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Sample records for mgb2 crystals influence

  1. Measurement of the anisotropy ratios in MgB2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon-Jung; Kang, Byeongwon; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2006-01-01

    We present our recent measurements on the anisotropy ratios of MgB 2 single crystals. Our measurements indicate that the anisotropy ratios of the penetration depth and of the upper critical field have different magnitudes and temperature dependences, as predicted by theoretical calculations. These results imply that the two-gap nature can strongly influence the superconducting properties of MgB 2

  2. Comparative study of neutron irradiation and carbon doping in MgB2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutzler, C.; Zehetmayer, M.; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H. W.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Karpinski, J.

    2007-01-01

    We compare the reversible and irreversible magnetic properties of superconducting carbon doped and undoped MgB 2 single crystals before and after neutron irradiation. A large number of samples with transition temperatures between 38.3 and 22.8 K allows us to study the effects of disorder systematically. Striking similarities are found in the modification of the reversible parameters by irradiation and doping, which are discussed in terms of impurity scattering and changes of the Fermi surface. The irreversible properties are influenced by two counteracting mechanisms: they are enhanced by the newly introduced pinning centers but degraded by changes in the thermodynamic properties. Accordingly, the large neutron induced defects and the small defects from carbon doping lead to significantly different effects on the irreversible properties. Finally, the fishtail effect caused by all kinds of disorder is discussed in terms of an order-disorder transition of the flux-line lattice

  3. Multiple superconducting gaps in MgB2 single crystals from magnetic torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atsumi, Toshiyuki; Xu, Mingxiang; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Ishida, Takekazu

    2004-01-01

    We have measured the magnetic torque of an MgB 2 single crystal in the various different fields below 10 kG by using a torque magnetometer and a 4 K closed cycle refrigerator. The MgB 2 single crystal was synthesized by the vapor transport method. The torque can be measured as an off-balance signal of the Wheatstone bridge of the four piezoresistors on a Si cantilever. The torque curves are analyzed by the Kogan model. The superconducting anisotropy γ is rather independent of temperature in 5 and 10 kG, but is dependent on field up to 60 kG. We consider that the field dependence of γ comes from the nature of the multiple superconducting gaps. The experimental results show that the π-band superconducting gaps have been deteriorated gradually up to a crossover field H * (π) ∼ 20 kG at 10 K when the magnetic field increases

  4. Peak effect and vortex dynamics in superconducting MgB2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun-Sook; Jang, Dong-Jin; Kim, Heon-Jung; Kang, Byeongwon; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic nature of the vortex state of MgB 2 single crystals near the peak effect (PE) region, which is very different either from that of conventional low-temperature superconductors or from that of high-temperature cuprate superconductors, is introduced in this article. Relaxation from a disordered, metastable field-cooled (FC) state to an ordered, stable zero-field-cooled (ZFC) state of the MgB 2 single crystals under an applied magnetic field and current is investigated. From an analysis of the noise properties in the ZFC state, a dynamic vortex phase diagram of the MgB 2 is obtained near the PE region. Between the onset and the peak region in the critical current vs. magnetic field diagram, crossovers from a high-noise state to a noise-free state are observed with increasing current. Above the peak, however, an opposite phenomenon, crossovers from a noise-free to a high-noise state, is observed which has not been observed in any other superconductors. The hysteresis in the I-V curves and the two-level random telegraph noise in the time evolution of the voltage response under an constant applied current at the ZFC state are also studied in detail

  5. Influence of Ni and Cu contamination on the superconducting properties of MgB2 filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, A; Schlachter, S I; Runtsch, B; Ringsdorf, B; Fillinger, H; Orschulko, H; Drechsler, A; Goldacker, W

    2010-01-01

    Technical MgB 2 wires usually have a sheath composite consisting of different metals. For the inner sheath with direct contact to the superconducting filament, chemically inert Nb may be used as a reaction barrier and thermal stabilization is provided by a highly conductive metal like Cu. A mechanical reinforcement can be achieved by the addition of stainless steel. In order to illuminate the influence of defects in the reaction barrier, monofilament in situ wires with direct contact between the MgB 2 filament and frequently applied reactive sheath metals like Cu, Ni or Monel are studied. Reactions of Mg and B with a Cu-containing sheath lead to Cu-based by-products penetrating the whole filament. Reactions with Ni-containing sheaths lead to Ni-based by-products which tend to remain at the filament-sheath interface. Cu and/or Ni contamination of the filament lowers the MgB 2 -forming temperature due to the eutectic reaction between Mg, Ni and Cu. Thus, for the samples heat-treated at low temperatures J C and (partly) T C are increased compared to stainless-steel-sheathed wires. At high heat treatment temperatures uncontaminated filaments lead to the highest J C values. From the point of view of broken reaction barriers in real wires, the contamination of the filament with Cu and/or Ni does not necessarily constrain the superconductivity; it may even improve the properties of the wire, depending on the desired application.

  6. MgB2 and Mg1-xAlxB2 single crystals: high pressure growth and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpinski, J.; Kazakov, S.M.; Jun, J.; Zhigadlo, N.D.; Angst, M.; Puzniak, R.; Wisniewski, A.

    2004-01-01

    Single crystals of MgB 2 have been grown with a high pressure cubic anvil technique. They grow via the peritectic decomposition of the MgNB 9 ternary nitride. The crystals are of a size up to 2 x 1 x 0.1 mm 3 with a weight up to 230 μg. Typically they have transition temperatures between 38 and 38.6 K with a width of 0.3-0.5 K. Investigations of the P-T phase diagram prove that the MgB 2 phase is stable at least up to 2190 deg. C at high hydrostatic pressure in the presence of Mg vapor under high pressure. Substitution of aluminum for magnesium in single crystals leads to stepwise decrease of T c . This indicates a possible appearance of superstructures or phases with different T c 's. The upper critical field decreases with Al doping

  7. Dynamic vortex-phase diagram of MgB2 single crystals near the peak-effect region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon-Jung; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Kang, Byeongwon; Chowdhury, P.; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Park, Min-Seok; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2006-01-01

    The dynamic vortex-phase diagram of MgB 2 single crystals has been constructed by using voltage noise characteristics. Between the onset (H on ) and the peak (H p ) magnetic fields, crossovers from a state with large noises to a noise-free state were observed with increasing current while above H p , a reverse behavior was found. We will discuss the dynamic vortex phase diagram and the possible origins of the crossovers

  8. The Influence of CuFe2O4 Nanoparticles on Superconductivity of MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosel, Nikolina; Pajić, Damir; Skoko, Željko; Mustapić, Mislav; Babić, Emil; Zadro, Krešo; Horvat, Joseph

    The influence of CuFe2O4 nanoparticle doping on superconducting properties of Fe-sheated MgB2 wires has been studied. The wires containing 0, 3 and 7.5 wt.% of monodisperse superparamagnetic nanoparticles (˜7 nm) were sintered at 650°C or 750°C for 1 hour in the pure argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction patterns of doped samples showed very small maxima corresponding to iron boride and an increase in the fraction of MgO phase indicating some interaction of nanoparticles with Mg and B. Both magnetic and transport measurements (performed in the temperature range 2-42 K and magnetic field up to 16 T) showed strong deterioration of the superconducting properties upon doping with CuFe2O4. The transition temperatures, Tc, of doped samples decreased for about 1.4 K per wt.% of CuFe2O4. Also, the irreversibility fields Birr(T) decreased progressively with increasing doping. Accordingly, also the suppression of Jc with magnetic field became stronger. The observed strong deterioration of superconducting properties of MgB2 wires is at variance with reported enhancement of critical currents at higher temperatures (determined from magnetization) in bulk MgB2 samples doped with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The probable reason for this discrepancy is briefly discussed

  9. Influence of iridium doping in MgB2 superconducting wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2018-01-01

    MgB2 wires with iridium doping were manufactured using the in-situ technique in a composite Cu-Nb sheath. Reaction was performed at 700°C, 800°C or 900°C for 1h in argon atmosphere. A maximum of about 1.5 at.% Ir replaces Mg in MgB2. The superconducting transition temperature is slightly lowered...... by Ir doping. The formation of IrMg3 and IrMg4 secondary phase particles is evidenced, especially for a nominal stoichiometry with 2.0 at.% Ir doping. The critical current density and accommodation field of the wires are strongly dependent on the Ir content and are generally weakened in the presence...

  10. Influence of the cooling rate on the main factors affecting current-carrying ability in pure and SiC-doped MgB2 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakova, O V; Pan, A V; Soltanian, S; Dou, S X; Wexler, D

    2007-01-01

    We have systematically studied and compared the effect of cooling rate on microstructure, critical current density, upper critical field and irreversibility field in pure and 10 wt% SiC-added MgB 2 superconductors. The sintering process was carried out on the samples at a temperature of 750 deg. C for 1 h followed by quenching or cooling to room temperature in 0.3 h (2433 deg. C h -1 ), 14 h (52 deg. C h -1 ) and 25 h (30 deg. C h -1 ). Changes in the microstructure due to variations in cooling rate have been studied with the help of scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Correlations between microstructure and superconducting properties have been observed, identified and explained for both pure and SiC-added MgB 2 samples. Modifications to the pinning environment and grain boundary transparency are considered to be responsible for variations in the current-carrying ability. The dominant pinning on grain boundaries in the pure MgB 2 samples and on nano-inclusions (inducing accompanying defects) in the SiC-doped samples is clearly distinguished. On the basis of our experimental results, we have concluded that the cooling rate can be an important parameter influencing the superconducting properties of MgB 2 samples

  11. The superconducting gaps of C-substituted and Al-substituted MgB2 single crystals by point-contact spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daghero, D.; Gonnelli, R.S.; Ummarino, G.A.; Calzolari, A.; Dellarocca, Valeria; Stepanov, V.A.; Zhigadlo, N.; Kazakov, S.M.; Karpinski, J.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the effects of carbon and aluminum substitutions on the gaps of the two-band superconductor MgB 2 by means of point-contact measurements in Mg(B 1-x C x ) 2 and Mg 1-y Al y B 2 single crystals with 0≤x≤0.132 and 0≤y≤0.21. The gap amplitudes, Δ ω and Δ π , were determined by fitting the conductance curves of the point contacts with the standard Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) model generalized to the two-band case. Whenever possible, their values were confirmed by the independent fit (with a single-band BTK model) of the partial contribution of the two bands to the conductance, separated by means of a suitable magnetic field B*. In C-substituted crystals, the two gaps remain clearly distinct up to x∝0.10, but at x=0.132 we observed for the first time their merging into a single gap Δ≅3 meV with a gap ratio 2Δ=k B T c close to the standard BCS value. In Al-substituted crystals, we found no evidence of this gap merging. Instead, Δ π reaches the value 0.4 meV at y=0.21, where Δ π saturates at about 4 meV. These results are compared with other recent experimental findings in polycrystals and with the predictions of the models for multiband superconductivity. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Defect structure of ultrafine MgB2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateni, Ali; Somer, Mehmet; Repp, Sergej; Erdem, Emre; Thomann, Ralf; Acar, Selçuk

    2014-01-01

    Defect structure of MgB 2 bulk and ultrafine particles, synthesized by solid state reaction route, have been investigated mainly by the aid of X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer. Two different amorphous Boron (B) precursors were used for the synthesis of MgB 2 , namely, boron 95 (purity 95%–97%, <1.5 μm) and nanoboron (purity >98.5%, <250 nm), which revealed bulk and nanosized MgB 2 , respectively. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrate uniform and ultrafine morphology for nanosized MgB 2 in comparison with bulk MgB 2 . Powder X-ray diffraction data show that the concentration of the by-product MgO is significantly reduced when nanoboron is employed as precursor. It is observed that a significant average particle size reduction for MgB 2 can be achieved only by using B particles of micron or nano size. The origin and the role of defect centers were also investigated and the results proved that at nanoscale MgB 2 material contains Mg vacancies. Such vacancies influence the connectivity and the conductivity properties which are crucial for the superconductivity applications

  13. The influence of the roll diameter in flat rolling of of superconducting in situ and ex situ MgB2 tape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Michael Halloway; Bay, Niels

    2007-01-01

    , 150 and 210 mm in each step. The investigation has shown that the in situ powder is more readily compacted than the ex situ powder, with an average increase of relative density after mechanical processing of 37% for in situ powder and 19% for ex situ powder. Statistical analysis showed that the choice......Applying the powder in tube (PIT) method, single-filament MgB2/Fe wire and tape has been manufactured applying both the ex situ and the in situ approach. The influence of the roll diameter in three-step flat rolling on the powder density and critical temperature has been examined using rolls of 70...... roll in the first and second reductions followed by the 150 mm or 210 mm roll in the last reduction was the optimum strategy for both powder types. AC susceptibility testing showed that for the in situ tapes there was no correlation between the powder density and the critical temperature. For ex situ...

  14. Influence of particle size of Mg powder on the microstructure and critical currents of in situ powder-in-tube processed MgB_2 wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, Hiroaki; Ye, Shujun; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi; Nitta, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated in situ powder-in-tube(PIT) MgB_2 wires using three kinds of Mg powders with particle size of ∼45 μm, ∼150 μm and 212∼600 μm. Mg particles were elongated to filamentary structure in the wires during cold drawing process. Especially, long Mg filamentary structure was obtained for large Mg particle size of 212∼600 μm. Critical current density, J_c, increased with increasing Mg particle size for 1 mm diameter wires. This is due to the development of filamentary structure of high density MgB_2 superconducting layer along the wires. This MgB_2 structure is similar to that of the internal Mg diffusion (IMD) processed MgB_2 wires. However, J_c of the wires fabricated with 212∼600 μm Mg particle size decreased and the scattering of J_c increased with decreasing wire diameter, while the J_c of the wires with ∼45 μm Mg particle was almost independent of the wire diameter. The cross sectional area reduction of the Mg particles during the wire drawing is smaller than that of the wire. When using large size Mg particle, the number of Mg filaments in the wire cross section is small. These two facts statistically lead to the larger scattering of Mg areal fraction in the wire cross section with proceeding of wire drawing process, resulting in smaller volume fraction of MgB_2 in the wire and lower J_c with larger scattering along the wire. SiC nano powder addition is effective in increasing J_c for all Mg particle sizes. (author)

  15. Nanoparticles of the superconductor MgB2: structural characterization and in situ study of synthesis kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Chunxiang; Liu Debao; Shen Yutian; Sun Jinbin; Meng Fanbin; Wang Ru; Liu Shuangjin; Greer, A.L.; Chen, S.K.; Glowacki, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Single-crystal MgB 2 nanoparticles, with diameters in the range 20-100 nm, have been synthesized in situ in the sample chamber of an X-ray diffractometer. The reaction kinetics are analyzed and related to the atomic-level structure of the particles as observed by high-resolution electron microscopy. Synthesis conditions may have a significant influence on microstructure and superconducting properties

  16. Microstructure and pinning properties of hexagonal-disc shaped single crystalline MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C. U.; Kim, J. Y.; Chowdhury, P.; Kim, Kijoon H.; Lee, Sung-Ik; Koh, D. S.; Tamura, N.; Caldwell, W. A.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-11-01

    We synthesized hexagonal-disc-shaped MgB2 single crystals under high-pressure conditions and analyzed the microstructure and pinning properties. The lattice constants and the Laue pattern of the crystals from x-ray micro-diffraction showed the crystal symmetry of MgB2. A thorough crystallographic mapping within a single crystal showed that the edge and c axis of hexagonal-disc shape exactly matched the [101¯0] and the [0001] directions of the MgB2 phase. Thus, these well-shaped single crystals may be the best candidates for studying the direction dependences of the physical properties. The magnetization curve and the magnetic hysteresis curve for these single crystals showed the existence of a wide reversible region and weak pinning properties, which supported our single crystals being very clean.

  17. Electronic structure of MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound MgB2 using the. FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange-correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, c/a ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent ...

  18. Electronic structure of MgB 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound MgB2 using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange-correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, / ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent agreement with ...

  19. Properties of hot pressed MgB2/Ti tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, P.; Husek, I.; Melisek, T.; Fedor, J.; Cambel, V.; Morawski, A.; Kario, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hot axial and hot isostatic pressing was applied for single-core MgB 2 /Ti tapes. Differences in transport current density, n-exponents and critical current anisotropy are discussed and related to the grain connectivity influenced by pressing. The magnetic Hall probe scanning measurements allowed observing the isolated regions for axially hot pressed sample attributed to the longitudinally oriented cracks introduced by pressing. The highest current densities were measured for the tape subjected to hot isostatic pressing due to improved connectivity.

  20. Evaluation of carbon incorporation and strain of doped MgB2 superconductor by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeoh, W.K.; Zheng, R.K.; Ringer, S.P.; Li, W.X.; Xu, X.; Dou, S.X.; Chen, S.K.; MacManus-Driscoll, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is employed to study both the strain and the carbon substitution level in SiC-doped MgB 2 bulk samples. Raman spectroscopy was demonstrated to be a better method to distinguish the individual influences of strain and carbon than standard X-ray diffraction. It is found that the lattice parameter correlation method for C content determination is invalid for highly strained samples. Our result also provides an alternative explanation for lattice variation in non-carbon-doped MgB 2 , which is basically due to lattice strain.

  1. Formation of polycrystalline MgB2 synthesized by powder in sealed tube method with different initial boron phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudanto, Sigit Dwi; Imaduddin, Agung; Kurniawan, Budhy; Manaf, Azwar

    2018-04-01

    Magnesium diboride, MgB2 is a new high critical temperature superconductor that discovered in the beginning of the 21st century. The MgB2 has a simple crystal structure and a high critical temperature, which can be manufactured in several forms like thin films, tapes, wires including bulk in the large scale. For that reason, the MgB2 has good prospects for various applications in the field of electronic devices. In the current work, we have explored the synthesis of MgB2 polycrystalline using powder in a sealed tube method. Different initial boron phase for the synthesized of MgB2 polycrystalline were used. These were, in addition to magnesium powders, crystalline boron, amorphous boron and combination both of them were respectively fitted in the synthesis. The raw materials were mixed in a stoichiometric ratio of Mg: B=1:2, ground using agate mortar, packed into stainless steel SS304. The pack was then sintered at temperature of 800°C for 2 hours in air atmosphere. Phase formation of MgB2 polycrystalline in difference of initial boron phase was characterized using XRD and SEM. Referring to the diffraction pattern and microstructure observation, MgB2 polycrystalline was formed, and the formation was effective when using the crystalline Mg and fully amorphous B as the raw materials. The critical temperature of the specimen was evaluated by the cryogenic magnet. The transition temperature of the MgB2 specimen synthesized using crystalline magnesium and full amorphous boron is 42.678 K (ΔTc = 0.877 K).

  2. Multiband model for tunneling in MgB2 junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Alexander; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Rogalla, Horst; Dolgov, O.V.; Kortus, J.; Kong, Y.; Jepsen, O.; Andersen, O.K.

    2002-01-01

    A theoretical model for quasiparticle and Josephson tunneling in multiband superconductors is developed and applied to MgB2-based junctions. The gap functions in different bands in MgB2 are obtained from an extended Eliashberg formalism, using the results of band structure calculations. The

  3. On heavy carbon doping of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasinathan, Deepa; Lee, K.-W.; Pickett, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    Heavy carbon doping of MgB 2 is studied by first principles electronic structure studies of two types, an ordered supercell (Mg(B 1-x C x ) 2 , x 0.0833) and also the coherent potential approximation method that incorporates effects of B-C disorder. For the ordered model, the twofold degenerate σ-bands that are the basis of the high temperature superconductivity are split by 60 meV (i.e. 7 meV/% C) and the σ Fermi cylinders contain 0.070 holes/cell, compared to 0.11 for MgB 2 . A virtual crystal treatment tends to overestimate the rate at which σ holes are filled by substitutional carbon. The coherent potential approximation (CPA) calculations give the same rate of band filling as the supercell method. The occupied local density of states of C is almost identical to that of B in the upper 2 eV of the valence bands, but in the range -8 eV to -2 eV, C has a considerably larger density of states. The calculations indicate that the σ Fermi surface cylinders pinch off at the zone center only above the maximum C concentration x ∼ 0.10. These results indicate that Mg(B 1-x C x ) 2 as well as Mg 1-x Al x B 2 is a good system in which to study the evolution of the unusual electron-phonon coupling character and strength as the crucial σ hole states are filled

  4. The Raman spectrum and lattice parameters of MgB2 as a function of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lei; Zhang Huarong; Chen Lin; Feng Yong

    2004-01-01

    The temperature dependences of the Raman spectrum and lattice parameters of polycrystalline MgB 2 have been investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. It is found that the lattice parameters show an approximately linear change with the temperature decrease, giving different thermal expansions along the a- and c-axes, which is caused by the comparatively weak metal-boron bonding in MgB 2 . The grain size of MgB 2 determined by means of x-ray diffraction is around 45 nm for both [100] and [001] directions. There is no evidence for any structural transition while the temperature changes from 300 K down to 12 K. An anomalous Raman band at 603 cm -1 is observed, which is consistent with the theoretical prediction for the E 2g in-plane boron stretching mode. The Raman frequency increases and the linewidth decreases as the temperature decreases. A possible origin of the temperature dependences of the Raman frequency and the linewidth is discussed. It is suggested that the grain size effect of MgB 2 on the nanometric scale will have a clear influence on the frequency and the linewidth of the Raman spectrum

  5. Transport properties and Raman spectra of impurity substituted MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, T.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in the study of MgB 2 are reviewed, with focus on the transport properties and Raman scattering measurements for impurity substituted crystals. Carbon and Aluminium substitution change band filling, introduce intraband and interband scattering. These effects are seen in the temperature dependence of resistivity, Hall coefficients, and phonon peak of Raman spectra. Manganese substitution introduces magnetic scattering, that increases resistivity but gives little change in Raman spectra. The effect of disorder in neutron irradiated samples is also discussed

  6. Pulse laser irradiation into superconducting MgB2 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Daisuke; Miki, Shigehito; Satoh, Kazuo; Yotsuya, Tsutomu; Shimakage, Hisashi; Wang, Zhen; Okayasu, Satoru; Katagiri, Masaki; Machida, Masahiko; Kato, Masaru; Ishida, Takekazu

    2005-01-01

    We performed 20-ps pulse laser irradiation experiments on a MgB 2 neutron detector to know a thermal-relaxation process for designing a MgB 2 neutron detector. The membrane-type structured MgB 2 device was fabricated to minimize the heat capacity of sensing part of a detector as well as to enhance its sensitivity. We successfully observed a thermal-relaxation signal resulting from pulse laser irradiation by developing a detection circuit. The response time was faster than 1 μs, meaning that the detector would be capable of counting neutrons at a rate of more than 10 6 events per second

  7. Sugar as an optimal carbon source for the enhanced performance of MgB2 superconductors at high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, O. V.; Pan, A. V.; Wang, J. L.; Shcherbakov, A. V.; Dou, S. X.; Wexler, D.; Babić, E.; Jerčinović, M.; Husnjak, O.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of an extended study of the effect of sugar doping on the structural and electromagnetic properties of MgB2 superconductors. High values of the upper critical field (Bc2) of 36 T and the irreversibility field (Birr) of 27 T have been estimated at the temperature of 5 K in a bulk MgB2 sample with the addition of 10 wt% of sugar. The critical current density (Jc(Ba)) of sugar-doped samples has been significantly improved in the high field region. The value of transport Jc has reached as high as 108 A m-2 at 10 T and 5 K for Fe-sheathed sugar-doped MgB2 wire. The analysis of the pinning mechanism in the samples investigated indicated that dominant vortex pinning occurs on the surface type of pinning defects, such as grain boundaries, dislocations, stacking faults etc, for both pure and doped MgB2. In sugar-doped samples, pinning is governed by numerous crystal lattice defects, which appear in MgB2 grains as a result of crystal lattice distortion caused by carbon substitution for boron and nano-inclusions. The drastically improved superconducting properties of sugar-doped samples are also attributed to the highly homogeneous distribution and enhanced reactivity of this dopant with host Mg and B powders. The results of this work suggest that sugar is the optimal source of carbon for doping MgB2 superconductor, especially for application at high magnetic fields.

  8. Enhancement of Jc of MgB2 thin films by introduction of oxygen during deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Zon; Doi, Toshiya; Hakuraku, Yoshinori; Kitaguchi, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of various pinning center are examined as the effective means for improvement of J c of MgB 2 thin films. We have investigated the effects of introduction of oxygen during deposition on the superconducting properties of MgB 2 thin films. MgB 2 thin films were prepared on polished sapphire C(0001) single crystal substrates by using electron beam evaporation technique (EB) without any post-annealing. The background pressure was less than 1.3x10 -6 Pa. The evaporation flux ratio of Mg was set at 30 times as high as that of B, and the growth rate of MgB 2 film was 1nm/s. The film thickness was typically 300nm at 5min deposition. The substrate temperature was 245 deg. C. Under these conditions, we controlled the oxygen partial pressure (P O 2 ) within the range from 1.3x10 -6 to 1.3x10 -3 Pa by using a quadrapole mass spectrometer. Although T c of deposited thin film decreased in order of P O 2 , ΔM in the magnetization hysteresis loops measured from 0 to 6T at 4.2K increased up to 1.3x10 -5 . On the other hand, thin film prepared under P O 2 of 1.3x10 -3 Pa does not show superconducting transition. Between these films, there is no difference in the crystal structure from X-ray diffraction (XRD). These results suggest that the pinning center in the thin films increased by introduction of oxygen. Extremely small amount of oxygen introduction has enabled the control of growth of oxide

  9. The effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles on MgB2 superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koparan, E.T.; Sidorenko, A.; Yanmaz, E.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Since the discovery of superconductivity in binary MgB 2 compounds, extensive studies have been carried out because of its excellent properties for technological applications, such as high transition temperature (T c = 39 K), high upper critical field (H c2 ), high critical current density (J c ). Thin films are important for fundamental research as well as technological applications of any functional materials. Technological applications primarily depend on critical current density. The strong field dependence of J c for MgB 2 necessitates an enhancement in flux pinning performance in order to improve values in high magnetic fields. An effective way to improve the flux pinning is to introduce flux pinning centers into MgB 2 through a dopant having size comparable to the coherence length of MgB 2 . In this study, MgB 2 film with a thickness of about 600 nm was deposited on the MgO (100) single crystal substrate using a 'two-step' synthesis technique. Firstly, deposition of boron thin film was carried out by rf magnetron sputtering on MgO substrates and followed by a post deposition annealing at 850 degrees Celsius in magnesium vapour. In order to investigate the effect of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles on the structural and magnetic properties of films, MgB 2 films were coated with different concentrations of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles by a spin coating process. The effects of different concentrations of ferromagnetic Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles on superconducting properties of obtained films were carried out by using structural (XRD, SEM, AFM), electrical (R-T) and magnetization (M-H, M-T and AC Susceptibility) measurements. It was calculated that anisotropic coefficient was about γ = 1.2 and coherence length of 5 nm for the uncoated film. As a result of coherence length, the appropriate diameters of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were found to be 10 nm, indicating that these nanoparticles served as the pinning centers. Based on the data obtained from this study, it can be

  10. Pseudopotential approach to superconductivity in MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.S.; Bhargava, Nidhi; Jain, Ritu; Goyal, Varsha; Sharma, Ritu; Sharma, Smita

    2010-01-01

    Superconductivity in MgB 2 has been re-examined in BCS-Eliashberg framework by employing Mc-Millan's T c -equation and form factors of MgB 2 computed from the form factors of component metals (Model-I). The empty core model pseudopotential due to Ashcroft and random phase approximation form of dielectric screening due to Gellmann and Brueckner are used in the present work. An excellent agreement between the present values and other theoretically computed values of T c and with the relevant experimental data for MgB 2 confirms the validity of the present approach. The explicit dependence of λ and T c on the isotopic masses of Mg and B, as revealed from the present work, confirms the role of lattice vibrations in the superconducting behaviour of MgB 2 and the high value of T c in it may be attributed to the phonon mediated e-e interaction coupled with higher values of phonon frequencies due to light mass of B atoms. It has also been observed that the pseudo-atom model (Model-II) with appropriate choice of the potential parameter r c successfully explains high value of T c and isotope effect in MgB 2 , confirming the prominent role played by electron-phonon interaction in the high-T c superconductivity observed in MgB 2 . The isotope effect exponent α-values obtained from the two models are in complete agreement with each other and the present value α = 0.46 is also much closer to the BCS value of 0.5. Interaction strength N 0 V values obtained from the two models are also in perfect agreement with each other and the present value N 0 V = 0.48 suggests that MgB 2 is a strong coupling superconductor. (author)

  11. Dry cryomagnetic system with MgB2 coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abin, D. A.; Mineev, N. A.; Osipov, M. A.; Pokrovskii, S. V.; Rudnev, I. A.

    2017-12-01

    MgB2 may be the future superconducting wire material for industrial magnets due to it’s higher operation temperature and potentially lower cost than low temperature superconductors (LTS) have. We designed a compact cryomagnetic system with the use of MgB2. The possibility of creating a magnet with a central field of 5 T from a commercial MgB2 wire by the “react and wound” method was investigated. The magnetic system is cooled by a cryocooler through a copper bus. The magnet has a warm bore diameter of 4 cm. The design of a magnet consisting of three concentric solenoids is proposed: an internal one of high-temperature superconductor (HTS), an average of MgB2, and an external of NbTi. The operating current of the system is 100 A. Two pairs of current leads are used. A separate pair of current leads for power supplying NbTi coil allows testing of MgB2 and HTS coils in an external field. The load curves for each of the magnets are calculated.

  12. MgB2 superconducting wires basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The compendium gives a complete overview of the properties of MgB2 (Magnesium Diboride), a superconducting compound with a transition temperature of Tc = 39K, from the fundamental properties to the fabrication of multifilamentary wires and to the presentation of various applications. Written by eminent researchers in the field, this indispensable volume not only discusses superconducting properties of MgB2 compounds, but also describes known preparation methods of thin films and of bulk samples obtained under high pressure methods. A unique selling point of the book is the detailed coverage of various applications based on MgB2, starting with MRI magnets and high current cables, cooled by Helium (He) vapor. High current cables cooled by liquid hydrogen are also highlighted as an interesting alternative due to the shrinking He reserves on earth. Other pertinent subjects comprise permanent magnets, ultrafine wires for space applications and wind generator projects.

  13. Microwave absorption studies of MgB2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    band (9–. 10 GHz) spectrometer. Both polycrystalline pellet and single-grain MgB2, having nearly the same Tc (∼ 39 K) and same size (3×2×1 mm3), were used in the present investigations. Low field modulated microwave absorption signals ...

  14. Electronic structure and superconductivity of MgB 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Results of ab initio electronic structure calculations on the compound, MgB2, using the FPLAPW method employing GGA for the exchange–correlation energy are presented. Total energy minimization enables us to estimate the equilibrium volume, / ratio and the bulk modulus, all of which are in excellent agreement with ...

  15. Preparation and characterization of MgB2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. Abstract. The MgB2 superconductor, synthesized using solid-state and liquid-phase sintering methods, have been characterized for various properties. The upper critical field, irreversibility line and critical current density have been ...

  16. Microwave absorption studies of MgB 2 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave absorption studies have been carried out on MgB2 superconductor using a standard X-band EPR spectrometer. The modulated low-field microwave absorption signals recorded for polycrystalline (grain size ∼ 10m) samples suggested the absence of weak-link character. The field dependent direct microwave ...

  17. Multifilamentary MgB2 wires fracture behavior during the drawing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, D.; Yan, G.; Zhou, L.; Li, J.S.; Li, C.S.; Wang, Q.Y.; Xiong, X.M.; Jiao, G.F.

    2012-01-01

    The fracture behavior of 6 + 1 filamentary MgB 2 superconductive wires is presented here. The composite wires were fabricated by in situ Powder-in-Tube method using Nb as a barrier and copper as a stabilizer. The microstructure of the material has a great influence on its fracture behavior. The microstructural aspects of crack nucleation and propagation are discussed. It shows that there are complicated correlations between fracture behavior and the main influencing parameters, which contain specific drawing conditions (drawing velocity, reduction in area per pass), materials properties (strength, yield stress, microstructure) as well as the extent of bonding between the metal sheaths at their interface.

  18. Automatic development of normal zone in composite MgB2/CuNi wires with different diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, A.; Kajikawa, K.; Takahashi, M.; Okada, M.

    2010-06-01

    One of the promising applications with superconducting technology for hydrogen utilization is a sensor with a magnesium-diboride (MgB2) superconductor to detect the position of boundary between the liquid hydrogen and the evaporated gas stored in a Dewar vessel. In our previous experiment for the level sensor, the normal zone has been automatically developed and therefore any energy input with the heater has not been required for normal operation. Although the physical mechanism for such a property of the MgB2 wire has not been clarified yet, the deliberate application might lead to the realization of a simpler superconducting level sensor without heater system. In the present study, the automatic development of normal zone with increasing a transport current is evaluated for samples consisting of three kinds of MgB2 wires with CuNi sheath and different diameters immersed in liquid helium. The influences of the repeats of current excitation and heat cycle on the normal zone development are discussed experimentally. The aim of this paper is to confirm the suitability of MgB2 wire in a heater free level sensor application. This could lead to even more optimized design of the liquid hydrogen level sensor and the removal of extra heater input.

  19. Nanostructure characterization of Ni and B layers as artificial pinning centers in multilayered MgB2/Ni and MgB2/B superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosiati, H.; Hata, S.; Doi, T.; Matsumoto, A.; Kitaguchi, H.; Nakashima, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanostructure characterization of Ni and B layers as artificial pinning centers (APCs). ► Relationship between nanostructure and J c property. ► Enhanced J c in parallel field by parallel APCs within the MgB 2 film. -- Abstract: Research on the MgB 2 /Ni and MgB 2 /B multilayer films fabricated by an electron beam (EB) evaporation technique have been extensively carried out. The critical current density, J c of MgB 2 /Ni and MgB 2 /B multilayer films in parallel fields has been suggested to be higher than that of monolayer MgB 2 film due to introducing the artificial pinning centers of nano-sized Ni and B layers. Nanostructure characterization of the artificial pinning centers in the multilayer films were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM (STEM-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS))–EDS to understand the mechanism of flux pinning. The growth of columnar MgB 2 grains along the film-thickness direction was recognized in the MgB 2 /Ni multilayer film, but not in the MgB 2 /B multilayer film. Nano-sized Ni layers were present as crystalline epitaxial layers which is interpreted that Ni atoms might be incorporated into the MgB 2 lattice to form (Mg,Ni)B 2 phase. On the other hand, nano-sized B layers were amorphous layers. Crystalline (Mg,Ni)B 2 layers worked more effectively than amorphous B-layers, providing higher flux-pinning force that resulted in higher J c of the MgB 2 /Ni multilayer film than the MgB 2 /B multilayer film

  20. Recent developments in melt processed Gd-123 and MgB2 materials at RTRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, M.; Fukumoto, Y.; Ishihara, A.; Suzuki, K.; Tomita, M.; Koblischka, M.R.; Yamamoto, A.; Kishio, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Large size Gd-123 bulk material grown in air, using novel thin film Nd-123 seeds grown on MgO crystals. •Quality and uniformity of the Gd-123 materials are excellent. •Batch processed Gd-123 material was used for construction of chilled Maglev vehicle. •MgB 2 bulks can be utilized around 20 K similarly to the Gd-123 material at 77 K. -- Abstract: In this contribution we will report on the current status, recent developments in GdBa 2 Cu 3 O y “Gd-123” and MgB 2 material processing, characterization, and applications at the Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI). Batch-processing of Gd-123 bulk material grown in air was performed using novel thin film Nd-123 seeds grown on MgO crystals. In this way, we are able to fabricate materials with good quality, and uniform performance. We examined the technology of the uniform performance of the large 45 mm diameter, single grain Gd-123 bulks for use in application of NMR. For this purpose, four 5 mm thick pieces are cut vertically from a single grain Gd-123 material and the magnetic field distribution is measured using a scanning hall sensor. We found that all four pieces are single domain and exhibit a quite uniform field distribution. Furthermore, the batch-processed bulk materials are used for the construction of a chilled Maglev vehicle. On the other hand, to optimize the trapped field performance of bulk MgB 2 material, several samples were prepared by solid state reaction at different temperatures ranging from 750 to 950 °C in pure argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction results indicated that single phase and homogenous MgB 2 bulks are produced when sintering them around 775 °C. Further, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that an uniform grain size results by controlling the processing temperature. So, higher trapped fields can be achieved in sintered MgB 2 material

  1. A new approach to MgB2 superconducting magnet fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazoe, A; Ando, T; Wada, H; Abe, H; Hirota, N; Sekino, M

    2008-01-01

    Fabrication of MgB 2 -based superconducting magnets has been attempted by a new approach using film coated on symmetric tubes. Superconducting MgB 2 films have been prepared on iron substrates by electroplating in molten electrolytes. The critical current (I c ) of the MgB 2 electroplating films at 4.2 K and at self-field was 15 A on the basis of 1 μV/cm of I c criterion. A model calculation has shown that MgB 2 -based superconducting magnets based on MgB 2 electroplating films have the potential to generate magnetic fields over 0.5 T

  2. Active Protection of an MgB2 Test Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Keun; Hahn, Seungyong; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study, experimental and computational, of a detect-and-activate-the-heater protection technique applied to a magnesium diboride (MgB2) test coil operated in semi-persistent mode. The test coil with a winding ID of 25 cm and wound with ~500-m long reacted MgB2 wire was operated at 4.2 K immersed in a bath of liquid helium. In this active technique, upon the initiation of a “hot spot” of a length ~10 cm, induced by a “quench heater,” a “protection heater” (PH) of ~600-cm long planted within the test coil is activated. The normal zone created by the PH is large enough to absorb the test coil’s entire initial stored energy and still keeps the peak temperature within the winding below ~260 K. PMID:22081754

  3. Electromagnetic densification of MgB2/Cu wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woźniak, M; Glowacki, B A

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic compaction of in situ MgB 2 /Cu wire has been achieved using a custom-built 200 J device. The monofilament core packing density was increased by 8% and up to 31% for unreacted and reacted wires respectively. The higher density of the MgB 2 core resulted in a critical current density increase of up to 75% in comparison to that for cold-drawn-only wire. Applying this treatment to a wire with Cu powder additions to the core and with an optimized heat treatment resulted in one of the highest ever reported values of J c for MgB 2 /Cu wires of 6.83 × 10 3  A cm −2 at 4.2 K and 6 T. (paper)

  4. Observation of pseudogap in MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S.; Medicherla, V. R. R.; Ali, Khadiza; Singh, R. S.; Manfrinetti, P.; Wrubl, F.; Dhar, S. K.; Maiti, Kalobaran

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the electronic structure of a specially prepared highly dense conventional high temperature superconductor, MgB2, employing high resolution photoemission spectroscopy. The spectral evolution close to the Fermi energy is commensurate to BCS descriptions as expected. However, the spectra in the wider energy range reveal the emergence of a pseudogap much above the superconducting transition temperature indicating an apparent departure from the BCS scenario. The energy scale of the pseudogap is comparable to the energy of the E2g phonon mode responsible for superconductivity in MgB2 and the pseudogap can be attributed to the effect of electron-phonon coupling on the electronic structure. These results reveal a scenario of the emergence of the superconducting gap within an electron-phonon coupling induced pseudogap and have significant implications in the study of high temperature superconductors.

  5. Investigation of pinning in MgB2 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, S.; Reissner, M.; Steiner, W.; Bauer, E.; Giovannini, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The pinning behaviour of bulk MgB 2 superconductors is peculiar in many respects. Pinning seems to be stronger than in classical high T C materials and there seems to be no weak link problem in these compounds, giving hope to produce bulk samples and wires with current densities appropriate for technical applications. But, although many studies concerning the pinning behaviour in this compound appeared in recent years, the results are still contradictory. In the present work we present results of an investigation of the pinning behaviour by magnetic relaxation measurements of three MgB 2 samples: a pure one, a sample with 8 at% Al substitution and a sample with 10 wt% of SiC admixture. A comparison of different analyses methods is given. (author)

  6. Theoretical investigation of the vortex state in new superconductors: MgB2 and PrOs4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, V.H.

    2006-01-01

    As illustrated by the present thesis work, gap function anisotropy and crystal anisotropy are combined when influencing superconducting properties under a magnetic field. In order to study the mixed state of the recently discovered multiband superconductor MgB 2 , we first derive the Ginzburg-Landau functional for a two-gap superconductor from a weak coupling BCS model. The interaction between the two condensates is then described by a unique Josephson-type coupling. The two-gap theory then enables to explain the curvature and the anisotropy of the upper critical field, as well as the 30 degrees change of orientation for the vortex lattice which is observed when increasing the strength of the magnetic field applied along the c-tilde axis. Besides, we investigate the vortex lattice geometry in the superconducting heavy fermion PrOs 4 Sb 12 . When taking into account non local corrections for an s-wave T h -tetrahedral superconductor, we can explain the observed deformation of the lattice by the crystal symmetry of the compound. Ab initio results of the band structures confirm quantitatively our analysis. (author)

  7. Using Fast Hot Shock Wave Consolidation Technology to Produce Superconducting MgB2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gegechkori

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The original hot shock wave assisted consolidation method combining high temperature was applied with the two-stage explosive process without any further sintering to produce superconducting materials with high density and integrity. The consolidation of MgB2 billets was performed at temperatures above the Mg melting point and up to 1000oC in partially liquid condition of Mg-2B blend powders. The influence of the type of boron (B isotope in the composition on critical temperature and superconductive properties was evaluated. An example of a hybrid Cu-MgB2–Cu superconducting tube is demonstrated and conclusions are discussed.

  8. Insulator layer formation in MgB2 SIS junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakage, H.; Tsujimoto, K.; Wang, Z.; Tonouchi, M.

    2005-01-01

    The dependence of current-voltage characteristics on thin film deposition conditions was investigated using MgB 2 /AlN/NbN SIS junctions. By increasing the substrate temperature in AlN insulator deposition, the current density decreased and the normal resistance increased. The results indicated that an additional insulator layer between the MgB 2 and AlN formed, either before or during the AlN deposition. The thickness of the additional insulator layer was increased with an increase in the AlN deposition temperature. From the dependence of current density on the thickness of AlN in low temperature depositions, the thickness of the additional insulator layer was estimated to be 1-1.5 nm when the AlN insulator was deposited from 0.14 to 0.7 nm. Moreover, with the current density of MgB 2 /AlN/MgB 2 SIS junctions, further insulator layer formation was confirmed

  9. Measurement of the penetration depth and coherence length of MgB2 in all directions using transmission electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loudon, J. C.; Yazdi, Sadegh; Kasama, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that images of flux vortices in a superconductor taken with a transmission electron microscope can be used to measure the penetration depth and coherence length in all directions at the same temperature and magnetic field. This is particularly useful for MgB2, where these quantities...... vary with the applied magnetic field and values are difficult to obtain at low field or in the c direction. We obtained images of flux vortices from a MgB2 single crystal cut in the ac plane by focused ion beam milling and tilted to 45 degrees. with respect to the electron beam about...... the crystallographic a axis. A new method was developed to simulate these images that accounted for vortices with a nonzero core in a thin, anisotropic superconductor and a simplex algorithm was used to make a quantitative comparison between the images and simulations to measure the penetration depths and coherence...

  10. Electron paramagnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopy studies on carbon-doped MgB2 superconductor nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateni, Ali; Somer, Mehmet; Erdem, Emre; Repp, Sergej; Weber, Stefan; Acar, Selcuk; Kokal, Ilkin; Häßler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Undoped and carbon-doped magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) samples were synthesized using two sets of mixtures prepared from the precursors, amorphous nanoboron, and as-received amorphous carbon-doped nanoboron. The microscopic defect structures of carbon-doped MgB 2 samples were systematically investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Mg vacancies and C-related dangling-bond active centers could be distinguished, and sp 3 -hybridized carbon radicals were detected. A strong reduction in the critical temperature T c was observed due to defects and crystal distortion. The symmetry effect of the latter is also reflected on the vibrational modes in the Raman spectra

  11. Numerical investigations on the characteristics of thermomagnetic instability in MgB2 bulks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jing; Li, Maosheng; Zhou, Youhe

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of thermomagnetic instability in MgB2 bulks by numerically solving the macroscopic dynamics of thermomagnetic interaction governed by the coupled magnetic and heat diffusion equations in association with a modified E-J power-law relationship. The finite element method is used to discretize the system of partial differential equations. The calculated magnetization loops with flux jumps are consistent with the experimental results for MgB2 slabs bathed in a wide range of ambient temperatures. We reveal the evolution process of the thermomagnetic instability and present the distributions of the magnetic field, temperature, and current density before and after flux jumps. A 2D axisymmetric model is used to study the thermomagnetic instability in cylindrical MgB2 bulks. It is found that the number of flux jumps monotonously reduces as the ambient temperature rises and no flux jump appears when the ambient temperature exceeds a certain value. Moreover, the flux-jump phenomenon exists in a wide range of the ramp rate of the applied external field, i.e. 10-2-102 T s-1. Furthermore, the dependences of the first flux-jump field on the ambient temperature, ramp rate, and bulk thickness are investigated. The critical bulk thicknesses for stability are obtained for different ambient temperatures and sample radii. In addition, the influence of the capability of the interfacial heat transfer on the temporal response of the bulk temperature is discussed. We also find that the prediction of thermomagnetic instability is sensitive to the employment of the flux creep exponent in the simulations.

  12. Effect of process variables on synthesis of MgB2 by a high energy ball mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurama Haldun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of superconductivity of MgB2 in 2001, with a critical temperature of 39 K, offered the promise of important large-scale applications at around 20 K. Except than the other featured synthesis methods, mechanical activation performed by high energy ball mills, as bulk form synthesis or as a first step of wire and thin film productions, has considered as an effective alternative production route in recent years. The process of mechanical activation (MA starts with mixing the powders in the right proportion and loading the powder mixture into the mill with the grinding media. The milled powder is then consolidated into a bulk shape and heat-treated to obtain desired microstructure and properties. Thus, the important components of the MA process are the raw materials, mill type and process variables. During the MA process, heavy deformation of particles occure. This is manifested by the presence of a variety of crystal defects such as dislocations, vacancies, stacking faults and increased number of particle boundaries. The presence of this defect structure enhances the diffusivity of solute hence the critical currents and magnetic flux pinning ability of MgB2 are improved. The aim of the present study is to determine the effects of process variables such as ball-to-powder mass ratio, size of balls, milling time, annealing temperature and contribution of process control agent (toluene on the product size, morphology and conversion level of precursor powders to MgB2 after subsequent heat treatment. The morphological analyses of the samples were performed by a high vacuum electron microscope ZEISS SUPRA VP 50. The phase compositions of the samples were performed with an Rigaku-Rint 2200 diffractometer, with nickel filtered Cu Kα radiation and conversion level. The MgB2 phase wt % was calculated by the Rietveld refinement method. The obtained results were discussed according to the process variables to find out their affect on the structure

  13. Using specific heat to scan gaps and anisotropy of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouquet, F.; Wang, Y.; Toulemonde, P.; Guritanu, V.; Junod, A.; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H.W.; Lee, S.; Tajima, S.

    2004-01-01

    We performed specific heat measurements to study the superconducting properties of the ∼40 K superconductor MgB 2 , up to 16 T, using polycrystal and single crystal samples. Our results establish the validity of the two-gap model. We tested the effect of disorder by irradiating our sample. This procedure decreased T c down to ∼26 K, but did not suppress completely the smaller gap, at variance with theoretical expectations. A positive effect of the irradiation was the increase of H c2 up to almost 30 T. Our results on the single crystal allow the anisotropy of each band to be determined independently, and show the existence of a cross-over field well below H c2 characterizing the physics of the small-gapped band. We also present preliminary results on Nb 3 Sn, showing similar, but weaker effects

  14. Specific heat of MgB_2 after irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuxing; Bouquet, Frederic; Sheikin, Ilya; Toulemonde, Pierre; Revaz, Bernard; Eisterer, Michael; Weber, Harald W.; Hinderer, Joerg; Junod, Alain

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effect of disorder on the superconducting properties of polycrystalline MgB_2 by specific-heat measurements. In the pristine state, these measurements give a bulk confirmation of the presence of two superconducting gaps with 2 Delta 0 / k_B T_c = 1.3 and 3.9 with nearly equal weights. The scattering introduced by irradiation suppresses T_c and tends to average the two gaps although less than predicted by theory. We also found that by a suitable irradiation process by fast neutr...

  15. MgB2 thin films by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, X.X.; Pogrebnyakov, A.V.; Xu, S.Y.; Chen, K.; Cui, Y.; Maertz, E.C.; Zhuang, C.G.; Li, Qi; Lamborn, D.R.; Redwing, J.M.; Liu, Z.K.; Soukiassian, A.; Schlom, D.G.; Weng, X.J.; Dickey, E.C.; Chen, Y.B.; Tian, W.; Pan, X.Q.; Cybart, S.A.; Dynes, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) has been the most effective technique for depositing MgB 2 thin films. It generates high magnesium vapor pressures and provides a clean environment for the growth of high purity MgB 2 films. The epitaxial pure MgB 2 films grown by HPCVD show higher-than-bulk T c due to tensile strain in the films. The HPCVD films are the cleanest MgB 2 materials reported, allowing basic research, such as on magnetoresistance, that reveals the two-band nature of MgB 2 . The carbon-alloyed HPCVD films demonstrate record-high H c2 values promising for high magnetic field applications. The HPCVD films and multilayers have enabled the fabrication of high quality MgB 2 Josephson junctions

  16. Al-doped MgB_2 materials studied using electron paramagnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateni, Ali; Somer, Mehmet; Erdem, Emre; Repp, Sergej; Weber, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Undoped and aluminum (Al) doped magnesium diboride (MgB_2) samples were synthesized using a high-temperature solid-state synthesis method. The microscopic defect structures of Al-doped MgB_2 samples were systematically investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance. It was found that Mg-vacancies are responsible for defect-induced peculiarities in MgB_2. Above a certain level of Al doping, enhanced conductive properties of MgB_2 disappear due to filling of vacancies or trapping of Al in Mg-related vacancy sites.

  17. MgB2-based superconductors for fault current limiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovsky, V.; Prikhna, T.; Meerovich, V.; Eisterer, M.; Goldacker, W.; Kozyrev, A.; Weber, H. W.; Shapovalov, A.; Sverdun, V.; Moshchil, V.

    2017-02-01

    A promising solution of the fault current problem in power systems is the application of fast-operating nonlinear superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) with the capability of rapidly increasing their impedance, and thus limiting high fault currents. We report the results of experiments with models of inductive (transformer type) SFCLs based on the ring-shaped bulk MgB2 prepared under high quasihydrostatic pressure (2 GPa) and by hot pressing technique (30 MPa). It was shown that the SFCLs meet the main requirements to fault current limiters: they possess low impedance in the nominal regime of the protected circuit and can fast increase their impedance limiting both the transient and the steady-state fault currents. The study of quenching currents of MgB2 rings (SFCL activation current) and AC losses in the rings shows that the quenching current density and critical current density determined from AC losses can be 10-20 times less than the critical current determined from the magnetization experiments.

  18. Behaviour of filamentary MgB2 wires subjected to tensile stress at 4.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kováč, P; Kopera, L; Melišek, T; Hušek, I; Rindfleisch, M; Haessler, W

    2013-01-01

    Different filamentary MgB 2 wires have been subjected to tensile stress at 4.2 K. Stress–strain and critical current versus stress and strain characteristics of wires differing by filament architecture, sheath materials, deformation and heat treatment were measured and compared. It was found that the linear increase of critical current due to the pre-compression effect (ranging from 5% up to ≈20%) is affected by thermal expansion and the strength of used metallic sheaths. The values of irreversible strain ε irr and stress σ irr depend dominantly on the applied outer sheath and its final heat treatment conditions. Consequently, the strain-tolerance of MgB 2 wires is influenced by several parameters and it is difficult to see a clear relation between I c (ε) and σ(ε) characteristics. The lowest ε irr was measured for Monel sheathed wires (0.3–0.6%), medium for GlidCop ® sheath (0.48–0.6%), and the highest ε irr = 0.6–0.9% were obtained for MgB 2 wires reinforced by the stainless steel 316L annealed at temperature between 600 and 800 ° C. The highest ε irr = 0.9% and σ irr = 900 MPa were measured for the work-hardened steel, which is not considerably softened by the heat treatment at 600 ° C/2.5 h. (paper)

  19. Note: Progress on the use of MgB2 superconducting joint technique for the development of MgB2 magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y G; Song, J B; Kim, J C; Kim, J M; Yoo, B H; Yun, S B; Hwang, D Y; Lee, H G

    2017-08-01

    This note presents a superconducting joint technique for the development of MgB 2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets. The MgB 2 superconducting joint was fabricated by a powder processing method using Mg and B powders to establish a wire-bulk-wire connection. The joint resistance measured using a field-decay method was magnets operating in the persistent current mode.

  20. Progress in electrical and mechanical properties of rectangular MgB2 wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, P; Melisek, T; Kopera, L; Husek, I; Polak, M; Kulich, M

    2009-01-01

    Critical current densities and mechanical resistance of MgB 2 wires made by the rectangular wire-in-tube technique (RWIT) have been studied. Wires prepared from different precursor powders and variable sheath materials are compared. The best electrical performance (10 4 A cm -2 at 11.3 T) was measured for the wire with mechanically alloyed powder doped by SiC. While the critical current densities, J c , at 4.2 K are considerably influenced by the powder used, the differences at 20 K are much smaller. Flattened wires show different levels of critical current anisotropy influenced by the precursor powder used. Stress-strain characteristics and critical current degradation are strongly affected by the applied metallic materials and also by the filament's strength. The highest irreversible strain ε irr = 0.55% was measured for Ti/Cu/Monel sheathed wire with filaments from mechanically alloyed powder.

  1. Formation of MgB2 at ambient temperature with an electrochemical process: a plausible mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadhav, A B; Subhedar, K M; Hyam, R S; Talaptra, A; Sen, Pintu; Bandyopadhyay, S K; Pawar, S H

    2005-01-01

    The binary intermetallic MgB 2 superconductor has been synthesized by many research groups. However, the mechanism of its formation is not clearly understood. In this communication, a comprehensive mechanism of the formation of MgB 2 from Le Chatelier's principle of equilibrium reaction has been explained both for solid-state reaction and electrodeposition methods. (rapid communication)

  2. Directional scanning tunneling spectroscopy in MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iavarone, M.; Karapetrov, G.; Koshelev, A.E.; Kwok, W.K.; Crabtree, G.W.; Hinks, D.G.; Cook, R.; Kang, W.N.; Choi, E.M.; Kim, H.J.; Lee, S.I.

    2003-01-01

    The superconductivity in MgB 2 has a two-band character with the dominating band having a 2D character and the second band being isotropic in the three dimensions. We use tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to reveal the two distinct energy gaps at Δ 1 =2.3 meV and Δ 2 =7.1 meV. Different spectral weights of the partial superconducting density of states are a reflection of different tunneling directions in this multi-band system. The results are consistent with the existence of two-band superconductivity in the presence of strong interband superconducting pair interaction and quasiparticle scattering. The temperature evolution of the tunneling spectra shows both gaps vanishing at the bulk T c

  3. Specific heat of MgB2 after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuxing; Bouquet, Frederic; Sheikin, Ilya; Toulemonde, Pierre; Revaz, Bernard; Eisterer, Michael; Weber, Harald W; Hinderer, Joerg; Junod, Alain

    2003-01-01

    We studied the effect of disorder on the superconducting properties of polycrystalline MgB 2 by specific-heat measurements. In the pristine state, these measurements give a bulk confirmation of the presence of two superconducting gaps with 2Δ 0 /k B T c =1.3 and 3.9 with nearly equal weights. The scattering introduced by irradiation suppresses T c and tends to average the two gaps although less than predicted by theory. We also found that by a suitable irradiation process by fast neutrons, a substantial bulk increase of dH c2 /dT at T c can be obtained without sacrificing more than a few degrees in T c . The upper critical field of the sample after irradiation exceeds 28 T at T→0

  4. Towards a Cryogen-Free MgB2-Based Superconducting Radio Frequency Accelerating Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Alireza

    Studies on the application of Magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting films have shown promise for use with the radio-frequency (SRF) accelerating cavities. MgB2\\ coating is a potential candidate to replace bulk niobium (Nb) SRF cavities. The ultimate goal of our research is to demonstrate MgB2 coating on copper cavities to allow operation at about 20 K or so as a result of the high transition temperature (Tc) of MgB2 and taking advantage of the excellent thermal conductivity of copper. Here, we will report on our recent experimental results of applying hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) to grow MgB2 films on 2-inch diameter copper discs as well as on a 2.8 GHz resonator cavity *Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06H11357.

  5. Effects of sintering conditions on critical current properties and microstructures of MgB2 bulks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Ueda, Shinya; Katsura, Yukari; Iwayama, Isao; Horii, Shigeru; Kishio, Kohji

    2005-01-01

    The effects of heating conditions on critical current properties and microstructures of undoped MgB 2 bulks were systematically studied. Strong correlation was observed between J c and microstructures. The network structure with an excellent inter-grain connectivity of MgB 2 grains contributed to high-J c under low magnetic fields, and small grain size of MgB 2 enhanced the grain boundary flux pinning. Long time heating at low temperatures below the melting point of magnesium was discovered to be most effective for synthesis of MgB 2 bulks having strongly connected MgB 2 network structure with small grains. The sample heated at 550 deg. C for 1200 h recorded a high-J c of 4.02 x 10 5 A cm -2 at 20 K in self-field, while high-temperature and long time heating brought a significant grain growth which resulted in low J c

  6. MgB2 thick films on three-dimensional structures fabricated by HPCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhengshan; Cai, Xingwei; Liao, Xuebin; Chen, Yiling; Yang, Can; Niu, Ruirui; Luo, Wenhao; Huang, Zigeng; Feng, Qingrong; Gan, Zizhao

    2018-06-01

    Magnetic shielding has been a key factor in the measurement of ultra-weak magnetic fields, especially for shielding from low frequency electromagnetic noise. With the recent development of superconducting quantum interference devices, superconducting magnetic shielding has become an important area of research. MgB2 has shown great potential in magnetic shielding for its remarkable superconducting properties, the feasibility of its use in this capacity having been demonstrated by MgB2 bulk samples. However, the potential for application of such bulk samples is limited. In this work, we have investigated the possibility of the fabrication of MgB2 films on three-dimensional (3D) structures using a hybrid physical‑chemical vapor deposition system. MgB2 films 10 μm thick have been fabricated on the outer surface of a polycrystalline Al2O3 cylinder. The deposited film showed a transition temperature (TC) of 39 K and J C of 5.1 × 105 A · cm‑2, which are comparable to those of planar MgB2 films. This work shows the feasibility of depositing MgB2 films onto a 3D structure, and sheds light on the potential use of MgB2 films in superconducting magnetic shielding.

  7. Transport properties and exponential n-values of Fe/MgB2 tapes with various MgB2 particle sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lezza, P.; Abaecherli, V.; Clayton, N.; Senatore, C.; Uglietti, D.; Suo, H.L.; Fluekiger, R.

    2004-01-01

    Fe/MgB 2 tapes have been prepared starting with pre-reacted binary MgB 2 powders. As shown by resistive and inductive measurements, the reduction of particle size to a few microns by ball milling has little influence on B c2 , while the superconducting properties of the individual MgB 2 grains are essentially unchanged. Reducing the particle size causes an enhancement of B irr from 14 to 16 T, while J c has considerably increased at high fields, its slope J c (B) being reduced. At 4.2 K, values of 5.3 x 10 4 and 1.2 x 10 3 A/cm 2 were measured at 3.5 and 10 T, respectively, suggesting a dominant role of the conditions at the grain interfaces. A systematic variation of these conditions at the interfaces is undertaken in order to determine the limit of transport properties for Fe/MgB 2 tapes. The addition of 5% Mg to MgB 2 powder was found to affect neither J c nor B c2 . For the tapes with the highest J c values, very high exponential n factors were measured: n=148, 89 and 17 at 3.5, 5 and 10 T, respectively and measurements of critical current versus applied strain have been performed. The mechanism leading to high transport critical current densities of filamentary Fe/MgB 2 tapes based on MgB 2 particles is discussed

  8. Growth of high quality large area MgB2 thin films by reactive evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Moeckly, Brian H.; Ruby, Ward S.

    2006-01-01

    We report a new in-situ reactive deposition thin film growth technique for the production of MgB2 thin films which offers several advantages over all existing methods and is the first deposition method to enable the production of high-quality MgB2 films for real-world applications. We have used this growth method, which incorporates a rotating pocket heater, to deposit MgB2 films on a variety of substrates, including single-crystalline, polycrystalline, metallic, and semiconductor materials u...

  9. Very high upper critical fields in MgB2 produced by selective tuning of impurity scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, A; Patnaik, S; Braccini, V; Kim, K H; Mielke, C; Song, X; Cooley, L D; Bu, S D; Kim, D M; Choi, J H; Belenky, L J; Giencke, J; Lee, M K; Tian, W; Pan, X Q; Siri, A; Hellstrom, E E; Eom, C B; Larbalestier, D C

    2004-01-01

    We report a significant enhancement of the upper critical field H c2 of different MgB 2 samples alloyed with nonmagnetic impurities. By studying films and bulk polycrystals with different resistivities ρ, we show a clear trend of an increase in H c2 as ρ increases. One particular high resistivity film had a zero-temperature H c2 (0) well above the H c2 values of competing non-cuprate superconductors such as Nb 3 Sn and Nb-Ti. Our high-field transport measurements give record values H c2 perp (0) ∼ 34 T and H c2 par (0) ∼ 49 T for high resistivity films and H c2 (0) ∼ 29 T for untextured bulk polycrystals. The highest H c2 film also exhibits a significant upward curvature of H c2 (T) and a temperature dependence of the anisotropy parameter γ(T)=H c2 par / H c2 opposite to that of single crystals: γ(T) decreases as the temperature decreases, from γ(T c ) ∼ 2 γ(0) ∼ 1.5. This remarkable H c2 enhancement and its anomalous temperature dependence are a consequence of the two-gap superconductivity in MgB 2 , which offers special opportunities for further H c2 increases by tuning of the impurity scattering by selective alloying on Mg and B sites. Our experimental results can be explained by a theory of two-gap superconductivity in the dirty limit. The very high values of H c2 (T) observed suggest that MgB 2 can be made into a versatile, competitive high-field superconductor

  10. Improving magnetic properties of MgB_2 bulk superconductors by synthetic engine oil treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylan Koparan, E.; Savaskan, B.; Yanmaz, E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of synthetic engine oil treatment on magnetic properties of bulk MgB_2 superconductors has been first time investigated and reported. • Synthetic engine oil used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source obviously has improved the superconducting magnetic properties of MgB_2. • The critical current density of all of MgB_2 samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range has been better than that of the pure MgB_2 sample. • The MgB_2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. - Abstract: The present study focuses on the effects of standby time of the MgB_2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil on the critical current density ( J_c(H)), magnetic field dependence of the pinning force density f_p(b) and T_c performances of MgB_2 bulk superconductors. Synthetic engine oil was used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source. Manufactured MgB_2 pellet samples were immersed at different standby time of 30 min, 120 min, 300 min and 1440 min in synthetic engine oil after the first heating process. Finally, MgB_2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil were sintered at 1000 °C and kept for 15 min in Ar atmosphere. The critical current density of all of MgB_2 samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range was better than that of the pure MgB_2 sample because of the number of the pinning centers. The MgB_2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. The J_c value for the pure sample is 2.0 × 10"3 A/cm"2, whereas for the MgB_2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in engine oil the J_c is enhanced to 4.8 × 10"3 A/cm"2 at 5 K and 3 T. The superconducting transition temperature (T_c) did not change with the increasing standby time of the samples in synthetic engine oil at all. The best diamagnetic property was obtained from the sample which kept in synthetic engine oil for 300 min. Synthetic engine oil treatment results in remarkable improvement of the critical current density and pinning force performances of MgB_2 superconductors. It was found that all MgB_2 samples have a different pinning property at different measuring temperatures. Using synthetic engine oil as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source in MgB_2 bulk superconductors makes MgB_2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil a good candidate for industrial applications.

  11. Lightweight MgB2 superconducting 10 MW wind generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, I.; Pujana, A.; Sarmiento, G.; Sanz, S.; Merino, J. M.; Tropeano, M.; Sun, J.; Canosa, T.

    2016-02-01

    The offshore wind market demands a higher power rate and more reliable turbines in order to optimize capital and operational costs. The state-of-the-art shows that both geared and direct-drive conventional generators are difficult to scale up to 10 MW and beyond due to their huge size and weight. Superconducting direct-drive wind generators are considered a promising solution to achieve lighter weight machines. This work presents an innovative 10 MW 8.1 rpm direct-drive partial superconducting generator using MgB2 wire for the field coils. It has a warm iron rotor configuration with the superconducting coils working at 20 K while the rotor core and the armature are at ambient temperature. A cooling system based on cryocoolers installed in the rotor extracts the heat from the superconducting coils by conduction. The generator's main parameters are compared against a permanent magnet reference machine, showing a significant weight and size reduction. The 10 MW superconducting generator concept will be experimentally validated with a small-scale magnetic machine, which has innovative components such as superconducting coils, modular cryostats and cooling systems, and will have similar size and characteristics as the 10 MW generator.

  12. Lightweight MgB2 superconducting 10 MW wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, I; Pujana, A; Sarmiento, G; Sanz, S; Merino, J M; Tropeano, M; Sun, J; Canosa, T

    2016-01-01

    The offshore wind market demands a higher power rate and more reliable turbines in order to optimize capital and operational costs. The state-of-the-art shows that both geared and direct-drive conventional generators are difficult to scale up to 10 MW and beyond due to their huge size and weight. Superconducting direct-drive wind generators are considered a promising solution to achieve lighter weight machines. This work presents an innovative 10 MW 8.1 rpm direct-drive partial superconducting generator using MgB 2 wire for the field coils. It has a warm iron rotor configuration with the superconducting coils working at 20 K while the rotor core and the armature are at ambient temperature. A cooling system based on cryocoolers installed in the rotor extracts the heat from the superconducting coils by conduction. The generator’s main parameters are compared against a permanent magnet reference machine, showing a significant weight and size reduction. The 10 MW superconducting generator concept will be experimentally validated with a small-scale magnetic machine, which has innovative components such as superconducting coils, modular cryostats and cooling systems, and will have similar size and characteristics as the 10 MW generator. (paper)

  13. Ball-milling and AlB2 addition effects on the hydrogen sorption properties of the CaH2 + MgB2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiavo, B.; Girella, A.; Agresti, F.; Capurso, G.; Milanese, C.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Calcium hydride + magnesium-aluminum borides as candidates for hydrogen storage. → Long time ball milling improves hydrogen sorption kinetics of the CaH 2 +MgB 2 system. → Coexistence of MgB 2 and AlB 2 does not improve hydrogen sorption performances. → Total substitution of MgB 2 with AlB 2 improves the system kinetics and reversibility. → Below 400 deg. C almost the full hydrogen capacity of the CaH 2 + AlB 2 system is reached. - Abstract: Among the borohydrides proposed for solid state hydrogen storage, Ca(BH 4 ) 2 is particularly interesting because of its favourable thermodynamics and relatively cheap price. Composite systems, where other species are present in addition to the borohydride, show some advantages in hydrogen sorption properties with respect to the borohydrides alone, despite a reduction of the theoretical storage capacity. We have investigated the milling time influence on the sorption properties of the CaH 2 + MgB 2 system from which Ca(BH 4 ) 2 and MgH 2 can be synthesized by hydrogen absorption process. Manometric and calorimetric measurements showed better kinetics for long time milled samples. We found that the total substitution of MgB 2 with AlB 2 in the starting material can improve the sorption properties significantly, while the co-existence of both magnesium and aluminum borides in the starting mixture did not cause any improvement. Rietveld refinements of the X-ray powder diffraction spectra were used to confirm the hypothesized reactions.

  14. Phthalocyanine doping to improve critical current densities in MgB2 tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xianping; Ma Yanwei; Wang Dongliang; Gao Zhaoshun; Wang Lei; Qi Yanpeng; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Mossang, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Phthalocyanine-doped MgB 2 tapes were prepared by the in situ powder-in-tube method. The relationships between the critical current properties, crystallinity and microstructure were studied as a function of the phthalocyanine doping level. It is found that both H irr and H c2 were improved when MgB 2 samples were doped with phthalocyanine, which are mainly attributed to the effective carbon substitution and enhanced flux pinning strength caused by very fine grain sizes. Furthermore, compared to pure samples, the MgO content remained almost unchanged in all doped tapes, which is very beneficial to having better grain connectivity in MgB 2 . Significantly improved J c was obtained in the phthalocyanine-doped MgB 2 tapes, especially under high magnetic fields.

  15. Progress in the deposition of MgB2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, X X; Pogrebnyakov, A V; Zeng, X H; Redwing, J M; Xu, S Y; Li, Qi; Liu, Zi-Kui; Lettieri, J; Vaithyanathan, V; Schlom, D G; Christen, H M; Zhai, H Y; Goyal, A

    2004-01-01

    An MgB 2 thin film deposition technology is the first critical step in the development of superconducting electronics utilizing the 39 K superconductor. It turned out to be a challenging task due to the volatility of Mg and phase stability of MgB 2 , the low sticking coefficients of Mg at elevated temperatures, and the reactivity of Mg with oxygen. A brief overview of current deposition techniques is provided here from a thermodynamic perspective, with an emphasis on a very successful technique for high quality in situ epitaxial MgB 2 films, the hybrid physical-chemical vapour deposition. Examples of heterostructures of MgB 2 with other materials are also presented

  16. Development of MgB2 superconductor wire with high critical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Park, Soon Dong; Kim, Nam Kyu; Kim, Yi Jeong; Yi, Ji Hye; Lee, Ji Hyun; Tan, Kai Sin

    2009-07-01

    The MgB 2 superconductor with smaller grain size could improve its critical properties by providing flux pinning centers with high grain boundary density. The effects of C doping such as charcoal, paper ash and glycerin on the superconducting properties was investigated for in situ processed MgB 2 samples using low purity semi-crystalline B powder. The results show a decrease in Tc and an enhancement of Jc at high fields for the C-doped samples as compared to the un-doped samples. A combined process of a mechanical ball milling and liquid glycerin (C 3 H 8 O 3 ) treatment of B powder has been conducted to enhance the superconducting properties of MgB 2 . The mechanical ball milling was effective for grain refinement, and a lattice disorder was easily achieved by glycerin addition. With the combined process, the critical properties was further increased due to a higher grain boundary density and a greater C substitution. To get fine grain structure of MgB 2 with high critical current properties, mechanical milling for as-received B powder and low temperature solid-state reaction of 550 or 600 .deg. C were attempted to in situ powder-in-tube processed MgB 2 /Fe wires. The critical current properties of the MgB 2 wires using the milled B powder were enhanced due to a smaller grain size and an increased volume of the superconducting phase. The solid-state reaction of a low temperature process for the samples using the milled B powder resulted in a poorer crystallinity with a smaller grain size, which improved superconducting properties. We established the system to measure the transport current properties of the MgB 2 wires. The field dependence of the transport Jc was evaluated for the MgB 2 wires heat-treated at different heat treatment conditions using ball-milled and glycerin-treated B powder. The MgB 2 magnet was developed and the AC loss of MgB 2 wire was also investigated. A conduction cooling device to cool the MgB 2 coil down to 4 K has been fabricated and the coil was tested up to 100 A

  17. Preparation of high quality superconducting thin MgB2 films for electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdu, Andrei; Zdravkov, Vladimir; Sidorenko, Anatolie; Rossolenko, Anna; Ryazanov, Valerii; Bdikin, Igor; Kroemer, Oliver; Nold, Eberhard; Koch, Thomas; Schimmel, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In this work we report the growth of high-Tc MgB 2 smooth films which are prepared in a two-step process: 1) deposition of the precursor films and 2) their annealing in Mg vapor with a specially designed, reusable reactor. Our method opens perspectives for the use of MgB 2 films in microelectronics, especially for high-frequency applications. (authors)

  18. Design of MgB2 Superconducting coils for the Ignitor Experiment*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, G.; Penco, R.; Berta, S.; Coppi, B.; Giunchi, G.

    2009-11-01

    A feasibility study for the adoption of MgB2 superconducting cables for the largest (about 5 m in diameter) of the poloidal field coils of the Ignitor machine is being carried out. This initiative was prompted by the progress made in the fabrication of MgB2 long cables, and related superconducting magnets of relatively large dimensions. These magnets will be cryocooled at the operating temperature of 10-15 K that is compatible with the He-gas cryogenic cooling system of Ignitor as well as with the projected superconducting current density of the MgB2 material, at the magnetic field values (˜4-5 T) in which these coils are designed to operate. The optimal cable configuration has been identified that can provide an efficient cooling of the MgB2 conductors over times compatible with the machine duty cycles. MgB2 superconductors hold the promise of becoming suitable for high field magnets by appropriate doping of the material and of replacing gradually the normal conducting coils adopted, by necessity, in high field experiments. Therefore, an appropriate R&D program on the development of improved MgB2 material and related superconducting cabling options has been undertaken, involving different institutions.

  19. Flux pinning behaviors of Ti and C co-doped MgB2 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Zhao, D.; Shen, T.M.; Li, G.; Zhang, Y.; Feng, Y.; Cheng, C.H.; Zhang, Y.P.; Zhao, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Flux pinning behavior of carbon and titanium concurrently doped MgB 2 alloys has been studied by ac susceptibility and dc magnetization measurements. It is found that critical current density and irreversibility field of MgB 2 have been significantly improved by doping C and Ti concurrently, sharply contrasted to the situation of C-only-doped or Ti-only-doped MgB 2 samples. AC susceptibility measurement reveals that the dependence of the pinning potential on the dc applied field of Mg 0.95 Ti 0.05 B 1.95 C 0.05 has been determined to be U(B dc )∝B dc -1 compared to that of MgB 2 U(B dc )∝B dc -1.5 . As to the U(J) behavior, a relationship of U(J) ∝ J -0.17 is found fitting well for Mg 0.95 Ti 0.05 B 1.95 C 0.05 with respect to U(J) ∝ J -0.21 for MgB 2 . All the results reveal a strong enhancement of the high field pinning potential in C and Ti co-doped MgB 2

  20. Development of Ti-sheathed MgB2 wires with high critical current density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, G; Fang, H; Hanna, M; Yen, F; Lv, B; Alessandrini, M; Keith, S; Hoyt, C; Tang, Z; Salama, K

    2006-01-01

    Working towards developing lightweight superconducting magnets for future space and other applications, we have successfully fabricated mono-core Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires by the powder-in-tube method. The wires were characterized by magnetization, electrical resistivity, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry measurements. The results indicate that the Ti sheath does not react with the magnesium and boron, and the present wire rolling process can produce MgB 2 wires with a superconducting volume fraction of at least 64% in the core. Using the Bean model, it was found that at 5 K, the magnetic critical current densities, J c , measured in magnetic fields of 0, 5, and 8 T are about 4.2 x 10 5 , 3.6 x 10 4 , and 1.4 x 10 4 A cm -2 , respectively. At 20 K and 0 T, the magnetic J c is about 2.4 x 10 5 A cm -2 . These results show that at zero and low fields, the values of the magnetic J c for Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires are comparable with the best results available for the Fe-sheathed MgB 2 wires. At high fields, however, the J c for Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires appears higher than that for the Fe-sheathed MgB 2 wires

  1. de Haas-van Alphen effect investigations of the electronic structure of pure and aluminum-doped MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrington, A.; Yelland, E.A.; Fletcher, J.D.; Cooper, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Our understanding of the superconducting properties of MgB 2 is strongly linked to our knowledge of its electronic structure. In this paper we review experimental measurements of the Fermi surface parameters of pure and Al-doped MgB 2 using the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect. In general, the measurements are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions of the electronic structure, including the strength of the electron-phonon coupling on each Fermi surface sheet. For the Al doped samples, we are able to measure how the band structure changes with doping. These results are in excellent agreement with calculations based on the virtual crystal approximation. We also review work on the dHvA effect in the superconducting state

  2. Enhancement of Critical Current Density and Flux Pinning in Acetone and La2O3 Codoped MgB2 Tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhao-Shun; Ma Yan-Wei; Wang Dong-Liang; Zhang Xian-Ping; Awaji Satoshi; Watanabe Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    MgB 2 tape samples with simultaneous additions of acetone and La 2 O 3 were prepared by an in-situ processed powder-in-tube method. Compared to the pure and single doped tapes, both transport J c and fluxing pinning are greatly improved by acetone and La 2 O 3 codoping. Acetone supplies carbon into the MgB 2 crystal lattice and increases the upper critical field, while the La 2 O 3 reacts with B to form LaB 6 nanoparticles as effective flux pining centers. The improvement of the superconducting properties in codoped tapes can be attributed to the combined effects of improvement in H c2 and flux pinning. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  3. Microwave surface impedance of MgB2 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, B B; Klein, N; Kang, W N; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Choi, Eun-Mi; Lee, Sung-I K; Dahm, T; Maki, K

    2003-01-01

    The microwave surface impedance Z s = R s + jωμ 0 λ was measured with dielectric resonator techniques for two c-axis-oriented MgB 2 thin films. The temperature dependence of the penetration depth λ measured with a sapphire resonator at 17.93 GHz can be well fitted from 5 K close to T c by the standard BCS integral expression assuming the reduced energy gap Δ(0)/kT c to be as low as 1.13 and 1.03 for the two samples. From these fits the penetration depth at zero temperatures was determined to be 102 nm and 107 nm, respectively. The results clearly indicate the s-wave nature of the order parameter. The temperature dependence of surface resistance R s , measured with a rutile dielectric resonator, shows an exponential behaviour below about T c /2 with a reduced energy gap being consistent with the one determined from the λ data. The R s value at 4.2 K was found to be as low as 19 μΩ at 7.2 GHz, which is comparable with that of a high-quality high-temperature thin film of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . A higher-order mode at 17.9 GHz was employed to determine the frequency f dependence of R s ∝ f n(T) . Our results revealed a decrease of n with increasing temperature ranging from n = 2 below 8 K to n 1 from 13 to 34 K

  4. Multi-gap superconductivity in MgB2: Magneto-Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, G.; Mialitsin, A.; Dennis, B.S.; Zhigadlo, N.D.; Karpinski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic Raman scattering studies on MgB 2 single crystals as a function of excitation and polarization have revealed three distinct superconducting features: a clean gap below 37 cm -1 and two coherence peaks at 109 and 78 cm -1 which we identify as the superconducting gaps in π- and σ-bands and as the Leggett's collective mode arising from the fluctuation in the relative phase between two superconducting condensates residing on corresponding bands. The temperature and field dependencies of the superconducting features have been established. A phononic Raman scattering study of the E 2g boron stretching mode anharmonicity and of superconductivity induced self-energy effects is presented. We show that anharmonic two phonon decay is mainly responsible for the unusually large linewidth of the E 2g mode. We observe ∼2.5% hardening of the E 2g phonon frequency upon cooling into the superconducting state and estimate the electron-phonon coupling strength associated with this renormalization

  5. Assessment of liquid hydrogen cooled MgB2 conductors for magnetically confined fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowacki, B A; Nuttall, W J

    2008-01-01

    Importantly environmental factors are not the only policy-driver for the hydrogen economy. Over the timescale of the development of fusion energy systems, energy security issues are likely to motivate a shift towards both hydrogen production and fusion as an energy source. These technologies combine local control of the system with the collaborative research interests of the major energy users in the global economy. A concept Fusion Island Reactor that might be used to generate H 2 (rather than electricity) is presented. Exploitation of produced hydrogen as a coolant and as a fuel is proposed in conjunction with MgB 2 conductors for the tokomak magnets windings, and electrotechnical devices for Fusion Island's infrastructure. The benefits of using MgB 2 over the Nb-based conductors during construction, operation and decommissioning of the Fusion Island Reactor are presented. The comparison of Nb 3 Sn strands for ITER fusion magnet with newly developed high field composite MgB 2 PIT conductors has shown that at 14 Tesla MgB 2 possesses better properties than any of the Nb 3 Sn conductors produced. In this paper the potential of MgB 2 conductors is examined for tokamaks of both the conventional ITER type and a Spherical Tokamak geometry. In each case MgB 2 is considered as a conductor for a range of field coil applications and the potential for operation at both liquid helium and liquid hydrogen temperatures is considered. Further research plans concerning the application of MgB 2 conductors for Fusion Island are also considered

  6. Application of superconducting magnesium diboride (MGB2) in superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Teng

    The superconductivity in magnesium diboride (MgB2) was discovered in 2001. As a BCS superconductor, MgB2 has a record-high Tc of 39 K, high Jc of > 107 A/cm2 and no weak link behavior across the grain boundary. All these superior properties endorsed that MgB2 would have great potential in both power applications and electronic devices. In the past 15 years, MgB2 based power cables, microwave devices, and commercial MRI machines emerged and the next frontier are superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. SRF cavities are one of the leading accelerator technologies. In SRF cavities, applied microwave power generates electrical fields that accelerate particle beams. Compared with other accelerator techniques, SRF cavity accelerators feature low loss, high acceleration gradients and the ability to accelerate continuous particle beams. However, current SRF cavities are made from high-purity bulk niobium and work at 2 K in superfluid helium. The construction and operational cost of SRF cavity accelerators are very expensive. The demand for SRF cavity accelerators has been growing rapidly in the past decade. Therefore, a lot of effort has been devoted to the enhancement of the performance and the reduction of cost of SRF cavities. In 2010, an acceleration gradient of over 50 MV/m has been reported for a Nb-based SRF cavity. The magnetic field at the inner surface of such a cavity is ~ 1700 Oe, which is close to the thermodynamic critical field of Nb. Therefore, new materials and technologies are required to raise the acceleration gradient of future SRF cavity accelerators. Among all the proposed approaches, using MgB2 thin films to coat the inner surface of SRF cavities is one of the promising tactics with the potential to raise both the acceleration gradient and the operation temperature of SRF cavity accelerators. In this work, I present my study on MgB2 thin films for their application in SRF cavities. C-epitaxial MgB2 thin films grown on SiC(0001) substrates showed Tc > 41 K and Jc > 107 A/cm2, which is superior to bulk MgB2 samples. Polycrystalline MgB2 thin films grown on metal substrates showed similar Tc and Jc compared with bulk samples, indicating MgB2 is suitable for coating a metal cavity. Large c-pitaxial MgB2 thin films were grown on 2-inch diameter c-sapphire wafers, showing our technique is capable of depositing large area samples. The lower critical field (Hc1) of MgB2 thin films was measured as well as it is know that bulk MgB2 has a small Hc1 and would suffer from vortex penetration at low magnetic fields. The penetrating magnetic vortices would result in loss in an applied RF field. However, due to the geometry barrier, thin film MgB2 would have a higher Hc1 than the bulk material. In my experiments, the Hc1 of MgB2 thin films increased with decreasing film thickness. At 5 K, a 100 nm epitaxial MgB2 thin film showed enhanced Hc1 ~ 1880 Oe, which is higher than Hc1 of Nb at 2 K. This showed that MgB2 coated SRF cavities have the potential to work at higher magnetic fields and higher temperature. Because the magnetic field distribution in the thin film Hc1 measurement is different from the magnetic field in a real SRF cavity, a few Nb ellipsoids were machined and coated with MgB2. The ellipsoid only has a magnetic field outside its surface and can serve as an inverse SRF cavity in the vortex penetration measurement. In the experiments, vortices penetrate into the bulk Nb ellipsoid at a magnetic field 400 Oe lower than the vortex penetration field of MgB2 coated Nb ellipsoids. This result confirmed our prediction that MgB2 coated SRF cavities could work at higher magnetic fields, thus producing higher acceleration gradients. In the last part of this thesis, I discussed how I used the dielectric resonator technique to measure the surface resistance (Rs) and Tc of MgB2 thin films. While the sensitivity of this technique was not high enough to lead to reliable Rs values, it can still serve for the determination of Tc for large area samples that are too bulky for other measurement systems.

  7. Superconductivity, critical current density, and flux pinning in MgB2-x(SiC)x/2 superconductor after SiC nanoparticle doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S. X.; Pan, A. V.; Zhou, S.; Ionescu, M.; Wang, X. L.; Horvat, J.; Liu, H. K.; Munroe, P. R.

    2003-08-01

    We investigated the effect of SiC nanoparticle doping on the crystal lattice structure, critical temperature Tc, critical current density Jc, and flux pinning in MgB2 superconductor. A series of MgB2-x(SiC)x/2 samples with x=0-1.0 were fabricated using an in situ reaction process. The contraction of the lattice and depression of Tc with increasing SiC doping level remained rather small most likely due to the counterbalancing effect of Si and C co-doping. The high level Si and C co-doping allowed the creation of intragrain defects and highly dispersed nanoinclusions within the grains which can act as effective pinning centers for vortices, improving Jc behavior as a function of the applied magnetic field. The enhanced pinning is mainly attributable to the substitution-induced defects and local structure fluctuations within grains. A pinning mechanism is proposed to account for different contributions of different defects in MgB2-x(SiC)x/2 superconductors.

  8. Enhancing the superconducting temperature of MgB2 by SWCNT dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Danhao; Jayasingha, Ruwantha; Hess, Dustin T.; Adu, Kofi W.; Sumanasekera, Gamini U.; Terrones, Mauricio

    2014-02-01

    We report, for the first time, an increase in the superconducting critical temperature, TC of commercial “dirty” MgB2 by a nonsubstitutional hole-doping of the MgB2 structure using minute, single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) inclusions. We varied the SWCNTs concentration from 0.05 wt% to 5 wt% and investigated the temperature-dependent resistivity from 10 K to 300 K. We used micro-Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction to analyze the interfacial interactions between the SWCNTs and the MgB2 grains. We obtained an increase in TC from 33.0 to 37.8 K (ΔTC+=4.8 K), which is attributed to charge transfer from the MgB2 structure to the SWCNT structure. The charge transfer phenomenon is confirmed by micro-Raman analysis of the phonon states of the SWCNT tangential band frequency in the composites. We determined the charge transfer per carbon atom to be 0.0023/C, 0.0018/C and 0.0008/C for 0.05 wt%, 0.5 wt% and 5 wt% SWCNT inclusions, respectively, taking into account the contributions from the softening of the lattice constant and the nonadiabatic (dynamic) effects at the Fermi level. This report provides an experimental, alternative pathway to hole-doping of MgB2 without appealing to chemical substitution.

  9. MgB_{2} nonlinear properties investigated under localized high rf magnetic field excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamin Tai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The high transition temperature and low surface resistance of MgB_{2} attracts interest in its potential application in superconducting radio frequency accelerating cavities. However, compared to traditional Nb cavities, the viability of MgB_{2} at high rf fields is still open to question. Our approach is to study the nonlinear electrodynamics of the material under localized rf magnetic fields. Because of the presence of the small superconducting gap in the π band, the nonlinear response of MgB_{2} at low temperature is potentially complicated compared to a single-gap s-wave superconductor such as Nb. Understanding the mechanisms of nonlinearity coming from the two-band structure of MgB_{2}, as well as extrinsic sources of nonlinearity, is an urgent requirement. A localized and strong rf magnetic field, created by a magnetic write head, is integrated into our nonlinear-Meissner-effect scanning microwave microscope [T. Tai et al., IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 21, 2615 (2011ITASE91051-822310.1109/TASC.2010.2096531]. MgB_{2} films with thickness 50 nm, fabricated by a hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition technique on dielectric substrates, are measured at a fixed location and show a strongly temperature-dependent third harmonic response. We propose that several possible mechanisms are responsible for this nonlinear response.

  10. Evaluations of MgB2 Coatings on 2'' Copper Discs for Superconducting Radio Frequency Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withanage, Wenura; Tan, Teng; Lee, Namhoon; Banjade, Huta; Eremeev, Grigory; Welander, Paul; Valente-Feliciano, Anne-Marie; Kustom, Robert; Wolak, Matthäus; Nassiri, Alireza; Xi, Xiaoxing

    We propose that coating the inner walls of copper RF cavities with superconducting MgB2 (Tc = 39 K) can result in a viable alternative to the already established niobium-based SRF technology. This approach improves the thermal conductivity, allows for operation at higher temperatures, and reduces the need for large helium refrigeration, thereby resulting in lower operational costs. For our studies, we grew MgB2 films via hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) on 2'' Cu substrates. Since Mg and Cu readily form an alloy at higher temperatures, the HPCVD setup was modified in order to achieve lower deposition temperatures, minimize alloy formation, and provide high quality MgB2 films. This method yielded MgB2 coatings on 2'' Cu discs with transition temperatures around 38 K. The samples were characterized with regards to their RF attributes and showed similar performance in comparison to Nb reference samples. The presented results show that MgB2 coated copper can be a suitable alternative for use in SRF cavities.

  11. Energy gap in MgB2 superconductor: Andreev reflection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswal, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the nature of energy gap in MgB 2 superconductor, we have performed Andreev-reflection studies on MgB 2 / Ag planar junctions. The differential resistance (dV/dI) versus voltage (V) characteristics were recorded as a function of temperature, magnetic field and junction-type. The dV/dI vs V characteristic recorded at low temperature and zero-field for a clean MgB 2 / Ag planar junction exhibited several interesting features, such as, zero bias anomaly, a distinct double-minima, sharp resonance peaks near the energy gap etc. The data, however, could not be explained using Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk theory of isotropic superconductor, which indicated that energy gap in MgB 2 is not consistent with the weak-coupling BCS theory. This is further supported by unusual temperature and magnetic field dependence of the tunneling characteristics. The results indicate several possibilities for the energy gap in MgB 2 , such as, an anisotropic energy gap, two-energy or an unconventional gap scenario. (author)

  12. Molecular-Beam Epitaxially Grown MgB2 Thin Films and Superconducting Tunnel Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Laloë

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of its superconducting properties in 2001, magnesium diboride has generated terrific scientific and engineering research interest around the world. With a of 39 K and two superconducting gaps, MgB2 has great promise from the fundamental point of view, as well as immediate applications. Several techniques for thin film deposition and heterojunction formation have been established, each with its own advantages and drawbacks. Here, we will present a brief overview of research based on MgB2 thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy coevaporation of Mg and B. The films are smooth and highly crystalline, and the technique allows for virtually any heterostructure to be formed, including all-MgB2 tunnel junctions. Such devices have been characterized, with both quasiparticle and Josephson tunneling reported. MgB2 remains a material of great potential for a multitude of further characterization and exploration research projects and applications.

  13. Design of MgB2 superconducting dipole magnet for particle beam transport in accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.; Zangenberg, N.; Baurichter, A.

    2006-01-01

    for the collaborating company Danfysik A/S, which has a strongtradition in building resistive magnets for particle accelerators[4]. A technology transfer project was formulated at the end of 2005 with the purpose to collect the knowledge about the MgB2 superconductor gained in the STVF program and in the European...... in a dipole magnet for guiding particle beams in a small scale accelerator is examined with the purpose to build lighter and smaller than the present resistive magnets. Here the criticalcurrent density of primarily MgB2 will be compared with current density determined by specifications similar to the Tevatron...... accelerator, B = 4:4 Tesla and coil aperture D = 76 mm [6], which has been identified by Danfysik A/S as interesting. It isconcluded that MgB2 is useful for the dipole application and construction of a small test coil of one half of the magnet is planned in 2007....

  14. Possible superlattice formation in high-temperature treated carbonaceous MgB2 at elevated pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschauner, Oliver; Errandonea, Daniel; Serghiou, George

    2006-01-01

    We report indications of a phase transition in carbonaceous MgB 2 above 9 GPa at 300 K after stress relaxation by laser heating. The transition was detected using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The observed changes are consistent with a second-order structural transition involving a doubling of the unit cell along c and a reduction of the boron site symmetry. Moreover, the Raman spectra suggest a reduction in electron-phonon coupling in the slightly modified MgB 2 structure consistent with the previously proposed topological transition in MgB 2 . However, further attributes including deviatoric stress, lattice defects, and compositional variation may play an important role in the observed phenomena

  15. Low-temperature synthesis of superconducting nanocrystalline MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, J.; Xiao, Z.; Lin, Q.; Claus, H.; Fang, Z.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) is considered a promising material for practical application in superconducting devices, with a transition temperature near 40 K. In the present paper, nanocrystalline MgB 2 with an average particle size of approximately 70 nm is synthesized by reacting LiBH 4 with MgH 2 at temperatures as low as 450 C. This synthesis approach successfully bypasses the usage of either elemental boron or toxic diborane gas. The superconductivity of the nanostructures is confirmed by magnetization measurements, showing a superconducting critical temperature of 38.7 K.

  16. Crystallinity and flux pinning properties of MgB2 bulks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, A.; Shimoyama, J.; Ueda, S.; Katsura, Y.; Iwayama, I.; Horii, S.; Kishio, K.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between flux pinning properties and crystallinity of MgB 2 bulks was systematically studied. Improved flux pinning properties under high fields were observed for samples with low crystallinity. Increased impurity scattering due to strain and defects in lattice corresponding to the degraded crystallinity was considered to enhance flux pinning strength at grain boundaries. Low-temperature synthesis and carbon substitution were confirmed to be effective for degrading crystallinity of MgB 2 bulks, resulting in high critical current properties under high fields

  17. Properties of stabilized MgB2 composite wire with Ti barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, P; Husek, I; Melisek, T; Holubek, T

    2007-01-01

    Stabilized four-filament in situ MgB 2 /Ti/Cu/Monel composite wire was produced by the rectangular wire-in-tube (RWIT) technique. 10 wt% of nanosize SiC was added into the Mg-B powder mixture, which was packed into the Ti/Cu and Monel tubes, respectively. The assembled composite was two-axially rolled into wire and/or tape form and sintered at temperatures of 650-850 deg. C/0.5 h. Stabilized MgB 2 wire with Ti barrier is studied in terms of field-dependent transport critical current density, effects of filament size reduction and thermal stability

  18. Laser-induced thermoelectric voltage in normal state MgB2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Songqing; Zhou Yueliang; Zhao Kun; Wang Shufang; Chen Zhenghao; Jin Kuijuan; Lue Huibin; Cheng Bolin; Yang Guozhen

    2006-01-01

    Laser-induced voltage has been observed in c-axis oriented MgB 2 thin film at room temperature. The amplitude of the signal is approximately proportional to the film thickness. For the film with the thickness of 150 nm, a very fast response has been detected when the film was irradiated by a 308 nm pulsed laser of 20 ns duration. The rise time and full width at half-maximum of the signal are about 3 and 25 ns, respectively. The physical origin of the laser-induced voltage can be attributed to a transverse thermoelectricity due to the anisotropic thermopower in MgB 2

  19. MgB2 ultrathin films fabricated by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition and ion milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Acharya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we report on the structural and transport measurements of ultrathin MgB2 films grown by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition followed by low incident angle Ar ion milling. The ultrathin films as thin as 1.8 nm, or 6 unit cells, exhibit excellent superconducting properties such as high critical temperature (Tc and high critical current density (Jc. The results show the great potential of these ultrathin films for superconducting devices and present a possibility to explore superconductivity in MgB2 at the 2D limit.

  20. Preparation of MgB2 superconducting microbridges by focused ion beam direct milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuena; Li, Yanli; Xu, Zhuang; Kong, Xiangdong; Han, Li

    2017-01-01

    MgB2 superconducting microbridges were prepared by focused ion beam (FIB) direct milling on MgB2 films. The surface topography of the microbridges were observed using SEM and AFM and the superconductivity was measured in this paper. Lots of cracks and holes were found near the milled area. And the superconducting transition temperature was decreased a lot and the bridges prepared were not superconducting due to ion damage after milled with large dose. Through these works, we explored the effect regular of FIB milling and experimental parameters on the performance of microbridges.

  1. Superconducting and normal state properties of carbon doped and neutron irradiated MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, R.H.T.; Samuely, P.; Szabo, P.; Holanova, Z.; Bud'ko, S.L.; Canfield, P.C.; Finnemore, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    Current research in MgB 2 focuses on the effects various types of perturbations have on the superconducting properties of this novel two-gap superconductor. In this article we summarize the effects of carbon doping and neutron irradiation in bulk MgB 2 . Low levels of carbon doping and light neutron irradiation result in significant enhancements in H c2 . At high fluences, where superconductivity is nearly fully suppressed, superconductivity can be restored through post exposure annealing. However, this results in a change in the interdependencies of the normal state and superconducting properties (ρ 0 , T c , H c2 ), with little or no enhancement in H c2

  2. The preliminary study of the quench protection of an MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, F. P.; Berriaud, C.; Bonelli, A.; Pasquet, R.; Przybilski, H.; Schild, T.; Scola, L.

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of general studies currently carried out at CEA/Saclay in collaboration with Sigmaphi Company on dry MgB2 magnet operating at 10 K and medium range field, 1 T up to 4 T., we plan to build a prototype-coil with a commercial MgB2 wire. This coil, the nominal axial magnetic field of which is 1 tesla, will be placed in a 3 teslas background field generated by a classical NbTi coil. This paper deals with the preliminary quench protection studies including stability and quench propagation modeling.

  3. Defect structures in MgB2 wires introduced by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, X Z; Serquis, A; Zhu, Y T; Civale, L; Hammon, D L; Peterson, D E; Mueller, F M; Nesterenko, V F; Gu, Y

    2003-01-01

    The microstructures of MgB 2 wires prepared by the powder-in-tube technique and subsequent hot isostatic pressing were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. A large amount of crystalline defects including small-angle twisting, tilting and bending boundaries, in which high densities of dislocations reside, was found forming sub-grains within MgB 2 grains. It is believed that these defects resulted from particle deformation during the hot isostatic pressing process and are effective flux pinning centres that contribute to the high critical current densities of the wires at high temperatures and at high fields

  4. Quantitative electron microscopy and spectroscopy of MgB2 wires and tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birajdar, B; Peranio, N; Eibl, O

    2008-01-01

    In MgB 2 the correlation of microstructure with superconducting properties, in particular the critical current density, requires powerful analytical tools. Critical current densities and electrical resistivities of different MgB 2 superconductors differ by orders of magnitudes and the current limiting mechanisms have not been fully understood. Granularity of MgB 2 is one significant reason for reduced critical current densities and is introduced intrinsically by the anisotropy of B c2 but also extrinsically by the microstructure of the material. B c2 enhancement by doping is another important challenge for chemical analysis and, at present, doping levels are not well controlled on the sub-μm scale. In this paper the quantitative electron microscopy and spectroscopy methods essential for the microstructural analysis of MgB 2 are described. By quantitative electron microscopy and spectroscopy we mean a combined SEM and TEM analysis that covers various length scales from μm to nm. Contamination-free sample preparation, chemical mapping including B, and advanced chemical quantification using x-ray microanalysis were essential elements of the applied methodology. The methodology was applied to in situ and ex situ MgB 2 wires and tapes with and without SiC additives. Quantitative B analysis by EDX spectroscopy was applied quantitatively in the SEM and TEM, which is a major achievement. Although MgB 2 is a binary system, the thermodynamics of phase formation is complex, and the complexity is dramatically increased if additives like SiC are used. The small, sub-μm grain sizes of the matrix and secondary phases require TEM methods. However, granularity on the μm scale was also identified and underlines the importance of the combined SEM and TEM studies. Significant differences in the microstructure were observed for in situ and ex situ samples. This holds particularly if SiC was added and yielded Mg 2 Si for in situ samples annealed at 600-650 deg. C and Mg-Si-O phases for ex situ samples annealed between 900-1050 deg. C. Only with such a systematic approach combining a large number of microscopy and spectroscopy methods, could a microstructure critical current density model be established that will be presented in another paper. Four microstructural parameters were identified as relevant for the critical current density of wires and tapes and these were: (1) MgB 2 grain size, (2) colony size (a colony is a dense arrangement of MgB 2 grains), (3) oxygen content and (4) volume fraction of B-rich secondary phases. MgB 2 grain size can only be determined by TEM, while colony size, oxygen content and volume fraction of B-rich secondary phases were determined by SEM methods. The formation of oxides was also studied in detail by TEM methods. The importance of electron microscopy methods in the understanding of the thermodynamics of phase formation in MgB 2 as well as in improving the synthesis technology and the superconducting properties of MgB 2 wires and tapes is described. (topical review)

  5. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Formation of MgB2 at ambient temperature with an electrochemical process: a plausible mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, A. B.; Subhedar, K. M.; Hyam, R. S.; Talaptra, A.; Sen, Pintu; Bandyopadhyay, S. K.; Pawar, S. H.

    2005-06-01

    The binary intermetallic MgB2 superconductor has been synthesized by many research groups. However, the mechanism of its formation is not clearly understood. In this communication, a comprehensive mechanism of the formation of MgB2 from Le Chatelier's principle of equilibrium reaction has been explained both for solid-state reaction and electrodeposition methods.

  6. An innovative technique to synthesize C-doped MgB2 by using chitosan as the carbon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovone, G; Kawale, S; Siri, A S; Vignolo, M; Bernini, C

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report a new technique to synthesize carbon-doped MgB 2 powder. Chitosan was innovatively used as the carbon source during the synthesis of boron from boron oxide. This allowed the introduction of local defects, which later on served as pinning centers in MgB 2 , in the boron lattice itself, avoiding the traditional and time consuming ways of ex situ MgB 2 doping (e.g. ball milling). Two volume percentages of C-doping have been tried and its effect on the superconducting properties, evaluated by magnetic and transport measurements, are discussed here. Morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy revealed nano-metric grains’ distribution in the boron and MgB 2 powder. Mono-filamentary MgB 2 wires have been fabricated by an ex situ powder-in-tube technique by using the thus prepared carbon-doped MgB 2 and pure MgB 2 powders. Transport property measurements on these wires were made and compared with MgB 2 wire produced using commercial boron. (fast track communication)

  7. Concurrent doping effect of Ti and nano-diamond on flux pinning of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.; Ke, C.; Cheng, C.H.; Feng, Y.; Yang, Y.; Munroe, P.

    2010-01-01

    Nano-diamond and titanium concurrently doped MgB 2 nanocomposites have been prepared by solid state reaction method. The effects of carbon and Ti concurrent doping on J c -H behavior and pinning force scaling features of MgB 2 have been investigated. Although T c was slightly depressed, J c of MgB 2 have been significantly improved by the nano-diamond doping, especially in the high field region. In the mean time, the J c value in low field region is sustained though concurrent Ti doping. Microstructure analysis reveals that when nano-diamond was concurrently doped with titanium in MgB 2 , a unique nanocomposite in which TiB 2 forms a thin layer surrounding MgB 2 grains whereas nano-diamond particles were wrapped inside the MgB 2 grains. Besides, nano-diamond doping results in a high density stress field in the MgB 2 samples, which may take responsibility for the Δκ pinning behavior in the carbon-doped MgB 2 system.

  8. Development of magnesium diboride (MgB 2) wires and magnets using in situ strand fabrication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsic, Michael; Rindfleisch, Matthew; Yue, Jinji; McFadden, Kevin; Doll, David; Phillips, John; Sumption, Mike D.; Bhatia, Mohit; Bohnenstiehl, Scot; Collings, E. W.

    2007-06-01

    Since 2001 when magnesium diboride (MgB 2) was first reported to have a transition temperature of 39 K, conductor development has progressed to where MgB 2 superconductor wire in kilometer-long piece-lengths has been demonstrated in magnets and coils. Work has started on demonstrating MgB 2 wire in superconducting devices now that the wire is available commercially. MgB 2 superconductors and coils have the potential to be integrated in a variety of commercial applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, fault current limiters, transformers, motors, generators, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators, magnetic separation, magnetic levitation, energy storage, and high energy physics applications. This paper discusses the progress on MgB 2 conductor and coil development in the last several years at Hyper Tech Research, Inc.

  9. Development of magnesium diboride (MgB2) wires and magnets using in situ strand fabrication method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, Michael; Rindfleisch, Matthew; Yue, Jinji; McFadden, Kevin; Doll, David; Phillips, John; Sumption, Mike D.; Bhatia, Mohit; Bohnenstiehl, Scot; Collings, E.W.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2001 when magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) was first reported to have a transition temperature of 39 K, conductor development has progressed to where MgB 2 superconductor wire in kilometer-long piece-lengths has been demonstrated in magnets and coils. Work has started on demonstrating MgB 2 wire in superconducting devices now that the wire is available commercially. MgB 2 superconductors and coils have the potential to be integrated in a variety of commercial applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, fault current limiters, transformers, motors, generators, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators, magnetic separation, magnetic levitation, energy storage, and high energy physics applications. This paper discusses the progress on MgB 2 conductor and coil development in the last several years at Hyper Tech Research, Inc

  10. Feasibility study on partial insulation winding technique for the development of self-protective MgB2 magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. G.; Kim, J. C.; Kim, J. M.; Yoo, B. H.; Hwang, D. Y.; Lee, H. G.

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using the partial insulation winding technique for the development of a self-protective MgB2 MRI magnet with a fast charge-discharge rate. Charge-discharge and quench tests for a prototype PI MgB2 magnet confirmed that the magnet was successfully operated at full-field performance and exhibited self-protecting behavior in the event of a quench. Nonetheless, the required time to charge the 0.5-T/300-mm PI MgB2 magnet was almost five days, implying that the charge-discharge delay of the PI MgB2 magnet still needs to be ameliorated further to develop a real-scale MgB2 MRI magnet with a fast charge-discharge rate.

  11. Composite superconducting MgB2 wires made by continuous process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kutukcu, Mehmet; Atamert, Serdar; Scandella, Jean Louis; Hopstock, Ron; Blackwood, Alexander C.; Dhulst, Chris; Mestdagh, Jan; Nijhuis, Arend; Glowacki, Bartek A.

    Previously developed manufacturing technology of a low-cost composite single core MgB2 superconductive wires has been investigated in details using monel sheath and titanium diffusion barrier. In this process Mg and nano-sized B as well as SiC dopant powders were fed continuously to a "U" shaped

  12. Critical current and cryogenic stability modelling of filamentary MgB2 conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glowacki, B.A.; Majoros, M.; Tanaka, K.

    2006-01-01

    The modelling of a single filament, 6 filaments and 19 filaments MgB(2) conductors was performed for two limiting cases: a) isothermal conditions considering J(c)(B) dependence, b) considering heating effects but with J(c) magnetic field independent. As a starting point of the modelling in case a...

  13. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on neutron irradiated MgB2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Capua, Roberto; Salluzzo, Marco; Vaglio, Ruggero; Ferdeghini, Carlo; Ferrando, Valeria; Putti, Marina; Xi Xiaoxing; Aebersold, Hans U.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron irradiation was performed on MgB 2 thin films grown by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition. Samples irradiated with different neutron fluences, having different critical temperatures, were studied by scanning tunneling spectroscopy in order to investigate the effect of the introduced disorder on the superconducting and spectroscopic properties. A monotonic increase of the π gap with increasing disorder was found

  14. Composite superconducting MgB2 wires made by continuous process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kutukcu, Mehmet; Atamert, Serdar; Scandella, Jean Louis; Hopstock, Ron; Blackwood, Alexander C.; Dhulst, Chris; Mestdagh, Jan; Nijhuis, Arend; Glowacki, Bartek A.

    2018-01-01

    Previously developed manufacturing technology of a low-cost composite single core MgB2 superconductive wires has been investigated in details using monel sheath and titanium diffusion barrier. In this process Mg and nano-sized B as well as SiC dopant powders were fed continuously to a "U" shaped

  15. Two ways to model voltage-current curves of adiabatic MgB2 wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenvall, A; Korpela, A; Lehtonen, J; Mikkonen, R

    2007-01-01

    Usually overheating of the sample destroys attempts to measure voltage-current curves of conduction cooled high critical current MgB 2 wires at low temperatures. Typically, when a quench occurs a wire burns out due to massive heat generation and negligible cooling. It has also been suggested that high n values measured with MgB 2 wires and coils are not an intrinsic property of the material but arise due to heating during the voltage-current measurement. In addition, quite recently low n values for MgB 2 wires have been reported. In order to find out the real properties of MgB 2 an efficient computational model is required to simulate the voltage-current measurement. In this paper we go back to basics and consider two models to couple electromagnetic and thermal phenomena. In the first model the magnetization losses are computed according to the critical state model and the flux creep losses are considered separately. In the second model the superconductor resistivity is described by the widely used power law. Then the coupled current diffusion and heat conduction equations are solved with the finite element method. In order to compare the models, example runs are carried out with an adiabatic slab. Both models produce a similar significant temperature rise near the critical current which leads to fictitiously high n values

  16. Design of an MgB2 race track coil for a wind generator pole demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Magnusson, Niklas; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2014-01-01

    An MgB2 race track coil intended for demonstrating a down scaled pole of a 10 MW direct drive wind turbine generator has been designed. The coil consists of 10 double pancake coils stacked into a race track coil with a cross section of 84 mm × 80 mm. The length of the straight section is 0.5 m...

  17. Electrical, Structural and Mechanical Properties of Superconducting MGB2/MG Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulucan, S.

    2004-01-01

    The brittle nature of MgB 2 does not allow this material to be used as a stand-alone material for large scale applications based on wire production. MgB 2 /Mg composites were prepared using metal matrix composite fabrication technique. To obtain composites MgB 2 and Mg powders were mixed at different weight fractions and uniaxially pressed in a cylindrical dye under the pressure of 0.5 GPa and 1.0 GPa for two hours at various temperatures. XRD, SEM and EDX techniques were used for phase identification and microstructural studies. Resistivities of the composites were measured between 20 K and room temperature. The effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of MgB 2 /Mg composites was investigated. For this purpose, compressive mechanical testing was performed to measure elastic modulus and strain at failure values of the composites. It was found that the relative weight fraction of the powders and the temperature have same considerable effect on the electrical, microstructural and the mechanical properties of the composites

  18. Microwave Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of High Tc Superconductor MGB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeseoglu, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Polycrystalline powders of MgB 2 have been synthesized by microwave synthesis technique. Crystallographic information of the sample was investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The main phase was determined as MgB2, and secondary phases as MgB4 and MgO. The temperature dependence of magnetic properties of polycrystalline MgB2, synthesized by using microwave heating of the constituents have been characterized by SQUID magnetometer and X-band EPR spectrometer. The transition temperature to the superconducting phase is observed as 39K for both measurements. An isotropic, strong and very narrow EPR signal corresponding to free electron g-value (ge=2.0023) is observed. The observed line broadening with decreasing temperature might arise from the dipolar interactions between the superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Normally, the internal magnetic field originating from magnetic entities is expected to be more uniform as a result of highly ordered magnetic moments at low temperatures; giving narrower ESR line in contrary in our case. While the ESR line is broadened, the signal intensity is drastically decreased just below T c =39 K corresponding to a transition temperature from normal to superconducting state. Some minor changes in both intensity and line width curves might be taken as signs for changes of local crystalline field symmetry around weakly localized conduction electrons or holes, which are the sources of ESR signal in MgB 2 compound

  19. Texture gradients in Fe-sheathed ex situ produced MgB2 tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lezza, P; Gladyshevskii, R; Abaecherli, V; Fluekiger, R

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting Fe-sheathed MgB 2 monofilamentary tapes have been fabricated by the powder-in-tube technique, varying the particle size of the starting MgB 2 powder and applying either cold or hot rolling during the last deformation process. Measurements of the critical current density J c with the magnetic field applied parallel or perpendicular to the tape surface revealed a pronounced anisotropy for the cold rolled tapes, which was found to increase with increasing particle size and magnetic field strength. The microstructural origin of the J c anisotropy was confirmed by means of x-ray diffraction performed on the filaments after mechanical removal of the sheath. The local texture was studied in a series of diffraction patterns collected at different distances from the filament centre, removing each time some 25 μm of the filament thickness. In the cold rolled tapes, the average orientation of the MgB 2 grains was found to approach a preferred orientation with the crystallographic c-axis perpendicular to the tape surface, near the interface with the sheath; however, the misalignment angle increased towards the centre of the tape. In the hot rolled tapes, for which no J c anisotropy was observed, the grains were found to be approximately randomly oriented. Roughness measurements performed on the side of the Fe sheath in contact with the MgB 2 filament are in agreement with the difference in texture observed for cold and hot rolled tapes

  20. Superconducting properties of MgB2 particle impregnated with Mg-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yusuke; Matsuda, Kenji; Mizutani, Manabu; Nishimura, Katsuhiko; Kawabata, Tokimasa; Ikeno, Susumu; Hishinuma, Yoshimitsu; Aoyama, Shigeki

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional penetration method combined with semi-solid casting (SS-3DPC) was utilized to prepare magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) powder composite materials with various host materials of Mg, Mg-3%Al, Mg-3%Al-1%Zn, Mg-9%Al, and Mg-9%Al-1%Zn. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated predominant peak patterns of MgB 2 and a host alloy, implying that the host material tightly bonded MgB 2 grains without melting the MgB 2 powder. This was confirmed by SEM images. Measured electrical resistivity and magnetization versus temperature showed clear signals of superconducting transition temperature of 27-38 K for all the samples cut out from the billets. Magnetic hysteresis loop observed at 5 K enabled us to estimate a critical current density (J c ) based on the extended Bean model. Additions of aluminum and zinc elements to magnesium host-matrix were found to enhance J c and increase residual resistivity (ρ 0 ) suggesting that aluminum and zinc have an effect on pinning magnetic flux flow for J c enhancement, and scattering conduction electrons for increase of ρ 0 . (author)

  1. Pinning enhancement in MgB2 superconducting thin films by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The magnetic field dependence of the critical current density Jc was calculated from the M–H loops and magnetic field dependence of ... MgB2 thin film; Fe2O3 nanoparticles; critical current density; r-plane Al2O3 substrate. 1. Introduction. The discovery of ... It was thought that from these cal- culations, one can choose an ...

  2. Low-temperature dependence of the optical conductivity in superconductor MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzamanian, M.A.; Yavary, H.; Moarrefi, M.

    2005-01-01

    The real part of the optical conductivity is calculated by using the Kubo formula approach, and in the framework of the two-bands model. It is shown that a single-gap model is insufficient to describe the optical behavior of superconductor MgB 2 film, but the two-gap model with different symmetries is sufficient to explain the experimental results

  3. Doping effects of carbon and titanium on the critical current density of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, T M; Li, G; Cheng, C H; Zhao, Y

    2006-01-01

    MgB 2 bulks doped with Ti or/and C were prepared by an in situ solid state reaction method to determine the combined effect of C and Ti doping and to probe the detailed mechanism. The magnetization measurement shows that Mg 0.95 Ti 0.05 B 1.95 C 0.05 sample has significantly improved flux pinning compared to the MgB 1.95 C 0.05 sample at 20 K, indicating that C and Ti are largely cooperative in improving the J c (H) behaviour. No TiC phase was detected in the x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. Moreover, the overlap of the (100) peaks of MgB 1.95 C 0.05 and Mg 0.95 Ti 0.05 B 1.95 C 0.05 showed that Ti doping does not reduce the amount of C in MgB 2 . Microstructural analyses revealed that the addition of Ti eliminated the porosity present in the carbon-doped MgB 2 pellet, resulting in an improved intergrain connectivity and an increase of effective current pass. Further, MgB 2 doped with C and Ti, which mainly consists of spherical grains about 200-300 nm in size, shows an higher grain homogeneity than the C-doped sample, suggesting that the Ti doping in MgB 1-x C x has played an important role in obtaining uniform grains

  4. Effect of sorbic acid doping on flux pinning in bulk MgB2 with the percolation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Cheng, C.H.; Wang, L.; Sun, H.H.; Zhao, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the doping effect of sorbic acid (C 6 H 8 O 2 ), from 0 to 20 wt.% of the total MgB 2 , on critical temperature (T c ), critical current density (J c ), irreversibility field (H irr ) and crystalline structure. The XRD patterns of samples show a slightly decrease in a-axis lattice parameter for doped samples, due to the partial substitution of carbon at boron site. On the other hand, we investigate the influence of doping on the behavior of flux pinning and J c (B) in the framework of percolation theory and it is found that the J c (B) behavior could be well fitted in high field region. The two key parameters, anisotropy and percolation threshold, play very important roles. It is believed that the enhancement of J c is due to the reduction of anisotropy in high field region.

  5. Thickness dependence of J_c (0) in MgB_2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yiling; Yang, Can; Jia, Chunyan; Feng, Qingrong; Gan, Zizhao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A serial of MgB_2 superconducting films from 10 nm to 8 µm have been prepared. • T_c and J_c (5 K, 0 T) of films are high. • J_c (5 K, 0 T) reaches its maximum 2.3 × 10"8 A cm"−"2 for 100 nm films. • The relationship between thickness and J_c has been discussed in detail. - Abstract: MgB_2 superconducting films, whose thicknesses range from 10 nm to 8 µm, have been fabricated on SiC substrates by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) method. It is the first time that the T_c and the J_c of MgB_2 films are studied on such a large scale. It is found that with the increasing of thickness, T_c elevates first and then keeps roughly stable except for some slight fluctuations, while J_c (5 K, 0 T) experiences a sharp increase followed by a relatively slow fall. The maximum J_c (5 K, 0 T) = 2.3 × 10"8 A cm"−"2 is obtained for 100 nm films, which is the experimental evidence for preparing high-quality MgB_2 films by HPCVD method. Thus, this work may provide guidance on choosing the suitable thickness for applications. Meanwhile, the films prepared by us cover ultrathin films, thin films and thick films, so the study on them will bring a comprehensive understanding of MgB_2 films.

  6. Recent achievements in MgB 2 physics and applications: A large-area SQUID magnetometer and point-contact spectroscopy measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnelli, R. S.; Daghero, D.; Calzolari, A.; Ummarino, G. A.; Tortello, M.; Stepanov, V. A.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Rogacki, K.; Karpinski, J.; Portesi, C.; Monticone, E.; Mijatovic, D.; Veldhuis, D.; Brinkman, A.

    2006-03-01

    In the first part of the present paper we discuss the fabrication and the characterization of an MgB2-based SQUID magnetometer with a directly coupled large-area pick-up loop, made on an MgB2 film deposited by an all in situ technique. The coarse structure of the SQUID was defined by optical lithography and Ar-ion milling, while the two nanobridges acting as weak links in the superconducting loop were made by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. The device was characterized at different temperatures and showed Josephson quantum interference up to 20 K as well as a noise level already compatible with the recording of an adult magnetocardiogram. In the second part, concerning the fundamental physics of MgB2, we present the results of very recent point-contact measurements on Mg1-xMnxB2 single crystals with 34.1 ⩾ Tc ⩾ 13.3 K (i.e. 0.37% ⩽ x ⩽ 1.5%). The experimental conductance curves were fitted with the generalized two-band BTK model and their behaviour in magnetic fields was studied to check if both the order parameters (OPs) of the σ and π bands were present in the whole doping range. The dependence of the OPs (evaluated through the fit) on the Andreev critical temperature of the junctions is analyzed in the framework of the two-band Eliashberg theory by including the effects of magnetic impurities. The results give an evidence of a dominant effect of the magnetic impurities on the σ-band channel.

  7. Mixed-state flux dynamics in bulk MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shi; Taylor, B.J.; Frederick, N.A.; Maple, M.B.; Nesterenko, V.F.; Indrakanti, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    Electric field vs. current density (E-J) isotherms in the mixed-state of a bulk sample of the high-temperature superconductor MgB 2 (T c =38.5 K), synthesized under 200 MPa pressure by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing), have been measured and analyzed in terms of the critical scaling model. Magnetization data reveal distinctly different critical current density (J c ) behaviors in high and low magnetic field critical scaling regions. E-J isotherm sets at fields ranging from 2 to 90 kOe conform to the vortex-glass (VG) scaling anzatz. Scaling analysis, resistivity data and J c data suggest that a Bragg-glass state may exist for H c2 (T), the VG transition line H g (T), and the magnetic irreversibility line H irr (T) has been established for bulk MgB 2

  8. MgB2 thin films on silicon nitride substrates prepared by an in situ method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticone, Eugenio; Gandini, Claudio; Portesi, Chiara; Rajteri, Mauro; Bodoardo, Silvia; Penazzi, Nerino; Dellarocca, Valeria; Gonnelli, Renato S

    2004-01-01

    Large-area MgB 2 thin films were deposited on silicon nitride and sapphire substrates by co-deposition of Mg and B. After a post-annealing in Ar atmosphere at temperatures between 773 and 1173 K depending on the substrate, the films showed a critical temperature higher than 35 K with a transition width less than 0.5 K. The x-ray diffraction pattern suggested a c-axis preferential orientation in films deposited on amorphous substrate. The smooth surface and the good structural properties of these MgB 2 films allowed their reproducible patterning by a standard photolithographic process down to dimensions of the order of 10 μm and without a considerable degradation of the superconducting properties

  9. MgB2 energy gap determination by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitmann, T W; Bu, S D; Kim, D M; Choi, J H; Giencke, J; Eom, C B; Regan, K A; Rogado, N; Hayward, M A; He, T; Slusky, J S; Khalifah, P; Haas, M; Cava, R J; Larbalestier, D C; Rzchowski, M S

    2004-01-01

    We report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) measurements of the gap properties of both ceramic MgB 2 and c-axis oriented epitaxial MgB 2 thin films. Both show a temperature dependent zero bias conductance peak and evidence for two superconducting gaps. We report tunnelling spectroscopy of superconductor-insulator-superconductor (S-I-S) junctions formed in two ways in addition to normal metal-insulator-superconductor (N-I-S) junctions. We find a gap δ = 2.2-2.8 meV, with spectral features and temperature dependence that are consistent between S-I-S junction types. In addition, we observe evidence of a second, larger gap, δ 7.2 meV, consistent with a proposed two-band model

  10. Effect of sheath material on critical current characteristics of MgB2 at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, M.; Yamauchi, K.; Kurokawa, T.; Otabe, E.S.; Matsushita, T.; Okada, M.; Tanaka, K.; Kumakura, H.; Kitaguchi, H.

    2004-01-01

    Critical current density and irreversibility field were measured at various temperatures and magnetic fields for MgB 2 PIT tape specimens with different sheaths materials. The experimental results were compared with theoretical estimations using the flux creep-flow model. It is found that the hardness of sheath material indirectly affects the pinning property only through the packing density of MgB 2 . It is considered that the critical current density is mainly determined by a low value of distributed local critical current density determined by grain connectivity. On the other hand, the irreversibility field which is approximately the same among the three tapes is mainly determined by the average pinning strength

  11. MgB2 superconducting particles in a strong electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, R.; Xu, X.; Amr, E.

    2003-01-01

    The electric-field induced ball formation has been observed with MgB 2 powder in a strong static or quasi-static electric field. The effect of temperature and magnetic field on the ball formation shows surprising features. For quite a wide range of temperature from T c =39 K and below, the ball size is proportional to (1-T/T c ). As the temperature further goes below 20 K, the ball size becomes almost a constant. If MgB 2 particles are in a strong electric field and a moderate magnetic field, the electric-field induced balls align in the magnetic-field direction to form ball chains

  12. Effects of disorder on the microwave properties of MgB2 polycrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghigo, G.; Gerbaldo, R.; Gozzelino, L.; Laviano, F.; Mezzetti, E.; Ummarino, G. A.

    2006-01-01

    The role of disorder in superconducting magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) policrystalline films is investigated in the high frequency range by a coplanar microwave resonator technique. Two sources of disorder are considered, heavy-ion irradiation damage and sample ageing. Microwave measurements are analyzed in the framework of the two-gap model with strong interband scattering contribution. It turns out that disorder enhancement increases the interband scattering rate, resulting in a reduction of the surface resistance at low temperatures, due to a slight increase of the π gap. Moreover, increasing disorder at grain boundaries induces a nonmonotonic residual surface resistance, showing the features of a resistive behavior for the highest disorder level. Finally, the effects of the different kinds of disorder on the intrinsic and on the grain-boundary properties of the MgB 2 films are compared and discussed

  13. Raman spectra of MgB2 at high pressure and topological electronic transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meletov, K.P.; Kulakov, M.P.; Kolesnikov, N.N.; Arvanitidis, J.; Kourouklis, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Raman spectra of the MgB 2 ceramic samples were measured as a function of pressure up to 32 GPa at room temperature. The spectrum at normal conditions contains a very broad peak at ∼ 590 cm -1 related to the E 2g phonon mode. The frequency of this mode exhibits a strong linear dependence in the pressure region from 5 to 18 GPa, whereas beyond this region the slope of the pressure-induced frequency shift is reduced by about a factor of two. The pressure dependence of the phonon mode up to ∼ 5 GPa exhibits a change in the slope as well as a hysteresis effect in the frequency vs. pressure behavior. These singularities in the E 2g mode behavior under pressure support the suggestion that MgB 2 may undergo a pressure-induced topological electronic transition [ru

  14. Scaling behavior of mixed-state hall effect in MgB2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Soon-Gil; Seong, W.K.; Kang, W.N.; Choi, Eun-Mi; Kim, Heon-Jung; Lee, Sung-Ik; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Kim, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Hall resistivity (ρ xy ) and the longitudinal resistivity (ρ xx ) in c-axis-oriented superconducting MgB 2 thin films have been investigated in extended fields up to 18T. We have observed a scaling behavior between the Hall resistivity and the longitudinal resistivity, ρ xy =Aρ xx β , where the exponent (β) is observed to be independent of the temperatures and the magnetic fields. For a wide magnetic field region from 1 to 18T and a wide temperature region from 10 to 28K, a universal power law with β=2.0+/-0.1 was observed in c-axis-oriented MgB 2 thin films. These results can be well interpreted by using recent models

  15. Quench Property of Twisted-Pair MgB$_2$ Superconducting Cables in Helium Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Spurrell, J; Falorio, I; Pelegrin, J; Ballarino, A; Yang, Y

    2015-01-01

    CERN's twisted-pair superconducting cable is a novel design which offers filament transposition, low cable inductance and is particularly suited for tape conductors such as 2G YBCO coated conductors, Ag-sheathed Bi2223 tapes and Ni/Monel-sheathed MgB2 tapes. A typical design of such twistedpair cables consists of multiple superconducting tapes intercalated with thin copper tapes as additional stabilizers. The copper tapes are typically not soldered to the superconducting tapes so that sufficient flexibility is retained for the twisting of the tape assembly. The electrical and thermal contacts between the copper and superconducting tapes are an important parameter for current sharing, cryogenic stability and quench propagation. Using an MgB2 twisted-pair cable assembly manufactured at CERN, we have carried out minimum quench energy (MQE) and propagation velocity (vp) measurements with point-like heat deposition localized within a tape. Furthermore, different contacts between the copper and superconductor aroun...

  16. Low-field vortex pinning model for undoped sintered MgB2 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agassi, Y D

    2011-01-01

    Sintered MgB 2 powders constitute a porous ensemble of irregularly shaped agglomerates of tightly packed grains. The low-field critical current density in such powders was experimentally observed to scale with the inverse of the average agglomerate size. Motivated by this observation we consider a flux pinning model which accounts for the MgB 2 powder porosity by focusing on a single finite-size agglomerate size. According to the model the observed critical current density dependence on the agglomerate size reflects the outward pull exerted on a vortex that is pinned in proximity to the agglomerate edges. The calculated critical current density replicates the observed scaling within agglomerate-size bounds. Implications of the model are discussed.

  17. Small Fermi energy, strong electron-phonon effects and anharmonicity in MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelluti, E.; Pietronero, L.

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of the electron-phonon properties in MgB 2 has attracted a huge interest after the discovery of superconductivity with T c 39 K in this compound. Although superconductivity is often described in terms of the conventional Eliashberg theory, properly generalized in the multiband/multigap scenario, important features distinguish MgB 2 from other conventional strong-coupling superconductors. Most important it is the fact that a large part of the total electron-phonon strength seems to be concentrated here in only one phonon mode, the boron-boron E 2g stretching mode. Another interesting property is the small Fermi energy of the σ bands, which are strongly coupled with the E 2g mode. In this contribution, we discuss how the coexistence of both these features give rise to an unconventional phenomenology of the electron-phonon properties

  18. The MgB2 superconducting energy gaps measured by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quilty, James William

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the nature of the superconducting energy gap in magnesium diboride is an essential part of understanding this unusual superconductor, and Raman scattering is a convenient and powerful technique which is able to directly measure the key physical properties of the gap. The Raman spectra of MgB 2 show clear superconductivity induced renormalisations and evidence is found for two superconducting gaps residing on the σ and π Fermi surfaces with maximum magnitudes of around 110 and 30 cm -1 . The larger gap appears as a sharp peak in the electronic Raman scattering continuum while the smaller gap manifests itself as a threshold in the low-frequency spectral intensity, indicating that the gaps form in different electronic environments. The physical properties of the gaps favour explanations of the extraordinarily high T c in MgB 2 within strong coupling theory

  19. Direct observation of superconducting gaps in MgB 2 by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souma, S.; Machida, Y.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Matsui, H.; Wang, S.-C.; Ding, H.; Kaminski, A.; Campuzano, J. C.; Sasaki, S.; Kadowaki, K.

    2004-08-01

    High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been carried out to clarify the anomalous superconductivity of MgB 2. We observed three bands crossing the Fermi level, which are ascribed to B2p-σ, π and surface bands. We have succeeded for the first time in directly observing the superconducting gaps of these bands separately. We have found that the superconducting-gap sizes of σ and surface bands are 6.5 ± 0.5 and 6.0 ± 0.5 meV, respectively, while that of the π band is much smaller (1.5 ± 0.5 meV). The present experimental result unambiguously demonstrates the validity of the two-band superconductivity in MgB 2.

  20. Direct observation of superconducting gaps in MgB2 by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souma, S.; Machida, Y.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Matsui, H.; Wang, S.-C.; Ding, H.; Kaminski, A.; Campuzano, J.C.; Sasaki, S.; Kadowaki, K.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been carried out to clarify the anomalous superconductivity of MgB 2 . We observed three bands crossing the Fermi level, which are ascribed to B2p-σ, π and surface bands. We have succeeded for the first time in directly observing the superconducting gaps of these bands separately. We have found that the superconducting-gap sizes of σ and surface bands are 6.5 ± 0.5 and 6.0 ± 0.5 meV, respectively, while that of the π band is much smaller (1.5 ± 0.5 meV). The present experimental result unambiguously demonstrates the validity of the two-band superconductivity in MgB 2

  1. Surface barrier and bulk pinning in MgB$_2$ superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Pissas, M.; Moraitakis, E.; Stamopoulos, D.; Papavassiliou, G.; Psycharis, V.; Koutandos, S.

    2001-01-01

    We present a modified method of preparation of the new superconductor MgB$_2$. The polycrystalline samples were characterized using x-ray and magnetic measurements. The surface barriers control the isothermal magnetization loops in powder samples. In bulk as prepared samples we always observed symmetric magnetization loops indicative of the presence of a bulk pinning mechanism. Magnetic relaxation measurements in the bulk sample reveal a crossover of surface barrier to bulk pinning.

  2. Design study of a 10 MW MgB2 superconductor direct drive wind turbine generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Magnusson, Niklas; Liu, Dong

    2014-01-01

    A design study of a 10 MW direct drive wind turbine generator based on MgB2 superconducting wires is presented and the cost of the active materials of the generator is estimated to be between 226 €/kW and 84 €/kw, which is lower than the threshold values of 300 €/kW of the INNWIND.EU project. A n...

  3. Tunneling Spectroscopy of the Energy Gap in MgB2 Under Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekino, T.; Takasaki, T.; Fujii, H.; Muranaka, T.; Akimitsu, J.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of magnetic field on the multiple-gap structure in the superconductor MgB 2 have been studied by break junctions. With increasing the field, the gap value decreases with filling up of the states inside of the gap. The gap-closing field B c correlates with the gap size. The extrapolated B c value for the larger gap is almost consistent with the upper critical field of this compound. (author)

  4. Intraband scattering studies in carbon- and aluminium-doped MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuely, P.; Szabo, P.; Hol'anova, Z.; Bud'ko, S.; Canfield, P.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic field effect on the point-contact spectra of the Al- and C-substituted MgB 2 is presented. It is shown that suppression of the π-band contribution to the spectrum is different in the aluminium- and carbon-doped samples. The carbon substitution leads to a stronger enhancement of the π-band scattering while the Al-doping does not change the ratio between the π and σ scatterings

  5. The mechanism of Tc performance for Zn doped MgB2 sintered in magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.X.; Li, Y.; Chen, R.H.; Zeng, R.; Dou, S.X.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of magnetic field sintering on the critical transition temperature, T c , for the Zn doped MgB 2 superconductor was investigated with the observation of Raman scattering measurement and the Raman spectra fit analysis. The broadened E 2g mode in Raman spectra shows the strengthening of the electron-phonon coupling (EPC) for the sample sintered in magnetic field. A synchronous fluctuation is observed between the Raman characters of the E 2g mode and the T c .

  6. Comparison between nano-diamond and carbon nanotube doping effects on critical current density and flux pinning in MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C H; Yang, Y; Munroe, P; Zhao, Y

    2007-01-01

    Doping effects of nano-diamond and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on critical current density of bulk MgB 2 have been studied. CNTs are found prone to be doped into the MgB 2 lattice whereas nano-diamond tends to form second-phase inclusions in the MgB 2 matrix, leading to a more significant improvement of J c (H) by doping by nano-diamond than by CNTs in MgB 2 . TEM reveals tightly packed MgB 2 nanograins (50-100 nm) with a dense distribution of diamond nanoparticles (10-20 nm) inside MgB 2 grains in nano-diamond-doped samples. Such a unique microstructure leads to a flux pinning behaviour different from that in CNTs-doped MgB 2

  7. Stabilization of the dissipation-free current transport in inhomogeneous MgB2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treiber, S.; Stahl, C.; Schütz, G.; Soltan, S.; Albrecht, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate transport properties of inhomogeneous MgB 2 films. • An inhomogeneous microstructure stabilizes supercurrents. • Vortex pinning forces and energies have been analyzed experimentally. • In inhomogeneous films the increase of the pinning energy is responsible for stable supercurrents. - Abstract: In type-II superconductors at T = 0 the critical current density is determined by the pinning of flux lines. Considering an arbitrarily shaped energy landscape the pinning force at each pinning site is given by the derivative of the flux line energy with respect to the considered direction. At finite temperatures, in addition, thermal activation can lead to a depinning of flux lines. The governing property in this case is the depth of the corresponding pinning potential, i.e. the pinning energy. We show a detailed analysis of both pinning forces and pinning energies of MgB 2 films with inhomogeneous microstructure. We show that a pronounced increase of the pinning energy is responsible for the significantly enhanced stability of the dissipation-free current transport in thin inhomogeneous MgB 2 films. This is found even if the corresponding pinning forces are small

  8. World-record current in the MgB2 superconductor

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the High-Luminosity LHC project, experts from the CERN Superconductors team recently obtained a world-record current of 20 kA at 24 K in an electrical transmission line consisting of two 20-metre long cables made of Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) superconductor. This result makes the use of such technology a viable solution for long-distance power transportation.   The 20-metre long electrical transmission line containing the two 20 kA MgB2 cables. “The test is an important step in the development of cold electrical power transmission systems based on the use of MgB2,” says Amalia Ballarino, head of the Superconductors and Superconducting Devices section in the Magnet, Superconductors and Cryostat group of the Technology Department, and initiator of this project. “The cables and associated technologies were designed, developed and tested at CERN. The superconducting wire is the result of a long R&D effort that started ...

  9. Fabrication of superconducting MgB2 nanostructures by an electron beam lithography-based technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portesi, C.; Borini, S.; Amato, G.; Monticone, E.

    2006-03-01

    In this work, we present the results obtained in fabrication and characterization of magnesium diboride nanowires realized by an electron beam lithography (EBL)-based method. For fabricating MgB2 thin films, an all in situ technique has been used, based on the coevaporation of B and Mg by means of an e-gun and a resistive heater, respectively. Since the high temperatures required for the fabrication of good quality MgB2 thin films do not allow the nanostructuring approach based on the lift-off technique, we structured the samples combining EBL, optical lithography, and Ar milling. In this way, reproducible nanowires 1 μm long have been obtained. To illustrate the impact of the MgB2 film processing on its superconducting properties, we measured the temperature dependence of the resistance on a nanowire and compared it to the original magnesium diboride film. The electrical properties of the films are not degraded as a consequence of the nanostructuring process, so that superconducting nanodevices may be obtained by this method.

  10. Intrinsic flux pinning mechanisms in different thickness MgB2 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available MgB2 films in four thickness (60 nm, 200nm, 600nm and 1μm have been fabricated by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition technique (HPCVD. By measuring the magnetization hysteresis loops and the resistivity, we have obtained the transport and magnetic properties of the four films. After that, the pinning mechanisms in them were discussed. Comparing the pinning behaviors in these ultrathin films, thin films and thick films, it was found that there exist different pinning types in MgB2 films of different thickness. In combination with the study of the surface morphology, cross-section and XRD results, we concluded that MgB2 films had different growth modes in different growth stages. For thin films, films grew along c axis, and grain boundaries acted as surface pinning. While for thick films, films grew along c axis at first, and then changed to a-b axis growth. As a result, the a-b axis grains acted as strong volume pinning.

  11. Flux pinning properties of impurity doped MgB2 bulks synthesized by diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Shinya; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Katsura, Yukari; Iwayama, Isao; Horii, Shigeru; Kishio, Kohji

    2005-01-01

    Doping effects of carbon-containing impurities on the critical current properties and microstructure were systematically studied for highly dense MgB 2 bulks prepared by the diffusion method starting from magnesium and boron which are separately packed in sealed stainless tubes. Obtained samples exhibited improved critical current density, J c , simply by an increase of effective current pass. A non-doped MgB 2 recorded almost double high J c at 20 K compared with those of the conventional porous MgB 2 bulks having ∼50% of the theoretical density, while irreversibility field, H irr , did not largely change. J c under high magnetic fields were enhanced by doping of carbon-containing impurities, such as SiC and B 4 C. Optimal doping levels of SiC and B 4 C for high critical current properties at 20 K are found to be ∼2% and 5%, respectively, as nominal carbon concentration at boron site. Difference in the optimal doping levels is originated from the difference in their reactivity

  12. A trapped field of >3 T in bulk MgB2 fabricated by uniaxial hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrell, J H; Dennis, A; Shi, Y; Xu, Z; Campbell, A M; Babu, N Hari; Cardwell, D A; Dancer, C E J; Todd, R I; Grovenor, C R M

    2012-01-01

    A trapped field of over 3 T has been measured at 17.5 K in a magnetized stack of two disc-shaped bulk MgB 2 superconductors of diameter 25 mm and thickness 5.4 mm. The bulk MgB 2 samples were fabricated by uniaxial hot pressing, which is a readily scalable, industrial technique, to 91% of their maximum theoretical density. The macroscopic critical current density derived from the trapped field data using the Biot–Savart law is consistent with the measured local critical current density. From this we conclude that critical current density, and therefore trapped field performance, is limited by the flux pinning available in MgB 2 , rather than by lack of connectivity. This suggests strongly that both increasing sample size and enhancing pinning through doping will allow further increases in trapped field performance of bulk MgB 2 . (rapid communication)

  13. Improved flux pinning behaviour in bulk MgB2 achieved by nano-SiO2 addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui, X F; Zhao, Y; Xu, Y Y; Zhang, L; Sun, X F; Wang, Y Z; Zhang, H

    2004-01-01

    Bulk MgB 2 with SiO 2 nanoparticles added has been synthesized using a simple solid-state reaction route. The lattice constant in the c direction increases with additive content due to a small amount of Si being doped into the lattice of the MgB 2 ; however, T c is almost fixed at 37.2 K. The addition of SiO 2 nanoparticles also improves the J c -H and H irr -T characteristics of MgB 2 when the additive content is lower than 7%. At 20 K and 1 T, J c for the sample with 7% additive content reaches 2.5 x 10 5 A cm -2 . Microstructural analysis reveals that a high density of MgSi 2 nanoparticles (10-50 nm) exists inside the MgB 2 grains, leading to the formation of a nanocomposite superconductor

  14. Microstructural and crystallographic imperfections of MgB2 superconducting wire and their correlation with the critical current density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Alzayed, Nasser S.; Oh, Sangjun; Choi, Seyong; Maeda, Minoru; Hata, Satoshi; Shimada, Yusuke; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Kim, Jung Ho

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the effects of structural imperfections in MgB2 superconducting wire has been conducted. As the sintering temperature becomes lower, the structural imperfections of the MgB2 material are increased, as reflected by detailed X-ray refinement and the normal state resistivity. The crystalline imperfections, caused by lattice disorder, directly affect the impurity scattering between the π and σ bands of MgB2, resulting in a larger upper critical field. In addition, low sintering temperature keeps the grain size small, which leads to a strong enhancement of pinning, and thereby, enhanced critical current density. Owing to both the impurity scattering and the grain boundary pinning, the critical current density, irreversibility field, and upper critical field are enhanced. Residual voids or porosities obviously remain in the MgB2, however, even at low sintering temperature, and thus block current transport paths.

  15. The effect of citric and oxalic acid doping on the superconducting properties of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, N; Singla, Rashmi; Varma, G D; Malik, V K; Bernhard, C

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report the effect of carbon doping on the structural and superconducting properties of MgB 2 using citric and oxalic acids as carbon sources. The bulk polycrystalline samples have been synthesized via a standard solid state reaction route with composition MgB 2 +x wt% of citric and oxalic acids (x = 0, 5 and 10). The x-ray diffraction results reveal the formation of dominantly MgB 2 with only a small amount of impurity phase MgO and substitution of C at the B site of MgB 2 for both dopants. Improvements in the upper critical field (H C2 ), irreversibility field (H irr ) and high field (>2.5 T) critical current density (J C ) have been observed on C doping in the samples. The correlations between superconducting properties and structural characteristics of the samples are described and discussed in this paper.

  16. Fabrication and radio frequency test of large-area MgB2 films on niobium substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhimao; Guo, Xin; Welander, Paul B.; Yang, Can; Franzi, Matthew; Tantawi, Sami; Feng, Qingrong; Liu, Kexin

    2017-04-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) is a promising candidate material for superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavities because of its higher transition temperature and critical field compared with niobium. To meet the demand of RF test devices, the fabrication of large-area MgB2 films on metal substrates is needed. In this work, high quality MgB2 films with 50 mm diameter were fabricated on niobium by using an improved HPCVD system at Peking University, and RF tests were carried out at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The transition temperature is approximately 39.6 K and the RF surface resistance is about 120 μΩ at 4 K and 11.4 GHz. The fabrication processes, surface morphology, DC superconducting properties and RF tests of these large-area MgB2 films are presented.

  17. Stress-strain effects on powder-in-tube MgB2 tapes and wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Kazumune; Takaya, Ryuya; Kasaba, Koichi; Tachikawa, Kyoji; Yamada, Yutaka; Shimura, Satoshi; Koshizuka, Naoki; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    The effects of stress-strain on the critical current, I c , of ex situ powder-in-tube (PIT)-processed Ni-sheathed MgB 2 tapes and round wires as well as in situ PIT-processed Cu-sheathed wires at 4.2 K in a magnetic field up to 5 T have been studied. The effect of In powder addition on the Ni-sheathed MgB 2 wire was not so clear compared with that in the tape, in which the irreversible strain, ε irr , for the I c degradation onset increases significantly by the addition. This is attributed to the difference in the microstructure of the core associated with cold workings. A peak and gradual degradation behaviour of I c with strain beyond ε irr was found in the wire, whereas no evident peak and a steep degradation behaviour was found in the tape. As a possible reason, the difference in the triaxial residual stress state at 4.2 K due to the difference in geometry of the cross-section is suspected. The transverse compression tests revealed that I c of the wire did not degrade up to 270 MPa. Again, the effect of In addition was minimal. The Young's modulus of MgB 2 , 31-41 GPa, at room temperature was estimated by a tensile test of Cu sheath wire using a high-accuracy extensometer and the law of mixtures. The tensile strain dependence of I c in the Cu sheath wire was similar to that in the Ni-sheathed wire, ε irr being 0.4%. However, the stress corresponding to ε irr , 50 MPa, was about 1/10 of that for the Ni-sheath wire and the irreversible transverse compressive stress, 150 MPa, was also lower. The effect of bending strain on the I c in Cu-sheathed wire was compared with that of the tensile strain

  18. Contribution to the development of dry R and W MgB2 superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquet, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the majority of superconducting magnets, including MRI, are cooled by a bath of liquid helium at atmospheric pressure. Nevertheless, this type of cooling is expensive and imposes significant security constraints for large volumes. For these reasons, the cooling of superconducting magnets is desirable without liquid helium. Cryo-cooler provides dry cooling to 4 K without any liquid helium. However, the power available is low and dry cooling is difficult. In these conditions, it is complicate to use NbTi with dry cooling. But if we increase the operating temperature to 10 K, the power of cryo-cooler increases by a factor of ten. Nevertheless in this case, it is necessary to use of a high critical temperature superconductor. We choose to use MgB 2 R and W conductors because it is relatively low cost but it has the handicap to be sensible at mechanical stress. It is therefore necessary to be careful during their winding to not degrade their superconducting performance. As part of this thesis, we have developed a dry test facility to measure the critical current of MgB 2 R and W conductors as well as mock-ups. To do this, a new type of thermal contact based on aluminum nitride has been developed. In addition to this development, we designed two MgB 2 R and W magnet mock-ups: a solenoid and a double pancake. The double pancake was manufactured (with a new patented winding method) and it has been successfully tested. (author) [fr

  19. Vibrational spectroscopy of superconducting MgB2 by neutron inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muranaka, Takahiro

    2001-01-01

    Neutron inelastic scattering measurements have been performed on superconducting MgB 2 above and below T c . The temperature dependence of the generalized phonon density-of-states showed clear anomalous behaviour near 24 meV in the acoustic phonon region, which may be interpreted as evidence of a substantial contribution to the total electron-phonon coupling strength deriving from these phonons. Weaker evidence for a corresponding response in the high-energy B bond stretching phonons was also encountered. (author)

  20. Correlated vortex pinning in Si-nanoparticle doped MgB2

    OpenAIRE

    Kusevic, I.; Babic, E.; Husnjak, O.; Soltanian, S.; Wang, X. L.; Dou, S. X.

    2003-01-01

    The magnetoresistivity and critical current density of well characterized Si-nanoparticle doped and undoped Cu-sheathed MgB$_{2}$ tapes have been measured at temperatures $T\\geq 28$ K in magnetic fields $B\\leq 0.9$ T. The irreversibility line $B_{irr}(T)$ for doped tape shows a stepwise variation with a kink around 0.3 T. Such $B_{irr}(T)$ variation is typical for high-temperature superconductors with columnar defects (a kink occurs near the matching field $% B_{\\phi}$) and is very different ...

  1. Enhanced superconducting properties of MgB2 by carbon substitution using carbon containing nano additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devadas, K.M.; Varghese, Neson; Vinod, K.; Rahul, S.; Thomas, Syju; Anooja, J.B.; Syamaprasad, U.; Sundaresan, A.; Roy, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study on the effect of doping of nano carbon, nano diamond and nano SiC in MgB 2 is carried out. The J c (H) is significantly enhanced for all doped samples compared to the pure sample among which MgB 1.9 C 0.1 (nano C) exhibits the best J c (H) performance. The enhanced performance is due to the effective substitution of C at B site which is confirmed by the systematic decrease in both α axis and T c . (author)

  2. The microwave surface impedance of MgB2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purnell, A J; Zhukov, A A; Nurgaliev, T; Lamura, G; Bugoslavsky, Y; Lockman, Z; MacManus-Driscoll, J L; Zhai, H Y; Christen, H M; Paranthaman, M P; Lowndes, D H; Jo, M H; Blamire, M G; Hao, Ling; Gallop, J C; Cohen, L F

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of measurements of the microwave surface impedance of a powder sample and two films of MgB 2 . The powder sample has a T c = 39 K and the films have T c = 29 K and 38 K. These samples show different temperature dependences of the field penetration depth. Over a period of six months, the film with T c = 38 K degraded to a T c of 35 K. We compare the results on all samples with data obtained elsewhere and discuss the implications as far as is possible at this stage

  3. Plasma Synthesized Doped Boron Nanopowder for MgB2 Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzik, James V.

    2012-01-01

    Under this program, a process to synthesize nano-sized doped boron powder by a plasma synthesis process was developed and scaled up from 20 gram batches at program start to over 200 grams by program end. Over 75 batches of boron nanopowder were made by RF plasma synthesis. Particle sizes were typically in the 20-200 nm range. The powder was synthesized by the reductive pyrolysis of BCl 3 in hydrogen in an RF plasma. A wide range of process parameters were investigated including plasma power, torch geometry, gas flow rates, and process pressure. The powder-in-tube technique was used to make monofilament and multifilament superconducting wires. MgB 2 wire made with Specialty Materials plasma synthesized boron nanopowder exhibited superconducting properties that significantly exceeded the program goals. Superconducting critical currents, J c , in excess of 10 5 A cm -2 at magnetic fields of 8 tesla were reproducibly achieved. The upper critical magnetic field in wires fabricated with program boron powder were H c2 (0) = 37 tesla, demonstrating the potential of these materials for high field magnet applications. T c in carbon-doped MgB 2 powder showed a systematic decrease with increasing carbon precursor gas flows, indicating the plasma synthesis process can give precise control over dopant concentrations. Synthesis rates increased by a factor of 400% over the course of the program, demonstrating the scalability of the powder synthesis process. The plasma synthesis equipment at Specialty Materials has successfully and reproducibly made high quality boron nanopowder for MgB 2 superconductors. Research and development from this program enabled Specialty Materials to successfully scale up the powder synthesis process by a factor of ten and to double the size of its powder pilot plant. Thus far the program has been a technical success. It is anticipated that continued systematic development of plasma processing parameters, dopant chemistry and concentration, wire processing technology, and collection technology will lead to the commercialization of boron nanopowder as a precursor for MgB 2 superconductors. Potential commercial applications include magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fault current limiters, wind turbine generators.

  4. Temperature dependence of the optical conductivity and penetration depth in superconductor MgB2 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moarrefi, M.; Yavari, H.; Elahi, M.

    2010-01-01

    By using Green's function method the temperature dependence of the optical conductivity and penetration depth of high-quality MgB 2 film are calculated in the framework of the two-band model. We compare our results with experimental data and we argue that the single gap model is insufficient to describe the optical and penetration depth behavior, but the two-band model with different symmetries describes the data rather well. In the two gap model we consider that the both components of optical conductivity are a weighted sum of the contribution from σ and π bonds and hybridization between them is negligible.

  5. Design of MgB2 superconducting dipole magnet for particle beam transport in accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.; Givel, J.C.; Andersen, N.H.; Zangenberg, N.; Baurichter, A.

    2006-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the innovation potential of superconductivity at Risoe was performed in February 2004 by the main author of this report. Several suggestions for new products and new markets were formulated by the superconductivity group and examined by the innovation staff at Risoe. The existing markets of superconducting technology is within highly specialized scientific areas such as magnetic confinement in fusion energy, sample environment in neutron scattering and large scale accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) at Cern, or in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) community using MR-imaging scanners in medicine and phase identification in organic chemistry. Only the NMR applications can be categorized as a highly profitable and commercial market today. The superconductivity group of Risoe formulated and presented the gearless superconducting wind turbine multipole generator as the most promising new concept, but further initiatives were stopped due to unclear patent possibilities. The experience of the innovation review was used in the STVF framework program 'New superconductors: mechanisms, processes and products' to identify potential new product for the collaborating company Danfysik A/S, which has a strong tradition in building resistive magnets for particle accelerators. A technology transfer project was formulated at the end of 2005 with the purpose to collect the knowledge about the MgB2 superconductor gained in the STVF program and in the European Framework Program 6 project HIPERMAG. It was presented at the Risoe innovation seminar January 2006, and recently a collaboration between Risoe and Danfysik A/S was initialized. The present report aims to outline a potential superconducting product within the STVF program. The use of the MgB 2 superconductors in a dipole magnet for guiding particle beams in a small scale accelerator is examined with the purpose to build lighter and smaller than the present resistive magnets. Here the critical current density of primarily MgB 2 will be compared with current density determined by specifications similar to the Tevatron accelerator, B = 4:4 Tesla and coil aperture D = 76 mm, which has been identified by Danfysik A/S as interesting. It is concluded that MgB 2 is useful for the dipole application and construction of a small test coil of one half of the magnet is planned in 2007. (au)

  6. Characterisation of nano-grains in MgB2 superconductors by transmission Kikuchi diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, D.C.K.; Yeoh, W.K.; Trimby, P.W.; De Silva, K.S.B.; Bao, P.; Li, W.X.; Xu, X.; Dou, S.X.; Ringer, S.P.; Zheng, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first application of the emerging transmission Kikuchi diffraction technique in the scanning electron microscope to investigate nano-grain structures in polycrystalline MgB 2 superconductors. Two sintering conditions were considered, and the resulting differences in superconducting properties are correlated to differences in grain structure. A brief comparison to X-ray diffraction results is presented and discussed. This work focusses more on the application of this technique to reveal grain structure, rather than on the detailed differences between the two sintering temperatures

  7. Raman study of electronic excitations in MgB2 with application of high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machtoub, L.; Takano, Y.; Kito, H.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first results of Raman scattering with application of magnetic field on magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ). In this work, we have investigated the magnetic field dependence of the 72 meV (E 2g mode) and the pair-breaking peak around 100 cm -1 which corresponds to σ-band gap. Intensity enhancement of Raman features around 800 cm -1 accompanied with broadening in the line shape of E 2g mode has been observed in some polycrystalline samples at 0 GPa. Results are compared with previous Raman study under hydrostatic pressure

  8. The reduction of optimal heat treatment temperature and critical current density enhancement of ex situ processed MgB2 tapes using ball milled filling powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hiroki; Iwanade, Akio; Kawada, Satoshi; Kitaguchi, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    The optimal heat treatment temperature (Topt) at which best performance in the critical current density (Jc) property at 4.2 K is obtained is influenced by the quality or reactivity of the filling powder in ex situ processed MgB2 tapes. Using a controlled fabrication process, the Topt decreases to 705-735 °C, which is lower than previously reported by more than 50 °C. The Topt decrease is effective to suppress both the decomposition of MgB2 and hence the formation of impurities such as MgB4, and the growth of crystallite size which decreases upper critical filed (Hc2). These bring about the Jc improvement and the Jc value at 4.2 K and 10 T reaches 250 A/mm2. The milling process also decreases the critical temperature (Tc) below 30 K. The milled powder is easily contaminated in air and thus, the Jc property of the contaminated tapes degrades severely. The contamination can raise the Topt by more than 50 °C, which is probably due to the increased sintering temperature required against contaminated surface layer around the grains acting as a barrier.

  9. Characterization of Mechanical Properties of MgB$_2$ Conductor for the Superconducting Link Project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Sugano, M; Bartova, B; Bjoerstad, R; Scheuerlein, C; Grasso, G

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of high luminosity upgrade of Large Hadron Collider at CERN, superconducting links are being developed. MgB2 wire is a candidate conductor for use in high-current cables. Mechanical properties of this material are of key importance for the definition of the cable design and operating conditions. In this study, we evaluated the Young's modulus of MgB2 filaments extracted from ex situ processed composite wires. The wires were produced in unit lengths of about 1 km and used in high-current cables. Single fiber tensile test was carried out on filaments composed of MgB2, Nb barrier, and Nb-Ni reaction layer. From the unloading modulus of filament specimens measured with different gauge lengths, the Young's modulus of composite filaments extracted from two different strands was determined to be 114 and 122 GPa at room temperature, respectively. By using the rule-of-mixture, the Young's modulus of MgB2 was estimated to be lower than that reported for highly dense MgB2 bulks. The reason for such diff...

  10. S-I-N tunneling spectroscopy of MgB2 superconductor: evidence of two superconducting energy gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Shashwati; Aswal, D.K.; Singh, Ajay; Gadkari, S.C.; Shah, K.; Gupta, S.K.; Sahni, V.C.

    2002-01-01

    The tunneling spectra of polycrystalline MgB 2 , have been recorded, at different temperatures between 29 K and T c , using planar superconductor- insulating-normal (S-I-N) tunneling spectroscopy. The planar S-I-N tunnel junctions have been fabricated by thermally evaporating Ag electrodes on MgB 2 surface. The naive layer, which forms at the surface of MgB 2 , due to atmospheric degradation, was employed as an insulating layer between Ag electrodes and MgB 2 . We have found presence of two clear superconducting energy gaps in MgB 2 . The magnitudes of these gaps at 29.5 K are 1.8 and 5.9 MeV, respectively. In the vicinity of T c , while larger energy gap obeyed BCS temperature dependence, the smaller energy gap deviated from BCS dependence. All the spectra exhibited zero-bias conductance, which decreased linearly with temperature and vanished at T c . (author)

  11. Magnetic microscopy for characterization of local critical current in iron-sheathed MgB2 wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashikawa, K.; Yamamoto, A.; Kiss, T.; Ye, S.; Matsumoto, A.; Kumakura, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a characterization method of local critical current in MgB 2 wires. • Local homogeneity was visualized by the scanning Hall-probe microscopy (SHPM). • Local critical current value was quantified with the aid of the finite element method (FEM). • MgB 2 wire still has inhomogeneous distribution in local critical current. • Higher potential than that estimated by the four-probe transport method was suggested. - Abstract: We have developed a characterization method of local critical current in iron-sheathed MgB 2 wires. Local homogeneity was visualized by the scanning Hall-probe microscopy (SHPM). The value of local critical current was quantified with the aid of the finite element method (FEM) considering the ferromagnetic properties of the iron sheath. The results suggested that MgB 2 wires fabricated by internal Mg diffusion processes still have large longitudinal inhomogeneity and much higher potential than that estimated by the four-probe transport method. This will be very important information for making a correct strategy for further development of MgB 2 wires

  12. Vapor annealing synthesis of non-epitaxial MgB2 films on glassy carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. A.; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Bae, J. H.; Stavrou, E.; Steich, D. J.; McCall, S. K.; Kucheyev, S. O.

    2018-05-01

    We describe the fabrication and characterization of 25–800 nm thick MgB2 films on glassy carbon substrates by Mg vapor annealing of sputter-deposited amorphous B films. Results demonstrate a critical role of both the initial B film thickness and the temperature–time profile on the microstructure, elemental composition, and superconducting properties of the resultant MgB2 films. Films with thicknesses of 55 nm and below exhibit a smooth surface, with a roughness of 1.1 nm, while thicker films have surface morphology consisting of elongated nano-crystallites. The suppression of the superconducting transition temperature for thin films scales linearly with the oxygen impurity concentration and also correlates with the amount of lattice disorder probed by Raman scattering. The best results are obtained by a rapid (12 min) anneal at 850 °C with large temperature ramp and cooling rates of ∼540 °C min‑1. Such fast processing suppresses the deleterious oxygen uptake.

  13. Flux pinning and inhomogeneity in magnetic nanoparticle doped MgB2/Fe wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosel, Nikolina; Pajić, Damir; Mustapić, Mislav; Babić, Emil; Shcherbakov, Andrey; Horvat, Joseph; Skoko, Željko; Zadro, Krešo

    2010-06-01

    The effects of magnetic nanoparticle doping on superconductivity of MgB2/Fe wires have been investigated. Fe2B and SiO2-coated Fe2B particles with average diameters 80 and 150 nm, respectively, were used as dopands. MgB2 wires with different nanoparticle contents (0, 3, 7.5, 12 wt.%) were sintered at temperature 750°C. The magnetoresistivity and critical current density Jc of wires were measured in the temperature range 2-40 K in magnetic field B doped wires decreases quite rapidly with doping level (~ 0.5 K per wt.%). This results in the reduction of the irreversibility fields Birr(T) and critical current densities Jc(B,T) in doped samples (both at low (5 K) and high temperatures (20 K)). Common scaling of Jc(B,T) curves for doped and undoped wires indicates that the main mechanism of flux pinning is the same in both types of samples. Rather curved Kramer's plots for Jc of doped wires imply considerable inhomogeneity.

  14. MgB2 magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portesi, C.; Mijatovic, D.; Veldhuis, D.; Brinkman, A.; Monticone, E.; Gonnelli, R. S.

    2006-05-01

    In this work, we show the results obtained in the fabrication and characterization of an MgB2 magnetometer with a directly coupled pick-up loop. We used an all in situ technique for fabricating magnesium diboride films, which consists of the co-evaporation of B and Mg by means of an e-gun and a resistive heater respectively. Consequently, we realized the superconducting device, which incorporates two nanobridges as weak links in a superconducting loop. The nanobridges were realized by focused ion beam milling; they were 240 nm wide and had a critical current density of 107 A cm-2. The magnetometer was characterized at different temperatures and also measurements of the noise levels have been performed. The device shows Josephson quantum interference up to 20 K and the calculated effective area at low temperatures was 0.24 mm2. The transport properties of the magnetometer allow determining fundamental materials properties of the MgB2 thin films, such as the penetration depth.

  15. Effect of malic acid doping on the structural and superconducting properties of MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, N.; Sudesh; Stuti Rani; Varma, G.D.

    2010-01-01

    The samples have been prepared via standard solid state reaction route with nominal compositions MgB 2 + x wt% malic acid (x = 0, 5 and 10) by sintering at two different temperatures: 800 and 850 deg C in argon atmosphere. Improvement in upper critical fields (H c2 ) and irreversibility field (H irr ) of doped samples as compared to undoped samples have been observed. At 10 K, critical current densities (J c ) of the 5 and 10 wt% malic acid doped MgB 2 samples sintered at 850 deg C have higher values as compared to undoped sample sintered at the same temperature in the fields greater than 3 T. However, J c values of 5 wt% malic acid doped sample are higher than 10 wt% doped sample in the entire applied field region (0 - 7 T). In case of the samples sintered at 800 deg C improvement in J c values of 5 wt% doped sample have been found in entire field region as compared to undoped sample. On the other hand we see deterioration in J c values of 10 wt% doped samples sintered at 800 deg C as compared to undoped samples sintered at same temperature. The correlations between structural and superconducting properties will be described and discussed in this paper. (author)

  16. MgB2 for Application to RF Cavities for Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Canabal, A.; Zhao, Y.; Romanenko, A.; Moeckly, B.H.; Nantista, C.D.; Tantawi, S.; Phillips, L.; Iwashita, Y.; Campisi, I.E.

    2007-01-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) has a transition temperature (T c ) of ∼40 K, i.e., about 4 times as high as that of niobium (Nb).We have been evaluating MgB 2 as a candidate material for radio-frequency (RF) cavities for future particle accelerators. Studies in the last 3 years have shown that it could have about one order of magnitude less RF surface resistance (Rs) than Nb at 4 K. A power dependence test using a 6 GHz TE011 mode cavity has shown little power dependence up to ∼12 mT (120 Oe), limited by available power, compared to other high-Tc materials such as YBCO. A recent study showed, however, that the power dependence of Rs is dependent on the coating method. A film made with on-axis pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has showed rapid increase in Rs compared to the film deposited by reactive evaporation method. This paper shows these results as well as future plans

  17. Mechanically activated self-propagated high-temperature synthesis of nanometer-structured MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radev, D.D.; Marinov, M.; Tumbalev, V.; Radev, I.; Konstantinov, L.

    2005-01-01

    Nanometer-sized MgB 2 was prepared via a two-step modification of the mechanically activated self-propagated high-temperature synthesis. The experimental conditions and some structural and phase characteristics of the synthesized product are reported. It is shown that a single-phase material can be prepared after 2 h of intense mechanical treatment of the starting magnesium and boron powders and a synthesis induced at a current-pulse density of 30 A cm -2 . The average size of MgB 2 particles synthesized in this way is 70-80 nm. It is also shown that using the same reagents and the 'classic' high-temperature interaction at 850 deg C with a protective atmosphere of pure Ar, mean particle size of the MgB 2 obtained is 50 μm

  18. Growth of high-quality large-area MgB2 thin films by reactive evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeckly, B H; Ruby, W S

    2006-01-01

    We report a new in situ reactive deposition thin film growth technique for the production of MgB 2 thin films which offers several advantages over all existing methods and is the first deposition method to enable the production of high-quality MgB 2 films for real-world applications. We have used this growth method, which incorporates a rotating pocket heater, to deposit MgB 2 films on a variety of substrates, including single-crystalline, polycrystalline, metallic, and semiconductor materials up to 4 inch in diameter. This technique allows growth of double-sided, large-area films in the intermediate temperature range of 400-600 deg. C. These films are clean, well-connected, and consistently display T c values of 38-39 K with low resistivity and residual resistivity values. They are also robust and uncommonly stable upon exposure to atmosphere and water. (rapid communication)

  19. Effects of TiC doping on the upper critical field of MgB2 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, S.C.; Zhou, L.; Yan, G.; Lu, Y.F.

    2008-01-01

    TiC doped MgB 2 bulks were fabricated by two-step reaction method. The sample with a nominal compositions of Mg(B 0.95 (TiC) 0.05 ) 4 was first sintered at 1000 deg. C for 0.5 h. An appropriate amount of Mg was added to reach the stoichiometry of Mg(B 0.95 (TiC) 0.05 ) 2 , which was sintered at 750 deg. C for 2 h. The H c2 for the micro-TiC doped MgB 2 reached 12 T at 20 K. And J c is 5.3 x 10 4 A/cm 2 at 20 K and 1 T. The results indicate that the two-step reaction method could effectively introduce the carbon in TiC into the MgB 2 crystalline lattice, and therefore improve the upper critical field

  20. NMR relaxation rates and Knight shifts in MgB2 and AlB2: theory versus experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavarini, E; Baek, S H; Suh, B J; Borsa, F; Bud'ko, S L; Canfield, P C

    2003-01-01

    We have performed 11 B NMR measurements in 11 B enriched MgB 2 powder sample in the normal phase. The Knight shift was accurately determined by using the magic angle spinning technique. Results for 11 B and 27 Al Knight shifts (K) and relaxation rates (1/T 1 ) are also reported for AlB 2 . The data show a dramatic decrease of both K and 1/T 1 for 11 B in AlB 2 with respect to MgB 2 . We compare experimental results with ab initio calculated NMR relaxation rates and Knight shifts. The experimental values for 1/T 1 and K are in most cases in good agreement with the theoretical results. We show that the decrease of K and 1/T 1 for 11 B is consistent with a drastic drop of the density of states at the boron site in AlB 2 with respect to MgB 2

  1. Electro-mechanical characterization of MgB2 wires for the Superconducting Link Project at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulou, K.; Ballarino, A.; Gharib, A.; Stimac, A.; Garcia Gonzalez, M.; Perez Fontenla, A. T.; Sugano, M.

    2016-08-01

    In previous years, the R & D program between CERN and Columbus Superconductors SpA led to the development of several configurations of MgB2 wires. The aim was to achieve excellent superconducting properties in high-current MgB2 cables for the HL-LHC upgrade. In addition to good electrical performance, the superconductor shall have good mechanical strength in view of the stresses during operation (Lorenz forces and thermal contraction) and handling (tension and bending) during cabling and installation at room temperature. Thus, the study of the mechanical properties of MgB2 wires is crucial for the cable design and its functional use. In the present work we report on the electro-mechanical characterization of ex situ processed composite MgB2 wires. Tensile tests (critical current versus strain) were carried out at 4.2 K and in a 3 T external field by means of a purpose-built bespoke device to determine the irreversible strain limit of the wire. The minimum bending radius of the wire was calculated taking into account the dependence of the critical current with the strain and it was then used to obtain the minimum twist pitch of MgB2 wires in the cable. Strands extracted from cables having different configurations were tested to quantify the critical current degradation. The Young’s modulus of the composite wire was measured at room temperature. Finally, all measured mechanical parameters will be used to optimize an 18-strand MgB2 cable configuration.

  2. Microscopic unravelling of nano-carbon doping in MgB2 superconductors fabricated by diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, D.C.K.; Yeoh, W.K.; De Silva, K.S.B.; Kondyurin, A.; Bao, P.; Li, W.X.; Xu, X.; Peleckis, G.; Dou, S.X.; Ringer, S.P.; Zheng, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • First report on nano-carbon doped MgB 2 superconductors synthesized by diffusion method. • Microstructure and superconducting properties of the superconductors are discussed. • B 4 C region blocks the Mg from reacting with B in the 10% nano-carbon doped sample. • MgB 2 with 2.5% nano-carbon doped showed the highest J c , ≈10 4 A/cm 2 for 20 K at 4 T. - Abstract: We investigated the effects of nano-carbon doping as the intrinsic (B-site nano-carbon substitution) and extrinsic (nano-carbon derivatives) pinning by diffusion method. The contraction of the in-plane lattice confirmed the presence of disorder in boron sublattice caused by carbon substitution. The increasing value in full width half maximum (FWHM) in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns with each increment in the doping level reveal smaller grains and imperfect MgB 2 crystalline. The strain increased across the doping level due to the carbon substitution in the MgB 2 matrix. The broadening of the T c curves from low to high doping showed suppression of the connectivity of the bulk samples with progressive dirtying. At high doping, the presence of B 4 C region blocked the Mg from reacting with crystalline B thus hampering the formation of MgB 2 . Furthermore, the unreacted Mg acted as a current blocking phase in lowering down the grain connectivity hence depressing the J c of the 10% nano-carbon doped MgB 2 bulk superconductor

  3. Effects of Bi-2212 addition on the levitation force properties of bulk MgB2 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylan Koparan, E.; Savaskan, B.; Guner, S.B.; Celik, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the effects of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+κ (Bi-2212) adding on the levitation force and magnetic properties of bulk MgB 2 obtained by hot press method. The amount of Bi-2212 was varied between 0 and 10 wt% (0, 2, 4, 6, 10 wt%) of the total MgB 2 . Moreover, we present MgB 2 bulk samples fabricated by using different production methods including hot pressing method to our knowledge. All samples were prepared by using elemental magnesium (Mg) powder, amorphous nano-boron (B) powder and Bi-2212 powder which are produced by hot press method. As a result of hot press process, compact pellet samples were manufactured. The vertical and lateral levitation force measurements were executed at the temperatures of 20, 24 and 28 K under zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) regimes for samples with various adding levels. At 24 K and 28 K under ZFC regime, the 2 wt% Bi-2212 added sample exhibits a higher vertical levitation force than the pure sample. Bi-2212 added MgB 2 samples compared to the pure sample have lower attractive force values in FC regime. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current density J c was calculated from the M-H loops for Bi-2212 added MgB 2 samples. The 2 wt% Bi-2212 added sample has the best levitation and critical current density performance compared to other samples. The critical temperature (T c ) has slightly dropped from 37.8 K for the pure MgB 2 sample to 36.7 K for the 10 wt% of Bi-2212 added sample. The transition temperature slightly decreases when Bi-2212 adding level is increased. (orig.)

  4. Physical properties in flux line lattice state in MgB2 probed by μSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Kazuki; Muranaka, Takahiro; Akimitsu, Jun; Koda, Akihiro; Higemoto, Wataru; Kadono, Ryosuke

    2002-01-01

    We have performed muon spin rotation (μSR) measurements to deduce the magnetic penetration depth λ in the flux line lattice state of MgB 2 microscopically. It is observed that λ shows a quadratic temperature dependence which is predicted for the case of superconducting gap with line nodes. Furthermore, it clearly exhibits a strong field dependence, where λ increases almost linearly with H. These results strongly suggest that the superconducting order parameter in MgB 2 is highly anisotropic. (author)

  5. Design, manufacturing and tests of first cryogen-free MgB2 prototype coils for offshore wind generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmiento, G; Sanz, S; Pujana, A; Merino, J M; Apiñaniz, S; Marino, I; Iturbe, R; Nardelli, D

    2014-01-01

    Although renewable sector has started to take advantage of the offshore wind energy recently, the development is very intense. Turbines reliability, size, and cost are key aspects for the wind industry, especially in marine locations. A superconducting generator will allow a significant reduction in terms of weight and size, but cost and reliability are two aspects to deal with. MgB 2 wire is presented as one promising option to be used in superconducting coils for wind generators. This work shows the experimental results in first cryogen-free MgB 2 prototype coils, designed according to specific requirements of TECNALIA's wind generator concept.

  6. Phase 1 Final Technical Report - MgB2 Synthesis: Pushing to High Field Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, Mohit; McIntyre, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Accelerator Technology Corp. (ATC) has successfully completed its Phase 1 effort to develop rf plasma torch synthesis of MgB2 superconducting powder. The overall objective is to de-velop a way to introduce homogeneous alloying of C and SiC impurities into phase-pure MgB2. Several groups have attained remarkable benefits from such alloying in raising the upper critical field Hc2 from ∼14 T to ∼30 T (bulk) and ∼50 T (thin films). But no one has succeeded in pro-ducing that benefit homogeneously, so that current transport in a practical powder-in-tube (PIT) conductor is largely the same as without the alloying. ATC has conceived the possibility of attaining such homogeneity by passing aerosol suspen-sions of reactant powders through an rf plasma torch, with each reactant transported on a stream-line that heats it to an optimum temperature for the synthesis reaction. This procedure would uniquely access non-equilibrium kinetics for the synthesis reaction, and would provide the possi-bility to separately control the temperature and stoichiometry of each reactant as it enters the mixing region where synthesis occurs. It also facilitates the introduction of seed particles (e.g. nanoscale SiC) to dramatically enhance the rate of the synthesis reaction compared to gas-phase synthesis in rf plasma reported by Canfield and others. During the Phase 1 effort ATC commissioned its 60 kW 5 MHz rf source for a manufactur-ing-scale rf plasma torch. This effort required repair of numerous elements, integration of cooling and input circuits, and tuning of the load characteristics. The effort was successful, and the source has now been tested to ∼full power. Also in the Phase 1 effort we encountered a subsidiary but very important problem: the world is running out of the only present supply of phase-pure amorphous boron. The starting boron powder must be in the amorphous phase in order for the synthesis reaction to produce phase-pure MgB2. Even small contamination with crystalline boron results in the formation of parasitic phases such as MgB4, MgB7, etc. Such parasitic phases are a primary element of the connectivity problem, in which even though a sample powder may contain grains of high-quality MgB2, adjacent grains are surrounded by intergrowths of parasitic phases so that current trans-port is badly degraded. The best results to date have been obtained using boron powder produced long ago for a rocket propellant development project. The synthesis process was complex and is now largely lost, and the manufacturing equipment has long since been scrapped. The last batch of the powder has been used during recent years to support MgB2 R and D at several labs, but supplies are dwindling. ATC has identified a first application of its plasma torch to synthesize phase-pure amorphous boron flake using a rapid-quench splat technique. Inexpensive technical-grade boron would be purified of contaminants, then dispersed as an aerosol in inert gas and passed through the plasma torch to melt it into a spray. The spray would be splat-condensed on a rotating drum to form pure amorphous flake. The process would begin with technical-grade boron powder, having good stoichiometric purity, nanoscale particles, but significant contamination of MgO and crystalline boron. We used wet chemistry to remove B2O3 completely and reduced the MgO impurity, and analyzed the particle size distribution using a Coulter counter and the phase composition using X-ray diffrac-tion (XRD). The next step will be to build an rf plasma torch with a recirculating single-component aerosol feed and the cooled splat drum and collector, and undertake process devel-opment for amorphous boron powder. This revised goal has two benefits. First, it is an easier technology than our ultimate goal of a multi-component laminar flow torch. We have been counseled by those experienced in plasma torch technology that our ultimate goal will require a torch that should be feasible but has never been attempted. It may require an extended period of R and D for both the torch itself and the gas dynamics in the reaction region. Second, this simpler single-component process will yield a product powder that is important today for the many groups undertaking powder-metallurgy routes to MgB2. The above success and learning curve has brought us to a significant shift of strategy from what was originally set out in the Phase 1 plan. But this shift has brought us to within sight of a powder product that will itself be an enabling boost for the community of MgB2 developers.

  7. Structural and critical current properties in Al-doped MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, D.N.; Xiang, J.Y.; Lang, P.L.; Li, J.Q.; Che, G.C.; Zhao, Z.W.; Wen, H.H.; Tian, H.Y.; Ni, Y.M.; Zhao, Z.X.

    2004-01-01

    A series of Al-doped Mg 1-x Al x B 2 samples have been fabricated and systematic study on structure and superconducting properties have been carried out for the samples. In addition to a structural transition observed by XRD, TEM micrographs showed the existence of a superstructure of double c-axis lattice constant along the direction perpendicular to the boron honeycomb sheet. In order to investigate the effect of Al doping on flux pinning and critical current properties in MgB 2 , measurements on the superconducting transition temperature T c , irreversible field B irr and critical current density J c were performed too, for the samples with the doping levels lower than 0.15 in particular. These experimental observations were discussed in terms of Al doping induced changes in carrier concentration

  8. Structural and critical current properties in Al-doped MgB 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D. N.; Xiang, J. Y.; Lang, P. L.; Li, J. Q.; Che, G. C.; Zhao, Z. W.; Wen, H. H.; Tian, H. Y.; Ni, Y. M.; Zhao, Z. X.

    2004-08-01

    A series of Al-doped Mg 1- xAl xB 2 samples have been fabricated and systematic study on structure and superconducting properties have been carried out for the samples. In addition to a structural transition observed by XRD, TEM micrographs showed the existence of a superstructure of double c-axis lattice constant along the direction perpendicular to the boron honeycomb sheet. In order to investigate the effect of Al doping on flux pinning and critical current properties in MgB 2, measurements on the superconducting transition temperature Tc, irreversible field Birr and critical current density Jc were performed too, for the samples with the doping levels lower than 0.15 in particular. These experimental observations were discussed in terms of Al doping induced changes in carrier concentration.

  9. Interplay of dendritic avalanches and gradual flux penetration in superconducting MgB2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shantsev, D V; Goa, P E; Barkov, F L; Johansen, T H; Kang, W N; Lee, S I

    2003-01-01

    Magneto-optical imaging was used to study a zero-field-cooled MgB 2 film at 9.6 K where in a slowly increasing field the flux penetrates by an abrupt formation of large dendritic structures. Simultaneously, a gradual flux penetration takes place, eventually covering the dendrites, and a detailed analysis of this process is reported. We find an anomalously high gradient of the flux density across a dendrite branch, and a peak value that decreases as the applied field increases. This unexpected behaviour is reproduced by flux creep simulations based on the non-local field-current relation in the perpendicular geometry. The simulations also provide indirect evidence that flux dendrites are formed at an elevated local temperature, consistent with a thermo-magnetic mechanism of the instability

  10. Microwave second-harmonic response of ceramic MgB2 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agliolo Gallitto, A.; Bonsignore, G.; Li Vigni, M.

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear microwave response of different ceramic MgB 2 samples has been investigated by the technique of second-harmonic emission. The second-harmonic signal has been investigated as a function of temperature, DC magnetic field and input microwave power. The attention has mainly been devoted to the response at low magnetic fields, where nonlinear processes arising from motion of Abrikosov fluxons are ineffective. The results show that different mechanisms are responsible for the nonlinear response in the different ranges of temperature. At low temperatures, the nonlinear response is due to processes involving weak links. At temperatures close to T c , a further contribution to the harmonic emission is present; it can be ascribed to modulation of the order parameter by the microwave field and gives rise to a peak in the temperature dependence of the harmonic signal

  11. The superconducting properties of co-doped polycrystalline MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J D; Perkins, G K; Branford, W; Yates, K A; Caplin, A D; Cohen, L F; Chen, Soo Kien; Rutter, N A; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L

    2007-01-01

    In this study we compare the critical current density, the irreversibility line and the upper critical field of four MgB 2 polycrystalline samples, which are either undoped or have 5% carbon or 5% carbon plus either 1% aluminium or 2% zirconium. We discuss how care must be taken for the extraction of the irreversibility line in such samples. We also show how ac susceptibility and Hall probe imaging can be used to examine whether the samples remain fully connected to the highest available fields. Compared to simple 5% carbon doping we find that co-doping provides modest improvement in the pinning properties at intermediate fields in the carbon plus zirconium doped sample

  12. Hall conductivity and the vortex phase in MgB2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Soon-Gil; Seong, W K; Huh, Ji Young; Lee, T G; Kang, W N; Choi, Eun-Mi; Kim, Heon-Jung; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2007-01-01

    In a MgB 2 thin film superconductor, we have found that Hall conductivity (σ xy ) is described by the sum of two terms, σ xy = C 1 /H+C 3 H, where C 1 and C 3 are independent of the magnetic fields and have positive values. C 1 is observed to be proportional to (1-t) n with n = 4.2, where t is the reduced temperature (T/T c ), and C 3 is weakly dependent on the temperature. These results are consistent with those of the overdoped La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 superconductors. Based on Hall angle data, we obtained a vortex phase diagram with three regions, vortex-solid, crossover, and vortex-liquid regions in the H-T plane

  13. Critical current density of MgB2 thin films and the effect of interface pinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun-Mi; Gupta, S K; Sen, Shashwati; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2004-01-01

    Preferentially oriented MgB 2 thin films with c-axis normal to the surface have been prepared and characterized for microstructure and transport properties. The magnetic field dependence of superconducting critical current density J c has been determined from the magnetization hysteresis (M-H) loops at various temperatures using the Bean's critical state model. High J c of these films show their potential for applications. We have also measured the angular dependences of J c . The angular dependence is seen to be in agreement with the anisotropic Ginzburg-Landau model except that at angles close to the ab plane, increased pinning due to film-substrate interaction is observed. The angular range where interface pinning is effective has been determined by measurement of asymmetry in dissipation on reversal of current for fields applied at angles close to the ab plane

  14. Phase dynamics of single long Josephson junction in MgB2 superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimouriya, Shanker Pd.; Ghimire, Bal Ram; Kim, Ju H.

    2018-05-01

    A system of perturbed sine Gordon equations is derived to a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) long Joseph-son junction as an extension of the Ambegaokar-Baratoff relation, following the long route of path integral formalism. A computer simulation is performed by discretizing the equations using finite difference approximation and applied to the MgB2 superconductor with SiO2 as the junction material. The solution of unperturbed sG equation is taken as the initial profile for the simulation and observed how the perturbation terms play the role to modify it. It is found initial profile deformed as time goes on. The variation of total Josephson current has also been observed. It is found that, the perturbation terms play the role for phase frustration. The phase frustration achieves quicker for high tunneling current.

  15. Tests on MgB2 for Application to SRF Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Canabal, A.; Los Alamos; Zhao, Y.; Wollongong U.; Romanenko, A.; Cornell U., LNS; Nantista, C.; Tantawi, S.; SLAC; Phillips, L.; Jefferson Lab; Iwashita, Y.; Kyoto U., Inst. Chem. Res.; Campisi, I.; Oak Ridge; Moeckly, B.; Superconductor Tech., Santa Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) has a transition temperature (T c ) of ∼40 K, i.e., about 4 times higher than niobium (Nb). Studies in the last 3 years have shown that it could have about one order of magnitude less RF surface resistance (R s ) than Nb at 4 K and seems to have much less power dependence than high-T c materials such as YBCO. However, it was also found that it will depend on the way you deposit the film. The result from on-axis pulsed laser deposition (PLD) showed rapid increase in R s with higher surface magnetic fields compared to the film deposited with reactive evaporation method

  16. The increase in Tc for MgB2 superconductor under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z-X; Jin, C-Q; You, J-Y; Li, S-C; Zhu, J-L; Yu, R-C; Li, F-Y; Su, S-K

    2002-01-01

    We report in situ high-pressure studies up to 1.0 GPa on MgB 2 superconductor which had been synthesized at high pressure. The as-prepared sample is of high quality as regards having a sharp superconducting transition (T c ) at 39 K. The in situ high-pressure measurements were carried out using a Be-Cu piston-cylinder-type instrument with a mixed oil as the pressure-transmitting medium, which provides a quasi-hydrostatic pressure environment at low temperature. The superconducting transitions were measured using the electrical conductance method. It is found that T c increases with pressure in the initial pressure range, leading to a parabolic-like T c -P evolution

  17. A possibility of enhancing Jc in MgB2 film grown on metallic hastelloy tape with the use of SiC buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putri, W. B. K.; Kang, B.; Ranot, M.; Lee, J. H.; Kang, W. N.

    2014-01-01

    We have grown MgB 2 on SiC buffer layer by using metallic Hastelloy tape as the substrate. Hastelloy tape was chosen for its potential practical applications, mainly in the power cable industry. SiC buffer layers were deposited on Hastelloy tapes at 400, 500, and 600 degrees C by using a pulsed laser deposition method, and then by using a hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition technique, MgB 2 films were grown on the three different SiC buffer layers. An enhancement of critical current density values were noticed in the MgB 2 films on SiC/Hastelloy deposited at 500 and 600 degrees C. From the surface analysis, smaller and denser grains of MgB 2 tapes are likely to cause this enhancement. This result infers that the addition of SiC buffer layers may contribute to the improvement of superconducting properties of MgB 2 tapes.

  18. EDX and ion beam treatment studies of filamentary in situ MgB2 wires with Ti barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosova, A.; Kovac, P.; Husek, I.; Kopera, L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → SiC-doped MgB 2 wires with Ti barrier showed good Jc in magnetic field. → Explanation why the Ti barrier fits to SiC-doped MgB 2 filaments. → Ti barrier getters Si from SiC-doped filaments and improve their properties. → Si accumulated in an inner layer of Ti barrier protects filaments from Cu diffusion. → Ion beam treatment helps to discover microstructure of complicated systems. - Abstract: In situ SiC-doped filamentary MgB 2 wires (with the diameter of 0.860 and 0.375 mm) with Cu stabilization separated by Ti barrier layers supported by outer SS sheath and annealed at 800 deg. C/0.5 h have been studied by combination of EDX analysis and ion beam selective etching. It was found that several Ti-Cu inter-metallic compounds were created by Cu-Ti interdiffusion and thus the barrier protection against Cu penetration into the superconducting filaments is limited. We showed an advantage of Ti use as the barrier material in our wires. Ti getters silicon out from the superconducting filament, what purges superconducting MgB 2 from Si and creates an additional Si-rich layer in inner part of Ti barrier which prevents Cu diffusion more effectively.

  19. Magnetic properties and critical current density of bulk MgB2 polycrystalline with Bi-2212 addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, T M; Li, G; Zhu, X T; Cheng, C H; Zhao, Y

    2005-01-01

    Bulk samples of MgB 2 were prepared with 0, 3, 5, and 10 wt% Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 (Bi-2212) particles, added using a simple solid-state reaction route in order to investigate the effect of inclusions of a material with higher T c than the superconducting matrix. The density, diamagnetic signal, and critical current density, J c , of the samples change significantly with the doping level. It is found that J c is significantly enhanced by the Bi-2212 addition. Microstructural analysis indicates that a small amount of Bi-2212 is decomposed into Cu 2 O and other impurity phases while a significant amount of unreacted Bi-2212 particles remains in MgB 2 matrix, and these act as effective pinning centres for vortices. The enhanced pinning force is mainly attributable to these highly dispersed inclusions inserted in the MgB 2 grains. Despite the effectiveness of the high-T c inclusions in increasing superconducting critical currents in our experiment, our results seem to demonstrate the superiority of attractive centres over repulsive ones. A pinning mechanism is proposed to account for the contribution of this type of pinning centre in MgB 2 superconductors. (rapid communication)

  20. Fabrication of extruded wire of MgB2/Al composite material and its superconducting property and microstructure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matsuda, K.; Nishimura, K.; Ikeno, S.; Mori, K.; Aoyama, S.; Yabumoto, Y.; Hishinuma, Y.; Müllerová, Ilona; Frank, Luděk; Yurchenko, V. V.; Johansen, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 97, - (2008), 012230:1-6 E-ISSN 1742-6596. [European Conference on Applied Superconductivity /8./ - EUCAS 2007. Brussels, 16.09.2007-20.09.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : MgB2/Al composite * superconductors * electron microscopy Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  1. Crystallinity and superconductivity of as-grown MgB2 thin films with AlN buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Shimakage, H.; Wang, Z.; Kaya, N.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of aluminum nitride (AlN) buffer layers on the superconducting properties of MgB 2 thin film were investigated. The AlN buffer layers and as-grown MgB 2 thin films were deposited in situ using the multiple-target sputtering system. The best depositing condition for the AlN/MgB 2 bi-layer occurred when the AlN was deposited on c-cut sapphire substrates at 290 deg. C. The crystallinity of the AlN/MgB 2 bi-layer was studied using the XRD φ-scan and it showed that AlN and MgB 2 had the same in-plane alignment rotated at an angle of 30 deg. as compared to c-cut sapphire. The critical temperature of the MgB 2 film was 29.8 K and the resistivity was 50.0 μΩ cm at 40 K

  2. Effects of graphite doping on critical current density and microstructure of MgB2 bulks by an improved Mg-diffusion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, X.F.; Zhao, Y.; Feng, Y.; Yang, Y.; Cheng, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    abstract: A series of graphite-doped MgB 2 bulks with high density have been successfully prepared by an improved Mg-diffusion method in ambient pressure. The effects of graphite doping on lattice parameters, T c , J c and microstructure of MgB 2 have been investigated. The results show that compared to the nano-C-doped or CNTs-doped MgB 2 , C is not easy to substitute B in graphite-doped MgB 2 . However, at the same C content, the graphite-doped MgB 2 has a higher J c . At 10 K and self-field, the J c for MgB 1.985 C 0.015 reaches 0.58 MA/cm 2 . For the MgB 1.945 C 0.055 , at 5 K, 7 T and 10 K, 6 T the J c achieves 10,000 A/cm 2 which is two orders of magnitude higher than that for the undoped sample. In addition to improving electron scattering and intergranular connectivity, the unreacted graphite in the graphite-doped MgB 2 is proposed to be responsible to the excellent J c properties of MgB 2 in high fields, due to depressed grain growth and enhanced grain boundary flux pinning

  3. Transport relaxation measurements and glassy state effects in superconducting MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olutas, M.; Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K.

    2008-01-01

    Time dependent effects in superconducting MgB 2 have been studied systematically for the first time by transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) as a function of transport current (I), temperature (T) and external magnetic field (H). At very low dissipation levels (below ∼1 μV), it was observed that the sample voltage grows up smoothly in time by exhibiting the details of initial stage of relaxation process. At high dissipation levels, steady state corresponding to constant flow rate is maintained within a very short time and monitoring of details of flux dynamic evolving along sample becomes difficult on long time scales. Another interesting behavior is the appearance of voltage peak when the transport current was reduced to a finite value. After peak, it was observed that the sample voltage relaxes smoothly by leveling off within a very short time. The evolution of V-t curves suggests that formation of resistive flow channels along sample develops easily, which is quite similar to that of obtained for the superconducting ceramic samples whose grain boundaries are improved. Time dependent effects were also observed in magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) as the field sweep rate (dH/dt) varies. The observations were interpreted mainly in terms of flux trapping in grains

  4. Investigation of the resistive transition of MgB2 thin film through current noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, C; Rajteri, M; Portesi, C; Monticone, E; Masoero, A; Mazzetti, P

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present measurements concerning the current noise produced during the resistive transition in a MgB 2 polycrystalline thin film. The power spectrum of the current noise, observed when the temperature is slowly changed across its critical value, presents a large electrical noise of the 1/f n type (n ≅ 3) over a quite wide range of frequencies. This noise may be considered as generated by the abrupt creation of resistive strips across the specimen constituted by grains which have undergone the resistive transition. A computer model that takes into account fluctations of the grain critical currents and of the number of grain per strips, has been developed to simulate the resistive transition and to evaluate the noise power spectrum. When the temperature is incresed and reaches its critical value, resistive strips are formed according to a percolative process, giving rise to resistance steps which are at the origin of the noise. The theoretical results obtained by this model are in good agreement, concerning both the shape and intensity of the noise power spectrum, with the experimental data directly measured on the specimen

  5. Development of ex situ processed MgB2 wires and their applications to magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braccini, Valeria; Nardelli, Davide; Penco, Roberto; Grasso, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the relatively short time dedicated to the development of magnesium diboride conductors since its discovery in early 2001, a substantial improvement was soon achieved in their manufacture and use. Unlike many others HTS and LTS materials, the MgB 2 conductor processing is more open to a number of improvements and modifications that help in making it more attractive for several DC and AC applications. Many kilometres of conductors were already produced throughout the world and it is now possible to start seriously thinking about a systematic industrial production of this material, as it is already possible to purchase it in reasonable lengths on the free market. These remarkable lengths of conductor were also wound in coils and their performance continuously improved in the past years. Here we will present a review of the recent results and a perspective for the future development of this 'new' superconductor, starting from the optimisation of the precursor powders needed to improve the magnetic field behaviour of the tapes, to the conductor development, i.e. the production of multifilamentary Cu-stabilized tapes in lengths up to 1.78 km, to the realization of the first large-scale application devices such as MRI magnets and fault current limiters

  6. Development and fundamental study on a superconducting induction/synchronous motor incorporated with MgB2 cage windings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T; Yamada, Y; Nishio, H; Sugano, M; Amemiya, N; Kajikawa, K; Wakuda, T; Takahashi, M; Okada, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a fundamental study of the rotating characteristics of a induction/synchronous motor by use of superconducting MgB 2 cage windings is carried out based on analysis and experiment. Current transport properties of the produced monofilamentary MgB 2 wires are firstly characterized, and then utilized for the determination of the current carrying capacity of the rotor bars. Then, the motor model is designed and fabricated with the aid of conventional (copper) stator windings. We successfully observe the synchronous rotation of the fabricated motor at a rotation speed range from 300 to 1800 rpm. We can also realize an almost constant torque versus speed curve, and this characteristic is explained from the steep take-off of the electric field versus the current density curve, based on the nonlinear electrical equivalent circuit. These results are promising for the practical applications of a high efficiency motor for a liquid hydrogen circulation pump.

  7. Mechanical properties and bending strain effect on Cu-Ni sheathed MgB2 superconducting tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Minyi; Chen, Jiangxing; Jiao, Zhengkuan; Kumakura, H.; Togano, K.; Ding, Liren; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Zhiyou; Han, Hanmin; Chen, Jinglin

    2004-01-01

    The Young's modulus (E) of Cu-Ni sheathed MgB 2 monofilament tape was measured using electric method. It is about 8.05 x 10 10 Pa, the same order of Cu and its alloys. We found that the lower E value of the MgB 2 component seemed to relate to the lower filament density. The benefits of pre-compression in filaments were discussed in terms of improving stress distribution in the wires and tapes during winding and operation of superconducting magnets. The magnetic field dependence of J c was investigated on the sample subjected to various strain levels through bending with different radii at 4.2 K

  8. Critical current density improvements in MgB2 superconducting bulk samples by K2CO3 additions  

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, J.-C.

    2018-01-01

    MgB2 bulk samples with potassium carbonate doping were made by means of reaction of elemental Mg and B powders mixed with various amounts of K2CO3. The Tc of the superconducting phase as well as its a-axis parameter were decreased as a result of carbon doping. Potassium escaped the samples during...... reaction. The critical current density of MgB2 was improved both in self field and under applied magnetic field for T ≤ 30 K, with optimum results for 1 mol% K2CO3 addition. The normalized flux pinning force (f(b)) shows that the flux pinning mechanism at low field is similar for all samples, following...

  9. Persistence of metastable vortex lattice domains in MgB2 in the presence of vortex motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastovski, C; Schlesinger, K J; Gannon, W J; Dewhurst, C D; DeBeer-Schmitt, L; Zhigadlo, N D; Karpinski, J; Eskildsen, M R

    2013-09-06

    Recently, extensive vortex lattice metastability was reported in MgB2 in connection with a second-order rotational phase transition. However, the mechanism responsible for these well-ordered metastable vortex lattice phases is not well understood. Using small-angle neutron scattering, we studied the vortex lattice in MgB2 as it was driven from a metastable to the ground state through a series of small changes in the applied magnetic field. Our results show that metastable vortex lattice domains persist in the presence of substantial vortex motion and directly demonstrate that the metastability is not due to vortex pinning. Instead, we propose that it is due to the jamming of counterrotated vortex lattice domains which prevents a rotation to the ground state orientation.

  10. Effects of α-particle beam irradiation on superconducting properties of thin film MgB2 superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Bum; Duong, Pham van; Ha, Dong Hyup; Oh, Young Hoon; Kang, Won Nam; Chai, Jong Seo [Sungkunkwan Univeversity, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Seung Pyo; Kim, Ran Young [Kore Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Superconducting properties of thin film MgB2 superconductors irradiated with 45 MeV α-particle beam were studied. After the irradiation, enhancement of the critical current density and pinning force was observed, scaling close to strong pinning formula. Double logarithmic plots of the maximum pinning force density with irreversible magnetic field show a power law behavior close to carbon-doped MgB2 film or polycrystals. Variation of normalized pinning force density in the reduced magnetic field suggests scaling formulas for strong pinning mechanism like planar defects. We also observed a rapid decay of critical current density as the vortex lattice constant decreases, due to the strong interaction between vortices and increasing magnetic field.

  11. First-principles study of the (0001)-MgB2 surface finished in Mg and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura, Sully; Martínez, Jairo Arbey Rodríguez; Moreno-Armenta, María Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    We present a study based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) of the volume and two surfaces (0001) of MgB 2 , one of them terminated in Mg and the other one terminated in B. Each one of the surface was relaxed and their electronic properties were determined. From calculation of the enthalpy of formation we found that the Mg-terminated surface is energetically favored. The bands seem to present a formation similar to the Dirac's cone as that are presented in graphene, but in MgB 2 is above of the Fermi level. In the three cases, volume and the two surfaces, the behaviour is boron-metallic, because there are strong presence of B orbital's in the neighborhood of the Ferm level

  12. The effect of copper additions in the synthesis of in situ MgB2 Cu-sheathed wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woźniak, M.; Hopkins, S.C.; Gajda, D.; Glowacki, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    The powder-in-tube (PIT) technique has been used to fabricate copper-sheathed magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) wires using an insitu reaction method. The effect of copper powder additions, magnesium-boron molar ratio and heat treatment is studied by SEM, XRD, transport critical current I c (B) and resistivity ρ(T, B) measurements. The results show that addition of copper powder to the core of the wire accelerates the formation of MgB 2 and hence increases its amount and greatly decreases the amount of Mg-Cu intermetallic phases present in the core of the wire after heat treatment. Excess magnesium proved to be effective in compensating for Mg loss due to interdiffusion with the Cu of the wire sheath and resulted in less unreacted boron in the core for wires without added Cu, but seems to oppose the accelerated formation of MgB 2 in Cu added wires. The highest critical current density, 2.8 × 10 4 A cm -2 at 3 T and 4.2 K, was achieved for a wire with a stoichiometric Mg:B ratio and 3 at.% added copper powder heat treated at 700 °C for 5 min.

  13. In-situ synchrotron x-ray study of MgB2 formation when doped by SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsen, A. B.; Grivel, J.-C.; Andersen, N. H.; Herrmann, M.; Häßler, W.; Birajdar, B.; Eibl, O.; Saksl, K.

    2008-02-01

    We have studied the evolution of the reaction xMg + 2B + ySiC → zMg1-p(B1-qCq)2 + yMg2Si in samples of 1, 2, 5 and 10 wt% SiC doping. We found a coincident formation of MgB2 and Mg2Si, whereas the crystalline part of the SiC nano particles is not reacting at all. Evidence for incorporation of carbon into the MgB2 phase was established from the decrease of the a-axis lattice parameter upon increasing SiC doping. An estimate of the MgB2 lower limit grain size was found to decrease from L100 = 795 Å and L002 = 337 Å at 1 wt% SiC to L100 = 227 Å and L002= 60 Å at 10 wt% SiC. Thus superconductivity might be suppressed at 10 wt% SiC doping due to the grain size approaching the coherence length.

  14. Fabrication and properties of multifilamentary MgB 2 wires by in-situ powder-in-tube process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. Y.; Jiao, G. F.; Liu, G. Q.; Xiong, X. M.; Yan, S. C.; Zhang, P. X.; Sulpice, A.; Mossang, E.; Feng, Y.; Yan, G.

    2010-11-01

    We have fabricated the long TiC-doped MgB2 wires with 6 filaments by in-situ powder-in-tube method using Nb as the barrier and copper as the stabilizer. To improve the strength of wires, the Nb-core was used as the central filament. The transport engineering critical current density (Jce) of the samples sintered at different temperature were measured, which reaches 2.5 × 104 A/cm2 at 4.2 K, 5 T. 100 m MgB2 wires with different diameter were wound into coils and the transport critical current (Ic) of the coil were measured at 30 K in self-field. The Jce value 100 m coil achieves 1.1 × 104 A/cm2 in 1.2 mm wire. The reasons leading to the enhancement of high field Jce were discussed. The results show a good potential to fabricate high performance MgB2 wires and tapes at ambient pressure on an industrial scale.

  15. Refinement of Crystalline Boron and the Superconducting Properties of MgB2 by Attrition Ball Milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Shin, S. Y.; Park, H. W.; Jun, B. H.; Kim, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    We report refinement of crystalline boron by an attrition ball milling system and the superconducting properties of the MgB 2 pellets prepared from the refined boron. In this work, we have conducted the ball milling with only crystalline boron powder, in order to improve homogeneity and control the grain size of the MgB 2 that is formed from it. We observed that the crystalline responses in the ball-milled boron became broader and weaker when the ball-milling time was further increased. On the other hand, the B 2 O 3 peak became stronger in the powders, resulting in an increase in the amount of MgO within the MgB 2 volume. The main reason for this is a greater oxygen uptake. From the perspective of the superconducting properties, however, the sample prepared from boron that was ball milled for 5 hours showed an improvement of critical current density (J c ), even with increased MgO phase, under an external magnetic field at 5 and 20 K.

  16. Superconductivity and thermal property of MgB2/aluminum matrix composite materials fabricated by 3-dimensional penetration casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Kenji; Saeki, Tomoaki; Nishimura, Katsuhiko; Ikeno, Susumu; Mori, Katsunori; Yabumoto, Yukinobu

    2006-01-01

    Superconductive MgB 2 /Al composite material with low and high volume fractions of particles were fabricated by our special pre-packing technique and 3-dimensional penetration casting method. The composite material showed homogeneous distribution of MgB 2 particles in the Al-matrix with neither any aggregation of particles nor defects such as cracks or cavities. The critical temperature of superconducting transition (T C ) was determined by electrical resistivity and magnetization to be about 37-39 K. Specific heat measurements further supported these T C findings. The Meissner effect was also verified in the liquid He, in which a piece of the composite floated above a permanent magnet. The thermal conductivity of the MgB 2 /Al composite material was about 25 W/K·m at 30K, a value much higher than those found for NbTi or Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires normally used in practice, which are 0.5 and 0.2 W/K·m at 10 K, respectively. A billet of the superconducting material was successfully hot-extruded, forming a rod. The same as the billet sample, the rod showed an onset T C of electrical resistivity of 39 K. (author)

  17. Evaluation of Young’s modulus of MgB2 filaments in composite wires for the superconducting links for the high-luminosity LHC upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Michinaka; Ballarino, Amalia; Bartova, Barbora; Bjoerstad, Roger; Gerardin, Alexandre; Scheuerlein, Christian

    2016-02-01

    MgB2 wire is a promising superconductor for the superconducting links for the high-luminosity upgrade of the large Hadron collider at CERN. The mechanical properties of MgB2 must be fully quantified for the cable design, and in this study, we evaluate the Young’s modulus of MgB2 filaments in wires with a practical level of critical current. The Young’s moduli of MgB2 filaments by two different processes, in situ and ex situ, were compared. Two different evaluation methods were applied to an in situ MgB2 wire, a single-fiber tensile test and a tensile test after removing Monel. In addition, the Young’s modulus of the few-micron-thick Nb-Ni reaction layer in an ex situ processed wire was evaluated using a nanoindentation testing technique to improve the accuracy of analysis based on the rule of mixtures. The Young’s moduli of the in situ and ex situ MgB2 wires were in the range of 76-97 GPa and no distinct difference depending on the fabrication process was found.

  18. submitter Evaluation of Young’s modulus of MgB2 filaments in composite wires for the superconducting links for the high-luminosity LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sugano, Michinaka; Bartova, Barbora; Bjoerstad, Roger; Gerardin, Alexandre; Scheuerlein, Christian

    2015-01-01

    MgB2 wire is a promising superconductor for the superconducting links for the high-luminosity upgrade of the large Hadron collider at CERN. The mechanical properties of MgB2 must be fully quantified for the cable design, and in this study, we evaluate the Young's modulus of MgB2 filaments in wires with a practical level of critical current. The Young's moduli of MgB2 filaments by two different processes, in situ and ex situ, were compared. Two different evaluation methods were applied to an in situ MgB2 wire, a single-fiber tensile test and a tensile test after removing Monel. In addition, the Young's modulus of the few-micron-thick Nb–Ni reaction layer in an ex situ processed wire was evaluated using a nanoindentation testing technique to improve the accuracy of analysis based on the rule of mixtures. The Young's moduli of the in situ and ex situ MgB2 wires were in the range of 76–97 GPa and no distinct difference depending on the fabrication process was found.

  19. Ex-situ manufacturing of SiC-doped MgB2 used for superconducting wire in medical device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbirowo, Satrio; Imaduddin, Agung; Sofyan, Nofrijon; Yuwono, Akhmad Herman

    2017-02-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) is a superconductor material with a relatively high critical temperature. Due to its relatively high critical temperature, this material is promising and has the potential to replace Nb3Sn for wire superconducting used in many medical devices. In this work, nanoparticle SiC-doped MgB2 superconducting material has been fabricated through an ex-situ method. The doping of nanoparticle SiC by 10 and 15 wt% was conducted to analyze its effect on specific resistivity of MgB2. The experiment was started by weighing a stoichiometric amount of MgB2 and nanoparticles SiC. Both materials were mixed and grounded for 30 minutes by using an agate mortar. The specimens were then pressed into a 6 mm diameter stainless steel tube, which was then reduced until 3 mm through a wire drawing method. X-ray diffraction analysis was conducted to confirm the phase, whereas the superconductivity of the specimens was analyzed by using resistivity measurement under cryogenic magnetic system. The results indicated that the commercial MgB2 showed a critical temperature of 37.5 K whereas the SiC doped MgB2 has critical temperature of 38.3 K.

  20. Superior critical current density obtained in MgB_2 bulks via employing carbon-coated boron and minor Cu addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Junming; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, M.; Xin, Ying; Jin, Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Usage of carbon-coated boron leads to high level of homogeneous carbon doping. • Cu addition improves MgB_2 grain connectivity, leading to higher J_c at low fields. • Cu addition reduces MgO impurity, also contributing to the improvement of J_c. - Abstract: High performance Cu doped MgB_2 bulks were prepared by an in-situ method with carbon-coated amorphous boron as precursor. It was found that the usage of carbon-coated boron in present work leads to the formation of uniformly refined MgB_2 grains, as well as a high level of homogeneous carbon doping in the MgB_2 samples, which significantly enhance the J_c in both Cu doped and undoped bulks compared to MgB_2 bulks with normal amorphous boron precursor. Moreover, minor Cu can service as activator, and thus facilitates the growth of MgB_2 grains and improves crystallinity and grain connectivity, which can bring about the excellent critical current density (J_c) at self fields and low fields (the best values are 7 × 10"5 A/cm"2 at self fields, and 1 × 10"5 A/cm"2 at 2 T, 20 K, respectively). Simultaneously, minor Cu addition can reduce the amount of MgO impurity significantly, also contributing to the improvement of J_c at low fields. Our work suggests that Cu-activated sintering combined with employment of carbon-coated amorphous boron as precursor could be a promising technique to produce practical MgB_2 bulks or wires with excellent J_c on an industrial scale.

  1. Co-current Doping Effect of Nanoscale Carbon and Aluminum Nitride on Critical Current Density and Flux Pinning Properties of Bulk MgB2 Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, D.; Dey, T. K.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of nanoscale aluminum nitride (n-AlN) and carbon (n-C) co-doping on superconducting properties of polycrystalline bulk MgB2 superconductor has been investigated. Polycrystalline pellets of MgB2, MgB2 + 0.5 wt% AlN (nano), MgB_{1.99}C_{0.01} and MgB_{1.99}C_{0.01} + 0.5 wt% AlN (nano) have been synthesized by a solid reaction process under inert atmosphere. The transition temperature (TC) estimated from resistivity measurement indicates only a small decrease for C (nano) and co-doped MgB2 samples. The magnetic field response of investigated samples has been measured at 4, 10, and 20 K in the field range ± 6 T. MgB2 pellets co-doped with 0.5 wt% n-AlN and 1 wt% n-C display appreciable enhancement in critical current density (J_C) of MgB2 in both low (≥ 3 times), as well as, high-field region (≥ 15 times). J_C versus H behavior of both pristine and doped MgB2 pellets is well explained in the light of the collective pinning model. Further, the normalized pinning force density f_p(= F_p/F_{pmax}) displays a fair correspondence with the scaling procedure proposed by Eisterer et al. Moreover, the scaled data of the pinning force density (i.e., f_p{-}h data) of the investigated pellets at different temperature are well interpreted by a modified Dew-Hughes expression reported by Sandu and Chee.

  2. Effect of nano-carbon particle doping on the flux pinning properties of MgB2 superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Soltanian, S.; Horvat, J.; Wang, X. L.; Munroe, P.; Dou, S. X.

    2003-01-01

    Polycrystalline MgB2-xCx samples with x=0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 nano-particle carbon powder were prepared using an in-situ reaction method under well controlled conditions to limit the extent of C substitution. The phases, lattice parameters, microstructures, superconductivity and flux pinning were characterized by XRD, TEM, and magnetic measurements. It was found that both the a-axis lattice parameter and the Tc decreased monotonically with increasing doping level. For the sample doped with...

  3. Mapping flux avalanches in MgB2 films-equivalence between magneto-optical imaging and magnetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colauto, F; Choi, E M; Lee, J Y; Lee, S I; Yurchenko, V V; Johansen, T H; Ortiz, W A

    2007-01-01

    Vortex avalanches are known to occur in MgB 2 films within a certain range of temperatures and magnetic fields. These events, resulting from a thermomagnetic instability, were first revealed by real-time magneto-optical imaging, which exposed dendritic paths of abrupt flux propagation. This very powerful technique has, however, a practical limitation, since sensors that are currently available cannot be used at high magnetic fields. This letter shows that results obtained using dc magnetometry are in good correspondence with those furnished by magneto-optical imaging, demonstrating that the two techniques can be efficiently used as complementary tools to map vortex avalanches in superconducting films. (rapid communication)

  4. Multi-band description of the specific heat and thermodynamic critical field in MgB2 superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szcześniak, R.; Jarosik, M. W.; Tarasewicz, P.; Durajski, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    The thermodynamic properties of MgB2 superconductor can be explained using the multi-band models. In the present paper we have examined the experimental data available in literature and we have found out that it is possible to reproduce the measured values of the superconducting energy gaps, the thermodynamic critical magnetic field and specific heat jump within the framework of two-band Eliashberg formalism and appropriate defined free energy difference between superconducting and normal state. Moreover, we found that the obtained results differ significantly from the predictions of the conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory.

  5. Study of the potential of three different MgB2 tapes for application in cylindrical coils operating at 20 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitel, J; Kováč, P; Tropeano, M; Grasso, G

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this theoretical study is to illustrate the potential of three different MgB 2 tapes, developed by Columbus Superconductors, for application in cylindrical coils. First, the distribution of critical currents and electric fields of individual turns is compared when the winding of the model coil is made with tapes having different I c (B) and anisotropy values. Second, the influence of the winding geometry on basic parameters of cylindrical coils which consist of a set of pancake coils, such as critical current I cmin , central magnetic field B 0 and stored energy E, is analysed. The winding geometry of the coils, i.e. the outer winding radius and the coil length, with the same inner winding radius, was changed from a disc shape to a long thin solenoid in such a way that the overall tape length was held constant, and considered as a parameter. Finally, the winding cross-section of the coil is optimized with respect to the constant tape length in order to reach the maximum central field. The results of calculations show that for a given overall tape length and inner winding radius there exists only one winding geometry which generates the maximum central field. The overall tape length, as a parameter, is changed in a broad range from 500 m to 10 km. All calculations were performed using the experimental data measured at 20 K while the effect of the anisotropy in the I c (B) characteristic of the short samples is taken into account. (paper)

  6. Optimization of the copper addition to the core of in situ Cu-sheathed MgB2 wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woźniak, M; Juda, K L; Hopkins, S C; Glowacki, B A; Gajda, D

    2013-01-01

    Recent results on powder-in-tube in situ Cu-sheathed MgB 2 wires have shown that copper powder additions to the core can accelerate the formation of MgB 2 , increasing its volume fraction and greatly decreasing the amount of Mg–Cu intermetallic phases present in the core after heat treatment. The amount of added copper and heat treatment conditions strongly affect the critical current of the wire and require optimization. To identify the optimum parameters, eight wires with starting core compositions of Mg+2B+xCu with x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.09, 0.12 and 0.15 were prepared with two heating ramp rates and their properties were investigated by SEM, XRD and J c and n-value measurements. The highest J c was found to be for x = 0.09, whereas x = 0.03 resulted in the highest n-value. The results are relatively independent of the heating ramp rate used for heat treatment. (paper)

  7. Large-scale high-resolution scanning Hall probe microscope used for MgB2 filament characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, V; Fedor, J; Gregusova, D; Kovac, P; Husek, I

    2005-01-01

    The scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) is an important imaging tool used for detailed studies of superconductors in basic science as well as in the industrial sector. It can be used for the studies of losses, current distribution, and effects at grain boundaries. However, only a few SHPMs for magnetic field imaging at temperatures below 77 K have been proposed up to now, most of them designed for small-area (∼10x10 μm 2 ) scanning. We present a large-scale low-temperature SHPM developed for imaging the entire magnetic field in close proximity to magnetic and superconducting samples at 4.2-300 K. The microscope combines a large scanned area and high spatial and magnetic field resolution. The instrument is designed as an insert of standard helium flowing cryostats. The Hall sensor scans an area up to 7 x 25 mm 2 in the whole temperature interval with a spatial resolution better than 5 μm. The presented system is used for the study of ex situ prepared MgB 2 filament. We show that external magnetic field induces local supercurrents in the MgB 2 , from which the critical current can be estimated. Moreover, it indicates the microstructure and space homogeneity of the superconductor

  8. Field cooling of a MgB2 cylinder around a permanent magnet stack: prototype for superconductive magnetic bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perini, E; Giunchi, G

    2009-01-01

    The behaviour of bulk superconductors as levitators of permanent magnets (PMs) has been extensively studied for the textured YBCO high-temperature superconductor material, in the temperature range lower than 77 K, obtaining extremely high trapped fields but also experiencing limitations on the mechanical characteristics of the material and on the possibility to produce large objects. Alternatively, bulk MgB 2 , even if it is superconducting at lower temperatures, has fewer mechanical problems, when fully densified, and presents stable magnetization in the temperature range between 10 and 30 K. With the reactive Mg-liquid infiltration technique we have produced dense MgB 2 bulk cylinders of up to 65 mm diameter and 100 mm height. This kind of cylinder can be consider as a prototype of a passive magnetic bearing for flywheels or other rotating electrical machines. We have conductively cooled one of these superconducting cylinders inside a specially constructed cryostat, and the levitation forces and stiffness, with respect to axial movements of various arrangements of the PM, have been measured as a function of the temperature below T c . We verified the very stable characteristics of the induced magnetization after several cycles of relative movements of the PM and the superconducting cylinder.

  9. Effects of carbon concentration and filament number on advanced internal Mg infiltration-processed MgB2 strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, G Z; Sumption, M D; Zwayer, J B; Susner, M A; Collings, E W; Rindfleisch, M A; Thong, C J; Tomsic, M J

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we show that an advanced internal Mg infiltration method (AIMI) is effective in producing superconducting wires containing dense MgB 2 layers with high critical current densities. The in-field critical current densities of a series of AIMI-fabricated MgB 2 strands were investigated in terms of C doping levels, heat treatment (HT) time and filament numbers. The highest layer J c for our monofilamentary AIMI strands was 1.5 × 10 5 A cm −2 at 10 T, 4.2 K, when the C concentration was 3 mol% and the strand was heat-treated at 675 ° C for 4 h. Transport critical currents were also measured at 4.2 K on short samples and 1 m segments of 18-filament C doped AIMI strands. The layer J c s reached 4.3 × 10 5 A cm −2 at 5 T and 7.1 × 10 4 A cm −2 at 10 T, twice as high as those of the best powder-in-tube strands. The analysis of these results indicates that the AIMI strands, possessing both high layer J c s and engineering J e s after further optimization, have strong potential for commercial applications. (paper)

  10. Critical Current and Stability of MgB$_2$ Twisted-Pair DC Cable Assembly Cooled by Helium Gas

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069632; Ballarino, Amalia; Yang, Yifeng; Young, Edward Andrew; Bailey, Wendell; Beduz, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Long length superconducting cables/bus-bars cooled by cryogenic gases such as helium operating over a wider temperature range are a challenging but exciting technical development prospects, with applications ranging from super-grid transmission to future accelerator systems. With limited existing knowledge and previous experiences, the cryogenic stability and quench protection of such cables are crucial research areas because the heat transfer is reduced and temperature gradient increased compared to liquid cryogen cooled cables. V-I measurements on gas-cooled cables over a significant length are an essential step towards a fully cryogenic stabilized cable with adequate quench protection. Prototype twisted-pair cables using high-temperature superconductor and MgB2 tapes have been under development at CERN within the FP7 EuCARD project. Experimental studies have been carried out on a 5-m-long multiple MgB$_2$ cable assembly at different temperatures between 20 and 30 K. The subcables of the assembly showed sim...

  11. Experimental testing and modelling of a resistive type superconducting fault current limiter using MgB2 wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A C; Pei, X; Oliver, A; Husband, M; Rindfleisch, M

    2012-01-01

    A prototype resistive superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) was developed using single-strand round magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) wire. The MgB 2 wire was wound with an interleaved arrangement to minimize coil inductance and provide adequate inter-turn voltage withstand capability. The temperature profile from 30 to 40 K and frequency profile from 10 to 100 Hz at 25 K were tested and reported. The quench properties of the prototype coil were tested using a high current test circuit. The fault current was limited by the prototype coil within the first quarter-cycle. The prototype coil demonstrated reliable and repeatable current limiting properties and was able to withstand a potential peak current of 372 A for one second without any degradation of performance. A three-strand SFCL coil was investigated and demonstrated scaled-up current capacity. An analytical model to predict the behaviour of the prototype single-strand SFCL coil was developed using an adiabatic boundary condition on the outer surface of the wire. The predicted fault current using the analytical model showed very good correlation with the experimental test results. The analytical model and a finite element thermal model were used to predict the temperature rise of the wire during a fault. (paper)

  12. The elastic properties, generalized stacking fault energy and dissociated dislocations in MgB2 under different pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Huifang

    2013-05-31

    The 〈112̄0〉 perfect dislocation in MgB2 is suggested to dissociate into two partial dislocations in an energy favorable way 〈112̄0〉 → 1/2 〈112̄0〉 + SF + 1/2 〈112̄0〉. This dissociation style is a correction of the previous dissociation 〈1000〉 → 1/3 〈11̄00〉 SF + 1/3 〈 2100〉proposed by Zhu et al. to model the partial dislocations and stacking fault observed by transmission electron microscopy. The latter dissociation results in a maximal stacking fault energy rather than a minimal one according to the generalized stacking fault energy calculated from first-principles methods. Furthermore, the elastic constants and anisotropy of MgB2 under different pressure are investigated. The core structures and mobilities of the 〈112̄0〉 dissociated dislocations are studied within the modified Peierls-Nabarro (P-N) dislocation theory. The variational method is used to solve the modified P-N dislocation equation and the Peierls stress is also determined under different pressure. High pressure effects on elastic anisotropy, core structure and Peierls stress are also presented. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  13. Microstructure and Pinning Properties of Hexagonal Disc Shaped Single Crystalline MgB2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, J. R.

    2003-04-30

    We synthesized hexagonal-disc-shaped MgB{sub 2} single crystals under high-pressure conditions and analyzed the microstructure and pinning properties. The lattice constants and the Laue pattern of the crystals from X-ray micro-diffraction showed the crystal symmetry of MgB{sub 2}. A thorough crystallographic mapping within a single crystal showed that the edge and c-axis of hexagonal-disc shape exactly matched the (10-10) and the (0001) directions of the MgB{sub 2} phase. Thus, these well-shaped single crystals may be the best candidates for studying the direction dependences of the physical properties. The magnetization curve and the magnetic hysteresis for these single crystals showed the existence of a wide reversible region and weak pinning properties, which supported our single crystals being very clean.

  14. Conceptual designs of conduction cooled MgB2 magnets for 1.5 and 3.0T full body MRI systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Tanvir; Al Amin, Abdullah; Deissler, Robert J; Sabri, Laith; Poole, Charles; Brown, Robert W; Tomsic, Michael; Doll, David; Rindfleisch, Matthew; Peng, Xuan; Mendris, Robert; Akkus, Ozan; Sumption, Michael; Martens, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Conceptual designs of 1.5 and 3.0 T full-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets using conduction cooled MgB2 superconductor are presented. The sizes, locations, and number of turns in the eight coil bundles are determined using optimization methods that minimize the amount of superconducting wire and produce magnetic fields with an inhomogeneity of less than 10 ppm over a 45 cm diameter spherical volume. MgB2 superconducting wire is assessed in terms of the transport, thermal, and mechanical properties for these magnet designs. Careful calculations of the normal zone propagation velocity and minimum quench energies provide support for the necessity of active quench protection instead of passive protection for medium temperature superconductors such as MgB2. A new ‘active’ protection scheme for medium Tc based MRI magnets is presented and simulations demonstrate that the magnet can be protected. Recent progress on persistent joints for multifilamentary MgB2 wire is presented. Finite difference calculations of the quench propagation and temperature rise during a quench conclude that active intervention is needed to reduce the temperature rise in the coil bundles and prevent damage to the superconductor. Comprehensive multiphysics and multiscale analytical and finite element analysis of the mechanical stress and strain in the MgB2 wire and epoxy for these designs are presented for the first time. From mechanical and thermal analysis of our designs we conclude there would be no damage to such a magnet during the manufacturing or operating stages, and that the magnet would survive various quench scenarios. This comprehensive set of magnet design considerations and analyses demonstrate the overall viability of 1.5 and 3.0 T MgB2 magnet designs. PMID:29170604

  15. Enhancement of the critical current density and flux pinning of MgB2 superconductor by nanoparticle SiC doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S. X.; Soltanian, S.; Horvat, J.; Wang, X. L.; Zhou, S. H.; Ionescu, M.; Liu, H. K.; Munroe, P.; Tomsic, M.

    2002-10-01

    Doping of MgB2 by nano-SiC and its potential for the improvement of flux pinning were studied for MgB2-x)(SiCx/2 with x=0, 0.2, and 0.3 and for 10 wt % nano-SiC-doped MgB2 samples. Cosubstitution of B by Si and C counterbalanced the effects of single-element doping, decreasing Tc by only 1.5 K, introducing intragrain pinning centers effective at high fields and temperatures, and significantly enhancing Jc and Hirr. Compared to the undoped sample, Jc for the 10 wt % doped sample increased by a factor of 32 at 5 K and 8 T, 42 at 20 K and 5 T, and 14 at 30 K and 2 T. At 20 K and 2 T, the Jc for the doped sample was 2.4 x105 A/cm2, which is comparable to Jc values for the best Ag/Bi-2223 tapes. At 20 K and 4 T, Jc was twice as high as for the best MgB2 thin films and an order of magnitude higher than for the best Fe/MgB2 tapes. The magnetic Jc is consistent with the transport Jc which remains at 20 000 A/cm2 even at 10 T and 5 K for the doped sample, an order of magnitude higher than the undoped one. Because of such high performance, it is anticipated that the future MgB2 conductors will be made using a formula of MgBxSiyCz instead of pure MgB2.

  16. MgB2 thin-film bolometer for applications in far-infrared instruments on future planetary missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Brasunas, J.; Cao, N.; Costen, N.; La, A.; Nguyen, L.; Stevenson, T.; Waczynski, A.

    2012-01-01

    A SiN membrane based MgB 2 thin-film bolometer, with a non-optimized absorber, has been fabricated that shows an electrical noise equivalent power of 2.56 × 10 -13 W/√Hz operating at 30 Hz and a responsivity of 702 kV/W. It is predicted that with the inclusion of a gold black absorber that an optical specific detectivity of 8.3 × 10 10 cm/√Hz/W at an operational frequency of 10 Hz, can be realized for integration into future planetary exploration instrumentation where high sensitivity is required in the 17-250 μm spectral wavelength range.

  17. Ripple Field AC Losses in 10-MW Wind Turbine Generators With a MgB2 Superconducting Field Winding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Magnusson, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) synchronous generators are proposed as a promising candidate for 10-20-MW direct-drive wind turbines because they can have low weights and small sizes. A common way of designing an SC machine is to use SC wires with high current-carrying capability in the dc field winding...... and the ac armature winding is made with copper conductors. In such generators, the dc field winding is exposed to ac magnetic field ripples due to space harmonics from the armature. In generator design phases, the ac loss caused by these ripple fields needs to be evaluated to avoid local overheating...... and an excessive cooling budget. To determine the applicability of different design solutions in terms of ac losses, this paper estimates the ac loss level of 10-MW wind generator designs employing a MgB2 SC field winding. The effects on ac losses are compared between nonmagnetic and ferromagnetic teeth...

  18. Enhancement of the irreversibility field in bulk MgB2 by TiO2 nanoparticle addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G.J.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2004-01-01

    MgB2 samples doped with TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared and the effect of TiO2 addition on the superconducting transition temperature (T-c), irreversibility field (H-irr) and critical current density (J(c)) were investigated. It is found that the hexagonal lattice parameters a and c decrease...... with TiO2 doping. Tc decreases gradually from 38.2 to 37.8 K as the TiO2 content increases from 0 to 15 wt%. The H-irr increases at 20 K from 4.3 to 4.9 T as the TiO2 content increases from 0 to 10 wt%, and at the same temperature J(c) increases from 450 to 4250 A/cm(2) at 4.2 T. (C) 2004 Published...

  19. Magnetic anisotropy of thin sputtered MgB2 films on MgO substrates in high magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savio Fabretti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the magnetic anisotropy ratio of thin sputtered polycrystalline MgB2 films on MgO substrates. Using high magnetic field measurements, we estimated an anisotropy ratio of 1.35 for T = 0 K with an upper critical field of 31.74 T in the parallel case and 23.5 T in the perpendicular case. Direct measurements of a magnetic-field sweep at 4.2 K show a linear behavior, confirmed by a linear fit for magnetic fields perpendicular to the film plane. Furthermore, we observed a change of up to 12% of the anisotropy ratio in dependence of the film thickness.

  20. Stress/strain characteristics of Cu alloy sheath in situ processed MgB2 superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Kazumune; Kasaba, Koichi; Shoji, Yoshitaka

    2005-01-01

    The mechanical properties of copper and copper alloy (Cu-Zr, Cu-Be and Cu-Cr) sheath in situ PIT-processed MgB 2 superconducting wires were studied at room temperature (RT) and 4.2 K. The effects of stress-strain on the critical current (I c ) of the wires have also been studied at 4.2 K and in magnetic fields up to 5 T. It has been clarified that alloying the Cu sheath significantly increases the yield and flow stresses of the wires at both RT and 4.2 K. The 0.5% flow stresses of the Cu alloy sheath wire were 147-237 MPa, whereas that of Cu was 55 MPa. At RT, serration corresponding to multiple cracking was observed around a strain of 0.4% and the stress-strain curves saturated beyond that point. The strain dependence of I c prior to the critical strain (ε irr ) was different depending on the magnetic field; being almost constant at 2 T and increasing with strain at 5 T. The I c decreased beyond ε irr , which is much larger for Cu alloy sheath wires as compared to Cu sheath wire. This is due to the difference in the residual compressive strain in the MgB 2 core during cooling from the heat-treatment temperature to 4.2 K, which is determined through relaxation by yielding in the sheath materials. The transverse compression tests revealed that the I c of the Cu alloy sheath wire did not degrade up to 314 MPa, which is also higher than that of Cu sheath wire. (author)

  1. Estimation of hysteretic losses for MgB2 tapes under the operating conditions of a generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-Llanos, Carlos Roberto; Zermeño, Víctor M R; Grilli, Francesco; Sanz, Santiago; Trillaud, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    Hysteretic losses in the MgB 2 wound superconducting coils of a 550 kW synchronous hybrid scaled generator were estimated as part of the European project SUPRAPOWER led by the Spanish Fundación Tecnalia Research and Innovation. Particular interest was given to the losses caused by the magnetic flux ripples in the rotor coils originating from the conventional stator during nominal operation. To compute these losses, a 2D finite element analysis was conducted and Maxwell’s equations written in the H-formulation were solved considering the nonlinear material properties of the conductor materials. The modeled tapes are made of multiple MgB 2 filaments embedded in a Ni matrix and soldered to a high purity copper strip and insulated with Dacron braid. Three geometrical models of single tape cross sections of decreasing complexity were studied: (1) the first model reproduced closely the actual cross section obtained from tape micrographs. (2) The second model was obtained from the computed elasto-plastic deformation of a round Ni wire. (3) The third model was based on a simplified cross section with the superconducting filaments bundled in a single elliptical bulky structure. The last geometry allowed the validation of the modeling technique by comparing numerical losses with results from well-established analytical expressions. Additionally, the following cases of filament transpositions of the multi-filamentary tape were studied: no transposition, partial and full transposition; thereby improving understanding of the relevance of the tape fabrication process on the magnitude of the determination of ac losses. Finally, choosing the right level of geometrical detail, the following operational regimes of the machine and its impact on individual superconducting tape losses in the rotor were studied: bias-dc current, ramping current under ramping background field and magnetic flux ripples under dc background current and field. (paper)

  2. Estimation of hysteretic losses for MgB2 tapes under the operating conditions of a generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Llanos, Carlos Roberto; Zermeño, Víctor M. R.; Sanz, Santiago; Trillaud, Frederic; Grilli, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Hysteretic losses in the MgB2 wound superconducting coils of a 550 kW synchronous hybrid scaled generator were estimated as part of the European project SUPRAPOWER led by the Spanish Fundación Tecnalia Research & Innovation. Particular interest was given to the losses caused by the magnetic flux ripples in the rotor coils originating from the conventional stator during nominal operation. To compute these losses, a 2D finite element analysis was conducted and Maxwell’s equations written in the H-formulation were solved considering the nonlinear material properties of the conductor materials. The modeled tapes are made of multiple MgB2 filaments embedded in a Ni matrix and soldered to a high purity copper strip and insulated with Dacron braid. Three geometrical models of single tape cross sections of decreasing complexity were studied: (1) the first model reproduced closely the actual cross section obtained from tape micrographs. (2) The second model was obtained from the computed elasto-plastic deformation of a round Ni wire. (3) The third model was based on a simplified cross section with the superconducting filaments bundled in a single elliptical bulky structure. The last geometry allowed the validation of the modeling technique by comparing numerical losses with results from well-established analytical expressions. Additionally, the following cases of filament transpositions of the multi-filamentary tape were studied: no transposition, partial and full transposition; thereby improving understanding of the relevance of the tape fabrication process on the magnitude of the determination of ac losses. Finally, choosing the right level of geometrical detail, the following operational regimes of the machine and its impact on individual superconducting tape losses in the rotor were studied: bias-dc current, ramping current under ramping background field and magnetic flux ripples under dc background current and field.

  3. Numerical simulation of quench protection for a 1.5 T persistent mode MgB2 conduction-cooled MRI magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deissler, Robert J.; Baig, Tanvir; Poole, Charles; Amin, Abdullah; Doll, David; Tomsic, Michael; Martens, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The active quench protection of a 1.5 T MgB2 conduction-cooled MRI magnet operating in persistent current mode is considered. An active quench protection system relies on the detection of the resistive voltage developed in the magnet, which is used to trigger the external energizing of quench heaters located on the surfaces of all ten coil bundles. A numerical integration of the heat equation is used to determine the development of the temperature profile and the maximum temperature in the coil at the origin, or ‘hot spot’, of the quench. Both n-value of the superconductor and magnetoresistance of the wire are included in the simulations. An MgB2 wire manufactured by Hyper Tech Research, Inc. was used as the basis to model the wire for the simulations. With the proposed active quench protection system, the maximum temperature was limited to 200 K or less, which is considered low enough to prevent damage to the magnet. By substituting Glidcop for the Monel in the wire sheath or by increasing the thermal conductivity of the insulation, the margin for safe operation was further increased, the maximum temperature decreasing by more than 40 K. The strain on the MgB2 filaments is calculated using ANSYS, verifying that the stress and strain limits in the MgB2 superconductor and epoxy insulation are not exceeded.

  4. Critical current density in MgB2 bulk samples after co-doping with nano-SiC and poly zinc acrylate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Suo, H.; Ma, L.; Zhang, T.; Liu, M.; Zhou, M.

    2011-01-01

    SiC and poly zinc acrylate complexes co-doped MgB 2 bulk has been synthesized. Co-doping can cause higher carbon substitutions and the second phase particles. Co-doping can further increase the Jc value of MgB 2 bulk on the base of the SiC doping. The co-doped MgB 2 bulk samples have been synthesized using an in situ reaction processing. The additives is 8 wt.% SiC nano powders and 10 wt.% [(CH 2 CHCOO) 2 Zn] n poly zinc acrylate complexes (PZA). A systematic study was performed on samples doped with SiC or PZA and samples co-doped with both of them. The effects of doping and co-doping on phase formation, microstructure, and the variation of lattice parameters were studied. The amount of substituted carbon, the critical temperature (T c ) and the critical current density (J c ) were determined. The calculated lattice parameters show the decrease of the a-axis, while no obvious change was detected for c-axis parameter in co-doped samples. This indicates that the carbon was substituted by boron in MgB 2 . The amount of substituted carbon for the co-doped sample shows an enhancement compared to that of the both single doped samples. The co-doped samples perform the highest J c values, which reaches 3.3 x 10 4 A/cm 2 at 5 K and 7 T. It is shown that co-doping with SiC and organic compound is an effective way to further improve the superconducting properties of MgB 2 .

  5. Carbon-coated boron using low-cost naphthalene for substantial enhancement of Jc in MgB2 superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranot, Mahipal; Shinde, K. P.; Oh, Y. S.; Kang, S. H.; Jang, S. H.; Hwang, D. Y.; Chung, K. C. [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Carbon coating approach is used to prepare carbon-doped MgB{sub 2} bulk samples using low-cost naphthalene (C{sub 10}H{sub 8}) as a carbon source. The coating of carbon (C) on boron (B) powders was achieved by direct pyrolysis of naphthalene at 120 degrees C and then the C-coated B powders were mixed well with appropriate amount of Mg by solid state reaction method. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that there is a noticeable shift in (100) and (110) Bragg reflections towards higher angles, while no shift was observed in (002) reflections for MgB2 doped with carbon. As compared to un-doped MgB{sub 2}, a systematic enhancement in Jc(H) properties with increasing carbon doping level was observed for naphthalene-derived C-doped MgB{sub 2} samples. The substantial enhancement in Jc is most likely due to the incorporation of C into MgB{sub 2} lattice and the reduction in crystallite size, as evidenced by the increase in the FWHM values for doped samples.

  6. MgB2-Based Bolometer Array for Far Infra-Red Thermal Imaging and Fourier Transform Spectroscopy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Brasunas, J.

    2012-01-01

    The mid-superconducting critical temperature (T(sub c) approximately 39 K) of the simple binary, intermetallic MgB, [1] makes it a very good candidate for the development of the next generation of electrooptical devices (e.g. [2]). In particular, recent advances in thin film deposition teclmiques to attain higb quality polycrystalline thin film MgB, deposited on SiN-Si substrates, with T(sub c) approximately 38K [3] coupled with the low voltage noise performance of the film [4] makes it higbly desirable for the development of moderately cooled bolometer arrays for integration into future space-bourne far infra-red (FIR) spectrometers and thermal mappers for studying the outer planets, their icy moons and other moons of interest in the 17-250 micrometer spectral wavelength range. Presently, commercially available pyroelectric detectors operating at 300 K have specific detectivity, D(*), around 7 x 10(exp 8) to 2 x 10(exp 9) centimeters square root of Hz/W. However, a MgB2 thin film based bolometer using a low-stress (less than 140 MPa) SiN membrane isolated from the substrate by a small thermal conductive link, operating at 38 K, promises to have two orders of magnitude higher specific detectivity [5][6].

  7. Growth of superconducting MgB2 films by pulsed-laser deposition using a Nd-YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badica, P; Togano, K; Awaji, S; Watanabe, K

    2006-01-01

    Thin films of MgB 2 on r-cut Al 2 O 3 substrates have been grown by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) using a Nd-YAG laser (fourth harmonic-266 nm) instead of the popular KrF excimer laser. The growth window to obtain superconducting films is laser energy 350-450 mJ and vacuum pressure with Ar-buffer gas of 1-8/10 Pa (initial background vacuum 0.5-1 x 10 -3 Pa). Films were deposited at room temperature and post-annealed in situ and ex situ at temperatures of 500-780 0 C and up to 1 h. Films are randomly oriented with maximum critical temperature (offset of resistive transition) of 27 K. SEM/TEM/EDS investigations show that they are mainly composed of small sphere-like particles (≤20 nm), and contain oxygen and some carbon, uniformly distributed in the flat matrix, but the amount of Mg and/or oxygen is higher in the aggregates-droplets (100-1000 nm) observed on the surface of the film's matrix. Some aspects of the processing control and dependences on film characteristics are discussed. The technique is promising for future development of coated conductors

  8. MgB2 Thin-Film Bolometer for Applications in Far-Infrared Instruments on Future Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Brasunas, J.; Cao, N.; Costen, N.; La, A.; Stevenson, T.; Waczynski, A.

    2012-01-01

    A SiN membrane based MgB2 thin-film bolometer, with a non-optimized absorber, has been fabricated that shows an electrical noise equivalent power of 256 fW/square root Hz operating at 30 Hz in the 8.5 - 12.35 micron spectral bandpass. This value corresponds to an electrical specific detectivity of 7.6 x 10(exp 10) cm square root Hz/W. The bolometer shows a measured blackbody (optical) specific detectivity of 8.8 x 10(exp 9) cm square root Hz/W, with a responsivity of 701.5 kV/W and a first-order time constant of 5.2 ms. It is predicted that with the inclusion of a gold black absorber that a blackbody specific detectivity of 6.4 x 10(exp 10) cm/square root Hz/W at an operational frequency of 10 Hz, can be realized for integration into future planetary exploration instrumentation where high sensitivity is required in the 17 - 250 micron spectral wavelength range.

  9. Critical current density analysis of ex situ MgB2 wire by in-field and temperature Hall probe imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolome, E; Granados, X; Cambel, V; Fedor, J; Kovac, P; Husek, I

    2005-01-01

    The irreversible magnetic behaviour at different temperatures of an ex situ Fe-alloy/MgB 2 wire, exhibiting a granular compositional distribution, was studied using an in-field, high resolution Hall probe imaging system. Quantitative information about the local current density was obtained by solving the Biot-Savart inversion problem. The flux penetration and current distribution maps obtained can be attributed to a inhomogeneous compositional 'plum-cake-like' system, consisting of large, isolated MgB 2 agglomerations embedded in a matrix of finely distributed MgB 2 +MgO. The critical current densities within the grains and their evolution with the applied magnetic field and temperature have been obtained, and compared to the mean J c (H,T) in the matrix

  10. A Novel Method for Measurements of the Penetration Depth of MgB2 Superconductor Films by Using Sapphire Resonators with Short-Circuited Parallel Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ho Sang; Lee, J. H.; Cho, Y. H.; Lee, Sang Young; Seong, W. K.; Lee, N. H.; Kang, W. N.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a measurement method that enables to measure the penetration depth(λ) of superconductor films by using a short-ended parallel plate sapphire resonator. Variations in the (λof MgB 2 films could be measured down to the lowest temperature using a sapphire resonator with a YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x film at the bottom. A model equation of λλ 0 [1-(T/T c ) τ ] -1/2 for MgB 2 films appeared to describe the observed variations of the resonant frequency of the sapphire resonator with temperature, with λ 0 , τ and T c used as the fitting parameters.

  11. Enhancement of the critical current density in FeO-coated MgB2 thin films at high magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei E. Surdu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of depositing FeO nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 nm onto the surface of MgB2 thin films on the critical current density was studied in comparison with the case of uncoated MgB2 thin films. We calculated the superconducting critical current densities (Jc from the magnetization hysteresis (M–H curves for both sets of samples and found that the Jc value of FeO-coated films is higher at all fields and temperatures than the Jc value for uncoated films, and that it decreases to ~105 A/cm2 at B = 1 T and T = 20 K and remains approximately constant at higher fields up to 7 T.

  12. Enhanced J c property in nano-SiC doped thin MgB2/Fe wires by a modified in situ PIT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, C.H.; Nakane, T.; Hatakeyama, H.; Kumakura, H.

    2005-01-01

    A modified in situ PIT process, which included a short time pre-annealing and intermediate drawing step in the conventional in situ PIT process, was employed to fabricate thin round MgB 2 /Fe wires from MgH 2 and B powders. The pores and cracks resulted from the MgH 2 decomposition during the pre-annealing were effectively eliminated by the intermediate drawing step, which subsequently increased the core density and J c property of final heat treated wires. A higher reduction rate after the pre-annealing led to a larger enhancement in J c within this study. The reproducibility of our new process on the J c improvement in MgB 2 wires was confirmed in two series of wires doped with 5 mol% or 10 mol% nano-SiC particles separately

  13. Aluminum and carbon substitution in MgB2. Electron doping and scattering effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuely, P.; Szabo, P.; Pribulova, Z.; Angst, M.; Bud'ko, S.L.; Canfield, P.C.; Klein, T.; Lyard, L.; Marcus, J.; Marcenat, C.; Kang, B.W.; Kim, H.-J.; Lee, H.-S.; Lee, H.-K.; Lee, S.I.

    2007-01-01

    The point-contact spectroscopy is used to address the evolution of two superconducting energy gaps in the Al- and C-doped magnesium diboride polycrystals and single crystals with T c 's from 39 to 22 K prepared by different techniques. The obtained evolution of two gaps does not show any anomalous behavior but can be consistently described by the combination of the (prevailing) band filling effect and a (minor) increased interband scattering as proposed by Kortus et al. [Kortus et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 027002]. The approaching of two gaps is stronger in the Al-doped systems but interband scattering is still not large enough to merge two gaps. The full merging can expected only for higher dopings with T c 's below 10-15 K. In-magnetic-field measurements are used to analyze the intraband scatterings introduced by these two substitutions. It is shown that the carbon doping introduces significant disorder mainly by decreasing the diffusion coefficient in the π band while the Al substitution leaves the samples in the clean limit

  14. The charge transfer induced by Cr doping in MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huarong; Zhao Jiyin; Shi Lei

    2005-01-01

    Mg 1-x Cr x B 2 polycrystal bulk samples with 0 x 5% have been synthesized by a solid-state reaction and studied by X-ray diffraction, SEM and Raman spectrum. It is found that the c-axis of the lattice decreases as the Cr content increases, while the a-axis remains unchanged. Moreover, crystal grain size increases apparently with Cr doping concentration increase. The normal-state resistivity increases and the superconducting transition temperature (T c ) decreases from 38.2 K (x = 0) to 35.1 K (x 0.03) with the increase of Cr content. It is suggested that the charge transfer between the Mg-layer and the B-layer causes the decrease of the charge carrier concentration and induces the changes of T c and normal-state resistivity. On the other hand, by the Raman scattering study, it is found that the linewidth of Raman spectrum increases with the increase of Cr content, which is resulted by the competition between the electron-phonon interaction and substitution-induced disorder. The Raman peak has no evident shift due to the countervailing between the effects of the electron-phonon coupling and the grain size

  15. Fabrication of a Scaled MgB2 Racetrack Demonstrator Pole for a 10-MW Direct-Drive Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, Niklas; Eliassen, Jan Christian; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2018-01-01

    Field windings made of MgB2 wires or tapes are considered for their potential to reduce volume, weight, and cost of large offshore wind turbine generators. To gain experience of how to use this relatively new material in full-scale generators, tests of different winding methodologies and techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe in detail the steps used to wind a racetrack coil with a length of 1 m and a width of 0.5 m out of 4.5 km of MgB2 superconducting tape. The width corresponds to a full-scale pole of a 10-MW generator, whereas the length of the straight section is shorter than...... the corresponding full-scale pole. The coil was built up of ten double pancake coils. Each double pancake coil was wet wound using a semiautomatic winding process, where Stycast 2850 was applied directly to the MgB2 tape without any other dedicated electrical insulation. The strengths and weaknesses of the winding...

  16. Effects of MgO impurities and micro-cracks on the critical current density of Ti-sheathed MgB2 wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, G.; Alessandrini, M.; Yen, F.; Hanna, M.; Fang, H.; Hoyt, C.; Lv, B.; Zeng, J.; Salama, K.

    2007-01-01

    Ti-sheathed monocore MgB 2 wires with improved magnetic critical current density (J c ) have been fabricated by in situ powder-in-tube (PIT) method and characterized by magnetization, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electrical resistivity measurements. For the best wire, the magnetic J c values at 5 K and fields of 2 T, 5 T, and 8 T are 4.1 x 10 5 A/cm 2 , 7.8 x 10 4 A/cm 2 , and 1.4 x 10 4 A/cm 2 , respectively. At 20 K and fields of 0.5 T and 3 T, the J c values are about 3.6 x 10 5 A/cm 2 and 3.1 x 10 4 A/cm 2 , respectively, which are much higher than those of the Fe-sheathed mono-core MgB 2 wires fabricated with the same in situ PIT process and under the same fabricating conditions. It appears that the overall J c for the average Ti-sheathed wires is comparable to that of the Fe-sheathed wires. Our X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicates that J c in the Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires can be strongly suppressed by MgO impurities and micro-cracks

  17. Influence of impurities on the crystallization of dextrose monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markande, Abhay; Nezzal, Amale; Fitzpatrick, John; Aerts, Luc; Redl, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    The effects of impurities on dextrose monohydrate crystallization were investigated. Crystal nucleation and growth kinetics in the presence of impurities were studied using an in-line focused beam reflectance monitoring (FBRM) technique and an in-line process refractometer. Experimental data were obtained from runs carried out at different impurity levels between 4 and 11 wt% in the high dextrose equivalent (DE) syrup. It was found that impurities have no significant influence on the solubility of dextrose in water. However, impurities have a clear influence on the nucleation and growth kinetics of dextrose monohydrate crystallization. Nucleation and growth rate were favored by low levels of impurities in the syrup.

  18. Influence of crystal habit on trimethoprim suspension formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, A K; Panpalia, G M

    1999-02-01

    The role of crystal habit in influencing the physical stability and pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim suspensions was examined. Different habits for trimethoprim (TMP) were obtained by recrystallizing the commercial sample (PD) utilizing solvent-change precipitation method. Four distinct habits (microscopic observation) belonging to the same polymorphic state (DSC studies) were selected for studies. Preformulation and formulation studies were carried out on suspension dosage forms containing these crystals. The freshly prepared suspensions were also evaluated for their pharmacokinetic behaviour on healthy human volunteers using a cross over study. Variation of crystallization conditions produces different habits of TMP. Among the different crystal habits exhibiting same polymorphic state, the most anisometric crystal showed best physical stability in terms of sedimentation volume and redispersibility. However, habit did not significantly affect the extent of TMP excreted in urine. Modification of surface morphology without significantly altering the polymorphic state can be utilized for improving physical stability of TMP suspensions. However, the pharmacokinetic profile remains unaltered.

  19. Magneto-optical measurements on high-temperature superconductors influenced by AC-fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che'Rose, Simon

    2007-01-01

    In this work magneto-optical measurements on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x and MgB 2 thin films were done. For YBCO the influence of AC-pulses on the flux and current density of a thin film with transport current was investigated. For MgB 2 the influence of AC-fields on the homogenous and dendritic flux penetration was researched. (orig.)

  20. Specific heat of MgB2 in a one- and a two-band model from first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubov, A.A.; Dolgov, O.V.; Jepsen, O.; Kong, Y.; Andersen, O.K.; Gibson, B.J.; Ahn, K.; Kremer, R.K.; Kortus, J.

    2002-01-01

    The heat capacity anomaly at the transition to superconductivity of the layered superconductor MgB 2 is compared to first-principles calculations with the Coulomb repulsion, μ*, as the only parameter which is fixed to give the measured T c . We solve the Eliashberg equations for both an isotropic one-band model and a two-band model with different superconducting gaps on the π-band anσd-band Fermi surfaces. The agreement with experiments is considerably better for the two-band model than for the one-band model. (author)

  1. Specific heat of the 38-K superconductor MgB_2 in the normal and superconducting state: bulk evidence for a double gap

    OpenAIRE

    Junod, Alain; Wang, Yuxing; Bouquet, Frederic; Toulemonde, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    The specific heat of two polycrystalline samples of MgB_2 is presented and analyzed (2 - 300 K, 0 - 16 T), together with magnetic properties. The main characteristics are a low density of states at the Fermi level, high phonon frequencies, and an anomalous temperature- and field- dependence of the specific heat at T < T_c. A two-gap model with a gap ratio of 3:1 fits the specific heat in zero field. The smaller gap is washed out by a field of 0.5 T.

  2. Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner

    2010-01-01

    The influence of index contrast variations for obtaining single-mode operation and low threshold in dye doped polymer two dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) lasers is investigated. We consider lasers made from Pyrromethene 597 doped Ormocore imprinted with a rectangular lattice PhC having a cavity...

  3. Deposition of MgB2 Thin Films on Alumina-Buffered Si Substrates by using Hybrid Physical-Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T. G.; Park, S. W.; Seong, W. K.; Huh, J. Y.; Jung, S. G.; Kang, W. N.; Lee, B. K.; An, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    [ MgB 2 ] thin films were fabricated using hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) method on silicon substrates with buffers of alumina grown by using atomic layer deposition method. The growth war in a range of temperatures 500 - 600 degrees C and under the reactor pressures of 25 - 50 degrees C. There are some interfacial reactions in the as-grown films with impurities of mostly Mg 2 Si, MgAl 2 O 4 , and other phases. The T c 's of MgB 2 films were observed to be as high as 39 K, but the transition widths were increased with growth temperatures. The magnetization was measured as a function of temperature down to the temperature of 5 K, but the complete Meissner effect was not observed, which shows that the granular nature of weak links is prevailing. The formation of mostly Mg 2 Si impurity in HPCVD process is discussed, considering the diffusion and reaction of Mg vapor with silicon substrates.

  4. Design of Agglomerated Crystals of Ibuprofen During Crystallization: Influence of Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sIbuprofen is a problematic drug in tableting, and dissolution due to its poor solubility, hydrophobicity, and tendency to stick to surface. Because of the bad compaction behavior ibuprofen has to be granulated usually before tableting. However, it would be more satisfactory to obtain directly during the crystallization step crystalline particles that can be directly compressed and quickly dissolved. Materials and Methods Crystallization of ibuprofen was carried out using the quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method in presence of surfactant (sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS, Tween 80. The particles were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD and were evaluated for particle size, flowability, drug release and tableting behavior. ResultsIbuprofen particles obtained in the presence of surfactants consisted of numerous plate- shaped crystals which had agglomerated together as near spherical shape. The obtained agglomerates exhibited significantly improved micromeritic properties as well as tableting behavior than untreated drug crystals. The agglomerates size and size distribution was largely controlled by surfactant concentration, but there was no significant influence found on the tableting properties. The dissolution tests showed that the agglomerates obtained in presence of SLS exhibited enhanced dissolution rate while the agglomerates made in the presence of Tween 80 had no significant impact on dissolution rate of ibuprofen in comparison to untreated sample. The XRPD and DSC results showed that during the agglomeration process, ibuprofen did not undergo any polymorphic changes.Conclusion The study highlights the influence of surfactants on crystallization process leading to modified performance.

  5. Coatings influencing thermal stress in photonic crystal fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Dongqing; Li, Yan; Li, Yao; Hu, Minglie

    2018-06-01

    We studied how coating materials influence the thermal stress in the fiber core for three holding methods by simulating the temperature distribution and the thermal stress distribution in the photonic-crystal fiber laser. The results show that coating materials strongly influence both the thermal stress in the fiber core and the stress differences caused by holding methods. On the basis of the results, a two-coating PCF was designed. This design reduces the stress differences caused by variant holding conditions to zero, then the stability of laser operations can be improved.

  6. Pressure dependence of the Raman spectrum, lattice parameters and superconducting critical temperature of MgB2: evidence for pressure-driven phonon-assisted electronic topological transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, A.F.; Struzhkin, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    We overview recent high-pressure studies of high-temperature superconductor MgB 2 by Raman scattering technique combined with measurements of superconducting critical temperature T c and lattice parameters up to 57 GPa. An anomalously broadened Raman band at 620 cm -1 is observed and assigned to the in-plane boron stretching E 2g mode. It exhibits a large Grueneisen parameter indicating that the vibration is highly anharmonic. The pressure dependencies of the E 2g mode and T c reveal anomalies at 15-22 GPa (isotope dependent). The anharmonic character of the E 2g phonon mode, its anomalous pressure dependence, and also that for T c are interpreted as a result of a phonon-assisted Lifshitz electronic topological transition

  7. Influence of magnetic field on the morphology of the andrographolide crystal from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kexun; Zhang, Xingyuan; Pan, Jian; Zhang, Wencheng; Yong, Ji; Yin, Wenhong

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, a supercritical fluid extraction-crystallization of andrographolide, a kind of Chinese traditional medicine, was investigated. We have studied the extraction-crystallization process with or without magnet in the extractor, respectively. It was found that the presence of magnetic field is an important factor influencing the quality of the products. SEM images showed that the crystal was slice-like in shape, and many slices reunited together in the absence of magnet. Further research showed that pressure had a certain effect on the morphology of the crystal.

  8. Negative effects of crystalline-SiC doping on the critical current density in Ti-sheathed MgB2(SiC)y superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, G; Fang, H; Luo, Z P; Hoyt, C; Yen, F; Guchhait, S; Lv, B; Markert, J T

    2007-01-01

    Ti-sheathed MgB 2 wires doped with nanosize crystalline-SiC up to a concentration of 15 wt% SiC have been fabricated, and the effects of the SiC doping on the critical current density (J c ) and other superconducting properties studied. In contrast with the previously reported results that nano-SiC doping with a doping range below 16 wt% usually enhances J c , particularly at higher fields, our measurements show that SiC doping decreases J c over almost the whole field range from 0 to 7.3 T at all temperatures. Furthermore, it is found that the degradation of J c becomes stronger at higher SiC doping levels, which is also in sharp contrast with the reported results that J c is usually optimized at doping levels near 10 wt% SiC. Our results indicate that these negative effects on J c could be attributed to the absence of significant effective pinning centres (mainly Mg 2 Si) due to the high chemical stability of the crystalline-SiC particles

  9. Fabrication of seven-core multi-filamentary MgB2 wires with high critical current density by an internal Mg diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togano, K; Hur, J M; Matsumoto, A; Kumakura, H

    2009-01-01

    We found that the reaction between a Mg core and a B powder layer in an internal Mg diffusion (IMD)-processed multi-filamentary wire can proceed rapidly even at a furnace temperature lower than the melting point of Mg (650 deg. C), resulting in the formation of a reacted layer with a fine composite structure and, hence, excellent in-field critical current properties. The multi-filamentary wire is composed of an outermost Cu-Ni sheath and seven filaments with a Ta sheath, a Mg core, and B+SiC powder filled in the space between the Ta sheath and the Mg core. Heat treatment at 645 deg. C for 1 h produced a reacted layer with dense composite structure along the inner wall of the Ta sheath and a hole at the center of each core. This reaction probably initiated from the heat generation at the B/Mg interface, resulting in a temperature rise of the Mg core and the occurrence of liquid Mg infiltration. The J c value at 4.2 K for the reacted layer exceeds 10 5 cm -2 at 9 T, which is the highest reported so far for MgB 2 wire, including powder-in-tube (PIT)-processed wires. These results indicate that the IMD process can compete in terms of practical wire fabrication with the conventional PIT process.

  10. Superconducting properties of in situ powder-in-tube-processed MgB2 tapes fabricated with sub-micrometre Mg powder prepared by an arc-plasma method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, H; Uchiyama, N; Matsumoto, A; Kitaguchi, H; Kumakura, H

    2007-01-01

    We fabricated in situ powder-in-tube-processed MgB 2 /Fe tapes using sub-micrometre Mg powder prepared by applying an arc-plasma method. We found that the use of this sub-micrometre Mg powder was very effective in increasing the J c values. The transport J c value of 10 mol% SiC-added tapes fabricated with this sub-micrometre Mg powder reached 275 A mm -2 at 4.2 K and 10 T. This value was about six times that of 5 mol% SiC-added tapes fabricated with commercial Mg powder. Microstructure analyses suggest that this J c enhancement is primarily due to the smaller MgB 2 grain size

  11. Influence of the cone angle and crystal shape on the formation of twins in InP crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaolan; Yang, Ruixia; Yang, Fan; Sun, Tongnian; Sun, Niefeng

    2012-01-01

    We present the investigation of twinning phenomena of LEC InP crystal growth which has been carried out in our laboratory in recent years. It is observed that the yield of twin-free single crystal InP can be grown by control the cone angle and crystal shape of a gradually increased diameter. Twin formation has been correlated to many growth factors. The influence of ingot shape on the formation of twins can be looked as the conical angle dependent twin probability of InP crystals. Twin-free InP crystals can be grown by large cone angle over 75 to 90 . (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Tracer Studies of the Influence of Foreign Substances at the Surface of the Electrodes. II Influence in electro crystallization phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llopis, J.; Gamboa, J. M.; Arizmendi, L.

    1963-01-01

    The action of foreign substances present on the surface of the electrodes, in electro crystallization phenomena, has been studied. The number of Ag crystals per square centimeter of Pt electrode varies with the polishing, the current density and the presence of multilayers of stearic acid. The statistical distribution of Ag crystals without and with multilayers and their influence on the concentration index and the deformation of Ag crystals has been studied. the size of these crystals increases as the current density decreases. (Author) 16 refs

  13. Research on ReBCO and MgB2 Wires and Cables at the University of Twente

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-15

    behaviour and its influence on critical properties. The predictive model is verified by experiments. Four cable types (CORC, stacked tape, Roebel, CICC...Besides  that,  a  detailed  modeling  work  on  the  mechanical   behaviour  and  it’s  influence  on  the...these  loads.  A  set  of  experimental  setups,  as  well  as  a   convenient  and  accurate  method  of  stress

  14. Investigation of the influence of crystal quality on Borrmann spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaydzhyan, Aram

    2012-12-01

    The goal of thesis is to apply the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction for perfect crystals to mosaic crystals, which are composed of slightly misoriented blocks. For this purpose statistical methods were used for the description of crystal defects. This concept was combined with the diffraction theory and implemented in code. This program was used for numerical simulations of diffraction processes in transmission geometry by plane barium titanate crystals. The computed dependencies on defects for Borrmann spectroscopy satisfy the initial expectations for medium orders of crystal defects qualitatively.

  15. Investigation of the influence of crystal quality on Borrmann spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaydzhyan, Aram

    2012-12-15

    The goal of thesis is to apply the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction for perfect crystals to mosaic crystals, which are composed of slightly misoriented blocks. For this purpose statistical methods were used for the description of crystal defects. This concept was combined with the diffraction theory and implemented in code. This program was used for numerical simulations of diffraction processes in transmission geometry by plane barium titanate crystals. The computed dependencies on defects for Borrmann spectroscopy satisfy the initial expectations for medium orders of crystal defects qualitatively.

  16. Optimization of superconductivity properties in MgB2 Wires and tapes to generate high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, German

    2005-01-01

    We present, in this work, a study of the effects of doping, heat treatments and mechanisms of deformation, over the microstructure and superconducting properties of powder in tube (PIT) M g B 2 wires and tapes.We observed that nano-SiC doping improves the critical current density (J c ) and the upper critical field (H c 2).The combined use of doping and Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPing), produces samples with high density and improves J c s.We studied the influence of number and temperature of intermediate heat treatments (TTI), during the fabrication of wires and tapes.We observed that TTI made at low temperature ( o C), results in wires and tapes with better microstructure than those made at high temperature.Moreover, the increment of the heat treatments numbers at high temperature, decreases the quality of microstructure and J c .In the study of sheaths materials, we observed that the J c values measured by magnetization in Ti sheath samples are two order of magnitude larger than the values measured by transport, which indicates macroscopic fracture problems.On other hand, we fabricated tapes with excellent J c values (10 4 A/cm 2 at 4K and 7T), which are similar to those of samples made with HIPing.This tape presents some degree of grains alignment, as a consequence of rolling.We observed J c anisotropy in both transport and magnetization measurements in a range between 4 and 26K, and the same effect in H c 2.The anisotropy factor in Jc increase with applied field, while the anisotropy in Hc2 is constant with temperature (H c 2 parallel H c 2 perpendicular ∼1.2).Finally, we observed that carbon nanotubes doping improves H c 2 and this effects is most important at temperatures below 5K.This increase in H c 2 was predicted by Gurevich [45], as an effect of modification in scattering coefficient between electronics bands of M g B 2 by doping [es

  17. Disorders influences on the focusing effect of all-dielectric photonic crystal slab superlens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Xiaoyong; Xin Cheng [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gong Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn

    2009-04-13

    The influences of structure disorders on the subwavelength focusing properties of an all-dielectric photonic crystal slab superlens are theoretically studied. The structure disorders are considered as randomly perturbing the position or diameter of air holes of the photonic crystal slab. The results show that the photonic crystal slab superlens can tolerate within 10% degree of positional disorder or 15% degree of diameter disorder without destroying the focusing function.

  18. Disorders influences on the focusing effect of all-dielectric photonic crystal slab superlens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiaoyong; Xin Cheng; Gong Qihuang

    2009-01-01

    The influences of structure disorders on the subwavelength focusing properties of an all-dielectric photonic crystal slab superlens are theoretically studied. The structure disorders are considered as randomly perturbing the position or diameter of air holes of the photonic crystal slab. The results show that the photonic crystal slab superlens can tolerate within 10% degree of positional disorder or 15% degree of diameter disorder without destroying the focusing function.

  19. MICROSTRUCTURE OF SUPERCONDUCTING MGB(2).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHU,Y.; LI,Q.; WU,L.; VOLKOV,V.; GU,G.; MOODENBAUGH,A.R.

    2001-07-12

    Recently, Akimitsu and co-workers [1] discovered superconductivity at 39 K in the intermetallic compound MgB{sub 2}. This discovery provides a new perspective on the mechanism for superconductivity. More specifically, it opens up possibilities for investigation of structure/properties in a new class of materials. With the exceptions of the cuprate and C{sub 60} families of compounds, MgB{sub 2} possesses the highest superconducting transition temperature T{sub c}. Its superconductivity appears to follow the BCS theory, apparently being mediated by electron-phonon coupling. The coherence length of MgB{sub 2} is reported to be longer than that of the cuprates [2]. In contrast to the cuprates, grain boundaries are strongly coupled and current density is determined by flux pinning [2,3]. Presently, samples of MgB{sub 2} commonly display inhomogeneity and porosity on the nanoscale, and are untextured. In spite of these obstacles, magnetization and transport measurements show that polycrystalline samples may carry large current densities circulating across many grains [3,4]. Very high values of critical current densities and critical fields have been recently observed in thin films [5,6]. These attributes suggest possible large scale and electronic applications. The underlying microstructure can be intriguing, both in terms of basic science and in applied areas. Subsequent to the discovery, many papers were published [1-13], most dealing with synthesis, physical properties, and theory. There have yet been few studies of microstructure and structural defects [11, 14]. A thorough understanding of practical superconducting properties can only be developed after an understanding of microstructure is gained. In this work we review transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of sintered MgB{sub 2} pellets [14]. Structural defects, including second phase particles, dislocations, stacking faults, and grain boundaries, are analyzed using electron diffraction, electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), high resolution imaging, and structural modeling.

  20. Influence of solvent evaporation rate on crystallization of poly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the crystallization process. The in-situ substrate temperature is manipulated to control the rate of evaporation of. 2-butanone ..... Thickness measurement using AFM technique. A sec- .... Central Instrumentation Facility (CIF) at Pondicherry Uni-.

  1. Influence of the laser-diode temperature on crystal absorption and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this work, we studied the influence of heat loaded into the laser crystal in an end- pumped solid-state Nd:YVO4 high power laser. We have shown experimentally that the optimum value of the laser-diode temperature for the maximum pump power absorption by the Nd:YVO4 crystal and the maximum Nd:YVO4 ...

  2. Influence of substitution on the optical properties of functionalized pentacene monomers and crystals: Experiment and theory

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Yasir; Zhao, Kui; Singh, Nirpendra; Li, Ruipeng; Anthony, John Edward; Amassian, Aram; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The influence of solubilizing substitutional groups on the electronic structure of prototypical functionalized pentacene molecules and crystals is studied by a combined experimental and theoretical approach. We experimentally establish

  3. Can Crystal Symmetry and Packing Influence the Active Site Conformation of Homohexameric Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Luić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generaly believed that enzymes retain most of their functionality in the crystal form due to the large solvent content of protein crystals. This is facilitated by the fact that their natural environment in solution is not too far from the one found in the crystal form. Nevertheless, if the nature of the enzyme is such to require conformational changes, overcoming of the crystal packing constraints may prove to be too difficult. Such conformational change is present in one class of enzymes (purine nucleoside phosphorylases, that is the subject of our scientific interest for many years. The influence of crystal symmetry and crystal packing on the conformation of the active sites in the case of homohexameric purine nucleoside phosphorylases is presented and analysed. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  4. Influence of crystal shapes on radiative fluxes in visible wavelength: ice crystals randomly oriented in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chervet

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiative properties of cirrus clouds are one of the major unsolved problems in climate studies and global radiation budget. These clouds are generally composed of various ice-crystal shapes, so we tried to evaluate effects of the ice-crystal shape on radiative fluxes. We calculated radiative fluxes of cirrus clouds with a constant geometrical depth, composed of ice crystals with different shapes (hexagonal columns, bullets, bullet-rosettes, sizes and various concentrations. We considered ice particles randomly oriented in space (3D case and their scattering phase functions were calculated by a ray-tracing method. We calculated radiative fluxes for cirrus layers for different microphysical characteristics by using a discrete-ordinate radiative code. Results showed that the foremost effect of the ice-crystal shape on radiative properties of cirrus clouds was that on the optical thickness, while the variation of the scattering phase function with the ice shape remained less than 3% for our computations. The ice-water content may be a better choice to parameterize the optical properties of cirrus, but the shape effect must be included.

  5. Influence of miscut on crystal truncation rod scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munkholm, A.; Brennan, S.

    1999-01-01

    X-rays can be used to measure the roughness of a surface by the study of crystal truncation rod scattering. It is shown that for a simple cubic lattice the presence of a miscut surface with a regular step array has no effect on the scattered intensity of a single rod and that a distribution of terrace widths on the surface is shown to have the same effect as adding roughness to the surface. For a perfect crystal without miscut, the scattered intensity is the sum of the intensity from all the rods with the same in-plane momentum transfer. For all real crystals, the scattered intensity is better described as that from a single rod. It is shown that data-collection strategies must correctly account for the sample miscut or there is a potential for improperly measuring the rod intensity. This can result in an asymmetry in the rod intensity above and below the Bragg peak, which can be misinterpreted as being due to a relaxation of the surface. The calculations presented here are compared with data for silicon (001) wafers with 0.1 and 4 miscuts. (orig.)

  6. Influence of Frenkel Excitons and Charge Transfer States on the Spectroscopic Properties of Organic Molecular Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Gisslén, Linus Mathias

    2010-01-01

    Perylene derivatives are robust organic dyes absorbing and emitting light in the visible range and in the near infrared. They display a strong tendency to self-assemble into molecular aggregates, liquid crystals, or even crystals. In this thesis, we have demonstrated a successful realization of a theoretical approach describing the fundamental interactions influencing on exciton transfer in crystalline perylenes pigments. Furthermore, the microscopic parameter set obtained has allowed to calc...

  7. Influence of photochemical transformations upon optic-spectral characteristics of iodine cadmium crystals with copper dopant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosad, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of photochemical transformations upon absorption. X-ray, photo- and thermostimulated luminescence of crystals CdI 2 :CuI, CdI 2 :CuI and CdI 2 :CuO grown by Stockbarger - Czochralski method has been studied. The photochemical reactions in crystals of iodine cadmium with the dopant of copper leads to reducing the intensity of X-ray, photo- and thermostimulated luminescence, the appearance of new luminescent centers is not observed

  8. crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Huang, Yisheng; Zhang, Lizhen; Lin, Zhoubin; Sun, Shijia; Wang, Guofu

    2014-07-01

    A Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal with dimensions of ϕ 17 × 30 mm3 was grown by the Czochralski method. The thermal expansion coefficients of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal are 1.32 × 10-5 K-1 along c-axis and 1.23 × 10-5 K-1 along a-axis, respectively. The spectroscopic characteristics of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal were investigated. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to calculate the spectral parameters. The absorption cross sections at 805 nm are 2.17 × 10-20 cm2 with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 15 nm for π-polarization, and 2.29 × 10-20 cm2 with a FWHM of 14 nm for σ-polarization. The emission cross sections are 3.19 × 10-20 cm2 for σ-polarization and 2.67 × 10-20 cm2 for π-polarization at 1,064 nm. The fluorescence quantum efficiency is 67 %. The quasi-cw laser of Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal was performed. The maximum output power is 80 mW. The slope efficiency is 7.12 %. The results suggest Nd3+:Na2La4(WO4)7 crystal as a promising laser crystal fit for laser diode pumping.

  9. Influence of rubbing-alignment on microwave modulation induced by liquid crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiang Ye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The microwave modulation induced by liquid crystal is decided by the liquid crystal director distribution under an external applied voltage. The rubbing-alignment of substrate has an effect on the liquid crystal director, which must result in the change of microwave phase-shift. To illustrate the influence of rubbing-alignment on the microwave phase-shift, the microwave modulation property of twisted nematic liquid crystal is researched adopting the elastic theory of liquid crystal and the finite-difference iterative method. The variations of microwave phase-shift per unit-length for different pre-tilt and pre-twist angles of liquid crystal on the substrate surface and anchoring energy strengths with the applied voltage are numerically simulated. The result indicates that with the increase of pre-tilt angle and with the decrease of anchoring energy strength the weak anchoring twisted cell with pre-twisted angle 90° relative to the strong anchoring non-twisted cell can increase the microwave phase-shift per unit-length. As a result, for achieving the maximum microwave modulation, the weak anchoring twisted cell with pre-tilt angle 5° and anchoring energy strength 1×10−5J/m2 should be selected, which provides a reliably theoretical foundation for the design of liquid crystal microwave modulator.

  10. Influence of defects on positron transmission and annihilation in the lithium fluoride crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varisov, A.Z.; Kozlov, V.G.

    1984-01-01

    The positron implantation profile and the angular distribution of annihilation γ quanta were determined for a lithium fluoride crystal under β + and γ irradiation ( 22 Na source). The positron absorption coefficient of the irradiated crystal was α = 76.2 +- 1.5 cm -1 . The angular distribution had a strong narrow component. After thermal bleaching of the crystal, α = 91.9 +- 1.5 cm -1 , the narrow component made a smaller contribution to the angular distribution, and its half-width increased. The positron mobility was found to be μ = 18 +- 8 cm 2 x V -1 x sec -1 . It is suggested that defects influence in two ways the fate of positrons in the lithium fluoride crystal: free positrons may be trapped by some defects (cationic vacancies) or annihilated in collisions with others (F centers). The defect concentration is estimated

  11. Combined addition of nano diamond and nano SiO2, an effective method to improve the in-field critical current density of MgB2 superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahul, S.; Varghese, Neson; Vinod, K.; Devadas, K.M.; Thomas, Syju; Anees, P.; Chattopadhyay, M.K.; Roy, S.B.; Syamaprasad, U.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Both nano diamond and nano SiO 2 caused significant modifications in the structural properties of pure MgB 2 sample. → Reduction in T C for the best codoped sample was approximately 2 K. → The best codoped sample yielded a J C , an order of magnitude more than the undoped one at 5 K and 8 T. → The enhanced flux pinning capability provided by the additives is responsible for the improved in-field J C . -- Abstract: MgB 2 bulk samples added with nano SiO 2 and/or nano diamond were prepared by powder-in-sealed-tube (PIST) method and the effects of addition on structural and superconducting properties were studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the addition caused systematic reduction in 'a' lattice parameter due to the substitution of C atoms at B sites and the strain caused by reacted intragrain nano particles of Mg 2 Si as evinced by transmission electron microscope image. Scanning electron microscopy images showed distinct microstructural variations with SiO 2 /diamond addition. It was evident from DC magnetization measurements that the in-field critical current density [J C (H)] of doped samples did not fall drastically like the undoped sample. Among the doped samples the J C (H) of co-doped samples were significantly higher and the best co-doped sample yielded a J C , an order of magnitude more than the undoped one at 5 K and 8 T.

  12. Influence of seeding on crystallization behaviour of BaNaB9 glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Influence of seeding on crystallization behaviour of BaNaB9. O15 glasses. RAHUL VAISH and K B R VARMA*. Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. MS received 18 August 2008. Abstract. Transparent BaNaB9O15 (BNBO) glasses were fabricated via the conventional melt- ...

  13. Influence of heat conducting substrates on explosive crystallization in thin layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Wilhelm

    2017-09-01

    Crystallization in a thin, initially amorphous layer is considered. The layer is in thermal contact with a substrate of very large dimensions. The energy equation of the layer contains source and sink terms. The source term is due to liberation of latent heat in the crystallization process, while the sink term is due to conduction of heat into the substrate. To determine the latter, the heat diffusion equation for the substrate is solved by applying Duhamel's integral. Thus, the energy equation of the layer becomes a heat diffusion equation with a time integral as an additional term. The latter term indicates that the heat loss due to the substrate depends on the history of the process. To complete the set of equations, the crystallization process is described by a rate equation for the degree of crystallization. The governing equations are then transformed to a moving co-ordinate system in order to analyze crystallization waves that propagate with invariant properties. Dual solutions are found by an asymptotic expansion for large activation energies of molecular diffusion. By introducing suitable variables, the results can be presented in a universal form that comprises the influence of all non-dimensional parameters that govern the process. Of particular interest for applications is the prediction of a critical heat loss parameter for the existence of crystallization waves with invariant properties.

  14. Crystal field influence on vibration spectra: anhydrous uranyl chloride and dihydroxodiuranyl chloride tetrahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Andre; Caillet, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Vibrational spectra of anhydrous uranyl chloride UO 2 Cl 2 and so called basic uranyl chloride: dihydroxodiuranyl chloride tetrahydrate /UO 2 (OH) 2 UO 2 /Cl 2 (H 2 O) 4 are reported. Factor group method analysis leads for the first time to complete and comprehensive interpretation of their spectra. Two extreme examples of crystal field influence on vibrational spectra are pointed out: for UO 2 Cl 2 , one is unable to explain spectra without taking into account all the elements of primitive crystalline cell, whilst for dihydroxodiuranyl dichloride tetrahydrate the crystal packing has very little effect on vibrational spectra [fr

  15. Optical and dielectric studies of KH2PO4 crystal influenced by organic ligand of citric acid and l-valine: A single crystal growth and comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Anis

    Full Text Available In the present study pure, citric acid (CA and l-valine (LV doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP crystals have been grown with the aim to investigate the nonlinear optical applications facilitated by UV–visible, third order nonlinear optical (TONLO and dielectric properties. The structural parameters of grown crystals have been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The enhancement in optical transparency of KDP crystal due to addition of CA and LV has been examined within 200–900 nm by means of UV–visible spectral analysis. In addition, the transmittance data have been used to evaluate the effect of dopants on reflectance, refractive index and extinction coefficient of grown crystals in the visible region. The Z-scan analysis has been performed at 632.8 nm to identify the nature of photoinduced nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption in doped KDP crystals. The influence of π-bonded ligand of dopant CA and LV on TONLO susceptibility (χ3, refractive index (n2 and absorption coefficient (β of KDP crystals has been evaluated to discuss laser assisted device applications. The decrease in dielectric constant and dielectric loss of KDP crystal due to addition of CA and LV has been explored using the temperature dependent dielectric studies. Keywords: Crystal growth, Nonlinear optical materials, UV–visible studies, Z-scan analysis, Dielectric studies

  16. Influence of pressure on the crystallization of systems characterized by different intermolecular attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koperwas, K.; Affouard, F.; Gerges, J.; Valdes, L.-C.; Adrjanowicz, K.; Paluch, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we examine, in terms of the classical nucleation theory, how the strengthening of the attractive intermolecular interactions influences the crystallization process for systems like Lennard-Jones at different isobaric conditions. For this purpose, we modify the standard Lennard-Jones potential, and as a result, we obtain three different systems characterized by various strengths of attractive potentials occurring between molecules, which are in direct relationship to the physical quantities describing molecules, e.g., its polarizability or dipole moment. Based on performed analysis, we demonstrate that the molecular attraction primarily impacts the thermodynamics of the interface between liquid and crystal. This is reflected in the behavior of nucleation and overall crystallization rates during compression of the system.

  17. Influence of temperature upon dislocation mobility and elastic limit of single crystal HgI2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milstein, F.; Farber, B.; Kim, K.; van den Berg, L.; Schnepple, W.

    1982-01-01

    The practical importance of studying mechanical properties and dislocation structure of HgI 2 is reviewed briefly. Specifically, the performance of single crystal HgI 2 radiation detectors is evidently sensitive to crystalline imperfections; the dislocation structure, in turn, can be altered during detector fabrication, depending upon the mechanical properties of the crystal and the stresses to which the crystal is subjected. The influence of temperature upon dislocation mobility and plasticity in vapor-grown crystals of mercuric iodide is examined. Dislocation mobiity is determined by measuring the lengths of the longest arms of dislocation etch pit rosettes on (001) surfaces following microhardness indentation and chemical etch. Measurements were made in the range from room temperature to the phase transition temperature of 127 0 C. Dislocation mobility was found to be an increasing function of temperature, with the effect accelerating as the phase transition is approached. Increasing temperature was also found to lower the critical resolved shear stress for plastic deformation on slip on (001) planes. In these contexts, the vapor-grown crystals are clearly softer at their elevated growth temperatures. The results are discussed in terms of a dislocation model involving soft and hard glide dislocations

  18. The influence of sodium lauryl sulfate on the crystal phases of titania by hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaohong; Wang, Xin

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we prepared TiO2 nanostructures by a hydrothermal method and investigated the influence of the SO4^{2-} ion and the effect of long alkyl chains of sodium dodecyl sulfate on the crystal phases of TiO2 by experiments and theoretical calculations. The results indicate that the absorption of the H+HSO4 fragment on rutile (110) is more stable than that of the 2H+SO4 fragment and more favorable to the formation of anatase. The absorption and steric effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate on the surfaces of TiO2 grains also have an important influence on the formation of mixed crystals by changing the speed and the way of octahedral TiO6 units combining. Based on the above facts, we revised the original reaction scheme for crystalline titania formation by previous authors.

  19. Influence of smectite crystal chemistry on the organization of interlayer water and cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dazas, Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    Swelling clay minerals such as smectites are ubiquitous at the Earth surface and possess major hydration ability and contaminant uptake/retention capacity. As a consequence smectites exert a pivotal influence on elemental transfers in surficial environments. These properties are especially relevant also when smectites are used as sealant in engineered or geological barriers for waste disposal facilities. As interlayer H_2O molecules account for more than 80% of smectite water in under-saturated conditions, characterization of H_2O organization and dynamics in smectites interlayers is essential to determining the geometrical and dynamical properties of clay barriers for waste disposal and to predicting the mobility of contaminant whose principal vector is water. Within this general framework, the present works describe, in a first time, the structuration of interlayer water/cations in saturated conditions. Then, in a second time, review the influence of structural parameters such as the amount and location of layer charge deficit and the chemical composition (and more especially the presence of structural fluorine/hydroxyl) on smectite hydration properties. A set of samples covering the whole compositional range of swelling phyllosilicates has thus been synthesized and characterized chemically and structurally. Special attention was paid to determining the amount (water vapor sorption isotherms) and the distribution (X-ray diffraction) of interlayer water. Molecular modeling allowed unraveling the origin of the contrasting behaviors observed experimentally and to determine the influence of the different crystal-chemical parameters on smectite hydration. This step is essential for the prediction of smectite reactivity in the environment from a limited number of crystal-chemical parameters. Molecular modeling allowed unraveling the origin of the contrasting behaviors observed experimentally and to determine the influence of the different crystal-chemical parameters on

  20. Influence of Mo impurity on the spectroscopic and scintillation properties of PbWO4 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, M.; Hofstaetter, A.; Luh, M.; Meyer, B.K.; Scharmann, A.; Drobychev, G.Yu.; Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy; Peigneux, J.P.

    1997-12-01

    The influence of molybdenum doping on the spectroscopic and scintillation properties of lead tungstate crystals has been investigated. From the results the slow scintillation component as well as the afterglow are found to be due to the Mo impurity. In addition the blue luminescence from excited (WO 4 ) 2- -complex seems to be increasingly suppressed as the doping concentration goes on. Possible mechanisms for the effects have been discussed. (author)

  1. On the influence of crystal size and wavelength on native SAD phasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebschner, Dorothee; Yamada, Yusuke; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Senda, Miki; Senda, Toshiya

    2016-06-01

    Native SAD is an emerging phasing technique that uses the anomalous signal of native heavy atoms to obtain crystallographic phases. The method does not require specific sample preparation to add anomalous scatterers, as the light atoms contained in the native sample are used as marker atoms. The most abundant anomalous scatterer used for native SAD, which is present in almost all proteins, is sulfur. However, the absorption edge of sulfur is at low energy (2.472 keV = 5.016 Å), which makes it challenging to carry out native SAD phasing experiments as most synchrotron beamlines are optimized for shorter wavelength ranges where the anomalous signal of sulfur is weak; for longer wavelengths, which produce larger anomalous differences, the absorption of X-rays by the sample, solvent, loop and surrounding medium (e.g. air) increases tremendously. Therefore, a compromise has to be found between measuring strong anomalous signal and minimizing absorption. It was thus hypothesized that shorter wavelengths should be used for large crystals and longer wavelengths for small crystals, but no thorough experimental analyses have been reported to date. To study the influence of crystal size and wavelength, native SAD experiments were carried out at different wavelengths (1.9 and 2.7 Å with a helium cone; 3.0 and 3.3 Å with a helium chamber) using lysozyme and ferredoxin reductase crystals of various sizes. For the tested crystals, the results suggest that larger sample sizes do not have a detrimental effect on native SAD data and that long wavelengths give a clear advantage with small samples compared with short wavelengths. The resolution dependency of substructure determination was analyzed and showed that high-symmetry crystals with small unit cells require higher resolution for the successful placement of heavy atoms.

  2. Influence of RF power on performance of sputtered a-IGZO based liquid crystal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, G.M., E-mail: wu@mail.cgu.edu.tw; Sahoo, A.K.; Liu, C.Y.

    2015-12-01

    The influence of radio-frequency (RF) power on sputter-deposited amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) films and the corresponding liquid crystal cell performances have been investigated. The inorganic films were used as alternative alignment layers for liquid crystal display cells. The columnar growth of film was achieved by non-contact, fixed oblique deposition using RF sputtering at the power of 50 W, 60 W and 70 W. The experiments have been carried out to compare the physical characteristics with those of the traditional polyimide (PI) alignment layers used for liquid crystal cells. The cell performances in voltage-transmittance, contrast ratio, and response time were all evaluated. The liquid crystal pretilt angle has been determined to be about 13° using 70 W power deposited a-IGZO film. It was 6° for the 60 W deposited film and only 1.5° for the PI alignment film. The experimental cell rise time and fall time was 1.25 ms and 2.96 ms, respectively. Thus, a very quick response time of 4.21 ms has been achieved. It was about 6.62 ms for the PI alignment control cell. - Highlights: • Radio-frequency power of indium gallium zinc oxide film deposition was studied. • The oblique deposition technique was used to prepare the alignment layers. • The liquid crystal pretilt angle was about 13° using 70 W. • The corresponding liquid crystal cells exhibited fast response time at 4.21 ms. • The cells showed low threshold voltage of 1.78 V and excellent contrast ratio.

  3. Numerical analysis of the influence of ultrasonic vibration on crystallization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubbenjans, B.; Nacke, B. [Institute of Electrotechnology, Hannover (Germany); Frank-Rotsch, C.; Rudolph, P. [Institute for Crystal Growth, Berlin (Germany); Virbulis, J. [University of Latvia, Laboratory for Mathematical Modelling of Environmental and Technological Processes, Riga (Latvia)

    2012-03-15

    The challenge in the future fabrication of semiconductor bulk crystals is the improvement of the crystal quality with a simultaneous increase of the yield. For that, a proper control of mass transfer within the fluid phase is required. Besides the damping of violent convective fluctuations, the thickness of the diffusion boundary layer, causing morphological instability, has to be decreased. The influence of ultrasound in molten Germanium was analyzed by numerical simulations. The simulations were provided by applying commercial software packages ANSYS {sup registered} and FLUENT {sup registered}. ANSYS {sup registered} was used to model the ultrasonic wave propagation in the whole growth system consisting of melt and crystal, crucible and surrounding media. As a result the sound pressure distribution in every point of the melt and the displacement in every point of the solid have been obtained. The melt flow and the temperature distribution were simulated with the help of FLUENT {sup registered}. The main focus was the analysis of Schlichting streams that occur at the crystallization front which affect the diffusion boundary layer. It was shown that ultrasonic treatment can help to reduce the harmful diffusion boundary layer very effectively. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Influence of iron on crystallization behavior and thermal stability of the insulating materials - porous calcium silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Sonja; Yu, Donghong; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2017-01-01

    The properties of porous calcium silicate for high temperature insulation are strongly influenced by impurities. In this work we determine the influence of Fe3+ on the crystallization behavior and thermal stability of hydrothermally derived calcium silicate. We synthesize porous calcium silicate...... with Ca/Si molar ratio of 1, to which Fe2O3 is added with Fe/Si molar ratios of 0.1, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, and 1.3%. Structure and morphology of the porous calcium silicate, with different iron concentrations, are investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). FTIR...... measurements reveal a pronounced decrease in the number of Q3 sites in the calcium silicate with an increase of Fe3+, and thereby lower the crystal fraction of xonotlite (Ca6Si6O17(OH)2) phase, and increase the crystal fractions of tobermorite(Ca5Si6O16(OH)2·4H2O) and calcite (CaCO3) phases, as confirmed...

  5. Numerical modelling of micro-machining of f.c.c. single crystal: Influence of strain gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Demiral, Murat

    2014-11-01

    A micro-machining process becomes increasingly important with the continuous miniaturization of components used in various fields from military to civilian applications. To characterise underlying micromechanics, a 3D finite-element model of orthogonal micro-machining of f.c.c. single crystal copper was developed. The model was implemented in a commercial software ABAQUS/Explicit employing a user-defined subroutine VUMAT. Strain-gradient crystal-plasticity and conventional crystal-plasticity theories were used to demonstrate the influence of pre-existing and evolved strain gradients on the cutting process for different combinations of crystal orientations and cutting directions. Crown Copyright © 2014.

  6. Influence of substitution on the optical properties of functionalized pentacene monomers and crystals: Experiment and theory

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Yasir

    2013-10-01

    The influence of solubilizing substitutional groups on the electronic structure of prototypical functionalized pentacene molecules and crystals is studied by a combined experimental and theoretical approach. We experimentally establish characteristic effects of substituents on the electronic structure and relate those to theoretical optical spectra in order to explain the experimental results and provide a comprehensive picture of the substitution effects. Bands associated to C/Si atoms connecting the functional side group to the pentacene in the (6,13)-positions are the main contributors to the optical transitions. The amplitude of the redshift between the crystals and molecules provides insight in the packing structure. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of MgSO{sub 4} doping on the properties of zinc tris–thiourea sulphate (ZTS) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvapandiyan, M., E-mail: mselvapandiyan@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Vidya Mandir Arts and Science College, Uthangarai 635 207 (India); Arumugam, J. [Department of Physics, Sri Vidya Mandir Arts and Science College, Uthangarai 635 207 (India); Sundaramoorthi, P. [Department of Physics, Thiruvalluvar Government Arts College, Rasipuram 637 401 (India); Sudhakar, S. [CSIR–National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •The influence of MgSO{sub 4} doping on the properties of ZTS single crystals grown at room temperature. •Thermal stability of the crystals increased with incorporation of Mg atom. •Energy band gap was estimated from UV–vis spectra. •ZTS is a potential material for frequency conversion. •Both pure and doped ZTS crystals are belonging to category of typical insulating materials. -- Abstract: The influence of MgSO{sub 4} doping on the properties of zinc tris–thiourea sulphate single crystals grown at room temperature by slow evaporation solution growth technique was studied. Powder XRD analysis confirmed the orthorhombic crystal structure with noncentrosymmetric space group Pca2{sub 1}. The mechanical properties of the grown crystals were analysed by Vicker’s microhardness method. Functional groups present in the materials were identified by FTIR spectral analysis in the range between 4000 and 400 cm{sup −1}. The UV–Vis spectrum indicates that the UV cut-off wavelength of the crystals has less than 297 nm. The thermal stability of the grown crystals was determined with the aid of thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Second order nonlinear optical behaviour of the grown crystals have been confirmed by Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test.

  8. Influence of copper single crystal structures on the reflection of low energy hydrogen and helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijen, H.H.W.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical basis for the 'wedge-focussing' phenomenon is outlined. Investigations have been made to check up to what extent proton reflection can be simulated by using H 2 + or H 3 + as incident ions and analysing the reflected protons. The results of an experimental study of the influence of surface semi-channels on the reflection of low energy ( + , H 2 + and He + ions from copper single crystals with attention to the wedge-focussing effect are presented (G.T.H.)

  9. Influence of uranium dioxide nonstoichiometric oxygen on the work function of Mo(110) single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekmukhabetov, E.S.; Dzhajmurzin, A.A.; Imanbekov, Zh.Zh.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of the uranium dioxide nonstoichiometric oxygen on the work function of a Mo(110) single crystal has been studied. When the surface diffusion of oxygen on the tested surface takes place, the work function is shown to decrease and, subsequently, to increase until it becomes stable. The dependence of the work function on the temperature of the specimen in the range of 1600-1900 K with a minimum at 1730 K has been found. The minimum is attributed to the dipole layer formation

  10. Influence of solvents on the habit modification of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimaladevi, P.; Srinivasan, K.

    2013-02-01

    Restricted evaporation of solvent method was adopted for the growth of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals from different solvents. The crystal habits of grown crystals were analysed. The form of crystallization was confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction analysis. Thermal behaviour of the grown crystals was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry.

  11. Influence of the atomic structure of crystal surfaces on the surface diffusion in medium temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousty, J.P.

    1981-12-01

    In this work, we have studied the influence of atomic structure of crystal surface on surface self-diffusion in the medium temperature range. Two ways are followed. First, we have measured, using a radiotracer method, the self-diffusion coefficient at 820 K (0.6 T melting) on copper surfaces both the structure and the cleanliness of which were stable during the experiment. We have shown that the interaction between mobile surface defects and steps can be studied through measurements of the anisotropy of surface self diffusion. Second, the behavior of an adatom and a surface vacancy is simulated via a molecular dynamics method, on several surfaces of a Lennard Jones crystal. An inventory of possible migration mechanisms of these surface defects has been drawn between 0.35 and 0.45 Tsub(m). The results obtained with both the methods point out the influence of the surface atomic structure in surface self-diffusion in the medium temperature range [fr

  12. Germanium crystal dimensions and their influences on the observed peak-to-background distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, W [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, AG-Personendosimetrie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Koenig, K [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene

    1997-03-01

    This description applies to the parameters of in vivo and in vitro detection systems as they relate to the type of the detector (or arrangements of detectors) and the performance of the choice. In detail, measurements of a set of pulse-height distributions were done to determine the influence from the detector-crystal dimensions on the peak-to-background variation for point and volume sources as well as ambient radiation. The current capability in suppression of Compton scattered {gamma}-rays using coincidence/anti-coincidence arrangements both for in vivo and in vitro system are presented. Criteria and relations as well as advantages and disadvantages of the applicability are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Influence of weak anchoring upon the alignment of smectic A liquid crystals with surface pretilt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vita, R [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Virginia Tech, 230 Norris Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Stewart, I W [Department of Mathematics, University of Strathclyde, Livingstone Tower, 26 Richmond Street, Glasgow G1 1XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: devita@vt.edu, E-mail: i.w.stewart@strath.ac.uk

    2008-08-20

    Equilibrium configurations for smectic A liquid crystals in a 'bookshelf' geometry are determined from a nonlinear continuum model under strong and weak anchoring conditions at the boundary for the usual director n. Natural boundary conditions are derived for n and the smectic layer normal a when a preferred director orientation n{sub p}, which generally induces a director pretilt, is prescribed on the boundaries. Two key aspects are examined via the nonlinear equilibrium equations: the separation of n from a and the influence of weak anchoring. The orientations of n and a relative to n{sub p} may differ significantly and depend very much upon the magnitude of the anchoring strength. These results from a nonlinear theory are natural and novel developments of previous classical linearized models for which n {identical_to} a. Comparisons are also drawn between solutions for strong and weak anchoring conditions.

  14. Influence of weak anchoring upon the alignment of smectic A liquid crystals with surface pretilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vita, R; Stewart, I W

    2008-01-01

    Equilibrium configurations for smectic A liquid crystals in a 'bookshelf' geometry are determined from a nonlinear continuum model under strong and weak anchoring conditions at the boundary for the usual director n. Natural boundary conditions are derived for n and the smectic layer normal a when a preferred director orientation n p , which generally induces a director pretilt, is prescribed on the boundaries. Two key aspects are examined via the nonlinear equilibrium equations: the separation of n from a and the influence of weak anchoring. The orientations of n and a relative to n p may differ significantly and depend very much upon the magnitude of the anchoring strength. These results from a nonlinear theory are natural and novel developments of previous classical linearized models for which n ≡ a. Comparisons are also drawn between solutions for strong and weak anchoring conditions

  15. Influence of Surface Geometry of Grating Substrate on Director in Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Wenjiang; Xing Hongyu; Yang Guochen; Zhang Zhidong; Sun Yubao; Chen Guoying; Xuan Li

    2011-01-01

    The director in nematic liquid crystal cell with a weak anchoring grating substrate and a strong anchoring planar substrate is relative to the coordinates x and z. The influence of the surface geometry of the grating substrate in the cell on the director profile is numerically simulated using the two-dimensional finite-difference iterative method under the condition of one elastic constant approximation and zero driven voltage. The deepness of groove and the cell gap affect the distribution of director. For the relatively shallow groove and the relatively thick cell gap, the director is only dependent on the coordinate z. For the relatively deep groove and the relatively thin cell gap, the director must be dependent on the two coordinates x and z because of the increased elastic strain energy induced by the grating surface. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  16. The influence of nanoparticles on the phase and structural ordering for nematic liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kralj, S; Bradac, Z [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Maribor, Koroska 160, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Popa-Nita, V [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, PO Box MG-11, Bucharest 077125 (Romania)], E-mail: samo.kralj@uni-mb.si

    2008-06-18

    We study the influence of nanoparticles (NPs) on liquid crystal (LC) ordering. As regards the structural ordering we consider NPs as a source of a quenched random field. Roughly such a situation is encountered in mixtures of LCs and aerosil NPs (aerosil NPs are spherular ones). Using the semi-microscopic lattice model and Brownian molecular simulation we show that after a quench from the isotropic phase a quasi-stable domain pattern forms. The characteristic size of an average domain is inversely proportional to the concentration of NPs, and domain patterns exhibit memory effects. In the study of the phase behaviour we limit consideration to NPs resembling LC molecules. A Landau-type free energy expression is derived for the mixture, originating from the Maier-Saupe molecular approach. We show that the resulting phase behaviour exhibits the slave-master behaviour as the temperature or pressure is varied.

  17. Influence of cobalt, tantalum, and tungsten on the microstructure and mechanical properties of superalloy single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathal, M.V.; Ebert, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of Co, Ta, and W on the microstructure and mechanical properties of nickel base super-alloy single crystals was investigated. A matrix of alloys was based on Mar-M 247 stripped of C, B, Zr, and Hf. The microstructures of the alloys were examined using optical and electron microscopy, phase extraction, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. Tensile and creep-rupture tests were performed at 1000 C. An increase in tensile and creep strength resulted when Co was removed from alloys containing high refractory metal contents, but Co effects were negligible for alloys with lower refractory metal levels. In the composition range studied, W was more effective than Ta in increasing the creep resistance. The mechanical properties are discussed in relation to the microstructures of the alloys

  18. Influence of cobalt, tantalum, and tungsten on the microstructure and mechanical properties of superalloy single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathal, M. V.; Ebert, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of Co, Ta, and W on the microstructure and mechanical properties of nickel base super-alloy single crystals was investigated. A matrix of alloys was based on Mar-M 247 stripped of C, B, Zr, and Hf. The microstructures of the alloys were examined using optical and electron microscopy, phase extraction, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. Tensile and creep-rupture tests were performed at 1000 C. An increase in tensile and creep strength resulted when Co was removed from alloys containing high refractory metal contents, but Co effects were negligible for alloys with lower refractory metal levels. In the composition range studied, W was more effective than Ta in increasing the creep resistance. The mechanical properties are discussed in relation to the microstructures of the alloys.

  19. Influence of fluid structure upon the shape of RTD curve at a sugar crystallizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.; Borroto, J.I.; Leclerc, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of fluid structure over the shape of the RTD curve at a pilot sugar crystallizer has been tested by the radiotracer method. For Newtonian pure molasses B sugar fluid the pattern flux was close to a perfect mixing cells with backmixing model with a back flow-rate ratio lower than one. In the case of molasses B transformed to a non-Newtonian fluid the pattern flux approaches the same model but with extreme values of the back flow-rate ration (higher than one). A direct relationship was founded between the back flow rate ratio and the flow index of the tested fluids, showing that a special attention has to be pay during data processing of the RTD curves for non-Newtonian fluids. (author)

  20. Influence of molybdenum on the creep properties of nickel-base superalloy single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, R. A.; Nathal, M. V.; Pearson, D. D.

    1990-01-01

    The Mo content of an alloy series based on Ni-6 wt pct Al-6 wt pct Ta was systematically varied from 9.8 to 14.6 wt pct, in order to ascertain the influence of Mo on the creep properties of single crystals. The optimum initial gamma-gamma prime microstructure for raft development and creep strength was established in each alloy before testing. It was found that, as the Mo content increased from 9.8 to 14.0 percent, the magnitude of the lattice mismatch increased; upon reaching 14.6 percent, a degradation of mechanical properties occurred due to the precipitation of a third phase. These results suggest that small refractory metal content and initial gamma-prime variations can profoundly affect mechanical properties.

  1. Numerical study of influence of different dispersed components of crystal cloud on transmission of radiant energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Olga

    2017-11-01

    The calculated results of the transmission of visible and infrared radiation by an atmosphere layer involving ensembles of large preferentially oriented crystals and spherical particles are presented. To calculate extinction characteristics, the physical optics method and the Mie theory are applied. Among all atmospheric particles, both the small particles that are commensurable with the wavelength of the incident radiation and the large plates and the columns are distinguished by the most pronounced dependence of the transmission on spectra of radiant energy. The work illustrates features of influence of parameters of the particle size distribution, particle aspect ratios, orientation and particle refractive index, also polarization state of the incident radiation on the transmission. The predominant effect of the plates on the wavelength dependence of the transmission is shown. A separated and cooperative contributes of the large plates and the small volume shape particles to the common transmission by medium are considered.

  2. Influence of nanomechanical crystal properties on the comminution process of particulate solids in spiral jet mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zügner, Sascha; Marquardt, Karin; Zimmermann, Ingfried

    2006-02-01

    Elastic-plastic properties of single crystals are supposed to influence the size reduction process of bulk materials during jet milling. According to Pahl [M.H. Pahl, Zerkleinerungstechnik 2. Auflage. Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig (1993)] and H. Rumpf: [Prinzipien der Prallzerkleinerung und ihre Anwendung bei der Strahlmahlung. Chem. Ing. Tech., 3(1960) 129-135.] fracture toughness, maximum strain or work of fracture for example are strongly dependent on mechanical parameters like hardness (H) and young's modulus of elasticity (E). In addition the dwell time of particles in a spiral jet mill proved to correlate with the hardness of the feed material [F. Rief: Ph. D. Thesis, University of Würzburg (2001)]. Therefore 'near-surface' properties have a direct influence on the effectiveness of the comminution process. The mean particle diameter as well as the size distribution of the ground product may vary significantly with the nanomechanical response of the material. Thus accurate measurement of crystals' hardness and modulus is essential to determine the ideal operational micronisation conditions of the spiral jet mill. The recently developed nanoindentation technique is applied to examine subsurface properties of pharmaceutical bulk materials, namely calcite, sodium ascorbate, lactose and sodium chloride. Pressing a small sized tip into the material while continuously recording load and displacement, characteristic diagrams are derived. The mathematical evaluation of the force-displacement-data allows for calculation of the hardness and the elastic modulus of the investigated material at penetration depths between 50-300 nm. Grinding experiments performed with a modified spiral jet mill (Type Fryma JMRS 80) indicate the strong impact of the elastic-plastic properties of a given substance on its breaking behaviour. The fineness of milled products produced at constant grinding conditions but with different crystalline powders varies significantly as it is dependent on the

  3. The influence of modified zeolites as nucleating agents on crystallization behavior and mechanical properties of polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Zhiping; Wang, Kunjun; Qiao, Zhihua; Wang, Wenjie

    2010-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) composites with unmodified and modified zeolites were prepared by melt blending in single-screw extruder. The modified zeolites, diethoxy (distearoyl) silane (DDS)-zeolite 13X (DDS-13X) and diethoxy (distearoyl) silane-zeolite 5A (DDS-5A), were obtained by grafting diethoxy (distearoyl) silane onto zeolite 13X and 5A, respectively. The influence of the unmodified and modified zeolites as nucleating agents on properties of polypropylene was investigated with X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized light microscopy (PLM), Vicat softening temperature (VST) and mechanical properties test. The XRD results revealed that zeolite 13X and DDS-13X had a great influence on nucleation of PP compared to zeolite 5A and DDS-5A. The DSC results showed that the addition of small amount of modified zeolites lead to increase in crystallization temperature (T c ), initial crystallization temperature (T onset ) and crystallinity (X c ) of PP composites compared to unmodified zeolites, especially, DDS-13X was more effective than DDS-5A, and the highest crystallinity X c (50.48%) was observed in PP/0.3 wt.% DDS-13X, which was responsible to the higher tensile strength and flexural strength of PP/DDS-13X. The PP/DDS-5A, however, exhibited evident increase in flexural strength and a little change in tensile strength compared to pure PP. Moreover, as the addition amount of DDS-5A or DDS-13X up to 1 wt.%, the impact strength of both PP/DDS-5A and PP/DDS-13X reached 43 kJ/m 2 , which was about 2.8 times greater than that of the pure PP (11.3 kJ/m 2 ). These results were in good agreement with the spherulite morphology observed from PLM micrographs.

  4. Influence of Substrate on Crystal Orientation of Large-Grained Si Thin Films Formed by Metal-Induced Crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Toko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Producing large-grained polycrystalline Si (poly-Si film on glass substrates coated with conducting layers is essential for fabricating Si thin-film solar cells with high efficiency and low cost. We investigated how the choice of conducting underlayer affected the poly-Si layer formed on it by low-temperature (500°C Al-induced crystallization (AIC. The crystal orientation of the resulting poly-Si layer strongly depended on the underlayer material: (100 was preferred for Al-doped-ZnO (AZO and indium-tin-oxide (ITO; (111 was preferred for TiN. This result suggests Si heterogeneously nucleated on the underlayer. The average grain size of the poly-Si layer reached nearly 20 µm for the AZO and ITO samples and no less than 60 µm for the TiN sample. Thus, properly electing the underlayer material is essential in AIC and allows large-grained Si films to be formed at low temperatures with a set crystal orientation. These highly oriented Si layers with large grains appear promising for use as seed layers for Si light-absorption layers as well as for advanced functional materials.

  5. Influence of impurities on the surface morphology of the TIBr crystal semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Robinson A. dos; Silva, Julio B. Rodrigues da; Martins, Joao F.T.; Ferraz, Caue de M.; Costa, Fabio E. da; Mesquita, Carlos H. de; Hamada, Margarida M.; Gennari, Roseli F.

    2013-01-01

    The impurity effect in the surface morphology quality of TlBr crystals was evaluated, aiming a future application of these crystals as room temperature radiation semiconductor detectors. The crystals were purified and grown by the Repeated Bridgman technique. Systematic measurements were carried out for determining the stoichiometry, structure orientation, surface morphology and impurity of the crystal. A significant difference in the crystals impurity concentration was observed for almost all impurities, compared to those found in the raw material. The crystals wafer grown twice showed a surface roughness and grains which may be due to the presence of impurities on the surface, while those obtained with crystals grown three times presented a more uniform surface: even though, a smaller roughness was still observed. It was demonstrated that the impurities affect strongly the surface morphology quality of crystals. (author)

  6. Influences of Silver-Doping on the Crystal Structure, Morphology and Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barakat, Nasser A. M.; Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Al-Deyab, Salem S.

    2011-01-01

    Doping of titanium dioxide nanofibers by silver nanoparticles revealed distinct improvement in the photocatalytic activ-ity; however other influences have not been investigated. In this work, effect of sliver-doping on the crystal structure, the nanofibrous morphology as well as the photocatalyti...

  7. Influence of Teflon substrate on crystallization and enzymatic degradation of polymorphic poly(butylene adipate)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ning, Zhenbo; Nielsen, Ronnie Bo Højstrup; Zhao, Lifen

    2014-01-01

    for PBA beta crystals between neither the oriented nor the non-oriented Teflon films. The enzymatic degradation rate of PBA films was not determined by the epitaxial crystallization, in fact it was still dependent on the polymorphic crystal structure of PBA. The morphological changes of PBA films after...... enzymatic degradation confirmed again that the epitaxial crystallization only occurred for the PBA film with alpha crystal structure which was produced by being sandwiched between oriented Teflon films, and it happened only on the surface of PBA films....

  8. The influence of ion hydration on nucleation and growth of LiF crystals in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanaro, G; Patey, G N

    2018-01-14

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are employed to investigate crystal nucleation and growth in oversaturated aqueous LiF solutions. Results obtained for a range of temperatures provide evidence that the rate of crystal growth is determined by a substantial energy barrier (∼49 kJ mol -1 ) related to the loss of water from the ion hydration shells. Employing direct MD simulations, we do not observe spontaneous nucleation of LiF crystals at 300 K, but nucleation is easily observable in NVT simulations at 500 K. This contrasts with the NaCl case, where crystal nucleation is directly observed in similar simulations at 300 K. Based on these observations, together with a detailed analysis of ion clustering in metastable LiF solutions, we argue that the ion dehydration barrier also plays a key role in crystal nucleation. The hydration of the relatively small Li + and F - ions strongly influences the probability of forming large, crystal-like ion clusters, which are a necessary precursor to nucleation. This important factor is not accounted for in classical nucleation theory.

  9. The influence of freezer storage of urine samples on the BONN-Risk-Index for calcium oxalate crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, Norbert; Zimmermann, Diana J

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to quantify the effect of a 1-week freezer storage of urine on its calcium oxalate crystallization risk. Calcium oxalate is the most common urinary stone material observed in urolithiasis patients in western and affluent countries. The BONN-Risk-Index of calcium oxalate crystallization risk in human urine is determined from a crystallization experiment performed on untreated native urine samples. We tested the influence of a 1-week freezing on the BONN-Risk-Index value as well as the effect of the sample freezing on the urinary osmolality. In vitro crystallization experiments in 49 native urine samples from stone-forming and non-stone forming individuals were performed in order to determine their calcium oxalate crystallization risk according to the BONN-Risk-Index approach. Comparison of the results derived from original sample investigations with those obtained from the thawed aliquots by statistical evaluation shows that i) no significant deviation from linearity between both results exists and ii) both results are identical by statistical means. This is valid for both, the BONN-Risk-Index and the osmolality data. The differences in the BONN-Risk-Index results of both procedures of BONN-Risk-Index determination, however, exceed the clinically acceptable difference. Thus, determination of the urinary calcium oxalate crystallization risk from thawed urine samples cannot be recommended.

  10. Influence of ZnO nanostructures in liquid crystal interfaces for bistable switching applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Kaushik, E-mail: kaushikpal@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhan, Bihong, E-mail: bihong_zhan@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Madhu Mohan, M.L.N. [Liquid Crystal Research Laboratory (LCRL), Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam 638 401 (India); Schirhagl, Romana [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of BioMedical Engineering, Ant. Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Wang, Guoping, E-mail: guopingwang@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • One step bench top novel synthesis and growth dynamics of ZnO structures are successfully performed. • Nanostructures dispersing liquid crystals (NDLC) is recently found to have significant influence on the nucleation and growth of many functional nanocrystals (NCs), and provide a fundamental approach to modify the crystallographic phase, size, morphology, and electronic configuration of nanomaterials. • Electro-optical switching application ensures the bright field droplet design marble pattern of smectic G phase, nematic and most significant twist nematic phase pattern are obtained. • Spontaneous polarization, rotational viscosity and response time study, exploring smart applications in LCD technology. - Abstract: The controlled fabrication of nanometer-scale objects is without doubt one of the central issues in current science and technology. In this article, we exhibit a simple, one-step bench top synthesis of zinc oxide nano-tetrapods and nano-spheres which were tailored by the facial growth of nano-wires (diameter ≈ 24 nm; length ≈ 118 nm) and nano-cubes (≈395 nm edge) to nano-sphere (diameter ≈ 585 nm) appeaded. The possibilities of inexpensive, simple solvo-chemical synthesis of nanostructures were considered. In this article, a successful attempt has been made that ZnO nano-structures dispersed on well aligned hydrogen bonded liquid crystals (HBLC) comprising azelaic acid (AC) with p-n-alkyloxy benzoic acid (nBAO) by varying the respective alkyloxy carbon number (n = 5). The dispersion of nanomaterials with HBLC is an effective route to enhance the existing functionalities. A series of these composite materials were analyzed by polarizing optical microscope's electro-optical switching. An interesting feature of AC + nBAO is the inducement of tilted smectic G phase with increasing carbon chain length. Phase diagrams of the above hybrid ZnO nanomaterial influenced LC complex and pure LC were

  11. The influence of ion energy, target temperature, dose rate and crystal order on the shape of bombardment induced pyramids on copper crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanovic, L.; Whitton, J.L.; Kofod, S.

    1978-01-01

    Following recent studies of energetic ion bombardment of copper, which established the conditions necessary for the production of cones/pyramids, investigations have been extended to include the effects of change in ion energy, target temperature and dose rate. In addition, the authors have attempted a detailed analysis of the influence of sample crystal orientation on the final form of pyramids and have investigated the stability of the pyramids as a function of the total dose. These experiments, as in earlier work, have been done using very pure copper, mass-analyzed ion beams and free of any metal contamination from, for example, defining apertures. (Auth.)

  12. Mutual Influence of Special Components in Baotou Steel Blast Furnace Slag on the Crystallization Behavior of Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yici; Jiang, Qi; Luo, Guoping; Yu, Wenwu; Ban, Yan

    2012-01-01

    In the process of glass-ceramics prepared with Baotou steel blast furnace slag, quartz sand, and other raw materials by melting method, the mutual influence of the special components such as CaF2, REXOY, TiO2, K2O, and Na2O in the blast furnace slag on the crystallization behavior of parent glass was investigated using differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the special components in slag can reduce the crystallization temperature and promote cry...

  13. Influence of crystal orientation on the formation of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures and lattice defects accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedao, Xxx; Garrelie, Florence, E-mail: florence.garrelie@univ-st-etienne.fr; Colombier, Jean-Philippe; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Pigeon, Florent [Université de Lyon, CNRS, UMR5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université de Saint Etienne, Jean Monnet, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Maurice, Claire; Quey, Romain [Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, CNRS, UMR5307, Laboratoire Georges Friedel, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France)

    2014-04-28

    The influence of crystal orientation on the formation of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) has been investigated on a polycrystalline nickel sample. Electron Backscatter Diffraction characterization has been exploited to provide structural information within the laser spot on irradiated samples to determine the dependence of LIPSS formation and lattice defects (stacking faults, twins, dislocations) upon the crystal orientation. Significant differences are observed at low-to-medium number of laser pulses, outstandingly for (111)-oriented surface which favors lattice defects formation rather than LIPSS formation.

  14. Influence of Impurities on the Radiation Response of the TlBr Semiconductor Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Alves dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two commercially available TlBr salts were used as the raw material for crystal growths to be used as radiation detectors. Previously, TlBr salts were purified once, twice, and three times by the repeated Bridgman method. The purification efficiency was evaluated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS, after each purification process. A compartmental model was proposed to fit the impurity concentration as a function of the repetition number of the Bridgman growths, as well as determine the segregation coefficients of impurities in the crystals. The crystalline structure, the stoichiometry, and the surface morphology of the crystals were evaluated, systematically, for the crystals grown with different purification numbers. To evaluate the crystal as a radiation semiconductor detector, measurements of its resistivity and gamma-ray spectroscopy were carried out, using 241Am and 133Ba sources. A significant improvement of the radiation response was observed in function of the crystal purity.

  15. Influence of polymeric excipient properties on crystal hydrate formation kinetics of caffeine in aqueous slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gift, Alan D; Southard, Leslie A; Riesberg, Amanda L

    2012-05-01

    The influence of polymeric excipients on the hydrate transformation of caffeine (CAF) was studied. Anhydrous CAF was added to aqueous solutions containing different additives and the transformation to the hydrate form was monitored using in-line Raman spectroscopy. Various properties of two known inhibitors of CAF hydrate formation, polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), were investigated. For inhibition by PAA, a pH dependence was observed: at low pH, the inhibition was greatest, whereas no inhibitory effects were observed at pH above 6.5. For PVA, grades with high percent hydrolysis were the most effective at inhibiting the transformation. In addition, PVA with higher molecular weight showed slightly more inhibition than the shorter chain PVA polymers. A variety of other hydroxyl containing compounds were examined but none inhibited the CAF anhydrate-to-hydrate transformation. The observed inhibitory effects of PAA and PVA are attributed to the large number of closely spaced hydrogen bond donating groups of the polymer molecule, which can interact with the CAF hydrate crystal. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Influence of the adhesion force crystal/heat exchanger surface on fouling mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, M.; Augustin, W.; Bohnet, M.

    1999-01-01

    The accumulation of unwanted crystalline deposits (fouling) reduces the efficiency of heat exchangers considerably. In order to decrease the cost of fouling two strategies have been developed. The first fouling mitigation strategy is based on the modification of energy-and-geometry-related characteristics of the heat transfer surface to realize an increased duration of the induction period. By means of a drop-shape-analysis measurement device the interaction at the interface crystal/heat transfer surface is determined. The deployment of the fracture energy model and the interfacial defect model relates wetting characteristics to the adhesion phenomenon. Hence, a first estimation of the optimal choice of surface material is realized. Furthermore, the influence of surface topography on interfacial interactions has been analyzed. The second fouling mitigation strategy is based on the adjustment of the hydrodynamic flow conditions using a pulsation technique. Here, single strokes of higher velocity are superimposed on the stationary flow. These strokes shift the equilibrium of forces to an improved removal process. Fouling experiments have proved that pulsation is a powerful tool to mitigate the built-up of fouling layers on heat transfer surfaces. (author)

  17. Influence of crystal orientation on magnetostriction waveform in grain orientated electrical steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijima, Gou, E-mail: g-kijima@jfe-steel.co.jp [Steel Research Laboratory, JFE Steel Corporation, Kawasaki, 210-0855 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroi; Senda, Kunihiro; Hayakawa, Yasuyuki [Steel Research Laboratory, JFE Steel Corporation, Kurashiki, 712-8511 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    Aiming to gain insight into the mechanisms of grain-oriented electrical steel sheet magnetostriction waveforms, we investigated the influence of crystal orientations. An increase in the β angle results in an increase in the amplitude of magnetostriction waveform, but does not affect the waveform itself. By slanting the excitation direction to simulate the change of the α angle, change in the magnetostriction waveform and a constriction–extension transition point in the steel plate was observed. The amplitude, however, was not significantly affected. We explained the nature of constriction–extension transition point in the magnetostriction waveform by considering the magnetization rotation. We speculated that the change of waveform resulting from the increase in the coating tensile stress can be attributed to the phenomenon of the magnetization rotation becoming hard to be generated due to the increase of magnetic anisotropy toward [001] axis. - Highlights: • β angle is related with the amplitude of magnetostriction waveform. • α angle is related with the magnetostriction waveform itself. • The effect of α angle can be controlled by the effect of coating tensile stress.

  18. Influence of submelting on formation of single crystals of nickel alloy with cellular-dendritic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankin, G.N.; Esin, V.O.; Ponomarev, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    A study was made into specific features of cellular - dendritic structure formation in single crystals of nickel base alloy ZhS26 which had been crystallized following the pattern of solid solution. The single crystals in growing were subjected to periodic partial remelting to suppress the transition of cellular structure into a cellular - dendritic one during directional solidification. The results obtained showed the possibility to stabilize cellular growth of solid solution by way of inversion of interphase surface motion in the process of directional crystallization. 4 refs.; 5 figs

  19. Influence of Nd dopants on lattice parameters and thermal and elastic properties in YVO4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucytowski, J.; Wokulska, K.; Kazmierczak-Balata, A.; Bodzenta, J.; Lukasiewicz, T.; Hofman, B.; Pyka, M.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of neodymium doping on YVO 4 single crystals has been studied. The crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. One of them was pure YVO 4 and the others were doped with neodymium (YVO 4 :Nd) at various concentrations of Nd = 0.3-3.0 at.%. The changes of the lattice parameters were determined by the Bond's method [W.L. Bond, Acta Cryst. 13 (1960) 814]. The thermal diffusivity and the velocity of ultrasound using the photothermal method with mirage effect and the pulse echo method [J. Bodzenta, M. Pyka, J. Phys. IV France 137 (2006) 259] were measured. In the examined crystals, it was found that the lattice parameters increase while the thermal diffusivity decreases with increasing concentration of Nd atoms

  20. Influence of intermediate layers on the surface condition of laser crystallized silicon thin films and solar cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Höger, Ingmar, E-mail: ingmar.hoeger@ipht-jena.de; Gawlik, Annett; Brückner, Uwe; Andrä, Gudrun [Leibniz-Institut für Photonische Technologien, PF 100239, 07702 Jena (Germany); Himmerlich, Marcel; Krischok, Stefan [Institut für Mikro-und Nanotechnologien, Technische Universität Ilmenau, PF 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2016-01-28

    The intermediate layer (IL) between glass substrate and silicon plays a significant role in the optimization of multicrystalline liquid phase crystallized silicon thin film solar cells on glass. This study deals with the influence of the IL on the surface condition and the required chemical surface treatment of the crystallized silicon (mc-Si), which is of particular interest for a-Si:H heterojunction thin film solar cells. Two types of IL were investigated: sputtered silicon nitride (SiN) and a layer stack consisting of silicon nitride and silicon oxide (SiN/SiO). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements revealed the formation of silicon oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) or silicon oxide (SiO{sub 2}) layers at the surface of the mc-Si after liquid phase crystallization on SiN or SiN/SiO, respectively. We propose that SiO{sub x}N{sub y} formation is governed by dissolving nitrogen from the SiN layer in the silicon melt, which segregates at the crystallization front during crystallization. This process is successfully hindered, when additional SiO layers are introduced into the IL. In order to achieve solar cell open circuit voltages above 500 mV, a removal of the formed SiO{sub x}N{sub y} top layer is required using sophisticated cleaning of the crystallized silicon prior to a-Si:H deposition. However, solar cells crystallized on SiN/SiO yield high open circuit voltage even when a simple wet chemical surface treatment is applied. The implementation of SiN/SiO intermediate layers facilitates the production of mesa type solar cells with open circuit voltages above 600 mV and a power conversion efficiency of 10%.

  1. Influence of Crucible Thermal Conductivity on Crystal Growth in an Industrial Directional Solidification Process for Silicon Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaoyang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We carried out transient global simulations of heating, melting, growing, annealing, and cooling stages for an industrial directional solidification (DS process for silicon ingots. The crucible thermal conductivity is varied in a reasonable range to investigate its influence on the global heat transfer and silicon crystal growth. It is found that the crucible plays an important role in heat transfer, and therefore its thermal conductivity can influence the crystal growth significantly in the entire DS process. Increasing the crucible thermal conductivity can shorten the time for melting of silicon feedstock and growing of silicon crystal significantly, and therefore large thermal conductivity is helpful in saving both production time and power energy. However, the high temperature gradient in the silicon ingots and the locally concave melt-crystal interface shape for large crucible thermal conductivity indicate that high thermal stress and dislocation propagation are likely to occur during both growing and annealing stages. Based on the numerical simulations, some discussions on designing and choosing the crucible thermal conductivity are presented.

  2. Influence of electron beam exposure on crystallization of phase-change materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Kooi, Bart J.; De Hosson, Jeff Th. M.; Pauza, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Isothermal crystallization of amorphous SbxTe films capped with ZnS-SiO2 or GeCrN layers was performed using in situ heating within a transmission electron microscope. The effect of the electron beam of the microscope on the crystallization process was investigated. It was found that electron

  3. Influence of fat crystals in the oil phase on stability of oil-in-water emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Coalescence at rest and during flow was studied in emulsions of paraffin oil in water with several surfactants and with crystals of solid paraffin or tristearate in the oil phase. Solid fat in the oil phase was estimated by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. Without crystals, oil-in-water emulsions

  4. Influence of microgravity on Ce-doped Bi12 SiO20 crystal defect

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    studied by comparing space grown BSO crystal with ground grown one. These results show ... fractive properties (Aldrich et al 1971; Peltier and. Micheron ... The shape of interface changes from concave to convex by suppressing ... cations. Figure 1. Parts of Ce doped BSO crystals: (a) space growth and (b) ground growth.

  5. The Influence of Cr3+ on TiO2 Crystal Growth and Photoactivity Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Hidayatika, W. N.; Sari, P. L.; Sari, P. P.; Hidayat, R.; Munawaroh, H.; Ramelan, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    The photocatalyst technology is an integrated combination of photochemical processes and catalysis in order to carry out a chemical transformation reaction. One of the semiconductor materials that have good photocatalytic activity is TiO2 anatase. This study aim to determine the effect of the Cr3+ addition on the growth of TiO2 rutile crystal and the increasing of TiO2 photoactivity. Diffractogram X-Ray of the samples showed that the synthesized TiO2 at 400 °C has been produced 100% TiO2 anatase. Synthesis of TiO2 doped Cr3+ composite was using wet impregnation method. The TiO2 doped Cr3+ composites have beed grown by annealed at a temperature of 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C, respectively Annealing process have capabled to gain to the TiO2 doped Cr3+ nanocomposite. The result product annealed at 500 °C only appear anatase phase due to the Cr3+ addition influence that was able to suppress the growth of rutile. Identification of TiO2 doped Cr3+ composite using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) showed O-Cr vibration at 2283.72 cm-1. The TiO2 doped Cr3+ photoactivity was studied to degrade Rhodamin B. The best result on photodegradation of Rhodamin B was performed by using TiO2 doped Cr3+ composite which was annealed at 700 °C i.e. 74.71%.

  6. Influence of magnetic anisotropy on dynamic magnonic crystals created by surface acoustic waves in yttrium iron garnet films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshtal, R.G.; Medved, A.V., E-mail: avm@ms.ire.rssi.ru

    2017-03-15

    Experimental results on the investigation of the influence of magnetic crystallographic anisotropy onto parameters of dynamic magnonic crystals arising at surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films are presented. The main features of such an influence, as we have shown, are: 1) appearance of extra magnonic band gaps together with the normal magnonic band gap existing without anisotropy, 2) the absence of reflections of the incident surface magnetostatic wave at the frequency of these extra gaps, 3) the same depth for the extra gaps was achieved with a relatively small SAW power, almost by the order of magnitude less than in the case of normal magnonic gaps caused by SAW. A possible explanation of the features is given on the base of inelastic scattering of surface magnetostatic waves by SAW with the transformation of the reflected surface wave to the anisotropic direct volume magnetostatic wave existence of which is due to cubic crystallographic anisotropy in YIG. These results may be useful in designing new devices of information processing. - Highlights: • A new mechanism of creation of dynamic magnonic crystals by SAW propagating in real YIG films with magnetic anisotropy is investigated. • This mechanism is based on inelastic scattering of SMSW by SAW with SMSW transformation to the anisotropic volume magnetostatic wave. • This mechanism brings to creating by SAW additional (extra) magnonic stop bands for SMSW. • The given depth of these band gaps is achieved at SAW powers of the order of magnitude less than in the case of normal magnonic gaps created by SAW in the magnonic crystal without taking into account the anisotropy. • No reflected waves, usually taking place at SMSW propagation at the frequency of normal magnonic gaps, were detected. Such extra gaps look like a magnonic 'black hole' for SMSW. • These new properties of SAW-magnonic crystals, given by the magnetic anisotropy, may be used at creating

  7. Influence of magnetic anisotropy on dynamic magnonic crystals created by surface acoustic waves in yttrium iron garnet films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshtal, R.G.; Medved, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Experimental results on the investigation of the influence of magnetic crystallographic anisotropy onto parameters of dynamic magnonic crystals arising at surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films are presented. The main features of such an influence, as we have shown, are: 1) appearance of extra magnonic band gaps together with the normal magnonic band gap existing without anisotropy, 2) the absence of reflections of the incident surface magnetostatic wave at the frequency of these extra gaps, 3) the same depth for the extra gaps was achieved with a relatively small SAW power, almost by the order of magnitude less than in the case of normal magnonic gaps caused by SAW. A possible explanation of the features is given on the base of inelastic scattering of surface magnetostatic waves by SAW with the transformation of the reflected surface wave to the anisotropic direct volume magnetostatic wave existence of which is due to cubic crystallographic anisotropy in YIG. These results may be useful in designing new devices of information processing. - Highlights: • A new mechanism of creation of dynamic magnonic crystals by SAW propagating in real YIG films with magnetic anisotropy is investigated. • This mechanism is based on inelastic scattering of SMSW by SAW with SMSW transformation to the anisotropic volume magnetostatic wave. • This mechanism brings to creating by SAW additional (extra) magnonic stop bands for SMSW. • The given depth of these band gaps is achieved at SAW powers of the order of magnitude less than in the case of normal magnonic gaps created by SAW in the magnonic crystal without taking into account the anisotropy. • No reflected waves, usually taking place at SMSW propagation at the frequency of normal magnonic gaps, were detected. Such extra gaps look like a magnonic 'black hole' for SMSW. • These new properties of SAW-magnonic crystals, given by the magnetic anisotropy, may be used at creating

  8. Study of the influence in crystallization period in MCM-22 zeolite synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, A.S.; Santos, E.R.F.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of MCM-22 is accomplished by hydrothermal treatment and long periods needed for crystallization, with the gradual growth of crystals of 10-14 days. MCM-22 catalyst is studied intensively as promising, with high thermal stability. As part of a line of research focused on the development of zeolite with lowest cost, this study aimed to examine the effect in decreasing the period of crystallization in the synthesis of zeolite MCM-22. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, X-ray Energy Dispersive (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Fourier transform (FT-IR). By XRD it was observed that the hydrothermal treatment used in the synthesis was effective during periods of crystallization and EDX was observed that the samples have a high percentage of silica and low alumina content, which gives them a high ratio SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 characteristic of the MWW structure. (author)

  9. Influence of Superconductivity on Crystal Electric Field Transitions in La1-xTbxAl2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feile, R.; Loewenhaupt, M.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1981-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering from the crystal electric field transitions in La1-xTbxAl2 single crystals has revealed an abrupt increase in the lifetimes of these transitions when the system becomes superconducting. An increase in the integrated intensities is also observed. The lifetime effects...... are quantitatively reproduced by existing theories, which take into account the reduced scattering of the conduction electrons by the magnetic ions due to the creation of the superconducting energy gap 2Δ(T)....

  10. Influence of nano-size inclusions on spall fracture of copper single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razorenov, S. V.; Ivanchihina, G. E.; Kanel, G. I.; Herrmann, B.; Zaretsky, E. B.

    2007-01-01

    Spall experiments have been carried out for copper in different structural states. The samples were copper single crystals, crystals of Cu+0.1% Si, copper crystals with silica particles of 180 nm average size, and polycrystalline copper. In experiments, the free surface velocity histories were recorded with the VISAR. The recovered samples were studied using optical microscopy and SEM. Solid solution Cu+0.1% Si demonstrates slower spall process than pure copper crystals. At longer pulse durations its spall strength is slightly less than that of pure crystals but approaches the latter with decreasing pulse duration. Fracture of copper with silica inclusions is completed much faster. The spall strength of this material is close to that of Cu+0.1% Si crystals at longer pulse duration and approaches the strength of polycrystalline copper with decreasing the load duration. Fractography of the spall surfaces correlates with the free surface velocity histories. The main fracture surface of the Cu+0.1% Si grains consists of net of dimples ∼4 μm to 40 μm mean diameter. The fracture surfaces of copper with silica inclusions is covered by a net of dimples of 1 μm to 5 μm size

  11. The influence of magnetic fields on protein crystal growth and quality; Zum Einfluss magnetischer Felder auf das Wachstum und die Qualitaet von Proteinkristallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meents, Alke

    2005-08-01

    Magnetic fields can affect protein crystal growth in several ways. In homogeneous magnetic fields molecules and crystallites line up themselves along the magnetic field direction due to their magnetic anisotropy. Inhomogeneous magnetic fields exert a force on diamagnetic and paramagnetic compounds towards regions of lower or higher field strength. This effect can be used to create a microgravity-like environment for diamagnetic proteins and an environment comparable to hypergravity for paramagnetic proteins. Crystallization in homogeneous magnetic fields and a microgravity-like environment are reported to have a positive effect on crystal quality. The aim of this work was to systematically investigate the effect of protein crystallization in magnetic fields on the crystal quality by comparing a large number of crystals grown under identical conditions with- and without magnetic fields. Crystal quality was determined by means of high resolution rocking-curve measurements. Furthermore in certain cases complete diffraction datasets were collected. Any possible influence of magnetic fields on the mosaicity and the quality of the diffraction data was evaluated statistically by applying Wilcoxon-Ranksum tests. To investigate the effect of protein crystallization in homogeneous magnetic fields the diamagnetic proteins Thaumatin, Trypsin, and Lysozyme and paramagnetic Myoglobin were crystallized in magnetic fields of 5 T, 8.8 T, and 15.8 T. The analysis of crystal mosaicity and quality of the diffraction data of the diamagnetic proteins did not reveal a significant influence on the crystal quality. In contrast the crystals of paramagnetic Myoglobin grew up to 14 times larger than the ones in the control experiment. In addition they had a significant lower mosaicity, and diffracted to a higher resolution than ever reported before. Special pole pieces for an existing magnet were designed and build to grow protein crystals in an inhomogeneous magnetic field The experimental

  12. Influence of temperature rise distribution in second harmonic generation crystal on intensity distributions of output second harmonic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Feng Guoying; Li Gang; Huang Yu; Zhang Qiuhui

    2009-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) of high-intensity laser with an SHG crystal for type I angle phase matching has been studied by the use of a split-step algorithm based on the fast Fourier transform and a fourth-order Runge-Kutta (R-K) integrator. The transverse walk-off effect, diffraction, the second-order and the third-order nonlinear effects have been taken into consideration. Influences of a temperature rise distribution of the SHG crystal on the refractive indices of ordinary wave and extraordinary wave have been discussed. The rules of phase mismatching quantity, intensity distribution of output beam and frequency conversion efficiency varying with the temperature rise distribution of the SHG crystal have been analyzed quantitatively. The calculated results indicate that in a high power frequency conversion system, the temperature rise distribution of SHG crystal would result in the phase mismatching of fundamental and harmonic waves, leading to the variation of intensity distribution of the output beam and the decrease of the conversion efficiency. (authors)

  13. Influence of the crystal-surface unevenness on the angular spread of an x-ray diffracted beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrda, JaromIra; Potlovskiy, Kirill; Hrdy, JaromIr; Slechtova, Venceslava

    2005-01-01

    One of the factors influencing the focus size in diffractive-refractive optics is the quality of diffracting surface. If the surface is uneven, as it is when the silicon crystal surface is only etched, then the diffraction at each point of the surface is a combination of an asymmetric and inclined diffraction (general asymmetric diffraction). This somewhat deviates and spreads the diffracted beam. The integration over the surface hit by an incident beam gives the angular spread of the diffracted beam. It is shown theoretically that in some cases (highly asymmetric, highly inclined cut) the etched surface may create the spread of the diffracted beam such that it causes a significant broadening of the focus. In this case a mechanical-chemical polishing is necessary. This has been verified by us earlier in a preliminary experiment with synchrotron radiation. In this work the new experiment with the same crystals is performed using double crystal (+, -) arrangement and a laboratory x-ray source (CuKα radiation). We compared two samples; one of them is mechanically-chemically (MC) polished and thus the diffracting surface is almost perfect; the other is only etched. This experiment allows a better comparison of the result with the theory. The difference between the measured rocking curve widths for the etched and MC polished crystals (10'') roughly agrees with theory (7''), which supports the correctness of the theoretical approach

  14. Influence of gas hydrates crystals or ice crystals on the permeability of a porous medium; Influence de cristaux d'hydrates de gaz ou de glace sur la permeabilite d'un milieu poreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnefoy, O.

    2005-03-15

    The first part is a bibliographic study. We study the conditions for thermodynamic equilibrium of the hydrates as a bulk medium and the composition of the liquid and solid phases. We then describe the basics of fluid dynamics in a porous medium. Eventually, we merge the two approaches and study the influence of the porous medium on the hydrate stability. An off-shore hydrate field (Blake Ridge) and an on-shore field (Mallik) are precisely described. The latter will be used as a reference case for subsequent numerical simulations. The second part is devoted to the experiments. Their goal is to measure the permeability of a sediment containing crystals. To get closer to natural geologic conditions, crystals are synthesized in absence of free gas. It turns out that hydrates form in a very heterogeneous way in the porous medium, which makes the measurements non representative. We believe that this result has a general character and that, at the laboratory time-scale, it is difficult, to say the least to achieve a uniform distribution of gas hydrates grown from dissolved gas. To circumvent this difficulty, we show, with a theoretical approach, that ice crystals behave much the same way as the hydrate crystals, concerning the Van der Waals forces that govern the agglomeration. This allows us to calculate the Hamaker constant of the hydrates. The second series of experiments focuses on the permeability of a non consolidated porous medium under mechanical stress, where the pores are filled with ice crystals. Two silica beads populations are used to form a porous medium: 3 mm and 0.2 mm. With the large grains, results show two thresholds: for saturations below the lower threshold, the presence of crystals does not modify the permeability. For saturations above the upper threshold, the permeability vanishes almost completely (percolation phenomenon). Between these two limits, the permeability decreases exponentially with the saturation. With the fine grains, the permeability

  15. Influence of gas hydrates crystals or ice crystals on the permeability of a porous medium; Influence de cristaux d'hydrates de gaz ou de glace sur la permeabilite d'un milieu poreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnefoy, O

    2005-03-15

    The first part is a bibliographic study. We study the conditions for thermodynamic equilibrium of the hydrates as a bulk medium and the composition of the liquid and solid phases. We then describe the basics of fluid dynamics in a porous medium. Eventually, we merge the two approaches and study the influence of the porous medium on the hydrate stability. An off-shore hydrate field (Blake Ridge) and an on-shore field (Mallik) are precisely described. The latter will be used as a reference case for subsequent numerical simulations. The second part is devoted to the experiments. Their goal is to measure the permeability of a sediment containing crystals. To get closer to natural geologic conditions, crystals are synthesized in absence of free gas. It turns out that hydrates form in a very heterogeneous way in the porous medium, which makes the measurements non representative. We believe that this result has a general character and that, at the laboratory time-scale, it is difficult, to say the least to achieve a uniform distribution of gas hydrates grown from dissolved gas. To circumvent this difficulty, we show, with a theoretical approach, that ice crystals behave much the same way as the hydrate crystals, concerning the Van der Waals forces that govern the agglomeration. This allows us to calculate the Hamaker constant of the hydrates. The second series of experiments focuses on the permeability of a non consolidated porous medium under mechanical stress, where the pores are filled with ice crystals. Two silica beads populations are used to form a porous medium: 3 mm and 0.2 mm. With the large grains, results show two thresholds: for saturations below the lower threshold, the presence of crystals does not modify the permeability. For saturations above the upper threshold, the permeability vanishes almost completely (percolation phenomenon). Between these two limits, the permeability decreases exponentially with the saturation. With the fine grains, the permeability

  16. Influence of the chemical composition of rapidly quenched amorphous alloys (Ni, Fe, Cr)-B-Si on its crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmanov, G.; Dzhumaev, P.; Ivanitskaya, E.; Skrytnyi, V.; Ruslanov, A.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents results of research of the structure and phase transformations during the multistage crystallization of the metallic glasses with the compositions Ni71,5Cr6,8Fe2,7B11,9Si7,1 and Ni63,4Cr7,4Fe4,3Mn0,8B15,6Si8,5 labeled as AWS BNi-2 according to American Welding Society. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) were used as experimental research methods. The influence of the alloys chemical composition (boron, manganese and iron) on the temperatures and the exothermic heat effects of phase transformations, as well as on the phase composition of alloys at three stages of crystallization was analyzed. We present a thermodynamic explanation of the observed heat effects. It has been shown that manganese has the main influence on the phase transformations temperatures and heat effects in these two alloys. It is also assumed that at the final crystallization stage simultaneously with the formation of phases Ni3B and β1-Ni3Si should occur the nucleation of borides of CrB type with high Cr and low Si content.

  17. Influence of crystallization time on structural and morphological characteristics the precursor of zeolite MCM-22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, A.S.; Lima, L.A.; Sousa, B.V.; Santos, Everton R.F. dos; Rodrigues, M.G.F.

    2009-01-01

    The zeolite MCM-22 has been studied extensively as a promising catalyst because of the high thermal stability and high activity for acid catalysis and selectivity of molecular shape. The synthesis of MCM-22 is carried out by hydrothermal treatment and long times required for complete crystallization gradual growth of crystals of 10-14 days for the synthesis of static. This work aims to synthesize the precursor of zeolite MCM-22 using the method of hydrothermal synthesis with a reduction in crystallization time of 8 and 9 days. The precursor of zeolite MCM-22 was obtained using sources of silica, soda, deionized water and the director of structures hexametilenoimina (HMI). The samples were synthesized at 150° C for 8 to 9 days, with the following molar composition: 0.511 SiO 2 : 0.039 NaOH: 0.024 Al 2 O 3 : 23.06 H 2 O and subjected to characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) and energy dispersive (EDX). According to tests carried out showed that the hydrothermal treatment used to synthesize the precursor of zeolite MCM-22 was effective during times of crystallization of 8 and 9 days. The results for the micrographs showed that the samples consist of clusters and / or aggregates of small crystals. (author)

  18. Influence of metal induced crystallization parameters on the performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.; Barquinha, P.; Fortunato, E.; Martins, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, metal induced crystallization using nickel was employed to obtain polycrystalline silicon by crystallization of amorphous films for thin film transistor applications. The devices were produced through only one lithographic process with a bottom gate configuration using a new gate dielectric consisting of a multi-layer of aluminum oxide/titanium oxide produced by atomic layer deposition. The best results were obtained for TFTs with the active layer of poly-Si crystallized for 20 h at 500 deg. C using a nickel layer of 0.5 nm where the effective mobility is 45.5 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . The threshold voltage, the on/off current ratio and the sub-threshold voltage are, respectively, 11.9 V, 5.55x10 4 and 2.49 V/dec

  19. Influence of UV light and heat on the ferroelectric properties of lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigerwald, Hendrik

    2011-08-15

    One of the most important non-linear-optical materials is lithium niobate, due to its ease of fabrication, robustness, transparency in the visible-to-infrared and excellent nonlinear properties. In this thesis the issue of tailoring ferroelectric domain structures in lithium niobate crystals is approached from two sides: interaction of defect structures inside the crystal with growing ferroelectric domains is investigated and also actual domain patterning on all crystal faces by different methods is performed. Special emphasis is given to the Mg-doped material. The fundamental understanding and the methods of domain patterning developed in this thesis are then used to obtain tailored domain structures that meet the requirements of their intended application in non-linear optics. (orig.)

  20. The incidence angle influence on the structure of secondary-emission characteristics of single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasanov, E.R.; Aliyev, B.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : The dependences of Wand MO single crystals in different atom planes have been studied in this work. It is revealed that maximums are added to each dependency and also minimums of first and second degree. This fact is explained by diffraction dynamic theory. It is established that electron diffraction oriented not perpendicularly to crystal surface is the reason of appearance of second order structure on studied secondary-emission characteristics. In the present work being the continuation and development of SEE investigations of high-melting metal single crystals begun earlier by authors, the structure dependence of SEE main characteristics of angle has been studied. This angle has been chosen because as it is mentioned before the bad repeatability in different experiments for it is observed

  1. Crystal chemistry of nephelines from ijolites and nepheline-rich pegmatites: influence of composition and genesis on the crystal structure investigated by X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulić, Predrag; Balić-Žunić, Tonči; Belmonte, Louise Josefine

    2011-01-01

    Ten nepheline single crystals from five different localities representing rocks from nepheline-syenite pegmatites to urtite, ijolite and cancrinite-ijolite were investigated chemically and structurally. The chemical compositions were determined by electron microprobe, whereas the crystal structur...

  2. Copper co-crystallization and divalent metal salts cross-influence effect: A new optimization tool improving crystal morphology and diffraction quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kutá-Smatanová, Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 306, č. 2 (2007), s. 383-389 ISSN 0022-0248 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : crystal * crystallization Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.950, year: 2007

  3. Influence of the additive Ag for crystallization of amorphous Ge-Sb-Te thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki-Ho; Kim, Sung-Won; Seo, Jae-Hee [Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Kwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Yong, E-mail: hyleee@chonnam.ac.k [Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Kwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-29

    We have investigated the optical and amorphous-to-crystalline transition properties in four-types of chalcogenide thin films; Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11}, Ag-Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} and Ag-Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11}. Crystallization was caused by nano-pulse illumination ({lambda} = 658 nm) with power (P) of 1-17 mW and pulse duration (t) of 10-460 ns, and the morphologies of crystallized spots were observed by SEM and microscope. It was found that the crystallized spot nearby linearly increases in size with increasing the illuminating energy (E = P {center_dot} t) and eventually ablated out by over illumination. Changes in the optical transmittance of as-deposited and annealed films were measured using a UV-vis-IR spectrophotometer. In addition, a speed of amorphous-to-crystalline transition was evaluated by detecting the reflection response signals for the nano-pulse scanning. Conclusively, the Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11} film has a faster crystallization speed than the Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} film despite its higher crystallization temperature. The crystallization speed was largely improved by adding Ag in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} film but not in Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11} film. To explain these results, we considered a heat confinement by electron hopping.

  4. Influence of gamma radiation and impurity atoms on the photoconductivity of GeS single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madatov, R.S.; Alekperov, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Wide opportunities for using of layered semiconductors, particularly in optoelectronics have generated considerable interest to them. Recently it was created the unique device from GeS for the storage of solar energy. The investigated GeS 1 -xNd x S single crystals were grown by the Bridgman method. The samples were irradiated by gamma-quanta and was conducted to install 60Co at room temperature. Irradiation of p-GeS 1 -xNd x S single crystals by small doses of gamma rays increases the photoconductivity on 40%

  5. Influence of macroscopic shear deformation on polygonization and recrystallization of molybdenum crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larikov, L.N.; Belyakova, M.N.; Maksimenko, E.A.; Mudruk, P.V.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of shear bands on polygonization and recrystallization is studied on molybdenum monocrystals deformed by compression. A sharp bend of the lattice is shown to be a structural condition necessary for arising the shear step. Internal stress relaxation strongly changes kinetics of softening processes in compressed molybdenum crystals: it slows down polygonization under low-temperature heating (below 700 deg C) and accelerates it under high-temperature heating (higher 1000 deg C). Under the effect of relaxation of internal streses recrystallization in the investigated crystals is similar to dynamical: recrystallized grains are distorted and they have a developed substructure

  6. Influences of chemical aging on the surface morphology and crystallization behavior of basaltic glass fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Majbritt Deichgræber; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2008-01-01

    The impact of aging in high humidity and water on the surface morphology and crystallization behavior of basaltic glass fibers has been studied using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The results show that interaction between...... the fibers and the surrounding media (high humidity or water at 70 C) leads to chemical changes strongly affecting the surface morphology. The crystallization peak temperature of the basaltic glass fibers are increased without changing the onset temperature, this may be caused by a chemical depletion...

  7. Influence of crystal habit on the compression and densification mechanism of ibuprofen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Piera; Beccerica, Moira; Joiris, Etienne; Palmieri, Giovanni F.; Gayot, Anne; Martelli, Sante

    2002-08-01

    Ibuprofen was recrystallized from several solvents by two different methods: addition of a non-solvent to a drug solution and cooling of a drug solution. Four samples, characterized by different crystal habit, were selected: sample A, sample E and sample T, recrystallized respectively from acetone, ethanol and THF by addition of water as non-solvent and sample M recrystallized from methanol by temperature decrease. By SEM analysis, sample were characterized with the respect of their crystal habit, mean particle diameter and elongation ratio. Sample A appears stick-shaped, sample E acicular with lamellar characteristics, samples T and M polyhedral. DSC and X-ray diffraction studies permit to exclude a polymorphic modification of ibuprofen during crystallization. For all samples micromeritics properties, densification behaviour and compression ability was analysed. Sample M shows a higher densification tendency, evidenciated by its higher apparent and tapped particle density. The ability to densificate is also pointed out by D0' value of Heckel's plot, which indicate the rearrangement of original particles at the initial stage of compression. This fact is related to the crystal habit of sample M, which is characterized by strongly smoothed coins. The increase in powder bed porosity permits a particle-particle interaction of greater extent during the subsequent stage of compression, which allows higher tabletability and compressibility.

  8. INFLUENCE OF RARE-EARTH ELEMENTS ON THE ELECTRICAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF INP BULK CRYSTALS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yatskiv, Roman; Zavadil, Jiří; Pekárek, Ladislav

    -, - (2011), s. 58-65 ISSN 1335-9053. [Development of Materials Science in Research and Education . Závažná Poruba, 31.08.2009-04.09.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Crystal growth * REEs elements * Electrical properties Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  9. Crystal dimension of ZSM-5 influences on para selective disproportionation of ethylbenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Srinivasan; Palanichamy, Muthaiahpillai

    2014-03-01

    Crystal size and crystal dimensions are vital role in shape selective feature. Para selective disproportionation of EthylBenzene (Dip-EB) was investigated over ZSM-5 synthesized in acidic medium. The catalysts were prepared by hydrothermal process with various Si/Al ratios (50, 75 and 100) using fluoride ion precursor. This fluoride ion precursor dissolves the ZSM-5 nutrients below it neutral pH between 4 and 6. The synthesized material was subjected into various physico chemical characterizations such as XRD, SEM, TGA and BET analyses. The XRD patterns showed high crystalline nature and their resulting SEM images were also indicate thin prismatic crystals of large dimension compared with alkaline medium synthesized one. The BET results earned good textural property. Catalytic activity of vapor phase Dip-EB was carried out between 523 and 673 K. As their result, diethylbenzene (DEB) isomers were obtained, but para selective Diethylbenzene (p-DEB) was observed higher than others. The high selectivity towards p-DEB was due to large crystal dimension of ZSM-5 catalysts synthesized in fluoride medium. Hence it is good commercial application for petrochemical feed stock production.

  10. Influence of the orientation of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite crystals on solar cell performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Docampo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite solar cells are emerging as serious candidates for thin film photovoltaics with power conversion efficiencies already exceeding 16%. Devices based on a planar heterojunction architecture, where the MAPbI3 perovskite film is simply sandwiched between two charge selective extraction contacts, can be processed at low temperatures (<150 °C, making them particularly attractive for tandem and flexible applications. However, in this configuration, the perovskite crystals formed are more or less randomly oriented on the surface. Our results show that by increasing the conversion step temperature from room temperature to 60 °C, the perovskite crystal orientation on the substrate can be controlled. We find that films with a preferential orientation of the long axis of the tetragonal unit cell parallel to the substrate achieve the highest short circuit currents and correspondingly the highest photovoltaic performance.

  11. Influence of gamma-irradiation on the electroluminescence of ZnSe:Zn,Te crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmuratova, D.B.; Ibragimova, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of 60 Co gamma-radiation at the dose rate of 10 Gy/s on electroluminescence (El)Zn Se crystals with 0.5 weight % Te treated in zinc vapor was studied for possible manufacturing of light emitting structures. Broad El band with the maximum at 610 nm is excited in the origin samples at a voltage above 15 V. After irradiation to the high dose of 10 6 Gy the El intensity grows by ∼2.5 times in the direct polarity at 24 V. The observed El of Zn Se:Zn,Te single crystals is assumed to be caused by the charge carrier recombination at the interstitial zinc centers by the excitation mechanism of a barrier sub breakdown type (authors)

  12. Indentation plasticity of barium titanate single crystals: Dislocation influence on ferroelectric domain walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)]. E-mail: duo.liu@mail.uh.edu; Chelf, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); White, K.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The plastic behaviors of barium titanate (001) and (110) single crystals are studied with atomic force microscopy and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) following nanoindendation damage. Plastic deformation mechanisms of ferroelectric barium titanate single crystals are discussed with a focus on the interaction between PFM response and dislocation activities. Nanoindentation tests indicate that the theoretical strength is approached prior to the first pop-in event, consistent with the creation of dislocation nucleation sites required for the onset of plasticity. Surface topographic and piezoelectric analyses indicate that pile-ups around indents result from dislocation activities on the primary slip system, {l_brace}110{r_brace}{sub pc}<11-bar 0>{sub pc}. The more complex indentation-induced domain patterns observed on (110) barium titanate are also discussed.

  13. Indentation plasticity of barium titanate single crystals: Dislocation influence on ferroelectric domain walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.; Chelf, M.; White, K.W.

    2006-01-01

    The plastic behaviors of barium titanate (001) and (110) single crystals are studied with atomic force microscopy and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) following nanoindendation damage. Plastic deformation mechanisms of ferroelectric barium titanate single crystals are discussed with a focus on the interaction between PFM response and dislocation activities. Nanoindentation tests indicate that the theoretical strength is approached prior to the first pop-in event, consistent with the creation of dislocation nucleation sites required for the onset of plasticity. Surface topographic and piezoelectric analyses indicate that pile-ups around indents result from dislocation activities on the primary slip system, {110} pc pc . The more complex indentation-induced domain patterns observed on (110) barium titanate are also discussed

  14. Influence of surrounding atmosphere on crystallization of as-quenched Fe-Ni-Zr ribbon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roupcová, Pavla; Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Bezdička, Petr; Petrovič, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2006), s. 127-132 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : as-quenched material * kinetics of crystallization * Mossbauer spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2006

  15. The influence of additives on crystallization of blends based on polylactid acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perd'ochová, D.; Tomanová, K.; Alexy, P.; Bočkaj, J.; Feranc, J.; Plavec, R.; Omaníková, L.; Jurkovič, P.; Prikřyl, R.

    2017-11-01

    The sustainable development consists of the effort of replacing commonly used polymer materials for the biodegradable ones. They do not have sufficient physical and mechanical properties, therefore they have to be modified by producing various ratio mixtures or with the additives. Improving their processability and properties is an important challenge to be afforded before using these materials on the market. One way to improve the properties of these materials is to prepare their blends [1]. The most common way of the preparation of packaging materials is the injection moulding, where the crystallization of material is very important. That is the reason the crystallization has become one of the most studied characteristics of biodegradable blends based on PLA / PHB. The work is a contribution to works that deal with the description of the structure of PLA / PHB blends, which have been modified by the addition of various types of additives, mainly nucleating agents and plasticizers [2]. The films of these blends keep approximately unchanged mechanical properties after two weeks of storage. The presence of plasticizer (ATBC) and nucleating agent (BN) has no significant impact on the processing stability of PLA/PHB blends. The results show that the combination of the plasticizer and nucleating agent greatly affects the process of crystallization of PLA/PHB blends as well as the ratio of polymers and the heat treatment process.

  16. Influence of chromium ions on the color center formation in crystals with garnet structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurov, M.Kh.; Zharikov, E.V.; Laptev, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    The in fluence of chromium ions on the color center formation in crystals of yttrium-aluminium garnet, gadolinium-gallium garnet, gadolinium-scandium-gallium garnet, and yttrium-scandium-gallium garnet is studied. In addition to basic activator ions these crystals were coactivated also by chromium ions with two wide bands of fundamental absorption within the range of pump tube radiation with maximas close to 450 and 650 nm. The color centers for γ-irradiated samples were observed at 300 K by measuring the adsorption spectra within the 300-800 nm range. Temperature of destruction of the charge trapping sites was determined by the method of thermoluminescence measuring in the 100-500 K temperature range. Detection of recombination center luminescence was accomplished within the 200-1600 nm wavelength range. Chromium ions are found to hinder the formation of color centers as a result of γ-irradiation at room and higher temperatures within the wavelength range over 300 nm; i.e. Cr 3+ ions increase radiation resistance of all the investigated crystals

  17. Influence of ionic conductivity on in-phase and anti-phase motions of antiferroelectric liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, D.; Majumder, T.P.; Ghosh, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    The in-phase and anti-phase motions of antiferroelectric liquid crystals were changed due to the influence of charge density associated with the layer modulation modifying the elastic behaviour. The elastic constant was changed because of the coupling between charge density variation and variation of azimuthal angle (ϕ). We obtained theoretically a modified elastic constant depending on the variation of charge density in both in-phase and anti-phase motions. The theoretically elastic constant decreases with the increase of the coupling coefficient between charge density and in-phase azimuthal angle (ϕ a ). We theoretically accounted the dependence of dielectric strength for both relaxations depending on the effective elastic constant influenced by the presence of charge density and discussed the results with experimental observations

  18. The influence of defect drift in external electric field on green luminescence of ZnO single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsunska, N.O.; Borkovska, L.V.; Bulakh, B.M.; Khomenkova, L.Yu.; Kushnirenko, V.I.; Markevich, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    In nominally undoped Zn O single crystals, the influence of electric field on photoluminescence in visible wavelength range was investigated. A well-known broad unstructured band consisting of green and orange ones was observed. It was found that the action of direct electric field of about 100 V/cm at 600-700 deg. C resulted in the increase of green band intensity near the cathode and its decrease near the anode, while orange band intensity was not influenced by this treatment. The redistribution of green band intensity along the sample under electric field is accounted for by drift of zinc interstitials from the anode to the cathode. It is supposed that emitting centres responsible for green luminescence are complex defects including zinc interstitials

  19. Influence of Gamma-Ray Irradiation on Absorption and Fluorescent Spectra of Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG Laser Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Dun-Lu; ZHANG Qing-Li; XIAO Jing-Zhong; LUO Jian-Qiao; JIANG Hai-He; YIN Shao-Tang

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the influence of gamma-ray irradiation on the absorption and fluorescent spectra of Nd3+ : Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) and Yb3+ :Y3Al5O12 (Yb:YAG) crystals grown by the Czochralski method. Two additional absorption (AA) bands induced by gamma-ray irradiation appear at 255nm and 340nm. The former is eontributed due to Fe3+ impurity, the latter is due to Fe2+ ions and F-type colour centres. The intensity of the excitation and emission spectra as well as the fluorescent lifetime of Nd:YAG crystal decrease after the irradiation of 100 Mrad gamma-ray. In contrast, the same dose irradiation does not impair the fluorescent properties of Yb: YA G crystal. These results indicate that Yb: YA G crystal possesses the advantage over Nd: YA G crystal that has better reliability for applications in harsh radiant environment.

  20. Influence of hybrid fibrils of 2,5-bis(2-benzoxazolyl) thiophene and halloysite nanotubes on the crystallization behaviour of polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Mingxian; Guo, Baochun; Du, Mingliang; Zou, Quanliang; Jia, Demin, E-mail: psbcguo@scut.edu.c [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-04-07

    2,5-bis(2-benzoxazolyl) thiophene (BBT) included polypropylene (PP)/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) composites showed substantially increased mechanical properties and this was attributed to the changed crystallinity of the PP matrix by BBT (Liu et al 2007 Nanotechnology 18 455703). This paper intends to give a detailed study on the influence of BBT hybrid fibrils on the crystallization of the PP matrix by using the observations of polarized optical microscopy (POM) and scanning electron microscopy, together with the comparisons of the activation energy of crystallization. The POM results show that PP crystals could epitaxially grow on the BBT and hybrid fibril substrates, indicating the nucleating ability of BBT. Oriented PP ribbon-like crystals with a thickness of 200 nm around BBT fibrils are observed. The formation of this unique crystal morphology is attributed to the epitaxial crystallization under the shearing orientation effect. A new transition peak well above the glass transition of PP is observed, which is attributed to the glass transition of the confined amorphous PP in the ribbon-like crystal layers around the fibrils. The fold-surface free energy of the BBT included composites is substantially decreased, suggesting facilitated crystallization in the presence of hybrid fibrils.

  1. Influence of hybrid fibrils of 2,5-bis(2-benzoxazolyl) thiophene and halloysite nanotubes on the crystallization behaviour of polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Mingxian; Guo, Baochun; Du, Mingliang; Zou, Quanliang; Jia, Demin

    2009-01-01

    2,5-bis(2-benzoxazolyl) thiophene (BBT) included polypropylene (PP)/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) composites showed substantially increased mechanical properties and this was attributed to the changed crystallinity of the PP matrix by BBT (Liu et al 2007 Nanotechnology 18 455703). This paper intends to give a detailed study on the influence of BBT hybrid fibrils on the crystallization of the PP matrix by using the observations of polarized optical microscopy (POM) and scanning electron microscopy, together with the comparisons of the activation energy of crystallization. The POM results show that PP crystals could epitaxially grow on the BBT and hybrid fibril substrates, indicating the nucleating ability of BBT. Oriented PP ribbon-like crystals with a thickness of 200 nm around BBT fibrils are observed. The formation of this unique crystal morphology is attributed to the epitaxial crystallization under the shearing orientation effect. A new transition peak well above the glass transition of PP is observed, which is attributed to the glass transition of the confined amorphous PP in the ribbon-like crystal layers around the fibrils. The fold-surface free energy of the BBT included composites is substantially decreased, suggesting facilitated crystallization in the presence of hybrid fibrils.

  2. Electric field influence on exciton absorption of Er doped and undoped InSe single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerbulak, B; Kundakci, M; Ates, A; Yildirim, M

    2007-01-01

    Undoped InSe and Er doped InSe (InSe:Er) single crystals were grown by using the Stockbarger method. Ingots had no cracks and voids on the surface. The absorption measurements were carried out in InSe and InSe:Er samples for U=0 and U=30 V in the temperature range 10-320 K with a step of 10 K. Electric field effects on excitons are observed in InSe and InSe:Er single crystals. The absorption edge shifted towards longer wavelengths and decreased intensity in absorption spectra under an electric field E≅5.9 kV cm -1 . The applied electric field caused a shifting and a decreasing of intensity in the absorption spectra. The shifting of the absorption edge can be explained on the basis of the Franz-Keldysh effect (FKE) or thermal heating of the sample under the electric field. At 10 and 320 K, the first exciton energies for InSe were calculated as 1.336 and 1.291 eV for zero voltage and 1.331 and 1.280 eV for electric field and InSe:Er as 1.329 and 1.251 eV for zero voltage and 1.318 and 1.248 eV for electric field, respectively

  3. Influence of electron irradiation on hydrothermally grown zinc oxide single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, L W; So, C K; Zhu, C Y; Gu, Q L; Fung, S; Ling, C C; Li, C J; Brauer, G; Anwand, W; Skorupa, W

    2008-01-01

    The resistivity of hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals increased from ∼10 3 Ω cm to ∼10 6 Ω cm after 1.8 MeV electron irradiation with a fluence of ∼10 16 cm −2 , and to ∼10 9 Ω cm as the fluence increased to ∼10 18 cm −2 . Defects in samples were studied by thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectroscopy and positron lifetime spectroscopy (PLS). After the electron irradiation with a fluence of 10 18 cm −2 , the normalized TSC signal increased by a factor of ∼100. A Zn vacancy was also introduced by the electron irradiation, though with a concentration lower than expected. After annealing in air at 400 °C, the resistivity and the deep traps concentrations recovered to the levels of the as-grown sample, and the Zn vacancy was removed

  4. Influence of physicochemical factors on microplasticity of surface layer of molybdenum single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savenko, V.I.; Kuchumova, V.M.; Kochanova, L.A.; Shchukin, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    Microplasticity of the surface layer (not more than 10 μm) of a molybdenum monocrystal was investigated by the methods of ultramicrosclerometry and microindentation. Tests of samples with clean surface and with monolayer octadecylamine film were conducted in the air at 60% relative humidity. Microplastic deformation of samples was conducted by slipping of garnet needle on crystal surface with 10 -6 -10 -2 N force. Sclerograms represented etch pits corresponding to dislocation discharges on the surface. The linear density of dislocations in indentor routes and statistic factor (the probability of plastic deformation at assigned force) were used as microplasticity characteristics. It was revealed that plane (111) is the most prone to plastic damage and plane (100) is the least prone to it

  5. Nanotribology at single crystal electrodes: Influence of ionic adsorbates on friction forces studied with AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausen, Florian; Nielinger, Michael; Ernst, Siegfried [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Bonn, Roemerstrasse 164, D-53117 Bonn (Germany); Baltruschat, Helmut [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Bonn, Roemerstrasse 164, D-53117 Bonn (Germany)], E-mail: baltruschat@uni-bonn.de

    2008-09-01

    We present friction force measurements on Au(1 1 1) single crystal electrode surfaces performed under electrochemical conditions using an atomic force microscope (AFM). At monoatomic steps friction is increased in both scan directions. In 0.05 M sulfuric acid an increase of friction is observed with the increase of adsorbed sulfate. Friction force increases non-linearly with load. Cu UPD also increases friction in presence of sulfate. However, in presence of 4 x 10{sup -4} M chloride friction is much smaller for all deposited Cu coverages - ranging from a submonolayer up to bulk copper compared to the solution without chloride. After dissolution of bulk copper clusters deposited on Au(1 1 1) we observed an area with higher friction forces due to the formation of an alloy between gold and copper.

  6. Influence of electron irradiation on hydrothermally grown zinc oxide single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L. W.; So, C. K.; Zhu, C. Y.; Gu, Q. L.; Li, C. J.; Fung, S.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.; Ling, C. C.

    2008-09-01

    The resistivity of hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals increased from ~103 Ω cm to ~106 Ω cm after 1.8 MeV electron irradiation with a fluence of ~1016 cm-2, and to ~109 Ω cm as the fluence increased to ~1018 cm-2. Defects in samples were studied by thermally stimulated current (TSC) spectroscopy and positron lifetime spectroscopy (PLS). After the electron irradiation with a fluence of 1018 cm-2, the normalized TSC signal increased by a factor of ~100. A Zn vacancy was also introduced by the electron irradiation, though with a concentration lower than expected. After annealing in air at 400 °C, the resistivity and the deep traps concentrations recovered to the levels of the as-grown sample, and the Zn vacancy was removed.

  7. Influence of variable tungsten valency on optical transmittance and radiation hardness of lead tungstate (PWO) scintillation crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Burachas, S; Makov, I; Saveliev, Yu; Ippolitov, M S; Man'ko, V; Nikulin, S P; Nyanin, A; Vasilev, A; Apanasenko, A; Tamulaitis, G

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to interpret the radiation hardness of PbWO//4 (PWO) scintillators is developed by revealing importance of the inclusions of tungsten oxides WO//3//-//x with variable valency. It is demonstrated that the influence of the ionizing radiation on PWO is, in many aspects, similar to the effect of the high-temperature annealing in oxygenless ambient. In both cases, a valency change of the tungsten oxides is initiated and results in induced absorption and, consequently, in crystal coloration. In the PWO crystals doped with L//2O//3 (L = Y, La, Gd), the radiation hardness and the optical properties are mainly affected by inclusions of W//1//-//yL//yO//3//- //x (0 less than x less than 0.3) instead of inclusions of WO//3//- //x prevailing in the undoped samples. It is demonstrated that the radiation-induced bleaching and the photochromic effect of PWO are caused by phase transitions in the inclusions of tungsten oxide. Thermodynamic conditions for the phase transitions are discussed and the optimal oxid...

  8. Influence of the magnetic and laser fields on the director structures of a ferrocholesteric liquid crystal in homeotropic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrescu, Emil; Bena, Eleonora-Rodica

    2008-01-01

    We study the influence of the magnetic and laser fields on the director structures of a ferrocholesteric liquid crystal in homeotropic cells. Using the analytical method based on the Euler-Lagrange equations, we find a correlation between the fields intensities and the confinement ratio r=d/p, (d is the cell thickness and p is the cholesteric pitch) at the limit of the transition from the homeotropic alignment to the translationally invariant configuration (TIC) with uniform in plane twist. We discuss this correlation as a function of the sign of the magnetic and dielectric anisotropies. If both anisotropies are positive and the magnetic field and the laser beam are perpendicular to the cell walls, the magnetic field preserves the homeotropic alignment while the laser beam pushes the system towards the TIC. The control parameters of the transition are the laser beam intensity and the confinement ratio. If the magnetic anisotropy is negative and the dielectric one is positive both fields concur in driving the system towards the TIC. The spinodal surface separating the metastable homeotropic configuration from the instable TIC is an ellipsoid whose halfaxes are smaller that in the case of a pure liquid crystal by a factor depending on the material constants and the cell thickness. We find also the total twist angle across the sample witch can be varied between a lower and an upper limit by changing the light intensity or the magnetic field strength. Our results can be useful in designing magneto-optical devices

  9. The influence of cobalt, tantalum, and tungsten on the elevated temperature mechanical properties of single crystal nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathal, M. V.; Ebert, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of composition on the tensile and creep strength of 001-line oriented nickel-base superalloy single crystals at temperatures near 1000 C was investigated. Cobalt, tantalum, and tungsten concentrations were varied according to a matrix of compositions based on the single crystal version of MAR-M247. For alloys with the baseline refractory metal level of 3 wt pct Ta and 10 wt pct W, decreases in Co level from 10 to 0 wt pct resulted in increased tensile and creep strength. Substitution of 2 wt pct W for 3 wt pct Ta resulted in decreased creep life at high stresses, but improved life at low stresses. Substitution of Ni for Ta caused large reductions in tensile strength and creep resistance, and corresponding increases in ductility. For these alloys with low Ta-plus-W totals, strength was independent of Co level. The effects of composition on properties were related to the microstructural features of the alloys. In general, high creep strength was associated with high levels of gamma-prime volume fraction, gamma-gamma-prime lattice mismatch, and solid solution hardening.

  10. Influence of in-situ deposited SiNx interlayer on crystal quality of GaN epitaxial films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Teng; Jia, Wei; Tong, Guangyun; Zhai, Guangmei; Li, Tianbao; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Bingshe

    2018-05-01

    GaN epitaxial films with SiNx interlayers were prepared by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane sapphire substrates. The influences of deposition times and locations of SiNx interlayers on crystal quality of GaN epitaxial films were studied. Under the optimal growth time of 120 s for the SiNx interlayer, the dislocation density of GaN film is reduced to 4.05 × 108 cm-2 proved by high resolution X-ray diffraction results. It is found that when the SiNx interlayer deposits on the GaN nucleation islands, the subsequent GaN film has the lowest dislocation density of only 2.89 × 108 cm-2. Moreover, a model is proposed to illustrate the morphological evolution and associated propagation processes of TDs in GaN epi-layers with SiNx interlayers for different deposition times and locations.

  11. Influences of crystallographic orientations on deformation mechanism and grain refinement of Al single crystals subjected to one-pass equal-channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, W.Z.; Zhang, Z.F.; Wu, S.D.; Li, S.X.

    2007-01-01

    The influences of crystallographic orientations on the evolution of dislocation structures and the refinement process of sub-grains in Al single crystals processed by one-pass equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) were systematically investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Three single crystals with different orientations, denoted as crystal I, crystal II and crystal III, were specially designed according to the shape of the ECAP die. For crystal I, its insert direction is parallel to [1 1 0] and its extrusion direction is parallel to [1-bar11]. For crystal II, the (1-bar11) plane is located parallel to the intersection plane of the ECAP die, and the [1 1 0] direction is along the general shear direction on the intersection plane. For crystal III, the (1-bar11) plane is laid on the plane perpendicular to the intersection of the ECAP die, and the [1 1 0] direction is vertical to the general shear direction. For crystal I, abundant cell block structures with multi-slip characters were formed, and they should be induced by four symmetric slip systems, while for crystal II, there are two sets of sub-grain structures with higher misorientation, making an angle of ∼70 deg., which can be attributed to the interactions of the two asymmetric primary slip planes, whereas for crystal III, only one set of ribbon structures was parallel to the traces of (1-bar11) with the lowest misorientation angle among the three single crystals, which should result from the homogeneous slip on the primary slip plane. The different microstructural features of the three single crystals provide clear experimental evidence that the microstructures and misorientation evolution are strongly affected by the crystallographic orientation or by the interaction between shear deformation imposed by the ECAP die and the intrinsic slip deformation of the single crystals. Based on the experimental results and the

  12. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in condenser water boxes at Crystal River-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayner, G.O.; Pope, D.H.; Crane, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    During the spring of 1986, several welds in the lower half of the condenser inlet water boxes at Crystal River-3 (CR-3) were found to be seeping seawater. The leakage produced red-brown and black-green colored deposits on the outside surface of the water boxes. The welds in affected areas were not uniformly attacked, and the severity of attack varied between water boxes; however, there were instances of attack on each type of pressure-retaining weld in the affected regions. Weld seepage was also seen on the outside of the inlet piping to the water boxes. A few small pin holes were seen in the base metal of the water boxes not associated with welds. In this paper the authors report the results of examinations performed at both the CR-3 site and at The Babcock and Wilcox Company Lynchburt Research Center (LRC). The inside of a water box and the exterior of the condenser inlet piping were visually inspected at the Cr-3 site. Nodules inside the water box were probed and examined. Parts of nodules were collected and microscopically examined for bacteria. Two corrosion-deposit samples removed from condenser instrument piping and the condenser inlet piping were chemically analyzed at the LRC. Four pipe samples removed from the condenser instrument piping were destructively examined at the LRC. This work included visual inspection, metallographic, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) examinations performed on selected locations of the piping samples

  13. The influence of Si on the superconducting properties of LiFeAs single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlyk, L; Bischoff, M; Niewa, R

    2012-01-01

    The results of Si doping on the superconducting transition temperature, critical current density, irreversibility field, upper critical field, coherence length and magnetic relaxation of LiFeAs single crystals are reported for H ∥ c. The superconducting transition temperature of the Si doped sample decreases by about of 6.4 K/at.%, which is likely due to the pair breaking effect. The presence of a secondary high-field fishtail maximum, which shifts progressively with temperature, is associated with the extrinsic pinning centers created by Si. The increase of the critical current densities in intermediate magnetic fields of about three times as compared to our undoped material indicates that very small amounts of Si act as effective pinning sites for the flux pinning enhancement in the material. Pinning force curves measured at different temperatures obey a normalized form of Kramer’s law, which indicates that the critical current density is limited by one predominant flux pinning mechanism. Analysis of the temperature and field dependences of the magnetic relaxation is consistent with the collective pinning model. The magnetic relaxation measurements combined with the peak position of the critical current density in the B–T phase diagram suggest an elastic–plastic transition of the vortex lattice at higher temperatures and fields. (paper)

  14. Influence of higher harmonics of the undulator in X-ray polarimetry and crystal monochromator design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx-Glowna, Berit; Schulze, Kai S; Uschmann, Ingo; Kämpfer, Tino; Weber, Günter; Hahn, Christoph; Wille, Hans Christian; Schlage, Kai; Röhlsberger, Ralf; Förster, Eckhart; Stöhlker, Thomas; Paulus, Gerhard G

    2015-09-01

    The spectrum of the undulator radiation of beamline P01 at Petra III has been measured after passing a multiple reflection channel-cut polarimeter. Odd and even harmonics up to the 15th order, as well as Compton peaks which were produced by the high harmonics in the spectrum, could been measured. These additional contributions can have a tremendous influence on the performance of the polarimeter and have to be taken into account for further polarimeter designs.

  15. Influence of encapsulated functional lipids on crystal structure and chemical stability in solid lipid nanoparticles: Towards bioactive-based design of delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Hanna; Gömmel, Christina; Leuenberger, Bruno H; Weiss, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the influence of physicochemical properties of encapsulated functional lipids--vitamin A, β-carotene and ω-3 fish oil--on the structural arrangement of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). The relationship between the crystal structure and chemical stability of the incorporated bioactive lipids was evaluated with different emulsifier compositions of a saponin-rich, food-grade Quillaja extract alone or combined with high-melting or low-melting lecithins. The major factors influencing the structural arrangement and chemical stability of functional lipids in solid lipid dispersions were their solubility in the aqueous phase and their crystallization temperature in relation to that of the carrier lipid. The results showed that the stabilization of the α-subcell crystals in the lattice of the carrier lipid is a key parameter for forming stable solid lipid dispersions. This study contributes to a better understanding of SLN as a function of the bioactive lipid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of heterogeneous nucleation on the surface crystallization of guaifenesin from melt extrudates containing Eudragit L10055 or Acryl-EZE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Caroline D; Fegely, Kurt A; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R; McGinity, James W

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of talc and humidity conditions during storage on the crystal growth of guaifenesin on the surface of melt-extruded matrix tablets. Tablets consisted of the model drug guaifenesin in a matrix of either Acryl-EZE(R) or Eudragit(R) L10055 and either no talc, 25% or 50% talc. After processing, the hot-melt-extruded matrix tablets were supersaturated with amorphous guaifenesin, which resulted in the development of guaifenesin drug crystals on exposed surfaces of the tablet during storage (all tablets were stored at 24 degrees C). A previously developed, quantitative test was used to assay for surface guaifenesin. In tablets with a drug-to-polymer ratio of 19:81, talc-containing tablets exhibited an earlier onset of crystal growth (storage at 17% relative humidity). The presence of talc also increased the amount of surface crystallization and was independent of the talc concentration, since the talc levels used in this study exceeded the critical nucleant concentration. Additional non-melting components did not have an additive effect on surface crystal growth. High humidity during storage (78%) increased guaifenesin crystallization, but moisture uptake of tablets did not correlate with increased drug recrystallization. When storage at 17% relative humidity was interrupted for 3days by storage at 78% relative humidity before the tablets were returned to their previous low RH storage conditions, crystal growth quickly increased during the high RH interval and remained at an elevated level throughout the remaining storage period. A similar intermediate period of low, 17% relative humidity in tablets stored before and after that time at 78% RH did not affect surface crystallization levels. The effects of humidity and talc on the crystallization of guaifenesin from melt-extruded dosage forms supersaturated with amorphous drug were ascribed to heterogeneous nucleation.

  17. Investigation of the influence of the proximity effect and randomness on a photolithographically fabricated photonic crystal nanobeam cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsumoto, Tomohiro; Kumazaki, Hajime; Ishida, Rammaru; Tanabe, Takasumi

    2018-01-01

    Recent progress on the fabrication techniques used in silicon photonics foundries has enabled us to fabricate photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavities using a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process. A high Q two-dimensional PhC nanocavity and a one-dimensional nanobeam PhC cavity with a Q exceeding 100 thousand have been fabricated using ArF excimer laser immersion lithography. These are important steps toward the fusion of silicon photonics devices and PhC devices. Although the fabrication must be reproducible for industrial applications, the properties of PhC nanocavities are sensitively affected by the proximity effect and randomness. In this study, we quantitatively investigated the influence of the proximity effect and randomness on a silicon nanobeam PhC cavity. First, we discussed the optical properties of cavities defined with one- and two-step exposure methods, which revealed the necessity of a multi-stage exposure process for our structure. Then, we investigated the impact of block structures placed next to the cavities. The presence of the blocks modified the resonant wavelength of the cavities by about 10 nm. The highest Q we obtained was over 100 thousand. We also discussed the influence of photomask misalignment, which is also a possible cause of disorders in the photolithographic fabrication process. This study will provide useful information for fabricating integrated photonic circuits with PhC nanocavities using a photolithographic process.

  18. Numerical modelling of micro-machining of f.c.c. single crystal: Influence of strain gradients

    KAUST Repository

    Demiral, Murat; Roy, Anish; El Sayed, Tamer S.; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2014-01-01

    of orthogonal micro-machining of f.c.c. single crystal copper was developed. The model was implemented in a commercial software ABAQUS/Explicit employing a user-defined subroutine VUMAT. Strain-gradient crystal-plasticity and conventional crystal

  19. SHMUTZ & PROTON-DIAMANT H + Irradiated/Written-Hyper/Super-conductivity(HC/SC) Precognizance/Early Experiments Connections: Wet-Graphite Room-Tc & Actualized MgB2 High-Tc: Connection to Mechanical Bulk-Moduli/Hardness: Diamond Hydrocarbon-Filaments, Disorder, Nano-Powders:C,Bi,TiB2,TiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderman, Irwin; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig; Lewis, Thomas; Young, Frederic; Smith, Adolph; Dresschhoff-Zeller, Gieselle

    2013-03-01

    SHMUTZ: ``wet-graphite''Scheike-....[Adv.Mtls.(7/16/12)]hyper/super-SCHMUTZ-conductor(S!!!) = ``wet''(?)-``graphite''(?) = ``graphene''(?) = water(?) = hydrogen(?) =ultra-heavy proton-bands(???) = ...(???) claimed room/high-Tc/high-Jc superconductOR ``p''-``wave''/ BAND(!!!) superconductIVITY and actualized/ instantiated MgB2 high-Tc superconductors and their BCS- superconductivity: Tc Siegel[ICMAO(77);JMMM 7,190(78)] connection to SiegelJ.Nonxline-Sol.40,453(80)] disorder/amorphous-superconductivity in nano-powders mechanical bulk/shear(?)-moduli/hardness: proton-irradiated diamond, powders TiB2, TiC,{Siegel[Semis. & Insuls.5:39,47, 62 (79)])-...``VS''/concommitance with Siegel[Phys.Stat.Sol.(a)11,45(72)]-Dempsey [Phil.Mag. 8,86,285(63)]-Overhauser-(Little!!!)-Seitz-Smith-Zeller-Dreschoff-Antonoff-Young-...proton-``irradiated''/ implanted/ thermalized-in-(optimal: BOTH heat-capacity/heat-sink & insulator/maximal dielectric-constant) diamond: ``VS'' ``hambergite-borate-mineral transformable to Overhauser optimal-high-Tc-LiBD2 in Overhauser-(NW-periodic-table)-Land: CO2/CH4-ETERNAL-sequestration by-product: WATER!!!: physics lessons from

  20. Influence of crystal field excitations on thermal and electrical resistivity of normal rare-earth metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durczewski, K.; Gajek, Z.; Mucha, J. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2014-11-15

    A simple formula describing the influence of the crystalline electric field free-ion excitations on the temperature dependence of the contribution of the s-f scattering to the thermal resistivity of normal rare-earth metals is presented. The corresponding formula for the electrical resistivity is also given and compared to the one being currently used. Theoretical electron-phonon scattering contributions derived in earlier papers and constant impurity scattering contributions are added to the derived s-f contribution formulae in order to fit the total electrical and thermal resistivity represented as functions of the temperature to experimental dependences on the temperature for DyIn{sub 3} and in this way to manifest applicability of the derived formulae to real materials. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Influence of crystal field excitations on thermal and electrical resistivity of normal rare-earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durczewski, K.; Gajek, Z.; Mucha, J.

    2014-01-01

    A simple formula describing the influence of the crystalline electric field free-ion excitations on the temperature dependence of the contribution of the s-f scattering to the thermal resistivity of normal rare-earth metals is presented. The corresponding formula for the electrical resistivity is also given and compared to the one being currently used. Theoretical electron-phonon scattering contributions derived in earlier papers and constant impurity scattering contributions are added to the derived s-f contribution formulae in order to fit the total electrical and thermal resistivity represented as functions of the temperature to experimental dependences on the temperature for DyIn 3 and in this way to manifest applicability of the derived formulae to real materials. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Influence of clay content on the melting behavior and crystal structure of nonisothermal crystallized poly(L-lactic acid)/nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ublekov, F.; Baldrian, Josef; Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Steinhart, M.; Nedkov, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 2 (2012), s. 1643-1648 ISSN 0021-8995 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biopolymers * nanocomposite s * crystal structures Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.395, year: 2012

  3. Factors influencing epitaxial growth of three-dimensional Ge quantum dot crystals on pit-patterned Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y J; Zhong, Z; Yang, X J; Fan, Y L; Jiang, Z M

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the molecular beam epitaxy growth of three-dimensional (3D) Ge quantum dot crystals (QDCs) on periodically pit-patterned Si substrates. A series of factors influencing the growth of QDCs were investigated in detail and the optimized growth conditions were found. The growth of the Si buffer layer and the first quantum dot (QD) layer play a key role in the growth of QDCs. The pit facet inclination angle decreased with increasing buffer layer thickness, and its optimized value was found to be around 21°, ensuring that all the QDs in the first layer nucleate within the pits. A large Ge deposition amount in the first QD layer favors strain build-up by QDs, size uniformity of QDs and hence periodicity of the strain distribution; a thin Si spacer layer favors strain correlation along the growth direction; both effects contribute to the vertical ordering of the QDCs. Results obtained by atomic force microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy showed that 3D ordering was achieved in the Ge QDCs with the highest ever areal dot density of 1.2 × 10 10 cm −2 , and that the lateral and the vertical interdot spacing were ∼10 and ∼2.5 nm, respectively. (paper)

  4. Factors influencing epitaxial growth of three-dimensional Ge quantum dot crystals on pit-patterned Si substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y J; Zhong, Z; Yang, X J; Fan, Y L; Jiang, Z M

    2013-01-11

    We investigated the molecular beam epitaxy growth of three-dimensional (3D) Ge quantum dot crystals (QDCs) on periodically pit-patterned Si substrates. A series of factors influencing the growth of QDCs were investigated in detail and the optimized growth conditions were found. The growth of the Si buffer layer and the first quantum dot (QD) layer play a key role in the growth of QDCs. The pit facet inclination angle decreased with increasing buffer layer thickness, and its optimized value was found to be around 21°, ensuring that all the QDs in the first layer nucleate within the pits. A large Ge deposition amount in the first QD layer favors strain build-up by QDs, size uniformity of QDs and hence periodicity of the strain distribution; a thin Si spacer layer favors strain correlation along the growth direction; both effects contribute to the vertical ordering of the QDCs. Results obtained by atomic force microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy showed that 3D ordering was achieved in the Ge QDCs with the highest ever areal dot density of 1.2 × 10(10) cm(-2), and that the lateral and the vertical interdot spacing were ~10 and ~2.5 nm, respectively.

  5. Influence of crystal defects on the chemical reactivity of recoil atoms in oxygen-containing chromium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costea, T.

    1969-01-01

    The influence of crystal defects on the chemical reactivity of recoil atoms produced by the reaction 50 Cr (n,γ) 51 Cr in oxygen-containing chromium compounds has been studied. Three methods have been used to introduce the defects: doping (K 2 CrO 4 doped with BaCrO 4 ), irradiation by ionizing radiation (K 2 CrO 4 irradiated in the presence of Li 2 CO 3 ) and non-stoichiometry (the semi-conducting oxides of the CrO 3 -Cr 2 O 3 series). The thermal annealing kinetics of the irradiated samples have been determined, and the activation energy has been calculated. In all cases it has been observed that there is a decrease in the activation energy for thermal annealing in the presence of the defects. In order to explain the annealing process, an electronic mechanism has been proposed based on the interaction between the recoil species and the charge-carriers (holes or electrons). (author) [fr

  6. Preparation of three terbium complexes with p-aminobenzoic acid and investigation of crystal structure influence on luminescence property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Chaohong; Sun Haoling; Wang Xinyi; Li Junran; Nie Daobo; Fu Wenfu; Gao Song

    2004-01-01

    Three new rare earth p-aminobenzoic acid complexes, [Tb 2 L 6 (H 2 O) 2 ] n (1), [Tb 2 L 6 (H 2 O) 4 ].2H 2 O (2) and [Tb(phen) 2 L 2 (H 2 O) 2 ](phen)L·4H 2 O (3) (HL: p-aminobenzoic acid; phen: 1, 10-phenanthroline), with different structural forms are reported in this paper. Complex 1 is a polymolecule with a two-dimensional plane structure. Compound 2 is a binuclear molecule, and 3 appears to be a mononuclear complex. The fluorescence intensity, the fluorescence life-time and emission quantum yield of 2, which has two coordination water molecules, is better than those of 1, which has only one coordination water molecule. This is an unusual phenomenon for general fluorescent rare earth complexes. The fluorescence performance of 3 is the most unsatisfactory among the three complexes. Their crystal structures show that the coordination mode of the ligand is an important factor influencing the luminescence properties of a fluorescent rare earth complex

  7. Influence of cutting parameters on the depth of subsurface deformed layer in nano-cutting process of single crystal copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanlong; Bai, Qingshun; Chen, Jiaxuan; Su, Hao; Wang, Zhiguo; Xie, Wenkun

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulation is performed to study the nano-cutting process of single crystal copper realized by single-point diamond cutting tool in this paper. The centro-symmetry parameter is adopted to characterize the subsurface deformed layers and the distribution and evolution of the subsurface defect structures. Three-dimensional visualization and measurement technology are used to measure the depth of the subsurface deformed layers. The influence of cutting speed, cutting depth, cutting direction, and crystallographic orientation on the depth of subsurface deformed layers is systematically investigated. The results show that a lot of defect structures are formed in the subsurface of workpiece during nano-cutting process, for instance, stair-rod dislocations, stacking fault tetrahedron, atomic clusters, vacancy defects, point defects. In the process of nano-cutting, the depth of subsurface deformed layers increases with the cutting distance at the beginning, then decreases at stable cutting process, and basically remains unchanged when the cutting distance reaches up to 24 nm. The depth of subsurface deformed layers decreases with the increase in cutting speed between 50 and 300 m/s. The depth of subsurface deformed layer increases with cutting depth, proportionally, and basically remains unchanged when the cutting depth reaches over 6 nm.

  8. Influence the of Na-LTA synthesis route on low-carnegieite crystallization and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Aleksandra M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal transformation of zeolite precursor is a relatively novel route for the synthesis of aluminosilicate-based ceramic materials which had found numerous uses in the production of dielectric ceramics, microelectronic packaging electromagnetic windows, high-temperature electrical insulators, glass ceramic materials, etc. The mechanism of a thermally induced transformation strongly depends on the extra framework cations and the type of used zeolites. The sodium form of LTA zeolite transforms to low-carnegieite (lt-Carn in the temperature range between 800 and 900°C. The formed low-carnegieite transforms to nepheline at >900°C. However, the mechanisms of the thermal transformation of Na-LTA zeolite into the low-carnegieite (lt-Carn phase are still not completely understood. Different structure transformation mechanisms of Na-LTA zeolite into lt-Carn heve been reported. The carnegieite can be formed by a direct solid-solid topotactic transformation: Na-LTA -> lt-Carn. A two step mechanism: Na-LTA -> Am -> lt-Carn can also take place. Such behavior is probably the consequence of the applied synthesis route in the precursor preparation. Therefore, it is of interest to consider the influence of the zeolite preparation route on the processes of thermal transformation of Na-LTA zeolite into lt-Carn. The present paper deals with a systematic study on the thermally induced phase transformation of sodium LTA zeolites synthesized by the gel route under different reaction conditionss. Different gel compositions Na2O(2.4-3.9:Al2O3(l:SiO2(1.5-2.0:H2O(90-170 were used and several zeolite samples were prepared. The prepared zeolite samples were thermally treated at different temperatures from 600 to 950°C at an interval of 20 °C and the products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The zeolites and formed products were characterized by various methods including XRPD, IR, DTA, SEM. It was shown that the rate of lt-Carn formation is dependent on the

  9. Influence of crystal phases on electro-optic properties of epitaxially grown lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shin; Seki, Atsushi; Masuda, Yoichiro

    2010-02-01

    We describe here how we have improved the crystal qualities and controlled the crystal phase of the lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) film without changing the composition ratio using an oxygen-pressure crystallization process. A PLZT film deposited on a SrTiO3 substrate with the largest electro-optic (EO) coefficient of 498 pm/V has been achieved by controlling the crystal phase of the film. Additionally, a fatigue-free lead zirconate titanate (PZT) capacitor with platinum electrodes has been realized by reducing the oxygen vacancies in the films.

  10. Influence of gravitational and vibrational convection on the heat- and mass transfer in the melt during crystal growing by Bridgman and floating zone methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Oleg

    2016-07-01

    Space materials science is one of the priorities of different national and international space programs. The physical processes of heat and mass transfer in microgravity (including effect of g-jitter) is far from complete clarity, especially for important practical technology for producing crystals from the melt. The idea of the impact on crystallizing melt by low frequency vibration includes not only the possibility to suppress unwanted microaccelerations, but also to actively influence the structure of the crystallization front. This approach is one of the most effective ways to influence the quality of materials produced in flight conditions. The subject of this work is the effect of vibrations on the thermal and hydrodynamic processes during crystal growth using Bridgman and floating zone techniques, which have the greatest prospect of practical application in space. In the present approach we consider the gravitational convection, Marangoni convection, as well as the effect of vibration on the melt for some special cases. The results of simulation were compared with some experimental data obtained by the authors using a transparent model substance - succinonitrile (Bridgman method), and silicon (floating zone method). Substances used, process parameters and characteristics of the experimental units correspond the equipment developed for onboard research and serve as a basis for selecting optimum conditions vibration exposure as a factor affecting the solidification pattern. The direction of imposing vibrations coincides with the axis of the crystal, the frequency is presented by the harmonic law, and the force of gravity was varied by changing its absolute value. Mathematical model considered axisymmetric approximation of joint convective-conductive energy transfer in the system crystal - melt. Upon application of low-frequency oscillations of small amplitude along the axis of growing it was found the suppression of the secondary vortex flows near the

  11. Quantification of non-isothermal, multi-phase crystallization of isotactic polypropylene : the influence of shear and pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van T.B.; Balzano, L.; Spoelstra, A.B.; Govaert, L.E.; Peters, G.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Key issue in studying the crystallization process of semi-crystalline polymers, is the need for controlled (or known) boundary and initial conditions. Here dilatometry (PVT) is used to reveal the crystallization kinetics and the resulting morphology of isotactic polypropylene homopolymer as a

  12. Influence of two different template removal methods on the micromorphology, crystal structure, and photocatalytic activity of hollow CdS nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Han; Jin, Tingting; Zheng, Xing; Jiang, Bo; Zhu, Chaosheng; Yuan, Xiangdong; Zheng, Jingtang; Wu, Mingbo

    2016-01-01

    Hollow cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanospheres of about 260 nm average diameters and about 30 nm shell thickness can be easily synthesized via a sonochemical process, in which polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles were employed as templates. In order to remove the PS templates, both etching and calcination were applied in this paper. The influence of the two different template removal methods on the surface micromorphology, crystal structure, and photocatalytic activity of hollow CdS nanospheres was carefully performed a comparative study. Results of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, diffused reflectance spectra, and decolorization experiments showed that the different template removal methods exhibited a significant influence on the surface micromorphology, crystal structure, and photocatalytic activity of hollow CdS nanospheres. The CdS hollow nanospheres as-prepared by etching had pure cubic sphalerite structure, higher –OH content, less defects and exhibited good photocatalytic activity for rhodamine-B, Methylene Blue and methyl orange under UV–vis light irradiation. However, CdS hollow nanospheres obtained by calcination with a hexagonal crystal structure, less –OH content, more defects have shown worse photocatalytic activity. This indicated that surface micromorphology and crystalline phase were mainly factors influencing photocatalytic activity of hollow CdS nanospheres.

  13. Influence of two different template removal methods on the micromorphology, crystal structure, and photocatalytic activity of hollow CdS nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Jin, Tingting; Zheng, Xing; Jiang, Bo; Zhu, Chaosheng; Yuan, Xiangdong; Zheng, Jingtang; Wu, Mingbo

    2016-11-01

    Hollow cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanospheres of about 260 nm average diameters and about 30 nm shell thickness can be easily synthesized via a sonochemical process, in which polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles were employed as templates. In order to remove the PS templates, both etching and calcination were applied in this paper. The influence of the two different template removal methods on the surface micromorphology, crystal structure, and photocatalytic activity of hollow CdS nanospheres was carefully performed a comparative study. Results of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, diffused reflectance spectra, and decolorization experiments showed that the different template removal methods exhibited a significant influence on the surface micromorphology, crystal structure, and photocatalytic activity of hollow CdS nanospheres. The CdS hollow nanospheres as-prepared by etching had pure cubic sphalerite structure, higher -OH content, less defects and exhibited good photocatalytic activity for rhodamine-B, Methylene Blue and methyl orange under UV-vis light irradiation. However, CdS hollow nanospheres obtained by calcination with a hexagonal crystal structure, less -OH content, more defects have shown worse photocatalytic activity. This indicated that surface micromorphology and crystalline phase were mainly factors influencing photocatalytic activity of hollow CdS nanospheres.

  14. Influence of two different template removal methods on the micromorphology, crystal structure, and photocatalytic activity of hollow CdS nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Han; Jin, Tingting [China University of Petroleum, State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing (China); Zheng, Xing, E-mail: znhk113@163.com [Beijing ZNHK Science and Technology Development Co., Ltd. (China); Jiang, Bo; Zhu, Chaosheng [China University of Petroleum, State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing (China); Yuan, Xiangdong [Baotou Light Industry and Vocational Technical College (China); Zheng, Jingtang, E-mail: jtzheng03@163.com; Wu, Mingbo [China University of Petroleum, State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing (China)

    2016-11-15

    Hollow cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanospheres of about 260 nm average diameters and about 30 nm shell thickness can be easily synthesized via a sonochemical process, in which polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles were employed as templates. In order to remove the PS templates, both etching and calcination were applied in this paper. The influence of the two different template removal methods on the surface micromorphology, crystal structure, and photocatalytic activity of hollow CdS nanospheres was carefully performed a comparative study. Results of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller, diffused reflectance spectra, and decolorization experiments showed that the different template removal methods exhibited a significant influence on the surface micromorphology, crystal structure, and photocatalytic activity of hollow CdS nanospheres. The CdS hollow nanospheres as-prepared by etching had pure cubic sphalerite structure, higher –OH content, less defects and exhibited good photocatalytic activity for rhodamine-B, Methylene Blue and methyl orange under UV–vis light irradiation. However, CdS hollow nanospheres obtained by calcination with a hexagonal crystal structure, less –OH content, more defects have shown worse photocatalytic activity. This indicated that surface micromorphology and crystalline phase were mainly factors influencing photocatalytic activity of hollow CdS nanospheres.

  15. The influence of calcium lignosulphonate - sodium bicarbonate on the status of ettringite crystallization in fly ash cement paste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, K.; Zhang, C.; Liu, Z. [Hebei Institute of Technology, Tang Shan (China)

    2002-01-01

    Calcium lignosulphonate (CL) - sodium bicarbonate (SB) (a total of 0.7% by weight of cement and CL to SB ratio of 1:1.8) will cause the fluidity of fly ash cement paste to decrease rapidly. It is the variation of the status of ettringite crystallization that causes this phenomenon. Experimental results show that CL-SB affects the liquid-phase composition of fly ash cement paste remarkably. As a result, ettringite crystallizes out in the shape of needles from the solution. These needle-like crystal particles are distributed in the solution at a certain distance from the surface of clinker particles. At the initial hydration stage, the crystallization of ettringite is stronger in fly ash cement with calcined gypsum than in fly ash cement with gypsum. 5 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Highly crystalline films of PCPDTBT with branched side chains by solvent vapor crystallization: influence on opto-electronic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Florian S U; Trefz, Daniel; Back, Justus; Kayunkid, Navaphun; Tornow, Benjamin; Albrecht, Steve; Yager, Kevin G; Singh, Gurpreet; Karim, Alamgir; Neher, Dieter; Brinkmann, Martin; Ludwigs, Sabine

    2015-02-18

    PCPDTBT, a marginally crystallizable polymer, is crystallized into a new crystal structure using solvent-vapor annealing. Highly ordered areas with three different polymer-chain orientations are identified using TEM/ED, GIWAXS, and polarized Raman spectroscopy. The optical and structural properties differ significantly from films prepared by standard device preparation protocols. Bilayer solar cells, however, show similar performance. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Influence of additive L-phenylalanine on stabilization of metastable α-form of L-glutamic acid in cooling crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Khuu Chau; Nhan, Le Thi Hong; Huyen, Trinh Thi Thanh; Tuan, Nguyen Anh

    2017-09-01

    The influence of additive amino acid L-phenylalanine on stabilization of metastable α-form of L-glutamic acid was investigated in cooling crystallization. The present study found that the additive L-phenylalanine could be used to stabilize the pure metastable α-form in L-glutamic acid crystallization, where the additive concentration of 0.05-0.1 (g/L) was sufficient to stabilize the 100% wt metastable α-form in solid product at L-glutamic acid concentration of 30-45 (g/L). Additionally, the present results indicated that the adsorption of additive L-phenylalanine on the (001) surface of α-form was more favorable than that of the β-form molecular, so the nucleation sites of stable β-form was occupied by additive molecular, which resulted in inhibition of nucleation and growth of β-form, allowing stabilization of metastable α-form.

  18. Influence of non-covalent modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the crystallization behaviour of binary blends of polypropylene and polyamide 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Nabaneeta; Panwar, Ajay S; Kumar, Gulshan; Samajdar, I; Bhattacharyya, Arup R

    2015-02-14

    Blends of polypropylene (PP) and polyamide 6 (PA6) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were prepared using different processing strategies in a twin-screw micro-compounder. The effect of MWNTs on the crystallization behaviour of the PP phase and the PA6 phase of the blend has been investigated through non-isothermal crystallization studies by differential scanning calorimetric analysis. Furthermore, the effect of the addition of the compatibilizer (PP-g-MA) and the modification of MWNTs (m-MWNTs) with a non-covalent organic modifier (Li-salt of 6 amino hexanoic acid, Li-AHA) has also been studied in context to the crystallization behaviour of the PP and PA6 phase in the blend. The crystallization studies have indicated a significant increase in bulk crystallization temperature of the PP phase in the blend in the presence of MWNTs. Moreover, the formation of 'trans-lamellar crystalline' structure consisting of PA6 'trans-crystalline lamellae' on MWNTs surface was facilitated in the case of blends prepared via 'protocol 2' as compared to the corresponding blends prepared via 'protocol 1'. Wide angle X-ray diffraction analysis has showed the existence of a β-polymorph of the PP phase due to incorporation of the PA6 phase in the blend. Addition of MWNTs in the blends has facilitated further β-crystalline structure formation of the PP phase. In the presence of m-MWNTs, a higher β-fraction was observed in the PP phase as compared to the blend with pristine MWNTs. Addition of PP-g-MA has suppressed the β-phase formation in the PP phase in the blend. X-ray bulk texture analysis revealed that incorporation of PA6 as well as pristine/modified MWNTs has influenced the extent of orientation of the PP chains towards specific crystalline planes in various blend compositions of PP and PA6.

  19. Unconventional conventional superconductivity in MgB2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, Igor

    2002-03-01

    State-of-the-art numerical estimates of the electron-phonon coupling (EPC) constant are of the order of 0.8, which is just a little too low for Tc=39 K. Furthermore, there are indication that this conventional picture faces some problems: (a) specific heat suggests EPC even smaller that the calculatons (b) there is evidence of a gap smaller than 3.5 Tc, and of more than one gap (c) Low-temperature thermodynamics disagrees with the simple BCS picture. There are also theoretical indications of interesting deviations from the standard Eliashberg theory: (1) most of the coupling comes from interaction of just two phonons with two (out of four) bands. (2) The phonons in question are strongly anharmonic (3) Very unusually, nonlinear coupling of these phonons with electrons (i.e., two-phonon exchange) is stronger that the linear coupling. (4) Calculations predict two considerably different order parameters for the two sets of bands. This multigap scenario explains naturally a number of puzzling experiments, but seems to be at odds with the lack of any correlation between the residual resistivity and Tc. One can reconcile these, though, if the defect scattering occurs primarily in the intraband channels. This is supported by chemical arguments and by recent optical experiments. Furthermore, the hypothesis of two qualitatively different scattering rates for the two types of bands is consistent with a number of otherwise hard to explain transport measurements.

  20. Electronic structure and superconductivity of MgB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    High Pressure Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. Abstract. Results ... compared to the experimentally determined values of these quantities. ... that spectroscopies which probe the superconducting gap.

  1. Gelatinized wheat starch influences crystallization behaviour and structure of roll-in shortenings in laminated bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattice, Kristin D; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2018-03-15

    One hydrogenated and one non-hydrogenated shortening were baked with isolated components of a croissant matrix, including crystalline wheat starch, gelatinized wheat starch, gluten, and formed gluten network. The impact of the matrix components on fat crystallization was analyzed for polymorphism using powder X-ray diffraction, solid fat content by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance and thermal behaviour by differential scanning calorimetry. When compared to results obtained from croissants prepared with the respective shortenings, samples containing gelatinized wheat starch displayed notably similar results: polymorphic conversion, from the β' to β form over storage, and visually broader peaks in the melting endotherms indicating a greater temperature was required to completely melt all of the fat. All other component mixtures behaved similar to the respective fats in bulk. The measured rate of crystallization was greater in samples containing gelatinized wheat starch, indicating that the gelatinized starch could act as a nucleation site to speed crystallization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of UV Photo-Transfer on Post Irradiated Double Sulphate Poly-Crystals By Gamma And X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-kolaly, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Solid state thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry has for many years been the pre-eminent method for quantifying ionizing radiation dose. In this work, thermoluminescence characteristics of the double sulphate (Li Cs So 4 ) poly-crystals have been studied after exposure to different doses from X and gamma radiation. The glue curves showed TL response of three peaks at 75,125,250 degree. The structure of the glue peaks due to X-rays is quite different from that due to gamma rays. UV exposure yields a regeneration of the TL peaks for the post irradiated samples for X or gamma radiation with some changes in the peaks structure especially the third peak. For the post X-ray irradiated crystals, the area under the third glow peak (III) increased linearly with the integrated time of UV exposures till about 30 min. after which no changes were observed; while , for the post gamma-irradiated crystals two linear regions were observed

  3. Tracer Studies of the Influence of Foreign Substances at the Surface of the Electrodes. II Influence in electro crystallization phenomena; Accion de las sustancias extranas en la superficies de los electrodos. Estudio mediante radiotrazadores. II. Influencia en los procesos de electrocristalizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llopis, J; Gamboa, J M; Arizmendi, L

    1963-07-01

    The action of foreign substances present on the surface of the electrodes, in electro crystallization phenomena, has been studied. The number of Ag crystals per square centimeter of Pt electrode varies with the polishing, the current density and the presence of multilayers of stearic acid. The statistical distribution of Ag crystals without and with multilayers and their influence on the concentration index and the deformation of Ag crystals has been studied. the size of these crystals increases as the current density decreases. (Author) 16 refs.

  4. Influence of the reactor irradiation on the radiation-optical features of the PbWO4:La scintillation crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurov, M.Kh.; Ismoilov, Sh.Kh.; Khatamov, K.; Gasanov, Eh.M.; Rustamov, I.R.

    2001-01-01

    Within an International LHC project the lead tungstates (PbWO 4 ) scintillation crystals radiation stability activated by La ions was carried out. In the 400-700 nm length range the transmission spectra were measured on the different parts of the standard PbWO 4 :La crystals. The spectra were measured before and after irradiation by both fast neutrons and γ-radiation. On the base of obtained data the contribution of γ-quanta and neutrons in the radiation-induced losses value of optical radiation in the active media of the electromagnetic colorimeter was estimated

  5. Influence of TiO2 content on the crystallization and microstructure of machinable glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Pradip Mukherjee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Glasses based on the SiO2–Al2O3–MgO–K2O–B2O3–MgF2 system added with TiO2 were synthesized and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. The results showed that by increasing the TiO2 content, glass transition temperature (Tg, both the crystallization peak temperature (TpI and TpII and activation energy (E increased. The interconnected large blocky card-like crystals were identified as fluorophlogopite as a major crystalline phase for all three glass-ceramic specimens by (XRD and subsequently confirmed by SEM. The Vickers hardness (Hv value for glass-ceramic specimens decreases with progressively increasing TiO2 content (1–10 wt% and Titania containing MGT-3 glass-ceramic specimen with interconnected large blocky card-like fluorophlogopite mica crystals possess lower Hv (4.26 GPa as well as good machinability (m = 0.12 useable for machinable applications. The study shows that Titania promoted initial crystallization of glass and can be used as an effective nucleting agent.

  6. Analysis of Hc2(θ,T) for Mg(B1-xCx)2 single crystals by using the dirty two-gap model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Min-Seok; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Jung-Dae; Kim, Heon-Jung; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Jo, Younghun; Lee, Sung-Ik

    2007-01-01

    To understand the effect of carbon doping on the superconductivity in MgB 2 , we obtained the angle- and temperature-dependent upper critical fields [H c2 (θ) and H c2 (T)] for Mg(B 1-x C x ) 2 single crystals (x = 0.06 and 0.1) from resistivity measurements while varying the temperature, the field, and the direction of the field. The detailed values of the diffusivity for two different directions for each σ-band and π-band were obtained to explain both the temperature- and the angle-dependent H c2 by using the dirty-limit two-gap model. The induced impurity scattering of the σ-band and the π-band for both the ab-plane and the c-direction is studied. (fast track communication)

  7. Influence of Heavy Fermion Ytterbium Substitution on the Electronic and Crystal Properties of the Frustrated Magnet CuFeO2 Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkendir, Osman Murat

    2017-11-01

    The influence of heavy fermion Ytterbium substitution was investigated on the crystal, electronic, and magnetic properties of CuFeO2 with the general formula Yb x Cu1- x FeO2. The results of the crystal structure study revealed polycrystalline formations in the sample. The electronic and magnetic properties of the samples were studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) techniques. Both XAS and XMCD revealed that the substituted Yb atoms govern the entire phenomena with their narrow 4 f levels by forming broader molecular bonds with the 3 d levels of the transition metals. Owing to the prominent changes caused by the activity of the 4 f electrons in the crystal structures, Yb atoms were determined to be the main "role player" in the phase transitions. XMCD measurements were performed at room temperature 300 K (27 °C) to determine the magnetic properties of the samples and, except for CuFeO2 ( x = 0.0), the samples were observed to be ordered magnetically (mainly ferrimagnetic) in the bulk.

  8. The influence of sol on the behavior of melting and nonisothermal crystallization kinetic of radiation cross-linking HDPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Pengyang; Xie Hongfeng; Deng Mingxiao; Zhong Xiaoguang

    2000-01-01

    By using DSC, the behavior of second melting and nonisothermal crystallization of pure gel pure sol and sol-gel blend of radiation crosslinking HDPE was studied. The authors found that, because of the existence of sol, there is notable difference between pure gel and pure sol or sol-gel blend. Under the same dose, the melting point and crystallization temperature of pure sol and sol-gel blend are higher than that of pure gel. At the same time, the authors also found that the Avrami exponent of original PE, pure sol and sol-gel blend is the similar to each other and different to that of pure gel, which means that the procedure of nucleation and growth of these samples is the same and also different to that of pure gel

  9. Stress coarsening of gamma-prime and its influence on creep properties of a single crystal superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, D.D.; Lemkey, F.D.; Kear, B.H.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of stress annealing on the gamma-prime morphology in single crystals of a Ni-13Al-9Mo-2Ta alloy is examined. It is found that a crystal subjected to tensile creep in the 100 line orientation develops platelets, or rafts, of gamma-prime in orientations perpendicular to the applied stress. Due to the large negative gamma/gamma-prime misfit (about 0.7%) in this alloy, the gamma/gamma-prime interfaces feature high-density misfit dislocations. Under a stress of 207 MPa at 1038 C, the rafted gamma-prime structure exhibits a rupture life of over 400 hr as compared with 100 hr for unrafted material

  10. Influence of clusters in melt on the subsequent glass-formation and crystallization of Fe–Si–B metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxiong Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The liquid structure of seven representative Fe–Si–B alloys has been investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation focusing on the role of clusters in terms of glass-forming ability (GFA and crystallization. It is demonstrated that the type of primary phase precipitated from amorphous state under heat treatment is determined by the relative fraction and role of various clusters in melt. The alloy melt shows higher stability and resultantly larger GFA when there is no dominant cluster or several clusters coexist, which explains the different GFAs and crystallization processes at various ratios of Si and B in the Fe–Si–B system. The close correlation among clusters, crystalline phase and GFA is also studied.

  11. Influence of Y, Gd and Sm on the glass forming ability and thermal crystallization of aluminum based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliaga, L.C.R.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S.; Botta Filho, W.J.; Danez, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    Al-based amorphous alloys represent an important family of metals and a great scientific activity has been devoted to determine the main features of both glass forming ability (GFA) and crystallization behavior in order to have a comprehensive framework aimed at potential technological applications. Nowadays, it is well known that the best Al-based amorphous alloys are formed in ternary systems such as Al- RE-TM, where RE is a rare earth and TM a transition metal. This paper presents results of research in Al 85 Ni 10 RE 5 alloys (RE = Y, Gd and Sm). Amorphous ribbons were processed by melt-spinning under the same conditions and subsequently characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results show appreciable micro structural differences as function of the rare earth, thus crystal is obtained for Y, nano-glassy for Gd and, fully amorphous structure for Sm. (author)

  12. Influence of incoherent scattering on stochastic deflection of high-energy negative particle beams in bent crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillin, I.V. [Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Science Center ' ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Kharkov (Ukraine); Shul' ga, N.F. [Akhiezer Institute for Theoretical Physics, National Science Center ' ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' ' , Kharkov (Ukraine); V.N. Karazin Kharkov National University, Kharkov (Ukraine); Bandiera, L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Ferrara, Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    An investigation on stochastic deflection of high-energy negatively charged particles in a bent crystal was carried out. On the basis of analytical calculation and numerical simulation it was shown that there is a maximum angle at which most of the beam is deflected. The existence of a maximum, which is taken in the correspondence of the optimal radius of curvature, is a novelty with respect to the case of positively charged particles, for which the deflection angle can be freely increased by increasing the crystal length. This difference has to be ascribed to the stronger contribution of incoherent scattering affecting the dynamics of negative particles that move closer to atomic nuclei and electrons. We therefore identified the ideal parameters for the exploitation of axial confinement for negatively charged particle beam manipulation in future high-energy accelerators, e.g., ILC or muon colliders. (orig.)

  13. The influence of the coexistence of ferroelectric and antiferroelectric states on the lead lanthanum zirconate titanate crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishchuk, V M; Baumer, V N; Sobolev, V L

    2005-01-01

    We present results of detailed investigation of the crystal structure of Pb 1-3x/2 La x (Zr 1-y Ti y )O 3 solid solutions. In this letter our attention is concentrated on the series of solid solutions with x = 6% usually referred to as relaxor ferroelectrics. We have established the reasons for the non-cubic crystal structure of these solid solutions at the temperatures below T C . It is demonstrated that the peculiarities of the properties of Pb 1-3x/2 La x (Zr 1-y Ti y )O 3 depend on the position of a particular solid solution with respect to the hysteresis ferroelectric-antiferroelectric region in the 'Ti-content-temperature' phase diagram. (letter to the editor)

  14. Influence of dislocations in solid-phase crystal lattices on structure and properties of an WC-9Co alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewe, H.

    1976-01-01

    After theoretical considerations about evaluation of degree of dislocation concentration in crystal lattices two tungsten-carbide-powders are characterized by chemical reaction behaviour. The hard metal grades produced from the two carbide powders are tested by material and tool life investigation. The tungsten carbide powder with lower level of dislocation-concentration leads to a hardmetall-alloy with an equal microstructure and with favourable properties, especially with a good toughness and with an interesting tool life. (orig.) [de

  15. Influence of Crucible Support Rod on the Growth Rate and Temperature Gradient in a Bridgman Growth of Tin Crystal

    OpenAIRE

    IMASHIMIZU, Yuji; MIURA, Koji; KAMATA, Masaki; WATANABE, Jiro

    2003-01-01

    Bridgman growth of tincrystal was carried out in a graphite crucible that was fixed on a quartz support rod or a copper one. The growth rate and axial temperature distribution were examined by recording the temperature variation with time at each of four prescribed positions in the solid-liquidsystem during solidification, l) Actual growth rate of crystal increased with progress of solidification while the furnace elevated at a constant rate, but the tendency was different depending on the ty...

  16. The influence of high hydrostatic pressure on lattice parameters of a single crystal of BaTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, M.; Lukaszewicz, K.; Asbrink, S.

    1986-01-01

    The lattice parameters of a single crystal of BaTiO 3 have been measured under high hydrostatic pressure up to 5 GPa using a diamond-anvil high-pressure cell of a new design. The lattice becomes cubic at 2.08(8) GPa and stays cubic at higher pressures. The pressure dependence of the tetragonal-cubic transition temperature is estimated to be -46 K GPa -1 . (orig.)

  17. Atomic Layer-Deposited Molybdenum Oxide/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Electrodes: The Influence of Crystal Structure on Lithium-Ion Capacitor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Simon; Zeiger, Marco; Quade, Antje; Kruth, Angela; Presser, Volker

    2018-05-25

    Merging of supercapacitors and batteries promises the creation of electrochemical energy storage devices that combine high specific energy, power, and cycling stability. For that purpose, lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) that store energy by lithiation reactions at the negative electrode and double-layer formation at the positive electrode are currently investigated. In this study, we explore the suitability of molybdenum oxide as a negative electrode material in LICs for the first time. Molybdenum oxide-carbon nanotube hybrid materials were synthesized via atomic layer deposition, and different crystal structures and morphologies were obtained by post-deposition annealing. These model materials are first structurally characterized and electrochemically evaluated in half-cells. Benchmarking in LIC full-cells revealed the influences of crystal structure, half-cell capacity, and rate handling on the actual device level performance metrics. The energy efficiency, specific energy, and power are mainly influenced by the overpotential and kinetics of the lithiation reaction during charging. Optimized LIC cells show a maximum specific energy of about 70 W·h·kg -1 and a high specific power of 4 kW·kg -1 at 34 W·h·kg -1 . The longevity of the LIC cells is drastically increased without significantly reducing the energy by preventing a deep cell discharge, hindering the negative electrode from crossing its anodic potential limit.

  18. A laboratory investigation on the influence of adsorbed gases and particles from the exhaust of a kerosene burner on the evaporation rate of ice crystals and the ice nucleating ability of the exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, K; Mitra, S K; Pruppacher, H R [Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    Laboratory experiments are described during which the influence of the exhausts of a kerosene burner on microphysical processes were studied. In one experimental investigation the evaporation rates of polluted ice crystals were compared with the evaporation rates of pure ice crystals. During another experimental investigation the ice nucleating ability of the exhaust particles was studied. The results show that the evaporation rate of polluted ice crystals was significantly reduced and also that ice nucleation takes place between -20 and -38 deg C. (author) 7 refs.

  19. A laboratory investigation on the influence of adsorbed gases and particles from the exhaust of a kerosene burner on the evaporation rate of ice crystals and the ice nucleating ability of the exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, K.; Mitra, S.K.; Pruppacher, H.R. [Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    Laboratory experiments are described during which the influence of the exhausts of a kerosene burner on microphysical processes were studied. In one experimental investigation the evaporation rates of polluted ice crystals were compared with the evaporation rates of pure ice crystals. During another experimental investigation the ice nucleating ability of the exhaust particles was studied. The results show that the evaporation rate of polluted ice crystals was significantly reduced and also that ice nucleation takes place between -20 and -38 deg C. (author) 7 refs.

  20. Factors which influence directional coarsening of Gamma prime during creep in nickel-base superalloy single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.A.; Ebert, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Changes in the morphology of the gamma prime precipitate were examined as a function of time during creep at 982 C in 001 oriented single crystals of a Ni-Al-Mo-Ta superalloy. In this alloy, which has a large negative misfit of -0.80 pct., the gamma prime particles link together during creep to form platelets, or rafts, which are aligned with their broad faces perpendicular to the applied tensile axis. The effects of initial microstructure and alloy composition of raft development and creep properties were investigated. Directional coarsening of gamma prime begins during primary creep and continues well after the onset of second state creep. The thickness of the rafts remains constant up through the onset of tertiary creep a clear indication of the stability of the finely-spaced gamma/gamma prime lamellar structure. The thickness of the rafts which formed was equal to the initial gamma prime size which was present prior to testing. The single crystals with the finest gamma prime size exhibited the longest creep lives, because the resultant rafted structure had a larger number of gamma/gamma prime interfaces per unit volume of material. Reducing the Mo content by only 0.73 wt. pct. increased the creep life by a factor of three, because the precipitation of a third phase was eliminated

  1. Influence of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) on biliary proteins, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol crystal growth in rat bile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, Chikkanna K; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2015-02-01

    Tender cluster beans (CBs; Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) are observed to possess anti-lithogenic potential in experimental mice. Formation of cholesterol gallstones in gallbladder is controlled by procrystallizing and anticrystallizing factors present in bile in addition to supersaturation of cholesterol. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of CB on biliary glycoproteins, low molecular weight (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) proteins, cholesterol nucleation time, and cholesterol crystal growth in rat hepatic bile. Groups of rats were fed for 10 weeks with 0.5% cholesterol to render the bile lithogenic. Experimental dietary interventions were: 10% freeze-dried CB, 1% garlic powder or their combination. Incorporation of CB into HCD decreased the cholesterol saturation index in bile, increased bile flow and biliary glycoproteins. Dietary CB prolonged cholesterol nucleation time in bile. Electrophoresis of biliary proteins showed the presence of high concentration of 27 kDa protein which might be responsible for the prolongation of cholesterol nucleation time in the CB fed group. Proteins of 20 kDa and 18 kDa were higher in CB treated animals, while the same were less expressed in HCD group. Biliary proteins from CB fed animals reduced cholesterol crystal growth index which was elevated in the presence of proteins from HCD group. Cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase and cholesterol-27-hydroxylase mRNA expression was increased in CB treated animals contributing to the bile acid synthesis. Thus, the beneficial anti-lithogenic effect of dietary CB which primarily is due to reduced cholesterol saturation index was additionally affected through a modulation of the nucleating and anti-nucleating proteins that affect cholesterol crystallization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Theory of the Influence of Phonon-Phonon and Electron-Phonon Interactions on the Scattering of Neutrons by Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokkedee, J.J.J.

    1963-01-01

    As predicted by harmonic theory the coherent inelastic spectrums of neutrons, scattered by a single, non-conducting crystal, for a particular angle of scattering consists of a number of delta-function peaks superposed on a continuous background. The peaks correspond to one-phonon processes in which one phonon is absorbed or emitted by the neutron; the background arises from multi-phonon processes. When anharmonic forces (phonon-phonon interactions) are present, the delta-function peaks are broadened into finite peaks, while their central frequencies are shifted with respect to the harmonic values. In the case of a metal there is in addition to phonon-phonon interactions an interaction between phonons and conduction electrons, which also gives a contribution to the displacement and broadening oftheone-phononpeaks. Continuing earlier work of Van Hove (sho considered the relatively simple case of a non-conductin crystal in its ground state (T = 0 o K) ), we have studied the shifts and widths of the scattering peaks as a 'result of the above-mentioned interactions by means of many particle perturbation theory, making extensive use of diagram techniques. Prerequisite to the entire discussion is the assumption that, independent of the strength of the interactions, the width of each peak is small compared to the value of the frequency at its centre; only then the peaks can be considered as being well defined with respect to the background to higher order in the interactions. This condition is expected to be fulfilled for temperatures which are not too high and values of the phonon wave vector which are not too large. Our procedure yields closed formulae for the partial scattering function describing the peaks, which can be evaluated to arbitrarily high accuracy. In particular an expansion for calculating the line shift and line width in powers of u/d and in terms of simple connected diagrams is obtained (u is an average atomic or ionic displacement, d is the smallest

  3. Influence of Thermal Processing Protocol upon the Crystallization and Photovoltaic Performance of Organic–Inorganic Lead Trihalide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Saliba, Michael; Tan, Kwan Wee; Sai, Hiroaki; Moore, David T.; Scott, Trent; Zhang, Wei; Estroff, Lara A.; Wiesner, Ulrich; Snaith, Henry J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the thermally induced morphological and crystalline development of methylammonium lead mixed halide perovskite (CH 3NH3PbI3-xClx) thin films and photovoltaic device performance with meso-superstructured and planar heterojunction architectures. We observe that a short rapid thermal annealing at 130 °C leads to the growth of large micron-sized textured perovskite domains and improved the short circuit currents and power conversion efficiencies up to 13.5% for the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. This work highlights the criticality of controlling the thin film crystallization mechanism of hybrid perovskite materials for high-performing photovoltaic applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  4. Influence of Bias on the Friction Imaging of Ferroelectric Domains in Single Crystal Barium Titanate Energy Storage Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction imaging of newlycleaved surface domains of single crystal BaTiO3 energy storage materials under both positive and negative voltage bias is investigated by scanning force microscope. When the bias was applied and reversed, three regions with different brightness and contrast in friction image indicated different response to the biases: the friction image of domain A displayed a great change in brightness while domains B and C displayed only a very small change. Possible mechanisms of the interesting phenomena originating from different static force between different charged tip and the periodical array of surface charges inside the inplane domains were proposed. These results provide a new method for the determination of the polarization direction for the domain parallel to the surface and may be useful in the investigation of ferroelectric energy storage materials, especially the relationship between the polarization direction of domain and the bias.

  5. Nonvolatile memory characteristics influenced by the different crystallization of Ni-Si and Ni-N nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.-R.; Yeh, J.-L.; Chang, C.-Y.; Chang, T.-C.; Chen, S.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The formation of Ni-Si and Ni-N nanocrystals by sputtering a Ni 0.3 Si 0.7 target in argon and nitrogen environment were proposed in this paper. A transmission electron microscope analysis shows the nanocrystals embedded in the nitride layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction also offer the chemical material analysis of nanocrystals with surrounding dielectric and the crystallization of nanocrystals for different thermal annealing treatments. Nonvolatile Ni-Si nanocrystal memories reveal superior electrical characteristics for charge storage capacity and reliability due to the improvement of thermal annealing treatment. In addition, we used energy band diagrams to explain the significance of surrounding dielectric for reliability

  6. Influence of Thermal Processing Protocol upon the Crystallization and Photovoltaic Performance of Organic–Inorganic Lead Trihalide Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Saliba, Michael

    2014-07-31

    We investigate the thermally induced morphological and crystalline development of methylammonium lead mixed halide perovskite (CH 3NH3PbI3-xClx) thin films and photovoltaic device performance with meso-superstructured and planar heterojunction architectures. We observe that a short rapid thermal annealing at 130 °C leads to the growth of large micron-sized textured perovskite domains and improved the short circuit currents and power conversion efficiencies up to 13.5% for the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. This work highlights the criticality of controlling the thin film crystallization mechanism of hybrid perovskite materials for high-performing photovoltaic applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  7. Temperature influence on spectroscopic properties and 2.7-μm lasing of Er:YAP crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švejkar, Richard; Šulc, Jan; Němec, Michal; Jelínková, Helena; Nejezchleb, Karel; Čech, Miroslav

    2018-02-01

    The spectroscopic and laser properties of Er:YAP crystal, that is appropriate for generation at 2.7 μm, in temperature range 78 - 400 K are presented. The sample of Er:YAP (1 at. % of Er3+) had face-polished plan-parallel faces without anti-reflection coatings (thickness 4.47 mm). During experiments the Er:YAP was attached to temperature controlled copper holder and it was placed in vacuum chamber. The transmission and emission spectra together with the fluorescence decay time were measured depending on temperature. The Er:YAP crystal was longitudinally pumped by radiation from laser diode that works in pulse regime (repetition rate 66.6 Hz, pulse duration 1.5 ms, pump wavelength 972.5 nm) or in CW regime. Laser resonator was hemispherical, 145 mm in length with flat pumping mirror (HR @ 2.7 μm) and spherical output coupler (r = 150 mm, R = 95 % @ 2.5 - 2.8 μm). The fluorescence decay time of manifold 4I11/2 (upper laser level) became shorter and intensity of up-conversion radiation was increasing with decreasing temperature. In pulsed regime, the highest slope efficiency with respect to absorbed mean power was 1.27 % at 78 K. The maximum output of mean power was 3.5 mW at 78 K, i.e. 8.7 times higher than measured this value at 300 K. The maximal output power 27 mW with slope efficiency up to 3.5 % was achieved in CW. The radiation generated by Er:YAP laser (2.73 μm) is close to absorption peak of water (3 μm) thus this wavelength can be use in medicine and spectroscopy.

  8. Single-crystal SrTiO3 fiber grown by laser heated pedestal growth method: influence of ceramic feed rod preparation in fiber quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Reyes Ardila

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly spreading use of optical fiber as a transmission medium has created an interest in fiber-compatible optical devices and methods for growing them, such as the Laser Heated Pedestal Growth (LHPG. This paper reports on the influence of the ceramic feed rod treatment on fiber quality and optimization of ceramic pedestal processing that allows improvements to be made on the final quality in a simple manner. Using the LHPG technique, transparent crack-free colorless single crystal fibers of SrTiO3 (0.50 mm in diameter and 30-40 mm in length were grown directly from green-body feed rods, without using external oxygen atmosphere.

  9. Low resolution crystal structure of Arenicola erythrocruorin: influence of coiled coils on the architecture of a megadalton respiratory protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, William E; Omartian, Michael N; Knapp, James E

    2007-01-05

    Annelid erythrocruorins are extracellular respiratory complexes assembled from 180 subunits into hexagonal bilayers. Cryo-electron microscopic experiments have identified two different architectural classes. In one, designated type I, the vertices of the two hexagonal layers are partially staggered, with one hexagonal layer rotated by about 16 degrees relative to the other layer, whereas in the other class, termed type II, the vertices are essentially eclipsed. We report here the first crystal structure of a type II erythrocruorin, that from Arenicola marina, at 6.2 A resolution. The structure reveals the presence of long continuous triple-stranded coiled-coil "spokes" projecting towards the molecular center from each one-twelfth unit; interdigitation of these spokes provides the only contacts between the two hexagonal layers of the complex. This arrangement contrasts with that of a type I erythrocruorin from Lumbricus terrestris in which the spokes are broken into two triple-stranded coiled coils with a disjointed connection. The disjointed connection allows formation of a more compact structure in the type I architecture, with the two hexagonal layers closer together and additional extensive contacts between the layers. Comparison of sequences of the coiled-coil regions of various linker subunits shows that the linker subunits from type II erythrocruorins possess continuous heptad repeats, whereas a sequence gap places these repeats out of register in the type I linker subunits, consistent with a disjointed coiled-coil arrangement.

  10. Influence of aluminum nitride interlayers on crystal orientation and piezoelectric property of aluminum nitride thin films prepared on titanium electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamohara, Toshihiro; Akiyama, Morito; Ueno, Naohiro; Nonaka, Kazuhiro; Kuwano, Noriyuki

    2007-01-01

    Highly c-axis-oriented aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films have been prepared on titanium (Ti) bottom electrodes by using AlN interlayers. The AlN interlayers were deposited between Ti electrodes and silicon (Si) substrates, such as AlN/Ti/AlN/Si. The crystallinity and crystal orientation of the AlN films and Ti electrodes strongly depended on the thickness of the AlN interlayers. Although the sputtering conditions were the same, the X-ray diffraction intensity of AlN (0002) and Ti (0002) planes drastically increased, and the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the X-ray rocking curves decreased from 5.1 o to 2.6 o and from 3.3 o to 2.0 o , respectively. Furthermore, the piezoelectric constant d 33 of the AlN films was significantly improved from - 0.2 to - 4.5 pC/N

  11. Influence of crystal structure on the CoII diffusion behavior in the Zn1-xCoxO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiteado, M.; Makovec, D.; Villegas, M.; Caballero, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The solid state interaction of the Zn 1-x Co x O nominal system is investigated by means of diffusion couples and analysis of co-precipitated samples. The formation of a homogeneous Co:ZnO solid solution is found to be determined by the crystal structure from which Co II ions diffuse into the wurtzite lattice. No diffusion is observed whenever the CoO rock-salt structure is formed from the Co II precursor. On the contrary, the diffusion from the Co 3 O 4 spinel phase is feasible but has a limited temperature range defined by the reduction at a high temperature of Co III -Co II , since this process again leads to the formation of the rock-salt structure. However, when using a highly reactive and homogeneous co-precipitated starting powder, neither the spinel phase nor the rock-salt structure is formed, and a Co II :ZnO solid solution is obtained, which remains stable up to high temperatures. - Graphical abstract: Maximum diffusion distance for the ZnO-CoO x couple as a function of temperature. Dashed gray lines represent the temperature values at which the transformations between CoO and Co 3 O 4 compounds take place

  12. Influence of secondary phases during annealing on re-crystallization of CuInSe{sub 2} electrodeposited films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobeaut, A. [Laboratoire de Reactivite et Chimie des Solides, 33 rue St Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Laffont, L., E-mail: lydia.laffont@u-picardie.f [Laboratoire de Reactivite et Chimie des Solides, 33 rue St Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Tarascon, J.-M. [Laboratoire de Reactivite et Chimie des Solides, 33 rue St Leu, 80039 Amiens (France); Parissi, L.; Kerrec, O. [Institut de Recherche et de Developpement de l' Energie Photovoltaique, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou cedex (France)

    2009-06-01

    Electrodeposited CuInSe{sub 2} thin films are of potential importance, as light absorber material, in the next generation of photovoltaic cells as long as we can optimize their annealing process to obtain dense and highly crystalline films. The intent of this study was to gain a basic understanding of the key experimental parameters governing the structural-textural-composition evolution of thin films as function of the annealing temperature via X-ray diffraction, scanning/transmission electron microscopy and thermal analysis measurements. The crystallization of the electrodeposited CuInSe{sub 2} films, with the presence of Se and orthorhombic Cu{sub 2} {sub -} {sub x}Se (o-Cu{sub 2} {sub -} {sub x}Se) phases, occurs over two distinct temperature ranges, between 220 {sup o}C and 250 {sup o}C and beyond 520 {sup o}C. Such domains of temperature are consistent with the melting of elemental Se and the binary CuSe phase, respectively. The CuSe phase forming during annealing results from the reaction between the two secondary species o-Cu{sub 2} {sub -} {sub x}Se and Se (o-Cu{sub 2} {sub -} {sub x}Se + Se {yields} 2 CuSe) but can be decomposed into the cubic {beta}-Cu{sub 2} {sub -} {sub x}Se phase by slowing down the heating rate. Formation of liquid CuSe beyond 520{sup o}C seems to govern both the grain size of the films and the porosity of the substrate-CuInSe{sub 2} film interface. A simple model explaining the competitive interplay between the film crystallinity and the interface porosity is proposed, aiming at an improved protocol based on temperature range, which will enable to enhance the film crystalline nature while limiting the interface porosity.

  13. L-alanine distribution in the growth pyramids of TGS crystals and its influence on the growth, switching and domain structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezina, B.; Havrankova, M.

    1985-01-01

    The full-faced crystals of triglycine sulphate (TGS) and deuterated homologs substituted by L-alanine (LATGS and LADTGS, resp.) were grown from growth solutions with various concentrations of the substituent. The distribution of L, alanine (L,al) in various growth pyramids of crystals was measured by the electrical switching method. The stability of domain structure of doped crystals was studied by the liquid crystal method. (author)

  14. Influence of magnetic and ultrasonic fields on coefficient of reflectivity of GaAs, GaSb and InAs crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaveryukhin, B.N.; Zaveryukhina, N.N.; Zaveryukhina, E.V.; Volodarskiy, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Previously we demonstrated for the first time in the world that ultrasonic waves of the megahertz range can change the transport properties and a structure of semiconductors. In this work we have experimentally studied the influence of ultrasonic treatment on the spectral coefficients of reflection R in the magnetic fields of the samples of GaAs-, GaSb- and InAs-crystals. The reflectance spectra in the magnetic field of the samples before and after the ultrasonic treatment (UST) for a certain time were measured in a broad wavelength range including ultraviolet, visible, and infrared spectral regions. The semi-insulating GaAs-crystals had a thickness d=100 μm and a working area S of up to 3sm 2 . The p-GaSb- crystals had an area of S=0.25sm 2 and d =250 μm. The base p-GaSb-layers possessed the concentration N=2·10 17 sm 3 and n-GaSb-layers with a thickness of 0.5 m were created by diffusion doping with phosphorus. Besides, the experiments were performed also for of the n-InAs-crystals. The samples of the InAs-n crystals had a thickness of 100 μm an area S = 0.25 sm 2 . Some remains of sulfuric (S) were discovered in InAs-samples. As could was see from the experiments, all the initial IR spectra measured for the samples with various dopant concentrations NP exhibit maximums (peaks) for 0.2 μm and minimum (holes) for. The reflectance spectra measured after UST for time of t > l hour clearly reveal a shift of the R minima toward longer wavelengths and a general decrease in the reflectance of each sample. The shift of the R is unambiguous evidence of the acoustically stimulated diffusion of impurity (phosphorus) inward of the samples. Discovered peaks and holes slitted and changed their sizes in the magnetic fields. It should be emphasized that behavior of the R spectra of the GaAs-, In As- and GaSb- samples is determined by the same mechanisms. Changes of the R spectra after the UST are explained by acoustically stimulated diffusion of the dopant inward

  15. Investigation of planar channeling radiation on diamond and quartz crystals at electron energies between 14 and 34 MeV and probing the influence of ultrasonic waves on channeling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadegan, B.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of planar channeling radiation (CR) have been performed at the electron beam of ELBE within an energy range between 14 and 34 MeV and for thicknesses of the diamond crystals between 42.5 and 500 μm. Absolute CR photon yields have for the first time been obtained for the above given ranges of electron energy and crystal thickness. The square-root dependence of the planar CR photon yield on the thickness of diamond crystals has been confirmed. A systematic quantitative investigation of the influence of the crystal thickness on the CR line shape has for the first time been performed. The mean-squared multiple-scattering angle effective for planar CR observed in forward direction has been found to be weaker as assumed from scattering in amorphous targets. Scaling laws deduced from the measured CR data are of advantage for the operation of a CR source. The second part of this thesis deals with the possibility of stimulation of CR emission by means of ultrasonic vibrations excited in a piezoelectric single crystal. Since the knowledge of the CR spectra generated on undisturbed quartz crystals is a necessary precondition for some investigation of the influence of US, planar CR has for the first time been measured at medium electron energies for a variety of planes in quartz. As a consequence of the hexagonal structure of this crystal, relative intense CR could be registered even out of planes with indices larger than one. On the base of the non-linear optics method, occupation functions and spectral distributions of planar CR have been calculated for channeling of 20 MeV electrons in the (01 anti 15) plane of a 20 μm thick quartz crystal at resonant influence of ultrasound (US). The resonance frequencies have been deduced from the measurements of CR spectra performed on quartz. First experimental investigations of the influence of US on CR started at ELBE aimed at the study of the effect of non-resonant ultrasonic vibrations excited in a 500 μm thick

  16. Investigation of planar channeling radiation on diamond and quartz crystals at electron energies between 14 and 34 MeV and probing the influence of ultrasonic waves on channeling radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azadegan, B.

    2007-11-15

    Measurements of planar channeling radiation (CR) have been performed at the electron beam of ELBE within an energy range between 14 and 34 MeV and for thicknesses of the diamond crystals between 42.5 and 500 {mu}m. Absolute CR photon yields have for the first time been obtained for the above given ranges of electron energy and crystal thickness. The square-root dependence of the planar CR photon yield on the thickness of diamond crystals has been confirmed. A systematic quantitative investigation of the influence of the crystal thickness on the CR line shape has for the first time been performed. The mean-squared multiple-scattering angle effective for planar CR observed in forward direction has been found to be weaker as assumed from scattering in amorphous targets. Scaling laws deduced from the measured CR data are of advantage for the operation of a CR source. The second part of this thesis deals with the possibility of stimulation of CR emission by means of ultrasonic vibrations excited in a piezoelectric single crystal. Since the knowledge of the CR spectra generated on undisturbed quartz crystals is a necessary precondition for some investigation of the influence of US, planar CR has for the first time been measured at medium electron energies for a variety of planes in quartz. As a consequence of the hexagonal structure of this crystal, relative intense CR could be registered even out of planes with indices larger than one. On the base of the non-linear optics method, occupation functions and spectral distributions of planar CR have been calculated for channeling of 20 MeV electrons in the (01 anti 15) plane of a 20 {mu}m thick quartz crystal at resonant influence of ultrasound (US). The resonance frequencies have been deduced from the measurements of CR spectra performed on quartz. First experimental investigations of the influence of US on CR started at ELBE aimed at the study of the effect of non-resonant ultrasonic vibrations excited in a 500 {mu}m thick

  17. The influence of landing points on the sputtering of mono-crystal solids due to cluster impacting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Guo-jian; Li, Xiao-chun; Xu, Qian; Yang, Zhong-shi, E-mail: zsyang@ipp.ac.cn; Luo, Guang-nan, E-mail: gnluo@ipp.ac.cn

    2017-01-15

    The mechanism of sputtering due to cluster impacting which has been widely studied is an important but unsolved problem. In present research, we discuss the effect of the landing point on the sputtering with the method of molecular dynamics. The results show that the landing points play significant roles on sputter yield when the temperature of target is low. Specific landing points can cause particular sputtering patterns which lead to different sputtering yield and moving directions of sputtered atoms. The mechanism of this phenomenon is that specific landing keeps symmetries and anisotropies of target lattice, which influence the sputtering yield.

  18. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion....... As representative examples, a metal (Pt), an alloy (PtSn), and a metal carbide (beta-Mo2C) were supported on conventional and mesoporous zeolite carriers, respectively, and the degree of particle dispersion was compared by TEM imaging. On conventional zeolites, the supported material aggregated on the outer surface...

  19. Influence of pH, layer charge location and crystal thickness distribution on U(VI) sorption onto heterogeneous dioctahedral smectite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Vanessa; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Algarra, Manuel; Rocha, Fernando; Bobos, Iuliu

    2016-11-05

    The UO2(2+) adsorption on smectite (samples BA1, PS2 and PS3) with a heterogeneous structure was investigated at pH 4 (I=0.02M) and pH 6 (I=0.2M) in batch experiments, with the aim to evaluate the influence of pH, layer charge location and crystal thickness distribution. Mean crystal thickness distribution of smectite crystallite used in sorption experiments range from 4.8nm (sample PS2), to 5.1nm (sample PS3) and, to 7.4nm (sample BA1). Smaller crystallites have higher total surface area and sorption capacity. Octahedral charge location favor higher sorption capacity. The sorption isotherms of Freundlich, Langmuir and SIPS were used to model the sorption experiments. The surface complexation and cation exchange reactions were modeled using PHREEQC-code to describe the UO2(2+) sorption on smectite. The amount of UO2(2+) adsorbed on smectite samples decreased significantly at pH 6 and higher ionic strength, where the sorption mechanism was restricted to the edge sites of smectite. Two binding energy components at 380.8±0.3 and 382.2±0.3eV, assigned to hydrated UO2(2+) adsorbed by cation exchange and by inner-sphere complexation on the external sites at pH 4, were identified after the U4f7/2 peak deconvolution by X-photoelectron spectroscopy. Also, two new binding energy components at 380.3±0.3 and 381.8±0.3eV assigned to AlOUO2(+) and SiOUO2(+) surface species were observed at pH 6. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of the solution pH in the 6-mercaptopurine self-assembled monolayer (6MP-SAM) on a Au(111) single-crystal electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madueño, Rafael; García-Raya, Daniel; Viudez, Alfonso J; Sevilla, José M; Pineda, Teresa; Blázquez, Manuel

    2007-10-23

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) have been prepared on a Au(111) single-crystal electrode by immersion of the metal surface in a 100 microM 6MP and 0.01 M HClO4 solution. The 6MP-SAM Au(111) single-crystal electrodes were transferred to the cell and allowed to equilibrate with the different aqueous working solutions before the electrochemical experiments. The influence of the solution pH was studied by cyclic voltammetry, double layer capacitance curves, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior of the 6MP-SAM in acetic acid at pH 4 presents important differences in comparison to that obtained in 0.1 M KOH solutions. Cyclic voltammograms for the reductive desorption process in acid medium are broad and show some features that can be explained by a phase transition between a chemisorbed and a physisorbed state of the 6MP molecules. The low solubility of these molecules in acid medium could explain this phenomenon and the readsorption of the complete monolayer when the potential is scanned in the positive direction. The variation of the double-layer capacitance values in the potential range of monolayer stability with the pH suggests that the acid-base chemistry of the 6MP molecules is playing a role. This fact has been studied by following the variations of the electron-transfer rate constant of the highly charged redox probes as are Fe(CN)(6)-3/-4 and Ru(NH3)(6)+3/+2 as a function of solution pH. The apparent surface pKa value for the 6MP-SAM (pKa approximately 8) is explained by the total conversion of the different 6MP tautomers that exist in solution to the thiol species in the adsorbed state.

  1. The influence of channel anion identity on the high-pressure crystal structure, compressibility, and stability of apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Richard; Walker, Andrew M.

    2018-03-01

    The material properties of the common phosphate mineral apatite are influenced by the identity of the channel anion, which is usually F-, Cl-, or (OH)-. Density functional theory calculations have been used to determine the effect of channel anion identity on the compressibility and structure of apatite. Hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite are found to have similar zero pressure bulk moduli, of 79.2 and 82.1 GPa, respectively, while chlorapatite is considerably more compressible, with K 0 = 55.0 GPa. While the space groups of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite do not change between 0 and 25 GPa, symmetrization of the Cl- site in chlorapatite at 7.5 GPa causes the space group to change from P2 1 /b to P6 3 /m. Examination of the valence electron density distribution in chlorapatite reveals that this symmetry change is associated with a change in the coordination of the Cl- anion from threefold to sixfold coordinated by Ca. We also calculate the pressure at which apatite decomposes to form tuite, a calcium orthophosphate mineral, and find that the transition pressure is sensitive to the identity of the channel anion, being lowest for fluorapatite (13.8 GPa) and highest for chlorapatite (26.9 GPa). Calculations are also performed within the DFT-D2 framework to investigate the influence of dispersion forces on the compressibility of apatite minerals.

  2. Virtual Crystallizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, T A; Dylla-Spears, R; Thorsness, C B

    2006-08-29

    Large dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are grown in large crystallizers to provide raw material for the manufacture of optical components for large laser systems. It is a challenge to grow crystal with sufficient mass and geometric properties to allow large optical plates to be cut from them. In addition, KDP has long been the canonical solution crystal for study of growth processes. To assist in the production of the crystals and the understanding of crystal growth phenomena, analysis of growth habits of large KDP crystals has been studied, small scale kinetic experiments have been performed, mass transfer rates in model systems have been measured, and computational-fluid-mechanics tools have been used to develop an engineering model of the crystal growth process. The model has been tested by looking at its ability to simulate the growth of nine KDP boules that all weighed more than 200 kg.

  3. single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Abstract. 4-Nitrobenzoic acid (4-NBA) single crystals were studied for their linear and nonlinear optical ... studies on the proper growth, linear and nonlinear optical ..... between the optic axes and optic sign of the biaxial crystal.

  4. Crystal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  5. Influence of some additives to the kinetics of Zn-crystal growth onto continuous hot dip galvanized steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsovski, Angel; Sekuloski, Predrag; Georgievski, Mile; Mickovski, Jovan

    2003-01-01

    In this work we made attempt on determination of the gefree, of influence, of the different types of additives on zinc spangle growth during forming of zinc coating, at the process of continues hot deep galvanizing of steel strip. All investigations were made at cold rolling mill plant 'Ladna Valavnica'-Skopje - HDG line, Additives were implied manually using hand pump directly on full hard strip, just before annealing furnace. Three types of additives were used in unchanged state as well as their mixtures. Analysis of the results included macro photograph of the surface, microphotograph of the zinc coating as well as different attempts of mathematical models. During investigation all technological parameters (cleanness of the strip from the emulsion marks, temperatures of the different zones of the furnace, temperature of the molten zinc and chemical composition of the zinc pot) remained at their constant values. (Original)

  6. Monomial Crystals and Partition Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingley, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Recently Fayers introduced a large family of combinatorial realizations of the fundamental crystal B(Λ0) for ^sln, where the vertices are indexed by certain partitions. He showed that special cases of this construction agree with the Misra-Miwa realization and with Berg's ladder crystal. Here we show that another special case is naturally isomorphic to a realization using Nakajima's monomial crystal.

  7. Influence of the microstructure of a diamond-containing composite material on the tool cutting ability when grinding a diamond single crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kuzei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the methods of electronic scanning microstructure and X-ray analysis, the influence of the structure of diamond-containing composite materials on the cutting ability of the tool for circular grinding of diamond single crystals has been studied. It is shown that the use of an oxide-hydroxide glass with a spreading temperature of 570–590 K as a precursor of the binder leads to the formation of melt films on the surface of silicon carbide and diamond particles at 600–630 K and the glass content in the batch is 10 vol. %. The conversion of oxidehydroxide glass films to oxide films proceeds at 700–775 K during the sintering of the composite material. Depending on the volume content of the glass in the charge, the porosity of the compact, three types of structure of composite materials are distinguished: a volumetric skeleton of glass-clad diamond particles and silicon carbide with pores at the sites of multiple compounds; a frame made of glass-clad diamond particles and silicon carbide with glass pores in places of multiple connections; a matrix of glass and the particles of diamond, silicon carbide and pores located in it. The maximum cutting ability of the tool for circular grinding of diamond is provided by a composite material with a structure of the first type.

  8. Influence of arsenic flow on the crystal structure of epitaxial GaAs grown at low temperatures on GaAs (100) and (111)A substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiev, G. B.; Klimov, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, A. L.; Imamov, R. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics,” (Russian Federation); Pushkarev, S. S., E-mail: s-s-e-r-p@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation); Trunkin, I. N. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation); Maltsev, P. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The influence of arsenic flow in a growth chamber on the crystal structure of GaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at a temperature of 240°C on GaAs (100) and (111)A substrates has been investigated. The flow ratio γ of arsenic As4 and gallium was varied in the range from 16 to 50. GaAs films were either undoped, or homogeneously doped with silicon, or contained three equidistantly spaced silicon δ-layers. The structural quality of the annealed samples has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. It is established for the first time that silicon δ-layers in “low-temperature” GaAs serve as formation centers of arsenic precipitates. Their average size, concentration, and spatial distribution are estimated. The dependence of the film structural quality on γ is analyzed. Regions 100–150 nm in size have been revealed in some samples and identified (by X-ray microanalysis) as pores. It is found that, in the entire range of γ under consideration, GaAs films on (111)A substrates have a poorer structural quality and become polycrystalline beginning with a thickness of 150–200 nm.

  9. Synthesis, Physico-chemical Characterization, Crystal Structure and Influence on Microbial and Tumor Cells of Some Co(II Complexes with 5,7-Dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Măruţescu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Three complexes, namely [Co(dmtp2(OH24][CoCl4] (1, [Co(dmtp2Cl2] (2 and [Co(dmtp2(OH24]Cl2∙2H2O (3 (dmtp: 5,7-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine, were synthesized and characterized by spectral (IR, UV-Vis-NIR, and magnetic measurements at room temperature, as well as single crystal X-ray diffraction. Complex (1 crystallizes in monoclinic system (space group C2/c, complex (2 adopts an orthorhombic system (space group Pbca, and complex (3 crystallizes in triclinic system (space group P1. Various types of extended hydrogen bonds and π–π interactions provide a supramolecular architecture for all complexes. All species were evaluated for antimicrobial activity towards planktonic and biofilm-embedded microbial cells and influence on HEp-2 cell viability, cellular cycle and gene expression.

  10. Influence of pH, layer charge location and crystal thickness distribution on U(VI) sorption onto heterogeneous dioctahedral smectite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimarães, Vanessa [Instituto de Ciências da Terra – Porto, DGAOT, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Geobiotec. Departamento de Geociências da Universidade de Aveiro, Campo Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Algarra, Manuel [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Teatino s/n, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Rocha, Fernando [Geobiotec. Departamento de Geociências da Universidade de Aveiro, Campo Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Bobos, Iuliu, E-mail: ibobos@fc.up.pt [Instituto de Ciências da Terra – Porto, DGAOT, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • The UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} sorption at pH 4 and 6 on heterogeneous smectite structure. • The cation exchange process is affected by layer charge distribution. • Surface complexation and cation exchange modelling. • New binding energy components identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. - Abstract: The UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} adsorption on smectite (samples BA1, PS2 and PS3) with a heterogeneous structure was investigated at pH 4 (I = 0.02 M) and pH 6 (I = 0.2 M) in batch experiments, with the aim to evaluate the influence of pH, layer charge location and crystal thickness distribution. Mean crystal thickness distribution of smectite crystallite used in sorption experiments range from 4.8 nm (sample PS2), to 5.1 nm (sample PS3) and, to 7.4 nm (sample BA1). Smaller crystallites have higher total surface area and sorption capacity. Octahedral charge location favor higher sorption capacity. The sorption isotherms of Freundlich, Langmuir and SIPS were used to model the sorption experiments. The surface complexation and cation exchange reactions were modeled using PHREEQC-code to describe the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} sorption on smectite. The amount of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} adsorbed on smectite samples decreased significantly at pH 6 and higher ionic strength, where the sorption mechanism was restricted to the edge sites of smectite. Two binding energy components at 380.8 ± 0.3 and 382.2 ± 0.3 eV, assigned to hydrated UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} adsorbed by cation exchange and by inner-sphere complexation on the external sites at pH 4, were identified after the U4f{sub 7/2} peak deconvolution by X-photoelectron spectroscopy. Also, two new binding energy components at 380.3 ± 0.3 and 381.8 ± 0.3 eV assigned to ≡AlOUO{sub 2}{sup +} and ≡SiOUO{sub 2}{sup +} surface species were observed at pH 6.

  11. Influence of pH, layer charge location and crystal thickness distribution on U(VI) sorption onto heterogeneous dioctahedral smectite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimarães, Vanessa; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique; Algarra, Manuel; Rocha, Fernando; Bobos, Iuliu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The UO_2"2"+ sorption at pH 4 and 6 on heterogeneous smectite structure. • The cation exchange process is affected by layer charge distribution. • Surface complexation and cation exchange modelling. • New binding energy components identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. - Abstract: The UO_2"2"+ adsorption on smectite (samples BA1, PS2 and PS3) with a heterogeneous structure was investigated at pH 4 (I = 0.02 M) and pH 6 (I = 0.2 M) in batch experiments, with the aim to evaluate the influence of pH, layer charge location and crystal thickness distribution. Mean crystal thickness distribution of smectite crystallite used in sorption experiments range from 4.8 nm (sample PS2), to 5.1 nm (sample PS3) and, to 7.4 nm (sample BA1). Smaller crystallites have higher total surface area and sorption capacity. Octahedral charge location favor higher sorption capacity. The sorption isotherms of Freundlich, Langmuir and SIPS were used to model the sorption experiments. The surface complexation and cation exchange reactions were modeled using PHREEQC-code to describe the UO_2"2"+ sorption on smectite. The amount of UO_2"2"+ adsorbed on smectite samples decreased significantly at pH 6 and higher ionic strength, where the sorption mechanism was restricted to the edge sites of smectite. Two binding energy components at 380.8 ± 0.3 and 382.2 ± 0.3 eV, assigned to hydrated UO_2"2"+ adsorbed by cation exchange and by inner-sphere complexation on the external sites at pH 4, were identified after the U4f_7_/_2 peak deconvolution by X-photoelectron spectroscopy. Also, two new binding energy components at 380.3 ± 0.3 and 381.8 ± 0.3 eV assigned to ≡AlOUO_2"+ and ≡SiOUO_2"+ surface species were observed at pH 6.

  12. The influence of the bulk reduction state on the surface structure and morphology of rutile TiO{sub 2}(110) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Hebenstreit, W.; Diebold, U.; Tyryshkin, A.M.; Bowman, M.K.; Dunham, G.G.; Henderson, M.A.

    2000-05-25

    The authors have investigated the relationship between different types and amounts of bulk defects and the surface morphology of TiO{sub 2}(110) single crystals prepared by annealing in ultrahigh vacuum and in oxygen. Rutile TiO{sub 2}(110) specimens were cut from the same crystal and were heated in a furnace to different temperatures which resulted in different states of reduction (colors of the crystals). After characterization of the bulk defects with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), the specimens were studied with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low-energy He{sup +} ion scattering (LEIS), and work function measurements. EPR reveals that darker rutile crystals exhibit higher concentrations of extended Ti{sup 3+} related bulk defects such as crystallographic shear planes (CSP), with a decrease in substitutional and interstitial defects as compared to lighter crystals. Surface structures with (1 x 2) features are preferably formed upon UHV annealing on these darker crystals. LEIS measurements show that all of the crystals' (110) surfaces are reoxidized upon annealing in {sup 18}O{sub 2} (573 K, 1 x 10{sup {minus}6} mbar, 10 min) and that the {sup 18}O surface content is proportional to the bulk reduction state. UV-visible adsorption spectra and resistivity measurements also scale with the reduction states of crystals. Only the (1 x 1) structure is observed on the surface of slightly reduced crystals. Annealing in oxygen induces additional metastable structures, i.e., TiO{sub 2} clusters on blue crystals and rosette networks on dark blue crystals.

  13. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  14. Crystallization mechanisms of acicular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puel, François; Verdurand, Elodie; Taulelle, Pascal; Bebon, Christine; Colson, Didier; Klein, Jean-Paul; Veesler, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution, we present an experimental investigation of the growth of four different organic molecules produced at industrial scale with a view to understand the crystallization mechanism of acicular or needle-like crystals. For all organic crystals studied in this article, layer-by-layer growth of the lateral faces is very slow and clear, as soon as the supersaturation is high enough, there is competition between growth and surface-activated secondary nucleation. This gives rise to pseudo-twinned crystals composed of several needle individuals aligned along a crystallographic axis; this is explained by regular over- and inter-growths as in the case of twinning. And when supersaturation is even higher, nucleation is fast and random. In an industrial continuous crystallization, the rapid growth of needle-like crystals is to be avoided as it leads to fragile crystals or needles, which can be partly broken or totally detached from the parent crystals especially along structural anisotropic axis corresponding to weaker chemical bonds, thus leading to slower growing faces. When an activated mechanism is involved such as a secondary surface nucleation, it is no longer possible to obtain a steady state. Therefore, the crystal number, size and habit vary significantly with time, leading to troubles in the downstream processing operations and to modifications of the final solid-specific properties. These results provide valuable information on the unique crystallization mechanisms of acicular crystals, and show that it is important to know these threshold and critical values when running a crystallizer in order to obtain easy-to-handle crystals.

  15. The influence of boron on the crystal structure and properties of mullite. Investigations at ambient, high-pressure, and high-temperature conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luehrs, Hanna

    2013-11-21

    Mullite is one of the most important synthetic compounds for advanced structural and functional ceramic materials. The crystal structure of mullite with the composition Al{sub 2}[Al{sub 2+2x}Si{sub 2-2x}]O{sub 10-x} can incorporate a large variety of foreign cations, including (amongst others) significant amounts of boron. However, no chemical or crystal structure analyses of boron-mullites (B-mullites) were available prior to this work, thus representing the key aspects of this thesis. Furthermore, the influence of boron on selected properties of mullite under ambient, high-temperature, and high-pressure conditions are addressed. Starting from a 3:2 mullite composition (Al{sub 4.5}Si{sub 1.5}O{sub 9.75}), the initial hypothesis for this study was a 1:1 isomorphous replacement of silicon by boron according to the coupled substitution mechanism: 2 Si{sup 4+} + O{sup 2-} → 2 B{sup 3+} + □. Based on a series of compounds synthesized from sol-gel derived precursors at ambient pressure and 1200 C, the formation conditions and physical properties of B-mullites were investigated. The formation temperature for B-mullites decreases with increasing boron-content, as revealed by thermal analyses. An anisotropic development of lattice parameters is observed: Whereas lattice parameters a and b only exhibit minor changes, a linear relationship between lattice parameter c and the amount of boron in the crystal structure was established, on the basis of prompt gamma activation analyses (PGAA) and Rietveld refinements. According to this relationship about 15% of the silicon in mullite can be replaced by boron yielding single-phase B-mullite. B-mullites with significantly higher (∝ factor 3) boron-contents in the mullite structure were also observed but the respective samples contain alumina impurities. Fundamental new details regarding the response of B-mullite to high-temperature and highpressure are presented in this thesis. On the one hand, long-term thermal stability at

  16. On dewetting of thin films due to crystallization (crystallization dewetting).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mehran; Rahimzadeh, Amin; Eslamian, Morteza

    2016-03-01

    Drying and crystallization of a thin liquid film of an ionic or a similar solution can cause dewetting in the resulting thin solid film. This paper aims at investigating this type of dewetting, herein termed "crystallization dewetting", using PbI2 dissolved in organic solvents as the model solution. PbI2 solid films are usually used in X-ray detection and lead halide perovskite solar cells. In this work, PbI2 films are fabricated using spin coating and the effect of major parameters influencing the crystallization dewetting, including the type of the solvent, solution concentration, drying temperature, spin speed, as well as imposed vibration on the substrate are studied on dewetting, surface profile and coverage, using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Simplified hydrodynamic governing equations of crystallization in thin films are presented and using a mathematical representation of the process, it is phenomenologically demonstrated that crystallization dewetting occurs due to the absorption and consumption of the solution surrounding a growing crystal. Among the results, it is found that a low spin speed (high thickness), a high solution concentration and a low drying temperature promote crystal growth, and therefore crystallization dewetting. It is also shown that imposed vibration on the substrate can affect the crystal size and crystallization dewetting.

  17. Crystallization of glycine with ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta; Karjalainen, Milja; Rantanen, Jukka

    2006-01-01

    Sonocrystallization has proved to be an efficient tool to influence the external appearance and structure of a crystalline product obtained by various crystallization methods. The present work focuses on high intensity sonocrystallization of glycine by varying amplitude of ultrasound with an ultr...... ultrasound power. This study also showed, the higher the ultrasound amplitude the smaller the crystals obtained.......Sonocrystallization has proved to be an efficient tool to influence the external appearance and structure of a crystalline product obtained by various crystallization methods. The present work focuses on high intensity sonocrystallization of glycine by varying amplitude of ultrasound...... with an ultrasound frequency of 20kHz at two temperature ranges 40-50 and 20-30 degrees C in a jacketed 250-ml cooling crystallizer equipped with a stirrer. The polymorph composition of the obtained crystals was analyzed with a temperature variable X-ray powder diffractometer (XRPD). XRPD results showed that...

  18. Influence of Li/Nb ratios on defect structure and photorefractive properties of Zn: In: Fe: LiNbO 3 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li; Su, Yan-Qing; Wu, Shi-Ping; Guo, Jing-Jie; Xu, Chao; Xu, Yu-Heng

    2011-04-01

    A series of Zn: In: Fe: LiNbO3 crystals are grown by the Czochralski technique with various ratios of Li/Nb = 0.94, 1.05, 1.20 and 1.38 in the melt. The Zn, In, Fe, Nb and Li concentrations in the crystals are analyzed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry. The results indicate that with increasing the [Li]/[Nb] ratio in melt, [Li]/[Nb] ratio increases and goes up continuously in the crystal, the segregation coefficients of both Zn and In ions decrease. The absorption spectra measurement and two-wave coupling experiment are employed to study the effect of [Li]/[Nb] ratio on photorefractive properties of Zn: In: Fe: LiNbO3 crystals. It is found that the [Li]/[Nb] ratio increases, the write time is shortened and the photorefractive sensitivity is improved.

  19. Preparation of TiC single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheerer, B.; Fink, J.; Reichardt, W.

    1975-07-01

    TiC single crystals were prepared by vertical zone melting for measurements of the phonon dispersion by inelastic neutron scattering. The influence of the starting material and of the growing conditions on the growth of the crystal were studied. The crystals were characterized by chemical methods, EMX and neutron diffraction. It was possible to grow single crystals with a volume of up to 0.6 cm 3 and mosaic spread of less then 0.4 0 . (orig.) [de

  20. Effect of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) on largely improving solar reflectance and cooling property of high density polyethylene (HDPE) by influencing its crystallization behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shichao; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@njtech.edu.cn

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • HDPE/TiO{sub 2} composites have more perfect crystal structure. • Refractive index is the key factor affecting the final solar reflectance. • HDPE/TiO{sub 2} composites can achieve high solar reflectance. • The real cooling property is in accordance with solar reflectance. - Abstract: In this study, the different crystal forms of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) were added into high density polyethylene (HDPE) to fabricate cool material. Crystal structure, crystallization behavior, crystal morphology were investigated by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscope (POM). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was applied to observe dispersion of TiO{sub 2} particles in the HDPE matrix and the cross section morphology. The solar reflectance and actual cooling property were evaluated by UV–Vis–NIR spectrometer and a self-designed device. By adding TiO{sub 2} particles into HDPE matrix, the polymer chain could crystallize into more perfect and thermal stable lamella. The presence of TiO{sub 2} particles dramatically increased the number of nucleation site therefore decreased the crystal size. The subsequent solar reflectance was related to the degree of crystallinity, the spherulite size of HDPE, refractive index, and distribution of TiO{sub 2} particles in HDPE matrix. It was found the rutile TiO{sub 2} could largely improve the total solar reflectance from 28.2% to 51.1%. Finally, the temperature test showed that the composites had excellent cooling property, which was in accordance with solar reflectance result.

  1. Effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) on largely improving solar reflectance and cooling property of high density polyethylene (HDPE) by influencing its crystallization behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shichao; Zhang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • HDPE/TiO 2 composites have more perfect crystal structure. • Refractive index is the key factor affecting the final solar reflectance. • HDPE/TiO 2 composites can achieve high solar reflectance. • The real cooling property is in accordance with solar reflectance. - Abstract: In this study, the different crystal forms of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) were added into high density polyethylene (HDPE) to fabricate cool material. Crystal structure, crystallization behavior, crystal morphology were investigated by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscope (POM). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was applied to observe dispersion of TiO 2 particles in the HDPE matrix and the cross section morphology. The solar reflectance and actual cooling property were evaluated by UV–Vis–NIR spectrometer and a self-designed device. By adding TiO 2 particles into HDPE matrix, the polymer chain could crystallize into more perfect and thermal stable lamella. The presence of TiO 2 particles dramatically increased the number of nucleation site therefore decreased the crystal size. The subsequent solar reflectance was related to the degree of crystallinity, the spherulite size of HDPE, refractive index, and distribution of TiO 2 particles in HDPE matrix. It was found the rutile TiO 2 could largely improve the total solar reflectance from 28.2% to 51.1%. Finally, the temperature test showed that the composites had excellent cooling property, which was in accordance with solar reflectance result

  2. Influence des ions étrangers et de la matière organique sur la cristallisation des carbonates de calcium Influence of Foreign Ions and of Organic Matter on the Crystallization of Calcium Carbonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cailleau P.

    2006-11-01

    examines the influence of foreign ions and organic matter on the ger-mination and growth of calcium carbonates.The main results obtained can be summed up as follows:a Concerning Foreign Ions.Their action generally results in:- an increase in germination time and a reduction in the growth rate of CaC03 crystals:- the appearance of special facies for some of the minerals formed: - the inhibition of transformation from one variety ta another.A classification by order of increasing efficiency is obtained: - approximately zero action: K+, CI-;- moderate action: Bot+, Na+, A13+, Cul+, Sr 2+, S04-, P04- . - dominant action of Mg'+.b For Organic Matter.Citric acid and, ta a lesser extent, tartaric acid are the only ones ta have an appre ciable influence, moreover an influence which is similar to thot of foreign ions with regard ta kinetics of CaCO3 germination and growth.The adsorption of some of these products also results in special facies of the minerals formed and eventually in the inhibition of transformations from one variety ta another

  3. Accumulation, translocation and impact of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in wheat (Triticum aestivum spp.): Influence of diameter and crystal phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, Camille, E-mail: camille.larue@cea.fr [UMR3299 CEA-CNRS, Service Interdisciplinaire des Systemes Moleculaires et Materiaux, Laboratoire Structure et Dynamique par Resonance Magnetique (LSDRM), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Laurette, Julien, E-mail: julien.laurette@cea.fr [UMR3299 CEA-CNRS, Service Interdisciplinaire des Systemes Moleculaires et Materiaux, Laboratoire Structure et Dynamique par Resonance Magnetique (LSDRM), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Herlin-Boime, Nathalie, E-mail: nathalie.herlin@cea.fr [URA2453 CEA-CNRS, Service des Photons, Atomes et Molecules, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (LFP), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Khodja, Hicham, E-mail: hicham.khodja@cea.fr [UMR3299 CEA-CNRS, Service Interdisciplinaire des Systemes Moleculaires et Materiaux, Laboratoire d' Etude des Elements Legers (LEEL), CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Fayard, Barbara, E-mail: fayard@lps.u-psud.fr [UMR8502 CNRS-Universite Paris Sud, Laboratoire de Physique des solides (LPS), Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), ID21 beamline, B.P. 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Flank, Anne-Marie, E-mail: anne-marie.flank@synchrotron-soleil.fr [SOLEIL, Saint Aubin, B.P. 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); and others

    2012-08-01

    Intensive production of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2}-NPs) would lead to their release in the environment. Their ecotoxicological impact is still poorly documented, while their use in commercial goods is constantly increasing. In this study we compare root accumulation and root-to-shoot translocation in wheat of anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2}-NPs with diameters ranging from 14 nm to 655 nm, prepared in water. NP distribution in plant tissues was mapped by synchrotron-radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence, observed by transmission electron microscopy and quantified in the different compartments of plant roots by micro-particle-induced X-ray emission. Our results provide evidence that the smallest TiO{sub 2}-NPs accumulate in roots and distribute through whole plant tissues without dissolution or crystal phase modification. We suggest a threshold diameter, 140 nm, above which NPs are no longer accumulated in wheat roots, as well as a threshold diameter, 36 nm, above which NPs are accumulated in wheat root parenchyma but do not reach the stele and consequently do not translocate to the shoot. This accumulation does not impact wheat seed germination, biomass and transpiration. It does not induce any modification of photosynthesis nor induce oxidative stress. However exposure of wheat plantlets to the smallest NPs during the first stages of development causes an increase of root elongation. Collectively, these data suggest that only the smallest TiO{sub 2}-NPs may be accumulated in wheat plants, although in limited amounts and that their impact is moderate. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2}-NP diameter, but not crystallinity, influences their transfer in plant tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wheat roots accumulate TiO{sub 2}-NPs with diameter up to 36 nm but not 140 nm TiO{sub 2}-NPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2}-NPs with diameter lower than 36 nm are translocated from wheat root to shoot. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A 100 mg

  4. Influence of VO2+ ions on structural and optical properties of potassium succinate-succinic acid single crystal for non-linear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliet sheela, K.; Subramanian, P.

    2018-04-01

    A transparent and good optical quality semi organic single crystal of vanadium doped potassium succinate-succinic acid (KSSA) was synthesized by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The structural perfection was supported by the powder XRD of the KSSA-VO2+ single crystal. Optical behavior of the material was discovered from the absorption and transmission spectra of UV-vis-NIR characterization. Functional group and presence of metal ion in the specimen are depicted from FTIR traces. From the photoluminescence studies, emission of wavelength in the violet region (418 nm) at the excitation of 243 nm could be ascertained. EDAX, SEM measurements identify presence of elements and pictures the step-line growth and the imperfection presents in the grown crystal. EPR analysis extracts the information about the local site symmetry around the impurity ion, molecular orbital coefficients, admixture coefficients and ground state wave function of VO2+ doped KSSA single crystal. Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the grown crystal was investigated to explore the NLO characteristic of the material.

  5. Influences of MCrAlY coatings on oxidation resistance of single crystal superalloy DD98M and their inter-diffusion behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Long [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xin, Li, E-mail: xli@imr.ac.cn [Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Xinyue; Wang, Xiaolan; Wei, Hua; Zhu, Shenglong; Wang, Fuhui [Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Oxidation and interdiffusion behaviors of Ni-based single crystal superalloy DD98M with nominal compositions Ni–5.0Co–6.0Cr–6.3Al–6.0W–2.0Mo–6.0Ta–1.0Ti (in wt.%) and two types of MCrAlY coatings at 1000 °C and 1050 °C were investigated. Complex oxides formed on the surface of DD98M alloy when oxidized at 1000 °C and 1050 °C, which stratified, cracked and spalled. The faceted-like AlN and the particle-like and strip-like TiN formed in the alloy. The application of the NiCrAlY and NiCoCrAlYHfSi coatings greatly improved the oxidation resistance of DD98M alloy. After 500 h oxidation, α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was still the dominate phase in the oxide scales formed on the coated specimens. The adhesion of the oxide scale on the NiCoCrAlYHfSi coating was much better than that on the NiCrAlY coating. Interdiffusion occurred between the coatings and the substrate, which led to the formation of the IDZ and SRZ. The IDZ of the NiCrAlY coated specimen was composed of γ phase and Al- and Ta-rich γ′ phase. The γ′ phase in the IDZ accommodated most of the inward diffusing aluminum, so the SRZ formation was suppressed when oxidized at 1050 °C. However the formation of SRZ with μ-TCP still occurred when oxidized at 1000 °C probably due to the low solubility and slow diffusion rate of the alloying elements at lower temperature. The IDZ of the NiCoCrAlYHfSi coated specimen was a single γ phase. A large amount of μ-TCP precipitated in the SRZ of the NiCoCrAlYHfSi coated specimen when oxidized at 1000 °C and 1050 °C. It can be concluded coating composition has a significant effect on the development of the IDZ and SRZ. Thermal exposure temperature also has influences on the formation of the SRZ. The mechanism of SRZ formation and TCP precipitation are discussed. - Graphical abstract: The TEM micrograph of the IDZ and SRZ of the NiCoCrAlYHfSi-coated specimen oxidized at 1050 °C for 100 h and the respective diffraction patterns of the needle-like and the

  6. Paradoxes of the influence of small Ni impurity additions in a NaCl crystal on the kinetics of its magnetoplasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshits, V. I.; Darinskaya, E. V.; Koldaeva, M. V.; Petrzhik, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study of magnetoplasticity in two types of NaCl crystals differing in impurity content only by a small Ni addition (0.06 ppm) in one of them, NaCl(Ni), has been carried out. Two methods of sample magnetic exposure were used: in a constant field B = 0-0.6 T and in crossed fields in the EPR scheme—the Earth's field B Earth (50 μT) and a variable pumping field tilde B( ˜ 1 μ T) at frequencies ν 1 MHz. In the experiments in the EPR scheme, the change of the field orientation from tilde B bot B_{Earth} to . {tilde B} |B_{Earth} led to almost complete suppression of the effect in the NaCl(Ni) crystals and reduced only slightly (approximately by 20%) the height of the resonance peak of dislocation mean paths in the crystals without Ni, with the amplitude of the mean paths in NaCl(Ni) in the orientation tilde B bot B_{Earth} having been appreciably lower than that in NaCl. In contrast, upon exposure to a constant magnetic field, a more intense effect was observed in the crystal with Ni. The threshold pumping field amplitude tilde B, below which the effect is absent under resonance conditions, for the NaCl(Ni) crystals turned out to be a factor of 5 smaller than that for NaCl, while the thresholds of a constant magnetic field coincide for both types of crystals. All these differences are discussed in detail and interpreted.

  7. Influence of aluminium source on the crystal structure and framework coordination of Al and Si in fly ash-based zeolite NaA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ameh, AE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study zeolite NaA with different crystal sizes and % crystallinity was prepared from a clear solution extract of fused fly ash. Sodium aluminate or aluminium hydroxide was used to adjust the aluminium content in the fused fly ash extract...

  8. Helium crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    Hexagonal close-packed helium crystals in equilibrium with superfluid have been found to be one of the few systems in which an anisotropic solid comes into true thermodynamic equilibrium with its melt. The discovery of roughening transitions at the liquid-solid interface have shown this system to be ideal for the study of the statistical mechanics of interface structures. We describe the effect of roughening on the shape and growth of macroscopic crystals from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. (author)

  9. Influence of Proton and Salt Concentration on the Chromonic Liquid Crystal Phase Diagram of Disodium Cromoglycate Solutions: Prospects and Limitations of a Host for DNA Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingru; Kitzerow, Heinz-S

    2016-03-31

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals have recently been suggested for use as a self-organized host for dispersing and aligning self-organized DNA origami nanostructures. However, an appropriate pH value and a suitable cation concentration are necessary to stabilize such nanostructures and to avoid unfolding of the DNA. The present study shows that the nematic and columnar liquid crystal phases appearing in aqueous solutions of disodium cromoglycate are robust against the replacement of deionized water by a neutral or alkaline buffer solution. However, disodium cromoglycate precipitates when an acidic buffer is used or when the concentration of magnesium cations exceeds a critical concentration of about 0.6-0.7 mmol/L.

  10. Influence of the growth method on the photoluminescence spectra and electronic properties of CuInS{sub 2} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudryi, A.V. [Scientific-Practical material Research Centre of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, P.Brovki 19, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Department of Physics, SUPA, Strathclyde University, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom); Yakushev, M.V., E-mail: michael.yakushev@strath.ac.uk [Department of Physics, SUPA, Strathclyde University, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom); Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Institute of Solid State Chemistry of the Urals Branch of the Russian Academy of Scienses, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Volkov, V.A. [Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Zhivulko, V.D.; Borodavchenko, O.M. [Scientific-Practical material Research Centre of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, P.Brovki 19, 220072 Minsk (Belarus); Martin, R.W. [Department of Physics, SUPA, Strathclyde University, G4 0NG Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    A comparative analysis of free and bound excitons in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of CuInS{sub 2} single crystals grown by the traveling heater (THM) and the chemical vapor transport (CVT) methods is presented. The values of the binding energy of the A free exciton (18.5 and 19.7 meV), determined by measurements of the spectral positions of the ground and excited states, allowed the Bohr radii (3.8 and 3.7 nm), bandgaps (1.5536 and 1.5548 eV) and dielectric constants (10.2 and 9.9) to be calculated for CuInS{sub 2} crystals grown by THM and CVT, respectively.

  11. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Influence of Ca and Pb impurities on the bulk optical strength of ultrapure NaCl and KCl crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, An V.; Voszka, R.; Kovalev, Valerii I.; Faĭzullov, F. S.; Janszky, J.

    1987-06-01

    A significant increase (by a factor of about 3) of the bulk damage threshold in the case of interaction of CO2 laser radiation pulses with ultrapure NaCl and KCl crystals grown in a reactive atmosphere was observed on introduction of divalent metal ions Ca and Pb in concentrations of 10-5-10-6 mol/mol. Impurities were introduced in concentrations of 10-8-10-3 and 2×10-7-10-4 mol/mol into the melts of KCl and NaCl, respectively. The concentration of other impurities (including OH) did not exceed ~10-6 mol/mol. A physical model was developed to account for the observed dependence on the basis of an analogy between a system of colloidal particles and F centers in a crystal and a liquid-vapor system.

  12. Influence of silver concentration in Ag-x(Sb0.40S0.60)(100-x) thin amorphous films on photoinduced crystallization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gutwirth, J.; Wágner, T.; Bezdička, Petr; Kotulanová, Eva; Vlček, Milan; Kasap, S. O.; Frumar, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 10 (2007), s. 3064-3071 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC523; GA ČR GA203/06/1368 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : Ag-Sb-S films * amorphous * photoinduced crystallization Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2007

  13. Influence of filling fraction on the defect mode and gap closing of a one-dimensional photonic crystal: An analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, N.; Tehranchi, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Study of the optical properties of the one-dimensional defective photonic crystals using the gap map is improving through the emergence of new analytical methods, which are easy and without any physical restrictions. Gap map is able to monitor the changes in the defect mode frequencies and photonic band gap regions as a function of filling fractions, and all visible spectra in a single graphic presentation. In this paper, by utilizing a novel technique based on Green's function method for analyzing the defect modes, the gap map and gap closing point of a one-dimensional defective photonic crystal have been demonstrated. This method enables study of the defect modes inside the omnidirectional band gap, which is an important object in the designing of the optical filters. Moreover, as a designing criterion, obtaining the gap closing points inside the gap map enables finding of some filling fraction intervals that each one contains several distinct omnidirectional band gaps simultaneously, using a single photonic crystal. This method has been employed for the design of an optical filter at 1.3 and 1.55 μm, which is applicable for telecommunication.

  14. Mucins and calcium phosphate precipitates additively stimulate cholesterol crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A. A.; van Buul, J. D.; Tytgat, G. N.; Groen, A. K.; Ostrow, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Human biliary mucin and calcium binding protein (CBP) influence formation of both calcium salt precipitates and cholesterol crystals and colocalize in the center of cholesterol gallstones. We investigated how physiological concentrations of these proteins regulate cholesterol crystallization in

  15. Thermal equilibrium concentration of intrinsic point defects in heavily doped silicon crystals - Theoretical study of formation energy and formation entropy in area of influence of dopant atoms-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K.; Yamaoka, S.; Sueoka, K.; Vanhellemont, J.

    2017-09-01

    It is well known that p-type, neutral and n-type dopants affect the intrinsic point defect (vacancy V and self-interstitial I) behavior in single crystal Si. By the interaction with V and/or I, (1) growing Si crystals become more V- or I-rich, (2) oxygen precipitation is enhanced or retarded, and (3) dopant diffusion is enhanced or retarded, depending on the type and concentration of dopant atoms. Since these interactions affect a wide range of Si properties ranging from as-grown crystal quality to LSI performance, numerical simulations are used to predict and to control the behavior of both dopant atoms and intrinsic point defects. In most cases, the thermal equilibrium concentrations of dopant-point defect pairs are evaluated using the mass action law by taking only the binding energy of closest pair to each other into account. The impacts of dopant atoms on the formation of V and I more distant than 1st neighbor and on the change of formation entropy are usually neglected. In this study, we have evaluated the thermal equilibrium concentrations of intrinsic point defects in heavily doped Si crystals. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to obtain the formation energy (Ef) of the uncharged V and I at all sites in a 64-atom supercell around a substitutional p-type (B, Ga, In, and Tl), neutral (C, Ge, and Sn) and n-type (P, As, and Sb) dopant atom. The formation (vibration) entropies (Sf) of free I, V and I, V at 1st neighboring site from B, C, Sn, P and As atoms were also calculated with the linear response method. The dependences of the thermal equilibrium concentrations of trapped and total intrinsic point defects (sum of free I or V and I or V trapped with dopant atoms) on the concentrations of B, C, Sn, P and As in Si were obtained. Furthermore, the present evaluations well explain the experimental results of the so-called ;Voronkov criterion; in B and C doped Si, and also the observed dopant dependent void sizes in P and As doped Si

  16. Radiation of ultrarelativistic particles passing through ideal and mosaic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    When a charged particle passes through an ideal crystal, then besides the transition radiation, a new kind of radiation, connected with the periodic structure of the crystal is produced. The influence of mosaic structure of a crystal on the intensity of this radiation is considered. Simple analytical expressions for the integral intensity of this radiation for the case of an ideal crystal are obtained. The results show, that the integral radiation intensity depends weakly on the degree of crystal perfection

  17. Magnetophotonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, M [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Fujikawa, R [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Baryshev, A [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Khanikaev, A [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Lim, P B [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan (Japan); Uchida, H [Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Aktsipetrov, O [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Fedyanin, A [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Murzina, T [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Granovsky, A [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2006-04-21

    When the constitutive materials of photonic crystals (PCs) are magnetic, or even only a defect introduced in PCs is magnetic, the resultant PCs exhibit very unique optical and magneto-optical properties. The strong photon confinement in the vicinity of magnetic defects results in large enhancement in linear and nonlinear magneto-optical responses of the media. Novel functions, such as band Faraday effect, magnetic super-prism effect and non-reciprocal or magnetically controllable photonic band structure, are predicted to occur theoretically. All the unique features of the media arise from the existence of magnetization in media, and hence they are called magnetophotonic crystals providing the spin-dependent nature in PCs. (topical review)

  18. Magnetophotonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M; Fujikawa, R; Baryshev, A; Khanikaev, A; Lim, P B; Uchida, H; Aktsipetrov, O; Fedyanin, A; Murzina, T; Granovsky, A

    2006-01-01

    When the constitutive materials of photonic crystals (PCs) are magnetic, or even only a defect introduced in PCs is magnetic, the resultant PCs exhibit very unique optical and magneto-optical properties. The strong photon confinement in the vicinity of magnetic defects results in large enhancement in linear and nonlinear magneto-optical responses of the media. Novel functions, such as band Faraday effect, magnetic super-prism effect and non-reciprocal or magnetically controllable photonic band structure, are predicted to occur theoretically. All the unique features of the media arise from the existence of magnetization in media, and hence they are called magnetophotonic crystals providing the spin-dependent nature in PCs. (topical review)

  19. Optically induced structural phase transitions in ion Coulomb crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horak, Peter; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Drewsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We investigate numerically the structural dynamics of ion Coulomb crystals confined in a three-dimensional harmonic trap when influenced by an additional one-dimensional optically induced periodical potential. We demonstrate that transitions between thermally excited crystal structures, such as b......We investigate numerically the structural dynamics of ion Coulomb crystals confined in a three-dimensional harmonic trap when influenced by an additional one-dimensional optically induced periodical potential. We demonstrate that transitions between thermally excited crystal structures...

  20. Effects of impurities on crystal growth in fructose crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Y. D.; Shiau, L. D.; Berglund, K. A.

    1989-10-01

    The influence of impurities on the crystallization of anhydrous fructose from aqueous solution was studied. The growth kinetics of fructose crystals in the fructose-water-glucose and fructose-water-difructose dianhydrides systems were investigated using photomicroscopic contact nucleation techniques. Glucose is the major impurity likely to be present in fructose syrup formed during corn wet milling, while several difructose dianhydrides are formed in situ under crystallization conditions and have been proposed as a cause in the decrease of overall yields. Both sets of impurities were found to cause inhibition of crystal growth, but the mechanisms responsible in each case are different. It was found that the presence of glucose increases the solubility of fructose in water and thus lowers the supersaturation of the solution. This is probably the main effect responsible for the decrease of crystal growth. Since the molecular structures of difructose dianhydrides are similar to that of fructose, they are probably "tailor-made" impurities. The decrease of crystal growth is probably caused by the incorporation of these impurities into or adsorption to the crystal surface which would accept fructose molecules in the orientation that existed in the difructose dianhydride.