Sample records for mgo stabilized zro2

  1. Effect of Pore Size Distribution on Humidity Sensing Properties of MgO doped ZrO2-TiO2 Ceramic

    Jain, M. K.; Bhatnagar, M. C.; Sharma, G. L.


    The MgO doped ZrO2-TiO2 composite is studied for its humidity sensing characteristics. Though dc electrical properties show very high sensitivity to humidity, it is not useful for practical applications because of the charging effect. The ac conductivity vs relative humidity characteristics of the pellet becomes linear with an increase in sintering temperature. The post treatment at high temperature and high humidity is found to accelerate initial ageing of the pellet and therefore, stabilizes the characteristics more quickly. A physical model has been proposed to correlate initial ageing, effect of sintering temperature and response time with pore size distribution. Pores below 300 Å radii are present in abundance near the ZrTiO4 phase formation temperature. These pores are responsible for higher sensitivity in low humidity region and linear characteristics.

  2. Agglomeration Control of Ultrafine Y2 O3-ZrO2 and (MgO, Y2 O3)-ZrO2 Powders Synthesized by Coprecipitation Process

    MA Yalu; ZHANG Yu; ZHENG Junping


    Chemical coprecipitation was used to produce ultrafine and easily sinterable Y2O3-stabilized and (Y2O3,MgO)-stabilized ZrO2 powders. Six precipitation processes for preparation of ZrO2-based ultrafine powders were designed separately, meanwhile different techniques used to control the agglomeration formation were proposed. By means of TEM, SEM, Raman spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy, the mechanisms of agglomeration control in the precipitation processes and post-precipitation and drying process were investigated. The experimental results show that adding appropriate anion surface active agents (such as PAA1460) or polymer (PEG1540 matching with PEG200) in aqueous solution systems during precipitation processes could reinforce charge effect and location effect for gel particles interface. Adding wetting agents to wet gels washing with distilled water during drying process could change interface structure of gel particles and decrease surface tension between gel particles. The agglomeration control in the precipitation, post-precipitation and drying processes had remarkable influence on the characteristics of powders. By adding various macromolecules in the processes, the agglomeration state could be controlled efficiently, and the characteristics of powders were improved.

  3. Valence electron structure and properties of stabilized ZrO2

    LI JinPing; HAN JieOai; MENG SongHe; ZHANG XingHong


    To reveal the properties of stabilizers in ZrO2 on nanoscopic levels,the valence elec-tron structures of four stable ZrO2 phases and c-ZrO2 were analyzed on the basis of the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules.The results showed that the hybridization levels of Zr atoms in c-ZrO2 doped with Ca and Mg dropped from B17 to B13,the hybridization levels of Zr atoms in c-ZrO2 doped with Y and Ce dropped from B17 to B15,and that the four stabilizing atoms all made the hybridization levels of O atoms drop from level 4 to level 2.The numbers of covalent electrons in the strongest covalent bond in the descending order are c-ZrO2>ZrCeO2>ZrYOZrMgO>ZrCaO.The bond energies of the strongest covalent bond and the melting points of the solid solutions in the descending order are ZrCeO2>c-ZrO2>ZrYO>ZrMgO>ZrCaO.The percent-ages of the total number of covalent electrons in the descending order arec-ZrO2>ZrYO> ZrCeO2>ZrMgO> ZrCaO.From the above analysis,it can be concluded that the stabilizing degrees of the four stabilizers in the descending order are CaO> MgO>Y2O3>CeO2.

  4. Raman spectroscopic characterization of ZrO2 and yttrium stabilized zirconias

    Kjerulf-Jensen, N.; Berg, Rolf W.; Poulsen, Finn Willy


    forward. The spectral features of the Raman spectra do furthermore not only depend on the phase composition, but also depend on the frequency of the excitation, temperature of experiment and texture/orientation of zirconia crystallites under investigation. These effects are illustrated by Raman spectra...... obtained on ZrO2 and YSZ (Yttrium Stabilized Zirconias) in the range 8, 12 and 18 mol% Y2O3 and 4 mol% Yb2O3 + 4 mol% Y2O3. The peak positions in the spectra of 8 mol% YSZ (Viking) are lowered by up to 20 cm-1 upon heating to 700 oC. Intense fluorescence/luminescence bands at 1000-1600 cm-1 were observed...

  5. Process-Parameter-Dependent Optical and Structural Properties of ZrO2MgO Mixed-Composite Films Evaporated from the solid Solution

    Sahoo, N. K.; Shapiro, A. P.


    The process-parameter-dependent optical and structural properties of ZrO2MgO mixed-composite material have been investigated. Optical properties were derived from spectrophotometric measurements. By use of atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, and energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis, the surface morphology, grain size distributions, crystallographic phases, and process-dependent material composition of films have been investigated. EDX analysis made evident the correlation between the oxygen enrichment in the films prepared at a high level of oxygen pressure and the very low refractive index. Since oxygen pressure can be dynamically varied during a deposition process, coatings constructed of suitable mixed-composite thin films can benefit from continuous modulation of the index of refraction. A step modulation approach is used to develop various multilayer-equivalent thin-film devices.

  6. Valence electron structure and properties of stabilized ZrO2


    To reveal the properties of stabilizers in ZrO2 on nanoscopic levels, the valence electron structures of four stable ZrO2 phases and c-ZrO2 were analyzed on the basis of the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules. The results showed that the hybridization levels of Zr atoms in c-ZrO2 doped with Ca and Mg dropped from B17 to B13, the hybridization levels of Zr atoms in c-ZrO2 doped with Y and Ce dropped from B17 to B15, and that the four stabilizing atoms all made the hybridization levels of O atoms drop from level 4 to level 2. The numbers of covalent electrons in the strongest covalent bond in the descending order are c-ZrO2>Zr0.82Ce0.18O2> Zr0.82Y0.18O1.91>Zr0.82Mg0.18O1.82>Zr0.82Ca0.18O1.82. The bond energies of the strongest covalent bond and the melting points of the solid solutions in the descending order are Zr0.82Ce0.18O2> c-ZrO2>Zr0.82Y0.18O1.91>Zr0.82Mg0.18O1.82>Zr0.82Ca0.18O1.82. The percent-ages of the total number of covalent electrons in the descending order are c-ZrO2>Zr0.82Y0.18O1.91> Zr0.82Ce0.18O2>Zr0.82Mg0.18O1.82> Zr0.82Ca0.18O1.82. From the above analysis, it can be concluded that the stabilizing degrees of the four stabilizers in the descending order are CaO> MgO>Y2O3>CeO2.

  7. Efeito da segregação e solubilização do MgO na morfologia de pós de ZrO2 durante a síntese pelo método Pechini Effect of MgO segregation and solubilization on the morphology of ZrO2 powders during synthesis by the Pechini's method

    P. J. B. Marcos


    Full Text Available Trabalhos realizados em vários sistemas de óxidos cerâmicos têm demonstrado que a segregação dos íons durante a síntese de materiais cerâmicos pelo método Pechini tem conseqüências muito importantes tanto para a morfologia dos pós como para a sinterização. Este trabalho tem como objetivo estabelecer a influência da segregação/solubilização do MgO na morfologia e na sinterização de pós à base de ZrO2. O estudo foi realizado em pós preparados por síntese química derivada do método Pechini a 500 °C por 15 h. Observa-se que para concentrações de MgO até o limite de solubilidade no ZrO2 ocorre o crescimento de partículas e uma diminuição da área de superfície específica por causa da solubilização e do aumento do coeficiente de difusão pela geração de vacâncias de oxigênio. Contudo, após o limite de solubilidade, ocorre um aumento gradual da área de superfície específica devido à segregação dos íons na superfície dos pós e à diminuição da energia de superfície. Concentrações de MgO até 60 % molar foram utilizadas e áreas de superfície específica tão elevadas quanto 120 m²/g foram obtidas, mas as fases cristalinas formadas foram exclusivamente da zircônia solução sólida sem a presença de fases cristalinas de MgO.Studies carried out in several ceramic oxide systems have shown that segregation of ions during synthesis of ceramic materials by the Pechini's method has important morphology consequences for the powder. The aim of this paper is to establish the influence of the MgO segregation/solubilization on the morphology of ZrO2 powders. The study was performed in powders prepared by chemical synthesis derived from the Pechini's method at 500 ºC for 15 h. It is observed that MgO concentrations up to the solubility limit promote ZrO2 particle coarsening and a reduction of specific surface area by increasing the diffusion coefficient. However, MgO amounts higher than the solubility

  8. Handbook of the Infrared Optical Properties of Al2O3. Carbon, MGO and ZrO2. Volume 1


    Conductivities of MgO, Al 2 0 3 , and ZrO Powders to 850 C. II. Theoretical, " J. App. Phys. 37, 56 (146). 4M-3 Kan, H. K. A., Champetier, R. J., Erler , T...5, ZM-6, 2M-15, ZM-16 Erler , T.G.: 4M-3 Evans, J.V.: 3T-Z Even, U.: IK-Il, IR-14, 1T-17 Ferrieu, E.:, 1T-2 Ferriso, C.;. 2K-I, ZTE-Z Friedel, R.A

  9. Direct Measuring Methods of Water Vapor Content and Air Velocity at High Temperature using ZrO2-MgO Gas Chemisorption Type Ceramic Body

    Nomura, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Nobuya; Shiba, Tooru; Hyodo, Tsutomu

    The control of humidity or air velocity as well as temperature is imperative for industrial process equipment such as air conditioners, dryers. At present, much about humidity sensors has been reported, and recently, ceramic sensors have been used with improved results. However, the effective operating temperature of these sensors for a direct measurement of the humidity is about 423 K at the highest. From the various ceramic sensors so far investigated, the authors selected composite ceramics ZrO2-MgO with porous structure and n-type semiconductor for humidity sensing at high temperature. This is because, when the working temperature of the ceramic sensor is between 673 and 973K, the sensor detects the presence of water vapor and gas velocity by the variations in the electronic condition caused by the reversible of the water vapor. From the test, the sensor that use a single sensing ceramic element can detect directly both the water vapor content in a mixed gas of air and superheated vapor in the temperature range 373-773 K and the air velocity(O.5-4m/s) in the range 373-573K.

  10. Mechanical Properties of ZrO2 Ceramic Stabilized by Y2O3 and CeO2


    ZrO2 ceramic was made from evenly dispersed (Y,Ce)-ZrO2 powder with different compositions,which was prepared by the chemical coprecipitation, and stabilized by compound additions through appropriate techniques.And its mechanical property that is related to the phase content and its microstructure was studied by X-ray diffraction(XRD),scan electron microscope(SEM).The results show that Y2O3 has stronger inhibition to the growth of ZrO2 crystal than CeO2 has.Therefore,within an appropriate composition range of Y2O3 and CeO2,the higher the content of Y2O3,the lower the content of CeO2,the smaller ZrO2 crystal.Combining this feature and the stabilization technique with complex additions instead of simple addition,ZrO2 ceramic with high density and excellent mechanical properties can be made under normal conditions. It is concluded that the improvement of mechanical properties originates from the toughening of microcrack,phase transformation and the effect of grain evulsions.

  11. Study On Thermal Stability of Al2O3-ZrO2 Composite Membranes%Al2O3-ZrO2复合膜的热稳定性研究

    郝艳霞; 杨绪杰; 陆路德; 汪信


      Al2O3-ZrO2 composite membranes were prepared by sol-gel process from aluminium iso-propoxide and zirconyl chloride as their precursors. The thermal stability, structure and appearance of composite membranes were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron micrographs (TEM), respectively. The results show that the thermal stability of composite membranes is better than those of pure Al2O3 or ZrO2 membranes. The crystal phase of composite membranes is tetragonal ZrO2 until 1100℃, but monoclinic ZrO2 and alpha Al2O3 appear at 1200℃. Investigation with SEM showed that the membranes were defect-free.%  以异丙醇铝和氯化氧锆为原料,用溶胶-凝胶法制备了Al2O3-ZrO2复合膜。应用TG、DTA、XRD、FT-IR、SEM、TEM等测试手段对复合膜的热稳定性、结构、形貌进行了表征。结果表明复合膜的热稳定性比单一由氧化铝或氧化锆制成的膜有显著地提高;在1100℃以下,复合膜以t-ZrO2存在,1200℃时,出现了m-ZrO2和α-Al2O3相。扫描电镜分析表明,膜表面完整、无缺陷。

  12. Ethanol dehydrogenation on copper catalysts with ytterbium stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 support

    Chuklina, S. G.; Pylinina, A. I.; Podzorova, L. I.; Mikhailina, N. A.; Mikhalenko, I. I.


    The physicochemical and catalytic properties of Cu-containing crystalline zirconia, obtained via sol-gel synthesis in the presence of Yb3+ ions and polyvinylpyrrolidone, are studied. DTG/DSC, TEM, XRD and BET methods are used to analyze the crystallization, texture, phase uniformity, surface and porosity of ZrO2 nanopowders. It is shown that increasing the copper content (1, 3, and 5 wt % from ZrO2) raises the dehydrogenation activity in the temperature range of 100-400°C and lowers the activation energy of acetaldehyde formation. It is found that the activity of all Cu/ t-ZrO2 catalysts grows under the effects of the reaction medium, due to the migration and redispersion of copper.

  13. The Effect of Platinum on Stability of the B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2 Catalyst for Beckmann Rearrangement of Cyclohexanone Oxime

    Dong Sen MAO; Guan Zhong LU


    The addition of platinum over the B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2 remarkably enhanced its catalytic stability in the vapor phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime under the carrier gas of H2. The content of coke deposited on catalyst surface was decreased from 1.92% over the B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2 to 1.14% over the platinum promoted B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2 after reaction of six hours. This result indicates that the platinum added on the B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2 catalyst plays an important role in reducing the coke formation on the catalyst surface.

  14. Ceramic composite separators coated with moisturized ZrO(2) nanoparticles for improving the electrochemical performance and thermal stability of lithium ion batteries.

    Kim, Ki Jae; Kwon, Hyuk Kwon; Park, Min-Sik; Yim, Taeeun; Yu, Ji-Sang; Kim, Young-Jun


    We introduce a ceramic composite separator prepared by coating moisturized ZrO2 nanoparticles with a poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-12wt%HFP) copolymer on a polyethylene separator. The effect of moisturized ZrO2 nanoparticles on the morphology and the microstructure of the polymeric coating layer is investigated. A large number of micropores formed around the embedded ZrO2 nanoparticles in the coating layer as a result of the phase inversion caused by the adsorbed moisture. The formation of micropores highly affects the ionic conductivity and electrolyte uptake of the ceramic composite separator and, by extension, the rate discharge properties of lithium ion batteries. In particular, thermal stability of the ceramic composite separators coated with the highly moisturized ZrO2 nanoparticles (a moisture content of 16 000 ppm) is dramatically improved without any degradation in electrochemical performance compared to the performance of pristine polyethylene separators.

  15. Sintering oxide ceramics based on AI2O3 and ZrO2, activated by MgO, TiO2 and SiO2 additives

    Matrenin, S. V.; Zenin, B. S.; Tayukin, R. V.


    The positive effect of the addition of MgO and TiO2 in an amount of no more than 1 wt. % on sintering and physico-mechanical properties of alumina ceramics is established. Addition of 5% of SiO2 to A12O3 provides the mechanism of liquid phase sintering of ceramics, which leads to increase in its density and strength up to 480 MPa. In ceramic system A12O3 - ZrO2 - Y2O3 highest level of physical and mechanical properties of the composition had a hypereutectic composition 16.6% A12O3 - 76% Z1O2 - 7.4% Y2O3. In this composition two mechanisms of hardening are realized simultaneously, such as transformational hardening by t- m - ZrO2 transition and dispersion strengthening with high-modulus particles of α- A12O3.

  16. Diagramas de equilibrio cuaternarios ZrO2-Al2O 3-SiO 2- (CaO, MgO, TiO2. Una poderosa herramienta para el desarrollo de nuevos materiales por sinterización reactiva

    Pena, P.


    Full Text Available In this paper we set out, discuss and evaluate the work on Mullite-zirconia composites obtained by reaction sintering led and inspired by Salvador de Aza on the basis of ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2(CaO, MgO, TiO2 multicomponent phase equilibrium diagrams. We analyze their impact on different areas of ceramic science and technology such as refractory grogs, aluminum industry, etc. The possible fields of future applications such as dental prosthesis replacing partially stabilized zirconia materials with rare earths are also reported.En este articulo se exponen, discuten y evalúan los trabajos que sobre materiales de Mullita-Circona obtenidos por sinterización reactiva dirigió e inspiro Salvador de Aza sobre la base de los diagramas de equilibrio de fase multicomponentes ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2-(CaO, MgO, TiO2. Se analiza su impacto en distintas áreas de la ciencia y tecnología cerámicas tales como chamotas refractarias, industria del aluminio, etc. También se proponen posibles campos de aplicación futura como es el caso de prótesis dentales sustituyendo a los materiales de circona parcialmente estabilizada con tierras raras.

  17. Oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane over vanadium magnesium oxide catalysts supported on nano-structured MgO and ZrO2: effect of oxygen capacity of the catalyst.

    Lee, Howon; Lee, Jong Kwon; Hong, Ung Gi; Song, In Kyu; Yoo, Yeonshick; Cho, Young-Jin; Lee, Jinsuk; Chang, Hosik; Jung, Ji Chul


    Vanadium-magnesium oxide catalysts supported on nano-structured MgO and ZrO2 (Mg3(VO4)2/MgO/ZrO2) were prepared by a wet impregnation method with a variation of Mg:Zr ratio (8:1, 4:1, 2:1, and 1:1). For comparison, Mg3(VO4)2/MgO and Mg3(VO4)2/ZrO2 catalysts were also prepared by a wet impregnation method. The prepared catalysts were applied to the oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane in a continuous flow fixed-bed reactor. Mg3(VO4)2/MgO/ZrO2 (Mg:Zr = 4:1, 2:1, and 1:1) and Mg3(VO4)2/ZrO2 catalysts showed a stable catalytic activity during the whole reaction time, while Mg3(VO4)2/MgO/ZrO2 (8:1) and Mg3(VO4)2/MgO catalysts experienced a severe catalyst deactivation. Deactivation of Mg3(VO4)2/MgO/ZrO2 (8:1) and Mg3(VO4)2/MgO catalysts was due to their low oxygen mobility. Effect of oxygen capacity (the amount of oxygen in the catalyst involved in the reaction) of the supported Mg3(V04)2 catalysts on the catalytic performance in the oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane was investigated. Experimental results revealed that oxygen capacity of the catalyst was closely related to the catalytic activity in the oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane. A large oxygen capacity of the catalyst was favorable for obtaining a high catalytic activity in this reaction. Among the catalysts tested, Mg3(VO4)2/MgO/ZrO2 (4:1) catalyst with the largest oxygen capacity showed the best catalytic performance.

  18. Synergy Effects of the Mixture of Bismuth Molybdate Catalysts with SnO2/ZrO2/MgO in Selective Propene Oxidation and the Connection between Conductivity and Catalytic Activity

    Le, Minh Thang; Do, Van Hung; Truong, Duc Duc


    Bismuth molybdate catalysts have been used for partial oxidation and ammoxidation of light hydrocarbons since the 1950s. In particular, there is the synergy effect (the enhancement of the catalytic activity in the catalysts mixed from different components) in different phases of bismuth molybdate...... catalysts which has been observed and studied since the 1980s; however, despite it being interpreted differently by different research groups, there is still no decisive conclusion on the origin of the synergy effect that has been obtained. The starting idea of this work is to find an answer...... for the question: does the electrical conductivity influence the catalytic activity (which has been previously proposed by some authors). In this work, highly conductive materials (SnO2, ZrO2) and nonconductive materials (MgO) are added to beta bismuth molybdates (beta-Bi2Mo2O9) using mechanical mixing...

  19. Kinetics of nitric oxide and oxygen gases on porous Y-stabilized ZrO2-based sensors.

    Killa, Sajin; Cui, Ling; Murray, Erica P; Mainardi, Daniela S


    Using impedance spectroscopy the electrical response of sensors with various porous Y-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) microstructures was measured for gas concentrations containing 0-100 ppm NO with 10.5%O2 at temperatures ranging from 600-700 °C. The impedance response increased substantially as the sensor porosity increased from 46%-50%. Activation energies calculated based on data from the impedance measurements increased in magnitude (97.4-104.9 kJ/mol for 100 ppm NO) with respect to increasing YSZ porosity. Analysis of the oxygen partial pressure dependence of the sensors suggested that dissociative adsorption was the dominant rate limiting. The PWC/DNP theory level was used to investigate the gas-phase energy barrier of the 2NO+O2 → 2NO2 reaction on a 56-atom YSZ/Au model cluster using Density Functional Theory and Linear Synchronous Transit/Quadratic Synchronous Transit calculations. The reaction path shows oxygen surface reactions that begin with NO association with adsorbed O2 on a Zr surface site, followed by O2 dissociative adsorption, atomic oxygen diffusion, and further NO2 formation. The free energy barrier was calculated to be 181.7 kJ/mol at PWC/DNP. A qualitative comparison with the extrapolated data at 62% ± 2% porosity representing the YSZ model cluster indicates that the calculated barriers are in reasonable agreement with experiments, especially when the RPBE functional is used.

  20. Kinetics of Nitric Oxide and Oxygen Gases on Porous Y-Stabilized ZrO2-Based Sensors

    Erica P. Murray


    Full Text Available Using impedance spectroscopy the electrical response of sensors with various porous Y-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ microstructures was measured for gas concentrations containing 0–100 ppm NO with 10.5%O2 at temperatures ranging from 600–700 °C. The impedance response increased substantially as the sensor porosity increased from 46%–50%. Activation energies calculated based on data from the impedance measurements increased in magnitude (97.4–104.9 kJ/mol for 100 ppm NO with respect to increasing YSZ porosity. Analysis of the oxygen partial pressure dependence of the sensors suggested that dissociative adsorption was the dominant rate limiting. The PWC/DNP theory level was used to investigate the gas-phase energy barrier of the 2NO+O2→2NO2 reaction on a 56-atom YSZ/Au model cluster using Density Functional Theory and Linear Synchronous Transit/Quadratic Synchronous Transit calculations. The reaction path shows oxygen surface reactions that begin with NO association with adsorbed O2 on a Zr surface site, followed by O2 dissociative adsorption, atomic oxygen diffusion, and further NO2 formation. The free energy barrier was calculated to be 181.7 kJ/mol at PWC/DNP. A qualitative comparison with the extrapolated data at 62% ± 2% porosity representing the YSZ model cluster indicates that the calculated barriers are in reasonable agreement with experiments, especially when the RPBE functional is used.

  1. A Gaseous Acrolein Sensor Based on Cataluminescence Using ZrO2 /MgO Composite.%复合ZrO2/MgO催化发光丙烯醛气体传感器

    刘永慧; 曹小安; 陈福高; 张润坤


    设计了基于在纳米ZrO2中掺杂Mg0的催化发光传感器,以快速检测丙烯醛气体.与纯ZrO2相比,MgO的掺杂量为5%时,丙烯醛的催化发光强度增大了1.8倍,干扰气体乙醛的催化发光强度降为原来的约1/7.传感器在波长425 nm,温度279 ℃,流速200 mL/min条件下,对丙烯醛具有高灵敏度和选择性,发光强度与丙烯醛浓度在5-5000 mL/m3 范围内呈线性关系(r= 0.9996),检出限为1.6 ML/m3,响应时间12 s.浓度均为1000 ML/m3 的10种干扰气体通过传感器时,乙醛、甲醇、苯、甲苯和二甲苯的发光强度分别相当于丙烯醛的6.1%,2.9%,2.5%,2.5%和3.0%,其它气体不产生明显信号.本方法可方便、快速测定空气中丙烯醛气体.%A new cataluminescence (CTL) sensor using nanosized ZrO2 doped with MgO was developed to monitor gaseous acrolein promptly. When the mass content of MgO was about 5%, acrolein CTL intensity over ZrO2/MgO was 1. 8 times higher than that of pure ZrO2, moreover, the CTL intensity of acetaldehyde, a main disturbing material was only about one 7th of pure ZrO2. The proposed sensor showed high sensitivity and selectivity to acrolein at optimal conditions of: tempera-ture at 279 °C , wavelength at 425 nm; and gas flow rate at 200 mL/min. Under the optimal condi-tion, the linear range of the CTL sensor versus acrolein concentration was 5 - 5000 mL/m3 , with a detection limit of 1. 65 mL/m3 and response time of 12 s. Among ten tested species under the concen-tration of 1000 mL/m3, the CTL intensity of acetaldehyde, methanol, benzene, toluene, dimethyl-benzene were only 6. 1%, 2. 9%, 2. 5%, 2. 5%, 3. 0% of acrolein, respectively, while no obvious signal was monitored for the others. The sensor can be applied to facilitate rapid detection of acrolein in the air.

  2. Effect of ZrO2 (9mol% Y2O3) coating thickness on the electronic conductivity of Mg-PSZ oxygen sensors

    Changhe Gao; Hailei Zhao; Qingguo Liu; Weijiang Wu; Weihua Qiu


    The ZrO2 (9mol% Y2O3) coating was prepared evenly on the surface of MgO partially stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ) tube (oxygen sensor probe) by dipping the green Mg-PSZ tube in a ZrO2 (9mol% Y2O3) slurry and then co-firing at 1750℃ for 8 h. The double-cell method was employed to measure the electronic conductivity parameter and exam the reproducibility of the coated MgPSZ tube. The experimental results indicate that the good thermal shock resistance of the Mg-PSZ tube can be retained when the coating thickness is not more than 3.4 μm. The ZrO2 (9mol% Y2O3) coating reduces the electronic conductivity parameter remarka -bly, probably due to the lower electronic conductivity of Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 than that of MgO-stabilized ZrO2. Moreover, the ZrO2 (9mol% Y2O3) coating can improve the reproducibility and accuracy of the Mg-PSZ tube significantly in the low oxygen measurement. The smooth surface feature and lower electronic conductivity of the coated Mg-PSZ tube should be responsible for this improvement.

  3. CO2-enhanced dehydrogenation of ethane over sonochemically synthesized Cr/clinoptilolite-ZrO2 nanocatalyst: Effects of ultrasound irradiation and ZrO2 loading on catalytic activity and stability.

    Rahmani, Farhad; Haghighi, Mohammad; Mahboob, Salar


    CO2-enhanced oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane was investigated over sonochemically synthesized Cr/clinoptilolite-ZrO2 nanocatalyst with the aim of assessing the effect of composite support and ultrasonic irradiation on the nanocatalyst reactivity and stability. To this aim, ZrO2 promoted clinoptilolite supports varying in zirconia content (0, 25, 50wt%) were synthesized by hydrothermally precipitation method and impregnated with chromium nitrate under ultrasound irradiation. The samples were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, TEM, ICP, BET, FTIR, TPR-H2 and TPD-NH3 techniques. The characterization results indicated that ultrasound irradiation could not only reduce the formation of Cr2O3 and decrease submicron particle size of chromium oxide to nanometer scale, but also promote the distribution of metallic particles and strengthen the chromium-support interaction. As a result, utilizing ultrasound irradiation in the synthesis of Cr/Clinoptilolite helped to maintain a high and stable catalytic activity. These features were more prominent in the presence of zirconia. It was found that the metal oxide nanoparticles with about 4-8nm are dispersed uniformly on the surface of composite support containing 25wt% ZrO2 (CLT-Z25). Moreover, the addition of ZrO2 resulted in the formation of new strong acid sites and a significant modification in the reducibility of chromium species, which alongside homogenous and small Cr nanoparticles account for the superior catalytic performance of ZrO2 containing samples. However, excessive loading of ZrO2 (50wt%) severely covered the surface of clinoptilolite, afforded the aggregations of metallic particles and thereupon, weakened the contact between clinoptilolite and ZrO2, which together with more acid strength seriously resulted in the deactivation of catalyst. In spite of superior initial activity of ZrO2-rich sample among the catalysts tested, ultrasonic synthesized Cr/CLT-Z25 nanocatalyst showed the best catalytic performance after

  4. Thermo-stimulated evolution of crystalline structure and dopant distribution in Cu-doped Y-stabilized ZrO2 nanopowders

    Korsunska, N.; Polishchuk, Yu; Kladko, V.; Portier, X.; Khomenkova, L.


    This work deals with the effect of Cu doping on thermal stability of the structural properties of Y-stabilized ZrO2 nanopowders and dopants’ spatial distribution. The powders were synthesized by a co-precipitation technique, calcinated at T c  =  500–1100 °C during 2 h and studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy. Calcination at T c  =  500 °C results in the formation of ZrO2 nanocrystals with tetragonal phase predominantly. The shifts of XRD peak positions of Cu-doped powders to larger angles in comparison with those of Cu-free ones testify to the Cu presence inside nanocrystals. The T c increase results in two main processes: (i) the non-monotonic shift of XRD peak positions and (ii) the phase transformation (tetragonal to cubic and both of them to monoclinic). This observation was explained by, at first, Cu atoms incorporation into the nanocrystal volume from the surface complexes (T c  =  500–700 °C) and then their outward diffusion followed by the formation of crystalline CuO (T c  >  700 °C). Phase transformation sets in at T c  =  700 °C, when monoclinic phase appears. Its contribution rises till T c  =  1000 °C. The mechanism of monoclinic phase formation is supposed to be consisted of the out-diffusion of interstitial Cu ions due to their shift from lattice sites. This promotes an appearance of the channels for Y out-diffusion via cation vacancies and results in phase transformation. The sintering process stimulated by CuO formation is proposed to be responsible for appearance of cubic phase at 1000–1100 °C.

  5. Diagramas de equilibrio cuaternarios ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2-(CaO, MgO, TiO2). Una poderosa herramienta para el desarrollo de nuevos materiales por sinterización reactiva

    Moya, J. S.; Bartolomé, J. F.; Peña, P.


    En este articulo se exponen, discuten y evalúan los trabajos que sobre materiales de Mullita-Circona obtenidos por sinterización reactiva dirigió e inspiro Salvador de Aza sobre la base de los diagramas de equilibrio de fase multicomponentes ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2-(CaO, MgO, TiO2). Se analiza su impacto en distintas áreas de la ciencia y tecnología cerámicas tales como chamotas refractarias, industria del aluminio, etc. También se proponen posibles campos de aplicación futura como es el ...

  6. Fast reactor irradiation effects on fracture toughness of Si3N4 in comparison with MgAl2O4 and yttria stabilized ZrO2

    Tada, K.; Watanabe, M.; Tachi, Y.; Kurishita, H.; Nagata, S.; Shikama, T.


    Fracture toughness of silicon nitride (Si3N4), magnesia-alumina spinel (MgAl2O4) and yttria stabilized zirconia (8 mol%Y2O3-ZrO2) was evaluated by the Vickers-indentation technique after the fast reactor irradiation up to 55 dpa (displacement per atom) at about 700 °C in the Joyo. The change of the fracture toughness by the irradiation was correlated with nanostructural evolution by the irradiation, which was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The observed degradation of fracture toughness in Si3N4 is thought to be due to the relatively high density of small-sized of the irradiation induced defects, which should be resulted from a large amount of transmutation gases of hydrogen and helium. Observed improvement of fracture toughness in MgAl2O4 was due to the blocking of crack propagation by the antiphase boundaries. The radiation effects affected the fracture toughness of yttria stabilized zirconia at 55 dpa, suggesting that the generated high density voids would affect the propagation of cracks.

  7. Mgo-Kısmen Stabilize Zirkonya Dental Altyapı Seramiklerin Üretimi Ve Karakterizasyonu

    Yazıcı, Emine Gamze


    Dental uygulamalarda kullanılan üç çeşit zirkonyum içeren seramik sistemi mevcuttur. Bunlar, yitriyum tetragonal zirkonya polikristalleri (3Y-TZP), magnezyum kısmen stabilize zirkonya (Mg-KSZ) ve zirkonya ile toklaştırılmış alümina (ZTA) şeklinde sınıflandırılırlar. MgO diğer kararlılaştırıcı oksitlere göre daha ucuz ve bol bulunuduğu için kısmen stabilize edilmiş ZrO2 esaslı seramiklerde en fazla araştırmaya konu olmuş katkıdır. Bu çalışma üç aşamadan oluşmaktadır. Birinci aşamada monoklinik...

  8. Synthesis and electrical field-assisted sintering behaviour of yttria-stabilized tetragonal ZrO$_2$ nanopowders by polyacrylamide gel method



    The tetragonal ZrO$_2$ nanopowders stabilized with 3 mol% Y$_2$O$_3$ (3YSZ) were synthesized using a polyacrylamide gel method. The mean particle size of the 3YSZ nanopowders was found to decrease with increasing molecular ratio of monomer to the precursor salt. The 3YSZ nanopowders with mean particle size of 12 nm can be densified in 1 h at 800$^{\\circ}$C, by the application of a d.c. electrical field. Under a constant d.c. electrical field, the current density through the specimen of 3YSZ rose rapidly when the temperature increased to a certain value. In the sintering process, the current density was restricted when the sharp increase occurred. By limiting current density to different values for one hour, it was found that current density was the most important factor in electrical field assisted sintering process. The grain size of 3YSZ bulk increased with the enhanced current density. The stable stageof electrical field-assisted sintering process can be explained by Joule heating. Corresponding real temperature of specimens is estimated by applying black body radiation theory.

  9. Impact of Mg2+ ion incorporation on the phase development of ZrO2-type solid solutions and their application in the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Nemec, Vinko; Kaper, Helena; Pétaud, Guillaume; Ivanda, Mile; Štefanić, Goran


    The precursors of ZrO2-MgO system covering the whole concentration range were prepared by co-precipitation of the corresponding nitrate salts. The obtained precursors were calcined in air at different temperatures up to 1000 °C and analyzed at room temperature using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). Maximum solubility of Mg2+ ions (∼32 mol%) was obtained in the amorphous precursor. After crystallization at 600 °C the solid solubility of Mg2+ ions decreases to ∼26 mol% of which ∼22 mol% was incorporated inside ZrO2-type lattice while the remaining part of Mg2+ ions was adsorbed on the surface of the particles. Further thermal treatment decreases solubility of Mg2+ ions to 18 mol% (800 °C) and finally to 9 mol% (1000 °C). On the other side of the concentration range, the solubility of Zr4+ ions in MgO lattice was 10 mol%) polymorphs. A precise determination of unit-cell parameters shows that the increase in the Mg2+ content causes a decrease in the parameter c of tetragonal ZrO2 lattice, which in a solid solution with a Mg2+ content ≥10 mol% becomes very close to the lattice parameter a (approaching cubic lattice). The results of FE-SEM analysis show that the addition of Mg2+ ions promotes sintering of samples. The influence of thermal treatment on the crystallization of the amorphous precursors to ZrO2-type lattice was examined by differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric measurement. The obtained results show that the crystallization temperature increases with increasing Mg content, from 445 °C (0 mol% MgO) to 625 °C (∼50 mol% MgO). The ZrO2 doped with 3 mol% MgO was used as catalyst support for platinum nanoparticles and compared to commercially available 3% yttria-doped stabilized zirconia (3YSZ). The catalysts were used for catalytic CO oxidation and show slightly better performance of the ZrO2-MgO system, which

  10. Dimensional stability and electrochemical behaviour of ZrO2 incorporated electrospun PVdF-HFP based nanocomposite polymer membrane electrolyte for Li-ion capacitors

    Solarajan, Arun Kumar; Murugadoss, Vignesh; Angaiah, Subramania


    Different weight percentages of ZrO2 (0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt%) incorporated electrospun PVDF-HFP nanocomposite polymer membranes (esCPMs) were prepared by electrospinning technique. They were activated by soaking in 1 M LiPF6 containing 1:1 volume ratio of EC : DMC (ethylene carbonate:dimethyl carbonate) to get electrospun nanocomposite polymer membrane electrolytes (esCPMEs). The influence of ZrO2 on the physical, mechanical and electrochemical properties of esCPM was studied in detail. Finally, coin type Li-ion capacitor cell was assembled using LiCo0.2Mn1.8O4 as the cathode, Activated carbon as the anode and the esCPME containing 7 wt% of ZrO2 as the separator, which delivered a discharge capacitance of 182.5 Fg−1 at the current density of 1Ag−1 and retained 92% of its initial discharge capacitance even after 2,000 cycles. It revealed that the electrospun PVdF-HFP/ZrO2 based nanocomposite membrane electrolyte could be used as a good candidate for high performance Li-ion capacitors.

  11. Effects of ZrO2 on the Microstructure of a Mica Glass-ceramic

    秦小梅; 孙祥云; 修稚萌; 左良


    The effects of ZrO2 on the crystallinity of mica and microstructure of a machina- ble glassceramic were studied. It was found that ZrO2 is an effective nucleation agent in mica glass- ceramics. Stabilized by Ca2+, a lot of t--ZrO2 particles precipitate from ZrO2-mica glass-ceramics. The ZrO2 particles can effectively limit [0]the growth of mica crystal and benefit the mechanical properties of glass-ceramics.

  12. Effects of ZrO2 Content on Structure and Performance of Cu/CeO2-ZrO2 Catalysts for Water-Gas Shift Reaction


    Cu/CeO2-ZrO2 catalysts for water-gas shift (WGS) reaction were prepared with co-precipitation method, and the influence of ZrO2 content on the catalytic structure and properties was investigated by the techniques of N2 physical adsorption analysis, XRD and H2-TPR. The results indicate that the BET surface areas of the catalysts are increased in varying degrees due to the presence of ZrO2. With increasing ZrO2 content, the pore size distribution is centered on 1.9 nm. ZrO2can efficiently restrain the growth of Cu crystal particles. The appropriate amount of ZrO2 in the Cu/CeO2 catalysts can help the catalyst keep better copper dispersion in the WGS reaction, which can lead to both higher catalytic activity and better thermal stability. When ZrO2 content is 10% (atom fraction), Cu/CeO2-ZrO2 catalyst reaches a CO conversion rate of 73.7 % at the reaction temperature of 200 ℃.

  13. Formation and Stability of Hollow MgO Nanoshells

    Krishnan, G.; Palasantzas, G.; Kooi, B.J.


    High temperature annealing of gas phase synthesized Mg nanoparticles surrounded by an MgO shell leads to formation of hollow MgO nanoshells due to the evaporation assisted Kirkendall effect. Under electron beam exposure in TEM, the (220) MgO facets reduce their high surface energy by forming cube fa

  14. Mechanochemical synthesis and electrical conductivity of nanocrystalline delta-Bi2O3 stabilized by HfO2 and ZrO2



    Full Text Available A powder mixture of a-Bi2O3 and HfO2, in the molar ratio 2:3, was mechanochemically treated in a planetary ball mill under air, using zirconium oxide vials and balls as the milling medium. After 50 h of milling, the mechanochemical reaction led to the formation of a nanocrystalline a-Bi2O3 phase (fluorite-type solid solution Bi0.87Hf0.59Zr0.63O3.61, with a crystallite size of 20 nm. The mechanochemical reaction started at a very beginning of milling accompanied by an accumulation of ZrO2 arising from the milling tools. The samples prepared after various milling times were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and DSC analysis. The electrical properties of the as-milled and pressed Bi0.87Hf0.59Zr0.63O3.61powder were studied using impedance spectroscopy in the temperature range from 100 to 700 °C under air. The electrical conductivity was determined to be 9.43×10-6 and 0.080 S cm-1 for the temperatures of 300 and 700 °C, respectively.

  15. Improved Tribological Performance of Amorphous Carbon (a-C Coating by ZrO2 Nanoparticles

    Jinzhu Tang


    Full Text Available Nanomaterials, such as Graphene, h-BN nanoparticles and MoS2 nanotubes, have shown their ability in improving the tribological performance of amorphous carbon (a-C coatings. In the current study, the effectiveness of ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZrO2-NPs in lubricating the self-mated nonhydrogenated a-C contacts was investigated in boundary lubrication regime. The results showed that 13% less friction and 50% less wear compared to the base oil were achieved by employing ZrO2-NPs in the base oil in self-mated a-C contacts. Via analyzing the ZrO2-NPs and the worn a-C surface after tests, it was found that the improved lubrication by ZrO2-NPs was based on “polishing effects”, which is a new phenomenon observed between a-C and nanoparticles. Under the “polishing effect”, micro-plateaus with extremely smooth surface and uniform height were produced on the analyzed a-C surface. The resulting topography of the a-C coating is suitable for ZrO2-NPs to act as nano-bearings between rubbing surfaces. Especially, the ZrO2-NPs exhibited excellent mechanical and chemical stability, even under the severe service condition, suggesting that the combination of nonhydrogenated a-C coating with ZrO2-NPs is an effective, long lasting and environment-friendly lubrication solution.

  16. Improving the sonocatalytic performance of good crystallinity ZrO2 nanocomposite through graphene addition

    Kristianto, Y.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.


    In this study, the catalytic performance of the ZrO2 nanoparticles is enhanced by combining ultrasonic radiation with graphene material addition. The structural, morphological and surface properties of sol-gel synthesized ZrO2 nanoparticles with three different annealing temperatures (350°C, 550°C, and 750°C) were investigated using various characterization methods, including X-Ray Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscope measurements and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements. The result show that if the annealing process does not take place, ZrO2 nanoparticles have an amorphous structure. The formation of the crystalline structures of the tetragonal phase of the nanoparticle begins at an annealing temperature of 550°C. The highest sonocatalytic performance of nanoparticles is achieved at an annealing temperature of 550°C. The ZrO2/graphene nanocomposites were produced via co-precipitation methods at all annealing temperatures. The sonocatalytic activities in the presence of ZrO2/graphene nanocomposite indicate an enhancement, compared with ZrO2 nanoparticles. ZrO2 with and without graphene composites shows a level of stability that would allow reuse. A reasonable catalysis mechanism of ZrO2 with and without graphene composites is proposed.

  17. ZrO2-Nanoparticle-Modified Graphite Felt: Bifunctional Effects on Vanadium Flow Batteries.

    Zhou, Haipeng; Shen, Yi; Xi, Jingyu; Qiu, Xinping; Chen, Liquan


    To improve the electrochemical performance of graphite felt (GF) electrodes in vanadium flow batteries (VFBs), we synthesize a series of ZrO2-modified GF (ZrO2/GF) electrodes with varying ZrO2 contents via a facile immersion-precipitation approach. It is found that the uniform immobilization of ZrO2 nanoparticles on the GF not only significantly promotes the accessibility of vanadium electrolyte, but also provides more active sites for the redox reactions, thereby resulting in better electrochemical activity and reversibility toward the VO(2+)/VO2(+) and V(2+)/V(3+) redox reactions as compared with those of GF. In particular, The ZrO2/GF composite with 0.3 wt % ZrO2 displays the best electrochemical performance with voltage and energy efficiencies of 71.9% and 67.4%, respectively, which are much higher than those of 57.3% and 53.8% as obtained from the GF electrode at 200 mA cm(-2). The cycle life tests demonstrate that the ZrO2/GF electrodes exhibit outstanding stability. The ZrO2/GF-based VFB battery shows negligible activity decay after 200 cycles.

  18. Investigation on plasma-sprayed ZrO2 thermal barrier coating on nickel alloy substrate

    卢安贤; 常鹰; 蔡小梅


    The thermal barrier coatings with NiCrAlY alloy bonding layer, NiCrAlY-Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 transition layer and Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 ceramic layer are prepared on nickel alloy substrates using the plasma spray technique. The relationship among the composition, structure and property of the coatings are investiga-ted by means of optical microscope, scanning electronic microscope and the experiments of thermal shock resistance cycling and high temperature oxidation resistance. The results show that the structure design of introdu-cing a transition layer between Ni alloy substrate and ZrO2 ceramic coating guarantees the high quality and properties of the coatings; ZrO2 coatings doped with a little SiO2 possesses better thermal shock resistance and more excellent hot corrosion resistance as compared with ZrO2 coating materials without SiO2 ;the improvement in performance of ZrO2 coating doped with SiO2 is due to forming more dense coating structure by self- closing effects of the flaws and pores in the ZrO2 coatings.

  19. Extremely fine structured cathode for solid oxide fuel cells using Sr-doped LaMnO3 and Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 nano-composite powder synthesized by spray pyrolysis

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Toshiaki; Sumi, Hirofumi; Nomura, Katsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Fujishiro, Yoshinobu


    A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) for high power density operation was developed with a microstructure-controlled cathode using a nano-composite powder of Sr-doped LaMnO3 (LSM) and Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) synthesized by spray pyrolysis. The individual LSM-YSZ nano-composite particles, formed by crystalline and amorphous nano-size LSM and YSZ particles, showed spherical morphology with uniform particle size. The use of this powder for cathode material led to an extremely fine microstructure, in which all the LSM and YSZ grains (approximately 100-200 nm) were highly dispersed and formed their own network structures. This microstructure was due to the two phase electrode structure control using the powder, namely, nano-order level in each particle and micro-order level between particles. An anode-supported SOFC with the LSM-YSZ cathode using humidified H2 as fuel and ambient air as oxidant exhibited high power densities, such as 1.29 W cm-2 under a voltage of 0.75 V and a maximum power density of 2.65 W cm-2 at 800 °C. Also, the SOFC could be stably operated for 250 h with no degradation, even at a high temperature of 800 °C.

  20. Size-dependent shape and tilt transitions in In2O3 nanoislands grown on cubic Y-stabilized ZrO2(001) by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Zhang, Kelvin H L; Bourlange, Anne; Egdell, Russell G; Collins, Stephen P; Bean, Richard J; Robinson, Ian K; Cowley, Roger A


    The growth of In(2)O(3) on cubic Y-stabilized ZrO(2)(001) by molecular beam epitaxy leads to formation of nanoscale islands which may tilt relative to the substrate in order to help accommodate the 1.7% tensile mismatch between the epilayer and the substrate. High-resolution synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction has been used in combination with atomic force microscopy to probe the evolution in island morphology, orientation, and tilt with island size. Very small islands formed at low substrate coverage are highly strained but exhibit no tilt, while intermediate islands are tilted randomly in all directions, giving rise to distinctive doughnut-shaped structure in three-dimensional reciprocal space isosurfaces. The largest islands with lateral sizes on the order of 1 μm tilt away from the four equivalent in-plane directions, giving three-dimensional scattering isosurfaces dominated by structure at the four corners of a square. Spatially resolved reciprocal space mapping using an X-ray beam with dimensions on the order of 1 μm suggests that the four-fold symmetry observed using a larger beam arises from averaging over an ensemble of islands, each with an individual tilt down one direction, rather than from the coexistence of differently tilted domains within a given island.

  1. Effect of Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 coating with tri-model structure on bi-layered thermally grown oxide evolution in nano thermal barrier coating systems at elevated temperatures

    Mohammadreza Daroonparvar; Muhamad Azizi Mat Yajid; Noordin Mohd Yusof; Hamid Reza Bakhsheshi-Rad; Z Valefi; Esah Hamzah


    Bi-layered thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer plays a major role in the spallation of Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) layer form the bond coat in the thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems during oxidation. On the other hand, bi-layered TGO formation and growth in the TBC systems with nanostructured YSZ have not been deeply investigated during cyclic oxidation. Hence, Inconel 738/NiCrAlY/normal YSZ and Inconel 738/NiCrAlY/nano YSZ systems were pre-oxidized at 1000 °C and then subjected to cyclic oxidation at 1150 °C. According to microstructural observations, nanostructured YSZ layer over the bond coat should have less mi-cro-cracks and pinholes, due to the compactness of the nanostructure and the presence of nano zones that resulted in lower O infiltration into the nanothermal barrier coating system, formation of thinner and nearly continuous mono-layered thermally grown oxide on the bond coat during pre-oxidation, lower spinels formation at the Al2O3/YSZ interface and finally, reduction of bi-layered thermally grown oxide thickness during cyclic oxidation. It was found that pre-heat treatment and particularly coating microstructure could influence microstructural evolution (bi-layered TGO thickness) and durability of thermal barrier coating systems during cyclic oxidation.

  2. Fabrication of ZrO2-based nanocomposites for transuranic element-burning inert matrix fuel

    Qusai Mistarihi


    Full Text Available ZrO2-based composites reinforced with 6.5 vol.% of carbon foam, carbon fiber, and graphite were fabricated using spark plasma sintering, and characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. Their thermal properties were also investigated. The microstructures of the reinforced composites showed that carbon fiber fully reacted with ZrO2, whereas carbon foam and graphite did not. The carbothermal reaction of carbon fiber had a negative effect on the thermal properties of the reinforced ZrO2 composites because of the formation of zirconium oxycarbide. Meanwhile, the addition of carbon foam had a positive effect, increasing the thermal conductivity from 2.86 to 3.38 W m−1 K−1 at 1,100°C. These findings suggest that the homogenous distribution and chemical stability of reinforcement material affect the thermal properties of ZrO2-based composites.

  3. Atomic layer deposition of MgO films on yttria-stabilized zirconia microtubes

    Part, Marko, E-mail: [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Department of Materials Science, Riia 142, EE-51014 Tartu (Estonia); Tamm, Aile; Kozlova, Jekaterina; Mändar, Hugo; Tätte, Tanel [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Department of Materials Science, Riia 142, EE-51014 Tartu (Estonia); Kukli, Kaupo [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Department of Materials Science, Riia 142, EE-51014 Tartu (Estonia); University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014, Univ. Helsinki (Finland)


    Deposition of MgO thin film on nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia microtubes was investigated. The microtubes were prepared by self-formation from threads drawn directly from zirconium butoxide [Zr(OBu){sub 4}] precursor and heat treated at 800 °C. The tubes possessed 100% tetragonal phase, their typical outer diameter was 50 μm, inner diameter 30 μm and length 1 cm. MgO films were deposited from β-diketonate-type precursor 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-heptanedionato-3,5-magnesium(II) at 220 °C by atomic layer deposition. Thickness of MgO film on microtubes was 15.8 nm and growth rate 0.105 Å/cycle. - Highlights: • MgO films were deposited on the surface of yttria-stabilized zirconia microtubes. • The studies are carried out on the basis of surface modification of microtubes. • Films were deposited from β-diketonate-type precursor Mg(thd){sub 2}. • The growth temperature of MgO film was 220 °C.

  4. Formation and stability of rocksalt ZnO nanocrystals in MgO

    Eijt, S. W. H.; de Roode, J.; Schut, H.; Kooi, B. J.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.


    Coimplantation of Zn and O ions into a single crystalline MgO and subsequent thermal annealing were applied in the synthesis of ZnO nanocrystals. Electron microscopy showed that rocksalt instead of wurtzite ZnO stabilizes for relatively large nanocrystals up to similar to 15 nm, resulting from its s

  5. Formation and stability of rocksalt ZnO nanocrystals in MgO

    Eijt, S.W.H.; De Roode, J.; Schut, H.; Kooi, B.J.; De Hosson, J.T.M.


    Coimplantation of Zn and O ions into a single crystalline MgO and subsequent thermal annealing were applied in the synthesis of ZnO nanocrystals. Electron microscopy showed that rocksalt instead of wurtzite ZnO stabilizes for relatively large nanocrystals up to ~15 nm, resulting from its small latti

  6. Antiferroelectricity in thin-film ZrO2 from first principles

    Reyes-Lillo, Sebastian E.; Garrity, Kevin F.; Rabe, Karin M.


    Density-functional calculations are performed to investigate the experimentally reported field-induced phase transition in thin-film ZrO2 [J. Müller et al., Nano Lett. 12, 4318 (2012), 10.1021/nl302049k]. We find a small energy difference of ˜1 meV/f.u. between the nonpolar tetragonal and polar orthorhombic structures, characteristic of antiferroelectricity. The requisite first-order transition between the two phases, which atypically for antiferroelectrics have a group-subgroup relation, results from coupling to other zone-boundary modes, as we show with a Landau-Devonshire model. Tetragonal ZrO2 is thus established as a lead-free antiferroelectric with excellent dielectric properties and compatibility with silicon. In addition, we demonstrate that a ferroelectric phase of ZrO2 can be stabilized through epitaxial strain, and suggest an alternative stabilization mechanism through continuous substitution of Zr by Hf.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of ZrO2 Nanoparticles Capped by Trioctylphosphine Oxide(TOPO)

    MA Jianqi


    Monodisperse ZrO2 nanoparticles capped by trioctylphosphine oxide(TOPO)were prepared in non-aqueous solvent using in-situ synthesis method.Transmission electron microscopy(TEM),X-ray diffraction(XRD),X-ray photoelectron spectrometer(XPS),Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),and thermogravimetric analysis(TGA)were adopted to characterize and investigate the size,structure,composition,and the binding manners between organic capping agent TOPO and inorganic ZrO2 nanocores of the as-prepared nanoparticles.In addition,the nanoparticles were also studied to determine their solubility and relative stability.The experimental results show that the prepared nanoparticles contain about 25% organic capping shell TOPO,75% inorganic ZrO2 nanocores,and can be easily dissolved and be stably disersed in nonpolar organic solvents.

  8. Laser cladding of ZrO2-(Ni alloy) composite coating

    Pei, Y.T.; Ouyang, J.H.; Lei, T.C.


    The microstructure of laser-clad 60 vol.% ZrO2 (partially stabilized with 2 mol% Y2O3) plus 40 vol.% Ni alloy composite coating on steel 1045 was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and microhardness tests.

  9. Laser cladding of ZrO2-(Ni alloy) composite coating

    Pei, Y.T.; Ouyang, J.H.; Lei, T.C.


    The microstructure of laser-clad 60 vol.% ZrO2 (partially stabilized with 2 mol% Y2O3) plus 40 vol.% Ni alloy composite coating on steel 1045 was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and microhardness tests. T

  10. Ultraviolet Photoelectric Effect in ZrO2 Single Crystals

    XING Jie; WANG Xu; ZHAO Kun; LI Jie; JIN Kui-Juan; HE Meng; ZHENG Dong-Ning; L(U) Hui-Bin


    Nanosecond photoelectric effect is observed in a ZrO2 single crystal at ambient temperature for the first time.The rise time is 20ns and the full width at half maximum is about 30ns for the photovoltaic pulse when the wafer surface of the ZrO2 single crystal is irradiated by 248nm KrF laser pulses. The experimental results show that ZrO2 single crystals may be a potential candidate in UV photodetectors.

  11. Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Methane over Ni/CeO2-ZrO2-Al2O3

    Mei Dajiang; Chen Yaoqiang; Zhong Junbo; Wei Zhenling; Ma Di; Gong Maochu


    Nickel catalysts supported on CeO2-ZrO2-CeO2, ZrO2-Al2O3 and Al2O3 were prepared and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET areas, H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Through the test of catalytic partial oxidation of methane (CPOM), Ni/CeO2-ZrO2-Al2O3 displayed the highest activity, which resulted from its largest BET area and best NiO dispersion. Furthermore, Ni/CeO2-ZrO2-Al2O3 maintained a long-time stability in CPOM, which was attributed to its best coking resistance among all the prepared catalysts.

  12. Performance of Pd/CeO_2-ZrO_2-Al_2O_3 catalyst for motorcycle

    ZHAO Ming; CHEN Shanhu; ZHANG Xiaoyu; GONG Maochu; CHEN Yaoqiang


    The Pd-only catalysts for motorcycle were prepared by impregnating CeO_2-ZrO_2-Al_2O_3 and CeO_2-ZrO_2+Al_2O_3 with PdCl_2 aque-ous solution and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), oxygen storage capacity (OSC) and H_2-temperature-programmed reduction (H_2-TPR) methods. The XRD result indicated that the CeO_2-ZrO_2-Al_2O_3 compound prepared by co-precipitation formed a single solid solu-tion and had good thermal stability, and Pd phase was not observed in all catalysts. The TPR results showed that the reduction temperature of Pd/CeO_2-ZrO_2-Al_2O_3 catalyst was lower than that of Pd/CeO_2-ZrO_2+Al_2O_3 catalyst whether they were fresh or aged catalysts. The Pd/CeO_2-ZrO_2-Al_2O_3 exhibited high three-way catalytic activity at low temperature, high thermal stability, and wide working window, sug-gesting a great potential for applications.

  13. Performance of Pd/CeO2-ZrO2-Al2O3 catalyst for motorcycle

    ZHAO; Ming; CHEN; Shanhu; ZHANG; Xiaoyu; GONG; Maochu; CHE


    The Pd-only catalysts for motorcycle were prepared by impregnating CeO2-ZrO2-Al2O3 and CeO2-ZrO2+Al2O3 with PdCl2 aque-ous solution and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), oxygen storage capacity (OSC) and H2-temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) methods. The XRD result indicated that the CeO2-ZrO2-Al2O3 compound prepared by co-precipitation formed a single solid solu-tion and had good thermal stability, and Pd phase was not observed in all catalysts. The TPR results showed that the reduction temperature of Pd/CeO2-ZrO2-Al2O3 catalyst was lower than that of Pd/CeO2-ZrO2+Al2O3 catalyst whether they were fresh or aged catalysts. The Pd/CeO2-ZrO2-Al2O3 exhibited high three-way catalytic activity at low temperature, high thermal stability, and wide working window, sug-gesting a great potential for applications.

  14. Effects of a second phase on the tribological properties of Al2O3 and ZrO2 ceramics

    He, Y.J.; Winnubst, A.J.A.; Schipper, D.J.; Burggraaf, A.J.; Verweij, H.


    The tribological properties of four different materials are investigated, tetragonal zirconia (Y-ZTP), Al2O3 dispersed in Y-TZP (ADZ), ZrO2 dispersed in Al2O3 (ZTA) and Al2O3 (with 300 ppm MgO). These materials are used as a cylinder sliding against a plate of Y-TZP (TZ-3Y)). Compared to Y-TZP, the

  15. Catalysis of SO42--ZrO2/TiO2 nanometer solid superacid

    LU Wei-qi; Zhou Yang; Liu Yi-lu


    catalytic activity is 96.5 vol%. When it was re-used in esterification reaction, catalytic activity decreased gradually with re-used times increasing(seen in Table 1). But after catalyst is used repeatedly up to five times, catalytic activity (84.3 vol %)is still higher than that of H2SO4 catalyst.The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that ZrO2 supported in TiO2 belonged tetragonal zirconia phases. Through the calculation of Scherrer formula, the particle size of ZrO2 in the catalyst is about 12.5 nm. After SO42- promoted nanometer ZrO2/TiO2 compound carrier, the diffraction peaks of tetragonal zircoma become broader and the strength weaker. It shows that adding SO4 ions restrains the crystallization of ZrO2, diminishes the size of particles. This might be why SO42--ZrO2/TiO2 has high catalytic activity and stability in acidic catalysis reaction.

  16. ZrO2 and ZrO2-Y2O3 coatings deposited by double pulsed plasma arc


    A novel surface technique has been developed to produce ZrO2 and ZrO2-Y2O3 coatings on the surface of alloys by using double pulsed plasma arc to react with a solution film containing nano-oxide particles. These coatings exhibit smooth surface and excellent adhesion with substrate. The morphologies of the ceramic coatings and phases were analyzed. It was shown that the oxidation resistance of l8-8 stainless steel was markedly improved by applying ZrO2 and ZrO2-Y2O3 coatings.

  17. ZrO2-Containing Refractories for Cement Rotary Kilns

    YE Guotian; XU Yanqing


    ZrO2-containing refractories have been increasingly used for cement rotary kilns. This paper discusses how the properties and performance of ZrO2-containing. Refractories are inwroved in terms of chemical attack resistance, thermal shock resistance, thermal conductivity and mechanical stress.

  18. Protection effect of ZrO2 coating layer on LiCoO2 thin film fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering.

    Noh, Jung-Pil; Jung, Ki-Taek; Jang, Min-Sun; Kwon, Tae-Hoon; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Kim, Ki-Won; Nam, Tae-Hyun


    Bare and ZrO2-coated LiCoO2 thin films were fabricated by direct current magnetron sputtering method on STS304 substrates. Deposited both films have a well-crystallized structure with (003) preferred orientation after annealing at 600 degrees C. The ZrO2-coated LiCoO2 thin film provide significantly improved cycling stability compared to bare LiCoO2 thin film at high cut-off potential (3.0-4.5 V). The improvement in electrochemical stability is attributed to the structural stability by ZrO2 coating layer.

  19. Effect of stabilizer on optical and structural properties of MgO thin films prepared by sol–gel method

    Z Bazhan; F E Ghodsi; J Mazloom


    The effects of monoethanolamine (MEA) and acetylacetone (ACAC) addition as stabilizer on the crystallization behaviour, morphology and optical properties of magnesium oxide were investigated using thermogravimetry (TG/DTG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Visible, photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Stabilizer addition reduces transparency of the films. MgO films prepared at 500 °C showed weak orientation of (200). However, the films prepared by addition of stabilizer are amorphous. MgO powders were prepared for exhibiting the structural properties. The patterns of MgO powders showed a preferred orientation of (200). The addition of stabilizer causes a reduction in grain size. SEM micrographs show that a homogenous and crack-free film can be prepared at 500 °C and addition of stabilizer causes an increase in packing density.

  20. A rationale for the development of thermally stable nanostructured CeO2-ZrO2-containing mixed oxides

    Roberta Di Monte; Jan Ka(s)par; Heather Bradshaw; Colin Norman


    CeO2-ZeO2 solid solutions are extensively used as oxygen storage promoters in the current automotive three-way catalysts. High thermal stability of the textural properties is one of the most important requirements for practical application since temperatures up to 1273 K are easily experienced by these materials under real working conditions. In the present paper, we investigated how hydrothermal treatments applied to cakes of doped and undoped ZrO2-rich CeO2-ZrO2 precursors might improve the thermal stability of the final CeO2-ZrO2 solid solution. A rationale was developed that allowed to correlate the morphology of the hydrothermally treated cake with the thermal stability at 1273 K of the final product, which did not depend on the composition of the mixed oxides.

  1. Effect of CeO2-ZrO2 on Pt/C electrocatalysts for alcohols oxidation

    WANG Qingchun; LIU Zhenpeng; AN Shengli; WANG Ruifen; WANG Yanling; XU Tuo


    The electrocatalytic activity and stability of Pt/C catalyst modified by using CeO2-ZrO2 mixed oxides for the alcohols elec-trochemical oxidation as probes were investigated. The catalyst samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties were measured by a three electrode system on electrochemical work-station (IVIUM). The results showed that the presence of CeO2-ZrO2 might be associated with the presence of Pt, which indicated that possibly there was synergistic effect between CeO2-ZrO2 and Pt nanoparticles. The electrocatalytic activity and stability of Pt-MOx/C (M=Ce, Zr) for methanol and ethanol oxidation was better than that of Pt-CeO2/C, which was attributed to that CeO2-ZrO2 compo-sited oxides enhanced oxygen mobility and promoted oxygen storage capacity (OSC). Furthermore, the best performance was found when the molar ratio of CeO2 to ZrO2 was 2:1 for the oxidation of methanol and ethanol. The forward peak current density of Pt-MOx/C (M=Ce, Zr, Ce:Zr=2:1) towards the methanol electrooxidation was about 3.8 times that of Pt-CeO2/C. Pt-MOx/C (M=Ce, Zr) appeared to be a promising and less expensive methanol oxidation anode catalyst.

  2. Preparation and catalytic properties of ZrO2-Al2O3 composite oxide supported nickel catalysts for methane reforming with carbon dioxide

    HAO Zheng-ping; HU Chun; JIANG Zheng; G. Q. LU


    ZrO2-Al2O3 composite oxides and supported Ni catalysts were prepared , and characterized by N2adsorption/desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ( XPS ) techniques. Thecatalytic performance and carbon deposition was also investigated. This mesoporous composite oxide is shown to bea promising catalyst support. An increase in the catalytic activity and stability of methane and carbon dioxidereforming reaction was resulted from the zirconia addition, especially at 5wt% ZrO2 content. The Ni catalystsupported ZrO2-Al2O3 has a strong resistance to sintering and the carbon deposition in a relatively long-termreaction.

  3. Phase Composition and Thermal Expansion of CaO Stabilised ZrO2 Refactories

    ZHAOShike; WUJingyuan; 等


    In this,phase compsition and thermal expansion behaviour of CaO Stabilised refractories were studied,Special attention was paid to the expasion behaviour of three materials with different phase composition,The research results indicated that the expansion behaviour could be improved by modifying the stabilization of ZrO2,which thus leads to the increase in the thermal shock resistance and possibly eroion resistace of as-obtained CaO stabilised ZrO material.

  4. First-principles investigations on the elastic and thermodynamic properties of cubic ZrO2 under high pressure

    Wei, Ning; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chuanguo; Hou, Songjun; Zeng, Z.


    We have investigated the elastic and thermodynamic properties of ZrO2 under pressure up to 120 Gpa by the plane wave pseudopotential density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) method. The elastic constants of ZrO2 are calculated and meet the generalized stability criteria, suggesting that ZrO2 is mechanically stable within this pressure range. The pressure effects on the elastic properties reveal that the elastic modulus B, shear modulus G and Young's modulus Y increase linearly with the pressure increasing, implying that the resistance to deformation is enhanced. In addition, by analyzing the Poisson's ratio ν and the value of B/G, we notice that ZrO2 is regarded as being a ductile material under high pressure and the ductility can be improved by the pressure increasing. Then, we employ the quasi-harmonic Debye model considering the phononic effects to obtain the thermodynamic properties of ZrO2. Debye temperature ΘD, thermal expansion coefficient α, heat capacity Cp and Grüneisen parameter γ are systematically explored at pressure of 0-80 Gpa and temperature of 0-1000 K. Our results have provided fundamental facts and evidences for further experimental and theoretical researches.

  5. Structural characterization and photocatalytic activity of hollow binary ZrO 2/TiO 2 oxide fibers

    Wu, Baochao; Yuan, Rusheng; Fu, Xianzhi


    The formation of hollow binary ZrO 2/TiO 2 oxide fibers using mixed precursor solutions was achieved by activated carbon fibers templating technique combined with solvothermal process. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis, and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The binary oxide system shows the anatase-type TiO 2 and tetragonal phase of ZrO 2, and the introduction of ZrO 2 notably inhibits the growth of TiO 2 nanocrystallites. Although calcined at 575 °C, all hollow ZrO 2/TiO 2 fibers exhibit higher surface areas (>113 m 2/g) than pure TiO 2 hollow fibers. The Pyridine adsorption on ZrO 2/TiO 2 sample indicates the presence of stronger surface acid sites. Such properties bring about that the binary oxide system possesses higher efficiency and durable activity stability for photodegradation of gaseous ethylene and trichloromethane than P25 TiO 2. In addition, the macroscopic felt form for the resulting materials is more beneficial for practical applications than traditional catalysts forms.

  6. Electrooxidation of ethanol on platinum nanoparticles supported by ZrO2 nanotube matrix as a new highly active electrode

    Ordikhani-Seyedlar, R.; Hosseini, M. G.; Daneshvari-Esfahlan, V.


    Platinum nanoparticles/ZrO2 nanotubes/Zr electrode (Pt-NPs/ZrO2-NTs/Zr) was fabricated by electroplating of platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) on the ZrO2 nanotube arrays. ZrO2-NTs were prepared by anodizing in an electrolyte containing dimethylformamide (DMF), glycerol and ammonium fluoride (NH4F). The morphology and structure of ZrO2-NTs and Pt-NPs/ZrO2-NTs/Zr electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The results indicated that ZrO2-NTs involve individual tubes with the diameter of 50-90 nm. In addition, Pt-NPs were homogeneously deposited on the surface of ZrO2-NTs with the size range of 10-20 nm. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) methods were used to study the electro-catalytic properties of Pt-NPs/ZrO2-NTs/Zr and flat Pt electrodes for ethanol oxidation. Experiments revealed the Pt-NPs/ZrO2-NTs/Zr electrode to have higher electro catalytic activity and better stability for ethanol oxidation when compared to flat Pt electrode.

  7. Properties of the ZrO2MgO/MgZrO3NiCr/NiCr triple-layer thermal barrier coating deposited by the atmospheric plasma spray process / Характеристики трехслойных термобарьерных покрытий ZrO2MgO/ MgZrO3NiCr/ NiCr, нанесенных воздушно-плазменным напылением / Svojstva troslojne termo barijerne prevlake ZrO2MgO/ MgZrO3NiCr/ NiCr deponovane atmosferskim plazma sprej procesom

    Mihailo R. Mrdak


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the examinations of TBC - ZrO2MgO / MgZrO3NiCr / NiCr thermal barrier layers deposited by the plasma spray process at the atmospheric pressure on substrates of Al alloys. In order to obtain the structural and mechanical properties of layers, which will provide a good heat and abrasion protection of the tail elevators of aircraft J-22 when firing '.Lightning' and 'Thunder' rockets, the deposition of three powder types was performed on 0.6 mm thick Al alloy substrates. This study describes a procedure of using triple-layer TBC coatings as a good combination among many available ones, which gives a good compromise between thermal protection and resistance to abrasion for protecting aircraft tail elevators. The study is mainly based on the experimental approach. The evaluation of the mechanical properties of layers was done by the examination of microhardness by method HV0.3 and bond strength on the tensile machine. The structure of layers was examined by the method of light microscopy while the surface of ZrO2MgO ceramic layers was examined by the method of scanning electron microscopy (SEM.The thermal protection of TBC layers and resistance to abrasion were tested in the tunnel of the Military Technical Institute, Zarkovo. The obtained characteristics of the surface layers and the rocket firing simulations have proven the triple-layer system of TBC coatings reliable. / В данной статье представлены результаты испытаний термобарьерных покрытий ТБС ZrO2MgO/MgZrO3NiCr/NiCr, нанесенных воздушно-плазменным напылением при атмосферном давлении на субстраты сплавов Al. Испытания проводились с целью получения структурных и механических характеристик слоев, обеспечивающих ка

  8. Mechanical treatment of TiO2 and ZrO2 oxide mixtures.

    Kraleva, Elka; Spojakina, Alla; Saladino, Maria Luisa; Caponetti, Eugenio; Jiratova, Kveta


    The mixed ZrO2-TiO2 system (5-50 wt% of ZrO2) has been studied to investigate the influence of the mechanical treatment on its physicochemical properties depending on the composition, time of milling (5, 10 and 20 min, r.p.m. 82) and temperature (400, 550 and 700 degrees C). Samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersion X-ray analyzer, High Resolution-Transmission Electron Microscopy and nitrogen adsorption porosimetry. Results show that srilankite (TiZrO4) phase has been produced. No influence of the milling time and temperature on the phase composition is observed. The presence of zirconia increases the thermal stability of anatase phase up to 700 degrees C hindering the anatase rutile phase transformation.

  9. Microwave Sintering of A12O3-ZrO2-WC-Co Cermets

    GU Tianben; LU hongzhi


    Composite powders of nanocrystalline WC-10Co (15wt%), Y2O3 (8mo1%) stabilized nanocrystalline ZrO2 (30wt%), industrial cobalt powder (4.5wt%) and submicron A12O3 (55wt%)composite powders were fabricated by high-energy ball-milling process. The nanocomposite powders were consolidated by microwave sintering process at temperature ranged 1300 ℃-1550 ℃ for 15 min,respectively. The optimum consolidation conditions, such as temperature, were researched during microwave sintering process. Vickers Hardness of the consolidated cermets was measured by using a Vickers indentation test, and density of specimens was also determined by Archimedes' principle.Microwave sintering process could not only increase the density of A12O3-ZrO2-WC-Co cermets and reduce the porosity, but also inhibit abnormal grain growth.

  10. Stabilization and solidification of electric arc furnace dust originating from steel industry by using low grade MgO

    Bayraktar Ahmet Can


    Full Text Available In this study, solidification/stabilization (S/S of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD which is generated during the production of steel from scrap metals and classified as hazardous waste were investigated by using different ratios of cement and low grade MgO (LG MgO as binding agents. Type I PC 42.5 R portland cement and LG MgO which contains 70–80% MgO were used. S/S blocks that contain different ratios of binding agents which have 1/0.5 – 1/1 – 1/2 – 1/3 – 1/4 – 1/5 cement/LG MgO ratio and S/S blocks which contain only cement and no LG MgO agents were prepared. These blocks, which contain 3 different waste ratios according to weight, 20%, 30% and 40% respectively, were produced and exposed to 28-day water purification. At the end of the purification process, S/S blocks were extracted using TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure tests in order to determine the leaching behavior of Zn, Pb, and Cd in S/S blocks. By the end of this study, it was concluded that the recovery of EAFD is possible and applicable by immobilization. The findings of the study concluded that environmental performances or structural properties of blocks contain 30% waste by weight are suitable. This method is a proper one for recovering and treatment of EAFD with mixture of cement and LG MgO.

  11. 含FeO熔渣对ZrO2固体电解质侵蚀性研究%Study on the corrosion of ZrO2 solid electrolyte by molten slag containing FeO

    高运明; 王兵; 王少博; 黄伟超; 麦华毅


    The corrosion characteristics of SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-MgO-FeO molten slag system on ZrO2 material were investigated by using the Equilib Module in FactSage software. An electrolytic cell with controlled oxygen flow was constructed by employing MgO partially stabilized ZrO2 solid electrolyte tube, carbon-saturated molten iron and molten acid slag. The corrosion experiments of the cell were carried out under open-circuit and applied voltage conditions, respectively. The results were analyzed by SEM and EDS, and the formation mechanism of ZrSiO4 phase and the effect on conduction performance of ZrO2 solid electrolyte were discussed when the acid slag was electrolyzed with controlled oxygen flow. The results show that, the corrosion of ZrO2 increases along with the increase of temperature and FeO content in molten acid slag; ZrSiO4 and CaZrO3 can be formed between molten slag and ZrO2 under low and high basicity conditions, respectively. In comparison with the static condition and open-circuit condition, the new phase can be easily formed between the molten acid slag and ZrO2 in applied voltage. And the internal resistance of the cell has increased remarkably and the oxygen ion migration is hindered. However the penetration corrosion of molten slag to ZrO2 solid electrolyte can be reduced or prevented. When the molten slag is electrolyzed with controlled oxygen flow, the initial content of FeO in slag should be below 20% and slag basicity should be between 0. 23 and 0. 80.%采用热力学计算软件FactSage中的Equilib平衡计算模块,模拟研究静态条件下SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-MgO-FeO五元渣系对ZrO2材质的侵蚀特性.利用MgO稳定的ZrO2固体电解质管与碳饱和铁液以及酸性渣构建可控氧流电池,分别进行电池在开路条件与外加电势条件下的侵蚀实验,并通过SEM、EDS分析检测,讨论酸性渣可控氧流电解时ZrSiO4新相的形成机理以及对固体电解质导电性能的影响.结果表明,ZrO2的侵蚀程度随温度

  12. Effects of a second phase on the tribological properties of Al2O3 and ZrO2 ceramics

    Y. J. He; Winnubst, A.J.A.; Schipper, D.J.; Burggraaf, A.J.; Verweij, H.


    The tribological properties of four different materials are investigated, tetragonal zirconia (Y-ZTP), Al2O3 dispersed in Y-TZP (ADZ), ZrO2 dispersed in Al2O3 (ZTA) and Al2O3 (with 300 ppm MgO). These materials are used as a cylinder sliding against a plate of Y-TZP (TZ-3Y)). Compared to Y-TZP, the wear resistance of ADZ composites is increased by a factor of 4¿10. At a contact pressure of 230 MPa, a wear transition for Y-TZP is observed from plastic deformation to microchipping and microfrac...

  13. ZrO2/MoS2 heterojunction photocatalysts for efficient photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    Prabhakar Vattikuti, Surya Veerendra; Byon, Chan; Reddy, Chandragiri Venkata


    We report a simple solution-chemistry approach for the synthesis of ZrO2/MoS2 hybrid photocatalysts, which contain MoS2 as a cocatalyst. The material is usually obtained by a wet chemical method using ZrO(NO3)2 or (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O and C8H6S as precursors. The structural features of obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), highresolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal analysis (TG-DTA), N2 adsorption-desorption, and photoluminescence (PL). The influence on the photocatalytic activity of the MoS2 cocatalyst concentration with ZrO2 nanoparticles was studied. The MZr-2 hybrid sample had the highest photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange (MO), which was 8.45 times higher than that of pristine ZrO2 ascribed to high specific surface area and absorbance efficiency. Recycling experiments revealed that the reusability of the MZr-2 hybrid was due to the low photocorrosive effect and good catalytic stability. PL spectra confirmed the electronic interaction between ZrO2 and MoS2. The photoinduced electrons could be easily transferred from CB of ZrO2 to the MoS2 cocatalyst, which facilitate effective charge separation and enhanced the photocatalytic degradation in the UV region. A photocatalytic mechanism is proposed. It is believed that the ZrO2/MoS2 hybrid structure has promise as a photocatalyst with low cost and high efficiency for photoreactions.

  14. Stability and performance of robust dual-phase (ZrO2)0.89(Y2O3)0.01(Sc2O3)0.10-Al0.02Zn0.98O1.01 oxygen transport membranes 

    Pirou, Stéven; Bermudez, Jose M.; Hendriksen, Peter Vang


    Dual-phase composite oxygen transport membranes consisting of 50 vol% Al0.02Zn0.98O1.01 and 50 vol% (ZrO2)0.89(Y2O3)0.01(Sc2O3)0.10 were successfully developed and tested. The applicability of the membrane in oxy-fuel power plants schemes involving direct exposure to flue gas was evaluated...... (ATR-FTIR), and Raman spectroscopy revealed excellent stability. Additionally, an electrical conductivity measurement over 900 h confirmed that the composite is stable under prolonged exposure to CO2. However, an instability of the dual-phase membrane under oxygen partial pressures below ~10−4 atm....... was found. Oxygen permeation tests on a 1 mm thick self-standing membrane resulted in an oxygen flux of 0.33 mLN min−1 cm−2 at 925 °C in air/N2. Stability tests in CO2 with 3 vol% O2 demonstrated the potential for the use of 10Sc1YSZ-AZO dual-phase membranes in oxy-combustion processes involving direct...

  15. Síntesis química, estudios de caracterización y reactividad de un material catalítico a base de ZrO2-H3PW12O40

    Juan Manuel Hernández Enríquez


    Full Text Available In this work, the preparation and characterization of materials such as zirconium oxide (ZrO2 and phosphotungstic acid promoted zirconium oxide (ZrO2-H3PW12O40 is presented. Physico-chemical characterization results showed that addition of H3PW12O40 acted as both a textural and chemical promoter of zirconium oxide. The incorporation of phosphotungstic acid into the ZrO2 matrix delayed the sintering of the material and stabilized ZrO2 in the tetragonal phase. ZrO2 acidity was also enhanced, developing strong acid sites on its surface. The Pt/ZrO2-H3PW12O40 catalyst was active for n-pentane isomerization at 250 °C, exhibiting high selectivity to iso-pentane (95%. This result is probably due to its suitable acidity.

  16. Fabrication of ZrO2-Ti Composites by Slip Casting Method

    Łada P.


    Full Text Available Slip casting is one of the most popular shaping method in ceramic technology which allows producing a large number of elements in small period of time. This shaping technique gives a possibility to fabricate ceramic or composite materials such as ZrO2-Ti. Ti with its properties (low density, high melting point, high-temperature strength, good corrosion resistance and others combine with ZrO2 (high flexure strength, high compression resistance and very high KIC can be considered for different applications as constructional and functional materials. For the preparation of such composite nanometric zirconium oxide powder stabilized by 3 mol% Y2O3 and micrometric titanium powder were used. Water-based slurries with 35, 40, 45 and 50 vol.% solid phase content were prepared with 3, 10 and 15 vol.% addition of titanium powder. Zeta potential and pH of prepared slurries were considered. The pH changes were tested as a function of Ti content. The viscosity of the prepared slurries was measured. The sedimentation tests for selected slurries were performed. The casting rate for slurry of 35% solid phase with 10 vol.% Ti was examined. These measurements showed good stability of slurries. With the increasing of the solid phase concentration the density of the green bodies increased. However, the increase of the content of Ti powder reduced the density of green body samples. For selected samples the SEM observations was carried out. Composites produced by slip casting were characterized by a homogenous distribution of Ti particles in the ZrO2 matrix.

  17. ZrO2陶瓷纳滤膜的耐酸碱性能%Corrosion Resistance of ZrO2 Nanofiltration Membranes

    姜迁; 朱瓌之; 陈加伟; 漆虹; 徐南平


    A stable ZrO2 polymeric sol was synthesized through a sol-gel method using zirconium n-propoxide as precursor. Diskα-Al2O3 supported mesoporousγ-Al2O3 membrane with an average pore size of 5-6 nm was used as support for nanofiltration membranes deposition. Defect-free ZrO2 nanofiltration membranes superimposed on these supports were fabricated via dip-coating method followed by drying and calcination. The chemical stabilities of supported ZrO2 nanofiltration membranes were detemined by static corrosion tests. Results showed that unsupported ZrO2 membranes calcined at 350℃and 400℃were found to be chemically stable in a pH window of 1-13. Supported ZrO2 nanofiltration membrane calcined at 400℃was found to be chemically stable in a window of pH=2-12. While the membrane calcined at 350℃showed reduced PEG-rentention properties after immersed in pH=12 and 2 solutions. The result can be attributed to the amorphous phase presented in zirconia separation layer as well as the chemical instability of the γ-Al2O3 layer beneath.%以正丙醇锆为前驱体,通过溶胶-凝胶法制备出稳定的ZrO2聚合溶胶,采用浸浆法在平均孔径为5~6 nm的γ-Al2O3中孔膜上制备出ZrO2纳滤膜。利用静态腐蚀方法,考察了ZrO2粉体及ZrO2纳滤膜的耐酸碱腐蚀性能。结果表明:350℃和400℃焙烧的ZrO2粉体在溶液pH=1~13范围内稳定;400℃烧成的ZrO2纳滤膜可在溶液pH=2~12范围内保持稳定。350℃烧成的ZrO2纳滤膜经过pH=12的NaOH溶液和pH=2的HNO3溶液浸泡后,ZrO2纳滤膜的截留性能显著下降,这可能是由于ZrO2分离层的无定型相和载体γ-Al2O3结构不稳定共同作用的结果。

  18. Low-temperature CO oxidation over Cu/Pt co-doped ZrO2 nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion.

    Singhania, Amit; Gupta, Shipra Mital


    Zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticles co-doped with Cu and Pt were applied as catalysts for carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation. These materials were prepared through solution combustion in order to obtain highly active and stable catalytic nanomaterials. This method allows Pt(2+) and Cu(2+) ions to dissolve into the ZrO2 lattice and thus creates oxygen vacancies due to lattice distortion and charge imbalance. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results showed Cu/Pt co-doped ZrO2 nanoparticles with a size of ca. 10 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra confirmed cubic structure and larger oxygen vacancies. The nanoparticles showed excellent activity for CO oxidation. The temperature T50 (the temperature at which 50% of CO are converted) was lowered by 175 °C in comparison to bare ZrO2. Further, they exhibited very high stability for CO reaction (time-on-stream ≈ 70 h). This is due to combined effect of smaller particle size, large oxygen vacancies, high specific surface area and better thermal stability of the Cu/Pt co-doped ZrO2 nanoparticles. The apparent activation energy for CO oxidation is found to be 45.6 kJ·mol(-1). The CO conversion decreases with increase in gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) and initial CO concentration.

  19. Synthesis of Biodiesel Using ZrO2 Polycrystalline Ceramic Foam Catalyst in a Tubular Reactor

    Wang Yunpu; Fan Liangliang; Dai Leilei; Liu Yuhuan; Ruan Roger; Liu Shitao; Zhang Xueqin; Wan Yiqin


    With the help of the ceramic foam research efforts and preparation techniques, the ZrO2 polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst was synthesized, and its characteristics, including the crystal structure, the phase composition, the acid–base properties, and the microstructure, were analyzed by XRD, SEM, Py-IR, and BET techniques. The performance of the ZrO2 polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst in a tubular reactor was investigated via biodiesel synthesis using S. wilsoniana oil and methanol. The effects of reaction conditions (i.e., reaction temperature, reaction pressure, and volume ratio of methanol to S. wilsoniana oil) on transesteriifcation efifciency were investigated, and the reaction conditions were optimized using RSM. The optimum reaction temperature, reaction pressure, and volume ratio of methanol to S. wilsoniana oil were de-termined to be 290℃, 10 MPa, and 4:1, respectively. Under this condition, the FAME content in the product oil reached 98.38%. The performance of the ZrO2 polycrystalline ceramic foam catalyst synthesized in this work for biodiesel synthesis from S. wilsoniana oil with a moisture content of 7.1%and an acid value of 130.697 mg KOH/g was examined, and the FAME content in the product oil was found to be 93%and 97.67%, respectively. The FAME content in the product oil ex-ceeded 97%after ifve consecutive cycles (12 h per cycle of use) of the catalyst. The proposed catalyst represents a new type of solid catalyst with excellent acid resistance, water resistance, esteriifcation efifciency, and catalytic stability.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Core-shell ZrO2/PAAEM/PS Nanoparticles

    Jiang XC


    Full Text Available Abstract This work demonstrates the synthesis of core-shell ZrO2/PAAEM/PS nanoparticles through a combination of sol–gel method and emulsifier-free emulsion polymerizaiton. By this method, the modified nanometer ZrO2cores were prepared by chemical modification at a molecular level of zirconium propoxide with monomer of acetoacetoxyethylmethacrylate (AAEM, and then copolymerized with vinyl monomer to form uniform-size hybrid nanoparticles with diameter of around 250 nm. The morphology, composition, and thermal stability of the core-shell particles were characterized by various techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffractometer (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and thermal-gravimetry analyzer (TGA. The results indicate that the inorganic–organic nanocomposites exhibit good thermal stability with the maximum decomposition temperature of ~447 °C. This approach would be useful for the synthesis of other inorganic–organic nanocomposites with desired functionalities.

  1. 锆溶胶的稳定性及氧化锆粉体的特性研究%Stability of Zirconium Sol and Characteristics of ZrO2 Powder

    李建平; 吴娇洁; 王萍


    T he characteristics of zirconium sol preparation , stability and pow der w ere studied .With zirconium oxychloride and zirconium n-propanol as the precursor ,two kinds of zirconium sol with the positive and negative charges w ere prepared by sol-gel method respectively .T he effect of polyethylene glycol on the stability of tw o kinds of zirconium sol w as characterized ,using measured size of particle , zeta potential ,and TEM .The hydrolysis process of different precursor zirconium sol was verified using FTIR ,and its reaction equation of hydrolysis was deduced .The thermal decomposition process and the structure change of xerogel were analyzed by means of TG-DTA and XRD .The results show :The particle size is reduced ,the distribution is narrower ,colloidal particles are positively charged ,zeta potential was increased to 36 .7 mV ,and the dispersion of sol is favorable after the polyethylene glycol is added to zirconium sol with zirconium oxychloride as the precursor ;The particle size is increased ,the distribution becomes wider ,colloidal particles are negatively charged ,zeta potential is reduced which close to the isoelectric point ,and the sol is reunited after the polyethylene glycol is added to zirconium sol with zirconium n-propanol as the precursor .According to the hydrolysis of sol equation and TG-DTA curve ,zirconium sol with zirconium n-propanol as the precursor has better high temperature stability . Zirconium oxide xerogel with oxygen zirconium chloride as the precursor is tetragonal phase at 400~600℃ ,a small amount of monoclinic phase occurs from 700 ℃ .In the zirconium sol with zirconium n-propanol as the precursor ,the tetragonal phase is stable at 350 ℃ ,and the tetragonal phase is stable at 450~550 ℃ ,a small amount of monoclinic phase occurs from 650 ℃ .%研究了锆溶胶的制备、稳定及粉体的特性.分别以氧氯化锆和正丙醇锆为前驱体,采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了分别带正电和负电的两种氧

  2. Hydrogen production via CO2 reforming of methane over ZrO2-Doped Ni/ZSM-5 nanostructured catalyst prepared by ultrasound assisted sequential impregnation method

    Rahmani, Farhad; Haghighi, Mohammad; Vafaeian, Yaser; Estifaee, Pooya


    In our continuing effort to find the proper catalyst for CO2 reforming of methane, Ni(8%)/ZSM-5-ZrO2 with various zirconium loadings (0-15%) are synthesized via sonochemical method. All samples are characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, EDX, BET, FTIR and TPR-H2 techniques. The XRD results confirm existence of NiO, ZrO2 and ZSM-5 as crystalline phase in catalyst structure. FESEM images reveal small particle size of active metals and low numbers of agglomerations for Ni(8%)/ZrO2(5%)-ZSM-5. BET analysis shows that addition of ZrO2 to Ni/ZSM-5 decreases the surface area but Ni/ZrO2(5%)-ZSM-5 has the highest surface area. TEM analysis demonstrates high dispersion of Ni nano particles over the support. EDX depicts the best active metal dispersion for the catalyst with 5% zirconia loading. The TPR results prove that the metal-support interaction is enhanced by zirconia addition, indicating the better Ni dispersion. Apart from characterization, activity tests are performed and parameters such as effect of temperature, CO and H2 yields and H2/CO ratio are investigated. The results show that Ni(8%)/ZrO2(5%)-ZSM-5 has the best structural properties and the highest activity and stability in comparison with the other catalysts.

  3. Preparation and catalytic performance of ZrO2 - nanographene platelets composites

    Kristianto, Y.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.


    The ZrO2/Nanographene platelets (NGP) composites with different NGP weight percents were successfully synthesized using two-step methods (sol-gel followed by coprecipitation methods). The structural properties of the composites were analyzed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), and Thermalgravimetric Analysis (TGA). The presence of NGP in the composites confirms by the graphitic-like structure in the XRD and layer-like structure in the TEM. Thermal stability of the composites tends to reduce with the incorporation of NGP. The catalytic performances of the composites were evaluated by three catalytic processes. The degradation of methylene blue as a model pollutant by the composites are monitored using UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The result shows that ZrO2 with 10 wt% of NGP exhibits the highest performance for all of three processes. The scavenger experiment shows that hole acts as an active species that play a role in the catalytic process of the composites.

  4. MOCVD of ZrO2 films from $bis(t$-butyl-3-oxo-butanoato)zirconium(IV): some theoretical (thermodynamic) and experimental aspects

    Sukanya Dhar; M S Dharmaprakash; S A Shivashankar


    The equilibrium concentrations of various condensed and gaseous phases were calculated from thermodynamic modeling of MOCVD of ZrO2 films using a -ketoesterate complex of zirconium as precursor. This leads to the construction of the `CVD phase stability diagram’ for the formation of solid phases. In the reactive ambient of oxygen, the calculations predict carbon-free ZrO2 film over a wide range of process conditions. The thermodynamic yields are in reasonable agreement with experimental observations, though the removal of carbon from the MOCVD grown films is not as complete as the thermodynamic calculations predict.

  5. Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration in Low Temperature Ethanol Steam Reforming with Rh/CeO2-ZrO2 Catalysts

    Roh, Hyun-Seog; Platon, Alex; Wang, Yong; King, David L.


    Rh/CeO2-ZrO2 catalysts with various CeO2/ZrO2 ratios have been applied to H2 production from ethanol steam reforming at low temperatures. The catalysts all deactivated with time on stream (TOS) at 350 C. The addition of 0.5% K has a beneficial effect on catalyst stability, while 5% K has a negative effect on catalytic activity. The catalyst could be regenerated considerably even at ambient temperature and could recover its initial activity after regeneration above 200 C with 1% O2. The results are most consistent with catalyst deactivation due to carbonaceous deposition on the catalyst.

  6. Direct Probing of Dispersion Quality of ZrO2 Nanoparticles Coated by Polyelectrolyte at Different Concentrated Suspensions

    Sarraf, Hamid; Qian, Zhenghua; Škarpová, Ludmila; Wang, Bin; Herbig, Reinhard; Maryška, Martin; Bartovska, Lidmila; Havrda, Jiří; Anvari, Bahman


    This study reports useful application of the electrokinetic sonic amplitude (ESA) technique in combination with rheometry and electron microscopy techniques for direct probing the stability of low and high-concentrated zirconia (ZrO2) nanosuspensions in the presence of an alkali-free anionic polyelectrolyte dispersant Dolapix CE64. A comparative study of the electrokinetic characteristics and the rheological behavior of concentrated ZrO2 nanosuspensions has been done. Good agreement was obtained from relationship between the electrokinetic characteristics (zeta potential, ESA signal), viscosity, and its pH dependence for each concentrated ZrO2 nanosuspension with different dispersant concentration in the range of 0.9-1.5 mass%. A nanoscale colloidal hypothesis is proposed to illustrate that the addition of different amounts of dispersant influences on both the stability and the electrokinetic and rheological properties of concentrated ZrO2 nanosuspensions. It is found that an optimum amount of 1.4 mass% dispersant at the inherent pH (>9.2) can be attached fully onto the nanoparticles with sufficient electrosteric dispersion effects, suitable for casting applications. Supplementary scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analyses followed by colorization effect were taken to verify the visible interaction between dispersant and nanoparticles surfaces. SEM and HR-TEM images proved the existence of visible coverage of dispersant on the surface of individual nanoparticles and showed that thin polyelectrolyte layers were physically bound onto the particles' surfaces. This study will be of interest to materials scientists and engineers who are dealing with dispersion technology, nanoparticle surface treatments, functionalization, characterization, and application of bio/nanoparticle suspensions at various concentrations using different types of polymers.

  7. XPS Study on the Stability and Transformation of Hydrate and Carbonate Phases within MgO Systems

    Vanessa Rheinheimer


    Full Text Available MgO cements have great potential for carbon sequestration as they have the ability to carbonate and gain strength over time. The hydration of reactive MgO occurs at a similar rate as ordinary Portland cement (PC and forms brucite (Mg(OH2, magnesium hydroxide, which reacts with CO2 to form a range of hydrated magnesium carbonates (HMCs. However, the formation of HMCs within the MgO–CO2–H2O system depends on many factors, such as the temperature and CO2 concentration, among others, which play an important role in determining the rate and degree of carbonation, the type and stability of the produced HMCs and the associated strength development. It is critical to understand the stability and transformation pathway of HMCs, which are assessed here through the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The effects of the CO2 concentration (in air or 10% CO2, exposure to high temperatures (up to 300 °C and curing period (one or seven days are reported. Observed changes in the binding energy (BE indicate the formation of different components and the transformation of the hydrated carbonates from one form to another, which will influence the final performance of the carbonated blends.

  8. Sliding wear of ZrO2-Al2O3 composite ceramics

    He, Y.J.; Winnubst, A.J.A.; Burggraaf, A.J.; Verweij, H.; Varst, van de P.G.T.; With, de G.


    The friction and wear behaviour of two ZrO2-Al2O3 composite materials, ADZ (20 wt% Al2O3 dispersed in yttria-doped ZrO2 matrix) and ZTA (Al2O3-15 wt% ZrO2), were investigated. Sliding wear tests were carried out on these materials under dry conditions using a ball-on-plate configuration. The effects

  9. Microstructure characteristics of ZrO2 coating produced by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    Sun, Wei; Xiong, Xiang; Li, Xiaobin


    To settle the problem of low growth rate when prepare ZrO2 thermal barrier coating by Metalorganic CVD (MOCVD), a simple method was employed-atmospheric pressure CVD (APCVD). The paper firstly thermodynamic calculated the effect of O/Zr ratio and temperature on phase formation at various H/C ratios for ZrCl4-CO2-H2-Ar system. With temperature increment, the solid phase changes from C+ monoclinic ZrO2 to Monoclinic ZrO2 then to tetragonal ZrO2. With the increase of H/C ratio, the phase zone of C+ monoclinic ZrO2 expands. XRD and Raman spectrum were employed to measure phase structure of ZrO2 coating at different temperature. At 1300 degrees C, the coating contains a small amount tetragonal ZrO2 phase besides monoclinic phase; at 1100 degrees C, the coating is composed of monoclinic ZrO2 phase and a little C. The surface SEM images show the small grains evolve to polycrystals which have clear crystal form when raising temperature. The cross-section images show that dense ZrO2 column crystals arrange normal to the substrate.

  10. Thermodynamic Database for the NdO(1.5)-YO(1.5)-YbO(1.5)-ScO(1.5)-ZrO2 System

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Copland, Evan H.; Kaufman, Larry


    A database for YO(1.5)-NdO(1.5)-YbO(1.5)-ScO(1.5)-ZrO2 for ThermoCalc (ThermoCalc AB, Stockholm, Sweden) has been developed. The basis of this work is the YO(1.5)-ZrO2 assessment by Y. Du, Z. Jin, and P. Huang, 'Thermodynamic Assessment of the ZrO2-YO(1.5) System'. Experimentally only the YO(1.5)-ZrO2 system has been well-studied. All other systems are only approximately known. The major simplification in this work is the treatment of each single cation unit as a component. The pure liquid oxides are taken as reference states and two term lattice stability descriptions are used for each of the components. The limited experimental phase diagrams are reproduced.

  11. [Low-temperature catalytic reduction of NO over Fe-MnOx-CeO2/ZrO2 catalyst].

    Liu, Rong; Yang, Zhi-Qin


    Fe-MnOx-CeO2/ZrO2 catalysts were prepared through impregnation method with nanometer ZrO2 as a carrier and used in selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 at low temperature. Effects of active component ratio and loading of promoter on the catalyst activity were investigated. The catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, SEM, EDS and BET. The effects of temperature, SO2 and H2O on NO conversion were studied and the results showed that in the absence of SO2 and H2O, the catalyst of 8% Fe-10% MnOx-CeO2/ZrO2 had good activity and stability as well as the NOx removal efficiency reached 85.23% at 120 degrees C and 92.0% at 180 degrees C. The presence of SO2 and H2O results in the catalyst deactivated. Properties of the catalyst on different reaction stages were characterized by FT-IR to study the inactivation mechanism of the catalyst. The results showed that the catalyst deactivation was due to the deposition of ammonium sulfate on the catalyst and the sulphation of the catalyst.

  12. Thermodynamic Assessment of the ZrO2-CeO2 and ZrO2-CeO1.5 Binary System


    An optimal set of thermodynamic parameters of the ZrO2-CeO1.5 system has been obtained using phase diagram data by modern CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagrams) technique. The liquid and other solid solution phases were regarded as substitutional solution. The ordered Zr2Ce2O7 phase was treated as a stoichiometric compound. The ZrO2-CeO2 system has been re-optimized with new reference state. A comparison between the ZrO2-CeO2 system and ZrO2-CeO1.5 system has been made through calculation. With the calculation, the experimental information is well reproduced and a good agreement is obtained.

  13. Improving precursor adsorption characteristics in ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with a ZrO2 nanoparticle coating

    Park, Jaeseo; Mun, Jihun; Shin, Jae-Soo; Kim, Jongho; Park, Hee Jung; Kang, Sang-Woo


    Nanoparticles were applied to a crystal surface to increase its precursor adsorption efficiency in an attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometer. Nanoparticles with varying dispersion stabilities were employed and the resulting precursor adsorption characteristics were assessed. The size of the nanoparticles was FTIR spectroscopy. Consequently, when ZrO2 nanoparticle solutions with the best dispersion stabilities (pH 3 and 11) were applied to the adsorption crystal surface, the measurement efficiency of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy improved by ˜200 and 300%, respectively.

  14. Substrate engineering in stabilizing epitaxial MgO(1 1 1) polar ultrathin films: first-principles calculations

    Li, Feifei; Feng, Yexin; Hu, Zhenpeng; Xu, Jing-Jun; Zhang, Lixin


    Growing MgO(1 1 1) polar ultrathin films (PUFs) on heterogeneous substrates is technologically challenging. By using first-principles calculations, we show that while the O-termination of the supported PUF can be perfectly passivated by H adatoms, the compensation of the Mg-termination at the interface is the key to the stabilization. Proper charge transfer across the interface is highly required, which is dominated by the work function difference between the two surfaces that form the interface. Taking Ag(1 1 1) as an example, we propose that a thin Pt buffer layer can increase the work function of the substrate, and improve the PUF quality significantly.

  15. ZrO2—Containing Refractories for Cement Rotary Kilns

    YEGuotian; XUYanqing


    ZrO2-Containing Refractories have been increasingly used for cement rotary kilns,This paper discusses how the properties and performance of ZrO2-Containing Refractories are improved in terms of chemical attack resistance,thermal shock resistance,thermal conductivity and mechanical stress.

  16. Nanostructured Dense ZrO2 Thin Films from Nanoparticles Obtained by Emulsion Precipitation

    Woudenberg, Fiona C.M.; Sager, Wiebke F.C.; Elshof, ten Johan E.; Verweij, Henk


    Nonagglomerated spherical ZrO2 particles of 5–8 nm size were made by emulsion precipitation. Their crystallization and film-forming characteristics were investigated and compared with nanosized ZrO2 powders obtained by sol–gel precipitation. High-temperature X-ray diffraction indicated that the emul

  17. Reinforcement of denture base PMMA with ZrO(2) nanotubes.

    Yu, Wei; Wang, Xixin; Tang, Qingguo; Guo, Mei; Zhao, Jianling


    In the research described, ZrO2 nanotubes were prepared by anodization. The morphologies, crystal structure, etc. were characterised by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). ZrO2 nanotubes were pre-stirred with the denture base PMMA powder by a mechanical blender and mixed with MMA liquid to fabricate reinforced composites. The composites were tested by an electromechanical universal testing machine to study the influences of contents and surface-treatment effect on the reinforcement. The ZrO2 nanoparticles were also investigated for comparative purposes. Results indicated that ZrO2 nanotubes had a better reinforcement effect than ZrO2 nanoparticles, and surface-treatment would lower the reinforcement effect of the ZrO2 nanotubes which itself was significantly different from that of the ZrO2 nanoparticles. The flexural strength of the composite was maximised when 2.0wt% untreated ZrO2 nanotubes were added.

  18. Adhesion of ultrathin ZrO2(111) films on Ni(111) from first principles

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Carter, Emily A.


    We have studied the ZrO2(111)/Ni(111) interface using the ultrasoft pseudopotential formalism within density functional theory. We find that ZrO2(111) adheres relatively strongly at the monolayer level but thicker ceramic films interact weakly with the Ni-substrate. We argue that the cohesion cha...

  19. ZrO2 nanoparticles' effects on split tensile strength of self compacting concrete

    Ali Nazari


    Full Text Available In the present study, split tensile strength of self compacting concrete with different amount of ZrO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. ZrO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to cement paste (Portland cement together with polycarboxylate superplasticizer and split tensile strength of the specimens has been measured. The results indicate that ZrO2 nanoparticles are able to improve split tensile strength of concrete and recover the negative effects of polycarboxylate superplasticizer. ZrO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 4 wt. (% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH2 amount at the early age of hydration. The increased the ZrO2 nanoparticles' content more than 4 wt. (%, causes the reduced the split tensile strength because of unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix.

  20. Pulse Electrodeposition and Nanoindentation Test of ZrO2/Ni Nanocomposite


    ZrO2/Ni nanocomposite was produced via pulse electrodeposition using a nickel sulfmate bath. The effects of main factors including pH value, temperature T, current density Dk and ZrO2 content p on the electrodeposit were dealt with by the Taguchi method. Experimental results show that the current density and ZrO2 content affect the electrodepositing process significantly. Nanocomposite with an average grain size of about 50 nm and ZrO2 content of up to 0.4 wt% was produced under the optimal condition. The Young's modulus of the achieved composite is similar to that of polycrystalline Ni. The microhardness is much higher than that of common pure Ni, primarily due to the ultrafine grains of Ni matrix by the Hall-Petch mechanism. The homogeneous dispersion of stiff ZrO2 particles in the Ni matrix acting as dislocation pinning and microcrack pinning also results in the strengthening effect.

  1. Rapid enhanced photocatalytic degradation of dyes using novel N-doped ZrO2.

    Sudrajat, Hanggara; Babel, Sandhya; Sakai, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Satoshi


    A novel N-doped ZrO2 (N-ZrO2) photocatalyst is synthesized through thermal decomposition of zirconium hydroxide-urea complex and is characterized using various techniques, including XRD, FTIR, TGA, SEM, TEM, UV-DRS, XPS, XANES, and BET. The N-ZrO2 possesses pure monoclinic structure with high crystallinity. By using the proposed facile route of synthesis, both interstitial and substitutional N doping with high dopant stability can be realized. The optical properties of the catalyst are significantly altered after N doping, giving an optical response in the visible and near infrared regions and an additional strong absorption peak in the UVA region. The N-ZrO2 showed a higher photocatalytic activity than pristine ZrO2 for the degradation of amaranth (AM) and methylene blue (MB) under visible or UV light irradiation, which could be attributed to the band gap narrowing, higher specific area, smaller crystalline size, and higher availability of surface hydroxyl groups. Due to its molecular structure and light absorption characteristics, MB is easier to degrade than AM. Overall removal efficiencies, including adsorption and photolysis, for AM and MB by N-ZrO2 at pH 7 with initial dye concentration of 10 mg/L, catalyst concentration of 1 g/L, and visible light irradiation of 144.7 W/m(2) are 67.2 and 96%, respectively. Using UVA light of only 3.5 W/m(2) under identical experimental conditions, complete removal of MB and AM is obtained. The photocatalytically treated solution of either AM or MB is nontoxic against Bacillus cereus, an agriculturally important soil microorganism.

  2. Highly transparent and flexible bio-based polyimide/TiO2 and ZrO2 hybrid films with tunable refractive index, Abbe number, and memory properties

    Huang, Tzu-Tien; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Tateyama, Seiji; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Liou, Guey-Sheng


    The novel bio-based polyimide (4ATA-PI) and the corresponding PI hybrids of TiO2 or ZrO2 with excellent optical properties and thermal stability have been prepared successfully. The highly transparent 4ATA-PI containing carboxylic acid groups in the backbone could provide reaction sites for organic-inorganic bonding to obtain homogeneous hybrid films. These PI hybrid films showed a tunable refractive index (1.60-1.81 for 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 1.60-1.80 for 4ATA-PI/ZrO2), and the 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films revealed a higher optical transparency and Abbe's number than those of the 4ATA-PI/TiO2 system due to a larger band gap of ZrO2. By introducing TiO2 and ZrO2 as the electron acceptor into the 4ATA-PI system, the hybrid materials have a lower LUMO energy level which could facilitate and stabilize the charge transfer complex. Therefore, memory devices derived from these PI hybrid films exhibited tunable memory properties from DRAM, SRAM, to WORM with a different TiO2 or ZrO2 content from 0 wt% to 50 wt% with a high ON/OFF ratio (108). In addition, the different energy levels of TiO2 and ZrO2 revealed specifically unique memory characteristics, implying the potential application of the prepared 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films in highly transparent memory devices.The novel bio-based polyimide (4ATA-PI) and the corresponding PI hybrids of TiO2 or ZrO2 with excellent optical properties and thermal stability have been prepared successfully. The highly transparent 4ATA-PI containing carboxylic acid groups in the backbone could provide reaction sites for organic-inorganic bonding to obtain homogeneous hybrid films. These PI hybrid films showed a tunable refractive index (1.60-1.81 for 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 1.60-1.80 for 4ATA-PI/ZrO2), and the 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films revealed a higher optical transparency and Abbe's number than those of the 4ATA-PI/TiO2 system due to a larger band gap of ZrO2. By introducing TiO2 and ZrO2 as the electron acceptor into the 4ATA-PI system

  3. Reduction of the deposition temperature of high quality EuO films on Yttria Stabilized Zirconia by incorporating an MgO buffer layer

    Moder, Iris [Group of Nanomaterials and Microsystems, Physics Department, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Torre C3-222, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Garcia, Gemma, E-mail: [Group of Nanomaterials and Microsystems, Physics Department, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Torre C3-222, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Santiso, José [Centre d' Investigació en Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, CIN2 (CSIC/ICN), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Miao, Guoxing X. [Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lopeandía, Aitor F. [Group of Nanomaterials and Microsystems, Physics Department, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Torre C3-222, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Rodríguez-Viejo, Javier [Group of Nanomaterials and Microsystems, Physics Department, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Torre C3-222, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); MATGAS Research Centre, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)


    High quality stoichiometric EuO ferromagnetic thin films have been grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on MgO coated-Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) (100) substrates. The proof is made that introducing an MgO buffer layer, that avoid oxygen transfer from YSZ to EuO, allows the preparation of high quality stoichiometric EuO films at reduced deposition temperature compared with films directly deposited onto YSZ, maintaining similar Eu flux and oxygen partial pressure. Structure and texture were characterized by X-ray diffraction showing out-of plane and in-plane ordering for films deposited onto MgO buffer layers. The crystallographic quality was corroborated by a Curie temperature around 69 K and a magnetization moment close or equal to 6.49 · 10{sup −23} J/T (7 μ{sub B}), corresponding to bulk EuO single crystal values. - Highlights: ► EuO films were epitaxially grown on MgO coated Yttria Stabilized Zirconia. ► Deposition temperature was reduced compared to bare Yttria Stabilized Zirconia. ► Epitaxial texture was confirmed by in-plane X-ray diffraction. ► Composition of the heterostructure was defined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. ► Single crystal like EuO magnetic moment and coercive field were measured.

  4. Surface modification of ZrO2 nanoparticles with styrene coupling agent and its effect on the corrosion behaviour of epoxy coating

    Zhao, Xia; Liu, Shuan; Wang, Xiutong; Hou, Baorong


    The surface of ZrO2 nanoparticles was modified by styrene coupling grafting method to improve the dispersion and interaction of the nanoparticles with the epoxy coating in which the modified ZrO2 nanoparticles were used as an additive. The grafting performance and microstructure of the nano-ZrO2/epoxy coating were analyzed by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The corrosion behavior of the nano-ZrO2/epoxy coating on mild steel was evaluated in neutral 3.5 wt% NaCl solution using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Both the coating capacitance and coating resistance fitted by the equivalent circuit from EIS were used to evaluate the protective performance of the coating towards the mild steel. The results show a superior stability and efficient corrosion protection by the modified ZrO2 nanoparticles. The epoxy coating containing 2 wt% modified ZrO2 nanoparticles exhibited the best corrosion performance among all the coating specimens. This research may provide an insight into the protection of mild steel using modified epoxy coatings.

  5. Experimental evidences of charge transition levels in ZrO2 and at the Si: ZrO2 interface by deep level transient spectroscopy

    Kumar, Arvind; Mondal, Sandip; Koteswara Rao, K. S. R.


    The native defects in zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and defects at the ZrO2/Si interface lead to threshold voltage shifts, Fermi level pinning, and various other reliability concerns. It is necessary to recognize the origin of these defects and to quantify them. A large number of theoretical reports deal with oxygen vacancy related defect states in the ZrO2 films; however, the large band gap limits the experimental assessments. In this study, we have deployed Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy to study the deep level defects present in high-κ ZrO2 gate dielectrics and at the Si:ZrO2 interface. The band alignment of the Al/ZrO2/Si stack was derived from Ultraviolet Photo electron Spectroscopy measurement to find the exact locations of trap levels. Five deep levels were observed in the band gap of ZrO2; these are related to different charge states of oxygen vacancies. The activation energies of these trap states are in the range of 1.16-1.84 eV from the ZrO2 conduction band. The capture cross-section of these states was also measured and found to be quite low (10-21 cm2). The small value of capture cross-sections is attributed to tunneling events occurring between the energy levels of the bulk and interface. This study would aid in the understanding of numerous fascinating facts witnessed in ZrO2, such as resistive switching, threshold voltage instabilities, and leakage current problems associated with oxygen vacancy related traps.

  6. Highly transparent and flexible bio-based polyimide/TiO2 and ZrO2 hybrid films with tunable refractive index, Abbe number, and memory properties.

    Huang, Tzu-Tien; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Tateyama, Seiji; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Liou, Guey-Sheng


    The novel bio-based polyimide (4ATA-PI) and the corresponding PI hybrids of TiO2 or ZrO2 with excellent optical properties and thermal stability have been prepared successfully. The highly transparent 4ATA-PI containing carboxylic acid groups in the backbone could provide reaction sites for organic-inorganic bonding to obtain homogeneous hybrid films. These PI hybrid films showed a tunable refractive index (1.60-1.81 for 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 1.60-1.80 for 4ATA-PI/ZrO2), and the 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films revealed a higher optical transparency and Abbe's number than those of the 4ATA-PI/TiO2 system due to a larger band gap of ZrO2. By introducing TiO2 and ZrO2 as the electron acceptor into the 4ATA-PI system, the hybrid materials have a lower LUMO energy level which could facilitate and stabilize the charge transfer complex. Therefore, memory devices derived from these PI hybrid films exhibited tunable memory properties from DRAM, SRAM, to WORM with a different TiO2 or ZrO2 content from 0 wt% to 50 wt% with a high ON/OFF ratio (10(8)). In addition, the different energy levels of TiO2 and ZrO2 revealed specifically unique memory characteristics, implying the potential application of the prepared 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films in highly transparent memory devices.

  7. Synthesis of Al[2]O[3]-ZrO[2] powders from differently concentrated suspensions with a spray drying technique

    Lyamina, Galina Vladimirovna; Ilela, Alfa; Khasanov, Oleg Leonidovich; Petyukevich, Mariya Stanislavovna; Vaytulevich (Vaitulevich), Elena Anatolievna


    The composite powders of aluminium and zirconium oxides containing 10, 50 and 90 mol % Al{3+} without a stabilizer have been obtained from suspensions using a spray drying method. The powders obtained at equal mole ratios of zirconium and aluminum in the original solution (0.5:0.5 mol/l) have the largest contents of cubic and tetragonal phases of ZrO[2], strictly uniform distribution of phases and the largest value of the specific surface area. The particles with two different morphologies ha...

  8. Fabrication and Properties of 3Y-TZP/ZrO2 / Al2O3/MgO Ceramics


    Studies on the sintering, microstructure, mechanical properties and low temperature degradation behavior of yttria stabilized-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) were carried out. The results show that the addition of Al2O3 and MgO improve the sintering at low temperatures, and cause exaggerated grain growth and the transformation of tetragonal-ZrO2 to monoclinic-ZrO2 with corresponding changes in the mechanical properties. The addition of the yttria-free monoclinic zirconia particles change the overall yttria distribution and induce an active transformation toughening mechanism. Furthermore, the dispersed yttria-free ZrO2 can inhibit the tetragonal zirconia transformarion, which is beneficial to the improvement of the low temperature degradation behavior of 3Y-TZP ceramics.

  9. Effect of CuO Doping on the Electrical Behavior of ZrO2

    SABA,Beg; SARITA; POOJA,Varshney


    Electrical conductivity has been measured at different temperatures for ZrO2 doped with various molar ratios of CuO. The conductivity increases due to migration of vacancies, created by doping. The conductivity was found to increase with increase in temperature till 220 ℃ and thereafter decrease due to collapse of the fluorite framework.A second rise in conductivity around 500 ℃ was observed due to phase transition of ZrO2. X-ray powder diffraction, DTA and IR studies were carried out for confirming doping effect and phase transition in ZrO2.

  10. Preparation, characterization and optical properties of ZrO2:Er3+, Yb3+ nanomaterials

    Thu Huong, Tran; Thanh Huong, Nguyen; Thi Kieu Giang, Lam; Anh, Tran Kim; Lojkowski, Witold; Minh, Le Quoc


    Luminescent nanomaterials from lanthanide are one of most promising materials for applications in medical diagnostics. In this paper, we present for the first time the ZrO2 nanomaterials with capsule like nanostructure with the sizes of 150 nm in length and 50 nm in width. These nanocapsule like ZrO2 doped with Er3+, Yb3+ ions were prepared by soft template methods. Morphological characterization of nano - ZrO2:Er3+, Yb3+ was performed by using FESEM, X-ray diffraction, micro Raman. Up conversion luminescence and photoluminescence have been also studied with IR-laser excitation at 940 nm and UV excitation at 365 nm.

  11. Photocatalytic performance of TiO2 catalysts modified by H3PW12O40, ZrO2 and CeO2

    CAI Tiejun; LIAO Yuchao; PENG Zhenshan; LONG Yunfei; WEI Zongyuan; DENG Qian


    The binary composite photo-catalysts CeO2/TiO2, ZrO2/TiO2 and the ternary composite photo-catalysts H3PW12O40-CeO2/TiO2,H2PW12O40-ZrO2/TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel method. The catalysts were characterized by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The photocatalyfic elimination of methanol was used as model reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the composite catalysts under ultraviolet light irradiation. The effects of doped content, activation temperature, time, initial concentration of methanol and gas flow rate on the catalytic activity were investigated. The results showed that after doping a certain amount of CeO2 and ZrO2, crystaniTation process of TiO2 was restrained, particles of catalysts are smaller and more uniform. Doping ZrO2 not only significantly improved the catalytic activity, but also increased thermal stability. Doping H3PW12O40 also enhanced the catalytic activity. The catalytic activities of binary and ternary composite photocatalysts were significantly higher than tin-doped TiO2. The dynamics law of photocatalytic reaction over the binary CeO2/TiO2 and ZrO2/TiO2 catalysts has been studied. The activation energy 15.627 and 15.631 kJ/mol and pre-exponential factors 0.5176 and 0.9899 s-1 over each corresponding catalyst were obtained. This reaction accords to the first order dynamics law.

  12. Thermodynamic Assessment of the Y2o3-yb2o3-zro2 System

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Kaufman, Larry; Zhang, Fan


    Yttria-zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2) is the most widely used of the rare earth oxide-zirconia systems. There are numerous experimental studies of the phase boundaries in this system. In this paper, we assess these data and derive parameters for the solution models in this system. There is current interest in other rare earth oxide-zirconia systems as well as systems with several rare earth oxides and zirconia, which may offer improved properties over the Y2O3-ZrO2 system. For this reason, we also assess the ytterbia-zirconia (Yb2O3-ZrO2) and Y2O3-Yb2O3-ZrO2 system.

  13. Nano ZrO2 Particulate-reinforced Lead-Free Solder Composite

    Jun SHEN; Yongchang LIU; Dongjiang WANG; Houxiu GAO


    A lead-free solder composite was prepared by adding ZrO2 nanopowders in eutectic Sn-Ag alloy. Microstructural features and microhardness properties of those solders with different ZrO2 nanopowder fraction were examined. Results indicate that the addition of ZrO2 nanopowders reduced the size ofβ-Sn grains and restrained the formation of bulk Ag3Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) due to the adsorption effect of the ZrO2 particles. The Vicker's hardness of the obtained lead-free solder composites fits well with the Hall-Petch relationship. The refinement of β-Sn grains favors to improve the microhardness of composite solders.

  14. Thermodynamic investigation of ZrO2-BaO system

    GONG Wei-ping; CHEN Teng-fei; JIN Zhan-peng


    Thermodynamic description of ZrO2-BaO system was developed using the available experimental information. Special attention was paid to the modelling of the perovskite phase BaZrO3 by a temperature-dependent polynomial to fit the experimental thermodynamic properties. The liquid phases, CSS (cubic ZrO2 solid solution) and TSS (tetragonal ZrO2 solid solution) were modelled with Redlich-Kister formula. The compounds Ba2ZrO4 and Ba3Zr2O7 were treated as stoichiometric phases and the BaOSS and MSS (halite BaO and monoclinic ZrO2 solid solutions) were treated as pure compounds. Comparisons between the calculated and the measured phase diagram as well as the thermodynamic quantities indicate that the most reliable experimental information is satisfactorily accounted for by the present thermodynamic calculation.

  15. Structural, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of ZrO2 polymorphs by first-principles calculation

    Liang, Zuozhong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Min; Wu, Fei; Chen, Jian-Feng; Xue, Chunyu; Zhao, Hong


    The structural, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of ZrO2 polymorphs (namely, monoclinic (P21/c), tetragonal (P42/nmc), cubic (Fm 3 bar m), and orthorhombic (Pbca and Pnma)) are investigated systematically by employing DFT functionals (LDA, PBE and PW91). It is found that the structural parameters of ZrO2 polymorphs calculated by PBE and PW91 functionals are highly consistent with previous experiments with low absolute relative error (ARE). Moreover, all considered structures are mechanically stable according to the Born-Huang criterion and the PBE and PW91 functionals are more accurate than the LDA functional in predicting mechanical and thermodynamic properties. Significantly, we described mechanical and thermodynamic properties of ZrO2 polymorphs by introducing the charge density difference of related surfaces, which provides a better understanding of different behaviors of elastic constants (Cij) in various crystal structures of ZrO2.

  16. The charge storage characteristics of ZrO2 nanocrystallite-based charge trap nonvolatile memory

    Tang Zhen-Jie; Li Rong; Yin Jiang


    ZrO2 nanocrystallite-based charge trap flash memory capacitors incorporating a (ZrO2)0.6(SiO2)0.4 pseudobinary high-k oxide film as the charge trapping layer were prepared and investigated.The precipitation reaction in the charge trapping layer,forming ZrO2 nanocrystallites during rapid thermal annealing,was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.It was observed that a ZrO2 nanocrystallite-based memory capacitor after post-annealing at 850 ℃ for 60 s exhibits a maximum memory window of about 6.8 V,good endurance and a low charge loss of ~25% over a period of 10 years (determined by extrapolating the charge loss curve measured experimentally),even at 85 ℃.Such 850 ℃-annealed memory capacitors appear to be candidates for future nonvolatile flash memory device applications.

  17. Influence of crystal structure of nanosized ZrO2 on photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    Basahel, Sulaiman N; Ali, Tarek T; Mokhtar, Mohamed; Narasimharao, Katabathini


    Nanosized ZrO2 powders with near pure monoclinic, tetragonal, and cubic structures synthesized by various methods were used as catalysts for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. The structural and textural properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, UV-vis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N2 adsorption measurements. The performance of synthesized ZrO2 nanoparticles in the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under UV light ...

  18. Influence of crystal structure of nanosized ZrO2 on photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    Basahel, Sulaiman N.; Ali, Tarek T.; Mokhtar, Mohamed; Narasimharao, Katabathini


    Nanosized ZrO2 powders with near pure monoclinic, tetragonal, and cubic structures synthesized by various methods were used as catalysts for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. The structural and textural properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, UV-vis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N2 adsorption measurements. The performance of synthesized ZrO2 nanoparticles in the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under UV light irradiation was evaluated. The photocatalytic activity of the pure monoclinic ZrO2 sample is higher than that of the tetragonal and cubic ZrO2 samples under optimum identical conditions. The characterization results revealed that monoclinic ZrO2 nanoparticles possessed high crystallinity and mesopores with diameter of 100 Å. The higher activity of the monoclinic ZrO2 sample for the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange can be attributed to the combining effects of factors including the presence of small amount of oxygen-deficient zirconium oxide phase, high crystallinity, large pores, and high density of surface hydroxyl groups.

  19. Influence of crystal structure of nanosized ZrO2 on photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange.

    Basahel, Sulaiman N; Ali, Tarek T; Mokhtar, Mohamed; Narasimharao, Katabathini


    Nanosized ZrO2 powders with near pure monoclinic, tetragonal, and cubic structures synthesized by various methods were used as catalysts for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. The structural and textural properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, UV-vis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N2 adsorption measurements. The performance of synthesized ZrO2 nanoparticles in the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under UV light irradiation was evaluated. The photocatalytic activity of the pure monoclinic ZrO2 sample is higher than that of the tetragonal and cubic ZrO2 samples under optimum identical conditions. The characterization results revealed that monoclinic ZrO2 nanoparticles possessed high crystallinity and mesopores with diameter of 100 Å. The higher activity of the monoclinic ZrO2 sample for the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange can be attributed to the combining effects of factors including the presence of small amount of oxygen-deficient zirconium oxide phase, high crystallinity, large pores, and high density of surface hydroxyl groups.

  20. New amperometric glucose biosensor by entrapping glucose oxidase into chitosan/nanoporous ZrO2/multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite film

    WEI Wan-zhi; ZHAI Xiu-rong; ZENG Jin-xiang; GAO Yan-ping; GONG Shu-guo


    A new nanocomposite material for construction of glucose biosensor was prepared. The biosensor was formed by entrapping glucose oxidase(Gox) into chitosan/nanoporous ZrO2/multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite film.In this biosensing thin film.the multiwalled carbon nanotubes can effectively catalyze hydrogen peroxide and nanoporous ZrO2, can enhance the stability of the immobilized enzyme. The resulting biosensor provides a very effective matrix for the immobilization of glucose oxidase and exhibits a wide linear response range from 8 μmol/L to 3 mmol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.994 for the detection of glucose.And the response time and detection limit of the biosensor are determined to be 6 S and 3.5 μmaol/L.respectively. Another attractive characteristic is that the biosensor is inexpensive. stable and reliable.

  1. Influences of Y2O3 dopant content on residual stress,structure, and optical properties of ZrO2 thin films

    Qiling Xiao; Shuying Shao; Jianda Shao; Zhengxiu Fan


    Four kinds of Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) thin films with different Y2O3 contents (from 0 to 12 mol%) are deposited on BK7 glass substrates by electron-beam evaporation method. The effects of different Y2O3 dopant contents on residual stress, structure, and optical properties of ZrO2 thin films are investigated. The results show that residual stress in YSZ thin films varies from tensile to compressive with the increase of Y2O3 molar content. The addition of Y2O3 is beneficial to the crystallization of YSZ thin film and transformation from amorphous to high temperature phase, and the refractive index decreases with the increase of Y2O3 molar content. Moreover, the variations of residual stress and the shifts of refractive index correspond to the evolution of structures induced by the addition of Y2O3.

  2. Influence of hot isostatic pressing on ZrO2-CaO dental ceramics properties.

    Gionea, Alin; Andronescu, Ecaterina; Voicu, Georgeta; Bleotu, Coralia; Surdu, Vasile-Adrian


    Different hot isostatic pressing conditions were used to obtain zirconia ceramics, in order to assess the influence of HIP on phase transformation, compressive strength, Young's modulus and density. First, CaO stabilized zirconia powder was synthesized through sol-gel method, using zirconium propoxide, calcium isopropoxide and 2-metoxiethanol as precursors, then HIP treatment was applied to obtain final dense ceramics. Ceramics were morphologically and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Density measurements, compressive strength and Young's modulus tests were also performed in order to evaluate the effect of HIP treatment. The zirconia powders heat treated at 500°C for 2h showed a pure cubic phase with average particle dimension about 70nm. The samples that were hot isostatic pressed presented a mixture of monoclinic-tetragonal or monoclinic-cubic phases, while for pre-sintered samples, cubic zirconia was the single crystalline form. Final dense ceramics were obtained after HIP treatment, with relative density values higher than 94%. ZrO2-CaO ceramics presented high compressive strength, with values in the range of 500-708.9MPa and elastic behavior with Young's modulus between 1739MPa and 4372MPa. Finally zirconia ceramics were tested for biocompatibility allowing the normal development of MG63 cells in vitro.

  3. Coating SiO2 Support with TiO2 or ZrO2 and Effects on Structure and CO Oxidation Performance of Pt Catalysts

    Mi-Young Kim


    Full Text Available In this work, we studied how TiO2 and ZrO2 coatings enhance the CO oxidation performance of SiO2-supported Pt catalysts under conditions relevant to automotive emissions control. SiO2 was coated with metal oxides TiO2 or ZrO2 by sol-gel method and the subsequent Pt loading was done by incipient wetness method. The prepared catalysts Pt/TiO2-SiO2 and Pt/ZrO2-SiO2 were compared with Pt/SiO2 and Pt/Al2O3 in fresh, sulfated, and hydrothermally aged states. The structure of the catalysts was characterized with BET, XRD, TEM, EDS, EXAFS, XANES, TPD and TPR to help interpret the CO oxidation performance. Higher dispersion, stability, and oxidation state of Pt were achieved on TiO2-SiO2 and ZrO2-SiO2 supports due to stronger metal-support interaction leading to superior CO oxidation performance compared to Pt/SiO2 and Pt/Al2O3. TiO2 and ZrO2 coatings introduced surface acidity but negligible basicity, which is a likely reason for the weak and low adsorption of SO2. The results suggest that the sol-gel coating of SiO2 with metal oxides could be an attractive strategy for designing automotive oxidation catalysts with enhanced performance such as low-temperature activity, sulfur tolerance, and hydrothermal stability.

  4. Hydrothermal Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Properties of Nanoporous MoO3/ZrO2 Mixed Oxide


    A nanoporous MoO3/ZrO2 mixed oxide was hydrothermally synthesized by hydrolyzing zirconium isopropoxide in the presence of a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide(CTAB). The crystal structure and the acidity of the obtained nanoporous MoO3/ZrO2 mixed oxide were determined by means of XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption and NH3-TPD, respectively. The isobutane/butene alkylation over the MoO3/ZrO2 catalyst was carried out in a fixed bed reactor. The results reveal that ZrO2 in MoO3/ZrO2 exists mainly in the tetragonal phase, and the catalyst samples possess large specific surface areas as well as moderate acidity for isobutane/butene alkylation. Compared with samples prepared by impregnation and sol-gel processes, MoO3/ZrO2 mixed oxide samples prepared in this work have a better catalytic activity.

  5. Improvement in ferroelectricity of Hf x Zr1- x O2 thin films using ZrO2 seed layer

    Onaya, Takashi; Nabatame, Toshihide; Sawamoto, Naomi; Ohi, Akihiko; Ikeda, Naoki; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Ogura, Atsushi


    The effect of crystallized ZrO2 (ZrO2-seed), amorphous Hf0.43Zr0.57O2 (HZO; HZO-seed), and amorphous Al2O3 (Al2O3-seed) seed layers on the ferroelectricity of HZO films was investigated. The remanent polarization (2P\\text{r} = P\\text{r} + - P\\text{r} - ) of a TiN-electroded capacitor with a ZrO2-seed layer was much larger than that of capacitors with a HZO-seed, Al2O3-seed, or no seed layer. Furthermore, the maximum 2P r was exhibited when the thickness of the ZrO2-seed layer was 2 nm. Large grain growth was observed, which satisfied the same lattice pattern between ZrO2 and HZO films, and indicates that the ZrO2 seed layer plays an important role in the nucleation of the HZO film.

  6. The origin of magnetism in transition metal-doped ZrO2 thin films: Experiment and theory

    Hong, Nguyenhoa


    We have investigated the magnetic properties of Fe/Co/Ni-doped ZrO 2 laser ablated thin films in comparison with the known results of Mn-doped ZrO2, which is thought to be a promising material for spintronics applications. It is found that doping with a transition metal can induce room temperature ferromagnetism in \\'fake\\' diamond. Theoretical analysis based on density functional theory confirms the experimental measurements, by revealing that the magnetic moments of Mn- and Ni-doped ZrO2 thin films are much larger than that of Fe- or Co-doped ZrO2 thin films. Most importantly, our calculations confirm that Mn- and Ni-doped ZrO2 show a ferromagnetic ground state in comparison to Co- and Fe-doped ZrO 2, which favor an antiferromagnetic ground state. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Bioactivity and cytocompatibility of zirconia (ZrO(2)) films fabricated by cathodic arc deposition.

    Liu, Xuanyong; Huang, Anping; Ding, Chuanxian; Chu, Paul K


    Zirconium oxide thin films were fabricated on silicon wafers using a filtered cathodic arc system in concert with oxygen plasma. The structure and phase composition of the zirconium oxide thin films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The bioactivity was assessed by investigating the formation of apatite on the film surface after soaking in simulated body fluids. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC) were used to further evaluate the cytocompatibility of the materials. The results indicate that the films are composed of stoichiometric ZrO(2) and the composition is quite uniform throughout the thickness. Bone-like apatite can be formed on the surface of the ZrO(2) thin film in our SBF immersion experiments, suggesting that the surface is bioactive. The outermost layer of the ZrO(2) thin film comprises nano-sized particles that can be identified by AFM images taken on the thin film surface and TEM micrographs obtained from the interface between the ZrO(2) thin film and apatite layer. The nanostructured surface is believed to be the key factor that apatite is induced to precipitate on the surface. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are observed to grow and proliferate in good states on the film surface. Our results show that ZrO(2) thin films fabricated by cathodic arc deposition exhibit favorable bioactivity and cytocompatibility.

  8. ZrO(2)/hydroxyapatite coating on titanium by electrolytic deposition.

    Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Wu, Shih-Ching; Yang, Chih-Hsiung; Ho, Wen-Fu


    In this study, hydroxyapatite (HA) was coated on a titanium (Ti) substrate over a ZrO(2) layer by the electrolytic deposition method, this double layer coating was then compared with a single layer coating of HA. The HA layer was used to increase the bioactivity and osteoconductivity of the Ti substrate, and the ZrO(2) layer was intended to improve the bonding strength between the HA layer and Ti substrate, and to prevent the corrosion of the Ti substrate. The electrolytic deposition formed an HA layer with a thicknesses of approximately 20 mum, which adhered tightly to the Ti substrate. The bonding strength of the HA/ZrO(2) double layer coating on Ti was markedly improved when compared to that of the HA single coating on Ti. The improvement in bonding strength with the use of a ZrO(2) base layer was attributed to the resulting increase in chemical affinity of the ZrO(2) to the HA layer and to the Ti substrate. The osteoblast-like cells cultured on the HA/ZrO(2) coating surface, proliferated in a similar manner to those on the HA single coating and on the pure Ti surfaces. At the same time, the corrosion resistance of Ti was improved by the presence of the ZrO(2) coating, as shown by a potentiodynamic polarization test.

  9. Mesoporous carbon stabilized MgO nanoparticles synthesized by pyrolysis of MgCl2 preloaded waste biomass for highly efficient CO2 capture.

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Jiang, Hong; Tian, Ke; Ding, Yan-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing


    Anthropogenic CO2 emission makes significant contribution to global climate change and CO2 capture and storage is a currently a preferred technology to change the trajectory toward irreversible global warming. In this work, we reported a new strategy that the inexhaustible MgCl2 in seawater and the abundantly available biomass waste can be utilized to prepare mesoporous carbon stabilized MgO nanoparticles (mPC-MgO) for CO2 capture. The mPC-MgO showed excellent performance in the CO2 capture process with the maximum capacity of 5.45 mol kg(-1), much higher than many other MgO based CO2 trappers. The CO2 capture capacity of the mPC-MgO material kept almost unchanged in 19-run cyclic reuse, and can be regenerated at low temperature. The mechanism for the CO2 capture by the mPC-MgO was investigated by FTIR and XPS, and the results indicated that the high CO2 capture capacity and the favorable selectivity of the as-prepared materials were mainly attributed to their special structure (i.e., surface area, functional groups, and the MgO NPs). This work would open up a new pathway to slow down global warming as well as resolve the pollution of waste biomass.

  10. Study of Pt-Rh/CeO2-ZrO2-MxOy (M = Y, La)/Al2O3 three-way catalysts

    Jiaxiu, Guo; Zhonghua, Shi; Dongdong, Wu; Huaqiang, Yin; Maochu, Gong; Yaoqiang, Chen


    CeO2-ZrO2-MxOy (M = Y; La) mixed oxides, prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra (RM) and oxygen pulse reaction, were comparatively investigated to elucidate the combinational effects of Y and/or La oxide promoters on the catalytic activity and anti-aging performance of monolithic cordierite honeycomb catalysts with low Pt and Rh content. The catalytic activities, water-gas shift (WGS) and steam reforming reaction (SR) were studied under a simulated gas mixture. The catalysts were also characterized by H2-temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and O2-temperature-programmed desorption (O2-TPD). The results showed that the prepared CeO2-ZrO2-MxOy oxides have a face-centered cubic fluorite structure and are nanosize. La3+ ions can significantly improve thermal stability and efficiently retard CeO2-ZrO2 crystal sintering and growth. Doped CeO2-ZrO2 with Y3+ and La3+ has 105 and 60 m2/g surface area and 460 and 390 μmol/g OSC before and after aging. The T50 of fresh Pt-Rh/CZYL/LA is 170 °C for CO, 222 °C for C3H8 and 189 °C for NO, and shift to 205, 262 and 228 °C after hydrothermal aging, which are better than those of Pt-Rh/CZY/LA or Pt-Rh/CZL/LA. WGS and SR are relate to the OSC of oxygen storage materials and absorbed oxygen species on the catalyst surface and affect the three-way catalytic activities of catalysts. The reductive property of noble metals and the dissociatively adsorbed O2 on the surface of catalysts are closely related to the catalytic activities.

  11. Influence of Different Subsistence States of CeO2-ZrO2 Mixed Oxides in Catalyst Coating on Catalytic Properties


    The metallic substrate-catalysts with different subsistence states of CeO2-ZrO2 mixed oxides were prepared and the catalytic properties were investigated. The studies on CeO2-ZrO2-V2O5-CuO mixed oxides which were prepared by coprecipitation, show that the doping of V5+ and Cu2+ in CeO2-ZrO2 mixed oxides can enhance the catalytic activity and thermal stability of coating materials. Moreover, different additives were doped in slurries of γ-Al2O3 to investigate the influence of additives on oxidation activity of catalysts. The mixture of ceria-zirconia, alkali metals and other rare earths acting as additives exhibits promotion effect on oxidation activity by optimizing the distribution of oxygen on the surface and in the bulk of ceria species. This mentioned mixture was mixed with γ-Al2O3 and a newly proposed active component to prepare a new catalyst. Afterward, the influence of thermal treatment on the new catalyst were investigated by calcinations at 500, 650, 750, 800, 850 and 900 ℃ for 2 h. The light-off curves of CO and HC show that after being treated at 650~750 ℃, catalysts present the best activity. XRD patterns show that ceria and zirconia species in the newly proposed active component form a phase of extra CeO2-ZrO2 mixed oxides on the surface of catalysts after the thermal treatment at 750 ℃, which has practical value for improving the preparation process and promoting the catalytic properties. Moreover, XPS results imply the existence of Ce1-xPdxO2-σ and Ce1-xPtxO2-σ on the surface of these treated samples, which may show influence on the catalytic activities.

  12. Preparation and photoluminescence properties of Sm3+-doped ZrO2 nanotube arrays

    Fu, Ning; Wang, Xixin; Ma, Yuanhui; Wang, Mingli; Li, Jiaxin; Zhao, Jianling


    Zr-Sm (3 at.% Sm) alloy was prepared through a powder metallurgical method. Sm3+-doped ZrO2 nanotube arrays have been achieved directly by anodizing the Zr-Sm alloy. The effects of electrolyte and annealing temperature on the morphologies and structures of the nanotube arrays were studied. The photoluminescence properties of Sm3+-doped ZrO2 nanotube arrays prepared in aqueous solution and formamide  +  glycerol solution were studied in detail as well. Results show that tetragonal ZrO2 promoted the photoluminescence efficiency of this system. Under excitation at 407 nm, the sample prepared in aqueous solution annealed at 600 °C displayed the strongest emission peak at 571 nm, corresponding to the 4G5/2  →  6H5/2 samarium transition.

  13. Structural and Luminescence Properties of Transparent Nanocrystalline ZrO2:Er3+ Films

    ZHANG Qin-Yuan; YANG Gang-Feng; JIANG Zhong-Hong; W. X. Que


    @@ The structural and luminescence properties of nanocrystalline ZrO2 :Er3+ films are reported. Transparent nanoZrO2 crystalline films doped with Er3+ have been prepared using a wet chemistry process. An intense roomtemperature emission at 1527nm with a full width at half-maximum of 46 nm has been observed, which is assigned to the 4 I13/2 → 4 I15/2 intra-4 fn electric transition of Er3+. Correlations between the luminescence properties and structures of the nanocrystalline ZrO2 :Er3+ films have been investigated. Infrared-to-visible upconversion occurs simultaneously upon excitation of a commercially available 980-nm laser diode and the involved mechanisms have also been explained. The results indicate that the nanocrystalline ZrO2:Er3+ films might be suggested as promising materials for achieving broadband Er3+-doped waveguide amplifiers and upconversion waveguide lasers.

  14. Chemical synthesis of nanocrystalline ZrO2-SnO2 composite powders

    YANG Huaming; ZHANG Xiangchao; YANG Wuguo; HUANG Chenghuan; QIU Guanzhou


    ZrO2-SnO2 composite nanoparticles were prepared by heating the hydrate precursors synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation reaction of ZrOCl2 and SnCl4. The precursors were examined by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The composite powder was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and desorption isotherm (Barrett-Joyner-Halenda method). The average crystal size of the nanoparticle ranges from 15 to 30 nm for the sample containing 5%-25% ZrO2 (mass fraction). Most of the pores in the ZrO2-SnO2 nanoparticles are about 10-20 nm in diameter. The composite powder is promising for chemical sensors.

  15. Properties of the ZrO2MgO/MgZrO3NiCr/NiCr triple-layer thermal barrier coating deposited by the atmospheric plasma spray process

    Mihailo R. Mrdak


    This paper presents the results of the examinations of TBC - ZrO2MgO / MgZrO3NiCr / NiCr thermal barrier layers deposited by the plasma spray process at the atmospheric pressure on substrates of Al alloys. In order to obtain the structural and mechanical properties of layers, which will provide a good heat and abrasion protection of the tail elevators of aircraft J-22 when firing '.Lightning' and 'Thunder' rockets, the deposition of three powder types was performed on 0.6 mm thick Al alloy su...

  16. ZrO2 as a high- dielectric for strained SiGe MOS devices

    R Mahapatra; G S Kar; C B Samantaray; A Dhar; D Bhattacharya; S K Ray


    The potential of ZrO2 thin film as a high- gate dielectric for scaled MOSFET devices has been studied. ZrO2 has been deposited directly on a Si0.8Ge0.2 substrate by reactive RF magnetron sputtering. An equivalent oxide thickness of < 20 Å with a leakage current of the order of 10–4 A/cm2 at 1 V has been obtained. Well-behaved capacitance–voltage characteristics with an interface state density of 2 × 1011 cm–2eV–1 have been achieved. The deposited dielectric exhibits low charge trapping under constant current stressing.

  17. Ultrasound-assisted sol-gel synthesis of ZrO2.

    Guel, Marlene Lariza Andrade; Jiménez, Lourdes Díaz; Hernández, Dora Alicia Cortés


    Synthesis of tetragonal ZrO2 by both conventional sol-gel and ultrasound-assisted sol-gel methods and using a non-ionic surfactant Tween-20, was performed. A porous microstructure composed of nanometric particles was observed. Tetragonal ZrO2 was obtained using a low heat treatment temperature of powders, 500°C by both methods. A higher crystallinity and a shorter reaction time were observed when ultrasound was used in the sol-gel method due to the cavitation phenomenon.

  18. Thermodynamic Modeling of the YO(l.5)-ZrO2 System

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Kaufman, Larry; Zhang, Fan


    The YO1.5-ZrO2 system consists of five solid solutions, one liquid solution, and one intermediate compound. A thermodynamic description of this system is developed, which allows calculation of the phase diagram and thermodynamic properties. Two different solution models are used-a neutral species model with YO1.5 and ZrO2 as the components and a charged species model with Y(+3), Zr(+4), O(-2), and vacancies as components. For each model, regular and sub-regular solution parameters are derived fiom selected equilibrium phase and thermodynamic data.

  19. About properties of ZrO2 thermal protective coatings obtained from spherical powder mixtures

    Berdnik, O. B.; Tsareva, I. N.; Tarasenko, Yu P.


    It is developed the technology of high-energy plasma spraying of the zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) thermal protective coating on the basis of ZrO2 tetragonal and cubic phases with the spheroidal grain shape and the columnar substructure, with the total porosity P = 4 %, the hardness HV = 12 GPa, the roughness parameter R a ˜ 6 μm, the thickness 0.3-3 mm. As a sublayer it is used the heat-resistant coating of “Ni-Co-Cr-Al-Y” system with an intermetallic phase composition and the layered microstructure of the grains.

  20. On the orthorhombic phase in ZrO2-based alloys

    Heuer, A. H.; Lanteri, V.; Chaim, R.; Lee, R.-R.; Farmer, S. C.


    During TEM observation, a tetragonal (t) to orthorhombic (o) phase transformation often occurs in thin portions of ZrO2-containing foils. This transformation is stress-induced and in some senses artifactual, in that the reaction product is actually a high-pressure phase, relative to monoclinic (m) ZrO2, that can form from metastable t-ZrO2 in the TEM because its density is intermediate between t- and m-ZrO2. Examples of the formation of o-ZrO2 in a number of different systems are given.

  1. Research of silane film cooperation with ZrO2 on electrogalvanized steel

    Shuanghong WANG; Changsheng LIU; Haiyun YU


    The silane composite film formed on electrogalvanized steel sheet by silane film with ZrO2 improve the corrosion resistance.The surface morphology,the structure and composition as well as the corrosion resistance of the prepared silane composite film were investigated by SEM,AFM,XPS and electrochemical test.The experimental results showed that the structure of the silane composite film was composed of Si-O-Si three-dimensional network doped with ZrO2 showing excellent corrosion resistance,because the structure of this kind of composite film has much less micropore which improves the uniform and density of the silane film.

  2. Thermodynamic Modeling of the YO(l.5)-ZrO2 System

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Kaufman, Larry; Zhang, Fan


    The YO1.5-ZrO2 system consists of five solid solutions, one liquid solution, and one intermediate compound. A thermodynamic description of this system is developed, which allows calculation of the phase diagram and thermodynamic properties. Two different solution models are used-a neutral species model with YO1.5 and ZrO2 as the components and a charged species model with Y(+3), Zr(+4), O(-2), and vacancies as components. For each model, regular and sub-regular solution parameters are derived fiom selected equilibrium phase and thermodynamic data.

  3. Low temperature complete combustion of dilute propane over Mn-doped ZrO2 (cubic) catalysts

    Vasant R Choudhary; Subhabrata Banerjee; Suryakant G Pataskar


    Combustion of dilute propane (0.9 mol %) over Mn-doped ZrO2 catalysts prepared using different precipitating agents (viz. TMAOH, TEAOH, TPAOH, TBAOH and NH4OH), having different Mn/Zr ratios (0.05 - 0.67) and calcined at different temperatures (500-800°C), has been thoroughly investigated at different temperatures (300-500°C) and space velocities (25,000-100,000 cm3 g-1 h-1) for controlling propane emissions from LPG-fuelled vehicles. Mn-doped ZrO2 catalyst shows high propane combustion activity, particularly when its ZrO2 is in the cubic form, when its Mn/Zr ratio is close to 0.2 and when it is prepared using TMAOH as a precipitating agent and calcined at 500-600°C. Pulse reaction of propane in the absence of free-O2 over Mn-doped ZrO2 (cubic) and Mn-impregnated ZrO2 (monoclinic) catalysts has also been investigated for studying the relative reactivity and mobility of the lattice oxygen of the two catalysts. Both reactivity and mobility of the lattice oxygen of Mn-doped ZrO2 are found to be much higher than that of Mnimpregnated ZrO2. Propane combustion over Mn-doped ZrO2 catalyst involves a redox mechanism.

  4. One-step preparation of hydrogenated ZrO2 microspheres by cathode plasma electrolysis

    Liu, Chenxu; Xiang, Qingyun; Yang, Mu; Wang, Shengdian; Wang, Linxiu; Zhang, Jin; He, Yedong


    Hydrogenated ZrO2 microspheres were directly prepared by cathode plasma electrolysis (CPE) in an aqueous solution of Zr(NO3)4•5H2O. Owing to the energy of plasma and the cathodic hydrogen evolution reactions, the CPE method combined the preparation of ZrO2 ceramic and the hydrogen treatment into only one step. The results showed regular microspheres consisting of tetragonal-ZrO2 and monoclinic-ZrO2 with 1-10 µm in diameter were formed at relatively high concentration of Zr(NO3)3•5H2O. These ZrO2 microspheres contained about 52.54 µg g-1 hydrogen which caused a narrow band gap (3.10 eV). Thus, the microspheres showed good photocatalytic activity under simulated sunlight, and the degradation of RhB dye reached nearly 58% for 3 h of irradiation, much better than the ZrO2 microspheres after dehydrogenation treatment.

  5. A novel method for making ZrO 2 nanofibres via an electrospinning technique

    Shao, Changlu; Guan, Hongyu; Liu, Yichun; Gong, Jian; Yu, Na; Yang, Xinghua


    Thin PVA/zirconium oxychloride composite fibres were prepared by using sol-gel processing and electrospinning technique. After calcinations of the above precursor fibres, ZrO 2 nanofibres with a diameter of 50-200 nm could be successfully obtained. The fibres were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, XRD, respectively.

  6. Structure and stability of laser deposited ZrO{sub 2}/Ti and ZrO{sub 2}/MgO multilayers

    Hoffmann, Sarah; Ernst, Benedikt; Liese, Tobias; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich [Institut fuer Materialphysik, University of Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)


    ZrO{sub 2}/Ti and ZrO{sub 2}/MgO thin multilayer systems have important applications in X-ray optics, especially in the 'water window' regime (wavelength: 2.3-4.4 nm) as X-ray mirrors and multilayer Laue lenses. For this purpose the knowledge of the thermal stability of these multilayer systems is necessary. Thus, in this contribution the structure and stability of ZrO{sub 2}/Ti and ZrO{sub 2}/MgO multilayers is presented. The films were prepared on Si substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in ultra high vacuum. During heating the phase transformations of the components were studied using in-situ X-ray reflectometry (XRR) and in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, the changes in the structure were observed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The observed results are discussed with respect to the processes occuring during annealing of the multilayers (structural changes, crystallization of the amorphous oxides, changes in the oxygen content of the layers..).

  7. Effects of load mode on mechanical properties of ZrO2(2Y)/TRIP steel composites

    周玉; 郭英奎; 李冬波; 段小明


    The ZrO2 (2Y)/TRIP steel composites were prepared by vacuum hot-pressing sintering. The room temperature static tensile and dynamic yield strength were tested using the static tensile and Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar methods, respectively. The effects of load mode on the static and dynamic mechanical behaviors were studied. The results show that the static tensile strengths of the composites decrease with the increase of ZrO2 content, for the weak bonding of ZrO2/ZrO2. Under the dynamic load, the matrix TRIP steel produces the martinsitic phase transformation, which improves the dynamic strength and deformation ability of the composites. When the volume fraction of ZrO2 exceeds 20%, the strain-hardening coefficient and the dynamic deformation ability of the composites decrease.

  8. Microstructure of Suspension Plasma Spray and Air Plasma Spray Al2O3-ZrO2 Composite Coatings

    Chen, Dianying; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice


    Al2O3-ZrO2 coatings were deposited by the suspension plasma spray (SPS) molecularly mixed amorphous powder and the conventional air plasma spray (APS) Al2O3-ZrO2 crystalline powder. The amorphous powder was produced by heat treatment of molecularly mixed chemical solution precursors below their crystallization temperatures. Phase composition and microstructure of the as-synthesized and heat-treated SPS and APS coatings were characterized by XRD and SEM. XRD analysis shows that the as-sprayed SPS coating is composed of α-Al2O3 and tetragonal ZrO2 phases, while the as-sprayed APS coating consists of tetragonal ZrO2, α-Al2O3, and γ-Al2O3 phases. Microstructure characterization revealed that the Al2O3 and ZrO2 phase distribution in SPS coatings is much more homogeneous than that of APS coatings.

  9. Study of Hydrogen Adsorption on Pt/WO3-ZrO2 through Pt Sites

    Sugeng Triwahyono; Aishah Abdul Jalil; Hideshi Hattori


    The rate determining step and the energy barrier involved in hydrogen adsorption on Pt/WO3ZrO2 were studied based on the assumption that the hydrogen adsorption occurs only through Pt sites.The rate of hydrogen adsorption on Pt/WO3-ZrO2 Was measured in the adsorption temperature range of 323-573 K and an initial hydrogen pressure of 50 Torr.The rates of hydrogen uptake were very high for the initial few minutes and the adsorption continued for more than 5 h below 523 K.The hydrogen uptake far exceeded the H/Pt ratio of unity for all adsorption temperatures,indicating that the adsorption of hydrogen involved the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on Pt sites to form hydrogen atoms.the spillover of hydrogen atoms onto the surface of the WO3-ZrO2 catalyst.the diffusion of spiltover hydrogen atom over the surface of the WO3-ZrO2 catalyst,and the formation of protonic acid site originated from hydrogen atom by releasing an electron in which the electron may react with a second hydrogen atom to form a hydride near the Lewis acid site.The rate determining step was the spillover with the activation energy of 12.3 kJ/mol.The rate of hydrogen adsorption cannot be expressed by the rate equation based on the assumption that the rate determining step is the surface diffusion.The activity of Pt/WO3-ZrO2 Was examined on n-heptane isomerization in which the increase of hydrogen partial pressure provided positive-effect on the conversion of n-heptane and negative-effect on the selectivity towards iso-heptane.

  10. Effect of Nb and alloying elements on interface reaction between high Nb-containing TiAl alloys and ZrO2-based ceramic moulds

    Liang Yang; Wen-bin Kan; You-wei Zhang


    In the present study, Ti-45Al-(6, 7, 8)Nb (at%) and Ti-45Al-8Nb-0.5(Mn, Si, Y, B) alloys were prepared by arc melting and casting into ZrO2 (Y2O3 stabilized) ceramic moulds to study the effect of alloying elements Nb and Mn, Si, Y, B on the interfacial reaction between casting TiAl alloys and ceramic moulds by SEM, and the elements' distribution in the interface reaction layer by line scanning. The results showed that with an increase in Nb content, the interfacial reaction weakened and the t...

  11. Preparation and tribological properties of Sol-Gel TiO2-ZrO2 composite thin films


    High oriented TiO2-ZrO2 composite thin films on Si (100) and glass sheet were suc-cessfully prepared by sol-gel process followed by dip-coating the ethanol solution of zirconiumoxychloride and titanium tetrachloride. The sol-gel process, microstructure, morphology and tri-bological properties of TiO2 -ZrO2 films were investigated using TGA, DSC, XPS, XRD, AFM anddynamic-static tribometer. The results show that the TiO2-ZrO2films are dense, homogeneous andat a complete tetragonal phase with an excellent antiwear and friction reduction performance. Un-der 0.5N applied load, the friction coefficient is 0.14-0.20 and the antiwear life is more than 5000sliding cycles for both TiO2-ZrO2/ AISI 52100 steel and TiO2-ZrO2/ Si3N4. SEM observation sug-gests that wear mechanism of TiO2 -ZrO2 composite film under low load was fatigue wear, andunder high load was adhesive wear. The TiO2 -ZrO2 films show potential applications as coatingsfor antiwear and friction reduction under the harsh condition.

  12. Improved WO3 photocatalytic efficiency using ZrO2 and Ru for the degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin.

    Gar Alalm, Mohamed; Ookawara, Shinichi; Fukushi, Daisuke; Sato, Akira; Tawfik, Ahmed


    The photocatalytic degradation of carbofuran (pesticide) and ampicillin (pharmaceutical) using synthesized WO3/ZrO2 nanoparticles under simulated solar light was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectra analyses were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The optimum ratio of WO3 to ZrO2 was determined to be 1:1 for the degradation of both contaminants. The degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin by WO3/ZrO2 after 240 min of irradiation was 100% and 96%, respectively. Ruthenium (Ru) was employed as an additive to WO3/ZrO2 to enhance the photocatalytic degradation rate. Ru/WO3/ZrO2 exhibited faster degradation rates than WO3/ZrO2. Furthermore, 100% and 97% degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin, respectively, was achieved using Ru/WO3/ZrO2 after 180 min of irradiation. The durability of the catalyst was investigated by reusing the same suspended catalyst, which achieved 92% of its initial efficiency. The photocatalytic degradation of ampicillin and carbofuran followed pseudo-first order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model.

  13. Electrocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes prepared by pulse electrodeposition.

    Yao, Yingwu; Zhao, Chunmei; Zhao, Manman; Wang, Xiao


    PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes (P) were prepared by pulse electrodeposition and used for the electrocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB). The SEM and XRD tests show that PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes (P) possess more compact structure and finer grain size than PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes (D) prepared by direct electrodeposition. The electrochemical measurements show that PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes (P) have higher oxygen evolution overpotential and the oxidation regions of MB and water are significantly separated. The experimental parameters on electrocatalytic degradation of MB by PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes (P) were evaluated, such as initial MB concentration, current density, pH value and supporting electrolyte concentration. The results indicate that MB and COD removal efficiency of PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes (P) reach 100% and 72.7%, respectively, after 120 min electrolysis at initial 30 mg L(-1) MB concentration at current density of 50 mA cm(-2) in 0.2 mol L(-1) Na2SO4 supporting electrolyte solution, and the degradation of MB follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. Compared with PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes (D), PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes (P) show higher COD removal efficiency and instantaneous current efficiency with MB degradation. The experimental results demonstrate that PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes (P) possesses the excellent electrocatalytic properties and show great potential applications in refractory pollutants.

  14. V2O5-WO3/TiO2-ZrO2脱硝催化剂中 ZrO2和 WO3的促进作用:催化性能、形态及反应机理%Promotional roles of ZrO2 and WO3 in V2O5-WO3/TiO2-ZrO2 catalysts for NOx reduction by NH3:Catalytic performance, morphology, and reaction mechanism

    张亚平; 王龙飞; 李娟; 张会岩; 徐海涛; 肖睿; 杨林军


    V2O5/TiO2‐ZrO2 catalysts containing various amounts of WO3 were synthesized. The catalyst mor‐phologies, catalytic performances, and reaction mechanisms in the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by NH3 were investigated using in situ diffuse‐reflectance infrared Fourier‐transform spectros‐copy, temperature‐programmed reduction (TPR), X‐ray diffraction, and the Brunau‐er‐Emmett‐Teller (BET) method. The BET surface area of the triple oxides increased with increasing ZrO2 doping but gradually decreased with increasing WO3 loading. Addition of sufficient WO3 helped to stabilize the pore structure and the combination of WO3 and ZrO2 improved dispersion of all the metal oxides. The mechanisms of reactions using V2O5‐9%WO3/TiO2‐ZrO2 and V2O5‐9%WO3/TiO2 were compared by using either a single or mixed gas feed and various pretreatments. The results suggest that both reactions followed the Eley‐Ridel mechanism;however, the dominant acid sites, which depended on the addition of WO3 or ZrO2, determined the pathways for NOx reduction, and involved [NH4+–NO–Brönsted acid site]*and [NH2–NO–Lewis acid site]*intermediates, respectively. NH3‐TPR and H2‐TPR showed that the metal oxides in the catalysts were not reduced by NH3 and O2 did not reoxidize the catalyst surfaces but participated in the formation of H2O and NO2.%商业选择性催化还原(SCR)催化剂成分主要有 V2O5, WO3和 TiO2,但适用温度窗口较窄(300‒400℃),使得实际操作过程中活性较低.目前,过渡金属广泛应用于催化剂制备中以提高其催化活性.相比于纯 TiO2和 ZrO2载体, TiO2-ZrO2具有较高的热稳定性以及较多的酸位,虽然有关 TiO2-ZrO2为载体的催化剂研究较多,但未与商业催化剂进行对比研究.而针对 NH3-SCR脱硝机理的实验研究也存在一些争议,主要原因归为以下两方面:(1)多数催化剂不同会直接导致催化剂的活性酸位不同;(2)不同 NH3-SCR脱硝催化

  15. Partial oxidation of methane on Ni/CeO2-ZrO2/γ-Al2O3 prepared using different processes

    ZHANG Qingwei; SHEN Meiqing; WEN Jing; WANG Jun; FEI Yanan


    The influences of CeO2-ZrO2 and γ-Al2O3 mixing methods on the catalytic activity and stability of partial oxidation of methane (POM) were investigated over Ni/Ce0.7Zr0.3O2-Al2O3 catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, TPR, H2-chemsorption, and TG-DTA. For fresh catalysts, the results showed that the salt precursor mixing catalyst (ATOM) presented better performance than the catalysts prepared by the precipitator mixing method (MOL) and the powder mechanically mixing method (MECH). The result of XRD suggested that the interaction between CeO2-ZrO2 and Al2O3 in ATOM sample was stronger than the others, which led to more lattice defects and thereby better initial activity. Moreover, the MECH sample had the best stability and the least coke deposition in 24 h stability tests. The results of TPR and H2-chemsorption indicated that the intimate contact of Ni-Al in MECH sample enhanced the ability of resisting coke deposition and metal sintering.

  16. Photoelectrochemical characterization and photocatalytic properties of mesoporous TiO 2 / ZrO 2 films


    Full Text Available Optically transparent, crack-free mesoporous titania and zirconia-doped titania thin film photocatalysts were fabricated by sol-gel technique, using nonionic amphiphilic block copolymer Pluronic P123 as template. The structural and optical properties of these films were characterized using SEM, low-angle XRD, and UV/Vis spectroscopy, hexane adsorption investigation. Band gap energy and the position of flatband potentials were estimated by photoelectrochemical measurements. Enhancing of photocatalytic activity of zirconia-doped films relative to pure TiO 2 originates from an anodic shift of the valence band edge potential. Catalytic activity of mesoporous TiO 2 and TiO 2 / ZrO 2 ( 5 –50% of ZrO 2 films in the processes of Cr VI to Cr III photoreduction and 2,4-dinitroaniline photooxidation correlates with crystalline size and growth with increasing of specific surface area of the samples.

  17. Catalytic Synthesis of Isopropyl Benzene over SO42-/ZrO2 -MCM-41


    Super acid catalyst SO2-4-/ZrO2 was introduced into pure silicone MCM-41 via the impregnation method and the catalyst samples obtained at different temperatures were characterized by means of XRD, IR, and Py-IR techniques.The selectively catalytic gas-phase flow reactions of benzene with propene over the catalyst samples were carried out in a made-to-measure high-pressure flow reactor equipped with a thermostat and a condenser. Effect of the preparative condition on the catalytic synthesis of isopropyl benzene over the catalyst samples was tested. The results show that SO2-4/ZrO2-MCM-41 (SZM-41) can be used as a catalyst for the title reaction, in which there are a higher conversion (97%) for the propene and a higher selectivity(93%) for the isopropyl benzene.

  18. Joining of ZrO2/CePO4 Green Bodies Using Slurries

    刘名郑; 刘家臣; 高海; 王丽娟; 霍伟荣; 王凯利


    Ce-ZrO2 and ZrO2/CePO4 ceramic system was joined in the green body by using mixed powder. Three kinds of systems are discussed. The microstructure and bending strengths of the joint were investigated and it is found that the Ce-ZrO2 and 30%CePO4/ZrO2 ceramics can be well joined in the green body. A joint with high mechanical property and good microstructure can be obtained after sintering without applied pressure. Complexly shaped ceramic components can be created by the technique of green state joining. A new way to produce them is provided and the cost is reduced due to the simplicity of the process.

  19. Porous Ceramic Composite ZrO2(MgO)-MgO for Osteoimplantology

    Buyakov, A. S.; Kulkov, S. N.


    Pore and crystalline structure, biocompatibility of ceramic composite ZrO2(MgO)-MgO were studied. The main mechanical characteristics were determined and it has been shown that compression strength directly depends on microstresses obtained from X-ray data. In-vitro studies of mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MMSC), cultivated on material surface are shown that cell proliferation and differentiation of MMSC goes throw osteogenic type.

  20. Interface investigation of solution processed high- κ ZrO2/Si MOS structure by DLTS

    Kumar, Arvind; Mondal, Sandip; Rao, Ksr Koteswara

    The interfacial region is dominating due to the continuous downscaling and integration of high- k oxides in CMOS applications. The accurate characterization of high- k oxides/semiconductor interface has the significant importance towards its usage in memory and thin film devices. The interface traps at the high - k /semiconductor interface can be quantified by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) with better accuracy in contrast to capacitance-voltage (CV) and conductance technique. We report the fabrication of high- k ZrO2 films on p-Si substrate by a simple and inexpensive sol-gel spin-coating technique. Further, the ZrO2/Si interface is characterized through DLTS. The flat-band voltage (VFB) and the density of slow interface states (oxide trapped charges) extracted from CV characteristics are 0.37 V and 2x10- 11 C/cm2, respectively. The activation energy, interface state density and capture cross-section quantified by DLTS are EV + 0.42 eV, 3.4x1011 eV- 1 cm- 2 and 5.8x10- 18 cm2, respectively. The high quality ZrO2 films own high dielectric constant 15 with low leakage current density might be an appropriate insulating layer in future electronic application. The low value of interface state density and capture cross-section are the indication of high quality interface and the defect present at the interface may not affect the device performance to a great extent. The DLTS study provides a broad understanding about the traps present at the interface of spin-coated ZrO2/Si.

  1. Atomistic Studies of Cation Transport in Tetragonal ZrO2 During Zirconium Corrosion

    Xian-Ming Bai; Yongfeng Zhang; Michael R. Tonks


    Zirconium alloys are the major fuel cladding materials in current reactors. The water-side corrosion is one of the major degradation mechanisms of these alloys. During corrosion the transport of oxidizing species in zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) determines the corrosion kinetics. Previously it has been argued that the outward diffusion of cation ions is important for forming protective oxides. In this work, the migration of Zr defects in tetragonal ZrO2 is studied with temperature accelerated dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that Zr interstitials have anisotropic diffusion and migrate preferentially along the [001] or c direction in tetragonal ZrO2. The compressive stresses can increase the Zr interstitial migration barrier significantly. The migration barriers of some defect clusters can be much lower than those of point defects. The migration of Zr interstitials at some special grain boundaries is much slower than in a bulk oxide. The implications of these atomistic simulation results in the Zr corrosion are discussed.

  2. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of ZrO2-SiO2 Nanoparticles by Platinum Doping

    Mohammad W. Kadi


    Full Text Available ZrO2-SiO2 mixed oxides were prepared via the sol-gel method. Photo-assisted deposition was utilized for doping the prepared mixed oxide with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 wt% of Pt. XRD spectra showed that doping did not result in the incorporation of Pt within the crystal structure of the material. UV-reflectance spectrometry showed that the band gap of ZrO2-SiO2 decreased from 3.04 eV to 2.48 eV with 0.4 wt% Pt doping. The results show a specific surface area increase of 20%. Enhanced photocatalysis of Pt/ZrO2-SiO2 was successfully tested on photo degradation of cyanide under illumination of visible light. 100% conversion was achieved within 20 min with 0.3 wt% of Pt doped ZrO2-SiO2.

  3. Anti-wear and friction performance of ZrO2 nanoparticles as lubricant additive

    Shiyu Ma; Shaohua Zheng; Duxia Cao; Hongna Guo


    The surface of ZrO2 nanoparticles was modified with silane coupling agent KH-560 by dispersing the nanoparticles in 20# machine oil.The tribological performance of the 20# machine oil with ZrO2 nanoparticles was evaluated by a four-ball tester and a thrust-ring machine.The loss of the thrust-ring weight was measured by an electronic balance with a precision of 0.0001 g.The worn surface was examined under a metallographic microscope with 400-times magnification.The results showed that the average friction coefficient decreased by 27.34%,and that the weight loss of the thrust-ring indicated no wear or nega-tive wear,the wear loss after six loads tests being-0.0163 g.The anti-wear(AW)and reducing friction(RF)abilities of the oil with ZrO2 nanoparticles addition were considerably improved,maximizing at an additive concentration of 0.5 wt%.


    Roşu R. A.


    Full Text Available Zirconia (ZrO2 is a biocompatible ceramic material which is successfully used in medicine to cover the metallic implants by various methods. In order to avoid the inconvenients related to structural changes which may appear because of the temperature treatment while depositing the zirconia layer over the metallic implant, certain oxides are added, the most used being Y2O3, MgO and CaO. This paper presents the experimental results regarding the deposition of yttria (Y2O3 and magnesia (MgO partially stabilized zirconia layers onto titanium alloy substrate by plasma spraying method. X ray diffraction investigations carried out both on the initial powders and the coatings evidenced the fact that during the thermal spraying process the structure has not been significantly modified, consisting primarily of zirconium oxide with tetragonal structure. Electronic microscopy analyses show that the coatings are dense, uniform and cracks-free. Adherence tests performed on samples whose thickness ranges between 160 and 220 μm showed that the highest value (23.5 MPa was obtained for the coating of ZrO2 - 8 wt. % Y2O3 with 160 μm thickness. The roughness values present an increasing tendency with increasing the coatings thickness.

  5. Autothermal reforming of methane over Ni catalysts supported over ZrO2-CeO2-Al2O3

    Xiulan Cai; Yuanxing Cai; Weiming Lin


    Ni catalysts supported on Al2O3, ZrO2-Al2O3, CeO2-Al2O3 and ZrO2-CeO2-Al2O3 were prepared by co-precipitation method, and their catalytic performances for autothermal reforming of methane to hydrogen were investigated.The Ni-supported catalysts were characterized by XRD, TPR and XPS. The relationship between the structures and catalytic activities of the catalysts was discussed. The results showed that the catalytic activity and stability of the Ni/ZrO2-CeO2-Al2O3 catalyst was better than those of other catalysts with the highest CH4 conversion, H2/CO and H2/COx ratio at 750 ℃. The cat-alyst showed a little deactivation along the reaction time during its 72 h on stream with the mean deactivation rate of 0.08%/h. The catalytic performance of the Ni/ZrO2-CeO2-Al2O3 catalyst was also affected by reaction temperature, nO2: nCH4 molar ratio and nH2O : nCH4 molar ratio. TPR, XRD and XPS measurements indicated that the formation of ZrO2-CeO2 solid solu-tion could improve the dispersion of NiO, and inhibit the formation of NiAl2O4, and thus significantly promoted the catalytic activity of the Ni/ZrO2-CeO2-Al2O3 catalyst.

  6. Improved Resistive Switching Characteristics of Ag-Doped ZrO2 Films Fabricated by Sol-Gel Process

    SUN Bing; LIU Li-Feng; HAN De-Dong; WANG Yi; LIU Xiao-Yan; HAN Ru-Qi; KANG Jin-Feng


    Ag-doped and pure ZrO2 thin films are prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by sol-gel process for resistive random access memory application. The highly reproducible resistive switching is achieved in the 10% Ag-doped ZrO2 devices. The improved resistive switching behaviour in the Ag doped ZrO2 devices could be attributed to Ag doping effect on the formation of the stable filamentary conducting paths. In addition, dual-step reset processes corresponding to three stable resistance states are observed in the 10% Ag doped ZrO2 devices, which may be implemented for the application of multi-bit storage.

  7. Effects of Adhesive Composition on Green Joining of CePO4-ZrO2 Ceramics

    TIAN Boran; LIU Jiachen; ZHAO Yuhong; LIU Mingzheng


    Green bodies of 25%CePO4/ZrO2 and ZrO2 ceramics were joined at 1450℃ for 120 min without applied pressure by using mixed powders slurries composed of CePO4 and ZrO2. The effects of CePO4/(CePO4+ZrO2) ratio of the adhesive on the bond strength of the joints were investigated. Maximum bond strength of 414MPa was obtained by joining an adhesive with the ratio of 0.5. Under the experimental conditions, the grain size of the particles grown in the joint was smaller than that in joined ceramics. The microstructure of the joint was more homogeneous than that of the matrix and without obvious cracks, pores and other defects.

  8. Co-precipitation synthesis and upconversion luminescence properties of ZrO2:Yb3+-Ho3+

    Jinsheng Liao; Shaohua Liu; Liling Nie; Suijun Liu; Junxiang Fu


    ZrO2:Yb3+-Ho3+ phosphors with different Yb3+ doping concentration have been prepared by coprecipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and photoluminescence spectra were used to characterize the properties of ZrO2:Yb3+-Ho3+ phosphors. Different phases of ZrO2 can be obtained by changing the concentration of Yb3+. Under the 980 nm excitation, the sample gives a set of light: strong green (539 nm), weak red (670 nm) and near-infrared (760 nm). The upconversion luminescence is based on two-photon absorption by the energy transfer from the donor (Yb3+) to the acceptor (Ho3+). All the results indicate that ZrO2:Yb3+-Ho3+ phosphors could be a promising biological labelling material.

  9. Cathodic micro-arc electro-deposition of ZrO2 coatings in an aqueous solution containing colloidal particles


    By a novel technique-cathodic micro-arc electro-deposition (CMED), ZrO2 coatings were deposited on an FeCrAl alloy. Experimental results show that the necessary conditions for obtaining ZrO2 coatings are to apply a pulse peak voltage over a critical value and add moderate amounts of ZrO2 colloidal particles and Zr(NO3)4 in the aqueous solution. The as-deposited coatings are porous because hydrogen, water, and other vapors are generated and released from the coatings to the solution during the spark reaction. The coatings contain monoclinic and tetragonal crystalline ZrO2with certain degree of amorphous structure. The processing parameters and mechanism of CMED were discussed.

  10. Phase composition, structure and properties of (ZrO2)1-x-y(Sc2O3)x(Y2O3)y solid solution crystals (x=0.08-0.11; y=0.01-0.02) grown by directional crystallization of the melt

    Borik, M. A.; Bredikhin, S. I.; Bublik, V. T.; Kulebyakin, A. V.; Kuritsyna, I. E.; Lomonova, E. E.; Milovich, F. O.; Myzina, V. A.; Osiko, V. V.; Ryabochkina, P. A.; Seryakov, S. V.; Tabachkova, N. Yu.


    For the first time crystals of the (ZrO2)1-x-y(Sc2O3)x(Y2O3)y solid solutions (x=0.08-0.11; y=0.01-0.02) have been grown by directional melt crystallization. We have determined the range of melt compositions for which growth from the melt produces of the (ZrO2)1-x-y(Sc2O3)x(Y2O3)y solid solution single crystals. The single-phase optically transparent single crystals following composition were grown: (ZrO2)0.9(Sc2O3)0.08(Y2O3)0.02; (ZrO2)0.89(Sc2O3)0.09(Y2O3)0.02; (ZrO2)0.89(Sc2O3)0.10(Y2O3)0.01; (ZrO2)0.88(Sc2O3)0.10(Y2O3)0.02. Comprehensive study of the crystal structure by using XRD, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the all single crystals, which is identified by XRD data as cubic one, in fact have t″ tetragonal structure, which forms by small displacement of oxygen ions along the c-axis. Data on the phase stability of the crystals during mechanical crushing were obtained. The electrical conductivity was measured as a function of temperature by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is established that (ZrO2)0.89(Sc2O3)0.10(Y2O3)0.01 crystals have the highest conductivity (0.168 S/cm at 1173 K).

  11. Metallo–organic compound-based plasma enhanced CVD of ZrO2 films for microelectronic applications

    S Chatterjee; S K Samanta; H D Banerjee; C K Maiti


    ZrO2 films on silicon wafer were deposited by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique using zirconium tetratert butoxide (ZTB). The structure and composition of the deposited layers were studied by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The deposition rates were also studied. MOS capacitors fabricated using deposited oxides were used to characterize the electrical properties of ZrO2 films. The films showed their suitability for microelectronic applications.

  12. The Hydrothermal Autoclave Synthesis of the Nanopowders of the Refractory ZrO2 and HfO2 Oxides

    N.F. Karpovich


    Full Text Available The nanopowders of the transition metal ZrO2 and HfO2 oxides were obtained by the hydrothermal autoclave synthesis. The nanoparticles possess a rounded shape and a size range of 40 to 80 nm (ZrO2, of 10 to 40 nm (HfO2. X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy show that the structure of the nanoparticles is monoclinic.

  13. Preparation and properties of gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foam by centrifugal slip casting method

    Li Qiang


    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to provide a novel technique for preparing gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foams. This technique used epispastic polystyrene spheres to array templates and centrifugal slip casting to obtain cell struts with gradient distribution of Al2O3 and ZrO2 particles and high packing density. Aqueous Al2O3-20vol.% ZrO2 slurries with 20vol.% solid contents were prepared and the dispersion and rheological characteristics of the slurries were investigated. The settling velocity and mass segregation of Al2O3 and ZrO2 particles at different centrifugal accelerations were calculated and studied. The drying behavior, macrostructure, microstructure, compressive property and resistance to thermal shock of the sintered products were also investigated. The results show that the difference of settling velocity of Al2O3 and ZrO2 particles increases and mass segregation becomes acute with an increase in centrifugal acceleration. The cell struts prepared at a centrifugal acceleration of 1,690 g have high sintered density (99.0% TD and continuous gradient distribution of Al2O3 and ZrO2 particles. When sintered at 1,550 oC for 2 h, the cell size of gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 foam is approximately uniform, about 1.1 mm. With the porosity of gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foams increasing from 75.3% to 83.0%, the compressive strength decreases from 4.4 to 2.4 MPa, and the ceramic foams can resist 8-11 repeated thermal shock from 1,100 oC to room temperature.

  14. Specific features of the initial stages of the aluminothermic reduction of zirconium from ZrO2

    Chumarev, V. M.; Mansurova, A. N.; Gulyaeva, R. I.; Trubachev, M. V.; Larionov, A. V.


    The phase composition of the products of the low-temperature stage of the reaction of ZrO2 with aluminum is studied. The influence of charge compacting and particle size of the reagents is revealed. The onset temperatures for the reaction of zirconium oxide (TsrO-1 and TsrO-S trade marks) and aluminum (APZh and PA-4 trade marks) are determined by differential scanning calorimetry. A high dispersity of ZrO2 and the presence of zircon ZrSiO4 in zirconium oxide (TsrO-S) are found to provide a decrease in the onset temperatures for the reaction. Intermetallic compound ZrAl3 is predominantly formed at the low-temperature stage of the reaction of ZrO2 with aluminum. Zirconium is reduced from ZrO2 by aluminum stage by stage through the formation of lower oxides ZrO and Zr3O. Suboxide AlO is detected in the products of reaction of ZrO2 with aluminum. The heat flow rates are estimated, according to which the reduction of zirconium from ZrO2 by aluminum is formally characterized by the first order, and the activation energy is E = 160-170 kJ/mol.

  15. Effect of ZrO2 Dopant on the Sintering Behavior and Performance of MCMB-derived Carbon Laminations

    WANG Maohua; TANG Qinghua; YAO Chao; CAO Min


    Liquid ball-milling dispersant method was used to prepare the ZrO2-doped carbon laminations from mesocarbon microbeads(MCMBs). After sintering at 1 300 ℃ in nitrogen atmosphere, the effect of ZrO2 concentration on sintering behavior, electric conductivity as well as bending strength of the carbon laminations was investigated in detail. The results showed that the volumetric shrinkage rate of the carbon laminations decreased from 38.2% to 30.9% when the ZrO2 concentration in raw materials varied from 0 to 16 wt%. Compared with undoped carbon lamination, the samples had high-electric conductivity and excellent bending strength in all eases. The electric conductivity achieved the maximum value of 225 S/cm, and the bending strength of the carbon lamination was 119.24 MPa for a concentration of 8 wt% ZrO2 in raw materials. In addition, the electric conductivity and bending strength reducing were observed when the ZrO2 concentration was higher than 8 wt%. The catalytic effect on graphitization for the carbon laminations was the most effective when the ZrO2 concentration was set at 8 wt% in raw materials.

  16. Study of influence on micro-fabricated resistive switching organic ZrO2 array by C-AFM measurement

    Ying Li; Gaoyang Zhao; Zhibo Kou; Long Jin; Yajing Wang


    In this paper, a comparison of the interfacial electronic properties between Pt/Ir conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) tip and ZrO2 organic array was carried out. A uniformed ZrO2 array was fabricated with a mean diameter of around 1 m using laser interference lithography. A C-AFM measurement set-up was built up. The - curve was directly measured of the organic ZrO2 array which shows a resistive switching characteristic by C-AFM measurement. The set voltage is 18.0 V and the reset voltage is −5.0 V. After the Pt layer was coated on the ZrO2 array, the set voltage decreases to 0.8 V and the reset voltage decreases to −2.2 V. This result shows that Pt layer can prevent the potential drop effectively. The electron barrier height between Pt/Ir C-AFM tip and organic ZrO2 array was enhanced by sputtering Pt layer on the ZrO2 organic array.

  17. Improved conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cell using Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite

    Tomar, Laxmi J.; Bhatt, Piyush J.; Desai, Rahul K.; Chakrabarty, B. S.; Panchal, C. J.


    TiO2-ZrO2 and Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites were prepared by hydrothermal method for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. The structural and optical properties were investigated by X -ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopy respectively. XRD results revealed the formation of material in nano size. The average crystallite size is 22.32 nm, 17.41 nm and 6.31 nm for TiO2, TiO2-ZrO2 and Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites respectively. The optical bandgap varies from 2.04 eV to 3.75 eV. Dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using the prepared material. Pomegranate juice was used as a sensitizer and graphite coated conducting glass plate was used as counter electrode. The I - V characteristics were recorded to measure photo response of DSSC. Photovoltaic parameter like open circuit voltage, power conversion efficiency, and fill factor were evaluated for fabricated solar cell. The power conversion efficiency of DSSC fabricated with TiO2, TiO2-ZrO2 and Zn doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanocomposites were found 0.71%, 1.97% and 4.58% respectively.

  18. Structure of the hydrogen stabilized MgO(1 1 1)-(1 × 1) surface from low energy electron diffraction (LEED)

    Poon, H. C.; Hu, X. F.; Chamberlin, S. E.; Saldin, D. K.; Hirschmugl, C. J.


    A structural study has been performed on the MgO(1 1 1)-(1 × 1) surface by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) using experimental data obtained with a delay-line-detector LEED (DLD-LEED) system to minimize electron damage. It was found that the surface is terminated by a hydroxide layer with the top O-Mg interlayer spacing equal to 1.02 Å, which is close to the spacings between Mg and O planes in bulk brucite crystals (Mg(OH) 2). This is in good agreement with a recent study using photoelectron diffraction (PhD) spectroscopy and density functional theory calculation (DFT) [V.K. Lazarov, R. Plass, H.-C. Poon, D.K. Saldin, M. Weinert, S.A. Chambers, M. Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Phys. Rev. B 71 (2005) 115434]. The second interlayer spacing shows a small expansion of 3% and the third is bulk-like, while the DFT calculation predicted that the spacings below the top one are all bulk-like. This result clearly favors hydroxylation [K. Refson, R.A. Wogelius, D.G. Fraser, M.C. Payne, M.H. Lee, V. Milman, Phys. Rev. B 52 (1995) 10823] as a way of stabilizing the MgO(1 1 1) surface at low temperature over metallization, which has a top layer spacing of 0.86 Å for O termination and 1.25 Å for Mg termination [Lazarov et al. 2005; T. Tsukada, T. Hoshino, Phys. Soc. Jpn. 51 (1982) 2562, J. Goniakowski, C. Noguera, Phys. Rev. B 60 (1999) 16120].

  19. Methane reforming With CO2 to syngas over CeO2-promoted Ni/Al2O3-ZrO2 catalysts Prepared Via a direct sol-gel process

    Hansheng Li; Hang Xu; Jinfu Wang


    CeO2-promoted Ni/Al2O3-ZrO2 (Ni/Al2O3-ZrO2-CeO2) catalysts were prepared by a direct sol-gel process with citric acid as gelling agent.The catalysts used for the methane reforming with CO2 was studied by infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), microscopic analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR).The catalytic performance for CO2 reforming of methane to synthesis gas was investigated in a continuous-flow micro-reactor under atmospheric pressure.TGA, IR, XRD and microscopic analysis show that the catalysts prepared by the direct sol-gel process consist of Ni particles with a nanostructure of around 5 nm and an amorphous-phase composite oxide support.There exists a chemical interaction between metallic Ni particles and supports, which makes metallic Ni well dispersed, highly active and stable.The addition of CeO2 effectively improves the dispersion and the stability of Ni particles of the prepared catalysts, and enhances the adsorption of CO2 on the surface of catalysts.The catalytic tests for methane reforming with CO2 to synthesis gas show that the Ni/Al2O3-ZrO2-CeO2 catalysts show excellent activity and stability compared with the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst.The excellent catalytic activity and stability of the Ni/Al2O3-ZrO2-CeO2 are attributed to the highly, uniformly and stably dispersed small metallic Ni particles, the high reducibility of the Ni oxides and the interaction between metallic Ni particles and the composite oxide supports.

  20. 氧化镁活性对碳化固化效果影响研究%Influence of MgO activity on stabilization efficiency of carbonated mixing method

    刘松玉; 李晨


    The carbonated deep mixing method is an innovative CO2 consuming method for ground improvement, in which the MgO binder is firstly mixed with the soft soils and then CO2 is injected for carbonating in few hours. Using the carbonated mixing method, higher soil-MgO stabilized strength can be obtained in very short time. The influence of MgO activity on the stabilization efficiency and its mechanism were studied in this paper. A typical clay from Wuhan was used as the target soil and three different activities of MgO were selected as binders for laboratory tests. The results show that the carbonated degree with different active MgO binders can be predominantly completed in 3~6 hours and reaches stability after 24 hours. There are almost the same volume expansion of about 16% during carbonating process at all MgO binders. While the MgO activity has significant influences on the efficiency of the carbonated mixing method. With the higher activity MgO binder, the higher carbonated degree and more carbonated products forming denser texture are observed. Its unconfined compressive strength after carbonating 6 hours with higher activity MgO gets to the similar strength of 28 day-cured cement-stabilized soils. The final strength with higher activity MgO carbonated mixing soils can reach 2.5 MPa, while that with much lower activity MgO is only 0.5 MPa. The carbonated MgO-stabilized soils have considerable lower pH value (9.0~9.6) than the pH value (12) of the cement-stabilized soils.%碳化固化技术是近年来提出的一种低碳搅拌处理软弱土创新技术。该技术先采用MgO水泥与土进行搅拌,再利用CO2对之进行碳化,以达到快速提高强度的目的。针对MgO活性对碳化固化的影响规律进行了室内试验研究,并分析了其微观机理。结果表明:试样能在3~6 h内完成大部分碳化,碳化24 h后达到稳定,氧化镁活性对碳化固化效果有显著影响,具体表现为氧化镁活性越高,试样

  1. Preparation of High-Surface-Area SnO2 and ZrO2 by Reflux-Digestion and Solvothermal Methods

    Ji-Ying Wei; Feng Jiang; Gang Xu; Sheng-Ming Xu


    The influence of the preparation methods on the properties of SnO2 and ZrO2 powders, especially the specific surface area and the stability upon calcination was investigated. SnO2 and ZrO2 prepared by chemical precipitation using reflux-digestion process with NaOH possess high surface area at the calcination temperature of 500℃~1000℃. A novel solvothermal process in the presence of urea was used to synthesize nanocrystalline SnO2 powders excluding the adulteration of Si. As increasing the concentration of urea, the grain size of the as-prepared powders reduced and the surface area increased.SnO2 nanocrystals with a grain size of ca. 1 nm and a high surface area of 331 m2g-1 were obtained by this method. These high-surface-area powders are favorable for gas-sensing and catalysis applications, and the development of an advanced material for structural engineering ceramics.

  2. Al2O3/ZrO2/Y3Al5O12 Composites: A High-Temperature Mechanical Characterization

    Paola Palmero


    Full Text Available An Al2O3/5 vol%·ZrO2/5 vol%·Y3Al5O12 (YAG tri-phase composite was manufactured by surface modification of an alumina powder with inorganic precursors of the second phases. The bulk materials were produced by die-pressing and pressureless sintering at 1500 °C, obtaining fully dense, homogenous samples, with ultra-fine ZrO2 and YAG grains dispersed in a sub-micronic alumina matrix. The high temperature mechanical properties were investigated by four-point bending tests up to 1500 °C, and the grain size stability was assessed by observing the microstructural evolution of the samples heat treated up to 1700 °C. Dynamic indentation measures were performed on as-sintered and heat-treated Al2O3/ZrO2/YAG samples in order to evaluate the micro-hardness and elastic modulus as a function of re-heating temperature. The high temperature bending tests highlighted a transition from brittle to plastic behavior comprised between 1350 and 1400 °C and a considerable flexural strength reduction at temperatures higher than 1400 °C; moreover, the microstructural investigations carried out on the re-heated samples showed a very limited grain growth up to 1650 °C.

  3. Magnetic properties of nitrogen-doped ZrO2: Theoretical evidence of absence of room temperature ferromagnetism

    Albanese, Elisa; Leccese, Mirko; di Valentin, Cristiana; Pacchioni, Gianfranco


    N-dopants in bulk monoclinic ZrO2 and their magnetic interactions have been investigated by DFT calculations, using the B3LYP hybrid functional. The electronic and magnetic properties of the paramagnetic N species, substitutionals and interstitials, are discussed. Their thermodynamic stability has been estimated as a function of the oxygen partial pressure. At 300 K, N prefers interstitial sites at any range of oxygen pressure, while at higher temperatures (700-1000 K), oxygen poor-conditions facilitate substitutional dopants. We have considered the interaction of two N defects in various positions in order to investigate the possible occurrence of ferromagnetic ordering. A very small magnetic coupling constant has been calculated for several 2N-ZrO2 configurations, thus demonstrating that magnetic ordering can be achieved only at very low temperatures, well below liquid nitrogen. Furthermore, when N atoms replace O at different sites, resulting in slightly different positions of the corresponding N 2p levels, a direct charge transfer can occur between the two dopants with consequent quenching of the magnetic moment. Another mechanism that contributes to the quenching of the N magnetic moments is the interplay with oxygen vacancies. These effects contribute to reduce the concentration of magnetic impurities, thus limiting the possibility to establish magnetic ordering.

  4. A novel technique for making open-cell AI203-ZrO2 ceramic foam with plant seed template

    Yu Jingyuan; Li Qiang; Tang Ji; Sun Xudong; Li Xiaodong


    The aim of the present research is to provide a technique for preparing open-cell AI203-ZrO2 ceramic foams with uniform cell size. This technique used plant seeds to array templates and centrifugal slip casting to obtain cell struts with high packing density. Aqueous Al2O3-ZrO2 slurries with up to 50 vol.% solid contents were prepared and the rheological characteristic of the slurries was investigated. Consolidation was performed at an acceleration of 2,860 g for 60 rain. The effect of the characteristic of plant seeds on the drying behavior of Al2O3- ZrO2 green compact was analyzed. The effects of the solid contents of slurries on segregation phenomena ofAl2O3 and ZrO2 particles and green compact uniformity were investigated. The compressive stress-strain curve and deformation behavior of Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foams prepared using plant seed template were analyzed. The results showed segregation phenomenon is negligible for highly stable slurry with 50 vol.% solid loading. The prepared cell struts of Al2O3-ZrO2 foams have high green density (61.9% TD), sintered density (99.1% TD) and homogeneous microstructure. When sintered at 1,550 ℃ for 2 h, the cell size of Al2O3-ZrO2 foam is approximately uniform and the diameter is about 1.1 mm. The porosity and compressive strength of sintered products is 66.2% and 5.86 MPa, respectively.

  5. Efficient removal of arsenite through photocatalytic oxidation and adsorption by ZrO2-Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles

    Sun, Tianyi; Zhao, Zhiwei; Liang, Zhijie; Liu, Jie; Shi, Wenxin; Cui, Fuyi


    Bifunctional ZrO2-Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized, to remove As(III) through photocatalyic oxidation and adsorption. With a saturation magnetization of 27.39 emu/g, ZrO2-Fe3O4 nanoparticles with size of 10-30 nm could be easily separated from solutions with a simple magnetic process. Under UV light, As(III) could be completely oxidized to less toxic As(V) by ZrO2-Fe3O4 nanoparticles within 40 min in the photocatalytic reaction. Simultaneously, As(V) could be adsorbed onto the surface of nanoparticles with high efficiency. The adsorption of As(V) was well fitted by the pseudo-second-order model and the Freundlich isotherm model, respectively, and the maximum adsorption capacities of the nanoparticles was 133.48 mg/g at pH 7.0. As(III) could be effectively removed by ZrO2-Fe3O4 nanoparticles at initial pH range from 4 to 8. Among all the common coexisting ions investigated, except for chloride and sulfate, carbonate, silicate and phosphate decreased the As(III) removal by competing with arsenic species for adsorption sites. The synthesized magnetic ZrO2-Fe3O4 combined the photocatalytic oxidation property of ZrO2 and the high adsorption capacity of both ZrO2 and Fe3O4, which make it have significant potential applications in the As(III)-contaminated water treatment.

  6. Effect of Preparation Method on Surface Area and Crystalline Form of CeO2-ZrO2 Solid Solution

    王晓红; 郭耘; 卢冠忠; 郭杨龙; 王筠松; 张志刚; 刘晓晖


    The CeO2-ZrO2 solid solutions were prepared by a reverse microemulsion method. The effect of preparation parameters on the surface area and crystalline form of the solid solutions were studied by the BET surface area and XRD analysis. The studies indicate that the separation of the microemulsion phase during the preparation procedure can decrease the specific surface area of sample, adding hydrogen peroxide in the matrix solution can increase the specific surface area and stability of sample. The surface area of sample calcined at 550 ℃ for 5 h is 149 m2·g-1, and that calcined at 900 ℃ for 6 h is 88 m2·g-1.The sample with tetragonal symmetry Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 phase has a higher stability.

  7. Effect of nucleating agents on microstructure and mechanical properties of SiO2-Al2O3-ZrO2 glass-ceramics

    YU Li-ping; XIAO Han-ning; HU Peng-fei


    SiO2-Al2O3-ZrO2 glasses with different nucleating agents were crystallized under special processing schedule. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the glass-ceramics in SiO2-Al2O3-ZrO2 system were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and three-point bending method. The results show that ZrO2 is not an effective nucleating agent in SiO2-Al2O3-ZrO2 system, while TiO2 is effective for the separation of spinel, and P2O5 facilitates solubility of ZrO2 in glass and crystallization. The main crystalline phases of the glass-ceramics are spinel, anorthite and tetragonal zirconia. With the increase of ZrO2 content in the glass, glass-ceramics show higher bending strength (120 MPa) than others.

  8. B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2催化环己酮肟气相Beckmann重排反应研究Ⅳ. TiO2-ZrO2组成的影响%Study on Vapor-Phase Beckmann Rearrangement of Cyclohexanone Oxime over B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2 Catalyst Ⅳ. Effect of Composition of TiO2-ZrO2

    毛东森; 陈庆龄; 卢冠忠


    采用共沉淀法制备了不同组成的复合氧化物TiO2-ZrO2. N2吸附和差热分析结果表明,随着TiO2-ZrO2中TiO2含量的增加,其BET比表面积和晶化温度提高,并均在TiO2含量为50%时达到最大值. 以TiO2-ZrO2为载体的B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2催化剂对环己酮肟气相Beckmann重排反应的催化性能表明,随着TiO2-ZrO2中TiO2含量的增加,己内酰胺的收率逐渐升高,当TiO2含量增加至50%时,收率达到最大值(96.7%),之后随着TiO2含量的进一步增加,己内酰胺的收率逐渐降低.

  9. Structural and optical properties of novel ZrO2 nanostructures by microwave and solution combustion method.

    Manikandan, A; Selvam, N Clament Sagaya; Kennedy, L John; Kumar, R Thinesh; Vijaya, J Judith


    Nanosized zirconium oxide (ZrO2) powders were synthesized by the microwave combustion synthesis (MCS) using glycine as the fuel without using any template, catalyst or surfactant. For the purpose of comparison, it was also prepared using solution combustion synthesis (SCS). The as-synthesized ZrO2 was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The XRD results confirmed the formation of cubic phase ZrO2. FT-IR was used to investigate the adsorption of water and CO2 on ZrO2 surface and confirm the formation of Zr-O phase. The formation of ZrO2 nanospheres was confirmed by HR-SEM and TEM and their possible formation mechanisms were also proposed. The optical absorption and photoluminescence emissions were determined by DRS and PL spectra respectively.

  10. Nano-composite of silk fibroin-chitosan/Nano ZrO2 for tissue engineering applications: fabrication and morphology.

    Teimouri, Abbas; Ebrahimi, Raheleh; Emadi, Rahmatollah; Beni, Batool Hashemi; Chermahini, Alireza Najafi


    A scaffold possessing certain desired features such as biodegradation, biocompatibility, and porous structure could serve as a template for tissue engineering. In the present study, silk fibroin (SF), chitosan (CS) and zirconia (Nano ZrO2) were all combined using the freeze drying technique to fabricate a bio-composite scaffold. The composite scaffold (SF/CS/Nano ZrO2) was characterized by SEM, XRD, TGA, BET and FT-IR studies. The scaffold was found to possess a porous nature with pore dimensions suitable for cell infiltration and colonization. The presence of zirconia in the SF/CS/Nano ZrO2 scaffold led to an increase in compressive strength and water uptake capacity while at the same time decreasing the porosity. Cytocompatibility of the SF/CS/Nano ZrO2 scaffold, assessed by MTT assay, revealed non-toxicity to the Human Gingival Fibroblast (HGF, NCBI: C-131). Thus, we suggest that SF/CS/Nano ZrO2 composite scaffold is a potential candidate to be used for tissue engineering.

  11. Effect of double MgO tunneling barrier on thermal stability and TMR ratio for perpendicular MTJ spin-valve with tungsten layers

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Takemura, Yasutaka; Park, Jea-Gun


    A tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR) ratio of ˜163% at an annealing temperature of 400 °C was achieved in a single MgO-based perpendicular-magnetic-tunneling-junction (p-MTJ) spin valve with a tungsten (W)/tantalum (Ta) seed and W capping layer instead of with a Ta seed and capping layer. This was done by improving the interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (i-PMA) characteristic of the Co2Fe6B2 free layer and face-centered-cubic (f.c.c.) crystallinity of the MgO tunneling barrier. In particular, a TMR ratio of ˜141% at an annealing temperature of 400 °C and a thermal stability at room temperature of ˜61 were achieved in a double MgO-based p-MTJ spin valve with W/Ta seed, W spacer, and W capping layers by doubling the i-PMA magnetic moment and increasing slightly magnetic anisotropy field (Hk).

  12. Influence of ZrO2-Y2O3 and ZrO2-CaO coatings on microstructural and mechanical properties on Mg-1,3Ca- 5,5Zr biodegradable alloy

    Istrate, B.; Munteanu, C.; Matei, MN; Oprisan, B.; Chicet, D.; Earar, K.


    Zirconia (ZrO2) as a ceramic biomaterial facilitates the osteoconductivity in new bone formation around implant. In order to improve the degradation and the surface properties, it is necessary to apply a surface film to satisfy multiple clinical requirements such as mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and degradation rate. Therefore, surface changing to form a tenacious, biocompatible and corrosion resistant modified layer has become a necessary study in biodegradable materials. The aim of the study is to observe the morphology, structural and scratch analysis for some coatings of ZrO2-CaO and ZrO2-Y2O3 having similar thickness deposited with an atmospheric plasma spraying facility, Sulzer Metco 9MCE, using scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction. Some mechanical aspects were highlighted during the scratch test. Comparative scratch tests were carried out to study the bonding properties between the coatings and the substrates.

  13. Mesoporous ZrO2 fibers with enhanced surface area and the application as recyclable absorbent

    Yu, Zhichao; Liu, Benxue; Zhou, Haifeng; Feng, Cong; Wang, Xinqiang; Yuan, Kangkang; Gan, Xinzhu; Zhu, Luyi; Zhang, Guanghui; Xu, Dong


    Highly crystalline mesoporous zirconia fibers with high surface area have been prepared by the use of electrospinning combined with precursors method. The obtained precursor fibers were treated in water steam and directly in air at different temperature respectively. Compared with the direct calcination in air, the water steam cannot only promote the crystallization of ZrO2 but also effectively remove off the organics and prevent the pore structure collapse. Moreover, through adding hydrochloric acid to modify the solution pH value, the obtained t-ZrO2 fibers treated in water steam at 300 °C have high surface area and large pore volume of 232.70 m2 g-1 and 0.36 cm3 g-1. The formation mechanism of the mesostucture was studied and the schematic was represented. Compared with the previous reports of mesoporous ZrO2 fibers, the as-synthesized materials exhibited the high crystallinity, large surface area and the long-range order mesostructure.The adsorption of Congo red indicates that the samples have a high adsorption capacity of 103.46 mg g-1 and long-periodic repeated availability.

  14. Wet chemical methods for producing mixing crystalline phase ZrO2 thin film

    Pakma, Osman; Özdemir, Cengiz; Kariper, İ. Afşin; Özaydın, Cihat; Güllü, Ömer


    The aim of the study is to develop a more economical and easier method for obtaining ZrO2 thin films at lower temperature, unlike the ones mentioned in the literature. For this purpose, wet chemical synthesis methods have been tested and XRD, UV-VIS and SEM analysis of ZrO2 thin films have been performed. At the end of the analysis, we identified the best method and it has been found that the features of the films produced with this method were better than the films produced by using different reagents, as well as the films reported in the literature. Especially it has been observed that the transmittance of the film produced with this method were higher and better than the films in the literature and the others. In addition, refractive index of the film produced with this method was observed to be lower. Moreover, by using the same method Al/ZrO2/p-Si structure has been obtained and it has been compared with Al/p-Si reference structure in terms of electrical parameters.

  15. Synthesis and Photocatalytie Property of the ZrO2/TiO2Pillared Laponite

    LIN Yingguang; PI Pihui; YANG Zhuoru; WANG Lianshi


    The ZrO2/TiO2 pillared laponite (Ti-Zr-lap) photocatalysts were prepared with intercalation reaction by supercritical fluid drying (SCFD),and characterized by XRD,TEM,SEM and BET surface area analysis,and the photocatalytic properties of Ti-Zr-lap were investigated by degradation of azo dye acid red B (ARB).The results showed that the ZrO2/TiO2 pillared structures in laponite could be formed,with the mass fraction of (Zr+++Ti4+)/laponite (Xm) increasing,the basal spacing and the BET surface area of Ti-Zr-lap significantly increased.The Ti-Zr-lap used as photocatalyst had the advantages of stable and porous layered structure,large surface area with the anatase type TiO2+ Compared with the Ti-Zr-lap dried by air drying,the TiZr-lap dried by SCFD showed better photocatalytic property which was very close to that of P25 TiO2.Using the Ti-Zr-lap as photocatalyst with the optimum Xm of 0.16 and the calcination temperature of 500 ℃,under the conditions of the initial concentration of ARB 20 mg/L,photocatalyst concentration of 1.5 g/L and irradiation time 60 min,the decoloring rate of ARB could achieve 98.3%,indicating that the Ti-Zr-lap had excellent photocatalytic property.

  16. Synthesis of ZrO2 -SiC Composite by Carbothermal Reduction of Zircon


    Zircon (mesh size ≤ 44μm ) and carbon black (mesh size≤30 μm) were used as the starting materials,weighed with m(zircon): m(carbon black) of 100:20 and mixed fully. The specimens with the diameter of 20mm and length of 5mm were prepared by pressing at 100 MPa, then dried at 120℃ for 12h, put into a furnace with 1. 5L · min-1 argon gas and fired at 1450℃, 1500℃, 1550℃, 1600℃ and 1650℃ for 4h, respectively. The chemical composition, phase composition and microstructure of the specimens were studied by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscope, and the carbothermal reduction reaction process was discussed by thermodynamic analysis.The results showed that the ZrO2-SiC composite could be synthesized by carbothermal reduction reaction using zircon and carbon black as the starting materials in argon atmosphere. The composite with different composition was obtained by controlling the firing temperature and partial pressure of CO gas. The proper temperature to synthesize ZrO2-SiC composite was 1600℃ in this experiment.

  17. Improved performance and stability of Ag-infiltrated nanocomposite La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ-(Y2O3)0.08(ZrO2)0.92 oxygen electrode for H2O/CO2 co-electrolysis

    Fan, Hui; Han, Minfang


    An Ag-infiltrated nanocomposite LSCF (La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ)-YSZ (yttria stabilized zirconia) oxygen electrode is prepared for co-electrolysis of steam and CO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) associated with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is employed to verify that nano-Ag particles are formed into the porous LSCF-YSZ electrode. Polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of the cell as well as long-term durability are investigated. In comparison with the Ag-free cell, the Ag-loaded cell exhibited improved performance and long-term stability when 45% H2O, 45% CO2, and 10% H2 is introduced as inlet gas. With infiltration of metal Ag, the ohmic resistance of the cell decreases from 0.14 Ω cm2 to 0.11 Ω cm2, and the polarization resistance from 0.30 Ω cm2 to 0.17 Ω cm2 at 800 °C. No significant deterioration of the Ag-infiltrated cell is observed when operating for 200 h at 1.3 V and 750 °C. With respect to varied H2O/CO2 ratio (1:2, 1:1, and 2:1) in feed gas, higher H2O percent content is resulted into higher cell performance, despite the fact that varied inlet gas composition did not dramatically influence the cell performance.

  18. Microstructures of Porous Al2 O3 -ZrO2 Ceramics%多孔 Al2O3-ZrO2陶瓷的微观结构



    The low viscosity and high stability ceramic slurry were fabricated introducing Al2 O3 and ZrO2 ceramic powder as solute ,camphene as the solvent and Texaphor963 as additives .The por‐ous Al2 O3 -ZrO2 ceramics were prepared with high strength ceramic bodies by freezing casting meth‐od ,using pressureless sintering process .The microstructures of porous Al2 O3 -ZrO2 ceramics were studied in this paper .%以Al2 O3,ZrO2陶瓷粉体为溶质,以莰烯为溶剂,以Texaphor963作为添加剂,制备出低粘度高稳定性的陶瓷浆料,采用冷冻注模工艺制备出具有较高强度的陶瓷坯体,采用无压烧结工艺,得到了多孔Al2 O3-ZrO2陶瓷制品,并对其微观结构进行了研究。

  19. Composite Electroplating to Obtain Ni-ZrO2 Nanocomposite Coatings Containing Monodispersed ZrO2 Nanoparticles

    WANG Wei; HOU Feng-yan; GUO He-tong


    The Zirconia nanoparticles are dispersed well in the plating bath using polyelectrolyte dispersant and NiZrO2 nanocomposite coatings containing monodispersed ZrO2 nanoparticles are successfully prepared under DC electrodeposition condition. The effects of the dispersant concentration on the dispersibility of Zirconia nanoparticles in the plating bath and the hardness of nanocomposite coatings have been investigated. The results shows that the hardness of nanocomposite coatings are strongly influenced by the dispersion state of ZrO2 nanoparticles in the composite coatings and only a very low volume percent of monodispered ZrO2 nanoparticles in Ni-ZrO2 composite coatings will result in higher hardness of the coating.

  20. ARTICLES: Synthesis of Biomorphic ZrO2-CeO2 Nanostructures by Silkworm Silk Template

    Zhang, Zong-jian; Li, Jia; Sun, Fu-sheng; Dickon, H. L. Ng; Luen Kwong, Fung


    A simple and green technique has been developed to prepare hierarchical biomorphic ZrO2-CeO2, using silkworm silk as the template. Different from traditional immersion technics, the whole synthesis process depends more on the restriction or direction functions of the silkworm silk template. The analytic results showed that ZrO2-CeO2 exhibited a well-crystallized hierarchically interwoven hollow fiber structure with 16-28 μm in diameter. The grain size of the sample calcined at 800 °C was about 14 nm. Consequently, the interwoven meshwork at three dimensions is formed due to the direction of biotemplate. The action mechanism is summarily discussed here. It may bring the biomorphic ZrO2-CeO2 nanomaterials with hierarchical interwoven structures to more applications, such as catalysts.

  1. Synthesis and thermoluminescence behavior of ZrO2:Eu3+ with variable concentration of Eu3+ doped phosphor

    Raunak Kumar Tamrakar


    Full Text Available Cubical ZrO2 phosphor doped with the europium synthesized by conventional solid state synthesis method. The prepared phosphor was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD technique, field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. In this paper, we focused on the thermoluminescence glow curves and kinetic parameters, activation energy, order of kinetics, and the frequency factor of ZrO2:Eu3+ phosphor under different doses of UV irradiations at a heating rate of 6.7 °C/s. The kinetic parameters activation energy E, the order of kinetics b, and the frequency factor s of synthesized phosphor of ZrO2:Eu3+ have been calculated by using a peak shape method.

  2. Prediction of the Isothermal Sections in the ZrO2-YO1.5-CeO2 System


    The experimental work on the ZrO2-YO1.5-CeO2 system, its limiting quasi-binaries and previous thermodynamic assessments are reviewed and evaluated. Isothermal sections of ZrO2-YO1.5-CeO2 system in the temperature region between 1450 and 1800°C are estimated according to the substitutional model using the Bonnier equation. The CSS+YSS two-phase region of the calculated isothermal section at 1700°C was found to be in good agreement with the experimentally obtained ternary diagram of Longo and Podda. The phase composition in the ZrO2-rich corner however disagreed significantly.

  3. Transformation toughening of Al2O3/ZrO2 laminated ceramics with residual compressive stress


    With the help of scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction, the relationships of microstmcture characteristics,phase assemblage, and fracture micrograph of Al2O3/ZrO2 laminated ceramics were studied. Compared with monolithic Al2O3/ZrO2 ceramics, the existence of surface compressive stresses greatly restrained the growth of ZrO2 and Al2O3 grains at high sinter temperature, fined the grain size, and increased the content of metastable t-ZrO2, which made the fracture transformation energy quantity 70% higher than that of the monolithic ceramics. The trans-granular and inter-granular fracture features were observed in the surface and center layers, which further verified that transformation toughening is the main mechanism, whereas, micro-crack toughening is helpful for enhancing fracture toughness.

  4. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of multi-elements-doped ZrO2 for degradation of indigo carmine

    ES Agorku; AT Kuvarega; BB Mamba; AC Pandey; AK Mishra


    In this study, C,N,S-doped ZrO2 and a series of Eu doped C,N,S-ZrO2 photocatalysts were synthesized by a coprecipitation method using thiourea as the source of C, N and S and Eu(NO3)·6H2O as source of Eu. The materials were characterized by X-ray dif-fraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Indigo carmine (IC) was chosen as a model for organic pollutants and used to evaluate the photocatalytic performance of the photo-catalysts under simulated solar light. Commercial ZrO2 was used as a reference material. XRD and Raman results indicated the for-mation of both tetragonal and monoclinic phase ZrO2 with particle size ranging from 8–30 nm. Multi-element doping had a great in-fluence on the optical responses manifested as red shift in the absorption edge. The highest photocatalytic activity towards IC was observed for the Eu,C,N,S-doped ZrO2 (0.6 mol.%Eu) sample (k=1.09×10–2 min–1). The commercial ZrO2 showed the lowest photo-degradation activity (k=5.83×10–4 min–1). The results showed that the control of Eu doping in the C,N,S-ZrO2 was very important in reducing electron-hole recombination. The synergistic effect of Eu, C, N, and S in the ZrO2 matrix led to enhanced utilization of simulated solar energy for the degradation of IC through narrowing of bandgaps.

  5. Effect of KOH added to ethylene glycol electrolyte on the self-organization of anodic ZrO2 nanotubes

    Rozana, Monna; Soaid, Nurul Izza; Kawamura, Go; Kian, Tan Wai; Matsuda, Atsunori; Lockman, Zainovia


    ZrO2 nanotube arrays were formed by anodizing zirconium sheet in ethylene glycol (EG) and EG added to it KOH (EG/KOH) electrolytes. The effect of KOH addition into EG electrolyte to the morphology of nanotubes and their crystallinity was investigated. It was observed that the tubes with diameter of ˜80 nm were formed in EG electrolyte with methyl orange (MO) on the tubes made in EG/KOH is less compared to the tubes made in EG only. This could be due to the less tetragonal ZrO2 presence in the tubes made in EG/KOH.

  6. Effect of ZrO2 on conductivity of PVC–PMMA–LiBF4–DBP polymer electrolytes

    S Rajendran; T Uma


    The preparation and characterization of composite polymer electrolytes of PVC–PMMA–LiBF4–DBP for different concentrations of ZrO2 have been investigated. FTIR studies indicate complex formation between the polymers, salt and plasticizer. The electrical conductivity values measured by a.c. impedance spectroscopy is found to depend upon the ZrO2 concentration. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of the polymer films seems to obey the VTF relation. The conductivity values are presented and results discussed.

  7. Atomic layer chemical vapor deposition of ZrO2-based dielectric films: Nanostructure and nanochemistry

    Dey, S. K.; Wang, C.-G.; Tang, D.; Kim, M. J.; Carpenter, R. W.; Werkhoven, C.; Shero, E.


    A 4 nm layer of ZrOx (targeted x˜2) was deposited on an interfacial layer (IL) of native oxide (SiO, t˜1.2 nm) surface on 200 mm Si wafers by a manufacturable atomic layer chemical vapor deposition technique at 300 °C. Some as-deposited layers were subjected to a postdeposition, rapid thermal annealing at 700 °C for 5 min in flowing oxygen at atmospheric pressure. The experimental x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy results showed that a multiphase and heterogeneous structure evolved, which we call the Zr-O/IL/Si stack. The as-deposited Zr-O layer was amorphous ZrO2-rich Zr silicate containing about 15% by volume of embedded ZrO2 nanocrystals, which transformed to a glass nanoceramic (with over 90% by volume of predominantly tetragonal-ZrO2 (t-ZrO2) and monoclinic-ZrO2 (m-ZrO2) nanocrystals) upon annealing. The formation of disordered amorphous regions within some of the nanocrystals, as well as crystalline regions with defects, probably gave rise to lattice strains and deformations. The interfacial layer (IL) was partitioned into an upper SiO2-rich Zr silicate and the lower SiOx. The latter was substoichiometric and the average oxidation state increased from Si0.86+ in SiO0.43 (as-deposited) to Si1.32+ in SiO0.66 (annealed). This high oxygen deficiency in SiOx was indicative of the low mobility of oxidizing specie in the Zr-O layer. The stacks were characterized for their dielectric properties in the Pt/{Zr-O/IL}/Si metal oxide-semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAP) configuration. The measured equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) was not consistent with the calculated EOT using a bilayer model of ZrO2 and SiO2, and the capacitance in accumulation (and therefore, EOT and kZr-O) was frequency dispersive, trends well documented in literature. This behavior is qualitatively explained in terms of the multilayer nanostructure and nanochemistry that evolves.

  8. 含二氧化锆陶瓷的热力学%Thermodynamics of some ZrO2-containing ceramics


    Thermodynamic assessment in the ternary systems ZrO2-CeO2-Y2O3 ,ZrO2-CeO2-Ce2O3 and the limiting binaries ZrO2-Y2O3,ZrO2-CeO2 ,CeO2-Y2O3, ZrO2-Ce2O3, CeO2-Ce2O3 as well as the modeling for oxides are reviewed comprehensively. Based on the recent estimations on the YO1.5 -CeO2, ZrO2 -CeO2 and ZrO2-YO1.5 systems, isothermal sections at 1 273 and 1 973 K of the ternary CeO2-ZrO2-YO1.5 system are calculated. In the system of ZrO2-CeO2-Ce2O3, the complex relation between the nonstoichiometry (y) in CeO2- y, the composition of the ZrO2-CeO2 solid solution and the oxygen partial pressure ( Po2 ) for different ZrO2 containing solid solutions Cez Zr1 - z O2 - x are evaluated from 1 473 to 1 773 K. The relation between the degree of Ce+ 4 reduction to Ce + 3 under different Po2 in the fluorite CeO2 - y and Cez Zr1- z O2 x solid solutions at different temperatures can be used as a guide in the development of functional ceramics.

  9. Surface Crystallization of a MgO/Y2O3/SiO2/Al2O3/ZrO2 Glass: Growth of an Oriented β-Y2Si2O7 Layer and Epitaxial ZrO2

    Wisniewski, Wolfgang; Seidel, Sabrina; Patzig, Christian; Rüssel, Christian


    The crystallization behavior of a glass with the composition 54.7 SiO2·10.9 Al2O3·15.0 MgO·3.4 ZrO2·16.0 Y2O3 is studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) including electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and (scanning) transmission electron microscopy [(S)TEM] including energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS). This glass shows the sole surface crystallization of four different yttrium silicates of the composition Y2Si2O7 (YS). The almost simultaneous but independent nucleation of α-, β-, δ-, and ε-YS at the surface is followed by growth into the bulk, where ε-YS quickly dominates a first crystallized layer. An accumulation of Mg at the growth front probably triggers a secondary nucleation of β-YS, which forms a thin compact layer before fragmenting into a highly oriented layer of fine grained crystals occupying the remaining bulk. The residual glass between the YS growth structures allows the crystallization of indialite, yttrium stabilized ZrO2 (Y-ZrO2) and very probably μ-cordierite during cooling. Hence, this glass basically shows the inverted order of crystallization observed in other magnesium yttrium alumosilicate glasses containing less Y2O3. An epitaxial relationship between Y-ZrO2 and ε-YS is proven and multiple twinning relationships occur in the YS phases.

  10. Effect of TiO2, ZrO2, and TiO2-ZrO2 on the performance of CuO-ZnO catalyst for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol

    Xiao, Jie; Mao, Dongsen; Guo, Xiaoming; Yu, Jun


    The influence of TiO2, ZrO2, and TiO2-ZrO2 mixed oxide on the catalytic performance of CuO-ZnO catalyst in the methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation was studied. The catalysts were prepared by oxalate co-precipitation method and characterized by TGA, N2 adsorption, XRD, reactive N2O adsorption, XPS, H2-TPR, H2-TPD, and CO2-TPD techniques. Characterization results reveal that all the additives improve the CuO dispersion in the catalyst body and increase the Cu surface area and adsorption capacities of CO2 and H2. The results of catalytic test reveal that the additives increase both the CO2 conversion and methanol selectivity, and TiO2-ZrO2 mixed oxide is more effective than single components of TiO2 or ZrO2. Moreover, the activity of methanol synthesis is correlated directly with CO2 adsorption capacity over the catalysts.

  11. Characterization of ZrO2 Films Deposited by Reactive Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering

    ZHAO Sha; XU Ke-wei; WANG Yuan


    ZrO2 thin films were deposited by r.f. reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The influence of electromagnetic coil current on microstructure and optical properties of the films was investigated. At low coil current of 0.2A, small grains are produced. With the increase of coil current, the deposition rate and surface roughness are decreased and the packing density in proportion to the refractive index is increased remarkably. The refractive index is as high as 2.236 (at λ=600nm) at 0.4A. At the high coil current of 0.6A, grains appear to grow up due to thermal effects and therefore optical properties of the films are deteriorated a little.

  12. Luminescent properties of ZrO2:Tb nanoparticles for applications in neuroscience

    Słońska, A.; Kaszewski, J.; Wolska-Kornio, E.; Witkowski, B.; Wachnicki, Ł.; Mijowska, E.; Karakitsou, V.; Gajewski, Z.; Godlewski, M.; Godlewski, M. M.


    In this paper a new generation of non-toxic nanoparticles based on the zirconium oxide doped with 0.5%Tb and co-doped by the range of 0-70% with Y was evaluated for the use as a fluorescent biomarker of neuronal trafficking. The ZrO2:Tb nanoparticles were created by microwave driven hydrothermal method. Influence of the yttrium content and thermal processing on the Tb3+ related luminescence emission was discussed. The higher intensities were achieved, when host was cubic and for the nanoparticles with 33 nm. Presence of yttrium was associated with the energy coupling of the host and dopant, wide excitation band is present at 309 and 322 nm before and after calcination respectively.

  13. Production of Camphene by Isomerization Reaction on Sulfated ZrO2

    NoraAlejandraComelli; OmarMasini; AlfredoL~zaroCarrascull; EstherNataliaPonzi; MartaIsabelPonzi


    The kinetics of camphene production in liquid phase from α-pinene was experimentally determined in an isothermal batch reactor. To this end, a sulfated ZrO2 catalyst was used and the reaction studied in the temperature range of 370-403 K. By analyzing the experimental data, second reaction order for α-pinene was found. A kinetic model is presented which includes term for the catalyst load used. The specific rate constant at 393K was 2.19×10-3 mol·L-1·min-1, the activation energy being 93kJ·mo1·-1. Both values are within the range of literature results.

  14. Wet processing and characterization of ZrO2/stainless steel composites: electrical and mechanical perfomance

    S. López-Esteban


    Full Text Available Zirconia/stainless steel composites have been prepared by a wet processing method with metal volume concentration ranging from 15% to 30%. The composites were characterized by electrical and mechanical measurements. The dependence of the electrical properties of these composites with the metal concentration presents a percolative behaviour with a metal-insulator transition, in addition to an increment of the capacity in the neighbourhood of a critical volume concentration. This value was found to be f c = 0.285, which is much higher than the theoretical value for randomly dispersed 3D composites (f c = 0.16. It has been found that the incorporation of stainless steel particles to zirconia matrix, increases the toughness and decreases both the hardness and the flexural strength. The enhancement of toughness is attributed to a crack deflection mechanism as a consequence of a weak ZrO2/stainless steel interface.

  15. Structural and dielectric properties of amorphous ZrO2 and HfO2

    Ceresoli, Davide; Vanderbilt, David


    Zirconia (ZrO2) and hafnia (HfO2) are leading candidates for replacing SiO2 as the gate insulator in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology. Amorphous versions of these materials ( a-ZrO2 and a-HfO2 ) can be grown as metastable phases on top of a silicon buffer; while they tend to recrystallize during subsequent annealing steps, they would otherwise be of considerable interest because of the promise they hold for improved uniformity and electrical passivity. In this work, we report our theoretical studies of a-ZrO2 and a-HfO2 by first-principles density-functional methods. We construct realistic amorphous models using the “activation-relaxation” technique of Barkema and Mousseau. The structural, vibrational, and dielectric properties of the resulting models are analyzed in detail. The overall average dielectric constant is computed and found to be comparable to that of the monoclinic phase.

  16. Acoustic vibrations of amorphous and crystalline ZrO2-TiO2 nanoparticles

    Ivanda, M.; Car, D.; Mikac, L.; Ristić, D.; Đerek, V.; Đerđ, I.; Štefanić, G.; Musić, S.


    Acoustic vibrational modes of ZrO2-TiO2 nanoparticles (ZT) have been observed and analyzed by means of low-frequency Raman spectroscopy (LFRS). The low-frequency Raman peak has been observed in the spectra of amorphous as well as of crystalline ZT nanoparticles. The results obtained by the LFRS have been compared to the results obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). After the method has been tested, the LFRS has been used to investigate the influence of the amount of dopant (Ti4+) and the annealing temperature on size distributions of the ZT nanoparticles. The observed reduction of the particles' growth-rate with Ti doping was ascribed with increase of defects in nanoparticles. Also, a discontinuity in the particles' growth-rate at the temperatures between 500 °C and 600 °C was observed. It is at these temperatures that the phase transition from amorphous to nanocrystalline phase occurs.

  17. Valence electron structure and properties of the ZrO2

    LI JinPing; MENG SongHe; HAN JieCai; ZHANG XingHong


    To reveal the properties of ZrO2 at the atom and electron levels, the valence elec-tron structures of three ZrO2 phases were analyzed on the basis of the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules. The results showed that the hybridization levels of Zr and O atoms in the m-ZrO2 were the same as those in the t-ZrO2, while those in the c-ZrO2 rose markedly. The electron numbers and bond energies on the strongest covalent bonds in the m-ZrO2 phase were the greatest, the values were 0.901106 and 157.5933 kJ/mol, respectively. Those in the t-ZrO2 phase took second place, which were 0.722182 and 123.9304 kJ/mol, and those in the c-ZrO2 phase were the smallest, which were 0.469323 and 79.0289 kJ/mol. According to the product of the bond energy on the strongest covalent bond and equivalent bond number (this value reflected the crystal cohesive energy), the order from the greatness to smallness was the c-ZrO2 t-ZrO2 m-ZrO2. This showed that the m-phase bonds were the tightest, their energy was the smallest, the crystal cohe-sive energy of the m-phase was the largest, and the m-phase existed most stably at room temperature. So it must need energy or higher temperature to take apart the stronger covalent bonds to form a new phase.

  18. Molecular level insights to the interaction of toluene with ZrO2-based biomass gasification gas clean-up catalysts

    Viinikainen, T.; Kauppi, I.; Korhonen, S.; Lefferts, L.; Kanervo, J.; Lehtonen, J.


    Gasification of biomass, followed by ZrO2-catalyzed hot gas clean-up at 600–900 °C for the oxidation of impurities (such as tar), is an environmentally attractive way to produce heat and power or synthesis gas. The interaction of toluene (as a model compound for tar) with ZrO2-based gasification gas

  19. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by photooxidation with ZrO2-doped TiO2 nanocomposite and its reuse capability.

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Oztekin, Rukiye


    Zirconium dioxide (zirconia, ZrO2)-doped TiO2 (TiO2/ZrO2) nanocomposite was used for the photocatalytic oxidation of pollutant parameters [COD components (CODtotal, CODdissolved and CODinert)], polyphenols (catechol, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, tyrosol and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid) and total polyaromatic amines [aniline, 4-nitroaniline, o-toluidine and o-anisidine] from the olive mill effluent wastewaters at different operational conditions such as at different mass ratios of ZrO2 (50, 25, 14, 10 and 5 wt%) in the TiO2/ZrO2 nanocomposite, at different TiO2/ZrO2 photocatalyst concentrations (1, 4, 15 and 50 mg/L) and pH values (4.0-7.0-10.0) under 300 W UV irradiations, respectively. Under the optimized conditions (pH = 4.6, 15 mg/L ZrO2/TiO2 nanocomposite with a ZrO2 mass ratio of 14 wt%, 300 W UV light, after 60 min photooxidation time, at 21°C), the maximum CODdissolved, total phenol and total aromatic amines photooxidation yields were 99%, 89% and 95%, respectively. High pollutant removal (89%) yields after sequential five times utilization of ZrO2/TiO2 nanocomposite show that this catalyst can be effectively used commercially in the treatment of olive mill effluent.

  20. Molecular level insights to the interaction of toluene with ZrO2-based biomass gasification gas clean-up catalysts

    Viinikainen, T.; Kauppi, I.; Korhonen, S.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Kanervo, J.; Lehtonen, J.


    Gasification of biomass, followed by ZrO2-catalyzed hot gas clean-up at 600–900 °C for the oxidation of impurities (such as tar), is an environmentally attractive way to produce heat and power or synthesis gas. The interaction of toluene (as a model compound for tar) with ZrO2-based gasification gas

  1. Raman spectroscopic characterization of ZrO2 and yttrium stabilized zirconias

    Kjerulf-Jensen, N.; Berg, Rolf W.; Poulsen, Finn Willy


    forward. The spectral features of the Raman spectra do furthermore not only depend on the phase composition, but also depend on the frequency of the excitation, temperature of experiment and texture/orientation of zirconia crystallites under investigation. These effects are illustrated by Raman spectra...

  2. Tensile Strength and Microstructure of Al2O3-ZrO2 Hypo-Eutectic Fibers Studied

    Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali


    Oxide eutectics offer high-temperature strength retention and creep resistance in oxidizing environments. Al2O3-ZrO2 eutectic strengths have been studied since the 1970's. Directionally solidified oxide eutectics exhibit improved resistance to slow crack growth and excellent strength retention at high temperatures up to 1400 C. Materials studied typically contain Y2O3 to metastably retain the high-temperature cubic and tetragonal polymorphs at room temperature. Al2O3-ZrO2 is of fundamental interest for creep studies because it combines a creep-resistant material, Al2O3, with a very low creep resistance material, ZrO2. Results on mechanical properties and microstructures of these materials will be used to define compositions for creep testing in future work. Substantial variations from the eutectic alumina to zirconia ratio can be tolerated without a loss in room-temperature strength. The effect of increasing Y2O3 addition on the room-temperature tensile strength of an Al2O3-ZrO2 material containing excess Al2O3 was examined at the NASA Glenn Research Center, where the materials were grown using Glenn's world-class laser growth facilities.

  3. Friedel-Crafts Alkylation of o-xylene over V2O5/ZrO2 Catalysts

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani


    Full Text Available The present study has undertaken the Friedel-Crafts benzylation of aromatics over the V2O5/ZrO2 catalysts systems. Catalysts with different V2O5 content (0-15wt %) was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized by XRD, BET surface area...

  4. Optical enhancement of Au doped ZrO2 thin films by sol-gel dip coating method

    John Berlin, I.; Joy, K.


    Homogeneous and transparent Au doped ZrO2 thin films were prepared by sol-gel dip coating method. The films have mixed phase of tetragonal, monoclinic and face centered cubic with crack free surface. Due to the increase in Au doping concentration many-body interaction occurs between free carriers and ionized impurities causing decrease in optical band gap from 5.72 to 5.40 eV. Localized surface plasmon resonance peak of the Au doped films appeared at 610 nm. Conversion of photons to surface plasmons allows the sub-wavelength manipulation of electromagnetic radiation. Hence the prepared Au doped ZrO2 thin films can be applied in nanoscale photonic devices such as lenses, switches, waveguides etc. Moreover the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of Au doped ZrO2 thin films decrease due to decrease in the radiative recombination, life time of the excitons and suppression of grain growth of ZrO2 with increasing Au dopant.

  5. Photoelectric properties of TiO2-ZrO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel method.

    Zhang, Haifeng; Ruan, Shengping; Feng, Caihui; Xu, Baokun; Chen, Weiyou; Dong, Wei


    Acidic sols of TiO2, ZrO2 and Ti-Zr mixed oxide precursors were prepared. The sols were then smeared on quartz substrate and annealed at 650 degrees C for 2 hour to form polycrystalline oxide films. XRD, SEM, UV-visible absorption spectra and XPS were carried out to characterize the films. It was found that the crystalline phase of pure titania is an anatase and pure zirconia is a tetragonal. The binary oxides show the anatase phase at the molar ratio of Ti:Zr = 2.73:1, which means that solid solution was formed. The absorption edge of the TiO2-ZrO2 binary oxides showed obvious blue shift as the Zr ratio increased. The results obtained indicate that the band gap of the binary oxides could be adjusted from 3.2 eV (TiO2) to 7.8 eV (ZrO2) by varying the molar ratio of Ti and Zr. Au interdigitated electrodes were produced by planar technology and MSM (metal-semiconductor-metal) structure UV detector based on TiO2-ZrO2 binary oxides was fabricated. Obvious photoelectric response was observed.

  6. The comparison of photocatalytic activity of synthesized TiO 2 and ZrO 2 nanosize onto wool fibers

    Moafi, Hadi Fallah; Shojaie, Abdollah Fallah; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali


    TiO 2 and ZrO 2 nanocrystals were successfully synthesized and deposited onto wool fibers using the sol-gel technique at low temperature. The photocatalytic activities of TiO 2-coated and ZrO 2-coated wool fibers were measured by studying photodegradation of methylene blue and eosin yellowish dyes. The initial and the treated samples were characterized by several techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and X-ray diffraction. The TEM study shows dispersed particles with 10-30 nm in size for TiO 2-coated and 20-40 nm in size for ZrO 2-coated samples on the fiber surface. Comparison of the photocatalytic activity of the coated samples reveals superiority of TiO 2 modified sample with respect to that of ZrO 2 for degradation of both dyes. Our observations indicate that by applying this technique to the fabrics, self-cleaning materials could be designed for practical application.

  7. Structure and properties of solid polymer electrolyte based on chitosan and ZrO2 nanoparticle for lithium ion battery

    Sudaryanto, Yulianti, Evi; Patimatuzzohrah


    In order to develop all solid lithium ion battery, study on the structure and properties of solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) based on chitosan has been done. The SPE were prepared by adding Zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticle and LiClO4 as lithium salt into the chitosan solution followed by casting method. Effect of the ZrO2 and salt concentration to the structure and properties of SPE were elaborated using several methods. The structure of the SPE cast film, were characterized mainly by using X-ray diffractometer (XRD). While the electrical properties of SPE were studied by electrochemical impedance spectrometer (EIS) and ion transference number measurement. XRD profiles show that the addition of ZrO2 and LiClO4 disrupts the crystality of chitosan. The decrease in sample crytalinity with the nanoparticle and salt addition may increase the molecular mobility result in the increasing sample conductivity and cathionic transference number as determined by EIS and ion transference number measurement, respectively. The highest ionic conductivity (3.58×10-4 S cm-1) was obtained when 4 wt% of ZrO2 nanoparticle and 40 wt% of LiClO4 salt were added to the chitosan. The ion transference number with that composition was 0.55. It is high enough to be used as SPE for lithium ion battery.

  8. Improve sonocatalytic performance using modified semiconductor catalyst SnO2 and ZrO2 by magnetite materials

    Paramarta, V.; Kristianto, Y.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.


    Modifying semiconductor catalysts using magnetic materials could enhance the efficiency of wastewater removal and the separation efficiency demonstrated in our previous studies. The catalytic performance of wide band gap ZrO2 and SnO2 semiconductors has not been studied with regard to the ultrasonic radiation catalytic process. Therefore, the ultrasound-assisted sonocatalytic performance of ZrO2 and SnO2 semiconductors combined with Fe3O4 (magnetite) nanoparticles has been studied using methylene blue as a model organic pollutant. The nanocomposites were synthesized using sol-gel methods. The structural properties of the samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Sample morphology was obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The magnetic properties of the samples were characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The cubic spinel structure of Fe3O4 is successfully identified, as are the tetragonal structures from SnO2 and ZrO2. The samples exhibit ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. Both ZrO2 and SnO2 combined with Fe3O4 show better sonocatalytic efficiency than without Fe3O4 and even better efficiency than the pioneering wide band gap semiconductor TiO2. The combination of magnetite nanoparticles with SnO2 exhibit the highest degradation efficiency. The incorporation of magnetic material into catalysts has been proved to enhance the reusability of catalysts with efficient separation process.

  9. Research on ZrO2 Thermal Barrier Coatings Modified by High-Intensity Pulsed Ion Beam

    WV Di; LIU Chen; ZHU Xiao-Peng; LEI Ming-Kai


    @@ We report a modification method for ZrO2 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) by high-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) irradiation. Based on the temporal and spatial distribution models of the ion beam density detected by Faraday cup in the chamber and the ions accelerating voltage, the energy deposition of the beam ions in ZrO2 is calculated by Monte Carlo method. Taking this time-dependent nonlinear deposited energy as the source term of two-dimensional thermal conduction equation, we obtain the temporal and spatial ablation process of ZrO2 thermal barrier coatings during a pulse time. The top-layer TBC material in thickness of about 0.2μm is ablated by vaporization and the coating in thickness of 1 μm is melted after one shot at the ion current density of 200 A/cm2. This calculation is in reasonable agreement with those measured by HIPIB irradiation experiments.The melted top coat becoming a dense modification layer due to HIPIB irradiation seals the gaps among ZrO2crystal clusters, and hence barrels the direct tunnel of oxygen.

  10. Effects of Interlayer Composition on Bond Strength and Interfacial Microstructure of Green Joined CePO4-ZrO2 Ceramics

    高海; 刘家臣; 刘名郑; 王丽娟; 霍伟荣


    Effects of interlayer composition on bonding strength and interfacial microstruc ture of green joined CePO4-ZrO2 ceramics were studied. Green bodies of 25%C ePO4/ZrO2 and ZrO2 ceramics were joined by using interlayer composed of Ce PO4 and ZrO2 at 1450 ℃ for 120 min without applied pressure.The effects of CePO4/(CePO4+ZrO2) ratio on the bond strength of the joints were investiga ted. Under the experimental conditions, the grain size of the particles grown in the joint is smaller than those in joined ceramics. The microstructure of the joint is more homogeneous than that of the matrix and without obvious cracks, pores and other defects.

  11. Super color purity green organic light-emitting diodes with ZrO2/zircone nanolaminates as a distributed Bragg reflector deposited by atomic layer deposition

    Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Yanqiong; Wei, Mengjie; Ding, He; Wei, Bin; Zhang, Zhilin


    ZrO2/zircone nanolaminate thin films fabricated by atomic layer deposition were used for a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) in green organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). It is found that the novel ZrO2/zircone DBR structure significantly improves the light purity of green OLEDs without interfering with intrinsic electroluminescence properties. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the EL spectral band for the green OLEDs decreases with respect to increasing the ZrO2/zircone pairs. The FWHMs of OLEDs with 0, 2, 4, and 6 pairs of ZrO2/zircone layers are 72 nm, 48 nm, 24 nm, and 12 nm, respectively. A super-narrow FWHM of 12 nm is achieved by using six pairs of the DBR structure. The EQE is increased from 10.7% to 16.1% with four pairs of ZrO2/zircone layers.

  12. Room-temperature atomic layer deposition of ZrO2 using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)zirconium and plasma-excited humidified argon

    Kanomata, K.; Tokoro, K.; Imai, T.; Pansila, P.; Miura, M.; Ahmmad, B.; Kubota, S.; Hirahara, K.; Hirose, F.


    Room-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZrO2 is developed with tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)zirconium (TEMAZ) and a plasma-excited humidified argon. A growth per cycle of 0.17 nm/cycle at room temperature is confirmed, and the TEMAZ adsorption and its oxidization on ZrO2 are characterized by IR absorption spectroscopy with a multiple internal reflection mode. TEMAZ is saturated on a ZrO2 surface with exposures exceeding ∼2.0 × 105 Langmuir (1 Langmuir = 1.0 × 10-6 Torr s) at room temperature, and the plasma-excited humidified argon is effective in oxidizing the TEMAZ-adsorbed ZrO2 surface. The IR absorption spectroscopy suggests that Zr-OH works as an adsorption site for TEMAZ. The reaction mechanism of room-temperature ZrO2 ALD is discussed in this paper.

  13. Capas finas de ZrO2 para mejorar la resistencia química de los vidriados mates de calcio

    Blasco, E.


    Full Text Available The chemical resistance of ceramic glazes susceptible to it, and more specifically the glazes formulated with a calcium matt frit, is enhanced by depositing on the surface a thin layer of zirconium oxide. A stabilized zirconia sol is the precursor of the layer, which is deposited by spray painting over the glaze, and with a mild heat treatment (Tmax ≈ 400 ° C is transformed into ZrO2 and anchored to the glaze’s surface. Chemical resistance tests show that the protected glaze does not suffer a visually significant attack by concentrated hydrochloric acid, conditions under which the same glaze without the coating is severely damaged. The used precursor generates a zirconium oxide layer that protects the underlying glaze, so that the chemical attack by the hydrochloric acid is confined to cracks and discontinuities in the deposited layer.La resistencia al ataque químico de vidriados cerámicos susceptibles al mismo, concretamente formulados a partir de una frita mate de calcio, se ha mejorado depositando en la superficie una capa delgada de óxido de circonio. Un sol de circonio estabilizado es el precursor de la capa, el cual se deposita mediante aerografía sobre el vidriado cocido y con un tratamiento térmico suave (Tmax ≈ 400 ºC, es transformado en ZrO2 y anclado a la superficie. Los ensayos de resistencia química demuestran que el vidriado protegido no sufre un ataque apreciable visualmente por parte del ácido clorhídrico concentrado, condiciones en las que el mismo vidriado sin el recubrimiento resulta gravemente dañado. El precursor utilizado genera una capa de óxido de circonio que protege el vidriado subyacente, de modo que el ataque químico por parte del ácido clorhídrico queda confinado al entorno de las grietas y discontinuidades de la capa depositada.

  14. Humic acid removal and easy-cleanability using temperature-responsive ZrO2 tubular membranes grafted with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brush chains.

    Zhao, Yijiang; Zhou, Shouyong; Li, Meisheng; Xue, Ailian; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jingang; Xing, Weihong


    New poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes grafted with ZrO2 (PNIPAAm-g-ZrO2) composite membranes, which had been prepared in our laboratory, were used for humic acid (HA) removal. We found that the fluxes associated with such membranes, when compared to those obtained from unmodified ZrO2 membranes, declined slightly at both 25 °C and 35 °C. The PNIPAAm-g-ZrO2 membrane achieved a high rejection, of 98.0%, at a suitable steady flux of 111.9 L m(-2) h(-1) at 25 °C. This membrane exhibited good anti-fouling properties as well as improved membrane performance during filtration of HA. The important role of pH and Ca(2+) concentration in HA removal was also investigated. Lower adsorption fouling and a higher rejection were obtained at higher pH levels. The Ca(2+) ions reduced the electrostatic exclusion and played a cross-linking role between HA and the PNIPAAm-g-ZrO2 membrane surface. Fouling was severe in the presence of Ca(2+). These tests led to the development of an environment-friendly membrane cleaning method, by means of temperature-change water elution around LCST of PNIPAAm-brushes. After the alternate temperature-change (25 °C/35 °C) cleaning, a flux recovery of 98.2% was obtained for the PNIPAAm-g-ZrO2 membrane. Moreover, after four repeated experiments, the anti-fouling and easy-cleaning properties were still maintained. It is implied that PNIPAAm-brushes were firmly "stuck" to the membrane surface, and could not easily be removed by water cleaning or HA filtration. The PNIPAAm-g-ZrO2 membranes exhibited good stability and great potential for HA removal.

  15. Activity and antitoxic properties of Cr--MnOx/TiO2--ZrO2 for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO%Cr--MnOx/TiO2--ZrO2低温选择催化还原NO的活性及抗毒性能

    李哲; 汪莉; 贠丽; 王振南; 李梦霞; 李鑫


    resulting in the enhanced antitoxic performance of Cr-MnOx/TiO2-ZrO2 . Among the prepared five catalysts with different molar ratios of Cr/(Cr+Mn), Cr(0. 4)- MnOx/TiO2- ZrO2 demonstrates the best performance owing to the largest surface area and the best particle dispersion, and a 95. 8% denitrification efficiency can be achieved at 180℃. When 5% H2 O and 10 -4 SO2 are simultaneously added, the denitrification efficiency decreases slowly and stabilizes at 73% after 8 h reaction.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of chemical stability of ceramic materials in hydrogen-containing atmospheres at high temperatures

    Misra, Ajay K.


    The chemical stability of several ceramic materials in hydrogen-containing environments was analyzed with thermodynamic considerations in mind. Equilibrium calculations were made as a function of temperature, moisture content, and total system pressure. The following ceramic materials were considered in this study: SiC, Si3N4, SiO2, Al2O3, mullite, ZrO2, Y2O3, CaO, MgO, BeO, TiB2, TiC, HfC, and ZrC. On the basis of purely thermodynamic arguments, upper temperature limits are suggested for each material for long-term use in H2-containing atmospheres.

  17. A study on microstructure and corrosion resistance of ZrO2-containing PEO coatings formed on AZ31 Mg alloy in phosphate-based electrolyte

    Zhuang, J. J.; Guo, Y. Q.; Xiang, N.; Xiong, Y.; Hu, Q.; Song, R. G.


    ZrO2-containing ceramic coatings formed on the AZ31 Mg alloy were fabricated in an alkaline electrolyte containing sodium phosphate and potassium fluorozirconate (K2ZrF6) by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were used to study the phase structure and composition of the coatings. It is indicated that the coatings formed in the K2ZrF6-containing electrolyte were composed of MgO, MgF2 and t-ZrO2. Morphological investigation carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and stereoscopic microscopy, revealed that the uniformity of coatings increased and roughness of coatings decreased after the addition of K2ZrF6. Electrochemical investigation was achieved by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test. The results showed that the PEO coating formed in K2ZrF6-containing electrolyte exhibited an improved corrosion resistance than that of the coating formed in K2ZrF6-free electrolyte. In addition, the polarization and EIS tests results both showed that the suitable concentration (2.5 g/l) of K2ZrF6 is of significant ability to improve the corrosion resistance of coatings. However, 5 g/l and 10 g/l K2ZrF6 has a negative effect on improving the corrosion resistance of PEO coatings compared with the coating formed in 2.5 g/l K2ZrF6-containing electrolyte.

  18. Impact of the oxygen defects and the hydrogen concentration on the surface of tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO2 on the reduction rates of stearic acid on Ni/ZrO2

    Foraita, Sebastian D.; Fulton, John L.; Chase, Zizwe A.; Vjunov, Aleksei; Xu, Pinghong; Barath, Eszter; Camaioni, Donald M.; Zhao, Chen; Lercher, Johannes A.


    The effect of the physicochemical properties of ZrO2 phases on the activity of Ni/ZrO2 catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation of stearic acid are described. A synergistic interaction between Ni and ZrO2 support was found. The effect is greatest for the monoclinic phase of ZrO2.

  19. Local structure and nanoscale homogeneity of CeO2-ZrO2: differences and similarities to parent oxides revealed by luminescence with temporal and spectral resolution.

    Tiseanu, Carmen; Parvulescu, Vasile; Avram, Daniel; Cojocaru, Bogdan; Boutonnet, Magali; Sanchez-Dominguez, Margarita


    Although homogeneity at the atomic level of CeO2-ZrO2 with a Ce/Zr atomic ratio close to unity is considered to be one of the main causes for the increased total oxygen storage capacity (OSC), the characterization approaches of homogeneity remain a major challenge. We propose a simple, yet effective method, to assess both structural and compositional homogeneity of CeO2-ZrO2 by using Eu(3+) luminescence measured with time and dual spectral resolution (emission and excitation). For Eu(3+)-CeO2-ZrO2 calcined at 750 °C, the X-ray diffraction, Raman and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy data converge to a single pseudo-cubic phase. However, the evolution of Eu(3+)-delayed luminescence from cubic ceria-like to tetragonal zirconia-like emission reveals the formation of CeO2- and ZrO2-rich nanodomains and provides evidence for early phase separation. For Eu(3+)-CeO2-ZrO2 calcined at 1000 °C, the emission of Eu(3+) reveals both structural and compositional inhomogeneity. Our study identifies the differences between the local structure properties of CeO2 and ZrO2 parent oxides and CeO2-ZrO2 mixed oxide, also confirming the special chemical environment of the oxygen atoms in the mixed oxide as reported earlier by Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure investigations.




    Full Text Available Zirconia (ZrO2 doped with oxides of Yttria, Calcia, Magnesia are well established systems for Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC applications. TBCs are generally used in aero engines and in space vehicle and heavy duty diesel engine components to protect them from the severe degradation arising due to high temperature environment.The well known 7-8 % YPSZ (Yttria Partially Stabilized Zirconia TBC under goes reversible phase transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic, due to which the coating becomes unstable. To over come this problem in the present research focused on to find the lternative materials such as Lanthanum and Praseodymium oxide has been used as a dopant or stabilizer to Zirconia at various ercentages. Lanthanum and Praseodymium zirconate (La2Zr2O7, Pr2Zr2O7 is a newly proposed material for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs. Automobile diesel engine application. Various characterization tests such as XRD, EDAX, and Particle Size Analysis have been conducted after calcinated for various temperater.To optimize and determine the dopant concentration for partial or full stabilization of Zirconia and to study the stabilization effect of Zirconates two methods have been followed. first method,Powder prepared by agate jar mixing., second method Powder prepared by wet ball milling in the first method zirconate is not formed for calcinations temperature of 16150 C and in the second method Ziconate formed at the optimum calcinations temperature of 14150C.

  1. 水热法制备高纯超细CeO2-ZrO2复合氧化物%Preparation of High Purity and Superfine CeO2-ZrO2 by Hydrothermal Method

    郑育英; 黄慧民; 邓淑华; 李大光; 余双平


    Superfine composite powders of CeO2-ZrO2 (CZ) and CeO2-ZrO2-La2O3 (CZL) were prepared by hydrothermal method. The effects of pH ,temperature and time for hydrothermal process on the performance of the resulting powders were studied. The optimized reaction parameters were on follows: the precursor's pH≈9.0, hydrothermal temperature of 200 ℃ holding for 2 h. Thermal stable powders with average particle size smaller than 10 nm and specific surface area of 171 m2·g-1 were obtained. A BET specific surface area was still at 44 m2·g-1 after calcination at 1 000 ℃ for 6 hours.

  2. Fabrication of ZrC/SiC, ZrO2/SiC and ZrO2 powders by carbothermal reduction of ZrSiO4

    Ljiljana Kljajević


    Full Text Available The zirconia/silicon carbide (ZrO2 /SiC and ZrO2 powders are prepared by carbothermal reduction of natural mineral zircon (ZrSiO4. The zircon powder was mixed with activated carbon as a reducing agent and heattreated in a controlled flow atmosphere of Ar. Phase evolution and phase content were followed as a function of temperature (1573–1973 K and C/ZrSiO4 ratio (C/ZrSiO4 = 1, 4, 5 and 7, by means of ex-situ X-ray diffraction and SEM/EDS analysis. By varying the temperature and C/ZrSiO4 ratio, different powder compositions were obtained (m-ZrO2; m-ZrO2/c-ZrO2; c-ZrO2; c-ZrO2/SiC.

  3. Chitosan /Zeolite Y/Nano ZrO2 nanocomposite as an adsorbent for the removal of nitrate from the aqueous solution.

    Teimouri, Abbas; Nasab, Shima Ghanavati; Vahdatpoor, Niaz; Habibollahi, Saeed; Salavati, Hossein; Chermahini, Alireza Najafi


    In the present study, a series of chitosan/Zeolite Y/Nano Zirconium oxide (CTS/ZY/Nano ZrO2) nanocomposites were made by controlling the molar ratio of chitosan (CTS) to Zeolite Y/Nano Zirconium oxide in order to remove nitrate (NO3(-)) ions in the aqueous solution. The nanocomposite adsorbents were characterized by XRD, FTIR, BET, SEM and TEM. The influence of different molar ratios of CTS to ZY/Nano ZrO2, the initial pH value of the nitrate solution, contact time, temperature, the initial concentration of nitrate and adsorbent dose was studied. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics were also analyzed. It was attempted to describe the sorption processes by the Langmuir equation and the theoretical adsorption capacity (Q0) was found to be 23.58mg nitrate per g of the adsorbent. The optimal conditions for nitrate removal were found to be: molar ratio of CTS/ZY/Nano ZrO2: 5:1; pH: 3; 0.02g of adsorbent and temperature: 35°C, for 60min. The adsorption capacities of CTS, ZY, Nano ZrO2, CTS/Nano ZrO2, CTS/ZY and CTS/ZY/Nano ZrO2 nanocomposites for nitrate removal were compared, showing that the adsorption ability of CTS/ZY/Nano ZrO2 nanocomposite was higher than the average values of those of CTS (1.95mg/g for nitrate removal), ZY, Nano ZrO2, CTS/Nano ZrO2, and CTS/ZY.

  4. Electronic structure and electron energy-loss spectroscopy of ZrO2 zirconia

    Dash, L. K.; Vast, Nathalie; Baranek, Philippe; Cheynet, Marie-Claude; Reining, Lucia


    The atomic and electronic structures of zirconia are calculated within density functional theory, and their evolution is analyzed as the crystal-field symmetry changes from tetrahedral [cubic (c-ZrO2) and tetragonal (t-ZrO2) phases] to octahedral (hypothetical rutile ZrO2 ), to a mixing of these symmetries (monoclinic phase, m-ZrO2 ). We find that the theoretical bulk modulus in c-ZrO2 is 30% larger than the experimental value, showing that the introduction of yttria in zirconia has a significant effect. Electronic structure fingerprints which characterize each phase from their electronic spectra are identified. We have carried out electron energy-loss spectroscopy experiments at low momentum transfer and compared these results to the theoretical spectra calculated within the random phase approximation. We show a dependence of the valence and 4p ( N2,3 edge) plasmons on the crystal structure, the dependence of the latter being brought into the spectra by local-field effects. Last, we attribute low energy excitations observed in EELS of m-ZrO2 to defect states 2eV above the top of the intrinsic valence band, and the EELS fundamental band gap value is reconciled with the 5.2 or 5.8eV gaps determined by vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy.

  5. Infrared spectroscopy and luminescence spectra of Yb3+ doped ZrO2 nanophosphor

    Raunak Kumar Tamrakar


    Full Text Available The present paper reports infrared spectroscopy and luminescence spectra of Yb3+ doped ZrO2 nanophosphor. Sample was prepared by combustion synthesis method (CSM for the variable concentration of ytterbium. The low temperature synthesis method was suitable for large scale production present method is an eco-friendly method as well as less time taking method as compared to other methods. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD technique; scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR technique. The crystal size was calculated by Scherer's formula. The particle size distribution in prepared sample was determined by SEM and TEM study. The photoluminescence spectra was recorded under the 980 nm laser excitation with the variable concentration of ytterbium. Here the PL intensity increases with increasing the concentration of ytterbium. No concentration quenching were observed. The PL emission spectra shows intense emission peaks at 987, 998 and 1021 nm all in infrared regions.

  6. Surface Passivation of ZrO2 Artificial Dentures by Magnetized Coaxial Plasma deposition

    Arai, Soya; Kurumi, Satoshi; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Suzuki, Kaoru; Hara, Katsuya; Kato, Tatsuya; Asai, Tomohiko; Hirose, Hideharu; Masutani, Shigeyuki; Nihon University Team


    Recent growth and fabrication technologies for functional materials have been greatly contributed to drastic development of oral surgery field. Zirconia based ceramics is expected to utilize artificial dentures because these ceramics have good biocompatibility, high hardness and aesthetic attractively. However, to apply these ceramics to artificial dentures, this denture is removed from a dental plate because of weakly bond. For improving this problem, synthesis an Al passivation-layer on the ceramics for bonding with these dental items is suitable. In order to deposit the passivation layer, we focused on a magnetized coaxial plasma deposition (MCPD). The greatest characteristic of MCPD is that high-melting point metal can be deposited on various substrates. Additionally, adhesion force between substrate and films deposited by the MCPD is superior to it of general deposition methods. In this study, we have reported on the growth techniques of Al films on ZrO2 for contributing to oral surgery by the MCPD. Surface of deposited films shows there were some droplets and thickness of it is about 200 nm. Thickness is increased to 500 nm with increasing applied voltage.

  7. Damage formation, fatigue behavior and strength properties of ZrO2-based ceramics

    Kozulin, A. A.; Narikovich, A. S.; Kulkov, S. N.; Leitsin, V. N.; Kulkov, S. S.


    It is suggested that a non-destructive testing technique using a three-dimensional X-ray tomography be applied to detecting internal structural defects and monitoring damage formation in a ceramic composite structure subjected to a bending load. Three-point bending tests are used to investigate the fatigue behavior and mechanical and physical properties of medical-grade ZrO2-based ceramics. The bending strength and flexural modulus are derived under static conditions at a loading rate of 2 mm/min. The fatigue strength and fatigue limit under dynamic loading are investigated at a frequency of 10 Hz in three stress ranges: 0.91-0.98, 0.8-0.83, and 0.73-0.77 MPa of the static bending strength. The average values of the bending strength and flexural modulus of sintered specimens are 43 MPa and 22 GPa, respectively. The mechanical properties of the ceramics are found to be similar to those of bone tissues. The testing results lead us to conclude that the fatigue limit obtained from 105 stress cycles is in the range 33-34 MPa, i.e. it accounts for about 75% of the static bending strength for the test material.

  8. TiO2 ve ZrO2/TiO2 Kompozit Mikrokürecik Sentezi ve Metilen Mavisinin Degradasyonunda Fotokatalitik Aktiviteleri

    Vaizoğulları, Ali İmran; Balcı, Ahmet; Uğurlu, Mehmet; KARAOĞLU, Muhammet Hamdi


    TiO2 and ZrO2/TiO2 composite microsphere particles were synthesized using the sol‐gel method. Photoactivity of TiO2 and ZrO2/TiO2 were compared.  Particles were characterized using X‐ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of X‐ray (EDAX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The study revealed that TiO2 particles were microspheres.    The decorating of ZrO2 particles on TiO2 surface was successfully carried out that was pr...

  9. Synthesis of TiO2 and ZrO2/TiO2 Composite Microspheres and Their Photo‐Catalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue

    Vaizoğulları, Ali İmran; Balcı, Ahmet; UĞURLU, Mehmet; Karaoğlu, Muhammet Hamdi


    TiO2 and ZrO2/TiO2 composite microsphere particles were synthesized using the sol‐gel method. Photoactivity of TiO2 and ZrO2/TiO2 were compared.  Particles were characterized using X‐ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of X‐ray (EDAX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The study revealed that TiO2 particles were microspheres.    The decorating of ZrO2 particles on TiO2 surface was successfully carried out that was pr...

  10. Effects of Preparation Conditions of TiO2-ZrO2 on Vapor-Phase Beckmann Rearrangement of Cyclohexanone Oxime over B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2 Catalyst%TiO2-ZrO2制备条件对B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2催化环己酮肟气相Beckmann重排反应的影响

    毛东森; 陈庆龄; 卢冠忠


    考察了载体TiO2-ZrO2的制备条件对B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2催化环己酮肟气相Beckmann重排反应性能的影响,确定较佳的制备条件:分别以四氯化钛和氧氯化锆为钛源和锆源,采用反滴法将原料慢慢地滴加到沉淀剂氨水溶液中,沉淀终点的pH等于9.0,沉淀的老化温度25 ℃,焙烧温度500 ℃.环己酮肟的转化率和己内酰胺的选择性分别高达99.7%和97.0%.

  11. Electrochemical and Reaction Bonding Processing of Thick ZrO2/Al2O3 Composite Coatings

    WANGZhou-cheng; XIAOPing


    A novel technique combining electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and reaction bonding process (RBP) is developed to fabricate thick ZrO2/Al2O3 composite coatings. Mixed organic solvents are used here to make suspension containing yttria stablised zirconia (YSZ) and aluminium (Al). The results show that densely packed green form coatings are deposited using a mixture of ethanol and acetylacetone as suspension medium and ball milling for 48 hours. On subsequent heat treatment, melting and oxidation of aluminium in the green forms promote densification during sintering. By these means,thick, uniform and crack-free ZrO2/Al2O3 composite coatings have been fabricated on metal substrate.

  12. Electrochemical and Reaction Bonding Processing of Thick ZrO2/Al2O3 Composite Coatings

    WANG Zhou-cheng; XIAO Ping


    A novel technique combining electrophoretic deposition (EPD) and reaction bonding process (RBP) is developed to fabricate thick ZrO2/Al2O3 composite coatings. Mixed organic solvents are used here to make suspension containing yttria stablised zirconia (YSZ) and aluminium (Al). The results show that densely packed green form coatings are deposited using a mixture of ethanol and acetylacetone as suspension medium and ball milling for 48 hours. On subsequent heat treatment, melting and oxidation of aluminium in the green forms promote densification during sintering. By these means,thick, uniform and crack-free ZrO2/Al2O3 composite coatings have been fabricated on metal substrate.


    Mohammad Sadiq


    Full Text Available Zirconia was prepared by a precipitation method and calcined at 723 K, 1023 K, and 1253 K in order to obtain monoclinic zirconia. The prepared zirconia was characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, surface area and pore size analyzer, and particle size analyzer. Monoclinic ZrO2 as a catalyst was used for the gas-phase oxidation of isopropanol to acetone in a Pyrex-glass-flow-type reactor with a temperature range of 443 K - 473 K. It was found that monoclinic ZrO2 shows remarkable catalytic activity (68% and selectivity (100% for the oxidation of isopropanol to acetone. This kinetic study reveals that the oxidation of isopropanol to acetone follows the L-H mechanism.

  14. Toughening mechanism of lined Al2O3-ZrO2 multiphase ceramics in SHS composite pipes


    Hypoeutectic and hypereutectic Al2O3-ZrO2 multiphase ceramics-lined composite pipes were produced by using the gravitational separation self-propagate high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process.The microstructure of the ceramics was observed by means of SEM and EPMA.The fracture toughness of the multiphase ceramics was tested by using the Vickers indentation method.The ceramics is 15.23 Mpa.m1/2.The toughening mechanisms were systematically investigated by means of SEM and XRD.The results show that the bridging toughening mechanism, stress induced ZrO2 transformation toughening mechanism, and microcrack toughening mechanism are the predominant toughening mechanism.

  15. Poisoning and regeneration of Pt-Pd/WO3-ZrO2 short paraffin isomerization catalysts

    Sergio Canavese


    Full Text Available WO3-ZrO2 catalysts promoted with Pt and Pd were tested as paraffin isomerization catalysts using n-hexane as model compound. Sulfur and amine poisoning and regeneration tests were used to assess the impact of the addition of Pt and Pd on the deactivation resistance and regenerability. Pt and PtPd catalysts were the most active for n-hexane isomerization. The low activity of the Pd catalyst was attributed to poor Pd metal properties when supported over WO3-ZrO2 and to a decrease of the number of BrQnsted acid sites. PtPd was the only catalyst capable of full regeneration after S poisoning. Amine poisoning completely supressed the isomerization activity and the original activity could only be restored by calcination and reduction.

  16. Kinetics of Heterogeneous Solvent-free Liquid Phase Oxidation of Alcohol Using ZrO2 Catalyst with Molecular Oxygen

    ILYAS Mohammad; SADIQ Mohammad


    Clean liquid phase solvent-free oxidation of alcohol to aldehyde/ketone using ZrO2 catalyst with molecular oxygen has been studied.Monoclinic phase ZrO2 has been synthesized and characterized by XRD,SEM,EDX and surface and pore size analyses.Oxidation of alcohol was carded out in a typical batch reactor at different sDeed of agitation(150-1200 r/min),temperature(373-413 K),catalyst loading(50-300 mg)and partial pressure of oxygen(12-101 kPa).These parameters influence alcohol conversion as well as selectivity.A handy touch of kinetics was given to the experimental data and apparent activation energy was calculated.

  17. SiC-MoSi2/ZrO2-MoSi2 coating to protect C/C composites against oxidation%C/C复合材料表面SiC-MoSi2/ZrO2-MoSi2抗氧化涂层

    付前刚; 张佳平; 张正中; 李贺军; 孙粲


      为了提高 C/C 复合材料在高温空气中的抗氧化性能,采用包埋法和涂刷法在 C/C 复合材料表面制备MoSi2−SiC/ZrO2−MoSi2涂层。借助扫描电镜和 X 射线衍射等测试手段对涂层的微观形貌和相组成进行分析,同时研究涂层的制备过程和高温静态空气中的抗氧化性能。结果表明:SiC−MoSi2/ZrO2−MoSi2涂层致密且无穿透性裂纹,厚度为250~300μm,具有优异的抗氧化性能,在1773 K静态空气中的有效抗氧化时间为260 h,这主要是由于涂层中生成了ZrSiO4,有效提高了涂层的高温稳定性。%To improve the oxidation resistance of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites in air at high temperatures, a SiC−MoSi2/ZrO2−MoSi2 coating was prepared on the surface of C/C composites by pack cementation and slurry method. The microstructures and phase compositions of the coated C/C composites were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The result shows that the SiC−MoSi2/ZrO2−MoSi2 coating is dense and crack-free with a thickness of 250−300 μm. The preparation and the high temperature oxidation property of the coated composites were investigated. The as-received coating has excellent oxidation protection ability and can protect C/C composites from oxidation for 260 h at 1773 K in air. The excellent anti-oxidation performance of the coating is considered to come from the formation of ZrSiO4, which improves the stability of the coating at high temperatures.

  18. Magnesium alloy AZ63A reinforcement by alloying with gallium and using high-disperse ZrO2 particles

    J. Khokhlova


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to obtain an experimental magnesium alloy by remelting standard AZ63A alloy with addition of gallium ligatures and ZrO2 particles. This allowed reinforcement of alloy and increase its hardness and Young's modulus. The chemical analysis of this alloy shows two types of structures which are evenly distributed in volume. Thus we can conclude that reinforcing effect is the result of formation of intermetallic phase Mg5-Ga2.

  19. Physicochemical properties of precursors of Al2O3-ZrO2 oxide ceramics prepared by electrochemical method

    Petrova, E. V.; Dresvyannikov, A. F.; Ahmadi Daryakenari, M.; Khairullina, A. I.


    Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray, and thermal analysis are used to examine the structure and properties of dispersive systems based on aluminum and zirconium oxides prepared electrochemically. The effect the conditions of synthesis have on the structure and morphology of Al2O3-ZrO2 particles is studied. It is shown that the effect of an electric field on the reaction medium allows us to adjust the physicochemical properties and morphology.

  20. Thermal barrier ZrO2 - Y2O3 obtained by plasma spraying method and laser melting


    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to determine the influence of laser melting upon the selected physical properties of ZrO2 - Y2O3 ceramic coatings deposited by APS (Air Plasma Spraying) method on super-alloys which function as TBC (Thermal Barriers Coatings).Design/methodology/approach: Laser melting which helps eliminate pores and other structural defects of coatings deposited by plasma spraying method should contribute to the improvement of their density and durability as thermal barriers. ...

  1. Defect-Rich Dopant-Free ZrO2 Nanostructures with Superior Dilute Ferromagnetic Semiconductor Properties.

    Rahman, Md Anisur; Rout, S; Thomas, Joseph P; McGillivray, Donald; Leung, Kam Tong


    Control of the spin degree of freedom of an electron has brought about a new era in spin-based applications, particularly spin-based electronics, with the potential to outperform the traditional charge-based semiconductor technology for data storage and information processing. However, the realization of functional spin-based devices for information processing remains elusive due to several fundamental challenges such as the low Curie temperature of group III-V and II-VI semiconductors (semiconductors in a multilayer device structure, which are caused by precipitation and migration of dopants from the host layer to the adjacent layers. Here, we use catalyst-assisted pulsed laser deposition to grow, for the first time, oxygen vacancy defect-rich, dopant-free ZrO2 nanostructures with high TC (700 K) and high magnetization (5.9 emu/g). The observed magnetization is significantly greater than both doped and defect-rich transparent conductive oxide nanomaterials reported to date. We also provide the first experimental evidence that it is the amounts and types of oxygen vacancy defects in, and not the phase of ZrO2 that control the ferromagnetic order in undoped ZrO2 nanostructures. To explain the origin of ferromagnetism in these ZrO2 nanostructures, we hypothesize a new defect-induced bound polaron model, which is generally applicable to other defect-rich, dopant-free transparent conductive oxide nanostructures. These results provide new insights into magnetic ordering in undoped dilute ferromagnetic semiconductor oxides and contribute to the design of exotic magnetic and novel multifunctional materials.

  2. Temperature influence and reset voltage study of bipolar resistive switching behaviour in ZrO2 thin films

    Ying Li; Gaoyang Zhao; Jian Su; Erfeng Shen; Yang Ren


    We have fabricated ZrO2 thin films by sol–gel deposition and annealed them at 300, 500 and 700 °C. Reproducible - curves can be obtained for the device Cu/ZrO2/ATO which is measured at room temperature (300 K). During the RESET operation, L and H values can be controlled by the RESET voltage. Moreover, the Cu/ZrO2/ATO device which the ZrO2 thin film annealed at 300 °C can be measured as resistive switching sweeps at 200, 100 and 50 K. It was found that the ratio of off/on reduced when the measured temperature decreased. When the - measurement temperature decreases, on decreases obviously which is typical for electronic transportation in a Cu metal. It is indicated that the Cu metallic conduction filament has been formed in the ZrO2 films. Besides, the microstructure by high resolution transmission electrical microscopy (HRTEM) was also investigated.

  3. Selective laser sintering of polymer-coated Al2O3/ZrO2/TiC ceramic powder

    BAI Pei-kang; CHENG Jun; LIU Bin


    A type of polymer-coated Al2O3/ZrO2/TiC ceramic powder was prepared. The laser sintering mechanism of polymer-coated Al2 O3/ZrO2/TiC powder was investigated by studying the dynamic laser sintering process.It is found that the mechanism is viscous flow when the sintering temperature is between 80 ℃ and 120 ℃, and it is melting/solidification when the temperature is above 120 ℃. The process parameters of selective laser sintering were optimized by using ortho-design method. The results show that the optimal parameters include laser power of 14 W,scanning velocity of 1 400 mm/s, preheating temperature of 50 ℃ and powder depth of 0.15 mm. A two-step posttreatment process is adopted to improve the mechanical properties of laser sintered part, which includes polymer debinding and high temperature sintering. After vacuum sintering for 2 h at 1 650 ℃, the bending strength and fracture toughness of Al2O3/ZrO2/TiC ceramic part reach 358 Mpa and 6.9 Mpa · m1/2 , respectively.

  4. Effect of Er3+ concentration on the luminescence properties of Al2O3-ZrO2 powder

    Clabel H., J. L.; Rivera, V. A. G.; Nogueira, I. C.; Leite, E. R.; Siu Li, M.; Marega, E.


    This manuscript reports on the effects of the luminescence properties of Er3+ on Al2O3-ZrO2 powder synthesized by the conventional solid-state method. The best conditions found for the calcinations were 1500 °C and 4 h. The structural dependence of the luminescence on Er3+:Al2O3-ZrO2 is associated with phase transformations of the Al2O3-ZrO2 host and presence of the OH group. Green and red emissions at room temperature from the 2H11/2, 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 and 4F9/2 → 4I15/2 levels of Er3+ ions were observed under 482 nm pumping. The green-to-red emission intensity ratios and CIE chromaticity coordinates were determined from emission spectra for the evaluation of light emitted as a function of the Er3+ concentration. The Er3+ luminescence quenching due to group OH and variation in the Er3+ concentration plays an important role in the definition of the luminescent response.

  5. Fabrication of ZrO2/Mo-Si/Ni Functionally Graded Material by Dip-Coating


    A slurry dip-coating technique was developed for fabrication of ZrO2/Mo-Si/Ni functionally graded material (FGM)on the stainless steel substrate. The rheological behavior of ZrO2-Ni-ethanol slurry was characterized by viscositytest. The amount of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) additives, which served as the dispersant and binder in ZrO2-Ni-ethanolslurry, was optimized. The results showed that the characters of mixed slurries with added 9 vol. pct (relativelyto total powders) MoSi2 powders prepared by mechanical alloying changed little. The stainless steel substrate wascoated several times by dipping in the slurries, and followed by drying in air every dipping. After debinding in Arin graphite die, the coated FGM plate was finally hot pressed at 1300℃ for 1 h under the pressure of 5 MPa in Arin the same die. Microstructural observations of the sintered FGM specimens revealed that the graded layers wereformed on the stainless steel substrate, in which no cracks were observed.

  6. Electrical Properties of Sputter-deposited ZrO2-based Pt/ZrO2/Si Capacitors

    Keunbin YIM; Yeonkyu PARK; Anna PARK; Namhee CHO; Chongmu LEE


    Pt/ZrO2/Si sandwich structures where ZrO2 is deposited by radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering using a Zr target in an atmosphere of O2/Ar gas mixture, were fabricated and the effects of the O2/Ar flow ratio in the reactive sputtering process, the annealing temperature, the ZrO2 film thickness on the structure,the surface roughness of ZrO2 films and the electric properties of Pt/ZrO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors were investigated. The optimum process parameters of the Pt/ZrO2/Si capacitor based on reactively sputtered-ZrO2 determined in such a way as the capacitance is maximized and the leakage current,the oxide charge, and the interface trap density are minimized that is the O2/Ar flow ratio of 1.5, the annealing temperature of 800℃, and the film thickness of 10 nm. Also the conduction mechanism in the Pt/ZrO2/Si capacitor has been discussed.

  7. Compressive Strength Evaluation in Brazed ZrO2/Ti6Al4V Joints Using Finite Element Analysis

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kee, Se Ho; Jung, Flora; Heo, Yongku; Jung, Jae Pil


    This study aims to synthesize and evaluate the compressive strength of the ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint brazed using an active metal filler Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti, and its application to dental implants assuring its reliability to resist the compressive failure in the actual oral environment. The brazing was performed at a temperature of 750 °C for 30 min in a vacuum furnace under 5 × 10-6 Torr atmosphere. The microstructure of the brazed joint showed the presence of an Ag-rich matrix and a Cu-rich phase, and Cu-Ti intermetallic compounds were observed along the Ti-6Al-4V bonded interface. The compressive strength of the brazed ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint was measured by EN ISO 14801 standard test method. The measured compressive strength of the joint was ~1477 MPa—a value almost five times that of existing dental cements. Finite element analysis also confirmed the high von Mises stress values. The compressive strains in the samples were found concentrated near the Ti-6Al-4V position, matching with the position of the real fractured sample. These results suggest extremely significant compressive strength in ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joints using the Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti filler. It is believed that a highly reliable dental implant can be processed and designed using the results of this study.

  8. Influence of LiBaO5 Structure on Microstructure and Optical Properties of ZrO2 Thin Films Prepared by Electron Beam Evaporation

    TAN Tian-Ya; ZHANG Da-Wei; ZHAN Mei-Qiong; SHAO Jian-Da; FAN Zheng-Xiu


    @@ ZrO2 thin films were deposited by using an electron beam evaporation technique on three kinds of lithium triborate (LiB3O5 or LBO) substrates with the surfaces at specified crystalline orientations. The influences of the LBO structure on the structural and optical properties of ZrO2 thin films are studied by spectrophotometerand x-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the substrate structure has obvious effects on the structural and optical properties of the film: namely, the ZrO2 thin film deposited on the X-LBO, Y-LBO and Z-LBO orients to m(-212), m(021) and o(130) directions. It is also found that the ZrO2 thin film with m(021) has the highest refractive index and theleast lattice misfit.

  9. The detailed crystal and electronic structures of the cotunnite-type ZrO2

    Zhang, Yan; Duan, Li; Ji, Vincent


    The detailed crystal and orbital-decomposed electronic structures of cotunnite-type ZrO2 have been investigated by using the first-principles projector augmented wave (PAW) potential within the generalized gradient approximation as well as taking into account on-site Coulomb repulsive interaction (GGA+U). The optimized structure shows that the OI and OII anions are surrounded by an arbitrary tetrahedron of four Zr cations and an arbitrary pentahedron of five Zr cations, respectively, in turn, the Zr cation is surrounded by an arbitrary tetrakaidecahedron formed by nine oxygen ligands. Although one more Zr cation is coordinated to OII, the larger bond lengths between OII and its adjacent five Zr cations (dOII-Zr) than those between OI and its adjacent four Zr cations (dOI-Zr) makes density of states (DOS) of s and three p (px , py and pz) states of the OII anion driving down in lower energy region and driving up in higher energy region. No crystal-field splitting is observed between three p (px , py and pz) states of anions OI and OII (between three p (px , py and pz) states and five d (dxy , dyz , dxz , dz2 and dx2-y2) states of cation Zr) is resulted from the arrangements of the surrounding cations (anions) do not have any symmetry. The additional covalent character upon Zr-O ionic bonds is attributed to the hybridization of itinerant Zr(5s) and less filled Zr(4d) states to the separated O(2s) and O(2p) states.

  10. Mechanical properties and the microstructure of the plasma-sprayed ZrO2Y2O3 / ZrO2Y2O3CoNiCrAlY / CoNiCrAlY coating / Механические характеристики и микроструктура покрытий ZrO2Y2O3 / ZrO2Y2O3CoNiCrAlY / CoNiCrAlY, нанесенных воздушно-плазменным напылением / Mehaničke osobine i mikrostruktura plazma naprskane prevlake ZrO2Y2O3 / ZrO2Y2O3CoNiCrAIY/ CoNiCrAIY

    Mihailo R. Mrdak


    Full Text Available ZrO2 stabilized with Y2O3 has superior and excellent physical properties compared to other modern ceramic materials. Due to its high biocompatibility, ZrO2 ceramics in the ZrO2 - Y2O3 system is widely used as a biomaterial in orthopedic surgery. ZrO2 - Y2O3 ceramics is widely applied in the production of the head of the hip, knee prosthesis, temporary holders, and more. ZrO2 is used for a total hip replacement (THR, for an artificial knee joint as well as for the application and development of other medical devices. In order to use ZrO2Y2O3 ceramics (YSZ in biomedical substrates, it is necessary to deposit coating layers without defects. For the purpose of the deposition of a ZrO28wt.%Y2O3 ceramic coating with the best structural properties, the ZrO2Y2O3 / ZrO2Y2O3CoNiCrAlY / CoNiCrAlY coating system was tested. For financial reasons, the deposition was performed on a steel substrate by applying a CoNiCrAlY bond coating, which does not affect the structure and functionality of the ZrO2Y2O3 ceramic layer. The structure of the layers was tested by the method of light microscopy, and the surface of the upper ZrO28wt.%Y2O3 ceramic coating was tested by the method of scanning electron microscopy SEM. The obtained characteristics showed that the porosity content in the ceramic layer was not high and that micropores were uniformly distributed. The mechanical properties of the layers were assessed by testing microhardness using the method HV0.3 and tensile bond strength using tensile testing. The values of the microhardness of the ZrO28wt.%Y2O3 coating were satisfactory as well as the tensile bond strength of the coating system. / Керамика ZrO2 стабилизированная оксидом иттрия Y2O3 обладает наилучшими характеристиками по сравнению с иными современными керамическими материалами. Благодаря высокому

  11. Melt growth, structure and properties of (ZrO2)1-x(Sc2O3)x solid solution crystals (x=0.035-0.11)

    Borik, M. A.; Bredikhin, S. I.; Kulebyakin, A. V.; Kuritsyna, I. E.; Lomonova, E. E.; Milovich, F. O.; Myzina, V. A.; Osiko, V. V.; Panov, V. A.; Ryabochkina, P. A.; Seryakov, S. V.; Tabachkova, N. Yu.


    Crystals of (ZrO2)1-x(Sc2O3)x solid solutions with x=0.035, 0.06, 0.09 and 0.11 have been grown for the first time using the directional crystallization technique. Analysis of the scandium distribution along the crystal showed that the composition of all specimens is homogeneous, and the Sc2O3 concentration is almost identical to its content in the charge. All specimens exhibit a little decline in the scandium concentration along the crystal, this indicating that the effective distribution coefficient Sc is slightly greater than 1. The structure of as-grown crystals has been studied as a function of the Sc2O3 stabilising oxide concentration by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Crystals containing 3.5 mol% Sc2O3 are a mixture of the monoclinic and tetragonal phases, the crystals containing 6 mol% Sc2O3 have a tetragonal structure, those with 9 mol% Sc2O3 have the tetragonal phase with inclusions of the rhombohedral one and the specimens with 11 mol% Sc2O3 represent the rhombohedral phase with inclusions of the cubic phase. The electrical conductivity was measured as a function of temperature by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The conductivity of the scandia stabilized crystals, in spite of their inhomogeneity, presence of stresses and low fracture toughness, is comparable with that of the yttria stabilized zirconia crystals.

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of ZrO2 (Y2O3)-Al2O3 nanocomposites prepared by spark plasma sintering

    Shufeng Li; Hiroshi Izui; Michiharu Okano; Weihua Zhang; Taku Watanabe


    Zirconia (yttria)-alumina ceramic nanocomposites were fabricated from different powders by spark plasma sintering (SPS).One powder was a commercially available nanocomposite powder TZP-3Y2OA,consisting of 3 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (3-YSZ) reinforced with 20 wt% alumina,and the other,used as a comparison,was a conventional mechanically mixed powder 3YSZ-20A,a blend made of 3 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia powder ZrO2 (3Y) and 20 wt% α-alumina powder.The effect of the sintering temperature on the densification,the sintering behavior,the mechanical properties and the microstructure of the composites was investigated.The results showed that the density increased with increasing sintering temperature,and thus,the mechanical properties were strengthened because of the increased densification.The nanocomposite powder TZP-3Y20A was easily sintered,and good mechanical properties were achieved as compared with the powder from the conventional mechanically mixed method,the maximum flexural strength and fracture toughness of which were 967 MPa and 5.27 MPa m1/2,respectively.

  13. Effect of structural evolution on mechanical properties of ZrO2 coated Ti-6Al-7Nb-biomedical application

    Zalnezhad, E.


    Zirconia (ZrO2) nanotube arrays were fabricated by anodizing pure zirconium (Zr) coated Ti-6Al-7Nb in fluoride/glycerol electrolyte at a constant potential of 60 V for different times. Zr was deposited atop Ti-6Al-7Nb via a physical vapor deposition magnetron sputtering (PVDMS) technique. Structural investigations of coating were performed utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the morphology and microstructure of coatings. Unannealed ZrO2 nanotube arrays were amorphous. Monoclinic and tetragonal ZrO2 appeared when the coated substrates were heat treated at 450 °C and 650 °C, while monoclinic ZrO2 was found at 850 °C and 900 °C. Mechanical properties, including nanohardness and modulus of elasticity, were evaluated at different annealing temperatures using a nanoindentation test. The nanoindentation results show that the nanohardness and modulus of elasticity for Ti-6AL-7Nb increased by annealing ZrO2 coated substrate at 450 °C. The nanohardness and modulus of elasticity for coated substrate decreased with annealing temperatures of 650, 850, and 900 °C. At an annealing temperature of 900 °C, cracks in the ZrO2 thin film coating occurred. The highest nanohardness and elastic modulus values of 6.34 and 218 GPa were achieved at an annealing temperature of 450 °C.

  14. Effect of alcohol solvents treated ZrO(OH)2 hydrogel on properties of ZrO2 and its catalytic performance in isosynthesis

    Rongjun Zhang; Dehua He


    A series of ZrO2 catalysts were prepared by treating ZrO(OH)2 hydrogel with different alcohol solvents (C2-C4 alcohols) and calcining under N2 flow at 773 K for 3 h.The obtained ZrO2 catalysts were systematically characterized by the methods of N2 adsorption-desorption,powder X-ray diffraction,NH3 temperature-programmed desorption,and CO2 temperature-programmed desorption.The catalytic performance of each catalyst was evaluated in the selective synthesis of iso-C4 (isobutene and isobutane) and light olefins (C=2~C=4) from CO hydrogenation.The specific surface area increased for the ZrO2 catalysts obtained by treating ZrO(OH)2 hydrogel with different alcohol solvents.The amounts of both acidic and basic sites on the catalyst surface increased obviously.The catalytic activity (CO conversion) of ZrO2 catalysts also increased after the treatment with different alcohol solvents.The highest activity was obtained over the catalyst which was pretreated with isopropanol.However,alcohol solvent treatment retarded the transformation of ZrO2 crystal structure from tetragonal phase to monoclinic phase,and subsequently resulted in the decrease of monoclinic phase in ZrO2,which led to the decrease of olefin selectivity in corresponding hydrocarbon products (C=2~C=4/CH).

  15. Growth and stability of rocksalt Zn1-xMgxO epilayers and ZnO/MgO superlattice on MgO (100) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Lu, C-Y James; Tu, Y-T; Yan, T; Trampert, A; Chang, L; Ploog, K H


    Zn1-xMgxO films with x = 0.04-0.50 grown on MgO (100) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy retain the rocksalt (rs) crystal structure and grow epitaxially for x ≥ 0.17. In addition, the rs-ZnO epilayer is observed to be stable up to a thickness of 5 nm and also in a ZnO/MgO superlattice sample. However, a portion of the superlattice has transformed to wurtzite (wz)-structure islands in a self-accommodated manner during growth. The transformation is a combination of a Bain distortion, an in-plane rotation of 14.5°, and a Peierls distortion, resulting in an orientation relationship of (100)rs//(101̄0)wz and 〈011〉rs ∼//〈1̄21̄3〉wz. In such a manner, the volume expansion is only necessary along the growth direction and the in-plane strains can be minimized. A negative pressure generated during the transformation of ZnO stabilizes the MgO into a wurtzite structure.

  16. ZrO2对高硼硅玻璃高温粘度和表面张力的影响%Effect of ZrO2 on Viscosity and Surface Tension of Borosilicate Glass

    刘尧龙; 陆平; 程金树


    Due to the high melting temperature ,borosilicate glass erode refractory strongly .ZrO2 dissolved into the glass change viscosity and surface of mother glass , which also bring about many and various product defects .In this paper , a small amount of ZrO 2 were introduced into the mother glass .High temperature viscosity was tested by the rotating method and high temperature surface tension was tested by the sessile drop method .The results indicate that viscosity of the glass above 1530 ℃almost no change and viscosity of the glass below 1530 ℃ greatly increase with increasing ZrO 2 content .At same time , surface tension is increasing mono-tonically .Surface tension reduce as the temperature increases .%高硼硅玻璃由于熔化温度高,对耐火材料侵蚀严重,ZrO2溶解到玻璃中后使其高温粘度和表面张力发生变化,是产生玻璃缺陷的重要原因之一。通过在母体玻璃中引入少量ZrO2,采用旋转粘度法测试玻璃的高温粘度,采用静滴法测试玻璃的高温表面张力。结果表明,随着含量的增加,ZrO2对玻璃在1530℃以上的粘度影响不大,但可使1530℃以下的粘度有较大提高。玻璃的高温表面张力随着ZrO2含量的增加单调递增,随着温度的升高而降低。

  17. Activation of O2 and CH4 on yttrium-stabilized zircoma for the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas.

    Zhu, Jianjun; Ommen, van Jan G.; Bouwmeester, Henny J.M.; Lefferts, Leon


    The isotopic exchange reaction on ZrO2 and yttrium-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) during catalytic partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (CPOM) was studied with transient pulse experiments. The results reveal, surprisingly, that CPOM over both oxides proceeds via a Mars¿van Krevelen mechanism. Despit

  18. Fischer-Tropsch Cobalt Catalyst Improvements with the Presence of TiO2, La2O3, and ZrO2 on an Alumina Support

    Klettlinger, Jennifer Lindsey Suder


    active site density; on the other hand, by increasing the size of the cobalt clusters, there is less likelihood of forming oxidized cobalt complexes (cobalt aluminate) during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Thus, from the standpoint of stability, improving the extent of reduction while increasing the particle size slightly may be beneficial for maintaining the sites, even if there is a slight decrease in overall initial active site density.

  19. Role of small amount of MgO and ZrO2 on creep behaviour of high purity Al2O3

    L N Satapathy; S Swaroop


    Small levels of various dopants have a significant effect on creep in polycrystalline alumina. While most previous studies have examined the effect of ionic size, the influence of valency of dopants on creep has not yet been completely characterized. The present detailed experimental study, utilizing magnesia and zirconia with a similar ionic size, demonstrates that the ionic valency of dopants also plays a crucial role in creep since magnesia does not significantly alter creep whereas zirconia retards creep substantially. Magnesia doped alumina deforms by Coble diffusion creep whereas zirconia doped alumina deforms by an interface controlled diffusion creep process.

  20. Influence of Ytterbia Content on 'Residual Stress and Microstructure of Y2O3-ZrO2 Thin Films Prepared by EB-PVD

    XIAO Qi-Ling; SHAO Shu-Ying; HE Hong-Bo; SHAO Jian-Da; FAN Zheng-Xiu


    Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) thin films with different Y2O3 molar contents (0, 3, 7, and 12mol%) are deposited on BK7 substrates by electron-beam evaporation technique. The effects of different Y2O3 contents on residual stresses and structures of YSZ thin films are studied. Residual stresses are investigated by means of two different techniques: the curvature measurement and x-ray diffraction method. It is found that the evolution of residual stresses of YSZ thin films by the two different methods is consistent. Residual stresses of films transform from compressive stress into tensile stress and the tensile stress increases monotonically with the increase of Y2O3content. At the same time, the structures of these films change from the mixture of amorphous and monoclinic phases into high temperature cubic phase. The variations of residual stress correspond to the evolution of structures induced by adding of Y2O3 content.

  1. Cubic Phases in the Gd2O3-ZrO2 and Dy2O3-TiO2 Systems for Nuclear Industry Applications

    Maria Teresa Malachevsky


    Full Text Available Neutron absorbers are elements with a high neutron capture cross section that are employed at nuclear reactors to control excess fuel reactivity. If these absorbers are converted into materials of relatively low absorption cross section as the result of neutron absorption, they consume during the reactor core life and so are called burnable. These elements can be distributed inside an oxide ceramic that is stable under irradiation and thus called inert. Cubic zirconium oxide is one of the preferred materials to be used as inert matrix. It is stable under irradiation, experiments very low swelling, and is isomorphic to uranium oxide. The cubic phase is stabilized by adding small amounts of dopants like Dy2O3 and Gd2O3. As both dysprosium and gadolinium have a high neutron cross section, they are good candidates to prepare burnable neutron absorbers. Pyrochlores, like Gd2Zr2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7, allow the solid solution of a large quantity of elements besides being stable under irradiation. These characteristics make them also useful for safe storage of nuclear wastes. We present a preliminary study of the thermal analysis of different compositions in the systems Gd2O3-ZrO2 and Dy2O3-TiO2, investigating the feasibility to obtain oxide ceramics useful for the nuclear industry.

  2. A novel technique for making open-cell Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foam with plant seed template

    Yu Jingyuan


    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to provide a technique for preparing open-cell Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foams with uniform cell size. This technique used plant seeds to array templates and centrifugal slip casting to obtain cell struts with high packing density. Aqueous Al2O3-ZrO2 slurries with up to 50 vol.% solid contents were prepared and the rheological characteristic of the slurries was investigated. Consolidation was performed at an acceleration of 2,860 g for 60 min. The effect of the characteristic of plant seeds on the drying behavior of Al2O3-ZrO2 green compact was analyzed. The effects of the solid contents of slurries on segregation phenomena of Al2O3 and ZrO2 particles and green compact uniformity were investigated. The compressive stress-strain curve and deformation behavior of Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foams prepared using plant seed template were analyzed. The results showed segregation phenomenon is negligible for highly stable slurry with 50 vol.% solid loading. The prepared cell struts of Al2O3-ZrO2 foams have high green density (61.9% TD, sintered density (99.1% TD and homogeneous microstructure. When sintered at 1,550 篊 for 2 h, the cell size of Al2O3-ZrO2 foam is approximately uniform and the diameter is about 1.1 mm. The porosity and compressive strength of sintered products is 66.2% and 5.86 MPa, respectively.

  3. Effect of ZrO2 Nanoparticles on the Microstructure of Al-Si-Cu Filler for Low-Temperature Al Brazing Applications

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Roh, Myung-Hwan; Jung, Do-Hyun; Jung, Jae-Pil


    In this study, the effect of ZrO2 nanoparticles on Al-12Si-20Cu alloy has been studied as a filler metal for aluminum brazing. The microstructural and thermal characterizations are performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The intermetallic compound (IMC) phases are identified by the energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis coupled with the SEM. The filler spreading test is performed according to JIS-Z-3197 standard. XRD and SEM analyses confirm the presence of Si particles, the CuAl2 ( θ) intermetallic, and the eutectic structures of Al-Si, Al-Cu, and Al-Si-Cu in the Al matrix in the monolithic and composite samples. It is observed that when the ZrO2 is added in the alloy, the CuAl2 IMCs and Si particles are found to be dispersed uniformly in the Al matrix up to 0.05 wt pct ZrO2. DTA results show that the liquidus temperature of Al-12Si-20Cu filler metal is dropped from ~806.78 K to 804.6 K (533.78 °C to 531.6 °C) with a lowering of 2 K (2 °C) in liquidus temperature, when the amount of ZrO2 is increased up to 0.05 wt pct. It is also shown that the presence of ZrO2 nanoparticles in the filler metal has no deleterious effect on wettability up to 0.05 wt pct of ZrO2. The ultimate tensile strength and elongation percentage are also found to improve with the addition of ZrO2 nanoparticles in the Al-12Si-20Cu alloy.

  4. Evolution of Structural, Electronic and Optical Properties of Monoclinic ZrO2 under High Pressure: A First Principles Study

    HOU Ming-Xiu; HE Kai-Hua; ZHENG Guang; HOU Shu-En


    The structural, electronic and optical properties of the monoclinic ZrO2 were studied by ab initio calculations based on the density functional theory and pseudopotential method. The calculated lattice parameters and band gap are in agreement with the experimental and other theo- retical values. The evolution of lattice parameters and electronic properties were illustrated under high pressure. Meanwhile, the optical properties, such as adsorption coefficients, imaginary part of dielectric function, and energy loss function, were investigated under both ambient and high pressures.

  5. Electric circuit model for MgO-doped ZrO2-TiO2 ceramic humidity sensor

    Jain, M. K.; Bhatnagar, M. C.; Sharma, G. L.


    The MgO-doped ZrO2-TiO2 ceramic pellets were studied for its humidity-sensitive electrical conduction. An equivalent circuit model has been proposed to define the humidity-sensitive electrical properties. This model is in agreement with the experimental findings. The electrical conduction is largely controlled by the intergranular impedance except at very high humidities. The impedance of the pellets showed inductive behavior in high-humidity region. This behavior can be attributed to the spherical paths adopted by charge carrier because conduction is mainly through the spherical grain surface.

  6. Effect of ZrO2 Additives on the Thermal Shock Resistance of MgO—MA Refractory

    YANGDaoyuan; SUNHongwei; 等


    The additirn of three kins ZrO2-bearing additives into MgO-MA refractory could all increase the latter's C.C.S.and the thermal shock resistance,XRD,polarizing microscope and electron probe analysis were used to analyze the mechanism to improve the thermal shock resistance of the material.The mechanism is that ZrO added into the material improves the microstructure,introduces asppropriate micro cracks into matrix ,enhances the matrix,and therefore increases the thermal shock resistance of ther refractory.

  7. Microstructural evolution of the al2o3-zro2 composite and its correlation with electrical conductivity

    Fortulan Carlos A.


    Full Text Available The Al2O3-ZrO2 composite was studied by impedance spectroscopy, a non destructive technique that was found to be sensitive to the composite's microstructure. The observed decrease in the zirconia grain and grain boundary conductivities points to compression on zirconia grain by alumina matrix. This effect increased with decreased concentration of zirconia in the composite. Measurements were taken of composites above the percolation threshold for vacancy conduction along the zirconia grains. The effect of densification and grain growth on the composite's conduction was measured. The changes in the zirconia grain and grain boundary specific conductivities were found to be correlated.

  8. Surface Topography of Fine-grained ZrO2 Ceramic by Two-dimensional Ultrasonic Vibration Grinding

    DING Ailing; WU Yan; LIU Yongjiang


    The surface quality of fine-grained ZrO2 engineering ceramic were researched using 270# diamond wheel both with and without work-piece two-dimension ultrasonic vibration grinding(WTDUVG).By AFM images,the surface topography and the micro structure of the two-dimensional ultrasonic vibration grinding ceramics were especially analyzed.The experimental results indicate that the surface roughness is related to grinding vibration mode and the material removal mechanism.Surface quality of WTDUVG is superior to that of conventional grinding,and it is easy for two-dimensional ultrasonic vibration grinding that material removal mechanism is ductile mode grinding.

  9. Some adhesion/cohesion characteristics of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3 under tensile loading

    Mullen, Robert L.; Vlcek, Brian L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Mcdonald, Glen


    A set of 12.7 mm diameter stainless steel tubes were coated with ceramic and expanded. The bond cast was 0.08 to 0.13 mm NiCrAlY with 0.38 mm of ZrO2-8Y2O3 ceramic. Upon pressurization, the tube substrate yielded and overstressed the coatings in tension. The coatings cracked (i.e., they failed) but did not come off the tube. These results demonstrate that tensile failure of plasma-sprayed coatings is not catastrophic as is compressive failure, which leads to spallation.

  10. Influence of deposition rate on the properties of ZrO2 thin films prepared in electron beam evaporation method

    Dongping Zhang(张东平); Meiqiong Zhan(占美琼); Ming Fang(方明); Hongbo He(贺洪波); Jianda Shao(邵建达); Zhengxiu Fan(范正修)


    ZrO2 thin films were prepared in electron beam thermal evaporation method. And the deposition rate changed from 1.3 to 6.3 nm/s in our study. X-ray diffractometer and spectrophotometer were employed to characterize the films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra pattern shows that films structure changed from amorphous to polycrystalline with deposition rate increasing. The results indicate that internal stresses of the films are compressive in most case. Thin films deposited in our study are inhomogeneous, and the inhomogeneity is enhanced with the deposition rate increasing.

  11. 固体超强酸SO42-/ZrO2催化合成苯佐卡因%Synthesis of benzocaine catalyzed by solid superacid SO42-/ZrO2

    刘永根; 吴良; 李海霞; 李娟; 李伟宏


    目的:探讨一种合成苯佐卡因的新方法.方法:以固体超强酸SO42-/ZrO2为催化剂,催化对氨基苯甲酸和乙醇发生酯化反应,合成苯佐卡因.结果:在固体超强酸SO42-/ZrO2催化作用下,对氨基苯甲酸和乙醇发生酯化反应生成苯佐卡因.当酯化反应反应时间为40 min,催化剂质量为对氨基苯甲酸质量的6%时,酸质量和醇体积比值为2:25时,苯佐卡因产率达91.2%.而且催化剂重复使用效果好.结论:该合成方法比传统方法具有产率高,反应平稳快速,催化剂容易分离,环境污染少等优点.

  12. Degration of Partially Stabilized Zirconia Ceramics under an Applied Stress


    Partially stabilized zirconia ceramics were sintered using fine powder of ZrO2-3mol%Y2O3 prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method.The tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation in ZrO2 ceramics during the aging in boiling water and the effect of an applied stress of 100MPa were mainly investigated.The degradation of ZrO2 ceramics is considered to be caused by the reaction between Y2O3 and H2O,which leads to a decreasing in the stability of tetragonal phase of ZrO2.It is found that the tensile stress improves the driving force of the phase transformation and accelerates the degradation while the compressive stress has no obvious effect on the degradation.

  13. Bulk and surface properties of magnesium peroxide MgO2

    Esch, Tobit R.; Bredow, Thomas


    Magnesium peroxide has been identified in Mg/air batteries as an intermediate in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) [1]. It is assumed that MgO2 is involved in the solid-electrolyte interphase on the cathode surface. Therefore its structure and stability play a crucial role in the performance of Mg/air batteries. In this work we present a theoretical study of the bulk and low-index surface properties of MgO2. All methods give a good account of the experimental lattice parameters for MgO2 and MgO bulk. The reaction energies, enthalpies and free energies for MgO2 formation from MgO are compared among the different DFT methods and with the local MP2 method. A pronounced dependence from the applied functional is found. At variance with a previous theoretical study but in agreement with recent experiments we find that the MgO2 formation reaction is endothermic (HSE06-D3BJ: ΔH = 51.9 kJ/mol). The stability of low-index surfaces MgO2 (001) (Es = 0.96 J/m2) and (011) (Es = 1.98 J/m2) is calculated and compared to the surface energy of MgO (001). The formation energy of neutral oxygen vacancies in the topmost layer of the MgO2 (001) surface is calculated and compared with defect formation energies for MgO (001).

  14. Relationship between dispersibility of ZrO2 nanoparticles in Ni-ZrO2 electroplated nanocomposite coatings and mechanical properties of nanocomposite coatings

    WANG Wei; HOU Feng-yan; GUO He-tong


    Ni-ZrO2 nanocomposite coatings with monodispersed ZrO2 nanoparticles were prepared from the composite plating bath containing dispersant under DC electrodeposition condition. It is found that the morphology, orientation and hardness of the composite coating with monodispersed ZrO2 nanoparticles have lots of difference from the composite coating with agglomerated ZrO2 nanoparticles and pure nickel coating. Especially, the result of hardness shows that only a very low volume fraction (less than 1%) of monodispered ZrO2 nanoparticles in Ni-ZrO2 composite coatings will result in higher hardness of the coating. The hardness of Ni-ZrO2 nanocomposite coatings with monodispersed and agglomerated ZrO2 nanoparticles are HV 529 and HV 393, respectively. The hardness value of the former composite coatings is over 1.3 times higher than that of the later. All these composite coatings are 2 - 3 times higher than that of pure nickel plating (HV 207) prepared under the same conditions.

  15. Oxidation Resistance of Fe-13Cr Alloy with Micro-Laminated (ZrO2-Y2O3)/(Al2O3-Y2O3) Films

    Yao Mingming; He Yedong; Wang Deren; Gao Wei


    The micro-laminated (ZrO2-Y2O3)/(Al2O3-Y2O3) composite films were prepared on the surface of Fe-13Cr alloy by an electrochemical process and a sintering process alternately. High-resolution field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to characterize the laminated films, indicating that the micro-laminated (ZrO2-Y2O3)/(Al2O3-Y2O3) films have nano-structures. SEM, EDS and mass gain measurement were adopted to study the oxidation resistance of films on Fe-13Cr alloy. It is proved that such micro-laminated films are more effective than ZrO2-Y2O3 or Al2O3-Y2O3 films to resist the oxidation of the alloy, and the oxidation resistance is increased with increasing layers in micro-laminated films. These beneficial effects can be contributed to the mechanism, by which such micro-laminated (ZrO2-Y2O3)/(Al2O3-Y2O3) composite film combines all the beneficial effects and overcomes all the disadvantages of both ZrO2-Y2O3 film and Al2O3-Y2O3 film during oxidation of alloy.

  16. In-situ UV-Raman study on soot combustion over TiO2 or ZrO2-supported vanadium oxide catalysts

    WACHS; Israel; E.


    UV-Raman spectroscopy was used to study the molecular structures of TiO2 or ZrO2-supported vana-dium oxide catalysts.The real time reaction status of soot combustion over these catalysts was de-tected by in-situ UV-Raman spectroscopy.The results indicate that TiO2 undergoes a crystalline phase transformation from anatase to rutile phase with the increasing of reaction temperature.However,no obvious phase transformation process is observed for ZrO2 support.The structures of supported va-nadium oxides also depend on the V loading.The vanadium oxide species supported on TiO2 or ZrO2 attain monolayer saturation when V loading is equal to 4(4 is the number of V atoms per 100 support metal ions).Interestingly,this loading ratio(V4/TiO2 and V4/ZrO2) gave the best catalytic activities for soot combustion reaction on both supports(TiO2 and ZrO2).The formation of surface oxygen com-plexes(SOC) is verified by in-situ UV Raman spectroscopy and the SOC mainly exist as carboxyl groups during soot combustion.The presence of NO in the reaction gas stream can promote the pro-duction of SOC.

  17. Nanoflake-assembled Al2O3-supported CeO2-ZrO2 as an efficient catalyst for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with CO2

    Wang, Tehua; Guan, Xiaolin; Lu, Huiyi; Liu, Zhongwen; Ji, Min


    An Al2O3 material assembled by nanoflakes was used to prepare supported CeO2-ZrO2 catalyst via a deposition-precipitation method for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with CO2. Both unsupported and commercial Al2O3-supported CeO2-ZrO2 were prepared for comparison. It was found that the CeO2-ZrO2/nanoflake-assembled Al2O3 catalyst exhibited the best catalytic activity. The characterization results revealed that the slit-shape pores existing in nanoflake-assembled Al2O3 were responsible for the small particle size and high Ce/Zr surface ratio of supported CeO2-ZrO2 species. The dispersion of Ce1-xZrx(OH)4 precursors onto Al2O3 support surface during the deposition-precipitation process was proposed. The high dispersion and large numbers of surface oxygen vacancies of the CeO2-ZrO2 species on nanoflake-assembled Al2O3 contributed to the excellent catalytic performance in oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene with CO2. This kind of special Al2O3 is expected to be a promising support for preparing highly dispersed metal/metal oxide catalysts.

  18. In-situ UV-Raman study on soot combustion over TiO2 or ZrO2-supported vanadium oxide catalysts

    LIU Jian; ZHAO Zhen; XU ChunMing; DUAN AiJun; JIANG GuiYuan; GAO JinSen; LIN WenYong; WACHS Israel E.


    UV-Raman spectroscopy was used to study the molecular structures of TiO2 or ZrO2-supported vana- dium oxide catalysts. The real time reaction status of soot combustion over these catalysts was de-tected by in-situ UV-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that TiO= undergoes a crystalline phase transformation from anatase to futile phase with the increasing of reaction temperature. However, no obvious phase transformation process is observed for ZrO2 support. The structures of supported va-nadium oxides also depend on the V loading. The vanadium oxide species supported on TiO2 or ZrO2 attain monolayer saturation when V loading is equal to 4 (4 is the number of V atoms per 100 support metal ions). Interestingly, this loading ratio (V4/TiO2 and V4/ZrO2) gave the best catalytic activities for soot combustion reaction on both supports (TiO2 and ZrO2). The formation of surface oxygen com-plexes (SOC) is verified by in-situ UV Raman spectroscopy and the SOC mainly exist as carboxyl groups during soot combustion. The presence of NO in the reaction gas stream can promote the pro-duction of SOC.

  19. Photo-, sono- and sonophotocatalytic degradation of methylene blue using Fe3O4/ZrO2 composites catalysts

    Kristianto, Y.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.


    In the present work, magnetite material Fe3O4/ZrO2 with various molar ratios was prepared by the two-step method (sol-gel followed by the ultrasonic-assisted method). The as-prepared samples were fairly characterized by various characterization methods, such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The catalytic performance of the as-prepared samples was evaluated based on the degradation of methylene blue under UV light, ultrasound and combination of UV and ultrasound irradiation. The results revealed that the sample with Fe3O4:ZrO2 molar ratio of 0.5:1 showed the best catalytic performance under UV, ultrasound and UV + ultrasound irradiation. The degradation of methylene blue follows the order: sonophotocatalytic > sonocatalytic > photocatalytic. In addition, the effect of various scavengers has also been studied. Furthermore, all prepared samples could be used as a convenient recyclable catalyst.

  20. A high performance transparent resistive switching memory made from ZrO2/AlON bilayer structure

    Tsai, Tsung-Ling; Chang, Hsiang-Yu; Lou, Jesse Jen-Chung; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen


    In this study, the switching properties of an indium tin oxide (ITO)/zirconium oxide (ZrO2)/ITO single layer device and those of a device with an aluminum oxynitride (AlON) layer were investigated. The devices with highly transparent characteristics were fabricated. Compared with the ITO/ZrO2/ITO single layer device, the ITO/ZrO2/AlON/ITO bilayer device exhibited a larger ON/OFF ratio, higher endurance performance, and superior retention properties by using a simple two-step forming process. These substantial improvements in the resistive switching properties were attributed to the minimized influence of oxygen migration through the ITO top electrode (TE), which can be realized by forming an asymmetrical conductive filament with the weakest part at the ZrO2/AlON interface. Therefore, in the ITO/ZrO2/AlON/ITO bilayer device, the regions where conductive filament formation and rupture occur can be effectively moved from the TE interface to the interior of the device.

  1. Flexible low-voltage polymer thin-film transistors using supercritical CO2-deposited ZrO2 dielectrics.

    Wei, Qingshuo; You, Eunyoung; Hendricks, Nicholas R; Briseno, Alejandro L; Watkins, James J


    The fabrication of low-voltage flexible organic thin film transistors using zirconia (ZrO(2)) dielectric layers prepared via supercritical fluid deposition was studied. Continuous, single-phase films of approximately 30 nm thick ZrO(2) were grown on polyimide (PI)/aluminum (Al) substrates at 250 °C via hydrolysis of tetrakis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptane-dionato) zirconium in supercritical carbon dioxide. This dielectric layer showed a high areal capacitance of 317 nF cm(-2) at 1 kHz and a low leakage current of 1.8 × 10(-6) A cm(-2) at an applied voltage of -3 V. By using poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as a semiconductor, we have fabricated flexible thin film transistors operating at V(DS) = -0.5 V and V(G) in a range from 0.5 V to -4 V, with on/off ratios on the order of 1 × 10(3) and mobility values higher than 0.1 cm(2)/(V s).

  2. Nanostructured ZrO2 Thick Film Resistors as H2-Gas Sensors Operable at Room Temperature



    Full Text Available Nanostructured ZrO2 powder was synthesized by microwave assisted sol-gel method. The material was characterized by XRD and SEM techniques. X-Ray diffraction studies confirm that a combination of tetragonal and monoclinic zirconia nanoparticles is obtained by using microwave-assisted method. The nanopowder was calcined at an optimized temperature of 400 °C for 3 h. The prepared powder had crystalline size about 25 nm. Thick films of synthesized ZrO2 powder were prepared by screen printing technique. The gas sensing performances of these films for various gases were tested. Films showed highest response to H2 (50 ppm gas at room temperature with poor responses to others (1000 ppm. The quick response and fast recovery are the main features of this sensor. The effects of microstructure, operating temperature and gas concentration on the gas response, selectivity, response time and recovery time of the sensor in the presence of H2 gas and others were studied and discussed.

  3. Mass-mobility characterization of flame-made ZrO2 aerosols: primary particle diameter and extent of aggregation.

    Eggersdorfer, M L; Gröhn, A J; Sorensen, C M; McMurry, P H; Pratsinis, S E


    Gas-borne nanoparticles undergoing coagulation and sintering form irregular or fractal-like structures affecting their transport, light scattering, effective surface area, and density. Here, zirconia (ZrO(2)) nanoparticles are generated by scalable spray combustion, and their mobility diameter and mass are obtained nearly in situ by differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and aerosol particle mass (APM) measurements. Using these data, the density of ZrO(2) and a power law between mobility and primary particle diameters, the structure of fractal-like particles is determined (mass-mobility exponent, prefactor and average number, and surface area mean diameter of primary particles, d(va)). The d(va) determined by DMA-APM measurements and this power law is in good agreement with the d(va) obtained by ex situ nitrogen adsorption and microscopic analysis. Using this combination of measurements and above power law, the effect of flame spray process parameters (e.g., precursor solution and oxygen flow rate as well as zirconium concentration) on fractal-like particle structure characteristics is investigated in detail. This reveals that predominantly agglomerates (physically-bonded particles) and aggregates (chemically- or sinter-bonded particles) of nanoparticles are formed at low and high particle concentrations, respectively.

  4. Adsorption of Anionic, Cationic and Nonionic Surfactants on Carbonate Rock in Presence of ZrO 2 Nanoparticles

    Esmaeilzadeh, Pouriya; Bahramian, Alireza; Fakhroueian, Zahra

    The adsorption of surfactants at the solid-water interface is important for the control of wetting, lubrication, detergency and in mineral flotation.We have studied the adsorptions of different types of surfactants, cationic (Dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide, DTAB), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) and non-anionic (lauryl alcohol-7 mole ethoxylate, LA7) on carbonate rock in presence of zirconium oxide spherical nanoparticles (17-19 nm). ZrO2 nanoparticles with tetrahedral structure have significant effect on adsorption of surfactants on the carbonate rock. We have used the measured conductivities to determine the rate of adsorption of surfactants at rock-water interfaces. The conductivity of DTAB in aqueous solutions containing calcite powder decreases more than the other surfactants in contact with ZrO2 nanoparticles. We have also investigated the adsorption of surfactants at the air-water interface. The presence of nanoparticles, as demonstrated by our experiments, enhances the surface activity and surface adsorption of the surfactants through electrostatic forces or formation of nanostructures. Dynamic light structuring data shows similar aggregation number of nanoparticles in presence of nanoparticles.

  5. A simple and cheap method for preparation of coupled ZrO2/ZnO with high photocatalytic activities

    WANG Zheng; ZHANG Bingru; LI Fengting


    The objective of this study was to prepare a new photocatalyst with high activities for degradation of organic pollutants.Coupled ZrO2/ZnO photocatalyst was prepared with a simple precipitation method with cheap raw materials zinc acetate and zirconium oxychloride,and was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).Reactive brilliant red X-3B was used as a model compotmd to investigate the photocatalytic activity of synthesized catalysts in water under 254 nm UV irradiation.Results show that the optimal calcination temperature and coupling molar ratio of Zr were 350℃ and 2.5%,respectively.At the calcination temperature of 350℃,ZrO2 was dispersed on the surface of hexagonal ZnO in the form of amorphous clusters.The particle size of ZrO2.ZnO decreased with the decrease of calcination temperature and the increase of Zr coupling amount.ZrO2/ZnO has better photocatalytic activity for degradation of reactive brilliant red (RBR) X-3B than pure ZnO and P25-TiO2.

  6. Modeling of methanol decomposition on Pt/CeO2/ZrO2 catalyst in a packed bed microreactor

    Pohar, Andrej; Belavič, Darko; Dolanc, Gregor; Hočevar, Stanko


    Methanol decomposition on Pt/CeO2/ZrO2 catalyst is studied inside a packed bed microreactor in the temperature range of 300-380 °C. The microreactor is fabricated using low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology, which is well suited for the production of relatively complex three-dimensional structures. It is packed with 2 wt% Pt-CeO2 catalyst, which is deposited onto ZrO2 spherical particles. A 1D mathematical model, which incorporates diffusion, convection and mass transfer through the boundary layer to the catalyst particles, as well as a 3D computational fluid dynamics model, are developed to describe the methanol decomposition process inside the packed bed. The microreactor exhibits reliable operation and no catalyst deactivation was observed during three months of experimentation. A comparison between the 1D mathematical model and the 3D model, considering the full 3D geometry of the microreactor is made and the differences between the models are identified and evaluated.

  7. Characterization of electrolytic ZrO2 coating on Co-Cr-Mo implant alloys of hip prosthesis.

    Yen, S K; Guo, M J; Zan, H Z


    An electrolytic Zr(OH)4 gel has been coated on ASTM F-75 Co-Cr-Mo alloy specimens in 0.0625 M ZrO(NO3)2 solution with pH = 2.2 at a current density of 2 mA/cm2. After annealing at 623-973 K for 120 min in air, the ZrO2-coated specimen was evaluated by electrochemical polarization in Hank's solution, wear tests with UHMWPE (Ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene) under a load stress of 50 MPa, scratch tests, surface morphology observations, and XRD analysis. The ZrO2-coated specimen annealed at 773 K for 120 min revealed a good adhesion of 610 MPa on Co-Cr-Mo substrate, a lower wear loss of UHMWPE and a higher protection potential than the uncoated specimen in Hank's solution. A monoclinic structure with (1 1 1) preferred orientation parallel to the sheet plane was detected at 623 K or = 773 K. Then a monoclinic structure with random orientation and a tetragonal structure were mixed at T > or = 973 K.

  8. Swift ion irradiation effect on high-k ZrO2- and Al2O3-based MOS devices

    Rao, Ashwath; Chaurasia, Priyanka; Singh, B. R.


    This paper describes the heavy ion-induced effects on the electrical characteristics of reactively sputtered ZrO2 and Al2O3 high-k gate oxides deposited in argon plus nitrogen containing plasma. Radiation-induced degradation of sputtered high-k dielectric ZrO2/Si and Al2O3/Si interface was studied using 45 MeV Li3+ ions. The devices were irradiated with Li3+ ions at various fluences ranging from 5 × 109 to 5 × 1012 ions/cm2. Capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics were used for electrical characterization. Shift in flat band voltage towards negative value was observed in devices after exposure to ion radiation. Post-deposition annealing effect on the electrical behavior of high-k/Si interface was also investigated. The annealed devices showed better electrical and reliability characteristics. Different device parameters such as flat band voltage, leakage current, interface defect density and oxide-trapped charge have been extracted.The surface morphology and roughness values for films deposited in nitrogen containing plasma before and after ion radiation are extracted from Atomic Force Microscopy.

  9. Micromechanical Simulation of Thermal Cyclic Behavior of ZrO2/Ti Functionally Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Hideaki Tsukamoto


    Full Text Available This study numerically investigates cyclic thermal shock behavior of ZrO2/Ti functionally graded thermal barrier coatings (FG TBCs based on a nonlinear mean-field micromechanical approach, which takes into account the time-independent and dependent inelastic deformation, such as plasticity of metals, creep of metals and ceramics, and diffusional mass flow at the ceramic/metal interface. The fabrication processes for the FG TBCs have been also considered in the simulation. The effect of creep and compositional gradation patterns on micro-stress states in the FG TBCs during thermal cycling has been examined in terms of the amplitudes, ratios, maximum and mean values of thermal stresses. The compositional gradation patterns highly affect thermal stress states in case of high creep rates of ZrO2. In comparison with experimental data, maximum thermal stresses, amplitudes and ratios of thermal stresses can be effective parameters for design of such FG TBCs subject to cyclic thermal shock loadings.

  10. Improved activity and durability of Rh-based three-way catalyst under diverse aging atmospheres by ZrO2 support.

    Cao, Yidan; Ran, Rui; Wu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Baohuai; Weng, Duan


    The catalytic activity and durability of Rh/ZrO2 catalyst were investigated compared with Rh/Al2O3 catalyst under diverse aging atmospheres, including lean, rich and lean-rich cyclic aging atmospheres, to simulate the real working conditions of three-way catalyst. Oxidation states and microstructures of rhodium species were investigated to correlate with the catalytic performance of the catalysts. The catalytic performance and durability of the Rh catalyst under diverse aging atmospheres were drastically enhanced by ZrO2 support. ZrO2 support was confirmed to be able to effectively inhibit rhodium sintering even under diverse aging conditions. It can also successfully keep Rh species in an active low-valence state on the surface of the catalyst. The superiority of ZrO2 support compared to Al2O3 was verified by the Rh-based monolith catalyst.

  11. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of S-doped TiO2-ZrO2 nanoparticles under visible-light irradiation.

    Tian, Guohui; Pan, Kai; Fu, Honggang; Jing, Liqiang; Zhou, Wei


    Porous nanocrystalline S-doped TiO2-ZrO2 visible-light photocatalysts were prepared through a one-step method. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N(2) adsorption-desorption measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (ESR). It was found that modification by ZrO2 could effectively inhibit phase transformation, enhance visible-light absorption, and possess more surface hydroxyl groups. The photocatalytic activity of S-doped TiO2-ZrO2 was higher than that of unmodified S-doped TiO2 and Degussa P25. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the higher specific area, smaller crystal size, porous structure and more surface hydroxyl groups in the catalyst.

  12. Y2O3-CeO2-ZrO2 Powder Prepared by Co-Precipitation and As-Plasma-Sprayed Coating

    SHAO Gang-qin; ZHANG Wen-xi; HOU Zhong-tao; YUAN Run-zhang


    The Y2O3-CeO2-ZrO2 powders were prepared using a co-precipitation process and the corresponding coatings were prepared by plasma spraying. The results show that an optimal composition exists in Y2O3-doped CeO2-ZrO2, but not in CeO2-doped Y2O3-ZrO2. The powders mainly contain tetragonal phase and a trace amount of monoclinic phase. The homogeneity in composition, large agglomerate size, ideal particle size distribution and high flowability were obtained. The as-sprayed coatings are composed of non-transformable tetragonal phase, tz′structure, and resistant to transformation under thermal or mechanical stresses.

  13. Superacid Catalyst SO42-/ZrO2-La2O3 Prepared by Ultrasonic Co-precipitation and Low Temperature Aging

    Tong-yun Chen; Xiang-feng Chu; Ke-liang Hu


    Sulfated zirconia-lanthana (SO42-/ZrO2-La2O3) precursors were prepared by ultrasonic co-precipitation method and followed by aging at different temperature. The precursors were treated by 0.5 mol/L H2SO4. Samples of SO42-/ZrO2-La2O3 nano-crystalline catalysts were obtained by baking the treated precursors at different temperatures. The acidic properties of SO42-/ZrO2-La2O3were tested by the Hammett indicator method. The phase composition, specific area, particle structure, and surface state were characterized by X-ray diffraction, BET, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectrum, and X-ray photoelectron spec-troscopy. The catalytic activities were estimated by esterification of acetic acid with glycerin. It was shown that the catalyst prepared by ultrasonic stirring and low temperature (-15℃) exhibited highly active sites and high catalytic property.

  14. Synthesis of ZrO2-SiC composite powder and effect of its addition on properties of Al2O3-C refractories


    ZrO2-SiC composite powder was synthesized by carbothermal reduction of zircon in argon atmosphere, and it was used as the additive to prepare Al2O3-C refractories. The effects of heating temperature on the synthesis process and the addition of the synthesized composite powder on the properties of the Al2O3-C refractories were investigated. The results show that the synthesized composite powder can be easily obtained by heating the mixture of zircon and carbon black at 1 873 K for 4 h in argon atmosphere,and the relative contents of ZrO2 and SiC in sample reach about 83.7% and 16.3%, respectively. The bulk density, crushing strength and thermal shock resistance of the Al2O3-C refractories can be improved obviously by the addition of the synthesized ZrO2-SiC composite powder.

  15. High-k ZrO2/Al2O3 bilayer on hydrogenated diamond: Band configuration, breakdown field, and electrical properties of field-effect transistors

    Liu, J. W.; Liao, M. Y.; Imura, M.; Koide, Y.


    A band configuration of a high-k ZrO2/Al2O3 bilayer on hydrogenated diamond (H-diamond), a breakdown field (EB) of the ZrO2/Al2O3 bilayer, and an effect of gate-drain distance (dG-D) on electrical properties of ZrO2/Al2O3/H-diamond metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) have been investigated. The Al2O3 and ZrO2 layers are successively deposited on H-diamond by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and sputtering-deposition (SD) techniques, respectively. The thin ALD-Al2O3 buffer layer with 4.0 nm thickness plays a role in protecting the H-diamond surface from being damaged by the plasma discharge during SD-ZrO2 deposition. The ZrO2/Al2O3 heterojunction has a type I band structure with valence and conduction band offsets of 0.6 ± 0.2 and 1.0 ± 0.2 eV, respectively. The valence band offset between ZrO2 and H-diamond is deduced to be 2.3 ± 0.2 eV. The EB of the ZrO2/Al2O3 bilayer is measured to be 5.2 MV cm-1, which is larger than that of the single ZrO2 layer due to the existence of the ALD-Al2O3 buffer layer. The dependence of dG-D on drain-source current maximum (IDS,max), on-resistance (RON), threshold voltage (VTH), and extrinsic transconductance maximum (gm,max) of the MISFETs has been investigated. With increasing dG-D from 4 to 18 μm, the absolute IDS,max decreases from 72.7 to 40.1 mA mm-1, and the RON increases linearly from 83.3 ± 5 to 158.7 ± 5 Ω mm. Variation of VTH values of around 1.0 V is observed, and the gm,max is in the range between 8.0 ± 0.1 and 13.1 ± 0.1 mS mm-1.

  16. Structural characterization of CeO(2)-ZrO(2)/TiO(2) and V(2)O(5)/CeO(2)-ZrO(2)/TiO(2) mixed oxide catalysts by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, HREM, and other techniques.

    Reddy, Benjaram M; Lakshmanan, Pandian; Khan, Ataullah; López-Cartes, Carlos; Rojas, Teresa C; Fernandez, Asunción


    Structural characteristics of CeO(2)-ZrO(2)/TiO(2) (CZ/T) and V(2)O(5)/CeO(2)-ZrO(2)/TiO(2) (V/CZ/T) mixed oxide catalysts have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, Raman spectroscopy (RS), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM) techniques. The CeO(2)-ZrO(2) (1:1 mole ratio) solid solution was deposited over a finely powdered TiO(2) support by a deposition precipitation method. A nominal 5 wt % V(2)O(5) was impregnated over the calcined (773 K) CZ/T mixed oxide carrier by a wet impregnation technique. The obtained CZ/T and V/CZ/T samples were further subjected to thermal treatments from 773 to 1073 K to understand the dispersion and temperature stability of these materials. In the case of CZ/T samples, the XRD results suggest the formation of different cubic and tetragonal Ce-Zr-oxide phases, Ce(0.75)Zr(0.25)O(2), Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2), Ce(0.5)Zr(0.5)O(2), and Ce(0.16)Zr(0.84)O(2) in varying proportions depending on the treatment temperature. With increasing calcination temperature from 773 to 1073 K, the intensity of the lines pertaining to cubic Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2) and Ce(0.5)Zr(0.5)O(2) phases increased at the expense of cubic Ce(0.75)Zr(0.25)O(2), indicating more incorporation of zirconia into the ceria lattice. The TiO(2) was mainly in the anatase form whose crystallite size also increased with increasing treatment temperature. A better crystallization and more incorporation of zirconia into the ceria lattice was noted when CZ/T was impregnated with V(2)O(5). However, no crystalline V(2)O(5) could be seen from both XRD and RS measurements. In particular, a preferential formation of CeVO(4) compound and an intense tetragonal Ce(0.16)Zr(0.84)O(2) phase were noted beyond 873 K. The HREM results indicate, in the case of CZ/T samples, a well-dispersed Ce-Zr-oxide of the size approximately 5 nm over the bigger crystals ( approximately 40 nm) of TiO(2) when treated at 873 K. The exact structural features of these

  17. CeO2-ZrO2-La2O3-Al2O3 composite oxide and its supported palladium catalyst for the treatment of exhaust of natural gas engined vehicles

    Xiaoyu Zhang; Enyan Long; Yile Li; Jiaxiu Guo; Lijuan Zhang; Maochu Gong; Minghua Wang; Yaoqiang Chen


    Composite supports CeO2-ZrO2-Al2O3 (CZA) and CeO2-ZrO2-Al2O3-La2O3 (CZALa) were prepared by co-precipitation method. Palladium catalysts were prepared by impregnation and their purification ability for CH4, CO and NOx in the mixture gas simulated the exhaust from natural gas vehicles (NGVs) operated under stoichiometric condition was investigated. The effect of La2O3 on the physicochemical properties of supports and catalysts was characterized by various techniques. The characterizations with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the doping of La2O3 restrained effectively the sintering of crystallite particles, maintained the crystallite particles in nanoscale and stabilized the crystal phase after calcination at 1000 ℃. The results of N2-adsorption, H2-temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR) and oxygen storage capacity (OSC) measurements indicated that La2O3 improved the textural properties, reducibility and OSC of composite supports. Activity testing results showed that the catalysts exhibit excellent activities for the simultaneous removal of methane, CO and NOx in the simulated exhaust gas. The catalysts supported on CZALa showed remarkable thermal stability and catalytic activity for the three pollutants, especially for NOx. The prepared palladium catalysts have high ability to remove NOx, CH4 and CO, and they can be used as excellent catalysts for the purification of exhaust from NGVs operated under stoichiometric condition. The catalysts reported in this work also have significant potential in industrial application because of their high performance and low cost.

  18. A Facile Preparation Method of ZrO2 Hollow Sphere Using PVA Microcapsule as a Template

    Lee Dong-Hee


    Full Text Available In this study, we proposed a simple and facile preparation method of ZrO2 hollow sphere using PVA microcapsule as a template. The prepared hollow sphere was characterized by XRD, FESEM, N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, FT-IR techniques. PVA microcapsule were prepared by polymerization in a water-in-oil emulsion and coated by adding of zirconia sol. Uniform and spherical shaped zirconia hollow sphere with very narrow size distribution was obtained after calcination at 700 °C by removing the PVA microcapsule template. No other carbon residues and carbon-zirconium compounds were observed. These results indicate that the zirconia capsule formed without deformation of the zirconia shell structure, and CO2 and H2O gases by decomposition of the PVA microcapsule during sintering process removed through the zirconia shell.

  19. MgO-Al2O3-ZrO2 Amorphous Ternary Composite: A Dense and Stable Optical Coating

    Shaoo, Naba K.; Shapiro, Alan P.


    The process-parameter-dependent optical and structural properties of MgO-Al2O3-ZrO2 ternary mixed-composite material were investigated. Optical properties were derived from spectrophotometric measurements. The surface morphology, grain size distributions, crystallographic phases, and process- dependent material composition of films were investigated through the use of atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis made evident the correlation between the optical constants and the process-dependent compositions in the films. It is possible to achieve environmentally stable amorphous films with high packing density under certain optimized process conditions.

  20. Numerical simulation of ZrO2(Y2O3 ceramic plate penetration by cylindrical plunger

    Bratov V.


    Full Text Available In this paper dynamic fracture process due to high-speed impact of steel plunger into ceramic sample is simulated. The developed numerical model is based on finite element method and a concept of incubation time criterion, which is proven to be applicable in order to predict brittle fracture under high-rate deformation. Simulations were performed for ZrO2(Y2O3 ceramic plates. To characterize fracture process quantitatively fracture surface area parameter is introduced and controlled. This parameter gives area of new surface created during dynamic fracture of a sample and is essentially connected to energetic peculiarities of fracture process. Multiple simulations with various parameters made it possible to explore dependencies of fracture area on plunger velocity and material properties. Energy required to create unit of fracture area at fracture initiation (dynamic analogue of Griffith's surface energy was evaluated and was found to be an order of magnitude higher as comparing to its static value.

  1. High-Quality ZrO2 Thin Films Deposited on Silicon by High Vacuum Electron Beam Evaporation

    章宁琳; 万青; 宋志棠; 沈勤我; 祝向荣; 林成鲁


    Zirconium oxide films were deposited on p-type Si(l00) substrates using high vacuum electron beam evaporation (HVEBE) at room temperature. X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy shows that the dominant chemical state of zirconia thin films is in the fully oxidized state of Zr4+, no matter whether annealed in oxygen. The structural information from x-ray diffraction shows that zirconia thin films deposited at room temperature by HVEBEwere completely amorphous before and after the annealing. The spreading resistance profile indicates that ZrO2 thin films have excellent insulation property (with a resistance of more than 10s Ω) and the thickness is 800A.After thermal treatment at 600°C in O2 ambient, the root-mean-square roughness changed from 8.09 A of the as-deposited film to 13.8A across an area of i × 1μm2.

  2. EXAFS studies on Gd-doped ZrO2 thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering.

    Maidul Haque, S; Tripathi, S; Jha, S N; Bhattacharyya, D; Sahoo, N K


    ZrO2 thin films with 0%, 7%, 9%, 11%, and 13% Gd doping have been prepared by RF magnetron sputtering and have been characterized by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and optical transmission measurements to probe their structural and optical properties. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements have also been carried out on the samples at the Zr K- and Gd L3-edges. It has been observed that Gd goes to Zr sites up to 9%-11% doping concentration, and for Gd doping concentrations beyond 11%, Gd precipitates out as a separate Gd2O3 phase. The local structure information surrounding the Zr and Gd sites obtained from the analysis of the EXAFS studies have also been used to explain the macroscopic optical properties of the samples.

  3. Preparationand Microstructure of ZrO2-MoSi2Composite Powder andCompound Coating

    ZHU Langtao; ZHOU Rongping; YANG Jun; ZHANG Qingying


    In order to improve the lifetime of continuous casting, ZrO2-MoSi2 composite powder used for plasma- spraying was preparedvia spray drying and vacuum sintering. The microstructure and characteristics of the powder were investigated by particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The results show that the average viscosity and settlement rate are 60.43 mPa·s and 1.86%, respectively, when adding ammonium poly-acrylate as a dispersant and polyvinyl alcohol as a binder. The powder obtained at the solid content of 70wt.%, the dis-persant amount of 1wt.%, the binder of 10wt.%, and the sintering temperature of 1200℃ has the spherical agglomerate and a moderate size, which can be melted on the composite coating surface with a good compactnessvia plas-ma-spraying.


    毛东森; 陈庆龄; 卢冠忠



  5. Thermal barrier ZrO2 - Y2O3 obtained by plasma spraying method and laser melting

    K. Kobylańska–Szkaradek


    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose: The aim of the paper is to determine the influence of laser melting upon the selected physical properties of ZrO2 - Y2O3 ceramic coatings deposited by APS (Air Plasma Spraying method on super-alloys which function as TBC (Thermal Barriers Coatings.Design/methodology/approach: Laser melting which helps eliminate pores and other structural defects of coatings should contribute to the improvement of their density and durability as thermal barriers. In order to prove the assumptions made in the paper, coatings featuring varied porosity and deposited upon the nickel base super-alloys surface with the initially sprayed NiCrAlY bond coat have been subjected to laser melting and then their structure, thermal conductivity and thermal life prediction in the conditions of cyclic temperature changes from 20 to 1200ºC have been examined.Findings: It has been revealed that the coatings featuring low porosity laser melted on part of their thickness and heated up to about 700ºC demonstrate the highest thermal life prediction under the conditions mentioned and at slightly lower thermal conductivity.Research limitations/implications: Low wettability of metal by ceramic which results from various surface tensions of these materials is the cause of their lower adhesion to the substrate during laser melting all through their thickness. It is so because delaminations occur between phases the boundary and cracks.Practical implications: The worked out conditions of laser melting might be used in the process of creation of TBC which feature high working durability upon super-alloy elements.Originality/value: It has been found that homogenization of chemical composition of coatings occurs during laser melting leading to the reduction of ZrO2 - Y2O3 phase with monoclinic lattice participation as well as to the reduction of structural stresses which accompany this phase transformation during heating and cooling process.

  6. S2O82-/ZrO2-Ce2 O3固体超强酸的制备及催化合成环缩酮的研究%Study on Preparation of Solid Super Acid S2 O8 2-/ZrO2 - Ce2 O3 and Catalytic Synthesis of Cycloketal

    刘志成; 李家其; 申湘忠



  7. Density functional theory study of the interaction of H2O, CO2 and CO with the ZrO2 (111), Ni/ZrO2 (111), YSZ (111) and Ni/YSZ (111) surfaces

    Cadi-Essadek, Abdelaziz; Roldan, Alberto; de Leeuw, Nora H.


    The triple phase boundary (TPB), where the gas phase, Ni particles and the yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) surface meet, plays a significant role in the performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Indeed, the key reactions take place at the TPB, where molecules such as H2O, CO2 and CO interact and react. We have systematically studied the interaction of H2O, CO2 and CO with the dominant surfaces of four materials that are relevant to SOFC, i.e. ZrO2(111), Ni/ZrO2(111), YSZ(111) and Ni/YSZ(111) of cubic ZrO2 stabilized with 9% of yttria (Y2O3). The study employed spin polarized density functional theory (DFT), taking into account the long-range dispersion forces. We have investigated up to five initial adsorption sites for the three molecules and have identified the geometries and electronic structures of the most stable adsorption configurations. We have also analysed the vibrational modes of the three molecules in the gas phase and compared them with the adsorbed molecules. A decrease of the wavenumbers of the vibrational modes for the three adsorbed molecules was observed, confirming the influence of the surface on the molecules' intra-molecular bonds. These results are in line with the important role of Ni in this system, in particular for the CO adsorption and activation. This document contains the binding energies at the non-equivalent adsorption sites for H2O, CO2 and CO molecules on ZrO2(111) (Figure S1 and Table S1), Ni/ZrO2(111) (Figure S2 and Table S2), YSZ(111) (Figure S3 and Table S3) and Ni/YSZ(111) (Figure S4 and Table S4). We have not reported here the zero point energy. This document also contains the ZrxOyHz clusters studied in Ref. 40 and discussed in our manuscript (Figure S5).

  8. Effect of Nb and alloying elements on interface reaction between high Nb-containing TiAl alloys and ZrO2-based ceramic moulds

    Liang Yang


    Full Text Available In the present study, Ti-45Al-(6, 7, 8Nb (at% and Ti-45Al-8Nb-0.5(Mn, Si, Y, B alloys were prepared by arc melting and casting into ZrO2 (Y2O3 stabilized ceramic moulds to study the effect of alloying elements Nb and Mn, Si, Y, B on the interfacial reaction between casting TiAl alloys and ceramic moulds by SEM, and the elements' distribution in the interface reaction layer by line scanning. The results showed that with an increase in Nb content, the interfacial reaction weakened and the thickness of the reaction layer decreased gradually. The interface reaction thickness of the alloys with Nb content of 6, 7, 8at% were 60, 34 and 26 μm, respectively. Clearly, the addition of 8at% Nb to Ti-45Al is the best for the thickness of the reaction layer. The addition of Nb would form a Nb-rich film in the reaction layer, which could reduce the solubility of oxygen in the interface, and suppress further diffusion of oxygen to the matrix. If the same content of Mn, Si, Y, or B alloying elements were added respectively to Ti-45Al-8Nb, the thickness of the interface reaction layer from large to small was as follows: Mn>Si>Y>B. The interface reaction thickness increased after 0.5at% Mn added, had no obvious change after 0.5at% Si addition, and decreased after adding 0.5at% Y or B. The introduced elements, which formed a protective film or/and promoted the formation of a dense aluminum oxide layer, would be of benefit to the resistance of interfacial reaction.

  9. Activity and deactivation of sulphated TiO2- and ZrO2-based V, Cu, and Fe oxide catalysts for NO abatement in alkali containing flue gases

    Kustov, Arkadii; Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Fehrmann, Rasmus


    Vanadia, copper and iron oxide catalysts supported on conventional TiO2, ZrO2, and sulphated-TiO2 and ZrO2 have been prepared. These catalysts were characterized by elemental analysis, N-2-BET, XRD, and NH3-TPD methods. The influence of potassium oxide additives on the acidity and activity in NO ...

  10. Microstructure and Nonohmic Properties of SnO2-Ta2O5-ZnO System Doped with ZrO2

    Xiuli Fu


    Full Text Available The microstructure and nonohmic properties of SnO2-Ta2O5-ZnO varistor system doped with different amounts of ZrO2 (0–2.0 mol% were investigated. The proposed samples were sintered at 1400°C for 2 h with conventional ceramic processing method. By X-ray diffraction, SnO2 cassiterite phase was found in all the samples, and no extra phases were identified in the detection limit. The doping of ZrO2 would degrade the densification of the varistor ceramics but inhibit the growth of SnO2 grains. In the designed range, varistors with 1.0 mol% ZrO2 presented the maximum nonlinear exponent of 15.9 and lowest leakage current of 110 μA/cm2, but the varistor voltage increased monotonously with the doping amount of ZrO2.

  11. Superplastic forming of Ti6Al4V alloy using ZrO_2-TiO_2 ceramic die with adjustable linear thermal expansion coefficient

    JIANG Shao-song; ZHANG Kai-feng


    Firstly, the relation between the coefficient of thermal expansion(CTE) and the volume fraction of TiO_2 was investigated, and also the influence of relative density of ceramic on the CTE was studied. The results show that the volume fraction, of TiO_2 and the relative density both make influence on the CTE of ZrO_2-TiO_2 ceramic. According to the results, the ZrO_2-TiO_2(volume fraction of TiO_2 is 27%) ceramic die with the similar CTE (8.92×10~(-6)℃~(-1)) to Ti6Al4V was fabricated. Secondly, to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of the workpiece superplastically formed, the Ti6Al4V impression experiment was performed. The result shows that the dimensional inaccuracy of workpieee is 0.003. Thirdly, in order to evaluate the practicability, the experiment of superplastic forming Ti6Al4V using ZrO_2-TiO_2 cylinder ceramic die was carried out. The Ti6Al4V cylinder shows good shape retention and surface quality, and high dimensional accuracy. The ceramic dies seem to be adequate for superplastic forming the high accuracy Ti6Al4V,and the trials have confirmed the potential of the ZrO2-TiO2 ceramic die.

  12. Preparation of ZrO2-Al2O3 micro-laminated coatings on stainless steel and their high temperature oxidation resistance

    YAO Ming-ming; HE Ye-dong; GOU Ying-jun; GAO Wei


    Micro-laminated ZrO2-Al2O3 coatings were prepared by electrochemical depositing ZrO2 film and Al2O3 film alternatively in ethanol solutions containing aluminum nitrate and zirconium nitrate, with small amounts of yttrium nitrate added respectively into both solutions. The micro-laminated ZrO2-Al2O3 coating is of nanostructure. FE-SEM analyses show that the cross section of the micro-laminated coatings has alternate six-layer films of ZrO2 and Al2O3, with the thickness of each layer in the range of nanometer or submicron. The surface of the micro-laminated coatings is composed of nano-particles. SEM, XRD and mass gain measurement were adopted to study the oxidation resistance of coatings on stainless steel. It has been found that all the coatings are effective in protecting the substrate from oxidation, and micro-laminated coatings exhibit more excellent protectiveness performance. Mechanisms accounting for such effects have been discussed.

  13. Effects of precursor on the morphology and size of ZrO2 nanoparticles, synthesized by sol-gel method in non-aqueous medium

    Mohammed Rafiq Hussain Siddiqui


    Full Text Available Pure zirconium oxide (ZrO2 nanoparticles with diameters 10-25 nm were synthesized from ZrOCl2.8H2O and Zr(SO42.H2O with benzyl alcohol as non-aqueous solvent medium using sol-gel method. Sodium lauryl sulfate was added as surfactants to control the particle size. The synthesized ZrO2 nanoparticles have a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic structure. The XRD showed the purity of obtained ZrO2 nanoparticles with tetragonal and monoclinic phase and the crystallite size for ZrOCl2.8H2O precursor was estimated to be 18.1 nm and that from Zr(SO42.H2O was 9.7 nm. The transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopic studies also shows different sizes of nanoparticles and different morphology depending on the precursor used for the synthesis of ZrO2 nanoparticles

  14. Electrical Conductivity of 10 mol% Sc2O3-1 mol% M2O3-ZrO2 Ceramics

    Omar, Shobit; Bin Najib, Waqas; Chen, Weiwu


    The oxide-ion conductivity behavior of 10 mol% Sc2O3-ZrO2 co-doped with 1 mol% trivalent metal oxide has been determined from 350 degrees C to 700 degrees C in air. All the powders were synthesized using conventional solid-oxide route. XRD patterns collected at room temperature show the presence ...

  15. Bleaching Kinetic and Mechanism Study of Congo Red Catalyzed by ZrO2 Nanoparticles Prepared by Using a Simple Precipitation Method.

    Pouretedal, Hamid Reza; Hosseini, Marzihe


    Bleaching of Congo red catalyzed by ZrO2 nanoparticles was study under UV and sunlight irradiations. The nanoparticles of ZrO2 have been synthesized by controlled precipitation method. The concentration of ZrOCl2 and ammonia reactants and the calcinations temperature of ZrO2 were optimized for the control of nanoparticles size. Characterization of the prepared nanoparticles was studied by using XRD patterns, TEM images and FT-IR spectra. The tetragonal phase of zirconium oxide was obtained at 550 °C and show the most catalytic effect in dye degradation. The various parameters such as the irradiation time, amount of nanophotocatalyst, pH of samples, and initial concentration of Congo red were studied to find desired conditions of photodegradation process. The degradation 98% was achieved at pH 7 catalyzed by 0.7 g/L if ZrO2 nanoparticles in duration time of 125 min. The effect of iso-PrOH, hydrogen peroxide and inorganic anions was studied on the degradation efficiency of dye. The degradation 98% was obtained in the presence of prepared nanosized zirconia in comparison with degradation 65% catalyzed by commercially zirconia.

  16. Investigation of chemical vapour deposition MoS2 field effect transistors on SiO2 and ZrO2 substrates

    Liu, Xi; Chai, Yang; Liu, Zhaojun


    With the development of portable electronics, higher performance transistors are required to reduce the form factor and improve the performance of the devices. The key issue relies on developing transistors with outstanding electrical properties and low energy consumption at small scale. Here we demonstrate chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown MoS2 transistors with a high on/off ratio using ZrO2 as a gate dielectric. Using 10 nm thick ZrO2, the transistor has an on/off ratio of 108, a sub-threshold swing of 0.1 V/dec, and a mobility of 64.66 cm2 V-1 s-1. Compared to the MoS2 devices grown on 300 nm SiO2, the electrical performance demonstrates an all round improvement, which indicates the high crystalline quality of MoS2/ZrO2. Owing to the high-k ZrO2 dielectrics, the MoS2 transistor has a high on/off ratio, a low operating voltage, and good channel modulation capability which ensures that MoS2 is a good candidate for low power electronics.

  17. Preparation and Catalytic Activity of a Novel Nanocrystalline ZrO2 @C Composite for Hydrogen Storage in NaAlH4.

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Ruyan; Wang, Zeyi; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng


    Sodium alanate (NaAlH4 ) has attracted intense interest as a prototypical high-density hydrogen-storage material. However, poor reversibility and slow kinetics limit its practical applications. Herein, a nanocrystalline ZrO2 @C catalyst was synthesized by using Uio-66(Zr) as a precursor and furfuryl alcohol (FA) as a carbon source. The as-synthesized ZrO2 @C exhibits good catalytic activity for the dehydrogenation and hydrogenation of NaAlH4 . The NaAlH4 -7 wt % ZrO2 @C sample released hydrogen starting from 126 °C and reabsorbed it starting from 54 °C, and these temperatures are lower by 71 and 36 °C, respectively, relative to pristine NaAlH4 . At 160 °C, approximately 5.0 wt % of hydrogen was released from the NaAlH4 -7 wt % ZrO2 @C sample within 250 min, and the dehydrogenation product reabsorbed approximately 4.9 wt % within 35 min at 140 °C and 100 bar of hydrogen. The catalytic function of the Zr-based active species is believed to contribute to the significantly reduced operating temperatures and enhanced kinetics.

  18. Combination of Partial Oxidation and CO2 Reforming of Methane over Monolithic Ni/CeO2-ZrO2/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst

    Xuan LI; Yun TENG; Mao Chu GONG; Yao Qiang CHEN


    A new monolithic Ni/CeO2-ZrO2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst for combined partial oxidation and CO2 reforming of methane was prepared. The result shows that the addition of O2 to the feed can improve the activity of the catalyst and adjust the H2/CO ratio of the productive gases.

  19. Óxidos Mistos de Al2O3/ZrO2 como Inibidores de Corrosão do Aço SAE 1020

    Marcelo Rodrigues da Silva


    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of Al2O3/ZrO2 mixed oxides synthesized by sol-gel process with different amounts of ZrO2 (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass in the Al2O3 matrix and different temperatures of calcination, such as interesting inhibitor materials of corrosive processes of SAE 1020 steel. The materials were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy Fourier Transform (FTIR and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD techniques. FTIR spectra show the typical Al-O and Zr-O bonds vibrations in the mixed oxides. The XRD patterns of the samples calcined at 800 °C and 1000 °C shows the ZrO2 tetragonal and γ-Al2O3 face-centered cubic (FCC phases. The corrosion tests showed that the SAE 1020 steel covered with mixed oxides have an anodic passive region, thereby inhibiting the corrosive processes on the metal surface. Furthermore, the found values for steel coated with mixed oxide synthesized indicate a decrease in corrosion potentials (Ecor and corrosion current (icor. With respect to different samples of mixed oxides, the sample with 20 % of ZrO2 in the Al2O3 matrix proved to be the best inhibitor of steel corrosion, with the lowest values of corrosion potential and corrosion current, - 1.32 V and 0.31 μA cm-2, respectively.

  20. Popcorn balls-like ZnFe2O4-ZrO2 microsphere for photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol

    Chen, Xi; Liu, Yutang; Xia, Xinnian; Wang, Longlu


    In this paper, novel popcorn balls-like ZnFe2O4-ZrO2 composite microspheres were successfully fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. The morphology, structure and optical property of the microspheres were characterized. The microspheres were used as the photocatalysts to degrade 2,4-dinitrophenol, and exhibited superior photocatalytic performance. Under simulated solar visible light irradiation, the degradation rate of ZnFe2O4-ZrO2 photocatalyst (mass ratio of ZnFe2O4/ZrO2 = 2:1) was almost 7.4 and 2.4 times higher than those of pure ZnFe2O4 and ZrO2. The enhancement could attribute to stronger light absorption, lower carrier recombination and multi-porous structure of the microspheres. Moreover, the popcorn balls-like photocatalysts can be easily separated, because of the magnetism of the samples. After five times runs, the photocatalyst still showed 90% of its photocatalytic degradation efficiency. This work demonstrated a good prospect for removing organic pollutants in water.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of sulfated TiO2 nanorods and ZrO2/TiO2 nanocomposites for the esterification of biobased organic acid.

    Li, Zhonglai; Wnetrzak, Renata; Kwapinski, Witold; Leahy, James J


    TiO(2) nanorods and ZrO(2)-modified TiO(2) nanocomposites have been prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and the deposition-precipitation method. Their sulfated products were tested as solid superacid catalysts for the esterification of levulinic acid which was used as a model bio-oil molecule. SEM and TEM characterization showed that TiO(2) nanorods with diameters ranging from 20 to 200 nm and with lengths of up to 5 μm were synthesized by a hydrothermal method at 180 °C. ZrO(2) nanoparticles with the diameters ranging from 10 to 20 nm were evenly deposited on TiO(2) nanorods. IR and XPS results suggested that sulfated ZrO(2)/TiO(2) nanocomposite has higher content of sulfate groups on the surface with a S/(Zr+Ti) ratio of 13.6% than sulfated TiO(2) nanorods with a S/Ti ratio of 4.9%. The HPLC results showed that sulfated ZrO(2)/TiO(2) nanocomposite have enhanced catalytic activity for esterification reaction between levulinic acid and ethanol compared to sulfated TiO(2) nanorods. The conversion of levulinic acid to ethyl levulinate can reach to 90.4% at the reaction temperature of 105 °C after 180 min.

  2. Study on high temperature sintering processes of selective laser sintered Al2O3/ZrO2/TiC ceramics

    Bai P.


    Full Text Available High temperature sintering processes of selective laser sintered Al2O3/ZrO2/TiC ceramics were studied. The effects of the sintering temperature and the sintering time on the relative density, strength and fracture toughness of Al2O3/ZrO2/TiC ceramics were investigated. The results showed that the sintering temperature and sintering time had a great effect on the relative density and the mechanical properties of Al2O3/ZrO2/TiC ceramics. The mechanical strength increased from 120MPa to 360MPa and KIC increased from 3.7 J/m2 to 6.9 J/m2 when the sintering temperature increased from 1400ºC to 1600ºC, however, the mechanical strength decreased rapidly from 370MPa to 330MPa and KIC decreased from 6.9 J/m2 to 6.1 J/m2 when the sintering time increased from 30min to 90min. Furthermore, the addition of TiC and ZrO2 in the Al2O3 matrix significantly improved mechanical strength and fracture toughness of the Al2O3 matrix ceramics.

  3. Influence of calcination temperature on selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3 over CeO2-ZrO2-WO3 catalyst

    李军燕; 宋忠贤; 宁平; 张秋林; 刘昕; 李昊; 黄真真


    A series of CeO2-ZrO2-WO3 catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 were prepared by hydro-thermal method. The influence of calcination temperature on the catalytic activity, microstructure, surface acidity and redox behavior of CeO2-ZrO2-WO3 catalyst was investigated using various characterization methods. It was found that the CeO2-ZrO2-WO3 catalyst calcined at 600 ºC showed the best catalytic performance and excellent N2 selectivity, and yielded more than 90% NO conversion in a wide temperature range of 250–500 ºC with a space velocity (GHSV) of 60000 h–1. As the calcination temperature was increased from 400 to 600 ºC, the NO conversion obviously increased, but decreased at higher calcination temperature. The results implied that the higher surface area, the strongest synergistic interaction, the superior redox property and the highly dispersed or amorphous WO3 species contributed to the excellent SCR activity of the CeO2-ZrO2-WO3 catalyst calcined at 600 ºC.

  4. Investigation into the Mechanical Properties and Fracture Behavior of A356 Aluminum Alloy-Based ZrO2-Particle-Reinforced Metal-Matrix Composites

    Abdizadeh, H.; Baghchesara, M. A.


    In the present study, an investigation has been carried out into the influence of ZrO2 content and casting temperature on the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of A356 Al/ZrO2 composites. A356 aluminum alloy matrix composites reinforced with 5, 10 and 15 vol.% ZrO2 were fabricated at 750, 850, and 95 0°C via the stir-casting method. Based on the results obtained, the optimum amount of reinforcement and casting temperature were determined by evaluating the density and mechanical properties of the composites through the use of hardness and tensile tests. The fracture surfaces of composite specimens were also studied to identify the main fracture mechanisms of the composites. The results obtained indicated that all samples fractured due to the interdendritic cracking of the matrix alloy. Reinforcing the Al matrix alloy with ZrO2 particles increased the hardness and ultimate tensile strength of the alloy to the maximum values of 70 BHN and 232 MPa, respectively. The best mechanical properties were obtained for the specimens with 15 vol.% of ZrO2 produced at 75 0°C.

  5. Electrodeposition of Sulfonated Phenol on ZrO2 Nanotubes%氧化锆纳米管上磺化苯酚的电沉积

    侯宏英; 刘显茜


    采用阳极氧化法制各了氧化锆纳米管,然后用电化学方法在氧化锆纳米管上电沉积了一层磺化聚苯酚薄膜材料.用扫描电子显微镜、交流阻抗和红外光谱技术表征了所制备的氧化锆纳米管及聚合物薄膜的形貌、性能和微观结构.结果表明,所制备的氧化锆纳米管阵列整齐,管口清晰可见,管径约为30nm;氧化锆纳米管上沉积的是磺化聚苯酚,电沉积的磺化聚苯酚填充了氧化锆纳米管以及纳米管之间的缝隙,沉积的磺化聚苯酚薄膜致密而均匀,改善了氧化锆纳米管的电导率.%The ZrO2 nanotubes were prepared by an anodization method, and then the sulfonated polyphenol film was electrodeposited on the ZrO2 nanotubes via an electrochemical method. The morphologies, property and micro-structures of ZrO2 nanotubes and sulfonated polyphenol membrane were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, AC impedance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that the ZrO2 nanotubes array prepared is in order, and the nanotube diameter is 30 nm. It was indicated that the uniform and dense polymer membrane deposited on the ZrO2 nanotubes was sulfonated polyphenol, which filled in the nanotubes and the gap between ZrO2 nanotubes to improve the conductivity of the ZrO2 nanotubes.

  6. Effect of fuels on conductivity, dielectric and humidity sensing properties of ZrO2 nanocrystals prepared by low temperature solution combustion method

    H.C. Madhusudhana


    Full Text Available ZrO2 nanopowders were synthesized by low temperature solution combustion method using two different fuels namely glycine and oxalyldihydrazide (ODH. The phase confirmation was done by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD and Raman spectral analysis. Use of glycine resulted in ZrO2 with mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic phase with average crystallite size of ∼30 nm. However, ODH as fuel aids in the formation of ZrO2 with mixture of tetragonal and cubic phase with average crystallite size ∼20 nm. Further, in present work we present novel way to tune conductivity property of the nano ZrO2. We show that merely changing the fuel from glycine to ODH, we obtain better DC conductivity and dielectric constant. On the other hand use of glycine leads to the formation of ZrO2 with better AC conductivity and humidity sensing behavior. The dielectric constants calculated for samples prepared with glycine and ODH were found to be 45 and 26 respectively at 10 MHz. The AC and DC conductivity values of the samples prepared with glycine was found to be 9.5 × 10−4 S cm−1, 1.1 × 10−3 S cm−1 and that of ODH was 7.6 × 10−4 S cm−1, 3.6 × 10−3 S cm−1 respectively.

  7. Preparation and properties of β-SiAlON/ZrN nano-composites from ZrO2-coated Si3N4 powder

    Aljoša Maglica


    Full Text Available In this study we report on the preparation and properties ofβ-SiAlON/ZrN electro-conductive nano-composites from ZrO2-coated Si3N4 powder. The silicon nitride powder was coated with nano-sized zirconia particles by the precipitation of ZrO2 from a zirconium acetate solution using urea as the precipitating agent. For the preparation of sintered β-SiAlON/ZrN composites two different approaches were used. In the first one the ZrO2-coated Si3N4 powder was mixed with the appropriate sintering additives (Al2O3, Y2O3 and AlN and reaction sintered, while in the second approach the coated powder was first calcined at 1600°C to prepare ZrNcoated Si3N4 powder that was subsequently mixed with the sintering additives and sintered. For comparison, composites with the same composition were also prepared by mixing Si3N4 and ZrO2 powders with sintering additives and sintered. During the thermal treatment and/or sintering of the Si3N4/ZrO2/AlN powder mixtures zirconia reacts with silicon nitride and aluminium nitride to form zirconium nitride. However, during sintering the agglomeration and grain growth of small, nanometric ZrN particles occurs. Despite the fact that the samples were sintered at atmospheric pressure they are dense, have relatively good flexural strengths and are electrically conductive.

  8. Slao corrosion resistance of MaO-MaAI2O4-ZrO2 series materials%MgO-MgAl2O4-ZrO2系材料的抗渣性研究

    高杰; 李友胜; 韩兵强; 李楠


    MgO-MgAl204 specimen,MgO-ZrO2 specimen,and MgO-MgAl204-ZrO2 specimen were prepared using magnesite powder (d50=6.62μm),m-ZrO2 micropowder (d50=3.99μm) and α-Al203 micropowder (d50=1.89 μm) as starting materials by semi-dry pressing and firing at 1 600 C for 3 h. The permanent linear change on heating, apparent porosity, bulk density, slag corrosion resistance, and slag penetration resistance of the specimens were determined. Slag resistance of specimens was analyzed using thermodynamic software Factsage6.1. The results show that: ( 1 ) MgO-ZrO2 material has better sintering ability than MgOMgAl2O4 material and MgO-MgAl2O4-ZrO2 material; (2) when adding ZrO2 into MgO-MgAl204 material ,the slag corrosion resistance is improved and the slag penetration resistance is poor ,which is mainly resulted from relatively loose microstructure of the specimens and the penetration of Fe3+ and Mg2+ in the slag;(3)experimental results are in good agreement with thermodynamic simulation results.%以菱镁矿粉(d=6.62 μm)、m-ZrO微粉(d=3.99μm)、α-AlO微粉(d=1.89μm)为原料,采用半干法成型,于1 600 ℃保温3 h烧成后制成MgO-MgAlO、MgO-ZrO和MgO-MgAlO-ZrO质试样,检测试样的加热永久线变化率、显气孔率、体积密度、抗渣侵蚀性、抗渣渗透性,并利用Factsage6.1热力学软件对试样的抗渣性进行了分析.结果表明:1.MgO-ZrO材料的烧结性能优于MgO-MgAlO材料及MgO-MgAlO-ZrO材料;2.在MgO-MgAIO材料中引入ZrO,有利于提高其抗渣侵蚀性,但抗渣渗透性较差,主要同试样的组织结构相对疏松及熔渣中的Fe和Mg的渗透有关;3)试验结果与热力学模拟结果吻合较好.

  9. Strain localization in compressed ZrO2(Y2O3) ceramics

    Barannikova, S. A.; Buyakova, S. P.; Zuev, L. B.; Kul'Kov, S. N.


    Spatiotemporal distributions of local components of the distortion tensor of a nonplastic material—yttria partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia (YTZ) ceramics—have been studied under active compressive straining conditions using double-exposure speckle photography techniques. The strain localization patterns are presented and the features of macroscopic strain inhomogeneity in the elastic state of YTZ ceramics are considered.

  10. Compósitos de Al2O3/ZrO2 recobertos com hidroxiapatita dopada com íons Ag Al2O3 /ZrO2 composites coated with hydroxyapatite doped with Ag ions

    J. J. Pierri


    Full Text Available Os compósitos de Al2O3/ZrO2 são indicados para desempenhar funções estruturais dentro do organismo em decorrência de suas qualidades mecânicas, podendo ser otimizados mediante a obtenção de uma camada de material bioativo. O método biomimético propõe a obtenção dessa camada mediante a utilização de solução sintética que simula o plasma sanguíneo. Porém, isso não impede que a presença desses materiais no corpo interfira no mecanismo de defesa, além de influenciar nas doses de antibióticos necessárias. Uma maneira de prevenção e tratamento de infecções microbianas é a utilização de sais de prata, neste caso sendo incorporados juntamente com a camada usada. O presente trabalho otimizou o processamento de compósito ZTA (alumina tenacificada por zircônia e da obtenção da camada com características bioativas e bactericidas. O método de produção, bem como de recobrimento dos compósitos, foram eficientes nas condições estudadas e a morfologia da camada bioativa sofreu alteração quando imersa na solução de AgNO3, apresentando a formação de fosfato de prata.Al2O3/ZrO2 composites are indicated to play structural functions inside the organism due to their mechanical qualities, being able to be optimized by means of the attainment of a layer of bioactive material. The biomimetic method considers the attainment of this layer using a synthetic solution that simulates the body fluid. However, this does not prevent that these materials in the body interfere with the defense mechanism, besides influence in the necessary doses of antibiotics. A way of prevention and treatment of bacterial infections is the use of silver salts, in this case being incorporated to the coating. The present work optimized the processing of zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA composites with bioactive and bacterial characteristics. The production method, as well as the implant coatings, had been efficient in the studied conditions and the morphology of the bioactive layer on the composite suffered alteration when immersed in the AgNO3 solution, with the formation of silver phosphate.

  11. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Mesoporous Nanocrystalline Tetragonal ZrO2 Using Dehydroabietyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromine

    Peng Wang


    Full Text Available Mesoporous nanocrystalline tetragonal zirconias were successfully synthesized through a hydrothermal method using a novel bioresource-derived quaternary ammonium salt, dehydroabietyltrimethyl ammonium bromine (DTAB, as a templating agent. The templating agent provides a surface area (242.02 m2/g, high pore volume (0.53 cm3/g, and large average pore diameter (7.65 nm, which suggests that DTAB is a good candidate for mesostructure synthesis. The hydrothermal treatments give the materials improved thermal stabilities because of the generation of tetragonal nanocrystallites that are more stable than the bulk amorphous ones in the hydrothermal process. However, because of the absence of stabilizers, the sizes of the crystallites of the as-synthesized sample increase gradually with increasing calcination temperature. As the crystalline size of the sample rises to 25 nm, the nanocrystallites become too large to integrate well together, causing the well-organized mesostructure to collapse.


    K.A. Sudjatmi


    Full Text Available Sejalan dengan perkembangan konsep keselamatan pasif pada sistem keselamatan PLTN, maka sistem perpindahan panas konveksi alam memegang peranan penting. Pemakaian nanofluid sebagai fluida pendingin pada sistem keselamatan nuklir dapat digunakan pada Sistem Pendingin Teras Darurat dan Sistem Pendingin Pengungkung Luar Reaktor. Beberapa peneliti telah melakukan studi desain konseptual aplikasi nanofluid untuk meningkatkan keselamatan AP1000 dan sistem pendingin teras darurat pada reaktor daya eksperimen. Penerapan nanofluida juga mulai dikembangkan melalui hasil penelitian perpindahan panas konveksi alamiah pada sub-buluh dengan nanofluida sebagai fluida kerjanya sangat dibutuhkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan pengaruh perubahan konsentrasi ZrO2 terhadap korelasi perpindahan panas konveksi alamiah dengan pendekatan eksperimental. Data eksperimental yang diperoleh digunakan untuk mengembangkan korelasi umum empirik perpindahan panas konveksi alamiah. Metode penelitian dengan menggunakan alat uji sub-buluh vertikal dengan geometri segitiga dan segiempat menggunakan air dan nanofluida air-ZrO2 sebagai fluida kerjanya. Konsentrasi nanopartikel dalam larutan yang digunakan sebesar 0,05 %, 0,10% dan 0,15 % dalam persen berat. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa untuk bilangan Rayleigh yang sama, kemampuan pemindahan kalor oleh nanofluida air-ZrO2 lebih baik dari pada pemindahan kalor oleh air. Namun peningkatan konsentrasi nanofluida tidak selalu mendapatkan kemampuan pemindahan kalor yang lebih baik. Kata kunci: nanofluida air-ZrO2, konveksi alamiah, sub-buluh segitiga, sub-buluh segi segiempat   In line with the development of the passive safety concept for the safety systems of nuclear power plants, the natural convection heat transfer system plays an important role. The nanofluid as coolant fluid on nuclear safety system can be used in Emergency core cooling system and in reactor coolant system confinement. Several researchers have studied the conceptual design of nanofluid applications to improve the safety of the AP1000 and the emergency core cooling system at reactor power experiments. Application of nanofluid also began to be developed through the research of natural convection heat transfer in sub-channel. This study aimed to determine the effect of changes in the concentration of ZrO2 on natural convection heat transfer correlation with experimental approaches. The experimental data obtained is used to develop a general empirical correlation of heat transfer of natural convection. Research methods using test equipment vertical sub-channel with triangular and rectangular geometry using water and nanofluid water ZrO2. The concentration of nanoparticles in the solution used by 0.05 %, 0.10 % and 0.15 % in weight percent. The results showed that for the same Rayleigh number, the heat removal capability by nanofluid water-ZrO2 better than the transfer of heat by water. However, increasing the concentration of nanofluid not always get heat removal capability better. Keywords: water-ZrO2 nanofluid, natural convection, triangular sub-channel, rectangular sub-channel

  13. Size effects in MgO cube dissolution.

    Baumann, Stefan O; Schneider, Johannes; Sternig, Andreas; Thomele, Daniel; Stankic, Slavica; Berger, Thomas; Grönbeck, Henrik; Diwald, Oliver


    Stability parameters and dissolution behavior of engineered nanomaterials in aqueous systems are critical to assess their functionality and fate under environmental conditions. Using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction, we investigated the stability of cubic MgO particles in water. MgO dissolution proceeding via water dissociation at the oxide surface, disintegration of Mg(2+)-O(2-) surface elements, and their subsequent solvation ultimately leads to precipitation of Mg(OH)2 nanosheets. At a pH ≥ 10, MgO nanocubes with a size distribution below 10 nm quantitatively dissolve within few minutes and convert into Mg(OH)2 nanosheets. This effect is different from MgO cubes originating from magnesium combustion in air. With a size distribution in the range 10 nm ≤ d ≤ 1000 nm they dissolve with a significantly smaller dissolution rate in water. On these particles water induced etching generates (110) faces which, above a certain face area, dissolve at a rate equal to that of (100) planes.1 The delayed solubility of microcrystalline MgO is attributed to surface hydroxide induced self-inhibition effects occurring at the (100) and (110) microplanes. The present work underlines the importance of morphology evolution and surface faceting of engineered nanomaterials particles during their dissolution.

  14. Fabrication of Dense ZrO2/CNT Composites: Influence of Bead-Milling Treatment

    Suárez, Gustavo; Jang, Byung-Koog; Aglietti, Esteban F.; Sakka, Yoshio


    Highly concentrated zirconia-carbon nanotube (CNT) water suspensions were prepared using an advanced milling technique. The bead-milling operation parameters were optimized for this system and used to prepare zirconia-stabilized water-based suspensions with different CNT contents. The effects of different milling conditions were studied. The particle dispersion was evaluated by SEM observations on dried suspension. Green's density and SEM observations of compacts were used to follow the colloidal dispersability of the composites. Materials of tetragonal zirconia and CNTs were prepared with a high concentration of CNTs (1, 5, and 10 wt pct CNT). The homogeneous dispersion and distribution of the fibers in the bulk material after slip casting of the suspension were examined. The samples were sintered using spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1473 K (1200 °C) and finally, fully dense materials were obtained. The mechanical properties were evaluated using the Vickers indentation technique.

  15. Nanocomposite membranes based on polybenzimidazole and ZrO2 for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    Nawn, Graeme; Pace, Giuseppe; Lavina, Sandra; Vezzù, Keti; Negro, Enrico; Bertasi, Federico; Polizzi, Stefano; Di Noto, Vito


    Owing to the numerous benefits obtained when operating proton exchange membrane fuel cells at elevated temperature (>100 °C), the development of thermally stable proton exchange membranes that demonstrate conductivity under anhydrous conditions remains a significant goal for fuel cell technology. This paper presents composite membranes consisting of poly[2,2'-(m-phenylene)-5,5'-bibenzimidazole] (PBI4N) impregnated with a ZrO2 nanofiller of varying content (ranging from 0 to 22 wt %). The structure-property relationships of the acid-doped and undoped composite membranes have been studied using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, wide-angle X-ray scattering, infrared spectroscopy, and broadband electrical spectroscopy. Results indicate that the level of nanofiller has a significant effect on the membrane properties. From 0 to 8 wt %, the acid uptake as well as the thermal and mechanical properties of the membrane increase. As the nanofiller level is increased from 8 to 22 wt % the opposite effect is observed. At 185 °C, the ionic conductivity of [PBI4N(ZrO2 )0.231 ](H3 PO4 )13 is found to be 1.04×10(-1)  S cm(-1) . This renders membranes of this type promising candidates for use in high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  16. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Microwave Sintered ZrO2 Bioceramics with TiO2 Addition.

    Kuo, Hsien-Nan; Chou, Jyh-Horng; Liu, Tung-Kuan


    The microwave sintered zirconia ceramics with 0, 1, 3, and 5 wt% TiO2 addition at a low sintering temperature of 1300°C and a short holding time of 1 hour were investigated. Effect of contents of TiO2 addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of microwave sintered zirconia bioceramics was reported. In the sintered samples, the main phase is monoclinic zirconia (m-ZrO2) phase and minor phase is tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO2) phase. The grain sizes increased with increasing the TiO2 contents under the sintering temperature of 1300°C. Although the TiO2 phase was not detected in the XRD pattern, Ti and O elements were detected in the EDS analysis. The presence of TiO2 effectively improved grain growth of the ZrO2 ceramics. The Vickers hardness was in the range of 125 to 300 Hv and increased with the increase of TiO2 contents. Sintering temperature dependence on the Vickers hardness was also investigated from 1150°C to 1300°C, showing the increase of Vickers hardness with the increase of the sintering temperature as well as TiO2 addition.

  17. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Microwave Sintered ZrO2 Bioceramics with TiO2 Addition

    Hsien-Nan Kuo


    Full Text Available The microwave sintered zirconia ceramics with 0, 1, 3, and 5 wt% TiO2 addition at a low sintering temperature of 1300°C and a short holding time of 1 hour were investigated. Effect of contents of TiO2 addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of microwave sintered zirconia bioceramics was reported. In the sintered samples, the main phase is monoclinic zirconia (m-ZrO2 phase and minor phase is tetragonal zirconia (t-ZrO2 phase. The grain sizes increased with increasing the TiO2 contents under the sintering temperature of 1300°C. Although the TiO2 phase was not detected in the XRD pattern, Ti and O elements were detected in the EDS analysis. The presence of TiO2 effectively improved grain growth of the ZrO2 ceramics. The Vickers hardness was in the range of 125 to 300 Hv and increased with the increase of TiO2 contents. Sintering temperature dependence on the Vickers hardness was also investigated from 1150°C to 1300°C, showing the increase of Vickers hardness with the increase of the sintering temperature as well as TiO2 addition.

  18. Effects of Annealing Time on the Performance of OTFT on Glass with ZrO2 as Gate Dielectric

    W. M. Tang


    Full Text Available Copper phthalocyanine-based organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs with zirconium oxide (ZrO2 as gate dielectric have been fabricated on glass substrates. The gate dielectric is annealed in N2 at different durations (5, 15, 40, and 60 min to investigate the effects of annealing time on the electrical properties of the OTFTs. Experimental results show that the longer the annealing time for the OTFT, the better the performance. Among the devices studied, OTFTs with gate dielectric annealed at 350°C in N2 for 60 min exhibit the best device performance. They have a small threshold voltage of −0.58 V, a low subthreshold slope of 0.8 V/decade, and a low off-state current of 0.73 nA. These characteristics demonstrate that the fabricated device is suitable for low-voltage and low-power operations. When compared with the TFT samples annealed for 5 min, the ones annealed for 60 min have 20% higher mobility and nearly two times smaller the subthreshold slope and off-state current. The extended annealing can effectively reduce the defects in the high-k film and produces a better insulator/organic interface. This results in lower amount of carrier scattering and larger CuPc grains for carrier transport.

  19. WO3/ZrO2 Strong Acid as a Catalyst for the Decomposition of Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-12)


    @@ Introduction Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) diffusing to the stratosphere is a major reason for ozone depletion[1]. Also CFCs has been claimed to be notorious for its greenhouse effect[2]. So, recently it has become very important to eliminate CFCs as far as protecting the ozone layer surrounding the earth is concerned. Among various kinds of approaches to do destruction to CFCs, the catalytic decomposition seems to be the most practical and energetically favorable one, especially for treating small amounts of CFCs[3,4]. Recently, Fu et al.[3] reported that TiO2 modified with H2SO4 was much more active than TiO2 for the decomposition of CFC-12 in the presence of water vapor, and they attributed this tremendous enhancement in activity to the superacidic property of the sulfated catalyst. Their research results substantially stimulate us to investigate the catalytic decomposition of CFC-12 in the presence of water vapor over WO3/ZrO2 strong acid, which is more thermally stable than the sulfated oxides superacids[5].

  20. Thermodynamic behavior of 57Fe implanted into ZrO2(Y) by CEMS and slow positron beam

    张桂林; WengHui-Min; 等


    Using conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy(CEMS) and slow positron beam,the chemical state of 57Fe(100keV,3×1016cm-2)implanted into ZrO2 containing 0.03 mole fraction Y2O3(ZY3)and its thermodynamic behavior during annealing process at 200-500℃ are studied.For as-implanted sampled,Fe chemical states of Fe0,Fe2+ and Fe3+ are observed,and assigned to the superparamagnetic metallic iron cluster,iron dimer(and trimer)and complex of the Fe3+ associated with cation vacancy(V) and oxygen,respectively.After annealing at 400℃ the complexes of Fe3+-V are mostly dissolved,and the prior phase to αFe and α-Fe nano-crystalline cluster are present in the sample .Meanwhile the mixed conducting of oxygen-ions and electrons in the ZY3 sample containing Fe appears,it maty correlate with the different iron charge states and their relative amounts,in particular with the α-Fe nano-granule.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of ZrO2-CuO co-doped ceria nanoparticles via chemical precipitation method

    Viruthagiri, G.; Gopinathan, E.; Shanmugam, N.; Gobi, R.


    In the present study, the fluorite cubic phase of bare and ZrO2-CuO co-doped ceria (CeO2) nanoparticles have been synthesized through a simple chemical precipitation method. X-ray diffraction results revealed that average grain sizes of the samples are within 5-6 nm range. The functional groups present in the samples were identified by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) study. Surface area measurement was carried out for the ceria nanoparticles to characterize the surface properties of the synthesized samples. The direct optical cutoff wavelength from DRS analysis was blue-shifted evidently with respect to the bulk material and indicated quantum-size confinement effect in the nanocrystallites. PL spectra revealed the strong and sharp UV emission at 401 nm. The surface morphology and the element constitution of the pure and doped nanoparticles were studied by scanning electron microscope fitted with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer arrangement. The thermal decomposition course was followed using thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA).

  2. Effect of variable cerium concentration on photoluminescence behaviour in ZrO2 phosphor synthesized by combustion synthesis method

    Dubey, Vikas; Kaur, Jagjeet


    Present paper reports synthesis and characterization of trivalent cerium (Ce3+) doped zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) phosphors. Effect of variable concentration of cerium on photoluminescence (PL) is studied. Samples were prepared by combustion synthesis technique which is suitable for less time taking techniques also for large scale production for phosphors. Starting material used for sample preparation are Zr(NO3)3 and Ce(NO3)3 and urea used as a fuel. All prepared phosphor with variable concentration of Ce3+ (0.1 to 2mol%) was studied by photoluminescence analysis it is found that the excitation spectra of prepared phosphor shows broad excitation centred at 390nm. The excitation spectra with variable concentration of Ce3+ show strong peaks at 447nm. Spectrophotometric determinations of peaks are evaluated by Commission Internationale de I'Eclairage technique. Using this phosphor, the desired CIE values including emissions throughout the violet (390 nm) and blue (427 nm) of the spectra were achieved. Efficient blue light emitting diodes were fabricated using Ce3+ doped phosphor based on near ultraviolet (NUV) excited LED lights.

  3. Co-electrodeposition of Functionally Graded Ni-NCZ (Nickel Coated ZrO2) Composite Coating

    Bostani, B.; Parvini Ahmadi, N.; Yazdani, S.; Arghavanian, R.


    In this study, functionally NCZ (electroless nickel plated ZrO2) content graded Ni-NCZ composite coating has been successfully co-electrodeposited from a bath with gradually increasing of stirring rate. For this, different composite coatings were electroplated in the same bath with different stirring rates to find the optimum condition. SEM, XRD, EDX and electrochemical studies showed that co-electrodeposition in a bath with stirring rate of 250 rpm results in the maximum co-electrodeposited particle content and the best particle distribution and corrosion resistance. Also, this sample had the highest wear resistance with respect to the other samples. To produce NCZ content graded Ni-NCZ composite coating, the stirring rate was continuously increased from 0 to 250 rpm. The electroplated coating had a continuous gradient increasing of co-electrodeposited NCZ content from substrate toward the surface. This distribution of NCZ particles results in a gradient increasing of the microhardness in the cross section of the coating. Bend test revealed that the functionally graded composite coating shows better adhesion to the substrate compared with the uniformly distributed Ni-NCZ on the same substrate. This result has been attributed to lower mechanical mismatch between coating and substrate in the functionally graded composite coating with respect to the uniformly distributed one.

  4. Random lasing and reversible photodegradation in disperse orange 11 dye-doped PMMA with dispersed ZrO2 nanoparticles

    Anderson, Benjamin R.; Gunawidjaja, Ray; Eilers, Hergen


    We report the observation of intensity feedback random lasing at 645 nm in disperse orange 11 dye-doped PMMA (DO11/PMMA) with dispersed ZrO2 nanoparticles (NPs). The lasing threshold is found to increase with concentration, with the lasing threshold for 0.1 wt% being 75.8 ± 9.4 MW cm-2 and the lasing threshold for 0.5 wt% being 121.1 ± 2.1 MW cm-2, with the linewidth for both concentrations found to be ≈10 nm. We also consider the material’s photostability and find that it displays fully reversible photodegradation with the photostability and recovery rate being greater than previously observed for DO11/PMMA without NPs. This enhancement in photostability and recovery rate is found to be explicable by the modified correlated chromophore domain model, with the NPs resulting in the domain free energy advantage increasing from 0.29 eV to 0.41 eV. Additionally, the molecular decay and recovery rates are found to be in agreement with previous measurements of DO11/PMMA (Ramini et al 2013 Polym. Chem. 4 4938). These results present new avenues for the development of robust photodegradation-resistant organic dye-based optical devices.

  5. Co-electrodeposition of Functionally Graded Ni-NCZ (Nickel Coated ZrO2) Composite Coating

    Bostani, B.; Parvini Ahmadi, N.; Yazdani, S.; Arghavanian, R.


    In this study, functionally NCZ (electroless nickel plated ZrO2) content graded Ni-NCZ composite coating has been successfully co-electrodeposited from a bath with gradually increasing of stirring rate. For this, different composite coatings were electroplated in the same bath with different stirring rates to find the optimum condition. SEM, XRD, EDX and electrochemical studies showed that co-electrodeposition in a bath with stirring rate of 250 rpm results in the maximum co-electrodeposited particle content and the best particle distribution and corrosion resistance. Also, this sample had the highest wear resistance with respect to the other samples. To produce NCZ content graded Ni-NCZ composite coating, the stirring rate was continuously increased from 0 to 250 rpm. The electroplated coating had a continuous gradient increasing of co-electrodeposited NCZ content from substrate toward the surface. This distribution of NCZ particles results in a gradient increasing of the microhardness in the cross section of the coating. Bend test revealed that the functionally graded composite coating shows better adhesion to the substrate compared with the uniformly distributed Ni-NCZ on the same substrate. This result has been attributed to lower mechanical mismatch between coating and substrate in the functionally graded composite coating with respect to the uniformly distributed one.

  6. Random Lasing and Reversible Photodegradation in Disperse Orange 11 Dye-Doped PMMA with Dispersed ZrO$_2$ Nanoparticles

    Anderson, Benjamin R; Eilers, Hergen


    We report the observation of intensity feedback random lasing at 645 nm in Disperse Orange 11 dye-doped PMMA (DO11/PMMA) with dispersed ZrO$_2$ nanoparticles (NPs). The lasing threshold is found to increase with concentration, with the lasing threshold for 0.1 wt\\% being $75.8 \\pm 9.4$ MW/cm$^2$ and the lasing threshold for 0.5 wt\\% being $121.1 \\pm 2.1$ MW/cm$^2$, with the linewidth for both concentrations found to be $\\approx 10$ nm. We also consider the material's photostability and find that it displays fully reversible photodegradation with the photostability and recovery rate being greater than previously observed for DO11/PMMA without NPs. This enhancement in photostability and recovery rate is found to be explicable by the modified correlated chromophore domain model, with the NPs resulting in the domain free energy advantage increasing from 0.29 eV to 0.41 eV. Additionally, the molecular decay and recovery rates are found to be in agreement with previous measurements of DO11/PMMA [Polymer Chemistry \\...

  7. Evaluation of a ZrO2 composite membrane in PEM fuel operating at high temperature and low relativity humidity

    Guzman, C.; Alvarez, A.; Godinez, Luis A.; Herrera, O.E.; Merida, W.; Ledesma-Garcia, J.; Arriaga, L.G.


    Using proton exchange fuel cells (PEMFC's) is a sustainable way to generate electrical power. High temperature PEMFC's (HT - PEMFC's) have enhanced electrode kinetics, increased CO tolerance and simplified water management that these operation conditions imply. Unfortunately, Nafion and other perfluorosulfonic acid membranes (PFSA) are characterized by a decreased proton conductivity at high temperatures (above 100 degree C) due to dehydration which also causes shrinkage and increases the contact resistance between the membrane and the electrode. For these reasons, fuel cell research aims to create new membranes capable of working at high temperatures and low relative humidity conditions. The inclusion of inorganic materials into the Nafion matrix are employed to improve the mechanical properties of the membrane and enhance the membrane's hydration. In this study, the composite membrane ZrO2 showed better performance at high temperature and low relative humidity than commercial Nafion membrane. The performance results confirmed that composite membranes retain water and help retain the membrane hydration.

  8. Preparation and characterization of TiO{sub 2} doped and MgO stabilized Na–β″-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrolyte via a citrate sol–gel method

    Shan, Shi-Jie; Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Wei, Xiao-Ling [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Yang, Hui, E-mail: [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Shen, Xiao-Dong [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China)


    Highlights: ► TiO{sub 2} doped Na–β″-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrolyte is synthesized via a sol–gel method with C{sub 16}H{sub 36}O{sub 4}Ti as the precursor for TiO{sub 2}. ► The optimized sample contains 90.28% of β″ phase and presents a very high relative density (99.5%). ► The optimized sample exhibits the bending strength up to 180 MPa and an ionic conductivity up to 0.21 S cm{sup −1} (350 °C). -- Abstract: TiO{sub 2} doped and MgO stabilized Na–β″-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is synthesized via a citrate sol–gel method starting with Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, NaNO{sub 3}, Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and C{sub 16}H{sub 36}O{sub 4}Ti (tetrabutyl titanate, abbreviated as TBT). It is found that the TBT amount in the starting materials is the key factor to affect the properties of the final product, therefore, the samples sintered from precursors containing different amounts of TBT are systematically investigated by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Meanwhile, the relative density, mechanical strength and electrical properties of the prepared samples are also measured. The optimized sample contains 90.28% of β″ phase, exhibits a uniform and compact microstructure with a relative density as high as 99.5% of theoretical density (TD). In addition, this sample exhibits a bending strength up to 180 MPa and an ionic conductivity up to 0.21 S cm{sup −1} at 350 °C.

  9. MgO nano-facet embedded silver-based dielectric/metal/dielectric transparent electrode.

    Kim, Sungjun; Yu, Hak Ki; Hong, Kihyon; Kim, Kisoo; Son, Jun Ho; Lee, Illhwan; Kim, Kyoung-Bo; Kim, Tae-Yeob; Lee, Jong-Lam


    We replace Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) with an MgO nano-facet Embedded WO(3)/Ag/WO(3)(WAW) multilayer for electrodes of high efficiency OLEDs. WAW shows higher values for transmittance (93%) and conductivity (1.3×10(5) S/cm) than those of ITO. Moreover, WAW shows higher transmittance (92.5%) than that of ITO (86.4%) in the blue region (<500 nm). However, due to the large difference in refractive indices (n) of glass (n=1.55) and WO(3) (n=1.95), the incident light has a small critical angle (52°). Thus, the generated light is confined by the glass/WAW interface, resulting in low light outcoupling efficiency (~20%). This can be enhanced by using a nano-facet structured MgO (n=1.73) layer and a ZrO(2) (n=1.84) layer as a graded index layer. Using these optimized electrodes, ITO-free, OLEDs with various emission wavelengths have been produced. The luminance of OLEDs using MgO/ZrO(2)/WAW layers is enhanced by 24% compared to that of devices with ITO.

  10. Grain size control and phase transformations in nanocrystalline ZrO(2)-Al(2)O(3)

    Smyser, Bridget Maureen


    An effort has been made to develop nanocrystalline ZrOsb2-Alsb2Osb3 powders that exhibit grain size and phase stability during one thermal cycle from room temperature to 1100-1200sp°C for potential use as thermal barrier coating materials. For this use, the tetragonal phase of ZrOsb2 must be maintained. Tetragonal ZrOsb2 can be prevented from transforming to the monoclinic form by maintaining the grain size below a critical value. Alsb2Osb3 was intended to provide this grain size control due to its immiscibility with ZrOsb2. Several sol-gel and precipitation methods of producing the powders were compared, along with two different forms of high energy mixing. The powders were subsequently calcined and heat treated in order to assess their ability to maintain the desired phase distribution during thermal cycling. The powders were characterized by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The method producing the greatest fraction of tetragonal ZrOsb2 with the least amount of added Alsb2Osb3 was that in which a commercial colloidal solution of ZrOsb2 was mixed with an aluminum nitrate solution. The critical grain size of ZrOsb2 in this system was 30 nm. The grain size was controlled not by a pinning mechanism as is often seen in conventional, high Alsb2Osb3,\\ Alsb2Osb3-ZrOsb2 ceramics, but instead by mutual constraint of surrounding grains aided by sluggish grain boundary diffusion. The grain growth kinetics in all the phases tended to be slower than in micron sized materials, and a range of grain growth exponents from n = 1 to n = 30 were determined for the various phases. Transformation kinetics in ZrOsb2 followed classic Avrami behavior. Alsb2Osb3 phase transformation kinetics were not specifically determined, however, gamma-Alsb2Osb3 was identified at temperatures well beyond its usual stability, which is possibly a grain size effect.

  11. Nanoscale morphological and electrical homogeneity of HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films studied by conducting atomic-force microscopy

    Kremmer, S.; Wurmbauer, H.; Teichert, C.; Tallarida, G.; Spiga, S.; Wiemer, C.; Fanciulli, M.


    The morphological and electrical evolution of HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films is investigated on the nanoscale using conducting atomic-force microscopy in ultrahigh vacuum. Films of different thicknesses have been grown by atomic layer deposition. With increasing film thickness the film structure changes from amorphous to polycrystalline. By conducting atomic-force microscopy using local current-voltage curve statistics and two-dimensional current imaging it is found that the formation of crystallites has different effects on the electrical properties of the two dielectrics. In the case of HfO2, the crystalline fraction causes weak spots in the oxide, whereas for the ZrO2 films the crystallites exhibit lower leakage currents compared to the amorphous matrix and leakage is mainly determined by thickness fluctuations.

  12. 添加稀土Gd的氧化锆的物相分析%Phase analysis of rare earth Gd doping ZrO2

    刘树信; 王海滨


    以硝酸锆、硝酸钆和柠檬酸为原料,按n(Gd):n(Zr)分别为1:99、3:97、5:95、8:92和10:90的配比在1 200℃煅烧6h制备了稀土Gd掺杂ZrO2试样,以研究Gd与ZrO2的化学相容性;进而按n(Gd2Zr2O7):n(ZrO2)分别为1:10、1:8、1:4、1:2、1:1、4:1和8:1的配比于1 200℃煅烧6h原位合成了Gd2 Zr2O7-ZrO2复合材料.采用XRD和拉曼光谱研究了稀土Gd掺杂ZrO2和Gd2 Zr2O7-ZrO2复合材料的物相组成和结构.结果表明:稀土Gd容易进入ZrO2晶格形成固溶体,当稀土Gd掺杂量较少时,随着稀土Gd掺杂量的增加,m-ZrO2逐渐转变为t-ZrO2;当稀土Gd添加量较多时,随着Gd量的增加,逐渐原位生成了萤石结构的稀土锆酸盐Gd2Zr2O7,从而合成了由Gd2 Zr2O7和t-ZrO2构成的Gd2 Zr2 O7 - ZrO2复合材料.%Rare earth Gd doping ZrO2 specimens were prepared using Zr(NO3)4 · 3H2O,Gd(NO3)3 · 6H2O and C6H8O7 · H2O as starting materials according to the molar ratio of Gd and Zr (1:99,3:97,5:95,8=92,10:90) and firing at 1 200 °C for 6 h for studying chemical compatibility of Gd and ZrO2,and then Gd2Zr207-Zr02 composites were in-situ fired at 1 200 °C for 6 h according to the molar ratio of Gd2Zr207 and ZrO2(1= 10, 1:8,1 : 4,1:2,1 : 1,4:1,8:1). The phase composition and structure of the composites were studied by XRD and Raman. The results indicate that it is easy for Gd to enter crystal lattice of ZrO2 forming solid solution; when the doping amount of Gd is less, the m-ZrO2 transforms into t-ZrO2 with the increase of doping amount of Gd;when the doping amount of Gd is more,the fluorite-structured Gd2Zr2O7 forms gradually with the increase of doping amount of Gd,so the Gd2Zr207-ZrO2 composite composed of fluorite-structured Gd2Zr2O7 and t-ZrO2 is synthesized.

  13. Predicting model on ultimate compressive strength of Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foam filter based on BP neural network

    Yu Jingyuan


    Full Text Available In present study, BP neural network model was proposed for the prediction of ultimate compressive strength of Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foam filter prepared by centrifugal slip casting. The inputs of the BP neural network model were the applied load on the epispastic polystyrene template (F, centrifugal acceleration (v and sintering temperature (T, while the only output was the ultimate compressive strength (σ. According to the registered BP model, the effects of F, v, T on σ were analyzed. The predicted results agree with the actual data within reasonable experimental error, indicating that the BP model is practically a very useful tool in property prediction and process parameter design of the Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foam filter prepared by centrifugal slip casting.

  14. Effect of ZnO; ZrO2 y B2O 3. Part II. Phase separation and clinker phase distribution

    Gómez, M. P.


    Full Text Available This study is a continuation of previous research which established the effect of the oxides ZnO, ZrO2 and B2O3, both separately and jointly, on clinkerization processes, as well as on clinker phase composition and morphology. A knowledge of the distribution of these elements in mineral phases is requisite to understanding which phases they affect and how. The present study aimed, then, to develop a suitable methodology for the selective separation of clinker phases and to ascertain how ZnO, ZrO2 and B2O3 are distributed in these phases when added to the raw mix in proportions of up to 2%. The optimal conditions for separating clinker phases with selective solutions (KOH-sucrose and CH3OHsalicylic acid were established. These selective treatments proved to be insufficient in and of themselves to determine the distribution of ZnO and ZrO2 in the clinker phases. Consequently, the original clinkers had to be analyzed with SEM/BSE/EDX techniques to complete the study. The findings showed that ZnO and ZrO2 were fixed primarily in the C3A and C4AF present in the clinker, while B2O3 was taken up by the silicate phases.Este trabajo es la continuación de otro anterior en el que se estableció la influencia de los óxidos ZnO, ZrO2 y B2O3, tanto de manera individualizada como conjunta, en los procesos de clinkerización, así como en la composición y morfología de las fases del clínker. Conocer cómo se distribuyen estos elementos en las fases mineralógicas, permite comprender cómo y a qué fases afectan. Por ello el objetivo de este trabajo fue obtener una metodología adecuada para la separación selectiva de las fases del clínker, y conocer cómo se distribuyen en estas fases adiciones de hasta el 2% de los óxidos de ZnO, ZrO2 y B2O3 adicionados al crudo. Se establecieron las condiciones óptimas para la separación de las fases del clínker a través de diferentes disoluciones selectivas (KOH-Sacarosa y CH3OH-Ac. salicílico. Se ha demostrado que estos tratamientos selectivos por sí solos no son adecuados para conocer la distribución del ZnO y el ZrO2 en las fases del clínker, siendo necesario completar el estudio con análisis por SEM/BSE/EDX sobre los clínkeres originales. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el ZnO y ZrO2 se fijan mayoritariamente en las fases C3A y C4AF del clínker; por el contrario, el B2O3 se incorpora a las fases silicato.

  15. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Ethanol on Rh-Pt Catalysts: Influence of CeO2, ZrO2, and La2O3 as Supports

    Bernay Cifuentes


    Full Text Available CeO2-, ZrO2-, and La2O3-supported Rh-Pt catalysts were tested to assess their ability to catalyze the steam reforming of ethanol (SRE for H2 production. SRE activity tests were performed using EtOH:H2O:N2 (molar ratio 1:3:51 at a gaseous space velocity of 70,600 h−1 between 400 and 700 °C at atmospheric pressure. The SRE stability of the catalysts was tested at 700 °C for 27 h time on stream under the same conditions. RhPt/CeO2, which showed the best performance in the stability test, also produced the highest H2 yield above 600 °C, followed by RhPt/La2O3 and RhPt/ZrO2. The fresh and aged catalysts were characterized by TEM, XPS, and TGA. The higher H2 selectivity of RhPt/CeO2 was ascribed to the formation of small (~5 nm and stable particles probably consistent of Rh-Pt alloys with a Pt surface enrichment. Both metals were oxidized and acted as an almost constant active phase during the stability test owing to strong metal-support interactions, as well as the superior oxygen mobility of the support. The TGA results confirmed the absence of carbonaceous residues in all the aged catalysts.

  16. Effect of ZrO2 Source Variations on PbZrO3 - PbTiO3 Piezoelectric Properties.


    soluble impurities. The crystalline zirconyl chloride is separated from its mother liquor on a perforated basket centrifuge which gives a very dry...the average particle size obtained was that of strong agglomerated particles of ZrO2 , which probably approaches the particle diameter of the ZrO xH2...accomplished by dissolving purified hydroxide with ammonia and citric acid. Unfortunately, Ba and Sr form insoluble citrates and precipitate too rapidly to

  17. A Novel Way to Prepare γ-Al2O3 Supported SO42-/ZrO2 Solid Superacid Catalysts for n-Butane Isomerization


    Highly active solid superacid catalysts for n-butane isomerization, SZ/Al2O3-P, were prepared by supporting SO42-/ZrO2 (SZ) on γ-Al2O3 carrier using a precipitation method.The activities of some catalysts were enhanced significantly.The activity of the most active sample, 60%SZ/Al2O3-P, was even about 2 times more active than that of the SZ catalyst.

  18. Diesel/biodiesel soot oxidation with ceo2 and ceo2-zro2-modified cordierites: a facile way of accounting for their catalytic ability in fuel combustion processes

    Silva,Rodrigo F.; Edimar DeOliveira; Paulo C. de Sousa Filho; Neri,Cláudio R.; OSVALDO A. SERRA


    CeO2 and mixed CeO2-ZrO2 nanopowders were synthesized and efficiently deposited onto cordierite substrates, with the evaluation of their morphologic and structural properties through XRD, SEM, and FTIR. The modified substrates were employed as outer heterogeneous catalysts for reducing the soot originated from the diesel and diesel/biodiesel blends incomplete combustion. Their activity was evaluated in a diesel stationary motor, and a comparative analysis of the soot emission was carried out ...

  19. Bulk binary ZrO2-based oxides as highly active alternative-type catalysts for non-oxidative isobutane dehydrogenation.

    Otroshchenko, Tatyana; Radnik, Jörg; Schneider, Matthias; Rodemerck, Uwe; Linke, David; Kondratenko, Evgenii V


    Bulk binary ZrO2-based oxides efficiently catalyse non-oxidative dehydrogenation of isobutane to isobutylene. Their activity strongly depends on the kind of second metal oxide. So designed CrZrOx showed superior activity to industrially relevant catalysts with supported Pt or CrOx species. It was also stable under alternating dehydrogenation and oxidative regeneration cycles over ca. 110 h under different reaction conditions between 550 and 600 °C.

  20. Thermal phase transformation of SiO2-Al2O3-ZrO2 glass%SiO2-Al2O3-ZrO2玻璃的热相转变研究

    谭小平; 梁叔全


    采用拉曼光谱和红外光谱结合X线衍射和透射电子显微镜等技术探讨SiO2-Al2O3-ZrO2(SAZ)玻璃的热相转变过程.研究结果表明:SAZ玻璃经900℃热处理2 h后仍为典型非晶,其拉曼峰位于460,600和800 cm-1左右,峰形宽,强度弱,从900~920℃开始分相,形成富si区和富Zr和A1区,拉曼峰强度随温度升高而增大,且在148 cm-1和300 cm-1附近出现2个峰值;当温度升高至1 000℃时,四方氧化锆拉曼特征峰已很明显,表明四方氧化锆已形成,且在XRD谱中观察到A1-Si尖晶石相并有莫来石晶相开始生成;当温度进一步升高时,四方氧化锆的拉曼峰更明显,同时在180~270,350~440和970~1 020 cm-1区域间出现拉曼峰,峰形尖锐,强度大,表明结晶完好;XRD谱中A1-Si尖晶石相消失,四方氧化锆、莫来石成为主晶相,同时生成了少量方石英.%The thermal phase transformation of SiO2-Al2O3-ZrO2 (SAZ) glass was investigated by Raman, IR, XRD and TEM techniques. The results show that the sample heated at 900 ℃ is still in amorphous and the Raman peaks are broad and weak around about 460, 600 and 800 cm-1. Phase segregation occurs at 900-920 ℃, resulting in the formation of Si-rich and Al, Zr-rich regions. The Raman peaks are stronger and there are two additional peaks around about 148 and 300 cm-1 with the increase of the temperature. The t-ZrO2has been crystallized from the Al, Zr-rich region of the SAZ glass because of the obvious Raman peaks and Al-Si spinel is observed by XRD at 1 000 ℃ when mullite forms by reaction between Al-Si spinel and amorphous silica. Above 1 000 ℃, the Raman peaks occur strongly at 180-270,350-440 and 970-1 020 cm-1 expect for those of t-ZrO2 and the main crystalline phases are identified as t-ZrO2, mullite and cristobalite with the spinel disappearing.

  1. Influência do uso do forno de microondas ou convencional na síntese de ZrO2 Influence of the use of microwave oven or conventional furnace on the synthesis of ZrO2

    V. dos Santos


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo descrever a síntese de óxido de zircônio, variando as condições de síntese com o uso de forno convencional (FC ou forno de microondas (FM, através do método Pechini. As características estruturais dos óxidos sintetizados foram determinadas por difração de raios X, infravermelho e análises térmicas. As propriedades morfológicas foram determinadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura com emissão de campo e por isotermas de adsorção/desorção. O uso de FM ou FC, ou o uso de ambos para um mesmo óxido (FM + FC ou FC + FM apresentaram uma grande influência sobre o grau de cristalinidade dos materiais sintetizados.The present work deals with the synthesis of zirconium oxide under varying conditions of synthesis using conventional furnace (CF or microwave oven (MO, by the Pechini method. This study was carried out with the primary aim of studying the possible influence of the above parameters as synthesis variables on the structural and morphologic properties of ZrO2. The structural characteristics of the synthesized oxides were determined by X-ray diffractio, infrared and thermal analysis. The morphologic properties were determined by FEG-SEM and isothermal gas adsorption/desorption. The use of MO or CF, or both for the same oxide (MO+CF or CF+MO has great influence on the degree of crystallinity of the synthesized materials.

  2. Effect of particle size on phase structure of ZrO2 produced by hydrolysis of ZrOCl2 solution


    A method to produce ZrO2 nano-particles is developed and the effect of particle size on the phase structure of ZrO2 is studied. The method is based on the hydrolysis of ZrOCl2 solution in the reverse micelles of a liquid-liquid two-phase system, in which AOT (sodium 2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinite) and toluene are chosen as the surfactant and organic phase, respectively. The reverse micelles prevent the aggregation of primary particles, the nano-particle size increases as the AOT content decreases. The TEM,XRD and particle-size analysis results show that the occurrence of metastable tetragonal ZrO2 is attributed to the effect of the particle size other than the effect of the crystallite size. The ratio of t-phase to m-phase increases as the particle size decreases, and 28 nm is the critical size for t-phase to m-phase transformation.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of electrospun PVdF-HFP/silane-functionalized ZrO2 hybrid nanofiber electrolyte with enhanced optical and electrochemical properties

    Puguan, John Marc C.; Chung, Wook-Jin; Kim, Hern


    A facile method to produce a hybrid of organic-inorganic nanofiber electrolyte via electrospinning is hereby presented. The incorporation of functionalized zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanoparticles into poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) and complexed with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) provided an enhanced optical transmissivity and ionic conductivity. The dependence of the nanofiber's morphology, optical and electrochemical properties on the various ZrO2 loading was studied. Results show that while nanofiller content was increased, the diameter of the nanofibers was reduced. The improved bulk ionic conductivity of the nanofiber electrolyte was at 1.96 × 10-5 S cm-1. Owing to the enhanced dispersibility of the 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (MPS) functionalized ZrO2, the optical transmissivity of the nanofiber electrolyte was improved significantly. This new nanofiber composite electrolyte membrane with further development has the potential to be next generation electrolyte for energy efficient windows like electrochromic devices.

  4. Physical properties of core-concrete systems: Al2O3-ZrO2 molten materials measured by aerodynamic levitation

    Ohishi, Yuji; Kargl, F.; Nakamori, F.; Muta, Hiroaki; Kurosaki, Ken; Yamanaka, Shinsuke


    During a molten core-concrete interaction, molten oxides consisting of molten core materials (UO2 and ZrO2) and concrete (Al2O3, SiO2, CaO) are formed. Reliable data on the physical properties of the molten oxides will allow us to accurately predict the progression of a nuclear reactor core meltdown accident. In this study, the viscosities and densities of molten (ZrO2)x(Al2O3)1-x (x = 0.356 and 0.172) were measured using an aerodynamic levitation technique. The densities of two small samples were estimated from their masses and their volumes (calculated from recorded images of the molten samples). The droplets were forced to oscillate using speakers, and their viscosities were evaluated from the damping behaviors of their oscillations. The results showed that the viscosity of molten (ZrO2)x(Al2O3)1-x compared to that of pure molten Al2O3 is 25% lower for x = 0.172, while it is unexpectedly 20% higher for x = 0.356.

  5. Surface Roughness of CoCr and ZrO2 Femoral Heads with Metal Transfer: A Retrieval and Wear Simulator Study

    Alan W. Eberhardt


    Full Text Available Metal transfer to femoral heads may result from impingement against the metallic acetabular shell following subluxation/dislocation, or when metallic debris enters the articulation zone. Such transfers roughen the head surface, increasing polyethylene wear in total hip replacements. Presently, we examined the surface roughness of retrieved femoral heads with metallic transfer. Profilometry revealed roughness averages in regions of metal transfer averaging 0.380 m for CoCr and 0.294 m for ZrO2 which were one order of magnitude higher than those from non-implanted controls. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed adherent transfers on these retrievals, with titanium presence confirmed by electron dispersive spectroscopy. Due to the concern for increased wear, metal transfer was induced on non-implanted heads, which were then articulated against flat polyethylene discs in multidirectional sliding wear tests. Increased polyethylene wear was associated with these specimens as compared to unaltered controls. SEM imaging provided visual evidence that the transfers remained adherent following the wear tests. Pre- and post-test roughness averages exceeded 1 m for both the CoCr and ZrO2 heads. Overall, these results suggest that metal transfer increases the surface roughness of CoCr and ZrO2 femoral heads and that the transfers may remain adherent following articulation against polyethylene, leading to increased polyethylene wear.

  6. Nanoreinforced Cast Al-Si Alloys with Al2O3, TiO2 and ZrO2 Nanoparticles

    Iman S. El-Mahallawi


    Full Text Available This study presents a new concept of refining and enhancing the properties of cast aluminum alloys by adding nanoparticles. In this work, the effect of adding alumina (Al2O3, titanium dioxide (TiO2 and zirconia (ZrO2 nano-particles (40 nm to the aluminum cast alloy A356 as a base metal matrix was investigated. Alumina, titanium dioxide and zirconia nano-powders were stirred in the A356 matrix with different fraction ratios ranging from (0%–5% by weight at variable stirring speeds ranging from (270, 800, 1500, 2150 rpm in both the semisolid (600 °C and liquid (700 °C state using a constant stirring time of one minute. The cast microstructure exhibited change of grains from dendritic to spherical shape with increasing stirring speed. The fracture surface showed the presence of nanoparticles at the interdendritic spacing of the fracture surface and was confirmed with EDX analysis of these particles. The results of the study showed that the mechanical properties (strength, elongation and hardness for the nanoreinforced castings using Al2O3, TiO2 and ZrO2 were enhanced for the castings made in the semi-solid state (600 °C with 2 weight% Al2O3 and 3 weight% TiO2 or ZrO2 at 1500 rpm stirring speed.

  7. Cobalt doped ZrO2 decorated multiwalled carbon nanotube:A promising nanocatalyst for photodegradation of indigo carmine and eosin Y dyes

    William Wilson Anku; Samuel Osei-Bonsu Oppong; Sudheesh Kumar Shukla; Eric Selorm Agorku; Poomani Penny Govender


    This paper reports the degradation of indigo carmine and eosin Y dyes in water, catalyzed by cobalt and multiwalled carbon nanotube modified zirconium oxide nanocomposite (Co-ZrO2-MWCNTs) under si-mulated visible light. The bare ZrO2, ZrO2-MWCNTs, Co-ZrO2 and Co-ZrO2-MWCNTs with different per-centage compositions of cobalt were synthesized by homogeneous co-precipitation method. Character-ization of the prepared nanocomposites was carried out using X-Ray powder Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transformer Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Raman Spectro-scopy, (UV–Vis)-Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) for their structure, formation, morphology, size and elemental analysis. The experimental results indicated that all the cobalt and MWCNTs modified nanocomposites demonstrated higher photocatalytic activities compared to the bare ZrO2. The most efficient catalyst (0.5%Co-ZrO2-MWCNTs) with the band gap and Ka values of 5.21 eV and 16.86 × 10-3 min-1 respectively exhibited 98% degradation efficiency toward indigo carmine and 87%toward eosin Y in 180 min.

  8. Cobalt doped ZrO2 decorated multiwalled carbon nanotube: A promising nanocatalyst for photodegradation of indigo carmine and eosin Y dyes

    William Wilson Anku


    Full Text Available This paper reports the degradation of indigo carmine and eosin Y dyes in water, catalyzed by cobalt and multiwalled carbon nanotube modified zirconium oxide nanocomposite (Co-ZrO2-MWCNTs under simulated visible light. The bare ZrO2, ZrO2-MWCNTs, Co-ZrO2 and Co-ZrO2-MWCNTs with different percentage compositions of cobalt were synthesized by homogeneous co-precipitation method. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposites was carried out using X-Ray powder Diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transformer Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Raman Spectroscopy, (UV–Vis-Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS for their structure, formation, morphology, size and elemental analysis. The experimental results indicated that all the cobalt and MWCNTs modified nanocomposites demonstrated higher photocatalytic activities compared to the bare ZrO2. The most efficient catalyst (0.5% Co-ZrO2-MWCNTs with the band gap and Ka values of 5.21 eV and 16.86×10−3 min−1 respectively exhibited 98% degradation efficiency toward indigo carmine and 87% toward eosin Y in 180 min.

  9. A Synergistic Effect of Surfactant and ZrO2 Underlayer on Photocurrent Enhancement and Cathodic Shift of Nanoporous Fe2O3 Photoanode.

    Shinde, Pravin S; Lee, Su Yong; Choi, Sun Hee; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Ryu, Jungho; Jang, Jum Suk


    Augmenting the donor density and nanostructure engineering are the crucial points to improve solar water oxidation performance of hematite (α-Fe2O3). This work addresses the sluggish water oxidation reaction associated with hematite photoanode by tweaking its internal porosity. The porous hematite photoanodes are fabricated by a novel synthetic strategy via pulse reverse electrodeposition (PRED) method that involves incorporation of a cationic CTAB surfactant in a sulfate electrolyte and spin-coated ZrO2 underlayer (UL) on FTO. CTAB is found to be beneficial in promoting the film growth rate during PRED. Incorporation of Zr(4+) ions from ZrO2 UL and Sn(4+) ions from FTO into the Fe2O3 lattice via solid-state diffusion reaction during pertinent annihilation of surfactant molecules at 800 °C produced internally porous hematite films with improved carrier concentration. The porous hematite demonstrated a sustained photocurrent enhancement and a significant cathodic shift of 130 mV relative to the planar hematite under standard illumination conditions (AM 1.5G) in 1 M NaOH electrolyte. The absorption, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky analyses revealed that the ZrO2 UL and CTAB not only increased the carrier density and light harvesting but also accelerated the surface oxidation reaction kinetics, synergistically boosting the performance of internally porous hematite photoanodes.

  10. The interaction of an amino-modified ZrO2 nanomaterial with macrophages-an in situ investigation by Raman microspectroscopy.

    Silge, Anja; Bocklitz, Thomas; Ossig, Rainer; Schnekenburger, Jürgen; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen


    Metal oxide nanoparticles (NP) are applied in the fields of biomedicine, pharmaceutics, and in consumer products as textiles, cosmetics, paints, or fuels. In this context, the functionalization of the NP surface is a common method to modify and modulate the product performance. A chemical surface modification of NP such as an amino-functionalization can be used to achieve a positively charged and hydrophobic surface. Surface functionalization is known to affect the interaction of nanomaterials (NM) with cellular macromolecules and the responses of tissues or cells, like the uptake of particles by phagocytic cells. Therefore, it is important to assess the possible risk of those modified NP for human health and environment. By applying Raman microspectroscopy, we verified in situ the interaction of amino-modified ZrO2 NP with cultivated macrophages. The results demonstrated strong adhesion properties of the NP to the cell membrane and internalization into the cells. The intracellular localization of the NP was visualized via Raman depth scans of single cells. After the cells were treated with sodium azide (NaN3) and 2-deoxy-glucose to inhibit the phagocytic activity, NP were still detected inside cells to comparable percentages. The observed tendency of amino-modified ZrO2 NP to interact with the cultivated macrophages may influence membrane integrity and cellular functions of alveolar macrophages in the respiratory system. Graphical abstract Detection of ZrO2 NM at subcellular level.

  11. A Synergistic Effect of Surfactant and ZrO2 Underlayer on Photocurrent Enhancement and Cathodic Shift of Nanoporous Fe2O3 Photoanode

    Shinde, Pravin S.; Lee, Su Yong; Choi, Sun Hee; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Ryu, Jungho; Jang, Jum Suk


    Augmenting the donor density and nanostructure engineering are the crucial points to improve solar water oxidation performance of hematite (α-Fe2O3). This work addresses the sluggish water oxidation reaction associated with hematite photoanode by tweaking its internal porosity. The porous hematite photoanodes are fabricated by a novel synthetic strategy via pulse reverse electrodeposition (PRED) method that involves incorporation of a cationic CTAB surfactant in a sulfate electrolyte and spin-coated ZrO2 underlayer (UL) on FTO. CTAB is found to be beneficial in promoting the film growth rate during PRED. Incorporation of Zr4+ ions from ZrO2 UL and Sn4+ ions from FTO into the Fe2O3 lattice via solid-state diffusion reaction during pertinent annihilation of surfactant molecules at 800 °C produced internally porous hematite films with improved carrier concentration. The porous hematite demonstrated a sustained photocurrent enhancement and a significant cathodic shift of 130 mV relative to the planar hematite under standard illumination conditions (AM 1.5G) in 1 M NaOH electrolyte. The absorption, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky analyses revealed that the ZrO2 UL and CTAB not only increased the carrier density and light harvesting but also accelerated the surface oxidation reaction kinetics, synergistically boosting the performance of internally porous hematite photoanodes.

  12. Effects of ZrO2 on the Performance of CuO-ZnO-Al2O3/HZSM-5 Catalyst for Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation

    Yanqiao Zhao; Jixiang Chen; Jiyan Zhang


    A series of composite catalysts were prepared by the wet mixing method, and the mass ratio of CuO-ZnO-Al2O3-ZrO2 component to HZSM-5 zeolite (molar ratio of SiO2 to A12O3 being 25) was 2:1. The CuO-ZnO-Al2O3-ZrO2 (CuO/ZnO/Al2O3=3/6/l by weight) component was prepared by a modified 'two-step' co-precipitation method. The effects of ZrO2 on the performance of CuO-ZnO-Al2O3/HZSM-5 catalyst for dimethyl ether synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation were investigated. It was found that ZrO2 improved the properties of CuO-ZnO-Al2O3/HZSM-5 as a structural promoter.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of S2O8^2-/ZrO2 SrFe12O19 strontium magnetic solid acid catalyst%锶磁性固体酸S2O8^2-/ZrO2-SrFe12O19催化剂的制备和表征

    谢太平; 刘成伦; 徐龙君; 谢昭明


    以具有优异磁学特性的锶铁氧体(SrFe12O19)粒子为磁性基体, 负载固体酸制备锶磁性固体酸催化剂S2O8^2-/ZrO2-SrFe12O19。利用XRD、 比表面积测试(BET)、 振动样品磁强计(VSM)、 IR等表征手段, 研究了磁性催化剂的表面性质和催化性能。结果表明: SrFe12O19的掺入提高了介稳的四方晶型t-ZrO2的热稳定性; 固体酸的磁性能较好, 饱和磁化强度(Ms)在30.0 emu·g^-1左右, 矫顽力(Hc)大于3900 G, 有利于磁分离和重复使用; BET表面积为16.0 m2·g^-1, 平均孔径为8.16 nm, 属于介孔磁性材料; 以乌桕油与甲醇的酯交换为探针反应的研究表明, 该固体酸能在较短时间内有效发挥催化作用。%The magnetic solid acid catalyst(S2O8^2-/ZrO2-SrFe12O19) was prepared by strontium ferrites(SrFe12O19) particle carrying with solid acid, which exhibited excellent magnetic properties as a magnetic matrix. The surface properties and catalytic performance of the magnetic catalyst were analyzed by means of XRD, nitrogen adsorption-desorption (BET), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), FTIR. The results show that the introduction of SrFe12O19 can increase thermal stability of the metastable tetragonal type t-ZrO2. The saturated magnetization (Ms) is about 30.0 emu·g^-1, and the coercive force is greater than 3900 G, which is good for the magnetic separation and reuse. The specific surface area of solid acid is 16.0 m^2·g^-1 and the average pore size is 8.16 nm, certifying that the solid acid catalyst is a mesoporous magnetic material. The test for transesterification by tallow oil with methanol as probe reaction shows that the solid acid becomes an effective catalyst in a relatively short time.

  14. Preparation of Nanocomposite Ag/TiO2-ZrO2 and the Microwave Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange%纳米复合材料Ag/TiO2-ZrO2的制备及其微波增强光催化降解甲基橙

    李莉; 陆丹; 计远; 赵月红


    采用EO20PO70EO20(P123)作模板剂,通过溶胶.凝胶-程序升温溶剂热一步法,并经萃取处理制备了具有光催化活性的纳米复合材料Ag/TiO2-ZrO2.用X射线衍射(XRD)、X射线光电子能谱(XPS)、透射电子显微镜(TEM)、N2吸附-脱附测定和扣描电子显微镜配合X射线能量色谱仪(SEM-EDS)等测试手段对其组成、结构及形貌等进行了表征.结果表明,复合材料Ag/TiO2-ZrO2中Ag以单质形式存在,材料具有双孔结构,颗粒分布较均匀,结构也较规整,平均孔径约为3.6和9.0 nm.通过微波增强光催化降解染料甲基橙的实验,对复合材料Ag/TiO2-ZrO2的光催化活性进行了探究.实验结果表明,微波辅助光催化效果优于紫外辐射,并且萃取后的合成产物Ag/TiO2-ZrO2在90 min内对甲基橙的降解率可达81.5%,其活性高于市售P25以及TiO2-ZrO2.

  15. Monomeric malonate precursors for the MOCVD of HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films.

    Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Milanov, Andrian; Parala, Harish; Winter, Manuela; Fischer, Roland A; Devi, Anjana


    New Hf and Zr malonate complexes have been synthesized by the reaction of metal amides with different malonate ligands (L = dimethyl malonate (Hdmml), diethyl malonate (Hdeml), di-tert-butyl malonate (Hdbml) and bis(trimethylsilyl) malonate (Hbsml)). Homoleptic eight-coordinated monomeric compounds of the type ML4 were obtained for Hf with all the malonate ligands employed. In contrast, for Zr only Hdmml and Hdeml yielded the eight-coordinated monomeric compounds of the type ML4, while using the bulky Hdbml and Hbsml ligands resulted into mixed alkoxo-malonato six-coordinated compounds of the type [ML2(OR)2]. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of all the compounds are presented and discussed, and they are found to be monomeric. The complexes are solids and in solution, they retain their monomeric nature as evidenced by NMR measurements. Compared to the classical beta-diketonate complexes, [M(acac)4] and [M(thd)4] (M = Hf, Zr; acac: acetylacetonate; thd: tetramethylheptadione), the new malonate compounds are more volatile, decompose at lower temperatures and have lower melting points. In particular, the homoleptic diethyl malonate complexes of Hf and Zr melt at temperatures as low as 62 degrees C. In addition, the compounds are very stable in air and can be sublimed quantitatively. The promising thermal properties makes these compounds interesting for metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). This was demonstrated by depositing HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films successfully with two representative Hf and Zr complexes.

  16. Effects of growth temperature on the properties of atomic layer deposition grown ZrO2 films

    Scarel, G.; Ferrari, S.; Spiga, S.; Wiemer, C.; Tallarida, G.; Fanciulli, M.


    Zirconium dioxide films are grown in 200 atomic layer deposition cycles. Zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl4) and water (H2O) are used as precursors. A relatively high dielectric constant (κ=22), wide band gap, and conduction band offset (5.8 and 1.4 eV, respectively) indicate that zirconium dioxide is a most promising substitute for silicon dioxide as a dielectric gate in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. However, crystallization and chlorine ions in the films might affect their electrical properties. These ions are produced during atomic layer deposition in which the ZrCl4 precursor reacts with the growth surface. It is desirable to tune the composition, morphology, and structural properties in order to improve their benefit on the electrical ones. To address this issue it is necessary to properly choose the growth parameters. This work focuses on the effects of the growth temperature Tg. ZrO2 films are grown at different substrate temperatures: 160, 200, 250, and 350 °C. Relevant modification of the film structure with a change in substrate temperature during growth is expected because the density of reactive sites [mainly Si+1-(OH)-1 bonds] decreases with an increase in temperature [Y. B. Kim et al., Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 3, 346 (2000)]. The amorphous film component, for example, that develops at Si+1-(OH)-1 sites on the starting growth surface, is expected to decrease with an increase in growth temperature. The size and consequences of film property modifications with the growth temperature are investigated in this work using x-ray diffraction and reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy. Time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry is used to study contaminant species in the films. From capacitance-voltage (CV) and current-voltage (IV) measurements, respectively, the dielectric constant κZrO2 and the leakage current are studied as a function of the film growth temperature.

  17. Oxidant effect of La(NO3)3·6H2O solution on the crystalline characteristics of nanocrystalline ZrO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Oh, Nam Khen; Kim, Jin-Tae; Kang, Goru; An, Jong-Ki; Nam, Minwoo; Kim, So Yeon; Park, In-Sung; Yun, Ju-Young


    Nanocrystalline ZrO2 films were synthesized by atomic layer deposition method using CpZr[N(CH3)2]3 (Cp = C5H5) as the metal precursor and La(NO3)3·6H2O solution as the oxygen source. La element in the deposited ZrO2 films could not be detected as its content was below the resolution limit of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The alternative introduction of La(NO3)3·6H2O solution to conventionally used H2O as the oxidant effectively altered the crystalline structure, grain size, and surface roughness of the grown ZrO2 films. Specifically, the crystalline structure of the ZrO2 film changed from a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic phases to monoclinic phase. The average grain size also increased, and the resulting film surface became rougher. The average grain sizes of the ZrO2 films prepared from La(NO3)3·6H2O solution at concentrations of 10, 20, 30, and 40% were 280, 256, 208, and 200 nm, respectively, whereas that prepared using H2O oxidant was 142 nm. However, the concentration of La(NO3)3·6H2O solution minimally influenced the crystalline characteristics of the nanocrystalline ZrO2 films i.e., the crystalline structure, grain size, and surface roughness except for crystallite size.

  18. Cellulose extraction from Zoysia japonica pretreated by alumina-doped MgO in AMIMCl.

    Liu, Le; Ju, Meiting; Li, Weizun; Jiang, Yang


    In this study, alumina-doped MgO was produced as a solid alkali for lignocellulose pretreatment. Pretreatment with alumina-doped MgO disrupted the lignocellulose structure and significantly reduced the lignin content of the Z. japonica. After pretreatment, Z. japonica showed significant solubility in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl). The similar high solubility of pretreated Z. japonica samples by original alumina-doped MgO and used alumina-doped MgO also proved that alumina-doped MgO had strong stability, which can be recycled and used repeatedly. The regenerated cellulose was similar to microcrystalline cellulose according to FTIR and NMR analyses. Compared to microcrystalline cellulose, only the crystallinity of the regenerated cellulose decreased.

  19. Thermoluminescence glow curve for UV induced ZrO2:Ti phosphor with variable concentration of dopant and various heating rate

    Neha Tiwari


    Full Text Available The present paper reports the synthesis and characterization of Ti doped ZrO2 nanophosphors. The effects of variable concentration of titanium on thermoluminescence (TL behaviour are studied. The samples were prepared by combustion a synthesis technique which is suitable for less time taking techniques also for large scale production for nano phosphors. The starting material used for sample preparation are Zr(NO33 and Ti(NO33 and urea used as a fuel. The prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction technique (XRD with variable concentration of Ti (0.05–0.5 mol% there is no any phase change found with increase the concentration of Ti. Sample shows cubic structure and the particle size calculated by Scherer's formula. The surface morphology of prepared phosphor was determined by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM technique for optimized concentration of dopant. The good connectivity with grains and the semi-sphere like structure was found by FEGSEM. The functional group analysis was determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The prepared phosphor examined by thermoluminescence technique. For recording TL glow curve every time 2 mg phosphor was irradiated by UV 254 nm source and fixed the heating rate at 5 °C s−1. Sample shows well resolved peak at 167 °C with a shoulder peak at 376 °C. The higher temperature peak shows the well stability and less fading in prepared phosphor. Also the effect of Ti concentration at fixed UV exposure time was studied. The effect of UV exposure time and dose versus intensity plot was studied. Sample shows linear response with dose and broaden peak with high temperature shows the more stability and less fading in TL glow curve. The linear dose response, high stability and less fading phenomenon shows the sample may be useful for thermoluminescence dosimetry application. Trapping parameters are calculated for every recorded glow curve. The


    崔培培; 宫本奎; 张云霞


    以α-Al2O3微粉、板状刚玉和TiO2为主要原料,添加不同含量的ZrO2,通过高温烧成以固相反应直接合成Al2TiO5-板状刚玉-ZrO2复合材料,研究了ZrO2含量对复合材料的烧结收缩率、显气孔率、强度等的影响。结果表明:添加ZrO2的复相材料的收缩率和体积密度明显增加。ZrO2含量为4%时,可以制备出高致密度高强度的Al2TiO5-板状刚玉-ZrO2复合材料,其显气孔率为9.31%,抗折强度为25.6MPa,抗压强度为225MPa。%The ZrO2-tabular alumina-Al2TiO5 composite material samples was obtained by solid state reaction and high temperature sintering with α-Al2O3 powder, tabular alumina and TiO2 as the main raw materials and adding different amounts of ZrO2. The effect of the ZrO2 content to sintering shrinkage, apparent porosity, strength of the composite materials was analyzed.The results show that: with the increase of ZrO2 additions, the density and shrinkage increased markedly.A high density and high strength of ZrO2-tabular alumina-Al2TiO5 composite material can be prepared with the content 4% of ZrO2, its apparent porosity was 9.31%, modulus of rupture of 25.6MPa, compression strength of 225MPa.

  1. Análisis de la zona fundida en el crecimiento del compuesto eutéctico Al2O3-ZrO2(Y2O3 por fusión zonal con láser

    Peña, J. I.


    Full Text Available In this work a study of the floating zone during the growth of bars of Al2O3-ZrO2(Y2O3 by the laser floating zone technique is presented. The axial thermal gradient in the solidification interface has been calculated and compared with the experimental one of 6.5*105 K/m. For this calculation the coefficients of heat transference during the solidification process have been determined. The floating zone profile has been also studied and the maximum stable length for the zone determined, verifying the stability criterion established by some authors. The study is completed with an estimation of the laser power necessary to carry out the growth. This value is compared with the measured one during the growth of 2 mm diameter bars.En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de la zona flotante durante el crecimiento de barras de Al2O3-ZrO2 (Y2O3 por la técnica de fusión zonal por láser. Se ha calculado el gradiente térmico axial existente en la intercara de solidificación y comparado con el que se ha medido de forma experimental, siendo éste de 6,5*105 K/m. Para este cálculo se han determinado los coeficientes de transferencia de calor durante el proceso de resolidificación. También se ha estudiado el perfil de la zona flotante y analizado el rango de estabilidad en términos de longitud máxima de zona, verificándose experimentalmente los límites teóricos establecidos por algunos autores. El estudio se completa con una estimación de la potencia necesaria para llevar a cabo el crecimiento confirmando su validez para el caso particular de cilindros de 2 mm de diámetro.

  2. Hydrous ZrO2 decorated polyaniline nanofibres: Synthesis, characterization and application as an efficient adsorbent for water defluoridation.

    Parashar, Kamya; Ballav, Niladri; Debnath, Sushanta; Pillay, Kriveshini; Maity, Arjun


    A new hybrid material comprising hydrous zirconium oxide (HZrO2) supported onto polyaniline (PANI) nanofibres (HZrO2@PANI NFs) was prepared via the precipitation of HZrO2 onto as-synthesized PANI NFs and tested for its defluoridation capabilities. The developed adsorbent (HZrO2@PANI NFs) was fully characterized by FTIR, BET, XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM-(S)TEM, XPS, and zeta potential measurements. HZrO2@PANI NFs achieved 2-fold BET surface area ∼86.64 m(2)/gas compared to PANI NFs ∼44.72 m(2)/g, implying that the incorporation of HZrO2 onto the PANI nanofibres enhanced the available surface area for effective fluoride adsorption. Moreover, HZrO2@PANI NFs was found to be effective over a wide pH range (3-9) as designated by its high pHpzc ∼9.8. The adsorption kinetics obeyed the pseudo-second-order model well with equilibrium attainment in 30min. Adsorption isotherm was best described by the Langmuir model and the maximum adsorption capacities obtained were 83.23 and 28.77mg/g at pH 3 and 6.5, respectively, which is superior to most ZrO2 based adsorbents reported in the literature and better than that of native PANI. Furthermore, the developed adsorbent manifested quite a selective fluoride uptake at pH 3 as compared to pH 6.5±0.1 wherein significant chemical affinity competition was presented by phosphate ions followed by bicarbonate and sulfate. The recyclability of HZrO2@PANI NFs for four cycles and its applicability to fluoride spiked ground water has also been demonstrated. The adsorption mechanism was interpreted with the help of FTIR, XPS and Zeta potential analysis and the results revealed the involvement of both anion exchange and electrostatic attraction in the adsorption of F(-) ions. Thus, a new efficient adsorbent with reasonably high adsorption capacity and superior pH tolerance has been developed for fluoride removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pulsed laser deposition of YBCO films on ISD MgO buffered metal tapes

    Ma, B; Koritala, R E; Fisher, B L; Markowitz, A R; Erck, R A; Baurceanu, R; Dorris, S E; Miller, D J; Balachandran, U


    Biaxially textured magnesium oxide (MgO) films deposited by inclined-substrate deposition (ISD) are desirable for rapid production of high-quality template layers for YBCO-coated conductors. High-quality YBCO films were grown on ISD MgO buffered metallic substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Columnar grains with a roof-tile surface structure were observed in the ISD MgO films. X-ray pole figure analysis revealed that the (002) planes of the ISD MgO films are tilted at an angle from the substrate normal. A small full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of approx 9deg was observed in the phi-scan for ISD MgO films deposited at an inclination angle of 55deg . In-plane texture in the ISD MgO films developed in the first approx 0.5 mu m from the substrate surface, and then stabilized with further increases in film thickness. Yttria-stabilized zirconia and ceria buffer layers were deposited on the ISD MgO grown on metallic substrates prior to the deposition of YBCO by PLD. YBCO films with the c-axis parallel to the...

  4. Effect of modification methods on the surface properties and n-butane isomerization performance of La/Ni-promoted SO42-/ZrO2-Al2O3

    Wang, Pengzhao; Zhang, Jiaoyu; Han, Chaoyi; Yang, Chaohe; Li, Chunyi


    The La and/or Ni was introduced into alumina-promoted sulfated zirconia by impregnation and co-precipitation to improve the catalytic property of n-butane isomerization. Catalysts characterization shows that the addition of La/Ni has a remarkable influence on the surface and textual properties depending on the modification method. The impregnation of La/Ni facilitates the transformation of a small amount of tetragonal zirconia into monoclinic phase, while the co-precipitation improves the stability of tetragonal ZrO2. H2-TPR indicates that the addition of La/Ni changes the interaction between SO42- and supports, which affects the acidity on the surface. Specifically, the Lewis acidity is significantly enhanced by either modification method. The co-precipitation reserves almost all of the Brønsted acid sites, while the impregnation causes a remarkable decrease of Brønsted acid sites. Reaction results demonstrate that the co-precipitation exhibits a significant advantage over impregnation that the higher conversion of n-butane and selectivity to isobutane are obtained on the catalyst prepared by co-precipitation. The increase of catalytic activity is ascribed to the accelerated activation rate of n-butane molecules by hydride subtraction on the Lewis acid sites at higher reaction temperature. Furthermore, the addition of La/Ni improves the selectivity to isobutane by inhibiting the bimolecular reaction.

  5. MgO-SiO2-ZrO2-C系复合材料显微结构及其抗蚀性研究%The Microstructure and Corrosion Resistant of Corbon-Bonded Forsterito-zirconia Materials


    The forsterite-zirconia material have been produced from the zircon and magnesia, adding graphite, to produce a Mg2SiOZrO2-C. The microstructure and Mineral composition have been studied by means of microscope, SFM,X-ray, diffractometer and DTA. It is a nice refractories that the brick have densed structure, thermal stability, good thermal conductivity and wear-resistance, and good resistance to the corrosion by iron-oxide slay.%以锆英砂和电熔镁砂为原料,合成ZrO2增韧的镁橄榄石材料,进而加入鳞片状石墨,得到Mg2SiO4(-ZrO2)-C复合材料。用扫描电镜、X射线衍射仪、差热、红外光谱等手段研究了该材料的显微结构和矿物组成。表明该材料具有优异的高温强度、抗侵蚀性和热震稳定性,是一种新型耐火材料。

  6. MoO3/SiO2-ZrO2 Catalyst: Eeffect of Calcination Temperature on Physico-chemical Properties and Activities in Nitration of Toluene

    Sunil Madhavrao Kemdeo


    Full Text Available 12 wt % molybdena was deposited over 1:1 silica zirconia mixed oxide support and the resultant catalyst was calcined between the 500 to 700 oC range of temperature. The samples were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, BET, SEM, NH3-TPD and pyridine adsorbed FT-IR techniques.  Nitration of toluene was studied as a model reaction over the prepared catalysts and parameters like effect of reaction temperature, effect of various solvents, catalyst reusability are studied. It was found that conversion of toluene varies with the presence of Brönsted acid sites over the catalyst surface and para-nitrotoulene selectivity is associated with pore size of the catalyst. Over the same catalysts, nitration was extended for some other aromatics. Avoid of sulfuric acid in the present process is an interesting concern in view of green chemistry. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedKeywords: MoO3/SiO2-ZrO2; SO2-ZrO2; NH3-TPD; Nitration; ortho-nitro tolueneReceived: 19th May 2012, Revised: 24th May 2012, Accepted: 26th May 2012[How to Cite: S.M. Kemdeo. (2012. MoO3/SiO2-ZrO2 Catalyst: Effect of Calcination Temperature on Physico-chemical Properties and Activities in Nitration of Toluene. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (2: 92-104. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3521.92-104] [How to Link / DOI: || or local:] | View in 

  7. Síntesis, caracterización y evaluación fotocatalítica de sistemas ZrO2-SiO2



    Full Text Available La incorporación de un óxido a la matriz de un segundo produce cambios en las propiedades superficiales del sistema inicial, así como modificaciones en la estructura electrónica del material; de hecho, la recombinación de portadores de cargas en un material semiconductor se ve modificada por la incorporación de otro elemento a la red del semiconductor. En particular, las propiedades estructurales, morfológicas, superficiales y catalíticas del óxido de zirconio se ven afectadas al depositarlo sobre otro que actúe como matriz de soporte. En este trabajo se han preparado óxidos mixtos ZrO2-SiO2 empleando el método sol gel de precipitación seguido de diversos tratamientos térmicos. Los materiales así obtenidos fueron caracterizados por diversas técnicas evaluándose además su actividad fotocatalítica en la degradación del 3-nitrofenol. Si bien el comportamiento fotocatalítico del sistema ZrO2-SiO2 no difiere del que exhiben los óxidos simples ZrO2 y SiO2, las propiedades de estos materiales tipo óxido mixto sí están fuertemente condicionadas no sólo por el método de preparación sino por los tratamientos de calcinación.

  8. High temperature investigation of the solid/liquid transition in the PuO2-UO2-ZrO2 system

    Quaini, A.; Guéneau, C.; Gossé, S.; Sundman, B.; Manara, D.; Smith, A. L.; Bottomley, D.; Lajarge, P.; Ernstberger, M.; Hodaj, F.


    The solid/liquid transitions in the quaternary U-Pu-Zr-O system are of great interest for the analysis of core meltdown accidents in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) fuelled with uranium-dioxide and MOX. During a severe accident the Zr-based cladding can become completely oxidised due to the interaction with the oxide fuel and the water coolant. In this framework, the present analysis is focused on the pseudo-ternary system UO2-PuO2-ZrO2. The melting/solidification behaviour of five pseudo-ternary and one pseudo-binary ((PuO2)0.50(ZrO2)0.50) compositions have been investigated experimentally by a laser heating method under pre-set atmospheres. The effects of an oxidising or reducing atmosphere on the observed melting/freezing temperatures, as well as the amount of UO2 in the sample, have been clearly identified for the different compositions. The oxygen-to-metal ratio is a key parameter affecting the melting/freezing temperature because of incongruent vaporisation effects. In parallel, a detailed thermodynamic model for the UO2-PuO2-ZrO2 system has been developed using the CALPHAD method, and thermodynamic calculations have been performed to interpret the present laser heating results, as well as the high temperature behaviour of the cubic (Pu,U,Zr)O2±x-c mixed oxide phase. A good agreement was obtained between the calculated and experimental data points. This work enables an improved understanding of the major factors relevant to severe accident in nuclear reactors.

  9. Trade-off between Zr Passivation and Sn Doping on Hematite Nanorod Photoanodes for Efficient Solar Water Oxidation: Effects of a ZrO2 Underlayer and FTO Deformation.

    Subramanian, Arunprabaharan; Annamalai, Alagappan; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Choi, Sun Hee; Ryu, Jungho; Park, Jung Hee; Jang, Jum Suk


    Herein we report the influence of a ZrO2 underlayer on the PEC (photoelectrochemical) behavior of hematite nanorod photoanodes for efficient solar water splitting. Particular attention was given to the cathodic shift in onset potential and photocurrent enhancement. Akaganite (β-FeOOH) nanorods were grown on ZrO2-coated FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide) substrates. Sintering at 800 °C transformed akaganite to the hematite (α-Fe2O3) phase and induced Sn diffusion into the crystal structure of hematite nanorods from the FTO substrates and surface migration, shallow doping of Zr atoms from the ZrO2 underlayer. The ZrO2 underlayer-treated photoanode showed better water oxidation performance compared to the pristine (α-Fe2O3) photoanode. A cathodic shift in the onset potential and photocurrent enhancement was achieved by surface passivation and shallow doping of Zr from the ZrO2 underlayer, along with Sn doping from the FTO substrate to the crystal lattice of hematite nanorods. The Zr based hematite nanorod photoanode achieved 1 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 VRHE with a low turn-on voltage of 0.80 VRHE. Sn doping and Zr passivation, as well as shallow doping, were confirmed by XPS, Iph, and M-S plot analyses. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that the presence of a ZrO2 underlayer decreased the deformation of FTO substrate, improved electron transfer at the hematite/FTO interface and increased charge-transfer resistance at the electrolyte/hematite interface. This is the first systematic investigation of the effects of Zr passivation, shallow doping, and Sn doping on hematite nanorod photoanodes through application of a ZrO2 underlayer on the FTO substrate.

  10. Low-threshold and narrow linewidth diffusive random lasing in rhodamine 6G dye-doped polyurethane with dispersed ZrO_2 nanoparticles

    Anderson, Benjamin R.; Gunawidjaja, Ray; Eilers, Hergen


    We report on low-threshold and narrow linewidth intensity feedback random lasing in Rhodamine 6G dye-doped polyurethane with dispersed ZrO$_2$ nanoparticles. Depending on the dye/particle concentration, the lasing threshold is (6.8--15.4) MW/cm$^2$ and the linewidth is (4--6) nm. The lasing threshold as a function of nanoparticle concentration is found to follow a power law with an exponent of $-0.496 \\pm 0.010$, which is within uncertainty of Burin et al.'s theoretical prediction [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 215503 (2001)].

  11. Low-Threshold and Narrow Linewidth Diffusive Random Lasing in Rhodamine 6G Dye-Doped Polyurethane with Dispersed ZrO$_2$ Nanoparticles

    Anderson, Benjamin R; Eilers, Hergen


    We report on low-threshold and narrow linewidth intensity feedback random lasing in Rhodamine 6G dye-doped polyurethane with dispersed ZrO$_2$ nanoparticles. Depending on the dye/particle concentration, the lasing threshold is (6.8--15.4) MW/cm$^2$ and the linewidth is (4--6) nm. The lasing threshold as a function of nanoparticle concentration is found to follow a power law with an exponent of $-0.496 \\pm 0.010$, which is within uncertainty of Burin et al.'s theoretical prediction [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 215503 (2001)].

  12. Inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics of ZrO2, Y2O3 and ThSiO4

    Preyoshi P Bose; R Mittal; N Choudhury; S L Chaplot


    Zirconia (ZrO2), yttria (Y2O3) and thorite (ThSiO4) are ceramic materials used for a wide range of industrial applications. The dynamical properties of these materials are of interest as they exhibit numerous interesting phase transitions at high temperature and pressure. Using a combination of inelastic neutron scattering and theoretical lattice dynamics we have studied the phonon spectra and thermodynamic properties of these compounds. The experimental data validate the theoretical model, while the model enables microscopic interpretations of the observed data. The calculated thermodynamic properties are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  13. Comparative Study on Performance and Organic Fouling of ZrO2 Ceramic Membranes in Ultrafiltration of Synthetic Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent

    Li, Cen


    Adsorption of organic matter on ceramic membrane can lead to hydraulic-irreversible fouling, which decreases the permeate flux and the cost-efficiency of membrane devices. In order to optimize the filtration process, detailed information is necessary about the organic fouling mechanisms on ceramic membranes. In this study, dead-end filtration experiments of both synthetic water and secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were conducted on a ZrO2 ceramic membrane. The experiment results of synthetic water showed that humic acid (HA) was able to be adsorbed by the ZrO2 membrane and cause permeate flux decline; and that HA-tryptophan mixture, at the same DOC level, promoted the filtration flux decline; DOC removal in the case of HA-tryptophan was lower than that of HA alone. It seems that hydrophilic organic matter with low molecular weight have some specific contribution to the organic fouling of the ZrO2 membrane. The results also suggest that tryptophan molecules were preferentially adsorbed on the membrane at the beginning, exposing their hydrophobic sides which might further adsorb HA from the feed water. During the filtration of WWTP effluent, protein-like substances (mainly tryptophan-like) were also preferentially adsorbed on the membrane compared with humic-like ones in the initial few cycles of filtration. More humic-like substances were adsorbed in the following filtration cycles due to the increase of membrane hydrophobicity. A significant rise in hydraulic-irreversible flux decline was obtained by decreasing pH from near pHpzc to below pHpzc of the membrane. It suggests that a positively charged surface is preferred for HA adsorption. Ionic strength increase did not affect the filtration of HA, but it lessened the hydraulic-irreversible flux decline of HA-tryptophan filtration. The adsorption of HA-tryptophan can be attributed to outersphere interaction while HA adsorption is mainly caused by inner-sphere interaction. The results of pre-ozonated HA filtration showed that pre-ozonation lowered the proportion of potential hydraulic-reversible foulants in HA. Filtration of pre-ozonated WWTP effluent was also performed. Flux decline phenomenon similar to that of pre-ozonated HA was observed, and it is confirmed that smaller molecules have a stronger affinity to ZrO2 membrane and tend to form hydraulic-irreversible fouling.

  14. Fabrication of nano ZrO2 dispersed novel W79Ni10Ti5Nb5 alloy by mechanical alloying and pressureless sintering

    Sahoo, R. R.; Patra, A.; Karak, S. K.


    A high energy planetary ball-mill was employed to synthesize tungsten (W) based alloy with nominal composition of W79Ni10Ti5Nb5(ZrO2)1 (in wt. %) for 20 h with chrome steel as grinding media, toluene as process control agent (PCA) along with compaction at 500 MPa pressure for 5 mins and sintering at 1500°C for 2 h using Ar atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), elemental mapping and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the phase formation, microstructure of both milled powder and consolidated alloy. The crystallite size of W in W79Ni10Ti5Nb5(ZrO2)1 powder was 37 nm, 14.7 nm at 10 h and 20 h of milling respectively and lattice strain enhances to 0.54% at 20 h of milling. The crystallite size reduction is more at 10 h of milling and the rate drop beyond 10 to 20 h of milling. The intense improvement in dislocation density was evident upto 10 h of milling and the rate decreases between 10 to 20 h of milling. Increase in the lattice parameter of tungsten in W79Ni10Ti5Nb5(ZrO2)1 alloy upto 0.09% was observed at 10 h of milling owing to severe stress assisted deformation followed by contraction upto 0.07% at 20 h of milling due to formation of solid solution. The large spherical particles at 0 h of milling transformed to elongated shape at 10 h of milling and finer morphology at 20 h of milling. The average particle size reduced from 100 µm to 4.5 µm with the progress of milling from 0 to 20 h. Formation of fine polycrystallites of W was revealed by bright field TEM analysis and the observed crystallite size from TEM study was well supported by the evaluated crystallite size from XRD. XRD pattern and SEM micrograph of sintered alloy revealed the formation of NbNi, Ni3Ti intermetallic phases. Densification of 91.5% was attained in the 20 h milled and sintered alloy. Mechanical behaviour of the sintered product was evaluated by hardness and wear study. W79Ni10Ti5Nb5(ZrO2)1 alloy showed increase in hardness with decreasing load. The wear rate increases with increasing load due to higher abrasion effect at higher load.

  15. Effect of parameters on interface of the brazed ZrO2 ceramic and Ti-6Al-4V joint using Ti-based amorphous filler

    Yuhua LIU; Jiandong HU; Yaping ZHANG; Zuoxing GUO; Yue YANG


    A commercially available Ti47Zr28Cu14Ni11 (at.pct) amorphous filler foil was used to join ZrO2 ceramic and Ti-6Al-4V alloy.According to experimental observations,the interface microstructure accounts for the mechanical properties of the joints.The effects of brazing conditions and parameters on the joint properties were investigated.The joint shear strength showed the highest value of about 108 MPa and did not monotonously increase with the brazing time increasing.It was shown that decreasing of brazing cooling rate and appropriate filler foil thickness gave higher joint strength.

  16. Capas finas de ZrO2 para mejorar la resistencia química de los vidriados mates de calcio

    Palacios, M. D.; Mestre, S; Orts, M. J.; Blasco, E.


    La resistencia al ataque químico de vidriados cerámicos susceptibles al mismo, concretamente formulados a partir de una frita mate de calcio, se ha mejorado depositando en la superficie una capa delgada de óxido de circonio. Un sol de circonio estabilizado es el precursor de la capa, el cual se deposita mediante aerografía sobre el vidriado cocido y con un tratamiento térmico suave (Tmax ≈ 400 ºC), es transformado en ZrO2 y anclado a la superficie. Los ensayos de resistencia química ...

  17. Thermal-Mechanical Stability of Single Crystal Oxide Refractive Concentrators for High-Temperature Solar Thermal Propulsion

    Zhu, Dongming; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Miller, Robert A.


    Single crystal oxides such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3-ZrO2), yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al5O12, or YAG), magnesium oxide (MgO) and sapphire (Al2O3) are candidate refractive secondary concentrator materials for high temperature solar propulsion applications. However, thermo-mechanical reliability of these components in severe thermal environments during the space mission sun/shade transition is of great concern. Simulated mission tests are important for evaluating these candidate oxide materials under a variety of transient and steady-state heat flux conditions, and thus provide vital information for the component design. In this paper, a controlled heat flux thermal shock test approach is established for the single crystal oxide materials using a 3.0 kW continuous wave CO2 laser, with a wavelength 10.6 micron. Thermal fracture behavior and failure mechanisms of these oxide materials are investigated and critical temperature gradients are determined under various temperature and heating conditions. The test results show that single crystal sapphire is able to sustain the highest temperature gradient and heating-cooling rate, and thus exhibit the best thermal shock resistance, as compared to the yttria-stabilized zirconia, yttrium aluminum garnet and magnesium oxide.

  18. Electronic and Optical Properties of ZrO2 and Its Applications%氧化锆(ZrO2)的电、光性质与应用

    欧阳静; 金娇; 李晓玉; 周正; 杨华明


    This review analyzed the band structure,optical absorption and emission spectra of ZrO2 .The DOS and band structures of ZrO2 with different crystallographic types are introduced based on the first principal calculating to the energy structures.Possible transition mechanisms and energy gaps of electrons near the forbidden band of ZrO2 with different structures are analyzed based on the DOS calculations.Either pure or doped ZrO2 has a high insulation performance at room temperature.Conductivity of ZrO2 at high temperature is analyzed,and the applications in the fields such as oxygen sensor and the fuel cell separator materials are introduced.Doped ZrO2 crystal is highly light translucency,the high tem-perature has a positive effect to improve the refractive index of ZrO2 if the crystal does not occur structural changing or de-vitrification.The white appearance of ZrO2 powder is due to the light scattering on the surface and by the intrinsic defects. Luminescence in ZrO2 is originated from the transitions between ground state and the new energy levels created by oxygen vacancies,which captured electrons to form F-centers and their combined sites.Finally,the authors point out that ZrO2 can serve as light-emitting ions’matrix because of the low phonon energy and the wide band gap of ZrO2 ,which provides rigid circumstance for the light emission centers.%重点分析了 ZrO2的电子结构与能带特点、光学吸收、发射谱等,介绍了第一原理法计算不同晶相 ZrO2的能带结构和电子能量状态密度图(DOS)的结果,在计算能级结构的基础上,归纳了不同晶相的 ZrO2在禁带附近可能的电子跃迁机理及其相应的能量,说明了无论是高纯 ZrO2还是掺杂 ZrO2,在室温下均表现出高的绝缘性能。分析了高温下 ZrO2导电能力提高的原因,高温导电性可应用于氧传感器和燃料电池中的电极隔膜材料。掺杂后的 ZrO2晶体的透光性非常好,且在较高温度的环境中,如果不发生晶体结构转变或失透等,则温度对提高晶体的折射率有积极的作用。ZrO2粉体的白色外观是由于粉体的表面对可见光的散射以及晶体内部的大量缺陷对光的散射作用。介绍了纯 ZrO2材料的发光效应来源在于捕获了电子的氧空位形成的新能级与基态能级间的跃迁,氧空位形成的 F -色心或缔合中心而产生。指出 ZrO2可以作为发光离子基质的原因在于作为宽禁带的 ZrO2的声子能量较低,可为发光中心的稳定发光提供刚性场所。

  19. Effect of temperature on friction and wear performance of Al2O3/ZrB2/ZrO2 composite materials%温度对Al2O3/ZrB2/ZrO2复合材料摩擦磨损特性的影响

    李彬; 王红


    Effect of temperature on friction and wear performance of Al2O3/ZrB2/ZrO2 composite materials was investigated on a UMT-2 multi-function friction tester. White light interferometer and scanning electronic mi- croscope were adopted to observe the profile and micro-morphology of the worn surface of specimens. The re- sults showed that. in the room temperature friction test, the increasing of the ZrB2/ZrO2 volume content can decrease the friction coefficient of AZ series composites; in the high temperature friction test, the surface tem- perature increased as the environmental temperature rise, the generated lubricating film can decrease the friction coefficient and wear rate of the composites.%采用UMT-2多功能摩擦实验机,研究了温度对Al2O3/ZrB2/ZrO2复合刀具材料摩擦磨损性能的影响,并分别使用白光干涉仪和扫描电镜分析实验后磨痕的轮廓和微观形貌。结果表明,常温摩擦时,随着ZrB2/ZrO2含量的增加,AZ系列自润滑陶瓷材料与硬质合金对摩时的摩擦系数逐渐降低。高温摩擦时,随着环境温度的提高,表面摩擦温度不断上升,生成的润滑膜有助于使摩擦系数和磨损率下降。


    毛东森; 卢冠忠; 陈庆龄; 谢在库; 张玉贤



  1. Effect of Solvents on Catalytic Performance of B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2 for Vapor-Phase Beckmann Rearrangement of Cyclohexanone Oxime%B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2催化环己酮肟气相Beckmann重排反应中的溶剂效应

    毛东森; 卢冠忠; 陈庆龄


    采用不同极性的溶剂作为环己酮肟的溶剂,考察了溶剂极性对B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2催化环己酮肟气相Beckmann重排反应性能的影响. 结果表明,除乙醇外,随着溶剂极性的增大,己内酰胺的收率逐渐提高. 在所考察的溶剂范围内,当采用极性最强的乙腈为溶剂时,B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2的催化性能最佳,连续反应9 h,环己酮肟的转化率为100%,己内酰胺的选择性高达98.6%. 极性较强的溶剂可显著改善B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2催化性能的原因主要是其有利于反应所生成的己内酰胺从催化剂表面快速脱附,从而可抑制己内酰胺进一步发生聚合及分解等副反应.

  2. Preparation and Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2/ZrO2/Ce2O3 Composite Thin Film%纳米TiO2/ZrO2/Ce2O3复合薄膜的制备与光催化性能研究

    潘杰; 刘素文; 王彦敏; 崔晓鹏; 郭婷



  3. Influence of incorporation of ZrO2 nanoparticles on the repair strength of polymethyl methacrylate denture bases

    Gad MM


    Full Text Available Mohammed M Gad,1 Ahmed Rahoma,2,3 Ahmad M Al-Thobity,1 Aws S ArRejaie4 1Department of Substitutive Dental Sciences, 2Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Dental Materials, College of Dentistry, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt; 4Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Repeated fracture of the denture base is a common problem in prosthodontics, and it represents a nuisance and a time sink for the clinician. Therefore, the possibility of increasing repair strength using new reinforcement materials is of great interest to prosthodontists.Aim of the study: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of incorporation of zirconia nanoparticles (nano-ZrO2 on the flexural strength and impact strength of repaired polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA denture bases.Materials and methods: One hundred eighty specimens of heat-polymerized acrylic resin were fabricated (90 for each test and divided into three main groups: one control group (intact specimens and two groups divided according to surface design (45° bevels and butt joints, in which specimens were prepared in pairs to create 2.5 mm gaps. Nano-ZrO2 was added to repair resin in 2.5 wt%, 5 wt%, and 7.5 wt% concentrations of acrylic powder. A three-point bending test was used to measure flexural strength, and a Charpy-type test was used to measure impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the fracture surfaces and nano-ZrO2 distribution. The results were analyzed with a paired sample t-test and an unpaired t-test, with a P-value of ≤0.05 being significant.Results: Incorporation of nano-ZrO2 into the repair resin significantly increased flexural strength (P<0.05. The highest value was found in the bevel group reinforced with 7.5% nano-ZrO2, whereas the lowest value was found in the butt group reinforced with 2.5% nano-ZrO2. The impact strength values of all repaired groups were significantly lower than those of the control group (P<0.05. Among repaired groups, the higher impact strength value was seen in the butt group reinforced with 2.5% nano-ZrO2. The bevel joint demonstrated mainly cohesive failure, whereas the butt joint demonstrated mainly adhesive failure.Conclusion: Incorporation of nano-ZrO2 into the repair resin improved the flexural strength of repaired denture bases, whereas it decreased impact strength, especially with high nano-ZrO2 concentrations. Keywords: denture repair, flexural strength, impact strength, PMMA, ZrO2 nanoparticles

  4. Porous MgO material with ultrahigh surface area as the matrix for phase change composite

    Hao, Yonggan; Shao, Xiankun; Liu, Tongxuan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan, Anhui 232001 (China); Li, Benxia, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan, Anhui 232001 (China); Nie, Shibin, E-mail: [School of Energy Resources and Safety, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan, Anhui 232001 (China)


    Highlights: • Porous MgO material with ultrahigh surface area was synthesized. • A composite PCM was prepared from PEG-1000 and the porous MgO. • The phase change temperatures and enthalpy of the composite were measured. • The composite PCM performed good shape-stabilized property. - Abstract: Mesoporous magnesium oxide (MgO) material was synthesized using an integration of the evaporation-induced surfactant assembly and magnesium nitrate pyrolysis. The as-prepared MgO material is well crystalline, and possesses three-dimensional interconnected mesopores and a surface area as high as 596 m{sup 2}/g. Using the porous MgO as a matrix and polyethylene glycol (PEG-1000) as the functional phase for heat energy storage, a shape-stabilized phase change composite of PEG/MgO was fabricated by an easy impregnation method. In the composite, mesoporous MgO material provides structural strength and prevents the leakage of the molten PEG during the phase change process. The compositions and microstructures of the PEG/MgO composite were determined by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. The phase change properties of the PEG/MgO composite were determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The high heat-energy storage capability and good thermal stability of the composite enable it extensive applications in the future.

  5. Thermophysical Properties of Gd2 O3-Yb2 O3-Y2 O3-ZrO2 Thermal Barrier Coating Material%Gd2O3-Yb2O3-Y2O3-ZrO2热障涂层材料的热物理性能

    李嘉; 谢铮; 何箐; 邹晗; 吕玉芬


    Objective To improve the performance of traditional ceramic thermal barrier coatings by rare earth oxides doping yt-tria stabilized zirconia ( YSZ) . Methods The Gd2 O3-Yb2 O3-Y2 O3-ZrO2( GYYZO) materials with various doped contents were pre-pared by co-precipitation, and the GYYZO bulk materials and coatings were prepared by cold isostatic pressing ( CIP) and plasma spraying( PS) , respectively. The thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient tests of materials with different composi-tions were taken to analyze and evaluate the thermophysical properties of GYYZO materials. X-ray diffraction ( XRD) analysis of the coatings was conducted after high-temperature annealing treatment to evaluate the high temperature stability of coatings with dif-ferent compositions. Results The thermal conductivities and coefficient of thermal expansion ( CTEs) of zirconia based bulk materi-als decreased with the increasing doped content. The thermal conductivity of bulk GYYZO doped with 5. 5% ~9. 84% mole frac-tion of rare earth oxides at 1000 ℃ was 1. 25~1. 56 W/(m·K), which was reduced by 22% ~37. 5% as compared with that of bulk 8YSZ, and the CTEs was (10~11. 1) ×10-6/K, which was closed to that of the tradition 8YSZ materials. After long-term heat treatment at 1400℃, the content of monoclinic phase for GYYZO coating with low doped content was obviously lower than that of 8YSZ coating. Conclusion The multiple rare earth oxides doped YSZ has good high temperature phase stability, low thermal conductivity and suitable thermal expansion coefficient, and can be used as candidate ceramic materials for high-performance ther-mal barrier coatings.%目的:通过多元稀土氧化物掺杂改性YSZ,提高传统热障涂层的性能。方法使用化学共沉淀法制备不同掺杂量的Gd2 O3-Yb2 O3-Y2 O3-ZrO2( GYYZO)材料,并分别使用冷等静压-烧结和等离子喷涂工艺制备块材和涂层。通过测试块材的热导率和热膨胀系数,分析评价材

  6. New ZrO2/Al2O3 Nanocomposite Fabricated from Hybrid Nanoparticles Prepared by CO2 Laser Co-Vaporization

    Bartolomé, José F.; Smirnov, Anton; Kurland, Heinz-Dieter; Grabow, Janet; Müller, Frank A.


    Alumina toughened zirconia (ATZ) and zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) are currently the materials of choice to meet the need for tough, strong, and bioinert ceramics for medical devices. However, the mechanical properties of ZrO2/Al2O3 dispersion ceramics could be considerably increased by reducing the corresponding grain sizes and by improving the homogeneity of the phase dispersion. Here, we prepare nanoparticles with an intraparticular phase distribution of Zr(1‑x)AlxO(2‑x/2) and (γ-, δ-)Al2O3 by the simultaneous gas phase condensation of laser co-vaporized zirconia and alumina raw powders. During subsequent spark plasma sintering the zirconia defect structures and transition alumina phases transform to a homogeneously distributed dispersion of tetragonal ZrO2 (52.4 vol%) and α-Al2O3 (47.6 vol%). Ceramics sintered by spark plasma sintering are completely dense with average grain sizes in the range around 250 nm. Outstanding mechanical properties (flexural strength σf = 1500 MPa, fracture toughness KIc = 6.8 MPa m1/2) together with a high resistance against low temperature degradation make these materials promising candidates for next generation bioceramics in total hip replacements and for dental implants.

  7. Development of AlN and TiB2 Composites with Nb2O5, Y2O3 and ZrO2 as Sintering Aids

    González, José C.; Rodríguez, Miguel Á.; Figueroa, Ignacio A.; Villafuerte-Castrejón, María-Elena; Díaz, Gerardo C.


    The synthesis of AlN and TiB2 by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and the effect of Nb2O5, Y2O3 and ZrO2 additions on the mechanical properties and densification of the produced composites is reported and discussed. After the SPS process, dense AlN and TiB2 composites with Nb2O5, Y2O3 and ZrO2 were successfully prepared. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that in the AlN composites, the addition of Nb2O5 gives rise to Nb4N3 during sintering. The compound Y3Al5O12 (YAG) was observed as precipitate in the sample with Y2O3. X-ray diffraction analysis of the TiB2 composites showed TiB2 as a single phase in these materials. The maximum Vickers and toughness values were 14.19 ± 1.43 GPa and 27.52 ± 1.75 GPa for the AlN and TiB2 composites, respectively. PMID:28772681


    Y. J. O. Asencios

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work the behavior of NiO-PrO2-ZrO2 catalysts containing various nickel loadings was evaluated in the partial oxidation of methane and oxidative-reforming reactions of methane. The catalysts were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction Analysis (in situ-XRD, Temperature Programmed Reduction (H2-TPR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM/EDX and Adsorption-Desorption of nitrogen (BET area. The reactions were carried out at 750 °C and 1 atm for 5 hours. The catalysts were studied with different nickel content: 0, 5, 10 and 15% (related to total weight of catalyst, wt%. In both reactions, the catalyst containing the mixture of the three oxides (NiO/PrO2/ZrO2 with 15% nickel (15NiPrZr catalyst showed the best activity for the conversion of the reactants into Syngas and showed high selectivity for H2 and CO. The results suggest that the promoter PrO2 and the Niº centers are in a good proportion in the catalyst with 15% Ni. Our results showed that low nickel concentrations in the catalyst led to high metallic dispersion; however, very low nickel concentrations did not favor the methane transformation into Syngas. The catalyst containing only NiO/ZrO2 in the mixture was not sufficient for the catalysis. The presence of the promoter PrO2 was very important for the catalysis of the POM.

  9. Modeling and analysis of porosity and compressive strength of gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic filter using BP neural network

    Li Qiang


    Full Text Available BP neural network was used in this study to model the porosity and the compressive strength of a gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foam filter prepared by centrifugal slip casting. The influences of the load applied on the epispastic polystyrene template (F, the centrifugal acceleration (v and sintering temperature (T on the porosity (P and compressive strength (σ of the sintered products were studied by using the registered three-layer BP model. The accuracy of the model was verified by comparing the BP model predicted results with the experimental ones. Results show that the model prediction agrees with the experimental data within a reasonable experimental error, indicating that the three-layer BP network based modeling is effective in predicting both the properties and processing parameters in designing the gradient Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic foam filter. The prediction results show that the porosity percentage increases and compressive strength decreases with an increase in the applied load on epispastic polystyrene template. As for the influence of sintering temperature, the porosity percentage decreases monotonically with an increase in sintering temperature, yet the compressive strength first increases and then decreases slightly in a given temperature range. Furthermore, the porosity percentage changes little but the compressive strength first increases and then decreases when the centrifugal acceleration increases.

  10. Low-temperature remote plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of ZrO2/zircone nanolaminate film for efficient encapsulation of flexible organic light-emitting diodes

    Chen, Zheng; Wang, Haoran; Wang, Xiao; Chen, Ping; Liu, Yunfei; Zhao, Hongyu; Zhao, Yi; Duan, Yu


    Encapsulation is essential to protect the air-sensitive components of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) such as active layers and cathode electrodes. In this study, hybrid zirconium inorganic/organic nanolaminates were fabricated using remote plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) and molecular layer deposition at a low temperature. The nanolaminate serves as a thin-film encapsulation layer for OLEDs. The reaction mechanism of PEALD process was investigated using an in-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and in-situ quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS). The bonds present in the films were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The primary reaction byproducts in PEALD, such as CO, CO2, NO, H2O, as well as the related fragments during the O2 plasma process were characterized using the QMS, indicating a combustion-like reaction process. The self-limiting nature and growth mechanisms of the ZrO2 during the complex surface chemical reaction of the ligand and O2 plasma were monitored using the QCM. The remote PEALD ZrO2/zircone nanolaminate structure prolonged the transmission path of water vapor and smooth surface morphology. Consequently, the water barrier properties were significantly improved (reaching 3.078 × 10‑5 g/m2/day). This study also shows that flexible OLEDs can be successfully encapsulated to achieve a significantly longer lifetime.

  11. CO2 Reforming of CH4 over Ni/CeO2-ZrO2-Al2O3 Prepared by Hydrothermal Synthesis Method

    Chunlin Li; Yilu Fu; Guozhu Bian; Tiandou Hu; Yaning Xie; Jing Zhan


    The Ni/CeO2-ZrO2-Al2O3 catalyst with different Al2O3 and NiO contents were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method. The catalytic performance for CO2 reforming of CH4 reaction, the interaction among components and the relation between Ni content and catalyst surface basicity were investigated. Results show that the interaction between NiO and Al2O3 is stronger than that between NiO and CeO2-ZrO2. The addition of Al2O3 can prevent the formation of large metallic Ni ensembles, increase the dispersion of Ni, and improve catalytic activity, but excess Al2O3 causes the catalyst to deactivate easily. The interaction between NiO and CeO2 results in more facile reduction of surface CeO2. The existence of a small amount of metallic Ni can increase the number of basic sites. As metallic Ni may preferentially reside on the strong basic sites, increasing Ni content can weaken the catalyst basicity.

  12. Corrosion resistance of plasma sprayed NiCrAl + (ZrO2 + Y2O3 ) thermal barrier coating on 18 -8 steel surface

    CHEN Fei; L(U) Tao; DING Hua-dong; ZHOU Hai; LIU Kai


    The corrosion resistance of NiCrAl +(ZrO2 + Y2 O3 )thermal barrier coating, formed with the plasma spraying technique, on the 18 - 8 steel surface was investigated. The phase structure and morphology of the coating were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction(XRD) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The electrochemical corrosion behavior of the coating in 1.0 mol/L H2 SO4 solution was studied by using electrochemical measurement methods. The results show that the gradient plasma spraying coating is composed of the NiCrAlY primer coating and the (ZrO2 + Y2O3 ) top coating, and the coating thickness is 360 μm. The microhardness of coating reaches 1 100 HV. The corrosion resistance of the plasma sprayed coating of the 18 - 8 steel surface is about 5 times as great as that of the original pattern. The corrosion resistance of the coating is enhanced notably.

  13. Influence of ZrO2, SiO2, Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles on maize seed germination under different growth conditions.

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Suriyaprabha, Rangaraj; Rajendran, Venkatachalam; Kannan, Narayanasamy


    The focus of this investigation is to evaluate the phytotoxicity of selected metal oxide nanoparticles and microparticles as a function of maize seed germination and root elongation under different growth conditions (Petri plate, cotton and soil). The results of seed germination and root elongation experiments reveal that all the growth conditions show almost similar results. Alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) nanoparticles significantly reduce the germination percentage, whereas silica (SiO2) nanoparticles and microparticles enhance the same. The results of nanoparticles and microparticles of zirconia (ZrO2) are found to be same as those of controls. Root elongation is enhanced by SiO2 nanoparticles and microparticles treatment, whereas inhibition is observed with Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles and microparticles. The X-ray fluorescence spectrometry data of the treated and control seed samples show that seeds uptake SiO2 particles to a greater extent followed by TiO2, Al2O3 and ZrO2. In addition, the uptake of nanoparticles is found to be greater than that of microparticles. Thus, the tested metal oxides penetrated seeds at the nanoscale as compared with the microscale. This study clarifies phytotoxicity of nanoparticles treated in different growth substrates and highlights the impact of nanoparticles on environment and agricultural systems.

  14. The Effect of Normal Force on Tribocorrosion Behaviour of Ti-10Zr Alloy and Porous TiO2-ZrO2 Thin Film Electrochemical Formed

    Dănăilă, E.; Benea, L.


    The tribocorrosion behaviour of Ti-10Zr alloy and porous TiO2-ZrO2 thin film electrochemical formed on Ti-10Zr alloy was evaluated in Fusayama-Mayer artificial saliva solution. Tribocorrosion experiments were performed using a unidirectional pin-on-disc experimental set-up which was mechanically and electrochemically instrumented, under various solicitation conditions. The effect of applied normal force on tribocorrosion performance of the tested materials was determined. Open circuit potential (OCP) measurements performed before, during and after sliding tests were applied in order to determine the tribocorrosion degradation. The applied normal force was found to greatly affect the potential during tribocorrosion experiments, an increase in the normal force inducing a decrease in potential accelerating the depassivation of the materials studied. The results show a decrease in friction coefficient with gradually increasing the normal load. It was proved that the porous TiO2-ZrO2 thin film electrochemical formed on Ti-10Zr alloy lead to an improvement of tribocorrosion resistance compared to non-anodized Ti-10Zr alloy intended for biomedical applications.

  15. Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation over CuO-TiO2-ZrO2/HZSM-5 Catalysts%CuO-TiO2-ZrO2/HZSM-5催化CO2加氢制二甲醚

    王嵩; 毛东森; 郭晓明; 卢冠忠


    A series of CuO-TiO2-ZrO2 mixed oxides with different CuO mass fractions (50%-80%) were prepared by co-precipitation and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 physisorption, temperature-programmed reduction of hydrogen (H2-TPR), temperature-programmed desorption of carbon dioxide (CO2-TPD) and hydrogen (H2-TPD), and reactive N2O adsorption techniques. The prepared CuO-TiO2-ZrO2 samples were mixed physically with HZSM-5 zeolite to synthesize dimethyl ether (DME) from CO2 hydrogenation in a fixed bed reactor at 250 °C, 3.0 Mpa, gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 1500 mL-g1-h~\\ and volume ratio of 2.8 for H2 to CO2. We found that the conversion of CO2 increased with an increase in CuO content, reached a maximum at a CuO content of 70% and then decreased. The selectivity of DME increased with an increase in CuO content initially and remained essentially constant when the CuO content was 270%. Thus, the yield of DME reached a maximum of 13.2% at 70% CuO content. The productivity of the oxygenated compounds (including methanol and DME) on the CuO-TiO2-ZrO2/HZSM-5 catalysts is closely related to the metallic copper surface area.%采用共沉淀法制备了一系列CuO含量不同(质量分数:50%-80%)的CuO-TiO2-ZrO2复合氧化物,并利用X射线衍射(XRD)、氮吸附(BET)、程序升温还原(H2-TPR)、程序升温脱附(H2/CO2-TPD)和氧化亚氮(N2O)反应吸附等多种方法对其进行了表征.以所制备的CuO-TiO2-ZrO2为甲醇合成活性组分与HZSM-5分子筛进行机械混合制成双功能催化剂CuO-TiO2-ZrO2/HZSM-5,在微型固定床流动反应器中,于250℃、3.0 MPa、H2/CO2(体积比2.8)以及空速1500 mL·g-1·h-1的条件下,对其催化CO2加氢直接合成二甲醚(DME)的性能进行了评价.结果表明:随着CuO-TiO2-ZrO2中CuO含量的增加,CO2的转化率先逐渐增大,至70%时达到最大,之后反而降低.DME的选择性随着催化剂中CuO含量的增加而增加,至≥70%时基本不变,故当CuO含量为70%时,DME的收率达到最大值(13.2%).催化剂上合成含氧化合物(甲醇和DME)的活性与催化剂中金属铜的比表面积之间有较好的对应关系.

  16. Structural and optical properties of ZnO films grown on silicon and their applications in MOS devices in conjunction with ZrO2 as a gate dielectric

    S K Nandi; S Chakraborty; M K Bera; C K Maiti


    Photoluminescence (PL) properties of undoped ZnO thin films grown by rf magnetron sputtering on silicon substrates have been investigated. ZnO/Si substrates are characterized by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). ZrO2 thin films have been deposited on ZnO using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition at a low temperature (150°C). Using metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) capacitor structures, the reliability and the leakage current characteristics of ZrO2 films have been studied both at room and high temperatures. Schottky conduction mechanism is found to dominate the current conduction at a high temperature. Good electrical and reliability properties suggest the suitability of deposited ZrO2 thin films as an alternative as gate dielectric on ZnO/-Si heterostructure for future device applications.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of a binary oxide ZrO2–TiO2 and its application in chlorophyll dye-sensitized solar cell with reduced graphene oxide as counter electrodes

    Asha R Pai; Bipin Nair


    Natural dyes have been used to sensitize TiO2 nanocrystalline solar cells, but they still require pigment purification and co-adsorption of other compounds. In this study, nanocrystalline ZrO2–TiO2 films sensitized with the bioorganic dye, chlorophyll extracted from green leaves of Chromolaena odorata were investigated. The nanocrystalline ZrO2–TiO2 films were synthesized by the precipitation synthesis. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The photoelectrodes were prepared using ZrO2–TiO2 sensitized with the chlorophyll dye and the counter electrodes using reduced graphene oxide. The shift in the absorption wavelength of chlorophyll showed an increase of adsorption of dye. The conversion efficiency was also studied.

  18. Temperature-Dependent Morphology, Magnetic and Optical Properties of Li-Doped MgO

    Myrach, Philipp [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany; Niklas, Nilius [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany; Levchenko, Sergey [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany; Gonchar, Anastasia [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany; Risse, Thomas [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany; Klaus-Peter, Dinse [Free University of Berlin; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Frandsen, Wiebke [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany; Horn, Raimund [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany; Hans-Joachim, Freund [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany; Schlçgl, Robert [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany; Scheffler, Matthias [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany


    Li-doped MgO is a potential catalyst for the oxidative coupling of methane, whereby surface Li+ O centers are suggested to be the chemically active species. To elucidate the role of Li in the MgO matrix, two model systems are prepared and their morphological, optical and magnetic properties as a function of Li doping are investigated. The first is an MgO film deposited on Mo(001) and doped with various amounts of Li, whereas the second is a powder sample fabricated by calcination of Li and Mg precursors in an oxygen atmosphere. Scanning tunneling and transmission electron microscopy are performed to characterize the morphology of both samples. At temperatures above 700 K, Li starts segregating towards the surface and forms irregular Li-rich oxide patches. Above 1050 K, Li desorbs from the MgO surface, leaving behind a characteristic defect pattern. Traces of Li also dissolve into the MgO, as concluded from a distinct optical signature that is absent in the pristine oxide. No electron paramagnetic resonance signal that would be compatible with Li+O centers is detected in the two Li/ MgO samples. Density-functional theory calculations are used to determine the thermodynamic stability of various Li-induced defects in the MgO. The calculations clarify the driving forces for Li segregation towards the MgO surface, but also rationalize the absence of Li+O centers. From the combination of experimental and theoretical results, a detailed picture arises on the role of Li for the MgO properties, which can be used as a starting point to analyze the chemical behavior of the doped oxide in future.

  19. Effect of Submicron-sized ZrO2 Powders on Mechanical Properties of Alumina Ceramics%亚微米ZrO2粉体对氧化铝陶瓷力学性能的影响

    王利; 周建民; 曹宇; 陈晨; 周国红


    在高纯A12O3粉体中添加质量分数为16%的亚微米ZrO2粉体,制备Al2O3-ZrO2复合粉体,通过X射线衍射仪、电子探针和扫描电子显微镜分别对样品的相组成和显微结构进行分析,研究不同烧结温度下亚微米ZrO2粉体对氧化铝陶瓷抗折强度和硬度的影响.结果表明,在1 450℃时无压烧结2h,Al2O3-ZrO2复相陶瓷的晶粒粒径约为0.5 μm,抗弯强度高达797 MPa,提高了46%,维氏硬度为17.9 GPa.%Al2O3-ZrO2 composite materials were prepared by doping submicron-sized ZrO2 powders with the mass fraction of 16% into ultra-high purity domestic A12O3 powders.The phase composition and microstructure of samples were analyzed by XRD,electron probe and SEM.The effect of submicron-sized ZrO2 particles on bending strength and hardness of alumina ceramics at different sintering temperatures was researched.The results show that loose sintered at 1 450 ℃ for 2 h,the crystal grain size of Ai2O3-ZrO2 composite ceramics is about 0.5 μm.Its bending strength researches 797 MPa,which is increased by 46%.Its hardness is 17.9 GPa.

  20. Analysis of isothermal sintering of zinc-titanate doped with MgO

    Obradović N.


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was analysis of isothermal sintering of zinc titanate ceramics doped with MgO obtained by mechanical activation. Mixtures of ZnO, TiO2 and MgO (0, 1.25 and 2.5% were mechanically activated 15 minutes in a planetary ball mill. The powders obtained were pressed under different pressures and the results were fitted with a phenomenological compacting equation. Isothermal sintering was performed in air for 120 minutes at four different temperatures. Structural characterization of ZnO-TiO2-MgO system after milling was performed at room temperature using XRPD measurements. DTA measurements showed different activation energies for pure and doped ZnO-TiO2 systems. Thus addition of MgO stabilizes the crystal structure of zinc titanate.

  1. Electronic properties of ion-implanted yttria-stabilized zirconia

    Vohrer, U.; Wiemhöfer, H.-D.; Göpel, W.; Hassel, van B.A.; Burggraaf, A.J.


    Ion implantation of iron and titanium has been applied to modify the surface properties of polycrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia ((ZrO2)0.87(YO1.5)0.13 (YSZ)) discs in an attempt to prepare surfaces with a mixed conductivity and by this an enhanced surface oxygen exchange kinetics. Surface-sen

  2. Preparation of Ag/TiO2-ZrO2 nano-composite with different post processing methods and microwave-assisted photocatalytic activity of methyl orange%不同后处理方法制备纳米复合材料Ag/TiO2-ZrO2及其微波辅助光催化甲基橙

    赵立杰; 李莉; 陆丹; 赵月红; 禚娜


    In this paper, the nano-coroposite Ag/TiO2-ZrO2 with a high photocatalytic activity was prepared by the sol-gel method combined with temperature-programmed treatment in the presence of a triblock copolymer surfactant P123 (EO20PO70EO25) , and different post-processing methods of calcination or extraction in ethanol solution was used. At the same time,the phase composition,structures and morphologies of the nano-composite Ag/TiO2 -ZrO2 were well-characterized via X-ray diffraction ( XRD) patterns, X-ray photoelectron spectra ( XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and N2 adsorption-desorption tests,by which the best catalyst that was Ag/TiO2ZrO2-C (3: 1) was found, in which silver species was metallic Ag0, and the composite had good structure and an orderly distribution of panicles. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange with Ag/TiO2-ZiO2 assisted by microwave in aqueous solution was done to investigate the chemical properties and catalytic activity. The results showed that Ag/TiO2-ZrO2 by calcination was more efficient ,m and the degradation ratio of methyl orange was 94.0% within 90 min, moreover, which was higher than those of Degussa P25 ,TiO2-ZrO2 and Ag/TiO2-ZrO2-E(3:1).%采用P123(EO20PO70EO20)作模板剂,通过溶胶-凝胶-程序升温溶剂热一步法,并经煅烧和萃取两种不同的后处理方法制备了一系列具有光催化活性的纳米复合材料Ag/TiO2 -ZrO2.经XRD、XPS、TEM、N2吸附-脱附测定测试手段对不同钛锆比例和不同后处理获得样品的组成、结构及形貌等进行了对比分析,获得了最佳光催化材料Ag/TiO2 -ZrO2-C(3∶1).该复合材料结晶度高、结构规整、呈四方体形、颗粒分布均匀,具有较均匀的孔结构,其银以单质形式存在,且均匀分散在TiO2-ZrO2表面.通过微波辅助光催化降解染料甲基橙的实验,对不同处理方法所获Ag/TiO2 -ZrO2的光催化活性进行了探究.实验结果表明,通过煅烧后处理方法得到的催化剂具有最好光催化活性,在90 min内降解率高达94.0%,其活性高于市售P25、TiO2-ZrO2和Ag/TiO2 -ZrO2-E(3∶1).

  3. 纳米复合材料ZnO/TiO_2-ZrO_2的制备及其微波辅助光催化降解甲基橙%Preparation of ZnO/TiO_2-ZrO_2 Nano-composites and the Activity of Microwave-assisted Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange

    李莉; 陆丹; 赵月红; 李恩帅; 禚娜


    The three-component nano-composite ZnO/TiO2-ZrO2 was prepared by doping ZnO into binary-system TiO2-ZrO2 through calcined at 450℃ with a sol-gel-temperature solvothermal process in the presence of surfactant EO20PO70EO20(P123).The phase composition,structures and morphologies of as-prepared nanocomposites were characterized by XRD,transmission TEM,N2 adsorption-desorption tests and SEM assisted X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy.The results showed that the material prepared possesses mesoporous structure,well distribution,regular morphologies,and existing titanium-zirconium oxide,and rough surface with some surface defects.Its behavior of microwave assisted photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solution was investigated.The results indicated that the methyl orange was degraded by 92.2% within 90 min,which means its photocatalytic activity is better than that of P25 and TiO2-ZrO2.%采用EO20PO70EO20(P123)作为模板剂,通过溶胶-凝胶-程序升温溶剂热一步法将金属氧化物ZnO掺杂到TiO2-ZrO2二元体系中,经过450℃煅烧,制备了三元纳米半导体复合材料ZnO/TiO2-ZrO2。通过X-射线衍射、氮气吸附-脱附测定、透射电子显微镜以及扫描电镜配合X-射线能量色散谱仪等测试手段对合成材料的组成、结构及形貌进行了表征。结果表明,该复合材料中存在钛锆氧化物,具有介孔结构。复合材料颗粒分布较均匀,结构较规整,表面具有一定的缺陷。以甲基橙为模型分子,探讨了所合成的复合材料的微波辅助光催化降解能力,发现其的光催化活性高于TiO2-ZrO2和市售P25,90 min内微波辅助光催化降解率可达92.2%。


    敖锟; 王海彦; 马骏; 施岩


    Using a mixture of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide(CTAB) and polyethylene glycol 20000 (PEG 20000) as template, MoO3/ZrO2 precursor was prepared by co-precipitation process. Using n-hexane as carbon source, Mo2C/MoO2- ZrO2 catalyst was prepared by temperature programming reduction. The XRD and BET results showed that p-Mo2C was existed and the catalyst had applicable pore diameter and pore volume. Tests for hydroisomerization of n-hexane over Mo2C/MoO2-ZrO2 catalyst were carried out in a ixed-bed down-flow reactor system to study the effect of reaction parameters, such as temperature, pressure rLHSV and volume ratio of hydrogen to hydrocarbon( H2/CH) on the catalytic behavior of said catalyst. Under the optimum conditions of a reaction temperature of 380 ℃ , a reaction pressure of 2. 5 Mpa,a LHSV of 1.0 h-1 and H2/CH volume ratio of 400, the conversion of n-hexane reached 67. 5 %, the selectivity to isomers and isomers yield were 82. 5% and 55. 7%, respectively.%以十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(CTAB)和聚乙二醇20000 (PEG20000)为模板剂,采用共沉淀法制备前躯体MoO3/ZrO2,然后使用程序升温法,以正己烷为碳源,制备了Mo2 C/MoO2-ZrO2催化剂.XRD和BET分析结果显示,该催化剂具有明显的β - Mo2C特征峰和适宜的孔径、孔体积.以正己烷为原料,在连续流动的固定床反应装置上,通过改变温度、压力、体积空速以及氢烃体积比等参数,考察了该催化剂的异构化性能.结果表明,Mo2 C/MoO2-ZrO2催化剂上正己烷异构化的优化反应条件为:温度380℃、压力2.5 MPa、体积空速1.0h-1、氢烃体积比400∶1,在此条件下正己烷转化率达到67.5%,异构化选择性和异构化收率分别为82.5%和55.7%.

  5. Preparation and characterization on nano-hybrid composite solid polymer electrolyte of PVdF-HFP /MG49-ZrO2 for battery application

    Lee T., K.; Ahmad, A.; Hasyareeda, N.


    Initial study on nano composite polymer electrolyte of PVdF-HFP/MG49-ZrO2 has been done. The zirconium was synthesis via in-situ sol-gel method in a dissolved polymer blends. The effects of different concentrations of zirconium and pH values have been investigated on nano composite polymer (NCP). Analysis impedance show that only at 6 wt. % of zirconium for all pH values show a semi-circle arc which have lowest value of bulk resistance. No ionic conductivity value is obtain due to the absent of ion charge carriers. Analysis of XRD revealed that crystallinity phase of the nano composite polymer was affect by different pH values. However, no significant changes have been observed in IR bands. This could well indicate that different pH medium did not affect the chemical bonding in the structure.

  6. Effects of firing schedule on solubility limits and transport properties of ZrO2–TiO2–Y2O3 fluorites

    Fagg, D.P.; Frade, J.R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg


    The low Y/high Zr edge of the cubic defect fluorite solid solution in the system ZrO2–TiO2–Y2O3 in air is reassessed, as it is these compositions which have been suggested to offer the highest levels of mixed conductivity. Vegard's law is obeyed for values of x which lie within the cubic defect...... fluorite phase in Zr1−x−yYyTixO2−δ for values of y=0.2 and 0.25. Measured lattice parameters show good agreement with those calculated from the Kim relation. Deviation from Vegard's law places the limit of the solid solution at x=0.18 and 0.20 for values of y=0.2 and 0.25, respectively, at 1500 °C...

  7. XRD and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance analysis of CeO2-ZrO2 solid solutions synthesized by combustion method

    G Ranga Rao; H Ranjan Sahu


    A series of ceria-incorporated zirconia (Ce1-ZrO2, = 0 to 1) solid solutions were prepared by employing the solution combustion synthesis route. The products were characterized by XRD and UV-Vis-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The materials are crystalline in nature and the lattice parameters of the solid solution series follow Vegard’s law. Diffuse reflectance spectra of the solid solutions in the UV region show two intense bands at 250 and 297 nm which are assigned respectively to Ce3+ ← O2- and Ce4+ ← O2- charge transfer transitions. The two vibrational bands in 6960 cm-1 and 5168 cm-1 in the NIR region indicate the presence of surface hydroxyl groups on these materials.

  8. Diesel/biodiesel soot oxidation with ceo2 and ceo2-zro2-modified cordierites: a facile way of accounting for their catalytic ability in fuel combustion processes

    Rodrigo F. Silva


    Full Text Available CeO2 and mixed CeO2-ZrO2 nanopowders were synthesized and efficiently deposited onto cordierite substrates, with the evaluation of their morphologic and structural properties through XRD, SEM, and FTIR. The modified substrates were employed as outer heterogeneous catalysts for reducing the soot originated from the diesel and diesel/biodiesel blends incomplete combustion. Their activity was evaluated in a diesel stationary motor, and a comparative analysis of the soot emission was carried out through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The analyses have shown that the catalyst-impregnated cordierite samples are very efficient for soot oxidation, being capable of reducing the soot emission in more than 60%.

  9. Enhancement mode AlGaN/GaN MOS high-electron-mobility transistors with ZrO2 gate dielectric deposited by atomic layer deposition

    Anderson, Travis J.; Wheeler, Virginia D.; Shahin, David I.; Tadjer, Marko J.; Koehler, Andrew D.; Hobart, Karl D.; Christou, Aris; Kub, Francis J.; Eddy, Charles R., Jr.


    Advanced applications of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) in high-power RF and power switching are driving the need for insulated gate technology. We present a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gate structure using atomic-layer-deposited ZrO2 as a high-k, high-breakdown gate dielectric for reduced gate leakage and a recessed barrier structure for enhancement mode operation. Compared to a Schottky metal-gate HEMT, the recessed MOS-HEMT structure demonstrated a reduction in the gate leakage current by 4 orders of magnitude and a threshold voltage shift of +6 V to a record +3.99 V, enabled by a combination of a recessed barrier structure and negative oxide charge.

  10. Comparison of TiO2 and ZrO2 Films Deposited by Electron-Beam Evaporation and by Sol-Gel Process

    YAO Jian-Ke; LI Hai-Yuan; FAN Zheng-Xiu; TANG Yong-Xing; JIN Yun-Xia; ZHAO Yuan-An; HE Hong-Bo; SHAO Jian-Da


    TiO2 and ZrO2 films are deposited by electron-beam (EB) evaporation and by sol-gel process. The film properties are characterized by visible and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry, x-ray diffraction analysis, surface roughness measure, absorption and laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) test. It is found that the sol-gel films have lower refractive index, packing density and roughness than EB deposited films due to their amorphous structure and high OH group concentration in the film. The high LIDT of sol-gel films is mainly due to their amorphous and porous structure, and low absorption. LIDT of EB deposited film is considerably affected by defects in the film, and LIDT of sol-gel deposited film is mainly effected by residual organic impurities and solvent trapped in the film.

  11. Role of Surface Adsorption in Fast Oxygen Storage/Release of CeO2-ZrO2 Mixed Oxides

    Wu Xiaodong; Liang Qing; Wu Xiaodi; Weng Duan


    Four kinds of CeO2-ZrO2 mixed oxides, i.e., a physical mixture of ceria and zirconia (CZP), zirconia-coated ceria (ZCC), ceria-coated zirconia (CCZ) and a chemical mixture of ceria and zirconia (CZC), were prepared. The oxygen storage capacity (OSC) measurements at 500 ℃ were performed under transient and stationary reaction conditions. All the curves of CO2 evolution during CO-O2 cycles presented a bimodal shape. The first peak was primarily the result of the reaction of CO with the oxygen from the oxides, which was mainly determined by the nature of the material. The second peak was mostly related to the CO2 adsorption behavior and was highly influenced by the surface area and the number of surface active sites. As a result, OSC activity of the samples followed in the order of CZC>CCZ>ZCC≈CZP.

  12. Electrosynthesis of nanocomposite PbO2-TiO2 and PbO2-ZrO2 materials for electrochemical systems

    Velichenkoa, A.B.; Knysha, V.A.; Luk' yanenko, T.V. [Ukrainian State Chemical Technology Univ., Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine). Dept. of Physical Chemistry; Devilliers, D. [Pierre et Marie Curie Univ., Paris (France). Lab. de Electrolytes et Electrochimie


    This paper reported on a study that examined the electrodeposition of nanocomposite materials based on lead dioxide from suspension electrolytes with TiO2 or ZrO2 particles as a dispersed phase. The study was conducted in response to the growing interest in improving lead dioxide as an electrode material for use in lead-acid batteries with high electrocatalytic activity. The presence of foreign oxides in the suspension electrolytes caused only a quantitative difference in the PbO2 electrodeposition process without apparently changing the qualitative relationships. In the suspension, electrolyte nanocomposite PbO2 based materials were formed. It was shown that the content of foreign oxides in the composite can be changed by modifying the composition of the electrolyte as well as the conditions of electrodeposition. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Phase Relations at 1500°C in the Ternary System ZrO 2-Gd 2O 3-TiO 2

    Feighery, A. J.; Irvine, J. T. S.; Zheng, C.


    Phase relations at 1500°C in the ternary system ZrO2-Gd2O3-TiO2 have been determined by the powder X-ray diffraction of samples prepared by standard solid state reaction. A large area of this ternary oxide system centered on the Gd2Ti2O7-Gd2Zr2O7 join was shown to exhibit the pyrochlore and defect fluorite structures. The pyrochlore structure was observed for stoichiometries as far from the ideal M4O7 as M4O6.7 and M4O7.4, although the degree of disorder seemed much higher at these stoichiometries. On further deviation from the ideal M4O7 stoichiometry a smooth transition to fluorite average structure was observed for Zr-rich compositions. None of the other binary phases were observed to show significant extent of solid solution into the ternary region.

  14. Síntesis de pigmentos basados en el sistema ZRO2 - SIO2 - V2O5 mediante Silicato de Zirconio



    El pigmento basado en el sistema óxido de zirconioóxido de silicio ( ZrO2-SiO2) es de una clase importante que se utiliza ampliamente en la preparación de cerámicas vidriadas y en la producción de esmaltes cerámicos. En este artículo se expone una nueva tecnología de síntesis, mediante la cual se ha obtenido el pigmento azul de zirconio–vanadio, a partir de un mineral de silicato de zirconio(ZrSiO4). Se discute acerca de los factores que influyen en la tonalidad del...

  15. Properties of plasma sprayed NiCrAlY + (ZrO2 + Y2 O3 ) coating on refractory steel surface

    L(U) Tao; CHEN Fei; DING Hua-dong; HAN Dan-feng


    NiCrAlY + (ZrO2 + Y2 O3 ) thermal barrier coating was prepared on the surface of refractory steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti with plasma spraying technique. The phases and microstructure of the thermal barrier coating were determined by scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and X-ray diffraction(XRD). The results show that the bonding between thermal barrier coating and substrate is sound. The surface hardness of 1Cr18Ni9Ti reaches up to 1 000 HV, but that of substrate is only 300 HV. The patterns sprayed with CoNiCrAlY+(ZrO2+Y2 O3 ) ceramic coating have a good heat insulation effect at 800 ℃ for heat insulation temperature difference reaches 54 ℃, which increases the operating temperature and service life of refractory steel.

  16. Characterization of functionally graded ZrO2 thermal barrier coatings sprayed by supersonic plasma spray with dual powder feed ports

    HAN Zhi-hai; WANG Hai-jun; ZHOU Shi-kui; XU Bing-shi


    The functionally graded thermal barrier coatings (FG-TBCs) with 80 % ZrO2-13 % CeO2-7 % Y2 Os ( CYSZ)/NiCoCrAlY were prepared using a recently developed supersonic plasma spraying(S-PS) with dual powder feed ports system. The thermal shock experiment of FG-TBCs specimens was carried out by means of the automatic thermal cycle device, in which the samples were heated to 1 200 ℃ by oxygen-acetylene flame jet then waterquenched to ambient temperature. The temperature-time curves of specimens and photographs can be watched online and recorded by a computer during the test. The results show that the totally 1 mm-thick FG-TBCs have excellent thermal shock resistance due to the fact that the coatings have no any peeling-off after 200 thermal cycles. The microstructures and morphologies of FG-TBCs were characterized and analyzed by SEM.

  17. Numerical study on the thermo-stress of ZrO_2 thermal barrier coatings by high-intensity pulsed ion beam irradiation

    Wu Di; Liu Chen; Zhu Xiao Peng; Lei Ming Kai


    This paper studies numerically the thermo-mechanical effects of ZrO_2 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) irradiated by a high-intensity pulsed ion beam in consideration of the surface structure. Taking the deposited energy of ion beams in TBCs as the source term in the thermal conduction equation, the distribution of temperature in TBCs was simulated. Then, based on the distribution, the evolution of thermal stress was calculated by the finite element method. The results show that tensile radial stress formed at the valley of TBC surfaces after irradiation by HIPIB. Therefore, if cracks happen, they must be at valleys instead of peaks. As for the stress waves, no matter whether through peak or valley position, tensile and compressive stresses are present alternately inside TBCs along the depth direction, and the strength of stress decreases with time.

  18. Influence of the Ratio of Ethanol to Water on the Agglomeration of Al2O3/Y2O3-ZrO2 Nanoparticles

    Li Xiuhua; Du Juanjuan; Zhu Liying; Cheng Huijie; Wang Lingwei


    A method of heating ethanol-aqueous salt solution combined with co-precipitation was used to synthesize Al2O3/ZrO2 nanoparticles. The analysis of DSC and XRD revealed that the transformation temperature from amorphous to crystal phase was about 850℃. The grain size was increased with the raising of calcine temperature. The alcohol-water ratio did not affect the formation of main crystal phases, but affected the agglomeration of nanoparticles based on the results of TEM. When alcohol-water ratio was 5:1, the dispersion of nanoparticles was good. When there was not alcohol, the dispersion of nanoparticles was poor because there was only pure co-precipitation reaction and the speed of co-precipitation reaction was too high to have enough time of PEG. dispersing particles.

  19. Fabrication of Coatings on the Surface of Magnesium Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Using ZrO2 and SiO2 Nanoparticles

    S. V. Gnedenkov


    Full Text Available Results of investigation of the incorporation of zirconia and silica nanoparticles into the coatings formed on magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation are presented. Comprehensive research of electrochemical and mechanical properties of obtained coatings was carried out. It was established that the polarization resistance of the samples with a coating containing zirconia nanoparticles is two times higher than that for the sample with base PEO layer. One of the important reasons for improving the protective properties of coatings formed in electrolytes containing nanoparticles consists in enhanced morphological characteristics, in particular, the porosity decrease and increase of thickness and resistivity (up to two orders of magnitude for ZrO2-containing coating of porousless sublayer in comparison with base PEO layer. Incorporation of silica and zirconia particles into the coating increases the mechanical performances. The layers containing nanoparticles have greater hardness and are more wear resistant in comparison with the coatings formed in the base electrolyte.

  20. Visbreaking of heavy petroleum oil catalyzed by SO42-/ZrO2 solid super-acid doped with Ni2+ or Sn2+


    SO42-/ZrO2 solid super-acid catalysts (SZ)doped with Ni2+ or Sn2+ (Ni2+/SZ,Sn2+/SZ) were prepared for catalytic visbreaking of heavy petroleum oil from Shengli oil field.The visbreaking reactions were carried out at 240℃ and 3-4 MPa for 24 h using a heavy petroleum oil to catalyst mass ratio of 100 :0.05.The effect of water content on viscosity of heavy petroleum oil was also investigated.Both catalysts can promote thermolysis of heavy petroleum oil and the viscosity was reduced for (Sn2+/SZ) with visbreaking rates of 57.7% and 48.9%,respectively.After visbreaking,the saturated hydrocarbon content increased while aromatics,resin,asphaltene,sulfur and nitrogen content decreased.The presence of water was disadvantageous to visbreaking of heavy petroleum oil.

  1. Effect of porosity and pore morphology on the low-frequency dielectric response in sintered ZrO2-8 mol% Y2O3 ceramic compact

    D Sen; T Mahata; A K Patra; S Mazumder; B P Sharma


    Effect of porosity and pore size distribution on the low-frequency dielectric response, in the range 0.01-100 kHz, in sintered ZrO2-8 mol% Y2O3 ceramic compacts have been investigated. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique has been employed to obtain the pore characteristics like pore size distribution, specific surface area etc. It has been observed that the real and the imaginary parts of the complex dielectric permittivity, for the specimens, depend not only on the porosity but also on the pore size distribution and pore morphology significantly. Unlike normal Debye relaxation process, where the loss tangent vis-à-vis the imaginary part of the dielectric constant shows a pronounced peak, in the present case the same increases at lower frequency region and an anomalous non-Debye type relaxation process manifests.

  2. Laser-induced evaporation, reactivity and deposition of ZrO 2, CeO 2, V 2O 5 and mixed Ce-V oxides

    Flamini, C.; Ciccioli, A.; Traverso, P.; Gnecco, F.; Giardini Guidoni, A.; Mele, A.


    It has been found that pulsed laser ablation has good potentiality for the deposition of ZrO2, CeO2, V2O5 and mixed Ce-V oxides which are very important materials for their application in optics and electrochromic devices. Laser induced compositional changes of thin films in the ablation and deposition processes of these materials have been explored. The effect of the oxygen gas pressure on the thin film composition has been examined. The congruency of the process has been treated on the basis of a thermal mechanism of evaporation-decomposition of the compounds. An attempt to model the processes by means of a thermodynamic approach is reported.

  3. Hardness evaluation of PMMA reinforced with two different calcinations temperatures of ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2 filler system

    Hasratiningsih, Z.; Takarini, V.; Cahyanto, A.; Faza, Y.; Asri, L. A. T. W.; Purwasasmita, B. S.


    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is one of the materials used for the temporary crown while making fixed partial dentures. Unfortunately, it has low mechanical properties. This study aim’s to improve PMMA hardness by adding ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2 filler system in two different calcination temperatures. Thirty-two disc form samples with 8mm diameter x 3mm thickness were made from two category-filler based that had been previously evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Each category was divided into six groups of three respectively from a controlled and different concentrations of 7(A), 9(B), 11(C), 13(D), and 15(E) weight % of reinforced filler system, then tested with Vickers Hardness Tester. Filler particles that calcined at 550° can increase to 700° consist of fine crystalline and amorphous phases; however, the sample shows the highest hardness about 20,19 VHN even though the increase is only 7,5% compared to control. Meanwhile, the sample that calcined at 700°C exhibiting the highest hardness about 15,66 VHN corresponds to sample D, it has increased 25% compared to the control. This is correlated with microstructure result that has more growth crystalline particles. The results were analyzed by ANOVA which determined were not statistically significantly different (p<0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that the 13% reinforced ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2 filler system calcined at 700°C shows the highest hardness increase compare to calcination temperature 550-700°C. Although it is not significantly different.

  4. Ultrathin-layer chromatography on SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), TiO(2), and ZrO(2) nanostructured thin films.

    Wannenmacher, Julia; Jim, Steven R; Taschuk, Michael T; Brett, Michael J; Morlock, Gertrud E


    We explored four different inorganic oxides and determined their merits in miniaturized planar chromatography. Despite progression of chromatographic techniques over several decades, such alternatives to traditional planar silica gel stationary phases have not been fully evaluated. Glancing angle deposition(GLAD) provided an excellent platform for engineering nanostructured thin films in these materials for ultrathin-layer chromatography (UTLC). Separations of carotenoids and synthetic food dyes were used to investigate the attributes of SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), TiO(2), and ZrO(2)GLAD UTLC media. These anisotropic high surface area thin films possessed similar channel-like features but different chromatographic properties.TiO(2)and ZrO(2)media were especially interesting since analyte retention could be modified through sim-ple oxidation heat treatments and UV irradiation. Generally, oxidation reduced analyte retention while UV exposure increased retention. Changes in retention factor as large as ΔhRF∼ 40 (for Acid Red 14 on titanium oxide) were achieved. Food dye mixtures were applied using consumer inkjet printers as per the Office Chromatography concept and separation performance was quantified using advanced video instrumentation designed for miniaturized plates. Enhanced time-resolved UTLC methods were used to calculate figures of merit from recorded dye separation videos. Small theoretical plate heights (layers. Separations on the inorganic oxide thin films were also successfully hyphenated with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the first time. This investigation demonstrates the utility of alternative inorganic oxide GLADUTLC media and probes avenues of expanding the capabilities of miniaturized planar chromatography.

  5. Synthesis of novel ZrO2&GO@TiO2 nanocomposite as an efficient photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Mohamed, Ibrahim M. A.; Dao, Van-Duong; Yasin, Ahmed S.; Yassin, Mohamed A.; Barakat, Nasser A. M.; Choi, Ho-Suk


    Due to the physicochemical and photo-electro properties, TiO2 nanostructures still being the outstanding photoanode materials in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). However, it is well known that a low dye-loading and charge recombination constrain the limitation of large-scale application. This work introduces the synthesis of ZrO2&GO@TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) by facile two steps using electrospinning and hydrothermal treatment. Furthermore, the developed materials are applied as an efficient photoanode of DSCs. The synthesized NFs are described in terms of morphology, crystallography and chemistry via FESEM, TEM, XRD, Raman spectra and EDX analysis. As the results, the Ti, Zr, O and C elements are uniformly distributed in the synthesized sample. The percentages of the atomic elements are 10.77, 57.69, 1.45 and 30.09 for C, O, Zr and Ti, respectively. The synthesized composite shows only anatase with crystal size of 25.86 nm and cell volume of 142.39 Å3. The developed material is employed as working electrode of DSCs. The J-V characteristic showed 5.09% efficiency for device using the synthesized material, which is higher than those of cells assembled with TiO2 NFs and ZrO2@TiO2 NFs photoanodes. The obtained result is explained by enhanced dye-loading (1.055 × 1017 molecule/cm2) and improved charge transfer resistance (Rct = 9.18 Ω) of the photoanode substrate. Hence, the presented nanocomposite can be an efficient photoanode towards technology of DSC.

  6. The effect of ZrO2 and TiO 2 on solubility and strength of apatite-mullite glass-ceramics for dental applications.

    Fathi, Hawa M; Miller, Cheryl; Stokes, Christopher; Johnson, Anthony


    The effect of ZrO2 and TiO2 on the chemical and mechanical properties of apatite-mullite glass-ceramics was investigated after sample preparation according to the ISO (2768:2008) recommendations for dental ceramics. All materials were characterized using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the concentrations of elements present in all materials produced. The chemical solubility test and the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) test were then carried out on all the samples. The best solubility value of 242 ± 61 μg/cm(2) was obtained when HG1T was heat-treated for 1 h at the glass transition temperature plus 20 °C (Tg + 20 °C) followed by 5 h at 1200 °C. The highest BFS value of 174 ± 38 MPa was achieved when HG1Z and HG1Z+T were heat-treated for 1 h at the Tg + 20 °C followed by 7 h at 1200 °C. The present study has demonstrated that the addition of TiO2 to the reference composition showed promise in both the glass and heat-treated samples. However, ZrO2 is an effective agent for developing the solubility or the mechanical properties of an apatite-mullite glass-ceramic separately but does not improve the solubility and the BFS simultaneously.

  7. Comparative Study of the Optical and Textural Properties of Tetrapyrrole Macrocycles Trapped Within ZrO2, TiO2, and SiO2 Translucent Xerogels

    Eduardo Salas-Bañales


    Full Text Available The entrapping of physicochemical active molecules inside mesoporous networks is an appealing field of research due to the myriad of potential applications in optics, photocatalysis, chemical sensing, and medicine. One of the most important reasons for this success is the possibility of optimizing the properties that a free active species displays in solution but now trapped inside a solid substrate. Additionally it is possible to modulate the textural characteristics of substrates, such as pore size, specific surface area, polarity and chemical affinity of the surface, toward the physical or chemical adhesion of a variety of adsorbates. In the present document, two kinds of non-silicon metal alkoxides, Zr and Ti, are employed to prepare xerogels containing entrapped tetrapyrrolic species that could be inserted beforehand in analogue silica systems. The main goal is to develop efficient methods for trapping or binding tetrapyrrole macrocycles inside TiO2 and ZrO2 xerogels, while comparing the properties of these systems against those of the SiO2 analogues. Once the optimal synthesis conditions for obtaining translucent monolithic xerogels of ZrO2 and TiO2 networks were determined, it was confirmed that these substrates allowed the entrapment, in monomeric form, of macrocycles that commonly appear as aggregates within the SiO2 network. From these experiments, it could be determined that the average pore diameters, specific surface areas, and water sorption capacities depicted by each one of these substrates, are a consequence of their own nature combined with the particular structure of the entrapped tetrapyrrole macrocycle. Furthermore, the establishment of covalent bonds between the intruding species and the pore walls leads to the obtainment of very similar pore sizes in the three different metal oxide (Ti, Zr, and Si substrates as a consequence of the templating effect of the encapsulated species.

  8. Study on Thermo-physical Properties.of Ultra-light Weight ZrO2 Fibrous Insulation Material%超轻质ZrO2纤维隔热材料的热物理性能研究

    薛叶叶; 殷小玮


    The thermo-physicai properties of ZrO2 fibrous insulation material at room temperature and high temperature were tested by hot disk and quartz lamp heater, respectively.For ZrO2 fibrous insulation materials, the effective thermal conductivity decreases with increasing the porosity, implying the better heat resistance.Under the same porosity, the smaller the grain size, the smaller the effective thermal conductivity.With the increase of sample surfacing temperature, radiation is the dominant heat transfer mechanism, which make the effective thermal conductivity sharply increase.When the testing temperature increases from 200 ℃ to 800 ℃, the effective thermal conductivity improves 0.027 W/(m.K) to 0.085 W/(m.K).When the thermal stability arrives at 800℃, the temperature at the cold side of ZrO2 fibrous insulation material is less than that at 30 ℃.%采用Hot disk热分析仪和石英灯辐射加热法分别测试分析了ZrO纤维隔热材料的常温和高温隔热性能.研究表明,随材料孔隙率的增大,ZrO纤维隔热材料的有效导热系数减小,即隔热效果越好;在孔隙率相同的情况下,材料晶粒尺寸越小其有效导热系数就越小;随试样表面温度的升高,在热传导的过程中辐射起主导作用,从而使材料的有效导热系数增大;当温度由200℃升高到800℃时,ZrO纤维隔热材料的有效导热系数由0.027W/(m·K)升高到0.085W/(m·K),在800℃达到热稳定时,ZrO纤维隔热材料冷边的温度不高于30℃.

  9. 固体超强酸SO2-4/ZrO2催化合成环己酮甘油缩酮%Synthesis of cyclohexanone glycerol ketal catalyzed by solid superacid catalyst SO42-/ZrO2

    尚倩倩; 刘群; 肖国民


    采用浸渍法制备了固体超强酸SO2-4/ZrO2催化剂,并以X射线衍射仪、热重分析仪及扫描电子显微镜对其性能及形貌进行表征.将其应用于催化环己酮与甘油的缩合反应,合成环己酮甘油缩酮,并分别考察了带水剂环己烷质量、反应时间、环己酮与甘油的摩尔比、催化剂质量等多个因素对环已酮甘油缩酮收率的影响.实验结果表明,经600℃煅烧后,该催化剂的酸性最强,且在催化合成环己酮甘油缩酮体系中获得了良好的催化效果.在反应温度为100℃,环己酮与甘油的摩尔比为1:2.5,催化剂和环己烷的质量分别为甘油质量的5%和20%,回流反应时间为2 h的最佳条件下,环己酮甘油缩酮收率达到85.0%以上.%The solid superacid catalyst SO2-4/ZrO2 is prepared by impregnation and characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscope. The condensation reaction of cyclohexanone with glycerol catalyzed by SO42 -/ZrO2 is studied. The influence of the cyclohexane dosage, the reaction time, the molar ratio of cyclohexanone to glycerol and the catalyst amount on the cyclohexanone glycerol ketal yield is also investigated. The experimental results show that SO2-4/ZrO2 calcined at 600 ℃ has the highest acidity and good performance in the synthesis of cyclohexanone glycerol ketal. Under the optimum reaction condition of the reaction temperature of 100 ℃, n ( cyclohexanone ): n ( glycerol ) = 1: 2. 5, m (catalyst): m ( glycerol ) = 0. 05, m ( cyclohexanone): m(glycerol) =0. 2, and the reaction time of 2 h, the cyclohexanone glycerol ketal yield is more than 85.0%.

  10. The Influence of ZrO2 Concentration in an Yttria-Based Face Coat for Investment Casting a Ti-45Al-2Mn-2Nb-0.2TiB Alloy Using a Sessile Drop Method

    Cheng, Xu; Yuan, Chen; Blackburn, Stuart; Withey, Paul A.


    Investment casting is widely used to cast near-net shape components, reducing material waste and process cost. Due to the high reactivity of titanium and its alloys, in order to reduce the interaction between the mold and molten titanium, very costly materials are used in the mold face coat. In order to reduce the material cost while maintaining the chemical inertness of the face coat, ZrO2 was added into an yttria-based face coat in different concentrations in this study. The face coat properties of the different systems were analyzed using dilatometry and XRD. The chemical inertness of the different face coat systems were tested using a sessile drop test using a Ti-45Al-2Mn-2Nb-0.2TiB alloy, and the interactions between the face coat and the alloy were analyzed by the interfacial microstructures, contact angle, and hardness changes. The results showed that small amounts of ZrO2 can be added into yttria without changing the chemical inertness of the face coat. High amounts of ZrO2 in the face coat can interact with TiAl alloy to form different interaction products. Meanwhile, both Y2O3 and ZrO2 filler materials were observed to dissolve in molten TiAl during the sessile drop test.

  11. First-principles characterization of a heteroceramic interface: ZrO2(001) deposited on an alpha-Al2O3(1(1)over-bar02) substrate

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Carter, Emily A.


    effects involved in the interface formation. The stoichiometric alumina/zirconia interface is found to be weakly bonded, regardless of the film thickness, and the ZrO2(001)/alpha -Al2O3(1 (1) over bar 02) interface has a rather epitaxial character, due to a low lattice mismatch of similar to4%. The impact......We have studied an alumina/zirconia interface using the all-electron projector augmented wave formalism within density functional theory. We present the electronic, structural, and energetic properties of the ZrO2(001)/(alpha -Al2O3(1 (1) over bar 02) interface as well as of the free alpha -Al2O3......(1 (1) over bar 02) and ZrO2(001) surfaces. We find that the generalized gradient correction significantly lowers the oxide surface energies, compared to values obtained by the local density approximation. The monoclinic-tetragonal transition in ZrO2(001) thin films is discussed as well as strain...

  12. 阳极氧化ZrO2纳米管阵列的制备及其生长机制%Preparation and growth mechanism of anodic ZrO2 nanotube arrays

    曹华珍; 尹意淳; 郑国渠


    Highly ordered ZrO2 nanotube arrays (ZrO2-NTs) were prepared by anodic oxidation in PEG-200 electrolyte containing NH4F. The effects of oxidation voltage, oxidation time and water content of the electrolyte on the morphology and structure of ZrO2-NTs were investigated intensively. Furthermore, the growth mechanism of ZrO2-NTs in PEG-200 electrolyte was discussed. Equivalent circuit model Rs(QfRf)(QdRc) was used to analyze the electrochemical impedance of ZrO2-NTs. The results show that the formation of ZrO2-NTs in this system experiences oxidation, hydrolysis-nucleation and oxide film dissolution processes. The oxidation voltage, oxidation time and water content in the electrolyte are important factors on the growth of ZrO2-NTs. Highly ordered ZrO2-NTs with tube diameters arranging from 100 to 120 nm can be obtained in PEG-200 containing 1.0%NH4F (mass fraction) and 5%H2O (volume fraction) at potential of 20 V for 3 h. The impedance analysis results indicate that the interface charge transfer resistance of the ZrO2 film is large.%在含NH4F的聚乙二醇(PEG-200)电解液中通过阳极氧化制备高度有序的二氧化锆纳米管阵列(ZrO2-NTs)。考察氧化电压、氧化时间以及电解液水含量对 ZrO2-NTs 形貌的影响,并讨论其生长机制,采用等效电路Rs(QfRf)(QdRc)对ZrO2-NTs的电化学阻抗谱进行拟合。结果表明,在该体系中ZrO2-NTs的形成包括氧化、水解形核以及膜溶解过程,氧化电压、氧化时间以及电解液水含量是影响ZrO2-NTs生长的重要因素,在含1.0%NH4F(质量分数)和5% H2O(体积分数)的 PEG-200电解液中,20 V 电压下氧化3 h 可制备得到管径为100~120 nm 的ZrO2-NTs。电化学阻抗谱分析结果表明,ZrO2膜层的界面电荷转移电阻较大。

  13. Surface properties of palladium catalysts supported on ternary ZrO2-Al2O3-WOx oxides prepared by the sol-gel method: Study of the chemical state of the support

    Barrera, A.; Montoya, J. A.; del Angel, P.; Navarrete, J.; Cano, M. E.; Tzompantzi, F.; López-Gaona, A.


    The surface properties of Pd and Pd-Pt catalysts supported on binary ZrO2-WOx and ternary ZrO2-Al2O3-WOx oxides prepared by the sol-gel method were studied. Special attention was paid to the study of the texture of the catalysts as well as the chemical state of tungstated zirconia and tungstated zirconia promoted with alumina in the palladium catalysts. The catalysts were tested in the isomerization of n-hexane and were characterized by N2 physisorption, XRD, TPR, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and FT-IR of adsorbed pyridine. The catalysts had bimodal pore size distributions with mesopores in the range 55-70 Å and macropores of 1000 Å in diameter. The catalysts had a surface WOx coverage (4.4-6.0 W nm-2) lower than that of the theoretical monolayer (7.0 W nm-2). A lower acidity of the ternary ZrO2-Al2O3-WOx oxide as compared to the binary ZrO2-WOx oxide was found. Higher activity in the isomerisation of n-hexane was obtained in the Pd-Pt catalysts supported on ternary ZrAlW oxides prepared by sol-gel that is correlated with the coexistence on the surface of W4+ (WO2) or W0 and W6+ (Al2(WO4)3) species, ZrO2 in the tetragonal phase and a high amount of ZrOx suboxides species in a low oxidation state (Zr3+ and Zr2+).

  14. Determination of TiO2, ZrO2, and Al2O3 nanoparticles on genotoxic responses in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cultured embyronic kidney cells.

    Demir, Eşref; Burgucu, Durmuş; Turna, Fatma; Aksakal, Sezgin; Kaya, Bülent


    In this study a genotoxic evaluation of titanium dioxide (TiO2, 2.3 nm), zirconium oxide (ZrO2, 6 nm), aluminum oxide (Al2O3, 16.7 nm) nanoparticles (NP) and their ionic forms was conducted using human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cultured human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells by means of a modified alkaline comet assay with/without the formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and endonuclease III (Endo III) enzymes. Modifications to the comet assay by using lesion-specific endonucleases, such as Endo III and Fpg, detect DNA bases with oxidative damage. Both human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cultured embryonic kidney cells were incubated with TiO2, ZrO2, or Al2O3 NP at concentrations of 1, 10, or 100 μg/ml. Our results showed no significant induction in DNA damage by the comet assay with/without the Endo III and Fpg enzymes at all concentrations of ZrO2 and Al2O3. In the case of TiO2 NP only the highest concentration of 100 μg/ml significantly induced a genotoxic response. Data thus indicate that both ZrO2 and Al2O3 NP were not genotoxic in our system and in the case of TiO2 the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) for genotoxicity was 100 μg/ml. Evidence indicates that these metallic NP are considered safe in light of the fact that no genotoxicity was noted with ZrO2 and Al2O3 and that the highest TiO2 concentration is not environmentally relevant.

  15. Degradation of phenol via wet-air oxidation over CuO/CeO2-ZrO2 nanocatalyst synthesized employing ultrasound energy: physicochemical characterization and catalytic performance.

    Parvas, Mohsen; Haghighi, Mohammad; Allahyari, Somaiyeh


    Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol was carried out under atmospheric pressure of oxygen at 160 degrees C in a stirred batch reactor over copper catalysts supported by CeO2-ZrO2. The copper with different loadings were impregnated over the composite support by a sonication process. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area and Fourier-transformed infrared analyses. Characteristic peaks attributed to copper were not found in XRD patterns even at high loadings, but based on EDX results, the existence of copper particles was confirmed. It means that sonochemical synthesis method even at high loadings produced small copper particles with low crystallinity and excellent dispersion over the CeO2-ZrO2 composite. FESEM micrographs indicated just slight enhancement in particle size at high loadings of Cu. Blank CWAO experiments illustrated low conversion of phenol using bare CeO2-ZrO2 support. Although some agglomeration of particles was found at high loadings of copper but owning to the fact that almost all ZrO2 particles incorporated into the CeO2 lattice at high contents of Cu, catalyst activity not only did not decrease but also the phenol conversion reached to the higher values. The optimal catalyst loading for phenol degradation was found to be 9 g/l. Complete conversion of phenol was achieved using CuO/CeO2-ZrO2 in 9 g/l catalyst loading with initial phenol concentration of 1000 ppm after 3 h of reaction.

  16. Low-Cost Fabrication for ZrO2-Based Electrolyte Thin-Substrate by Aqueous Gel-Casting

    刘晓光; 李国军; 仝建峰; 陈大明


    The possibility to fabricate yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin-substrates by aqueous gel casting of high concentrated aqueous slurries was investigated. The effects of dispersant, pH value, and solid content of slurries for gel process on stability and viscosity of slurries were optimized. YSZ thin-substrates green bodies with 100 μm thickness and 100 mm×100 mm flat plate were fabricated. Microstructure observations, density and bending measurements show that these green bodies are homogeneous and highly densified. After sintering at 1873 K×2 h, the ionic conductivity reaches 0.155 S·cm-1 at 1273 K.

  17. Preparation and Mechanical Properties of Gd2Ti2O7/ZrO2 (3Y) Ceramics%Gd2Ti2O7/ZrO2(3Y)陶瓷制备及力学性能研究

    刘佳男; 马伟民; 马雷; 纪连永; 吴影; 王花蕾


    用共沉淀法合成Gd2Ti2O7纳米粉体,经真空烧结制备不同ZrO2 (3Y)含量的Gd2Ti2O7/ZrO2(3Y)陶瓷.用XRD、SEM和力学性能试验等测试手段研究样品的物相、形貌和力学性能.结果表明:Gd2Ti2O7/ZrO2 (3Y)陶瓷的力学性能随ZrO2 (3Y)含量增加显著提高,ZrO2 (3Y)含量为90vol%时,样品的维氏硬度、抗弯强度和断裂韧性最大值分别达到20.95 GPa、199.21 MPa和8.17 MPa·m1/2.其原因是ZrO2 (3Y)固溶导致晶粒尺寸减小,过饱和析出ZrO2 (3Y)的颗粒弥散增韧,以及ZrO2(3Y)应力诱导相变增韧作用.

  18. Steam Reforming of Dimethyl Ether over Coupled Catalysts of CuO-ZnO-Al2O3-ZrO2 and Solid-acid Catalyst%二甲醚水蒸气重整制氢CuO-ZnO-Al2O3-ZrO2/固体酸复合催化剂

    冯冬梅; 左宜赞; 王德峥; 王金福


    Steam reforming (SR) of dimethyl ether (DME) was investigated for the production of hydrogen for fuel cells. The activity of a series of solid acids for DME hydrolysis was investigated. The solid acid catalysts were ZSM-5[Si/Al= 25, 38 and 50: denoted Z(Si/Al)] and acidic alumina (γ-Al2O3) with an acid strength order that was Z(25)>Z(38)>Z(50)>γ-Al2O3. Stronger acidity gave higher DME hydrolysis conversion. Physical mixtures containing a CuO-ZnO-Zl2O3-ZrO2 catalyst and solid acid catalyst to couple DME hydrolysis and methanol SR were used to examine the acidity effects on DME SR. DME SR activity strongly depended on the activity for DME hydrolysis. Z(25) was the best solid acid catalyst for DME SR and gave a DME conversion>90% [T= 240℃,n(H2O)/n(DME) = 3.5, space velocity = 1179 ml·(g cat) -1·h-1, and P= 0.1MPa]. The influences of the reaction temperature, space velocity and feed molar ratio were studied. Hydrogen production significantly depended on temperature and space velocity. A bifunctional catalyst of CuO-ZnO-Al2O3-ZrO2 catalyst and ZSM-5 gave a high H2 production rate and CO2 selectivity.

  19. Plasma-Enhanced Atmospheric-Pressure Spatial ALD of Al2O3 and ZrO2

    Creyghton, Y.; Illiberi, A.; Mione, M.; Boekel, W. van; Debernardi, N.; Seitz, M.; Bruele, F. van den; Poodt, P.; Roozeboom,F.


    Non-thermal plasma sources are known to lower the operation temperatures and widen the process windows in thermal ALD of thin-film materials. In spatial ALD, novel plasma sources with exceptional dimensional and chemical stability are required to provide the flow geometries optimized for efficient t

  20. Effect of doping elements on catalytic performance of CeO2-ZrO2 solid solutions

    LI Mei; LIU Zhaogang; HU Yanhong; WANG Mitang; LI Hangquan


    CeZr, CeYZr, LaCeZr, LaCePrZr, LaCePrYZr, and LaCePr solid solutions were prepared via the coprecipitation method, and characterized by means of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) techniques. The oxygen storage capacity (OSC) of the solid solutions was evaluated by the pulse technique and the catalytic activity was assessed using a 4-channel catalysis device. It was seen that the solid solutions presented cubic structure. The specific surface area and thermal stability could be enhanced by doping Y into the solid solutions. Doping a small amount of La had a positive effect on the thermal durability while doping a large amount of La decreased the specific surface area and the thermal stability. LaCePrZr and LaCePrYZr solid solutions synthesized using Baotou rare earth mineral residue enriched with LaCePr after Nd extraction presented a certain higher value in specific surface area and thermal stability, thereby enabling to be used as economic catalysts for automobile exhaust purification. Coating Al2O3 or SiO2 layer on the surface of ceria-zirconia solid solutions increased the specific surface area and thermal resistance.

  1. Degradación de recubrimientos ZrO2-CaO/NiAlMo por oxidación isoterma

    Utrilla, V.


    Full Text Available This paper analyses the degradation of a ceramic top coating 70%ZrO2 – 30%CaO deposited onto a stainless steel AISI 304 by thermal spray, using Ni-6%Al-5%Mo as overlay coating. These thermal barrier coatings were heat treated for 48, 120 and 288 h at 800 ºC to evaluate the degradation of these materials by isothermal oxidation. The microstructure evolution during oxidation was analysed by environmental scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X ray microanalysis and X ray diffraction. A thermally grown oxide layer was observed between the overlay coating and the ceramic top coating after oxidation. This layer was formed by a mixed Al and Ni oxides.En este trabajo se estudia la degradación de un recubrimiento 70%ZrO2 – 30%CaO crecido por proyección térmica de oxiacetileno sobre un acero inoxidable austenítico AISI 304 y empleando una leación de Ni-6%Al-5%Mo como capa de anclaje. Los recubrimientos se trataron térmicamente en aire a 800 ºC durante 48, 120 y 288 horas para evaluar la degradación de estos materiales por oxidación isotérmica. La evolución de la microestructura de las barreras como consecuencia del proceso de oxidación se analizó mediante microscopía electrónica de barrido ambiental, microscopía electrónica de transmisión, microanálisis de rayos X (EDX y difracción de rayos X. Durante la oxidación de los recubrimientos creció una capa intermedia de óxidos (“thermally grown oxides”, TGO entre el anclaje metálico y el recubrimiento cerámico formada por una mezcla de óxidos de Al y Ni.

  2. Ball-in-ball ZrO2 nanostructure for simultaneous CT imaging and highly efficient synergic microwave ablation and tri-stimuli-responsive chemotherapy of tumors.

    Long, Dan; Niu, Meng; Tan, Longfei; Fu, Changhui; Ren, Xiangling; Xu, Ke; Zhong, Hongshan; Wang, Jingzhuo; Li, Laifeng; Meng, Xianwei


    Combined thermo-chemotherapy displays outstanding synergically therapeutic efficiency when compared with standalone thermotherapy and chemotherapy. Herein, we developed a smart tri-stimuli-responsive drug delivery system involving X@BB-ZrO2 NPs (X represents loaded IL, DOX, keratin and tetradecanol) based on novel ball-in-ball-structured ZrO2 nanoparticles (BB-ZrO2 NPs). The microwave energy conversion efficiency of BB-ZrO2 NPs was 41.2% higher than that of traditional single-layer NPs due to the cooperative action of self-reflection and spatial confinement effect of the special two-layer hollow nanostructure. The tri-stimuli-responsive controlled release strategy indicate that integrated pH, redox and microwaves in single NPs based on keratin and tetradecanol could effectively enhance the specific controlled release of DOX. The release of DOX was only 8.1% in PBS with pH = 7.2 and GSH = 20 μM. However, the release could reach about 50% at the tumor site (pH = 5.5, GSH = 13 mM) under microwave ablation. The as-made X@BB-ZrO2 NPs exhibited perfect synergic therapy effect of chemotherapy and microwave ablation both in subcutaneous tumors (H22 tumor-bearing mice) and deep tumors (liver transplantation VX2 tumor-bearing rabbit model). There was no recurrence and death in the X@BB-ZrO2 + MW group during the therapy of subcutaneous tumors even on the 42(nd) day. The growth rates in the deep tumor of the control, MW and X@BB-ZrO2 + MW groups were 290.1%, 14.1% and -42% 6 days after ablation, respectively. Dual-source CT was used to monitor the metabolism behavior of the as-made BB-ZrO2 NPs and traditional CT was utilized to monitor the tumor growth in rabbits. Frozen section examination and ICP results indicated the precise control of drug delivery and enhanced cytotoxicity by the tri-stimuli-responsive controlled release strategy. The ball-in-ball ZrO2 NPs with high microwave energy conversion efficiency were first developed for synergic microwave ablation and tri-stimuli-responsive chemotherapy, which may have potential applications in clinic.

  3. Efecto de la microestructura sobre la bioactividad de dos materiales vitrocerámicos del sistema CaSiO3 – ZrO2

    Luklinska, Z. B.


    Full Text Available The work examines the influence of the microstructure on the in vitro bioactivity of two glass-ceramics with the same chemical composition. Two routes were used to obtain two glass-ceramics composed of 87 wt% CaSiO3 -13 wt% ZrO2. Heat treatment of a monolith glass produces a glass-ceramic (WZ1 containing wollastonite-2M and tetragonal zirconia as crystalline phases. The WZ1 did not display bioactivity in vitro. Ceramising the glass, via powder technology route, formed a bioactive glass-ceramic (WZ2, with the same crystalline phases but different microstructure. The in vitro studies carried out on WZ2 showed the formation of an apatite-like layer on its surface during exposure to the simulated body fluid (SBF. The interfacial reaction product was examined by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy, both instruments fitted with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Analysers. pH measurements, directly made at the interface of the two glass-ceramics with the simulated body fluid, were important in understanding their different behaviour during exposure to the same physiological environment.Se estudia la influencia de la microestructura sobre la bioactividad de dos materiales vitrocerámicos con la misma composición química (87% en peso de CaSiO3 y 13% en peso de ZrO2. Por tratamiento térmico del vidrio se obtuvo un material vitrocerámico (WZ1, formado por wollastonita-2M y circona tetragonal como fases cristalinas. Dicho material vitrocerámico no presentó bioactividad en suero fisiológico artificial (SFA. Mediante procesado cerámico del polvo de vidrio, se obtuvo un material vitrocerámico (WZ2 con las mismas fases cristalinas pero con diferente microestructura, que resultó ser bioactivo. Los estudios in vitro en SFA del vitrocerámico WZ2, demostraron la formación de una capa de hidroxiapatito (HA en su superficie. El producto de la reacción fue examinado por microscopia electrónica de barrido y transmisión (MEB y MET, ambas con microanálisis por energías dispersivas de rayos- X (EDS. Las medidas de pH, realizadas directamente en la interfase del SFA con los respectivos materiales vitrocerámicos, fueron determinantes para entender sus diferentes comportamientos.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Thermal Properties of Type Eu2O3-ZrO2 Sinters

    Jucha S.


    Full Text Available The oxides with pyrochlore or defected fluorite structure are a potential alternative ceramic materials for now widely used yttria-stabilized zirconia 8YSZ in the application for the insulation layer of thermal barrier coatings systems. This paper presents a procedure of synthesis of europium zirconate of Eu2Zr2O7 type, by the method of high temperature sintering under pressure. The analysis of the effect of the powders` homogenization methods on homogeneity of final sintered material showed that the highest homogeneity can be obtained after mechanical mixing in alcohol. Moreover, the DSC investigation carried out on a mixture of powders before the sintering process and on the material after high temperature sintering under pressure, suggest the synthesis of a new phase an europium zirconate Eu2Zr2O7 with the pyrochlore structure. Obtained phase was characterized by stability over the entire range of tested temperature, i.e. to 1450°C. The resulting material based on europium zirconate has a lower coefficient of thermal diffusivity than the now widely used 8YSZ.

  5. Bioactivity and cell proliferation in radiopaque gel-derived CaO-P2O5-SiO2-ZrO2 glass and glass-ceramic powders.

    Montazerian, Maziar; Yekta, Bijan Eftekhari; Marghussian, Vahak Kaspari; Bellani, Caroline Faria; Siqueira, Renato Luiz; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra


    In this study, 10 mol% ZrO2 was added to a 27CaO-5P2O5-68SiO2 (mol%) base composition synthesized via a simple sol-gel method. This composition is similar to that of a frequently investigated bioactive gel-glass. The effects of ZrO2 on the in vitro bioactivity and MG-63 cell proliferation of the glass and its derivative polycrystalline (glass-ceramic) powder were investigated. The samples were characterized using thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Release of Si, Ca, P and Zr into simulated body fluid (SBF) was determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Upon heat treatment at 1000 °C, the glass powder crystallized into an apatite-wollastonite-zirconia glass-ceramic powder. Hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) formation on the surface of the glass and glass-ceramic particles containing ZrO2 was confirmed by FTIR and SEM. Addition of ZrO2 to the base glass composition decreased the rate of HCA formation in vitro from one day to three days, and hence, ZrO2 could be employed to control the rate of apatite formation. However, the rate of HCA formation on the glass-ceramic powder containing ZrO2 crystal was equal to that in the base glassy powder. Tests with a cultured human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells revealed that the glass and glass-ceramic materials stimulated cell proliferation, indicating that they are biocompatible and are not cytotoxic in vitro. Moreover, zirconia clearly increased osteoblast proliferation over that of the Zr-free samples. This increase is likely associated with the lower solubility of these samples and, consequently, a smaller variation in the media pH. Despite the low solubility of these materials, bioactivity was maintained, indicating that these glassy and polycrystalline powders are potential candidates for bone graft substitutes and bone cements with the special feature of radiopacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation of Solid Superacid SO42-/ZrO2-Ce2O3 and Its Application to Catalytic Dehydration of Cyclohexanol to Cyclohexene%含铈固体超强酸SO42-/ZrO2-Ce2O3的制备及对环己醇催化脱水制环己烯的研究

    李远志; 魏富智; 周俊婷


    在25℃下,将0.5 mol/L的氨水滴加到不同配比的二氯氧锆和硝酸铈(Ⅲ)的混合溶液中,经过滤、洗涤,制备了不同质量分数的三氧化二铈和二氧化锆的混合物,再经0.5mol/L的稀硫酸浸渍1h、过滤、100℃干燥1h,最后分别在550、650和700 ℃焙烧4h制得了一系列的含铈固体超强酸SO42-/ZrO2-Ce2O3.发现加入质量分数为0.5%~2%的三氧化二铈可使其对环己醇脱水活性显著提高,过高的酸强度不利于环己烯的生成,其中以550 ℃时焙烧制得的固体超强酸SO42-/ZrO2-Ce2O3[w(Ce2O3)=1.5%]的催化活性及环己烯的选择性最好,在140 ℃下,环己醇的转化率为95.3%,环己烯的选择性高达100%.并分别用正己烷和吡啶做探针分子对其进行了差动热分析研究,结果表明加入质量分数为0.5%~2%的三氧化二铈使SO42-/ZrO2-Ce2O3超强酸酸强度和酸总量得到不同程度的提高.

  7. ZrO2包覆CaO-MgO-SiO2陶瓷纤维的制备及其性能%Preparation and properties of ZrO2 coated CaO-MgO-SiO2 ceramic fiber

    刘浩; 王玺堂; 王周福; 张保国


    为了解决CaO-MgO-SiO2陶瓷纤维在使用过程中析晶、粉化的问题,采用非均相成核法在CaO-MgO-SiO2陶瓷纤维表面制备了ZrO2涂层.用场发射扫描电子显微镜观察ZrO2包覆层,用X射线衍射仪分析800和1 000℃热处理后原始纤维和ZrO2包覆纤维的晶相变化,并检测了二者在模拟肺液中的溶解性能.结果表明:包覆处理后,CaO-MgO-SiO2陶瓷纤维表面形成了一层ZrO2包覆层;ZrO2包覆层的存在可以显著抑制800℃时纤维的析晶,1000℃时只能抑制纤维中方石英的析出,对其他物相的析晶没有明显抑制作用;ZrO2包覆层的存在降低了纤维在模拟肺液中的早期溶解速率,但对纤维的长期生物可溶性影响不大.%In order to inhibit the crystallization and pulverization of CaO-MgO-SiO2 ceramic fiber at high temperatures,the ZrO2 coating on CaO-MgO-SiOj ceramic fiber was formed by heterogeneous-nucleation method. The crystal phase compositions of the original fiber and ZrO2 coated fiber fired at 800 °C and 1 000 °C were analyzed by X-ray diffractometer.and their solubility in Gamble solution was determined. The results show that; (1) a dense ZrO2 coating is formed on the surface of fiber; (2) the coating on fiber can inhibit the precipitation of crystals at 800 °C markedly and at 1 000 °C it only can inhibit the precipitation of cristobalite and has little effects on other crystal phases; (3) the coating decreases the initial dissolution rate of the fiber in Gamble solution and has little effect on long-term bio-solubility of fiber.

  8. Pressureless sintering of translucent MgO ceramics

    Chen Dianying [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Jordan, Eric H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)], E-mail:; Gell, Maurice [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)


    MgO nanocrystalline powders were synthesized via a wet precipitation process. X-ray diffraction analysis of the heat-treated precursor powders shows that a crystalline MgO phase forms at {approx}500 deg. C. Translucent MgO ceramics were prepared by pressureless sintering the nanocrystalline MgO powders at 1400 deg. C for 2 h under ambient atmosphere. The as-sintered MgO ceramics have a relative density of 98.1% with an average hardness of 6.8 GPa. Scanning electron microscope characterization revealed that the translucent MgO ceramics have an average grain size of {approx}6 {mu}m.

  9. ZrO2/TiO2 Electron Collection Layer for Efficient Meso-Superstructured Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Mejía Escobar, Mario Alejandro; Pathak, Sandeep; Liu, Jiewei; Snaith, Henry J; Jaramillo, Franklin


    Since the first reports of efficient organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells in 2012, an explosion of research activity has emerged around the world, which has led to a rise in the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) to over 20%. Despite the impressive efficiency, a key area of the device which remains suboptimal is the electron extraction layer and its interface with the photoactive perovskite. Here, we implement an electron collection "bilayer" composed of a thin layer of zirconia coated with titania, sitting upon the transparent conductive oxide fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). With this double collection layer we have reached up to 17.9% power conversion efficiency, delivering a stabilized power output (SPO) of 17.0%, measured under simulated AM 1.5 sunlight of 100 mW cm(-2) irradiance. Finally, we propose a mechanism of the charge transfer processes within the fabricated architectures in order to explain the obtained performance of the devices.

  10. Selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 over CeO2-ZrO2-WO3 catalysts prepared by different methods

    Ning, Ping; Song, Zhongxian; Li, Hao; Zhang, Qiulin; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Jinhui; Tang, Xiaosu; Huang, Zhenzhen


    The selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH3 has been investigated over the CeO2-ZrO2-WO3 (CZW) catalysts prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, incipient impregnation, co-precipitation and sol-gel methods. The results indicate that the CZW catalyst prepared by hydrothermal method shows the best SCR activity, and more than 90% NO conversion is obtained at 195-450 °C with a gas hourly space velocity of 50,000 h-1. The samples are characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, SEM, EDS, XPS, H2-TPR, NH3-TPD and Pyridine-IR techniques. The results imply that the superior SCR activity of CZW catalyst is contributed to the excellent redox property, strong acidity and highest content of chemisorbed oxygen species. Furthermore, the larger surface area and greater total pore volume improve the redox ability and enhance NO conversion at low temperature, while the co-existence of Lewis and Brønsted acid sites enhance the SCR activity at high temperature.

  11. Effect of fluorine additive on CeO2(ZrO2)/TiO2 for selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3.

    Jin, Qijie; Shen, Yuesong; Zhu, Shemin


    A series of CeO2(ZrO2)/TiO2 catalysts with fluorine additive were prepared by impregnation method and tested for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH3. These samples were characterized by XRD, N2-BET, Raman spectra, SEM, TEM, NH3-TPD, H2-TPR and XPS, respectively. Results showed that the optimal catalyst with the appropriate HF exhibited excellent performance for NH3-SCR and more than 96% NO conversion at 360°C under GHSV of 71,400h(-1). It was found that the grain size of TiO2 increased and the specific surface area reduced with the modulation of HF, which was not good for the adsorption of gas molecule. However, the modulation of HF exposed the high energy (001) facets of TiO2 and increased the surface chemisorbed oxygen concentration, oxygen storage capacity and Ce(3+) concentration of catalyst. In addition, the synergy of (101) and (001) facets was beneficial to the improvement of catalytic activity.

  12. Effect of ZrO2 Doping on the Microwave Dielectric Properties of Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 Ceramics

    Peng, Sen; Luo, Gaofeng; Wu, Mengqiang; Yu, Shengquan; Xu, Jianming; Huang, Tongcheng; Zhou, Jianhua


    The microwave dielectric properties of Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics with x ( x = 0-10) wt.% ZrO2 (BMZN) were investigated by the solid-state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis suggested that there were two phases: the main crystalline phase Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3(BMN) and a secondary phase Ba5Nb4O15. Meanwhile, the Zr ions entered the B site of BMN and disturbed the 1:2 ordering. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis demonstrated that Zr4+ could promote the grain growth obviously. The addition of Zr4+ had a huge and positive influence on the Q × f value, for example, the sample with x = 8 had the highest Q × f value of 106,410 GHz. The BMZN ceramics with x = 8 sintered at 1400°C for 5 h had excellent microwave dielectric properties: ɛ r = 32.9, Q × f = 106,410 GHz ( f = 8 GHz) and τf = +0.7 ppm/°C.

  13. Laser Direct Writing Process for Making Electrodes and High-k Sol-Gel ZrO2 for Boosting Performances of MoS2 Transistors.

    Kwon, Hyuk-Jun; Jang, Jaewon; Grigoropoulos, Costas P


    A series of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), including molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), can be attractive materials for photonic and electronic applications due to their exceptional properties. Among these unique properties, high mobility of 2D TMDCs enables realization of high-performance nanoelectronics based on a thin film transistor (TFT) platform. In this contribution, we report highly enhanced field effect mobility (μ(eff) = 50.1 cm(2)/(V s), ∼2.5 times) of MoS2 TFTs through the sol-gel processed high-k ZrO2 (∼22.0) insulator, compared to those of typical MoS2/SiO2/Si structures (μ(eff) = 19.4 cm(2)/(V s)) because a high-k dielectric layer can suppress Coulomb electron scattering and reduce interface trap concentration. Additionally, in order to avoid costly conventional mask based photolithography and define the patterns, we employ a simple laser direct writing (LDW) process. This process allows precise and flexible control with reasonable resolution (up to ∼10 nm), depending on the system, and enables fabrication of arbitrarily patterned devices. Taking advantage of continuing developments in laser technology offers a substantial cost decrease, and LDW may emerge as a promising technology.

  14. Low-temperature synthesis and characterization of TiO2 and TiO2-ZrO2 photocatalytically active thin films.

    Maver, Ksenija; Stangar, Urska Lavrencic; Cernigoj, Urh; Gross, Silvia; Cerc Korosec, Romana


    Transparent TiO(2) and TiO(2)-ZrO(2) (molar ratio Zr/Ti = 0.1) thin films were produced by low-temperature sol-gel processing from nanocrystalline aqueous based solutions. The structural features and compositions of the films treated at room temperature, 100 degrees C and 500 degrees C were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Addition of zirconia increased specific surface area (140-230 m(2) g(-1)) and hindered the growth of anatase crystallites, exhibiting a constant size of 6-7 nm in the whole temperature range. These significant changes with respect to pure TiO(2) in anatase crystalline form did not result in significantly and systematically different photocatalytic activity, which was evaluated in terms of aqueous pollutant degradation (azo-dye in water) and self-cleaning ability (fatty contaminant deposit). The films treated at only 100 degrees C showed excellent photocatalytic activity towards azo-dye degradation. Contact angle measurements of aged and contaminated surfaces revealed a fast or sharp hydrophilicity gain under UVA illumination. Accordingly, the results of this study confirmed the potential application of advantageous low-temperature films in water treatment as well as for self-cleaning surfaces.

  15. Evaluación anticorrosiva de tricapas cerámicas Sio2-Tio2-Zro2 sintetizadas por el método Sol-Gel

    Jorge Hernando Bautista Ruiz


    Full Text Available  Se muestra la conformación de tricapas de recubrimientoscerámicos del sistema SiO2-TiO2-ZrO2, sintetizadas por elmétodo Sol-gel, utilizando como precursores Si(OC2H54,Ti(OBu4 y Zr(OC3H74, como solventes EtOH y agua, ycomo acomplejante 2,4 pentanodiona. Los recubrimientoscerámicos fueron depositados sobre sustratos de aceroinoxidable AISI/SAE 304 mediante la técnica de inmersión(dip-coating. Se estudió la influencia de los recubrimientossobre el comportamiento anticorrosivo del sustrato en unasolución de HCl al 3% mediante las técnicas deEspectroscopia de Impedancia Electroquímica (EIS ycurvas potenciodinámicas de polarización. Adicionalmentese realizó un estudio morfológico mediante la técnica deMicroscopía de Fuerza Atómica (AFM. Se encontró quelos valores de los parámetros electroquímicos cambiansustancialmente con la concentración de los precursoressumada a los efectos de la película sobre el sustrato.

  16. Wear studies on ZrO2-filled PEEK as coating bearing materials for artificial cervical discs of Ti6Al4V.

    Song, Jian; Liu, Yuhong; Liao, Zhenhua; Wang, Song; Tyagi, Rajnesh; Liu, Weiqiang


    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and its composite coatings are believed to be the potential candidates' bio-implant materials. However, these coatings have not yet been used on the surface of titanium-based orthopedics and joint products and very few investigations on the tribological characteristics could be found in the published literature till date. In this study, the wettabilities, composition and micro-hardness were characterized using contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and hardness tester. The tribological tests were conducted using a ball-on-disc contact pair under 25% newborn calf serum (NCS) lubricated condition. For comparison, bare Ti6Al4V was studied. The obtained results revealed that those PEEK/ZrO2 composite coatings could improve the tribological properties of Ti6Al4V significantly. Adhesive wear and mild abrasive wear might be the dominant wear and failure mechanisms for PEEK/ZrO2 composite coatings in NCS lubricated condition. After comprehensive evaluation in the present study, 5wt.% ZrO2 nanoparticles filled PEEK coating displayed the optimum tribological characteristics and could be taken as a potential candidate for the bearing material of artificial cervical disc.

  17. Influence of surface hydroxylation on the Ru atom diffusion on the ZrO2(101) surface: A DFT study

    Tosoni, Sergio; Pacchioni, Gianfranco


    The adsorption and diffusion of ruthenium adatoms on the (101) surface of tetragonal zirconia was studied by means of periodic Density Functional Theory (PBE+U) calculations. The surface termination has a decisive role in determining the diffusion capability of the adsorbed Ru atoms. On the defect-free and fully dehydroxylated surface, Ru adatoms have several stable adsorption sites with adsorption energies as large as 2.5-2.9 eV However, the kinetic diffusion barriers between adjacent adsorption sites are around 0.5-0.6 eV, indicating a rather fast diffusion process. Surface oxygen vacancies, if present, strongly bind ruthenium adatoms and act as nucleation sites. On hydroxylated surfaces, the adsorption energy of Ru atoms is comparable to the dehydroxylated case, but the kinetic barriers for diffusion are remarkably higher, thus indicating that adsorbed species are less mobile in presence of surface OH groups. The effect is more pronounced for high concentrations of OH groups, since this results in hydrogen bonded hydroxyl units that further limit the diffusion process. These results indicate a possible way to increase the life-time of Rusbnd ZrO2 heterogeneous catalysts by tuning the level of surface hydroxylation, in order to slow down sintering of metal particles via Ostwald ripening process.

  18. CeO2-Y2O3-ZrO2 Membrane with Enhanced Molten Salt Corrosion Resistance for Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Process

    Zou, Xingli; Li, Xin; Shen, Bin; Lu, Xionggang; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Zhongfu; Ding, Weizhong


    Innovative CeO2-Y2O3-ZrO2 membrane has been successfully developed and used in the solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process for green metallic materials production. The x mol pct ceria/(8- x) mol pct yttria-costabilized zirconia ( xCe(8- x)YSZ, x = 0, 1, 4, or 7) membranes have been fabricated and investigated as the membrane-based inert anodes to control the SOM electroreduction process in molten salt. The characteristics of these fabricated xCe(8- x)YSZ membranes including their corrosion resistances in molten salt and their degradation mechanisms have been systematically investigated and compared. The results show that the addition of ceria in the YSZ-based membrane can inhibit the depletion of yttrium during the SOM electrolysis, which thus makes the ceria-reinforced YSZ-based membranes possess enhanced corrosion resistances to molten salt. The ceria/yttria-costabilized zirconia membranes can also provide reasonable oxygen ion conductivity during electrolysis. Further investigation shows that the newly modified 4Ce4YSZ ceramic membrane has the potential to be used as novel inert SOM anode for the facile and sustainable production of metals/alloys/composites materials such as Si, Ti5Si3, TiC, and Ti5Si3/TiC from their metal oxides precursors in molten CaCl2.

  19. Porous TiO2-ZrO2 thin film formed by electrochemical technique to improve the biocompatibility of titanium alloy in physiological environment

    Benea, L.; Dănăilă, E.; Ponthiaux, P.


    Porous Ti and Ti alloys have received increasing research interest for bone tissue engineering, especially for dental and orthopaedic implants because they provide cell ingrowths and vascularization, improving of adhesion and osseointegration. The tribocorrosion process is encountered in orthopaedic and dentistry applications, since it is known that the implants are often exposed to simultaneous chemical/electrochemical and mechanical stresses. The purpose of this study was to carry out a systematic investigation of the tribo-electrochemical performance of porous TiO2-ZrO2 thin film formed by anodization of Ti-10Zr alloy surface in an artificial saliva solution and to compare the resulted performance with that of the untreated Ti-10Zr alloy surface in order to be applied for biomedical use. The in situ electrochemical technique used for investigation of tribo-electrochemical degradation was the open circuit potential (OCP) measurement performed before, during and after sliding tests. The results presented herein show that controlled anodic oxidation method can significantly improve the tribocorrosion and friction performances of Ti-10Zr alloy surface intended for biomedical applications.

  20. Influence of PCL on mechanical properties and bioactivity of ZrO2-based hybrid coatings synthesized by sol-gel dip coating technique.

    Catauro, Michelina; Bollino, Flavia; Veronesi, Paolo; Lamanna, Giuseppe


    The biological properties of medical implants can be enhanced through surface modifications such as to provide a firm attachment of the implant. In this study, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings have been synthesized via sol-gel dip coating. They consist of an inorganic ZrO2 matrix in which different amounts of poly(ε-caprolactone) have been entrapped to improve the mechanical properties of the films. The influence of the PCL amount on the microstructural, biological and mechanical properties of the coating has been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses have shown that the hybrids used for the coating are homogenous and totally amorphous materials; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has demonstrated that hydrogen bonds arise between the organic and inorganic phases. SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have highlighted the nanostructured nature of the film. SEM and EDS analyses, after soaking the samples in a simulated body fluid (SBF), have pointed out the apatite formation on the coating surface, which proves the bone-bonding ability of the nanocomposite bioactive films. Scratch and nano-indentation tests have shown that the coating hardness, stiffness and Young's modulus decrease in the presence of large amounts of the organic phase.