy of the polar deposits. In this work we present the latest imaging data acquired by the Mars Odyssey THermal EMission Imaging System (THEMIS) and place it into context of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data. THEMIS provides capabilities for imaging in both thermal IR and visible color wavelengths. These observations are affected by atmospheric scattering and topography. The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instruments on board of the MGS spacecraft can provide context information for THEMIS data. Of particular interest are Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images, which provide high resolution data. We are primarily interested in the seasonal evolution of ice cap temperatures during the first northern summer of THEMIS observations. Morphology, stratigraphy and composition of the layered deposits can be addressed by THEMIS VIS color images, along with MOC high resolution data and MOLA Digital Elevation Models (DEM). This work is intentionally descriptive. Based on the knowledge obtained by the orbiting spacecraft and described here, we will attempt to expose major directions for modeling and further understanding of of the physical processes involved in the formation of the polar layered terrain 2 Available data 2.1 THEMIS IR The THEMIS IR camera has 10 bands from 6 to 15 m. Due to to signal-to-noise restrictions the most useful band for polar observations is band 9 (12.57 m ). Band 10 (14.88 m ) data can be used for atmospheric calibration. An example of seasonal evolution observed by the THEMIS IR subsystem is shown in Figure 1. We have projected all IR
Kramer, Simon
2012-01-01
We propose a logic of interactive proofs as the first and main step towards an intuitionistic foundation for interactive computation to be obtained via an interactive analog of the G\\"odel-Kolmogorov-Art\\"emov definition of intuitionistic logic as embedded into a classical modal logic of proofs, and of the Curry-Howard isomorphism between intuitionistic proofs and typed programs. Our interactive proofs effectuate a persistent epistemic impact in their intended communities of peer reviewers that consists in the induction of the (propositional) knowledge of their proof goal by means of the (individual) knowledge of the proof with the interpreting reviewer. That is, interactive proofs effectuate a transfer of propositional knowledge---(to-be-)known facts---via the transfer of certain individual knowledge---(to-be-)known proofs---in distributed and multi-agent systems. In other words, we as a community can have the formal common knowledge that a proof is that which if known to one of our peer members would induce...
Contribution of Warsaw Logicians to Computational Logic
Damian Niwiński
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The newly emerging branch of research of Computer Science received encouragement from the successors of the Warsaw mathematical school: Kuratowski, Mazur, Mostowski, Grzegorczyk, and Rasiowa. Rasiowa realized very early that the spectrum of computer programs should be incorporated into the realm of mathematical logic in order to make a rigorous treatment of program correctness. This gave rise to the concept of algorithmic logic developed since the 1970s by Rasiowa, Salwicki, Mirkowska, and their followers. Together with Pratt’s dynamic logic, algorithmic logic evolved into a mainstream branch of research: logic of programs. In the late 1980s, Warsaw logicians Tiuryn and Urzyczyn categorized various logics of programs, depending on the class of programs involved. Quite unexpectedly, they discovered that some persistent open questions about the expressive power of logics are equivalent to famous open problems in complexity theory. This, along with parallel discoveries by Harel, Immerman and Vardi, contributed to the creation of an important area of theoretical computer science: descriptive complexity. By that time, the modal μ-calculus was recognized as a sort of a universal logic of programs. The mid 1990s saw a landmark result by Walukiewicz, who showed completeness of a natural axiomatization for the μ-calculus proposed by Kozen. The difficult proof of this result, based on automata theory, opened a path to further investigations. Later, Bojanczyk opened a new chapter by introducing an unboundedness quantifier, which allowed for expressing some quantitative properties of programs. Yet another topic, linking the past with the future, is the subject of automata founded in the Fraenkel-Mostowski set theory. The studies on intuitionism found their continuation in the studies of Curry-Howard isomorphism. ukasiewicz’s landmark idea of many-valued logic found its continuation in various approaches to incompleteness and uncertainty.
A Survey of Paraconsistent Logics
Middelburg, C A
2011-01-01
A survey of paraconsistent logics that are prominent representatives of the different approaches that have been followed to develop paraconsistent logics is provided. The paraconsistent logics that will be discussed are an enrichment of Priest's logic LP, the logic RM3 from the school of relevance logic, da Costa's logics Cn, Jaskowski's logic D2, and Subrahmanian's logics Ptau. A deontic logic based on the first of these logics will be discussed as well. Moreover, some proposed adaptations of the AGM theory of belief revision to paraconsistent logics will be mentioned.
Modal Epistemology and Conceivability
Philosophical argumentation often depends on modal facts, i.e. facts about what is possible, contingent, or necessary. For thought and cognition outside the domain of philosophy modal facts are also often decisive. It seems we have an easy access to modal facts, but how so? Through a presentation...... of the state-of-the-art in modal epistemology I wish to outline a research project based on conceivability that will try to explain how we come to know modal facts....
Optimal Management Of Renewable-Based Mgs An Intelligent Approach Through The Evolutionary Algorithm
Mehdi Nafar
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract- This article proposes a probabilistic frame built on Scenario fabrication to considerate the uncertainties in the finest action managing of Micro Grids MGs. The MG contains different recoverable energy resources such as Wind Turbine WT Micro Turbine MT Photovoltaic PV Fuel Cell FC and one battery as the storing device. The advised frame is based on scenario generation and Roulette wheel mechanism to produce different circumstances for handling the uncertainties of altered factors. It habits typical spreading role as a probability scattering function of random factors. The uncertainties which are measured in this paper are grid bid alterations cargo request calculating error and PV and WT yield power productions. It is well-intentioned to asset that solving the MG difficult for 24 hours of a day by considering diverse uncertainties and different constraints needs one powerful optimization method that can converge fast when it doesnt fall in local optimal topic. Simultaneously single Group Search Optimization GSO system is presented to vision the total search space globally. The GSO algorithm is instigated from group active of beasts. Also the GSO procedure one change is similarly planned for this algorithm. The planned context and way is applied o one test grid-connected MG as a typical grid.
Seasonal and static gravity field of Mars from MGS, Mars Odyssey and MRO radio science
Genova, Antonio; Goossens, Sander; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
2016-07-01
We present a spherical harmonic solution of the static gravity field of Mars to degree and order 120, GMM-3, that has been calculated using the Deep Space Network tracking data of the NASA Mars missions, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). We have also jointly determined spherical harmonic solutions for the static and time-variable gravity field of Mars, and the Mars k2 Love numbers, exclusive of the gravity contribution of the atmosphere. Consequently, the retrieved time-varying gravity coefficients and the Love number k2 solely yield seasonal variations in the mass of the polar caps and the solid tides of Mars, respectively. We obtain a Mars Love number k2 of 0.1697 ± 0.0027 (3-σ). The inclusion of MRO tracking data results in improved seasonal gravity field coefficients C30 and, for the first time, C50. Refinements of the atmospheric model in our orbit determination program have allowed us to monitor the odd zonal harmonic C30 for ∼1.5 solar cycles (16 years). This gravity model shows improved correlations with MOLA topography up to 15% larger at higher harmonics (l = 60-80) than previous solutions.
Newton-Smith, WH
2003-01-01
A complete introduction to logic for first-year university students with no background in logic, philosophy or mathematics. In easily understood steps it shows the mechanics of the formal analysis of arguments.
Bolc, Leonard
1992-01-01
Many-valued logics were developed as an attempt to handle philosophical doubts about the "law of excluded middle" in classical logic. The first many-valued formal systems were developed by J. Lukasiewicz in Poland and E.Post in the U.S.A. in the 1920s, and since then the field has expanded dramatically as the applicability of the systems to other philosophical and semantic problems was recognized. Intuitionisticlogic, for example, arose from deep problems in the foundations of mathematics. Fuzzy logics, approximation logics, and probability logics all address questions that classical logic alone cannot answer. All these interpretations of many-valued calculi motivate specific formal systems thatallow detailed mathematical treatment. In this volume, the authors are concerned with finite-valued logics, and especially with three-valued logical calculi. Matrix constructions, axiomatizations of propositional and predicate calculi, syntax, semantic structures, and methodology are discussed. Separate chapters deal w...
Yang, Fan; Väänänen, Jouko
2016-01-01
We consider team semantics for propositional logic, continuing our previous work (Yang & V\\"a\\"an\\"anen 2016). In team semantics the truth of a propositional formula is considered in a set of valuations, called a team, rather than in an individual valuation. This offers the possibility to give meaning to concepts such as dependence, independence and inclusion. We define an expressively maximal propositional team logic, called full propositional team logic. This requires going beyond the logic...
Institutional Logics in Action
Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva
2013-01-01
This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage ins...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....
Hierarchies in Dependence Logic
Durand, Arnaud
2011-01-01
We study fragments of dependence logic defined either by restricting the number k of universal quantifiers or the width of dependence atoms in formulas. We find the sublogics of existential second-order logic corresponding to these fragments of dependence logic. We also show that these both ways of defining fragments of dependence logic give rise to a hierarchy in expressive power with respect to k.
刘叙华; 邓安生
1994-01-01
A new approach of operator fuzzy logic, Boolean operator fuzzy logic (BOFL) based on Boolean algebra, is presented. The resolution principle is also introduced into BOFL. BOFL is a natural generalization of classical logic and can be applied to the qualitative description of fuzzy knowledge.
Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian
2015-01-01
We introduce Concurrent Weighted Logic (CWL), a multimodal logic for concurrent labeled weighted transition systems (LWSs). The synchronization of LWSs is described using dedicated functions that, in various concurrency paradigms, allow us to encode the compositionality of LWSs. To reflect these......-completeness results for this logic. To complete these proofs we involve advanced topological techniques from Model Theory....
Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch
This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guides by institutional logics, as well...
Jantzen, Jan
1998-01-01
A logic based on the two truth values True and False is sometimes inadequate when describing human reasoning. Fuzzy logic uses the whole interval between 0 (False) and 1 (True) to describe human reasoning. As a result, fuzzy logic is being applied in rule based automatic controllers, and this paper...
Regular database update logics
Spruit, Paul; Wieringa, Roel; Meyer, John-Jules
2001-01-01
We study regular first-order update logic (FUL), which is a variant of regular dynamic logic in which updates to function symbols as well as to predicate symbols are possible. We fi1rst study FUL without making assumptions about atomic updates. Second, we look at relational algebra update logic (RAU
Molecular beam epitaxy-grown wurtzite MgS thin films for solar-blind ultra-violet detection
Lai, Y. H.; He, Q. L. [Nano Science and Nano Technology Program, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, HKSAR, People' s Republic of China (China); Department of Physics and William Mong Institute of Nano Science and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, HKSAR, People' s Republic of China (China); Cheung, W. Y.; Lok, S. K.; Wong, K. S.; Sou, I. K. [Department of Physics and William Mong Institute of Nano Science and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, HKSAR, People' s Republic of China (China); Ho, S. K. [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau, People' s Republic of China (China); Tam, K. W. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Macau, Macau, People' s Republic of China (China)
2013-04-29
Molecular beam epitaxy grown MgS on GaAs(111)B substrate was resulted in wurtzite phase, as demonstrated by detailed structural characterizations. Phenomenological arguments were used to account for why wurtzite phase is preferred over zincblende phase or its most stable rocksalt phase. Results of photoresponse and reflectance measurements performed on wurtzite MgS photodiodes suggest a direct bandgap at around 5.1 eV. Their response peaks at 245 nm with quantum efficiency of 9.9% and enjoys rejection of more than three orders at 320 nm and close to five orders at longer wavelengths, proving the photodiodes highly competitive in solar-blind ultraviolet detection.
Mateu, I., E-mail: isidre.mateu@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Medina, P., E-mail: patrice.medina@aero.obs-mip.fr [IPHC, IN2P3 – CNRS/Université Louis Pasteur, 23 rue du Loess, PB28, Strasbourg Cedex 2, F67037 (France); Roques, J.P., E-mail: jean-pierre.roques@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Jourdain, E., E-mail: elisabeth.jourdain@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France)
2014-01-21
This paper aims to present Multi geometry Simulation (MGS), a software intended for the characterization of the signal response of solid state detectors. Its main feature is the calculation of the pulse shapes induced at the electrodes of the detector by a photon–semiconductor interaction occurring at a specific position inside the detector volume. The program uses numerical methods to simulate the drift of the charge carriers generated by the interaction, as the movement of these particles induces the useful signal for detection to the electrodes. After the description of the tool fundamentals, an example of application is presented where MGS was used for simulating a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) double sided strip detector conceived for hard X-ray astronomy. Simulated and measured pulse shapes are compared for interactions occurring at different depths in the detector volume. The comparison focuses on the difference in time of arrival between the anode and cathode pulses, as this measure allows, together with the X/Y information retrieved from the strips, a 3D determination of the photon interaction point, which is an important feature of the detector. A good matching between simulations and measurements is obtained, with a discrepancy less than 0.5 mm between the measured and the simulated depth of the interaction, for an 11 mm thick detector. -- Highlights: • Description of MGS, a tool for the synthesis of the signal response of solid state detectors. • Validation of the simulator through comparison with measurements on a DSSD prototype. • Discussion on the advantages, drawbacks and possible evolutions of MGS.
Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica
2009-01-01
By extending logic grammars with constraint logic, we give them the ability to create knowledge bases that represent the meaning of an input string. Semantic information is thus defined through extra-grammatical means, and a sentence's meaning logically follows as a by-product of string rewriting....... We formalize these ideas, and exemplify them both within and outside first-order logic, and for both fixed and dynamic knowledge bases. Within the latter variety, we consider the usual left-to-right derivations that are traditional in logic grammars, but also -- in a significant departure from...
Spectroscopy of the X^1Σ^+, A^1Π and B^1Σ^+ Electronic States of MgS
Caron, Nicholas; Tokaryk, Dennis W.; Adam, Allan G.; Linton, Colan
2016-06-01
The spectra of some astrophysical sources contain signatures from molecules containing magnesium or sulphur atoms. Therefore, we have extended previous studies of the diatomic molecule MgS, which is a possible candidate for astrophysical detection. Microwave spectra of X^1Σ^+ , the ground electronic state, were reported in 1989 and 1997, and the B^1Σ^+-X^1Σ^+ electronic absorption spectrum in the blue was last studied in 1970. We have investigated the B^1Σ^+-X^1Σ^+ 0-0 spectrum of MgS at high resolution under jet-cooled conditions in a laser-ablation molecular source, and have obtained laser-induced fluorescence spectra from four isotopologues. Dispersed fluorescence from this source identified the low-lying A^1Π state near 4520 wn. We also created MgS in a Broida oven, with the help of a stream of activated nitrogen, and took rotationally resolved dispersed fluorescence spectra of the B^1Σ^+-A^1Π transition with a grating spectrometer by laser excitation of individual rotational levels of the B^1Σ^+ state via the B^1Σ^+-X^1Σ^+ transition. These spectra provide a first observation and analysis of the A^1Π state. S. Takano, S. Yamamoto and S. Saito, Chem. Phys. Lett. 159, 563-566 (1989) K. A. Walker and M. C. L. Gerry, J. Mol. Spectrosc 182, 178-183 (1997) M. Marcano and R. F. Barrow, Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 2936-2938 (1970)
MGS-TES thermal inertia study of the Arsia Mons Caldera
Cushing, G.E.; Titus, T.N.
2008-01-01
Temperatures of the Arsia Mons caldera floor and two nearby control areas were obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). These observations revealed that the Arsia Mons caldera floor exhibits thermal behavior different from the surrounding Tharsis region when compared with thermal models. Our technique compares modeled and observed data to determine best fit values of thermal inertia, layer depth, and albedo. Best fit modeled values are accurate in the two control regions, but those in the Arsia Mons' caldera are consistently either up to 15 K warmer than afternoon observations, or have albedo values that are more than two standard deviations higher than the observed mean. Models of both homogeneous and layered (such as dust over bedrock) cases were compared, with layered-cases indicating a surface layer at least thick enough to insulate itself from diurnal effects of an underlying substrate material. Because best fit models of the caldera floor poorly match observations, it is likely that the caldera floor experiences some physical process not incorporated into our thermal model. Even on Mars, Arsia Mons is an extreme environment where CO2 condenses upon the caldera floor every night, diurnal temperatures range each day by a factor of nearly 2, and annual average atmospheric pressure is only around one millibar. Here, we explore several possibilities that may explain the poor modeled fits to caldera floor and conclude that temperature dependent thermal conductivity may cause thermal inertia to vary diurnally, and this effect may be exaggerated by presence of water-ice clouds, which occur frequently above Arsia Mons. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.
A Modal Logic for the Decision-Theoretic Projection Problem
Rens, GB
2015-01-01
Full Text Available number of actions and observations. Another contribution of this work is that a POMDP model specification is allowed to be partial or incomplete with no restriction on the lack of information specified for the model. The model may even contain information...
Modal Logics and Topological Semantics for Hybrid Systems
1997-06-01
Propositional S4 in Cantor Space", manuscript, August 1995. [MT44] J. C. C. McKinsey and Alfred Tarski, "The Algebra of Topology", Annals of Mathematics 45...1944) 141-191. [MT46] J. C. C. McKinsey and Alfred Tarski, "On Closed Elements in Closure Algebras", Annals of Mathematics 47 (1946) 122
Modal interval analysis new tools for numerical information
Sainz, Miguel A; Calm, Remei; Herrero, Pau; Jorba, Lambert; Vehi, Josep
2014-01-01
This book presents an innovative new approach to interval analysis. Modal Interval Analysis (MIA) is an attempt to go beyond the limitations of classic intervals in terms of their structural, algebraic and logical features. The starting point of MIA is quite simple: It consists in defining a modal interval that attaches a quantifier to a classical interval and in introducing the basic relation of inclusion between modal intervals by means of the inclusion of the sets of predicates they accept. This modal approach introduces interval extensions of the real continuous functions, identifies equivalences between logical formulas and interval inclusions, and provides the semantic theorems that justify these equivalences, along with guidelines for arriving at these inclusions. Applications of these equivalences in different areas illustrate the obtained results. The book also presents a new interval object: marks, which aspire to be a new form of numerical treatment of errors in measurements and computations.
A first-order Temporal Logic for Actions
Schwind, Camilla
2007-01-01
We present a multi-modal action logic with first-order modalities, which contain terms which can be unified with the terms inside the subsequent formulas and which can be quantified. This makes it possible to handle simultaneously time and states. We discuss applications of this language to action theory where it is possible to express many temporal aspects of actions, as for example, beginning, end, time points, delayed preconditions and results, duration and many others. We present tableaux rules for a decidable fragment of this logic.
KT an S4 satisfiability in a constraint logic environment
Stevenson, L
2008-12-01
Full Text Available satisfaction problem (CSP) [5, 6]. In this paper, we further investigate the feasibility of the constraint-based ap- proach proposed by Brand et al. [5, 6]. A modal formula is stratified into layers, each of which is solved using the constraint logic.... The solver developed by Brand et al. is, however, limited to the modal logic K. It only deals with formulae that are in conjunctive normal form (CNF), and have not been optimized using any of the standard techniques such as caching. In this paper, we...
Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten
This technical report concerns the basic theory and principles for experimental modal analysis. The sections within the report are: Output-only modal analysis software (section 1.1), general digital analysis (section 1.2), basics of structural dynamics and modal analysis (section 1.3) and system ...
Husserl’s Modal Sense of Evidence: Modality versus Modalization
Ivana Anton
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Phenomenological evidence has been characterized as fulfillment of a meaning intention, comprehension that tends to assimilate evidence to fulfilled consciousness, without making justice to the essential and mutual implication of emptiness and fullness that constitutes it out of its horizontic-intentional kind. The horizon, typically configured, offers the field of possible fulfillment; that is why it can be said that evidence takes place in a consciousness of possibility, namely, a modal one, though in an originary material and not doxic or positional sense,because it is the first one that is incumbent upon relationships of fulfillment. Modality that essentially characterizes evidence does not reveal itself then in the possible modalization as positional modification of a unitary content, but in its “outlined” material configuration of fullness and emptiness that gives somethingas something referring to other possibilities as moments of its own validity.
Operational Modal Analysis Tutorial
Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle
analysis in an easier way and in many cases more effectively than traditional modal analysis methods. It can be applied for modal testing and analysis on a wide range of structures and not only for problems generally investigated using traditional modal analysis, but also for those requiring load......In this paper the basic principles in operational modal testing and analysis are presented and discussed. A brief review of the techniques for operational modal testing and identification is presented, and it is argued, that there is now a wide range of techniques for effective identification...... estimation, vibration level estimation and fatigue analysis....
Dalen, Dirk
1983-01-01
A book which efficiently presents the basics of propositional and predicate logic, van Dalen’s popular textbook contains a complete treatment of elementary classical logic, using Gentzen’s Natural Deduction. Propositional and predicate logic are treated in separate chapters in a leisured but precise way. Chapter Three presents the basic facts of model theory, e.g. compactness, Skolem-Löwenheim, elementary equivalence, non-standard models, quantifier elimination, and Skolem functions. The discussion of classical logic is rounded off with a concise exposition of second-order logic. In view of the growing recognition of constructive methods and principles, one chapter is devoted to intuitionistic logic. Completeness is established for Kripke semantics. A number of specific constructive features, such as apartness and equality, the Gödel translation, the disjunction and existence property have been incorporated. The power and elegance of natural deduction is demonstrated best in the part of proof theory cal...
Logical database design principles
Garmany, John; Clark, Terry
2005-01-01
INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGNUnderstanding a Database Database Architectures Relational Databases Creating the Database System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)Systems Planning: Assessment and Feasibility System Analysis: RequirementsSystem Analysis: Requirements Checklist Models Tracking and Schedules Design Modeling Functional Decomposition DiagramData Flow Diagrams Data Dictionary Logical Structures and Decision Trees System Design: LogicalSYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The ER ApproachEntities and Entity Types Attribute Domains AttributesSet-Valued AttributesWeak Entities Constraint
Separation Logic and Concurrency
Bornat, Richard
Concurrent separation logic is a development of Hoare logic adapted to deal with pointers and concurrency. Since its inception, it has been enhanced with a treatment of permissions to enable sharing of data between threads, and a treatment of variables as resource alongside heap cells as resource. An introduction to the logic is given with several examples of proofs, culminating in a treatment of Simpson's 4-slot algorithm, an instance of racy non-blocking concurrency.
Hansen, Gary B.
2013-08-01
A detailed analysis of data from one revolution of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) is presented. Approximately 80% of this revolution observes the mid-winter northern seasonal polar cap, which covers the surface to night. The surface composition and temperature are determined through analysis of 6-50 μm infrared spectra from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). The infrared radiative balance, which is the entire heat balance in the polar night except for small subsurface and atmospheric advection terms, is calculated for the surface and atmospheric column. The primary constituent, CO2 ice, also dominates the infrared spectral properties by variations in its grain size and by admixtures of dust and water ice, which cause large variations in the 20-50 μm emissivity. This is modified by incomplete areal coverage, and clouds or hazes. This quantitative analysis reveals CO2 grain radii ranging from ˜100 μm in isolated areas, to 1-5 mm in more widespread regions. The water ice content varies from none to about one part per thousand by mass, with a clear increase towards the periphery of the polar cap. The dust content is typically a few parts per thousand by mass, but is as much as an order of magnitude less abundant in "cold spot" regions, where the low emissivity of pure CO2 ice is revealed. This is the first quantitative analysis of thermal spectra of the seasonal polar cap and the first to estimate water ice content. Our models show that the cold spots represent cleaner, dust-free ice rather than finer grained ice than the background. Our guess is that the dust in cold spots is hidden in the center of the CO2 frost particles rather than not present. The fringes of the cap have more dust and water ice, and become patchy, with warmer water snow filling the gaps on the night side, and warmer bare soil on the day side. A low optical depth (night side, and appears with smaller optical depth on the day side. The infrared radiative balance at the surface is typically
Embedding Description Logic Programs into Default Logic
Wang, Yisong; Yuan, Li Yan; Shen, Yi-Dong; Eiter, Thomas
2011-01-01
Description logic programs (dl-programs) under the answer set semantics formulated by Eiter {\\em et al.} have been considered as a prominent formalism for integrating rules and ontology knowledge bases. A question of interest has been whether dl-programs can be captured in a general formalism of nonmonotonic logic. In this paper, we study the possibility of embedding dl-programs into default logic. We show that dl-programs under the strong and weak answer set semantics can be embedded in default logic by combining two translations, one of which eliminates the constraint operator from nonmonotonic dl-atoms and the other translates a dl-program into a default theory. For dl-programs without nonmonotonic dl-atoms but with the negation-as-failure operator, our embedding is polynomial, faithful, and modular. In addition, our default logic encoding can be extended in a simple way to capture recently proposed weakly well-supported answer set semantics, for arbitrary dl-programs. These results reinforce the argument ...
Introduction to mathematical logic
Mendelson, Elliott
2015-01-01
The new edition of this classic textbook, Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Sixth Edition explores the principal topics of mathematical logic. It covers propositional logic, first-order logic, first-order number theory, axiomatic set theory, and the theory of computability. The text also discusses the major results of Gödel, Church, Kleene, Rosser, and Turing.The sixth edition incorporates recent work on Gödel's second incompleteness theorem as well as restoring an appendix on consistency proofs for first-order arithmetic. This appendix last appeared in the first edition. It is offered in th
Crossley, J N; Brickhill, CJ; Stillwell, JC
2010-01-01
Although mathematical logic can be a formidably abstruse topic, even for mathematicians, this concise book presents the subject in a lively and approachable fashion. It deals with the very important ideas in modern mathematical logic without the detailed mathematical work required of those with a professional interest in logic.The book begins with a historical survey of the development of mathematical logic from two parallel streams: formal deduction, which originated with Aristotle, Euclid, and others; and mathematical analysis, which dates back to Archimedes in the same era. The streams beg
Ferrite logic reliability study
Baer, J. A.; Clark, C. B.
1973-01-01
Development and use of digital circuits called all-magnetic logic are reported. In these circuits the magnetic elements and their windings comprise the active circuit devices in the logic portion of a system. The ferrite logic device belongs to the all-magnetic class of logic circuits. The FLO device is novel in that it makes use of a dual or bimaterial ferrite composition in one physical ceramic body. This bimaterial feature, coupled with its potential for relatively high speed operation, makes it attractive for high reliability applications. (Maximum speed of operation approximately 50 kHz.)
Howard, Ayanna
2005-01-01
The Fuzzy Logic Engine is a software package that enables users to embed fuzzy-logic modules into their application programs. Fuzzy logic is useful as a means of formulating human expert knowledge and translating it into software to solve problems. Fuzzy logic provides flexibility for modeling relationships between input and output information and is distinguished by its robustness with respect to noise and variations in system parameters. In addition, linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements allow systems to make decisions based on imprecise and incomplete information. The user of the Fuzzy Logic Engine need not be an expert in fuzzy logic: it suffices to have a basic understanding of how linguistic rules can be applied to the user's problem. The Fuzzy Logic Engine is divided into two modules: (1) a graphical-interface software tool for creating linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements and (2) a fuzzy-logic software library for embedding fuzzy processing capability into current application programs. The graphical- interface tool was developed using the Tcl/Tk programming language. The fuzzy-logic software library was written in the C programming language.
Understanding Social Media Logic
José van Dijck
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mechanics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpinning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass media logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmability, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increasingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance existing mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relatively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between platforms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that
Cut-Elimination and Proof Search for Bi-Intuitionistic Tense Logic
Gore, Rajeev; Tiu, Alwen
2010-01-01
We consider an extension of bi-intuitionistic logic with the traditional modalities from tense logic Kt. Proof theoretically, this extension is obtained simply by extending an existing sequent calculus for bi-intuitionistic logic with typical inference rules for the modalities used in display logics. As it turns out, the resulting calculus, LBiKt, seems to be more basic than most intuitionistic tense or modal logics considered in the literature, in particular, those studied by Ewald and Simpson, as it does not assume any a priori relationship between the diamond and the box modal operators. We recover Ewald's intuitionistic tense logic and Simpson's intuitionistic modal logic by modularly extending LBiKt with additional structural rules. The calculus LBiKt is formulated in a variant of display calculus, using a form of sequents called nested sequents. Cut elimination is proved for LBiKt, using a technique similar to that used in display calculi. As in display calculi, the inference rules of LBiKt are ``shallo...
Modality and Children's Scope Understanding
Liu, Chin-Ting Jimbo; Lee, Hsiu-Fen Hélène
2014-01-01
This study intends to shed light on the inconclusive argument pertaining to children's acquisition of logical form (LF) operation. Specifically, we examined children's interpretations of sentences with the ambiguous modal verb "yinggai" "should," like "Xiaohua yinggai shangchuang shuijiao le", whose meanings…
A new version of an old modal incompleteness theorem
Vosmaer, J.
2010-01-01
Thomason [5] showed that a certain modal logic L⊂ S4 is incomplete with respect to Kripke semantics. Later Gerson [3] showed that L is also incomplete with respect to neighborhood semantics. In this paper we show that L is in fact incomplete with respect to any class of complete Boolean algebras wit
Ponse, A.; Zwaag, M.B. van der
2002-01-01
We distinguish two interpretations for the truth value `undefined' in Kleene's three-valued logic. Combining these two interpretations leads to a four-valued propositional logic that characterizes two particular ingredients of process algebra: ``choice' and ``inaction'. We study two different bases
Logic via Computer Programming.
Wieschenberg, Agnes A.
This paper proposed the question "How do we teach logical thinking and sophisticated mathematics to unsophisticated college students?" One answer among many is through the writing of computer programs. The writing of computer algorithms is mathematical problem solving and logic in disguise and it may attract students who would otherwise stop…
Boyd, Robert
1995-01-01
This article proposes that within the discipline of logic, college students can learn the important elements of persuasive writing. Characteristics of and distinctions between deductive and inductive logic are outlined, and the appropriateness and usefulness of each for different kinds of persuasion are discussed. (MSE)
Inductive Logic and Statistics
Romeijn, J. -W.
2009-01-01
This chapter concerns inductive logic in relation to mathematical statistics. I start by introducing a general notion of probabilistic induc- tive inference. Then I introduce Carnapian inductive logic, and I show that it can be related to Bayesian statistical inference via de Finetti's representatio
Logic of Algorithmic Knowledge
Surowik Dariusz
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider the construction of a LAK system of temporal-epistemic logic which is used to formally describe algorithmic knowledge. We propose an axiom system of LAK and discuss the basic properties of this logic.
Programmable Logic Controllers.
Insolia, Gerard; Anderson, Kathleen
This document contains a 40-hour course in programmable logic controllers (PLC), developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The 10 units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to programmable logic controllers; (2) DOS primer; (3) prerequisite…
Yopp, David
2010-01-01
Understanding logical necessity is an important component of proof and reasoning for teachers of grades K-8. The ability to determine exactly where young students' arguments are faulty offers teachers the chance to give youngsters feedback as they progress toward writing mathematically valid deductive proofs. As defined, logical necessity is the…
Evandro Agazzi
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.
Blackburn, P.; Rijke, M. de
1995-01-01
Combining logics has become a rapidly expanding enterprise that is inspired mainly by concerns about modularity and the wish to join together tailored made logical tools into more powerful but still manageable ones. A natural question is whether it offers anything new over and above existing standar
Klarman, S
2013-05-01
Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...
Daniel Durante Pereira Alves
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Analyzing the position of two philosophers whose views are recognizably divergent, W. O. Quine and M. Dummett, we intend to support a striking point of agreement between them: the idea that our logical principles constitute our principles about what there is, and therefore, that logic is metaphysics.
Daniel Durante Pereira Alves
2011-01-01
Analyzing the position of two philosophers whose views are recognizably divergent, W. O. Quine and M. Dummett, we intend to support a striking point of agreement between them: the idea that our logical principles constitute our principles about what there is, and therefore, that logic is metaphysics.
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin
2012-01-01
In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...
Operational Modal Analysis Tutorial
Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle
2007-01-01
In this paper the basic principles in operational modal testing and analysis are presented and discussed. A brief review of the techniques for operational modal testing and identification is presented, and it is argued, that there is now a wide range of techniques for effective identification of modal parameters of practical interest - including the mode shape scaling factor - with a high degree of accuracy. It is also argued that the operational technology offers the user a number of advanta...
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.
2016-03-01
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.
Klose, Karl; Ostermann, Klaus
2010-01-01
In logic metaprogramming, programs are not stored as plain textfiles but rather derived from a deductive database. While the benefits of this approach for metaprogramming are obvious, its incompatibility with separate checking limits its applicability to large-scale projects. We analyze the probl......In logic metaprogramming, programs are not stored as plain textfiles but rather derived from a deductive database. While the benefits of this approach for metaprogramming are obvious, its incompatibility with separate checking limits its applicability to large-scale projects. We analyze...... the problems inhibiting separate checking and propose a class of logics that reconcile logic metaprogramming and separate checking. We have formalized the resulting module system and have proven the soundness of separate checking. We validate its feasibility by presenting the design and implementation...... of a specific logic that is able to express many metaprogramming examples from the literature....
Amplifying genetic logic gates.
Bonnet, Jerome; Yin, Peter; Ortiz, Monica E; Subsoontorn, Pakpoom; Endy, Drew
2013-05-03
Organisms must process information encoded via developmental and environmental signals to survive and reproduce. Researchers have also engineered synthetic genetic logic to realize simpler, independent control of biological processes. We developed a three-terminal device architecture, termed the transcriptor, that uses bacteriophage serine integrases to control the flow of RNA polymerase along DNA. Integrase-mediated inversion or deletion of DNA encoding transcription terminators or a promoter modulates transcription rates. We realized permanent amplifying AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOR, and XNOR gates actuated across common control signal ranges and sequential logic supporting autonomous cell-cell communication of DNA encoding distinct logic-gate states. The single-layer digital logic architecture developed here enables engineering of amplifying logic gates to control transcription rates within and across diverse organisms.
Heterogeneous logics of competition
Mossin, Christiane
2015-01-01
The purpose of the article is to demonstrate that in order to understand competition as a socially organizing phenomenon, we should not examine competition in isolation, but as constellations of heterogeneous logics. More precisely, the article is based on two main theoretical points: (1) Logics...... of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...
Malhas, Othman Qasim
1993-10-01
The concept of “abacus logic” has recently been developed by the author (Malhas, n.d.). In this paper the relation of abacus logic to the concept of fuzziness is explored. It is shown that if a certain “regularity” condition is met, concepts from fuzzy set theory arise naturally within abacus logics. In particular it is shown that every abacus logic then has a “pre-Zadeh orthocomplementation”. It is also shown that it is then possible to associate a fuzzy set with every proposition of abacus logic and that the collection of all such sets satisfies natural conditions expected in systems of fuzzy logic. Finally, the relevance to quantum mechanics is discussed.
Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device
Hafiz, M. A. A.
2016-03-29
In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.
Ontological considerations in the study of Logic
D.F.M. Strauss
1998-03-01
Full Text Available Studying logical thinking requires a more than logical diversity within creation. As a consequence, an answer has to be given to the issue regarding the cohering diversity given in reality. All monistic -isms should be seen as attempts to give a negative answer to this question. The legacy of Reformational philosophy, however, does make it possible to address these issues with the aid of its theory of inter-modal coherences. This theory is articulated in terms of retrocipatory and anticipatory moments of coherence (called analogies. It enables one to come up with an evaluation evincing both a sense of critique and a sense of solidarity with what is called - in certain contexts of the philosophy of science - "epistemic values ”, In addition it provides one with a method to analyze the nature and scope of fundamental logical principles - viewed as modal analogies which at the lawside of the analytical aspect o f reality refer to other aspects of reality. In particular - against the background of certain starting points in Greek thought - a closer account is given of the controversial status o f the principle o f the excluded middle. In conclusion - with reference to particular examples - attention is given to various ways of exercising critique.
Mu-calculus-based deontic logic for regular actions
Broersen, Jan; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Meyer, John-Jules; Demolombe, R.; Hilpinen, R.
This paper introduces deontic logic of regular actions as a fragment of the modal mu calculus Semantic characterizations of deontic notions for regular actions are given in terms of conditions on mu calculus structures and mu calculus formulas capturing this semantics are constructed
Propositional interval neighborhood logics: Expressiveness, decidability, and undecidable extensions
Bresolin, Davide; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo
2009-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the expressiveness of the variety of propositional interval neighborhood logics (PNL), we establish their decidability on linearly ordered domains and some important subclasses, and we prove the undecidability of a number of extensions of PNL with additional modaliti...
Dynamic Logic with Trace Semantics
Beckert, Bernhard; Bruns, Daniel
2013-01-01
Dynamic logic is an established instrument for program verification and for reasoning about the semantics of programs and programming languages. In this paper, we define an extension of dynamic logic, called Dynamic Trace Logic (DTL), which combines the expressiveness of program logics such as dynamic logic with that of temporal logic. And we present a sound and relatively complete sequent calculus for proving validity of DTL formulae. Due to its expressiveness, DTL can serve as a basis for p...
When Negation and Epistemic Modality Combine: The Role of Information Strength in Child Language
Moscati, Vincenzo; Crain, Stephen
2014-01-01
Negative sentences with epistemic modals (e.g., John "might" not come/John "can" not come) contain two logical operators, negation and the modal, which yields a potential semantic ambiguity depending on scope assignment. The two possible readings are in a subset/superset relation, such that the strong reading ("can…
Arthur Prior and medieval logic
2012-01-01
Though Arthur Prior is now best known for his founding of modern temporal logic and hybrid logic, much of his early philosophical career was devoted to history of logic and historical logic. This interest laid the foundations for both of his ground-breaking innovations in the 1950s and 1960s. Because of the important rôle played by Prior’s research in ancient and medieval logic in his development of temporal and hybrid logic, any student of Prior, temporal logic, or hybrid logic should be fam...
LI BaoSheng; YE JianPing; GUO YunHai; CHEN DeNiu; David Dian ZHANG; WEN XiaoHao; QIU ShiFan; OU XianJiao; DU ShuHuan; NIU DongFeng; YANG Yi
2008-01-01
Contemporaneous with MIS3, the MGS3 segment of the Milanggouwan stratigraphic section in the Salawusu River Valley, Mu Us Desert, China contains fossil gastropods (terrestrial and freshwater snails) in strata 33LS, 35LS, 37FL and 39LS. Examination of these fossils revealed 11 species belonging to 8 families and 10 genera. They can be classified as: (1) assemblage of Gyraulus and Galba mainly consisting of Gyraulus convexiusculus, Gyraulus sibiricus, Galba pervia and Galba superegra Gredler,etc. (2) assemblage of Vallonia mainly consisting of terrestrial snails, such as Vallonia patens, Pupilla muscorum and Discus paupe, etc. Based on the dating results, and the living habits, living conditions,and geographic distribution of their extant species, we suggest that: the ages of 33LS, 35LS, 37FL, and 39LS are 26000, 29000, 33000 and 38000 a, respectively, corresponding well to the interstadial period in GRIP 4,5, 6 and 10 in terms of chronology and climatic characters; 33LS, 35LS and 39LS represent very warm-humid periods, while 37FL represents a less warm-humid period; the four periods of climatic fluctuations recorded in MGS3 were related to the strong impact of the summer monsoon in East Asia in Mu Us Desert of China during the interstadial of MIS3 on a global climatic background.
David; Dian
2008-01-01
Contemporaneous with MIS3, the MGS3 segment of the Milanggouwan stratigraphic section in the Salawusu River Valley, Mu Us Desert, China contains fossil gastropods (terrestrial and freshwater snails) in strata 33LS, 35LS, 37FL and 39LS. Examination of these fossils revealed 11 species belonging to 8 families and 10 genera. They can be classified as: (1) assemblage of Gyraulus and Galba mainly consisting of Gyraulus convexiusculus, Gyraulus sibiricus, Galba pervia and Galba superegra Gredler, etc. (2) assemblage of Vallonia mainly consisting of terrestrial snails, such as Vallonia patens, Pupilla muscorum and Discus paupe, etc. Based on the dating results, and the living habits, living conditions, and geographic distribution of their extant species, we suggest that: the ages of 33LS, 35LS, 37FL, and 39LS are 26000, 29000, 33000 and 38000 a, respectively, corresponding well to the interstadial period in GRIP 4, 5, 6 and 10 in terms of chronology and climatic characters; 33LS, 35LS and 39LS represent very warm-humid periods, while 37FL represents a less warm-humid period; the four periods of climatic fluctuations recorded in MGS3 were related to the strong impact of the summer monsoon in East Asia in Mu Us Desert of China during the interstadial of MIS3 on a global climatic background.
An Investigation of the Correlation of Water-Ice and Dust Retrievals Via the MGS TES Data Set
Qu, Z.; Tamppari, L. K.; Smith, M. D.; Bass, Deborah; Hale, A. S.
2004-01-01
Water-ice in the Martian atmosphere was first identified in the Mariner 9 Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) spectra. The Viking Imaging Subsystem (VIS) instruments aboard the Viking orbiter also observed water-ice clouds and hazes in the Martian atmosphere. The MGS TES instrument is an infrared inferometer/spectrometer which covers the spectral range 6-50 micron with a selectable sampling resolution of either 5 or 10 per cm. Using the relatively independent and distinct spectral signatures for dust and water-ice, these two retrieved quantities have been retrieved simultaneously. Although the interrelations among the two quantities have been analyzed by Smith et al. and the retrievals are thought to be robust, understanding the impact of each quantity on the other during their retrievals as well as the impact from the surface for retrievals is important for correctly interpreting the science, and therefore requires close examination. An understanding of the correlation or a-correlation between dust and water-ice would aid in understanding the physical processes responsible for the transport of aerosols in the Martian atmosphere. In this presentation, we present an investigation of the correlation between water-ice and dust in the MGS TES data set.
Metaphysics of Logical Realism
Mohammadreza Abdollahnejad
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Despite the often false impression that the analytic philosophy as an anti-metaphysical movement has nothing to do with metaphysics, there can be found good reasons to grant the metaphysical dispositions of analytic philosophers, and thereby, to minimize the anti-metaphysical nature of analytic philosophy in its all phases. Since analytic philosophy is a historical movement the main nature of which developed through several stages, the very kinds of metaphysical dispositions within each one of its various stages can be easily portrayed. In the meantime, logical realism as the early stage of analytic philosophy contains plenty of metaphysical dispositions. Undoubtedly, one cannot say that analytic philosophy in this period was not committed to metaphysical theses about the plurality of entities, the ultimate nature of reality and the logical structure of the world. In this paper, then, after giving a relatively complete explanation of the logical realism, we claimed that although logical realists rejected the traditional speculative metaphysics of their predecessors, they also replaced it by the metaphysics of logic that pursues the metaphysical aims, this time, by logical means. So, we portrayed this kind of metaphysics as Bolzano’s Semantic Platonism, Frege’s and Russell’s Pluralistic Platonism, Russell’s Pluralistic Atomism, and Wittgenstein’s logical atomism.
Matthews-Bresky, R. J. H.
1977-01-01
Discusses regularities and peculiarities in the use of the modal verbs of obligation "must,""need" and "should," also of the non-modals "have (got) to" and "need to." Agreements and differences in the use of the verbs are shown, with examples. Use of the various tense-forms is discussed. (IFS/WGA)
Video: Modalities and Methodologies
Hadfield, Mark; Haw, Kaye
2012-01-01
In this article, we set out to explore what we describe as the use of video in various modalities. For us, modality is a synthesizing construct that draws together and differentiates between the notion of "video" both as a method and as a methodology. It encompasses the use of the term video as both product and process, and as a data collection…
Parametric modal transition systems
Beneš, Nikola; Křetínský, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;
2011-01-01
Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin......Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects...... in the refinement process like exclusive, conditional and persistent choices. We introduce a new model called parametric modal transition systems (PMTS) together with a general modal refinement notion that overcome many of the limitations and we investigate the computational complexity of modal refinement checking....
Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Gierasimczuk, Nina; de Jong, Dick
2014-01-01
Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study...... of information processing, but likewise helped bring logic and learning in close proximity. This proximity relation is examined with respect to learning and belief revision, updating and efficiency, and with respect to how learnability fits in the greater scheme of dynamic epistemic logic and scientific method....
Filipiuk, Piotr; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2012-01-01
We present a logic for the specification of static analysis problems that goes beyond the logics traditionally used. Its most prominent feature is the direct support for both inductive computations of behaviors as well as co-inductive specifications of properties. Two main theoretical contributions...... are a Moore Family result and a parametrized worst case time complexity result. We show that the logic and the associated solver can be used for rapid prototyping of analyses and illustrate a wide variety of applications within Static Analysis, Constraint Satisfaction Problems and Model Checking. In all cases...
Logic in elementary mathematics
Exner, Robert M
2011-01-01
This applications-related introductory treatment explores facets of modern symbolic logic useful in the exposition of elementary mathematics. The authors convey the material in a manner accessible to those trained in standard elementary mathematics but lacking any formal background in logic. Topics include the statement calculus, proof and demonstration, abstract mathematical systems, and the restricted predicate calculus. The final chapter draws upon the methods of logical reasoning covered in previous chapters to develop solutions of linear and quadratic equations, definitions of order and
Weak Completeness of Coalgebraic Dynamic Logics
Helle Hvid Hansen
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We present a coalgebraic generalisation of Fischer and Ladner's Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL and Parikh's Game Logic (GL. In earlier work, we proved a generic strong completeness result for coalgebraic dynamic logics without iteration. The coalgebraic semantics of such programs is given by a monad T, and modalities are interpreted via a predicate lifting λ whose transpose is a monad morphism from T to the neighbourhood monad. In this paper, we show that if the monad T carries a complete semilattice structure, then we can define an iteration construct, and suitable notions of diamond-likeness and box-likeness of predicate-liftings which allows for the definition of an axiomatisation parametric in T, λ and a chosen set of pointwise program operations. As our main result, we show that if the pointwise operations are "negation-free" and Kleisli composition left-distributes over the induced join on Kleisli arrows, then this axiomatisation is weakly complete with respect to the class of standard models. As special instances, we recover the weak completeness of PDL and of dual-free Game Logic. As a modest new result we obtain completeness for dual-free GL extended with intersection (demonic choice of games.
A Logical Characterization of Iterated Admissibility
Halpern, Joseph Y
2009-01-01
Brandenburger, Friedenberg, and Keisler provide an epistemic characterization of iterated admissibility (i.e., iterated deletion of weakly dominated strategies) where uncertainty is represented using LPSs (lexicographic probability sequences). Their characterization holds in a rich structure called a complete structure, where all types are possible. Here, a logical charaacterization of iterated admisibility is given that involves only standard probability and holds in all structures, not just complete structures. A stronger notion of strong admissibility is then defined. Roughly speaking, strong admissibility is meant to capture the intuition that "all the agent knows" is that the other agents satisfy the appropriate rationality assumptions. Strong admissibility makes it possible to relate admissibility, canonical structures (as typically considered in completeness proofs in modal logic), complete structures, and the notion of ``all I know''.
PLQP & Company: Decidable Logics for Quantum Algorithms
Baltag, Alexandru; Bergfeld, Jort; Kishida, Kohei; Sack, Joshua; Smets, Sonja; Zhong, Shengyang
2014-10-01
We introduce a probabilistic modal (dynamic-epistemic) quantum logic PLQP for reasoning about quantum algorithms. We illustrate its expressivity by using it to encode the correctness of the well-known quantum search algorithm, as well as of a quantum protocol known to solve one of the paradigmatic tasks from classical distributed computing (the leader election problem). We also provide a general method (extending an idea employed in the decidability proof in Dunn et al. (J. Symb. Log. 70:353-359, 2005)) for proving the decidability of a range of quantum logics, interpreted on finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. We give general conditions for the applicability of this method, and in particular we apply it to prove the decidability of PLQP.
Propositional Dynamic Logic as a Logic of Belief Revision
D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); Y. Wang (Yanjing)
2008-01-01
htmlabstractThis paper shows how propositional dynamic logic (PDL) can be interpreted as a logic for multi-agent belief revision. For that we revise and extend the logic of communication and change (LCC) of [9]. Like LCC, our logic uses PDL as a base epistemic language. Unlike LCC, we start out from
Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Gierasimczuk, Nina; de Jong, Dick
2014-01-01
Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study of inform......Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study...... of information processing, but likewise helped bring logic and learning in close proximity. This proximity relation is examined with respect to learning and belief revision, updating and efficiency, and with respect to how learnability fits in the greater scheme of dynamic epistemic logic and scientific method....
Schumann Andrew
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The paper considers main features of two groups of logics for biological devices, called Physarum Chips, based on the plasmodium. Let us recall that the plasmodium is a single cell with many diploid nuclei. It propagates networks by growing pseudopodia to connect scattered nutrients (pieces of food. As a result, we deal with a kind of computing. The first group of logics for Physarum Chips formalizes the plasmodium behaviour under conditions of nutrient-poor substrate. This group can be defined as standard storage modification machines. The second group of logics for Physarum Chips covers the plasmodium computing under conditions of nutrient-rich substrate. In this case the plasmodium behaves in a massively parallel manner and propagates in all possible directions. The logics of the second group are unconventional and deal with non-well-founded data such as infinite streams.
Dialectic operator fuzzy logic
程晓春; 姜云飞; 刘叙华
1996-01-01
Dialectic operator fuzzy logic (DOFL) is presented which is relevant,paraconsistent and nonmonotonic.DOFL can vividly describe the belief revision in the cognitive process and can infer reasonably well while the knowledge is inconsistent,imprecise or incomplete.
Heterogeneous logics of competition
Mossin, Christiane
2015-01-01
The purpose of the article is to demonstrate that in order to understand competition as a socially organizing phenomenon, we should not examine competition in isolation, but as constellations of heterogeneous logics. More precisely, the article is based on two main theoretical points: (1) Logics...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...... of a presumed logic of competition within EU law, whereas the second part focuses on particular legal logics. In this respect, the so-called ‘real link criterion’ (determining the access to transnational social rights for certain groups of unemployed people) is given special attention. What is particularly...
Geneves, Pierre
2008-01-01
This thesis describes the theoretical and practical foundations of a system for the static analysis of XML processing languages. The system relies on a fixpoint temporal logic with converse, derived from the mu-calculus, where models are finite trees. This calculus is expressive enough to capture regular tree types along with multi-directional navigation in trees, while having a single exponential time complexity. Specifically the decidability of the logic is proved in time 2^O(n) where n is the size of the input formula. Major XML concepts are linearly translated into the logic: XPath navigation and node selection semantics, and regular tree languages (which include DTDs and XML Schemas). Based on these embeddings, several problems of major importance in XML applications are reduced to satisfiability of the logic. These problems include XPath containment, emptiness, equivalence, overlap, coverage, in the presence or absence of regular tree type constraints, and the static type-checking of an annotated query....
Reasoning, logic, and psychology.
Stenning, Keith; van Lambalgen, Michiel
2011-09-01
We argue that reasoning has been conceptualized so narrowly in what is known as 'psychology of reasoning' that reasoning's relevance to cognitive science has become well-nigh invisible. Reasoning is identified with determining whether a conclusion follows validly from given premises, where 'valid' is taken to mean 'valid according to classical logic'. We show that there are other ways to conceptualize reasoning, more in line with current logical theorizing, which give it a role in psychological processes ranging from (verbal) discourse comprehension to (nonverbal) planning. En route we show that formal logic, at present marginalized in cognitive science, can be an extremely valuable modeling tool. In particular, there are cases in which probabilistic modeling must fail, whereas logical models do well. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 555-567 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.134 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Extending Value Logic Thinking to Value Logic Portfolios
Ritter, Thomas; Andersen, Poul Houman
Based on value creation logic theory (Stabell & Fjeldstad, 1998), this paper suggests an extension of the original Stabell & Fjeldstad model by an additional fourth value logic, the value system logic. Furthermore, instead of only allowing one dominant value creation logic for a given firm...... or transaction, an understanding of firms and transactions as a portfolio of value logics (i.e. an interconnected coexistence of different value creation logics) is proposed. These additions to the original value creation logic theory imply interesting avenues for both, strategic decision making in firms...
Tan, Yong
2013-01-01
In this paper, author uses set theory to construct a logic model of abstract figure from binary relation. Based on the uniform quantified structure, author gives two logic system for graph traversal and graph coloring respectively, moreover shows a new method of cutting graph. Around this model, there are six algorithms in this paper including exact graph traversal, Algebra calculation of natural number, graph partition and graph coloring.
Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer
1999-01-01
Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....
Logic and declarative language
Downward, M
2004-01-01
Logic has acquired a reputation for difficulty, perhaps because many of the approaches adopted have been more suitable for mathematicians than computer scientists. This book shows that the subject is not inherently difficult and that the connections between logic and declarative language are straightforward. Many exercises have been included in the hope that these will lead to a much greater confidence in manual proofs, therefore leading to a greater confidence in automated proofs.
Simon Mumford takes a more 'logical' view of gramm
2010-01-01
@@ Many people enjoy puzzles and solving prob lems,and the use of an element of logic can make grammar exercises more interesting.Exercises such as putting words in order and clozes can be consid ered forms of puzzles,but there are many more op portunities to challenge more logically-minded stu dents.Here are some language puzzles for students and teachers alike.
Yanushkevich, Svetlana N
2008-01-01
Preface Design Process and Technology Theory of logic design Analysis and synthesis Implementation technologies Predictable technologies Contemporary CAD of logic networks Number Systems Positional numbers Counting in a positional number system Basic arithmetic operations in various number systems Binary arithmetic Radix-complement representations Techniques for conversion of numbers in various radices Overflow Residue arithmetic Other binary codes Redundancy and reliability Graphical Data Structures Graphs in discrete devices and systems design Basic definitions T
Towards a Formal Occurrence Logic based on Predicate Logic
Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans
2015-01-01
In this discussion we will concentrate on the main characteristics of an alternative kind of logic invented by Hans Götzsche: Occurrence Logic, which is not based on truth functionality. Our approach is based on temporal logic developed and elaborated by A. N. Prior. We will focus on characterising...... argumentation based on formal Occurrence Logic concerning events and occurrences, and illustrate the relations between Predicate Logic and Occurrence Logic. The relationships (and dependencies) is conducive to an approach that can analyse the occurrences of ”logical statements based on different logical...... principles” in different moments. We will also conclude that the elaborated Götzsche’s Occurrence Logic could be able to direct us to a truth-functional independent computer-based logic for analysing argumentation based on events and occurrences....
Metric propositional neighborhood logics on natural numbers
Bresolin, Davide; Della Monica, Dario; Goranko, Valentin
2013-01-01
Metric Propositional Neighborhood Logic (MPNL) over natural numbers. MPNL features two modalities referring, respectively, to an interval that is “met by” the current one and to an interval that “meets” the current one, plus an infinite set of length constraints, regarded as atomic propositions...... is decidable in double exponential time and expressively complete with respect to a well-defined sub-fragment of the two-variable fragment FO2[N,=,numbers. Moreover, we show that MPNL can be extended in a natural way...
Automating Access Control Logics in Simple Type Theory with LEO-II (Techreport)
Benzmueller, Christoph
2009-01-01
Garg and Abadi recently proved that prominent access control logics can be translated in a sound and complete way into modal logic S4. We have previously outlined how normal multimodal logics, including monomodal logics K and S4, can be embedded in simple type theory (which is also known as higher-order logic) and we have demonstrated that the higher-order theorem prover LEO-II can automate reasoning in and about them. In this paper we combine these results and describe a sound and complete embedding of different access control logics in simple type theory. Employing this framework we show that the off the shelf theorem prover LEO-II can be applied to automate reasoning in prominent access control logics.
Bulsara, Adi R., E-mail: bulsara@spawar.navy.mil [SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific, San Diego, CA 92152-5001 (United States); Dari, Anna, E-mail: adari@asu.edu [Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-9309 (United States); Ditto, William L., E-mail: william.ditto@asu.edu [Ira A. Fulton School of Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-9309 (United States); Murali, K., E-mail: kmurali@annauniv.edu [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Sinha, Sudeshna, E-mail: sudeshna@imsc.res.in [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Taramani, Chennai 600 113 (India); Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali, Transit Campus: MGSIPAP Complex, Sector 26 Chandigarh (India)
2010-10-05
In a recent publication it was shown that, when one drives a two-state system with two square waves as input, the response of the system mirrors a logical output (NOR/OR). The probability of obtaining the correct logic response is controlled by the interplay between the noise-floor and the nonlinearity. As one increases the noise intensity, the probability of the output reflecting a NOR/OR operation increases to unity and then decreases. Varying the nonlinearity (or the thresholds) of the system allows one to morph the output into another logic operation (NAND/AND) whose probability displays analogous behavior. Thus, the outcome of the interplay of nonlinearity and noise is a flexible logic gate with enhanced performance. Here we review this concept of 'Logical Stochastic Resonance' (LSR) and provide details of an electronic circuit system demonstrating LSR. Our proof-of-principle experiment involves a particularly simple realization of a two-state system realized by two adjustable thresholds. We also review CMOS implementations of a simple LSR circuit, and the concatenation of these LSR modules to emulate combinational logic, such as data flip-flop and full adder operations.
Arthur Prior and medieval logic
Uckelman, S.L.
2012-01-01
Though Arthur Prior is now best known for his founding of modern temporal logic and hybrid logic, much of his early philosophical career was devoted to history of logic and historical logic. This interest laid the foundations for both of his ground-breaking innovations in the 1950s and 1960s. Becaus
Relational Parametricity and Separation Logic
Birkedal, Lars; Yang, Hongseok
2008-01-01
Separation logic is a recent extension of Hoare logic for reasoning about programs with references to shared mutable data structures. In this paper, we provide a new interpretation of the logic for a programming language with higher types. Our interpretation is based on Reynolds's relational...... parametricity, and it provides a formal connection between separation logic and data abstraction. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
Logical Varieties in Normative Reasoning
Burgin, Mark; Mestdagh, de Vey
2011-01-01
Although conventional logical systems based on logical calculi have been successfully used in mathematics and beyond, they have definite limitations that restrict their application in many cases. For instance, the principal condition for any logical calculus is its consistency. At the same time, knowledge about large object domains (in science or in practice) is essentially inconsistent. Logical prevarieties and varieties were introduced to eliminate these limitations in a logically correct way. In this paper, the Logic of Reasonable Inferences is described. This logic has been applied successfully to model legal reasoning with inconsistent knowledge. It is demonstrated that this logic is a logical variety and properties of logical varieties related to legal reasoning are developed.
Dosen, K
2008-01-01
Positive modalities in systems in the vicinity of S4 and S5 are investigated in terms of categorial proof theory. Coherence and maximality results are demonstrated, and connections with mixed distributive laws and Frobenius algebras are exhibited.
Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; Rezac, L.; Smith, M. D.
2015-01-01
This paper describes a methodology for performing a temperature retrieval in the Martian atmosphere in the 50-90 km altitude range using spectrally integrated 15 micrometers C02 limb emissions measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), the thermal infrared spectrometer on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). We demonstrate that temperature retrievals from limb observations in the 75-90 km altitude range require accounting for the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) populations of the C02(v2) vibrational levels. Using the methodology described in the paper, we have retrieved approximately 1200 individual temperature profiles from MGS TES limb observations in the altitude range between 60 and 90 km. 0ur dataset of retrieved temperature profiles is available for download in supplemental materials of this paper. The temperature retrieval uncertainties are mainly caused by radiance noise, and are estimated to be about 2 K at 60 km and below, 4 K at 70 km, 7 K at 80 km, 10 K at 85 km, and 20 K at 90 km. We compare the retrieved profiles to Mars Climate Database temperature profiles and find good qualitative agreement. Quantitatively, our retrieved profiles are in general warmer and demonstrate strong variability with the following values for bias and standard deviations (in brackets) compared to the Martian Year 24 dataset of the Mars Climate Database: 6 (+/-20) K at 60 km, 7.5 (+/-25) K at 65 km, 9 (+/-27) K at 70 km, 9.5 (+/-27) K at 75 km, 10 (+/-28) K at 80 km, 11 (+/-29) K at 85 km, and 11.5 (+/-31) K at 90 km. Possible reasons for the positive temperature bias are discussed. carbon dioxide molecular vibrations
Non-logic devices in logic processes
Ma, Yanjun
2017-01-01
This book shows readers how to design semiconductor devices using the most common and lowest cost logic CMOS processes. Readers will benefit from the author’s extensive, industrial experience and the practical approach he describes for designing efficiently semiconductor devices that typically have to be implemented using specialized processes that are expensive, time-consuming, and low-yield. The author presents an integrated picture of semiconductor device physics and manufacturing techniques, as well as numerous practical examples of device designs that are tried and true.
Logic and truth: Some logics without theorems
Jayanta Sen
2008-08-01
Full Text Available Two types of logical consequence are compared: one, with respect to matrix and designated elements and the other with respect to ordering in a suitable algebraic structure. Particular emphasis is laid on algebraic structures in which there is no top-element relative to the ordering. The significance of this special condition is discussed. Sequent calculi for a number of such structures are developed. As a consequence it is re-established that the notion of truth as such, not to speak of tautologies, is inessential in order to define validity of an argument.
Characterising equilibrium logic and nested logic programs: Reductions and complexity
Pearce, David; Woltran, Stefan
2009-01-01
Equilibrium logic is an approach to nonmonotonic reasoning that extends the stable-model and answer-set semantics for logic programs. In particular, it includes the general case of nested logic programs, where arbitrary Boolean combinations are permitted in heads and bodies of rules, as special kinds of theories. In this paper, we present polynomial reductions of the main reasoning tasks associated with equilibrium logic and nested logic programs into quantified propositional logic, an extension of classical propositional logic where quantifications over atomic formulas are permitted. We provide reductions not only for decision problems, but also for the central semantical concepts of equilibrium logic and nested logic programs. In particular, our encodings map a given decision problem into some formula such that the latter is valid precisely in case the former holds. The basic tasks we deal with here are the consistency problem, brave reasoning, and skeptical reasoning. Additionally, we also provide encoding...
Bisimilarity and refinement for hybrid(ised logics
Alexandre Madeira
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The complexity of modern software systems entails the need for reconfiguration mechanisms gov- erning the dynamic evolution of their execution configurations in response to both external stimulus or internal performance measures. Formally, such systems may be represented by transition systems whose nodes correspond to the different configurations they may assume. Therefore, each node is en- dowed with, for example, an algebra, or a first-order structure, to precisely characterise the semantics of the services provided in the corresponding configuration. Hybrid logics, which add to the modal description of transition structures the ability to refer to specific states, offer a generic framework to approach the specification and design of this sort of systems. Therefore, the quest for suitable notions of equivalence and refinement between models of hybrid logic specifications becomes fundamental to any design discipline adopting this perspective. This paper contributes to this effort from a distinctive point of view: instead of focussing on a specific hybrid logic, the paper introduces notions of bisimilarity and refinement for hybridised logics, i.e. standard specification logics (e.g. propositional, equational, fuzzy, etc to which modal and hybrid features were added in a systematic way.
Diagnosable structured logic array
Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.
Prakash, Manu; Gershenfeld, Neil
2007-02-09
We demonstrate universal computation in an all-fluidic two-phase microfluidic system. Nonlinearity is introduced into an otherwise linear, reversible, low-Reynolds number flow via bubble-to-bubble hydrodynamic interactions. A bubble traveling in a channel represents a bit, providing us with the capability to simultaneously transport materials and perform logical control operations. We demonstrate bubble logic AND/OR/NOT gates, a toggle flip-flop, a ripple counter, timing restoration, a ring oscillator, and an electro-bubble modulator. These show the nonlinearity, gain, bistability, synchronization, cascadability, feedback, and programmability required for scalable universal computation. With increasing complexity in large-scale microfluidic processors, bubble logic provides an on-chip process control mechanism integrating chemistry and computation.
Carlsson, Christer; Fullér, Robert
2004-01-01
Fuzzy Logic in Management demonstrates that difficult problems and changes in the management environment can be more easily handled by bringing fuzzy logic into the practice of management. This explicit theme is developed through the book as follows: Chapter 1, "Management and Intelligent Support Technologies", is a short survey of management leadership and what can be gained from support technologies. Chapter 2, "Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic", provides a short introduction to fuzzy sets, fuzzy relations, the extension principle, fuzzy implications and linguistic variables. Chapter 3, "Group Decision Support Systems", deals with group decision making, and discusses methods for supporting the consensus reaching processes. Chapter 4, "Fuzzy Real Options for Strategic Planning", summarizes research where the fuzzy real options theory was implemented as a series of models. These models were thoroughly tested on a number of real life investments, and validated in 2001. Chapter 5, "Soft Computing Methods for Reducing...
Giordano, Paolo
2009-01-01
We introduce the ring of Fermat reals, an extension of the real field containing nilpotent infinitesimals. The construction takes inspiration from Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis (SIA), but provides a powerful theory of actual infinitesimals without any need of a background in mathematical logic. In particular, on the contrary with respect to SIA, which admits models only in intuitionistic logic, the theory of Fermat reals is consistent with classical logic. We face the problem to decide if the product of powers of nilpotent infinitesimals is zero or not, the identity principle for polynomials, the definition and properties of the total order relation. The construction is highly constructive, and every Fermat real admits a clear and order preserving geometrical representation. Using nilpotent infinitesimals, every smooth functions becomes a polynomial because in Taylor's formulas the rest is now zero. Finally, we present several applications to informal classical calculations used in Physics: now all these calc...
Rushton, Andrew
2011-01-01
Many engineers encountering VHDL (very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language) for the first time can feel overwhelmed by it. This book bridges the gap between the VHDL language and the hardware that results from logic synthesis with clear organisation, progressing from the basics of combinational logic, types, and operators; through special structures such as tristate buses, register banks and memories, to advanced themes such as developing your own packages, writing test benches and using the full range of synthesis types. This third edition has been substantially rewritten to include the new VHDL-2008 features that enable synthesis of fixed-point and floating-point hardware. Extensively updated throughout to reflect modern logic synthesis usage, it also contains a complete case study to demonstrate the updated features. Features to this edition include: * a common VHDL subset which will work across a range of different synthesis systems, targeting a very wide range of technologies...
Logic Programming for Linguistics
Christiansen, Henning
2010-01-01
This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...... a computer is, can follow the text. I cannot, of course, cover all aspects of logic programming in this text, and so we give references to other sources with more details. Students of linguistics must have a very good motivation to spend time on programming, and I show here how logic programming can be used...... for modelling different linguistic phenomena. When modelling language in this way, as opposed to using only paper and pencil, your models go live: you can run and test your models and you can use them as automatic language analyzers. This way you will get a better understanding of the dynamics of languages...
The Difference Between Modal Verbs in Deontic and Epistemic Modality
Menik Winiharti
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Modality is always interesting to discuss. Understanding it is crucial for both language teachers and learners. This essay discusses the concept of modality, its types and uses. It has a goal to find the difference between deontic and epistemic modality that is indicated by their modal verbs. It also provides the readers a better understanding of modality, particularly of its types and uses. The result of the analysis shows that in general, deontic modality indicates obligation and permission, while epistemic modality expresses possibility and prediction. However, the difference between deontic and epistemic modality is not a clear cut, since one single modal verb can express both types, and one single proposition can be expressed by more than one modal verb.
Introduction to mathematical logic
Mendelson, Elliott
2009-01-01
The Propositional CalculusPropositional Connectives. Truth TablesTautologies Adequate Sets of Connectives An Axiom System for the Propositional Calculus Independence. Many-Valued LogicsOther AxiomatizationsFirst-Order Logic and Model TheoryQuantifiersFirst-Order Languages and Their Interpretations. Satisfiability and Truth. ModelsFirst-Order TheoriesProperties of First-Order Theories Additional Metatheorems and Derived Rules Rule C Completeness Theorems First-Order Theories with EqualityDefinitions of New Function Letters and Individual Constants Prenex Normal Forms Isomorphism of Interpretati
Stoll, Robert R
1979-01-01
Set Theory and Logic is the result of a course of lectures for advanced undergraduates, developed at Oberlin College for the purpose of introducing students to the conceptual foundations of mathematics. Mathematics, specifically the real number system, is approached as a unity whose operations can be logically ordered through axioms. One of the most complex and essential of modern mathematical innovations, the theory of sets (crucial to quantum mechanics and other sciences), is introduced in a most careful concept manner, aiming for the maximum in clarity and stimulation for further study in
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2011-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML....... To guard against modelling artifacts we provide an alternative way of characterizing the policy combining algorithms and we formally prove the equivalence of these approaches. This allows us to pinpoint the shortcoming of previous approaches to formalization based either on Belnap logic or on D-algebra....
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2011-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML....... To guard against modelling artefacts we provide an alternative way of characterizing the policy combining algorithms and we formally prove the equivalence of these approaches. This allows us to pinpoint the shortcoming of previous approaches to formalization based either on Belnap logic or on D -algebra....
Reactive standard deontic logic
Gabbay, Dov M.; Straßer, Christian
2015-01-01
We introduce a reactive variant of SDL (standard deontic logic): SDLR1 (reactive standard deontic logic). Given a Kripkean view on the semantics of SDL in terms of directed graphs where arrows -> represent the accessibility relation between worlds, reactive models add two elements: arrows -> are labelled as 'active' or 'inactive', and double arrows a dagger connect arrows, e.g. (x(1) -> x(2)) a dagger (x(3) -> x(4)). The idea is that passing through x(1) -> x(2) activates a switch represented...
Evens, Aden
2015-01-01
Building a foundational understanding of the digital, Logic of the Digital reveals a unique digital ontology. Beginning from formal and technical characteristics, especially the binary code at the core of all digital technologies, Aden Evens traces the pathways along which the digital domain of abstract logic encounters the material, human world. How does a code using only 0s and 1s give rise to the vast range of applications and information that constitutes a great and growing portion of our world? Evens' analysis shows how any encounter between the actual and the digital must cross an ontolo
Gibson, J
2013-01-01
Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate
Linear Logical Voting Protocols
DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten
2012-01-01
. In response, we promote linear logic as a high-level language for both specifying and implementing voting protocols. Our linear logical specifications of the single-winner first-past-the-post (SW- FPTP) and single transferable vote (STV) protocols demonstrate that this approach leads to concise......Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification...... implementations that closely correspond to their legal specification, thereby increasing trust....
From Cognitive Binary Logic to Cognitive Intelligent Agents
Popescu-Bodorin, Nicolaie; 10.1109/INES.2010.5483820
2011-01-01
The relation between self awareness and intelligence is an open problem these days. Despite the fact that self awarness is usually related to Emotional Intelligence, this is not the case here. The problem described in this paper is how to model an agent which knows (Cognitive) Binary Logic and which is also able to pass (without any mistake) a certain family of Turing Tests designed to verify its knowledge and its discourse about the modal states of truth corresponding to well-formed formulae within the language of Propositional Binary Logic.
A modal specification theory for components with data
Bauer, Sebastian S.; Larsen, Kim G.; Legay, Axel
2014-01-01
of transitions allows for developing a unique approach for both logical and structural compositions, and eases the step-wise refine- ment process for building implementations. We propose Modal Specifications with Data (MSDs), the first modal specification theory with explicit representation of data. Our new...... theory includes the most commonly seen ingredients of a specification the- ory; that is parallel composition, conjunction and quotient. As MSDs are by nature potentially infinite-state systems, we propose symbolic representations based on effec- tive predicates. Our theory serves as a new abstraction...
Dominant modal decomposition method
Dombovari, Zoltan
2017-03-01
The paper deals with the automatic decomposition of experimental frequency response functions (FRF's) of mechanical structures. The decomposition of FRF's is based on the Green function representation of free vibratory systems. After the determination of the impulse dynamic subspace, the system matrix is formulated and the poles are calculated directly. By means of the corresponding eigenvectors, the contribution of each element of the impulse dynamic subspace is determined and the sufficient decomposition of the corresponding FRF is carried out. With the presented dominant modal decomposition (DMD) method, the mode shapes, the modal participation vectors and the modal scaling factors are identified using the decomposed FRF's. Analytical example is presented along with experimental case studies taken from machine tool industry.
Dynamic description logic model for data integration
Guoshun HAO; Shilong MA; Yuefei SUI; Jianghua LV
2008-01-01
Data integration is the issue of retrieving and combining data residing at distributed and heterogeneous sources,and of providing users with transparent access without being aware of the details of the sources.Data integration is a very important issue because it deals with data infrastructure issues of coordinated computing systems.Despite its importance,the following key challenges make data integration one of the longest standing problems around:1) how to solve the system heterogeneity;2) how to build a global model;3) how to process queries automatically and correctly;and 4) how to solve semantic heterogeneity. This paper presents an extended dynamic description logic language to describe systems with dynamic actions.By this language,a-universal and unified model for relational database systems and a model for data integration are presented.This paper presents a universal and unified description logic model for relational databases.The model is universal because any relational database system can be automatically transformed to the model;it is unified because it integrates three essential components of relational databases together:description logic knowledge bases modeling the relational data,atomic modalities modeling the atomic relational operations,and combined modalities modeling the combined relational operations-queries. Furthermore,a description logic model for data integration is proposed which contains four layers of ontologies.Based on the model,a solution for each key challenge is proposed:a universal model eliminates system heterogeneity;a novel global model including three ontologies is proposed with some important benefits;a query process mechanism is provided by which user queries can be decomposed to queries over the sources;and for solving the semantic heterogeneity,this paper provides a framework under which semantic relations can be expressed and inferred. In summary,this paper presents a dynamic knowledge base framework by an extended
A PARACONSISTENT EPISTEMIC LOGIC SYSTEM CnEK%一种弗协调认知逻辑CnEK
李娜; 郝旭东
2007-01-01
The paper is devoted to build a paraconsistent epistemic logic CnEK on the basis of the paraconsistent modal logic CnG'.%本文试图以弗协调模态逻辑CnG'为基础,建立一种弗协调认知逻辑CnEK.
From logic design to logic programming
Snyers, D.; Thayse, A.
1987-01-01
The main purpose of the present book is to show that in the same way as P-functions can lead to algorithmic or imperative implementations via the algorithmic state machine model or via the parallel program schema, they can also lead to a declarative type of implementation via the theorem proving model. As P-functions are used for synthesizing algorithms, the result of the synthesis can be interpreted in terms of implementation tools. To the hardware, microprogrammed and programmed (in an algorithmic or imperative programming environment using fortran-like or pascal-like languages) implementations the authors can thus add logic programmed implementation as a possible result of the P-function calculus.
Radiation tolerant combinational logic cell
Maki, Gary R. (Inventor); Gambles, Jody W. (Inventor); Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A system has a reduced sensitivity to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transient(s) compared to traditional logic devices. In a particular embodiment, the system includes an input, a logic block, a bias stage, a state machine, and an output. The logic block is coupled to the input. The logic block is for implementing a logic function, receiving a data set via the input, and generating a result f by applying the data set to the logic function. The bias stage is coupled to the logic block. The bias stage is for receiving the result from the logic block and presenting it to the state machine. The state machine is coupled to the bias stage. The state machine is for receiving, via the bias stage, the result generated by the logic block. The state machine is configured to retain a state value for the system. The state value is typically based on the result generated by the logic block. The output is coupled to the state machine. The output is for providing the value stored by the state machine. Some embodiments of the invention produce dual rail outputs Q and Q'. The logic block typically contains combinational logic and is similar, in size and transistor configuration, to a conventional CMOS combinational logic design. However, only a very small portion of the circuits of these embodiments, is sensitive to Single Event Upset and/or Single Event Transients.
Mapping Individual Logical Processes
Smetana, Frederick O.
1975-01-01
A technique to measure and describe concisely a certain class of individual mental reasoning processes has been developed. The measurement is achieved by recording the complete dialog between a large, varied computerized information system with a broad range of logical operations and options and a human information seeker. (Author/RC)
Logicism, intuitionism, and formalism
Symons, John
2008-01-01
Aims to review the programmes in the foundations of mathematics from the classical period and to assess their possible relevance for contemporary philosophy of mathematics. This work is suitable for researchers and graduate students of philosophy, logic, mathematics and theoretical computer science.
Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations
Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou
1997-01-01
The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...
Welty, Gordon A.
The logic of the evaluation of educational and other action programs is discussed from a methodological viewpoint. However, no attempt is made to develop methods of evaluating programs. In Part I, the structure of an educational program is viewed as a system with three components--inputs, transformation of inputs into outputs, and outputs. Part II…
Krötzsch, Markus; Horrocks, Ian
2012-01-01
This paper provides a self-contained first introduction to description logics (DLs). The main concepts and features are explained with examples before syntax and semantics of the DL SROIQ are defined in detail. Additional sections review light-weight DL languages, discuss the relationship to the Web Ontology Language OWL and give pointers to further reading.
Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2014-01-01
We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policies in a compositional way. Our main contributions are (i) to derive a logic that precisely captures the intentions of the standard, (ii) to formally define a semantics for the XACML 3.0 component evaluation...
Nonmonotonic logics and algebras
CHAKRABORTY Mihir Kr; GHOSH Sujata
2008-01-01
Several nonmonotonie logic systems together with their algebraic semantics are discussed. NM-algebra is defined.An elegant construction of an NM-algebra starting from a Boolean algebra is described which gives rise to a few interesting algebraic issues.
Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars
2012-01-01
, separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...
Logic Programming for Linguistics
Christiansen, Henning
2010-01-01
This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...
LOGICAL SEMANTICS OF MODULARIZATION
DELAVALETTE, GRR
1992-01-01
An algebra of theories, signatures, renamings and the operations import and export is investigated. A normal form theorem for terms of this algebra is proved. Another algebraic approach and the relation with a fragment of second order logic are also considered.
Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.
2010-01-01
Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of p
Quantum probabilistic logic programming
Balu, Radhakrishnan
2015-05-01
We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.
Logical analysis of biological systems
Mardare, Radu Iulian
2005-01-01
R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005.......R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005....
Grzegorczyk, Dawid; Mulawka, Jan J.; Nieznański, Edward
In this article there are presented a few methods of proving that can be adopted for epistemic logic. Those methods are used for proving sample thesis in a certain considered epistemic logic also described briefly in this work.
Finding Unity in Computational Logic
Miller, Dale
2010-01-01
International audience; While logic was once developed to serve philosophers and mathematicians, it is increasingly serving the varied needs of computer scientists. In fact, recent decades have witnessed the creation of the new discipline of Computational Logic. While Computation Logic can claim involvement in diverse areas of computing, little has been done to systematize the foundations of this new discipline. Here, we envision a unity for Computational Logic organized around the proof theo...
Nguyen, Hung T
2005-01-01
THE CONCEPT OF FUZZINESS Examples Mathematical modeling Some operations on fuzzy sets Fuzziness as uncertainty Exercises SOME ALGEBRA OF FUZZY SETS Boolean algebras and lattices Equivalence relations and partitions Composing mappings Isomorphisms and homomorphisms Alpha-cuts Images of alpha-level sets Exercises FUZZY QUANTITIES Fuzzy quantities Fuzzy numbers Fuzzy intervals Exercises LOGICAL ASPECTS OF FUZZY SETS Classical two-valued logic A three-valued logic Fuzzy logic Fuzzy and Lukasiewi
Teaching German Modal Particles.
Rosler, Dietmar
1982-01-01
Believes modern linguistics has done little to explore German modal particles because by focusing on sentences as the basic category for linguistic thinking these words did not seem to matter. Describes model which gives students experience with these particles in meaningful communication. (Author/BK)
Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Woll, B.; Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Woll, B.
2012-01-01
Cross-linguistically, the grammatical categories tense, aspect, and modality - when they are overtly expressed - are generally realized by free morphemes (such as adverbials and auxiliaries) or by bound inflectional markers. The discussion in this chapter will make clear that this generalization als
Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn
This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...
Metric Propositional Neighborhood Logics: Expressiveness, Decidability, and Undecidability
Bresolin, Davide; Della Monica, Dario; Goranko, Valentin;
2010-01-01
Metric Propositional Neighborhood Logic (MPNL) over natural numbers. MPNL features two modalities referring, respectively, to an interval that is “met by” the current one and to an interval that “meets” the current one, plus an infinite set of length constraints, regarded as atomic propositions...... that MPNL is decidable in double exponential time and expressively complete with respect to a well-defined subfragment of the two-variable fragment FO2[N, =,...
LFP – A Logical Framework with External Predicates
2012-01-01
International audience; The LFP Framework is an extension of the Harper-Honsell- Plotkin's Edinburgh Logical Framework LF with external pred- icates. This is accomplished by defining lock type constructors, which are a sort of ⋄-modality constructors, releasing their ar- gument under the condition that a possibly external predicate is satisfied on an appropriate typed judgement. Lock types are de- fined using the standard pattern of constructive type theory, i.e. via introduction, elimination...
Monica, Dario Della; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo;
2011-01-01
We compare the expressiveness of the fragments of Halpern and Shoham’s interval logic (HS), i.e., of all interval logics with modal operators associated with Allen’s relations between intervals in linear orders. We establish a complete set of interdefinability equations between these modal operat...... operators, and thus obtain a complete classification of the family of 212 fragments of HS with respect to their expressiveness. Using that result and a computer program, we have found that there are 1347 expressively different such interval logics over the class of all linear orders....
Constraints on the Within Season and Between Year Variability of the North Residual Cap from MGS-TES
Calvin, W. M.; Titus, T. N.; Mahoney, S. A.
2003-01-01
There is a long history of telescopic and spacecraft observations of the polar regions of Mars. The finely laminated ice deposits and surrounding layered terrains are commonly thought to contain a record of past climate conditions and change. Understanding the basic nature of the deposits and their mineral and ice constituents is a continued focus of current and future orbited missions. Unresolved issues in Martian polar science include a) the unusual nature of the CO2 ice deposits ("Swiss Cheese", "slab ice" etc.) b) the relationship of the ice deposits to underlying layered units (which differs from the north to the south), c) understanding the seasonal variations and their connections to the finely laminated units observed in high-resolution images and d) the relationship of dark materials in the wind-swept lanes and reentrant valleys to the surrounding dark dune and surface materials. Our work focuses on understanding these issues in relationship to the north residual ice cap. Recent work using Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data sets have described evolution of the seasonal CO2 frost deposits. In addition, the north polar residual ice cap exhibits albedo variations between Mars years and within the summer season. The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data set can augment these observations providing additional constraints such as temperature evolution and spectral properties associated with ice and rocky materials. Exploration of these properties is the subject of our current study.
Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy
2016-04-01
In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the `regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both `regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.
Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy
2016-11-01
In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the `regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both `regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.
Friche, Nanna; Normann Andersen, Vibeke
combined with state funding through a taximeter scheme (pay per student). Secondly, party governance system involving labor market partners at both national and local level formalized through a national Council for Vocational Training and 50 local trade committees as well as local education committees......For the last fifteen years completion rates in Danish vocational education and training (VET) has stayed on a rather low level. In 2014, only half of the students enrolled in a vocational program on upper secondary level, graduated from the program (Flarup et al 2016). In Denmark, like in other...... and well-being of students enrolled in the VETs must be strengthened. We focus on target 1, 2 and 4. The reform is being implemented in a field of VET that can be characterized by four logics of governance. Firstly, a governance logic characterized by institutional independence of vocational colleges...
Franceschet, Massimo
2010-01-01
Networks are pervasive in the real world. Nature, society, economy, and technology are supported by ostensibly different networks that in fact share an amazing number of interesting structural properties. Network thinking exploded in the last decade, boosted by the availability of large databases on the topology of various real networks, mainly the Web and biological networks, and converged to the new discipline of network analysis - the holistic analysis of complex systems through the study of the network that wires their components. Physicists mainly drove the investigation, studying the structure and function of networks using methods and tools of statistical mechanics. Here, we give an alternative perspective on network analysis, proposing a logic for specifying general properties of networks and a modular algorithm for checking these properties. The logic borrows from two intertwined computing fields: XML databases and model checking.
Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy
2016-11-01
In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the 'regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both 'regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.
Delay modeling in logic simulation
Acken, J. M.; Goldstein, L. H.
1980-01-01
As digital integrated circuit size and complexity increases, the need for accurate and efficient computer simulation increases. Logic simulators such as SALOGS (SAndia LOGic Simulator), which utilize transition states in addition to the normal stable states, provide more accurate analysis than is possible with traditional logic simulators. Furthermore, the computational complexity of this analysis is far lower than that of circuit simulation such as SPICE. An eight-value logic simulation environment allows the use of accurate delay models that incorporate both element response and transition times. Thus, timing simulation with an accuracy approaching that of circuit simulation can be accomplished with an efficiency comparable to that of logic simulation. 4 figures.
Strong Completeness for Markovian Logics
Kozen, Dexter; Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash
2013-01-01
In this paper we present Hilbert-style axiomatizations for three logics for reasoning about continuous-space Markov processes (MPs): (i) a logic for MPs defined for probability distributions on measurable state spaces, (ii) a logic for MPs defined for sub-probability distributions and (iii) a logic...... defined for arbitrary distributions. These logics are not compact so one needs infinitary rules in order to obtain strong completeness results. We propose a new infinitary rule that replaces the so-called Countable Additivity Rule (CAR) currently used in the literature to address the problem of proving...
Propositional Dynamic Logic for Message-Passing Systems
Bollig, Benedikt; Meinecke, Ingmar
2010-01-01
We examine a bidirectional propositional dynamic logic (PDL) for finite and infinite message sequence charts (MSCs) extending LTL and TLC$^{-}$. By this kind of multi-modal logic we can express properties both in the entire future and in the past of an event. Path expressions strengthen the classical until operator of temporal logic. For every formula defining an MSC language, we construct a communicating finite-state machine (CFM) accepting the same language. The CFM obtained has size exponential in the size of the formula. This synthesis problem is solved in full generality, i.e., also for MSCs with unbounded channels. The model checking problem for CFMs and HMSCs turns out to be in PSPACE for existentially bounded MSCs. Finally, we show that, for PDL with intersection, the semantics of a formula cannot be captured by a CFM anymore.
Bisimulations, games, and logic
Nielsen, Mogens; Clausen, Christian
1994-01-01
In a recent paper by Joyal, Nielsen, and Winskel, bisimulation is defined in an abstract and uniform way across a wide range of different models for concurrency. In this paper, following a recent trend in theoretical computer science, we characterize their abstract definition game-theoretically a......-theoretically and logically in a non-interleaving model. Our characterizations appear as surprisingly simple extensions of corresponding characterizations of interleaving bisimulation....
Magnetoresistive logic and biochip
Brueckl, Hubert E-mail: brueckl@physik.uni-bielefeld.de; Brzeska, Monika; Brinkmann, Dirk; Schotter, J.Joerg; Reiss, Guenter; Schepper, Willi; Kamp, P.-B.; Becker, Anke
2004-11-01
While some magnetoresistive devices based on giant magnetoresistance or spin-dependent tunneling are already commercialized, a new branch of development is evolving towards magnetoresistive logic with magnetic tunnel junctions. Furthermore, the new magnetoelectronic effects show promising properties in magnetoresistive biochips, which are capable of detecting even single molecules (e.g. DNA) by functionalized magnetic markers. The unclear limits of this approach are discussed with two model systems.
Teslenko, Maxim
2008-01-01
This dissertation is in the area of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) of digital Integrated Circuits (ICs). Today's digital ICs, such as microprocessors, memories, digital signal processors (DSPs), etc., range from a few thousands to billions of logic gates, flip-flops, and other components, packed in a few millimeters of area. The creation of such highly complex systems would not be possible without the use of CAD tools. CAD tools play the key role in determining the area, speed and power consumpt...
Rudin, M.J. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas NV (United States); O`Brien, M.C. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
1995-04-01
A planning and management tool was developed that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems to technologies that can be used to remediate these problems. Although the Technology Logic Diagram has been widely used within the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, it can be modified for use during the planning of any waste management and environmental cleanup effort.
Probabilistic Logical Characterization
Hermanns, Holger; Parma, Augusto; Segala, Roberto;
2011-01-01
Probabilistic automata exhibit both probabilistic and non-deterministic choice. They are therefore a powerful semantic foundation for modeling concurrent systems with random phenomena arising in many applications ranging from artificial intelligence, security, systems biology to performance model...... modeling. Several variations of bisimulation and simulation relations have proved to be useful as means to abstract and compare different automata. This paper develops a taxonomy of logical characterizations of these relations on image-finite and image-infinite probabilistic automata....
1986-12-01
determining the consequences of assumptions about the behavior of a system . If the space of behaviors is represented by an envisionment , many such...consequences can be represented by pruning states from the envisionment . This paper provides a formal logic of occurrence which justifies the...algorithms involved and provides a language for relating specific histories to envisionments . The concepts and axioms are general enough to be applicable to
A Comparison of Implications in Orthomodular Quantum Logic—Morphological Analysis of Quantum Logic
Mitsuhiko Fujio
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Morphological operators are generalized to lattices as adjunction pairs (Serra, 1984; Ronse, 1990; Heijmans and Ronse, 1990; Heijmans, 1994. In particular, morphology for set lattices is applied to analyze logics through Kripke semantics (Bloch, 2002; Fujio and Bloch, 2004; Fujio, 2006. For example, a pair of morphological operators as an adjunction gives rise to a temporalization of normal modal logic (Fujio and Bloch, 2004; Fujio, 2006. Also, constructions of models for intuitionistic logic or linear logics can be described in terms of morphological interior and/or closure operators (Fujio and Bloch, 2004. This shows that morphological analysis can be applied to various non-classical logics. On the other hand, quantum logics are algebraically formalized as orhomodular or modular ortho-complemented lattices (Birkhoff and von Neumann, 1936; Maeda, 1980; Chiara and Giuntini, 2002, and shown to allow Kripke semantics (Chiara and Giuntini, 2002. This suggests the possibility of morphological analysis for quantum logics. In this article, to show an efficiency of morphological analysis for quantum logic, we consider the implication problem in quantum logics (Chiara and Giuntini, 2002. We will give a comparison of the 5 polynomial implication connectives available in quantum logics.
Das modale Hilfsverb "will" (The Modal Auxiliary Verb "Will")
Kunsmann, Peter W.
1975-01-01
That "will" and "shall" are modal, not temporal, verbs is shown by their syntactic similarity to the modals and by the fact that they follow the same transformational rules as the modals. This example demonstrates the usefulness of transformational grammar in explaining grammatical relationships to students. (Text is in…
Hollowood, Timothy J
2013-01-01
We describe an interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description for macro-systems. The interpretation is a modal one, but does not suffer from the range of problems that plague other modal interpretations. The key feature is that quantum states carry an additional property assignment in the form of one the eigenvectors of the reduced density matrix which evolves evolves according to a stochastic process driven by the unmodified Schrodinger equation, but it is usually hidden from the emergent classical description due to the ergodic nature of its dynamics. However, during a quantum measurement, ergodicity is broken by decoherence and definite outcomes occur with probabilities that agree with the Born rule.
Method of Display Entity Information of VR-forces on MGS Platform%基于MGS平台的VR-Forces实体信息显示方法
韩晓光; 赵志军; 蔡郁知
2015-01-01
在同一模拟系统中同时使用MGS与VR-Forces平台,存在实体信息格式转换问题.为实现在MGS平台中显示VR-Forces中实体信息,分析了VR-Forces平台中实体信息的组织方式,基于XML技术构建了VR-Forces平台与MGS平台间的实体ID编码映射关系,实现了VR-Forces平台中实体经纬度、首向角、敌我关系等属性信息的获取方法,解决了基于MGS开发的模拟仿真训练程序与基于VR-Forces开发的模拟训练程序共存的问题,为后续具有类似功能需求的模拟系统开发提供了技术支持.%To use MGS and VR-Forces in the same simulation system, there is an entity information transform problem. To display VR-Forces entity information on MGS, the entity in heritance structure of VR-Forces is analyzed, building a Mapping Table of entity ID between VR-Forces and MGS platforms on XML technology. To achieve the methods to get latitude,heading,the enemy relationship from VR-Forces, the coexistence problem of MGS and VR-Forces are solved. The technical support for the development of simulation system with the similar function is provided.
Semantic Structure of English Modals
Cook, Walter A.
1978-01-01
English modal verbs constitute a problem for the student of English as a foreign language. This study presents a methodology for a systematic presentation of the meaning of modal verbs. The modals "can,""may,""must," and "have to" are studied. (SW)
Disjunctive logic and semantics of disjunctive logic programs
沈一栋
1997-01-01
In common sense reasoning with incomplete knowledge bases, conclusions are made by defaultHowever, it is observed that when the negation-by-default operator not is defined as not provable , the disjunctive logic program { a V b, not a, not b} should be consistent because a being not provable and b being nor provable does not imply a V b being riot provable. Such an observation is significant for non-monotonic reasoning, but none of the major current semantics for disjunctive logic programs is able to support it because they are all based on classical first-order logic in which assuming not a and not b implies assuming no: (a V b) A new first-order logic (disjunctive logic ) is developed that fully complies with this observation and new semantics for disjunctive logic programs are established This theory is able to formalize and solve some paradoxical problems, such as the lottery paradox
Sistemas multi–modales de profundidad restringida Multi-modal systems of restricted depth
Manuel Sierra A.
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Se presentan como extensiones del cálculo proposicional clásico, la jerarquíade sistemas deductivos SMM–n con n > 1. SMM–n es el sistema multi–modalde profundidad–n. El sistema SMM–1 es el cálculo proposicional clásico. Elsistema SMM–(n + 1 puede ser visto como el resultado de aplicar la regla denecesariedad, asociada a los razonadores con suficiente capacidad de razona-miento, una vez a los teoremas del sistema SMM–n. El sistema SMM resultade la reunión de los sistemas de la jerarquía, y puede ser visto como el sis-tema de lógica multi–modal Km con restricciones. Los sistemas SMM–n soncaracterizados con una semántica al estilo Kripke, en la cual, la longitud delas cadenas de mundos posibles se encuentra restringida.They are presented as extensions of the classical propositional logic, the hierarchy of deductive systems SMM–n with n > 1. SMM–n is the multi–modal system of depth–n. The system SMM–1 is the classical propositional logic. The system SMM–(n + 1 it can be seen as the result of applying the necesariedad rule, associated to the reasoners with enough reasoning capacity, once to the theorems of the system SMM–n. The system SMM is of the union of the systems of the hierarchy, and it can be seen as the system of logic multimodal Km with restrictions. The systems SMM–n are characterized with a semantics to the style Kripke, in the one which, the longitude of the chains of possible worlds is restricted.
Instantaneous noise-based logic
Kish, Laszlo B; Peper, Ferdinand
2010-01-01
We show two universal, Boolean, deterministic logic schemes based on binary noise timefunctions that can be realized without time averaging units. The first scheme is based on a new bipolar random telegraph wave scheme and the second one makes use of the recent noise-based logic which is conjectured to be the brain's method of logic operations [Physics Letters A 373 (2009) 2338-2342, arXiv:0902.2033]. For binary-valued logic operations, the two simple Boolean schemes presented in this paper use zero (no noise) for the logic Low (L) state. In the random telegraph wave-based scheme, for multi-valued logic operations, additive superpositions of logic states must be avoided, while multiplicative superpositions utilizing hyperspace base vectors can still be utilized. These modifications, while keeping the information richness of multi-valued (noise-based) logic, result in a significant speedup of logic operations for the same signal bandwidth. The logic hyperspace of the first scheme results random telegraph waves...
An application of operational modal analysis in modal filtering
Kurowski, Piotr; Mendrok, Krzysztof; Uhl, Tadeusz, E-mail: mendrok@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059, Krakow (Poland)
2011-07-19
Modal filtration in the field of damage detection has many advantages, including: its autonomous operation (without the interaction of qualified staff), low computational cost and low sensitivity to changes in external conditions. However, the main drawback of this group of damage detection methods is its limited applicability to operational data. In this paper a method of modal filter formulation from the in-operational data is described. The basis for this approach is FRFs synthesis using knowledge of the operational modal model. For that purpose a method of operational mode shape scaling is described. This is based on the measurements of several FRFs of the object. The method is then applied to the construction of modal filters and modal filtration. Additionally, the study presents verification of the method using data obtained from simulation and laboratory experiments. Verification consisted of comparing the results of modal filtering based on classical experimental modal analysis with the results of the approach proposed in the work.
An application of operational modal analysis in modal filtering
Kurowski, Piotr; Mendrok, Krzysztof; Uhl, Tadeusz
2011-07-01
Modal filtration in the field of damage detection has many advantages, including: its autonomous operation (without the interaction of qualified staff), low computational cost and low sensitivity to changes in external conditions. However, the main drawback of this group of damage detection methods is its limited applicability to operational data. In this paper a method of modal filter formulation from the in-operational data is described. The basis for this approach is FRFs synthesis using knowledge of the operational modal model. For that purpose a method of operational mode shape scaling is described. This is based on the measurements of several FRFs of the object. The method is then applied to the construction of modal filters and modal filtration. Additionally, the study presents verification of the method using data obtained from simulation and laboratory experiments. Verification consisted of comparing the results of modal filtering based on classical experimental modal analysis with the results of the approach proposed in the work.
Classical Mathematical Logic The Semantic Foundations of Logic
Epstein, Richard L
2011-01-01
In Classical Mathematical Logic, Richard L. Epstein relates the systems of mathematical logic to their original motivations to formalize reasoning in mathematics. The book also shows how mathematical logic can be used to formalize particular systems of mathematics. It sets out the formalization not only of arithmetic, but also of group theory, field theory, and linear orderings. These lead to the formalization of the real numbers and Euclidean plane geometry. The scope and limitations of modern logic are made clear in these formalizations. The book provides detailed explanations of all proo
T Atanassov, Krassimir
2017-01-01
The book offers a comprehensive survey of intuitionistic fuzzy logics. By reporting on both the author’s research and others’ findings, it provides readers with a complete overview of the field and highlights key issues and open problems, thus suggesting new research directions. Starting with an introduction to the basic elements of intuitionistic fuzzy propositional calculus, it then provides a guide to the use of intuitionistic fuzzy operators and quantifiers, and lastly presents state-of-the-art applications of intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The book is a valuable reference resource for graduate students and researchers alike.
Flexible programmable logic module
Robertson, Perry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hutchinson, Robert L. (Albuquerque, NM); Pierson, Lyndon G. (Albuquerque, NM)
2001-01-01
The circuit module of this invention is a VME board containing a plurality of programmable logic devices (PLDs), a controlled impedance clock tree, and interconnecting buses. The PLDs are arranged to permit systolic processing of a problem by offering wide data buses and a plurality of processing nodes. The board contains a clock reference and clock distribution tree that can drive each of the PLDs with two critically timed clock references. External clock references can be used to drive additional circuit modules all operating from the same synchronous clock reference.
Krötzsch, M
2010-01-01
Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary
Computability, complexity, logic
Börger, Egon
1989-01-01
The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, and to the theory of formal languages and complexity theory. Apart from considering the fundamental themes an
Substructural Logical Specifications
2012-11-14
a more natural correspondence with our physical intuitions about consumable resources. Linear conjunction A ⊗ B (“A tensor B”) represents the...sketch a radically different, vaguely Feynman - diagram-inspired, way of presenting traces in Figure 4.14. Resources are the edges in the DAG and steps or...70th Birthday, volume 17 of Studies in Logic. College Publications, 2008. 3.3.3, 4.1.2, 4.7.3 [Pfe12a] Frank Pfenning. Lecture notes on backtracking
Bright, Liam Kofi
2017-07-10
The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bresolin, Davide; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo
2009-01-01
Interval temporal logics are based on interval structures over linearly (or partially) ordered domains, where time intervals, rather than time instants, are the primitive ontological entities. In this paper we introduce and study Right Propositional Neighborhood Logic over natural numbers...... with integer constraints for interval lengths, which is a propositional interval temporal logic featuring a modality for the 'right neighborhood' relation between intervals and explicit integer constraints for interval lengths. We prove that it has the bounded model property with respect to ultimately periodic...
PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer
A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.
Generalized logic in experience thinking
何华灿; 刘永怀; 何大庆; 成华
1996-01-01
The thinking and mathematical background of raising GL is explained first,then the main definitions and basic features of GL are presented,and finally the relationship between GL and other logic and the GL family are discussed.Although the research of GL just began,it may become the logic of all other logic.GL will be one of the basic theories in AI research,and has promising application.
Methods in Logic Based Control
Christensen, Georg Kronborg
1999-01-01
Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC-design met......Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...
Optimization methods for logical inference
Chandru, Vijay
2011-01-01
Merging logic and mathematics in deductive inference-an innovative, cutting-edge approach. Optimization methods for logical inference? Absolutely, say Vijay Chandru and John Hooker, two major contributors to this rapidly expanding field. And even though ""solving logical inference problems with optimization methods may seem a bit like eating sauerkraut with chopsticks. . . it is the mathematical structure of a problem that determines whether an optimization model can help solve it, not the context in which the problem occurs."" Presenting powerful, proven optimization techniques for logic in
Barriers in Concurrent Separation Logic
Hobor, Aquinas; Gherghina, Cristian
We develop and prove sound a concurrent separation logic for Pthreads-style barriers. Although Pthreads barriers are widely used in systems, and separation logic is widely used for verification, there has not been any effort to combine the two. Unlike locks and critical sections, Pthreads barriers enable simultaneous resource redistribution between multiple threads and are inherently stateful, leading to significant complications in the design of the logic and its soundness proof. We show how our logic can be applied to a specific example program in a modular way. Our proofs are machine-checked in Coq.
Popular lectures on mathematical logic
Wang, Hao
2014-01-01
A noted logician and philosopher addresses various forms of mathematical logic, discussing both theoretical underpinnings and practical applications. Author Hao Wang surveys the central concepts and theories of the discipline in a historical and developmental context, and then focuses on the four principal domains of contemporary mathematical logic: set theory, model theory, recursion theory and constructivism, and proof theory.Topics include the place of problems in the development of theories of logic and logic's relation to computer science. Specific attention is given to Gödel's incomplete
McConnochie, T. H.; Smith, M. D.
2011-12-01
Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES) nadir-soundings have been used to derive atmospheric temperatures up to roughly 40 km [Conrath et al., JGR 105 2000, Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001], and MGS-TES limb soundings have been used to extend the atmospheric temperature data set to > 60 km in altitude [Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001]. The ~40 - ~65 km altitude range probed by the MGS-TES limb sounding is particularly important for capturing key dynamical features such as the warm winter polar mesosphere [e.g., Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001; McCleese et al., Nature Geoscience 1, 2008], and the response of thermal tides to dust opacity [e.g. Wilson and Hamilton, J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1996]. Thus accurate and precise temperature profiles at these altitudes are particularly important for constraining global circulation models. They are also critical for interpreting observations of mesospheric condensate aerosols [e.g., Määttänen et al., Icarus 209, 2010; McConnochie et al., Icarus 210, 2010)]. We have indentified correlated noise components in the MGS-TES limb sounding radiances that propagate into very large uncertainties in the retrieved temperatures. We have also identified a slowly varying radiance bias in the limb sounding radiances. Note that the nadir-sounding-based MGS-TES atmospheric temperatures currently available from the Planetary Data System are not affected by either of these issues. These two issues affect the existing MGS-TES limb sounding temperature data set are as follows: Considering, for example, the 1.5 Pascal pressure level (which typically falls between 50 and 60 km altitude), correlated-noise induced standard errors for individual limb-sounding temperature retrievals were 3 - 5 K in Mars Year 24, rising to 5 - 15 K in Mars Year 25 and 10 - 15 K in Mars Year 26 and 27. The radiance bias, although consistent on ~10-sol time scales, is highly variable over the course of the MGS-TES mission. It results in temperatures (at the 1
Meta-Logical Reasoning in Higher-Order Logic
Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Hess, Andreas Viktor
The semantics of first-order logic (FOL) can be described in the meta-language of higher-order logic (HOL). Using HOL one can prove key properties of FOL such as soundness and completeness. Furthermore, one can prove sentences in FOL valid using the formalized FOL semantics. To aid in the constru...
Towards an arithmetical logic the arithmetical foundations of logic
Gauthier, Yvon
2015-01-01
This book offers an original contribution to the foundations of logic and mathematics, and focuses on the internal logic of mathematical theories, from arithmetic or number theory to algebraic geometry. Arithmetical logic is the term used to refer to the internal logic of classical arithmetic, here called Fermat-Kronecker arithmetic, and combines Fermat’s method of infinite descent with Kronecker’s general arithmetic of homogeneous polynomials. The book also includes a treatment of theories in physics and mathematical physics to underscore the role of arithmetic from a constructivist viewpoint. The scope of the work intertwines historical, mathematical, logical and philosophical dimensions in a unified critical perspective; as such, it will appeal to a broad readership from mathematicians to logicians, to philosophers interested in foundational questions. Researchers and graduate students in the fields of philosophy and mathematics will benefit from the author’s critical approach to the foundations of l...
2005-01-01
A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true
Questions and dependency in intuitionistic logic
Ciardelli, Ivano; Iemhoff, Rosalie; Yang, Fan
2017-01-01
In recent years, the logic of questions and dependencies has been investigated in the closely related frameworks of inquisitive logic and dependence logic. These investigations have assumed classical logic as the background logic of statements, and added formulas expressing questions and
Reversible logic gates on Physarum Polycephalum
Schumann, Andrew [University of Information Technology and Management, Sucharskiego 2, Rzeszow, 35-225 (Poland)
2015-03-10
In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum.
A beginner's guide to mathematical logic
Smullyan, Raymond M
2014-01-01
Combining stories of great philosophers, quotations, and riddles with the fundamentals of mathematical logic, this new textbook for first courses in mathematical logic was written by the subject's creative master. Raymond Smullyan offers clear, incremental presentations of difficult logic concepts with creative explanations and unique problems related to proofs, propositional logic and first-order logic, undecidability, recursion theory, and other topics.
Logical entropy of quantum dynamical systems
Ebrahimzadeh Abolfazl
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces the concepts of logical entropy and conditional logical entropy of hnite partitions on a quantum logic. Some of their ergodic properties are presented. Also logical entropy of a quantum dynamical system is dehned and ergodic properties of dynamical systems on a quantum logic are investigated. Finally, the version of Kolmogorov-Sinai theorem is proved.
Birkedal, Lars; Sieczkowski, Filip; Thamsborg, Jacob Junker
2012-01-01
We present a logical relation for showing the correctness of program transformations based on a new type-and-eﬀect system for a concurrent extension of an ML-like language with higher-order functions, higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation. We show how to use our model to verify a number...... of interesting program transformations that rely on eﬀect annotations. In particular, we prove a Parallelization Theorem, which expresses when it is sound to run two expressions in parallel instead of sequentially. The conditions are expressed solely in terms of the types and eﬀects of the expressions....... To the best of our knowledge, this is the ﬁrst such result for a concurrent higher-order language with higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation....
Whitfield, J D; Biamonte, J D
2012-01-01
Designing and optimizing cost functions and energy landscapes is a problem encountered in many fields of science and engineering. These landscapes and cost functions can be embedded and annealed in experimentally controllable spin Hamiltonians. Using an approach based on group theory and symmetries, we examine the embedding of Boolean logic gates into the ground state subspace of such spin systems. We describe parameterized families of diagonal Hamiltonians and symmetry operations which preserve the ground state subspace encoding the truth tables of Boolean formulas. The ground state embeddings of adder circuits are used to illustrate how gates are combined and simplified using symmetry. Our work is relevant for experimental demonstrations of ground state embeddings found in both classical optimization as well as adiabatic quantum optimization.
Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.
Balzani, Vincenzo; Credi, Alberto; Venturi, Margherita
2003-01-13
Miniaturization has been an essential ingredient in the outstanding progress of information technology over the past fifty years. The next, perhaps ultimate, limit of miniaturization is that of molecules, which are the smallest entities with definite size, shape, and properties. Recently, great effort has been devoted to design and investigate molecular-level systems that are capable of transferring, processing, and storing information in binary form. Some of these nanoscale devices can, in fact, perform logic operations of remarkable complexity. This research--although far from being transferred into technology--is attracting interest, as the nanometer realm seems to be out of reach for the "top-down" techniques currently available to microelectronics industry. Moreover, such studies introduce new concepts in the "old" field of chemistry and stimulate the ingenuity of researchers engaged in the "bottom-up" approach to nanotechnology.
Borresen, Jon; Lynch, Stephen
2012-01-01
In the 1940s, the first generation of modern computers used vacuum tube oscillators as their principle components, however, with the development of the transistor, such oscillator based computers quickly became obsolete. As the demand for faster and lower power computers continues, transistors are themselves approaching their theoretical limit and emerging technologies must eventually supersede them. With the development of optical oscillators and Josephson junction technology, we are again presented with the possibility of using oscillators as the basic components of computers, and it is possible that the next generation of computers will be composed almost entirely of oscillatory devices. Here, we demonstrate how coupled threshold oscillators may be used to perform binary logic in a manner entirely consistent with modern computer architectures. We describe a variety of computational circuitry and demonstrate working oscillator models of both computation and memory.
Jensen, Lars Bang
The problematic this thesis investigates, through a specific kind of structuralism derived from a reading of Michel Foucault, Pierre Bourdieu and Gilles Deleuze, concerns how the subject becomes a science subject and potentially a scientist, with interest and literacy in science. The Logic...... of Science – a vivisection of monsters is thus an exploration of Being and Becoming in relation to Science and its Education. The investigation has been derived from, in, and connected to the Youth-to-Youth Project, a regional bridge building project in Northern Jutland in Denmark. The Youth-to-Youth Project...... (2011-2015) attempts to facilitate contact and provide a different kind of counselling and guidance between youths and youths who are ‘one step ahead’ in their educational trajectory. The meetings between the youths are both social and science subject oriented, and the intention is to establish...
Logical Modelling of Physarum Polycephalum
Schumann, Andrew
2011-01-01
We propose a novel model of unconventional computing where a structural part of computation is presented by dynamics of plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum, a large single cell. We sketch a new logical approach combining conventional logic with process calculus to demonstrate how to employ formal methods in design of unconventional computing media presented by Physarum polycephalum.
Flat coalgebraic fixed point logics
Schröder, Lutz
2010-01-01
Fixed point logics have a wide range of applications in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the mu-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact often live within the single variable fragment of the mu-calculus. The family of such flat fixed point logics includes, e.g., CTL, the *-nesting-free fragment of PDL, and the logic of common knowledge. Here, we extend this notion to the generic semantic framework of coalgebraic logic, thus covering a wide range of logics beyond the standard mu-calculus including, e.g., flat fragments of the graded mu-calculus and the alternating-time mu-calculus (such as ATL), as well as probabilistic and monotone fixed point logics. Our main results are completeness of the Kozen-Park axiomatization and a timed-out tableaux method that matches EXPTIME upper bounds inherited from the coalgebraic mu-calculus but avo...
A Paraconsistent Higher Order Logic
Villadsen, Jørgen
2004-01-01
of the logic is examined by a case study in the domain of medicine. Thus we try to build a bridge between the HOL and MVL communities. A sequent calculus is proposed based on recent work by Muskens. Many non-classical logics are, at the propositional level, funny toys which work quite good, but when one wants...
Sasao, Tsutomu
2011-01-01
This book describes the synthesis of logic functions using memories. It is useful to design field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) that contain both small-scale memories, called look-up tables (LUTs), and medium-scale memories, called embedded memories. This is a valuable reference for both FPGA system designers and CAD tool developers, concerned with logic synthesis for FPGAs.
A Paraconsistent Higher Order Logic
Villadsen, Jørgen
2004-01-01
of the logic is examined by a case study in the domain of medicine. Thus we try to build a bridge between the HOL and MVL communities. A sequent calculus is proposed based on recent work by Muskens. Many non-classical logics are, at the propositional level, funny toys which work quite good, but when one wants...
Simulated Laboratory in Digital Logic.
Cleaver, Thomas G.
Design of computer circuits used to be a pencil and paper task followed by laboratory tests, but logic circuit design can now be done in half the time as the engineer accesses a program which simulates the behavior of real digital circuits, and does all the wiring and testing on his computer screen. A simulated laboratory in digital logic has been…
Logical Modelling of Physarum Polycephalum
Schumann, Andrew; Adamatzky, Andrew
2011-01-01
We propose a novel model of unconventional computing where a structural part of computation is presented by dynamics of plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum, a large single cell. We sketch a new logical approach combining conventional logic with process calculus to demonstrate how to employ formal methods in design of unconventional computing media presented by Physarum polycephalum.
修勤
1995-01-01
In the red corner, Aristotle. In the blue corner, Buddha.It’s the fight of the century, and it’s a grudge match. "Fuzzy theory is wrong, wrong, and pernicious. What we need is more logical thinking, not less," fulminates Professor William Kahan of Berkeley. "Fuzzy logic is the cocaine of science. "
Propositional inquisitive logic: a survey
Ivano Ciardelli
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper provides a concise survey of a body of recent work on propositional inquisitive logic. We review the conceptual foundations of inquisitive semantics, introduce the propositional system, discuss its relations with classical, intuitionistic, and dependence logic, and describe an important feature of inquisitive proofs.
Logical Querying of Relational Databases
Luminita Pistol
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate the usefulness of formal logic and lambda calculus in database programming. After a short introduction in propositional and first order logic, we implement dynamically a small database and translate some SQL queries in filtered java 8 streams, enhanced with Tuples facilities from jOOλ library.
Methods in Logic Based Control
Christensen, Georg Kronborg
1999-01-01
Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...
van Reekum, C.M.; van den Berg, H.; Frijda, N.H.
1999-01-01
A cross-modal paradigm was chosen to test the hypothesis that affective olfactory and auditory cues paired with neutral visual stimuli bearing no resemblance or logical connection to the affective cues can evoke preference shifts in those stimuli. Neutral visual stimuli of abstract paintings were pr
Modal aerosol dynamics modeling
Whitby, E.R.; McMurry, P.H.; Shankar, U.; Binkowski, F.S.
1991-02-01
The report presents the governing equations for representing aerosol dynamics, based on several different representations of the aerosol size distribution. Analytical and numerical solution techniques for these governing equations are also reviewed. Described in detail is a computationally efficient numerical technique for simulating aerosol behavior in systems undergoing simultaneous heat transfer, fluid flow, and mass transfer in and between the gas and condensed phases. The technique belongs to a general class of models known as modal aerosol dynamics (MAD) models. These models solve for the temporal and spatial evolution of the particle size distribution function. Computational efficiency is achieved by representing the complete aerosol population as a sum of additive overlapping populations (modes), and solving for the time rate of change of integral moments of each mode. Applications of MAD models for simulating aerosol dynamics in continuous stirred tank aerosol reactors and flow aerosol reactors are provided. For the application to flow aerosol reactors, the discussion is developed in terms of considerations for merging a MAD model with the SIMPLER routine described by Patankar (1980). Considerations for incorporating a MAD model into the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Particulate Model are also described. Numerical and analytical techniques for evaluating the size-space integrals of the modal dynamics equations (MDEs) are described. For multimodal logonormal distributions, an analytical expression for the coagulation integrals of the MDEs, applicable for all size regimes, is derived, and is within 20% of accurate numerical evaluation of the same moment coagulation integrals. A computationally efficient integration technique, based on Gauss-Hermite numerical integration, is also derived.
Gašper Ilc
2008-06-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the systems of modal verbs in Slovene and English, and it focuses on comprehension and usage problems that advanced students of English may have when dealing with modal verb constructions. The paper identifies the key factors that give rise to various problems, such as in-vacuo vs. in-context treatment of modal verbs and absolute vs. relative temporal relations. It is argued that most students fail to fully understand contextualised modal verb constructions mostly due to the polysemy of modal verbs as well as their relative tense value. This is particularly the case when a (narrative text containing modal verb constructions has a past time reference, and combines different narrative techniques.
Marketing Logics, Ambidexterity and Influence
Tollin, Karin; Schmidt, Marcus
2012-01-01
The duties of companies' chief marketing officers (CMOs) seem incompatible. They are expected to ensure that their company's market assets are properly exploited and recorded, while simultaneously enacting a proactive role in the company's business development. This study shows that about one...... in four CMOs have taken on this challenge, or adopted a marketing logic which could be referred to as ambidextrous. Furthermore, the study shows that this logic exerts a stronger impact on marketing's influence, compared to logics related to assuring brand consistency and measuring the performance...... of marketing processes. Three other ways to enact marketing management were also revealed, namely: an innovation; a communication; and a supporting marketing logic. This leads us to conclude that the influence of companies' marketing functions show up a heterogeneous picture within which the marketing logics...
Nucleic acid based logical systems.
Han, Da; Kang, Huaizhi; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Cuichen; Zhou, Cuisong; You, Mingxu; Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Xiaobing; Tan, Weihong
2014-05-12
Researchers increasingly visualize a significant role for artificial biochemical logical systems in biological engineering, much like digital logic circuits in electrical engineering. Those logical systems could be utilized as a type of servomechanism to control nanodevices in vitro, monitor chemical reactions in situ, or regulate gene expression in vivo. Nucleic acids (NA), as carriers of genetic information with well-regulated and predictable structures, are promising materials for the design and engineering of biochemical circuits. A number of logical devices based on nucleic acids (NA) have been designed to handle various processes for technological or biotechnological purposes. This article focuses on the most recent and important developments in NA-based logical devices and their evolution from in vitro, through cellular, even towards in vivo biological applications.
Logical independence and quantum randomness
Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prevedel, R; Klimek, P [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: tomasz.paterek@univie.ac.at
2010-01-15
We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.
On Modal Refinement and Consistency
Nyman, Ulrik; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Wasowski, Andrzej
2007-01-01
Almost 20 years after the original conception, we revisit several fundamental question about modal transition systems. First, we demonstrate the incompleteness of the standard modal refinement using a counterexample due to Hüttel. Deciding any refinement, complete with respect to the standard...... notions of implementation, is shown to be computationally hard (co-NP hard). Second, we consider four forms of consistency (existence of implementations) for modal specifications. We characterize each operationally, giving algorithms for deciding, and for synthesizing implementations, together...
Load Estimation from Modal Parameters
Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández;
2007-01-01
In Natural Input Modal Analysis the modal parameters are estimated just from the responses while the loading is not recorded. However, engineers are sometimes interested in knowing some features of the loading acting on a structure. In this paper, a procedure to determine the loading from a FRF...... matrix assembled from modal parameters and the experimental responses recorded using standard sensors, is presented. The method implies the inversion of the FRF which, in general, is not full rank matrix due to the truncation of the modal space. Furthermore, some ecommendations are included to improve...
Reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices
Takeuchi, N; Yamanashi, Y; Yoshikawa, N
2014-01-01
.... However, until now, no practical reversible logic gates have been demonstrated. One of the problems is that reversible logic gates must be built by using extremely energy-efficient logic devices...
Resource modalities in game semantics
Melliès, Paul-André
2007-01-01
The description of resources in game semantics has never achieved the simplicity and precision of linear logic, because of a misleading conception: the belief that linear logic is more primitive than game semantics. We advocate instead the contrary: that game semantics is conceptually more primitive than linear logic. Starting from this revised point of view, we design a categorical model of resources in game semantics, and construct an arena game model where the usual notion of bracketing is extended to multi- bracketing in order to capture various resource policies: linear, afﬁne and exponential.
The Logic of Practice in the Practice of Logics
Raviola, Elena; Dubini, Paola
2016-01-01
of logics through a six months full-time ethnographic study at Il Sole-24 Ore, the largest Italian financial newspaper, between 2007 and 2008. An original conceptual framework is developed to analyse how the logic of journalism is enacted vis-à-vis that of advertising in a setting in which an old technology...... for news production – print newspaper – coexists with a new one – website – and thus encounters between new and old technological possibilities make workings of institutional logics particularly visible. The findings point out different mechanisms of institutional work dealing with actions that, made...
Probabilistic Logic Programming under Answer Sets Semantics
王洁; 鞠实儿
2003-01-01
Although traditional logic programming languages provide powerful tools for knowledge representation, they cannot deal with uncertainty information (e. g. probabilistic information). In this paper, we propose a probabilistic logic programming language by introduce probability into a general logic programming language. The work combines 4-valued logic with probability. Conditional probability can be easily represented in a probabilistic logic program. The semantics of such a probabilistic logic program i...
Reconfigurable Optical Directed-Logic Circuits
2015-11-20
and their switching delays do not accumulate. This is in contrast to conventional logic circuits where gate delays are cascaded, resulting in a...transistor logic circuits wherein gate delays are cascaded resulting in increased latencies with increased logic elements. Thus directed- logic ... reverse biased at -5 V ( logic ‘1’) and the transmission is high when the bias voltage is zero ( logic ‘0’). So the switch works in the block/pass mode
Sri Ayu
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Dalam proses pembelajaran siswa dituntut untuk aktif melaluiaktivitas-aktivitas yang membangun kerja kelompok dan dalam waktu singkatmembuat mereka berfikir tentang materi pelajaran. Keterlibatan siswa secara aktif dalam pembelajaran biologi sangat diperlukan, sehingga apa yang dipelajari akan lebih tertanam dalam pikiran siswa. PenerapanMonopoly Games Smartpada pembelajaranBiologi merupakan salah satu alternatif untuk meningkatkan motivasi dan kreatifitas siswa serta dapat mengurangi kejenuhan belajar siswa, sehingga mendapatkanhasilbelajar siswa yang memuaskan. Adapun yang menjadi tujuan penelitian ini adalah:(1 Untuk mengkaji penerapan media MGS (Monopoly Games Smart pada materi Ekosistem di MTs Al-Wahdah Sumber. (2 Untuk mengkaji hasil belajar siswa pada pembelajaran biologi materi Ekosistem dengan menggunakan media MGS (Monopoly Games Smart di MTs Al-Wahdah Sumber. (3 Untuk mengkaji respon siswa terhadap penggunaan media MGS (Monopoly Games Smart dalam pembelajaran biologi khususnya pada materi Ekosistem di Mts Al-Wahdah Sumber. Penelitian ini dilakukan di MTs Al-Wahdah dengan teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah instrumen tes (pre-test dan post-test untuk mengukur hasil belajar siswa, observasi untuk mengetahui aktivitas siswa dan angketuntuk mengetahui respon siswa terhadap media pembelajaran. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa (1 berdasarkan hasil analisis observasi, aktivitas siswa meningkat setelah diterapkan media Monopoly Games Smart. (2 Hasil belajar siswa kelas eksperimen menggunakan media pembelajaran Monopoly Games Smart nilai rata-rata pretest sebesar 39, posttest 78 dan n-gain 0,62.. Terbukti dari hasil perhitungan uji T menggunakan SPSS 16 diperoleh nilai Sig. 0,000 < (0,05 yang berarti terdapat peningkatan hasil belajar biologi siswa. (3 berdasarkan hasil analisis angket mengenai respon siswa terhadap penerapan media hampir dari siswa (82% dengan kriteria sangat kuat, menyukai penerapan strategi pembelajaran Monopoly
Logic of the tautologies Lógica de las tautologías
Manuel Sierra
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Is presented as extension of classical propositional calculus, the deductive system LT: logic of the tautologies. In the LT system, the meta-logical notionsof tautology, contradiction, refutable and contingency are formalized. The LT system, is characterized as a Kripke-style semantic, and can be seen as an extension of the modal logic system S5.Se presenta como extensión del cálculo proposicional clásico, el sistema deductivo LT: lógica de las tautologías. En el sistema LT, se formalizan las nociones meta-lógicas de tautología, contradicción, satisfacible, refutable y contingencia. El sistema LT, es caracterizado con una semántica al estilo Kripke, y puede ser visto como una extensión del sistema de lógica modal S5.
Problems parameterized by treewidth tractable in single exponential time: a logical approach
Pilipczuk, Michał
2011-01-01
We introduce a variant of modal logic, dubbed EXISTENTIAL COUNTING MODAL LOGIC (ECML), which captures a vast majority of problems known to be tractable in single exponential time when parameterized by treewidth. It appears that all these results can be subsumed by the theorem that model checking of ECML admits an algorithm with such complexity. We extend ECML by adding connectivity requirements and, using the Cut&Count technique introduced by Cygan et al. [4], prove that problems expressible in the extension are also tractable in single exponential time when parameterized by treewidth; however, using randomization. The need for navigationality of the introduced logic is justified by a negative result that two expository problems involving non-acyclic conditions, C_l VERTEX DELETION and GIRTH>l VERTEX DELETION for l>=5, do not admit such a robust algorithm unless Exponential Time Hypothesis fails.
Aiello, Marco; Benthem, Johan van
2002-01-01
We investigate the major mathematical theories of space from a modal standpoint: topology, affine geometry, metric geometry, and vector algebra. This allows us to see new fine-structure in spatial patterns which suggests analogies across these mathematical theories in terms of modal, temporal, and c
Modal abstractions of concurrent behavior
Nielson, Flemming; Nanz, Sebastian; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2011-01-01
We present an effective algorithm for the automatic construction of finite modal transition systems as abstractions of potentially infinite concurrent processes. Modal transition systems are recognized as valuable abstractions for model checking because they allow for the validation as well as re...
Modelling object typicality in description logics - [Workshop on Description Logics
Britz, K
2009-07-01
Full Text Available The authors presents a semantic model of typicality of concept members in description logics that accords well with a binary, globalist cognitive model of class membership and typicality. The authors define a general preferential semantic framework...
Formalized Epistemology, Logic, and Grammar
Bitbol, Michel
The task of a formal epistemology is defined. It appears that a formal epistemology must be a generalization of "logic" in the sense of Wittgenstein's Tractatus. The generalization is required because, whereas logic presupposes a strict relation between activity and language, this relation may be broken in some domains of experimental enquiry (e.g., in microscopic physics). However, a formal epistemology should also retain a major feature of Wittgenstein's "logic": It must not be a discourse about scientific knowledge, but rather a way of making manifest the structures usually implicit in knowledge-gaining activity. This strategy is applied to the formalism of quantum mechanics.
Aristotelian logic and its perspectives
Manuel Correia
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The legitimacy of Aristotelian logic was questioned in the twentieth century. As a result, the question of whether it should be replaced or restored remains unanswered. To resolve this dilemma there have been new findings that show that it is a theory with internal development, which is independent from the provisions of mathematical logic. In this article, I show how to restore its internal unity, development prospects and independence, through the use of three axioms or rules allowing to incorporate indefinite terms in classical categorical and hypothetical syllogistic, which gives it a capacity able to be compared to monadic first order logic.
Coherence in Linear Predicate Logic
Dosen, K
2007-01-01
Coherence with respect to Kelly-Mac Lane graphs is proved for categories that correspond to the multiplicative fragment without constant propositions of classical linear first-order predicate logic without or with mix. To obtain this result, coherence is first established for categories that correspond to the multiplicative conjunction-disjunction fragment with first-order quantifiers of classical linear logic, a fragment lacking negation. These results extend results published in previous two books by the authors, where coherence was established for categories of the corresponding fragments of propositional classical linear logic, which are related to proof nets, and which could be described as star-autonomous categories without unit objects.
Handling Pressures of Community Logic
Minbaeva, Dana; Hotho, Jasper; Muratbekova-Touron, Maral
2013-01-01
The paper aims at investigating how in pluralistic societies, such as emerging economies and countries in transition, organizational decision-makers respond to pressures of community logics in non-community settings, such as the work place. We theorize that in non-community settings, social...... relations and interactions with community members can act as social cues that induce and expose individuals to community logics. We subsequently propose that properties of these relations – immediacy and relatedness - will affect individual response strategies towards community logics. We test these ideas...
Kral, M J
1994-01-01
Although suicide is not viewed as a mental disorder per se, it is viewed by many if not most clinicians, researchers, and lay people as a real or natural symptom of depression. It is at least most typically seen as the unfortunate, severe, yet logical end result of a chain of negative self-appraisals, negative events, and hopelessness. Extending an approach articulated by the early French sociologist Gabriel Tarde, in this paper I argue that suicide is merely an idea, albeit a very bad one, having more in common with societal beliefs and norms regarding such things as divorce, abortion, sex, politics, consumer behavior, and fashion. I make a sharp contrast between perturbation and lethality, concepts central to Edwin S. Shneidman's theory of suicide. Evidence supportive of suicide as an idea is discussed based on what we are learning from the study of history and culture, and about contagion/cluster phenomena, media/communication, and choice of method. It is suggested that certain individuals are more vulnerable to incorporate the idea and act of suicide into their concepts of self, based on the same principles by which ideas are spread throughout society. Just as suicide impacts on society, so does society impact on suicide.
Remmel, Jeffrey; Shore, Richard; Sweedler, Moss; Progress in Computer Science and Applied Logic
1993-01-01
The twenty-six papers in this volume reflect the wide and still expanding range of Anil Nerode's work. A conference on Logical Methods was held in honor of Nerode's sixtieth birthday (4 June 1992) at the Mathematical Sciences Institute, Cornell University, 1-3 June 1992. Some of the conference papers are here, but others are from students, co-workers and other colleagues. The intention of the conference was to look forward, and to see the directions currently being pursued, in the development of work by, or with, Nerode. Here is a brief summary of the contents of this book. We give a retrospective view of Nerode's work. A number of specific areas are readily discerned: recursive equivalence types, recursive algebra and model theory, the theory of Turing degrees and r.e. sets, polynomial-time computability and computer science. Nerode began with automata theory and has also taken a keen interest in the history of mathematics. All these areas are represented. The one area missing is Nerode's applied mathematica...
Philosophy on Stage: Theatricality, Ritual and Logic in Ancient India
Juan Arnau
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The article analyses the public debates in ancient India, distinguishing the different modalities of these practices as they appear in the compendiums of logic (Nyāyasūtra and in the medical Sanskrit literature (Carakasamhitā. A special attention is paid to one of these kinds of debate, called vitandā, which allows a dialectic limited to refutation and dismissed the defence of the own point of view. This type of dialectic, exercised by different schools of thought in which the negative argument would acquire a fundamental role, would find its scope of development in religious traditions as Madhyamaka Buddhism and Advaita Vedanta. The justification of such practices, in which the logic is represented as in a theatre, will give way to an ironic philosophy which found many points of contact with contemporary thought.
Logical Theories for Agent Introspection
Bolander, Thomas
2004-01-01
Artificial intelligence systems (agents) generally have models of the environments they inhabit which they use for representing facts, for reasoning about these facts and for planning actions. Much intelligent behaviour seems to involve an ability to model not only one's external environment...... by self-reference. In the standard approach taken in artificial intelligence, the model that an agent has of its environment is represented as a set of beliefs. These beliefs are expressed as logical formulas within a formal, logical theory. When the logical theory is expressive enough to allow...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...
Logic Gates with Ion Transistors
Grebel, Haim
2016-01-01
Electronic logic gates are the basic building blocks of every computing and micro controlling system. Logic gates are made of switches, such as diodes and transistors. Ion-selective, ionic switches may emulate electronic switches [1-8]. If we ever want to create artificial bio-chemical circuitry, then we need to move a step further towards ion-logic circuitry. Here we demonstrate ion XOR and OR gates with electrochemical cells, and specifically, with two wet-cell batteries. In parallel to vacuum tubes, the batteries were modified to include a third, permeable and conductive mid electrode (the gate), which was placed between the anode and cathode in order to affect the ion flow through it. The key is to control the cell output with a much smaller biasing power, as demonstrated here. A successful demonstration points to self-powered ion logic gates.
Logical Theories for Agent Introspection
Bolander, Thomas
2004-01-01
Artificial intelligence systems (agents) generally have models of the environments they inhabit which they use for representing facts, for reasoning about these facts and for planning actions. Much intelligent behaviour seems to involve an ability to model not only one's external environment...... by self-reference. In the standard approach taken in artificial intelligence, the model that an agent has of its environment is represented as a set of beliefs. These beliefs are expressed as logical formulas within a formal, logical theory. When the logical theory is expressive enough to allow...... introspective reasoning, the presence of self-reference causes the theory to be prone to inconsistency. The challenge therefore becomes to construct logical theories supporting introspective reasoning while at the same time ensuring that consistency is retained. In the thesis, we meet this challenge by devising...
A profile of mathematical logic
DeLong, Howard
2012-01-01
This introduction to mathematical logic explores philosophical issues and Gödel's Theorem. Its widespread influence extends to the author of Gödel, Escher, Bach, whose Pulitzer Prize-winning book was inspired by this work.
Flow Logics and Operational Semantics
Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
1998-01-01
Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analysis...... correct. Our main conclusion is that environment based semantics is more flexible than either substitution based semantics or semantics making use of structural congruences (like alpha-renaming)....
A logic generator and validator
Szabo, J.; Cain, D.G.; Okrent, D.
1985-05-01
The on-line monitoring of a power plant (or any process plant) has three primary functions: data acquisition, data analysis, and data presentation. Relative to the second of these functions, advanced methods for generating reliable data analysis computer codes are presented. The results are illustrated for a safety parameter display system that provides operators with a computer-graphic summary of a nuclear power plant's safety status. In the conventional method of analysis code production, the systems analyst or designer generates rules by which the plant status is being evaluated, while the transcription of those rules to a computer code is done separately by a programmer. Subsequently, the analysis code produced by the programmer must be validated against the specifications prepared by the systems analyst. A logic generator and logic validator are presented to streamline these processes. The logic generator acquires the relevant specifications through a systematic dialogue with the designer and then translates them automatically into an efficient computer logic code, thus solvin the problem of a designer who is not a programmer interfacing with a programmer who is not a designer. The logic generator enhances code reliability in two ways. First, it encourages the systems analyst to produce more reliable and relevant specifications because of the logical structured order in which the interactive session is being conducted. Second, because of the mass production mode b which the logic codes are being generated, proving once the correctness of the code production process ensures the accuracy of all codes to be generated in the future. In the postproduction stage, a logic validator enhances code reliability by displaying a structura overview of the data analysis code, allowing the user an additional opportunity for code evaluation.
Interpreting Metaphor of Modality in Advertising English
Xu, Jian
2009-01-01
Based on a review of the historical and current studies on modality, this paper aims at interpreting metaphor of modality and its functions in advertising English according to theories of modality system and metaphor of modality in systemic-functional linguistics with a corpus we have collected. It is pointed out that metaphor of modality, a usual…
A sound and complete axiomatization for Dynamic Topological Logic
Duque, David Fernández
2012-01-01
Dynamic Topological Logic (DTL) is a multimodal system for reasoning about dynamical systems. It is defined semantically and, as such, most of the work done in the field has been model-theoretic. In particular, the problem of finding a complete axiomatization for the full language of DTL over the class of all dynamical systems has proven to be quite elusive. Here we propose to enrich the language to include a polyadic topological modality, originally introduced by Dawar and Otto in a different context. We then provide a sound axiomatization for DTL over this extended language, and prove that it is complete. The polyadic modality is used in an essential way in our proof.
Good vibrations: human interval timing in the vibrotactile modality.
Jones, Luke A; Poliakoff, Ellen; Wells, Jill
2009-11-01
This article reports a detailed examination of timing in the vibrotactile modality and comparison with that of visual and auditory modalities. Three experiments investigated human timing in the vibrotactile modality. In Experiment 1, a staircase threshold procedure with a standard duration of 1,000 ms revealed a difference threshold of 160.35 ms for vibrotactile stimuli, which was significantly higher than that for auditory stimuli (103.25 ms) but not significantly lower than that obtained for visual stimuli (196.76 ms). In Experiment 2, verbal estimation revealed a significant slope difference between vibrotactile and auditory timing, but not between vibrotactile and visual timing. That is, both vibrations and lights were judged as shorter than sounds, and this comparative difference was greater at longer durations than at shorter ones. In Experiment 3, performance on a temporal generalization task showed characteristics consistent with the predications of scalar expectancy theory (SET: Gibbon, 1977) with both mean accuracy and scalar variance exhibited. The results were modelled using the modified Church and Gibbon model (MCG; derived by Wearden, 1992, from Church & Gibbon 1982). The model was found to give an excellent fit to the data, and the parameter values obtained were compared with those for visual and auditory temporal generalization. The pattern of results suggest that timing in the vibrotactile modality conforms to SET and that the internal clock speed for vibrotactile stimuli is significantly slower than that for auditory stimuli, which is logically consistent with the significant differences in difference threshold that were obtained.
Hybrid-Logical Reasoning in the Smarties and Sally-Anne Tasks
Braüner, Torben
2014-01-01
The main aim of the present paper is to use a proof system for hybrid modal logic to formalize what are called false-belief tasks in cognitive psychology, thereby investigating the interplay between cognition and logical reasoning about belief. We consider two different versions of the Smarties...... task, involving respectively a shift of perspective to another person and to another time. Our formalizations disclose that despite this difference, the two versions of the Smarties task have exactly the same underlying logical structure. We also consider the Sally-Anne task, having a more complicated...... logical structure, presupposing a “principle of inertia” saying that a belief is preserved over time, unless there is belief to the contrary....
牛东风; 李保生; 魏建国; 温小浩; 舒培仙; 司月君
2016-01-01
萨拉乌苏河流域米浪沟湾剖面全新世地层MGS1层段记录了11个由风成砂与河流相或湖沼相构成的沉积旋回。对该层段63个样品的Rb、Sr数据进行了分析，结果显示由沙丘砂至上覆河湖相Rb和Sr含量由低增高，而Rb/Sr比值的分布则显示出与Rb和Sr含量变化相反的趋势，三者与平均粒径Mz(f)的相关系数都在0.43以上。研究表明MGS1至少经历了11次冷干和11次暖湿的气候波动。米浪沟湾剖面MGS1记录的千年尺度气候波动既是对东亚季风环流演变历史的体现，同时也是对全球气候与环境变化的响应。%The MGS1 stratigraphical segment of Milanggouwan section is located in the Salawusu River Valley of southeast Mu Us Desert. The segment documents 11 sedimentary cycles consisting of aeolian facies and fluvial facies or lacustrine-swamp facies. Totally 63 samples were analyzed for rubidium (Rb) and strontium (Sr) concentrations. The results show that Rb and Sr concentrations increase as the sediments vary from aeolian facies to lacustrine-swamp facies, however, variation of the Rb/Sr ratios shows reversed trends in contrast to that of Rb and Sr concentrations. The line correlation coefficients of Rb and Sr concentrations and Rb/Sr ratios with mean grain size are all above 0.43. All these indicate that the MGS1 stratigraphic segment at least records 11 cold-dry and 11 warm-humid millennium-scale climatic oscillations, which represent the evolution history of East Asian monsoon circulation and show good correspondence to global climatic and environment variations.
Structural completeness in propositional logics of dependence
Iemhoff, Rosalie; Yang, Fan
2016-01-01
In this paper we prove that three of the main propositional logics of dependence (including propositional dependence logic and inquisitive logic), none of which is structural, are structurally complete with respect to a class of substitutions under which the logics are closed. We obtain an analogous
Hybrid logics with infinitary proof systems
Kooi, Barteld; Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard; Verbrugge, Rineke
2006-01-01
We provide a strongly complete infinitary proof system for hybrid logic. This proof system can be extended with countably many sequents. Thus, although these logics may be non-compact, strong completeness proofs are provided for infinitary hybrid versions of non-compact logics like ancestral logic a
On Structural Completeness of Tabular Superintuitionistic Logics
Citkin, Alexander
2015-01-01
As usual, the superintuitionistic (propositional) logics (that is, logics extending intuitionistic logic) are being studied “modulo derivability”, meaning such logics are viewed extensionally — they are identified with the set of formulae that are valid (derivable in the corresponding calculus) in
Transcending logic: the difference between contradiction and antinomy
Daniël Strauss
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Philosophy and all the academic disciplines are sensitive to the aim of sound reasoning – except for the dialectical tradition which sanctions contradictions and antinomies (Heraclitus, Nicolas of Cusa, Hegel, Marx, Vaihinger, Simmel, Rex, and Dahrendorf. A brief overview is presented of conflicting theoretical stances within the various academic disciplines before an assessment is given of the positive and negative meaning of ‘reductionism.’ Against the background of historical lines of development the multiple terms employed in this context are mentioned and eventually positioned within the context of the normativity holding for logical thinking. It is argued that the logical contrary between logical and illogical serves as the foundation of other normative contraries, such as legal and illegal and moral and immoral. Through the discovery of irrational numbers the initial Pythagorean conviction that everything is number reverted to a geometrical perspective that generated a static metaphysics of being which challenged the ideas of plurality and motion. This development uncovered the problem of primitive terms in scientific discourse as an alternative for those theoretical attempts aimed at reducing whatever there is to one single mode of explanation. Zeno’s paradoxes are used to demonstrate an alternative understanding of the difference between the potential and the actual infinite as well as the nature of (theoretical antinomies. It is argued that genuine antinomies are inter-modal in nature (such as is found in the attempt to reduce movement to static positions in space and therefore differ from logical contradictions (such as a ‘square circle’ which merely confuses two figures within one modal aspect. Although every antinomy does entail logical contradictions, the latter do not necessarily presuppose an antinomy. The implication is that logic itself has an ontic foundation – as is seen from the nature of the principle of
Continuous first order logic and local stability
Yaacov, Itaï Ben
2008-01-01
We develop continuous first order logic, a variant of the logic described in \\cite{Chang-Keisler:ContinuousModelTheory}. We show that this logic has the same power of expression as the framework of open Hausdorff cats, and as such extends Henson's logic for Banach space structures. We conclude with the development of local stability, for which this logic is particularly well-suited.
Modal abstractions of concurrent behavior
Nielson, Flemming; Nanz, Sebastian; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2011-01-01
We present an effective algorithm for the automatic construction of finite modal transition systems as abstractions of potentially infinite concurrent processes. Modal transition systems are recognized as valuable abstractions for model checking because they allow for the validation as well...... as refutation of safety and liveness properties. However, the algorithmic construction of finite abstractions from potentially infinite concurrent processes is a missing link that prevents their more widespread usage for model checking of concurrent systems. Our algorithm is a worklist algorithm using concepts...
Competencies assessment using fuzzy logic
Matej Jevšček
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Research Question: Competencies evaluation is complex. The question is how to evaluate a competency which was assessed with 360° feedback, in one result using fuzzy logic tools so the result represents an actual competency development in an individual. Purpose: The purpose and goal of the study is to determine a possible process of competency evaluation that would enable creating a single competency assessment using fuzzy logic methods. Method: The theoretical part examines the current state and terminology of competencies and fuzzy logic. The empirical part consists of a quantitative research study. Data from the survey questionnaire was used for model testing. Results: An example of an »Initiative« competency evaluation model is created and tested in the research study. Testing confirmed that evaluation using fuzzy logic is efficient. Organization: The study directly affects the development of the HR function in organizations. It enables an easier and more oriented competency evaluation. Society: The study enables easier orientation in competencies development that can improve the social order as well as social responsibility and the environment indirectly. Originality: The study presents a new competency evaluation model using fuzzy logic. Limitations/Future Research: The study is restricted to one competency and certain assessors. Further research could explore the model with several assessors of the same rank.
Fuzzy logic of Aristotelian forms
Perlovsky, L.I. [Nichols Research Corp., Lexington, MA (United States)
1996-12-31
Model-based approaches to pattern recognition and machine vision have been proposed to overcome the exorbitant training requirements of earlier computational paradigms. However, uncertainties in data were found to lead to a combinatorial explosion of the computational complexity. This issue is related here to the roles of a priori knowledge vs. adaptive learning. What is the a-priori knowledge representation that supports learning? I introduce Modeling Field Theory (MFT), a model-based neural network whose adaptive learning is based on a priori models. These models combine deterministic, fuzzy, and statistical aspects to account for a priori knowledge, its fuzzy nature, and data uncertainties. In the process of learning, a priori fuzzy concepts converge to crisp or probabilistic concepts. The MFT is a convergent dynamical system of only linear computational complexity. Fuzzy logic turns out to be essential for reducing the combinatorial complexity to linear one. I will discuss the relationship of the new computational paradigm to two theories due to Aristotle: theory of Forms and logic. While theory of Forms argued that the mind cannot be based on ready-made a priori concepts, Aristotelian logic operated with just such concepts. I discuss an interpretation of MFT suggesting that its fuzzy logic, combining a-priority and adaptivity, implements Aristotelian theory of Forms (theory of mind). Thus, 2300 years after Aristotle, a logic is developed suitable for his theory of mind.
Beni Majid Davoody
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The relationship between Carnap’s Logical Syntax of Language (hereafter LSL ([1934] 1937 and Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (TLP ([1921] 1922 has been interpreted in several ways during past decades. One of the interpretations has gained keen advocates among Carnap scholars. It was originally provoked by what Caranp said in LSL, and it consists of two parts. First, it indicates that in TLP the possibility of speaking about the logical form of a language within the same language (which happens to be the only language that there is had been foresworn by Wittgenstein, but Carnap proved him wrong by producing a book (LSL written exactly in the manner which had been proscribed by Wittgenstein. This is the debate about the possibility of speaking about logical form.
Sequential operators in computability logic
Japaridze, Giorgi
2007-01-01
Computability logic (CL) (see http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~giorgi/cl.html) is a semantical platform and research program for redeveloping logic as a formal theory of computability, as opposed to the formal theory of truth which it has more traditionally been. Formulas in CL stand for (interactive) computational problems, understood as games between a machine and its environment; logical operators represent operations on such entities; and "truth" is understood as existence of an effective solution, i.e., of an algorithmic winning strategy. The formalism of CL is open-ended, and may undergo series of extensions as the study of the subject advances. The main groups of operators on which CL has been focused so far are the parallel, choice, branching, and blind operators. The present paper introduces a new important group of operators, called sequential. The latter come in the form of sequential conjunction and disjunction, sequential quantifiers, and sequential recurrences. As the name may suggest, the algorithmic ...
Classical Syllogisms in Logic Teaching
Øhrstrøm, Peter; Sandborg-Petersen, Ulrik; Thorvaldsen, Steinar
2013-01-01
have a tendency correctly to assess valid syllogisms as such more often than correctly assessing invalid syllogisms as such. It is also investigated to what extent the students have improved their skills in practical reasoning by attending the logic courses. Finally, some open questions regarding......This paper focuses on the challenges of introducing classical syllogisms in university courses in elementary logic and human reasoning. Using a program written in Prolog+CG, some empirical studies have been carried out involving three groups of students in Denmark; one group of philosophy students...... and two groups of students of informatics. The skills of the students in syllogistic reasoning before and after the logic courses have been studied and are discussed. The empirical observations made with the program make it possible to identify syllogisms which are found difficult by the students...
Fuzzy logic particle tracking velocimetry
Wernet, Mark P.
1993-01-01
Fuzzy logic has proven to be a simple and robust method for process control. Instead of requiring a complex model of the system, a user defined rule base is used to control the process. In this paper the principles of fuzzy logic control are applied to Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Two frames of digitally recorded, single exposure particle imagery are used as input. The fuzzy processor uses the local particle displacement information to determine the correct particle tracks. Fuzzy PTV is an improvement over traditional PTV techniques which typically require a sequence (greater than 2) of image frames for accurately tracking particles. The fuzzy processor executes in software on a PC without the use of specialized array or fuzzy logic processors. A pair of sample input images with roughly 300 particle images each, results in more than 200 velocity vectors in under 8 seconds of processing time.
Logic, probability, and human reasoning.
Johnson-Laird, P N; Khemlani, Sangeet S; Goodwin, Geoffrey P
2015-04-01
This review addresses the long-standing puzzle of how logic and probability fit together in human reasoning. Many cognitive scientists argue that conventional logic cannot underlie deductions, because it never requires valid conclusions to be withdrawn - not even if they are false; it treats conditional assertions implausibly; and it yields many vapid, although valid, conclusions. A new paradigm of probability logic allows conclusions to be withdrawn and treats conditionals more plausibly, although it does not address the problem of vapidity. The theory of mental models solves all of these problems. It explains how people reason about probabilities and postulates that the machinery for reasoning is itself probabilistic. Recent investigations accordingly suggest a way to integrate probability and deduction.
Reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices
Takeuchi, N.; Yamanashi, Y.; Yoshikawa, N.
2014-09-01
Reversible computing has been studied since Rolf Landauer advanced the argument that has come to be known as Landauer's principle. This principle states that there is no minimum energy dissipation for logic operations in reversible computing, because it is not accompanied by reductions in information entropy. However, until now, no practical reversible logic gates have been demonstrated. One of the problems is that reversible logic gates must be built by using extremely energy-efficient logic devices. Another difficulty is that reversible logic gates must be both logically and physically reversible. Here we propose the first practical reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices and experimentally demonstrate the logical and physical reversibility of the gate. Additionally, we estimate the energy dissipation of the gate, and discuss the minimum energy dissipation required for reversible logic operations. It is expected that the results of this study will enable reversible computing to move from the theoretical stage into practical usage.
The logical foundations of mathematics
Hatcher, William S
1981-01-01
The Logical Foundations of Mathematics offers a study of the foundations of mathematics, stressing comparisons between and critical analyses of the major non-constructive foundational systems. The position of constructivism within the spectrum of foundational philosophies is discussed, along with the exact relationship between topos theory and set theory.Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to first-order logic. In particular, two complete systems of axioms and rules for the first-order predicate calculus are given, one for efficiency in proving metatheorems, and
Anatoly D. Plotnikov
2001-01-01
Full Text Available For an arbitrary undirected graph G, we are designing a logical model for the Hamiltonian Cycle Problem (HCP, using tools of Boolean algebra only. The obtained model is a logic formulation of the conditions for the existence of the Hamiltonian cycle, and uses m Boolean variables, where m is the number of the edges of a graph. This Boolean expression is true if and only if an initial graph is Hamiltonian. In general, the obtained Boolean expression may have an exponential length (the number of Boolean literals and may be used for construction of the solution algorithm.
Lectures on Logic and Computation
foundational, introductory and advanced courses, as well as workshops, covering a wide variety of topics within the three areas of interest: Language and Computation, Language and Logic, and Logic and Computation. During two weeks, around 50 courses and 10 workshops are offered to the attendants, each of 1.......5 hours per day during a five days week, with up to seven parallel sessions. ESSLLI also includes a student session (papers and posters by students only, 1.5 hour per day during the two weeks) and four evening lectures by senior scientists in the covered areas. The 6 course notes were carefully reviewed...
Ruspini, Enrique H.
1991-01-01
Summarized here are the results of recent research on the conceptual foundations of fuzzy logic. The focus is primarily on the principle characteristics of a model that quantifies resemblance between possible worlds by means of a similarity function that assigns a number between 0 and 1 to every pair of possible worlds. Introduction of such a function permits one to interpret the major constructs and methods of fuzzy logic: conditional and unconditional possibility and necessity distributions and the generalized modus ponens of Zadeh on the basis of related metric relationships between subsets of possible worlds.
Logic programming with social features
Buccafurri, Francesco
2008-01-01
In everyday life it happens that a person has to reason about what other people think and how they behave, in order to achieve his goals. In other words, an individual may be required to adapt his behaviour by reasoning about the others' mental state. In this paper we focus on a knowledge representation language derived from logic programming which both supports the representation of mental states of individual communities and provides each with the capability of reasoning about others' mental states and acting accordingly. The proposed semantics is shown to be translatable into stable model semantics of logic programs with aggregates.
Handbook of logic and language
van Benthem, Johan
2010-01-01
This is an expanding field and the logical study of language is becoming more interdisciplinary playing a role in disciplines such as computer science, artificial intelligence, cognitive science and game theory. Completely revised and updated, this new edition, written by the leading experts in the field, presents an overview of the latest developments at the interface of logic and linguistics as well as providing a historical perspective. It is divided into three parts covering Frameworks, General Topics and Descriptive Themes. Completely revised a
A Logical Approach to Entanglement
Das, Abhishek
2016-10-01
In this paper we innovate a logical approach to develop an intuition regarding the phenomenon of quantum entanglement. In the vein of the logic introduced we substantiate that particles that were entangled in the past will be entangled in perpetuity and thereby abide a rule that restricts them to act otherwise. We also introduce a game and by virtue of the concept of Nash equilibrium we have been able to show that entangled particles will mutually correspond to an experiment that is performed on any one of the particle.
Challenging institutional logics in Gourmet
Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt; Scheuer, John Damm
2015-01-01
This paper focuses on the initial phase of an organizational transformation. More precisely the paper analyses the moment where an institutional entrepreneur produces ideas, which have the capacity to break with existing logics and thus produces the potential for change by challenging existing fi...... field logics. The empirical case is the gastronomic field in Denmark and in the Nordic countries - more specifically the paper discusses the cook and entrepreneur Claus Meyers ambitions to realize a food-political vision; The New Nordic Kitchen. The theoretical contribution of the paper...
Logical Characterisation of Ontology Construction using Fuzzy Description Logics
Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans
Ontologies based on Description Logics (DLs) have proved to be effective in formally sharing knowledge across semantic technologies, e.g. Semantic Web, Natural Language Processing, Text Analytics, Business intelligence. Our main goal is analysing ontology construction considering vagueness. We have...
A detection method for logic functions suitable for dual-logic synthesis
Yinshui Xia; Fei Sun; Keyi Mao
2009-01-01
Logic functions can be implemented in either AND/OR/NOT-based traditional Boolean (TB) logic or AND/XOR-based Reed-Mul-ler (RM) logic. To the majority of logic functions, it will be beneficial to be partially implemented in both TB logic and RM logic, called dual-logic. In this paper, a detection condition favoring dual-logic synthesis is proposed. A corresponding detection algorithm is devel-oped and implemented in C. The algorithm is applied to test a set of MCNC91 benchmarks for verifying the algorithm. The results show that the proposed algorithm is more efficient than published ones.
Asassfeh, Sahail M
2014-01-01
The label of 'logical connectors' (LCs) or 'conjunction' suggests that these expressions constitute an area where linguistic intelligence and logical/mathematical intelligence are likely to intersect...
Fogle, A. L.; Ponce, N.; Fillingim, M. O.
2014-12-01
Mars does not have a global magnetic field, so the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) can impact the upper atmosphere and induce currents in the Martian ionosphere. During aerobraking maneuvers, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) made over 1000 passes through the Martian ionosphere. During the aerobraking phase, MGS measured the local magnetic field in the ionosphere. From measuring changes in the magnetic field, we can calculate the ionospheric currents. By only using measurements where the radial component of the magnetic field is zero and making some assumptions about the gradients in the magnetic field, we are allowed to classify data that meets those conditions as "good" data and calculate horizontal currents in the ionosphere. We focus on data taken over regions of Mars that had negligible crustal magnetic fields to simplify our analysis. The data being analyzed is observed at a maximum altitude of 250 kilometers with a solar zenith angle (SZA) range of 0 degrees to 50 degrees for the day side and 50 to 130 degrees for the terminator. For the day side of Mars, it was found that 24.06% of the data observed was usable data under the initial parameters that were set for "good" data. For the terminator, it was found that 32.08% of the data was usable. The currents that are computed using these "good" magnetic field profiles can give us insights into how the changing solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field can effect the upper atmosphere of mars. For example, induced currents can lead to Joule heating of the atmosphere potentially modifying the neutral dynamics.
Multi-Modality Phantom Development
Huber, Jennifer S.; Peng, Qiyu; Moses, William W.
2009-03-20
Multi-modality imaging has an increasing role in the diagnosis and treatment of a large number of diseases, particularly if both functional and anatomical information are acquired and accurately co-registered. Hence, there is a resulting need for multi modality phantoms in order to validate image co-registration and calibrate the imaging systems. We present our PET-ultrasound phantom development, including PET and ultrasound images of a simple prostate phantom. We use agar and gelatin mixed with a radioactive solution. We also present our development of custom multi-modality phantoms that are compatible with PET, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), MRI and CT imaging. We describe both our selection of tissue mimicking materials and phantom construction procedures. These custom PET-TRUS-CT-MRI prostate phantoms use agargelatin radioactive mixtures with additional contrast agents and preservatives. We show multi-modality images of these custom prostate phantoms, as well as discuss phantom construction alternatives. Although we are currently focused on prostate imaging, this phantom development is applicable to many multi-modality imaging applications.
Microelectromechanical resonator based digital logic elements
Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al
2016-10-20
Micro/nano-electromechanical resonator based mechanical computing has recently attracted significant attention. However, its full realization has been hindered by the difficulty in realizing complex combinational logics, in which the logic function is constructed by cascading multiple smaller logic blocks. In this work we report an alternative approach for implementation of digital logic core elements, multiplexer and demultiplexer, which can be used to realize combinational logic circuits by suitable concatenation. Toward this, shallow arch shaped microresonators are electrically connected and their resonance frequencies are tuned based on an electrothermal frequency modulation scheme. This study demonstrates that by reconfiguring the same basic building block, the arch microresonator, complex logic circuits can be realized.
Aspects and modular reasoning in nonmonotonic logic
Ostermann, Klaus
2008-01-01
Nonmonotonic logic is a branch of logic that has been developed to model situations with incomplete information. We argue that there is a connection between AOP and nonmonotonic logic which deserves further study. As a concrete technical contribution and "appetizer", we outline an AO semantics de...... defined in default logic (a form of nonmonotonic logic), propose a definition of modular reasoning, and show that the default logic version of the language semantics admits modular reasoning whereas a conventional language semantics based on weaving does not....
Dumeige, Yannick; Feron, Patrice [Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, Laboratoire Foton and CNRS, UMR 6082 Foton, Enssat, BP 80518, F-22305 Lannion Cedex (France)
2011-10-15
Coupled nonlinear resonators have potential applications for the integration of multistable photonic devices. The dynamic properties of two coupled-mode nonlinear microcavities made of Kerr material are studied by linear stability analysis. Using a suitable combination of the modal coupling rate and the frequency detuning, it is possible to obtain configurations where a hysteresis loop is included inside other bistable cycles. We show that a single resonator with two modes both linearly and nonlinearly coupled via the cross-Kerr effect can have a multistable behavior. This could be implemented in semiconductor nonlinear whispering-gallery-mode microresonators under modal coupling for all optical signal processing or ternary optical logic applications.
Conservative treatment modalities in retinoblastoma
Bhavna Chawla
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. A potentially curable cancer, its treatment has improved significantly over the last few decades. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on various conservative treatment modalities available for the treatment of retinoblastoma and their effectiveness, when used alone or in combination. Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched through 2012 for published peer reviewed data on conservative treatment modalities for retinoblastoma. Various studies show that while enucleation remains the standard of care for advanced intraocular tumors, conservative modalities that can result in globe salvage and preservation of useful vision are being increasingly employed. Such modalities include systemic chemotherapy, focal consolidation with transpupillary thermotherapy, laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy, plaque brachytherapy, and delivery of local chemotherapy using subconjunctival, sub-tenon, or intra-arterial routes. When used alone or in combination, these treatment modalities can help in avoidance of external beam radiotherapy or enucleation, thus reducing the potential for long-term side effects, while salvaging useful vision. Radioactive plaque brachytherapy has an established role in selected patients with intraocular retinoblastoma. Local injections of chemotherapeutic agents via the sub-tenon or sub-conjunctival route have been used with varying degrees of success, usually as an adjunct to systemic chemotherapy. Intra-arterial ophthalmic artery delivery of melphalan has shown promising results. It is important to recognize that today, several treatment options are available that can obviate the need for enucleation, and cure the cancer with preservation of functional vision. A thorough knowledge and understanding of these conservative treatment modalities is essential for appropriate management.
Generic physical protection logic trees
Paulus, W.K.
1981-10-01
Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.
Fuzzy Logic Indoor Positioning System
Roberto García Sánz
2008-12-01
Full Text Available The GPS system is not valid for positioning indoors, thus positioning systems are designed using Wi-Fi technology that allows location of a device inside buildings. The use of fuzzy logic is argued by the failure to find positioning systems based on this technology, which seeks toobserve how their use in this field
Program Theory Evaluation: Logic Analysis
Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, Francois
2011-01-01
Program theory evaluation, which has grown in use over the past 10 years, assesses whether a program is designed in such a way that it can achieve its intended outcomes. This article describes a particular type of program theory evaluation--logic analysis--that allows us to test the plausibility of a program's theory using scientific knowledge.…
Symmetric Structure in Logic Programming
Jin-Zhao Wu; Harald Fecher
2004-01-01
It is argued that some symmetric structure in logic programs could be taken into account when implementing semantics in logic programming. This may enhance the declarative ability or expressive power of the semantics. The work presented here may be seen as representative examples along this line. The focus is on the derivation of negative information and some other classic semantic issues. We first define a permutation group associated with a given logic program. Since usually the canonical models used to reflect the common sense or intended meaning are minimal or completed models of the program, we expose the relationships between minimal models and completed models of the original program and its so-called G-reduced form newly-derived via the permutation group defined. By means of this G-reduced form, we introduce a rule to assume negative information termed G-CWA, which is actually a generalization of the GCWA. We also develop the notions of G-definite, G-hierarchical and G-stratified logic programs, which are more general than definite, hierarchical and stratified programs, and extend some well-known declarative and procedural semantics to them, respectively.
Boggle Logic Puzzles: Minimal Solutions
Needleman, Jonathan
2013-01-01
Boggle logic puzzles are based on the popular word game Boggle played backwards. Given a list of words, the problem is to recreate the board. We explore these puzzles on a 3 x 3 board and find the minimum number of three-letter words needed to create a puzzle with a unique solution. We conclude with a series of open questions.
The Logic of Quantum Measurements
Vanni, Leonardo; Laura, Roberto
2013-07-01
We apply our previously developed formalism of contexts of histories, suitable to deal with quantum properties at different times, to the measurement process. We explore the logical implications which are allowed by the quantum theory, about the realization of properties of the microscopic measured system, before and after the measurement process with a given pointer value.
Martin, Donald; Steel, John
1988-01-01
This is the fourth volume of the proceeding of the Caltech-UCLA Logic Seminar, based mainly on material which was presented and discussed in the period 1981-85, but containing also some very recent results. It includes research papers dealing with determinacy hypotheses and their consequences in descriptive set theory. An appendix contains the new Victoria Delfino Problems.
Handling Pressures of Community Logic
Minbaeva, Dana; Hotho, Jasper; Muratbekova-Touron, Maral
2013-01-01
The paper aims at investigating how in pluralistic societies, such as emerging economies and countries in transition, organizational decision-makers respond to pressures of community logics in non-community settings, such as the work place. We theorize that in non-community settings, social relat...
Logic Programming and Knowledge Maintenance.
1987-08-13
the literature , and became convinced that many of the advantages of frames and semantic nets can be captured in logic programming systems by a...consists of: needs(john,money). married_to(john,mary). loves(john,mary). (mary is the dead victim in this thriller .) The victim’s sister sara consists of
Mathematical Induction: Deductive Logic Perspective
Dogan, Hamide
2016-01-01
Many studies mentioned the deductive nature of Mathematical Induction (MI) proofs but almost all fell short in explaining its potential role in the formation of the misconceptions reported in the literature. This paper is the first of its kind looking at the misconceptions from the perspective of the abstract of the deductive logic from one's…
Olbright, G.R.; Bryan, R.P.; Brennan, T.M.; Lear, K.; Poirier, G.E.; Fu, W.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Jewell, J.L.; Lee, Y.H. (AT and T Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ (USA))
1990-10-31
We describe a new class of optical logic devices which consist of integrated phototransistors and surface-emitting lasers. The devices function as optical neurons having high gain and, as arrays, are ideal for neural networks, parallel optical signal processing and optical computing applications. 3 refs., 3 figs.
Model checking mobile stochastic logic.
De Nicola, Rocco; Katoen, Joost P.; Latella, Diego; Loreti, Michele; Massink, Mieke
2007-01-01
The Temporal Mobile Stochastic Logic (MOSL) has been introduced in previous work by the authors for formulating properties of systems specified in STOKLAIM, a Markovian extension of KLAIM. The main purpose of MOSL is to address key functional aspects of global computing such as distribution
Model checking mobile stochastic logic.
De Nicola, Rocco; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Latella, Diego; Loreti, Michele; Massink, Mieke
2007-01-01
The Temporal Mobile Stochastic Logic (MOSL) has been introduced in previous work by the authors for formulating properties of systems specified in STOKLAIM, a Markovian extension of KLAIM. The main purpose of MOSL is to address key functional aspects of global computing such as distribution awarenes
Fuzzy logic controllers on chip
Acosta, Nelson; Simonelli, Daniel Horacio
2002-01-01
This paper analyzes a fuzzy logic (FL) oriented instruction set (micro)controller and their implementations on FIPSOC1. VHDL code is synthesized using a small portion of FIPSOC FPGA2. This circuits are used from the mP8051 FIPSOC built-in microcontroller to provide efficient arithmetic operations such as multipliers, dividers, minimums and maximums.
Classical Syllogisms in Logic Teaching
Øhrstrøm, Peter; Sandborg-Petersen, Ulrik; Thorvaldsen, Steinar
2013-01-01
This paper focuses on the challenges of introducing classical syllogisms in university courses in elementary logic and human reasoning. Using a program written in Prolog+CG, some empirical studies have been carried out involving three groups of students in Denmark; one group of philosophy student...
Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism
Edgar, Scott
2009-01-01
This paper considers George A. Reisch's account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have…
沈理
1997-01-01
A fuzzy logic control VLSI chip,F100,for industry process real-time control has been designed and fabricated with 0.8μm CMOS technology.The chip has the features of simplicity,felexibility and generality.This paper presents the Fuzzy control inrerence method of the chip,its VLSI implementation,and testing esign consideration.
Logical Empiricism, Politics, and Professionalism
Edgar, Scott
2009-01-01
This paper considers George A. Reisch's account of the role of Cold War political forces in shaping the apolitical stance that came to dominate philosophy of science in the late 1940s and 1950s. It argues that at least as early as the 1930s, Logical Empiricists such as Rudolf Carnap already held that philosophy of science could not properly have…
Covering, Packing and Logical Inference
1993-10-01
of Operations Research 43 (1993). [34] *Hooker, J. N., Generalized resolution for 0-1 linear inequalities, Annals of Mathematics and A 16 271-286. [35...Hooker, J. N. and C. Fedjki, Branch-and-cut solution of inference prob- lems in propositional logic, Annals of Mathematics and AI 1 (1990) 123-140. [40
Mathematical Programming and Logical Inference
1990-12-01
solution of inference problems in propositional logic, to appear in Annals of Mathematics and Al. (271 Howard, R. A., and J. E. Matheson, Influence...1981). (281 Jeroslow, R., and J. Wang, Solving propositional satisfiability problems, to appear in Annals of Mathematics and Al. [29] Nilsson, N. J
PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic
Booth, R
2012-09-01
Full Text Available in which a formula holds. The semantics is in terms of ranked models as studied in KLM-style preferential reasoning. This allows us to show that rational consequence relations can be embedded in our logic. Moreover we show that we can define consequence...
Awodey, Steve
2010-01-01
From a logical point of view, Stone duality for Boolean algebras relates theories in classical propositional logic and their collections of models. The theories can be seen as presentations of Boolean algebras, and the collections of models can be topologized in such a way that the theory can be recovered from its space of models. The situation can be cast as a formal duality relating two categories of syntax and semantics, mediated by homming into a common dualizing object, in this case $2$. In the present work, we generalize the entire arrangement from propositional to first-order logic. Boolean algebras are replaced by Boolean categories presented by theories in first-order logic, and spaces of models are replaced by topological groupoids of models and their isomorphisms. A duality between the resulting categories of syntax and semantics, expressed first in the form of a contravariant adjunction, is established by homming into a common dualizing object, now $\\Sets$, regarded once as a boolean category, and...
Learning fuzzy logic control system
Lung, Leung Kam
1994-01-01
The performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Control System (LFLCS), developed in this thesis, has been evaluated. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller (LFLC) learns to control the motor by learning the set of teaching values that are generated by a classical PI controller. It is assumed that the classical PI controller is tuned to minimize the error of a position control system of the D.C. motor. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller developed in this thesis is a multi-input single-output network. Training of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is implemented off-line. Upon completion of the training process (using Supervised Learning, and Unsupervised Learning), the LFLC replaces the classical PI controller. In this thesis, a closed loop position control system of a D.C. motor using the LFLC is implemented. The primary focus is on the learning capabilities of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller. The learning includes symbolic representation of the Input Linguistic Nodes set and Output Linguistic Notes set. In addition, we investigate the knowledge-based representation for the network. As part of the design process, we implement a digital computer simulation of the LFLCS. The computer simulation program is written in 'C' computer language, and it is implemented in DOS platform. The LFLCS, designed in this thesis, has been developed on a IBM compatible 486-DX2 66 computer. First, the performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is evaluated by comparing the angular shaft position of the D.C. motor controlled by a conventional PI controller and that controlled by the LFLC. Second, the symbolic representation of the LFLC and the knowledge-based representation for the network are investigated by observing the parameters of the Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the links at each layer of the LFLC. While there are some limitations of application with this approach, the result of the simulation shows that the LFLC is able to control the angular shaft position of the
FUZZY LOGIC IN LEGAL EDUCATION
Z. Gonul BALKIR
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal
Preface. Philosophy and History of Talmudic Logic
Schumann Andrew
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This volume contains the papers presented at the Philosophy and History of Talmudic Logic Affiliated Workshop of Krakow Conference on History of Logic (KHL2016, held on October 27, 2016, in Krakow, Poland.
Logic functions and equations examples and exercises
Steinbach, Bernd
2009-01-01
With a free, downloadable software package available to help solve the exercises, this book focuses on practical and relevant problems that arise in the field of binary logics, with its two main applications - digital circuit design, and propositional logics.
Mathematical logic foundations for information science
Li, Wei
2010-01-01
This book presents the basic principles and formal calculus of mathematical logic. It covers core contents, extensions and developments of classical mathematical logic, and it offers formal proofs and concrete examples for all theoretical results.
Process algebra with four-valued logic
Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.
2000-01-01
We propose a combination of a fragment of four-valued logic and process algebra. We present an operational semantics in SOS-style, and a completeness result for ACP with conditionals and four-valued logic.
Towards practical defeasible reasoning for description logics
Casini, G
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The formalisation of defeasible reasoning in automated systems is becoming increasingly important. Description Logics (DLs) are nowadays the main logical formalism in the field of formal ontologies. Our focus in this paper is to devise a practical...
Symbolic logic syntax, semantics, and proof
Agler, David
2012-01-01
Brimming with visual examples of concepts, derivation rules, and proof strategies, this introductory text is ideal for students with no previous experience in logic. Symbolic Logic: Syntax, Semantics, and Proof introduces students to the fundamental concepts, techniques, and topics involved in deductive reasoning. Agler guides students through the basics of symbolic logic by explaining the essentials of two classical systems, propositional and predicate logic. Students will learn translation both from formal language into
Wavefront reconstruction by modal decomposition
Schulze, C
2012-08-01
Full Text Available We propose a new method to determine the wavefront of a laser beam based on modal decomposition by computer-generated holograms. The hologram is encoded with a transmission function suitable for measuring the amplitudes and phases of the modes...
Arithmetic Memory Is Modality Specific.
Timothy Myers
Full Text Available In regards to numerical cognition and working memory, it is an open question as to whether numbers are stored into and retrieved from a central abstract representation or from separate notation-specific representations. This study seeks to help answer this by utilizing the numeral modality effect (NME in three experiments to explore how numbers are processed by the human brain. The participants were presented with numbers (1-9 as either Arabic digits or written number words (Arabic digits and dot matrices in Experiment 2 at the first (S1 and second (S2 stimuli. The participant's task was to add the first two stimuli together and verify whether the answer (S3, presented simultaneously with S2, was correct. We hypothesized that if reaction time (RT at S2/S3 depends on the modality of S1 then numbers are retrieved from modality specific memory stores. Indeed, RT depended on the modality of S1 whenever S2 was an Arabic digit which argues against the concept of numbers being stored and retrieved from a central, abstract representation.
Monica, Dario Della; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo;
2012-01-01
Propositional Neighborhood Logic (PNL) is an interval temporal logic featuring two modalities corresponding to the relations of right and left neighborhood between two intervals on a linear order (in terms of Allen's relations, meets/ and met by). Recently, it has been shown that PNL interpreted...... over several classes of linear orders, including natural numbers, is decidable (NEXPTIME-complete) and that some of its natural extensions preserve decidability. Most notably, this is the case with PNL over natural numbers extended with a limited form of metric constraints and with the future fragment...... of PNL extended with modal operators corresponding to Allen's relations begins, begun by, and before/. This paper aims at demonstrating that PNL and its metric version MPNL, interpreted over natural numbers, are indeed very close to the border with undecidability, and even relatively weak extensions...
A Logic for Diffusion in Social Networks
Christoff, Z.; Hansen, J.U.
2015-01-01
This paper introduces a general logical framework for reasoning about diffusion processes within social networks. The new "Logic for Diffusion in Social Networks" is a dynamic extension of standard hybrid logic, allowing to model complex phenomena involving several properties of agents. We provide a
Set Constraints and Logic Programming (Preprint)
2016-02-24
Assoc Comput Sci Logic Springer September A Aiken D Kozen and E Wimmers Decidability of systems of set constraints with negative...Extensions of Logic Programming ELP volume of Lect Notes Articial Intell pages Springer February J Englefriet Tree... Springer September D Kozen Set constraints and logic programming abstract In JP Jouannaud editor Proc First Conf Constraints in
Weak Completeness of Coalgebraic Dynamic Logics
Kupke, C.; Hansen, H.H.
2015-01-01
We present a coalgebraic generalisation of Fischer and Ladner’s Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL) and Parikh’s Game Logic (GL). In earlier work, we proved a generic strong completeness result for coalgebraic dynamic logics without iteration. The coalgebraic semantics of such programs is given by a m
Weak Completeness of Coalgebraic Dynamic Logics
Hansen, H.H.; Kupke, C.A.
2015-01-01
We present a coalgebraic generalisation of Fischer and Ladner's Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL) and Parikh's Game Logic (GL). In earlier work, we proved a generic strong completeness result for coalgebraic dynamic logics without iteration. The coalgebraic semantics of such programs is given by a m
Dialogues as a dynamic framework for logic
Rückert, Helge
2007-01-01
Dialogical logic is a game-theoretical approach to logic. Logic is studied with the help of certain games, which can be thought of as idealized argumentations. Two players, the Proponent, who puts forward the initial thesis and tries to defend it, and the Opponent, who tries to attack the
Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus
Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof
2010-01-01
In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...
Piaget's Logic of Meanings: Still Relevant Today
Wavering, Michael James
2011-01-01
In his last book, "Toward a Logic of Meanings" (Piaget & Garcia, 1991), Jean Piaget describes how thought can be categorized into a form of propositional logic, a logic of meanings. The intent of this article is to offer this analysis by Piaget as a means to understand the language and teaching of science. Using binary propositions, conjunctions,…
Logics of Business Education for Sustainability
Andersson, Pernilla; Öhman, Johan
2016-01-01
This paper explores various kinds of logics of "business education for sustainability" and how these "logics" position the subject business person, based on eight teachers' reasoning of their own practices. The concept of logics developed within a discourse theoretical framework is employed to analyse the teachers' reasoning.…
Piaget's Logic of Meanings: Still Relevant Today
Wavering, Michael James
2011-01-01
In his last book, "Toward a Logic of Meanings" (Piaget & Garcia, 1991), Jean Piaget describes how thought can be categorized into a form of propositional logic, a logic of meanings. The intent of this article is to offer this analysis by Piaget as a means to understand the language and teaching of science. Using binary propositions, conjunctions,…
Connecting Logics of Choice and Change
van Benthem, J.; Pacuit, E.; Müller, T.
2014-01-01
This chapter is an attempt at clarifying the current scene of sometimes competing action logics, looking for compatibilities and convergences. Current paradigms for deliberate action fall into two broad families: dynamic logics of events, and STIT logics of achieving specified effects. We compare th
Lakoff on Linguistics and Natural Logic.
Wilks, Yorick
This paper examines and criticizes Lakoff's notions of a natural logic and of a generative semantics described in terms of logic. The author argues that the relationship of these notions to logic as normally understood is unclear but suggests a number of possible interpretations of the thesis of generative semantics. Further, on these…
A Framed Temporal Logic Programming Language
Zhen-Hua Duan; Maciej Koutny
2004-01-01
We discuss the projection temporal logic (PTL), based on a primitive projection operator, prj. A framing technique is also presented, using which a synchronization operator, await, is defined within the underlying logic. A framed temporal logic programming language (FTLL) is presented. To illustrate how to use both the language and framing technique, some examples are given.
The dynamic turn in quantum logic
Baltag, Alexandru; Smets, Sonja
In this paper we show how ideas coming from two areas of research in logic can reinforce each other. The first such line of inquiry concerns the "dynamic turn" in logic and especially the formalisms inspired by Propositional Dynamic Logic (PDL); while the second line concerns research into the
Logics of Business Education for Sustainability
Andersson, Pernilla; Öhman, Johan
2016-01-01
This paper explores various kinds of logics of "business education for sustainability" and how these "logics" position the subject business person, based on eight teachers' reasoning of their own practices. The concept of logics developed within a discourse theoretical framework is employed to analyse the teachers' reasoning.…
Applications of Logic Coverage Criteria and Logic Mutation to Software Testing
Kaminski, Garrett K.
2011-01-01
Logic is an important component of software. Thus, software logic testing has enjoyed significant research over a period of decades, with renewed interest in the last several years. One approach to detecting logic faults is to create and execute tests that satisfy logic coverage criteria. Another approach to detecting faults is to perform mutation…
Flow Logic for Process Calculi
Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik
2012-01-01
Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally...... developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the π-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction...... and adequacy results), and a Moore Family result showing that a least solution always exists, as well as providing insights on how to implement the analysis. We then show how to strengthen the analysis technology by introducing reachability components, interaction points, and localized environments...
Logic circuits from zero forcing
Burgarth, Daniel; Hogben, Leslie; Severini, Simone; Young, Michael
2011-01-01
We design logical circuits based on the notion of zero forcing on graphs; each gate of the circuits is a gadget in which zero forcing is performed. We show that such circuits can evaluate every monotone Boolean function. By using two vertices to encode each logical bit, we obtain universal computation. We also highlight a phenomenon of "back forcing" as a property of each function. Such a phenomenon occurs in a circuit when the input of gates which have been already used at a given time step is further modified by a computation actually performed at a later stage. Finally, we show that zero forcing can be also used to implement reversible computation. The model introduced here provides a potentially new tool in the analysis of Boolean functions, with particular attention to monotonicity.
Symmetric normalisation for intuitionistic logic
Guenot, Nicolas; Straßburger, Lutz
2014-01-01
, but using a non-local rewriting. The second system is the symmetric completion of the first, as normally given in deep inference for logics with a DeMorgan duality: all inference rules have duals, as cut is dual to the identity axiom. We prove a generalisation of cut elimination, that we call symmetric...... normalisation, where all rules dual to standard ones are permuted up in the derivation. The result is a decomposition theorem having cut elimination and interpolation as corollaries.......We present two proof systems for implication-only intuitionistic logic in the calculus of structures. The first is a direct adaptation of the standard sequent calculus to the deep inference setting, and we describe a procedure for cut elimination, similar to the one from the sequent calculus...
Programming Games for Logical Thinking
H. Tsalapatas
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Analytical thinking is a transversal skill that helps learners synthesize knowledge across subject areas; from mathematics, science, and technology to critical reading, critical examination, and evaluation of lessons. While most would not doubt the importance of analytical capacity in academic settings and its growing demand for the skill in professional environments, school curricula do not comprehensively address its development. As a result, the responsibility for structuring related learning activities falls to teachers. This work examines learning paradigms that can be integrated into mathematics and science school education for developing logical thinking through game-based exercises based on programming. The proposed learning design promotes structured algorithmic mindsets, is based on inclusive universal logic present in all cultures, and promotes constructivism educational approaches encouraging learners to drive knowledge building by composing past and emerging experiences.
The Logic Behind Feynman's Paths
García Álvarez, Edgardo T.
The classical notions of continuity and mechanical causality are left in order to reformulate the Quantum Theory starting from two principles: (I) the intrinsic randomness of quantum process at microphysical level, (II) the projective representations of symmetries of the system. The second principle determines the geometry and then a new logic for describing the history of events (Feynman's paths) that modifies the rules of classical probabilistic calculus. The notion of classical trajectory is replaced by a history of spontaneous, random and discontinuous events. So the theory is reduced to determining the probability distribution for such histories accordingly with the symmetries of the system. The representation of the logic in terms of amplitudes leads to Feynman rules and, alternatively, its representation in terms of projectors results in the Schwinger trace formula.
Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic
Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin
2013-01-01
interpretations. Moreover, such indexicals give rise to a special kind of validity—contextual validity—that interacts with ordinary logi- cal validity in interesting and often unexpected ways. In this paper we model these interactions by combining standard techniques from hybrid logic with insights from the work...... of Hans Kamp and David Kaplan. We introduce a simple proof rule, which we call the Kamp Rule, and first we show that it is all we need to take us from logical validities involving now to contextual validities involving now too. We then go on to show that this deductive bridge is strong enough to carry us...... to contextual validities involving yesterday, today and tomorrow as well....
The logic of medical diagnosis.
Stanley, Donald E; Campos, Daniel G
2013-01-01
Establishing diagnoses is a crucial aspect of medical practice. However, this process has received comparatively little logical and pedagogical attention when compared to statistical methods for evaluating evidence. This article investigates the logic of medical diagnosis in order to fill this void. It is organized in three parts: the first attempts to explain why more attention ought to be paid to diagnosis, at least as much as to evidence; the second calls attention to the method of diagnosis by abductive reasoning developed in the 19th century by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914); and the third demonstrates the use and pervasiveness of abduction by any other name in clinical diagnosis. We examine six diagnostic strategies in common use that contain most, if not all, of Peirce's structure of inquiry in science.
Logic and discrete mathematics a concise introduction
Conradie, Willem
2015-01-01
A concise yet rigorous introduction to logic and discrete mathematics. This book features a unique combination of comprehensive coverage of logic with a solid exposition of the most important fields of discrete mathematics, presenting material that has been tested and refined by the authors in university courses taught over more than a decade. The chapters on logic - propositional and first-order - provide a robust toolkit for logical reasoning, emphasizing the conceptual understanding of the language and the semantics of classical logic as well as practical applications through the easy
Logical design for computers and control
Dodd, Kenneth N
1972-01-01
Logical Design for Computers and Control Logical Design for Computers and Control gives an introduction to the concepts and principles, applications, and advancements in the field of control logic. The text covers topics such as logic elements; high and low logic; kinds of flip-flops; binary counting and arithmetic; and Boolean algebra, Boolean laws, and De Morgan's theorem. Also covered are topics such as electrostatics and atomic theory; the integrated circuit and simple control systems; the conversion of analog to digital systems; and computer applications and control. The book is recommend
Parallel optical logic operations on reversible networks
Shamir, Joseph
2013-03-01
A generic optical network architecture is proposed for the implementation of programmable logic operations. Based on reversible optical gate elements the processor is highly energy efficient and intrinsically fast. In this architecture the whole logic operation is executed by light propagating through the system with no energy dissipation. Energy must be spent only at the input interface and at discrete locations where the logic operation results are to be detected. As a consequence, the theoretical lower limit for energy dissipation in logic operations must be reconsidered. The strength of this approach is demonstrated by examples showing the implementation of various lossless logic operations, including Half Adder and Full Adder.
林允清
2014-01-01
The notion of logical form plays a central role in the philosophy of language and in linguistics . But what logical form is has not been clear . In this paper I first survey the uses of logical form , and show that this notion has no well-defined meaning . I then discuss three main motivations behind invoking logical form , and argue that two of them are unwarranted , and the third can be satisfied by an approach to the logic of ordinary language that is based on the idea of sentence frames , rather than on the traditional idea of subject and predicate .
Functional Interpretations of Intuitionistic Linear Logic
Ferreira, Gilda
2010-01-01
We present three different functional interpretations of intuitionistic linear logic ILL and show how these correspond to well-known functional interpretations of intuitionistic logic IL via embeddings of IL into ILL. The main difference from previous work of the second author is that in intuitionistic linear logic (as opposed to classical linear logic) the interpretations of !A are simpler and simultaneous quantifiers are no longer needed for the characterisation of the interpretations. We then compare our approach in developing these three proof interpretations with the one of de Paiva around the Dialectica category model of linear logic.
Bolander, Thomas
2003-01-01
that we can keep the predicate approach if we make suitable restrictions to our set of epistemic axioms. Their results are proved by careful translations from corresponding modal formalisms. In the present paper we show that their results fit nicely into the framework of logic programming semantics......This paper concerns formal theories for reasoning about the knowledge and belief of agents. It has seemed attractive to researchers in artificial intelligence to formalise these propositional attitudes as predicates of first-order predicate logic. This allows the agents to express stronger......, in that we show their results to be corollaries of well-known results in this field. This does not only allow us to demonstrate a close connection between consistency problems in the syntactic treatment of propositional attitudes and problems in semantics for logic programs, but it also allows us...
Moot, Richard
2007-01-01
This paper explores several extensions of proof nets for the Lambek calculus in order to handle the different connectives of display logic in a natural way. The new proof net calculus handles some recent additions to the Lambek vocabulary such as Galois connections and Grishin interactions. It concludes with an exploration of the generative capacity of the Lambek-Grishin calculus, presenting an embedding of lexicalized tree adjoining grammars into the Lambek-Grishin calculus.
Logic, Probability, and Human Reasoning
2015-01-01
3–6] and they underlie mathematics , science, and tech- nology [7–10]. Plato claimed that emotions upset reason - ing. However, individuals in the grip...Press 10 Nickerson, R. (2011) Mathematical Reasoning : Patterns, Problems, Conjectures, and Proofs, Taylor & Francis 11 Blanchette, E. and Richards, A...Logic, probability, and human reasoning P.N. Johnson-Laird1,2, Sangeet S. Khemlani3, and Geoffrey P. Goodwin4 1 Princeton University, Princeton, NJ
Session Types in Abelian Logic
Yoichi Hirai
2013-12-01
Full Text Available There was a PhD student who says "I found a pair of wooden shoes. I put a coin in the left and a key in the right. Next morning, I found those objects in the opposite shoes." We do not claim existence of such shoes, but propose a similar programming abstraction in the context of typed lambda calculi. The result, which we call the Amida calculus, extends Abramsky's linear lambda calculus LF and characterizes Abelian logic.