WorldWideScience

Sample records for mgd treatment plants

  1. Design of 90-mgd wastewater reclamation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, C.B.; Kluesener, J.W.; Lazarus, E.

    1981-01-01

    Ninety MGD of municipal secondary effluent is to be reclaimed for use as cooling water in the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station in Arizona. The water reclamation plant design criteria are presented for nitrification, lime-soda softening, filtration, and sludge processing. In-pipe storage is used for flow equalization. Forced air down-draft trickling filters with computer-controlled recycle are used for nitrification. Effluent recirculation is used to maintain constant sludge blanket dept in the upflow solids contact clarifier softening units. An influent flow-splitting, gravity-backwash, dual-media filter is used for final suspended solids removal. Rheological data was used in the hydraulic design of sludge piping. Computerized automatic flushing also aids in preventing sludge pumping problems. Reclamation plant design and construction are integrated in one Engineering-Procurement-Construction project conducted by a single company. 5 refs

  2. Application of the microprobe dredging operation in the treatment of the meibomian gland dysfunction(MGD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Qiang Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the function of the microprobe dredging technology in the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction(MGDand to provide fast, efficient, economical and practical method of treatment for meibomian gland dysfunction(MGD. METHODS:The 100μm diameter stainless steel wire was made as the microprobe with the total length of 3cm, which the needle was about 5mm and hand shank was about 2.5cm. Selected 140 cases with dry eyes of meibomian gland dysfunction(MGD, patients were divided into two groups and made them have comparability. Observation group(n=70used microprobe to dredge meibomian gland pipe accompanied with drugs, hot compress and meibomian gland massage treatment. The control group(n=70was given conventional drugs, hot compress and meibomian massage treatment. To compare the tear break-up time(BUT, efficient rate and the cure rate of the two groups after treatment of 1d, 1wk, 2wk, 1 mo, 2mo and 3mo.RESULTS: BUT were significantly prolonged in observation group and control group after treatment, and the observation group improved more obviously; the efficient rate and cure rate of the observation group were significantly higher than that of the control group after 1d, 1wk, 2wk, 1mo, 2mo and 3mo treatment. CONCLUSION:Using microprobe to unclog the meibomian gland tube can provide the fast and efficient, economical and practical treatment for meibomian gland dysfunction(MGD, which can be promoted in the clinical practice.

  3. Effect of aripiprazole 2 to 15 mg/d on health-related quality of life in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children: a post hoc analysis of two controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, James W; Handen, Benjamin L; Corey-Lisle, Patricia K; Guo, Zhenchao; Manos, George; Ammerman, Diane K; Marcus, Ronald N; Owen, Randall; McQuade, Robert D; Carson, William H; Mathew, Suja; Mankoski, Raymond

    2012-04-01

    There are limited published data on the impact of treatment on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in individuals with autistic disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of aripiprazole on HRQOL in the treatment of irritability in pediatric patients (aged 6-17 years) with autistic disorder. This post hoc analysis assessed data from two 8-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies that compared the efficacy of aripiprazole (fixed-dose study, 5, 10, and 15 mg/d; flexible-dose study, 2-15 mg/d) with placebo in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder. HRQOL was assessed at baseline and week 8 using 3 Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) scales. Clinically relevant improvement in HRQOL was determined using an accepted distribution-based criterion-1 standard error of measurement. In total, 316 patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment with aripiprazole (fixed-dose study, 166; flexible-dose study, 47) or placebo (fixed-dose study, 52; flexible-dose study, 51). Aripiprazole was associated with significantly greater improvement than placebo in PedsQL combined-scales total score (difference, 7.8; 95% CI, 3.8-11.8; P autistic disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulation of galactolipid biosynthesis by overexpression of the rice MGD gene contributes to enhanced aluminum tolerance in tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijuan eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Membrane lipid alterations affect Al tolerance in plants, but little is known about the regulation of membrane lipid metabolism in response to Al stress. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum overexpressing rice monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG synthase (OsMGD gene and wild-type tobacco plants were exposed to AlCl3, and the impact of Al toxicity on root growth, Al accumulation, plasma membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation and membrane lipid composition were investigated. Compared with the wild type, the transgenic plants exhibited rapid regrowth of roots after removal of Al and less damage to membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation under Al stress, meanwhile, the Al accumulation showed no difference between wild-type and transgenic plants. Lipid analysis showed that Al treatment dramatically decreased the content of MGDG and the ratio of MGDG to digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG in wild-type plants, while it was unchanged in transgenic plants. The stable of MGDG level and the ratio of MGDG/DGDG contribute to maintain the membrane stability and permeability. Moreover, Al caused a significant increase in phospholipids in wild-type plants, resulting in a high proportion of phospholipids and low proportion of galactolipids, but these proportions were unaffected in transgenic plants. The high proportion of phospholipids could contribute to a higher rate of Al3+ binding in the membrane and thereby leads to more membrane perturbation and damage. These results show that the regulation of galactolipid biosynthesis could play an important role in maintaining membrane structure and function under Al stress.

  5. The electric dipole moment of magnesium deuteride, MgD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimle, Timothy C; Zhang, Ruohan; Wang, Hailing

    2014-06-14

    The (0,0) A(2)Π-X (2)Σ(+) band of a cold molecular beam sample of magnesium monodeuteride, MgD, has been recorded field-free and in the presence of a static electric field of up to 11 kV/cm. The lines associated with the lowest rotational levels are detected for the first time. The field-free spectrum was analyzed to produce an improved set of fine structure parameters for the A(2)Π (v = 0) state. The observed electric field induced splittings and shifts were analyzed to produce permanent electric dipole moments, μ(el) of 2.567(10)D and 1.31(8)D for A(2)Π (v = 0) and X(2)Σ(+)(v = 0) states, respectively. The recommended value for μ(el)(X(2)Σ(+) (v = 0)) for MgH, based upon the measured value for MgD, is 1.32(8)D.

  6. Waste treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesanmi, C.A

    2009-01-01

    Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) is designed to provide appropriate systems for processing, immobilization and storage of low and medium radioactive waste arising from the operation of the research facilities of the Nuclear Technology Centre (NTC). It will serve as central collection station processing active waste generated through application of radionuclide in science, medicine and industry in the country. WTP building and structures will house the main waste processing systems and supporting facilities. All facilities will be interconnected. The interim storage building for processed waste drums will be located separately nearby. The separate interim storage building is located near the waste treatment building. Considering the low radiation level of the waste, storage building is large with no solid partitioning walls and with no services or extra facilities other than lighting and smoke alarm sensors. The building will be designed such that drums(200-1)are stacked 3 units high using handling by fork lift truck. To prevent radiation exposure to on-site personnel, the interim storage building will be erected apart from waste treatment plant or other buildings. The interim storage building will also be ready for buffer storage of unconditioned waste waiting for processing or decay and for storage material from the WTP

  7. The electric dipole moment of magnesium deuteride, MgD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimle, Timothy C., E-mail: TSteimle@asu.edu; Zhang, Ruohan [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604 (United States); Wang, Hailing [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062 (China)

    2014-06-14

    The (0,0) A{sup 2}Π–X {sup 2}Σ{sup +} band of a cold molecular beam sample of magnesium monodeuteride, MgD, has been recorded field-free and in the presence of a static electric field of up to 11 kV/cm. The lines associated with the lowest rotational levels are detected for the first time. The field-free spectrum was analyzed to produce an improved set of fine structure parameters for the A{sup 2}Π (v = 0) state. The observed electric field induced splittings and shifts were analyzed to produce permanent electric dipole moments, μ{sup -vector}{sub el} of 2.567(10)D and 1.31(8)D for A{sup 2}Π (v = 0) and X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}(v = 0) states, respectively. The recommended value for μ{sup -vector}{sub el}(X{sup 2}Σ{sup +} (v = 0)) for MgH, based upon the measured value for MgD, is 1.32(8)D.

  8. Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In southeastern Washington State, Bechtel National, Inc. is designing, constructing and commissioning the world's largest radioactive waste treatment plant for the...

  9. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  10. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): facilitating mouse as a model for human biology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org) serves the international biomedical research community as the central resource for integrated genomic, genetic and biological data on the laboratory mouse. To facilitate use of mouse as a model in translational studies, MGD maintains a core of high-quality curated data and integrates experimentally and computationally generated data sets. MGD maintains a unified catalog of genes and genome features, including functional RNAs, QTL and phenotypic loci. MGD curates and provides functional and phenotype annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. MGD integrates phenotype data and associates mouse genotypes to human diseases, providing critical mouse-human relationships and access to repositories holding mouse models. MGD is the authoritative source of nomenclature for genes, genome features, alleles and strains following guidelines of the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. A new addition to MGD, the Human-Mouse: Disease Connection, allows users to explore gene-phenotype-disease relationships between human and mouse. MGD has also updated search paradigms for phenotypic allele attributes, incorporated incidental mutation data, added a module for display and exploration of genes and microRNA interactions and adopted the JBrowse genome browser. MGD resources are freely available to the scientific community. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Waste Treatment Plant - 12508

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will immobilize millions of gallons of Hanford's tank waste into solid glass using a proven technology called vitrification. The vitrification process will turn the waste into a stable glass form that is safe for long-term storage. Our discussion of the WTP will include a description of the ongoing design and construction of this large, complex, first-of-a-kind project. The concept for the operation of the WTP is to separate high-level and low-activity waste fractions, and immobilize those fractions in glass using vitrification. The WTP includes four major nuclear facilities and various support facilities. Waste from the Tank Farms is first pumped to the Pretreatment Facility at the WTP through an underground pipe-in-pipe system. When construction is complete, the Pretreatment Facility will be 12 stories high, 540 feet long and 215 feet wide, making it the largest of the four major nuclear facilities that compose the WTP. The total size of this facility will be more than 490,000 square feet. More than 8.2 million craft hours are required to construct this facility. Currently, the Pretreatment Facility is 51 percent complete. At the Pretreatment Facility the waste is pumped to the interior waste feed receipt vessels. Each of these four vessels is 55-feet tall and has a 375,000 gallon capacity, which makes them the largest vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. These vessels contain a series of internal pulse-jet mixers to keep incoming waste properly mixed. The vessels are inside the black-cell areas, completely enclosed behind thick steel-laced, high strength concrete walls. The black cells are designed to be maintenance free with no moving parts. Once hot operations commence the black-cell area will be inaccessible. Surrounded by black cells, is the 'hot cell canyon'. The hot cell contains all the moving and replaceable components to remove solids and extract liquids. In this area, there is ultrafiltration

  12. Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Munk; Nierychlo, Marta; Albertsen, Mads

    Incoming microorganisms to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are usually considered to be removed in the treatment process. Analyses of the effluent generally show a very high degree of reduction of pathogens supporting this assumption. However, standard techniques for detecting bacteria......-independent 16SrRNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied for the identification and quantification of the microorganisms. In total 84 effluent samples from 14 full-scale Danish wastewater treatment plants were investigated over a period of 3 months. The microbial community composition was investigated by 16S r...... contain pathogenic species. One of these was Arcobacter (Campylobacteraceae) which was found in up to 16% relative abundance. This indicates that Arcobacter, and perhaps other pathogenic genera, are not being removed efficiently in full-scale plants and may pose a potential health safety problem. Further...

  13. Enrichment planting without soil treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Mats

    1998-12-31

    Where enrichment planting had been carried out with either of the two species Picea abies and Pinus contorta, the survival of the planted seedlings was at least as good as after planting in a normal clear cut area treated with soil scarification. This was in spite of the fact that the seedlings were placed shallow in the humus layer without any soil treatment. However, they were sheltered from insects by treatment before planting. Where enrichment planting was carried out with Pinus sylvestris the survival in dense forest was poor, but in open forest the survival was good. The growth of planted seedlings was enhanced by traditional clearing and soil treatment. However, this was for Pinus sylvestris not enough to compensate for the loss of time, 1-2 years, caused by arrangement of soil scarification. The growth of seedlings planted under crown cover was directly related to basal area of retained trees. However, the variation in height growth among individual seedlings was very big, which meant that some seedlings grow well also under a fairly dense forest cover. The pioneer species Pinus sylvestris reacted more strongly to basal area of retained trees than did the shade tolerant species Picea abies. Enrichment planting seems to be a necessary tool for preserving volume productivity, at places where fairly intensive harvest of mature trees has been carried out in stands of ordinary forest type in central Sweden. If double seedlings, with one Picea abies and one Pinus sylvestris, are used, the probability for long term establishment is enhanced 13 refs, 20 figs, 4 tabs

  14. Air Emission Reduction Benefits of Biogas Electricity Generation at Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2018-02-06

    Conventional processes for municipal wastewater treatment facilities are energy and materially intensive. This work quantifies the air emission implications of energy consumption, chemical use, and direct pollutant release at municipal wastewater treatment facilities across the U.S. and assesses the potential to avoid these damages by generating electricity and heat from the combustion of biogas produced during anaerobic sludge digestion. We find that embedded and on-site air emissions from municipal wastewater treatment imposed human health, environmental, and climate (HEC) damages on the order of $1.63 billion USD in 2012, with 85% of these damages attributed to the estimated consumption of 19 500 GWh of electricity by treatment processes annually, or 0.53% of the US electricity demand. An additional 11.8 million tons of biogenic CO 2 are directly emitted by wastewater treatment and sludge digestion processes currently installed at plants. Retrofitting existing wastewater treatment facilities with anaerobic sludge digestion for biogas production and biogas-fueled heat and electricity generation has the potential to reduce HEC damages by up to 24.9% relative to baseline emissions. Retrofitting only large plants (>5 MGD), where biogas generation is more likely to be economically viable, would generate HEC benefits of $254 annually. These findings reinforce the importance of accounting for use-phase embedded air emissions and spatially resolved marginal damage estimates when designing sustainable infrastructure systems.

  15. Investigation of the 24Mg(d, p)25Mg reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurders, F.; Korte, G. de

    1975-01-01

    Abstract Proton angular distributions from the 24Mg(d, p)25Mg reaction at Ed = 12.0 MeV have been measured with a split-pole magnetic spectrograph for Ex < 6 MeV at an average resolution (FWHM) of 7 keV. New ln values have been determined for three levels. A DWBA analysis yielded spectroscopic

  16. Investigation of the 26Mg(d, p)27Mg reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurders, F.; Steld, A. van der

    1974-01-01

    The angular distributions of 31 protons groups from the 26Mg(d, p)27Mg reaction have been measured at Ed = 12.0 MeV with a split-pole magnetic spectrograph. Excitation energies have been determined for 29 bound states. Three new levels have been found. A DWBA analysis yields ln values for 19 levels;

  17. Uprading of existing treatment plants in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Stene-Johansen, S.; Paulsrud, B.

    1994-01-01

    During the first Phase, diagnostic studies have been carried out at selected treatment plants in order to identify problems and how to improve treatment efficiency (Report 1 st. Phase). The report in hand (2nd. Phase) gives recommendations for upgrading/rehabilitation and other improvements based on full scale experiments at selected treatment plants. State Pollution Control Authority (SFT) The Royal Norwegian Ministry of Environment (MD)

  18. ORNL process waste treatment plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant removes low levels of radionuclides (primarily Cs-137 and Sr-90) from process waste water prior to discharge. The previous plant operation used a scavenging precipitaton - ion exchange process which produced a radioactive sludge. In order to eliminate the environmental problems associated with sludge disposal, the plant is being converted to a new ion exchange process without the precipitation process

  19. Medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad M. Zlatić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a review of highly developed medicinal usages of plants in the treatment of cancer. In the last decades, the cancer treatment has been included in this range of plant use, due to plant active substances. Active substances or secondary metabolites are generally known for their widespread application. When it comes to the cancer treatment, these substances affect the uncontrolled cell division. Therefore, the plants which are the source of these substances are proved to be irreplaceable in this field of medicine. This paper deals with some of the most significant plants well known for their multiple aspects of beneficial medicinal influence. The group of the plants described is comprised of the following species: Taxus brevifolia (Taxaceae, Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae, Podophyllum peltatum (Berberidaceae, Camptotheca accuminata (Cornaceae, and Cephalotaxus harringtonia (Cephalotaxaceae. The comprehensive description of the plants in this paper includes the morphological characteristics, the features and the representation of the molecular structures of active substances, the particular influence that these active substances have and the general importance of the substances as seen from the aspect of cancer treatment mostly with reference to the impacts on cell cycle.

  20. Treatment of wastewaters from manufactured gas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocheci, V.; Bogatu, C.; Radovan, C. [Technical University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    1995-12-31

    The treatment of wastewaters with high concentrations of organic compounds often represents a difficult problem. In some cases, for the destruction and removal of toxic compounds using processes like biological and chemical oxidation were proposed. Wastewaters from manufactured gas plants contain high concentrations of organic pollutants and ammonia. In this paper a technology for the treatment of these wastewaters is proposed. The experiments were realized with wastewaters from two Romanian manufactured gas plants. The process consists of the following steps: polycondensation-settling-stripping-biological treatment-electrocoagulation-electrochemical oxidation, or chemical oxidation. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. Treatment of some power plant waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konecny, C.; Vanura, P.; Franta, P.; Marhol, M.; Tejnecky, M.; Fidler, J.

    1987-01-01

    Major results are summed up obtained in 1986 in the development of techniques for the treatment of coolant in the fuel transport and storage tank, of reserve coolant in the primary circuit and of waste water from the special nuclear power plant laundries, containing new washing agent Alfa-DES. A service test of the filter filled with Czechoslovak-made cation exchanger Ostion KSN in the boric acid concentrate filter station showed that the filter can be used in some technological circuits of nuclear power plants. New decontamination agents are also listed introduced in production in Czechoslovakia for meeting the needs of nuclear power plants. (author). 6 refs

  2. Modification of water treatment plant at Heavy Water Plant (Kota)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajpati, C.R.; Shrivastava, C.S.; Shrivastava, D.C.; Shrivastava, J.; Vithal, G.K.; Bhowmick, A.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy Water Production by GS process viz. H 2 S - H 2 O bi-thermal exchange process requires a huge quantity of demineralized (DM) water as a source of deuterium. Since the deuterium recovery of GS process is only 18-19%, the water treatment plant (WTP) was designed and commissioned at Heavy Water Plant (Kota) to produce demineralized water at the rate of 680 m 3 /hr. The WTP was commissioned in 1980 and till 2005; the plant was producing DM water of required quality. It was having three streams of strong cation resin, atmospheric degasser and strong anion exchange resin with co-current regeneration. In 2001 a new concept of layered bed resin was developed and engineered for water treatment plant. The concept was attractive in terms of saving of chemicals and thus preservation of environment. Being an ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 plant, the modification of WTP was executed in 2005 during major turn around. After modification, a substantial amount of acid and alkali is saved

  3. Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3): Global dune distribution and wind pattern observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Fenton, Lori; Titus, Timothy N.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) is complete and now extends from 90°N to 90°S latitude. The recently released south pole (SP) portion (MC-30) of MGD3 adds ∼60,000 km2 of medium to large-size dark dune fields and ∼15,000 km2 of sand deposits and smaller dune fields to the previously released equatorial (EQ, ∼70,000 km2), and north pole (NP, ∼845,000 km2) portions of the database, bringing the global total to ∼975,000 km2. Nearly all NP dunes are part of large sand seas, while the majority of EQ and SP dune fields are individual dune fields located in craters. Despite the differences between Mars and Earth, their dune and dune field morphologies are strikingly similar. Bullseye dune fields, named for their concentric ring pattern, are the exception, possibly owing their distinctive appearance to winds that are unique to the crater environment. Ground-based wind directions are derived from slipface (SF) orientation and dune centroid azimuth (DCA), a measure of the relative location of a dune field inside a crater. SF and DCA often preserve evidence of different wind directions, suggesting the importance of local, topographically influenced winds. In general however, ground-based wind directions are broadly consistent with expected global patterns, such as polar easterlies. Intriguingly, between 40°S and 80°S latitude both SF and DCA preserve their strongest, though different, dominant wind direction, with transport toward the west and east for SF-derived winds and toward the north and west for DCA-derived winds.

  4. STUDY ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana DUMITRU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is more and more used as an alternative source of energy, considering the fact that it is obtained from waste materials and it can be easily used in cities and rural communities for many uses, between which, as a fuel for households. Biogas has many energy utilisations, depending on the nature of the biogas source and the local demand. Generally, biogas can be used for heat production by direct combustion, electricity production by fuel cells or micro-turbines, Combined Hest and Power generation or as vehicle fuel. In this paper we search for another uses of biogas and Anaerobe Digestion substrate, such as: waste water treatment plants and agricultural wastewater treatment, which are very important in urban and rural communities, solid waste treatment plants, industrial biogas plants, landfill gas recovery plants. These uses of biogas are very important, because the gas emissions and leaching to ground water from landfill sites are serious threats for the environment, which increase more and more bigger during the constant growth of some human communities. That is why, in the developed European countries, the sewage sludge is treated by anaerobe digestion, depending on national laws. In Romania, in the last years more efforts were destined to use anaerobe digestion for treating waste waters and management of waste in general. This paper can be placed in this trend of searching new ways of using with maximum efficiency the waste resulted in big communities.

  5. Medicinal Plants for Diabetes Treatment During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Debora Cristina; Leal-Silva, Thais; Soares, Thaigra Sousa; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Queiroz; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of great importance that affects an increasing number of people every day. In particular, diabetes is a common and important disease during pregnancy and is marked by complications, both fetal and maternal, that increase the risks of morbidity and mortality for diabetic pregnant women and their offspring. Drugs such as insulin and hypoglycemic drugs are given to treat diabetes, but regular exercise and adequate diet have also been indicated. Furthermore, coadjutant therapies such as medicinal plants are popularly used to reduce diabetes-induced hyperglycemia, either within or outside the context of pregnancy. However, studies examining plant use for diabetes treatment are necessary to confirm its possible effects and its safety for the mother and fetus. The objective of this literature review was to conduct a survey of plant species that are utilized worldwide and their stated therapeutic uses. A literature search was performed using the terms "diabetes and pregnancy", which resulted in the identification of 31,272 articles. Of these studies, only 12 (0.0038%) were related to medicinal plants, demonstrating that there has been little investigation into this issue. Of the papers analyzed in this review, half evaluated plant leaves, indicating that these scientific studies attempted to reproduce the preparations commonly used by various populations, i.e., in the form of tea. Additionally, more than 90% of studies utilized experimental animals to evaluate the maternal-fetal safety of medicinal plant substances that may potentially be dangerous for humans. Thus, once confidence levels for plant-derived substances are established based on toxicological analyses and safety is confirmed, it is possible that plants will be used to complement conventional diabetes therapies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Waste Treatment Plant LAW Evaporation: Antifoam Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAICH, MARKA

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the work performed to determine the performance and fate of several commercial antifoams during evaporation of various simulants of Envelope A, B, and C mixed with simulated River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) recycle streams. Chemical and radiation stability of selected antifoams was also investigated.Contributors to this effort include: Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), DOW Corning Analytical, and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)

  7. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF

  8. Effluent treatment plant and decontamination centre, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, has a number of plants and laboratories, which generate Radioactive Liquid Waste and Protective Wears. Two facilities have been established in late 1960s to cater to this requirement. The Centre, on the average generates about 50,000 m"3 of active liquid effluents of varying specific activities. The Effluent Treatment Plant was setup to receive and process radioactive liquids generated by various facilities of BARC in Trombay. It also serves a single-point discharge facility to enable monitoring of radioactive effluents discharged from the Trombay site. About 120-150 Te of protective wears and inactive apparel are generated annually from various radioactive facilities and laboratories of BARC. In addition, contaminated fuel assembly components are generated by DHRUVA and formerly by CIRUS. These components require decontamination before its recycle to the fuel assembly process. The Decontamination Centre, setup in late 1960s, is mandated to carry out the above mentioned decontamination activities

  9. TBP production plant effluent treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriniwas, C.; Sugilal, G.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-06-01

    TBP production facility at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher generates about 2000 litres of effluent per 200 kg batch. The effluent is basically an aqueous solution containing dissolved and dispersed organics such as dibutyl phosphate, butanol etc. The effluent has high salinity, chemical oxygen demand (30-80 g/L) and pungent odour. It requires treatment before discharge. A chemical precipitation process using ferric chloride was developed for quantitative separation of organics from the aqueous part of the effluent. This process facilitates the discharge of the aqueous effluent. Results of the laboratory and bench scale experiments on actual effluent samples are presented in this report. (author)

  10. Water treatment for 500 MWe PHWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasist, Sudheer; Sharma, M.C.; Agarwal, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    Large quantities of treated water is required for power generation. For a typical 500 MWe PHWR inland station with cooling towers, raw water at the rate of 6000 m 3 /hr is required. Impurities in cooling water give rise to the problems of corrosion, scaling, microbiological contamination, fouling, silical deposition etc. These problems lead to increased maintenance cost, reduced heat transfer efficiency, and possible production cut backs or shutdowns. The problems in coastal based power plants are more serious because of the highly corrosive nature of sea water used for cooling. An overview of the cooling water systems and water treatment method is enumerated. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig

  11. [Conversion to tapentadol PR improves analgesia and quality of life in patients with severe and chronic pain despite using tramadol > 300 mg/d].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Uwe; Waldmann-Rex, Susanne; Lehmann, Ute

    2015-06-01

    This subgroup analysis of a non-interventional study involving general practitioners and internists investigated the administration of tapentadol PR (prolonged release) in patients with widely-utilized tramadol pretreatment in routine clinical practice in Germany. Data of all patients in the study cohort who had tramadol as the only opioid in their previous therapy were included in the analysis (n = 685); among them especially the 99 patients with tramadol dosages exceeding 300 mg/d were focused. Data collection during the 3-month observation period included previous and concomitant analgesic treatment, tapentadol PR dosage, pain intensity, sleep and quality of life parameters, and tolerability of tapentadol PR. Back pain was the most common cause of pain (n = 86/99), other pain diagnoses were (partly additionally) recorded in 68 cases. A mixed type of pain dominated. The previous tramadol therapy was usually combined with non-opioids (n = 74), co-analgesics (n = 44) and analgesic rescue medication (n = 35). Tapentadol PR therapy reduced the mean initial pain intensity of 7.3 ± 1.5 to 3.1 ± 1.8 points (NRS-11, 11-point pain scale, n = 96) at the end of observation, using an average dosage of 218.7 mg/d. Tapentadol PR was finally applied as the sole analgesic in 32/95 patients. 69/96 patients achieved a clinically meaningful pain relief of at least 50 %, while 63 patients gained a pain reduction of ≥ 4 NRS-points. 89/95 patients reached or exceeded their additional individual treatment goal. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in pain-related impairments of daily activities and an improvement in quality of life with an overall good tolerability of tapentadol PR. Treatment with tapentadol PR was assessed positively by physicians and patients. Data analysis shows a clinically relevant benefit in patients unsuccessfully pretreated with tramadol by consecutive conversion to the potent analgesic tapentadol PR.

  12. An Update on Modifications to Water Treatment Plant Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water treatment plant (WTP) model is an EPA tool for informing regulatory options. WTP has a few versions: 1). WTP2.2 can help in regulatory analysis. An updated version (WTP3.0) will allow plant-specific analysis (WTP-ccam) and thus help meet plant-specific treatment objectives...

  13. Aqueous Waste Treatment Plant at Aldermaston

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keene, D.; Fowler, J.; Frier, S.

    2006-01-01

    For over half a century the Pangbourne Pipeline formed part of AWE's liquid waste management system. Since 1952 the 11.5 mile pipeline carried pre-treated wastewater from the Aldermaston site for safe dispersal in the River Thames. Such discharges were in strict compliance with the exacting conditions demanded by all regulatory authorities, latterly, those of the Environment Agency. In March 2005 AWE plc closed the Pangbourne Pipeline and ceased discharges of treated active aqueous waste to the River Thames via this route. The ability to effectively eliminate active liquid discharges to the environment is thanks to an extensive programme of waste minimization on the Aldermaston site, together with the construction of a new Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). Waste minimization measures have reduced the effluent arisings by over 70% in less than four years. The new WTP has been built using best available technology (evaporation followed by reverse osmosis) to remove trace levels of radioactivity from wastewater to exceptionally stringent standards. Active operation has confirmed early pilot scale trials, with the plant meeting throughput and decontamination performance targets, and final discharges being at or below limits of detection. The performance of the plant allows the treated waste to be discharged safely as normal industrial effluent from the AWE site. Although the project has had a challenging schedule, the project was completed on programme, to budget and with an exemplary safety record (over 280,000 hours in construction with no lost time events) largely due to a pro-active partnering approach between AWE plc and RWE NUKEM and its sub-contractors. (authors)

  14. Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural use of municipal wastewater treatment plant sewage sludge as a source of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) contamination in the environment The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EPA strategic plan. More specifically, our division conducts research to characterize the movement of pollutants from the source to contact with humans. Our multidisciplinary research program produces Methods, Measurements, and Models to identify relationships between and characterize processes that link source emissions, environmental concentrations, human exposures, and target-tissue dose. The impact of these tools is improved regulatory programs and policies for EPA.

  15. An automation model of Effluent Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Oliveira Lima Roque

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and intensification of industrial activities have increased the deterioration of natural resources. Industrial, hospital and residential wastes are dumped directly into landfills without processing, polluting soils. This action will have consequences later, because the liquid substance resulting from the putrefaction of organic material plows into the soil to reach water bodies. Cities arise without planning, industrial and household wastes are discharged into rivers, lakes and oceans without proper treatment, affecting water resources. It is well known that in the next century there will be fierce competition for fresh water on the planet, probably due to the scarcity of it. Demographic expansion has occurred without proper health planning, degrading oceans, lakes and rivers. Thus, a large percentage of world population suffers from diseases related to water pollution. Accordingly, it can be concluded that sewage treatment is essential to human survival, to preserve rivers, lakes and oceans. An Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP treats wastewater to reduce its pollution to acceptable levels before sending them to the oceans or rivers. To automate the operation of an ETP, motors, sensors and logic blocks, timers and counters are needed. These functions are achieved with programmable logic controllers (PLC and Supervisory Systems. The Ladder language is used to program controllers and is a pillar of the Automation and Control Engineering. The supervisory systems allow process information to be monitored, while the PLC are responsible for control and data acquisition. In the age we live in, process automation is used in an increasing scale in order to provide higher quality, raise productivity and improve the proposed activities. Therefore, an automatic ETP will improve performance and efficiency to handle large volumes of sewage. Considering the growing importance of environmental awareness with special emphasis

  16. Radiotracer Applications in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Wastewater containing pollutants resulting from municipal and industrial activities are normally collected in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for processing before discharge to the environment. The WWTPs are the last barrier against contamination of downstream surface waters such as rivers, lakes and sea. Treated wastewater is reused for irrigation, particularly in arid and semi-arid countries. Therefore, it is very important to maintain optimal operating conditions of WWTPs to eliminate or reduce environmental pollution. Wastewater treatment plants are complicated systems, where the processes of mixing, separation, aeration, biological and chemical reactions occur. A WWTP is basically a multiphase system, and the efficiency of an installation strongly depends on liquid, solid and gas phase flow structures and their residence time distributions (RTDs). However, the fluid dynamic properties of such systems are not yet completely understood, rendering difficult the theoretical prediction of important process parameters such as flow rates, phase distributions, mixing and sediment characteristics. Tracer techniques are very useful tools to investigate the efficiency of purification in WWTPs, aiding both their design and performance optimization. There are many kinds of tracers. Radioactive tracers are the most sensitive and are largely used for on-line diagnosis of various operations in WWTPs. The success of radiotracer applications rests upon their extremely high detection sensitivity, and the strong resistance against severe process conditions. During the last few decades, many radiotracer studies have been conducted worldwide for investigation of various installations for wastewater treatment, such as mixer, aeration tank, clarifiers, digester, filter, wetland and oxidation units. Various radiotracer methods and techniques have been developed by individual tracer groups. However, the information necessary for the preservation of knowledge and transfer of

  17. Focus on 14 sewage treatment plants in the Mpumalanga Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to identify the treatment methods used in different sewage treatment plants (STPs) in the Mpumalanga Province and to determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment by these plants, municipal STPs were surveyed, and raw and treated wastewater samples collected. A total of 14 STPs were visited and the ...

  18. Brewer, Maine Wastewater Treatment Plant Recognized for Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brewer Water Pollution Control Facility was recently honored with a 2015 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Excellence Award by the US Environmental Protection Agency's New England regional office.

  19. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gikas, Petros

    2017-12-01

    Energy requirement for wastewater treatment is of major concern, lately. This is not only due to the increasing cost of electrical energy, but also due to the effects to the carbon footprint of the treatment process. Conventional activated sludge process for municipal wastewater treatment may consume up to 60% of the total plant power requirements for the aeration of the biological tank. One way to deal with high energy demand is by eliminating aeration needs, as possible. The proposed process is based on enhanced primary solids removal, based on advanced microsieving and filtration processes, by using a proprietary rotating fabric belt MicroScreen (pore size: 100-300 μm) followed by a proprietary Continuous Backwash Upflow Media Filter or cloth media filter. About 80-90% reduction in TSS and 60-70% reduction in BOD5 has been achieved by treating raw municipal wastewater with the above process. Then the partially treated wastewater is fed to a combination low height trickling filters, combined with encapsulated denitrification, for the removal of the remaining BOD and nitrogen. The biosolids produced by the microsieve and the filtration backwash concentrate are fed to an auger press and are dewatered to about 55% solids. The biosolids are then partially thermally dried (to about 80% solids) and conveyed to a gasifier, for the co-production of thermal (which is partly used for biosolids drying) and electrical energy, through syngas combustion in a co-generation engine. Alternatively, biosolids may undergo anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas and then electric energy. The energy requirements for complete wastewater treatment, per volume of inlet raw wastewater, have been calculated to 0.057 kWh/m 3 , (or 0.087 kWh/m 3 , if UV disinfection has been selected), which is about 85% below the electric energy needs of conventional activated sludge process. The potential for net electric energy production through gasification/co-generation, per volume of

  20. Anaerobic bacteria in wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyprowski, Marcin; Stobnicka-Kupiec, Agata; Ławniczek-Wałczyk, Anna; Bakal-Kijek, Aleksandra; Gołofit-Szymczak, Małgorzata; Górny, Rafał L

    2018-03-28

    The objective of this study was to assess exposure to anaerobic bacteria released into air from sewage and sludge at workplaces from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Samples of both sewage and sludge were collected at six sampling points and bioaerosol samples were additionally collected (with the use of a 6-stage Andersen impactor) at ten workplaces covering different stages of the technological process. Qualitative identification of all isolated strains was performed using the biochemical API 20A test. Additionally, the determination of Clostridium pathogens was carried out using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The average concentration of anaerobic bacteria in the sewage samples was 5.49 × 10 4 CFU/mL (GSD = 85.4) and in sludge-1.42 × 10 6 CFU/g (GSD = 5.1). In turn, the average airborne bacterial concentration was at the level of 50 CFU/m 3 (GSD = 5.83) and the highest bacterial contamination (4.06 × 10 3  CFU/m 3 ) was found in winter at the bar screens. In total, 16 bacterial species were determined, from which the predominant strains belonged to Actinomyces, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Propionibacterium and Peptostreptococcus genera. The analysis revealed that mechanical treatment processes were responsible for a substantial emission of anaerobic bacteria into the air. In both the sewage and air samples, Clostridium perfringens pathogen was identified. Anaerobic bacteria were widely present both in the sewage and in the air at workplaces from the WWTP, especially when the technological process was performed in closed spaces. Anaerobic bacteria formed small aggregates with both wastewater droplets and dust particles of sewage sludge origin and as such may be responsible for adverse health outcomes in exposed workers.

  1. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wastewater Treatment Plant Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, Justin M.

    2016-10-16

    Feedstock cost is the greatest barrier to the commercial production of biofuels. The merits of any thermochemical or biological conversion process are constrained by their applicability to the lowest cost feedstocks. At PNNL, a recent resource assessment of wet waste feedstocks led to the identification of waste water treatment plant (WWTP) solids as a cost-negative source of biomass. WWTP solids disposal is a growing environmental concern [1, 2] and can account for up to half of WWTP operating costs. The high moisture content is well-suited for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), avoiding the costs and parasitic energy losses associated with drying the feedstock for incineration. The yield and quality of biocrude and upgraded biocrude from WWTP solids is comparable to that obtained from algae feedstocks but the feedstock cost is $500-1200 less per dry ton. A collaborative project was initiated and directed by the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WERF) and included feedstock identification, dewatering, shipping to PNNL, conversion to biocrude by HTL, and catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous byproduct. Additional testing at PNNL included biocrude upgrading by catalytic hydrotreatment, characterization of the hydrotreated product, and a preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) based on empirical results. This short article will cover HTL conversion and biocrude upgrading. The WERF project report with complete HTL results is now available through the WERF website [3]. The preliminary TEA is available as a PNNL report [4].

  2. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... and NH4; therefore it is classified as a strong waste. ... Key words: Wastewater, treatment plants, water reuse, wastewater characteristics, wastewater treatment,. Jordan. ..... MSc. thesis, university of Jordan. Bataineh F, Najjar ...

  3. NPDES Permit for Crow Nation Water Treatment Plants in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030538, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs is authorized to discharge from the Crow Agency water treatment plants via the wastewater treatment facility located in Bighorn County, Montana to the Little Bighorn River.

  4. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study deals with socio-economic documentation of medicinal plant species against jaundice and hepatitis. A total of 30 plant species belonging to 24 families were reported by local practitioners for the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis. The most important plant species are Adiantum capillus, Boerhaavia ...

  5. Medicinal plants indications from herbal healers for wound treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Willianne Alves do Nascimento; Regina Célia Sales Santos Veríssimo; Maria Lysete de Assis Bastos; Thaís Honório Lins Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to identify medicinal plants indicated by commercial herbal healers for wound treatment, in street markets. A descriptive study conducted in a capital city in the northeast of Brazil, through interviews. The results indicate that plant commerce by healers of both genders, aged between 37 to 52 years, from those 69.3% learned about their function with family members. Forty-eight plant species were cited for wound treatment, between those, all participants cited Barbatimão and...

  6. OPERATION OF THE HOUSEHOLD SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Pryszcz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In many rural communities the building of sewage collection and treatment system is still current and important problem of water and wastewater management. Besides the collection of sewage in the septic tank, the solution for wastewater treatment from individual buildings without access to sewerage system is the construction of household sewage treatment plants. Construction of household sewage treatment plant poses a number of challenges for municipalities and potential investors. The existing plants should be analyzed, so that in the future the selected systems would be characterized by high performance, simple operation and reliable exploitation. In the paper, the assessment of selection criteria of adopted technical solution and the functioning of household sewage treatment plants is carried out.

  7. Microbial Communities in Danish Wastewater Treatment Plants with Nutrient Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz

    Activated sludge treatment plants are the most used wastewater treatment systems worldwide for biological nutrient removal from wastewater. Nevertheless, the treatment systems have been for many years operated as so called “black-box”, where specific process parameters were adjusted without...... that plants with return sludge Side-Stream Hydrolysis (SSH) instead of the normal anaerobic process tank tended to have significantly fewer unwanted GAOs in contrast to many plants with traditional mainstream anaerobic tank and thus it was proposed that this system might be an effective strategy of control...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1581 - Does the subpart distinguish between different types of POTW treatment plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... different types of POTW treatment plants? 63.1581 Section 63.1581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... treatment plants? Yes, POTW treatment plants are divided into two subcategories. A POTW treatment plant which does not meet the characteristics of an industrial POTW treatment plant belongs in the non...

  9. A systematic methodology for controller tuning in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Jørgensen, S.B.; Sin, G.

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are typically subject to continuous disturbances caused by influent variations which exhibits diurnal patterns as well as stochastic changes due to rain and storm water events. In order to achieve an efficient operation, the control system of the plant should be able t...

  10. Benchmarking of Control Strategies for Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastewater treatment plants are large non-linear systems subject to large perturbations in wastewater flow rate, load and composition. Nevertheless these plants have to be operated continuously, meeting stricter and stricter regulations. Many control strategies have been proposed in the literature...

  11. Use of robotics in a Radwaste treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeks, C.W.E.

    1991-01-01

    A 762 Unimate Puma, clean room standard Robot has been installed and commissioned in the Radwaste Treatment Plant at the Winfrith Technology Centre. The robot interacts with a variety of purpose designed tools and proprietary welding equipment. It performs 13 dedicated tasks in the final closure and health physics operations, before the 500 litre waste drum is despatched from the plant. (author)

  12. Radioactive waste treatment technology at Czech nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulovany, J.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation describes the main technologies for the treatment and conditioning of radioactive wastes at Czech nuclear power plants. The main technologies are bituminisation for liquid radioactive wastes and supercompaction for solid radioactive wastes. (author)

  13. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... while the available sources of water are limited and de-. *Corresponding author. ... 186223 m3/d inflow to Asamra wastewater treatment plant. (ASTP) (Bataineh et al., ..... MSc. thesis, university of Jordan. Bataineh F, Najjar M, ...

  14. Ethnobiological survey of plants and animals used for the treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnobiological survey of plants and animals used for the treatment of acute respiratory ... African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... Methods: It is a descriptive exploratory study with a quantitative approach, ...

  15. Wastewater Treatment Plants, North America, 2010, Dun and Bradstreet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — D&B 20101220 Wastewater Treatment Plants Points for the United States, including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands, Canada, and Mexico, Released Quarterly...

  16. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent effects on fish reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds that can affect hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined t...

  17. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS), EPA's Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)...

  18. Sludge quantification at water treatment plant and its management scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tarique; Ahmad, Kafeel; Alam, Mehtab

    2017-08-15

    Large volume of sludge is generated at the water treatment plants during the purification of surface water for potable supplies. Handling and disposal of sludge require careful attention from civic bodies, plant operators, and environmentalists. Quantification of the sludge produced at the treatment plants is important to develop suitable management strategies for its economical and environment friendly disposal. Present study deals with the quantification of sludge using empirical relation between turbidity, suspended solids, and coagulant dosing. Seasonal variation has significant effect on the raw water quality received at the water treatment plants so forth sludge generation also varies. Yearly production of the sludge in a water treatment plant at Ghaziabad, India, is estimated to be 29,700 ton. Sustainable disposal of such a quantity of sludge is a challenging task under stringent environmental legislation. Several beneficial reuses of sludge in civil engineering and constructional work have been identified globally such as raw material in manufacturing cement, bricks, and artificial aggregates, as cementitious material, and sand substitute in preparing concrete and mortar. About 54 to 60% sand, 24 to 28% silt, and 16% clay constitute the sludge generated at the water treatment plant under investigation. Characteristics of the sludge are found suitable for its potential utilization as locally available construction material for safe disposal. An overview of the sustainable management scenario involving beneficial reuses of the sludge has also been presented.

  19. Stimulation treatments of large-seed leguminous plants Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Istvan; Borbely, Ferenc; Nagy, Janos; Dezsi, Zoltan

    1983-01-01

    The effect of low dose X-ray irradiation on the sprouting and initial growth of some leguminous plants was studied. After having the seeds of peas, beans, lupines and horse beans irradiated, the sprouting rate, the amount of sprouting plants, the length of the roots, the sprouts and the sprouting plants, the electrolyte conductivity and the water uptake were determined. The height and the amount of the plants were measured after a period of 6 weeks. According to the sprout-length values, an increased variation in the plant features can be observed as a result of irradiation treatment: both stimulation and inhibition of plant growth occured, depending on the variety of the leguminosae. The indices of sprouting and initial growth agree well with each other. (V.N.)

  20. influence of treatment of seed potato tubers with plant crude

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    essential oil extracts, on the growth and yield of the potato crop. Treatments consisted of .... Seed potato tuber treatment with plant crude essential oil extracts. 297 were pipetted on to ..... and clove essential oils on sprout suppression in potato ...

  1. Conceptual project of waste treatment plant of CDTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, J.L.; Astolfi, D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptual project of the waste treatment plant of CDTN. Several areas, such as: process area, material entrance and exit area are studied. The treatment processes are: evaporation, filtration, cementation, cutting and processing of solid wastes. (C.M.)

  2. Adaptive model based control for wastewater treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Niet, Arie; van de Vrugt, Noëlle Maria; Korving, Hans; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Savic, D.A.; Kapelan, Z.; Butler, D.

    2011-01-01

    In biological wastewater treatment, nitrogen and phosphorous are removed by activated sludge. The process requires oxygen input via aeration of the activated sludge tank. Aeration is responsible for about 60% of the energy consumption of a treatment plant. Hence optimization of aeration can

  3. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, G.I.M.; Mesman, G.A.M.; Van Schagen, K.M.; Borger, K.J.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand

  4. Electron beam treatment plant for textile dyeing wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m 3 of textile dyeing wastewater per day with electron beam has constructed and operated continuously in Daegu, Korea since 1998. This plant is combined with biological treatment system and it shows the reduction of chemical reagent consumption, and also the reduction in retention time with the increase in removal efficiencies of COD Cr and BOD 5 up to 30∼40%. Increase in biodegradability after radiation treatment of aqueous-organic systems is due to radiolytical conversions of non-biodegradable compounds. On the basis of data obtained from pilot plant operation, construction of actual industrial scale plant has started in 2003, and will be finished by 2005. This plant is located on the area of existing wastewater treatment facility (Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex) and to have treatment capacity 10,000 m 3 of wastewater per day using one 1 MeV, 400 kW accelerator, and combined with existing bio- treatment facility. The overall construction cost and the operation cost in the radiation processing, when compared to other conventional and advanced oxidation techniques, are more cost-effective and convenient for wastewater treatment. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government. (author)

  5. Wastewater treatment modelling in practice: a collaborative discussion of the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, H M; Sahlstedt, K E; Frank, K; Bratby, J; Brennan, W; Rogowski, S; Pier, D; Anderson, W; Mulas, M; Copp, J B; Shirodkar, N

    2009-01-01

    Three consulting teams conducted independent modelling projects for three different wastewater treatment plants ranging in size from approximately 113,800 m(3)/d (30 mgd) to 530,000 m(3)/d (140 mgd), in different parts of the world (USA and Finland). The plants have different treatment objectives ranging from nitrification and partial denitrification (nitrate plus nitrite BioWin), and a variation of the Dold model methanol degradation capabilities (NGmeth within GPS-X). The authors compare and contrast the modelling approaches taken, including calibration and validation approaches, sensitivity analyses, and the application of results to full-scale studies, designs and operations. Despite several differences between the approaches, there are many similarities which are discussed in light of the IWA draft uniform protocol for activated sludge modelling. The authors also discuss current modelling limitations and offer suggestions to improve the state of the art.

  6. Wastewater sludge treatment at selected wastewater treatment plants of the region Banska Bystrica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samesova, D.; Mitterpach, J.; Martinkova, A.

    2014-01-01

    The management of sewage sludges in water treatment plants of Banska Bystrica region. The paper deals with the problems of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants, its origin and possibilities how to use it in accordance with the current legislation of the Slovak Republic. We described radioactive pollution of sewage sludges. The paper consists of review of sludge production and its usage in the Slovak Republic and in selected states of the European Union. The paper deals with the sludge treatment in selected wastewater treatment plants in Banska Bystrica region in the context of biogas production and its usage by the help of the electricity and heat production. (authors)

  7. Applicability of the Electrodynamic Approximation in the Theory of Liquid-Metal, Induction MHD Converters; O primenimosti ehlektrodinamicheskogo priblizheniya v teorii zhidkometallicheskikh induktsionnykh mgd preobrazovatelej ehnergii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lielpeter, Ja. Ja. [Institut Fiziki AN Latvijskoj SSSR Riga, SSSR (Latvia)

    1966-11-15

    The paper deals with the present status of theoretical work on this problem and describes the results of a number of new experiments designed, to clarify the theory of MHD phenomena. The possibilities of using the electrodynamic approximation are discussed. Induction MHD machines with constant channel cross-section in the working zone are considered. (author) [Russian] Daetsja harakteristika sostojanija teorii voprosa, opisyvajutsja rezul'taty nekotoryh novyh jeksperimentov, postavlennyh s cel'ju utochnenija teorii MGD javlenij i obsuzhdajutsja vozmozhnosti ispol'zovanija jelektrodinamicheskogo priblizhenija. Rassmatrivajutsja indukcionnye MGD mashiny s postojannym po dline secheniem kanala v rabochej zone. (author)

  8. Waste water treatment plant city of Kraljevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinović Dragan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In all countries, in the fight for the preservation of environmental protection, water pollution, waste water is one of the very serious and complex environmental problems. Waste waters pollute rivers, lakes, sea and ground water and promote the development of micro-organisms that consume oxygen, which leads to the death of fish and the occurrence of pathogenic microbes. Water pollution and determination of its numerous microbiological contamination, physical agents and various chemical substances, is becoming an increasing health and general social problem. Purification of industrial and municipal waste water before discharge into waterways is of great importance for the contamination of the water ecosystems and the protection of human health. To present the results of purification of industrial and municipal wastewater in the city center Kraljevo system for wastewater treatment. The investigated physical and chemical parameters were performed before and after the city's system for wastewater treatment. The results indicate that the effect of purification present the physical and chemical parameters in waste water ranges from 0 - 19%.

  9. Region 9 NPDES Facilities 2012- Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  10. Region 9 NPDES Facilities - Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA permit program that regulates direct discharges from facilities that discharge treated waste water into waters of the US. Facilities are issued NPDES permits regulating their discharge as required by the Clean Water Act. A facility may have one or more outfalls (dischargers). The location represents the facility or operating plant.

  11. Method for treatment of wastewater of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Katsumi; Suzuki, Mamoru; Minato, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    A method for treatment of wastewater of nuclear power plants is characterized by the fact that concentration and volume reduction are performed after Ca and Mg as components for the formation of an adhering scale is converted to an 8-oxyquinoline complex, which is hardly soluble in water, and does not precipitate out as an adhering scale, by the addition of 8-oxyquinoline into nuclear power plant wastewater

  12. Plant-integrated measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from a municipal wastewater treatment plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    experiencing operational problems, such as during foaming events in anaerobic digesters and during sub-optimal operation of biological nitrogen removal in the secondary treatment of wastewater. Methane emissions detected during measurement campaigns corresponded to 2.07-32.7% of the methane generated......Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contribute to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Due to its spatial and temporal variation in emissions, whole plant characterization of GHG emissions from WWTPs face a number of obstacles. In this study, a tracer dispersion method was applied...... in the plant. As high as 4.27% of nitrogen entering the WWTP was emitted as nitrous oxide under the sub-optimal operation of biological treatment processes. The study shows that the unit process configuration, as well as the operation of the WWTP, determines the rate of GHG emission. The applied plant...

  13. Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Rietveld

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand filtration and cascade and tower aeration. Using this treatment step library, a hydraulic model was set up, calibrated and validated for the drinking water treatment plant Harderbroek. With the actual valve position and pump speeds, the flows were calculated through the several treatment steps. A case shows the use of the model to calculate the new setpoints for the current frequency converters of the effluent pumps during a filter backwash.

  14. Medicinal plants indications from herbal healers for wound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Willianne Alves do Nascimento

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify medicinal plants indicated by commercial herbal healers for wound treatment, in street markets. A descriptive study conducted in a capital city in the northeast of Brazil, through interviews. The results indicate that plant commerce by healers of both genders, aged between 37 to 52 years, from those 69.3% learned about their function with family members. Forty-eight plant species were cited for wound treatment, between those, all participants cited Barbatimão and Mastic. From the plants Sambacaitá, Open Nettle, Yellow Uchi, Corona, Xiquexique, Senna and Pindaíba no properties to prove their indication was found for wound treatment. The stem bark was the most indicated part (96.15%, 81.03% of participants informed that plants should be kept dry for conservation. Studies to clarify the biological activities and collateral effects of medicinal plants are needed, beyond training for healers about indications, prepare, storage/conservation, and expiration date.

  15. Nuclear power plant laundry drain treatment using membrane bio reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Masaaki; Kohanawa, Osamu; Kinugasa, Atsushi; Ogawa, Naoki; Murogaki, Kenta

    2012-01-01

    In nuclear power plant, the radioactive effluent generated by washing the clothes worn in controlled area and the hand and shower water used at the controlled area are treated in laundry drain treatment system. Although various systems which treat such liquid waste preexist, the traditional treatment system has disadvantages such as high running cost and a large amount of secondary waste generation. To solve these matters, we have considered application of an activated sludge system, membrane bio reactor, which has been practically used in general industry. For nuclear power plant, the activated sludge system has been developed, tested in its adaptability and the adequacy has been proved. Some preexisting treatment systems have been replaced with this activated sludge system for the first time in a domestic nuclear power plant, and the renewal system is now in operation. The result is reported. (author)

  16. Optimal design of regional wastewater pipelines and treatment plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Noam; Ostfeld, Avi

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript describes the application of a genetic algorithm model for the optimal design of regional wastewater systems comprised of transmission gravitational and pumping sewer pipelines, decentralized treatment plants, and end users of reclaimed wastewater. The algorithm seeks the diameter size of the designed pipelines and their flow distribution simultaneously, the number of treatment plants and their size and location, the pump power, and the required excavation work. The model capabilities are demonstrated through a simplified example application using base runs and sensitivity analyses. Scaling of the proposed methodology to real life wastewater collection and treatment plants design problems needs further testing and developments. The model is coded in MATLAB using the GATOOL toolbox and is available from the authors.

  17. Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman; Manthiri, Rajamohamed Abbas; Abdo, Nasreddien; Al-Duaiji, Fawzi Abdullah; Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Scorpion sting envenoming poses major public health problems. The treatment modalities include antivenoms, chemical antidotes and phytotherapy, with varying degrees of effectiveness and side effects. In this investigation, we reviewed the use of Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. The relevant literature was collected using the online search engines including Science Direct, Google and PubMed with the help of specific keywords. We also used the printed and online resources at our institutional library to gather the relevant information on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. A descriptive statistics was used for data compilation and presentation. The results of this survey showed the use of at least 92 medicinal plants with beneficial effects for treating victims of stings of different scorpion species. These commonly used herbs spanned to 37 families whilst different parts of these plants were employed therapeutically for alleviation of envenomation symptoms. The application of leaves (41%) was preferred followed by roots (19%), whole plant (14%) and seeds (9%). The use of latex (4%), stem (3%), flowers (3%) and bark (3%) was also reported. In some cases, tannin (2%), rhizome (1%) and shoot (1%) were also used. In conclusion, herbal medicines are effectively used for the treatment of patients with scorpion envenomation. This type of medication is free from side effects as observed with chemical antidotes or antivenom therapy. It is important to identify the active ingredients of herbal drugs for improving their therapeutic potential in traditional medicine.

  18. Condensate treatment and oxygen control in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Toshiaki; Iida, Kei; Ohashi, Shinichi.

    1997-01-01

    In thermal and nuclear power stations, the steam that operated turbines is cooled and condensed with condensers. The condensate is heated again with boilers, nuclear reactors or steam generators, but if corrosion products or impurities are contained in the condensate, corrosion and scale formation occur in boilers and others. The filtration facility and the desalting facility for condensate are installed to remove impurities, but water quality control is different in thermal, BWR and PWR plants, therefore, the treatment facilities corresponding to respective condensates have been adopted. In order to reduce the amount of clud generation, the treatment of injecting a small quantity of oxygen into condensate has been adopted. In thermal power plants, all volatile treatment is carried out, in which corrosion is prevented by the addition of ammonia and hydrazine to boiler feedwater. The condensate filters of various types and the NH 4 type condensate desalter for thermal power plants are described. In BWR power plants, steam is generated in nuclear reactors, therefore, the addition of chemicals into water is never carried out, and high purity neutral water is used. In PWR power plants, the addition of chemicals to water is done in the primary system, and AVT is adopted in the secondary system. Also the condensate treatment facilities are different for both reactors. (K.I.)

  19. Modification of Wastewater Treatment Technology at Cottonseed Oil Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshabab Mary Shick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewaters from cottonseed oil producing plant in Syria were studied in laboratory experiments. Aim of the study was to suggest modification of wastewater treatment technology in order to increase its efficiency. Concentration of pollutants in wastewaters was controlled by measurement of COD. According to the results of experiments it was suggested to decrease significantly (8-20 times dosages of reagents (acidifier, coagulant, flocculant in several actual stages of treatment (acidification, separation, coagulation and sedimentation and add stage of dispersed air flotation before coagulation treatment. The modified wastewater treatment technology would reduce COD to the values allowed for irrigation waters by Syrian National Standard.

  20. 40 CFR 63.1585 - How does an industrial POTW treatment plant demonstrate compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Works Industrial Potw Treatment Plant Description and Requirements § 63.1585 How does an industrial POTW treatment plant demonstrate compliance? (a) An existing industrial POTW treatment plant demonstrates... §§ 63.1586 through 63.1590. Non-industrial POTW Treatment Plant Requirements ...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1582 - What are the characteristics of an industrial POTW treatment plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... industrial POTW treatment plant? 63.1582 Section 63.1582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Works Industrial Potw Treatment Plant Description and Requirements § 63.1582 What are the characteristics of an industrial POTW treatment plant? (a) Your POTW is an industrial POTW treatment plant if an...

  2. Planning of emergency medical treatment in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1989-01-01

    Medical staffs and health physicists have shown deep concerning at the emergency plans of nuclear power plants after the TMI nuclear accident. The most important and basic countermeasure for accidents was preparing appropriate and concrete organization and plans for treatment. We have planed emergency medical treatment for radiation workers in a nuclear power plant institute. The emergency medical treatment at institute consisted of two stages, that is on-site emergency treatment at facility medical service. In first step of planning in each stage, we selected and treatment at facility medical service. In first step of planning in each stage, we selected and analyzed all possible accidents in the institute and discussed on practical treatments for some possible accidents. The manuals of concrete procedure of emergency treatment for some accidents were prepared following discussion and facilities and equipment for medical treatment and decontamination were provided. All workers in the institute had periodical training and drilling of on-site emergency treatment and mastered technique of first aid. Decontamination and operation rooms were provided in the facillity medical service. The main functions at the facility medical service have been carried out by industrial nurses. Industrial nurses have been in close co-operation with radiation safety officers and medical doctors in regional hospital. (author)

  3. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic scar is a complication of wound healing and has a high recurrence rate which can lead to significant abnormity in aesthetics and functions. To date, no ideal treatment method has been established. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of hypertrophic scarring has not been clearly defined. Although a large amount of scientific research has been reported on the use of medicinal plants as a natural source of treatment for hypertrophic scarring, it is currently scattered across a wide range of publications. Therefore, a systematic summary and knowledge for future prospects are necessary to facilitate further medicinal plant research for their potential use as antihypertrophic scar agents. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by focusing on medicinal plants which have been scientifically tested in vitro and/or in vivo and proved as potential agents for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Although the chemical components and mechanisms of action of medicinal plants with antihypertrophic scarring potential have been investigated, many others remain unknown. More investigations and clinical trials are necessary to make use of these medical plants reasonably and phytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach against hypertrophic scars.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Daugavgriva Waste Water Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Romagnoli, F; Fraga Sampaio, F; Blumberga, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the assessment of the environmental impacts caused by the treatment of Riga’s waste water in the Daugavgriva plant with biogas energy cogeneration through the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA seems to be a good tool to assess and evaluate the most serious environmental impacts of a facility The results showed clearly that the impact category contributing the most to the total impact –eutrophicationcomes from the wastewater treatment stage. Cl...

  5. Effluent treatment plant for pharmaceutical unit at Bahipheru - case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, A.

    1997-01-01

    This project has been awarded to environ (Pvt) Ltd., on turnkey basis, and is an integrated waste treatment facility for pharmaceuticals companies, manufacturing paracetamole, aspirin and various pharmaceuticals intermediates, from phenol as basic raw material. A highly toxic waste water, containing high concentrations of phenolics and sulfate ions is generated at this plant and has to be treatment before final disposal into an irrigation channel. (author)

  6. Cost effective water treatment program in Heavy Water Plant (Manuguru)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, C.; Prasada Rao, G.

    2002-01-01

    Water treatment technology is in a state of continuous evolution. The increasing urgency to conserve water and reduce pollution has in recent years produced an enormous demand for new chemical treatment programs and technologies. Heavy water plant (Manuguru) uses water as raw material (about 3000 m 3 /hr) and its treatment and management has benefited the plant in a significant way. It is a fact that if the water treatment is not proper, it can result in deposit formation and corrosion of metals, which can finally leads to production losses. Therefore, before selecting treatment program, complying w.r.t. quality requirements, safety and pollution aspects cost effectiveness shall be examined. The areas where significant benefits are derived, are raw water treatment using polyelectrolyte instead of inorganic coagulant (alum), change over of regenerant of cation exchangers from hydrochloric acid to sulfuric acid and in-house development of cooling water treatment formulation. The advantages and cost effectiveness of these treatments are discussed in detail. Further these treatments has helped the plant in achieving zero discharge and indirectly increased cost reduction of final product (heavy water); the dosage of 3 ppm of polyelectrolyte can replace 90 ppm alum at turbidity level of 300 NTU of raw water which has resulted in cost saving of Rs. 15-20 lakhs in a year beside other advantages; the change over of regenerant from HCl to H 2 SO 4 will result in cost saving of at least Rs.1.4 crore a year besides other advantages; the change over to proprietary formulation to in-house formulation in cooling water treatment has resulted in a saving about Rs.11 lakhs a year. To achieve the above objectives in a sustainable way the performance results are being monitored. (author)

  7. TU-F-18C-05: Evaluation of a Method to Calculate Patient-Oriented MGD Coefficients Using Estimates of Glandular Tissue Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras-Chaverri, M; Galavis, P; Bakic, P; Vetter, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate mammographic mean glandular dose (MGD) coefficients for particular known tissue distributions using a novel formalism that incorporates the effect of the heterogeneous glandular tissue distribution, by comparing them with MGD coefficients derived from the corresponding anthropomorphic computer breast phantom. Methods: MGD coefficients were obtained using MCNP5 simulations with the currently used homogeneous assumption and the heterogeneously-layered breast (HLB) geometry and compared against those from the computer phantom (ground truth). The tissue distribution for the HLB geometry was estimated using glandularity map image pairs corrected for the presence of non-glandular fibrous tissue. Heterogeneity of tissue distribution was quantified using the glandular tissue distribution index, Idist. The phantom had 5 cm compressed breast thickness (MLO and CC views) and 29% whole breast glandular percentage. Results: Differences as high as 116% were found between the MGD coefficients with the homogeneous breast core assumption and those from the corresponding ground truth. Higher differences were found for cases with more heterogeneous distribution of glandular tissue. The Idist for all cases was in the [−0.8 − +0.3] range. The use of the methods presented in this work results in better agreement with ground truth with an improvement as high as 105 pp. The decrease in difference across all phantom cases was in the [9 − 105] pp range, dependent on the distribution of glandular tissue and was larger for the cases with the highest Idist values. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the use of corrected glandularity image pairs, as well as the HLB geometry, improves the estimates of MGD conversion coefficients by accounting for the distribution of glandular tissue within the breast. The accuracy of this approach with respect to ground truth is highly dependent on the particular glandular tissue distribution studied. Predrag Bakic discloses current

  8. Industrial plant for electron beam flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Iller, E.; Tyminnski, B.; Zimek, Z; Ostapczuk, A.; Licki, J.

    2001-01-01

    The electron beam flue gas treatment technology was invented many years ago. Research on the process has been carried out in Japan, USA, Germany and Poland. However, the recent fidings, based on the experiments performed at pilot plant at Electric Power Station Kaweczyn, led to developments which made process mature just at the dawn of the XXI century. The process is being implemented in the full industrial scale at Electric Power Station Pomorzany (Dolna Odra EPS Group). Other developments are reported in Japan and after Nagoya's pilot plant experiments, an industrial plant has been built in China and another one is constructed in Japan. There are remarkable differences in technological and design solutions applied in all these installations. Developments achieved at EPS Kaweczyn pilot plant and INCT laboratory unit were the basis for the project realized at EPS Pomorzan

  9. Basic user guide for the radwaste treatment plant computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.

    1990-07-01

    This guide has been produced as an aid to using the Radwaste Treatment Plant computer system. It is designed to help new users to use the database menu system. Some of the forms can be used in ways different from those explained and more complex queries can be performed. (UK)

  10. Conflicts concerning sites for waste treatment and waste disposal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werbeck, N.

    1993-01-01

    The erection of waste treatment and waste disposal flants increasingly meets with the disapproval of local residents. This is due to three factors: Firstly, the erection and operation of waste treatment plants is assumed to necessarily entail harmful effects and risks, which may be true or may not. Secondly, these disadvantages are in part considered to be non-compensable. Thirdly, waste treatment plants have a large catchment area, which means that more people enjoy their benefits than have to suffer their disadvantages. If residents in the vicinity of such plants are not compensated for damage sustained or harmed in ways that cannot be compensated for it becomes a rational stance for them, while not objecting to waste treatment and waste disposal plants in principle to object to their being in their own neighbourhood. The book comprehensively describes the subject area from an economic angle. The causes are analysed in detail and an action strategy is pointed, out, which can help to reduce acceptance problems. The individual chapters deal with emissions, risk potentials, optimization calculus considering individual firms or persons and groups of two or more firms or persons, private-economy approaches for the solving of site selection conflicts, collective decision-making. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Modeling of water treatment plant using timed continuous Petri nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Fuady Adhalia, H.; Subiono, Adzkiya, Dieky

    2017-08-01

    Petri nets represent graphically certain conditions and rules. In this paper, we construct a model of the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) using timed continuous Petri nets. Specifically, we consider that (1) the water pump always active and (2) the water source is always available. After obtaining the model, the flow through the transitions and token conservation laws are calculated.

  12. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants, Manual of Practice No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Orrie E.; And Others

    This book is intended to be a reference or textbook on the operation of wastewater treatment plants. The book contains thirty-one chapters and three appendices and includes the description, requirements, and latest techniques of conventional unit process operation, as well as the symptoms and corrective measures regarding process problems. Process…

  13. Treatment of anxiety and depression: medicinal plants in retrospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajemiroye, James O; da Silva, Dayane M; de Oliveira, Danillo R; Costa, Elson A

    2016-06-01

    Anxiety and depression are complex heterogeneous psychiatric disorders and leading causes of disability worldwide. This review summarizes reports on the fundamentals, prevalence, diagnosis, neurobiology, advancement in treatment of these diseases and preclinical assessment of botanicals. This review was conducted through bibliographic investigation of scientific journals, books, electronic sources, unpublished theses and electronic medium such as ScienceDirect and PubMed. A number of the first-line drugs (benzodiazepine, azapirone, antidepressant tricyclics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors, noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, etc.) for the treatment of these psychiatric disorders are products of serendipitous discoveries. Inspite of the numerous classes of drugs that are available for the treatment of anxiety and depression, full remission has remained elusive. The emerging clinical cases have shown increasing interests among health practitioners and patients in phytomedicine. The development of anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs of plant origin takes advantage of multidisciplinary approach including but not limited to ethnopharmacological survey (careful investigation of folkloric application of medicinal plant), phytochemical and pharmacological studies. The selection of a suitable plant for a pharmacological study is a basic and very important step. Relevant clues to achieving this step include traditional use, chemical composition, toxicity, randomized selection or a combination of several criteria. Medicinal plants have been and continue to be a rich source of biomolecule with therapeutic values for the treatment of anxiety and depression. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  14. Guidelines to Career Development for Wastewater Treatment Plant Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Education and Manpower Planning.

    The guidelines were written to promote job growth and improvement in the personnel who manage, operate, and maintain wastewater treatment plants. Trained operators and technicians are the key components in any water pollution control facility. The approach is to move from employment to training through specific modules for 21 standard job…

  15. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Home Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater treatment plant operators to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. The objective of this manual is to provide the knowledge and skills necessary for certification. Participants learn the basic operational aspects of treatment…

  16. Benchmarking Biological Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant...

  17. Plant-wide Control Strategy for Improving Produced Water Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on investigation and development of an innovative Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technology for offshore oil & gas production by employing the model-based plant-wide control strategy. The key contributions lie in two folds: (i) the advanced anti-slug analysis and control...

  18. Performance of wastewater treatment plants in Jordan and suitability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an increasing trend to require more efficient use of water resources, both in urban and rural environments. In Jordan, the increase in water demand, in addition to water shortage has led to growing interest in wastewater reuse. In this work, characteristics of wastewater for four wastewater treatment plants were ...

  19. Methodology for Plantwide Design and Optimization of Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maria Dragan, Johanna; Zubov, Alexandr; Sin, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    Design of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is a complex engineering task which requires integration of knowledge and experience from environmental biotechnology, process engineering, process synthesis and design as well as mathematical programming. A methodology has been formulated and applied...... for the systematic analysis and development of plantwide design of WWTPs using mathematical optimization and statistical methods such as sensitivity and uncertainty analyses....

  20. Ethnobotanical survey of plants used for the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constipation is the commonest gastrointestinal complaint in most developed and poor countries including South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used by herbalists, traditional healers and rural dwellers for the treatment of constipation was conducted in the Nkonkobe Municipality, Eastern Cape Province of South ...

  1. Infrequent use of medicinal plants from India in snakebite treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manali Sughosh Upasani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Snakes have fascinated humankind for millennia. Snakebites are a serious medical, social, and economic problem that are experienced worldwide; however, they are most serious in tropical and subtropical countries. The reasons for this are 1 the presence of more species of the most dangerous snakes, 2 the inaccessibility of immediate medical treatment, and 3 poor health care. The goal of this study was to collect information concerning rare, less utilized, and less studied medicinal plants. More than 100 plants were found to have potential to be utilized as anti-snake venom across India. Data accumulated from a variety of literature sources revealed useful plant families, the parts of plants used, and how to utilize them. In India, there are over 520 plant species, belonging to approximately 122 families, which could be useful in the management of snakebites. This study was conducted to encourage researchers to create herbal antidotes, which will counteract snake venom. These may prove to be an inexpensive and easily assessable alternative, which would be of immense importance to society. Plants from families such as Acanthaceae, Arecaceae, Apocynaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Rubiaceae, and Zingiberaceae are the most useful. In India, experts of folklore are using herbs either single or in combination with others. Keywords: Appraise traditional medicinal plants, Ethnomedicine, India, Snake antivenom

  2. Water Treatment Pilot Plant Design Manual: Low Flow Conventional/Direct Filtration Water Treatment Plant for Drinking Water Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual highlights the project constraints and concerns, and includes detailed design calculations and system schematics. The plant is based on engineering design principles and practices, previous pilot plant design experiences, and professional experiences and may serve as ...

  3. Economics of wastewater treatment in GTL plant using spray technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enyi, G.C.; Nasr, G.G.; Burby, M. [University of Salford, Manchester, M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    In a Gas-to-liquid (GTL) plant, significant quantities of CO2 and reaction water are produced and various chemicals are used as intermediate treatment chemicals. The reaction water is contaminated by these chemicals which impair the pH and the related properties of the water. The pH has to be controlled in the effluent treatment unit before the water is re-used or released to the environment. The overall aim of this investigation is to create a novel technique to address the problem of waste water treatment in GTL plants which will assist in the reduction of greenhouse gas (CO2) emissions into the atmosphere. A laboratory-scale effluent neutralisation unit for pH control utilising gas injectors was designed and built. The unit used the CO2 produced as a by-product of GTL process as wastewater treatment chemical instead of the conventional Sulphuric acid. The quality of wastewater after treatment with CO2 met the standards set by the state regulatory agency. The economics of the new process shows a better payout period of 3.6 years for capital investment of $1,645 Million compared to 4.7 years for an existing plant layout with capital investment of $1,900 Million. The effects of increase in plant capacity showed a lower payback back of 2.8 years for plant capacity of 140,000 barrels/day (22258 m3/day), 3.6 years for 34,000 barrels/day and 6.0 years for 12,500 barrels/day (1987 m3/day) plant capacity. The sensitivity analysis using crystal ball simulator with 'Microsoft Excel' shows that the annual revenue has the greatest effects on the NPV of the plant than the CAPEX and inflation rate. Apart from the environmental benefits the process generates by reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, the study also concludes that the replacement of conventional Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) unit with CO2 improves the economics of the plant.

  4. Application of waterworks sludge in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Thornberg, D.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    The potential for reuse of iron-rich sludge from waterworks as a replacement for commercial iron salts in wastewater treatment was investigated using acidic and anaerobic dissolution. The acidic dissolution of waterworks sludge both in sulphuric acid and acidic products such as flue gas washing...... for removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment was limited, because the dissolved iron in the digester liquid was limited by siderite (FeCO3) precipitation. It is concluded that both acidic and anaerobic dissolution of iron-rich waterworks sludge can be achieved at the wastewater treatment plant...

  5. Spent solvent treatment process at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Akihiro; Saka, Munenori; Araya, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Tomohiro; Wakamatsu, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    In order to dispose of spent organic solvent and diluent produced by the PUREX method, it is desirable that it should be in stable form for easy handling. For this reason, spent solvent is reduced to powder form and further molded so that it becomes easier to handle for temporary storage at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP). In this paper, the treatment unit for reducing spent solvent to powder form and the treatment unit for modeling the powder are introduced as well as their treatment results during Chemical Test. (author)

  6. RESPONSE OF TOMATO PLANTS EXPOSED TO TREATMENT WITH NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Giordani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work the response of Tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom to nanoparticles (NPs treatment was investigated. Tomato seedlings were grown in hydroponic condition and NPs treatments were carried out by adding Fe3O4 or TiO2 NPs to nutrient solution. At the end of treatments, NPs root uptake and tissue deposition were investigated using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope, equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy for chemical identification. At morphological level, one week after the beginning of NP treatment, seedlings grown with high concentration of TiO2 NPs showed an abnormal proliferation of root hairs, as compared to the control seedlings and to the seedlings exposed to Fe3O4 NPs, Shoot morphology did not differ in tomato seedlings grown under different conditions and no symptoms of toxicity were observed in NP-treated plants. In order to analyse genetic effects of NPs treatments, RNA transcription was studied in roots of NP-exposed and control plants by Illumina RNA sequencing, evidencing the induction of transposable elements.

  7. Life Cycle Assessment to Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J. s.; Herrera, I.; Rodriguez, A.

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation was done at a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP), through the application of the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) performed by using a commercial tool called SIMAPRO. The objective of this study was to apply Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in two systems: municipal wastewater effluent without treatment and Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that is operating in poor condition and has a direct discharge to a natural body, which is a threat to the environment. A LCA was done using SIMAPRO 7, in order to determine the environmental impact in each scenery was assessed, a comparison of the impacts and propose improvements to decrease, following the steps this methodology and according to the respective standardized normative (ISO 14040/ ISO 14044). In this study, most of used data have been reported by the plant from early 2010 and some data from literature. We identified the environmental impacts generated by the treatment, making emphasis on those related to the subsequent use of the water body receiving the discharge, such as eutrophication (near to 15% reduction). Likewise, a comparative analysis between the impacts in the two systems, with and without treatment by analyzing the variation in the impact categories studied. Finally within this work, alternatives of improvements, in order to reduce the identified and quantified impacts are proposed. (Author) 33 refs.

  8. Integration of energy and environmental systems in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Suzanna [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 215 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7621 (United States); Cudney, Elizabeth [Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering, 600 W, 14th Street, 217 EMGT Building, Rolla, MO-65401, 573-341-7931 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Most wastewater treatment facilities were built when energy costs were not a concern; however, increasing energy demand, changing climatic conditions, and constrained energy supplies have resulted in the need to apply more energy-conscious choices in the maintenance or upgrade of existing wastewater treatment facilities. This research develops an integrated energy and environmental management systems model that creates a holistic view of both approaches and maps linkages capable of meeting high-performing energy management while meeting environmental standards. The model has been validated through a case study on the Rolla, Missouri Southeast Wastewater Treatment Plant. Results from plant performance data provide guidance to improve operational techniques. The significant factors contributing to both energy and environmental systems are identified and balanced against considerations of cost.

  9. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS ASSESSMENT OF THE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AT TARGU-MURES WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIA DIANA HERTIA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the technological process of obtaining drinking water at Targu-Mures water treatment plant. The assessment was performed before changing the technological process and four months were chosen to be analized during 2008: January, April, July and October for its efficiency analysis on treatment steps. Mures River is the water source for the water treatment plant, being characterized by unsteady flow and quality parameters with possible important variability in a very short period of time. The treatment technological process is the classic one, represented by coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection, but also prechlorination was constantly applied as additional treatment during 2008. Results showed that for the measured parameters, raw water at the water treatment plant fits into class A3 for surface waters, framing dictated by the bacterial load. The treatment processes efficiency is based on the performance calculation for sedimentation, filtration, global and for disinfection, a better conformation degree of technological steps standing out in January in comparison to the other three analyzed months. A variable non-compliance of turbidity and residual chlorine levels in the disinfected water was observed constantly. Previous treatment steps managed to maintain a low level of oxidisability, chlorine consumption and residual chlorine levels being also low. 12% samples were found inconsistent with the national legislation in terms of bacteriological quality. Measures for the water treatment plant retechnologization are taken primarily for hyperchlorination elimination, which currently constitutes a discomfort factor (taste, smell, and a generating factor of chlorination by-products.

  11. Construction of Industrial Electron Beam Plant for Wastewater Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Lee, M.; Choi, J.; Ahn, S.; Makarov, I.E.; Ponomarev, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    A pilot plant for treating 1,000 m3/day of dyeing wastewater with e-beam has been constructed and operated since 1998 in Daegu, Korea together with the biological treatment facility. The wastewater from various stages of the existing purification process has been treated with electron beam in this plant, and it gave rise to elaborate the optimal technology of the electron beam treatment of wastewater with increased reliability at instant changes in the composition of wastewater. Installation of the e-beam pilot plant resulted in decolorizing and destructive oxidation of organic impurities in wastewater, appreciable to reduction of chemical reagent consumption, in reduction of the treatment time, and in increase in flow rate limit of existing facilities by 30-40%. Industrial plant for treating 10,000 m3/day, based upon the pilot experimental result, is under construction and will be finished by 2005. This project is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Korean Government

  12. Energy supply waste water treatment plant West Brabant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poldervaart, A; Schouten, G J

    1983-09-01

    For the energy supply for the waste water treatment plant (rwzi-Bath) of the Hoogheemraadschap West-Brabant three energy sources are used: biogas of the digesters, natural gas and electricity delivered by the PZEM. For a good balance between heat/power demand and production a heat/power plant is installed. By using this system a high efficiency for the use of energy will be obtained. To save energy the oxygen concentration in the aerationtanks is automatically controlled by means of regulating the position of the air supply control valves and the capacity and number of the turbocompressors. For the oxygen controlsystem a Siemens PLC is used.

  13. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with fertilizing treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHADIONO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Latief AS, Syarief R, Pramudya B, Muhadiono. 2010. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with various fertilizing treatments. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 43-47. This research aims to determine the sugarcane plants of ratooning productivity with low external input of fertilization treatment towards farmers can increase profits. The method used is the Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD with four treatments and three repetitions (4x3. Sugarcane varieties R 579 planted in each patch experiment 5x5 m2. Dosage of fertilizer: P0 = 3.6 kg/year plot experiment was 100% dosage usage of chemical fertilizers used by farmers. Further dosages were P1 (75% = 2.7 kg/plot, P2 (50% = 1.8 kg/plot and P3 (0.25% = 0.9 kg/plot, each supplemented with fertilizer 5 mL of liquid organic/patch a year. Sugarcane crops with a variety of treatment showed no significant difference. The highest productivity was achieved at dosages of P2 (50% chemical fertilizers plus organic fertilizer is 21.67 kg per square meter. Chemical fertilizers can be saved 7 quintals per hectare a year or Rp 997,500 per year. Additional costs of liquid organic fertilizer Rp. 100,000 per hectare year and labor Rp 100,000 per hectare, so the additional advantage of saving farmers fertilizer Rp. 797,500 per year.

  14. Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome

    OpenAIRE

    Munck, Christian; Albertsen, Mads; Telke, Amar; Ellabaan, Mostafa M Hashim; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is a major contributor to the evolution of bacterial genomes and can facilitate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes between environmental reservoirs and potential pathogens. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are believed to play a central role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the contribution of the dominant members of the WWTP resistome to resistance in human pathogens remains poorly understood. Here we use a combination of...

  15. Health effects on nearby residents of a wood treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, James; Warshaw, Raphael; Thornton, John; Anderson-Mahoney, P.M.; Takhar, Harpreet

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the health status of nearby residents of a wood treatment plant who had sustained prolonged low-level environmental exposure to wood processing waste chemicals. Methods: A population of 1269 exposed residents who were plaintiffs or potential plaintiffs in a lawsuit against the wood treatment plant were evaluated by questionnaire for a health history and symptoms. A representative sample of 214 exposed subjects was included in the analysis. One hundred thirty-nine controls were selected from 479 unexposed volunteers and matched to the exposed subjects as closely as possible by gender and age. Subjects and controls completed additional questionnaires and were evaluated by a physician for medical history and physical examination, blood and urine testing, neurophysiological and neuropsychological studies, and respiratory testing. Environmental sampling for wood processing waste chemicals was carried out on soil and drainage ditch sediment in the exposed neighborhood. Results: The exposed subjects had significantly more cancer, respiratory, skin, and neurological health problems than the controls. The subjective responses on questionnaires and by physician histories revealed that the residents had a significantly greater prevalence of mucous membrane irritation, and skin and neurological symptoms, as well as cancer. (Exposed versus unexposed, cancer 10.0% versus 2.08%, bronchitis 17.8% versus 5.8%, and asthma by history 40.5% versus 11.0%) There were significantly more neurophysiologic abnormalities in adults of reaction time, trails A and B, and visual field defects. Conclusions: Adverse health effects were significantly more prevalent in long-term residents near a wood treatment plant than in controls. The results of this study suggest that plant emissions from wood treatment facilities should be reduced

  16. Treatment of pond sludge at the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienand, J.; Tyler, R.; Baldwin, C.

    1992-01-01

    The treatment of low-level radioactive/hazardous materials sludges from five inactive solar evaporation settling ponds at the Rocky Flats Plant is discussed. The paper presents information on the following topics: history of the ponds; previous pond cleanout activities; current approach to the problem with respect to water management, sludge management, regulatory actions, and disposal; and future processing technology needs in the areas of polymer solidification, microwave solidification, joule-heated glass melters, and advanced technology incineration

  17. A multipurpose irradiation plant for simultaneous treatment of different foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carassiti, F.; Tata, A.

    1982-01-01

    An industrial multipurpose irradiation plant with a particularly high effectiveness of radiation utilization is presented. The originality of this conceptual design consists of the simultaneous treatment of two products, which are separately irradiated to either high or low absorbed doses. A pneumatical transport system into appropriate channels with air mixing during irradiation has been proposed for the radappertization of granular animal feed, meanwhile a conventional truck-conveyor system has been suggested for the sprout inhibition treatment of potatoes. Moreover, potatoes pass through the irradiation cell twice at high and low level respectively. (author)

  18. Complete physico-chemical treatment for coke plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, M K

    2002-03-01

    Naturally found coal is converted to coke which is suitable for metallurgical industries. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced contain a large amount of suspended solids, high COD, BOD, phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances which are causing serious pollution problem in the receiving water to which they are discharged. There are a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). Characteristics of the effluents have been evaluated. The present effluent treatment systems were found to be inadequate. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. Ammonia removal by synthetic zeolite, activated carbon for the removal of bacteria, viruses, refractory organics, etc. were utilized and the results are discussed. A scheme has been proposed for the complete physico-chemical treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse and safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations involved in the treatment system have been discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale at various sites.

  19. Membrane bio-reactor for textile wastewater treatment plant upgrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubello, C; Gori, R

    2005-01-01

    Textile industries carry out several fiber treatments using variable quantities of water, from five to forty times the fiber weight, and consequently generate large volumes of wastewater to be disposed of. Membrane Bio-reactors (MBRs) combine membrane technology with biological reactors for the treatment of wastewater: micro or ultrafiltration membranes are used for solid-liquid separation replacing the secondary settling of the traditional activated sludge system. This paper deals with the possibility of realizing a new section of one existing WWTP (activated sludge + clariflocculation + ozonation) for the treatment of treating textile wastewater to be recycled, equipped with an MBR (76 l/s as design capacity) and running in parallel with the existing one. During a 4-month experimental period, a pilot-scale MBR proved to be very effective for wastewater reclamation. On average, removal efficiency of the pilot plant (93% for COD, and over 99% for total suspended solids) was higher than the WWTP ones. Color was removed as in the WWTP. Anionic surfactants removal of pilot plant was lower than that of the WWTP (90.5 and 93.2% respectively), while the BiAS removal was higher in the pilot plant (98.2 vs. 97.1). At the end cost analysis of the proposed upgrade is reported.

  20. Study of wastewater treatment plants efficiency using radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawi, W. D. A.

    2010-11-01

    This study was performed to investigate and diagnose hydrodynamic behavior of the Military Hospital wastewater treatment plant. The plant comprises two units of treatment, each of them has a separate system. The investigation was carried out using ''1''3''1I as a radiotracer. The concept of residence time distribution (RTD) was used to investigate the efficiency of the aeration tanks, secondary clarifiers and chlorine tanks. Preliminary treatment and modeling of the trace data was performed using two software package applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) namely 4621 counter version 1.0.0 and RTD software. Plug flow pattern (parallel flow) was detected in the aeration tank and secondary clarifier of system 1 in one unit, while no homogeneous mixing was observed in the chlorine tank. Short - circuiting (by - passing) was evident in the aeration tank of system 2 in the other unit, which significantly reduced the operating efficiency. The percentage of dead volumes clearly suggests that the aeration tank and secondary clarifier were well utilized in the whole plant. (Author)

  1. Microbial contamination of the air at the wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Vítězová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs primarily serve to protect the environment. Their task is to clean waste water from the agglomerations. On the other hand wastewater treatment plants can also negatively affect the environment in their neighbourhood. These include emissions of odour and microorganisms. This article discusses the microbial contamination of the air, called bioaerosols in selected wastewater treatment plant for 18 000 p.e. From results of the work is evident that the largest group of microorganisms in the monitored air were psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria and microscopic fungi. The number of psychrophilic bacteria ranged from 14 to 12 000 CFU/m3 (colony forming units in 1 m3, the number of mesophilic bacteria varied in the range from 20 to 18 500 CFU/m3 and the fungi from 25 to 32 000 CFU/m3 in the air. The amount of actinomycetes ranged from 1 to 1 030 CFU/m3 and faecal coliform bacteria from 0 to 2 500 CFU/m3. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the highest air contamination was around the activation tank, area for dewatered sludge and around the building of mechanical cleaning, depending on the season. The density of studied microorganisms correlated with air temperature.

  2. Robust Instrumentation[Water treatment for power plant]; Robust Instrumentering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wik, Anders [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-08-01

    Cementa Slite Power Station is a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) with moderate steam data; 3.0 MPa and 420 deg C. The heat is recovered from Cementa, a cement industry, without any usage of auxiliary fuel. The Power station commenced operation in 2001. The layout of the plant is unusual, there are no similar in Sweden and very few world-wide, so the operational experiences are limited. In connection with the commissioning of the power plant a R and D project was identified with the objective to minimise the manpower needed for chemistry management of the plant. The lean chemistry management is based on robust instrumentation and chemical-free water treatment plant. The concept with robust instrumentation consists of the following components; choice of on-line instrumentation with a minimum of O and M and a chemical-free water treatment. The parameters are specific conductivity, cation conductivity, oxygen and pH. In addition to that, two fairly new on-line instruments were included; corrosion monitors and differential pH calculated from specific and cation conductivity. The chemical-free water treatment plant consists of softening, reverse osmosis and electro-deionisation. The operational experience shows that the cycle chemistry is not within the guidelines due to major problems with the operation of the power plant. These problems have made it impossible to reach steady state and thereby not viable to fully verify and validate the concept with robust instrumentation. From readings on the panel of the online analysers some conclusions may be drawn, e.g. the differential pH measurements have fulfilled the expectations. The other on-line analysers have been working satisfactorily apart from contamination with turbine oil, which has been noticed at least twice. The corrosion monitors seem to be working but the lack of trend curves from the mainframe computer system makes it hard to draw any clear conclusions. The chemical-free water treatment has met all

  3. Research on the sewage treatment in high altitude region based on Lhasa Sewage Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Li, Shuwen

    2017-12-01

    Sewage treatment is of great significance to enhance environmental quality, consolidate pollution prevention and ecological protection, and ensure sustainable economic and social development in high altitude region. However, there are numerous difficulties in sewage treatment due to the alpine climate, the relatively low economic development level, and the backward operation and management styles, etc. In this study, the characteristics of influent quality in the sewage treatment plant in Lhasa are investigated by analysing the influent BOD5/COD and BOD5/TN, comparing key indexes recorded from 2014 to 2016 with the hinterland. Results show that the concentration of influent COD, BOD5, NH3-N and SS in the Lhasa sewage treatment plant, in which the sewage belongs to low-concentration urban sewage, is smaller than that in the domestic sewage treatment plants in the mainland. The concentration ratio of BOD5/COD and BOD5/TN is below 0.4 and 4, which indicates that the biodegradation is poor and the carbon sources are in bad demand. The consequences obtained play a vital role in the design, operation and management of sewage treatment plants in high altitude region.

  4. Development of an improved compact package plant for small community waste-water treatment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hulsman, A

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges facing the design and operation of small community wastewater treatment plants are discussed. The package plant concept is considered and the consequent development of a compact intermittently aerated activated sludge package plant...

  5. Sludge Reduction by Lumbriculus Variegatus in Ahvaz Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hendrickx

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sludge production is an avoidable problem arising from the treatment of wastewater. The sludge remained after municipal wastewater treatment contains considerable amounts of various contaminants and if is not properly handled and disposed, it may produce extensivehealth hazards. Application of aquatic worm is an approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants. In the present research reduction of the amount of waste sludge from Ahvaz wastewater treatment plant was studied with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a reactor concept. The sludge reduction in the reactor with worm was compared to sludge reduction in a blank reactor (without worm.The effects of changes in dissolved oxygen (DO concentration up to 3 mg/L (run 1 and up to 6 mg/L (run 2 were studied in the worm and blank reactors. No meaningful relationship was found between DO concentration and the rate of total suspended solids reduction. Theaverage sludge reductions were obtained as 33% (run 2 and 32% (run 1 in worm reactor,and 16% (run 1 and 12% (run 2 in the blank reactor. These results showed that the worm reactors may reduce the waste sludge between 2 and 2.75 times higher than in the blankconditions. The obtained results showed that the worm reactor has a high potential for use in large-scale sludge processing.

  6. Innovative waste treatment and conditioning technologies at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide Member States with information on the most innovative technologies and strategies used in waste treatment and conditioning. At present, some of those technologies and strategies might not be widely implemented at nuclear power plants (NPP), but they have an important potential for their use as part of the long range NPP, utility, or national strategy. Thus, the target audience is those decision makers at the national and organizational level responsible for selecting waste processing technologies and strategies over a period of three to ten years. Countries and individual nuclear plants have limited financial resources which can be applied toward radioactive waste processing (treatment and conditioning). They are challenged to determine which of the many available technologies and strategies are best suited to meet national or local needs. This publication reduces the selection of processes for wastes generated by nuclear power plants to those technologies and strategies which are considered innovative. The report further identifies the key benefits which may derive from the adoption of those technologies, the different waste streams to which each technology is relevant, and the limitations of the technologies. The technologies and strategies identified have been evaluated to differentiate between (1) predominant technologies (those that are widely practiced in multiple countries or a large number of nuclear plants), and (2) innovative technologies (those which are not so widely used but are considered to offer benefits which make them suitable for broader application across the industry). Those which fall into the second category are the primary focus of this report. Many IAEA publications address the technical aspects of treatment and conditioning for radioactive wastes, covering research, technological advances, and safety issues. These studies and reports primarily target the research and technical staff of a

  7. Raffinate treatment at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acox, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    Raffinate solutions, which contain uranium, technetium, nitrates, and lesser amounts of heavy metals, are produced in the decontamination and uranium recovery operations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. These solutions are presently being placed in temporary storage until three treatment facilities are constructed which will produce an environmentally acceptable effluent from the raffinate. These facilities are: (1) The Heavy Metals Precipitation Facility; (2) The Technetium Ion Exchange Facility; and (3) The Biodenitrification Pilot Plant. When the facilities are completed, the raffinate will be treated in 500 gallon batches. The first treatment is the heavy metals precipitation by caustic addition and filtering. The effluent proceeds to the ion exchange columns where the technetium is removed by adsorption onto a strongly basic, anion exchange resin which has been converted to the hydroxyl form. Following ion exchange, the solution is transported to the biodenitrification pilot plant. The biodenitrification column is a fluidized-bed using bacteria-laden coal particles as the denitrifying media. The resulting effluent should meet the limits established by the US EPA for all metals and nitrate. Technetium will be 98+% removed and the uranium concentration will be less than one milligram per liter. 13 references

  8. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in wastewater treatment plants and drinking water treatment plants: Removal efficiency and exposure risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Liu, You-Sheng; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2016-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of chemicals with wide industrial and commercial applications, and have been received great attentions due to their persistence in the environment. The information about their presence in urban water cycle is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and removal efficiency of eighteen PFASs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and drinking water plants (DWTPs) with different treatment processes. The results showed that both perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the predominant compounds in the water phase of WWTPs and DWTPs, while PFOS was dominant in dewatered sludge of WWTPs. The average total PFASs concentrations in the three selected WWTPs were 19.6-232 ng/L in influents, 15.5-234 ng/L in effluents, and 31.5-49.1 ng/g dry weight in sludge. The distribution pattern of PFASs differed between the wastewater and sludge samples, indicating strong partition of PFASs with long carbon chains to sludge. In the WWTPs, most PFASs were not eliminated efficiently in conventional activated sludge treatment, while the membrane bio-reactor (MBR) and Unitank removed approximately 50% of long chain (C ≥ 8) perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). The daily mass loads of total PFASs in WWTPs were in the range of 1956-24773 mg in influent and 1548-25085 mg in effluent. PFASs were found at higher concentrations in the wastewater from plant A with some industrial wastewater input than from the other two plants (plant B and plant C) with mainly domestic wastewater sources. Meanwhile, the average total PFASs concentrations in the two selected DWTPs were detected at 4.74-14.3 ng/L in the influent and 3.34-13.9 ng/L in the effluent. In DWTPs, only granular activated carbon (GAC) and powder activated carbon (PAC) showed significant removal of PFASs. The PFASs detected in the tap water would not pose immediate health risks in the short term exposure. The findings from this

  9. B Plant treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units inspection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    This inspection plan is written to meet the requirements of WAC 173-303 for operations of a TSD facility. Owners/operators of TSD facilities are required to inspection their facility and active waste management units to prevent and/or detect malfunctions, discharges and other conditions potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. A written plan detailing these inspection efforts must be maintained at the facility in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC), Chapter 173-303, ''Dangerous Waste Regulations'' (WAC 173-303), a written inspection plan is required for the operation of a treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) facility and individual TSD units. B Plant is a permitted TSD facility currently operating under interim status with an approved Part A Permit. Various operational systems and locations within or under the control of B Plant have been permitted for waste management activities. Included are the following TSD units: Cell 4 Container Storage Area; B Plant Containment Building; Low Level Waste Tank System; Organic Waste Tank System; Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW) Tank System; Low Level Waste Concentrator Tank System. This inspection plan complies with the requirements of WAC 173-303. It addresses both general TSD facility and TSD unit-specific inspection requirements. Sections on each of the TSD units provide a brief description of the system configuration and the permitted waste management activity, a summary of the inspection requirements, and details on the activities B Plant uses to maintain compliance with those requirements

  10. Seabrook, N.H. Wastewater Treatment Plant Chief Operator Recognized for Outstanding Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin Price, a resident of Berwick Maine and the Chief Operator of the Seabrook, N.H. Wastewater Treatment Plant, was honored by EPA with a 2016 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator of the Year Excellence Award.

  11. Process waste treatment system upgrades: Clarifier startup at the nonradiological wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, A.J.; McTaggart, D.R.; Van Essen, D.C.; Kent, T.E.; West, G.D.; Taylor, P.A.

    1998-07-01

    The Waste Management Operations Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory recently modified the design of a reactor/clarifier at the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant, which is now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex--Building 3608, to replace the sludge-blanket softener/clarifier at the Process Waste Treatment Plant, now referred to as the Process Waste Treatment Complex-Building 3544 (PWTC-3544). This work was conducted because periodic hydraulic overloads caused poor water-softening performance in the PWTC-3544 softener, which was detrimental to the performance and operating costs of downstream ion-exchange operations. Over a 2-month time frame, the modified reactor/clarifier was tested with nonradiological wastewater and then with radioactive wastewater to optimize softening performance. Based on performance to date, the new system has operated more effectively than the former one, with reduced employee radiological exposure, less downtime, lower costs, and improved effluent quality

  12. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.; Zommer, N.

    2012-01-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  13. Treatment Of Wastewater For Reuse With Mobile Electron Beam Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, Y. R. [EB TECH Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Zommer, N. [Pele Inc., Milpitas Californaa (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The use of alternative disinfectants to chlorine for the wastewater treatment has received increasing attention in recent years to treat either liquid or solids streams within wastewater treatment plants for pathogens and trace organics (TOrCs). Although several technologies have come to the forefront as an alternative to chlorine (e.g., ultraviolet [UV] and hydrogen peroxide), the majority of these technologies are chemically based, with the exception of UV. An attractive physical disinfection approach is by electron beam (EB) irradiation. EB treatment of wastewater leads to their purification from various pollutants. It is caused by the decomposition of pollutants as a result of their reactions with highly reactive species formed from water radiolysis: hydrated electron, OH free radical and H atom [Pikaev (1986)]. Sometimes methods such as EB with biological treatment, adsorption and others improve the effect of EB treatment of the wastewater purification. In the process of EB treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. At sufficiently high absorbed doses these transformations can result in complete decomposition (removal) of the substance. Under real conditions, i.e., at rather high content of pollutants in a wastewater and economically acceptable doses, partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages, efficiency of the process being notably influenced by irradiation conditions and wastewater composition [Woods and Pikaev (1994)]. (author)

  14. Anammox biofilm in activated sludge swine wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Ryu; Ishimoto, Chikako; Chikyu, Mikio; Aihara, Yoshito; Matsumoto, Toshimi; Uenishi, Hirohide; Yasuda, Tomoko; Fukumoto, Yasuyuki; Waki, Miyoko

    2017-01-01

    We investigated anammox with a focus on biofilm in 10 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that use activated sludge treatment of swine wastewater. In three plants, we found red biofilms in aeration tanks or final sedimentation tanks. The biofilm had higher anammox 16S rRNA gene copy numbers (up to 1.35 × 10 12 copies/g-VSS) and higher anammox activity (up to 295 μmoL/g-ignition loss/h) than suspended solids in the same tank. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Planctomycetes accounted for up to 17.7% of total reads in the biofilm. Most of them were related to Candidatus Brocadia or Ca. Jettenia. The highest copy number and the highest proportion of Planctomycetes were comparable to those of enriched anammox sludge. Thus, swine WWTPs that use activated sludge treatment can fortuitously acquire anammox biofilm. Thus, concentrated anammox can be detected by focusing on red biofilm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of NORM material produced in a water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suursoo, S.; Kiisk, M.; Jantsikene, A.; Koch, R.; Isakar, K.; Realo, E. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Lumiste, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    In February 2012 a water treatment plant was opened in Viimsi, Estonia. The plant is designed for removal of iron, manganese, and radium from groundwater. The first 2 years of operation have shown that the purification process generates significant amounts of materials with elevated radium levels. The treatment plant is fed by nine wells, which open to radium-rich aquifers. Purification is achieved by aeration and filtration processes. Aerated water is led through two successive filter columns, first of them is filled with MnO{sub 2} coated material FMH and filtration sand, the second one with zeolite. The plant has five parallel treatment lines with a total of 95 tons of FMH + filtration sand, and 45 tons of zeolite. The average capacity of the facility has been 2400 m{sup 3}/day. Yearly input of radium to the plant is estimated to be 325 MBq for Ra-226, and 420 MBq for Ra-228. Most of the radium (about 90%) accumulates in the filter columns. Some 8-9% of it is removed by backwash water during regular filter backwash cycles. To characterize radium accumulation and its removal by backwash in detail, treatment line no. 5 is sampled monthly for filter materials and backwash water. A steady growth of radium activity concentrations is apparent in both filter materials. In the top layer of the first stage filter (FMH+sand), Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations (per unit dry weight) reached (1540 ± 60) Bq/kg and (2510 ± 50) Bq/kg (k=2), respectively, by April 2013. At the same time, radium content in the top layer of the second stage filter (zeolite) was an order of magnitude higher: (19 600 ± 130) Bq/kg for Ra-226, and (22 260 ± 170) Bq/kg for Ra-228 (k=2). Radium is not evenly distributed throughout the filter columns. A rough estimate can be given that after 1.25 years of operation (by April 2013) the accumulated activities in treatment line no. 5 reached 1000 MBq for Ra-226 and 1200 MBq for Ra-228. Although filters are the most important type of NORM

  16. Strategies to Combat Antibiotic Resistance in the Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Barancheshme

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this manuscript is to review different treatment strategies and mechanisms for combating the antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs in the wastewater environment. The high amount of antibiotics is released into the wastewater that may promote selection of ARB and ARGs which find their way into natural environments. Emerging microbial pathogens and increasing antibiotic resistance among them is a global public health issue. The propagation and spread of ARB and ARGs in the environment may result in an increase of antibiotic resistant microbial pathogens which is a worldwide environmental and public health concern. A proper treatment of wastewater is essential before its discharge into rivers, lake, or sewage system to prevent the spread of ARB and ARGs into the environment. This review discusses various treatment options applied for combating the spread of ARB and ARGs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. It was reported that low-energy anaerobic–aerobic treatment reactors, constructed wetlands, and disinfection processes have shown good removal efficiencies. Nanomaterials and biochar combined with other treatment methods and coagulation process are very recent strategies regarding ARB and ARGs removal and need more investigation and research. Based on current studies a wide-ranging removal efficiency of ARGs can be achieved depending on the type of genes present and treatment processes used, still, there are gaps that need to be further investigated. In order to find solutions to control dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment, it is important to (1 study innovative strategies in large scale and over a long time to reach an actual evaluation, (2 develop risk assessment studies to precisely understand occurrence and abundance of ARB/ARGs so that their potential risks to human health can be determined, and (3 consider operating and environmental factors that affect the

  17. Analysis and assessment of water treatment plant reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the publication is the analysis and assessment of the reliability of the surface water treatment plant (WTP. In the study the one parameter method of reliability assessment was used. Based on the flow sheet derived from the water company the reliability scheme of the analysed WTP was prepared. On the basis of the daily WTP work report the availability index Kg for the individual elements included in the WTP, was determined. Then, based on the developed reliability scheme showing the interrelationships between elements, the availability index Kg for the whole WTP was determined. The obtained value of the availability index Kg was compared with the criteria values.

  18. Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munck, Christian; Albertsen, Mads; Telke, Amar; Ellabaan, Mostafa; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Sommer, Morten O A

    2015-09-30

    Horizontal gene transfer is a major contributor to the evolution of bacterial genomes and can facilitate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes between environmental reservoirs and potential pathogens. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are believed to play a central role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the contribution of the dominant members of the WWTP resistome to resistance in human pathogens remains poorly understood. Here we use a combination of metagenomic functional selections and comprehensive metagenomic sequencing to uncover the dominant genes of the WWTP resistome. We find that this core resistome is unique to the WWTP environment, with resistome is comparable to that of the soil resistome.

  19. Chemical treatment of ammonium fluoride solution in uranium reconversion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Frajndlich, E.U. de.

    1992-01-01

    A chemical procedure is described for the treatment of the filtrate, produced from the transformation of uranium hexafluoride (U F 6 ) into ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC). This filtrate is an intermediate product in the U F 6 to uranium dioxide (U O 2 ) reconversion process. The described procedure recovers uranium as ammonium peroxide fluoro uranate (APOFU) by precipitation with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and as later step, its calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) co-precipitation. The recovered uranium is recycled to the AUC production plant. (author)

  20. Characterization and possible uses of ashes from wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, Ignacio; Arevalo, Luis F.; Romero, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    This work, on the ashes from the wastewater treatment plant of Galindo (Vizcaya, Spain), has been outlined with the purpose of finding their physico-chemical properties and suggesting possible applications. Ashes contain important quantities of iron, calcium, silica, alumina and phosphates. X-Ray diffraction data make it possible to estimate the mineralogical compositions of the original ashes and also, after thermal treatment at 1200 and 1300 deg. C, the main reactions occurring in thermal treatment. Particle size analysis makes it possible to classify ashes as a very fine powdered material. The thermal treatment leads to a densification of the material and provokes losses of weight mainly due to the elimination of water, carbon dioxide and sulphur trioxide. Application tests show that ashes are not suitable for landfill and similar applications, because of their plastic properties. Testing for pozzolanic character, after the ashes had been heated at 1200 deg. C, did not lead to a strong material probably due to low contents in silica and alumina or to requiring a higher heating temperature. Thermal treatment leads to densification of the material with a considerable increase of compressive strength of the probes. The use of additives (clays and powdered glass) to improve ceramic properties of ashes will be the aim of a future work

  1. Local desalination treatment plant wastewater reuse and evaluation potential absorption of salts by the halophyte plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Kalantari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of arid and semi-arid areas and consequently water scarcity are affected by climate change. This can influence on availability and quality of water while demands on food and water are increasing. As pressure on freshwater is increasing, utilization of saline water in a sustainable approach is inevitable. Therefore, bioremediation using salt tolerant plants that is consistent with sustainable development objectives might be an alternative and effective approach. In this study, saline wastewater from a local desalination treatment plant was utilized to irrigate four halophyte plants, including Aloevera, Tamarix aphylla, Rosmarinus officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla. A field experiment was designed and conducted in Zarrindasht, south of Iran in years 2012-2013 accordingly. Two irrigation treatments consisting of freshwater with salinity of 2.04 dS.m-1 and desalination wastewater with salinity of 5.77dSm-1 were applied. The experiment was designed as a split plot in the form of randomized complete block design (RCB with three replications. The results of variance analysis, ANOVA, on salt concentration in Aloevera showed that there was no significant difference between the effects of two irrigation water qualities except for Na. In Rosmarinus officinalis, only the ratio of K/Na showed a significant difference. None of the examined salt elements showed a significant difference in Tamarix aphylla irrigated with both water qualities. In Matricaria chamomilla, only Mg and K/Na ratio showed a significant difference (Duncan 5%. As a result, no significant difference was observed in salt absorption by the examined plants in treatments which were irrigated by desalination wastewater and freshwater. This could be a good result that encourages the use of similar wastewater to save freshwater in a sustainable system.

  2. Design aspects of reverse osmosis plants for rad waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, S.; Panicker, S.T.; Misra, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    The potential of reverse osmosis process has been well established in the nuclear waste treatment. The nuclear wastes are characterised by chemically insignificant levels of radioactive nuclides and small amounts (a few hundred ppm) of inactive ionic species. The basic design objectives in these systems aim at higher volume reduction factors, i.e. corresponding to recovery factor of more than 0.9 and a decontamination factor of at least 10, i.e. corresponding to a solute rejection of more than 90%. In this paper, the salient aspects of the design of a reverse osmosis system for radioactive waste treatment is discussed in the light of the operating experience of an experimental plant based on plate module configuration and utilizing cellulose acetate membranes prepared in our laboratory. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Surface treatments for material protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, P.K.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    The paper highlights some of the surface treatment methods used in nuclear power plants to improve their performance. The corrosion resistance of zirconium alloys results from the formation of an adherent and protective film of ZrO 2 . Graphite coating of zircaloy-2 cladding minimizes the susceptibility to environmental induced cracking. Magnetite formation during the hot conditioning operation improves the corrosion resistance of carbon steel as well as controls the spread of radioactivity. It has been illustrated how the surface treatment is helpful for redistributing residual stress to facilitate conversion of tensile stress to compressive stress to mitigate failures due to stress corrosion and fatigue corrosion. Inhibitors and passivators can modify the surface conditions (in situ) of condenser tubes and cooling water systems. These aspects have been dealt in the text of the paper. (author). 8 refs., 3 figures

  4. Perspectives on modelling micropollutants in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clouzot, Ludiwine; Cloutier, Frédéric; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Models for predicting the fate of micropollutants (MPs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been developed to provide engineers and decision-makers with tools that they can use to improve their understanding of, and evaluate how to optimize, the removal of MPs and determine their impact......) addressing advancements in WWTP treatment technologies, (iii) making use of common approaches to data acquisition for model calibration and (iv) integrating ecotoxicological effects of MPs in receiving waters....... on the receiving waters. This paper provides an overview of such models, and discusses the impact of regulation, engineering practice and research on model development. A review of the current status of MP models reveals that a single model cannot represent the wide range of MPs that are present in wastewaters...

  5. The Waste Treatment Plant, a Work in Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W. F. Jr.; Duncan, G. M.

    2006-01-01

    There are many challenges in the design and construction of Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford site. The plant is being built to process some 55 million gallons of radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. Engineering and construction are progressing on this largest project in the DOE complex. This paper describes some of WTP's principal recent challenges and opportunities and how they are being addressed to minimize impact on the project, enhance the capabilities of the facilities, and reduce risk. A significant new development in 2005 was the need to account for higher seismic accelerations than originally specified for the facility structures and equipment. Efforts have centered on continuing design and construction with minimal risk, while the final seismic design spectra was developed. Other challenges include development of an alternative cesium ion exchange resin to minimize the risk from reliance on a single product, implementing advanced analytical techniques to improve laboratory performance, adopting a thinner walled high level waste (HLW) canister to reduce waste volume and mission duration, and commissioning a comprehensive external flowsheet review of the design, along with its underpinning technologies, and projected plant operability. These challenges make it clear that WTP is a work in progress, but the challenges are being successfully resolved as the design and construction move on to completion. (authors)

  6. Engineering study radioactive liquid waste treatment plant refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suazo, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study will investigate the opportunities, restrictions and cost impact to refurbish the existing Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Plant (RLWTP) while utilizing the same basic criteria that was used in the development of the new Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). The objective of this study is to perform a more in-depth analysis of refurbishing the existing than has been done in the past so as to provide a basis for comparison between refurbishing the existing or constructing a new. The existing plant is located at Technical Area 50 (TA-50) within the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The initial structure was built in 1963. Over the ensuing years, the building has been modified and several additions have been constructed. In 1966, laboratories, ion exchange and pretreatment functions were added. The decontamination and decommissioning activities and ventilation equipment were added in 1984. The following assumptions are the basic parameters considered in the development of a design concept to refurbish the RLWTP: (1) Allow continued operation of the during retrofit construction. (2) Design the necessary expansion within the site constraints. (3) Satisfy National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) permit conditions and other environmental regulations. (4) Comply with present DOE Orders and building code requirements. The refurbishment concept is a phased demolition and construction process

  7. Health hazards related to Soba sewage treatment plant, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Osman Abdelwahab Abdelmoneim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the health hazards acquired by the residents nearby Soba sewage treatment plant. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Soba locality, Khartoum, Sudan. An interviewer-administrated questionnaire was assigned to 462 residents of the area living in four geographically distributed squares around the sewage plant. The data was analyzed in SPSS; Cronbach’s alpha reliability scale of measurement was used to check the internal validity of six variables related to the quality of life. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the health hazards and the quality of life. Among the 462 residents, difficulty in breathing (37.9% and nausea (37.2 were the principal health hazards. Moreover, the residents had a satisfactory level of awareness (88.7% about the health hazards. The utmost impact on the quality of life was psychological (97.2%. It was statistically correlated with the reported factors, which impacted the quality of life in the district as revealed by the Cronbach’s alpha reliability test with absenteeism (P=0.026, disability (P=0.014, socialization (P=0.032 and death (P=0.016. A logistic regression analysis revealed chemical hazards had a statistically significant association (P<0.05 with quality of life of the residents of Soba district. The study strongly entails the fact that sewage treatment plants crave exceptional consideration from the concerned responsible authorities, together with the fact that the evolved health threats should be confronted with immense responsibility as soon as possible.

  8. Exposure assessment of residents living near a wood treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, James; Warshaw, Raphael; Horsak, Randy D.; Parker, Frank M. III; Takhar, Harpreet

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of environmental sampling and modeling in a neighborhood adjacent to a wood processing plant. This plant used creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) to treat wood for over 70 years. Between 1999 and 2001, environmental samples were obtained to quantify the level of environmental contamination from the wood processing plant. Blood from 10 residents was measured for chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans. Soil sediment samples from drainage ditches and attic/dust samples from nearby residents' homes were tested for polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The dioxin congeners analysis of the 10 residents revealed elevated valued for octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin compatible with PCP as the source. The levels of carcinogenic PAHs were higher than background levels and were similar to soil contamination on wood preserving sites. Wipe sampling in the kitchens of 11 homes revealed that 20 of the 33 samples were positive for octachlorinated dioxins with a mean value of 10.27 ng/m 2 . The soil, ditch samples, and positive wipe samples from the homes indicate a possible ongoing route of exposure to the contaminants in the homes of these residents. Modeled air exposure estimated for the wood processing waste chemicals indicate some air exposure to combustion products. The estimated air levels for benzo(a)pyrene and tetrachlorodibenzodiozin in this neighborhood exceeded the recommended levels for these compounds in some states. The quantitative data presented suggest a significant contamination of a neighborhood by wood processing waste chemicals. These findings suggest the need for more stringent regulations on waste discharges from wood treatment plants

  9. MOBIL CONTAINER UNIT FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE UTILIZATION FROM SMALL AND MEDIUM WASTWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Ledakowicz; Paweł Stolarek; A. Malinowski

    2016-01-01

    The most wastewater treatment plants in Poland are small and medium plants of flow capacity below 1000 m3/d. These plants are not able to build sludge incineration plants and the transportation costs to the nearest plants increase the total costs of wastewater treatment. Polish company Metal Expert together with the French company ETIA and Lodz University of Technology proposed mobile unit for integrated drying and pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a pilot bench scale with capacity of 100 kg/h ...

  10. Efficiency of domestic wastewater treatment plant for agricultural reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Fonseca Souza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for water has made the treatment and reuse of wastewater a topic of global importance. This work aims to monitor and evaluate the efficiency of a wastewater treatment plant’s (WWTP physical and biological treatment of wastewater by measuring the reduction of organic matter content of the effluent during the treatment and the disposal of nutrients in the treated residue. The WWTP has been designed to treat 2500 liters of wastewater per day in four compartments: a septic tank, a microalgae tank, an upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands with cultivation of Zantedeschia aethiopica L. A plant efficiency of 90% of organic matter removal was obtained, resulting in a suitable effluent for fertigation, including Na and Ca elements that showed high levels due to the accumulation of organic matter in the upflow anaerobic filter and wetlands. The WWTP removes nitrogen and phosphorus by the action of microalgae and macrophytes used in the process. The final effluent includes important agricultural elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and potassium and, together with the load of organic matter and salts, meets the determination of NBR 13,969/1997 (Standard of the Brazilian Technical Standards Association for reuse in agriculture, but periodic monitoring of soil salinity is necessary.

  11. Behavior of natural radionuclides in wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, A.; Montaña, M.; Vallés, I.; Devesa, R.; Céspedes-Sánchez, R.; Serrano, I.; Blázquez, S.; Barjola, V.

    2012-01-01

    56 samples, including influent, primary effluent, secondary effluent and final effluent wastewater from two Spanish municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), were analyzed to assess both the occurrence and behavior of natural radioactivity during 12 sampling campaigns carried out over the period 2007–2010. Influent and final effluent wastewaters were sampled by taking into account the hydraulic residence time within the WWTP. A wide range of gross alpha activities (15–129 mBq/L) and gross beta activities (477–983 mBq/L) in liquid samples were obtained. A correlation analysis between radioactivity in liquid samples and the performance characteristics of the WWTPs was performed. The results in liquid samples showed that gross beta activities were not influenced by treatment in the studied WWTPs. However, gross alpha activities behave differently and an increase was detected in the effluent values compared with influent wastewater. This behavior was due to the increase in the total dissolved uranium produced during secondary treatment. The results indicate that the radiological characteristics of the effluents do not present a significant radiological risk and make them suitable for future applications. - Highlights: ► Liquids from WWTPs were analyzed to know the behavior of natural radionuclides. ► Gross beta activities were not influenced by treatment in the studied WWTPs. ► Increase in gross alpha activity was observed due to uranium desorption/solubilisation. ► Correlation between gross alpha activity and the chemical oxygen demand was found

  12. Demasculinization of male fish by wastewater treatment plant effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajda, A.M.; Barber, L.B.; Gray, J.L.; Lopez, E.M.; Bolden, A.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.; Norris, D.O.

    2011-01-01

    Adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to effluent from the City of Boulder, Colorado wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) under controlled conditions in the field to determine if the effluent induced reproductive disruption in fish. Gonadal intersex and other evidence of reproductive disruption were previously identified in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni) in Boulder Creek downstream from this WWTP effluent outfall. Fish were exposed within a mobile flow-through exposure laboratory in July 2005 and August 2006 to WWTP effluent (EFF), Boulder Creek water (REF), or mixtures of EFF and REF for up to 28 days. Primary (sperm abundance) and secondary (nuptial tubercles and dorsal fat pads) sex characteristics were demasculinized within 14 days of exposure to 50% and 100% EFF. Vitellogenin was maximally elevated in both 50% and 100% EFF treatments within 7 days and significantly elevated by 25% EFF within 14 days. The steroidal estrogens 17??-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and 17??-ethynylestradiol, as well as estrogenic alkylphenols and bisphenol A were identified within the EFF treatments and not in the REF treatment. These results support the hypothesis that the reproductive disruption observed in this watershed is due to endocrine-active chemicals in the WWTP effluent. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Occurrence and removal of estrogens in Brazilian wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, Germana P.; Souza, Neyliane C. de; Vidal, Carla B.; Alves, Joana A.C.; Firmino, Paulo Igor M.; Nascimento, Ronaldo F.; Santos, André B. dos

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluated the occurrence and removal efficiency of four estrogenic hormones in five biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), located in the State of Ceará, Brazil. The five WWTPs comprised: two systems consisted of one facultative pond followed by two maturation ponds, one facultative pond, one activated sludge (AS) system followed by a chlorination step, and one upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by a chlorination step. Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation among the analyzed influent and effluent samples. Estrone (E1) showed the highest occurrence in the influent (76%), whereas both 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) presented a 52% occurrence, and the compound 17β-estradiol 17-acetate (E2-17A), a 32% one. The occurrence in the effluent samples was 48% for E1, 28% for E2, 12% for E2-17A, and 40% for EE2. The highest concentrations of E1 and EE2 hormones in the influent were 3050 and 3180 ng L −1 , respectively, whereas E2 and E2-17A had maximum concentrations of 776 and 2300 ng L −1 , respectively. The lowest efficiencies for the removal of estrogenic hormones were found in WWTP consisted of waste stabilization ponds, ranging from 54 to 79.9%. The high-rate systems (AS and UASB), which have chlorination as post-treatment, presented removal efficiencies of approximately 95%. - Highlights: • The occurrence of four endocrine disrupting chemicals was evaluated. • The removal efficiency of four hormones in low-cost plants was examined. • Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation in influent and effluent samples. • Estrone showed the highest occurrence in the influent and the effluent samples. • WSP treatment was observed to be less effective for removing estrogens

  14. Occurrence and removal of estrogens in Brazilian wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Germana P. [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 713, CEP: 60455-900, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Souza, Neyliane C. de [Department Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, State University of Paraíba, Rua Juvêncio Arruda, S/N, Campus Universitário, Bodocongó, CEP: 58109-790, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Vidal, Carla B.; Alves, Joana A.C.; Firmino, Paulo Igor M. [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 713, CEP: 60455-900, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Nascimento, Ronaldo F. [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 940, CEP: 60451-970, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Santos, André B. dos, E-mail: andre23@ufc.br [Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Ceará, Rua do Contorno, S/N Campus do Pici, Bl. 713, CEP: 60455-900, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    This paper evaluated the occurrence and removal efficiency of four estrogenic hormones in five biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), located in the State of Ceará, Brazil. The five WWTPs comprised: two systems consisted of one facultative pond followed by two maturation ponds, one facultative pond, one activated sludge (AS) system followed by a chlorination step, and one upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by a chlorination step. Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation among the analyzed influent and effluent samples. Estrone (E1) showed the highest occurrence in the influent (76%), whereas both 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) presented a 52% occurrence, and the compound 17β-estradiol 17-acetate (E2-17A), a 32% one. The occurrence in the effluent samples was 48% for E1, 28% for E2, 12% for E2-17A, and 40% for EE2. The highest concentrations of E1 and EE2 hormones in the influent were 3050 and 3180 ng L{sup −1}, respectively, whereas E2 and E2-17A had maximum concentrations of 776 and 2300 ng L{sup −1}, respectively. The lowest efficiencies for the removal of estrogenic hormones were found in WWTP consisted of waste stabilization ponds, ranging from 54 to 79.9%. The high-rate systems (AS and UASB), which have chlorination as post-treatment, presented removal efficiencies of approximately 95%. - Highlights: • The occurrence of four endocrine disrupting chemicals was evaluated. • The removal efficiency of four hormones in low-cost plants was examined. • Estrogen occurrence showed a wide variation in influent and effluent samples. • Estrone showed the highest occurrence in the influent and the effluent samples. • WSP treatment was observed to be less effective for removing estrogens.

  15. WASTE TREATMENT PLANT (WTP) LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATABILITY EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    A forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be produced by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) was provided by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI 2004). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of Tank Farm waste through the end-of-mission for the WTP. The WTP forecast is provided in the Appendices. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Both facilities are located in the 200 East Area and are operated by Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) for the US. Department of Energy (DOE). The treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERF/ETF was evaluated. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERF/ETF treatability envelope (Aromi 1997), which provides information on the items which determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERF/ETF. The format of the evaluation corresponds directly to the outline of the treatability envelope document. Except where noted, the maximum annual average concentrations over the range of the 27 year forecast was evaluated against the treatability envelope. This is an acceptable approach because the volume capacity in the LERF Basin will equalize the minimum and maximum peaks. Background information on the LERF/ETF design basis is provided in the treatability envelope document

  16. Evaluation of wastewater treatment plant at Khartoum refinery company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnour, Y. A. M.

    2010-03-01

    A wastewater treatment plant has been established in Khartoum Refinery Company in order to treat 1800 meters cubic per day, and to meet the increase in the number of employees and the continued expansion of the company. The study aims to evaluate the performance of the station after a three years period of work, and calculate the efficiency of the station through the following variables: average removal of the biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids and oils, by taking water samples before and after treatment, every week for two month, analysis of samples were conducted in the central laboratory at KRC. The determination of the station efficiency revealed that the station is working well. Treated water characteristics are in conformity with the specifications set by the world Organization Health. It is also proved to be suitable for use in irrigation the amount of water entering to treatment is very large (1500 cubic meters), which lead to dilution of the BOD, COD, SS and oils concentrations. The reason being misuse of water by employees in addition to the large number of damage in the water pipes. The station must be re-evaluated after a certain (5 years) period to determine the impact of future increases of employees, and it is effect on the efficiency of the station. It is recommended to improve the behaviour of employees regarding the use of water, so as to reduce the dilution. (Author)

  17. Appendix F: Supplemental Risk Management Program Guidance for Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detail for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), including publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and other industrial treatment systems, on complying with part 68 with respect to chlorine, ammonia (anhydrous and aqueous), sulfur dioxide, and digester gas.

  18. Physical-chemical pretreatment as an option for increased sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : municipal wastewater treatment, physical-chemical pretreatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment, organic polymers, environmental sustainability

    Most of the currently applied municipal wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands are

  19. In-Plant Corrosion Study of Steels in Distillery Effluent Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Chhotu; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, A. K.

    2015-05-01

    The present study deals with corrosion and performance of steels observed in an effluent treatment plant (ETP) of a distillery. For this purpose, the metal coupons were exposed in primary (untreated effluent) and secondary tank (anaerobic treatment effluent) of the ETP. The extent of attack has been correlated with the composition of the effluent with the help of laboratory immersion and electrochemical tests. Untreated distillery effluent found to be more corrosive than the anaerobic-treated effluents and is assigned due to chloride, phosphate, calcium, nitrate, and nitrite ions, which enhances corrosivity at acidic pH. Mild steel showed highest uniform and localized corrosion followed by stainless steels 304L and 316L and lowest in case of duplex 2205.

  20. The comparison of greenhouse gas emissions in sewage treatment plants with different treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shuhei; Sano, Itsumi; Hojo, Toshimasa; Li, Yu-You; Nishimura, Osamu

    2018-02-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from different sewage treatment plants: oxidation ditch process, double-circulated anoxic-oxic process and anoxic-oxic process were evaluated based on the survey. The methane and nitrous oxide characteristics were discussed based on the gaseous and dissolved gas profiles. As a result, it was found that methane was produced in the sewer pipes and the primary sedimentation tank. Additionally, a ventilation system would promote the gasification of dissolved methane in the first treatment units. Nitrous oxide was produced and emitted in oxic tanks with nitrite accumulation inside the sewage treatment plant. A certain amount of nitrous oxide was also discharged as dissolved gas through the effluent water. If the amount of dissolved nitrous oxide discharge is not included, 7-14% of total nitrous oxide emission would be overlooked. Based on the greenhouse gas calculation, electrical consumption and the N 2 O emission from incineration process were major sources in all the plants. For greenhouse gas reduction, oxidation ditch process has an advantage over the other advanced systems due to lower energy consumption, sludge production, and nitrogen removal without gas stripping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The latest make-up water treatment plant for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokomizo, Yuichi

    1997-01-01

    As the change of the outside environment surrounding power stations, the strengthening of the environmental standard of water quality and the upgrading of required water quality standard are described. The reduction of colloidal silica in thermal power plant water and the reduction of iron and organic chlorine in PWR water are necessary. Recently it became difficult to secure water for power stations, and in dry season, the water for power stations is sometimes cut for securing livelihood and agricultural water. For the means of securing stable water source, the installation of seawater desalting plants increased. The types, the constitution of the plants and the operation performance are reported. Recently the water treatment technology using MF, UF and RO membranes has become to be adopted. The relation of the substances to be removed to the range of filtration of respective membranes is shown. The conventional method is the combination of coagulative sedimentation, filtration and ion exchange resin, but the membrane technology uses UF and RO membranes. The technical features of UF (ultrafiltration) and RO (reverse osmosis) membrane facilities and deaerating membrane are explained. (K.I.)

  2. Liquid waste treatment plant with e-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Yuri

    2003-01-01

    Global withdrawals of water to satisfy human demands have grown dramatically in this century. Between 1900 and 1995, water consumption increased by over six times, more than double the rate of population growth. This rapid growth in water demand is due to the increasing reliance on irrigation to achieve food security, the growth of industrial uses, and the increasing use per capita for domestic purposes. Given the seriousness of the situation and future risk of crises, there is an urgent need to develop the water-efficient technologies including economical treatment methods of wastewater and polluted water. In the laboratory of EB-TECH Co., many industrial wastewater including leachate from landfill area, wastewater from papermill, dyeing complex, petrochemical processes, etc. are under investigation with electron beam irradiation. For the study of treating dyeing wastewater combined with conventional facilities, an electron beam pilot plant for treating 1,000 m 3 /day of wastewater from 80,000 m 3 /day of total dyeing wastewater has constructed and operated in Taegu Dyeing Industrial Complex. A commercial plant for re-circulation of wastewater from Papermill Company is also designed for Pan Asia Paper Co. Cheongwon Mill, and after the successful installation, up to 80% of wastewater could be re-used in paper producing process. The method for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater and other technologies are developed with the joint works with Institute of Physical Chemistry (IPC) of Russian Academy of Sciences. (author)

  3. Plant-derived therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L; Raskin, Ilya; Cefalu, William T; Ribnicky, David M

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a set of coexisting metabolic disorders that increase an individual's likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Medicinal plants, some of which have been used for thousands of years, serve as an excellent source of bioactive compounds for the treatment of metabolic syndrome because they contain a wide range of phytochemicals with diverse metabolic effects. In order for botanicals to be effectively used against metabolic syndrome, however, botanical preparations must be characterized and standardized through the identification of their active compounds and respective modes of action, followed by validation in controlled clinical trials with clearly defined endpoints. This review assesses examples of commonly known and partially characterized botanicals to describe specific considerations for the phytochemical, preclinical and clinical characterization of botanicals associated with metabolic syndrome.

  4. Treatment efficiency in wastewater treatment plant of Hat Yai Municipality by quantitative removal of microbial indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangporn Kantachote

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of treatment in a wastewater treatment plant of Hat Yai Municipality through stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands was monitored by using the bacterial indicators, total coliforms (TC, fecal coliforms (FC, Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci (FS, and photosynthetic microbes. The sequence of water flow in the wastewater treatment plant is as follows: primary or anaerobic pond (P, facultative pond (F, maturation pond (M, constructed wetlands (W1, W2 and W3, and an effluent storage pond (S for the treated wastewater. The wastewater treatment plant has an approximate area of 3,264,000 m2 (2,040 rai and its dry weather flow was running at only 40,000 m3/ day. There were 10 sampling times used for all the 7 ponds during July-October, 2006.Statistical analysis using a Two-Factorial Design model, indicated that pond types significantly affected temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO, and pH (p<0.05, whereas the time of sampling during the day had a significant effect (p<0.05 only on the temperature and light intensity available to the ponds. There were also significant different removal efficiencies of the different bacterial indicator groups tested (p<0.05. The overall performance of the wastewater treatment plant effectively removed TC, FC, E. coli, and FS as follows, 99.8%, 99.8%, 75.8% and 98.8%, respectively. The amounts of bacterial indicators, except for E. coli, showed a negative correlation with levels of light intensity and DO, whereas there was no correlation between the pH and the different indicator bacteria. There was a positive middle level correlation between pHand chlorophyll a.There were five different divisions of photosynthetic organisms detected throughout the plant as follows, Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Euglenophyta, and Pyrrhophyta. The least diversity was found in the anaerobic pond (P as there were only 15 genera. Euglena, an indicator of dirty water, was detected only in this pond. The

  5. Greenhouse gas emission quantification from wastewater treatment plants, using a tracer gas dispersion method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Plant-integrated methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission quantifications were performed at five Scandinavian wastewater treatment plants, using a ground-based remote sensing approach that combines a controlled release of tracer gas from the plant with downwind concentration measurements. CH4...... emission factors were between 1 and 21% of CH4 production, and between 0.2 and 3.2% of COD influent. The main CH4 emitting sources at the five plants were sludge treatment and energy production units. The lowest CH4 emission factors were obtained at plants with enclosed sludge treatment and storage units...... in international guidelines. This study showed that measured CH4 and N2O emission rates from wastewater treatment plants were plant-specific and that emission rates estimated using models in current guidelines, mainly meant for reporting emissions on the country scale, were unsuitable for Scandinavian plant...

  6. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceutically active compounds in the largest municipal wastewater treatment plant in Southwest China: mass balance analysis and consumption back-calculated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing; Gao, Xu; Huang, Lei; Gan, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Yi-Xin; Chen, You-Peng; Peng, Xu-Ya; Guo, Jin-Song

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence and fate of twenty-one pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) were investigated in different steps of the largest wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Southwest China. Concentrations of these PhACs were determined in both wastewater and sludge phases by a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that 21 target PhACs were present in wastewater and 18 in sludge. The calculated total mass load of PhACs per capita to the influent, the receiving water and sludge were 4.95mgd(-1)person(-1), 889.94μgd(-1)person(-1) and 78.57μgd(-1)person(-1), respectively. The overall removal efficiency of the individual PhACs ranged from "negative removal" to almost complete removal. Mass balance analysis revealed that biodegradation is believed to be the predominant removal mechanism, and sorption onto sludge was a relevant removal pathway for quinolone antibiotics, azithromycin and simvastatin, accounting for 9.35-26.96% of the initial loadings. However, the sorption of the other selected PhACs was negligible. The overall pharmaceutical consumption in Chongqing, China, was back-calculated based on influent concentration by considering the pharmacokinetics of PhACs in humans. The back-estimated usage was in good agreement with usage of ofloxacin (agreement ratio: 72.5%). However, the back-estimated usage of PhACs requires further verification. Generally, the average influent mass loads and back-calculated annual per capita consumption of the selected antibiotics were comparable to or higher than those reported in developed countries, while the case of other target PhACs was opposite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of energy consumption during aerobic sewage sludge treatment in dairy wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Żyłka, Radosław; Malinowski, Paweł

    2017-02-01

    The subject of the research conducted in an operating dairy wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was to examine electric energy consumption during sewage sludge treatment. The excess sewage sludge was aerobically stabilized and dewatered with a screw press. Organic matter varied from 48% to 56% in sludge after stabilization and dewatering. It proves that sludge was properly stabilized and it was possible to apply it as a fertilizer. Measurement factors for electric energy consumption for mechanically dewatered sewage sludge were determined, which ranged between 0.94 and 1.5 kWhm -3 with the average value at 1.17 kWhm -3 . The shares of devices used for sludge dewatering and aerobic stabilization in the total energy consumption of the plant were also established, which were 3% and 25% respectively. A model of energy consumption during sewage sludge treatment was estimated according to experimental data. Two models were applied: linear regression for dewatering process and segmented linear regression for aerobic stabilization. The segmented linear regression model was also applied to total energy consumption during sewage sludge treatment in the examined dairy WWTP. The research constitutes an introduction for further studies on defining a mathematical model used to optimize electric energy consumption by dairy WWTPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Water Treatment Problems: Case Study of Maiduguri Water Treatment Plant (MWTP and Maiduguri Environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Idris

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Water remains the most useful universal solvent to human being and other animals, because of its derivative importance. However, effort to improve on raw water treatment would continue to be a subject of concern, because the process procedures are been violated or not properly upheld. This study was carried out in order to identify peculiar problems associate with water treatment at the Maiduguri Water Treatment Plant (MWTP. This research study was based on prompt time-schedules and plant site-visits, interviewed questions were made and accessing the technology adopted in the process stages. Analytical data were obtained through the use of sampling bottles, camera, record sheets and other necessary laboratory equipment. The analysis showed that treated water contained excess chlorine and aluminum with 1.10mg/l and 0.68mg/l respectively. From this study, the following are the root causes: poor facility lay out, poor organizational and functional structures, wear of pump impellers and surface deterioration in the transmission line, lack of calibration test, constant head system not operation properly, lack of jar test conduction, improper maintenance of filter system, and the use of chemical coagulant. Inferences were made at the end of the research to enhance process efficiency, healthier and more economical treatment MWTP.

  9. Demonstration plant of smoke treatment by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Keita

    1989-01-01

    The acid rain caused by sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides has become the large social problem as it damages forests, lakes and agricultural crops and also buildings in Europe and America. In such circumstances, concern has been expressed in various countries on the smoke treatment technology, EBA process, which removes the sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides contained in smoke simultaneously by irradiating electron beam on the smoke which is exhausted from power station boilers and industrial boilers and mainly causes acid rain. The research and development of this technology were begun in 1971 based on the original idea of Ebara Corp., and from 1972, those were advanced as the joint research with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Thereafter, by the joint research with the technical research association on prevention of nitrogen oxides in iron and steel industry, by ammonia addition and irradiation process, the desulfurization and denitration performance was heightened, and the byproduct was successfully captured as powder, in this way, the continuous dry treatment process was established. The demonstration test plant was constructed in a coal-firing power station in Indiana, USA, and the trial operation was carried out from 1985 for two years. (K.I.)

  10. Diversity of microbiota found in coffee processing wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Josiane Ferreira; Cardoso, Larissa de Souza; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Silva, Cristina Ferreira

    2017-11-13

    Cultivable microbiota presents in a coffee semi-dry processing wastewater treatment plant (WTP) was identified. Thirty-two operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, these being 16 bacteria, 11 yeasts and 4 filamentous fungi. Bacteria dominated the microbial population (11.61 log CFU mL - 1 ), and presented the highest total diversity index when observed in the WTP aerobic stage (Shannon = 1.94 and Simpson = 0.81). The most frequent bacterial species were Enterobacter asburiae, Sphingobacterium griseoflavum, Chryseobacterium bovis, Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium flavescens, Acetobacter orientalis and Acetobacter indonesiensis; these showed the largest total bacteria populations in the WTP, with approximately 10 log CFU mL - 1 . Yeasts were present at 7 log CFU mL - 1 of viable cells, with Hanseniaspora uvarum, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Saturnispora gosingensis, and Kazachstania gamospora being the prevalent species. Filamentous fungi were found at 6 log CFU mL - 1 , with Fusarium oxysporum the most populous species. The identified species have the potential to act as a biological treatment in the WTP, and the application of them for this purpose must be better studied.

  11. Treatment of radioactive contaminated water in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    This rule is to be applied to the design, construction, and operation of facilities for treatment of water contaminated with radioactive material in stationary nuclear power plants with LWRs and HTRs. According to the requirements of the rule these facilities are to be designed, constructed, and operated in such a way that a) uncontrolled discharge of water contaminated with radioactive material is avoided, b) the activity discharged with water is as low as possible, c) water contaminated with radioactive material will not reach the ground, d) the radiation exposure as a consequence of direct radiation, contamination, and inhalation of the persons occupied in the facilities is as low as possible and as a maximum corresponds to the values laid down in the radiation protection regulation or to the values of the operating license. This rule is not to be applied to facilities for coolant and storage pit clean-up as well as facilities for the treatment of concentrates produced during the contamination of the water. (orig./HP) [de

  12. 40 CFR 63.1592 - Which General Provisions apply to my POTW treatment plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POTW treatment plant? 63.1592 Section 63.1592 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Publicly Owned Treatment Works General Requirements § 63.1592 Which General Provisions apply to my POTW treatment plant? (a) Table 1 to this subpart...

  13. Treatment of landfill leachate by irrigation of willow coppice - Plant response and treatment efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, Paer; Dahlin, Torleif; Dimitriou, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    Landfill leachates usually need to be treated before discharged, and using soil-plant systems for this has gained substantial interest in Sweden and in the UK. A three-year field study was conducted in central Sweden to quantify plant response, treatment efficiency and impact on groundwater quality of landfill leachate irrigation of short-rotation willow coppice (Salix). Two willow varieties were tested and four irrigation regimes in sixteen 400-m 2 plots. The willow plants did not react negatively, despite very high annual loads of nitrogen (≤2160 kg N/ha), chloride (≤8600 kg Cl/ha) and other elements. Mean annual growth was 1.5, 9.8 and 12.6 tonnes DM/ha during years 1-3. For one of two willow varieties tested, relative leaf length accurately predicted growth rate. Irrigation resulted in elevated groundwater concentrations of all elements applied. Treatment efficiency varied considerably for different elements, but was adequate when moderate loads were applied. - Short-rotation willow coppice was successfully used for treating a strong landfill leachate in central Sweden over three years.

  14. Beyond the conventional life cycle inventory in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo-Toja, Yago, E-mail: yago.lorenzo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Alfonsín, Carolina [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Amores, María José; Aldea, Xavier; Marin, Desirée [Cetaqua, Water Technology Centre, 08940 Cornellà de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for the environmental assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is typically based on the removal efficiency of organic load and nutrients as well as the quantification of energy and chemicals consumption. Current wastewater treatment research entails the monitoring of direct emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), which have been rarely considered in the environmental assessment of a wastewater treatment facility by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. As a result of that, the real environmental impacts of a WWTP may be underestimated. In this study, two WWTPs located in different climatic regions (Atlantic and Mediterranean) of Spain were evaluated in extensive sampling campaigns that included not only conventional water quality parameters but also direct GHG emissions and PPCPs in water and sludge lines. Regarding the GHG monitoring campaign, on-site measurements of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were performed and emission factors were calculated for both WWTPs. GHG direct emissions accounted for 62% of the total global warming potential (GWP), much more relevant than indirect CO{sub 2} emissions associated with electricity use. Regarding PPCPs, 19 compounds were measured in the main streams: influent, effluent and sludge, to perform the evaluation of the toxicity impact categories. Although the presence of heavy metals in the effluent and the sludge as well as the toxicity linked to the electricity production may shade the toxicity impacts linked to PPCPs in some impact categories, the latter showed a notable influence on freshwater ecotoxicity potential (FETP). For this impact category, the removal of PPCPs within the wastewater treatment was remarkably important and arose as an environmental benefit in comparison with the non-treatment scenario. - Highlights: • The influence of LCI quality on the environmental assessment

  15. Application of subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands to reject water treatment in dairy wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Karolinczak, Beata; Gajewska, Magdalena; Wojciechowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the effects of applying subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands (SS VF) for the treatment of reject water generated in the process of aerobic sewage sludge stabilization in the biggest dairy wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Poland. Two SS VF beds were built: bed (A) with 0.65 m depth and bed (B) with 1.0 m depth, planted with reeds. Beds were fed with reject water with hydraulic load of 0.1 m d -1 in order to establish the differences in treatment efficiency. During an eight-months research period, a high removal efficiency of predominant pollutants was shown: BOD 5 88.1% (A) and 90.5% (B); COD 84.5% (A) and 87.5% (B); TSS 87.6% (A) and 91.9% (B); TKN 82.4% (A) and 76.5% (B); N-NH 4 + 89.2% (A) and 85.7% (B); TP 30.2% (A) and 40.6% (B). There were not statistically significant differences in the removal efficiencies between bed (B) with 1.0 m depth and bed (A) with 0.65 m depth. The research indicated that SS VF beds could be successfully applied to reject water treatment in dairy WWTPs. The study proved that the use of SS VF beds in full scale in dairy WWTPs would result in a significant decrease in pollutants' load in reject water. In the analyzed case, decreasing the load of ammonia nitrogen was of greatest importance, as it constituted 58% of the total load treated in dairy WWTP and posed a hazard to the stability of the treatment process.

  16. THE MUNICIPAL SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT EFFLUENT POLISHING IN ULTRAFILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Dudziak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effluent from the municipal sewage treatment plant was comparatively treated in the ultrafiltration process using ceramic and polymer membranes. Filtration was carried out in the cross-flow system under the conditions of the transmembrane process pressure 0.1 MPa - the ceramic membrane and 0.2 MPa – the polymer membrane at a temperature of 20°C. The effectiveness of the process had been assessed by various physical and chemical analyses (pH, turbidity, color, absorbance, TOC and phenol index. There was included the toxicological assessment (by applying as an indicator organism the bioluminescence bacteria Aliivibrio fischeri and microbiological assessment of tested samples. During filtration there was studied the hydraulic efficiency of membranes. Is was specified, that the efficiency of the process depends on the conditions of membrane filtration, wherein the better effects of the removal of organic pollutants had been noted in the case of polymer membrane than ceramic membrane. However, the polymer membrane, in the comparison to the ceramic membrane, was more susceptible to pore blocking, which caused the reduction of hydraulic efficiency. Regardless of what type of membrane the permeats were not toxic and did not contain microorganisms.

  17. Pesticides from wastewater treatment plant effluents affect invertebrate communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münze, Ronald; Hannemann, Christin; Orlinskiy, Polina; Gunold, Roman; Paschke, Albrecht; Foit, Kaarina; Becker, Jeremias; Kaske, Oliver; Paulsson, Elin; Peterson, Märit; Jernstedt, Henrik; Kreuger, Jenny; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Liess, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    We quantified pesticide contamination and its ecological impact up- and downstream of seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in rural and suburban areas of central Germany. During two sampling campaigns, time-weighted average pesticide concentrations (c TWA ) were obtained using Chemcatcher® passive samplers; pesticide peak concentrations were quantified with event-driven samplers. At downstream sites, receiving waters were additionally grab sampled for five selected pharmaceuticals. Ecological effects on macroinvertebrate structure and ecosystem function were assessed using the biological indicator system SPEAR pesticides (SPEcies At Risk) and leaf litter breakdown rates, respectively. WWTP effluents substantially increased insecticide and fungicide concentrations in receiving waters; in many cases, treated wastewater was the exclusive source for the neonicotinoid insecticides acetamiprid and imidacloprid in the investigated streams. During the ten weeks of the investigation, five out of the seven WWTPs increased in-stream pesticide toxicity by a factor of three. As a consequence, at downstream sites, SPEAR values and leaf litter degradation rates were reduced by 40% and 53%, respectively. The reduced leaf litter breakdown was related to changes in the macroinvertebrate communities described by SPEAR pesticides and not to altered microbial activity. Neonicotinoids showed the highest ecological relevance for the composition of invertebrate communities, occasionally exceeding the Regulatory Acceptable Concentrations (RACs). In general, considerable ecological effects of insecticides were observed above and below regulatory thresholds. Fungicides, herbicides and pharmaceuticals contributed only marginally to acute toxicity. We conclude that pesticide retention of WWTPs needs to be improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Toluene in sewage and sludge in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowiec, Bozena

    2014-01-01

    Toluene is a compound that often occurs in municipal wastewater ranging from detectable levels up to 237 μg/L. Before the year 2000, the presence of the aromatic hydrocarbons was assigned only to external sources. The Enhanced Biological Nutrients Removal Processes (EBNRP) work according to many different schemes and technologies. For high-efficiency biological denitrification and dephosphatation processes, the presence of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in sewage is required. VFAs are the main product of organic matter hydrolysis from sewage sludge. However, no attention has been given to other products of the process. It has been found that in parallel to VFA production, toluene formation occurred. The formation of toluene in municipal anaerobic sludge digestion processes was investigated. Experiments were performed on a laboratory scale using sludge from primary and secondary settling tanks of municipal treatment plants. The concentration of toluene in the digested sludge from primary settling tanks was found to be about 42,000 μg/L. The digested sludge supernatant liquor returned to the biological dephosphatation and denitrification processes for sewage enrichment can contain up to 16,500 μg/L of toluene.

  19. NPDES Draft Permit for City of New Town Water Treatment Plant in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System draft permit number ND0031151, The City of New Town Water Treatment Plant is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility in Mountrail County, North Dakota.

  20. Feasibility analysis of a sewage sludge treatment by an irradiation plant in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, J; Colin, A; Tavera, L

    2002-01-01

    Technical and economic analyses of an irradiation plant for sewage sludge treatment determined that an appropriate place for the first sludge electron irradiator in Mexico would be the sewage water treatment plant located north of Toluca in the State of Mexico. This treatment plant is mainly used for domestic wastewater and produces an approximate volume of 70 ton d-] liquid sewage sludge. Considering a 50 k W power of a 10 MeV electron linear accelerator, an irradiation dose of S KGy and a treatment capacity of 346 tons per day, it is estimated that the treatment cost would be of $9.00 US dollars per ton. (Author)

  1. A Course on Operational Considerations in Wastewater Treatment Plant Design. Instructor's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John W.; And Others

    This manual contains 17 instructional units (sequenced to correspond to parallel chapters in a student's manual) focusing on upgrading the design of wastewater plant facilities and serving as a reference source for establishing criteria for upgrading wastewater treatment plants. The manual also furnishes information for modifying plant design to…

  2. A Course on Operational Considerations in Wastewater Treatment Plant Design. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottler, Stag and Associates, San Antonio, TX.

    This manual was designed to furnish information for upgrading the design of wastewater treatment plant facilities and to serve as a resource for establishing criteria for upgrading these plants. The manual also furnishes information for modifying plant design to compensate for current organic and hydraulic overloads and/or to meet more stringent…

  3. Accelerated approach of discovering plant derived drug leads for treatment of TB

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available dedicated and comprehensive plant electronic database of a total of 566 plants that are reportedly used for the treatment of tuberculosis. The extracts of these plants are part of the CSIR database of extracts. TB drug lead research is ongoing, and active...

  4. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  5. Emerging treatment options for meibomian gland dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao J

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jing Qiao, Xiaoming YanDepartment of Ophthalmology, Peking University First Hospital, Key Laboratory of Vision Loss and Restoration, Ministry of Education, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD is one of the most common diseases observed in clinics; it influences a great number of people, and is the leading cause of evaporative dry eye. Given the increased recognition of the importance of MGD, a great amount of attention has been paid to therapies targeting this condition. The traditional treatments of MGD consist of warm compresses and lid hygiene for removing an obstructed meibum, as well as antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents to improve the quality of the meibum. However, each of these treatments has a different shortcoming and the treatment of MGD remains challenging. Despite the numerous possible treatment options for MGD, it is still difficult to obtain complete relief of signs and symptoms. This review focuses on current emerging treatment options for MGD including intraductal meibomian gland probing, emulsion eye drops containing lipids, the LipiFlow® thermal pulsation system, N-acetyl-cysteine, azithromycin, oral supplementation with omega-3 essential fatty acids, and cyclosporine A.Keywords: meibomian gland dysfunction, dry eye, emerging treatment

  6. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norm Stanley

    2011-02-01

    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.

  7. The effects of Niger State water treatment plant effluent on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of water treatment plant effluent on its receiving river (Kaduna) was examined. Samples were collected from the effluents discharge from Chanchaga water treatment plant into upstream and down stream of the receiving river monthly for six month. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory for microbial counts and ...

  8. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the

  9. Assessment of airborne virus contamination in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masclaux, Frédéric G; Hotz, Philipp; Gashi, Drita; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Oppliger, Anne

    2014-08-01

    Occupational exposure to bioaerosols in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and its consequence on workers' health are well documented. Most studies were devoted to enumerating and identifying cultivable bacteria and fungi, as well as measuring concentrations of airborne endotoxins, as these are the main health-related factors found in WWTP. Surprisingly, very few studies have investigated the presence and concentrations of airborne virus in WWTP. However, many enteric viruses are present in wastewater and, due to their small size, they should become aerosolized. Two in particular, the norovirus and the adenovirus, are extremely widespread and are the major causes of infectious gastrointestinal diseases reported around the world. The third one, hepatitis E virus, has an emerging status. This study׳s objectives were to detect and quantify the presence and concentrations of 3 different viruses (adenovirus, norovirus and the hepatitis E virus) in air samples from 31 WWTPs by using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) during two different seasons and two consecutive years. Adenovirus was present in 100% of summer WWTP samples and 97% of winter samples. The highest airborne concentration measured was 2.27 × 10(6) genome equivalent/m(3) and, on average, these were higher in summer than in winter. Norovirus was detected in only 3 of the 123 air samples, and the hepatitis E virus was not detected. Concentrations of potentially pathogenic viral particles in WWTP air are non-negligible and could partly explain the work-related gastrointestinal symptoms often reported in employees in this sector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Radionuclide content of wastewater and solid waste from a low-level effluent treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Zalina Laili; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Mat Bakar Mahusin

    2010-01-01

    A study on radioactivity levels of wastewater and solid waste from a Low-level Effluent Treatment Plant has been carried out. The measurement of radionuclide concentration was carried out using gamma spectrometry. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides were detected in solid radioactive waste recovered from the treatment plant. The presence of radionuclides in waste water varies depending on activities carried out in laboratories and facilities connected to the plant. (author)

  11. An evaluation of a water treatment plant with improved overall effectiveness as an objective

    OpenAIRE

    Homsi, Ibrahim J.

    1995-01-01

    The XYZ water Authority (Authority) supplies a population of approximately one million people with drinking water. This water is being produced by three water treatment plants and several independent well sites. The River water Treatment Plant (WTP), the Authority's largest and most modern of all three plants has been experiencing, over a period of ten years, severe and premature equipment failures which are causing process interruptions, production losses and high maintenance cost. These fai...

  12. Collection and treatment of reliability data for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, B.

    1973-09-01

    This paper describes some of the results achieved with the Argus data bank at the Institution of Thermal Power Engineering at the Chalmers University of Technology. This data bank, or rather data collection system, has been established to cover nuclear activities the world over. The system comprises in essence a number of data files. The prime files are those containing the basic data on the various plants - plant size and type, country and NSSS supplier and an indication of plantstatus. Further files contain plant design data and parameters and all available information on construction as commissioning timetables. To cover the operation of plant two files have been established. One file, which is updated on a monthly basis, contains power production statistics. The other file contains failure data. In this file are recorded the time and duration of plant shutdown together with the primary reason (s) for this. (M.S.)

  13. Plant-wide (BSM2) evaluation of reject water treatment with a SHARON-Anammox process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volcke, Eveline; Gernaey, Krist; Vrecko, Darko

    2006-01-01

    treatment plant, reject water treatment with a combined SHARON-Anammox process seems a promising option. The simulation results indicate that significant improvements of the effluent quality of the main wastewater treatment plant can be realized. An economic evaluation of the different scenarios......In wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with sludge digestion and dewatering systems, the reject water originating from these facilities contributes significantly to the nitrogen load of the activated sludge tanks, to which it is typically recycled. In this paper, the impact of reject water...

  14. Study on evaluation index system of operational performance of municipal wastewater treatment plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoxin, Zhang; Jin, Huang; Ling, Lin; Yan, Li

    2018-05-01

    According to the undeveloped evaluation method for the operational performance of the municipal wastewater treatment plants, this paper analyzes the policies related to sewage treatment industry based on the investigation of the municipal wastewater treatment plants. The applicable evaluation method for the operational performance was proposed from environmental protection performance, resources and energy consumption, technical and economic performance, production management and main equipment, providing a reliable basis for scientific evaluation of the operation as well as improving the operational performance of municipal wastewater treatment plant.

  15. Greenhouse Gases Emissions from Wastewater Treatment Plants: Minimization, Treatment, and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Campos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The operation of wastewater treatment plants results in direct emissions, from the biological processes, of greenhouse gases (GHG such as carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O, as well as indirect emissions resulting from energy generation. In this study, three possible ways to reduce these emissions are discussed and analyzed: (1 minimization through the change of operational conditions, (2 treatment of the gaseous streams, and (3 prevention by applying new configurations and processes to remove both organic matter and pollutants. In current WWTPs, to modify the operational conditions of existing units reveals itself as possibly the most economical way to decrease N2O and CO2 emissions without deterioration of effluent quality. Nowadays the treatment of the gaseous streams containing the GHG seems to be a not suitable option due to the high capital costs of systems involved to capture and clean them. The change of WWTP configuration by using microalgae or partial nitritation-Anammox processes to remove ammonia from wastewater, instead of conventional nitrification-denitrification processes, can significantly reduce the GHG emissions and the energy consumed. However, the area required in the case of microalgae systems and the current lack of information about stability of partial nitritation-Anammox processes operating in the main stream of the WWTP are factors to be considered.

  16. Leachate Treatment from Sarimukti Landfill Using Ozone with Sludge from Water Treatment Plant as a Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudha Ramdhani Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leachate is the liquid waste from anaerobic decomposition in a landfill. The ozonation process can be used for leachate treatment. Sludge from sedimentation in water treatment plant contains 5.96% of Al and 9.35% of Si which can affect of its cation exchange capacity and affects the active site in the catalyst. This study aims to determine the effectivity of sludge in the ozonation process to treat leachate. A 1,5 L semi-batch reactor containing 1 L sample was used in this experiment with the rate of oxygen supply was at 4 L/min taken from ambient air. Two groups of sludge weighing 1.5 grams, 3.0 grams and 4.5 grams were used and activate with physically and chemically activated. The best result was obtained by the physically activated sludge with mass of 4.5 gram O3-L-4,5 AF. The differences of removal efficiency between O3-L-4,5 AF with the control (O3 for turbidity were respectively 13.02% and 7.81%, for EC were 10.57% and 8.29%, for COD were 49.44% and 37.50%, and for residual ozone concentration at the end of contact time were 7.6 mg/L and 9.7 mg/L. It can be concluded that activaed sludge and ozonation can be used as a catalyst in leachate treatment.

  17. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of respiratory diseases. 1. Screening of 68 plants against gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, A; Alvarez, A V; Ovando, A E; Samayoa, B E

    1991-02-01

    Respiratory ailments are important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Ethnobotanical surveys and literature reviews conducted in Guatemala during 1986-88 showed that 234 plants from 75 families, most of them of American origin, have been used for the treatment of respiratory ailments. Three Gram-positive bacteria causing respiratory infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes) were used to screen 68 of the most commonly used plants for activity. Twenty-eight of these (41.2%) inhibited the growth of one or more of the bacteria tested. Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by 18 of the plant extracts, while 7 extracts were effective against Streptococcus pyogenes. Plants of American origin which exhibited antibacterial activity were: Gnaphalium viscosum, Lippia alba, Lippia dulcis, Physalis philadelphica, Satureja brownei, Solanum nigrescens and Tagetes lucida. These preliminary in vitro results provide scientific basis for the use of these plants against bacterial respiratory infections.

  18. Evaluation of Five Treatment Plants for the Removal of Microcystins in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Álvarez Cortiñas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Galicia there are supplies that collect water from reservoirs showing growth of cyanobacteria that could produce toxins. The drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs of these supplies should provide adequate treatment and be subjected to maintenance. WHO guidelines make recommendations on the most suitable treatments for removing microcystins. The Department of Health developed a protocol of action against these events jointly with water basin authorities. 4 reservoirs and five treatment plants were identified for this study. The treatments of the plants, the maintenance carried out at the DWTPs and the results for sestonic and dissolved toxins analyzed by the Public Health Laboratory of Galicia in the reservoirs near the point of collection, before the treatment plants and after them, during the 2013-2014 biennium were evaluated.

  19. 40 CFR 63.1583 - What are the emission points and control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant? 63.1583 Section 63.1583 Protection of... Pollutants: Publicly Owned Treatment Works Industrial Potw Treatment Plant Description and Requirements § 63.1583 What are the emission points and control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant? (a...

  20. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of

  1. Pilot plant for flue gas treatment - continuous operation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Tyminski, B.; Iller, E.; Zimek, Z.; Licki, J.; Radzio, B.

    1995-01-01

    Tests of continuous operation have been performed on pilot plant at EPS Kaweczyn in the wide range of SO 2 concentration (500-3000 ppm). The bag filter has been applied for aerosol separation. The high efficiencies of SO 2 and NO x removal, approximately 90% were obtained and influenced by such process parameters as: dose, gas temperature and ammonia stoichiometry. The main apparatus of the pilot plant (e.g. both accelerators) have proved their reliability in hard industrial conditions. (Author)

  2. Biotechnological aspects of plants metabolites in the treatment of ulcer: A new prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kishore Singh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulcer is one of the most common diseases affecting throughout the world population. The allopathic treatment of ulcer adversely affects the health by causing harmful side effects. Currently, many herbal plants and secondary metabolites have been used for the ulcer treatment. In the present review, many herbal plants and their parts (root, rhizome, bark, leaves and fruits have been listed in the table are currently being used for ulcer treatment. These metabolites are responsible for ulcer-neutralization or anti-inflammatory properties. In silico study, plant metabolites showed interaction between protodioscin (secondary metabolites of Asparagus racemosus and interferon-γ (virulent factor of gastric ulcer during molecular docking. All the residues of interferon-γ exhibited hydrophobic interactions with plant metabolites. These interactions helps in understanding the plant secondary metabolites vis a vis will open a new door in the research field of new drug discovery and designing for the ulcer treatment.

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, Vanessa; Svardal, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Operating wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) represent a source of greenhouse gases (GHG). Direct GHG emissions include emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) that can be biologically produced during wastewater and sewage sludge treatment. This is also highlighted in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2006) guidelines used for national GHG inventories. Indirect GHG emissions occur at WWTPs mainly by the consumption of electricity, fossil fuel for transportation and by the use of chemicals (e.g. coagulants). In this study, the impact of direct and indirect GHG emissions was quantified for two model WWTPs of 50.000 person equivalents (p.e.) using carbon footprint analyses. It was assumed that at one WWTP sewage sludge is digested anaerobically, at the other one it is aerobically stabilised in the activated sludge tank. The carbon footprint analyses were performed using literature emission factors. A new estimation model based on measurements at eight Austrian WWTPs was used for the assessment of N2O direct emissions (Parravicini et al., 2015). The results of the calculations show that, under the selected assumptions, the direct N2O emission from the activated sludge tank can dominate the carbon footprint of WWTP with a poor nitrogen removal efficiency. Through an improved operation of nitrogen removal several advantages can be gained: direct N2O emissions can be reduced, the energy demand for aeration can be decreased and a higher effluent quality can be achieved. Anaerobic digesters and anaerobic sludge storage tanks can become a relevant source of direct CH4 emissions. Minimising of CH4 losses from these sources improves the carbon footprint of the WWTP also increasing the energy yield achievable by combusting this renewable energy carrier in a combined heat and power unit. The estimated carbon footprint of the model WWTPs lies between 20 and 40 kg CO2e/p.e./a. This corresponds to 0.2 to 0.4% of the CO2e average emission caused yearly

  4. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  5. Global sensitivity analysis in wastewater treatment plant model applications: Prioritizing sources of uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist; Neumann, Marc B.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the usefulness of global sensitivity analysis in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) design to prioritize sources of uncertainty and quantify their impact on performance criteria. The study, which is performed with the Benchmark Simulation Model no. 1 plant design, complements...... insight into devising useful ways for reducing uncertainties in the plant performance. This information can help engineers design robust WWTP plants....... a previous paper on input uncertainty characterisation and propagation (Sin et al., 2009). A sampling-based sensitivity analysis is conducted to compute standardized regression coefficients. It was found that this method is able to decompose satisfactorily the variance of plant performance criteria (with R2...

  6. Six-year experiences in the operation of a low level liquid waste treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, S.-J.; Hwang, S.-L.; Tsai, C.-M.

    1980-01-01

    The operation of a low level liquid waste treatment plant is described. The plant is designed for the disposal of liquid waste produced primarily by a 40 MW Taiwan Research Reactor as well as a fuel fabrication plant for the CANDU type reactor and a radioisotopes production laboratory. The monthly volume treated is about 600-2500 ton of low level liquid waste. The activity levels are in the range of 10 -5 -10 -3 μCi/cm 3 . The continuous treatment system of the low level liquid waste treatment plant and the treatment data collected since 1973 are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of continuous and batch processes are compared. In the continuous process, the efficiency of sludge treatment, vermiculite ion exchange and the adsorption of peat are investigated for further improvement. (H.K.)

  7. The function of advanced treatment process in a drinking water treatment plant with organic matter-polluted source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huirong; Zhang, Shuting; Zhang, Shenghua; Lin, Wenfang; Yu, Xin

    2017-04-01

    To understand the relationship between chemical and microbial treatment at each treatment step, as well as the relationship between microbial community structure in biofilms in biofilters and their ecological functions, a drinking water plant with severe organic matter-polluted source water was investigated. The bacterial community dynamics of two drinking water supply systems (traditional and advanced treatment processes) in this plant were studied from the source to the product water. Analysis by 454 pyrosequencing was conducted to characterize the bacterial diversity in each step of the treatment processes. The bacterial communities in these two treatment processes were highly diverse. Proteobacteria, which mainly consisted of beta-proteobacteria, was the dominant phylum. The two treatment processes used in the plant could effectively remove organic pollutants and microbial polution, especially the advanced treatment process. Significant differences in the detection of the major groups were observed in the product water samples in the treatment processes. The treatment processes, particularly the biological pretreatment and O 3 -biological activated carbon in the advanced treatment process, highly influenced the microbial community composition and the water quality. Some opportunistic pathogens were found in the water. Nitrogen-relative microorganisms found in the biofilm of filters may perform an important function on the microbial community composition and water quality improvement.

  8. Presence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in sewage treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathy, Raj

    2017-09-01

    The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes in rural sewage treatment plants are not well reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to study the frequency occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a rural sewage treatment plant. This study was conducted using raw sewage as well as treated sewage from a small town sewage treatment plant in rural southeast Louisiana of USA. Results showed the presence of MRSA consistently in both raw and treated sewage. The presence of mecA gene responsible for methicillin resistance was confirmed in the raw and treated sewage water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment with aquatic plants by a Bagdi tribal healer of Rajbari District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsina Mukti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tribal healers mainly use land plants in their medicinal formulations; use of aquatic plants has been scarcely reported. Aims: The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey working with a Bagdi tribal healer of Rajbari District, Bangladesh. Settings and Design: The survey was carried out working with a Bagdi healer, who lived alone in the wetlands of Rajbari District and used primarily aquatic plants for treatment. Materials and Methods: Interview of the healer was carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results: The Bagdi healer was observed to use seven different aquatic plant species coming from five plant families for treatment of ailments such as hemorrhoids, tonsillitis, heart disorders, burning sensations and pain in hands or legs, blurred vision, debility, sexual weakness in males, chronic dysentery, infertility in women, constipation, chronic leucorrhea, blackness and foul odor of menstrual blood, hair loss, graying of hair and to keep the head cool. One plant was used to treat what the healer mentioned as "evil eye", this refers to their belief in black-magic. Conclusions: This is the first reported instance of a Bagdi healer who primarily uses aquatic plants for treatment. Ethnomedicinal uses of a number of the plants used by the Bagdi healer have been reported for other places in India and Pakistan. Taken together, the various uses of the different plant species opens up scientific possibilities of new drug discoveries from the plants.

  10. Medicinal plants in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Maliheh; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a small, spiral, Gram-negative bacillus that plays a role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases ranging from asymptomatic gastritis to gastric cancer. Schedule compliance, antibiotic drug resistance, and side-effects of triple or quadruple therapy have led to research for novel candidates from plants. The purpose of this paper is to review the most potent medicinal plants of recently published literature with anti-H. pylori activity. For centuries, herbals have been used by traditional healers around the world to treat various gastrointestinal tract disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease. The mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic properties has not been completely and clearly elucidated. Anti-H. pylori properties may be one of the possible mechanisms by which gastroprotective herbs treat gastrointestinal tract disorders. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, EBSCO, and local databases were explored for medicinal plants with anti-H. pylori properties between 1984 and 2013 using key words "medicinal plants" and "Helicobacter pylori" or "anti-Helicobacter pylori". A total of 43 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families including Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Clusiaceae, Chancapiedra, Combretaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Geraniaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Menispermaceae, Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae, Papaveraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, and Theaceae were studied as herbs with potent anti-H. pylori effects. Traditional folk medicinal use of some of these plants to treat gastric infections is substantiated by the antibacterial activity of their extracts against H. pylori.

  11. Delisting strategy for the Hanford Site 242-A Evaporator PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This document describes the strategy that the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office intends to use in preparing the delisting petition for the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility. Because the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility will not be operational until 1994, the delisting petition will be structured as an up-front petition based on the ''multiple waste treatment facility'' approach outline in the 1985 US Environmental Protection Agency's Petitions to Delist Hazardous Waste. The 242-A evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility effluent characterization data will not be available to support the delisting petition, because the delisting petition will be submitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency before start-up of the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility. Therefore, the delisting petition will be based on data collected during the pilot plant testing for the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility. This pilot plant testing will be conducted on synthetic waste. The composition of the synthetic waste will be based on: (1) constituents of regulatory concern, and (2) on process knowledge. The pilot plant testing will be performed to determine the removal efficiencies of the process equipment at concentrations greater than reasonably could be expected in the actual waste. This strategy document also describes the logic used to develop the synthetic waste, to develop the pilot plant testing program, and to prepare the delisting petition. This strategy document also described how full-scale operating data will be collected during initial operation of the 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Condensate Treatment Facility to verify information presented in the delisting petition

  12. Atmospheric cold plasma jet for plant disease treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianhui; Liu, Dongping; Zhou, Renwu; Song, Ying; Sun, Yue; Zhang, Qi; Niu, Jinhai; Fan, Hongyu; Yang, Si-ze

    2014-01-01

    This study shows that the atmospheric cold plasma jet is capable of curing the fungus-infected plant leaves and controlling the spread of infection as an attractive tool for plant disease management. The healing effect was significantly dependent on the size of the black spots infected with fungal cells and the leaf age. The leaves with the diameter of black spots of plasma-generated species passing through the microns-sized stomas in a leaf can weaken the function of the oil vacuoles and cell membrane of fungal cells, resulting in plasma-induced inactivation.

  13. Process of liquid radioactive waste treatment in nuclear power plant and development trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiean; Wang Xin; Liu Dan; Zhu Laiye; Chen Bin

    2014-01-01

    The popular liquid radioactive waste treatment methods in nuclear power plants (NPP) are Chemical precipitation, evaporation, ion exchange, membrane treatment, chemical coagulation and activated carbon absorption and so on. 'Filter + activated carbon absorption (Chemical coagulation) + ion exchange' has a good prospect for development, as its simple process, high decontamination factor, low energy consumption and smaller secondary wastes. Also the process is used in Sanmen and Haiyang Projects. The severe incident in NPP set an even higher demand on liquid radioactive waste treatment. The new type treatment materials, optimization of the existed treatment, combination of treatment and the mobile treatment facility is the development trend in liquid radioactive waste treatment in NPP. (authors)

  14. Environmental impact assessment of decommissioning treatment about radioactive model plant waste ore storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bei Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at decommissioning treatment project of radioactive model plant waste ore storage site, based on the detailed investigations of source terms and project description, systematic environmental impacts have been identified. The environmental impacts both during decommissioning treatment, radioactive waste transportation and after treatment are assessed. Some specific environmental protection measures are proposed so as to minimize the adverse environmental impacts. (author)

  15. Simulation analysis of capacity and performance improvement in wastewater treatment plants: Case study of Alexandria eastern plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moursy, Aly; Sorour, Mohamed T.; Moustafa, Medhat; Elbarqi, Walid; Fayd, Mai; Elreedy, Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    This study concerns the upgrading of a real domestic wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) supported by simulation. The main aims of this work are to: (1) decide between two technologies to improve WWTP capacity and its nitrogen removal efficiency; membrane bioreactor (MBR) and integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS), and (2) perform a cost estimation analysis for the two proposed solutions. The model used was calibrated based on data from the existing WWTP, namely, Eastern plant and located in Alexandria, Egypt. The activated sludge model No. 1 (ASM1) was considered in the model analysis by GPS-X 7 software. Steady-state analysis revealed that high performances corresponded to high compliance with Egyptian standards were achieved by the two techniques; however, MBR was better. Nonetheless, the two systems showed poor nitrogen removal efficiency according to the current situation, which reveals that the plant needs a modification to add an anaerobic treatment unit before the aerobic zone.

  16. Fate of psychoactive compounds in wastewater treatment plant and the possibility of their degradation using aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackuľak, Tomáš; Mosný, Michal; Škubák, Jaroslav; Grabic, Roman; Birošová, Lucia

    2015-03-01

    In this study we analyzed and characterized 29 psychoactive remedies, illicit drugs and their metabolites in single stages of wastewater treatment plants in the capital city of Slovakia. Psychoactive compounds were present within all stages, and tramadol was detected at a very high concentration (706 ng/L). Significant decreases of codeine, THC-COOH, cocaine and buprenorphine concentration were observed in the biological stage. Consequently, we were interested in the possibility of alternative tertiary post-treatment of effluent water with the following aquatic plants: Cabomba caroliniana, Limnophila sessiliflora, Egeria najas and Iris pseudacorus. The most effective plant for tertiary cleansing was I. pseudacorus which demonstrated the best pharmaceutical removal capacity. After 48 h codeine and citalopram was removed with 87% efficiency. After 96 h were all analyzed compounds were eliminated with efficiencies above 58%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Some biochemical reactions of strawberry plants to infection with Botrytis cinerea and salicylic acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Małolepsza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of strawberry plants to infection with B. cinerea and treatment with salicylic acid has been studied. Infection of leaves with B. cinerea resulted in early increases in active oxygen species generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities and phenolic compounds content. Some increases of the above reactions were noticed in plants treated with salicylic acid but not in the plants treated with SA and then later infected with B. cinerea.

  18. Wastewater treatment and reuse. Indian power plant turns sewage into process water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, S.; Schroedter, F.; Demmerle, C. [ERM Lahmeyer International, Neu-Isenburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Lahmeyer International provided consulting services for a private Indian investor of a 200 MW diesel engine power plant, in reviewing and controlling the EPC Contractor from Korea with regard to the treatment plant for dosmestic wastewater and the reverse osmosis plant for desalination. The wastewater treatment and subsequent water treatment for cooling water production comprised: mechanical treatment, biological treatment of domestic wastewater, lime softening, sand filtration, disinfection, micro-filtration, reverse osmosis. The services as Owner's Engineer included: (1) the review of the EPC Contractor's treatment concept, (2) the selection of internationally renowned manufacturer, (3) the review of the detailed design (including civil, mechanical, electrical and I and C work), and (4) onsite technical assistance to the Client during construction and commissioning phase. (orig.)

  19. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume I. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater collection system workers to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. This volume is directed primarily towards entry-level operators and the operators of ponds, package plants, or small treatment plants. Ten chapters examine the…

  20. Mathematics for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    This booklet is intended to aid the prospective waste treatment plant operator or drinking water plant operator in learning to solve mathematical problems, which is necessary for Class I certification. It deals with the basic mathematics which a Class I operator may require in accomplishing day-to-day tasks. The book also progresses into problems…

  1. Gas treatment processes for keeping the environment of nuclear plants free from gas-borne activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, H.

    1977-01-01

    The separation processes in gas treatment steps for the decontamination of circuit or offgas streams are described and their practicability is evaluated. Examples of the effectiveness of gas separation plants for keeping the environment within and without nuclear plants free from harmful gas-borne activity are presented. (orig.) [de

  2. Invasive alien plants used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A total of 38 invasive alien plant species belonging to 23 families were recorded to be used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS related symptoms. The largest proportion of recorded invasive alien plants belonged to the family Asteraceae with 16%. Roots were the most frequently used parts constituting 35% followed ...

  3. Fate and behaviour of ZnO engineered nanoparticles in a simulated domestic wastewater treatment plant

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chaúquea, EFC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) employ activated sludge processes to treat domestic wastewater using a consortium of bacteria essentially to degrade organic matter. However, bacteria activity is inhibited by toxic substances; thus, potentially...

  4. Sewage Treatment Plant Points, Tutuila AS, 2009, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Across the United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants receive and treat sewage and other wastewater collected from homes, businesses, and industries. These...

  5. Comparison of planted soil infiltration systems for treatment of log yard runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedmark, Asa; Scholz, Miklas; Aronsson, Par; Elowson, Torbjorn

    2010-07-01

    Treatment of log yard runoff is required to avoid contamination of receiving watercourses. The research aim was to assess if infiltration of log yard runoff through planted soil systems is successful and if different plant species affect the treatment performance at a field-scale experimental site in Sweden (2005 to 2007). Contaminated runoff from the log yard of a sawmill was infiltrated through soil planted with Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gärtner (common alder), Salix schwerinii X viminalis (willow variety "Gudrun"), Lolium perenne (L.) (rye grass), and Phalaris arundinacea (L.) (reed canary grass). The study concluded that there were no treatment differences when comparing the four different plants with each other, and there also were no differences between the tree and the grass species. Furthermore, the infiltration treatment was effective in reducing total organic carbon (55%) and total phosphorus (45%) concentrations in the runoff, even when the loads on the infiltration system increased from year to year.

  6. Evaluating Bioaerosol Emissions form in different parts of a Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jahangiri

    2014-02-01

    .Conclusion: Wastewater treatment processes can contaminate the air surrounding the plant, particularly with bacteria bioaerosols. Therefore, it is necessary to control the emissions and protect the health of workers against risks arising from exposure to bioaerosols.

  7. The effects of Niger State water treatment plant effluent on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... The effect of water treatment plant effluent on its receiving river (Kaduna) was examined. Samples were ... Agency (FEPA) limits for effluent discharge into surface water. .... municipal sewage, garbages, domestic and industrial.

  8. Wastewater Treatment Plants Approved by Hawaii DOH, Hawaii, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This feature class contains points indicating the centroid of the 189 TMKs in the state of Hawaii in which Hawaii DOH has approved a wastewater treatment plant,...

  9. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  10. NPDES Permit for Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial Pilot Water Treatment Plant in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0031827, the Crow Indian Tribe is authorized to discharge from the Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial (MR&I) Pilot Water Treatment Plant in Bighorn County, Montana to the Bighorn River.

  11. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis of Bath Wastewater Treatment Plant Upgrades - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many municipalities are facing the call to increase nutrient removal performance of their wastewater treatment plants in order to limit the impacts of eutrophication on the receiving waterbodies. The associated upgrades often demand investment in new technologies and increases in...

  12. Notification: Hotline Complaint – Drinking Water Treatment Plant at the Fort Belknap Indian Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY13-0076, November 13, 2012. On March 22, 2012, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) received a hotline complaint on the construction of the Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) at the Fort Belknap Indian Community.

  13. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis of Bath, NY Wastewater Treatment Plant: Potential Upgrade Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many communities across the U.S. are required to upgrade wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to meet increasingly stringent nutrient effluent standards. However, increased capital, energy and chemical requirements of upgrades create potential trade-offs between eutrophication pot...

  14. NPDES Permit for Mesa Verde National Park Water Treatment Plant in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit number CO-0034462, the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service is authorized to discharge from the Mesa Verde National Park water treatment plant, in Montezuma County, Colo.

  15. Treatment of banana and potato plants with a new antifungal composition (European patent specification)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, J.; Rijn, van F.T.J.; Krieken, van der W.M.; Stevens, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    International publication number: WO 2009/077613 (25.06.2009 Gazette 2009/26) The present invention relates to the treatment of banana and potato plants with a composition containing natamycin and at least one phosphite containing compound

  16. A survey of plants used in treatment of hypertension and diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of plants used in treatment of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in Ilorin, Kwara State, ... Materials and methods: Interview was conducted among respondents using ... Keywords: Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus, Traditional medicine ...

  17. Site-Specific Seismic Site Response Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, Alan C.; Reidel, Steve P.

    2005-02-24

    This interim report documents the collection of site-specific geologic and geophysical data characterizing the Waste Treatment Plant site and the modeling of the site-specific structure response to earthquake ground motions.

  18. Foaming in Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant LAW Evaporation Processes - FY01 Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloway, T.B.

    2002-01-01

    The LAW evaporation processes currently being designed for the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant are subject to foaming. Experimental simulant studies have been conducted in an effort to achieve an effective antifoam agent suitable to mitigate such foaming

  19. Assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent on fish reproduction utilizing the adverse outcome pathway conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are a known contributor of chemical mixture inputs into the environment. Whole effluent testing guidelines were developed to screen these complex mixtures for acute toxicity. However, efficient and cost-effective approaches for screenin...

  20. Temporal Variation in the Estrogenicity of a Sewage Treatment Plant Effluent and its Biological Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes variations in the estrogenic potency of effluent from a "model" wastewater treatment plant in Duluth, MN, and explores the significance of these variations relative to sampling approaches for monitoring effluents and their toxicity to fish.

  1. Effect of exposure to wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adult fathead minnows were exposed to dilutions of a historically estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent in a 21-d reproduction study. This dataset is...

  2. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Facility Registry Service (FRS) Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) and NPDES, along with Clean Watersheds Needs Survey...

  3. 77 FR 12002 - Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest Site-Specific Invasive Plant Treatment Project and Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... Invasive Plant Treatment Project and Forest Plan Amendment Number 28 AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... Forest. The current Forest-wide treatment approach pre-dates the Pacific Northwest Region Invasive Plant... interdisciplinary analysis: (1) Whether or not to authorize site- specific invasive plant treatments using...

  4. MBR pilot plant for textile wastewater treatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubello, C; Caffaz, S; Mangini, L; Santianni, D; Caretti, C

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out in order to evaluate the possibility of upgrading the conventional activated sludge WWTP of Seano (Prato, Italy) which treats municipal and textile wastewaters, by using membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology. The MBR pilot plant, set up within Seano WWTP, was fed with mixed municipal-industrial wastewaters during the first experimental period and with pure industrial wastewaters during the second. Performances and operation of the MBR were evaluated in terms of permeate characteristics and variability (COD, colour, surfactants, total N and P) and other operational parameters (sludge growth and observed yield). According to the experimental results the MBR permeate quality was always superior to the Seano WWTP one and it was suitable for industrial reuse in the textile district of the Prato area. Respirometric tests provided a modified IWA ASM1 model which fits very well the experimental data and can be used for the design and the monitoring of a full-scale MBR pilot plant.

  5. Signals transmission via RF systems in a sewage treatment plant; Signaluebertragung via Funk im Klaerwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasas, Joerg [Phoenix Contact Electronics GmbH, Bad Pyrmont (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The Niersverband is a municipal utility located at Viersen, Germany. It covers an area that is more or less identical with the catchment area of the Niers river and the Niers canal. There are 23 sewage treatment plants, rainwater retention basins and pumping stations transporting the collected water to the sewage treatment plants. For signal transmission between the stations, a Trusted Wireless system via Profibus-DP is used. (orig.)

  6. Analysis of energy consumption at the Rzeszów Wastewater Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Masłoń Adam

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants can be classified as energy-intensive facilities, as they account for up to 35 percent of municipal energy consumption. Pumps and aeration systems consume a significant portion of energy within the wastewater plants in particular. The cost of energy consumption for wastewater treatment processes reaches up to 40% of the total operating cost. In case of the WWTPs with the activated sludge systems, about 50% of energy is used for aeration and mixing purposes. At WWTP...

  7. Wastewater treatment plant inspection program, fiscal year 2006 and 2007 data report

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Stacie

    2008-01-01

    This data report includes the results from Alachua County Environmental Protection Department’s inspections of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) within Alachua County during the 2006 and 2007 fiscal years (October 2005 – September 2007). Groundwater monitoring data provided to the Florida Department of Environmental Protection Department by the WWTP operators is included for those treatment plants that are required to submit this information (PDF has 44 pages.)

  8. Treatment of operational experience of nuclear power plants in WANO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez, M.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the activities associated to the Operating Experience Programme of the World Association of Nuclear Operators. The programme manages the event reports submitted by the nuclear power plants to the WANO database for the preparation by the Operating Experience Central Team of some documents like the significant Operating Experience Reports and Significant Event Reports that help the stations to avoid similar events. (Author)

  9. Treatment of Plants with Gaseous Ethylene and Gaseous Inhibitors of Ethylene Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark L; Kim, Joonyup; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2017-01-01

    The gaseous nature of ethylene affects not only its role in plant biology but also how you treat plants with the hormone. In many ways, it simplifies the treatment problem. Other hormones have to be made up in solution and applied to some part of the plant hoping the hormone will be taken up into the plant and translocated throughout the plant at the desired concentration. Because all plant cells are connected by an intercellular gas space the ethylene concentration you treat with is relatively quickly reached throughout the plant. In some instances, like mature fruit, treatment with ethylene initiates autocatalytic synthesis of ethylene. However, in most experiments, the exogenous ethylene concentration is saturating, usually >1 μL L -1 , and the synthesis of additional ethylene is inconsequential. Also facilitating ethylene research compared with other hormones is that there are inhibitors of ethylene action 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene) and 2,5-NBD (2,5-norbornadiene) that are also gases wherein you can achieve nearly 100% inhibition of ethylene action quickly and with few side effects. Inhibitors for other plant hormones are applied as a solution and their transport and concentration at the desired site is not always known and difficult to measure. Here, our focus is on how to treat plants and plant parts with the ethylene gas and the gaseous inhibitors of ethylene action.

  10. Fate of artificial sweeteners through wastewater treatment plants and water treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoli; Ren, Yuhang; Fu, Yingying; Gao, Xingsheng; Jiang, Cong; Wu, Gang; Ren, Hongqiang

    2018-01-01

    Five full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China using typical biodegradation processes (SBR, oxidation ditch, A2/O) were selected to assess the removal of four popular artificial sweeteners (ASs). All four ASs (acesulfame (ACE), sucralose (SUC), cyclamate (CYC) and saccharin (SAC)) were detected, ranging from 0.43 to 27.34μg/L in the influent. Higher concentrations of ASs were measured in winter. ACE could be partly removed by 7.11–50.76% through biodegradation and especially through the denitrifying process. The A2/O process was the most efficient at biodegrading ASs. Adsorption (by granular activated carbon (GAC) and magnetic resin) and ultraviolet radiation-based advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOPs) were evaluated to remove ASs in laboratory-scale tests. The amounts of resin adsorbed were 3.33–18.51 times more than those of GAC except for SUC. The adsorption ability of resin decreased in the order of SAC > ACE > CYC > SUC in accordance with the pKa. Degradation of ASs followed pseudo-first-order kinetics in UV/H2O2 and UV/PDS. When applied to the secondary effluent, ASs could be degraded from 30.87 to 99.93% using UV/PDS in 30 minutes and UV/PDS was more efficient and economic. PMID:29293534

  11. Fate of artificial sweeteners through wastewater treatment plants and water treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoli; Ren, Yuhang; Fu, Yingying; Gao, Xingsheng; Jiang, Cong; Wu, Gang; Ren, Hongqiang; Geng, Jinju

    2018-01-01

    Five full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China using typical biodegradation processes (SBR, oxidation ditch, A2/O) were selected to assess the removal of four popular artificial sweeteners (ASs). All four ASs (acesulfame (ACE), sucralose (SUC), cyclamate (CYC) and saccharin (SAC)) were detected, ranging from 0.43 to 27.34μg/L in the influent. Higher concentrations of ASs were measured in winter. ACE could be partly removed by 7.11-50.76% through biodegradation and especially through the denitrifying process. The A2/O process was the most efficient at biodegrading ASs. Adsorption (by granular activated carbon (GAC) and magnetic resin) and ultraviolet radiation-based advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOPs) were evaluated to remove ASs in laboratory-scale tests. The amounts of resin adsorbed were 3.33-18.51 times more than those of GAC except for SUC. The adsorption ability of resin decreased in the order of SAC > ACE > CYC > SUC in accordance with the pKa. Degradation of ASs followed pseudo-first-order kinetics in UV/H2O2 and UV/PDS. When applied to the secondary effluent, ASs could be degraded from 30.87 to 99.93% using UV/PDS in 30 minutes and UV/PDS was more efficient and economic.

  12. Fate of artificial sweeteners through wastewater treatment plants and water treatment processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoli Li

    Full Text Available Five full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in China using typical biodegradation processes (SBR, oxidation ditch, A2/O were selected to assess the removal of four popular artificial sweeteners (ASs. All four ASs (acesulfame (ACE, sucralose (SUC, cyclamate (CYC and saccharin (SAC were detected, ranging from 0.43 to 27.34μg/L in the influent. Higher concentrations of ASs were measured in winter. ACE could be partly removed by 7.11-50.76% through biodegradation and especially through the denitrifying process. The A2/O process was the most efficient at biodegrading ASs. Adsorption (by granular activated carbon (GAC and magnetic resin and ultraviolet radiation-based advanced oxidation processes (UV/AOPs were evaluated to remove ASs in laboratory-scale tests. The amounts of resin adsorbed were 3.33-18.51 times more than those of GAC except for SUC. The adsorption ability of resin decreased in the order of SAC > ACE > CYC > SUC in accordance with the pKa. Degradation of ASs followed pseudo-first-order kinetics in UV/H2O2 and UV/PDS. When applied to the secondary effluent, ASs could be degraded from 30.87 to 99.93% using UV/PDS in 30 minutes and UV/PDS was more efficient and economic.

  13. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. 3. Confirmation of activity against enterobacteria of 16 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, A; Fletes, L; Aguilar, L; Ramirez, O; Figueroa, L; Taracena, A M; Samayoa, B

    1993-01-01

    Ethnobotanical surveys and literature review identified 408 plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The screening of 84 showed that 34 inhibit one or more enterobacteria; 16 of these were selected for further investigation. Extracts were obtained with three solvents of different polarity (n-hexane, acetone and alcohol) and the in vitro activity was demonstrated against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Shigella flexneri. The activity of nine ethanolic extracts against enterobacteria, particularly Acalypha guatemalensis, Diphysa robinioides, Lippia dulcis, Psidium guajava and Spondias purpurea was confirmed. The plants with antibacterial activity are discussed.

  14. Quantitative assessment of energy and resource recovery in wastewater treatment plants based on plant-wide simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Arévalo, T; Lizarralde, I; Fdz-Polanco, F; Pérez-Elvira, S I; Garrido, J M; Puig, S; Poch, M; Grau, P; Ayesa, E

    2017-07-01

    The growing development of technologies and processes for resource treatment and recovery is offering endless possibilities for creating new plant-wide configurations or modifying existing ones. However, the configurations' complexity, the interrelation between technologies and the influent characteristics turn decision-making into a complex or unobvious process. In this frame, the Plant-Wide Modelling (PWM) library presented in this paper allows a thorough, comprehensive and refined analysis of different plant configurations that are basic aspects in decision-making from an energy and resource recovery perspective. In order to demonstrate the potential of the library and the need to run simulation analyses, this paper carries out a comparative analysis of WWTPs, from a techno-economic point of view. The selected layouts were (1) a conventional WWTP based on a modified version of the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2, (2) an upgraded or retrofitted WWTP, and (3) a new Wastewater Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRF) concept denominated as C/N/P decoupling WWTP. The study was based on a preliminary analysis of the organic matter and nutrient energy use and recovery options, a comprehensive mass and energy flux distribution analysis in each configuration in order to compare and identify areas for improvement, and a cost analysis of each plant for different influent COD/TN/TP ratios. Analysing the plants from a standpoint of resources and energy utilization, a low utilization of the energy content of the components could be observed in all configurations. In the conventional plant, the COD used to produce biogas was around 29%, the upgraded plant was around 36%, and 34% in the C/N/P decoupling WWTP. With regard to the self-sufficiency of plants, achieving self-sufficiency was not possible in the conventional plant, in the upgraded plant it depended on the influent C/N ratio, and in the C/N/P decoupling WWTP layout self-sufficiency was feasible for almost all influents

  15. Radioactive Waste Treatment and Conditioning Using Plasma Technology Pilot Plant: Testing and Commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafizi Salihuddin; Rohyiza Baan; Norasalwa Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    Plasma pilot plant was commissioned for research and development program on radioactive waste treatment. The plant is equipped with a 50 kW direct current of non-transferred arc plasma torch which mounted vertically on top of the combustion chamber. The plant also consists of a dual function chamber, a water cooling system, a compress air supply system and a control system. This paper devoted the outcome after testing and commissioning of the plant. The problems arise was discussed in order to find the possible suggestion to overcome the issues. (author)

  16. Selection of diazotrophic bacteria isolated from wastewater treatment plant sludge at a poultry slaughterhouse for their effect on maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Avelino Rodriguez Lozada

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The economic and environmental costs of nitrogen fertilization have intensified the search for technologies that reduce mineral fertilization, for example atmospheric nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic bacteria inoculation. In this context, the present study addressed the isolation and quantification of diazotrophic bacteria in the sludge from treated wastewater of a poultry slaughterhouse; a description of the bacteria, based on cell and colony morphology; and an assessment of growth and N content of maize plants in response to inoculation. Sixteen morphotypes of bacteria were isolated in six N-free culture media (JMV, JMVL, NFb, JNFb, LGI, and LGI-P. The bacteria stained gram-positive, with 10 rod- and six coccoid-shaped isolates. To evaluate the potential of bacteria to promote plant growth, maize seeds were inoculated. The experiment consisted of 17 treatments (control plus 16 bacterial isolates and was carried out in a completely randomized design with six replicates. The experimental units consisted of one pot containing two maize plants in a greenhouse. Forty-five days after planting, the variables plant height, leaf number, stem diameter, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, and N content were measured. The highest values were obtained with isolate UFV L-162, which produced 0.68 g total dry matter per plant and increased N content to 22.14 mg/plant, representing increments of 74 and 133%, respectively, compared with the control. Diazotrophs inhabit sludge from treated wastewater of poultry slaughterhouses and can potentially be used to stimulate plant development and enrich inoculants.

  17. Nanoparticles in Constanta-North Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, I. M.; Panaitescu, Fanel-Viorel L.; Panaitescu, Ileana-Irina F. V.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we describe the route of the nanoparticles in the WWTP and demonstrate how to use the simulation flow sensitivity analysis within STOATTM program to evaluate the effect of variation of the constant, "k" in the equation v= kCh settling on fixed concentration of nanoparticles in sewage water from a primary tank of physical-biological stage. Wastewater treatment facilities are designed to remove conventional pollutants from sanitary waste. Major processes of treatment includes: a) physical treatment-remove suspended large solids by settling or sedimentation and eliminate floating greases; b) biological treatment-degradation or consumption of the dissolved organic matter using the means of cultivated in activated sludge or the trickling filters; c) chemical treatment-remove other matters by the means of chemical addition or destroying pathogenic organisms through disinfection; d) advanced treatment- removing specific constituents using processes such as activated carbon, membrane separation, or ion exchange. Particular treatment processes are: a) sedimentation; b) coagulation and flocculation; c) activated sludge; d) sand filters; e) membrane separation; f) disinfection. Methods are: 1) using the STOATTM program with input and output data for primary tank and parameters of wastewater. 2) generating a data file for influent using a sinusoidal model and we accepted defaults STOATTM data. 3) After this, getting spreadsheet data for various characteristics of wastewater for 48 hours:flow, temperature, pH, volatile fatty acids, soluble BOD, COD inert soluble particulate BOD, COD inert particles, volatile solids, volatile solids, ammonia, nitrate and soluble organic nitrogen. Findings and Results:1.Graphics after 48 hour;. 2.Graphics for parameters - flow,temperature, pH/units hours; 3.Graphics of nanoparticles; 4. Graphics of others volatile and non-volatile solids; 5. Timeseries data and summary statistics. Biodegradation of nanoparticles is the breakdown of

  18. Characterization of livestock wastewater at various stages of wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting Teo Ming; Kim, Tak Hyun; Lee, Myun Joo

    2007-01-01

    A characterization study has been conducted at Gongju Livestock Wastewater Treatment Plant, Gongju, South Korea. It is owned and operated by the government with treatment capacity of 250 tons per day. Livestock wastewater was collected from individual farmer and treated at the treatment plant. The centralized livestock wastewater treatment plant has various treatment processes namely pre-treatment, anaerobic digestion, nitrification, de-nitrification , chemical treatment, sand filtration and ozonization. The livestock wastewater was characterized by high COD, SS, T-N and T-P with concentration of 20600 mg/l, 6933 mg/l, 2820 mg/l and 700 mg/ l, respectively. After the wastewater has undergone various treatment processes it was discharged to waterways with concentration of COD, SS, T-N and T-P at 105 mg/l, 73 mg/l, 2.1 mg/l and 9 mg/l, respectively. This is part of the study to investigate the potential of irradiation to be applied at the centralized livestock wastewater treatment plant. Although livestock wastewater can be potentially applied to crop as source of nutrients it also affect the water quality due to runoff and leaching. When the wastewater applied at the rates in excess of crop uptake rates, the excess wastewater could potentially enter surface and groundwater and polluted them. (author)

  19. Medicinal Plants Used for Treatment of Diarrhoeal Related Diseases in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizuneh Woldeab

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of relevant antidiarrhoeal medicinal plants based on the fundamental knowledge accumulated by indigenous people of Ethiopia. The review includes an inventory carried out on the phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of plant species used in the treatments of diarrhoeal diseases. This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses, proceedings, and reports. A total of 132 medicinal plants used by local people of Ethiopia are reported in the reviewed literature. Herbs (43.6% were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by trees (27%. Some findings include the predominance of leaf material used (78%, as well as the frequent use of crushing of the plant parts (38% as a mode of preparation. This study demonstrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment of basic human ailments such as diarrhoeal diseases in Ethiopia. Baseline information gaps were observed in different regions of Ethiopia. Thus, documentation of the knowledge held by other regions of Ethiopia that have so far received less attention and urban ethnobotany is recommended for future ethnobotanical studies. In addition, phytochemical studies are recommended mainly on frequently utilized medicinal plants for treatment of diarrhoeal diseases which can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug development. Although societies in Ethiopia have long used medicinal plants for diarrhoeal diseases treatment, it is also a good practice to perform toxicological tests.

  20. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants administered for the treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharvand-Ahmadi, Babak; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Tajeddini, Pegah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Naghdi, Nasrollah

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is very high in human societies and their prevention and treatment are the most important priority in many countries. Hypertension makes an important contribution to the development of CVDs. This study aimed to collect the ethno-medicinal knowledge of the traditional healers of Shiraz on medicinal plants used in the treatment of hypertension. Ethno-medicinal data were collected from September 2012 to July 2013 through direct interview. Twenty-five healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and their traditional ethno-medicinal knowledge was recorded. Questionnaires were included apothecary personal information, plant local name, plant parts used, method of preparation, season of harvest and traditional use. Data collected from surveys and interviews were transferred to Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed. Analysis of data showed that, 27 medicinal plants from 22 families are used for the treatment of hypertension. The families with most antihypertensive species were Apiaceae (8%), Rosaceae (8%) and Papaveraceae (8%). The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (36%) followed by fruits (30%), aerial part (17%) and branches (7%). The most frequently used preparation method was decoction (95%). Borago officinalis (51.85%), Berberis vulgaris (51.58%) had the highest frequency of mention. The ethno-medicinal survey of medicinal plants recommended by traditional healers for the treatment of hypertension provides new areas of research on the antihypertensive effect of medicinal plants. In the case of safety and effectiveness, they can be refined and processed to produce natural drugs.

  1. Medicinal Plants Used for Treatment of Diarrhoeal Related Diseases in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldeab, Bizuneh; Regassa, Reta

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a review of relevant antidiarrhoeal medicinal plants based on the fundamental knowledge accumulated by indigenous people of Ethiopia. The review includes an inventory carried out on the phytochemical and pharmacological analysis of plant species used in the treatments of diarrhoeal diseases. This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses, proceedings, and reports. A total of 132 medicinal plants used by local people of Ethiopia are reported in the reviewed literature. Herbs (43.6%) were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by trees (27%). Some findings include the predominance of leaf material used (78%), as well as the frequent use of crushing of the plant parts (38%) as a mode of preparation. This study demonstrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment of basic human ailments such as diarrhoeal diseases in Ethiopia. Baseline information gaps were observed in different regions of Ethiopia. Thus, documentation of the knowledge held by other regions of Ethiopia that have so far received less attention and urban ethnobotany is recommended for future ethnobotanical studies. In addition, phytochemical studies are recommended mainly on frequently utilized medicinal plants for treatment of diarrhoeal diseases which can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug development. Although societies in Ethiopia have long used medicinal plants for diarrhoeal diseases treatment, it is also a good practice to perform toxicological tests. PMID:29743923

  2. Kinetic studies on purification capability of channel flow type wastewater treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, S [Fukui Institute of Technology, Fukui (Japan); Furukawa, K; Kim, J [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1990-10-01

    In order to develop a wastewater treatment process of secondary effluent and a wastewater treatment process of a farm village, some experiments have been carried out using bench scale and full scale hydroponic type wastewater treatment plant. This wastewater treatment system mainly consists of water channels and hydroponic water tanks. The authors carried out of a kinetic study for purification capability of the water channels while assuring the growth of microorganism in the treatment scheme. It was shown experimentally that the channel flow type wastewater treatment plant had a high TOC removal capability regardless of the kind of contact material and treatment time. Activated sludge microorganism concentration in water channels was obtained by kinetic estimation from the measured effluent suspended solid concentration. Estimated amount of activated sludge in water channels comprised only 11.5-37.4 percent of the measured amounts of withdrawn sludge, indicating high photosynthesis production of algae in water channels. 8 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Electron beams for power plant flue gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Among the processes in which fuel is used for energy generation coal burning plays leading role. On the other hand combustion of fossil fuels is the biggest source of air pollution. When burning fossil fuel pollutants such as particulate, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and others are emitted. Air pollution caused by these pollutants not only acts directly on environment but by contamination of water and soil leads to their degradation. The advanced technology for simultaneous SO 2 , NO x and VOC removal is discussed in the paper. The technology is based on electron accelerators applications. Many new solutions have been introduced in the new pilot plants which have been operated at coal fired power stations. 98% SO 2 and up to 90% NO x removals were obtained at very moderate energy consumption (for de SO x ). Additional agricultural tests have proven full applicability of byproduct in pure form or as a blending stock for NPK fertilizers. Two full scale industrial plants are being built in China (640 kW accelerators) and Poland (1.2 MW accelerators). These will be the biggest radiation processing units using accelerator technology all over the world

  4. Electron Beam Treatment Plant for Textile Dyeing Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, Yuri; Choi, Jangseung; Ahn, Sangjun

    2006-01-01

    High positive effect of electron-beam treatment involved into the process of wastewater purification is now well established. The most effective for the purpose seem to be combine methods including both electron beam and any conventional treatment stages, i.e., under conditions when some synergistic effects can take place. Daegu Dyeing Industrial Complex (DDIC) includes about hundred factories occupying the area of 600,000m 2 with 13,000 employees in total. The production requires high consumption of water (90,000m 3 /day), steam, and electric power, being characterized by large amount of highly colored industrial wastewater. Because of increase in productivity and increased assortment of dyes and other chemicals, substantial necessity appears in re-equipment of purification facilities by application of efficient methods of wastewater treatment

  5. Wastewater management in Khartoum Region Soba wastewater treatment plant (stabilization ponds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, A. M. E.

    2010-03-01

    Soba wastewater treatment plant will be replaced shortly by new plant based on activate sludge. This study was carried in order to evaluate: the design, physical, chemical and biological characteristics and the capacity of the plant. Outlet Effluents quality was compared with Sudan wastewater treatment standards. Samples analyses were carried by UNESCO CHAIR 2006 (Khartoum State). It was found that the result is not as: The designed and standard level especially for BOD, COD, TBC and TC. It was also found that BOD and COD of the effluents were not complying with adopted standards for treated wastewater to be discharged to the environment. The study reached the conclusions that plant is overloaded and the characteristics of the wastewater received is not as the design which affects the efficiency of the treatment process. (Author)

  6. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: A Review of Recent Evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Hamid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Moradi Nafchi, Atefeh; Saberianpour, Shirin; Rafieian Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2015-11-01

    Acne vulgaris affects about 85% of teenagers and may continue to adulthood. There are about two million visits to physicians per year for teenagers and the direct cost of acne treatment in the US exceeds $1 billion per year. A wide variety of treatment regimens exist for acne vulgaris including benzoil peroxide, retinoids, isotretinoids, keratolytic soaps, alpha hydroxy acids, azelaic acid, salicilic acid as well as hormonal, anti-androgen or antiseborrheic treatments. However, none of these methods is free of side effects and their exact role in therapy is not clear. In this paper apart from presenting the possible causes of acne vulgaris and its available drugs, recently published papers about medicinal plants used in the treatment of acne vulgaris were reviewed. Consumption of alternative and complementary medicine, including medicinal plants, is increasing and is common amongst patients affected by acne and infectious skin diseases. Medicinal plants have a long history of use and have been shown to possess low side effects. These plants are a reliable source for preparation of new drugs. Many plants seem to have inhibitory effects on the growth of bacteria, fungi and viruses in vitro. However, there are a few clinical evidences about the effectiveness and safety of these plants in the treatment of acne and other skin infections.

  7. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Nkechi V; Makama, Sunday; Elisha, Ishaku L; Makoshi, Micah S; Gotep, Jurbe G; Dawurung, Christiana J; Oladipo, Olusola O; Lohlum, Ann S; Shamaki, David

    2011-07-11

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain the authenticity of the claimed

  8. Effect of seed treatment with low-potency laser in peppers plants (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Álvarez Fonseca,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed treatment with low-potency laser radiation on some physiological parameters and yield of peppers plants, California Wonder variety, was studied. The seeds were irradiated with a laser He- Ne, 25 mW powers, at different exposure periods 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 seconds, using untreated seeds as controls. We evaluated plant height (mm, root length (mm, stem diameter (mm, polar average diameter (mm equatorial mean diameter (mm, mean fruit mass (g and yield per plant (kg.plant-1. The results showed a significant increase (p?0.001 in the indicators of plants height (50 %, root length (13 %, stem diameter (17 %, equatorial mean diameter (7 %, mean fruit mass (13 % and yield per plant (67 %, compared to control.

  9. Wastewater treatment plants as a source of microbial pathogens in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater treatment facilities have become sin quo non in ensuring the discharges of high quality wastewater effluents into receiving water bodies and consequence, a healthier environment. Due to massive worldwide increases in human population, water has been predicted to become one of the scarcest resources in ...

  10. Model-Based Control of Drinking-Water Treatment Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schagen, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    The drinking water in the Netherlands is of high quality and the production cost is low. This is the result of extensive research in the past decades to innovate and optimise the treatment processes. The processes are monitored and operated by motivated and skilled operators and process

  11. Invasive alien plant species used for the treatment of various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japonica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest ...

  12. Handwriting on the power plant wall: flue gas treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troupe, J.S.

    1979-08-01

    This paper reviews the present state of flue gas treatment technology. Describes the operation of four basic types of devices used by electric utilities:- mechanical dust collectors, electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubbers and fabric filters. Considers their reliability and cost, and outlines possible future trends.

  13. Medicinal plants as alternative treatments for female sexual dysfunction: utopian vision or possible treatment in climacteric women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaro-Costa, Renata; Andersen, Monica L; Hachul, Helena; Tufik, Sergio

    2010-11-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a complex and multifactorial condition. An increased incidence of FSD is especially associated with the decline of estrogen. Thus, menopause is a critical phase for FSD complaints. In this context, medicinal plants may be a therapeutic option. To identify and describe the popular and clinical uses of medicinal plants for FSD treatment in climacteric women. We highlighted the majority of the plants commonly involved with the female reproductive system including: Angelica sinensis, Cimicifuga racemosa, Ferula hermonis, Ginkgo biloba, Humulus lupulus, Lepidium meyenii, Tribulus terrestris, Trifolium pratense, and Vitex agnus-castus. This study is a narrative review of studies of plants that are possible alternative treatments for FSD. The species described have clinical and popular uses in different cultures as well as medical indications for female reproductive disturbances, mainly in climacteric women. We have also analyzed the evidence level of clinical studies. The main outcome assessed is the efficacy of plants in improving the symptoms of FSD. There is little evidence from the literature to recommend the use of medicinal plants when treating FSD. The majority of studies with a strong level of evidence are associated with the treatment of the vasomotor symptoms of menopause. Ferula hermonis, Angelica sinensis, and Gingko biloba may be suggested for arousal disorder studies. Cimicifuga racemosa, Trifolium pratense, and Vitex agnus-castus may be recommended for several FSD. Humulus lupulus and Tribulus terrestris may help with desire disorder studies. Lepidium meyenii should be studied further. Studies of these plants indicate that they may be useful as a possible alternative and/or complementary approach for studies aimed at the treatment of FSD. At this time, however, this review cannot recommend a plant that has a strong enough level of evidence for treatment of FSD. Thus, there is a need for clinical (double-blinded and

  14. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  15. A dynamic modelling approach to evaluate GHG emissions from wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Arnell, Magnus; Amerlinck, Youri

    2012-01-01

    The widened scope for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to consider not only water quality and cost, but also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change calls for new tools to evaluate operational strategies/treatment technologies. The IWA Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 (BSM2) has been ...

  16. A centralized hazardous waste treatment plant: the facilities of the ZVSMM at Schwabach as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsoneit, Norbert [Zweckverband Sondermuell-Entsorgung Mittelfranken, Rednitzhembach (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    In this work a centralized hazardous waste treatment plant is described and its infra-structure is presented. Special emphasis is given to the handling of the residues produced and the different treatment processes at the final disposal. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  18. Development of a Water Treatment Plant Operation Manual Using an Algorithmic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Cary A.

    This document describes the steps to be followed in the development of a prescription manual for training of water treatment plant operators. Suggestions on how to prepare both flow and narrative prescriptions are provided for a variety of water treatment systems, including: raw water, flocculation, rapid sand filter, caustic soda feed, alum feed,…

  19. Determination of the Fate of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in the Three Wastewater Treatment Plants, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedyan, Mohammed; Al Harahsheh, Ahmed; Qnaisb, Esam

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to assess the composition of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) species, particularly dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), over the traditional wastewater treatment operations in three biological nutrient removal (BNR) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jordan. It had been found that the DON percentage was up to 30% of TDN within…

  20. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume I. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  1. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants. Volume 1. A Field Study Training Program. Third Edition. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The purpose of this wastewater treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified wastewater treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  2. Water Treatment Plant Operation Volume 2. A Field Study Training Program. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  3. Effects of ecological restoration alternative treatments on nonnative plant species establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Stoddard; Christopher M. McGlone; Peter Z. Fule

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances generated by forest restoration treatments have the potential for enhancing the establishment of nonnative species thereby impeding long-term native plant recovery. In a ponderosa pine forest next to the Fort Valley Experimental Forest, Arizona, we examined the establishment of nonnative species after three alternative treatments with different intensities...

  4. Exposure to Airborne Noroviruses and Other Bioaerosol Components at a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrbrand, Katrine; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to bioaerosols associated with wastewater treatment processes may represent an occupational health risk for workers at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). A high frequency of acute symptoms in the gastrointestinal tract among the wastewater workers at a Danish WWTP has been reported. Th...

  5. A centralized hazardous waste treatment plant: the facilities of the ZVSMM at Schwabach as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amsoneit, Norbert [Zweckverband Sondermuell-Entsorgung Mittelfranken, Rednitzhembach (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    In this work a centralized hazardous waste treatment plant is described and its infra-structure is presented. Special emphasis is given to the handling of the residues produced and the different treatment processes at the final disposal. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Facilities for treatment of radioactive contaminated water in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The standard applies to processes applied in facilities for treatment of radioactive contaminated water in nuclear power plants with LWR- and HTR-type reactors. It does not apply to the treatment of concentrates obtained in the decontamination of water. (orig.) [de

  7. A Review Of Traditional Plants Used In The Treatment Of Epilepsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five prescriptions used in the treatment of epilepsy amongst the Hausa/Fulani tribe of Northern Nigeria were collected from traditional healers. The five prescriptions containing eight plants were reviewed as in literature to ascertain scientific basis of their use in treatment of epilepsy. Securidaca longipedunculata (family ...

  8. Planning for rate base treatment of large power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruki, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses two related areas of planning for inclusion in rate base of large generating stations. First, the paper discusses the range of options available as to how the plant is to go into rate base, e.g., phase-in plans. In this connection the process of generating the entire range of options that may be available is described and examined. Second, the paper examines innovative ways of using procedures (e.g., accounting proceedings, settlement procedures, cost caps, and other ideas short of a full-blown rate case) and the resources available in the ratemaking arena, to obtain, in the least painful way possible, the necessary ratemaking orders. The thesis is that there must be better alternatives to the many proceedings that have either begun as, or seem to be leading to, endless retrospective examinations of multiple questions (from load forecasting to construction management to continuation-of-construction decisions) under the label of prudence inquiries

  9. Waste Water Treatment Plants and the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Tychsen, Peter; Munk-Nielsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    at the right time is key to both lower plant electricity costs and actively help to balance the energy system. Predictions of the WWTP and sewer system operation could help a model based controller to adapt power consumption and production according to the energy system flexibility needs; incentivized through......, we must update their process control system to model based predictive control that monitors the changed flexible operation and plans ahead. The primary aim of a WWTP is to treat the incoming waste water as much as possible to ensure a sufficient effluent water quality and protect the environment...... of the recipient. The secondary aim is to treat the waste water using as little energy as possible. In the future waste water will be considered an energy resource, that contains valuable nutrients convertible to green biogas and in turn electricity and heat. In a Smart Grid consuming or producing energy...

  10. Treatment of Wastewater from Electroplating, Metal Finishing and Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    One of four manuals dealing with the operation of wastewater plants, this document was designed to address the treatment of wastewater from electroplating, metal finishing, and printed circuit board manufacturing. It emphasizes how to operate and maintain facilities which neutralize acidic and basic waters; treat waters containing metals; destroy…

  11. The Distribution of Microalgae in a Stabilization Pond System of a Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant in a Tropical Environment (Case Study: Bojongsoang Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herto Dwi Ariesyady

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bojongsoang Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP serves to treat domestic wastewater originating from Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. An abundant amount of nutrients as a result of waste decomposition increases the number of microalgae populations present in the pond of the wastewater treatment plant, thereby causing a population explosion of microalgae, also called algal blooming. In a stabilization pond system, the presence of algal blooming is not desirable because it can decrease wastewater treatment performance. More knowledge about the relationship between the nutrients concentration and algae blooming conditions, such as microalgae diversity, is needed to control and maintain the performance of the wastewater treatment plant. Therefore this study was conducted, in order to reveal the diversity of microalgae in the stabilization pond system and its relationship with the water characteristics of the comprising ponds. The results showed that the water quality in the stabilization pond system of Bojongsoang WWTP supported rapid growth of microalgae, where most rapid microbial growth occurred in the anaerobic pond. The microalgae diversity in the stabilization ponds was very high, with various morphologies, probably affiliated with blue-green algae, green algae, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates and diatoms. This study has successfully produced information on microalgae diversity and abundance profiles in a stabilization pond system.

  12. Can Scientific Evidence Support Using Bangladeshi Traditional Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Diarrhoea? A Review on Seven Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Helle; Klarpås, Line; Alamgir, Mahiuddin; Samuelsen, Anne B. C.; Malterud, Karl E.

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the disease. The diarrhoea outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. Our question is: What is the level of documentation supporting the use of these plants against diarrhoea and is their consumption safe? Do any of these plants have potential for further exploration? In this review, we have choosen seven plant species that are used in the treatment of diarrhoea; Diospyros peregrina, Heritiera littoralis, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants. Most promising are the barks from D. peregrina, X. granatum and X. moluccensis which contain tannins and have shown promising results in antidiarrhoeal mice models. The leaves of P. pinnata also show potential. We suggest these plants should be exploited further as possible traditional herbal remedies against diarrhoea including studies on efficacy, optimal dosage and safety. PMID:23698166

  13. Can scientific evidence support using Bangladeshi traditional medicinal plants in the treatment of diarrhoea? A review on seven plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Helle; Klarpås, Line; Alamgir, Mahiuddin; Samuelsen, Anne B C; Malterud, Karl E

    2013-05-22

    Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the disease. The diarrhoea outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. Our question is: What is the level of documentation supporting the use of these plants against diarrhoea and is their consumption safe? Do any of these plants have potential for further exploration? In this review, we have choosen seven plant species that are used in the treatment of diarrhoea; Diospyros peregrina, Heritiera littoralis, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants. Most promising are the barks from D. peregrina, X. granatum and X. moluccensis which contain tannins and have shown promising results in antidiarrhoeal mice models. The leaves of P. pinnata also show potential. We suggest these plants should be exploited further as possible traditional herbal remedies against diarrhoea including studies on efficacy, optimal dosage and safety.

  14. Can Scientific Evidence Support Using Bangladeshi Traditional Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Diarrhoea? A Review on Seven Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl E. Malterud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea is a common disease which causes pain and may be deadly, especially in developing countries. In Bangladesh, diarrhoeal diseases affect thousands of people every year, and children are especially vulnerable. Bacterial toxins or viral infections are the most common cause of the disease. The diarrhoea outbreaks are often associated with flood affected areas with contaminated drinking water and an increased risk of spreading the water-borne disease. Not surprisingly, plants found in the near surroundings have been taken into use by the local community as medicine to treat diarrhoeal symptoms. These plants are cheaper and more easily available than conventional medicine. Our question is: What is the level of documentation supporting the use of these plants against diarrhoea and is their consumption safe? Do any of these plants have potential for further exploration? In this review, we have choosen seven plant species that are used in the treatment of diarrhoea; Diospyros peregrina, Heritiera littoralis, Ixora coccinea, Pongamia pinnata, Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, and Xylocarpus moluccensis. Appearance and geographical distribution, traditional uses, chemical composition, and biological studies related to antidiarrhoeal activity will be presented. This review reveals that there is limited scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of these plants. Most promising are the barks from D. peregrina, X. granatum and X. moluccensis which contain tannins and have shown promising results in antidiarrhoeal mice models. The leaves of P. pinnata also show potential. We suggest these plants should be exploited further as possible traditional herbal remedies against diarrhoea including studies on efficacy, optimal dosage and safety.

  15. Biological analysis of endocrine disrupting compounds in Tunisian sewage treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minif, W.; Dagnino, S.; Pillon, A.; Escande, A.; Fenet, E.; Gomez, E.; Casellas, C.; Duchesne, M. J.; Cavailles, V.

    2009-01-01

    The endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are frequently found in sewage treatment plant (STPs) works. Natural and synthetic hormones have been identified as the major contributors to the estrogenic activity in sewage. Dosing and identification of EDCs are certainly of great interest and can lead to the improvement of chemicals treatments. With reporter cell lines developed in the laboratory and allowing the detection of nuclear receptor activities, we characterized the endocrine disrupting profile of water, particulate matter and sludge from three Tunisian sewage, treatment plants (STPs). (Author)

  16. Biological analysis of endocrine disrupting compounds in Tunisian sewage treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minif, W.; Dagnino, S.; Pillon, A.; Escande, A.; Fenet, E.; Gomez, E.; Casellas, C.; Duchesne, M. J.; Cavailles, V.

    2009-07-01

    The endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are frequently found in sewage treatment plant (STPs) works. Natural and synthetic hormones have been identified as the major contributors to the estrogenic activity in sewage. Dosing and identification of EDCs are certainly of great interest and can lead to the improvement of chemicals treatments. With reporter cell lines developed in the laboratory and allowing the detection of nuclear receptor activities, we characterized the endocrine disrupting profile of water, particulate matter and sludge from three Tunisian sewage, treatment plants (STPs). (Author)

  17. An innovative concept for handling and operation of the wastewater treatment plant of Cottbus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiller, K.; Schmitt, J.

    1994-01-01

    A new concept for handling and operating the wastewater treatment plant of Cottbus, with computerized modelling and an expert system as integral parts of process analysis and decision-making, is developed. Optimized plant operation and process stability is to be achieved by conrolling process-dependent dosage of wastewater coming from sludge treatment and from faecal wastewater. With the treatment plant still being built, a thorough analysis of the influent and the resulting process conditions is done, using the computerized model. Results and consequences for process optimization are presented in this article. Special attention has to be given to load smoothing and optimization of denitrification, influencing process stability and quality. Thereby not only the legal requirements can be fulfilled but improvement of effluent quality also could be achieved, reducing total nitrogen in the effluent by as much as 50%, lowering wastewater treatment costs by allowing lower control levels and fees to be payed. (orig.) [de

  18. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  19. Occurrence and reduction of pharmaceuticals in the water phase at Swedish wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Ledin, Anna

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade, several screening programs for pharmaceuticals at Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been conducted by research institutes, county councils, and wastewater treatment companies. In this study, influent and effluent concentrations compiled from these screening...... programs were used to assess the occurrence and reduction of non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals for human usage. The study is limited to full-scale WWTPs with biological treatment. Based on the data compiled, a total of 70 non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals have been detected, at concentrations ranging from a few...... WWTPs were identified. Further comparison based on the biological treatment showed lower reduction degrees for several pharmaceuticals in trickling filter plants compared to activated sludge plants with nitrogen removal....

  20. Removal of oil products from fitters in water treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, B.B.; Olander, M.A.; Arvin, E.

    1996-01-01

    Gasoline and oil spills cause aromatic hydrocarbon pollution of ground water. Benzene, toluene and naphtalene can be found in water wells. The purpose of the experiment was to investigate the filtering of water and biological degradation of aromatics on water treatment filters. These filters were proved to reduce benzene, toluene and naphtalene concentration from 5-12 μg/l to 0,3-0,6 μg/l (86-98 % removal). (EG)

  1. Chemical monitoring strategy for the assessment of advanced water treatment plant performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, J E; McDonald, J A; Trinh, T; Storey, M V; Khan, S J

    2011-01-01

    A pilot-scale plant was employed to validate the performance of a proposed full-scale advanced water treatment plant (AWTP) in Sydney, Australia. The primary aim of this study was to develop a chemical monitoring program that can demonstrate proper plant operation resulting in the removal of priority chemical constituents in the product water. The feed water quality to the pilot plant was tertiary-treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant. The unit processes of the AWTP were comprised of an integrated membrane system (ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis) followed by final chlorination generating a water quality that does not present a source of human or environmental health concern. The chemical monitoring program was undertaken over 6 weeks during pilot plant operation and involved the quantitative analysis of pharmaceuticals and personal care products, steroidal hormones, industrial chemicals, pesticides, N-nitrosamines and halomethanes. The first phase consisted of baseline monitoring of target compounds to quantify influent concentrations in feed waters to the plant. This was followed by a period of validation monitoring utilising indicator chemicals and surrogate measures suitable to assess proper process performance at various stages of the AWTP. This effort was supported by challenge testing experiments to further validate removal of a series of indicator chemicals by reverse osmosis. This pilot-scale study demonstrated a simplified analytical approach that can be employed to assure proper operation of advanced water treatment processes and the absence of trace organic chemicals.

  2. A toxicity reduction evaluation for an oily waste treatment plant exhibiting episodic effluent toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten-Unal, M; Gelderloos, A B; Hughes, J S

    1998-07-30

    A Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) was conducted on the oily wastewater treatment plant (Plant) at a Naval Fuel Depot. The Plant treats ship and ballast wastes, berm water from fuel storage areas and wastes generated in the fuel reclamation plant utilizing physical/chemical treatment processes. In the first period of the project (Period I), the TRE included chemical characterization of the plant wastewaters, monitoring the final effluent for acute toxicity and a thorough evaluation of each treatment process and Plant operating procedures. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures were performed as part of the overall TRE to characterize and identify possible sources of toxicity. Several difficulties were encountered because the effluent was saline, test organisms were marine species and toxicity was sporadic and unpredictable. The treatability approach utilizing enhancements, improved housekeeping, and operational changes produced substantial reductions in the acute toxicity of the final effluent. In the second period (Period II), additional acute toxicity testing and chemical characterization were performed through the Plant to assess the long-term effects of major unit process improvements for the removal of toxicity. The TIE procedures were also modified for saline wastewaters to focus on suspected class of toxicants such as surfactants. The TRE was successful in reducing acute toxicity of the final effluent through process improvements and operational modifications. The results indicated that the cause of toxicity was most likely due to combination of pollutants (matrix effect) rather than a single pollutant.

  3. Indigenous plant medicines for health care: treatment of Diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Nisha H; Parikh, Palak K; Kothari, Charmy

    2014-05-01

    Medicinal plants have played an important role in treating and preventing a variety of diseases throughout the world. Metabolic syndrome had become a global epidemic, defined as a cluster of three of five criteria: insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, abdominal obesity, hypertension, low high-density cholesterol, and hypertriglyceridemia. The current review focuses on Indian medicinal plant drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill-effects of diabetes and hyperlipidemia and its secondary complications, plant-based drugs are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. The current review focuses on twenty-three medicinal plants used in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus and nine medicinal plants used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. The wealth of knowledge on medicinal plants points to a great potential for research and the discovery of new drugs to fight diseases, including diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge and reuse in post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Abhilash T; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, feasibility of recovering the coagulant from water treatment plant sludge with sulphuric acid and reusing it in post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater were studied. The optimum conditions for coagulant recovery from water treatment plant sludge were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Sludge obtained from plants that use polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and alum coagulant was utilised for the study. Effect of three variables, pH, solid content and mixing time was studied using a Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. RSM model was developed based on the experimental aluminium recovery, and the response plots were developed. Results of the study showed significant effects of all the three variables and their interactions in the recovery process. The optimum aluminium recovery of 73.26 and 62.73 % from PACl sludge and alum sludge, respectively, was obtained at pH of 2.0, solid content of 0.5 % and mixing time of 30 min. The recovered coagulant solution had elevated concentrations of certain metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) which raised concern about its reuse potential in water treatment. Hence, the coagulant recovered from PACl sludge was reused as coagulant for post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater. The recovered coagulant gave 71 % COD, 80 % turbidity, 89 % phosphate, 77 % suspended solids and 99.5 % total coliform removal at 25 mg Al/L. Fresh PACl also gave similar performance but at higher dose of 40 mg Al/L. The results suggest that coagulant can be recovered from water treatment plant sludge and can be used to treat UASB reactor effluent treating municipal wastewater which can reduce the consumption of fresh coagulant in wastewater treatment.

  5. An ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants traditionally used for cancer treatment in the Ashanti region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyare, Christian; Spiegler, Verena; Asase, Alex; Scholz, Michael; Hempel, Georg; Hensel, Andreas

    2018-02-15

    Cancer represents a major health burden and drain on healthcare resources in the world. The majority of the people of Africa still patronize traditional medicine for their health needs, including various forms of cancer. The aim of the following study is the identification of medicinal plants used for cancer treatment by the traditional healers in the Ashanti area of Ghana and to cross-reference the identified plant species with published scientific literature. Validated questionnaires were administered to 85 traditional healers in 10 communities within Ashanti region. For cross-validation, also 7 healers located outside Ashanti region were investigated to evaluate regional differences. Interviews and structured conversations were used to administer the questionnaires. Selected herbal material dominantly used by the healers was collected and identified. The ethnopharmacological survey revealed 151 plant species used for cancer treatment. Identified species were classified into different groups according to their frequency of use, resulting in the "top-22" plants. Interestingly group I (very frequent use) contained 5 plant species (Khaya senegalensis, Triplochiton scleroxylon, Azadirachta indica, Entandrophragma angolense, Terminalia superba), three of which belong to the plant family Meliaceae, phytochemically mainly characterized by the presence of limonoids. Cross-referencing of all plants identified by current scientific literature revealed species which have not been documented for cancer therapy until now. Special interest was laid on use of plants for cancer treatment of children. A variety of traditionally used anti-cancer plants from Ghana have been identified and the widespread use within ethnotraditional medicine is obvious. Further in vitro and clinical studies will be performed in the near future to rationalize the phytochemical and functional scientific background of the respective extracts for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  6. Medicinal Plants Used by Various Tribes of Bangladesh for Treatment of Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rahmatullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that 300–500 million malaria infections occur on an annual basis and causes fatality to millions of human beings. Most of the drugs used for treatment of malaria have developed drug-resistant parasites or have serious side effects. Plant kingdom has throughout the centuries proved to be efficient source of efficacious malarial drugs like quinine and artemisinin. Since these drugs have already developed or in the process of developing drug resistance, it is important to continuously search the plant kingdom for more effective antimalarial drugs. In this aspect, the medicinal practices of indigenous communities can play a major role in identification of antimalarial plants. Bangladesh has a number of indigenous communities or tribes, who because of their living within or in close proximity to mosquito-infested forest regions, have high incidences of malaria. Over the centuries, the tribal medicinal practitioners have treated malaria with various plant-based formulations. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among various tribes of Bangladesh to identify the plants that they use for treatment of the disease. Surveys were conducted among seven tribes, namely, Bawm, Chak, Chakma, Garo, Marma, Murong, and Tripura, who inhabit the southeastern or northcentral forested regions of Bangladesh. Interviews conducted with the various tribal medicinal practitioners indicated that a total of eleven plants distributed into 10 families were used for treatment of malaria and accompanying symptoms like fever, anemia, ache, vomiting, and chills. Leaves constituted 35.7% of total uses followed by roots at 21.4%. Other plant parts used for treatment included barks, seeds, fruits, and flowers. A review of the published scientific literature showed that a number of plants used by the tribal medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses. Taken together, the plants merit further

  7. Upgrading of Wastewater Treatment Plants Through the Use of Unconventional Treatment Technologies: Removal of Lidocaine, Tramadol, Venlafaxine and Their Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Püttmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and removal efficiencies of the pharmaceuticals lidocaine (LDC, tramadol (TRA and venlafaxine (VEN, and their major active metabolites monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX, O-desmethyltramadol (ODT and O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV were studied at four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs equipped with activated sludge treatment technologies. In parallel to activated sludge treatment, the removal efficiency of the compounds in pilot- and full-scale projects installed at the WWTPs was investigated. Within these projects two different treatment methods were tested: adsorption onto powdered/granulated activated carbon (PAC/GAC and ozonation. The metabolite MEGX was not detected in any sample. The concentrations of the target analytes in wastewater effluents resulting from activated sludge treatment ranged from 55 to 183 (LDC, 88 to 416 (TRA, 50 to 245 (ODT, 22 to 176 (VEN and 77 to 520 ng L−1 (ODV. In the pilot project with subsequent treatment with PAC/GAC, the mean concentrations of the analytes were between

  8. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Asthma: A Traditional Persian Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Behjat; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    To search major Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) textbooks for medicinal plants used to treat asthma. The conformity of the TPM findings on the anti-asthmatic efficacy of plants with the findings of pharmacological studies was also explored. Major TPM textbooks were hand searched to find medicinal plants used for the treatment of asthma. Scientific names of TPM-suggested plants were determined using botanical databases and were used for a multidatabase electronic search in PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar databases. Then, the antiasthmatic effectiveness of TPM-recommended plants was verified in view of the findings from modern pharmacological investigations. According to the main TPM texts, Adianthum capillus-veneris, Boswellia oleogumresin, Crocus sativus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hyssopus officinalis and Ruta graveolens were the most efficacious medicinal plants for the treatment of asthma. This finding was confirmed by pharmacological studies which showed counterbalancing effects of the above-mentioned plants on inflammation, oxidative stress, allergic response, tracheal smooth muscle cell constriction and airway remodeling. The strong ethnobotanical background of plants used in TPM could be a valuable tool to find new anti-asthmatic medications. In this review, TPM-suggested anti-asthmatic plants were found to possess several mechanisms relevant to the treatment of respiratory diseases according to the information retrieved from modern pharmacological studies. This high degree of conformity suggested further proof-of-concept trials to ascertain the role of these plants in the routine management of asthmatic patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasive plant species in Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey on invasive plant species was conducted to distinguish species used for the treatment of various ailments in the Waterberg, District in the area dominated by Bapedi traditional healers. About thirty Bapedi traditional healers (30) were randomly selected via the snowball method. A guided field work by traditional healers and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the traditional healers. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local name of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation which is administered by the traditional healers. The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japónica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest complaint, blood purification, asthma, hypertension and infertility. The most plant parts that were used are 57.6% leaves, followed by 33.3% roots, and whole plant, seeds and bark at 3% each. Noticeably, most of these plants are cultivated (38%), followed by 28% that are common to the study area, 20% abundant, 12% wild, and 3% occasionally. Schinus molle is the most frequently used plant species for the treatment of various ailments in the study area. National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act (NEMBA

  10. Examples of Savannah River water dilution between the Savannah River Plant and the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water-treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    A substantial dilution of the river water occurs between the Savannah River Plant (SRP) and the two treatment plants. This dilution results from inflow of surface and groundwater and from direct rainfall. The amount of dilution was estimated to be approximately 20% and 54% down to the Port Wentworth and Beaufort-Jasper plants, respectively

  11. A Review of Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Earache and Tinnitus in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian-Sani, Mohammad Reza; Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Luther, Tahra

    2017-06-01

    Despite numerous trials, there has not yet been any definite strategy to reduce replicable long-term tinnitus and earache. Complementary and alternative medical approaches have been used to decrease the symptoms of tinnitus and earache. This study was conducted to report medicinal plants that are used to treat ear disorders, especially earache and tinnitus in different regions of Iran. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, LISTA (EBSCO), Embase, and Web of Science were searched using relevant search terms to retrieve eligible publications. Twenty-three species from sixteen families were used for the treatment of earache and tinnitus in Iran. Plants from families Asteraceae and Lamiaceae were the most commonly used plants for the treatment of earache. Ginkgo biloba was frequently reported for the treatment of tinnitus. This study shows the important role of medicinal plants in the treatment of earache and tinnitus in some regions of Iran. The medicinal plants reported in this review can be considered in treatments for earache and tinnitus if examined more extensively in clinical trials.

  12. Analysis of energy consumption at the Rzeszów Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masłoń Adam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment plants can be classified as energy-intensive facilities, as they account for up to 35 percent of municipal energy consumption. Pumps and aeration systems consume a significant portion of energy within the wastewater plants in particular. The cost of energy consumption for wastewater treatment processes reaches up to 40% of the total operating cost. In case of the WWTPs with the activated sludge systems, about 50% of energy is used for aeration and mixing purposes. At WWTPs, energy consumption is often correlated with the magnitude and type of pollutant load, which can influence the treatment methods and technologies used in the WWTP. In many cases wastewater treatment plants are operated without optimized measures for process optimization. A detailed study of the energy consumption should be executed in order to determine the optimization potential. This paper presents the energy consumption in municipal wastewater treatment plant in Rzeszów (Poland. In the year 2016, parameters of raw and treated wastewater were tested. The data related to energy consumption in plants allowed us to determine the energy intensity coefficients. Total consumption was measured. Indicators of energy consumption per cubic meter and removed load were calculated.

  13. Potential New Pharmacological Agents Derived From Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Haniye; Khakshur, Ali Asghar; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Roja

    2015-01-01

    In the present article, we reviewed plants and phytochemical compounds demonstrating beneficial effects in pancreatic cancer to find new sources of pharmaceutical agents. For this purpose, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google scholar were searched for plants or herbal components with beneficial effects in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Data were collected up to January 2013. The search terms were "plant," "herb," "herbal therapy," or "phytotherapy" and "pancreatic cancer" or "pancreas." All of the human in vivo and in vitro studies were included. According to studies, among diverse plants and phytochemicals, 12 compounds including apigenin, genistein, quercetin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate, benzyl isothiocyanate, sulforaphane, curcumin, thymoquinone, dihydroartemisinin, cucurbitacin B, and perillyl alcohol have beneficial action against pancreatic cancer cells through 4 or more mechanisms. Applying their plausible synergistic effects can be an imperative approach for finding new efficient pharmacological agents in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  14. Easy synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Jiao; Luo, Chunqiu; Zhang, Qian; Cong, Qiao; Yuan, Xing

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An easy method for synthesis of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was introduced. ► An novelty formation mechanism of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was proposed. ► This method exploits a new carbon source and provides a novel idea to synthesize graphene sheets. -- Abstract: This letter focuses on synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid. The transmission electron microscopy image (TEM) demonstrates that the graphene sheets are agglomerated and overlapped, the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) indicates that the products are pure, and the Raman spectrum shows the graphene sheets are well graphitized. In addition, the formation mechanism of the graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment nitric acid is discussed. These findings inspire the search for a new strategy for synthesis of graphene sheets from renewable natural products, and the lower cost of this new process and carbon source may facilitate industrial production

  15. Easy synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jiao, E-mail: qujiao@bhu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Luo, Chunqiu, E-mail: fplj_lcq@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Zhang, Qian; Cong, Qiao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013 (China); Yuan, Xing [School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Highlights: ► An easy method for synthesis of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was introduced. ► An novelty formation mechanism of graphene sheets using alfalfa plants was proposed. ► This method exploits a new carbon source and provides a novel idea to synthesize graphene sheets. -- Abstract: This letter focuses on synthesis of graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment of nitric acid. The transmission electron microscopy image (TEM) demonstrates that the graphene sheets are agglomerated and overlapped, the energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) indicates that the products are pure, and the Raman spectrum shows the graphene sheets are well graphitized. In addition, the formation mechanism of the graphene sheets from alfalfa plants by treatment nitric acid is discussed. These findings inspire the search for a new strategy for synthesis of graphene sheets from renewable natural products, and the lower cost of this new process and carbon source may facilitate industrial production.

  16. Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoanaivo, Philippe; Wright, Colin W; Willcox, Merlin L; Gilbert, Ben

    2011-03-15

    In traditional medicine whole plants or mixtures of plants are used rather than isolated compounds. There is evidence that crude plant extracts often have greater in vitro or/and in vivo antiplasmodial activity than isolated constituents at an equivalent dose. The aim of this paper is to review positive interactions between components of whole plant extracts, which may explain this. Narrative review. There is evidence for several different types of positive interactions between different components of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria. Pharmacodynamic synergy has been demonstrated between the Cinchona alkaloids and between various plant extracts traditionally combined. Pharmacokinetic interactions occur, for example between constituents of Artemisia annua tea so that its artemisinin is more rapidly absorbed than the pure drug. Some plant extracts may have an immunomodulatory effect as well as a direct antiplasmodial effect. Several extracts contain multidrug resistance inhibitors, although none of these has been tested clinically in malaria. Some plant constituents are added mainly to attenuate the side-effects of others, for example ginger to prevent nausea. More clinical research is needed on all types of interaction between plant constituents. This could include clinical trials of combinations of pure compounds (such as artemisinin + curcumin + piperine) and of combinations of herbal remedies (such as Artemisia annua leaves + Curcuma longa root + Piper nigum seeds). The former may enhance the activity of existing pharmaceutical preparations, and the latter may improve the effectiveness of existing herbal remedies for use in remote areas where modern drugs are unavailable.

  17. Medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes in karo ethnic, north sumatra, indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Nasution, Barita; Alief Aththorick, T.; Rahayu, Suci

    2018-03-01

    Medicinal plants derived from traditional medicines have played an important role in managing a variety of healthcare and diseases in Karo ethnic in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The study aimed to document the ethnobotanical information on medicinal plants used by traditional healers of Karo ethnic in the treatment of diabetes and to assess the crude extract of phytochemical constituents qualitatively from medicinal plant organ. The study was conducted on two Karo sub-ethnic living at the highland (Karo Gugung) in Karo Regency and the lowland (Karo Jahe) in Langkat Regency with the length of the study was eight months of observation. The survey was conducted using open-ended interviews among four traditional healers those who were selected by snowball sampling method; quantitative analysis of ethnobotanical data was performed by calculating the familiarity index (Fi). Fresh plant samples which were used for phytochemical analysis were collected using participatory method. The results showed that 15 plants were used to treat diabetes by Karo traditional healers. The plants are Blumea balsamifera, Nypa fruticans, Bischofia javanica, Eleutherine americana, Allium cepa, A. sativum, Eugenia polyantha, Piper betle, P. nigrum, Citrus aurantiifolia, Boesenbergia pandurata, Curcuma longa, Kaempferia galanga, Zingiber montanum, and Z. officinale. Familiarity index (Fi) value of each plant was 25 which explained that each of medicinal plant was used by only one traditional healer. The phytochemical screening showed that the crude plant extracts contained phenolic, terpenoid, steroid, and saponin.

  18. Variance-based sensitivity analysis for wastewater treatment plant modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosenza, Alida; Mannina, Giorgio; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Neumann, Marc B

    2014-02-01

    Global sensitivity analysis (GSA) is a valuable tool to support the use of mathematical models that characterise technical or natural systems. In the field of wastewater modelling, most of the recent applications of GSA use either regression-based methods, which require close to linear relationships between the model outputs and model factors, or screening methods, which only yield qualitative results. However, due to the characteristics of membrane bioreactors (MBR) (non-linear kinetics, complexity, etc.) there is an interest to adequately quantify the effects of non-linearity and interactions. This can be achieved with variance-based sensitivity analysis methods. In this paper, the Extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Testing (Extended-FAST) method is applied to an integrated activated sludge model (ASM2d) for an MBR system including microbial product formation and physical separation processes. Twenty-one model outputs located throughout the different sections of the bioreactor and 79 model factors are considered. Significant interactions among the model factors are found. Contrary to previous GSA studies for ASM models, we find the relationship between variables and factors to be non-linear and non-additive. By analysing the pattern of the variance decomposition along the plant, the model factors having the highest variance contributions were identified. This study demonstrates the usefulness of variance-based methods in membrane bioreactor modelling where, due to the presence of membranes and different operating conditions than those typically found in conventional activated sludge systems, several highly non-linear effects are present. Further, the obtained results highlight the relevant role played by the modelling approach for MBR taking into account simultaneously biological and physical processes. © 2013.

  19. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  20. State estimation for large-scale wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jan; Elixmann, David; Kühl, Peter; Gerkens, Carine; Schlöder, Johannes P; Bock, Hans G; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    Many relevant process states in wastewater treatment are not measurable, or their measurements are subject to considerable uncertainty. This poses a serious problem for process monitoring and control. Model-based state estimation can provide estimates of the unknown states and increase the reliability of measurements. In this paper, an integrated approach is presented for the optimization-based sensor network design and the estimation problem. Using the ASM1 model in the reference scenario BSM1, a cost-optimal sensor network is designed and the prominent estimators EKF and MHE are evaluated. Very good estimation results for the system comprising 78 states are found requiring sensor networks of only moderate complexity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Overview of radiotracer experiments for better understanding of wastewater and water treatment plants in Lima (Peru))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, C.S.; Maghella, G.; Mamani, E.; Berne, P.; Brisset, P.; Leclerc, J.-P.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to present an overview of possible applications of the radiotracers for better understanding of water and waste water treatment plants. Numerous experiments have been carried out in different plants located in Lima. Four processes have been investigated: desanders, floculators, clarifiers and digesters. Depending on the studied process, the experimental results have been interpreted at different levels of complexity: from simple troubleshooting to the modelling of the flow behaviour inside the process. (author)

  2. MOBIL CONTAINER UNIT FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE UTILIZATION FROM SMALL AND MEDIUM WASTWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Ledakowicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The most wastewater treatment plants in Poland are small and medium plants of flow capacity below 1000 m3/d. These plants are not able to build sludge incineration plants and the transportation costs to the nearest plants increase the total costs of wastewater treatment. Polish company Metal Expert together with the French company ETIA and Lodz University of Technology proposed mobile unit for integrated drying and pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a pilot bench scale with capacity of 100 kg/h of dewatered sludge. The pilot plant was mounted in a typical mobile container which could provide service to small and medium wastewater treatment plants offering thermal processing of sewage sludge. This unit consists of KENKI contact dryer and „Spirajoule”® pyrolyser supplied with electricity utilizing the Joule effect, and a boiler, wherein the pyrolysis gases and volatile products are burned producing steam sent to the contact dryer. The bio-char produced during sludge pyrolysis could be utilized for agriculture purposes. During preliminary experiments and short-term exploitation of the unit at Elbląg Wastewater Treatment Plant the obtained results allowed us to make a mass and energy balance depended on the process conditions in the pyrolysis temperature range of 400÷800 °C. Based on the obtained results a calculator was created in the Excel , which enables assessment of pyrolysis products content and making mass and energy balances depended on process parameters such as initial moisture of sludge, pyrolysis temperature and installation output.

  3. Listeriosis Phytotherapy: A Review Study on the Effectiveness of Iranian Medicinal Plants in Treatment of Listeriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Saki, Kourosh; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Taherikalani, Morovat

    2015-12-17

    Listeria monocytogenes can be found in many processed foods, raw milk, dairy products, meat and meat products such as sausages, beef and fish products, seafoods, eggs, fruits, and vegetables such as radish and cabbage. This article is a review study on the Iranian medicinal plants applied for treatment of listeriosis. Information of this review article was obtained by searching various key words such as Listeria monocytogenes, medicinal plants, plant extracts and essential oils among scientific articles published in databases of Google scholar, ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, SID and Magiran. Thyme, German chamomile, great chamomile, yarrow, onion, oregano, nutmeg, sage, sagebrush, hyssop, rosemary, St John's wort, safflower, ajowan, cumin, peppermint, shallot, anise, and parsnip are known antilisteriosis medicinal plants. Bioactive phytochemicals, antioxidants and monoterpenes, sesquiterpene, coumarin, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and terpenoids are the main ingredients of antilisteriosis medicinal plants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Metagenomic analysis of an ecological wastewater treatment plant's microbial communities and their potential to metabolize pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcom, Ian N; Driscoll, Heather; Vincent, James; Leduc, Meagan

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and other micropollutants have been detected in drinking water, groundwater, surface water, and soil around the world. Even in locations where wastewater treatment is required, they can be found in drinking water wells, municipal water supplies, and agricultural soils. It is clear conventional wastewater treatment technologies are not meeting the challenge of the mounting pressures on global freshwater supplies. Cost-effective ecological wastewater treatment technologies have been developed in response. To determine whether the removal of micropollutants in ecological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is promoted by the plant-microbe interactions, as has been reported for other recalcitrant xenobiotics, biofilm microbial communities growing on the surfaces of plant roots were profiled by whole metagenome sequencing and compared to the microbial communities residing in the wastewater. In this study, the concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were quantified in each treatment tank of the ecological WWTP treating human wastewater at a highway rest stop and visitor center in Vermont. The concentrations of detected PPCPs were substantially greater than values reported for conventional WWTPs likely due to onsite recirculation of wastewater. The greatest reductions in PPCPs concentrations were observed in the anoxic treatment tank where Bacilli dominated the biofilm community. Benzoate degradation was the most abundant xenobiotic metabolic category identified throughout the system. Collectively, the microbial communities residing in the wastewater were taxonomically and metabolically more diverse than the immersed plant root biofilm. However, greater heterogeneity and higher relative abundances of xenobiotic metabolism genes was observed for the root biofilm.

  5. NOM characterization and removal at six Southern African water treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Haarhoff

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic pollution is a major concern during drinking water treatment. Major challenges attributed to organic pollution include the proliferation of pathogenic micro-organisms, prevalence of toxic and physiologically disruptive organic micro-pollutants, and quality deterioration in water distribution systems. A major component of organic pollution is natural organic matter (NOM. The operational mechanisms of most unit processes are well understood. However, their interaction with NOM is still the subject of scientific research. This paper takes the form of a meta-study to capture some of the experiences with NOM monitoring and analysis at a number of Southern African Water Treatment Plants. It is written from the perspective of practical process selection, to try and coax some pointers from the available data for the design of more detailed pilot work. NOM was tracked at six water treatment plants using dissolved organic carbon (DOC measurements. Fractionation of the DOC based on biodegradability and molecular weight distribution was done at a water treatment plant in Namibia. A third fractionation technique using ion exchange resins was used to assess the impact of ozonation on DOC. DOC measurements alone did not give much insight into NOM evolution through the treatment train. The more detailed characterization techniques showed that different unit processes preferentially remove different NOM fractions. Therefore these techniques provide better information for process design and optimisation than the DOC measurement which is routinely done during full scale operation at these water treatment plants.

  6. Operating boundaries of full-scale advanced water reuse treatment plants: many lessons learned from pilot plant experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, C; Kumar, Y; Walker, T; Poussade, Y; Zavlanos, V

    2010-01-01

    Three Advanced Water Treatment Plants (AWTP) have recently been built in South East Queensland as part of the Western Corridor Recycled Water Project (WCRWP) producing Purified Recycled Water from secondary treated waste water for the purpose of indirect potable reuse. At Luggage Point, a demonstration plant was primarily operated by the design team for design verification. The investigation program was then extended so that the operating team could investigate possible process optimisation, and operation flexibility. Extending the demonstration plant investigation program enabled monitoring of the long term performance of the microfiltration and reverse osmosis membranes, which did not appear to foul even after more than a year of operation. The investigation primarily identified several ways to optimise the process. It highlighted areas of risk for treated water quality, such as total nitrogen. Ample and rapid swings of salinity from 850 to 3,000 mg/l-TDS were predicted to affect the RO process day-to-day operation and monitoring. Most of the setpoints used for monitoring under HACCP were determined during the pilot plant trials.

  7. Scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding by Avicenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobli, Masumeh; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Amin, Gholamreza; Haririan, Ismaeil; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Rahimi, Roja

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is one of the prevalent gynecological disorders that cause considerable morbidity and management of that plays an important role in protecting women's health. This review focuses on medicinal plants mentioned by Avicenna, a great Iranian philosopher and physician (A.D. 980-1037), in his book Canon for treatment of AUB. Medicinal plants mentioned in Canon for treatment of AUB were elicited and searched in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Cochrane library to find studies that confirmed their efficacy. Data were collected for the years 1980-2014. The findings included 23 plants belonging to 18 families. Scientific findings have revealed that these plants control AUB through four mechanisms of action including inhibition of inflammatory process, inhibition of prostaglandins production, antiproliferative activity on human cervical cancer cells (HeLa), and estrogenic activity. All of the plants exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and/or in vivo. Cuscuta chinensis and Portulaca oleracea exhibited estrogenic activity. Boswellia carteri, Lens culinaris, Myrtus communis, Polygonum aviculare, Pistacia lentiscus, and Punica granatum have revealed inhibitory activity on biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Some of the mentioned plants including: Ceratonia siliqua, Cuscuta chinensis, Cuscuta epithymum, Cydonia oblonga, Paeonia sp., Portulaca oleracea, Solanum nigrum, Rumex acetosa and Onopordum acanthium have shown antiproliferative activity on HeLa cells. Investigation of traditional Iranian medicine literatures can lead to the identification of effective natural medicines for the management of AUB; however, conclusive confirmation of the efficacy and safety of these treatments needs more evaluations.

  8. Emergency membrane contactor based absorption system for ammonia leaks in water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jiahui; Fang, Xuliang; He, Yiliang; Jin, Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Because of the suspected health risks of trihalomethanes (THMs), more and more water treatment plants have replaced traditional chlorine disinfection process with chloramines but often without the proper absorption system installed in the case of ammonia leaks in the storage room. A pilot plant membrane absorption system was developed and installed in a water treatment plant for this purpose. Experimentally determined contact angle, surface tension, and corrosion tests indicated that the sulfuric acid was the proper choice as the absorbent for leaking ammonia using polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactor. Effects of several operating conditions on the mass transfer coefficient, ammonia absorption, and removal efficiency were examined, including the liquid concentration, liquid velocity, and feed gas concentration. Under the operation conditions investigated, the gas absorption efficiency over 99.9% was achieved. This indicated that the designed pilot plant membrane absorption system was effective to absorb the leaking ammonia in the model storage room. The removal rate of the ammonia in the model storage room was also experimentally and theoretically found to be primarily determined by the ammonia suction flow rate from the ammonia storage room to the membrane contactor. The ammonia removal rate of 99.9% was expected to be achieved within 1.3 h at the ammonia gas flow rate of 500 m3/h. The success of the pilot plant membrane absorption system developed in this study illustrated the potential of this technology for ammonia leaks in water treatment plant, also paved the way towards a larger scale application.

  9. Validation and implementation of model based control strategies at an industrial wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demey, D; Vanderhaegen, B; Vanhooren, H; Liessens, J; Van Eyck, L; Hopkins, L; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the practical implementation and validation of advanced control strategies, designed using model based techniques, at an industrial wastewater treatment plant is demonstrated. The plant under study is treating the wastewater of a large pharmaceutical production facility. The process characteristics of the wastewater treatment were quantified by means of tracer tests, intensive measurement campaigns and the use of on-line sensors. In parallel, a dynamical model of the complete wastewater plant was developed according to the specific kinetic characteristics of the sludge and the highly varying composition of the industrial wastewater. Based on real-time data and dynamic models, control strategies for the equalisation system, the polymer dosing and phosphorus addition were established. The control strategies are being integrated in the existing SCADA system combining traditional PLC technology with robust PC based control calculations. The use of intelligent control in wastewater treatment offers a wide spectrum of possibilities to upgrade existing plants, to increase the capacity of the plant and to eliminate peaks. This can result in a more stable and secure overall performance and, finally, in cost savings. The use of on-line sensors has a potential not only for monitoring concentrations, but also for manipulating flows and concentrations. This way the performance of the plant can be secured.

  10. Treatments of non-wood plant fibres used as reinforcement in composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ange Arsène

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a summary of the knowledge on fibres and pulps of non wood tropical plants used as reinforcement in cementitious composites accumulated during the recent years by Guadeloupean and Brazilian teams participating in collaborative work. Vegetable fibres represent a good alternative as non-conventional materials for the construction of ecological and sustainable buildings. The use of such renewable resources contributes to the development of sustainable technologies. The main objective of the paper is to emphasize the use of agricultural wastes in the production of cement based composites. The botanical, chemical, physical, morphological and mechanical properties of fibres from various plants are described. The effects of different treatments on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of fibres are presented. The most effective treatments in influencing the mechanical and physical properties are pyrolysis and alkaline ones, according to the type of plant. The final choice will have to consider fibre availability, and treatment costs.

  11. Study on the TOC concentration in raw water and HAAs in Tehran's water treatment plant outlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Rastkari, Noushin; Nabizadeh Nodehi, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Nazmara, Shahrokh

    2013-11-12

    A sampling has been undertaken to investigate the variation of haloacetic acids formation and nature organic matter through 81 samples were collected from three water treatment plant and three major rivers of Tehran Iran. Changes in the total organic matter (TOC), ultraviolet absorbance (UV254), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) were measured in raw water samples. Haloacetic acids concentrations were monitored using a new static headspace GC-ECD method without a manual pre-concentration in three water treatment plants. The average concentration of TOC and HAAs in three rivers and three water treatment plants in spring, summer and fall, were 4, 2.41 and 4.03 mg/L and 48.75, 43.79 and 51.07 μg/L respectively. Seasonal variation indicated that HAAs levels were much higher in spring and fall.

  12. Case study: centralized wastewater treatment plant at Rawang Integrated Industrial Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting Teo Ming; Khomsaton Abu Bakar; Zulkafli Ghazali; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    2006-01-01

    Survey has been conducted at Rawang Integrated Industrial Park (RIIP) to investigate the possibility of setting up centralized industrial wastewater treatment plant. Rawang integrated industrial park is selected based on suggestion from department of environment. RIIP consists of about 150 industries with various type of activities operated in the area. Only 9 out of estimated 150 industries have individual wastewater treatment plant. The business activities of the 9 industries include food processing, textile, welding rods manufacturing, steel galvanizing and battery manufacturing. Wastewater generated by the industries are characterized by high oil and grease, cod, bod, organic matter, metal hydroxide and acidic. Besides that most of industries do the monitoring only once a month. This paper will also discuss the advantages of setting up of centralized industrial wastewater treatment plant to the government authorities, industries, people and environment. (Author)

  13. Rational energy use at sewage treatment plants; Rationelle Energieverwendung in Klaeranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, J.; Maurer, P. [ISET - Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik e.V., Hanau (Germany). Abt. Prozess- und Verfahrenstechnik

    1999-07-01

    As pollutant concentration limits for effluent from sewage treatment plant have become more stringent in recent years, great efforts in the form of construction measures have been made in order to enhance sewage cleaning performance. However, enhanced cleaning efficiency as a rule involves higher energy consumption. The present paper describes a standardized procedure for effective implementation of the energetic optimization of sewage treatment plant. Furthermore, an MS-Excel-based software tool for rough and detailed analyses of municipal sewage treatment plants is described. (orig.) [German] Die Verschaerfung der Einleitungsgrenzwerte fuer Klaeranlagen hat in den letzten Jahren zu intensiven Baumassnahmen mit dem Ziel der Erhoehung der Reinigungsleistung gefuehrt. Bedauerlicherweise ist eine Steigerung der Reinigungsleistung meist auch mit einem erhoehten Energieverbrauch verbunden. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt eine standardisierte Vorgehensweise zur effektiven Durchfuehrung der energetischen Optimierung von Klaeranlagen vor. Ferner wird ein auf MS-Excel basierendes Software-Tool zur energetischen Grob- und Feinanalyse von kommunalen Klaeranlagen vorgestellt. (orig.)

  14. Medicinal plants used in Lesotho for treatment of reproductive and post reproductive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moteetee, A; Seleteng Kose, L

    2016-12-24

    Reproductive healthcare has been highlighted as a major challenge in Lesotho mainly due to the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. As a result other reproductive ailments have not received much attention, particularly because healthcare facilities are already limited and many of them are inaccessible. For these reasons, medicinal plants play a major role in primary healthcare system in the country, in addition the plants are easily accessible, more affordable, and their use forms part of the cultural heritage. However, documentation of medicinal plants used for reproductive ailments is scattered, more importantly the biological and pharmacological properties, as well as toxicity of many of these plants are not yet known. To document the plants used by both male and female Basotho (residing in Lesotho) for the treatment of reproductive ailments, to explore their recorded biological and pharmacological effects as well as their toxicity, and to establish if these plants are used for similar purposes in other southern African cultures. The results stem from published findings of recent interviews of traditional medicinal practitioners in the Maseru District of Lesotho, first author's own experiences and observations from the Qacha's Nek District as well as comprehensive literature survey including numerous books and unpublished data. Electronic databases such as Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect were also used to search for the chemical compounds, pharmacological activity, and toxicity of the plants. A total of 87 plant species are reported to be used for the treatment of several reproductive problems such as infertility, complications associated with pregnancy (twelve plants are used to treat conditions such as colic, heartburn, nausea, and constipation), cleansing and/ or toning of the uterus (with a purpose either to induce pregnancy or to get rid of the placenta, for example Withania somnifera and Zantedeschia

  15. Analysis of the alternatives for the chemical treatment of the secondary circuit of PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.P.G.; Silva Neto, A.J. da; Braganca Junior, A.; Dominguez, D.

    1990-01-01

    The operational experiences within PWR power plants shows that the major problems which affect the plant availability occurs in the secondary side, mainly in the steam generators and condenser. The aim of this report is to perform an evaluation of the main chemical treatment processes, which are applied to the secondary side of PWR power plants in order to reduce the corrosion problems to which are exposed the system equipment, minimizing in this way the shut down and maintenance cost for repairs and replacement of damaged components. (author)

  16. Extractor capacity of different plant species cultivated in wetlands used to pig wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Teixeira de Matos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the extracting capacity of different plant species when cultivated in constructed wetlands systems (CWS for the treatment of pig wastewaters (PW. For this, four CWS were constructed with 24.0 m x 1.1 m x 0.7 m, sealed with geomembrana of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and filled with 0.4 m of gravel “zero”. In CWS1, CWS2 and CWS3 were planted cattail (Typha latifolia L., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. and grass-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers., respectively. In CWS4 was planted Alternanthera on the 1st third, Typha in 2nd third and tifton-85 in the 3rd third of the bed. After passing through a organic filter filled with crushed sugar cane bagasse, the ARS was applied in SACS in a flow of 0.8 m3 d-1, which provided a detention time of 4.8 days. There was a trend to obtain higher extraction of pollutants by plants grown at the beginning of the CWS. The Alternanthera plant species that was presented greater capacity for nutrient extractor, extracting 9.5 and 23% of all total-N and K applied through ARS. Plants extracted small amounts of copper from the ARS. Because of the improved performance of plants, Alternanthera or Tifton-85 grass must be cultivated in CWS for the ARS treatment.

  17. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF GAS TREATMENT PLANT BASED ON AN EJECTOR SCRUBBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iu. Panov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article executed the feasibility study of various options for gas treatment. Rapid development of industry and transport worldwide in recent times raises the problem in the protection of habitat environment from harmful waste. In solving problems of flue gas treatment great attention is given to the economic characteristics and recycling techniques for capturing emissions and disposal must also meet the sanitary health requirements: flue gas treatment plants should not cause air or water pollution. The set objective is solved by developing a two-stage wet treatment system for pyrolysis gas based on ejector scrubbers. Their advantage - a central nozzle supply that allows the scrubber to operate on the principle of an ejector pump. Projected plant can be used in enterprises for processing of solid domestic and industrial waste, where there are steam and hot water boilers, whose operations result in contaminated gases emissions obtained with high temperatures. In particular, this installation can be applied at a cement plant in which a large amount of waste gases containing sulfur oxides is emitted. Assessment of market potential for the plant designed to treat waste gases in the cement factory is performed through a SWOT analysis. SWOT analysis results indicate the possibility of the treatment of exhaust gases without a high cost and with high gas treatment efficiency. Plant competitive analysis was done using an expert method in comparison with market competitors. Technical and economic indicators of the plant are presented. Return on investments is 46% and payback period of capital investments - 2.7 years.

  18. On the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor the work of wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor influent and effluent wastewaters of wastewater treatment plants. The information obtained through these tests is used to prevent toxic pollutants from entering wastewater treatment plants and discharge of toxic pollutants into the recipient. Samples of wastewaters from the wastewater treatment plants of Kragujevac and Gornji Milanovac, as well as from the Lepenica and Despotovica Rivers immediately before and after the influx of wastewaters from the plants, were collected between October 2004 and June 2005. Used as the test organism in these tests was the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio Hamilton - Buchanon (Cyprinidae. The acute toxicity test of 96/h duration showed that the tested samples had a slight acutely toxic effect on B. rerio, except for the sample of influent wastewater into the Cvetojevac wastewater treatment plant, which had moderately acute toxicity, indicating that such water should be prevented from entering the system in order to eliminate its detrimental effect on the purification process.

  19. Evaluation and improvement of wastewater treatment plant performance using BioWin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleyiblo, Oloche James; Cao, Jiashun; Feng, Qian; Wang, Gan; Xue, Zhaoxia; Fang, Fang

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the activated sludge model implemented in the BioWin® software was validated against full-scale wastewater treatment plant data. Only two stoichiometric parameters ( Y p/acetic and the heterotrophic yield ( Y H)) required calibration. The value 0.42 was used for Y p/acetic in this study, while the default value of the BioWin® software is 0.49, making it comparable with the default values of the corresponding parameter (yield of phosphorus release to substrate uptake ) used in ASM2, ASM2d, and ASM3P, respectively. Three scenarios were evaluated to improve the performance of the wastewater treatment plant, the possibility of wasting sludge from either the aeration tank or the secondary clarifier, the construction of a new oxidation ditch, and the construction of an equalization tank. The results suggest that construction of a new oxidation ditch or an equalization tank for the wastewater treatment plant is not necessary. However, sludge should be wasted from the aeration tank during wet weather to reduce the solids loading of the clarifiers and avoid effluent violations. Therefore, it is recommended that the design of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) should include flexibility to operate the plants in various modes. This is helpful in selection of the appropriate operating mode when necessary, resulting in substantial reductions in operating costs.

  20. Toxigenic Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotypes from Wastewater Treatment Plants in Southern Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Vincenza; Krovacek, Karel; Mauri, Federica; Demarta, Antonella; Dumontet, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of Clostridium difficile in nine wastewater treatment plants in the Ticino Canton (southern Switzerland) was investigated. The samples were collected from raw sewage influents and from treated effluents. Forty-seven out of 55 characterized C. difficile strains belonged to 13 different reference PCR ribotypes (009, 010, 014, 015, 039, 052, 053, 066, 070, 078, 101, 106, and 117), whereas 8 strains did not match any of those available in our libraries. The most frequently isolated ribotype (40%) was 078, isolated from six wastewater treatment plants, whereas ribotype 066, a toxigenic emerging ribotype isolated from patients admitted to hospitals in Europe and Switzerland, was isolated from the outgoing effluent of one plant. The majority of the isolates (85%) were toxigenic. Forty-nine percent of them produced toxin A, toxin B, and the binary toxin (toxigenic profile A+ B+ CDT+), whereas 51% showed the profile A+ B+ CDT−. Interestingly, eight ribotypes (010, 014, 015, 039, 066, 078, 101, and 106) were among the riboprofiles isolated from symptomatic patients admitted to the hospitals of the Ticino Canton in 2010. Despite the limitation of sampling, this study highlights that toxigenic ribotypes of C. difficile involved in human infections may occur in both incoming and outgoing biological wastewater treatment plants. Such a finding raises concern about the possible contamination of water bodies that receive wastewater treatment plant effluents and about the safe reuse of treated wastewater. PMID:22798376

  1. Treatment of Lagoon sludge waste generated from Uranium Conversion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D.S.; Oh, J.H.; Lee, K.I.; Choi, Y.D.; Hwang, S.T.; Park, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the dissolution property of nitrate salts in the desalination process by water and the drying property of residual solid after separating nitrates in a series of processes for the sludge treatment. Desalination was carried out with the adding ratio of water and drying property was analyzed by TG/DTA, FTIR, and XRD. Nitrate salts involved in the sludge were separated over 97 % at the water adding ratio of 2.5. But a small quantity of calcium and sodium nitrate remained in the residue. These were decomposed over 600 deg. C while calcium carbonate, which was a main compound of residual solid, was decomposed into calcium oxide over 750 deg. C. The residual solid has to be decomposed over 800 deg. C to converse uranyl nitrate of six values into the stable U 3 O 8 of four values. As a result of removing the nitrates at the adding ratio of 2.5 and drying the residue over 900 deg. C, volume of the sludge waste decreased over 80 %. (authors)

  2. Process and technological options for odorous emissions control in wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernuschi, S.; Torretta, V.

    1996-01-01

    The emissions of odorous substances together with noise and issues related to proper architectural design within the existing territorial context, have certainly to be considered one of the most significant environmental effects determined by wastewater treatment plants particularly in the most frequent case of their localization in dense urban areas. Following a brief introduction on the chemical properties of odorous compounds and the corresponding methods for representing their concentration levels in air, present work reports on the main qualitative and quantitative characteristics of odorous emissions originating from single unit operations of typical wastewater treatment plants and on the technological and process options available for their control

  3. Bio aerosol Generation at wastewater treatment plants: Identification of main bio aerosols sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Monedero, M. A.; Aguilar, M. I.; Fenoll, R.; Roig, A.

    2009-01-01

    Typical operations taking place at wastewater treatment plants, especially those involving aeration and mechanical agitation of raw wastewater, represent one of the main sources of bio aerosols that, if inhaled, could pose a biologic hazard to site workers and local residents. Six different wastewater treatment plants from southeast Spain were monitories in order to identify the main bio aerosol sources and to evaluate the airborne microorganisms levels to which workers may be exposed to. Air samples were taken from selected locations by using a single stage impactor. (Author)

  4. Population dynamics of bacteria involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal in Danish wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Artur Tomasz; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2013-03-15

    The enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process is increasingly popular as a sustainable method for removal of phosphorus (P) from wastewater. This study consisted of a comprehensive three-year investigation of the identity and population dynamics of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in 28 Danish municipal wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to quantify ten probe-defined populations of PAO and GAO that in total constituted a large fraction (30% on average) of the entire microbial community targeted by the EUBmix probes. Two PAO genera, Accumulibacter and Tetrasphaera, were very abundant in all EBPR plants (average of 3.7% and 27% of all bacteria, respectively), and their abundance was relatively stable in the Danish full-scale plants without clear temporal variations. GAOs were occasionally present in some plants (Competibacter in 11 plants, Defluviicoccus in 6 plants) and were consistent in only a few plants. This shows that these were not core species in the EBPR communities. The total GAO abundance was always lower than that of Accumulibacter. In plants without EBPR design, the abundance of PAO and GAO was significantly lower. Competibacter correlated in general with high fraction of industrial wastewater. In specific plants Accumulibacter correlated with high C/P ratio of the wastewater and Tetrasphaera with high organic loading. Interestingly, the relative microbial composition of the PAO/GAO species was unique to each plant over time, which gives a characteristic plant-specific "fingerprint". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethnomedicinal survey of plants used in the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyamah, P C; Idu, M

    2015-09-15

    Malaria is one of the most severe public health problems worldwide. It is a leading cause of death and disease in many developing countries, where young children and pregnant women are the groups most affected. Spread of multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium and the adverse side effects of the existing anti-malarial drugs have necessitated the search for novel, well tolerated and more efficient antimalarial drugs. This ethnomedicinal study surveyed the different types of medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria with the intent of identifying plants that are traditionally employed in the treatment of malaria across geopolitical boundaries. Data were collected from 79 respondents composed of 50 traditional herbsellers and 29 herbal practitioners using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using frequency and percentages. Of the 79 respondents interviewed, 24% were males while 76% were females. A total of 156 species belonging to 60 families were reported being used to treat malaria in the study area. Fabaceae was the most represented family having fourteen (14) plant species. Of the plants identified during the survey, Azadirachta indica was the species of highest relative frequency of citation (RFC - 1.0). The dominant plant parts used in the preparation of remedies were leaves (50.50%) and Decoction was the main method of preparation. Analysis of regional plant occurrence revealed that South-Western Nigeria represented the region with the highest plant occurrence (60.7%) followed by South-South (24%) and South-East (15.3%). Regional occurrence of plants used in the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria is reported here for the first time. This study has documented a great diversity of plants used in the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria. Extracts prepared strictly according to the practitioners' recipes should therefore be screened for antiplasmodial activity and toxicity by in vitro and in vivo standard

  6. Conversion of sewage treatment plants on sludge digestion. Energetic and economic optimization potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Theo G.; Gretzschel, Oliver

    2014-03-01

    Investigations within the framework of the state-commissioned project ''Re-evaluation of wastewater purification plants with anaerobic sludge treatment with due consideration to framework conditions in terms of the energy and the wastewater management situation in Rhineland-Palatinate'', abbreviated ''NAwaS'', have shown that due to the rise in energy prices and availability of innovative techniques and methods it can be economically efficient, from a plant capacity of 10,000 inhabitants upwards, to convert sewage treatment plants to sludge digestion. Findings from the NAwaS project show the state of Rhineland-Palatinate to have a large potential for the conversion of sewage treatment plants to sludge digestion. Depending on the rate of price increase as well as interest rates the use of digester gas could permit an increase in electricity output by up to 50% over today's levels. Moreover, converted plants would be able to almost completely cover their own heat demand and in addition permit energy savings totalling an expected 5 kWh/(inhabitant x a). If one incorporates the possibilities offered by the procurement of sludge or suitable co-substrates from outside sources, by retrofitting sewage plants with combined heat and power stations or micro gas turbines as well as by process optimisation in existing digestion plants, this gives a further significant increase in potential production capacity and hence economic efficiency. In some of the sewage plants the above measures for saving energy and boosting energy production will even lead to energy self-sufficiency. [de

  7. Wastewater treatment plant effluent introduces recoverable shifts in microbial community composition in urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, S. H.; Price, J. R.; Ryan, M. O.; Toran, L.; Sales, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    New technologies are allowing for intense scrutiny of the impact of land use on microbial communities in stream networks. We used a combination of analytical chemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and targeted amplicon sequencing for a preliminary study on the impact of wastewater treatment plant effluent discharge on urban streams. Samples were collected on two dates above and below treatment plants on the Wissahickon Creek, and its tributary, Sandy Run, in Montgomery County, PA, USA. As expected, effluent was observed to be a significant source of nutrients and human and non-specific fecal associated taxa. There was an observed increase in the alpha diversity at locations immediately below effluent outflows, which contributed many taxa involved in wastewater treatment processes and nutrient cycling to the stream's microbial community. Unexpectedly, modeling of microbial community shifts along the stream was not controlled by concentrations of measured nutrients. Furthermore, partial recovery, in the form of decreasing abundances of bacteria and nutrients associated with wastewater treatment plant processes, nutrient cycling bacteria, and taxa associated with fecal and sewage sources, was observed between effluent sources. Antecedent moisture conditions impacted overall microbial community diversity, with higher diversity occurring after rainfall. These findings hint at resilience in stream microbial communities to recover from wastewater treatment plant effluent and are vital to understanding the impacts of urbanization on microbial stream communities.

  8. EVALUATION OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Dąbrowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption during waste water treatment is a very important factor affecting food industry plants. Apart from highly efficient treatment of dairy and meat sewage, a low energy consumption is required in order to lower its costs. During the research period parameters of raw and treated sewage were tested (BOD, COD, N-total, P-total. Also, the energy consumption from selected processes as well as total consumption were measured. Indicators of energy consumption per m3 and removed load were calculated. It was found that biological treatment and aeration played the main role in energy consumption in both objects. It was respectively 40 and 47% for Bielmlek and JBB plants. The second biggest energy consuming stage of treatment in both objects was sludge processing. Energy required to process excessive sludge equaled 30% of the total energy usage in both plants. Energy consumption factors related to hydraulic flow gave results in the range from 2,05 to 3,3 kWhm-3 and from 2,72 to 3,23 kWhm-3 for Bielmlek and JBB plants respectively. The research will be continued in order to optimize energy consumption while retaining high efficiency treatment in food industry WWTPs. Finally a mathematical model will be prepared for optimizing energy consumption in food industry WWTPs.

  9. Physico-chemical treatment of coke plant effluents for control of water pollution in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, M.K. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Center of Mining Environmental

    2002-01-01

    Coal carbonizing industries in India are important and are growing every year. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced in this industry contain a large amount of suspended solids, high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances, which are causing serious surface water pollution in the area. There is a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). The working principle of a coke plant and the effluents produced is described. One large coke plant was chosen to evaluate characteristics of the effluent and to suggest a proper treatment method. Present effluent treatment system was found to be inadequate and a large quantity of a very good quality coke breeze is being lost, which is also causing siltation on the riverbed in addition to surface water pollution. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. A scheme has been proposed for the treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse or safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations are discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale for various sites so as to maintain a clean environment.

  10. Bacterial Community Structure Shifted by Geosmin in Granular Activated Carbon System of Water Treatment Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngoc Dung; Lee, Eun-Hee; Chae, Seon-Ha; Cho, Yongdeok; Shin, Hyejin; Son, Ahjeong

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relation between the presence of geosmin in water and the bacterial community structure within the granular activated carbon (GAC) system of water treatment plants in South Korea. GAC samples were collected in May and August of 2014 at three water treatment plants (Sungnam, Koyang, and Yeoncho in Korea). Dissolved organic carbon and geosmin were analyzed before and after GAC treatment. Geosmin was found in raw water from Sungnam and Koyang water treatment plants but not in that from Yeoncho water treatment plant. Interestingly, but not surprisingly, the 16S rRNA clone library indicated that the bacterial communities from the Sungnam and Koyang GAC systems were closely related to geosmin-degrading bacteria. Based on the phylogenetic tree and multidimensional scaling plot, bacterial clones from GAC under the influence of geosmin were clustered with Variovorax paradoxus strain DB 9b and Comamonas sp. DB mg. In other words, the presence of geosmin in water might have inevitably contributed to the growth of geosmin degraders within the respective GAC system.

  11. Nitrogen Removal Efficiency at Centralized Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plants in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsak Noophan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, influents and effluents from centralized domestic wastewater treatment systems in Bangkok (Rattanakosin, Dindaeng, Chongnonsi, Nongkhaem, and Jatujak were randomly collected in order to measure organic nitrogen plus ammonium-nitrogen (total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and total volatile suspended solids by using Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 1998. Characteristics of influent and effluent (primary data of the centralized domestic wastewater treatment system from the Drainage and Sewerage Department of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration were used to analyze efficiency of systems. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH was used to identify specific nitrifying bacteria (ammonium oxidizing bacteria specific for Nitrosomonas spp. and nitrite oxidizing bacteria specific for Nitrobacter spp. and Nitrospira spp.. Although Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrobacter spp. were found, Nitrospira spp. was most prevalent in the aeration tank of centralized wastewater treatment systems. Almost all of the centralized domestic wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok are designed for activated sludge type biological nutrient removal (BNR. However, low efficiency nitrogen removal was found at centralized wastewater treatment plants in Bangkok. Influent ratio of TOC:N at centralized treatment plant is less than 2.5. Centralized wastewater treatment systems have not always been used suitability and used successfully in some areas of Bangkok Thailand.

  12. A proposed strategy for upgrade of the ORNL Process Wastewater Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, T.E.; Robinson, S.M.; Scott, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    An approach to the upgrade of the radiological Process Wastewater Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developed that, if adopted, will result in significant cost reductions and improved water quality. The strategy described in this report satisfies the short-term upgrade needs of the PWTP and ultimately results in replacement of existing PWTP softening/ion- exchange technology with a zeolite molecular sieve treatment system for removal of radioactive contaminants from process wastewater. Use of zeolites will improve wastewater quality while reducing operating and disposal costs. The zeolite system would be constructed adjacent to the site now occupied by the Non-Radiological Process Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP), thereby consolidating all process wastewater treatment systems at one location. 4 refs., 4 figs

  13. Optimization-based methodology for wastewater treatment plant synthesis – a full scale retrofitting case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Existing wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) need retrofitting in order to better handle changes in the wastewater flow and composition, reduce operational costs as well as meet newer and stricter regulatory standards on the effluent discharge limits. In this study, we use an optimization based...... technologies. The superstructure optimization problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer (non)Linear Programming problem and solved for different scenarios - represented by different objective functions and constraint definitions. A full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant (265,000 PE) is used as a case...... framework to manage the multi-criteria WWTP design/retrofit problem for domestic wastewater treatment. The design space (i.e. alternative treatment technologies) is represented in a superstructure, which is coupled with a database containing data for both performance and economics of the novel alternative...

  14. A proposed strategy for upgrade of the ORNL process wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, T.E.; Robinson, S.M.; Scott, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an approach to the upgrade of the radiological Process Wastewater Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which has been developed and that, if adopted, will result in significant cost reductions and improved water quality. The strategy described in this report satisfies the short-term upgrade needs of the PWTP and ultimately results in replacement of existing PWTP softening/ion-exchange technology with a zeolite molecular sieve treatment system for removal of radioactive contaminants from process wastewater. Use of zeolites will improve wastewater quality while reducing operating and disposal costs. The zeolite system would be constructed adjacent to the site now occupied by the Non-Radiological Process Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP), thereby consolidating all process wastewater treatment systems at one location

  15. Conservation-reuse of water in fossil-fuel power plants including water treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, T.S.R.

    1984-02-01

    The various areas where the conservation-reuse of water is possible are discussed. However, water conservation, especially effluent volume reduction-treatment reuse, should be seen in the light of pollution control measures. Some of the areas indicated recover a small quantity of water but they should be viewed in the light of well yield being not adequate, or having high salinity or having an increase of well water salinity after some use. Some of the methods can only be adopted at the design stage whereas others could be incorporated at the site.

  16. Design and development of effluent treatment plants for the Sellafield reprocessing factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, M.

    1989-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been carried out at Sellafield since the early 1950s. The storage of fuel in water filled ponds prior to reprocessing and the reprocessing operation itself results in the generation of a number of radioactive liquid effluents. The highly active liquors are stored in stainless steel tanks and will, with the commissioning of the Windscale Vitrification Plant, be converted into glass for long term storage and disposal. The medium and low active liquors are, after appropriate treatment, discharged to sea well below the Authorised Limits which are set by the appropriate Regulatory Bodies. Since 1960 these have been the Department of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Even though the discharges have been well below the limits set, BNFL have for many years adopted a policy of reducing the levels of activity still further. Considerable progress has already been made, by changing reprocessing operations regimes but more importantly by the development and construction of specialised effluent treatment plants. Further reductions are, however, planned. Two major effluent treatment plants form the main basis of BNFL's policy to reduce activity discharges from Sellafield. The first, the Site Ion Exchange Effluent Plant, to treat storage pond water was brought into operation in 1985. The second, the enhanced Actinide Removal Plant to treat medium and low active effluents, is programmed to operate in 1992. (author)

  17. Construction of a new wastewater treatment plant, building 676, route Maxwell

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A new wastewater treatment plant is being constructed on Route Maxwell to treat the effluents from the TS/MME/CCS surface treatment workshops. For this purpose, excavation work is being performed in two separate locations along Route Maxwell, causing a slight disruption to traffic in these areas. Site access through Gate C should, however, be maintained. The work is scheduled to continue through until February 2009.

  18. Construction of a new waste-water treatment plant, building 676, route Maxwell

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A new waste-water treatment plant is being constructed on Route Maxwell to treat the effluents from the TS/MME/CCS surface treatment workshops. For this purpose, excavation work is being performed in two separate locations along Route Maxwell, causing a slight disruption to traffic in these areas. Site access through Gate C should, however, be maintained. The work is scheduled to continue until February 2009.

  19. Developing the optimum boiler water and feedwater treatment for fossil plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, B [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, California (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Over the last two years a new set of cycle chemistry guidelines has been developed for each of the treatments used in fossil plants. These revisions have been based on research conducted over the last ten years, much at the international collaborative level. By careful selection and optimization of the boiler water and feedwater treatments, it will be possible to accrue large financial, maintenance, availability and performance improvements. (au) 14 refs.

  20. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Points, Region 9, 2007, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA...

  1. Human infective potential of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in urban wastewater treatment plant effluents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and microsporidiosis are important waterborne diseases. In the standard for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents in China and...

  2. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Points, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA...

  3. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Points, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA...

  4. Modernization and efficiency of heat treatment and heating up plants; Modernisierung und Effizienz von Thermoprozessanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Peter [LOI Thermprocess GmbH, Essen (Germany); Kuehn, Friedhelm [Ingenieurbuero fuer Waermebehandlung, Industrieoefen und Energieberatung, Muelheim (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    A goal of this contribution is to show, using examples of the thermal heat treatment industry and the thermal processing units used there (Beltype plants, routary hearth, walking hearth, walking beam, pusher type furnaces and gas carburizing plants as well as case hardening plants), which increases in efficiency within and outside of the actual thermal treatment process and the necessary thermal processing units for the order are available today. From the possibilities of the reduction of energy employment resulting from that, a high potential for the discharge of the environment can be derived. The economic effect concerning energy employment and saving possibilities will also be considered. Concluding, examples of case-hardening show which variants of a change of process present themselves partially in the future, in order to achieve substantial production increases and thus energy cost reductions. (orig.)

  5. Effect of different treatments on 110m Ag plant uptake in various soil types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szerbin, P.; Koblinger-Bokori, E.

    1996-01-01

    110m Ag contamination may occur as a result of atmospheric release either during normal operation of nuclear power plants or in accidental circumstances. The gamma peaks of 110m Ag and radiocaesium are very close, and not every laboratory could make distinction between them. Therefore very few references are available on 110m Ag environmental behaviour and plant uptake. In the present study plant uptake of 110m Ag from four different types of soil was investigated, and the results are presented in relation to major soil characteristics. In addition, effects of two different treatments (phosphate and organic matter fertilizations) are determined in each type of soil. Our study clearly demonstrates that a carefully selected post-accident treatment can significantly reduce the environmental consequences of radioactive releases. Methods to be developed on bases of such studies could be used for remedial actions of agricultural lands polluted with radioactive substances

  6. Identification and Control of Nutrient Removing Processes in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marinus K.; Madsen, Henrik; Carstensen, Niels Jacob

    1994-01-01

    the possibility of using statistical methods for identifying dynamical models for the biological processes. These models can then be used for simulating various control strategies and the parameters of the controllers can be found by off-line optimization. Simulation studies have shown that considerable savings......Today the use of on-line control for wastewater treatment plants is very low. A main reason is the lack of quality of the data, and the fact that more sophisticated control strategies must be based on a model of the dynamics of the biological processes. This paper discusses the historical reasons...... for the limited use of modern control strategies for wastewater treatment plants. Today, however, on-line nutrient sensors are more reliable. In the present context the use of on-line monitored values of ammonia, nitrate and phosphate from a full scale plant are used as the background for discussing...

  7. Liquid and solid rad waste treatment in advanced nuclear power plants. Application to the SBWR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tielas Reina, M.; Asuar Alonso, O.

    1994-01-01

    Rad waste treatment requirements for the new generation of American advanced passive and evolutionary power plants are listed in the URD (Utility Requirements Document) of the EPRI (Electrical Power Research Institute). These requirements focus on: - Minimization of shipped solid wastes - Minimization of liquid effluents - Simplification of design and operation, with emphasis not only on waste treatment system design but also on general plant design and operation These objectives are aimed at: - Reducing and segregating wastes at source - Minimizing chemical contamination of these wastes System design simplification is completed by providing free space in the building for the use of mobile plants, either for special services not considered in the basic design or to accommodate future technical advances. (Author)

  8. Engineering report for interim solids removal modifications of the Steam Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The Steam Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility (SPWTF) treats wastewater from the Y-12 Plant coal yard, steam plant, and water demineralizer facility. The facility is required to comply with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) standards prior to discharge to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The existing facility was designed to meet Best Available Technology (BAT) standards and has been in operation since 1988. The SPWTF has had intermittent violations of the NPDES permit primarily due to difficulties in complying with the limit for total iron of 1.0 ppM. A FY-1997 Line Item project, SPWTF Upgrades, is planned to improve the capabilities of the SPWTF to eliminate non-compliances with the permit limits. The intent of the Interim Solids Removal Modification project is to improve the SPWTF effluent quality and to provide pilot treatment data to assist in the design and implementation of the SPWTF Upgrades Line Item Project

  9. Antigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, A; Menéndez, H; Méndez, E; Cohobón, E; Samayoa, B E; Jauregui, E; Peralta, E; Carrillo, G

    1995-10-01

    Plants popularly used in Guatemala for the treatment of gonorrhoea were macerated in 50% alcohol and the tincture tested for in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae using strains isolated from symptomatic patients and confirmed by standard bacteriological procedures. From 46 plants investigated, 13 (28.3%) showed evident inhibition zones (> 9 mm), seven (15.2%) showed small activity (6.1-8.9 mm) and 26 (56.5%) showed no activity; nine of these plants inhibited five strains of N. gonorrhoea freshly isolated. The most active plants of American origin were: bark of Bixa orellana fruits of Parmentiera edulis, leaf of Diphysa robinioides, Eupatorium odoratum, Gliricidia sepium, Physalis angulata, Piper aduncum and Prosopis juliflora, root of Casimiroa edulis, and whole Clematis dioica.

  10. Analysis of MSW treatment plant with production of biogas, RDF and compost through simulative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, R; Giribone, P; Schenone, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ITIM, Engineering Dept.; Macchiavello, A [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ISTIC, Engineering Dept.

    1996-12-31

    This work concerns the feasibility study of a MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) treatment plant based on wet way technology. The choice towards such a plant engineering-solution is due to the utilization of the energetic component of waste, through a production of both biogas and RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) with practically any impact on environment. That`s why this solution is preferred to the traditional incinerating technologies and pyrolysis, that cause environmental damage because of more or less noxious emissions. In order to analyse how a so called multipurpose platform works, a discrete and stochastic simulation modeL able to describe in detail the flow of plant materials, was built. Then a very accurate experimentation campaign was carried out in order to determine a technical evaluation and consequently an economic analysis to verify the convenience of such a plant in the area of western Liguria. (author)

  11. Analysis of MSW treatment plant with production of biogas, RDF and compost through simulative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, R.; Giribone, P.; Schenone, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ITIM, Engineering Dept.; Macchiavello, A. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ISTIC, Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    This work concerns the feasibility study of a MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) treatment plant based on wet way technology. The choice towards such a plant engineering-solution is due to the utilization of the energetic component of waste, through a production of both biogas and RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) with practically any impact on environment. That`s why this solution is preferred to the traditional incinerating technologies and pyrolysis, that cause environmental damage because of more or less noxious emissions. In order to analyse how a so called multipurpose platform works, a discrete and stochastic simulation modeL able to describe in detail the flow of plant materials, was built. Then a very accurate experimentation campaign was carried out in order to determine a technical evaluation and consequently an economic analysis to verify the convenience of such a plant in the area of western Liguria. (author)

  12. Purification of ammonia-containing trap waters from atomic power plant by ozone treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachok, M.A.; Prokudina, S.A.; Shulyat'ev, M.I.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of research was to study the process of ozonation of ammonia-containing trap waters from the Kursk Atomic Power Plant both on the model solutions and on real ones. Different factors (pH of the medium, temperature, concentration of the initial substances) have been studied for their effect on ozonation of aqueous ammonia solutions, model solutions of trap waters from the Kursk Atomic Power Plant as well as ammonia-containing trap waters and liquid radioactive wastes delivered to special water treatment at the Kursk Atomic Power Plant. It is shown that in all the cases the highest rate of ammonia oxidation by ozone is observed in the alkaline medium (pH 1.4-11.0) and at 55 deg C. The obtained results have shown that a method of ozonation followed by evaporation of water to be purified can be used to treat ammonia-containing waters from atomic power plant

  13. Plant-wide modelling and control of nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouses gas with a global warming potential three hundred times stronger than carbon dioxide (CO2). The IPCC report released in 2014 shows that the CO2 equivalents emitted from the wastewater systems are increasing in the last decades. It was also estimated that 14......% of those CO2 equivalents comes from N2O emissions. It becomes therefore relevant, within the context of reducing the carbon footprint of wastewater treatment (WWT) systems, to develop control strategies aimed at the minimization of the emissions of this gas. Till now, few operation strategies have been....... To avoid poor performance behaviour due to intuitive design, a systematic procedure for the design of fuzzy-logic controllers is developed using a partial nitritation/Anammox system as application case. The same systematic methodology is then adopted to tune the fuzzy-logic controller for low N2O emissions...

  14. Removal of two polycyclic musks in sewage treatment plants: Freely dissolved and total concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Borkent, I.; Hermens, J.L.M.; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the removal of slowly degradable hydrophobic chemicals in sewage treatment plants (STPs) has been evaluated with emphasis on the combination of free and total concentration data. Free and total concentrations of two polycyclic musks were determined in each compartment of four

  15. Analyzing the biomass filter behavior in an anaerobic wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos-Hernandez, S.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, waste emissions in air, water and soil must be reduced in order to reach the more and more strict environmental rules. In the case of wastewater, there exists a big interest to improve treatment plants performances. The paper deals with the analysis, via the phase protratis method, of a biomass filter behavior in a completely stirred tank reactor deals with the analysis. (Author)

  16. Removal of two antibacterial compounds triclocarban and triclosan in a waste water treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigates the fate of Triclocarban (TCC) and Triclosan (TCS) in a waste water treatment plant (WWTP). Our goal was to identify the most effective removal step and to determine the amount on the solid phase versus degraded. Our influent contained higher TCS than TCC concentrations (8....

  17. Superstructure development and optimization under uncertainty for design and retrofit of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist

    2014-01-01

    n this contribution, an optimization - based approach is presented for optimal process selec tion and design for domestic wastewater treatment plant s (WWTP s ). In particular, we address the issue of uncertainties by formulating the WWTP design problem as a Stochastic Mixed Integer (Non) Linear ...

  18. Start-up of a UASB effluent treatment plant on distillery wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on the seasonal operation of a UASB treatment plant treating a distillery wastewater stream with particular focus on seasonal start-up conditions after the first process commissioning. The start-up period was typically one week before process stability could be achieved. It is recommended that the loading ...

  19. The effect of sludge water treatment plant residuals on the properties of compressed brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsudin, Shamrul-Mar; Shahidan, S.; Azmi, M. A. M.; Ghaffar, S. A.; Ghani, M. B. Abdul; Saiful Bahari, N. A. A.; Zuki, S. S. M.

    2017-11-01

    The focus of this study is on the production of compressed bricks which contains sludge water treatment plant (SWTP) residuals obtained from SAJ. The main objective of this study is to utilise and incorporate discarded material (SWTP) in the form of residual solution to produce compressed bricks. This serves as one of the recycling efforts to conserve the environment. This study determined the optimum mix based on a mix ratio of 1:2:4 (cement: sand: soil) in the production of compressed bricks where 5 different mixes were investigated i. e. 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of water treatment plant residue solution. The production of the compressed bricks is in accordance with the Malaysian Standard MS 7.6: 1972 and British Standard BS 3921: 1985 - Compressive Strength & Water Absorption. After being moulded and air dried, the cured bricks were subjected to compression tests and water absorption tests. Based on the tests conducted, it was found that 20% of water treatment plant residue solution which is equivalent to 50% of soil content replacement with a mix composition of [10: cement] [20: sand] [20: soil] [20: water treatment plant residue solution] is the optimum mix. It was also observed that the bricks containing SWTP residuals were lighter in weight compared to the control specimens

  20. The contribution of plant uptake to nutrient removal by floating treatment wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer-Vlek, H.E.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Verdonschot, R.C.M.; Dekkers, T.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) may provide an appealing alternative to the more conventional (sub) surface flow wetlands to solve problems associated with eutrophication in urban surface waters, because they do not claim additional land area. This study examined the contribution of plant uptake

  1. An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the commonest diseases affecting the citizens of both developed and poor countries. In South Africa, the number of people suffering from diabetes is believed to be rising steadily. An ethnobotanical study of plants used by the traditional healers, herbalists and rural dwellers for the treatment of ...

  2. Borehole Summary Report for Core Hole C4998 – Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Garcia, Benjamin J.

    2006-12-15

    Seismic borehole C4998 was cored through the upper portion of the Columbia River Basalt Group and Ellensburg Formation to provide detailed lithologic information and intact rock samples that represent the geology at the Waste Treatment Plant. This report describes the drilling of borehole C4998 and documents the geologic data collected during the drilling of the cored portion of the borehole.

  3. Nonnative plant response to silvicultural treatments: A model based on disturbance, propagule pressure, and competitive abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland; Cara R. Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Invasion by nonnative plants can result in substantial adverse effects on the functions of native forest ecosystems, including nutrient cycling and fire regimes. Thus, forest managers need to be aware of the potential impacts of management activities, including silvicultural treatments, on nonnative vegetation. To aid in that effort, we created a conceptual model of...

  4. From lifting to planting: Root dip treatments affect survival of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom E. Starkey; David B. South

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogels and clay slurries are the materials most commonly applied to roots of pines in the southern United States. Most nursery managers believe such applications offer a form of "insurance" against excessive exposure during planting. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of root dip treatments to: (1) support fungal growth; and (2) protect...

  5. Control of Sewer systems and Wastewater treatment plants using pollutant concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Henrik; Nielsen, Marinus K.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    On-line measurements of pollutants in the wastewater combined with grey-box modelling are used to estimate the amount of deposits in the sewer system. The pollutant mass flow at the wastewater treatment plant is found to consist of a diurnal profile minus the deposited amount of pollutants...

  6. A Miniature Wastewater Cleaning Plant to Demonstrate Primary Treatment in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ne´el, Bastien; Cardoso, Catia; Perret, Didier; Bakker, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A small-scale wastewater cleaning plant is described that includes the key physical pretreatment steps followed by the chemical treatment of mud by flocculation. Water, clay particles, and riverside deposits mimicked odorless wastewater. After a demonstration of the optimization step, the flocculation process was carried out with iron(III)…

  7. NPDES Permit for Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnel Treatment Plant in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit CO-0021717, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation is authorized to discharge from the Leadville Mine Drainage Tunnel Treatment Plant in Lake County, Colorado to an unnamed drainage way tributary to the East Fork of the Arkansas River.

  8. Introduction to Chemistry for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Operators. Water and Wastewater Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Dept. of Environmental Protection, Pierre.

    Presented are basic concepts of chemistry necessary for operators who manage drinking water treatment plants and wastewater facilities. It includes discussions of chemical terms and concepts, laboratory procedures for basic analyses of interest to operators, and discussions of appropriate chemical calculations. Exercises are included and answer…

  9. Microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    An occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the United States. Water samples were analyzed for the protozoa Giardia and Cryptosporidium (EPA Method 1623); the fungi Asp...

  10. Thermo-Oxidization of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge for Production of Class A Biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-scale reactors were used to test a novel thermo-oxidation process on municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) waste activated sludge (WAS) using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to achieve a Class A sludge product appropriate for land application. Reactor ...

  11. Multi-criteria evaluation of wastewater treatment plant control strategies under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of activated sludge control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) via mathematical modelling is a complex activity because several objectives; e.g. economic, environmental, technical and legal; must be taken into account at the same time, i.e. the evaluation of the alter...

  12. Benchmarking biological nutrient removal in wastewater treatment plants: influence of mathematical model assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist V.; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY IN EFFLUENTS FROM SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newly developed molecular biology methods have been used for the measurement of estrogenic activity in source-biased studies of sewage treatment plants. Studies in Texas and New Mexico have shown the utility of the measurement of changes in vitellogenin gene expression in fathea...

  14. Future wastewater solutions: removal of pharmaceuticals in conventional wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    Residues of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and industrial chemicals find their way into the environment mainly through incomplete removal in the conventional urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and appear as micro-pollutants at pg L-1 to μg L-1 concentrations. WWTPs were designed...

  15. Concise aspects regarding the accounting treatment for property, plant and equipment in according with IAS 16

    OpenAIRE

    Ecobici, N

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the accounting treatment for property, plant and equipment, in according with the IAS 16, including: timing of the recognition of assets, determination of asset carrying amounts using both the cost model and a reevaluation model, depreciation charges and impairment losses to be recognized in relation to these values.

  16. 76 FR 18713 - Malheur National Forest; Oregon; Malheur National Forest Site-Specific Invasive Plants Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... species that currently are not found on the Forest. Treatment could be anywhere on Forest Service system.... Electronic comments in acceptable plain text (.txt), rich text (.rtf), or Word (.doc) may be submitted to... wildlife habitat, out-compete native plants, impair water quality and watershed health, and adversely...

  17. Integration of drinking water treatment plant process models and emulated process automation software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, G.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to limit the risks of fully automated operation of drinking water treatment plants and to improve their operation by using an integrated system of process models and emulated process automation software. This thesis contains the design of such an integrated system.

  18. Medicinal plants used for hypertension treatment by folk healers in Songkhla province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamsuvan, Oratai; Komonhiran, Panadda; Boonming, Kamonvadee

    2018-03-25

    Hypertension is the most dominant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular, kidney, and eye diseases. In Thailand, illness and hospitalisation in the modern public health system due to high blood pressure is increasing. However, some Thai people have turned their attention to the use of herbal medicines for healthcare. Therefore, this study aimed (1) to study the folk knowledge of hypertension treatment and (2) to study plant utilisation in the treatment of high blood pressure by Songkhla folk healers. Field surveys and semi-structured interviews about theories of disease, principles of healing, and herbal usage (plant species, parts used, preparation, and application methods) were gathered. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics. The literatures regarding medicinal plants used in any traditional medicine, antihypertension activity, and toxicity was reviewed. Most healers believed that hypertension was caused by the disorder of fire and wind elements in the body. The medicinal plants containing hot and mild tastes, which had the potential for treating problems in the wind element, were applied. A total of 62 species were used for hypertension treatment. Most plants were in the Asteraceae, Piperaceae, Rutaceae, or Zingiberaceae family (4 species each). Herbal medicines were preferred to be prepared by boiling (78%) and consumed by drinking 1 teacup before 3 meals each day (26%). Piper retrofractum and Cleome viscosa had the greatest Frequency of Citation (FC = 6, n = 14). Thirty-seven species have been reported for use in traditional medicine. Twenty-four and 46 species have already been investigated for antihypertension activity and toxicity, respectively. Identifying medicinal plants that have been tested by experienced folk doctors would provide an opportunity for people to choose and consume local herbs that are easy to access in their local area. However, the remaining plants that have not been studied for antihypertension activity and

  19. Occurrence and fate of perfluorinated acids in two wastewater treatment plants in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaojie; Yan, Hong; Li, Fei; Zhou, Qi

    2015-02-01

    Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) have drawn much attention due to their environmental persistence, ubiquitous existence, and bioaccumulation potential. The discharge of wastewater effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is a significant source of PFAs to the environment. In this study, wastewater and sludge samples were collected from two WWTPs in Shanghai, China, to investigate the contamination level and fate of PFAs in different stages of processing. The total concentrations of PFAs (∑PFAs) in influent from plants A and B were 2,452 and 292 ng L(-1), respectively. Perfluoropentanoic acid (1,520 ± 80 ng L(-1) in plant A and 89.2 ± 12.1 ng L(-1) in plant B) was the predominant PFA in influent waters, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid. The concentration of ∑PFAs ranged from 75.0 to 126.0 ng g(-1) dry weight in sludge samples from plant B, with perfluorooctanesulfonic acid as the predominant contaminant. The concentrations and fate of PFAs in different WWTPs vary. The ∑PFAs entering plant A decreased significantly in the final effluent of activated sludge process, while that in plant B increased significantly in the final effluent of sequencing batch reactor system. The concentration changes could be due to the sorption onto sludge, or the degradation of PFAs precursors.

  20. Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production on Waste Water Treatment Plants: Process Scheme, Operating Conditions and Potential Analysis for German and European Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Pittmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA as a side stream process on a municipal waste water treatment plant (WWTP and a subsequent analysis of the production potential in Germany and the European Union (EU. Therefore, tests with different types of sludge from a WWTP were investigated regarding their volatile fatty acids (VFA production-potential. Afterwards, primary sludge was used as substrate to test a series of operating conditions (temperature, pH, retention time (RT and withdrawal (WD in order to find suitable settings for a high and stable VFA production. In a second step, various tests regarding a high PHA production and stable PHA composition to determine the influence of substrate concentration, temperature, pH and cycle time of an installed feast/famine-regime were conducted. Experiments with a semi-continuous reactor operation showed that a short RT of 4 days and a small WD of 25% at pH = 6 and around 30 °C is preferable for a high VFA production rate (PR of 1913 mgVFA/(L×d and a stable VFA composition. A high PHA production up to 28.4% of cell dry weight (CDW was reached at lower substrate concentration, 20 °C, neutral pH-value and a 24 h cycle time. A final step a potential analysis, based on the results and detailed data from German waste water treatment plants, showed that the theoretically possible production of biopolymers in Germany amounts to more than 19% of the 2016 worldwide biopolymer production. In addition, a profound estimation regarding the EU showed that in theory about 120% of the worldwide biopolymer production (in 2016 could be produced on European waste water treatment plants.

  1. Combined biological treatment of sinter plant waste water, blast furnace gas scrubber water polluted groundwater and coke plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoine van Hoorn [Corus Staal, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    Waste water from the Corus coke plant in IJmuiden had been handled by the activated sludge process since start-up in 1972 but in the eighties it was clear that although this removed most phenols, the rest of the COD and thiocyanate must also be removed before discharge. The paper describes the original water treatment process and the higher pressure gas scrubber system for removal of SO{sub 2}, heavy metals and other harmful components. It goes on to describe development of a combined biological treatment system, the heart of which is the so-called Bio 2000. The performance of this new plant is discussed. COD concentrations are very constant but Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) concentrations fluctuate. COD, TKN and heavy metals are in compliance but cyanide and suspended solids are not always so. A method of overcoming this is being sought. This paper was presented at a COMA meeting in March 2005 held in Scunthorpe, UK. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Preliminary analysis of treatment strategies for transuranic wastes from reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Yasutake, K.M.; Allen, R.P.

    1985-07-01

    This document provides a comparison of six treatment options for transuranic wastes (TRUW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel. Projected transuranic waste streams from the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP), the reference fuel reprocessing plant in this report, were grouped into the five categories of hulls and hardware, failed equipment, filters, fluorinator solids, and general process trash (GPT) and sample and analytical cell (SAC) wastes. Six potential treatment options were selected for the five categories of waste. These options represent six basic treatment objectives: (1) no treatment, (2) minimum treatment (compaction), (3) minimum number of processes and products (cementing or grouting), (4) maximum volume reduction without decontamination (melting, incinerating, hot pressing), (5) maximum volume reduction with decontamination (decontamination, treatment of residues), and (6) noncombustible waste forms (melting, incinerating, cementing). Schemes for treatment of each waste type were selected and developed for each treatment option and each type of waste. From these schemes, transuranic waste volumes were found to vary from 1 m 3 /MTU for no treatment to as low as 0.02 m 3 /MTU. Based on conceptual design requirements, life-cycle costs were estimated for treatment plus on-site storage, transportation, and disposal of both high-level and transuranic wastes (and incremental low-level wastes) from 70,000 MTU. The study concludes that extensive treatment is warranted from both cost and waste form characteristics considerations, and that the characteristics of most of the processing systems used are acceptable. The study recommends that additional combinations of treatment methods or strategies be evaluated and that in the interim, melting, incineration, and cementing be further developed for commercial TRUW. 45 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs

  3. Preliminary analysis of treatment strategies for transuranic wastes from reprocessing plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Yasutake, K.M.; Allen, R.P.

    1985-07-01

    This document provides a comparison of six treatment options for transuranic wastes (TRUW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel. Projected transuranic waste streams from the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP), the reference fuel reprocessing plant in this report, were grouped into the five categories of hulls and hardware, failed equipment, filters, fluorinator solids, and general process trash (GPT) and sample and analytical cell (SAC) wastes. Six potential treatment options were selected for the five categories of waste. These options represent six basic treatment objectives: (1) no treatment, (2) minimum treatment (compaction), (3) minimum number of processes and products (cementing or grouting), (4) maximum volume reduction without decontamination (melting, incinerating, hot pressing), (5) maximum volume reduction with decontamination (decontamination, treatment of residues), and (6) noncombustible waste forms (melting, incinerating, cementing). Schemes for treatment of each waste type were selected and developed for each treatment option and each type of waste. From these schemes, transuranic waste volumes were found to vary from 1 m/sup 3//MTU for no treatment to as low as 0.02 m/sup 3//MTU. Based on conceptual design requirements, life-cycle costs were estimated for treatment plus on-site storage, transportation, and disposal of both high-level and transuranic wastes (and incremental low-level wastes) from 70,000 MTU. The study concludes that extensive treatment is warranted from both cost and waste form characteristics considerations, and that the characteristics of most of the processing systems used are acceptable. The study recommends that additional combinations of treatment methods or strategies be evaluated and that in the interim, melting, incineration, and cementing be further developed for commercial TRUW. 45 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  4. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS. ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, W.W.; Geuther, W.J.; Strankman, M.R.; Conrad, E.A.; Rhoadarmer, D.D.; Black, D.M.; Pottmeyer, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  5. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  6. Application of Mathematical Models for Determination of Microorganisms Growth Rate Kinetic Coefficients for Wastewater Treatment Plant Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Delnavaz

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Evaluation of Y, kd, k0 and Ks parameters in operation of Ekbatan wastewater treatment plant showed that ASM1 model could well determine the coefficients and therefore the conditions of biological treatment is appropriate.

  7. Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Colin W

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In traditional medicine whole plants or mixtures of plants are used rather than isolated compounds. There is evidence that crude plant extracts often have greater in vitro or/and in vivo antiplasmodial activity than isolated constituents at an equivalent dose. The aim of this paper is to review positive interactions between components of whole plant extracts, which may explain this. Methods Narrative review. Results There is evidence for several different types of positive interactions between different components of medicinal plants used in the treatment of malaria. Pharmacodynamic synergy has been demonstrated between the Cinchona alkaloids and between various plant extracts traditionally combined. Pharmacokinetic interactions occur, for example between constituents of Artemisia annua tea so that its artemisinin is more rapidly absorbed than the pure drug. Some plant extracts may have an immunomodulatory effect as well as a direct antiplasmodial effect. Several extracts contain multidrug resistance inhibitors, although none of these has been tested clinically in malaria. Some plant constituents are added mainly to attenuate the side-effects of others, for example ginger to prevent nausea. Conclusions More clinical research is needed on all types of interaction between plant constituents. This could include clinical trials of combinations of pure compounds (such as artemisinin + curcumin + piperine and of combinations of herbal remedies (such as Artemisia annua leaves + Curcuma longa root + Piper nigum seeds. The former may enhance the activity of existing pharmaceutical preparations, and the latter may improve the effectiveness of existing herbal remedies for use in remote areas where modern drugs are unavailable.

  8. Trace Analysis of Pharmaceutical Residues in Wastewater Treatment Plants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and fate of trace-level contamination of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has been recognized as one of the emerging issues in environmental chemistry. The effluents of wastewater treatment plants, usually directly emitted to the environment, often contain the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Diclofenac was chosen because it is of high consumption; by background literature indicate toxic effects on biota and the lack of profile in sewage removal provided by the city. For this purpose, a survey on the presence of diclofenac in urban wastewater of Rio de Janeiro was carried out. It were evaluated diclofenac concentration in the affluent and effluent from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP Penha and Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected along the line of treatment of each WWTP, and for clean up the samples were solid phase extraction (SPE, analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, assisted by diode array detector (DAD techniques. The removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in the wastewater treatment plants was roughly evaluated. Diclofenac was detected in all samples analysed wastewater (treated and raw, which confirms the low removal efficiency of conventional treatment systems, aerobes and anaerobes.

  9. Hydrogen treatment system in the Genkai nuclear power plant No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masayuki; Kodama, Hideo; Murashima, Masayasu

    1977-01-01

    The new hydrogen treatment system which injects hydrogen into the volume control tank for purging the mixed waste gas of Kr, Xe, etc. is adopted in the Genkai nuclear power plant No. 2. The system is composed of mainly the waste gas pretreatment equipment, a palladium alloy membrane type hydrogen separator, a hydrogen compressor, and a waste gas decay tank. The outline of the primary cooling system and the chemical volume control system of PWR, the hydrogen treatment system, and the gaseous waste disposal system of original and new types for the Genkai nuclear power plants No. 1 and 2 are explained in this paper. This newly added hydrogen treatment system will be able to reduce the rare gas concentration rate in the primary coolant to about 1/2 and 1/5 for Kr 85 and Xe 133 , respectively. (auth.)

  10. Modeling Hydrogen Generation Rates in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Sherwood, David J.; Stock, Leon M.

    2004-03-29

    This presentation describes a project in which Hanford Site and Environmental Management Science Program investigators addressed issues concerning hydrogen generation rates in the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant. The hydrogen generation rates of radioactive wastes must be estimated to provide for safe operations. While an existing model satisfactorily predicts rates for quiescent wastes in Hanford underground storage tanks, pretreatment operations will alter the conditions and chemical composition of these wastes. Review of the treatment process flowsheet identified specific issues requiring study to ascertain whether the model would provide conservative values for waste streams in the plant. These include effects of adding hydroxide ion, alpha radiolysis, saturation with air (oxygen) from pulse-jet mixing, treatment with potassium permanganate, organic compounds from degraded ion exchange resins and addition of glass-former chemicals. The effects were systematically investigated through literature review, technical analyses and experimental work.

  11. Methane emission estimates using chamber and tracer release experiments for a municipal waste water treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yver Kwok, C. E.; Müller, D.; Caldow, C.; Lebègue, B.; Mønster, J. G.; Rella, C. W.; Scheutz, C.; Schmidt, M.; Ramonet, M.; Warneke, T.; Broquet, G.; Ciais, P.

    2015-07-01

    This study presents two methods for estimating methane emissions from a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) along with results from a measurement campaign at a WWTP in Valence, France. These methods, chamber measurements and tracer release, rely on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and cavity ring-down spectroscopy instruments. We show that the tracer release method is suitable for quantifying facility- and some process-scale emissions, while the chamber measurements provide insight into individual process emissions. Uncertainties for the two methods are described and discussed. Applying the methods to CH4 emissions of the WWTP, we confirm that the open basins are not a major source of CH4 on the WWTP (about 10 % of the total emissions), but that the pretreatment and sludge treatment are the main emitters. Overall, the waste water treatment plant is representative of an average French WWTP.

  12. Computer-aided Framework for Synthesis, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande

    Water is used for several purposes in houses and industrial applications, which results in the generation of considerable amounts of wastewater. Wastewater should be handled appropriately which is required from legal, environmental as well as economic and societal perspectives. Wastewater treatment...... be formulated as a process synthesis challenge in the sense that a new taskcan be added to the existing treatment line or one or several existing processes can be changed as a result of the emerging needs. Existing plants need retrofitting due to a number of reasons such as: change in the wastewater flow...... plant (WWTP) design is a formidable challenge. One of the key steps involved is the process synthesis - defined as the selection of treatment processes as a combination of unit operations and processes to create the process flow diagram.As a consequence of the emerging technological developments...

  13. A Performance Measurement Tool Leading Wastewater Treatment Plants toward Economic Efficiency and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Guerrini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment is an important link in the water cycle that allows for water sanitation and reuse, facilitates energy generation, and allows for the recovery of products from waste. The scientific community has paid significant attention to wastewater treatment, especially from a technical point of view. Extensive literature is available on new technologies, processes, and materials to improve wastewater treatment. However, scant studies have been conducted in the management field focusing on the development of a performance measurement tool that supports plant managers. The current article addresses this literature gap, developing a reporting tool that integrates technical and cost measures and implements it in a large wastewater utility. The tool successfully identifies cause and effect linkages among key plant performance drivers and supports management in finding activities with poor performance and allows them to delay non-relevant measures of control.

  14. Metabolites change in Jatropha plants due to seed treatment with rhizobacteria and Rhizoctonia bataticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the metabolite [salicylic acid (SA, jasmonicacid (JA, hydrocyanic acid (HCN and chitinase activity] changes owing to seed treatment with pathogen, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs - (P. maltophilia, P. fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis alone and in combination was conducted at Chaudhary Charan Singh, Haryana Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bawal. Jatropha curcas plants raised from root rot pathogen (Rhizoctonia bataticola treated seeds showed an initial increase in SA and hydrocyanic acid HCN content and an opposite trend was observed for JA level and chitinase activity. Though, PGPRs inoculation resulted in higher increase in SA level, JA level and chitinaseactivity in both the cases alone as well as in integration with pathogen, however, maximum increase in JA content was explicited in plants raised after seed treatment with P. fluorescens, the most effective rhizobacteria amongst PGPRs studied. Highest increase in HCN content (45 μg g-1 over control (24 μg g-1 was noticed for P. fluorescens followed by co-seed inoculation with P. fluorescens + pathogen (43 μg g-1 at 10 DPI. The co-seed inoculation elicited 68 units at 10 DPI whereas the pathogen challenged plants showed lower chitinase activity with 42 units. All the metabolites declinedslightly or sharply with age of the plant irrespective of inoculations.

  15. DSC: software tool for simulation-based design of control strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, M V; Ribes, J; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a computer tool called DSC (Simulation based Controllers Design) that enables an easy design of control systems and strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants. Although the control systems are developed and evaluated by simulation, this tool aims to facilitate the direct implementation of the designed control system to the PC of the full-scale WWTP (wastewater treatment plants). The designed control system can be programmed in a dedicated control application and can be connected to either the simulation software or the SCADA of the plant. To this end, the developed DSC incorporates an OPC server (OLE for process control) which facilitates an open-standard communication protocol for different industrial process applications. The potential capabilities of the DSC tool are illustrated through the example of a full-scale application. An aeration control system applied to a nutrient removing WWTP was designed, tuned and evaluated with the DSC tool before its implementation in the full scale plant. The control parameters obtained by simulation were suitable for the full scale plant with only few modifications to improve the control performance. With the DSC tool, the control systems performance can be easily evaluated by simulation. Once developed and tuned by simulation, the control systems can be directly applied to the full-scale WWTP.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Gelatin Seed Treatment as a Biostimulant of Cucumber Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of gelatin capsule seed treatment on enhanced plant growth and tolerance to abiotic stress have been reported in a number of crops, but the molecular mechanisms underlying such effects are poorly understood. Using mRNA sequencing based approach, transcriptomes of one- and two-week-old cucumber plants from gelatin capsule treated and nontreated seeds were characterized. The gelatin treated plants had greater total leaf area, fresh weight, frozen weight, and nitrogen content. Pairwise comparisons of the RNA-seq data identified 620 differentially expressed genes between treated and control two-week-old plants, consistent with the timing when the growth related measurements also showed the largest differences. Using weighted gene coexpression network analysis, significant coexpression gene network module of 208 of the 620 differentially expressed genes was identified, which included 16 hub genes in the blue module, a NAC transcription factor, a MYB transcription factor, an amino acid transporter, an ammonium transporter, a xenobiotic detoxifier-glutathione S-transferase, and others. Based on the putative functions of these genes, the identification of the significant WGCNA module and the hub genes provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms of gelatin seed treatment as a biostimulant to enhance plant growth.

  17. Operational experience of gaseous effluent treatment at the Eurochemic reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipenco, A.; Detilleux, E.

    1977-01-01

    The EUROCHEMIC fuel reprocessing plant applies the PUREX flow sheet. Two particular features of the plant influence gaseous and liquid effluents: chemical decanning and the ability to process a wide range of fuels, uranium metal or oxide, having an initial enrichment typical of power reactors (up to 5%) or material testing reactors (up to 93%). The ventilation circuits, treatment plant and monitoring equipment for gaseous releases are briefly described. No retention facilities for rare gases, tritium, or carbon-14 are provided. The releases are monitored for krypton-85, iodine-131, alpha and beta-gamma aerosols and tritium. Between 1966 and 1974 the plant processes about 200 tonnes of power reactor fuel, from which about 0.7 tonnes of plutonium and 1.5 tonnes of highly enriched uranium were separated. The most important points in the operation of the gas cleaning equipment are indicated: efficiency, operational reliability, incidents, etc.. Actual discharges as measured are compared with the limits set in the operation licence. Using the atmospheric diffusion coefficients, the dose commitment is estimated. The low level liquid effluents are passed, after neutralization, to the treatment plant of the Belgian nuclear center CEN/SCK. However, if the activity exceeds the limit set by the CEN/SCK, the effluents are concentrated by evaporation and stored on the EUROCHEMIC site. (orig.) [de

  18. Occurrence of bisphenol A in wastewater and wastewater sludge of CUQ treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Prakash Mohapatra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification and quantification of bisphenol A (BPA in wastewater (WW and wastewater sludge (WWS is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. BPA is manufactured in high quantities fro its use in adhesives, powder paints, thermal paper and paper coatings among others. Due to the daily use of these products, high concentration of BPA was observed in WW and WWS. BPA was measured in samples from Urban Community of Quebec wastewater treatment plant located in Quebec (Canada using LC-MS/MS method. The results showed that BPA was present in significant quantities (0.07 μg L–1 to 1.68 μg L–1 in wastewater and 0.104 μg g–1 to 0.312 μg g–1 in wastewater sludge in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. The treatment plant is efficient (76 % in removal of pollutant from process stream, however, environmentally significant concentrations of 0.41 μg L–1 were still present in the treated effluent. Rheological study established the partitioning of BPA within the treatment plant. This serves as the base to judge the portion of the process stream requiring more treatment for degradation of BPA and also in selection of different treatment methods. Higher BPA concentration was observed in primary and secondary sludge solids (0.36 and 0.24 μg g–1, respectively as compared to their liquid counterpart (0.27 and 0.15 μg L–1, respectively separated by centrifugation. Thus, BPA was present in significant concentrations in the WWTP and mostly partitioned in the solid fraction of sludge (Partition coefficient (Kd for primary, secondary and mixed sludge was 0.013, 0.015 and 0.012, respectively.

  19. Release of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria by a Waste Treatment Plant from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupan, Iulia; Carpa, Rahela; Oltean, Andreea; Kelemen, Beatrice Simona; Popescu, Octavian

    2017-09-27

    The occurrence and spread of bacterial antibiotic resistance are subjects of great interest, and the role of wastewater treatment plants has been attracting particular interest. These stations are a reservoir of bacteria, have a large range of organic and inorganic substances, and the amount of bacteria released into the environment is very high. The main purpose of the present study was to assess the removal degree of bacteria with resistance to antibiotics and identify the contribution of a wastewater treatment plant to the microbiota of Someşul Mic river water in Cluj county. The resistance to sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline and some of their representative resistance genes: sul1, tet(O), and tet(W) were assessed in this study. The results obtained showed that bacteria resistant to sulphonamides were more abundant than those resistant to tetracycline. The concentration of bacteria with antibiotic resistance changed after the treatment, namely, bacteria resistant to sulfamethoxazole. The removal of all bacteria and antibiotic-resistant bacteria was 98-99% and the degree of removal of bacteria resistant to tetracycline was higher than the bacteria resistant to sulfamethoxazole compared to total bacteria. The wastewater treatment plant not only contributed to elevating ARG concentrations, it also enhanced the possibility of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) by increasing the abundance of the intI1 gene. Even though the treatment process reduced the concentration of bacteria by two orders of magnitude, the wastewater treatment plant in Cluj-Napoca contributed to an increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria concentrations up to 10 km downstream of its discharge in Someşul Mic river.

  20. Limited Bacterial Diversity within a Treatment Plant Receiving Antibiotic-Containing Waste from Bulk Drug Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouche, Yogesh S.; Larsson, D. G. Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Biological treatment of waste water from bulk drug production, contaminated with high levels of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, can lead to massive enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and associated mobile elements, as previously shown. Such strong selection may be boosted by the use of activated sludge (AS) technology, where microbes that are able to thrive on the chemicals within the wastewater are reintroduced at an earlier stage of the process to further enhance degradation of incoming chemicals. The microbial community structure within such a treatment plant is, however, largely unclear. In this study, Illumina-based 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of different stages from an Indian treatment plant operated by Patancheru Environment Technology Limited (PETL) in Hyderabad, India. The plant receives waste water with high levels of fluoroquinolones and applies AS technology. A total of 1,019,400 sequences from samples of different stages of the treatment process were analyzed. In total 202, 303, 732, 652, 947 and 864 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained at 3% distance cutoff in the equilibrator, aeration tanks 1 and 2, settling tank, secondary sludge and old sludge samples from PETL, respectively. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phyla in all samples with Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria being the dominant classes. Alcaligenaceae and Pseudomonadaceae, bacterial families from PETL previously reported to be highly multidrug resistant, were the dominant families in aeration tank samples. Despite regular addition of human sewage (approximately 20%) to uphold microbial activity, the bacterial diversity within aeration tanks from PETL was considerably lower than corresponding samples from seven, regular municipal waste water treatment plants. The strong selection pressure from antibiotics present may be one important factor in structuring the microbial community in PETL

  1. Limited Bacterial Diversity within a Treatment Plant Receiving Antibiotic-Containing Waste from Bulk Drug Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Nachiket P; Shetty, Sudarshan A; Shouche, Yogesh S; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Biological treatment of waste water from bulk drug production, contaminated with high levels of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, can lead to massive enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and associated mobile elements, as previously shown. Such strong selection may be boosted by the use of activated sludge (AS) technology, where microbes that are able to thrive on the chemicals within the wastewater are reintroduced at an earlier stage of the process to further enhance degradation of incoming chemicals. The microbial community structure within such a treatment plant is, however, largely unclear. In this study, Illumina-based 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of different stages from an Indian treatment plant operated by Patancheru Environment Technology Limited (PETL) in Hyderabad, India. The plant receives waste water with high levels of fluoroquinolones and applies AS technology. A total of 1,019,400 sequences from samples of different stages of the treatment process were analyzed. In total 202, 303, 732, 652, 947 and 864 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained at 3% distance cutoff in the equilibrator, aeration tanks 1 and 2, settling tank, secondary sludge and old sludge samples from PETL, respectively. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phyla in all samples with Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria being the dominant classes. Alcaligenaceae and Pseudomonadaceae, bacterial families from PETL previously reported to be highly multidrug resistant, were the dominant families in aeration tank samples. Despite regular addition of human sewage (approximately 20%) to uphold microbial activity, the bacterial diversity within aeration tanks from PETL was considerably lower than corresponding samples from seven, regular municipal waste water treatment plants. The strong selection pressure from antibiotics present may be one important factor in structuring the microbial community in PETL

  2. Limited Bacterial Diversity within a Treatment Plant Receiving Antibiotic-Containing Waste from Bulk Drug Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachiket P Marathe

    Full Text Available Biological treatment of waste water from bulk drug production, contaminated with high levels of fluoroquinolone antibiotics, can lead to massive enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and associated mobile elements, as previously shown. Such strong selection may be boosted by the use of activated sludge (AS technology, where microbes that are able to thrive on the chemicals within the wastewater are reintroduced at an earlier stage of the process to further enhance degradation of incoming chemicals. The microbial community structure within such a treatment plant is, however, largely unclear. In this study, Illumina-based 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of different stages from an Indian treatment plant operated by Patancheru Environment Technology Limited (PETL in Hyderabad, India. The plant receives waste water with high levels of fluoroquinolones and applies AS technology. A total of 1,019,400 sequences from samples of different stages of the treatment process were analyzed. In total 202, 303, 732, 652, 947 and 864 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were obtained at 3% distance cutoff in the equilibrator, aeration tanks 1 and 2, settling tank, secondary sludge and old sludge samples from PETL, respectively. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phyla in all samples with Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria being the dominant classes. Alcaligenaceae and Pseudomonadaceae, bacterial families from PETL previously reported to be highly multidrug resistant, were the dominant families in aeration tank samples. Despite regular addition of human sewage (approximately 20% to uphold microbial activity, the bacterial diversity within aeration tanks from PETL was considerably lower than corresponding samples from seven, regular municipal waste water treatment plants. The strong selection pressure from antibiotics present may be one important factor in structuring the microbial

  3. Stabilization of heavy metals in fired clay brick incorporated with wastewater treatment plant sludge: Leaching analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, A. A.; Hassan, M. I. H.; Salim, N. S. A.; Sarani, N. A.; Ahmad, S.; Rahmat, N. A. I.

    2018-04-01

    Wastewater treatment sludge or known as sewage sludge is regarded as the residue and produced by the sedimentation of the suspended solid during treatment at the wastewater treatment plant. As such, this sludge was gained from the separation process of the liquids and solids. This sludge wastes has becomes national issues in recent years due to the increasing amount caused by population and industrialization growth in Malaysia. This research was conducted to fully utilize the sludge that rich in dangerous heavy metals and at the same time act as low cost alternative materials in brick manufacturing. The investigation includes determination of heavy metal concentration and chemical composition of the sludge, physical and mechanical properties. Wastewater treatment sludge samples were collected from wastewater treatment plant located in Johor, Malaysia. X-Ray Fluorescence was conducted to determine the heavy metals concentration of wastewater treatment sludge. Different percentage of sludges which are 0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, has been incorporated into fired clay brick. The leachability of heavy metals in fired clay brick that incorporated with sludge were determined by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Synthetic Precipitation Leachability Procedure (SPLP) that has been analyzed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show a possibility to stabilize the heavy metals in fired clay brick incorporated with wastewater treatment sludge. 20% of the sludge incorporated into the brick is the most suitable for building materials as it leached less heavy metals concentration and complying with USEPA standard.

  4. Influence of gamma ray treatment on in vitro regenerated plants of Atropa Belladonna L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, E.; Onisei, T.; Amariei, D.

    1994-01-01

    Regenerated plants were obtained through callus organogenesis after gamma ray treatment with 1 to 9 Krad doses. Vigorous shoots were regenerated on MS (1962) medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine. Shoot growth was inhibited with increasing irradiation doses. At 2 Krad dose root Primordia were observed after 18 days while 32 days were necessary to produce roots at 7-9 Krad. As compared to the control, the survival percent during acclimatization was 80 to 85% at 2-3 Krad, 65-70% at 4-6 Krad and 60-62% at 7-9 Krad. Approximately 330 plants were transferred to field conditions. Morphological and biochemical parameters were measured and the data were statistically processed. Plant height was negatively influenced by higher doses of irradiation. A chlorophyll deficient plant arose from the 6 Krad treatment which showed a different pattern of isoperoxidase and isoesterase as compared to the control. A yellow-flower mutant was obtained from the 3 Krad treatment and is assumed to be Atropa belladonna var. Flava Pater. (author)

  5. The first year of management of the 'Nocera Superiore' wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Feo, G.; De Gisi, S.; Ferrante, A.; Galasso, M.; De Rosa, R.; Giuliani, A.; Guadagnolo, S.; Pucci, L.

    2009-01-01

    The wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Nocera Superiore, in the province of Salerno, in Southern Italy, was realized for the treatment of urban wastewater on behalf of the Special Project called 'CASMEZ per il Disinquinamento del Golfo di Napoli' (PS3). The WWTP was designed for 300,000 Equivalent Inhabitants during the summer period and it is based on the classic activated sludge process for the biological treatment of wastewater. Moreover, it has the anaerobic digestion of sludge but it does not use the primary sedimentation: this is the principal peculiarity of the plant. In this paper, after an accurate description of water and sludge lines, parameters related to the first year of functioning of the plant (2007) are deeply presented and discussed. Moreover, inlet and outlet wastewater are characterised with regard to the principal parameters (BOD5, COD, TSS, etc.). Finally, the removal efficacy for the parameters considered are represented in terms of applied and removed loads, showing a linear relationship. The performed analysis pointed out that the plant has functioned under its potentiality, but respecting the compliance limits. [it

  6. Potential accumulation of estrogenic substances in biofilms and aquatic plants collected in sewage treatment plant (STP) and receiving water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultis, T.; Kuch, B.; Kern, A.; Metzger, J.W. [Inst. for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Solid Waste Management ISWA, Stuttgart Univ. (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    During the past years the estrogenic potency of natural (e.g. estrone and 17{beta}-estradiol E2) and synthetic hormones (e.g. ethinylestradiol EE2) and xenoestrogens (e.g. pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs), alkylphenolic compounds or bisphenol A (BPA)) has attracted increasing scientific attention. Especially the occurrence and behaviour of these substances in waste water of sewage treatment plants (STPs) were often investigated. Andersen et al. found steroid estrogen concentrations in the effluent of a municipal STP always below the limit of quantification of 1 ng/l. However, Aerni et al. detected E2 and EE2 concentrations up to 6 ng/l and 2 ng/l, and alkylphenols, alkylphenolmonoand diethoxylates even at {mu}g/l concentrations in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant with a significant industrial impact3. In activated and digested sewage sludge concentrations of estrone and E2 up to 37 ng/g and 49 ng/g, of the synthetic EE2 up to 17 ng/g were observed4. In river sediments the concentrations detected were lower with up to 2 ng/g estrone and 0,9 ng/g EE24. In the meantime many studies exist about raw and treated water in STPs, but there is little knowledge about the influence of estrogenic active substances on aquatic plants so far. In this study we investigated therefore the potency of estrogenic substances to accumulate in the duckweed Lemna minor from STP in comparison to the estrogenicity of duckweed from a natural pond, biofilms in drain and microsieve of the STP by the in vitro E-Screen- and LYES-assay (yeast estrogen screen-assay assisted by enzymatic digestion with lyticase). In addition, we tested the estrogenic activity of moss-like aquatic plants collected at different sites of the receiving water and analyzed the concentrations of four phenolic xenoestrogens in the effluent by GC/MS.

  7. Feasibility study for biogas integration into waste treatment plants in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogas (anaerobic digestion technology is one of the most viable renewable energy technologies today. However, its economic efficiency depends on the investment costs, costs of operating the biogas plant and optimum methane production. Likewise the profit level also rests on its use directly for cooking or conversion into electricity. The present study assessed the economic potential for a 9000 m3 biogas plant, as an alternative to addressing energy and environmental challenges currently in Ghana. A cost-benefit analysis of the installation of biogas plant at University of Ghana (Legon Sewerage Treatment Plant yielded positive net present values (NPV at the prevailing discount rate of 23%. Further the results demonstrate that installation of the plant is capital intensive. Biogas used for cooking was by far the most viable option with a payback period (PBP of 5 years. Sensitivity analysis also revealed cost of capital, plant and machinery as the most effective factors impacting on NPV and internal rate of return (IRR.

  8. Annual glyphosate treatments alter growth of unaffected bentgrass (Agrostis weeds and plant community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin W Ahrens

    Full Text Available Herbicide resistance is becoming more common in weed ecotypes and crop species including turfgrasses, but current gaps in knowledge limit predictive ecological risk assessments and risk management plans. This project examined the effect of annual glyphosate applications on the vegetative growth and reproductive potential of two weedy bentgrasses, creeping bentgrass (CB and redtop (RT, where the glyphosate resistance (GR trait was mimicked by covering the bentgrass plants during glyphosate application. Five field plots were studied in habitats commonly inhabited by weedy bentgrasses including an agricultural hayfield, natural meadow, and wasteland. Results showed that annual glyphosate treatment improved bentgrass survivorship, vegetative growth, and reproductive potential compared with bentgrass in unsprayed subplots. In the second year of growth, RT plants had an 86-fold increase in flower number in glyphosate-treated subplots versus controls, while CB plants had a 20-fold increase. At the end of the three year study, plant community composition had changed in glyphosate-treated subplots in hayfield and meadow plots compared to controls. Soils in subplots receiving glyphosate had higher nitrate concentrations than controls. This is the first study to mimic the GR trait in bentgrass plants with the goal of quantifying bentgrass response to glyphosate selection pressure and understanding the impacts on surrounding plant communities.

  9. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Barbiéri Holetz

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major. The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  10. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2002-10-01

    Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases.

  11. Textile wastewater treatment and reuse by solar catalysis: results from a pilot plant in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousselmi, L; Geissen, S U; Schroeder, H

    2004-01-01

    Based on results from bench-scale flow-film-reactors (FFR) and aerated cascade photoreactors, a solar catalytic pilot plant has been built at the site of a textile factory. This plant has an illuminated surface area of 50 m2 and is designed for the treatment of 1 m3 h(-1) of wastewater. The preliminary results are presented and compared with a bench-scale FFR using textile wastewater and dichloroacetic acid. Equivalent degradation kinetics were obtained and it was demonstrated that the solar catalytic technology is able to remove recalcitrant compounds and color. However, on-site optimization is still necessary for wastewater reuse and for an economic application.

  12. Simulation of an industrial wastewater treatment plant using artificial neural networks and principal components analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira-Esquerre K.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a way to predict the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD of the output stream of the biological wastewater treatment plant at RIPASA S/A Celulose e Papel, one of the major pulp and paper plants in Brazil. The best prediction performance is achieved when the data are preprocessed using principal components analysis (PCA before they are fed to a backpropagated neural network. The influence of input variables is analyzed and satisfactory prediction results are obtained for an optimized situation.

  13. GARDEN CRESS GERMINABILITY AND SEEDLING VIGOUR AFTER TREATMENT WITH PLANT EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Lisjak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The usage of biologically active and environmentally friendly compounds has increasingly important role in the primary food production. This study was conducted in order to examine the impact of five commercial plant extracts on the seed vigour of garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.. The applied plant extracts significantly increased the germination. The highest fresh weight of seedlings, and also the lowest dry matter accumulation were observed in the treatment KE-plantasalva® without the sea salt addition. Equisetum extract inhibited the root elongation and resulted in the highest percentage of dry matter accumulated in seedlings, but also the lowest fresh weight.

  14. Data on wastewater treatment plant by using wetland method, Babol, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Dadban Shahamat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Date in this paper highlights the applications of constructed horizontal surface flow (HF-CW wetland with two different local plants (Louis latifoila and Phragmites -australis (Cav. Trin at the wastewater treatment plant in Babol city. This system was designed as an advanced treatment unit in field scale after the treatment plant. Parameters such as Total Dissolved Solid (TDS, Total Suspended Solid (TSS, Turbidity, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, were investigated. The result shows that treatment efficiency increases with the passage of time. The efficiency of Phragmites planted setups in open environment was fairly good for all studied parameters (28.6% of TDS, 94.4% for TSS, 79.8% for turbidity, 93.7% for BOD and 82.6% for COD. The efficiency of the latifoila set up was also good, but lower than that of Phragmites (26.5% of TDS, 76.9% for TSS, 71.5% for turbidity, 79.1 for BOD and 68.8% for COD. In brief, the obtained dates show that using local plants in (HF-CW wetland not only effectively reduces various contaminants from the effluent of the wastewater according to Effluent Guideline regulations (WHO & EPA, but it is also a cost- effective and environmentally friendly method. Also, it was calculated that in full scale operation [time (1 day and a depth (0.3 m], 8 ha of wetland was needed. Keywords: BOD, Babol, COD, Horizontal subsurface flow wetland, TSS, TSD

  15. Performance of Isfahan North Wastewater Treatment Plant in the Removal of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nahid Navijouy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Listeria and in particular Listeria monocytogenes is considered a ubiquitous foodborne pathogen which can lead listeriosis in human and animals. Listeriosis can be serious and may cause meningitis, septicemia and abortion in pregnant women. Although wastewater or sludge may contaminate foods of plant origin, there are no data on occurrence of Listeria spp. in wastewater and sludge in Iran. The purpose of current investigation was to study the occurrence of Listeria spp. in various samples of wastewater and sludge in Isfahan North wastewater treatment plant. Influent, effluent, raw sludge and dried sludge samples were collected from Isfahan North municipal wastewater treatment plant. L. monocytogenes were enumerated by a three–tube most probable number (MPN assay using enrichment Fraser broth. A total of 65 various samples from five step in 13 visits were collected. The presence of Listeria spp. also was determined using USDA procedure. Then, phenotypically identified L. monocytogenes were further confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction amplification. L. monocytogenes isolated from 76.9%, 38.5%, 84.6%, 69.2% and 46.2% of influent, effluent, raw sludge, stabilized sludge and dried sludge respectively. The efficiency of wastewater treatment processes, digester tank and drying bed in removal L. monocytogenes were 69.6%, 64.7% and 73.4% respectively. All phenotypically identified L. monocytogenes were further confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction. The results of present study have shown that Listeriaspp. and L. monocytogenes in particular, were present in wastewater treatment plant effluents and sludge at high level. The bacteria may spread on agriculture land and contaminate foods of plant origin. This may cause a risk of spreading disease to human and animals.

  16. Radiological characterization of waste products at a Catalan drinking water treatment plant - Radiological characterization of waste products of one Catalan drinking water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, A.; Montana, M.; Serrano, I.; Blazquez, S.; Duch, M.A. [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, ETSEIB. Diagonal 647. 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Montes, S.; Ganzer, M.; Devesa, R. [Aigues de Barcelona, AGBAR. Laboratory, General Batet, 5-7, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plants (DWTP) have a fairly standard sequence of processes which essentially consist in solids separation using physical processes such as settling and filtration, and chemical processes such as coagulation and disinfection. Consequently large quantities of solid wastes or sludge are generated every year by DWTP. These solid wastes may contain all kind of pollutants, including significant levels of radioactivity and may cause a radiological impact on the operating personnel, but also on the public if the waste is recycled, e.g. the use of sludge as fertilizer or cement manufacturing. In this work it has been studied the radioactivity content of waste products of one DWTP. The selected DWTP treats water mainly taken from the Llobregat River and also ground water. The treatment plant has a maximum treatment capacity of 5.5 m{sup 3}/s, and provides almost 50% of the annual drinking water in Barcelona metropolitan area (population equivalent of the plant: 4,856,579). This plant has been selected taking into account both variations in water source and the treatment applied. During the period July 2007 - March 2009 a temporal study of radio-nuclides present in sludge produced by the decanter cleaning process was conducted. The temporal study was made taking into account the particular weather conditions in Spain, at least one sampling campaign per season. In these samples naturally gamma emitters from the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series were detected with activities similar to the arithmetic mean found in Spanish soils so no increase in natural radiation are produced by the uses of these sludge. Furthermore, no seasonal tendency could be observed in the studied period for both series within the uncertainties associated with the results. Radiological hazard effects were also evaluated by the external hazard index because one of the end-uses of this sludge is the cement manufacturing. In 2009 the treatment plant was modified and

  17. Retention soil filter as post-treatment step to remove micropollutants from sewage treatment plant effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunsch, Andrea F.; Laak, ter Thomas L.; Christoffels, Ekkehard; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Retention soil filters (RSFs) are a specific form of vertical flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of rain water and/or wastewater. We have tested 3 pilot RSFs to investigate removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and 14 different organic micropollutants (OMPs) from the effluent of a

  18. A mathematical programming framework for early stage design of wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of alternative wastewater treatment technologies and stricter effluent requirements make the optimal treatment process selection for wastewater treatment plant design a complicated problem. This task, defined as wastewater treatment process synthesis, is currently based on e...... the design problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer (Non)linear Programming problem e MI(N)LP e and solved. A case study is formulated and solved to highlight the application of the framework. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... on expert decisions and previous experiences. This paper proposes a new approach based on mathematical programming to manage the complexity of the problem. The approach generates/identifies novel and optimal wastewater treatment process selection, and the interconnection between unit operations to create...

  19. The influence of cultural treatments of the long-term survival and growth of planted Quercus rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Zaczek; Kim C. Steiner

    2011-01-01

    A northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) plantation testing 20 nursery stock and planting methods was used to evaluate treatments 3, 6, 10, and 17 years after planting. Survival over all treatments was 92 percent at age 3 and declined to 74 percent, 56 percent, and 39 percent at ages 6, 10, and 17, respectively. At age 17, survival was highest for...

  20. Plants used in the traditional medicine of Mesoamerica (Mexico and Central America) and the Caribbean for the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy

    2015-12-04

    Obesity is a worldwide medical concern. New ethnobotanical information regarding the antiobesity effect of medicinal plants has been obtained in the last 30 years in response to socio-demographic changes and high-fat diets became common. This review provides a summary of medicinal plants used in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean for the empirical treatment of obesity in terms of ethnobotany, toxicity, pharmacology, conservation status, trade and chemistry. Bibliographic investigation was performed by analyzing recognized books, undergraduate and postgraduate theses and peer-reviewed scientific articles, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases from the last four decades. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of obesity were classified in two categories: (1) plants with pharmacological evidence and (2) plants without pharmacological evidence. A total of 139 plant species, belonging to 61 families, native to Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean that are used for the empirical treatment of obesity were recorded. From these plants, 33 were investigated in scientific studies, and 106 plants lacked scientific investigation. Medicinal plants were experimentally studied in vitro (21 plants) and in vivo (16 plants). A total of 4 compounds isolated from medicinal plants used for the empirical treatment of obesity have been tested in vitro (2 compounds) and in vivo (4 compounds) studies. No clinical trials on obese subjects (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) have been performed using the medicinal plants cited in this review. There are no herbal-based products approved in Mexico for the treatment of obesity. There are a limited number of scientific studies published on medicinal plants from Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean used for the treatment of obesity. This review highlights the need to perform pharmacological, phytochemical, toxicological and ethnobotanical studies with medicinal flora to obtain new antiobesity agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland

  1. Project C-018H, 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility, functional design criteria. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, N.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) for Project C-018H, the 242-A Evaporator and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Condensate Treatment Facility (Also referred to as the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility [ETF]). The project will provide the facilities to treat and dispose of the 242-A Evaporator process condensate (PC), the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process condensate (PDD), and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate (ASD)

  2. Evaluation of Potentially Harmful Substances in Dried Sludge of Isfahan Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Bina

    2004-05-01

    Thus, taking into account the potential risks caused by presence of heavy metals in sludge and for the control of processes of sludge treatment and disposal and also protect of environmental health and enhauncement of public health level, specially for farmers and consumers of raw crops, needs sampling and characterization of sludge. In the present research concentration of 11 heavy metals and potentially toxic elements in dried sludge of Isfahan South and North and Shahinshahr wastewater treatment plants were determined using standard methods. Samples have been taken from dried sludge of treatment plants, and been measured after being prepared through atomic absorption apparatus and were compared with EPA enacted standards in regulation 40 CFR part 503. As well, fertilizer value parameters of sludge were measured and were compared with standards and guidelines. The results showed that the average concentration of above elements in all three treatment plants, not exceeded from EPA standards, however, regarding the accumulative property of these elements and lack of necessary protective effects of EPA standards, in using these sludges in the agricultural soils, the necessary caution and care should be taken, in other uses of sludges, however, there is no limitation.

  3. The agricultural use of water treatment plant sludge: pathogens and antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Nadal Rocamora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of water treatment plant sludge to restore degraded soils is customary agricultural practice, but it could be dangerous from the point of view of both health and the environment. A transient increase of either pathogenic or indicator microbial populations, whose persistence in time is variable and attributed to the characteristics of the soil (types of materials in the soil, any amendments (origin and treatments it has undergone or the weather (humidity and temperature mainly, has often been detected in soils treated with this kind of waste. Given their origin, water treatment plant sludges could lead to the transmission of a pathogens and b antibiotic-resistant microorganisms to human beings through the food chain and cause the spreading of antibiotic resistances as a result of their increase and persistence in the soil for variable periods of time. However, Spanish legislation regulating the use of sludges in the farming industry is based on a very restricted microbiological criterion. Thus, we believe better parameters should be established to appropriately inform of the state of health of soils treated with water treatment plant sludge, including aspects which are not presently assessed such as antibiotic resistance.

  4. Medicinal plants consumption by patients under psychological treatment in a municipality in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramírez-Tagle

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: High levels of mental illness are found today in the population of Chile and the consumption of medicinal herbs could be included in the scope of complementary therapies for the treatment of mental illnesses. In Chile there is no information respect to consumption of medicinal herbs in patients under psychological treatment. Aims: To characterize the consumption of medicinal herbs by patients treated in a mental health clinic. Methods: In this quantitative cross-sectional study (n = 100, patients were administered a closed-response survey to determine the frequency of medicinal plant consumption as complementary treatment and subsequently to characterize such consumption. Results: Among the patients surveyed, 36% consumed medicinal herbs to treat a psychological pathology as a complementary treatment. Among those who consumed medicinal herbs, 65% consumed Cannabis sativa (marijuana either exclusively (42% or in conjunction with other plants (23%, 80% reported that their therapist was aware of this behavior, and 35% consumed medicinal herbs once or twice a day. Conclusions: In the present study, there was significant use of medicinal plants by patients treated at the mental health clinic, especially marijuana consuming. This demonstrates the importance of recognizing citizens´ right to free and equal access to healthcare and acknowledging the responsibility of the state to ensure the safety and quality of the services offered to the population.

  5. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria And Their Associated Resistance Genes in a Conventional Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    KAUST Repository

    Aljassim, Nada I.

    2013-12-01

    With water scarcity as a pressing issue in Saudi Arabia and other Middle Eastern countries, the treatment and reuse of municipal wastewater is increasingly being used as an alternative water source to supplement country water needs. Standards are in place to ensure a safe treated wastewater quality, however they do not regulate pathogenic bacteria and emerging contaminants. Information is lacking on the levels of risk to public health associated with these factors, the efficiency of conventional treatment strategies in removing them, and on wastewater treatment in Saudi Arabia in general. In this study, a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Saudi Arabia is investigated to assess the efficiency of conventional treatment in meeting regulations and removing pathogens and emerging contaminants. The study found pathogenic bacterial genera, antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic resistant bacteria, many of which were multi-resistant in plant discharges. It was found that although the treatments are able to meet traditional quality guidelines, there remains a risk from the discussed contaminants with wastewater reuse. A deeper understanding of this risk, and suggestions for more thorough guidelines and monitoring are needed.

  6. The Assessment of Water Treatment Plant Sludge Properties and the Feasibility of Its Re-use according to Environmental Standards: Shahid Beheshti Water Treatment Plant Case Study, Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pourmand

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Water treatment leads to produce large volumes of sludges in water treatment plants which are considered as solid waste, and should be managed appropriately and logically to avoid bioenvironmental effects. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the required samples were taken from the sludge of Shahid Beheshti water treatment plant to assay physical and chemical characteristics during one year from summer, autumn and winter 93 until spring 94. Sampling and testing procedures were full fit according to standard methods. Results: The average concentration of total solids parameters (TSS, total suspended solids (TSS, and total dissolved solids (TDS were 22346, 21350 and 1005 mg/L, respectively. Among the heavy metals, aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc have the highest concentrations with the values of 1400, 956, 588 and 100 mg per kg of dry solids, respectively. The measured concentrations for cadmium were also higher than the permissible limits for agricultural purposes and discharges into the environment. The average concentrations of nickel were more than the recommended standard for industrial, agricultural and parkland application purposes. The concentrations were also slurry higher than the dry sludge. Conclusion: According to the past studies and results of this study, it could be concluded that contamination of heavy metals in sludge and slurry samples are more than dried sludge, .Therefore, if they are discharged into the environment, it is better to be disposed as dry sludges. Furthermore, because these types of waste sludges are routinely disposed in the environment, it is recommended to take the routine samples in order to measure the heavy metals and other relevant parameters contents of sludge before discharging it. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (1:57-64

  7. Pollution control activities for waste-water treatment plants: planning, integrated approach, functionality controls and small plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serena, F.; Tomiato, L.; Ostoich, M.; Falletti, L.

    2009-01-01

    The work presents the problem of the Wastewater Treatment Plants' (WWTPs) controls and the organization of the consequential activities with reference to the priorities of the Environmental Agencies through a hierarchy assessment according to the environmental importance of the pressure sources. The European Recommendation 2001/331/EC bases the environmental controls of industrial sites and also of WWTPs on an integrated approach overtaking the simple analytic control; the integrated approach requires documentary, technical, management and analytic controls. The Veneto Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARPAV) has recently developed and applied a check-list for the implementation of the European Recommendation for WWTPs. The check-list includes the functionality assessment of the WWTP in case of discharge control delegation to the plant manager as consented with Annex 5 third part Italian Decree 3/04/2006 n. 152. In the paper the general framework of environmental controls on public WWTPs in the Veneto region is described. Particular importance for the numerousness and for the required control typology is referred to the small WWTP ( [it

  8. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plant extracts traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Monteiro, Cristina Leise Bastos; Miguel, Marilis Dallarmi; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes; Cunico, Miriam Machado; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; de Camargo, Eloá Ramalho; Kussen, Gislene Maria Botão; Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Costa, Libera Maria Dalla

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of plant extracts obtained from Bixa orellana L., Chamomilla recutita L., Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Malva sylvestris L., Plantago major L. and Rheum rhaponticum L. has been evaluated against two reference strains and eleven clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. All the plant species chosen are used in popular Brazilian cuisine and folk medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Initial screening was made by the disk diffusion test and then minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method. The results presented in this work demonstrated that among the plant preparations analyzed, B. orellana L., C. recutita L., I. paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. and M. sylvestris L. were capable of inhibiting the in vitro growth of H. pylori. PMID:24031496

  9. Mechanical–biological treatment: Performance and potentials. An LCA of 8 MBT plants including waste characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montejo, Cristina; Tonini, Davide; Márquez, María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    recovery through increased automation of the selection and to prioritize biogas-electricity production from the organic fraction over direct composting. The optimal strategy for refuse derived fuel (RDF) management depends upon the environmental compartment to be prioritized and the type of marginal...... of the MBT plants. These widely differed in type of biological treatment and recovery efficiencies. The results indicated that the performance is strongly connected with energy and materials recovery efficiency. The recommendation for upgrading and/or commissioning of future plants is to optimize materials...... electricity source in the system. It was estimated that, overall, up to ca. 180—190 kt CO2-eq. y−1 may be saved by optimizing the MBT plants under assessment....

  10. Aqueous mercury treatment technology review for NPDES Outfall 49 Y-12 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanning, J.M.

    1993-04-01

    During 1950 to 1955, Building 9201-2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was used to house development facilities for processes that employed elemental mercury to separate lithium isotopes as part of the thermonuclear weapons production operations. As a result of several spills, this building area and several other areas associated with the separation process were contaminated with mercury and became a source of continuing contamination of the Y-12 Plant discharge water to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Mercury concentrations in the outfalls south of Building 9201-2 have ranged up to 80 ppb, with the highest concentrations being experienced at Outfall 49. As a result, this outfall was chosen as a test site for future mercury treatment technology evaluation and development at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. A literature review and vendor survey has identified several promising materials and technologies that may be applicable to mercury removal at the Outfall 49 site. This document summarizes those findings.

  11. Kinetic start-up performance of two large treatment plants for nutrient removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarbo, A.; Harremoës, Poul; Thirsing, C.

    2001-01-01

    In 1987 an action plan was passed in the Danish Parliament demanding a considerable reduction of the discharge of nutrients to the aquatic environment in Denmark. Consequently, the two largest wastewater treatment plants in the Copenhagen area had to be upgraded to include nutrient removal....... For more than 8 years an extensive effort has been made to determine an optimum solution for this upgrading from a technical and financial point of view. The work included six years of comprehensive pilot plant investigations with the aim of thoroughly studying and interpreting the kinetics...... of the processes involved. The investigations revealed valuable information particularly concerning limitations of the nitrification process. Consequently, the investigations contributed to an expectation of no unforeseen problems during the implementation of the upgraded plants. This paper presents the results...

  12. How well do 46 full-scale Danish anaerobic digesters at wastewater treatment plants perform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Hjorth; Kirkegaard, Rasmus Hansen; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    Background. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a key technology for a sustainable future and is employed worldwide to produce biogas and degrade organic wastes. The strong emphasis on circular economy at Danish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has had the consequence that many plants utilise AD...... comparing the different plants since the chemical parameters analysed, analytical methods and sensors used, and possibilities for accessing data, varied a lot. The survey proved that there is need for standardisation of chemical analyses and equipment. Data suggested that, in most cases, thermal hydrolysis...... and operation. Research question. The main objective was to learn how the Danish ADs treating wastewater sludge are operated, and investigate whether correlations between performance and microbiology could be identified. Methods. We conducted a six-year survey of operational data from 46 ADs at 22 Danish WWTPs...

  13. Effects of advanced treatment systems on the removal of antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment plants from Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Mingmei

    2013-08-06

    This study aimed at quantifying the concentration and removal of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) employing different advanced treatment systems [biological aerated filter, constructed wetland, and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection]. The concentrations of tetM, tetO, tetQ, tetW, sulI, sulII, intI1, and 16S rDNA genes were examined in wastewater and biosolid samples. In municipal WWTPs, ARG reductions of 1-3 orders of magnitude were observed, and no difference was found among the three municipal WWTPs with different treatment processes (p > 0.05). In advanced treatment systems, 1-3 orders of magnitude of reductions in ARGs were observed in constructed wetlands, 0.6-1.2 orders of magnitude of reductions in ARGs were observed in the biological aerated filter, but no apparent decrease by UV disinfection was observed. A significant difference was found between constructed wetlands and biological filter (p removal of ARGs and 16S rDNA genes (R(2) = 0.391-0.866; p removal values with WWTP (p > 0.05) but also have the advantage in ARG relative abundance removal, and it should be given priority to be an advanced treatment system for further ARG attenuation from WWTP.

  14. Treatment of fuel oil contaminated waste water from liquid fuel processing plants associated to thermal power plants or heat and power cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, S.

    1996-01-01

    According to the statistical data presented in the most important European and world meetings on environmental protection, the oil product amounts which pollute the surface water is estimated to be of about 6 mill. tones yearly out of which 35 %, 10 %, and 1 % come from oil tanks, natural sources, and offshore drilling, respectively, while 54 % reach seas and oceans trough rivers, rains a.o. Among the water consumers and users of Romania, the thermal power plants, belonging to RENEL (Romanian Electricity Authority), are the greatest. A part of the water with modified chemical-physical parameters, used for different technological processes, have to be discharged from the user precinct directly towards natural agents or indirectly through public sewage networks as domestic and industrial waste water. These waste waters need an adequate treatment before discharging as to meet the requirements imposed by the norms and regulations related to environment protection. For this purpose, before discharging, after using, the water must be circulated through the treatment plants designed and operated as to ensure the correction of the inadequate values of the residual water parameters. The paper presents the activities developed in the Institute for Power Studies and Design concerning the environmental protection against pollution produced by the entire power generation circuit, from the design phase up to product supplying. (author). 1 tab., 2 refs

  15. ED-WAVE tool design approach: Case of a textile wastewater treatment plant in Blantyre, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipofya, V.; Kraslawski, A.; Avramenko, Y.

    The ED-WAVE tool is a PC based package for imparting training on wastewater treatment technologies. The system consists of four modules viz. Reference Library, Process Builder, Case Study Manager, and Treatment Adviser. The principles of case-based design and case-based reasoning as applied in the ED-WAVE tool are utilised in this paper to evaluate the design approach of the wastewater treatment plant at Mapeto David Whitehead & Sons (MDW&S) textile and garments factory, Blantyre, Malawi. The case being compared with MDW&S in the ED-WAVE tool is Textile Case 4 in Sri Lanka (2003). Equalisation, coagulation and rotating biological contactors is the sequencing of treatment units at Textile Case 4 in Sri Lanka. Screening, oxidation ditches and sedimentation is the sequencing of treatment units at MDW&S textile and garments factory. The study suggests that aerobic biological treatment is necessary in the treatment of wastewater from a textile and garments factory. MDW&S incorporates a sedimentation process which is necessary for the removal of settleable matter before the effluent is discharged to the municipal wastewater treatment plant. The study confirmed the practical use of the ED-WAVE tool in the design of wastewater treatment systems, where after encountering a new situation; already collected decision scenarios (cases) are invoked and modified in order to arrive at a particular design alternative. What is necessary, however, is to appropriately modify the case arrived at through the Case Study Manager in order to come up with a design appropriate to the local situation taking into account technical, socio-economic and environmental aspects.

  16. Aerial and liquid effluent treatment in BNFL's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, P.I.; Buckley, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) completed construction of its Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) at Sellafield in 1992, at a cost of pound 1,850M. After Government and Regulatory approval, active commissioning was initiated in January 1994. Since then, the whole of the plant has been progressively commissioned and moved towards full operational status. From the outset, the need to protect the workforce, the public and the environment in general from the plant's discharges was clearly recognised. The design intent was to limit radiation exposure of members of the general public to 'As Low as Reasonably Practicable' (ALARP). Furthermore no member of the most highly exposed (critical) group should receive an annual dose exceeding 50 microsieverts from either the aerial or marine discharge routes. This paper describes how the design intent has been met, concentrating mainly on aerial discharges. It describes the sub-division of the plant's ventilation system into a number of separate systems, according to the volume and source of the arising and the complexity of the treatment process. The dissolver off-gas, central off-gas, cell and building ventilation systems are described, together with the development programme which was undertaken to address the more demanding aspects of the performance specification. This ranged from small-scale experiments with irradiated fuel to inactive pilot plant trials and full-scale plant measurements. In addition wind tunnel tests were employed to assist dispersion modelling of the gases as they are discharged from the THORP stack. All the resulting information was then used, with the aid of mathematical models, in the design of an off-gas treatment system which could achieve the overall goal. (J.P.N.)

  17. Plant residues--a low cost, effective bioremediation treatment for petrogenic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Adetutu, Eric M; Anderson, Peter A; Ball, Andrew S

    2013-01-15

    Petrogenic hydrocarbons represent the most commonly reported environmental contaminant in industrialised countries. In terms of remediating petrogenic contaminated hydrocarbons, finding sustainable non-invasive technologies represents an important goal. In this study, the effect of 4 types of plant residues on the bioremediation of aliphatic hydrocarbons was investigated in a 90 day greenhouse experiment. The results showed that contaminated soil amended with different plant residues led to statistically significant increases in the utilisation rate of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) relative to control values. The maximum TPH reduction (up to 83% or 6800 mg kg(-1)) occurred in soil mixed with pea straw, compared to a TPH reduction of 57% (4633 mg kg(-1)) in control soil. A positive correlation (0.75) between TPH reduction rate and the population of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms was observed; a weaker correlation (0.68) was seen between TPH degradation and bacterial population, confirming that adding plant materials significantly enhanced both hydrocarbonoclastic and general microbial soil activities. Microbial community analysis using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that amending the contaminated soil with plant residues (e.g., pea straw) caused changes in the soil microbial structure, as observed using the Shannon diversity index; the diversity index increased in amended treatments, suggesting that microorganisms present on the dead biomass may become important members of the microbial community. In terms of specific hydrocarbonoclastic activity, the number of alkB gene copies in the soil microbial community increased about 300-fold when plant residues were added to contaminated soil. This study has shown that plant residues stimulate TPH degradation in contaminated soil through stimulation and perhaps addition to the pool of hydrocarbon-utilising microorganisms, resulting in a changed microbial structure and increased alkB gene

  18. Toxic effect of single and binary treatments of synthetic and plant-derived molluscicides against Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, I G; Singh, D K

    2002-01-01

    The toxic effect of single and binary treatments of synthetic and plant-derived molluscicides was studied against the harmful terrestrial snail Achatina fulica. In single treatments, among the synthetic molluscicides Snail Kill and cypermethrin were potent, whereas Cedrus deodara oil was more toxic among molluscicides of plant origin against A. fulica. In binary treatments, a combination of Cedrusdeodara + Alliumsativum was more toxic. The toxicities of these single and binary treatments of synthetic and plant-derived molluscicides were dose and time dependent. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Treatment of simulated odor from RDF plant using ashumale kinetic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nahar Othman; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Ku Halim Ku Hamid

    2010-01-01

    The impact of ambient odour in the vicinity of the Semenyih MSW processing plant, commonly known as RDF plant, can be very negative to the nearby population, causing public restlessness and consequently affecting the business operation and sustain ability of the plant. The precise source of the odour, types, emission level and the meteorological conditions are needed to predict and established the ambient odour level at the perimeter fence of the plant and address it with respect to the ambient standards. To develop the odour gas model for the purpose of treatment is very compulsory because in MSW odour it contain many component of chemical that contribute the smell. Upon modelling using an established package as well as site measurements, the odour level at the perimeter fence of the plant was deduced and found to be marginally high, above the normal ambient level. Based on this issue, a study was made to evaluate the possibility of treating odour using Electron Beam Process. This paper will address and discuss the measurement of ambient concentration of three chemical components of the odour, namely benzene, dimethyl sulfide and trimethyl amine, the dispersion modeling to establish the critical ambient emission level, as well as and kinetic modeling of the treatment process and its experimental validation using a simulated odour. The focus will be made on exploring the use of Ashmuli kinetic modeling to develop correlations between the odour concentrations, odour chemical compositions and electron beam dose with the treatment efficiency, as well as adapting the model for MSW odour controls. (author)

  20. Medicinal plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia J; Jacobo-Herrera, Frida E; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Heinrich, Michael; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos

    2016-02-17

    Cancer cases numbers are increasing worldwide positioning this disease as the second cause of mortality for both sexes. Medicinal plants have been used in the fight against cancer as the basis for drug discovery and nowadays more than 70% of anticancer drugs have a natural origin. Mexico is regarded for its cultural and biological diversity, which is reflected in the vast traditional knowledge of herbal remedies. In this review we examined herbal remedies employed in colorectal cancer treatment (CRC). The goal of this work was to gather scientific reports of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for CRC treatment. We performed a search on scientific literature databases using as keywords: "colon cancer", "gastric cancer", "cytotoxicity", studies "in vitro and in vivo", in combination with "Mexican medicinal plants" or "Mexican herbal remedies". The selection criteria of cytotoxic activity for extracts or pure compounds was based on the National Cancer Institute of USA recommendations of effective dose 50 (ED50) of ≤20μg/mL and ≤4μg/mL, respectively. In this review we report 25 botanic families and 39 species of plants used for the treatment of colon cancer in Mexico with evidence in studies in vitro and in vivo. Medicinal plants are still a great source of novel chemical structures with antineoplastic potential as it is proven in this work. The selection criteria and activity was narrowed for methodological purposes, nevertheless, drug discovery of natural origin continues to be a highly attractive R&D strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cost of transporting irradiated fuels and maintenance costs of a chemical treatment plant for irradiated fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.

    1964-01-01

    Numerous studies have been made of the cost of a fuel cycle, but many of them are based on a priori studies and are therefore to be treated with reserve. Thus, in the part dealing with the treatment of irradiated fuels, some important factors in the cost have only rarely been given on the basis of practical experience: the cost of transporting the fuels themselves and the plant maintenance costs. Investigations relating to transport costs are generally based on calculations made from somewhat arbitrary data. The studies carried out in France on the transport of irradiated uranium between the EDF reactors at Chinon and the retreatment plant at La Hague of the irradiated uranium from research reactors to foreign retreatment plants, are reported; they show that by a suitable choice of transport containers and details of expedition it has been possible to reduce the costs very considerably. This has been achieved either by combining rail and road transport or by increasing the writ capacities of the transport containers: an example is given of a container for swimming-pool pile elements which can transport a complete pile core at one time, thus substantially reducing the cost. Studies concerning the maintenance costs of retreatment plants are rarer still, although in direct maintenance plants these figures represent an appreciable fraction of the total treatment cost. An attempt has been made, on the basis of operational experience of a plant, to obtain some idea of these costs. Only maintenance proper has been considered, excluding subsidiary operations such as the final decontamination of apparatus, the burial of contaminated material and radioprotection operations Maintenance has been divided into three sections: mechanical maintenance, maintenance of electrical equipment and maintenance of control and adjustment apparatus. In each of these sections the distinction has been made between manpower and the material side. In order to allow comparisons to be made with

  2. Ethnomedical Knowledge of Plants Used for the Treatment of Tuberculosis in Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabran, Siti Fatimah; Mohamed, Maryati; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly

    2016-01-01

    This study documented ethnomedical knowledge of plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and its related symptoms as practiced by the Jakun community of Kampung Peta, situated in Endau Rompin Johor National Park, Johor, Malaysia. Eight key informants were selected by snowball sampling technique and data about medicinal plants were collected by semistructured interviews, participatory observations, and focus group. Qualitative analysis was undertaken using thematic analysis. There were 23 species of plants (22 genera, 20 families) documented and herbarium specimens were deposited at the UTHM Herbarium. Dipterocarpus sublamellatus was recorded for the first time with ethnomedical uses while other species were previously reported. The qualitative approach employed in this study demonstrates the emic perspective in terms of perceptions on traditional herbal medicine, transfer of knowledge, significant taboos related with medicinal plants, and their conservation efforts. Local and biomedical terminology in treatment of TB showed substantial correspondence. The outcomes obtained in the study are worth being further investigated for conservation strategies and are worthy of verifying their ethnomedical claims scientifically.

  3. Ethnomedical Knowledge of Plants Used for the Treatment of Tuberculosis in Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabran, Siti Fatimah; Mohamed, Maryati; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly

    2016-01-01

    This study documented ethnomedical knowledge of plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and its related symptoms as practiced by the Jakun community of Kampung Peta, situated in Endau Rompin Johor National Park, Johor, Malaysia. Eight key informants were selected by snowball sampling technique and data about medicinal plants were collected by semistructured interviews, participatory observations, and focus group. Qualitative analysis was undertaken using thematic analysis. There were 23 species of plants (22 genera, 20 families) documented and herbarium specimens were deposited at the UTHM Herbarium. Dipterocarpus sublamellatus was recorded for the first time with ethnomedical uses while other species were previously reported. The qualitative approach employed in this study demonstrates the emic perspective in terms of perceptions on traditional herbal medicine, transfer of knowledge, significant taboos related with medicinal plants, and their conservation efforts. Local and biomedical terminology in treatment of TB showed substantial correspondence. The outcomes obtained in the study are worth being further investigated for conservation strategies and are worthy of verifying their ethnomedical claims scientifically. PMID:26881002

  4. Ethnomedical Knowledge of Plants Used for the Treatment of Tuberculosis in Johor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fatimah Sabran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study documented ethnomedical knowledge of plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB and its related symptoms as practiced by the Jakun community of Kampung Peta, situated in Endau Rompin Johor National Park, Johor, Malaysia. Eight key informants were selected by snowball sampling technique and data about medicinal plants were collected by semistructured interviews, participatory observations, and focus group. Qualitative analysis was undertaken using thematic analysis. There were 23 species of plants (22 genera, 20 families documented and herbarium specimens were deposited at the UTHM Herbarium. Dipterocarpus sublamellatus was recorded for the first time with ethnomedical uses while other species were previously reported. The qualitative approach employed in this study demonstrates the emic perspective in terms of perceptions on traditional herbal medicine, transfer of knowledge, significant taboos related with medicinal plants, and their conservation efforts. Local and biomedical terminology in treatment of TB showed substantial correspondence. The outcomes obtained in the study are worth being further investigated for conservation strategies and are worthy of verifying their ethnomedical claims scientifically.

  5. Improvement of water treatment pilot plant with Moringa oleifera extract as flocculant agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Heredia, J; Sánchez-Martín, J

    2009-05-01

    Moringa oleifera extract is a high-capacity flocculant agent for turbidity removal in surface water treatment. A complete study of a pilot-plant installation has been carried out. Because of flocculent sedimentability of treated water, a residual turbidity occured in the pilot plant (around 30 NTU), which could not be reduced just by a coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation process. Because of this limitation, the pilot plant (excluded filtration) achieved a turbidity removal up to 70%. A slow sand filter was put in as a complement to installation. A clogging process was characterized, according to Carman-Kozeny's hydraulic hypothesis. Kozeny's k parameter was found to be 4.18. Through fouling stages, this k parameter was found to be up to 6.36. The obtained data are relevant for the design of a real filter in a continuous-feeding pilot plant. Slow sand filtration is highly recommended owing to its low cost, easy-handling and low maintenance, so it is a very good complement to Moringa water treatment in developing countries.

  6. Regulating specific organic substances and heavy metals in industrial wastewater discharged to municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Munk, L.; Pedersen, F.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the extension of wastewater treatment plants to nutrient removal and the development towards reuse of sludge m agriculture, new guidelines for regulating industrial discharges m Denmark were needed. The paper describes how a concept for regulating the discharge of specific organic substances...... substances, present knowledge of fate and effects in biological treatment plants is too scarce to underpin the setting of general standards. Therefore, it has been decided to base the developed priority system on the data used in the EEC-system for classification of hazardous chemicals. This includes ready...... degradability, defined by the OECD-test, bio-sorption and bio-accumulation, defined by the octanol/water distribution coefficient and toxic effects on water organisms. Several potential effects of seven heavy metals have been evaluated, and the most critical effects were found to be the quality criteria...

  7. Ultrastructural changes of cell walls under intense mechanical treatment of selective plant raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, Aleksey L.; Ryabchikova, E.I.; Korolev, K.G.; Lomovsky, O.I.

    2012-01-01

    Structural changes of cell walls under intense mechanical treatment of corn straw and oil-palm fibers were studied by electron and light microscopy. Differences in the character of destruction of plant biomass were revealed, and the dependence of destruction mechanisms on the structure of cell walls and lignin content was demonstrated. We suggest that the high reactivity of the particles of corn straw (about 18% of lignin) after intense mechanical treatment is related to disordering of cell walls and an increase of the surface area, while in the case of oil palm (10% of lignin) the major contribution into an increase in the reactivity is made by an increase of surface area. -- Highlights: ► Structure of cell walls determines the processes of plant materials' destruction. ► Ultrastructure of highly lignified materials strongly disordering by mechanical action. ► Ultrastructure of low-lignified materials is not disordering by mechanical action.

  8. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  9. Algal-based immobilization process to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shengbing; Xue Gang

    2010-01-01

    Algal-based immobilization process was applied to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant. Batch test proved that algae could attach onto fiber-bundle carrier in 7 days, and then the algal-based immobilization reactor could reduce TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) significantly within 48 h. Based on the above investigations, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the algal-based immobilization reactor in continuous operation mode was determined to be 2 days. During the 91 days of experiment on the treating secondary effluent of Guang-Rao wastewater treatment plant, it was found that the fiber-bundle carrier could collect the heterobacteria and nitrifying bacteria gradually, and thus improved the COD removal efficiency and nitrification performance step by step. Results of the continuous operation indicated that the final effluent could meet the Chinese National First A-level Sewage Discharge Standard when the algal-based immobilization reactor reached steady state.

  10. Activity concentration of various radionuclides in tubificids living in the biobeds of a sewage treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlandsson, A.; Erlandsson, B.; Mattsson, S.

    1988-04-01

    Oligochaeta belonging to the family Tubificidae are used in the biobeds of waste water treatment plants in the decomposition process of organic matter. Waste water treatment plants also receive radionuclides in the form of radiopharmaceuticals. The most commonly used radionuclides are 131 I and 99 Tc m . In this investigation the role of the Tubificids in the accumulation of these radionuclides has been studied. The activity concentration of 131 I in Tubificids was found to be 1-20 times higher than in the incoming waste water which is only 5-20% of the concentration factor between incoming water and outgoing sludge. Sludge is thus a more sensitive bioindicator, but Tubificids respond faster. (authors)

  11. Treatment of municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents with modified photo-Fenton as a tertiary treatment for the degradation of micro pollutants and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamerth, Nikolaus; Malato, Sixto; Agüera, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo; Mailhot, Gilles

    2012-03-06

    The goal of this paper was to develop a modified photo-Fenton treatment able to degrade micro pollutants in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) effluents at a neutral pH with minimal iron and H(2)O(2) concentrations. Complexation of Fe by ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) leads to stabilization and solubilization of Fe at natural pH. Photo-Fenton experiments were performed in a pilot compound parabolic collector (CPC) solar plant. Samples were treated with solid phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by HPLC-Qtrap-MS. The rapid degradation of contaminants within the first minutes of illumination and the low detrimental impact on degradation of bicarbonates present in the water suggested that radical species other than HO(•) are responsible for the efficiency of such photo-Fenton process. Disinfection of MWTP effluents by the same process showed promising results, although disinfection was not complete.

  12. POTENTIAL USE OF MICROBIAL ELECTROLYSIS CELLS (MECs IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS FOR ENERGY RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eEscapa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, large amounts of electrical energy are spent every year for domestic wastewater (dWW treatment. In the future, energy prices are expected to rise as the demand for energy resources increases and fossil fuel reserves become depleted. By using appropriate technologies, the potential chemical energy contained in the organic compounds present in dWWs might help to improve the energy and economic balance of dWW treatment plants. Bioelectrochemical Systems (BESs in general and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs in particular represent an emerging technology capable of harvesting part of this energy. This study offers an overview of the potential of using MEC technology in dWW treatment plants (dWWTPs to reduce the energy bill. It begins with a brief account of the basics of BESs, followed by an examination of how MECs can be integrated in dWW treatment plants (dWWTPs, identifying scaling-up bottlenecks and estimating potential energy savings. A simplified analysis showed that the use of MEC technology may help to reduce up to ~20% the energy consumption in a conventional dWWTP. The study concludes with a discussion of the future perspectives of MEC technology for dWW treatment. The growing rates of municipal water and wastewater treatment markets in Europe offer excellent business prospects and it is expected that the first generation of MECs could be ready within 1-4 years. However, before MEC technology may achieve practical implementation in dWWTPs, it needs not only to overcome important techno-economic challenges, but also to compete with other energy-producing technologies.

  13. Negative symptoms in nondeficit syndrome respond to neuroleptic treatment with changes in plasma homovanillic acid concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, E; Kanba, S; Koshikawa, H; Nibuya, M; Yagi, G; Asai, M

    1996-01-01

    Deficit syndrome (DS) in schizophrenia is characterized by serious, chronic, and primary negative symptoms. We investigated differences in response to neuroleptic treatment between 8 DS patients and 6 nondeficit syndrome (NDS) patients who had the selective dopamine-D2 receptor blocker bromperidol added to their neuroleptic regimens. First, 9 mg/d was administered for 4 weeks, followed by 18 mg/d for another 4 weeks. Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and plasma bromperidol concentrations were m...

  14. Renewable energy in Switzerland - Potential of waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and drinking water supply systems - Strategical decisions in politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernen, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and drinking water supply systems make an important contribution to the production of renewable energy in Switzerland. Financing by the 'Climate-Cent' programme, which finances projects involving the use of renewable energy, is discussed. Figures are quoted on the electrical energy produced in waste-water treatment plants, waste-incineration plants and combined heat and power generation plant. Eco-balances of the various systems are discussed. Political efforts being made in Switzerland, including the 'Climate Cent', are looked at and promotion provided by new energy legislation is discussed. Eco-power and the processing of sewage gas to meet natural gas quality standards are discussed, as are energy analysis, co-operation between various research institutions and external costs

  15. Development and implementation of a water treatment plant to eliminate manganese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Jimenez, J.; Sagrera Ruano, J.

    2009-01-01

    In order to resolve an ongoing problem since 2003 with the water supply in Firgas an ETAP (Drinking Water Treatment Plant) has been developed using the rusting-filtering method. This system has been adapted to the water obtained from the councils samples using an airing system that integrates three different methods: sprinkling, diffusion and cascading, to be filtered afterwards. With this system we have provide a technical solution to the historical quality and supply problems of councils water services. (Author) 21 refs

  16. Borehole Gravity Meter Surveys at the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Jeffrey D.; Mann, Ethan

    2007-04-06

    Microg-LaCoste (MGL) was contracted by Pacfic Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to record borehole gravity density data in 3 wells at the HanfordWaste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The survey was designed to provide highly accurate density information for use in seismic modeling. The borehole gravity meter (BHGM) tool has a very large depth of investigation (hundreds of feet) compared to other density tools so it is not influenced by casing or near welbore effects, such as washouts.

  17. Two Legionnaires' disease cases associated with industrial waste water treatment plants: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putus Tuula

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finnish and Swedish waste water systems used by the forest industry were found to be exceptionally heavily contaminated with legionellae in 2005. Case presentation We report two cases of severe pneumonia in employees working at two separate mills in Finland in 2006. Legionella serological and urinary antigen tests were used to diagnose Legionnaires' disease in the symptomatic employees, who had worked at, or close to, waste water treatment plants. Since the findings indicated a Legionella infection, the waste water and home water systems were studied in more detail. The antibody response and Legionella urinary antigen finding of Case A indicated that the infection had been caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Case A had been exposed to legionellae while installing a pump into a post-clarification basin at the waste water treatment plant of mill A. Both the water and sludge in the basin contained high concentrations of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, in addition to serogroups 3 and 13. Case B was working 200 meters downwind from a waste water treatment plant, which had an active sludge basin and cooling towers. The antibody response indicated that his disease was due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2. The cooling tower was the only site at the waste water treatment plant yielding that serogroup, though water in the active sludge basin yielded abundant growth of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 and Legionella rubrilucens. Both workers recovered from the disease. Conclusion These are the first reported cases of Legionnaires' disease in Finland associated with industrial waste water systems.

  18. Calibration of a complex activated sludge model for the full-scale wastewater treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Liwarska-Bizukojc, Ewa; Olejnik, Dorota; Biernacki, Rafal; Ledakowicz, Stanislaw

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the results of the calibration of the complex activated sludge model implemented in BioWin software for the full-scale wastewater treatment plant are presented. Within the calibration of the model, sensitivity analysis of its parameters and the fractions of carbonaceous substrate were performed. In the steady-state and dynamic calibrations, a successful agreement between the measured and simulated values of the output variables was achieved. Sensitivity analysis revealed that u...

  19. Regulation of wastewater treatment plants in the Ba-Phalaborwa municipality / Q.N. Gopo

    OpenAIRE

    Gopo, Nothando Lilian Queen

    2013-01-01

    South Africa is a water-scarce country and over the years, the quality of water resources has deteriorated due to poor effluent discharge, agricultural, industrial, mining and human activities. The major contributing factors of poorly-treated or inadequately treated wastewater may be attributed to: (a) the poor design and construction of wastewater treatment plants; (b) lack of qualified process controllers; (c) non-compliance with applicable legislation; (d) lack of proper monitoring; and (e...

  20. Techno-economic analysis of resource recovery technologies for wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Matafome, Beatriz; Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina

    2017-01-01

    resource-recovery treatment units: (a) a chemical precipitation process, for recovery of iron phosphate fertilizer; (b) the Exelys technology, for increased biogas production; and, (c) the Phosnix technology, for recovery of struvite fertilizer. Seven upgrade strategies/flowsheets employing different...... upgrading combinations involving chemical precipitation and Exelys technologies were not found economical for the given plant. Sensitivity analyses on the economic evaluation criteria have demonstrated that the results obtained are robust against uncertainties in influent wastewater characteristics...

  1. Fate of antibiotic resistance genes within the microbial communities of three waste water treatment plants

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cesare, Andrea; Eckert, Ester; D'Urso, Silvia; Doppelbauer, Julia; Corno, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Although Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) are designed to reduce the biological pollution of urban waters, they lack a specific action against antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB) or antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Nowadays, it is well documented that WWTPs constitute a reservoir of antibiotic resistances and, in some cases, they can be a favorable environment for the selection of ARB. This represent a serious concern for the public health, because the effluents of the WWTPs can be reus...

  2. Mass flows of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in central wastewater treatment plants of industrial zones in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Tanaka, Shuhei; Fujii, Shigeo; Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati; Musirat, Chanatip; Wongwattana, Thana; Shivakoti, Binaya Raj

    2011-04-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are fully fluorinated organic compounds, which have been used in many industrial processes and have been detected in wastewater and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) around the world. This study focused on the occurrences of PFCs and PFCs mass flows in the industrial wastewater treatment plants, which reported to be the important sources of PFCs. Surveys were conducted in central wastewater treatment plant in two industrial zones in Thailand. Samples were collected from influent, aeration tank, secondary clarifier effluent, effluent and sludge. The major purpose of this field study was to identify PFCs occurrences and mass flow during industrial WWTP. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS were used for the analysis. Total 10 PFCs including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoropropanoic acid (PFPA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoronanoic acid (PFNA), perfluordecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) were measured to identify their occurrences. PFCs were detected in both liquid and solid phase in most samples. The exceptionally high level of PFCs was detected in the treatment plant of IZ1 and IZ2 ranging between 662-847ngL(-1) and 674-1383ngL(-1), respectively, which greater than PFCs found in most domestic wastewater. Due to PFCs non-biodegradable property, both WWTPs were found ineffective in removing PFCs using activated sludge processes. Bio-accumulation in sludge could be the major removal mechanism of PFCs in the process. The increasing amount of PFCs after activated sludge processes were identified which could be due to the degradation of PFCs precursors. PFCs concentration found in the effluent were very high comparing to those in river water of the area. Industrial activity could be the one of major sources of PFCs

  3. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Detected at Four U.S. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Rachel E. Rosenberg; Micallef, Shirley A.; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Davis, Johnnie A.; He, Xin; George, Ashish; Kleinfelter, Lara M.; Schreiber, Nicole A.; Mukherjee, Sampa; Sapkota, Amir; Joseph, Sam W.; Sapkota, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The incidence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections is increasing in the United States, and it is possible that municipal wastewater could be a reservoir of this microorganism. To date, no U.S. studies have evaluated the occurrence of MRSA in wastewater. Objective: We examined the occurrence of MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) at U.S. wastewater treatment plants. Methods: We collected wastewater samples from two Mid...

  4. Use of dry sludge from waste water treatment plants as an additive in prefabricated concrete brick

    OpenAIRE

    Yagüe, A.; Valls, S.; Vázquez, E.; Kuchinow, V.

    2002-01-01

    Dry sludge from the Sabadell Water Treatment Plant was used to prepare prefabricated concrete bricks. After characterising the sludge and the manufacturing process used to make the bricks, we define the conditions of addition of the sludges in the manufacture. Reference samples not containing sludge and samples containing 2 % of dry sludge by cement weight were prepared. The variation in density, porosity, absorption coefficient and compressive strength of the bricks with the presence of...

  5. Monitoring of ph, redox and turbidity in a water treatment plant using WSN with ZIGBEE technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Fonseca-Gonzaléz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a WSN using Zigbee technology (Standart IEEE 802.15.4, With the help of the XBee of Maxtream modules the communication is carried out between a remote water treatment plant towards a ccordinator node. The acqired data are entered to a microcontroller which takes care of the processing to be able to transmit and visualized under a graphical user interface in Matlab

  6. Potential risks of effluent from acid mine drainage treatment plants at abandoned coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jaehwan; Kang, Sung-Wook; Ji, Wonhyun; Jo, Hun-Je; Jung, Jinho

    2012-06-01

    The lethal and sublethal toxicity of effluent from three acid mine drainage treatment plants were monitored from August 2009 to April 2010 using Daphnia magna (reference species) and Moina macrocopa (indigenous species). Acute lethal toxicity was observed in Samma effluent due to incomplete neutralization of acid mine drainages by the successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS). Additionally, there was no significant difference in toxicity values (TU) between D. magna and M. macrocopa (p water bodies.

  7. Energy audit in small wastewater treatment plants: methodology, energy consumption indicators, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, P; Vaccari, M; Vitali, F

    2015-01-01

    Energy audits in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) reveal large differences in the energy consumption in the various stages, depending also on the indicators used in the audits. This work is aimed at formulating a suitable methodology to perform audits in WWTPs and identifying the most suitable key energy consumption indicators for comparison among different plants and benchmarking. Hydraulic-based stages, stages based on chemical oxygen demand, sludge-based stages and building stages were distinguished in WWTPs and analysed with different energy indicators. Detailed energy audits were carried out on five small WWTPs treating less than 10,000 population equivalent and using continuous data for 2 years. The plants have in common a low designed capacity utilization (52% on average) and equipment oversizing which leads to waste of energy in the absence of controls and inverters (a common situation in small plants). The study confirms that there are several opportunities for reducing energy consumption in small WWTPs: in addition to the pumping of influent wastewater and aeration, small plants demonstrate low energy efficiency in recirculation of settled sludge and in aerobic stabilization. Denitrification above 75% is ensured through intermittent aeration and without recirculation of mixed liquor. Automation in place of manual controls is mandatory in illumination and electrical heating.

  8. Plant species used in giardiasis treatment: ethnopharmacology and in vitro evaluation of anti-Giardia activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa do A. Neiva

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compile the traditional knowledge about plants used for the treatment of giardiasis, and also to carry out experimental research to evaluate the anti-Giardia activity of five species.To reach this objective, 398 interviews were performed using a previously prepared questionnaire, followed by an in vitro evaluation of giardicidal potential of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of Anacardium occidentale L., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Passiflora edulis Sims, Psidium guajava L., and Stachytarpheta cayennensis(Rich. Vahl. Among the interviewed people, 55.53% reported the use of plants to treat diarrhea, the most severe symptom of giardiasis. The results indicated 36 species used by this population for these problems. The use of leaves (72.50% of a single plant (64.25% collected from backyards and gardens (44.34% and prepared by decoction were predominant. The majority of the interviewees (85.52% attributed their cure to the use of plants. In the experimental tests, all extracts inhibited the growth of Giardia lambliatrophozoites in different intensities: A. occidentale and P. guajava extracts elicited a moderate activity (250 ≤ IC50 ≤ 500 μg/ml, C. ambrosioides and S. cayennensis extracts evoked a high activity (100 ≤ IC50 ≤ 250 μg/ml, and P. edulis extract showed very high activity (IC50≤ 100 μg/ml. This study shows that an ethnopharmacological approach is useful in the selection of plant materials with potential giardicidal activity.

  9. Metabolites change in Jatropha plants due to seed treatment with rhizobacteria and Rhizoctonia bataticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the metabolite [salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA, hydrocyanic acid (HCN and chitinase activity] changes owing to seed treatn1ent with pathogen, plant growth pron1oting rhizobacteria (PGPRs - (P. maltophilia, P. fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis alone and in combination was conducted at Chaudhary Charan Singh, Haryana Agricultural University, Regional Research Station, Bawal. Jatropha curcas plants raised from root rot pathogen (Rhizoctonia bataticola treated seeds showed an initial increase in SA and hydrocyanic acid HCN content and an opposite trend was observed for JA level and chitinase activity. Though, PGPRs inoculation resulted in higher increase in SA level, JA level and chitinase activity in both the cases alone as well as in integration with pathogen, however, maximun1 increase in JA content was explicited in plants raised after seed treatment with P. fluorescens, the most effective rhizobacteria amongst PGPRs studied. Highest increase in HCN content (45 micrograms g-1 over control (24 micrograms g-1 was noticed for P. fluorescens followed by co-seed inoculation with P. fluorescens + pathogen (43 micrograms g-1 at 10 DPL. The co-seed inoculation elicited 68 units at 10 DPI, whereas the pathogen challenged plants showed lower chitinase activity with 42 units. All the metabolites declined slightly or sharply with age of the plant irrespective of inoculations.

  10. Emissions model of waste treatment operations at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    An integrated model of the waste treatment systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) was developed using a commercially-available process simulation software (ASPEN Plus) to calculate atmospheric emissions of hazardous chemicals for use in an application for an environmental permit to operate (PTO). The processes covered by the model are the Process Equipment Waste evaporator, High Level Liquid Waste evaporator, New Waste Calcining Facility and Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal facility. The processes are described along with the model and its assumptions. The model calculates emissions of NO x , CO, volatile acids, hazardous metals, and organic chemicals. Some calculated relative emissions are summarized and insights on building simulations are discussed

  11. Design features of a reverse osmosis demonstration plant for treatment of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhar, P.; Sudesh Nath; Gandhi, P.M.; Mishra, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    Reverse osmosis, a novel process in the field of nuclear waste management, is under evaluation globally. Its application is basically considered for the treatment of low level waste; yet references are found for its possible use to treat specific intermediate level waste streams, if segregated at source. The process of reverse osmosis (RO) is proposed for use in conjunction with other conventional processes like chemical treatment, ion exchange and evaporation. Flow sheets have been developed wherein RO can come as a replacement of one of these processes or is used as a pre or post treatment stage. The emphasis is on reducing the secondary wastes so as to realize an optimum levelised cost of treatment. This paper outlines the design basis for an RO plant for treating low level radioactive wastes based on the studies carried out on laboratory as well as bench scale. (author)

  12. Occurrence and removal of NDMA and NDMA formation potential in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Suchul; Nakada, Norihide; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2011-06-15

    N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a potent carcinogen that is formed during disinfection by chlorination or ozonation in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). At present, little is known about the occurrence and fate of NDMA and its formation potential (FP) during wastewater treatment. We investigated the fate of NDMA and NDMA FP in 12 WWTPs. NDMA occurred in the influents at a concentration ranging from below the limit of quantification (LOQ NDMA FP (up to 8230 ng/L). The rate of NDMA FP reduction from influent to secondary effluent varied between 85 and 98%, regardless of treatment process. The rate of NDMA removal is due more to the influent properties than to the type of biological treatment process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Design features of a reverse osmosis demonstration plant for treatment of low level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhar, P; Nath, Sudesh; Gandhi, P M; Mishra, S D [Waste Management Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Reverse osmosis, a novel process in the field of nuclear waste management, is under evaluation globally. Its application is basically considered for the treatment of low level waste; yet references are found for its possible use to treat specific intermediate level waste streams, if segregated at source. The process of reverse osmosis (RO) is proposed for use in conjunction with other conventional processes like chemical treatment, ion exchange and evaporation. Flow sheets have been developed wherein RO can come as a replacement of one of these processes or is used as a pre or post treatment stage. The emphasis is on reducing the secondary wastes so as to realize an optimum levelised cost of treatment. This paper outlines the design basis for an RO plant for treating low level radioactive wastes based on the studies carried out on laboratory as well as bench scale. (author). 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Future-proof radioactive waste treatment technologies for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Klaus; Braehler, Georg [NUKEM Technologies Engineering Services GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    In order to select the optimal treatment method for radioactive waste three options can be considered. First, to treat the radioactive waste only to allow long term interim storage until the waste acceptance criteria are defined and the disposal sites are operable. Second, to select treatment methods just in compliance with the current state of discussion with the regard to the above. Third, taking also the future development in the field of waste acceptance criteria and disposal into account. When developing waste treatment systems for Nuclear Power Plants NUKEM Technologies follows the following targets, minimisation of the amount of radioactive waste, maximisation of free release material, volume reduction, avoidance of unwanted materials in the waste package, as well as efficient waste treatment solutions (low investment, high volume reduction). With its technologies produced waste packages fulfil the most stringent waste acceptance criteria.

  15. Plutonium Finishing Plant Treatment and Storage Unit Dangerous Waste Training Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENTROP, G.E.

    2000-01-01

    The training program for personnel performing waste management duties pertaining to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Treatment and Storage Unit is governed by the general requirements established in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Dangerous Waste Training Plan (PFP DWTP). The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit DWTP presented below incorporates all of the components of the PFP DWTP by reference. The discussion presented in this document identifies aspects of the training program specific to the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit. The training program includes specifications for personnel instruction through both classroom and on-the-job training. Training is developed specific to waste management duties. Hanford Facility personnel directly involved with the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit will receive training to container management practices, spill response, and emergency response. These will include, for example, training in the cementation process and training pertaining to applicable elements of WAC 173-303-330(1)(d). Applicable elements from WAC 173-303-330(1)(d) for the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit include: procedures for inspecting, repairing, and replacing facility emergency and monitoring equipment; communications and alarm systems; response to fires or explosions; and shutdown of operations

  16. Enhanced energy efficiency in waste water treatment plants; Steigerung der Energieeffizienz auf kommunalen Klaeranlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberkern, Bernd; Maier, Werner; Schneider, Ursula [iat - Ingenieurberatung fuer Abwassertechnik, Darmstadt und Stuttgart, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    In order to implement the requests of EU-IPCC-directive in a new decree for waste water treatment in Germany, best available techniques have to be defined to optimize energy efficiency in waste water treatment plants (WWTP). Therefore energy efficiency was investigated for common treatment processes and new technologies like membrane filtration, co-digestion or phosphorus recycling. In addition, the occurrence of different technologies for waste water and sludge treatment was evaluated for different size ranges of treatment plants (in population equivalents, PE) nationwide in Germany. The definition of actual and aimed values for specific energy consumption (in kWh/(PE.a)) allowed to calculate the potential energy savings in WWTP and the additional consumption due to new processes on a national level. Under consideration of the reciprocations between optimized energy consumption in WWTP and operation practice, toe-holds to increase energy efficiency according to their relevancy for the national balance could be listed. Case studies prove the feasibility of the investigated techniques and allow proposals for minimum requirements in legal regulation concerning energy efficiency in WWTP. (orig.)

  17. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Treatment and Storage Unit Waste Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRIGNANO, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this waste analysis plan (WAP) is to document waste analysis activities associated with the Plutonium Finishing Plant Treatment and Storage Unit (PFP Treatment and Storage Unit) to comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-300(1), (2), (4)(a) and (5). The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit is an interim status container management unit for plutonium bearing mixed waste radiologically managed as transuranic (TRU) waste. TRU mixed (TRUM) waste managed at the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit is destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore is not subject to land disposal restrictions [WAC 173-303-140 and 40 CFR 268]. The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit is located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland Washington (Figure 1). Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge

  18. Fossil organic carbon in wastewater and its fate in treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yingyu; Jacobsen, Geraldine E; Smith, Andrew M; Yuan, Zhiguo; Lant, Paul

    2013-09-15

    This study reports the presence of fossil organic carbon in wastewater and its fate in wastewater treatment plants. The findings pinpoint the inaccuracy of current greenhouse gas accounting guidelines which defines all organic carbon in wastewater to be of biogenic origin. Stable and radiocarbon isotopes ((13)C and (14)C) were measured throughout the process train in four municipal wastewater treatment plants equipped with secondary activated sludge treatment. Isotopic mass balance analyses indicate that 4-14% of influent total organic carbon (TOC) is of fossil origin with concentrations between 6 and 35 mg/L; 88-98% of this is removed from the wastewater. The TOC mass balance analysis suggests that 39-65% of the fossil organic carbon from the influent is incorporated into the activated sludge through adsorption or from cell assimilation while 29-50% is likely transformed to carbon dioxide (CO2) during secondary treatment. The fossil organic carbon fraction in the sludge undergoes further biodegradation during anaerobic digestion with a 12% decrease in mass. 1.4-6.3% of the influent TOC consists of both biogenic and fossil carbon is estimated to be emitted as fossil CO2 from activated sludge treatment alone. The results suggest that current greenhouse gas accounting guidelines, which assume that all CO2 emission from wastewater is biogenic may lead to underestimation of emissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of the Difference of Radon Concentration between Water Treatment Plant and Tap water in house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeongil; Yoo, Donghan; Kim, Heereyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    As importance for the health, measurements and analysis about radon is active recently. Especially, radon concentration measurement about underground water which people drink was been carried out by the environment organizations in Korea and has been hot-issued because of the high radon concentration in water source. In present study, the difference of radon concentration among water source, water treatment plant and tap water in house is analyzed. It makes sense that the radon concentration in water treatment plant can represent the radon concentration in the tap water. Through the above experiments, the difference of the radon concentration between water treatment plant and tap water in house is figured out. It contributes to confirm more specific basis for estimating the annual radon exposure for the public. With further experiments and analysis, it is thought that it will be used as tool to assess more qualitatively for the radon concentration in tap water. Finally, this Fundamental approach will help in making new regulations about radon.

  20. Bases for a sewage sludge treatment plant by irradiation in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, Jaime M.; Cruz, Arturo C.

    1997-01-01

    A good place for the first sludge irradiator in Mexico would be the Toluca Norte sewage water treatment plant. This plant has a definitive biological treatment, and handles only domestic wastewater and assures therefore good and stead sewage sludge quality, and has capacity do deliver sufficient sludge (approximately 22,000 ton.y -1 or 70 ton.d -1 ) to the irradiator. Capital and operating cost calculations for a sewage sludge plant by irradiation in Mexico were done using a mathematical model considering a 50 k W electron linear accelerator of 10 MeV beam energy, an irradiation dose of 5 kGy, a treatment capacity of 346 ton.d -1 , an absorption efficiency of 40%, an electricity consumption of 400 k W, an operating mode of 325 days per year and one shift per day. Total annual operating costs is estimated to be $1,007,900 for treating 346 ton.d -1 with irradiation dose of 5 kGy, including both fixed ($664,000) and variable costs ($343,920). The unit cost at maximum utilization was obtained as $9.00 per ton. (author). 16 refs., 3 tabs