Smith, Gary
2015-01-01
Did you know that having a messy room will make you racist? Or that human beings possess the ability to postpone death until after important ceremonial occasions? Or that people live three to five years longer if they have positive initials, like ACE? All of these facts' have been argued with a straight face by researchers and backed up with reams of data and convincing statistics.As Nobel Prize-winning economist Ronald Coase once cynically observed, If you torture data long enough, it will confess.' Lying with statistics is a time-honoured con. In Standard Deviations, ec
Standard Deviation for Small Samples
Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.
2006-01-01
Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…
Comparison of estimators of standard deviation for hydrologic time series.
Tasker, Gary D.; Gilroy, E.J.
1982-01-01
Unbiasing factors as a function of serial correlation, rho, and sample size, n for the sample standard deviation of a lag one autoregressive model were generated by random number simulation. Monte Carlo experiments were used to compare the performance of several alternative methods for estimating the standard deviation sigma of a lag one autoregressive model in terms of bias, root mean square error, probability of underestimation, and expected opportunity design loss. -from Authors
The missing ingredient in effective-medium theories: Standard deviations
Bohren, Craig F; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh
2012-01-01
Effective-medium theories for electromagnetic constitutive parameters of particulate composite materials are theories of averages. Standard deviations are absent because of the lack of rigorous theories. But ensemble averages and standard deviations can be calculated from a rigorous theory of reflection by planar multilayers. Average reflectivities at all angles of incidence and two orthogonal polarization states for a multilayer composed of two kinds of electrically thin layers agree well with reflectivities for a single layer with the same overall thickness and a volume-weighted average of the relative permittivities of these two components. But the relative standard deviation can be appreciable depending on the angle of incidence and the polarization state of the incident illumination, and increases with increasing difference between the constitutive parameters of the two layers. This suggests that average constitutive parameters obtained from effective-medium theories do not have uniform validity for all ...
Estimation of amplitude and standard deviation of noisy sinusoidal signals
Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.
2017-01-01
A simple method to estimate the amplitude and standard deviation of sinusoidal signals corrupted with additive Gaussian noise is proposed. For this, a two-parameter model is developed by sorting the samples of the signal. This reduced parametric model allows robust parameter estimation, even if the phase function of the sinusoid is nonlinear, discontinuous, and unknown. The functionality and performance of the proposed method are analyzed by several computer simulations; the used GNU Octave program is provided. The proposed method can be useful for unbiased envelope estimation in fringe pattern normalization among other potential applications.
New g-2 measurement deviates further from Standard Model
2004-01-01
"The latest result from an international collaboration of scientists investigating how the spin of a muon is affected as this type of subatomic particle moves through a magnetic field deviates further than previous measurements from theoretical predictions" (1 page).
Timothy J. Fullman; Erin L. Bunting
2014-01-01
Northern Botswana is influenced by various socio-ecological drivers of landscape change. The African elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) is one of the leading sources of landscape shifts in this region. Developing the ability to assess elephant impacts on savanna vegetation is important to promote effective management strategies. The Moving Standard Deviation Index (MSDI) applies a standard deviation calculation to remote sensing imagery to assess degradation of vegetation. Used previously for as...
Set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008
Schmerge, D.; Francis, O.
2006-01-01
The set standard deviation, repeatability and offset of absolute gravimeter A10-008 were assessed at the Walferdange Underground Laboratory for Geodynamics (WULG) in Luxembourg. Analysis of the data indicates that the instrument performed within the specifications of the manufacturer. For A10-008, the average set standard deviation was (1.6 0.6) ??Gal (1Gal ??? 1 cm s -2), the average repeatability was (2.9 1.5) ??Gal, and the average offset compared to absolute gravimeter FG5-216 was (3.2 3.5) ??Gal. ?? 2006 BIPM and IOP Publishing Ltd.
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2009-01-01
1.1 This photographic practice determines the optical distortion and deviation of a line of sight through a simple transparent part, such as a commercial aircraft windshield or a cabin window. This practice applies to essentially flat or nearly flat parts and may not be suitable for highly curved materials. 1.2 Test Method F 801 addresses optical deviation (angluar deviation) and Test Method F 2156 addresses optical distortion using grid line slope. These test methods should be used instead of Practice F 733 whenever practical. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Use of Standard Deviations as Predictors in Models Using Large-Scale International Data Sets
Austin, Bruce; French, Brian; Adesope, Olusola; Gotch, Chad
2017-01-01
Measures of variability are successfully used in predictive modeling in research areas outside of education. This study examined how standard deviations can be used to address research questions not easily addressed using traditional measures such as group means based on index variables. Student survey data were obtained from the Organisation for…
Deviating from the standard: effects on labor continuity and career patterns
Roman, A.A.
2006-01-01
Deviating from a standard career path is increasingly becoming an option for individuals to combine paid labor with other important life domains. These career detours emerge in diverse labor forms such as part-time jobs, temporary working hour reductions, and labor force time-outs, used to alleviate
Isolating the Systematic Component of a Single Stock’s (or Portfolio’s) Standard Deviation
Cara Marshall
2008-01-01
This paper revisits the roots of modern portfolio theory and the recognition that a stock’s (or a stock portfolio’s) risk can be decomposed into a systematic component and an unsystematic component, and, further, that only the former should contribute to expected return. However, instead of isolating the systematic component of risk by recasting the risk in terms of a stock’s beta coefficient, I choose to decompose the standard deviation, or variance if one prefers the original risk measure, ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard deviation of depth was calculated from the bathymetry surface for each cell using the ArcGIS Spatial Analyst Focal Statistics "STD" parameter. Standard...
Wang, Bin; Shi, Wenzhong; Miao, Zelang
2015-01-01
Standard deviational ellipse (SDE) has long served as a versatile GIS tool for delineating the geographic distribution of concerned features. This paper firstly summarizes two existing models of calculating SDE, and then proposes a novel approach to constructing the same SDE based on spectral decomposition of the sample covariance, by which the SDE concept is naturally generalized into higher dimensional Euclidean space, named standard deviational hyper-ellipsoid (SDHE). Then, rigorous recursion formulas are derived for calculating the confidence levels of scaled SDHE with arbitrary magnification ratios in any dimensional space. Besides, an inexact-newton method based iterative algorithm is also proposed for solving the corresponding magnification ratio of a scaled SDHE when the confidence probability and space dimensionality are pre-specified. These results provide an efficient manner to supersede the traditional table lookup of tabulated chi-square distribution. Finally, synthetic data is employed to generate the 1-3 multiple SDEs and SDHEs. And exploratory analysis by means of SDEs and SDHEs are also conducted for measuring the spread concentrations of Hong Kong's H1N1 in 2009.
Bin Wang
Full Text Available Standard deviational ellipse (SDE has long served as a versatile GIS tool for delineating the geographic distribution of concerned features. This paper firstly summarizes two existing models of calculating SDE, and then proposes a novel approach to constructing the same SDE based on spectral decomposition of the sample covariance, by which the SDE concept is naturally generalized into higher dimensional Euclidean space, named standard deviational hyper-ellipsoid (SDHE. Then, rigorous recursion formulas are derived for calculating the confidence levels of scaled SDHE with arbitrary magnification ratios in any dimensional space. Besides, an inexact-newton method based iterative algorithm is also proposed for solving the corresponding magnification ratio of a scaled SDHE when the confidence probability and space dimensionality are pre-specified. These results provide an efficient manner to supersede the traditional table lookup of tabulated chi-square distribution. Finally, synthetic data is employed to generate the 1-3 multiple SDEs and SDHEs. And exploratory analysis by means of SDEs and SDHEs are also conducted for measuring the spread concentrations of Hong Kong's H1N1 in 2009.
Timothy J. Fullman
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Northern Botswana is influenced by various socio-ecological drivers of landscape change. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana is one of the leading sources of landscape shifts in this region. Developing the ability to assess elephant impacts on savanna vegetation is important to promote effective management strategies. The Moving Standard Deviation Index (MSDI applies a standard deviation calculation to remote sensing imagery to assess degradation of vegetation. Used previously for assessing impacts of livestock on rangelands, we evaluate the ability of the MSDI to detect elephant-modified vegetation along the Chobe riverfront in Botswana, a heavily elephant-impacted landscape. At broad scales, MSDI values are positively related to elephant utilization. At finer scales, using data from 257 sites along the riverfront, MSDI values show a consistent negative relationship with intensity of elephant utilization. We suggest that these differences are due to varying effects of elephants across scales. Elephant utilization of vegetation may increase heterogeneity across the landscape, but decrease it within heavily used patches, resulting in the observed MSDI pattern of divergent trends at different scales. While significant, the low explanatory power of the relationship between the MSDI and elephant utilization suggests the MSDI may have limited use for regional monitoring of elephant impacts.
A standard deviation selection in evolutionary algorithm for grouper fish feed formulation
Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul
2016-10-01
Malaysia is one of the major producer countries for fishery production due to its location in the equatorial environment. Grouper fish is one of the potential markets in contributing to the income of the country due to its desirable taste, high demand and high price. However, the demand of grouper fish is still insufficient from the wild catch. Therefore, there is a need to farm grouper fish to cater to the market demand. In order to farm grouper fish, there is a need to have prior knowledge of the proper nutrients needed because there is no exact data available. Therefore, in this study, primary data and secondary data are collected even though there is a limitation of related papers and 30 samples are investigated by using standard deviation selection in Evolutionary algorithm. Thus, this study would unlock frontiers for an extensive research in respect of grouper fish feed formulation. Results shown that the fitness of standard deviation selection in evolutionary algorithm is applicable. The feasible and low fitness, quick solution can be obtained. These fitness can be further predicted to minimize cost in farming grouper fish.
Zagoris Konstantinos
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract A text localization technique is required to successfully exploit document images such as technical articles and letters. The proposed method detects and extracts text areas from document images. Initially a connected components analysis technique detects blocks of foreground objects. Then, a descriptor that consists of a set of suitable document structure elements is extracted from the blocks. This is achieved by incorporating an algorithm called Standard Deviation Analysis of Structure Elements (SDASE which maximizes the separability between the blocks. Another feature of the SDASE is that its length adapts according to the requirements of the application. Finally, the descriptor of each block is used as input to a trained support vector machines that classify the block as text or not. The proposed technique is also capable of adjusting to the text structure of the documents. Experimental results on benchmarking databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Xu Meng-Long; Yang Chang-Bao; Wu Yan-Gang; Chen Jing-Yi; Huan Heng-Fei
2015-01-01
Most edge-detection methods rely on calculating gradient derivatives of the potential field, a process that is easily affected by noise and is therefore of low stability. We propose a new edge-detection method named correlation coeffi cient of multidirectional standard deviations (CCMS) that is solely based on statistics. First, we prove the reliability of the proposed method using a single model and then a combination of models. The proposed method is evaluated by comparing the results with those obtained by other edge-detection methods. The CCMS method offers outstanding recognition, retains the sharpness of details, and has low sensitivity to noise. We also applied the CCMS method to Bouguer anomaly data of a potash deposit in Laos. The applicability of the CCMS method is shown by comparing the inferred tectonic framework to that inferred from remote sensing (RS) data.
Muon’s (g-2): the obstinate deviation from the Standard Model
Antonella Del Rosso
2011-01-01
It’s been 50 years since a small group at CERN measured the muon (g-2) for the first time. Several other experiments have followed over the years. The latest measurement at Brookhaven (2004) gave a value that obstinately remains about 3 standard deviations away from the prediction of the Standard Model. Francis Farley, one of the fathers of the (g-2) experiments, argues that a statement such as “everything we observe is accounted for by the Standard Model” is not acceptable. Francis J. M. Farley. Francis J. M. Farley, Fellow of the Royal Society since 1972 and the 1980 winner of the Hughes Medal "for his ultra-precise measurements of the muon magnetic moment, a severe test of quantum electrodynamics and of the nature of the muon", is among the scientists who still look at the (g-2) anomaly as one of the first proofs of the existence of new physics. “Although it seems to be generally believed that all experiments agree with the Stan...
Veissid, N. (Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)); Cruz, M.T.F. da (Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica); Andrade, A.M. de (Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Microeletronica)
1990-05-01
A method for the determination of the standard deviations of the solar cell characteristic curve fitting parameters is presented for the first time. In this method, a Taylor series expansion of the parameters, around their best values, is made resulting in linear functions which permit the determination of the standard deviations with the least-squares method. The parameters, with the respective standard deviations, were determined from the experimental I-V characteristic curves obtained under illuminated and dark conditions. For the studied experimental I-V curves, the diode saturation currents, the diode factor and the shunt resistance showed smaller standard deviations in the dark condition, and the series resistance appeared to be more precise in the illuminated I-V characteristic. (orig.).
Reyes, Melissa Lopez
2003-01-01
A structure for learning the connections among standard deviations, z-scores, and normal distributions is presented. The components of this structure are classified into intuitive or previously learned conceptual knowledge, computational knowledge, and formalized conceptual knowledge. (Contains 1 figure.)
Y. Song; Z. Gui; H. Wu; Y. Wei
2017-01-01
.... The framework uses standard deviational ellipse (SDE) and shifting route of gravity centers to show the spatial distribution and yearly developing trends of different enterprise types according to their industry categories...
Reyes, Melissa Lopez
2003-01-01
A structure for learning the connections among standard deviations, z-scores, and normal distributions is presented. The components of this structure are classified into intuitive or previously learned conceptual knowledge, computational knowledge, and formalized conceptual knowledge. (Contains 1 figure.)
Scatter-Reducing Sounding Filtration Using a Genetic Algorithm and Mean Monthly Standard Deviation
Mandrake, Lukas
2013-01-01
Retrieval algorithms like that used by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 mission generate massive quantities of data of varying quality and reliability. A computationally efficient, simple method of labeling problematic datapoints or predicting soundings that will fail is required for basic operation, given that only 6% of the retrieved data may be operationally processed. This method automatically obtains a filter designed to reduce scatter based on a small number of input features. Most machine-learning filter construction algorithms attempt to predict error in the CO2 value. By using a surrogate goal of Mean Monthly STDEV, the goal is to reduce the retrieved CO2 scatter rather than solving the harder problem of reducing CO2 error. This lends itself to improved interpretability and performance. This software reduces the scatter of retrieved CO2 values globally based on a minimum number of input features. It can be used as a prefilter to reduce the number of soundings requested, or as a post-filter to label data quality. The use of the MMS (Mean Monthly Standard deviation) provides a much cleaner, clearer filter than the standard ABS(CO2-truth) metrics previously employed by competitor methods. The software's main strength lies in a clearer (i.e., fewer features required) filter that more efficiently reduces scatter in retrieved CO2 rather than focusing on the more complex (and easily removed) bias issues.
Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Martín-Fernández, Josep Antoni; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard
2017-09-04
Data for fractional solid waste composition provide relative magnitudes of individual waste fractions, the percentages of which always sum to 100, thereby connecting them intrinsically. Due to this sum constraint, waste composition data represent closed data, and their interpretation and analysis require statistical methods, other than classical statistics that are suitable only for non-constrained data such as absolute values. However, the closed characteristics of waste composition data are often ignored when analysed. The results of this study showed, for example, that unavoidable animal-derived food waste amounted to 2.21±3.12% with a confidence interval of (-4.03; 8.45), which highlights the problem of the biased negative proportions. A Pearson's correlation test, applied to waste fraction generation (kg mass), indicated a positive correlation between avoidable vegetable food waste and plastic packaging. However, correlation tests applied to waste fraction compositions (percentage values) showed a negative association in this regard, thus demonstrating that statistical analyses applied to compositional waste fraction data, without addressing the closed characteristics of these data, have the potential to generate spurious or misleading results. Therefore, ¨compositional data should be transformed adequately prior to any statistical analysis, such as computing mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A better detection of 2LSB steganography via standard deviation of the extended pairs of values
Khalind, Omed; Aziz, Benjamin
2015-05-01
This paper proposes a modification to the Extended Pairs of Values (EPoV) method of 2LSB steganalysis in digital still images. In EPoV, the detection and the estimation of the hidden message length were performed in two separate processes as it considered the automated detection. However, the new proposed method uses the standard deviation of the EPoV to measure the amount of distortion in the stego image made by the embedding process using 2LSB replacement, which is directly proportional with the embedding rate. It is shown that it can accurately estimate the length of the hidden message and outperform the other methods of the targeted 2LSB steganalysis in the literature. The proposed method is also more consistent with the steganalysis methods in the literature by giving the amount of difference to the expected clean image. According to the experimental results, based on analysing 3000 nevercompressed images, the proposed method is more accurate than the current targeted 2LSB steganalysis methods for low embedding rates.
Falabino, Simona; Trini Castelli, Silvia
2017-02-01
In air quality practice, observed data are often input to air pollution models to simulate the pollutants dispersion and to estimate their concentration. When the area of interest includes urban sites, observed data collected at urban or suburban stations can be available, and it can happen to use them for estimating surface layer parameters given in input to the models. In such case, roughness sublayer quantities may enter the parameterizations of the turbulence variables as if they were representative of the inertial sublayer, possibly leading to a not appropriate application of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. We investigate whether it is possible to derive suitable values of the wind velocity standard deviations for the inertial sublayer using the friction velocity and stability parameter observed in the roughness sublayer, inside a similarity-like analytical function. For this purpose, an analysis of sonic anemometer data sets collected in suburban and urban sites is proposed. The values derived through this approach are compared to actual observations in the inertial sublayer. The transferability of the empirical coefficients estimated for the similarity functions between different sites, characterized by similar or different morphologies, is also addressed. The derived functions proved to be a reasonable approximation of the actual data. This method was found to be feasible and generally reliable, and can be a reference to keep using, in air pollution models, the similarity theory parameterizations when measurements are available only in the roughness sublayer.
Berendes, Todd A.; Mecikalski, John R.; MacKenzie, Wayne M.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Nair, U. S.
2008-10-01
This paper describes a statistical clustering approach toward the classification of cloud types within meteorological satellite imagery, specifically, visible and infrared data. The method is based on the Standard Deviation Limited Adaptive Clustering (SDLAC) procedure, which has been used to classify a variety of features within both polar orbiting and geostationary imagery, including land cover, volcanic ash, dust, and clouds of various types. In this study, the focus is on classifying cumulus clouds of various types (e.g., "fair weather, "towering, and newly glaciated cumulus, in addition to cumulonimbus). The SDLAC algorithm is demonstrated by showing examples using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 12, Meteosat Second Generation's (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI), and the Moderate Resolution Infrared Spectrometer (MODIS). Results indicate that the method performs well, classifying cumulus similarly between MODIS, SEVIRI, and GOES, despite the obvious channel and resolution differences between these three sensors. The SDLAC methodology has been used in several research activities related to convective weather forecasting, which offers some proof of concept for its value.
Joustra, S.D.; Plas, E.M. van der; Goede, J.; Oostdijk, W.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Hack, W.W.M.; Buuren, S. van; Wit, J.M.
2015-01-01
Aim Accurate calculations of testicular volume standard deviation (SD) scores are not currently available. We constructed LMS-smoothed age-reference charts for testicular volume in healthy boys. Methods The LMS method was used to calculate reference data, based on testicular volumes from ultrasonogr
Nelde, Peter H.
1974-01-01
Concludes that the German used in the east Belgium newspaper differs fr om standard High German. Proceeds to list these differences in the areas of lexicology, semantics and stylistics, morphology and syntax, orthography e tc. (Text is in German.) (DS)
75 FR 67093 - Iceberg Water Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing
2010-11-01
...), Canada J3Z 1G4. This permit covers limited interstate marketing tests of products identified as ``GLACE... requirements of the standard with the exception of the source definition. The purpose of this temporary permit... problems, and assess commercial feasibility. This permit provides for the temporary marketing of...
Kang, Namgoo; Jung, Min-Ho; Jeong, Hyun-Cheol; Lee, Yung-Seop
2015-06-01
The general sample standard deviation and the Monte-Carlo methods as an estimate of confidence interval is frequently being used for estimates of uncertainties with regard to greenhouse gas emission, based on the critical assumption that a given data set follows a normal (Gaussian) or statistically known probability distribution. However, uncertainty estimated using those methods are severely limited in practical applications where it is challenging to assume the probability distribution of a data set or where the real data distribution form appears to deviate significantly from statistically known probability distribution models. In order to solve these issues encountered especially in reasonable estimation of uncertainty about the average of greenhouse gas emission, we present two statistical methods, the pooled standard deviation method (PSDM) and the standardized-t bootstrap method (STBM) based upon statistical theories. We also report interesting results of the uncertainties about the average of a data set of methane (CH4) emission from rice cultivation under the four different irrigation conditions in Korea, measured by gas sampling and subsequent gas analysis. Results from the applications of the PSDM and the STBM to these rice cultivation methane emission data sets clearly demonstrate that the uncertainties estimated by the PSDM were significantly smaller than those by the STBM. We found that the PSDM needs to be adopted in many cases where a data probability distribution form appears to follow an assumed normal distribution with both spatial and temporal variations taken into account. However, the STBM is a more appropriate method widely applicable to practical situations where it is realistically impossible with the given data set to reasonably assume or determine a probability distribution model with a data set showing evidence of fairly asymmetric distribution but severely deviating from known probability distribution models.
Tscherning, Carl Christian
2015-01-01
The method of Least-Squares Collocation (LSC) may be used for the modeling of the anomalous gravity potential (T) and for the computation (prediction) of quantities related to T by a linear functional. Errors may also be estimated. However, when using an isotropic covariance function or equivalen...... on gravity anomalies (at 10 km altitude) predicted from GOCE Tzz. This has given an improved agreement between errors based on the differences between values derived from EGM2008 (to degree 512) and predicted gravity anomalies.......The method of Least-Squares Collocation (LSC) may be used for the modeling of the anomalous gravity potential (T) and for the computation (prediction) of quantities related to T by a linear functional. Errors may also be estimated. However, when using an isotropic covariance function or equivalent...... outside the data area. On the other hand, a comparison of predicted quantities with observed values show that the error also varies depending on the local data standard deviation. This quantity may be (and has been) estimated using the GOCE second order vertical derivative, Tzz, in the area covered...
Y. Song
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Analysing spatiotemporal distribution patterns and its dynamics of different industries can help us learn the macro-level developing trends of those industries, and in turn provides references for industrial spatial planning. However, the analysis process is challenging task which requires an easy-to-understand information presentation mechanism and a powerful computational technology to support the visual analytics of big data on the fly. Due to this reason, this research proposes a web-based framework to enable such a visual analytics requirement. The framework uses standard deviational ellipse (SDE and shifting route of gravity centers to show the spatial distribution and yearly developing trends of different enterprise types according to their industry categories. The calculation of gravity centers and ellipses is paralleled using Apache Spark to accelerate the processing. In the experiments, we use the enterprise registration dataset in Mainland China from year 1960 to 2015 that contains fine-grain location information (i.e., coordinates of each individual enterprise to demonstrate the feasibility of this framework. The experiment result shows that the developed visual analytics method is helpful to understand the multi-level patterns and developing trends of different industries in China. Moreover, the proposed framework can be used to analyse any nature and social spatiotemporal point process with large data volume, such as crime and disease.
Song, Y.; Gui, Z.; Wu, H.; Wei, Y.
2017-09-01
Analysing spatiotemporal distribution patterns and its dynamics of different industries can help us learn the macro-level developing trends of those industries, and in turn provides references for industrial spatial planning. However, the analysis process is challenging task which requires an easy-to-understand information presentation mechanism and a powerful computational technology to support the visual analytics of big data on the fly. Due to this reason, this research proposes a web-based framework to enable such a visual analytics requirement. The framework uses standard deviational ellipse (SDE) and shifting route of gravity centers to show the spatial distribution and yearly developing trends of different enterprise types according to their industry categories. The calculation of gravity centers and ellipses is paralleled using Apache Spark to accelerate the processing. In the experiments, we use the enterprise registration dataset in Mainland China from year 1960 to 2015 that contains fine-grain location information (i.e., coordinates of each individual enterprise) to demonstrate the feasibility of this framework. The experiment result shows that the developed visual analytics method is helpful to understand the multi-level patterns and developing trends of different industries in China. Moreover, the proposed framework can be used to analyse any nature and social spatiotemporal point process with large data volume, such as crime and disease.
Optimal reinsurance under the standard deviation principle%标准差准则下的最优再保险
宋立新; 黄玉洁; 周娟
2011-01-01
本文关注的是在标准差准则下如何进行再保险,使得保险公司和再保险公司的风险波动达到最小.在容许合约类范围内得到了建立最优再保险合约的充分条件.如果再保险公司的风险小于一个给定阈值,我们找到了使保险公司的风险最小的最优再保险合约.在这里,保险公司可以采取三种最一般且有效的风险措施.%This paper concerns how to purchase the reinsurance to minimize both the insurer and the reinsurer's risk fluctuation under the standard deviation principle. Sufficient conditions for the optimal reinsurance contract are obtained in the restricted class of admissible contracts. Assume that the reinsurer's risk is less than a threshold, and then we find out the optimal reinsurance contract that minimizes the insurer's risk. Here the insurer company can take three general and useful risk measures.
Martya Rahmaniati
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Dengue Fever Disease is still regarded as an endemic disease in Banjar City. Information is still required to map dengue fever case distribution, mean center of case distribution, and the direction of dengue fever case dispersion in order to support the surveillance program in the relation to the vast area of the dengue fever disease control program. The objective of the research is to obtain information regarding the area of dengue fever disease distribution in Banjar City by utilizing the Standard Deviational Ellipse (SDE model. The research is an observational study with Explanatory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA. Data analysis uses SDE model with the scope of the entire sub district area in Banjar City. The data analyzed is dengue fever case from 2007-2013 periods, with the number of sample of 315 cases. Social demographic overview of dengue fever patients in Banjar City shows that most of the patients are within the productive age, with 39.7% within the school age and 45.7% are within the work age. Most of the dengue fever patients are men (58.1%. Distribution of dengue fever cases from the period of 2007 until 2012 mostly occur in 25-37.5 meters above sea level (MASL (55.8%. The SDE models of dengue fever cases in Banjar City generally form dispersion patterns following the x-axis and clustered by physiographic boundaries. The SDE model can be used to discover dispersion patterns and directions of dengue fever cases, therefore, dengue fever disease control program can be conducted based on local-specific information, in order to support health decision.
Varadhan, S R S
2016-01-01
The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.
Hollander, Frank den
2008-01-01
This book is an introduction to the theory and applications of large deviations, a branch of probability theory that describes the probability of rare events in terms of variational problems. By focusing the theory, in Part A of the book, on random sequences, the author succeeds in conveying the main ideas behind large deviations without a need for technicalities, thus providing a concise and accessible entry to this challenging and captivating subject. The selection of modern applications, described in Part B of the book, offers a good sample of what large deviation theory is able to achieve
Veenhoven, Ruut
2012-01-01
Inequality of happiness in nations can be measured using the standard deviation of responses to surveys questions. The standard-deviation is not quite independent of the mean, being zero when everybody is maximally happy or unhappy while the possible value of the standard deviation is highest when the mean is in the middle of the response scale. Delhey and Kohler see this intrinsic dependency as a problem and propose two ways to compute 'corrected' standard deviations. I advise against this medicine. One reason is that there is no real disease, since the presumed problem does not occur with commonly used numerical rating scales of 10 or more steps. The second reason is that one of Delhey and Kohler's medicines have side effects, their first correction affects the mean and their second correction is based on implausible assumptions. A third reason is that there are better ways to estimate the effect happiness-inequality net happiness-level. Partialling out mean happiness did not affect the non-correlation between inequality of income and inequality of happiness in an analysis of 116 nations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of the data release contains a grid of standard deviations of bathymetric soundings within each 0.5 m x 0.5 m grid cell. The bathymetry was collected on...
Encarnación Álvarez
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Statistical quality control (SQC is used by companies and industries for many reasons. For example, the process capability of machines is an important aspect of SQC, which consists in evaluating the ability of a production process to perform with the required specifications. In other words, the process capability measures the ability of a process of producing acceptable products according to the established specifications. The most common indicator used to measure the process capability is the process capability index, which depends on the process standard deviation. In practice, the standard deviation is unknown, and the process capability index is thus estimated by using an estimator of the process standard deviation. In this paper, we describe the most common estimators of the process standard deviation, and define the corresponding estimators of the process capability index. A bound for the bias ratio of the various estimators is obtained. Monte Carlo simulation studies are carried out to analyze the empirical performance of the various estimators of the process capability index. Empirical results indicate that biases can be obtained, specially in the presence of small samples. We also observe that the estimators of the process capability index based on sample ranges are less accurate than the alternative estimators.
Jansen, Rob T P; Laeven, Mark; Kardol, Wim
2002-06-01
The analytical processes in clinical laboratories should be considered to be non-stationary, non-ergodic and probably non-stochastic processes. Both the process mean and the process standard deviation vary. The variation can be different at different levels of concentration. This behavior is shown in five examples of different analytical systems: alkaline phosphatase on the Hitachi 911 analyzer (Roche), vitamin B12 on the Access analyzer (Beckman), prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time on the STA Compact analyzer (Roche) and PO2 on the ABL 520 analyzer (Radiometer). A model is proposed to assess the status of a process. An exponentially weighted moving average and standard deviation was used to estimate process mean and standard deviation. Process means were estimated overall and for each control level. The process standard deviation was estimated in terms of within-run standard deviation. Limits were defined in accordance with state of the art- or biological variance-derived cut-offs. The examples given are real, not simulated, data. Individual control sample results were normalized to a target value and target standard deviation. The normalized values were used in the exponentially weighted algorithm. The weighting factor was based on a process time constant, which was estimated from the period between two calibration or maintenance procedures. The proposed system was compared with Westgard rules. The Westgard rules perform well, despite the underlying presumption of ergodicity. This is mainly caused by the introduction of the starting rule of 12s, which proves essential to prevent a large number of rule violations. The probability of reporting a test result with an analytical error that exceeds the total allowable error was calculated for the proposed system as well as for the Westgard rules. The proposed method performed better. The proposed algorithm was implemented in a computer program running on computers to which the analyzers were
Ren, Hongwu; Ding, Zhihua; Zhao, Yonghua; Miao, Jianjun; Nelson, J. Stuart; Chen, Zhongping
2002-10-01
We describe a phase-resolved functional optical coherence tomography system that can simultaneously yield in situ images of tissue structure, blood flow velocity, standard deviation, birefringence, and the Stokes vectors in human skin. Multifunctional images were obtained by processing of analytical interference fringe signals derived from two perpendicular polarization-detection channels. The blood flow velocity and standard deviation images were obtained by comparison of the phases from pairs of analytical signals in neighboring A-lines in the same polarization state. The analytical signals from two polarization-diversity detection channels were used to determine the four Stokes vectors for four reference polarization states. From the four Stokes vectors, the birefringence image, which is not sensitive to the orientation of the optical axis in the sample, was obtained. Multifunctional in situ images of a port wine stain birthmark in human skin are presented.
Belyakov A. V.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The newest Large Hadron Collider experiments targeting the search for New Physics manifested the possibility of new heavy particles. Such particles are not predicted in the framework of Standard Model, however their existence is lawful in the framework of another model based on J. A.Wheeler’s geometrodynamcs.
Hydrogenation properties of Mg-Al alloys
Andreasen, Anders
2008-01-01
In this paper the properties of Mg-Al alloys in relation to hydrogen storage are reviewed. The main topics of this paper are materials preparation, hydrogen capacity, thermodynamics of hydride formation, and the kinetics of hydride formation and decomposition. Hydrogenation of Mg-Al leads...... to disproportionation with the formation of magnesium hydride and metallic aluminum as the final product. Experimental evidence renders this process reversible. It is observed that the enthalpy of hydride formation of magnesium is lowered upon alloying with Al due to a slightly endothermic disproportionation reaction....... Further, it is found that the kinetics of hydrogenation, as well dehydrogenation, may be significantly improved by alloying compared to pure Mg. The expense of these improvements of the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation properties is a lower gravimetric hydrogen density in the hydrogenated product, (C) 2008...
Osmar Abílio de Carvalho Júnior
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Typically, digital image processing for burned-areas detection combines the use of a spectral index and the seasonal differencing method. However, the seasonal differencing has many errors when applied to a long-term time series. This article aims to develop and test two methods as an alternative to the traditional seasonal difference. The study area is the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park (Central Brazil that comprises different vegetation of the Cerrado biome. We used the MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance 8-Day composite data, considering a 12-year period. The normalized burn ratio was calculated from the band 2 (250-meter resolution and the band 7 (500-meter resolution reasampled to 250-meter. In this context, the normalization methods aim to eliminate all possible sources of spectral variation and highlight the burned-area features. The proposed normalization methods were the standardized time-series and the interannual phenological deviation. The standardized time-series calculate for each pixel the z-scores of its temporal curve, obtaining a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. The second method establishes a reference curve for each pixel from the average interannual phenology that is subtracted for every year of its respective time series. Optimal threshold value between burned and unburned area for each method was determined from accuracy assessment curves, which compare different threshold values and its accuracy indices with a reference classification using Landsat TM. The different methods have similar accuracy for the burning event, where the standardized method has slightly better results. However, the seasonal difference method has a very false positive error, especially in the period between the rainy and dry seasons. The interannual phenological deviation method minimizes false positive errors, but some remain. In contrast, the standardized time series shows excellent results not containing this type of error. This
Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation
Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.
2011-01-01
and evaluate the method. The method uses deformable registration on computed tomography(CT) to find anatomical symmetry deviations of Head & Neck squamous cell carcinoma and combining it with positron emission tomography (PET) images. The method allows the use anatomical and symmetrical information of CT scans...... to improve automatic delineations. Materials: PET/CT scans from 30 patients were used for this study, 20 without cancer in hypopharyngeal volume and 10 with hypharyngeal carcinoma. An head and neck atlas was created from the 20 normal patients. The atlas was created using affine and non-rigid registration...... of the CT-scans into a single atlas. Afterwards the standard deviation of anatomical symmetry for the 20 normal patients was evaluated using non-rigid registration and registered onto the atlas to create an atlas for normal anatomical symmetry deviation. The same non-rigid registration was used on the 10...
Interaction of hydrogen with an Mg-Al alloy (poster)
Andreasen, A.; Andreasen, J.W.; Burkarl, R.;
2004-01-01
The properties of magnesium as a hydrogen storage medium may be positively altered by the addition of Al: thermodynamic properties, kinetics and heat transfer of the hydride bed can be improved. The interaction of hydrogen with a Mg-Al alloy pre-exposedto air has been studied with in-situ time...... energy for dehydrogenation of the Mg-Al alloy is found to be approx. 160 kJ/mol. This is not significantly higher than for pure and fully activated Mg.Furthermore, it is found that Mg-Al is hydrogenated to MgH2 + Al and upon dehydrogenation a Mg-Al alloy is reformed. Pure Mg is not observed during...
Nielsen, Hanne-Marie; Groen, A F; Østergaard, Søren
2006-01-01
The objective of this paper was to present a model of a dairy cattle production system for the derivation of economic values and their standard deviations for both production and functional traits under Danish production circumstances. The stochastic model used is dynamic, and simulates production...... and health in a dairy herd. Because of indirect effects between traits, the phenotypic levels of (related) traits can change as a result of genetic changes. Economic values for milk production and body weight were 0.28 and -0.76 €/kg per cow-year respectively. For incidence of milk fever, mastitis, retained...... placenta and laminitis economic values were -402.1, -162.5, -79.0 and -210.2 €/incidence per cow-year. The economic values for involuntary culling rate, stillbirth and conception rate were -6.66, -1.63, and 1.98 €/% per cow-year, respectively and the economic value for days from calving to first heat...
Abdu. M. A. Atta
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In many statistical process control (SPC applications, the ease of use of control charts leads to ignoring the fact that the process population of the quality characteristic being measured may be highly skewed. However, in many situations, the normality assumption is usually violated. Among the recent heuristic charts for skewed distributions proposed in the literature are those based on the weighted standard deviation (WSD method. Thus, this paper compares the performances of certain WSD charts, such as WSD X , WSD Exponential weighted moving Average (WSDEWMA and WSD Cumulative Sum (WSD-CUSUM charts for skewed distributions. The skewed distributions being considered are weibull, gamma and lognormal. The false alarm and mean shift detection rates were computed so as to evaluate the performances of the WSD charts. The WSD X chart was found to have the lowest false alarm rate in cases of known and unknown parameters. Moreover, when parameters are known and unknown, the WSD-CUSUM provided the highest mean shift detection rates. The chart with the lowest false alarm and the highest mean shift detection rates for most level of skewness and sample size, n is assumed to be have a better performance.
Construction of 3D Seabed Terrain Model based on the Standard Deviation Criterion%基于标准差准则的海底三维地形模型构建
韩富江; 潘胜玲; 王德刚; 来向华
2011-01-01
At present, existing triangulation must be done in the projection plane, so it causes the loss of attribution information in LOP (Local Optimization Procedure). In this paper, a new triangulation criterion based on standard deviation is used. The definition of standard deviation, calculation of standard deviation, and description of standard deviation criterion is investigated. Then the construction algorithm of 3D seabed terrain model based on standard deviation is presented according to the standard deviation criterion. The result of experiment shows that this method improves the rationality of triangulation, the details and precision of seabed terrain model are better than others, and it is better in dealing with special terrain than the algorithm based on empty circum-circle criterion.%针对现有三角剖分需要投影到平面,局部优化时属性丢失的问题,本文采用一种顾及水深属性的三角剖分准则——标准差准则进行三角剖分,并且讨论了标准差的含义、标准差的计算以及标准差准则的描述.根据标准差准则,实现了一种基于标准差差则的海底三维地形模型构建方法.实验结果表明该方法提高了三角剖分的合理性,模型重建的细节与精确程度更高,在处理特殊地形土优于基于空外接圆准则的TIN模型构建方法.
Interaction of hydrogen with an Mg-Al alloy (poster)
Andreasen, A.; Andreasen, J.W.; Burkarl, R.
2004-01-01
The properties of magnesium as a hydrogen storage medium may be positively altered by the addition of Al: thermodynamic properties, kinetics and heat transfer of the hydride bed can be improved. The interaction of hydrogen with a Mg-Al alloy pre-exposedto air has been studied with in-situ time...... energy for dehydrogenation of the Mg-Al alloy is found to be approx. 160 kJ/mol. This is not significantly higher than for pure and fully activated Mg.Furthermore, it is found that Mg-Al is hydrogenated to MgH2 + Al and upon dehydrogenation a Mg-Al alloy is reformed. Pure Mg is not observed during...... dehydrogenation, suggesting that the formation of Mg-Al is fast compared to the liberation of hydrogen fromMgH2. From thermodynamical calculations using the semi-empirical Miedema model a slightly lower heat of hydride formation is found. Based on comparison with previous experiments on Mg exposed to air...
Microstructure and properties of Mg-Al binary alloys
ZHENG Wei-chao
2006-11-01
Full Text Available The effects of different amounts of added Al, ranging from 1 % to 9 %, on the microstructure and properties of Mg-Al binary alloys were investigated. The results showed that when the amount of added Al is less than 5%, the grain size of the Mg-Al binary alloys decreases dramatically from 3 097 μm to 151 μm with increasing addition of Al. Further addition of Al up to 9% makes the grain size decrease slowly to 111 μm. The α-Mg dendrite arms are also refined. Increasing the amount of added Al decreases the hot cracking susceptibility of the Mg-Al binary alloys remarkably, and enhances the micro-hardness of the α-Mg matrix.
Microstructure and properties of Mg-Al binary alloys
ZHENG Wei-chao; LI Shuang-shou; TANG Bin; ZENG Da-ben
2006-01-01
The effects of different amounts of added Al, ranging from 1% to 9%, on the microstructure and properties of Mg-Al binary alloys were investigated. The results showed that when the amount of added Al is less than 5%, the grain size of the Mg-Al binary alloys decreases dramatically from 3 097 μm to 151 μm with increasing addition of Al. Further addition of Al up to 9% makes the grain size decrease slowly to 111 μm. The α-Mg dendrite arms are also refined. Increasing the amount of added Al decreases the hot cracking susceptibility of the Mg-Al binary alloys remarkably, and enhances the micro-hardness of the α-Mg matrix.
Dissociated Vertical Deviation
... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dissociated Vertical Deviation En Español Read in Chinese What is Dissociated Vertical Deviation (DVD)? DVD is a condition in which ...
Tomatsuri, K. (Taisei Corp., Tokyo (Japan))
1991-10-30
Concrete strength varies in accordance with material proportioning and age, and is usually mixed and designed at the determined age in order to manifest the specified strength. Concerning high strength concrete with design strength over 360kg/cm{sup 2}, however, there is no clear provision to estimate increse and deviation of the strength in the case where either age or cumulative temperature varies. In this study, the strength and the distribution of standard curing concrete and concrete after long piriod of time were measured and analyzed statistically in regard to 14 kinds of high strength concrete with the nominal strength between 360 to 465kg/cm{sup 2} of three construction projects. Considering that strength ratio of concrete at two different kinds of cumulative temperature showed the nominal distribution, a method to predict the strength distribution of concrete after a long period of time was presented. In this method, for instance, use of such parameters as standard deviation of strength on the 28th day of age and strength index could make it possible to predict the average strength and the standard deviation at different ages. 9 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.
Belmoubarik, Mohamed; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Ohkubo, Tadakatsu; Mitani, Seiji; Hono, Kazuhiro
2017-05-01
We investigated the effect of an Mg-Al layer insertion at the bottom interface of epitaxial Fe/MgAl2O4/Fe(001) magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) on their spin-dependent transport properties. The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio and differential conductance spectra for the parallel magnetic configuration exhibited clear dependence on the inserted Mg-Al thickness. A slight Mg-Al insertion (thickness 0.2 nm) induced a reduction of TMR ratios and featureless conductance spectra, indicating a degradation of the bottom-Fe/MgAl2O4 interface. Therefore, a minimal Mg-Al insertion was found to be effective to maximize the TMR ratio for a sputtered MgAl2O4-based MTJ.
Mohamed Belmoubarik
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We investigated the effect of an Mg-Al layer insertion at the bottom interface of epitaxial Fe/MgAl2O4/Fe(001 magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs on their spin-dependent transport properties. The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR ratio and differential conductance spectra for the parallel magnetic configuration exhibited clear dependence on the inserted Mg-Al thickness. A slight Mg-Al insertion (thickness 0.2 nm induced a reduction of TMR ratios and featureless conductance spectra, indicating a degradation of the bottom-Fe/MgAl2O4 interface. Therefore, a minimal Mg-Al insertion was found to be effective to maximize the TMR ratio for a sputtered MgAl2O4-based MTJ.
The Strip Scratch Analysis Method Based on Sample Standard Deviation%基于样本标准差理论的带钢板面划伤分析方法
陈代兵; 纪马力; 杨子秀; 连旭东
2014-01-01
For the discrimination of strip scratch which is caused by roll touch in continuous line , and the estimation of speed deviation wheather can make a influence on strip surface , this paper provides a new analysis method .It introduces the process of strip scratch that appears in the roll touch .Especially ,it shows the factors which will result in speed deviation .Al-so,it proposes the use of sample standard deviation method in the analysis , and the value which can lead to scratch .Finally, it provides the solution of speed deviation and share the experience in analysis with readers .When this method is widely used in the process of strip scratch analysis ,we can exactly discriminate the factors of scratch ,and resolve the speed deviation quickly .%为区分连续生产线上带钢板面划伤缺陷的来源，判断辊子速度偏差对板面质量的影响，进而解决这种产品缺陷，本文提出了一种新分析方法。通过介绍带钢板面划伤缺陷产生的机理，着重指出了造成辊子速度偏差的因素，将样本标准差理论运用到偏差的分析中，明确了造成划伤的速度偏差值，最后介绍了解决速度偏差的排查方法和经验。该分析方法在生产中得到推广运用，实现了准确识别缺陷来源、快速解决速度偏差的目的。
Calculation on Batch Standard Deviation of the Blank and Methods Detection Limit%空白批内标准偏差和方法检出限的计算
祝旭初
2014-01-01
In environmental analytical chemistry,especially trace analysis,the methods detection limit for the reported results of the monitoring is extremely important. Determination of the detection limit often involves with calculating the standard deviation of the blank. Based on the analysis of a typical case,it was pointed out that part of the revised environmental standard method of using the new system between batches blank to calculate the standard deviation of the detection limit was unreasonable. Before calculating the detection limit it is necessary to determine whether there are significant differences between batches.%环境分析化学中，尤其痕量分析时，方法检出限对于监测结果的报出很重要。检出限的确定常会涉及空白标准偏差的计算。通过对一典型案例剖析，指出一部分新制修订环境标准方法采用空白批间标准偏差计算检出限是不合理的。在求算检出限时应先判断批间是否存在显著性差异。
Large Deviations and Metastability
Olivieri, Enzo; Eulália Vares, Maria
2005-02-01
This self-contained account of the main results in large deviation theory includes recent developments and emphasizes the Freidlin-Wentzell results on small random perturbations. Metastability is described on physical grounds, followed by the development of more exacting approaches to its description. The first part of the book then develops such pertinent tools as the theory of large deviations which is used to provide a physically relevant dynamical description of metastability. Written for graduate students, this book affords an excellent route into contemporary research as well.
Divorced Eutectic Solidification of Mg-Al Alloys
Monas, Alexander; Shchyglo, Oleg; Kim, Se-Jong; Yim, Chang Dong; Höche, Daniel; Steinbach, Ingo
2015-08-01
We present simulations of the nucleation and equiaxed dendritic growth of the primary hexagonal close-packed -Mg phase followed by the nucleation of the -phase in interdendritic regions. A zoomed-in region of a melt channel under eutectic conditions is investigated and compared with experiments. The presented simulations allow prediction of the final properties of an alloy based on process parameters. The obtained results give insight into the solidification processes governing the microstructure formation of Mg-Al alloys, allowing their targeted design for different applications.
Melt Protection of Mg-Al Based Alloys
María J. Balart
2016-05-01
Full Text Available This paper reports the current status of Mg melt protection in view to identify near-future challenges, but also opportunities, for Mg melt protection of Mg-Al based alloys. The goal is to design and manufacture sustainable Mg alloys for resource efficiency, recycling and minimising waste. Among alternative cover gas technologies for Mg melt protection other than SF6: commercially available technologies containing―HFC-134a, fluorinated ketone and dilute SO2―and developed technologies containing solid CO2, BF3 and SO2F2, can potentially produce toxic and/or corrosive by-products. On the other hand, additions of alkaline earth metal oxides to Mg and its alloys have developed a strong comparative advantage in the field of Mg melt protection. The near-future challenges and opportunities for Mg-Al based alloys include optimising and using CO2 gas as feedstock for both melt protection and grain refinement and TiO2 additions for melt protection.
TL and OSL studies of carbon doped magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4:C)
Raj, Sanu S.; Mishra, D. R.; Soni, Anuj; Grover, V.; Polymeris, G. S.; Muthe, K. P.; Jha, S. K.; Tyagi, A. K.
2016-10-01
The MgAl2O4:C has been synthesized by using two different methods by electron gun and vacuum assisted melting of MgAl2O4 in presence of graphite. The MgAl2O4:C phosphor thus developed by these two different methods have similar types of the TL/OSL defects with multiple overlapping TL glow peaks from 100 °C to 400 °C. The Computerized Curve De-convolution Analysis (CCDA) has been used to measure TL parameters such as thermal trap depth, frequency factor and order of kinetic associated with charge transfer process in TL phenomenon. The investigated TL/OSL results show that these two methods of incorporating carbon in MgAl2O4 have generated closely resemble the defects of similar types in MgAl2O4:C lattice. However, the MgAl2O4:C synthesized by electron gun shows relatively larger concentration of the TL/OSL defects as compared to MgAl2O4:C synthesized using vacuum assisted melting method. The photo-ionization cross-section (PIC) associated with fastest OSL component of MgAl2O4: C is found to be ∼ 0.5 times than that of fastest OSL component of commercially available dosimetric grade α-Al2O3:C. The MgAl2O4:C thus developed shows good dynamic OSL dose linearity from few mGy to 1 Gy. This work reveals that MgAl2O4:C could be developed as potential tissue equivalent OSL / TL material.
Fan Aihua
2004-01-01
The vertices of an infinite locally finite tree T are labelled by a collection of i.i.d. real random variables {Xσ}σ∈T which defines a tree indexed walk Sσ = ∑θ＜r≤σXr. We introduce and study the oscillations of the walk:Exact Hausdorff dimension of the set of such ξ 's is calculated. An application is given to study the local variation of Brownian motion. A general limsup deviation problem on trees is also studied.
Marianna Rakszegi
2016-06-01
Full Text Available An assessment was previously made of the effects of organic and low-input field management systems on the physical, grain compositional and processing quality of wheat and on the performance of varieties developed using different breeding methods (“Comparison of quality parameters of wheat varieties with different breeding origin under organic and low-input conventional conditions” [1]. Here, accompanying data are provided on the performance and stability analysis of the genotypes using the coefficient of variation and the ‘ranking’ and ‘which-won-where’ plots of GGE biplot analysis for the most important quality traits. Broad-sense heritability was also evaluated and is given for the most important physical and quality properties of the seed in organic and low-input management systems, while mean values and standard deviation of the studied properties are presented separately for organic and low-input fields.
Rakszegi, Marianna; Löschenberger, Franziska; Hiltbrunner, Jürg; Vida, Gyula; Mikó, Péter
2016-06-01
An assessment was previously made of the effects of organic and low-input field management systems on the physical, grain compositional and processing quality of wheat and on the performance of varieties developed using different breeding methods ("Comparison of quality parameters of wheat varieties with different breeding origin under organic and low-input conventional conditions" [1]). Here, accompanying data are provided on the performance and stability analysis of the genotypes using the coefficient of variation and the 'ranking' and 'which-won-where' plots of GGE biplot analysis for the most important quality traits. Broad-sense heritability was also evaluated and is given for the most important physical and quality properties of the seed in organic and low-input management systems, while mean values and standard deviation of the studied properties are presented separately for organic and low-input fields.
Mechanism of pore formation and structural characterization for mesoporous Mg-Al composite oxides
无
2002-01-01
Mg-Al layered double hydroxides(LDH) with different particle sizes were prepared using different aging times at high supersaturation by a new method developed in our laboratory. The key features of this method are a very rapid mixing and nucleation process followed by a separate aging process. By calcination of LDH at 500℃, mesoporous Mg-Al composite oxides with an ex-tremely narrow pore size distribution were produced. The crystal structure of the Mg-Al composite oxides was a multiphasic one consisting of MgO-like crystals and a layered material.
Large deviations and portfolio optimization
Sornette, Didier
Risk control and optimal diversification constitute a major focus in the finance and insurance industries as well as, more or less consciously, in our everyday life. We present a discussion of the characterization of risks and of the optimization of portfolios that starts from a simple illustrative model and ends by a general functional integral formulation. A major item is that risk, usually thought of as one-dimensional in the conventional mean-variance approach, has to be addressed by the full distribution of losses. Furthermore, the time-horizon of the investment is shown to play a major role. We show the importance of accounting for large fluctuations and use the theory of Cramér for large deviations in this context. We first treat a simple model with a single risky asset that exemplifies the distinction between the average return and the typical return and the role of large deviations in multiplicative processes, and the different optimal strategies for the investors depending on their size. We then analyze the case of assets whose price variations are distributed according to exponential laws, a situation that is found to describe daily price variations reasonably well. Several portfolio optimization strategies are presented that aim at controlling large risks. We end by extending the standard mean-variance portfolio optimization theory, first within the quasi-Gaussian approximation and then using a general formulation for non-Gaussian correlated assets in terms of the formalism of functional integrals developed in the field theory of critical phenomena.
Large deviations from freeness
Kargin, Vladislav
2010-01-01
Let H=A+UBU* where A and B are two N-by-N Hermitian matrices and U is a Haar-distributed random unitary matrix, and let \\mu_H, \\mu_A, and \\mu_B be empirical measures of eigenvalues of matrices H, A, and B, respectively. Then, it is known (see, for example, Pastur-Vasilchuk, CMP, 2000, v.214, pp.249-286) that for large N, measure \\mu_H is close to the free convolution of measures \\mu_A and \\mu_B, where the free convolution is a non-linear operation on probability measures. The large deviations of the cumulative distribution function of \\mu_H from its expectation have been studied by Chatterjee in JFA, 2007, v. 245, pp.379-389. In this paper we improve Chatterjee's estimate and show that P {\\sup_x |F_H (x) -F_+ (x)| > \\delta} < exp [-f(\\delta) N^2], where F_H (x) and F_+ (x) denote the cumulative distribution functions of \\mu_H and the free convolution of \\mu_A and \\mu_B, respectively, and where f(\\delta) is a specific function.
Mg/Al HYDROTALCITE-LIKE SYNTHESIZED FROM BRINE WATER FOR EOSIN YELLOW REMOVAL
Eddy Heraldy
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Attempts to synthesis of Mg/Al HTlc using magnesium from several raw material resources are widely investigated. One of raw material would purpose as source of magnesium to synthesis of Mg/Al HTlc is brine water which is well known as the desalination process wastewater. Mg/Al HTlc are widely investigated for their potential applications in research and industrial processes as adsorbents, anionic exchange, catalysts and /or catalyst precursors for the preparation of inorganic materials and pharmaceutical industry excipients. As adsorbents, Mg/Al HTlc are receiving greater interests in the environmental community due to their high adsorption capacity. However, there is no literature available on the synthesis of Mg/Al HTlc from brine water except from artificial seawater. The objective of this research is to synthesis of Mg/Al HTlc from brine water and its ability tested for eosin yellow (EY removal. Characterization of the Mg/Al HTlc synthesized was confirmed through X-ray Diffraction and FT-IR Spectroscopy. The effect of various experimental parameters was investigated using a batch adsorption technique. In this manner, the adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics, and pH effects upon EY adsorption on Mg/Al HTlc were examined. The result showed that EY data fit well with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The isothermal data could be well described by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity was 2.41 × 10-1 mol g-1, and adsorption energy of EY was 24.89 kJ mol-1.
Nanostructured Mg-Al hydrotalcite as catalyst for fine chemical synthesis.
Basahel, Sulaiman N; Al-Thabaiti, Shaeel A; Narasimharao, Katabathini; Ahmed, Nesreen S; Mokhtar, Mohamed
2014-02-01
This paper reviews the recent research of nanostructured Mg-Al hydrotalcite (Mg-Al HT) and its application as an efficient solid base catalyst for the synthesis of fine chemicals. Mg-Al HT has many beneficial features, such as low cost, selectivity, catalytic properties, and wide range of preparation and modification methods. They hold promise for providing sought-after, environmentally friendly technologies for the 21st century. Replacement of currently used homogeneous alkaline bases for the synthesis of fine chemicals by a solid catalyst can result in catalyst re-use and waste stream reduction. We introduce briefly the structure, properties and characterization of the nanostructured Mg-Al HT. The efficacy and benign applications of Mg-Al HT as an alternative solid base to homogenous catalysts in the synthesis of fine chemicals are then reviewed. The challenges for the future applications of Mg-Al HT in the synthesis of fine chemicals in terms of green protocol processes are discussed.
Large deviations and idempotent probability
Puhalskii, Anatolii
2001-01-01
In the view of many probabilists, author Anatolii Puhalskii''s research results stand among the most significant achievements in the modern theory of large deviations. In fact, his work marked a turning point in the depth of our understanding of the connections between the large deviation principle (LDP) and well-known methods for establishing weak convergence results.Large Deviations and Idempotent Probability expounds upon the recent methodology of building large deviation theory along the lines of weak convergence theory. The author develops an idempotent (or maxitive) probability theory, introduces idempotent analogues of martingales (maxingales), Wiener and Poisson processes, and Ito differential equations, and studies their properties. The large deviation principle for stochastic processes is formulated as a certain type of convergence of stochastic processes to idempotent processes. The author calls this large deviation convergence.The approach to establishing large deviation convergence uses novel com...
Mao, Xiao-Chun; Liu, Ke; Hou, Bao-Sen; Tan, Jiao; Zhou, Xiao-Lin
2016-11-01
The structural and elastic properties of MgAl2O4 spinel under high pressure are investigated through the first-principles calculations. The lattice parameters and elastic constants are in good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical results. The polycrystalline elastic moduli of MgAl2O4 spinel are calculated using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. By the elastic stability criteria, the MgAl2O4 spinel is mechanically stable within 80 GPa. MgAl2O4 possesses ductile nature, and the ductility is enhanced with the increase of pressure. The sound velocities over a wide range of pressures are also obtained. Furthermore, the elastic anisotropies of MgAl2O4 are investigated via the various anisotropic indexes and the 3D surface constructions. It is found that MgAl2O4 is isotropic for bulk modulus, while is anisotropic for shear modulus and Young's modulus, and the elastic anisotropy of MgAl2O4 increases due to the applying pressure. Besides, the directions with smaller values of shear modulus for MgAl2O4 will deform preferentially under high hydrostatic pressure. Through the quasi-harmonic Debye model, we also investigated the thermodynamic properties of MgAl2O4 spinel.
Explorations in Statistics: Standard Deviations and Standard Errors
Curran-Everett, Douglas
2008-01-01
Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This series in "Advances in Physiology Education" provides an opportunity to do just that: we will investigate basic concepts in statistics using the free software package R. Because this series uses R solely as a vehicle…
Effect of mischmetal and yttrium on microstructures and mechanical properties of Mg-Al alloy
张诗昌; 魏伯康; 蔡启舟; 王立世
2003-01-01
The effect of yttrium and mischmetal(MMs) on the as-cast and solid solution treated structures of Mg-Al alloys with different Al-contents was investigated. The results show that the MMs in Mg-Al alloy existed in rodAl4 (Ce, La)compound while Y in Mg-Al alloy in polygonal Al2 Y compound. The amount of Mg17 Al12 in Mg-Al al-loy is decreased with increasing Y or MMs addition, and Mg17 Al12 intermetallic compound is changed from continu-ous network to discontinuous one. The Al4 (Ce, La) and Al2 Y compounds are not dissolved into Mg-Al alloy matrixduring solid solution treatment so that their high heat stability can be exhibited. The experiment of mechanical prop-erties indicate that elongation and impact toughness of the Mg-Al-Y alloy with polygonal Al2 Y compound are higherthan those of Mg-Al-MMs alloy with rod Al4 (Ce, La) compound.
Grain Coarsening Behavior of Mg-Al Alloys with Mischmetal Addition
无
2007-01-01
Small addition of mischmetal (MM) into aluminum alloys can lead to grain refinement. However, it is still uncertain whether the same effect applies to Mg-Al alloys. This work indicated that small amount of mischmetal addition ranging from 0.1% to 1.2% (mass fraction) did not cause grain refinement in Mg-Al alloys. On the contrary, they tended to coarsen the grains. When added into Mg-Al alloys, MM reacted preferentially with Al to form Al11MM3 phase. As Al11MM3 phase mainly distributed within α-Mg grains than at grain boundaries, it had little effect in restricting grain growth. In addition, MM reacted with Al8(Mn, Fe)5 or ε-AlMn particles to form Al-MM-Mn compounds, thus it reduced the amount of heterogeneous nuclei in the melt and resulted in remarkable grain coarsening.
Formation and Corrosion Resistance of Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Film on Mg-Gd-Zn Alloy
Ba, Z. X.; Dong, Q. S.; Kong, S. X.; Zhang, X. B.; Xue, Y. J.; Chen, Y. J.
2017-06-01
An environment-friendly technique for depositing a Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT) (Mg6Al2(OH)16-CO3ṡ4H2O) conversion film was developed to protect the Mg-Gd-Zn alloy from corrosion. The morphology and chemical compositions of the film were analyzed by scanning electronic microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy (RS), respectively. The electrochemical test and hydrogen evolution test were employed to evaluate the biocorrosion behavior of Mg-Gd-Zn alloy coated with the Mg-Al HT film in the simulated body fluid (SBF). It was found that the formation of Mg-Al HT film was a transition from amorphous precursor to a crystalline HT structure. The HT film can effectively improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy. It indicates that the process provides a promising approach to modify Mg-Gd-Zn alloy.
Pengaruh Variasi Lama Waktu Hidrogenasi terhadap Pembentukan Metal Hidrida pada Paduan MgAl
Nasrul Arif Pradana
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Paduan berbasis magnesium (Mg merupakan salah satu paduan yang dapat digunakan sebagai Hydrogen Storage Material. Pemaduan Magnesium dengan aluminium bertujuan untuk menurunkan energi aktivasi proses reaksi hidrogen dengan paduan Mg-Al. Paduan Mg-Al dengan komposisi Mg-42 at.% Al disintesa melalui proses milling dengan waktu 40 jam yang menghasilkan solid solution MgAl. Serbuk hasil milling disintering dengan temperatur 600oC dengan holding time selama 2 jam dalam lingkungan argon sehingga terbentuk fase Mg17Al12. Serbuk Mg17Al12 kemudian dihidrogenasi pada tekanan 1MPa, temperatur 4000C dengan variasi lama waktu hidrogenasi 1, 2 , dan 3 jam. Analisis difraksi sinar-X mengidentifikasi adanya faseMgH2 dengan perkiraan % wt sebesar 1.242%, 3.082% dan 4.2% setelah dilakukan proses hidrogenasi selama 1 , 2 dan 3 jam.
Removal of HCl, SO₂, and NO by treatment of acid gas with Mg-Al oxide slurry.
Kameda, Tomohito; Uchiyama, Naoya; Yoshioka, Toshiaki
2011-01-01
Although effective treatment of acid gases such as HCl, SO(x), and NO(x) is essential for preventing air pollution, current methods pose other environmental problems such as CaCl₂ leaching, reduced landfill lifetimes, and solid waste production. Here we show that acid gases can be treated simply with a Mg-Al oxide slurry. The contribution of Mg-Al oxide to HCl and SO₂ removal increased as a function of the quantity and temperature of Mg-Al oxide. HCl was removed by the reconstruction of Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) intercalated with Cl⁻ dissociated from HCl in the slurry. SO₂ was oxidized into SO₃ by oxygen in the air flow, dissolved in an aqueous solution, and removed by the reconstruction of Mg-Al LDH intercalated with dissociated SO₄²⁻. Although less pronounced because of surface adsorption, NO was nonetheless removed by Mg-Al oxide. Our results suggest that simultaneous removal of HCl, SO₂, and NO using a Mg-Al oxide slurry may be possible without the concomitant problems of conventional treatment methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Semantic Deviation in Oliver Twist
康艺凡
2016-01-01
Dickens, with his adeptness with language, applies semantic deviation skillfully in his realistic novel Oliver Twist. However, most studies and comments home and abroad on it mainly focus on such aspects as humanity, society, and characters. Therefore, this thesis will take a stylistic approach to Oliver Twist from the perspective of semantic deviation, which is achieved by the use of irony, hyperbole, and pun and analyze how the application of the technique makes the novel attractive.
Paroxysmal upgaze deviation: case report
Echeverría-Palacio CM; Benavidez-Fierro MA
2012-01-01
The paroxysmal upgaze deviation is a syndrome that described in infants for first time in 1988; there are just about 50 case reports worldwide ever since. Its etiology is unclear and though it prognosis is variable; most case reports indicate that during growth the episodes tend to decrease in frequency and duration until they disappear. It describes a 16-months old male child who since 11-months old presented many episodes of variable conjugate upward deviation of the eyes, compensatory neck...
Angle-deviation optical profilometer
Chen-Tai Tan; Yuan-Sheng Chan; Zhen-Chin Lin; Ming-Hung Chiu
2011-01-01
@@ We propose a new optical profilometer for three-dimensional (3D) surface profile measurement in real time.The deviation angle is based on geometrical optics and is proportional to the apex angle of a test plate.Measuring the reflectivity of a parallelogram prism allows detection of the deviation angle when the beam is incident at the nearby critical angle. The reflectivity is inversely proportional to the deviation angle and proportional to the apex angle and surface height. We use a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera at the image plane to capture the reflectivity profile and obtain the 3D surface profile directly.%We propose a new optical profilometer for three-dimensional (3D) surface profile measurement in real time.The deviation angle is based on geometrical optics and is proportional to the apex angle of a test plate.Measuring the refiectivity of a parallelogram prism allows detection of the deviation angle when the beam is incident at the nearby critical angle. The refiectivity is inversely proportional to the deviation angle and proportional to the apex angle and surface height. We use a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera at the image plane to capture the refiectivity profile and obtain the 3D surface profile directly.
Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of 3R Polytypes of Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides
Budhysutanto, W.N.
2010-01-01
Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH) is a unique group of clays that have an anionic exchange capability. This research explored the hydrothermal method as an alternative method to synthesize Mg-Al LDH. It is a simple and more environmentally friendly compared to the conventional method of co-precipitati
Effect of Calcination at Synthesis of Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Using co-Precipitation Method
Niar Kurnia Julianti
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The use of hydrotalcite in catalysis has wide attention in academic research and industrial parties. Based on its utilization, hydrotalcite can be active catalyst or support. This research is focused on the investigation of characteristic like spesific surface area of Mg-Al hydrotalcite which is prepared with different temperature of calcination. Synthesis of Mg-Al hydrotalcites with Mg/Al molar ratio 3:1 were prepared by co-precipitation method. Mg(NO33.6H2O and Al(NO33.9H2O as precursors of Mg-Al hydrotalcite. Na2CO3 was used as precipitant agent and NaOH was used as buffer solution. The solution was mixed and aging for 5 hours at 650oC. The dried precipitate was calcined at 2500oC, 3500oC, 4500oC, 5500oC and 6500oC. The characterization of functional group was determined by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR. The Identical peaks diffractogram were analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. The spesific surface area was determined by adsorption-desorption of nitrogen. The largest surface area that obtained from the calcination temperature of 650oC is 156.252 m2/g.
Reactivity of Mg-Al hydrotalcites in solid and delaminated forms in ammonium carbonate solutions
Stoica, Georgiana; Santiago, Marta; Abelló, Sònia; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier
2010-10-01
Treatment of Mg-Al hydrotalcites (LDHs, layered double hydroxides) in aqueous (NH 4) 2CO 3 at 298 K leads to composites of dawsonite, hydrotalcite, and magnesium ammonium carbonate. The mechanism and kinetics of this transformation, ultimately determining the relative amounts of these components in the composite, depend on the treatment time (from 1 h to 9 days), the Mg/Al ratio in the hydrotalcite (2-4), and on the starting layered double hydroxide (solid or delaminated form). The materials at various stages of the treatment were characterized by inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. The progressive transformation of hydrotalcite towards crystalline dawsonite and magnesium ammonium carbonate phases follows a dissolution-precipitation mechanism. A gradual decrease of the Mg/Al ratio in the resulting solids was observed in time due to magnesium leaching in the reacting medium. Dawsonite-hydrotalcite composite formation is favored at high aluminum contents in the starting hydrotalcite, while the formation of magnesium ammonium carbonate is favored at high Mg/Al ratios. The synthetic strategy comprising hydrotalcite delamination in formamide prior to aqueous (NH 4) 2CO 3 treatment is more reactive towards composite formation than starting from the bulk solid hydrotalcite.
Ethanol steam reforming over Mg-Al mixed-oxide catalysts
Coleman, L.J.; Hudgins, R.R.; Silveston, P.L.; Croiset, E. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering
2007-07-01
Eight magnesium-aluminium (Mg-Al) mixed oxides and magnesium oxide (MgO) and aluminium oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were studied in order to identify the most effective Mg-Al mixed oxide for hydrogen production via ethanol steam reforming. Co-precipitated precursors were calcinated to prepare the Mg-Al mixed oxides. Activity and selectivity of the mixed oxides for ethanol steam reforming were evaluated at 773 and 923 K. Results showed that all catalysts performed poorly during the steam reforming reaction, and produced low rates of hydrogen, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Catalysts with an MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel crystal structure gave the best performance at both reaction temperatures. However, carbon deposits were discovered on all catalysts for reactions performed at 923 K. Co-precipitation resulted in more effective contact between the Mg and Al in the form of Mg-Al LDO and MgAL{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The absence of pure oxides suggested that Mg and Al were chemically coupled in the mixed oxide catalysts. Results of the study showed that the catalyst with an atomic ratio of 0.66 Mg1Al2 was the most active and achieved the highest rates of production for hydrogen. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.
Large deviations in Taylor dispersion
Kahlen, Marcel; Engel, Andreas; Van den Broeck, Christian
2017-01-01
We establish a link between the phenomenon of Taylor dispersion and the theory of empirical distributions. Using this connection, we derive, upon applying the theory of large deviations, an alternative and much more precise description of the long-time regime for Taylor dispersion.
Angle, Jesse P.; Nelson, Andrew T.; Men, Danju; Mecartney, Martha L.
2014-11-01
This study investigates the temperature dependent thermal conductivity of multiphase ceramic composites for simulated inert matrix nuclear fuel. Fine grained composites were made of CeO2-MgAl2O4-CeMgAl11O19 or 3Y-TZP-Al2O3-MgAl2O4-LaPO4. CeO2 and 3Y-TZP are used as UO2 surrogates due to their similar structures and low thermal conductivities. Laser flash analysis from room temperature to 1273 K (1000 °C) was used to determine the temperature dependent thermal conductivity. A computational approach using Object Oriented Finite Element Analysis Version 2 (OOF2) was employed to simulate the composite thermal conductivity based on the microstructure. Observed discrepancies between experimental and simulated thermal conductivities at low temperature may be due to Kapitza resistance; however, there is less than 3% deviation between models and experiments above 673 K (400 °C) for both compositions. When the surrogate phase was replaced with UO2 in the computational model for the four-phase composite, a 12-16% increase in thermal conductivity resulted compared to single phase UO2, in the range of 673-1273 K (400-1000 °C). This computational approach may be potentially viable for the high-throughput evaluation of composite systems and the strategic selection of inert phases without extensive sample fabrication during the initial development stages of composite nuclear fuel design.
Paroxysmal upgaze deviation: case report
Echeverría-Palacio CM
2012-05-01
Full Text Available The paroxysmal upgaze deviation is a syndrome that described in infants for first time in 1988; there are just about 50 case reports worldwide ever since. Its etiology is unclear and though it prognosis is variable; most case reports indicate that during growth the episodes tend to decrease in frequency and duration until they disappear. It describes a 16-months old male child who since 11-months old presented many episodes of variable conjugate upward deviation of the eyes, compensatory neck flexion and down-beat saccades in attempted downgaze. These events are predominantly diurnal, and are exacerbated by stressful situations such as fasting or insomnia, however and improve with sleep. They have normal neurologic and ophthalmologic examination, and neuroimaging and EEG findings are not relevant.
Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues
Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra
2005-01-01
To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.
48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2001... Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the NRCAR will be authorized... deviations clearly in the best interest of the Government. Individual deviations must be authorized...
48 CFR 801.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 801... Individual deviations. (a) Authority to authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR is delegated to... nature of the deviation. (d) The DSPE may authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR when...
YU Yan; RUAN Yu-Zhong; WU Ren-Ping
2007-01-01
Mg-Al spinel is synthesized by using industrial waste-residue and basic magnesium carbonate in the aluminum factory as the main raw materials. The influence of sintering temperature on crystalline structure and microstructure of Mg-Al spinel has been mainly discussed. The crystalline structure of sample is characterized by using XRD, SEM and relevant analytical software. The experimental results show that compared to the conventional synthetic method, the application of waste aluminum slag as the raw material can greatly decrease the synthetic tem-perature. The content of Mg-Al spinel first increases and then decreases with the rise of sintering temperature, and its purity can reach as high as 96wt% at 1550 ℃, which is therefore determined to be the optimum synthetic temperature. SEM observations demonstrate that as the rise of sintering temperature, the grain of Mg-Al spinel grows up obviously with typical octahedral characteristic appearance.
Zhang, Fen; Zhang, Changlei; Zeng, Rongchang; Song, Liang; Guo, Lian; Huang, Xiaowen
2016-01-01
Coatings of the Mg(OH)2/Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) composite were formed by a combined co-precipitation method and hydrothermal process on the AZ31 alloy substrate in alkaline condition...
V-doped MgAl6O10: novel luminescence substrate for phosphor-free UV-white LEDs
Peng Xu; Changtai Xia; Feng Wu; Xing Li; Qinglin Sai; Guoqing Zhou; Xiaodong Xu
2012-01-01
V-doped MgAl6O10 is grown by the conventional Czochralski method.The crystal structure and the cell parameters are analyzed through X-ray diffraction experiments.The absorption and emission spectra are investigated.Under pumping at 324 nm,the emission spectra of V-doped MgAl6O10 obtain two emission peaks at the wavelengths of 471 and 570 nm.Two emission bands of the spectra combine to produce a spectrum that is perceived as white by the naked eye.Therefore,V-doped MgAl6O10 single crystal can be applied as substrate for phosphor-free ultraviolet (UV)-white light-emitting diodes (LEDs).%V-doped MgAl6O10 is grown by the conventional Czochralski method. The crystal structure and the cell parameters are analyzed through X-ray diffraction experiments. The absorption and emission spectra are investigated. Under pumping at 324 nm, the emission spectra of V-doped MgAl6O10 obtain two emission peaks at the wavelengths of 471 and 570 nm. Two emission bands of the spectra combine to produce a spectrum that is perceived as white by the naked eye. Therefore, V-doped MgAl6O10 single crystal can be applied as substrate for phosphor-free ultraviolet (UV)-white light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
Dose Dependence of Mechanoluminescence Properties in MgAl2O4: Dy Phosphor
Kabita K. Satapathy
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A reliable dosimetry is fundamental for quality assurance of the processes and irradiation products. All dosimetric systems for high doses have some limitation with regard to their use. Dosimetric system should be easy to use, fast to measure, and of low cost. Good phosphor which shows high luminescence properties may fulfil the above criteria in some way. MgAl2O4: Dy phosphor has been prepared by solution combustion technique and confirmed with the help of XRD. ML has been excited impulsively by dropping a load of mass 0.7 kg onto the phosphors from various heights; two distinct ML peaks are observed for all the samples. It is observed that MgAl2O4: Dy phosphor shows linear response to gamma-ray dose and low fading which can be used for dosimetric purpose.
High-Temperature CO2 Sorption on Hydrotalcite Having a High Mg/Al Molar Ratio.
Kim, Suji; Jeon, Sang Goo; Lee, Ki Bong
2016-03-09
Hydrotalcites having a Mg/Al molar ratio between 3 and 30 have been synthesized as promising high-temperature CO2 sorbents. The existence of NaNO3 in the hydrotalcite structure, which originates from excess magnesium nitrate in the precursor, markedly increases CO2 sorption uptake by hydrotalcite up to the record high value of 9.27 mol kg(-1) at 240 °C and 1 atm CO2.
Unique mechanical properties of nanostructured transparent MgAl2O4 ceramics.
Zhang, Jie; Lu, Tiecheng; Chang, Xianghui; Wei, Nian; Qi, Jianqi
2013-06-01
Nanoindentation tests were performed on nanostructured transparent magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) ceramics to determine their mechanical properties. These tests were carried out on samples at different applied loads ranging from 300 to 9,000 μN. The elastic recovery for nanostructured transparent MgAl2O4 ceramics at different applied loads was derived from the force-depth data. The results reveal a remarkable enhancement in plastic deformation as the applied load increases from 300 to 9,000 μN. After the nanoindetation tests, scanning probe microscope images show no cracking in nanostructured transparent MgAl2O4 ceramics, which confirms the absence of any cracks and fractures around the indentation. Interestingly, the flow of the material along the edges of indent impressions is clearly presented, which is attributed to the dislocation introduced. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation indicates the presence of dislocations along the grain boundary, suggesting that the generation and interaction of dislocations play an important role in the plastic deformation of nanostructured transparent ceramics. Finally, the experimentally measured hardness and Young's modulus, as derived from the load-displacement data, are as high as 31.7 and 314 GPa, respectively.
Czochralski growth and characterization of MgAl2O4 single crystals
Bajor, Andrzej L.; Chmielewski, Marcin; Diduszko, Ryszard; Kisielewski, Jaroslaw; Lukasiewicz, Tadeusz; Orlinski, Krzysztof; Romaniec, Magdalena; Szyrski, Wlodzimierz
2014-09-01
MgAl2O4 (MALO) single crystals were pulled by the Czochralski method in [111] direction. The crystals were doped with Co (0.06-0.6 at% (charge compositions)), because Co2+ ions in tetrahedral positions exhibit non-linear optical properties, and, currently, Co:MALO seems to be the best saturable absorber in the eye-safe region (ca. 1.5 μm). By XRD powder technique a stoichiometric MALO was evidenced without admixtures of higher order spinels (MgAl4O7 and MgAl6O10). Also no excessive residual stresses have been discovered by different optical methods, and irrespective of the doping level we did not face any problem of cracking when cutting the crystals into wafers and other structures. In this work we have concentrated our efforts on investigation of thermal properties of MALO. Due to the 2nd order phase transition ca. 650 °C they seem to be of crucial importance in future thermal bonding of this material to the lasing host (Yb,Er-glass) expected just about this temperature.
Tuning Acid-Base Properties Using Mg-Al Oxide Atomic Layer Deposition.
Jackson, David H K; O'Neill, Brandon J; Lee, Jechan; Huber, George W; Dumesic, James A; Kuech, Thomas F
2015-08-01
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used to coat γ-Al2O3 particles with oxide films of varying Mg/Al atomic ratios, which resulted in systematic variation of the acid and base site areal densities. Variation of Mg/Al also affected morphological features such as crystalline phase, pore size distribution, and base site proximity. Areal base site density increased with increasing Mg content, while acid site density went through a maximum with a similar number of Mg and Al atoms in the coating. This behavior leads to nonlinearity in the relationship between Mg/Al and acid/base site ratio. The physical and chemical properties were elucidated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N2 physisorption, and CO2 and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Fluorescence emission spectroscopy of samples grafted with 1-pyrenebutyric acid (PBA) was used for analysis of base site proximity. The degree of base site clustering was correlated to acid site density. Catalytic activity in the self-condensation of acetone was dependent on sample base site density and independent of acid site density.
48 CFR 1301.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.403 Individual deviations. The designee authorized to approve individual deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM 1301.70....
48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 401... AGRICULTURE ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the AGAR will be authorized only when essential to...
48 CFR 2801.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2801... OF JUSTICE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and JAR 2801.403 Individual deviations. Individual deviations from the FAR or the JAR shall be approved by the head of the...
48 CFR 301.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 301... ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 301.403 Individual deviations. Contracting activities shall prepare requests for individual deviations to either the FAR or HHSAR in accordance with 301.470....
48 CFR 1501.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1501.403 Section 1501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Deviations 1501.403 Individual deviations. Requests for individual deviations from the FAR and...
48 CFR 501.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 501... Individual deviations. (a) An individual deviation affects only one contract action. (1) The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) must approve an individual deviation to the FAR. The authority to grant...
48 CFR 2401.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2401... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 2401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, proposed deviations from the FAR or HUDAR shall be submitted to the Senior...
Karna Wijaya2
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to synthesis of Mg/Al hydrotalcite-like (Mg/Al HTlc from brine water and itsapplication as a methyl orange (MO removal. The research initiated with the synthesis of Mg/Al HTlc from brinewater, which is well known as the desalination process wastewater. Characterization of the Mg/Al HTlc synthesizedwas confirmed through X-ray Diffraction and FT-IR Spectroscopy. The determination of optimum acidity, adsorptionrate, and energy and capacity adsorption were studied. The result showed that pH 4 was the optimum acidity for theadsorption of MO on Mg/Al HTlc. MO was adsorbed at pseudo-second order adsorption rate of 1.03 × 105 g mol-1 min-1on the Mg/Al HTlc. The adsorption data fitted well into the linearly transformed Freundlich equation
Zhuang, Houlong; Chen, Mohan; Carter, Emily A.
2016-06-01
Magnesium-aluminum (Mg-Al) alloys are important metal alloys with a wide range of engineering applications. We investigate the elastic and thermodynamic properties of Mg, Al, and four stoichiometric Mg-Al compounds including Mg17Al12 , Mg13Al14 , and Mg23Al30 , and MgAl2 with orbital-free density-functional theory (OFDFT). We first calculate the lattice constants, zero-temperature formation energy, and independent elastic constants of these six materials and compare the results to those computed via Kohn-Sham DFT (KSDFT) benchmarks. We obtain excellent agreement between these two methods. Our calculated elastic constants of hexagonal close-packed Mg and face-centered-cubic Al are also consistent with available experimental data. We next compute their phonon spectra using the force constants extracted from the very fast OFDFT calculations, because such calculations are computationally challenging using KSDFT. This is especially the case for the Mg23Al30 compound, whose 3 ×3 ×3 supercell consists of 1431 atoms. We finally employ the quasiharmonic approximation to investigate temperature-dependent thermodynamic properties, including formation energies, heat capacities, and thermal expansion of the four Mg-Al intermetallic compounds. The calculated heat capacity and thermal expansion of both Mg and Al agree well with experimental data. We additionally find that Mg13Al14 and MgAl2 are both unstable, consistent with their absence from the equilibrium Mg-Al phase diagram. Our work demonstrates that OFDFT is an efficient and accurate quantum-mechanical computational tool for predicting elastic and thermodynamic properties of complicated Mg-Al alloys and also should be applicable to many other engineering alloys.
Allan deviation analysis of financial return series
Hernández-Pérez, R.
2012-05-01
We perform a scaling analysis for the return series of different financial assets applying the Allan deviation (ADEV), which is used in the time and frequency metrology to characterize quantitatively the stability of frequency standards since it has demonstrated to be a robust quantity to analyze fluctuations of non-stationary time series for different observation intervals. The data used are opening price daily series for assets from different markets during a time span of around ten years. We found that the ADEV results for the return series at short scales resemble those expected for an uncorrelated series, consistent with the efficient market hypothesis. On the other hand, the ADEV results for absolute return series for short scales (first one or two decades) decrease following approximately a scaling relation up to a point that is different for almost each asset, after which the ADEV deviates from scaling, which suggests that the presence of clustering, long-range dependence and non-stationarity signatures in the series drive the results for large observation intervals.
史海芳; 李树有; 姬永刚
2008-01-01
For two normal populations with u~nown means μi and variances σ2i>0,i=1,2,assume that there is a semi-order restriction between ratios of means and standard deviations and sample numbers of two normal populations are different.A procedure of obtaining the maximum likelihood estimatom of μi's and σ's under the semi-order restrictions is proposed.For i=3 case,some connected results and simulations are given.
Bankauskaite A.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The formation of different Mg-Al LDHs (Mg/Al = 2:1 under hydrothermal conditions (200°C; 4-24 h was investigated in the 4MgCO3⋅Mg(OH2⋅5H2O - γ-Al2O3/Al(OH3 - H2O and Mg5(CO34(OH2•4H2O - γ-Al2O3 - H2O systems. It was determined that chemical nature of the initial Mg containing components changes the formation mechanism of the synthesis products during isothermal curing. Magnesium aluminum hydroxide hydrate is crystallized by using 4MgCO3⋅Mg(OH2⋅5H2O as starting material while hydroxide hydrate in the Mg5(CO34(OH2•4H2O presence. The sequence of the compounds formation is presented. It should be noted that different modifications of Al containing components have only a slight influence on the meixnerite-type LDH hydrothermal synthesis. It was determined that after 45 min of sorption all Zn2+ ions are incorporated into the crystal structure of hydrotalcite. It should be underlined that crystallinity of the latter compound do not change during ion exchange experiments. Thus, the latter compound can be used as adsorbent for Zn2+ ion removal. Synthesized samples were characterized by powder X-Ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, simultaneous thermal analysis (STA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.
MgAl2O4 Ultrafiltration Ceramic Membrane Derived from Mg-Al Double Alkoxide%铝镁双醇盐制备MgAl2O4尖晶石陶瓷超滤膜
张国昌; 陈运法; 吴振江; 谢裕生
2000-01-01
Spinel (MgAl2O4) ultrafiltration membranes were prepared on porous α-Al2O3 plates via the sol-gel route. Mg-Al double alkoxide [MgAl2(iprO)s] was first synthesized as the precursor, then hydrolyzed and peptized in aqueous solution. The gel layer was coated from the colloidal sol on the intermediate layer (α-Al2O3), which was formerly prepared to modify the porous substrate, and then thermally treated at 900℃. The processing parameters such as pH, temperature and sol composition during the sol preparation were optimized for controlling particle size. The pore size of the 2μm thick top layer is about 13 nm as estimated by both the BSA (Bovine Serum Albumin)retention test and an empirical equation.The water permeability of the obtained spinel membrane is 55～143 kg/(min.cm2.Pa).
48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....
48 CFR 1901.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1901.403 Section 1901.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GENERAL... Individual deviations. Deviations from the IAAR or the FAR in individual cases shall be authorized by...
48 CFR 201.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 201.403 Section 201.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Individual deviations. (1) Individual deviations, except those described in 201.402(1) and paragraph (2)...
48 CFR 1.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1.403 Section 1.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 1.403 Individual deviations....
48 CFR 601.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 601.403 Section 601.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 601.403 Individual deviations....
48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An...
Removal of borate by coprecipitation with Mg/Al layered double hydroxide
Kurashina, Masashi; Inoue, Tatsuki; Tajima, Chihiro; Kanezaki, Eiji
2015-03-01
Borate has been used for various industrial products and excessive dose of boron is harmful to humans. We investigated the removal of borate by direct coprecipitation with Mg/Al layered double hydroxide. In this study, the maximum removal of boron was 90% when Mg 30 mmol and Al 15 mmol at pH = 10 were used for 498 mg/l as B. The boron adsorption isotherms could be fitted to Langmuir model. The calculated constant Ws, saturation limit of boron adsorption, is 25 ± 2 mg/g and it is larger than that of ion exchange reaction (Ws = 15±1 mg/g).
Xu, Minhong; Cao, Yongyong; Ma, Xinyue
2016-01-01
Rhodamine B dye wastewater was degraded using cobalt phthalocyanine supported Mg-Al hydrotal- cite and H₂O₂. The effects of H₂O₂, temperature and concentration of Rhodamine B on the reaction kinetics were studied. The results indicate that the degradation process conforms to the equation of first order kinetics. The fastest rate constant k observed was 66.2 x 10⁻⁴/min⁻¹ at 62.5 °C, and the correlation coefficient R2 was 0.99733.
Li-substituted MgAl2O4 barriers for spin-dependent coherent tunneling
Scheike, Thomas; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Mitani, Seiji
2016-11-01
Epitaxial magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with a Li-substituted spinel MgAl2O4 barrier were prepared by sputtering and plasma oxidation of an Mg/LiAl bilayer. The formed MTJ with Fe(001) electrodes showed a relatively large tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio of 120% (174%) at room temperature (3 K) and two local minima in the tunneling conductance spectra (parallel magnetization), revealing the occurrence of the coherent tunneling effect through the Li-substituted spinel barrier. The results are likely to pave the way for a variety of quaternary spinel oxide barriers in which structural and transport properties of MTJs can be engineered in the coherent tunneling regime.
Pérez-Verdejo, Amaury; Sampieri, Alvaro; Pfeiffer, Heriberto; Ruiz-Reyes, Mayra; Santamaría, Juana-Deisy; Fetter, Geolar
2014-01-01
This work presents two easy ways for preparing nanostructured mesoporous composites by interconnecting and combining SBA-15 with mixed oxides derived from a calcined Mg-Al hydrotalcite. Two different Mg-Al hydrotalcite addition procedures were implemented, either after or during the SBA-15 synthesis (in situ method). The first procedure, i.e., the post-synthesis method, produces a composite material with Mg-Al mixed oxides homogeneously dispersed on the SBA-15 nanoporous surface. The resulting composites present textural properties similar to the SBA-15. On the other hand, with the second procedure (in situ method), Mg and Al mixed oxides occur on the porous composite, which displays a cauliflower morphology. This is an important microporosity contribution and micro and mesoporous surfaces coexist in almost the same proportion. Furthermore, the nanostructured mesoporous composites present an extraordinary water vapor sorption capacity. Such composites might be utilized as as acid-base catalysts, adsorbents, sensors or storage nanomaterials.
Koningsberger, D.C.; Bokhoven, J.A. van; Roelofs, J.C.A.A.; Jong, K.P. de
2001-01-01
The changes in the layered structure of Mg-Al hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=2) during heat treatment have been investigated by using in situ XAFS simultaneously at the Mg and Al K-edges. The development of unique in situ instrumentation allowed the coordination environments at both the Mg and Al centers to be
Thermal conductivity of diethylene glycol based magnesium-aluminum spinel (MgAl2O4-DG) nanofluids
Żyła, Gaweł; Fal, Jacek; Gizowska, Magdalena; Perkowski, Krzysztof
2016-12-01
The paper presents the results of measurements of the thermal conductivity of MgAl_2O_4 -DG nanofluids. The dependence of the thermal conductivity on concentration of nanoparticles in various temperatures from 293.15 to 338.15 K with 15 K step was examined. Experimental data was modeled with existing theoretical models describing the effects of the concentration of particles on the thermal conductivity of the suspension. It was presented that thermal conductivity of MgAl_2O_4 -DG nanofluids increases proportional to volume concentration of nanoparticles.
Teaching Standard Deviation by Building from Student Invention
Day, James; Nakahara, Hiroko; Bonn, Doug
2010-11-01
First-year physics laboratories are often driven by a mix of goals that includes the illustration or discovery of basic physics principles and a myriad of technical skills involving specific equipment, data analysis, and report writing. The sheer number of such goals seems guaranteed to produce cognitive overload, even when highly detailed "cookbook" instructions are given. Recent studies indicate that this approach leaves students with a poor conceptual understanding of one of the most important features of laboratory physics and of the real world of science, in general: the development of an understanding of the nature of measurement and its attendant uncertainty . While students might be able to reproduce certain technical manipulations of data, as novice thinkers they lack the mental scaffolding that allows an expert to organize and apply this knowledge.2,3 Our goal is to put novices on the path to expertise, so that they will be able to transfer their knowledge to novel situations.
Kovár, Petr; Pospísil, Miroslav; Káfunková, Eva; Lang, Kamil; Kovanda, Frantisek
2010-02-01
Molecular modeling in combination with powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) provided new information on the organization of the interlayer space of Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) containing intercalated porphyrin anions [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS)]. Anion-exchange and rehydration procedures were used for the preparation of TPPS-containing LDH with an Mg/Al molar ratio of 2. Molecular modeling was carried out in the Cerius(2) and Materials Studio modeling environment. Three types of models were created in order to simulate the experimental XRD patterns of LDH intercalates with a TPPS loading of 70-80% with respect to the theoretical anion exchange capacity (AEC). The models represent single-phase systems with a 100% TPPS loading in the interlayer space (Type 1) and models represent the coexistence of two phases corresponding to the total exchange from 75 to 92% (Type 2). To cover other possible arrangements, models with the coexistence of both TPPS and NO(3)(-) anions in the same interlayer space were calculated (Type 3). The models are described and compared with experimental data. In all cases, guest TPPS anions are tilted with respect to the hydroxide layers, and are horizontally shifted to each other by up to one-half of the TPPS diameter. According to the energy characteristics and simulated XRD, the most probable arrangement is of Type 2, where some layers are saturated with TPPS anions and others are filled with original NO(3)(-) anions.
Enhancement of MgAl2O4 spinel formation from coprecipitated precursor by powder processing
Soumen Pal; A K Bandyopadhyay; S Mukherjee; B N Samaddar; P G Pal
2011-07-01
Although low temperature fast coprecipitation technique has been used to synthesize stoichiometric (MgO–nAl2O3, = 1) MgAl2O4 spinel forming precursor, delayed spinellization has always been the concern in this process. In this article, the precursor of this ‘fast technique’ has been used for bulk production by further processing by high speed mixing with solvents and mechanical activation by attrition milling in terms of superior spinellization. At 1000°C, MgAl2O4 – -Al2O3 solid solution and MgO phases are formed (spinel formed by 1000°C is regarded as primary spinel). At higher temperatures, due to large agglomerate size, MgO can not properly interact with the exsolved -Al2O3 from spinel solid solution to form secondary spinel; and consequently spinellization gets affected. Solvent treatment and attrition milling of the coprecipitated precursor disintegrate the larger agglomerates into smaller size (effect is more in attrition). Then MgO comes in proper contact with exsolved alumina, and therefore total spinel formation (primary + secondary) is enhanced. Extent of spinellization, for processed calcined samples where some alumina exists as solid solution with spinel, can be determined from the percentage conversion of MgO. Analysis of the processed powders suggests that the 4 h attrited precursor is most effective in terms of nano size (< 25 nm) stoichiometric spinel crystallite formation at ≤ 1100°C.
LARGE DEVIATIONS AND MODERATE DEVIATIONS FOR SUMS OF NEGATIVELY DEPENDENT RANDOM VARIABLES
Liu Li; Wan Chenggao; Feng Yanqin
2011-01-01
In this article, we obtain the large deviations and moderate deviations for negatively dependent (ND) and non-identically distributed random variables defined on (-∞, +∞). The results show that for some non-identical random variables, precise large deviations and moderate deviations remain insensitive to negative dependence structure.
Wang, Yi-Tong; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fan; Xue, Bao-Jin
2015-10-01
Activated Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT-Ca) nanoparticles (86%). It was further found that it can resist free fatty acids, and biodiesel yield reached 92.9% from soybean oil with high AV of 12.1. HT-Ca catalyst showed a potential practical application for direct production of biodiesel from oils with high AV without pretreatment.
Monolithic thermally bonded Er3+, Yb3+:glass/Co2+:MgAl2O4 microchip lasers
Mlynczak, Jaroslaw; Belghachem, Nabil
2015-12-01
The highest ever reported 10 kW peak power in monolithic thermally bonded Er3+, Yb3+:glass/Co2+:MgAl2O4 microchip laser was achieved. To show the superiority of monolithic microchip lasers over those with external mirrors the laser generation characteristics of the same samples in both cases were compared.
Ensemble standar deviation of wind speed and direction of the FDDA input to WRF
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NetCDF file of the SREF standard deviation of wind speed and direction that was used to inject variability in the FDDA input. variable U_NDG_OLD contains standard...
48 CFR 1201.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
...) 48 CFR 1.405(e) applies). However, see TAM 1201.403. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.403 Individual...
48 CFR 1401.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1401.403 Section 1401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR and DIAR 1401.403...
48 CFR 3001.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
.... 3001.403 Section 3001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... from the FAR and HSAR 3001.403 Individual deviations. Unless precluded by law, executive order, or..., including complete documentation of the justification for the deviation (See HSAM 3001.403)....
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deviation. 101-1.110 Section 101-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.110 Deviation...
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 435.4 Section 435.4 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH... General § 435.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for classes...
Properties of Mg-Al alloys in relation to hydrogen storage
Andreasen, A.
2005-01-01
Magnesium theoretically stores 7.6 wt. % hydrogen, although it requires heating to above 300 degrees C in order to release hydrogen. This limits its use for mobile application. However, due to its low price and abundance magnesium should still beconsidered as a potential candidate for hydrogen...... storage e.g. in stationary applications. In this report the properties of Mg-Al alloys are reviewed in relation to solid state hydrogen storage. Alloying with Al reduces the hydrogen capacity since Al doesnot form a hydride under conventional hydriding conditions, however both the thermodynamical...... properties (lower desorption temperature), and kinetics of hydrogenation/dehydrogenation are improved. In addition to this, the low price of the hydride isretained along with improved heat transfer properties and improved resistance towards oxygen contamination....
Dual-scale phase-field simulation of Mg-Al alloy solidification
Monas, A.; Shchyglo, O.; Höche, D.; Tegeler, M.; Steinbach, I.
2015-06-01
Phase-field simulations of the nucleation and growth of primary α-Mg phase as well as secondary, β-phase of a Mg-Al alloy are presented. The nucleation model for α- and β-Mg phases is based on the “free growth model” by Greer et al.. After the α-Mg phase solidification we study a divorced eutectic growth of α- and β-Mg phases in a zoomed in melt channel between α-phase dendrites. The simulated cooling curves and final microstructures of α-grains are compared with experiments. In order to further enhance the resolution of the interdendritic region a high-performance computing approach has been used allowing significant simulation speed gain when using supercomputing facilities.
Grain refinement of Mg-Al magnesium alloys by carbon inoculation
WANG Zhao-hui; KANG Yong-lin; ZHAO Hong-jin; XU Yue
2006-01-01
C2Cl6 was used as grain refiner for AM60 magnesium alloys. The effects of grain refinement process on chemical composition, microstructure, impact energy, hardness and mechanical properties of magnesium alloys were investigated with XRF spectrometer, optical and electronic microscopes, pendulum impact tester, hardness tester and MTS material testing machine. The results show that C2Cl6 has good effects on microstructure and mechanical properties of AM60 magnesium alloys. The optimum usage of C2Cl6 in AM60 for getting the best properties is 1.0%. The results of electronic microscopic examination and theoretical analyses show that Al4C3 should be the potent heterogeneous nucleant for Mg-Al magnesium alloys.
Mg-Al Alloys Manufactured by Casting and Hot Working Process
无
2008-01-01
Mechanical properties of Mg-Al based alloys at different fabrication state, namely as-cast, hot rolled, and annealed, were investigated to develop the alloys that are suitable for the casting/hot working process. Experimental results indicated that the castability such as hot cracking resistance tends to improve with increasing the aluminum content. However, the elongation at elevated temperatures was observed to decrease as the Al content increases, implying difficulties in hot forming. A small amount of Zr additions could significantly enhance the room temperature mechanical properties of hot-rolled Mg-6%Al-1%Zn alloy. The tendency of remarkable grain coarsening at high temperatures was effectively reduced by the Zr additions. TEM analyses suggested that very fine Al3Zr precipitates formed in the Zr-added alloy are responsible for the obtained results.
MICROSTRUCTURE OF BINARY Mg-Al EUTECTIC ALLOY WIRES PRODUCED BY THE OHNO CONTINUOUS CASTING PROCESS
Z.M.Zhang; T.Lū; C.J.Xu; X.F.Guo
2008-01-01
Directionally solidified binary Mg-Al eutectic alloy wires of approximately 5 mm in diameter were produced by the Ohno continuous casting (OCC) process and the mi-crostructure was examined.It was found that the wires possess obvious unidirectional growth characteristic along its axial direction.The microstructure consists of parallel columnar grains that resulted from the competitive growth of equiaxed grains solidified on the head of dummy bar.Each columnar grain comprises regular eutectic α-Mg and β-Mg17 Al12 phases,which grew along the axial direction of the wires.The morphology of the eutectic is mainly lameUar,meanwhile rod eutectic exists.The formation of rod eutectic was attributed to the "bridging effect" caused by incidental elements in the alloy.
On the applicability of the geodesic deviation equation in General Relativity
Philipp, Dennis; Laemmerzahl, Claus
2016-01-01
Within the theory of General Relativity we study the solution and range of applicability of the standard geodesic deviation equation in highly symmetric spacetimes. The deviation equation is used to model satellite orbit constellations around the earth. In particular, we reconsider the deviation equation in Newtonian gravity and then determine relativistic effects within the theory of General Relativity. The deviation of nearby orbits, as constructed from exact solutions of the underlying geodesic equation, is compared to the solution of the geodesic deviation equation to assess the accuracy of the latter. Furthermore, we comment on the so-called Shirokov effect in Schwarzschild spacetime.
张鉴
2004-01-01
Application of equations of mixing thermodynamic parameters formulated on the basis of the coexistence theory of metallic melts in Ba-Al, Mg-Al, Sr-A1 and Cu-Al melts leads to fruitful results that not only the evaluated mass action concentrations agree well with the measured activities, but also the calculated mixing thermodynamic parameters are quite coincident with the experimental values. Moreover, the calculated mass action concentrations strictly obey the mass action law. The evaluated mixing thermodynamic parameters have very fine regularity: the mixing free energy is composed of standard free formation energies of all compounds and chemical potentials of all structural units at equilibrium; the mixing enthalpy consists of standard formation enthalpies of all compounds; the mixing entropy is composed of standard entropies of all compounds and configuration entropies of all structural units at equilibrium. As the equations of mixing thermodynamic parameters formulated are widely applicable to metallic melts involving compound formation, they can be used as the second practical criterion to determine whether thermodynamic models of metallic melts are correctly formulated.
Large Deviations in Quantum Spin Chain
Ogata, Yoshiko
2008-01-01
We show the full large deviation principle for KMS-states and $C^*$-finitely correlated states on a quantum spin chain. We cover general local observables. Our main tool is Ruelle's transfer operator method.
Large deviations for a random speed particle
Lefevere, Raphael; Zambotti, Lorenzo
2011-01-01
We investigate large deviations for the empirical measure of the position and momentum of a particle traveling in a box with hot walls. The particle travels with uniform speed from left to right, until it hits the right boundary. Then it is absorbed and re-emitted from the left boundary with a new random speed, taken from an i.i.d. sequence. It turns out that this simple model, often used to simulate a heat bath, displays unusually complex large deviations features, that we explain in detail. In particular, if the tail of the update distribution of the speed is sufficiently oscillating, then the empirical measure does not satisfy a large deviations principle, and we exhibit optimal lower and upper large deviations functionals.
On geodesic deviation in Schwarzschild spacetime
Philipp, Dennis; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Deshpande, Kaustubh
2015-01-01
For metrology, geodesy and gravimetry in space, satellite based instruments and measurement techniques are used and the orbits of the satellites as well as possible deviations between nearby ones are of central interest. The measurement of this deviation itself gives insight into the underlying structure of the spacetime geometry, which is curved and therefore described by the theory of general relativity (GR). In the context of GR, the deviation of nearby geodesics can be described by the Jacobi equation that is a result of linearizing the geodesic equation around a known reference geodesic with respect to the deviation vector and the relative velocity. We review the derivation of this Jacobi equation and restrict ourselves to the simple case of the spacetime outside a spherically symmetric mass distribution and circular reference geodesics to find solutions by projecting the Jacobi equation on a parallel propagated tetrad as done by Fuchs. Using his results, we construct solutions of the Jacobi equation for...
Large deviations for fractional Poisson processes
Beghin, Luisa
2012-01-01
We present large deviation results for two versions of fractional Poisson processes: the main version which is a renewal process, and the alternative version where all the random variables are weighted Poisson distributed. We also present a sample path large deviation result for suitably normalized counting processes; finally we show how this result can be applied to the two versions of fractional Poisson processes considered in this paper.
The large deviations theorem and ergodicity
Gu Rongbao [School of Finance, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210046 (China)
2007-12-15
In this paper, some relationships between stochastic and topological properties of dynamical systems are studied. For a continuous map f from a compact metric space X into itself, we show that if f satisfies the large deviations theorem then it is topologically ergodic. Moreover, we introduce the topologically strong ergodicity, and prove that if f is a topologically strongly ergodic map satisfying the large deviations theorem then it is sensitively dependent on initial conditions.
Search for SM deviations in top precision studies at CMS
Skovpen, Kirill
2017-01-01
Precision studies of top quark properties provide a unique playground to test the predictions of the standard model and to search for new physics. Reviewed results from the CMS experiment done with the data collected at 8 TeV include studies of top quark Wtb anomalous and FCNC couplings, polarization, CP-violation and spin correlation effects. No significant deviations from the SM predictions are observed.
Thermochemistry of MgCr2O4, MgAl2O4, MgFe2O4 spinels in SO2-O2-SO3 atmosphere
Anna Gerle
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The present paper investigates high-temperature sulphate corrosion of basic refractory ceramics containing magnesium spinels (MgAl2O4, MgFe2O4, MgCr2O4 and their solid solutions widely used in metallurgy, chemical, ceramic and glass industry. This group of refractories are exposed to a number of destructive factors during a working campaign. One of such factors is gas corrosion caused by sulphur oxides. However, gas sulphate corrosion of basic refractory materials containing magnesium spinels, which has a great practical meaning for the corrosion resistance of the material main components, is not sufficiently examined. This work presents a thermodynamic analysis of (MgCr2O4, MgAl2O4, MgFe2O4−SO2−O2−SO3 system aimed to calculate: i the standard free enthalpy of chemical reactions, ii the equilibrium composition of the gas mixture initially containing SO2 and O2 and iii sulphates equilibrium dissociation pressure and equilibrium partial pressure for the reaction of SO3 with the spinels to predict the temperature range of corrosion products’ stability. A thermochemical calculation provides information about equilibrium state in the analysed system. In real conditions the state of equilibrium does not have to be achieved. For this reason, the results of calculations were compared with experimental data. The experiment results were consistent with the theoretical predictions.
Soumen Pal; A K Bandyopadhyay; S Mukherjee; B N Samaddar; P G Pal
2011-07-01
Although existence of MgAl2O4–-Al2O3 solid solution has been reported in the past, the detailed interactions have not been explored completely. For the first time, we report here a mathematical framework for the detailed solid solution interactions of -Al2O3 in MgAl2O4 (spinel). To investigate the solid solubility of -Al2O3 in MgAl2O4, Mg–Al spinel (MgO–Al2O3; = 1, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and an arbitrary high value 30) precursors have been heat treated at 1000°C. Presence of only non-stoichiometric MgAl2O4 phase up to = 4.5 at 1000°C indicates that alumina (as -Al2O3) present beyond stoichiometry gets completely accommodated in MgAl2O4 in the form of solid solution. → alumina phase transformation and its subsequent separation from MgAl2O4 has been observed in the Mg–Al spinel powders ( > 1) when the 1000°C heat treated materials are calcined at 1200°C. In the mathematical framework, unit cell of MgAl2O4 (Mg8Al16O32) has been considered for the solid solution interactions (substitution of Mg2+ ions by Al3+ ions) with -Al2O3. It is suggested that combination of unit cells of MgAl2O4 takes part in the interactions when > 5 (MgO–Al2O3).
Yue, Xiaobin; Xu, Min; Du, Wenhao; Chu, Chong
2017-09-01
Transparent magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) ceramic is one of an important optical materials. However, due to its pronounced hardness and brittleness, the optical machining of this material is very difficult. Diamond turning has advantages over the grinding process in flexibility and material removal rate. However, there is a lack of research that could support the use of diamond turning technology in the machining of MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic. Using brittle-ductile transition theory of brittle material machining, this work provides critical information that may help to realize ductile-regime turning of MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic. A characterization method of determination the cutting edge radius is introduced here. Suitable diamond tools were measured for sharpness and then chosen from a large number of candidate tools. The influence of rounded cutting edges on surface roughness of the MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic is also investigated. These results indicate that surface quality of MgAl2O4 spinel is relate to the radius of diamond tool's cutting edge, cutting speed, and feed rate. Sharp diamond tools (small radius of cutting edge) facilitated ductile-regime turning of MgAl2O4 spinel and shows great potential to reduce surface roughness and produce smoother final surface.
Zyła, Gaweł; Grzywa, Joanna; Witek, Adam; Cholewa, Marian
2014-04-08
The paper presents results of rheological experiments on viscosity under anisotropic pressure and in electric field of diethylene glycol-based MgAl2O4 nanofluids. Nanofluids have been prepared in a two-step method. The dynamic viscosity of nanofluids with various mass concentrations of nanoparticles was measured in the range of shear rates from 10 s -1 to 1,000 s -1 in constant temperature under the pressure of 7.5 MPa. In the second type of experiments, different values of the electric field up to 2,000 V/mm was used. Thixotropy structure of MgAl2O4-DG nanofluids has been studied in electrical field.
Anterior septal deviation and contralateral alar collapse.
Schalek, P; Hahn, A
2011-01-01
Septal deviation is often found in conjunction with other pathological conditions that adversely affect nasal patency. Anterior septal deviation, together with contralateral alar collapse, is a relatively rare type of anatomical and functional incompetence. In our experience, it can often be resolved with septoplasty, without the necessity of surgery involving the external valve. The aim of this paper was to verify this hypothesis prospectively. Twelve patients with anterior septal deviation and simultaneous alar collapse on the opposite side were prospectively enrolled in the study. Subjective assessment of nasal patency was made on post-operative day 1, and again 6 months after surgery, using a subjective evaluation of nasal breathing. The width of the nostril (alar-columellar distance) on the side with the alar collapse was measured during inspiration pre-operatively, 1 day after surgery and again 6 months after surgery. Immediately after surgery, all patients reported improved or excellent nasal breathing on the side of the original septal deviation. On the collapsed side, one patient reported no change in condition. With the exception of one patient, all measurements showed some degree of improvement in the extension of the alar-columellar distance. The average benefit 6 months after surgery was an improvement of 4.54 mm. In our group of patients (anterior septal deviation and simultaneous contralateral alar collapse and no obvious structural changes of the alar cartilage) we found septoplasty to be entirely suitable and we recommend it as the treatment of choice in such cases.
Yang, Z.; Fischer, H.R.; Cerezo, J.; Mol, J.M.C.; Polder, R.B.
2013-01-01
A carbonate form of MgAl hydrotalcite, Mg(2)Al-CO3 and its p-aminobenzoate (pAB) modified derivative, Mg(2)Al-pAB, were synthesized and characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR and TG/DSC. The anticorrosion behavior of Mg(2)Al-pAB was evaluated based on open circuit potential (OCP) of carbon steel in si
Investigating deviations from norms in court interpreting
Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil
, in some cases, all - professional users involved (judges, lawyers, prosecutors). As far as the non-Danish speaking users are concerned, it has, with one notable exception, unfortunately not been possible to obtain data from this group via questionnaires. As this type of data, however, is important...... behaviour, explore why the deviations in question occur, find out what happens if deviations are perceived as such by the other participants involved in the interpreted event. We will reconstruct the norms in question by examining interpreters' and (mainly) professional users' behaviour in the course...... deviations and sanctions in every case. By way of example: Several judges, who had given their consent to recordings of authentic data in connection with the research project, reported that they had experienced problems with insufficient language proficiency on the part of untrained interpreters speaking...
On large deviations for ensembles of distributions
Khrychev, D. A.
2013-11-01
The paper is concerned with the large deviations problem in the Freidlin-Wentzell formulation without the assumption of the uniqueness of the solution to the equation involving white noise. In other words, it is assumed that for each \\varepsilon>0 the nonempty set \\mathscr P_\\varepsilon of weak solutions is not necessarily a singleton. Analogues of a number of concepts in the theory of large deviations are introduced for the set \\{\\mathscr P_\\varepsilon,\\,\\varepsilon>0\\}, hereafter referred to as an ensemble of distributions. The ensembles of weak solutions of an n-dimensional stochastic Navier-Stokes system and stochastic wave equation with power-law nonlinearity are shown to be uniformly exponentially tight. An idempotent Wiener process in a Hilbert space and idempotent partial differential equations are defined. The accumulation points in the sense of large deviations of the ensembles in question are shown to be weak solutions of the corresponding idempotent equations. Bibliography: 14 titles.
Ping Fu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4 spinel nanoparticles were synthesized by reverse microemulsion process in cyclohexane by using two kinds of surfactants, n-amyl alcohol as cosurfactant and mixture of aluminic/magnesic salt aqueous solution as basic reagents. The effects of surfactant types and titration methods on the morphologies and sizes of the MgAl2O4 nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, TGA-DTA, XRD, HR-TEM and FT-IR. TEM images show that the particles prepared by forward-titration method with SPAN-80/Triton X-100 compound emulsifier have uniform spherical shape and good monodispersity with an average size of 9.5 nm. However, the average size of the particles prepared by reverse-titration method was about 10 nm and some particles have irregular platelike appearance. The products prepared with NP-40 surfactant and forward-titration method were agglomerated with an average size of 13 nm. TGA and XRD results show that the reverse microemulsion method has dramatically lowered the calcination temperature of MgAl2O4 with a degree of 700 °C, and the precursor can transform to single spinel phase at 900 °C.
PoDMan: Policy Deviation Management
Aishwarya Bakshi
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Whenever an unexpected or exceptional situation occurs, complying with the existing policies may not be possible. The main objective of this work is to assist individuals and organizations to decide in the process of deviating from policies and performing a non-complying action. The paper proposes utilizing software agents as supportive tools to provide the best non-complying action while deviating from policies. The article also introduces a process in which the decision on the choice of non-complying action can be made. The work is motivated by a real scenario observed in a hospital in Norway and demonstrated through the same settings.
21 CFR 600.14 - Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of biological product deviations by... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Establishment Standards § 600.14 Reporting of biological product deviations by licensed manufacturers. (a) Who must report...
Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence
Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.
2012-01-01
Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…
Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence
Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.
2012-01-01
Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deviations. 2543.4 Section 2543.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General...
Voice Deviations and Coexisting Communication Disorders.
St. Louis, Kenneth O.; And Others
1992-01-01
This study examined the coexistence of other communicative disorders with voice disorders in about 3,400 children in grades 1-12 at 100 sites throughout the United States. The majority of voice-disordered children had coexisting articulation deviations and also differed from controls on two language measures and mean pure-tone hearing thresholds.…
41 CFR 109-1.5304 - Deviations.
2010-07-01
... Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management. A HFO's decision not to provide life-cycle control... through the cognizant HFO to the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Procurement and Assistance Management. ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviations....
2010-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deviations. 12.904 Section 12.904 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Agreements...
Investigation of electronic structure and optical properties of MgAl2O4: DFT approach
Reshak, A. H.; Khan, Saleem Ayaz; Alahmed, Z. A.
2014-11-01
The electronic band structure, electronic charge density distribution and optical properties of MgAl2O4 were calculated using the full potential linear augmented plane wave. The exchange correlation potential was solved by recently developed modified Becke Johnson potential in the framework of DFT. The band structure and partial density of states (PDOS) were calculated. The PDOS exhibit the role of orbital in bands formation and nature of the bonds. The calculated effective mass of electrons show high mobility of electrons in the conduction band minimum with respect to heavy and light holes. The calculated electron charge density confirm the existence of mixed ionic and covalent nature of the bonds. Mg-O show more ionicity because of greater electro-negativity difference than Al-O. Imaginary part of dielectric function ε2(ω) exhibit high transparency in the visible and infrared region. For further investigation of optical properties absorption coefficient I(ω), refractive index n(ω), reflectivity R(ω) and energy loss function L(ω) were calculated. We found reasonable agreement with the experimental data.
Pengaruh Kecepatan Milling Terhadap Perubahan Struktur Mikro Komposit Mg/Al3Ti
Budi Amin Simanjuntak
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Material yang ringan dan kuat menjadi syarat utama sebagai komponen-komponen otomotif, persenjataan, bahkan peralatan ruang angkasa. Oleh karena itu penelitian tentang material ringan terus-menerus di lakukan oleh masyarakat. Salah satu material yang menjanjikan adalah Metal Matrix composite (MMC yang berbasis magnesium (Mg dan di perkuat oleh partikulat Al3Ti. Pada penelitian kali ini dilakukan mechanical alloying menggunakan mesin HEM E3D untuk mensintesis Al3Ti yang tersebar pada matriks Mg. Kemudian di kompaksi 4 ton selanjutnya disintering 700oC selama 1 jam untuk membentuk komposit Mg/Al3Ti dengan memvariasikan kecepatan milling mulai dari 700rpm, dan 933rpm dan dengan 20% Al3Ti untuk mencapai fisik terbaik dari komposit tersebut. Setelah proses pemaduan selesai, dihasilkan pelet yang kemudian diuji struktur mikronya menggunakan Mikroskop elektron, analisa fasa dengan diffraksi sinar-X dan pengujian massa jenis serta porositas menggunakan prinsip Archimedes Kata Kunci—Mg/Al3Ti ,Komposisi berat, MMC, kecepatan milling
Aqueous slip casting of MgAl2O4 spinel powder
Ibram Ganesh
2011-04-01
A stoichiometric MgAl2O4 spinel (MAS) powder was synthesized by calcining a compacted mixture of -Al2O3 and calcined caustic MgO at 1400°C for 1 h and was surface treated against hydrolysis using an ethanol solution of H3PO4 and Al(H2PO4)3 after fine grinding. Aqueous suspensions with 41–45 vol.% treated powder were prepared using tetra methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) and an ammonium salt of polyacrylic acid (Duramax D-3005) as dispersing agents. These stable suspensions were consolidated in plaster moulds by slip casting (SC) route for the first time. For comparison purposes, the treated powder was also compacted by die-pressing technique after converting into freeze-dried granules and sintered along with slip cast samples at 1550–1650°C for 1–2 h. The MAS ceramics fabricated by slip casting and die-pressing exhibited comparable properties.
From spent Mg/Al layered double hydroxide to porous carbon materials.
Laipan, Minwang; Zhu, Runliang; Chen, Qingze; Zhu, Jianxi; Xi, Yunfei; Ayoko, Godwin A; He, Hongping
2015-12-30
Adsorption has been considered as an efficient method for the treatment of dye effluents, but proper disposal of the spent adsorbents is still a challenge. This work attempts to provide a facile method to reutilize the spent Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (Mg/Al-LDH) after the adsorption of orange II (OII). Herein, the spent hybrid was carbonized under the protection of nitrogen, and then washed with acid to obtain porous carbon materials. Thermogravimetric analysis results suggested that the carbonization could be well achieved above 600°C, as mass loss of the spent hybrid gradually stabilized. Therefore, the carbonization process was carried out at 600, 800, and 1000°C, respectively. Scanning electron microscope showed that the obtained carbon materials possessed a crooked flaky morphology. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption results showed that the carbon materials had large BET surface area and pore volume, e.g., 1426 m(2)/g and 1.67 cm(3)/g for the sample carbonized at 800°C. Moreover, the pore structure and surface chemistry compositions were tunable, as they were sensitive to the temperature. Toluene adsorption results demonstrated that the carbon materials had high efficiency in toluene removal. This work provided a facile approach for synthesizing porous carbon materials using spent Mg/Al-LDH.
Mg-Al layered double hydroxide-methotrexate nanohybrid drug delivery system: evaluation of efficacy.
Chakraborty, Jui; Roychowdhury, Susanta; Sengupta, Somoshree; Ghosh, Swapankumar
2013-05-01
Mg-Al layered double hydroxide nanoparticles were synthesized by one-pot co-precipitation method and anticancerous drug methotrexate was incorporated into it by in-situ ion exchange. The LDH-MTX nanohybrid produced moderately stable suspension in water, as predicted by zeta potential measurement. X-ray diffraction revealed that the basal spacing increased to nearly twice the same for pristine LDH on MTX intercalation. Thermogravimetric analyses confirmed an increase in thermal stability of the intercalated drug in the LDH framework. A striking enhancement in efficacy/sensitivity of MTX on the HCT-116 cells was obtained when intercalated within the LDH layers, as revealed by the attainment of half maximal inhibitory concentration of LDH-MTX nanohybrid by 48 h, whereas, bare MTX required 72 h for the same. The MTX release from MgAl-LDH-MTX hybrids in phosphate buffer saline at pH7.4 followed a relatively slow, first order kinetics and was complete within 8 days following diffusion and crystal dissolution mechanism.
Pressure-induced Co2+ photoluminescence quenching in MgAl2O4
Nataf, Lucie; Rodríguez, Fernando; Valiente, Rafael
2012-09-01
This work investigates the electronic structure and photoluminescence (PL) of Co2+-doped MgAl2O4 and their pressure dependence by time-resolved spectroscopy. The variations of the visible absorption band and its associated emission at 663 nm (τ = 130 ns at ambient conditions) with pressure/temperature can be explained on the basis of a configurational energy model. It provides an interpretation for both the electronic structure and the excited-state phenomena yielding photoluminescence emission and the subsequent quenching. We show that there is an excited-state crossover (ESCO) [4T1(P)↔2E(G)] at ambient pressure, which is responsible for the evolution of the emission spectrum from a broadband emission between 300 K and 100 K to a narrow-line emission at lower temperatures. Contrary to expectations from the Tanabe-Sugano diagram, instead of enhancing ESCO phenomena, pressure reduces PL and even suppresses it (PL quenching) above 6 GPa. We explain such variations in terms of pressure-induced nonradiative relaxation to lower excited states: 2E(G)→4T1(F). The variation of PL intensity and its associated lifetime with pressure supports the proposed interpretation.
MgAl alloy synthesis, characterization and its use in hydrogen storage
Palma, Amelia Sampayo [Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza (UNAM), Batalla 5 de Mayo s/n, esq. Fuerte de Loreto Col. Ejercito de Oriente, C.P. 09230, Del. Iztapalapa Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Iturbe-Garcia, Jose Luis; Lopez-Munoz, Beatriz Eugenia [Departamento de Quimica (Mexico); Jimenez, Alberto Sandoval [Departamento del Acelerador, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico)
2010-11-15
The synthesis and characterization of intermetallic MgAl in two stoichiometric relations, Mg25Al and Mg50Al, and their possible use in hydrogen storage are presented. The intermetallic was prepared by thermal induction in an argon atmosphere. The obtained ingot was submitted to a thermal homogenization treatment at 573 K for 72 h. The particle size diminished with a high energy mill type spex, for which the milling time was 30 and 60 min. The material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Hydrogenation tests were carried out in a micro-reactor with varying pressure, temperature and reaction time. The material was analyzed with a thermogravimetric system before and after the hydrogenation process. The results indicate that the intermetallic phase range with the mill process did not change with the times used. Because of this, smaller particle sizes of less than a micron were obtained just as scanning electronic microscopy analyses demonstrated. X-ray diffraction showed that phase change does not exist in the intermetallic structure after one hour of milling time. The first results obtained by the thermogravimetric system of the hydrogen quantity absorbed in this material report 3% weight approximately under the experimental conditions of mainly pressure and temperature. (author)
Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy
Liming Liu
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by α-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 μm-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated.
Exact Moderate and Large Deviations for Linear Processes
Peligrada, Magda; Zhong, Yunda; Wu, Wei Biao
2011-01-01
Large and moderate deviation probabilities play an important role in many applied areas, such as insurance and risk analysis. This paper studies the exact moderate and large deviation asymptotics in non-logarithmic form for linear processes with independent innovations. The linear processes we analyze are general and therefore they include the long memory case. We give an asymptotic representation for probability of the tail of the normalized sums and specify the zones in which it can be approximated either by a standard normal distribution or by the marginal distribution of the innovation process. The results are then applied to regression estimates, moving averages, fractionally integrated processes, linear processes with regularly varying exponents and functions of linear processes. We also consider the computation of value at risk and expected shortfall, fundamental quantities in risk theory and finance.
Moderate Deviation Principle for dynamical systems with small random perturbation
ma, Yutao; Wu, Liming
2011-01-01
Consider the stochastic differential equation in $\\rr^d$ dX^{\\e}_t&=b(X^{\\e}_t)dt+\\sqrt{\\e}\\sigma(X^\\e_t)dB_t X^{\\e}_0&=x_0,\\quad x_0\\in\\rr^d where $b:\\rr^d\\rightarrow\\rr^d$ is $C^1$ such that $ \\leq C(1+|x|^2)$, $\\sigma:\\rr^d\\rightarrow \\MM(d\\times n)$ is locally Lipschitzian with linear growth, and $B_t$ is a standard Brownian motion taking values in $\\rr^n$. Freidlin-Wentzell's theorem gives the large deviation principle for $X^\\e$ for small $\\e$. In this paper we establish its moderate deviation principle.
Association between septal deviation and sinonasal papilloma.
Nomura, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Takenori; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Honkura, Yohei; Oshima, Hidetoshi; Arakawa, Kazuya; Oshima, Takeshi; Katori, Yukio
2013-12-01
Sinonasal papilloma is a common benign epithelial tumor of the sinonasal tract and accounts for 0.5% to 4% of all nasal tumors. The etiology of sinonasal papilloma remains unclear, although human papilloma virus has been proposed as a major risk factor. Other etiological factors, such as anatomical variations of the nasal cavity, may be related to the pathogenesis of sinonasal papilloma, because deviated nasal septum is seen in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. We, therefore, investigated the involvement of deviated nasal septum in the development of sinonasal papilloma. Preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging findings of 83 patients with sinonasal papilloma were evaluated retrospectively. The side of papilloma and the direction of septal deviation showed a significant correlation. Septum deviated to the intact side in 51 of 83 patients (61.4%) and to the affected side in 18 of 83 patients (21.7%). Straight or S-shaped septum was observed in 14 of 83 patients (16.9%). Even after excluding 27 patients who underwent revision surgery and 15 patients in whom the papilloma touched the concave portion of the nasal septum, the concave side of septal deviation was associated with the development of sinonasal papilloma (p = 0.040). The high incidence of sinonasal papilloma in the concave side may reflect the consequences of the traumatic effects caused by wall shear stress of the high-velocity airflow and the increased chance of inhaling viruses and pollutants. The present study supports the causative role of human papilloma virus and toxic chemicals in the occurrence of sinonasal papilloma.
张凯; 董华英
2013-01-01
A new method for discriminating the inrush current by integrating the characteristics of the two kinds of current is presented based on large of simulation and testing.Because of the character that the magnetic inrush current leans to the one side of the time axis and the internal fault current is similar to the sine wave,the difference between the maximum and minimum and the unitary area in cycle is used as a general criterion to discriminate the unsymmetrical inrush current.For the symmetrical inrush current,we set a second criterion,which needs to calculate the average standard deviation of the 2-norm between the part data in the half cycle and the sine wave with the same length.validity of the new method is verified with simulating and testing.%在大量仿真和实验的基础上,综合变压器励磁涌流和内部故障电流的特点,提出了一种鉴别变压器励磁涌流的新方法.该方法基于励磁涌流偏于时间轴一侧和故障电流接近正弦波的特点,以周波内最值差别和归一化面积作为综合判据鉴别非对称的励磁涌流,而对于对称的励磁涌流,以后半周波内一部分数据与同窗长的标准正弦波的2-范数的平均标准差作为判据进行鉴别.仿真和实验验证了方法的正确性.
邱桂华
2013-01-01
Cloud computing is the focus at present in the field of information technology , and the cloud platform covert channel is a new safety problem caused by the infrastructure of cloud computing platform .The covert channel in cloud platform will leak the confidential information of cloud customers , seriously damages the safety of cloud platform .We summarise the correlative works of the covert channel detection, aiming at the cloud platform covert channel based on CPU response time , we abstract its model, and put forward at the first time a detection method with hybrid indicators of the integration of entropy and standard deviation .Experimental results show that this detection method can reach a false positive rate less than 5%, therefore has good detection performance .%云计算是目前信息技术领域研究的热点，而云平台隐蔽信道是由云计算平台的基础架构导致的新的安全问题。云平台隐蔽信道会泄漏云客户的机密信息，严重危害云平台安全。总结隐蔽信道检测的相关工作，并针对基于CPU响应时间的云平台隐蔽信道，抽象云平台隐蔽信道模型，首次提出融合熵率和标准差混合指标的检测方法。实验结果表明使用该检测方法能够达到低于5％的误报率，具有很好的检测性能。
Habibollah Ghassemzadeh
1994-06-01
Full Text Available The Bender-Gestalt Test was given to thirty mentally-retarded psychiatric patients. The mean, standard deviation, and standard error were 56.73, 26.25, and 4.80 respectively. Rotation was the most frequent major deviation which occurred in all the designs."nDesign # 7 was the most difficult one to be reproduced in the sample. This design by itself, was subject to 47% of distortion, 79% of omission, and 21% of rotation.
Large Deviation Strategy for Inverse Problem
Ojima, Izumi
2011-01-01
Taken traditionally as a no-go theorem against the theorization of inductive processes, Duheme-Quine thesis may interfere with the essence of statistical inference. This difficulty can be resolved by \\textquotedblleft Micro-Macro duality\\textquotedblright\\ \\cite{Oj03, Oj05} which clarifies the importance of specifying the pertinent aspects and accuracy relevant to concrete contexts of scientific discussions and which ensures the matching between what to be described and what to describe in the form of the validity of duality relations. This consolidates the foundations of the inverse problem, induction method, and statistical inference crucial for the sound relations between theory and experiments. To achieve the purpose, we propose here Large Deviation Strategy (LDS for short) on the basis of Micro-Macro duality, quadrality scheme, and large deviation principle. According to the quadrality scheme emphasizing the basic roles played by the dynamics, algebra of observables together with its representations and ...
Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere
Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.
1979-01-01
Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.
Large deviations for tandem queueing systems
Roland L. Dobrushin
1994-01-01
Full Text Available The crude asymptotics of the large delay probability in a tandem queueing system is considered. The main result states that one of the two channels in the tandem system defines the crude asymptotics. The constant that determines the crude asymptotics is given. The results obtained are based on the large deviation principle for random processes with independent increments on an infinite interval recently established by the authors.
On large deviations for ensembles of distributions
Khrychev, D A [Moscow State Institute of Radio-Engineering, Electronics and Automation (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation)
2013-11-30
The paper is concerned with the large deviations problem in the Freidlin-Wentzell formulation without the assumption of the uniqueness of the solution to the equation involving white noise. In other words, it is assumed that for each ε>0 the nonempty set P{sub ε} of weak solutions is not necessarily a singleton. Analogues of a number of concepts in the theory of large deviations are introduced for the set (P{sub ε}, ε>0), hereafter referred to as an ensemble of distributions. The ensembles of weak solutions of an n-dimensional stochastic Navier-Stokes system and stochastic wave equation with power-law nonlinearity are shown to be uniformly exponentially tight. An idempotent Wiener process in a Hilbert space and idempotent partial differential equations are defined. The accumulation points in the sense of large deviations of the ensembles in question are shown to be weak solutions of the corresponding idempotent equations. Bibliography: 14 titles.
Stochastic gene expression conditioned on large deviations
Horowitz, Jordan M.; Kulkarni, Rahul V.
2017-06-01
The intrinsic stochasticity of gene expression can give rise to large fluctuations and rare events that drive phenotypic variation in a population of genetically identical cells. Characterizing the fluctuations that give rise to such rare events motivates the analysis of large deviations in stochastic models of gene expression. Recent developments in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics have led to a framework for analyzing Markovian processes conditioned on rare events and for representing such processes by conditioning-free driven Markovian processes. We use this framework, in combination with approaches based on queueing theory, to analyze a general class of stochastic models of gene expression. Modeling gene expression as a Batch Markovian Arrival Process (BMAP), we derive exact analytical results quantifying large deviations of time-integrated random variables such as promoter activity fluctuations. We find that the conditioning-free driven process can also be represented by a BMAP that has the same form as the original process, but with renormalized parameters. The results obtained can be used to quantify the likelihood of large deviations, to characterize system fluctuations conditional on rare events and to identify combinations of model parameters that can give rise to dynamical phase transitions in system dynamics.
Analysis of Road Base Uniformity via the Deviation of Modulus of Asphalt Mixtures
ZHI Yufeng; ZHANG Xiaoning
2007-01-01
The modulus deviation of base material calculated from the data of falling weight deflectometer (FWD) was used to evaluate the uniformity of road base so as to reflect the construction quality. Four parameters,the repeatability standard deviation of the data in the same driveway, the reproducibility standard deviation of the data in the different driveway, the consistency statistics value of the data in the different driveway, and the consistency statistics value of the data in the same driveway, were introduced for the construction uniformity analysis. The experimental result shows that the materials modulus calculated from FWD has a highly correlative relationship with the uniformity of road base.
On the physical chemistry of seawater with deviating ion composition
Feistel, R. [Rostock Univ., Warnemuende (Germany). Inst. fuer Ostseeforschung
1998-04-01
The salt composition in natural seawaters is not strictly conservative. Physico-chemical properties of the mixed electrolyte ``standard seawater`` and their variations with ionic composition are briefly reviewed. It is shown that a ``same absolute salinity`` rule, known from seawater densities, may lead to good results for sound speeds, too. Refractive index measurements have now become sufficiently precise to detect local deviations of ion abundances along with routine ocean profiling. The question is discussed which quantities/formulas still need to be quantitatively determined for this purpose, and which theoretical, empirical or experimental aids can be applied. (orig.) 52 refs.
Synthesis and fabrication of MgAl2O4 ceramic foam via a simple, low-cost and eco-friendly method
Shuvendu Tripathy
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The MgAl2O4 nanocrystalline powder was synthesized using naturally available egg white and inexpensive metal nitrate salts. During this process, the freshly extracted egg white was mixed with metal nitrate salt and subsequently heated at 350 °C in a pit furnace. The entire dehydration of the aqueous solution thus facilitates the low-density fluffy mass. From TGDTG results, it was observed that maximum decomposition of the precursors occurred below 600 °C. Therefore, the calcination temperature of as-synthesized powder was set at 600 °C. The MgAl2O4 bulk ceramic foam was fabricated by dispersing different loading of MgAl2O4 nanoparticles in the egg white, and then coating on polyurethane sponge prior to drying and sintering at a higher temperature. The ceramic suspensions exhibit a typical shear thinning behavior, and its viscosity was found to be significantly influenced by MgAl2O4 powder content. An optimum loading of 40 wt% MgAl2O4 nanoparticles in the egg white was found to show maximum porosity up to 90%. The obtained ceramic foam has potential applications in catalysis, absorption and sensor.
LARGE DEVIATIONS AND MODERATE DEVIATIONS FOR m-NEGATIVELY ASSOCIATED RANDOM VARIABLES
Hu Yijun; Ming Ruixing; Yang Wenquan
2007-01-01
M-negatively associated random variables, which generalizes the classical one of negatively associated random variables and includes m-dependent sequences as its particular case, are introduced and studied. Large deviation principles and moderate deviation upper bounds for stationary m-negatively associated random variables are proved.Kolmogorov-type and Marcinkiewicz-type strong laws of large numbers as well as the three series theorem for m-negatively associated random variables are also given.
Djebbi, Mohamed Amine; Bouaziz, Zaineb; Elabed, Alae; Sadiki, Moulay; Elabed, Soumya; Namour, Philippe; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Amara, Abdesslem Ben Haj
2016-06-15
Hydrotalcite (HT), also known as a layered double hydroxide (LDH) compound, has been widely used in past years in the formulation of drugs due to its specific properties including good biocompatibility, null toxicity, high chemical stability and pH-dependent solubility which aid in drug controlled release. In this work, berberine chloride (BBC) class antibacterial agent was immobilized into magnesium-aluminum LDH in order to improve the drug efficiency as well as to achieve the controlled release property. BBC molecules were immobilized into MgAl LDH through a conventional ion exchange reaction and co-precipitation method. The ion-exchange experiments of BBC on MgAl LDH were investigated with particular attention paid to the influence of the layer charge, the nature of the intercalated anion and the morphology. The immobilization efficiency was dependent upon the LDH properties and the immobilization process. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements revealed that the interaction of BBC with MgAl LDH occurs by adsorption rather than intercalation of BBC within LDH layers. In vitro anti-bacterial tests were carried out using disc diffusion assay to prove the effectiveness of these novel biohybrid beads as a controlled drug delivery method. Consequently, the BBC-LDH co-precipitated formulation revealed an enhanced anti-bacterial activity compared to the ion-exchanged formulation not only due to an improvement of chemical stability and retained amount of BBC molecules but also due to the release property.
Meiosis and its deviations in polyploid plants.
Grandont, L; Jenczewski, E; Lloyd, A
2013-01-01
Meiosis is a fundamental process in all sexual organisms that ensures fertility and genome stability and creates genetic diversity. For each of these outcomes, the exclusive formation of crossovers between homologous chromosomes is needed. This is more difficult to achieve in polyploid species which have more than 2 sets of chromosomes able to recombine. In this review, we describe how meiosis and meiotic recombination 'deviate' in polyploid plants compared to diploids, and give an overview of current knowledge on how they are regulated. See also the sister article focusing on animals by Stenberg and Saura in this themed issue.
Guessing Revisited: A Large Deviations Approach
Hanawal, Manjesh Kumar
2010-01-01
The problem of guessing a random string is revisited. A close relation between guessing and compression is first established. Then it is shown that if the sequence of distributions of the information spectrum satisfies the large deviation property with a certain rate function, then the limiting guessing exponent exists and is a scalar multiple of the Legendre-Fenchel dual of the rate function. Other sufficient conditions related to certain continuity properties of the information spectrum are briefly discussed. This approach highlights the importance of the information spectrum in determining the limiting guessing exponent. All known prior results are then re-derived as example applications of our unifying approach.
王红; 金煜炜; 陈晓波; 曹延延; 白晋丽; 瞿宇晋; 宋昉
2015-01-01
Objective To analyze the distribution of common chromosomal karyotypes of patients with Turner syndrome (TS), and to explore the correlation between the age and height standard deviation scores (HSDS) on diagnosis.Methods Retrospective investigation was performed for the data of age and HSDS on diagnosis in 273 TS girls(≤ 18.0 years old)diagnosed by chromosomal karyotypes.The main statistical methods were analyzed with t-test and Pearson correlation test by using the SPSS 18.0 statistical software.Results (1) There were 4 kinds of common chromosomal karyotypes in the TS :45, X (87/273 cases,31.9％),46, X, i (Xq) (43/273 cases, 15.7％) ,45, X/46, X, i (Xq) (36/273 cases, 13.2％) and 45, X/46, XX (23/273 cases, 8.4％), respectively, the adolescent TS all had delayed puberty.For the cases with 45, X karyotypes ,3 cases presented mental retardation and 2 cases with organs deformity.(2)The patients with 45 ,X/46,X,i(Xq) karyotypes or with 46,X,i(Xq) karyotypes had the maximum(12.56 age) or the minimum(9.70 age) mean age on diagnosis, respectively, there was a significant difference between 2 groups (t =3.019, P =0.004).The maximum deviation from normal height was found in the patients with karyotypes of 46, X,i (Xq) (HSDS =-4.04), and the minimum deviation was in the patients with karyotypes of 45,X/46, XX (HSDS =-3.16), and there was a significant difference between 2 groups (t =-2.95, P =0.004).(3) More than 75.7％ of TS patients was diagnosed when their heights deviated above 3 SD,and their mean age on diagnosis was 12.10 age,which was 3 years later than those patients within 2 SD.(4) There was a significant negative correlation between the age and HSDS on diagnosis in the groups of common chromosomal karyotypes[45,X、46,X,i(Xq) and 45,X/46,XX] (r =-0.551,-0.560,-0.622,all P ＜ 0.01), except for the group with the 45, X/46, X, i (Xq).Conclusions (1) In this study, the consti-tuent ratios of these 4 common chromosomal karyotypes were different from those in
Oxidative dehydrogenation of propane with K-MoO3/MgAl2O4 catalysts
Serkan Naci Koc; Kubra Dayioglu; Hasan Ozdemir
2016-01-01
In this study, for the first time, MoO3/MgAl2O4 catalysts and their potassium-promoted forms were prepared and tested for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane. Catalysts were characterized with XRD, BET, NH3-TPD, TPR and XPS methods. Catalytic activity measurement was done with quartz microreactor between 450 and 550°C. It has been observed that the conversion of propane increased with temperature and total hydrocarbon selectivity increased with molybdenum oxide content. The acidity of catalysts decreased with potassium addition due to interaction with MoO3 sites. For this reason total hydrocarbon selectivity highly increased.
Síntesis de MgAl2O4 a baja temperatura con adiciones de CaCO3
Aguilar Garib, Juan Antonio; Arato Tovar, Ana María.; Hinojosa Rivera, Moisés
2004-01-01
A partir de que la espinela MgAl2O4 fue propuesta como material sustituto de refractarios basados en cromo, los fabricantes han promovido la busqueda de alternativas para producirla. Los aditivos han sido empleados ampliamente como un método para reducir las temperaturas de procesamiento. Se estudiaron mezclas en una relaciÛn 1:1 molar de MgO y Al2O3 con diferentes concentraciones de CaCO3. Las pruebas fueron llevadas a cabo en un horno de resistencia eléctrica a 1400°C, y las fases formadas ...
VAR Portfolio Optimal: Perbandingan Antara Metode Markowitz dan Mean Absolute Deviation
R. Agus Sartono
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Portfolio selection method which have been introduced by Harry Markowitz (1952 used variance or deviation standard as a measure of risk. Kanno and Yamazaki (1991 introduced another method and used mean absolute deviation as a measure of risk instead of variance. The Value-at Risk (VaR is a relatively new method to capitalized risk that been used by financial institutions. The aim of this research is compare between mean variance and mean absolute deviation of two portfolios. Next, we attempt to assess the VaR of two portfolios using delta normal method and historical simulation. We use the secondary data from the Jakarta Stock Exchange – LQ45 during 2003. We find that there is a weak-positive correlation between deviation standard and return in both portfolios. The VaR nolmal delta based on mean absolute deviation method eventually is higher than the VaR normal delta based on mean variance method. However, based on the historical simulation the VaR of two methods is statistically insignificant. Thus, the deviation standard is sufficient measures of portfolio risk.Keywords: optimalisasi portofolio, mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, value-at-risk, metode delta normal, metode simulasi historis
Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians
Y. Tulunay
2002-06-01
Full Text Available The deviations of hourly f 0 F 2 from monthly medians for 20 stations in Europe during the period 1958-1998 are studied. Spectral analysis is used to show that, both for original data (for each hour and for the deviations from monthly medians, the deterministic components are the harmonics of 11 years (solar cycle, 1 year and its harmonics, 27 days and 12 h 50.49 m (2nd harmonic of lunar rotation period L 2 periodicities. Using histograms for one year samples, it is shown that the deviations from monthly medians are nearly zero mean (mean < 0.5 and approximately Gaussian (relative difference range between %10 to %20 and their standard deviations are larger for daylight hours (in the range 5-7. It is shown that the amplitude distribution of the positive and negative deviations is nearly symmetrical at night hours, but asymmetrical for day hours. The positive and negative deviations are then studied separately and it is observed that the positive deviations are nearly independent of R12 except for high latitudes, but negative deviations are modulated by R12 . The 90% confidence interval for negative deviations for each station and each hour is computed as a linear model in terms of R12. After correction for local time, it is shown that for all hours the confidence intervals increase with latitude but decrease above 60N. Long-term trend analysis showed that there is an increase in the amplitude of positive deviations from monthly means irrespective of the solar conditions. Using spectral analysis it is also shown that the seasonal dependency of negative deviations is more accentuated than the seasonal dependency of positive deviations especially at low latitudes. In certain stations, it is also observed that the 4th harmonic of 1 year corresponding to a periodicity of 3 months, which is missing in f 0 F 2 data, appears in the spectra of negative variations.
微波辅助溶液燃烧法制备 MgAl2 O4粉体%Synthesis of MgAl2 O4 powders by microwave-assisted combustion
王朔; 余俊; 赵惠忠; 李超; 王斌斌; 段连威
2014-01-01
High purity,low agglomeration MgAl2O4 powders were synthesized by the microwave-assisted low temperature combustion method using magnesium nitrate,aluminum nitrate and urea (mass ratio of 1 2 6.66) as starting materials,mixing in water forming a transparent precursor liquid.The effects of the microwave out-put power (200,400,600,and 700 W)on the microstructure,morphology and specific surface area of MgAl2O4 powders were analyzed.The results show that the microwave-assisted combustion method can accelerate combusti on reacti on to produce l arge vol umes of gas i nstantl y,formi ng ul tra-fi ne MgAl 2 O4 parti cl es.Moreo-ver,the increasing microwave output power accelerates the oxidation of urea,which is beneficial to the growth of MgAl2O4 grains.Under the conditions of microwave power 700 W for 2 min,the high crystallinity MgAl 2 O4 powder wi th a uni form parti cl e si ze di stri buti on (average grai n si ze of 56.03 nm)can be prepared.%将硝酸镁、硝酸铝、尿素按物质的量比为126．66制得透明混合前驱液，用低温燃烧技术与微波加热技术相结合的方法制备了高纯度、低团聚的镁铝尖晶石（MgAl2 O4）粉体。研究了燃烧反应过程中，微波输出功率（200、400、600、700 W）对MgAl2 O4粉体晶体结构、形貌及比表面积的影响。结果表明：微波高效加热方式导致燃烧反应瞬间产生大量气体，促进了MgAl2 O4超细颗粒的形成。同时，随着微波输出功率的增加，尿素氧化加速，利于MgAl2 O4晶粒的生长发育。在微波功率700 W，微波时间2 min的条件下，可制备结晶完整，粒度分布均匀（平均晶粒尺寸为56．03 nm）的MgAl2O4粉体。
Thermal analysis of a diffusion bonded Er3+,Yb3+:glass/Co2+: MgAl2O4 microchip lasers
Belghachem, Nabil; Mlynczak, Jaroslaw; Kopczynski, krzysztof; Mierczyk, Zygmunt; Gawron, Michal
2016-10-01
The analysis of thermal effects in a diffusion bonded Er3+,Yb3+:glass/Co2+:MgAl2O4 microchip laser is presented. The analysis is performed for both wavelengths at 940 nm and at 975 nm as well as for two different sides of pumping, glass side and saturable absorber side. The heat sink effect of Co2+:MgAl2O4, as well as the impact of the thermal expansion and induced stress on the diffusion bonding are emphasised. The best configurations for reducing the temperature peaks, the Von Mises stresses on the diffusion bonding, and the thermal lensing are determined.
Theory of Deviation and Its Application in College English Teaching
Xu Yanqiu
2008-01-01
Deviation is an important concept in stylistics.Besides Shklovskij and Mukarovsky,who made a theoreti cal generalization of deviational phenomena,Leech is the one who studies deviation systematically and catego rizes it into groups.To apply the theory of deviation to College English teaching is an effective way to culti rate students' interest in and aesthetic ability of English texts.
Hypotropic Dissociated Vertical Deviation; a Case Report
Zhale Rajavi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To report the clinical features of a rare case of hypotropic dissociated vertical deviation (DVD. Case report: A 25-year-old female was referred with unilateral esotropia, hypotropia and slow variable downward drift in her left eye. She had history of esotropia since she had been 3-4 months of age. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in her right eye and 20/40 in the left one when hyperopia was corrected. She underwent bimedial rectus muscle recession of 5.25mm for 45 prism diopters (PDs of esotropia. She was orthophoric 3 months after surgery and no further operation was planned for correction of the hypotropic DVD. Conclusion: This rare case of hypotropic DVD showed only mild amblyopia in her non-fixating eye. The etiology was most probably acquired considering hyperopia as a sign of early onset accommodative esotropia.
Spotting deviations from R^2 inflation
de la Cruz-Dombriz, Alvaro; Odintsov, Sergei D; Saez-Gomez, Diego
2016-01-01
We discuss the soundness of inflationary scenarios in theories beyond the Starobinsky model, namely a class of theories described by arbitrary functions of the Ricci scalar and the K-essence field. We discuss the pathologies associated with higher-order equations of motion which will be shown to constrain the stability of this class of theories. We provide a general framework to calculate the slow-roll parameters and the corresponding mappings to the theory parameters. For paradigmatic gravitational models within the class of theories under consideration we illustrate the power of the Planck/Bicep2 latest results to constrain such gravitational Lagrangians. Finally, bounds for potential deviations from Starobinsky-like inflation are derived.
Large Deviations and Asymptotic Methods in Finance
Gatheral, Jim; Gulisashvili, Archil; Jacquier, Antoine; Teichmann, Josef
2015-01-01
Topics covered in this volume (large deviations, differential geometry, asymptotic expansions, central limit theorems) give a full picture of the current advances in the application of asymptotic methods in mathematical finance, and thereby provide rigorous solutions to important mathematical and financial issues, such as implied volatility asymptotics, local volatility extrapolation, systemic risk and volatility estimation. This volume gathers together ground-breaking results in this field by some of its leading experts. Over the past decade, asymptotic methods have played an increasingly important role in the study of the behaviour of (financial) models. These methods provide a useful alternative to numerical methods in settings where the latter may lose accuracy (in extremes such as small and large strikes, and small maturities), and lead to a clearer understanding of the behaviour of models, and of the influence of parameters on this behaviour. Graduate students, researchers and practitioners will find th...
Liu, J.C.; Hu, J.; Nie, X.Y. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, H.X., E-mail: hxli@skl.ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Du, Q. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway); Zhang, J.S.; Zhuang, L.Z. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)
2015-05-21
To overcome the shortcomings of magnesium alloys such as low strength at an elevated temperature and poor corrosion resistance, the fabrication of Mg/Al compound materials has attracted more and more attention in the recent years. Among the various fabrication methods such as diffusion bonding, friction-stir welding, and fusion welding, insert molding technique has shown some advantages such as low production cost, short processing time and the ability of producing complex shape. However, there are only a few documents about this preparation method. In this paper, the corresponding study is carried out via inserting 6061 aluminum alloy into AZ31 magnesium alloy melt. The interface bonding mechanism and its mechanical behavior are investigated as well. It has been found that a good metallurgical bonding can be formed at the interface, which consists of three layers, i.e., Al{sub 3}Mg{sub 2}, Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17}, and Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17}+(Mg) eutectic structure. The average shear strength is 20 MPa, which is close to the reported shear strength of the samples prepared by other methods. This research provides a new insight for the fabrication of Mg/Al compound materials.
The effects of cation-anion clustering on defect migration in MgAl2O4.
Zamora, Richard J; Voter, Arthur F; Perez, Danny; Perriot, Romain; Uberuaga, Blas P
2016-07-20
Magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4), like many other ceramic materials, offers a range of technological applications, from nuclear reactor materials to military body armor. For many of these applications, it is critical to understand both the formation and evolution of lattice defects throughout the lifetime of the material. We use the Speculatively Parallel Temperature Accelerated Dynamics (SpecTAD) method to investigate the effects of di-vacancy and di-interstitial formation on the mobility of the component defects. From long-time trajectories of the state-to-state dynamics, we characterize the migration pathways of defect clusters, and calculate their self-diffusion constants across a range of temperatures. We find that the clustering of Al and O vacancies drastically reduces the mobility of both defects, while the clustering of Mg and O vacancies completely immobilizes them. For interstitials, we find that the clustering of Mg and O defects greatly reduces O interstitial mobility, but has only a weak effect on Mg. These findings illuminate important new details regarding defect kinetics relevant to the application of MgAl2O4 in extreme environments.
Cassisi, Santi; Pietrinferni, Adriano; Salaris, Maurizio; Ferguson, Jason
2013-01-01
We have computed low-mass stellar models and synthetic spectra for an initial chemical composition that includes the full C-N, O-Na, and Mg-Al abundance anticorrelations observed in second generation stars belonging to a number of massive Galactic globular clusters. This investigation extends a previous study that has addressed the effect of only the C-N and O-Na anticorrelations, seen in all globulars observed to date. We find that the impact of Mg-Al abundance variations at fixed [Fe/H] and Helium abundance is negligible on stellar models and isochrones (from the main sequence to the tip of the red giant branch) and bolometric corrections, when compared to the effect of C-N and O-Na variations. We identify a spectral feature at 490-520 nm, for low-mass main sequence stars, caused by MgH molecular bands. This feature has a vanishingly small effect on bolometric corrections for Johnson and Stroemgren filters that cover that spectral range. However, specific narrow-band filters able to target this wavelength r...
Paulo, Maria Joao [Materiaux et Telecommunications, Institut National de la Rechercher Scientifique - Energie (Canada); Matos, Bruno Ribeiro de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil); Ntais, Spyridon [Materiaux et Telecommunications, Institut National de la Rechercher Scientifique - Energie (Canada); Coral Fonseca, Fabio [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil); Tavares, Ana C., E-mail: tavares@emt.inrs.ca [Materiaux et Telecommunications, Institut National de la Rechercher Scientifique - Energie (Canada)
2013-02-15
Mg-Al hydrotalcite-like compounds with OH{sup -} ions intercalated in the gallery and modified with monobutylether ethylene glycol (mbeeg) were prepared from Mg{sub 6}Al{sub 2}(CO{sub 3})(OH){sub 16}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O by the reconstruction method. The effect of the ethylene glycol, a moderate surfactant, on the textural properties and on the vapor water sorption of the layered double hydroxides was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen and water sorption techniques. The ion conductivity of the samples was measured at 98 % RH up to 180 Degree-Sign C. The compounds are formed by nanoplatelets with a lateral size inferior to 20 nm. The addition of the ethylene glycol was found to increase the specific surface area, total pore volume, and water sorption capacity of the Mg-Al layered double hydroxide. However, it also decreased the average pore diameter, and the ion conductivity of the ethylene glycol modified layered double hydroxide was lower than expected based on the samples' specific surface area and water content.
Paulo, Maria Joao; de Matos, Bruno Ribeiro; Ntais, Spyridon; Fonseca, Fabio Coral; Tavares, Ana C.
2013-02-01
Mg-Al hydrotalcite-like compounds with OH- ions intercalated in the gallery and modified with monobutylether ethylene glycol ( mbeeg) were prepared from Mg6Al2(CO3)(OH)16·4H2O by the reconstruction method. The effect of the ethylene glycol, a moderate surfactant, on the textural properties and on the vapor water sorption of the layered double hydroxides was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen and water sorption techniques. The ion conductivity of the samples was measured at 98 % RH up to 180 °C. The compounds are formed by nanoplatelets with a lateral size inferior to 20 nm. The addition of the ethylene glycol was found to increase the specific surface area, total pore volume, and water sorption capacity of the Mg-Al layered double hydroxide. However, it also decreased the average pore diameter, and the ion conductivity of the ethylene glycol modified layered double hydroxide was lower than expected based on the samples' specific surface area and water content.
Noncontact atomic force microscopy study of the spinel MgAl2O4(111 surface
Morten K. Rasmussen
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Based on high-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM experiments we reveal a detailed structural model of the polar (111 surface of the insulating ternary metal oxide, MgAl2O4 (spinel. NC-AFM images reveal a 6√3×6√3R30° superstructure on the surface consisting of patches with the original oxygen-terminated MgAl2O4(111 surface interrupted by oxygen-deficient areas. These observations are in accordance with previous theoretical studies, which predict that the polarity of the surface can be compensated by removal of a certain fraction of oxygen atoms. However, instead of isolated O vacancies, it is observed that O is removed in a distinct pattern of line vacancies reflected by the underlying lattice structure. Consequently, by the creation of triangular patches in a 6√3×6√3R30° superstructure, the polar-stabilization requirements are met.
Zou, Yidong; Wang, Xiangxue; Ai, Yuejie; Liu, Yunhai; Li, Jiaxing; Ji, Yongfei; Wang, Xiangke
2016-04-01
Graphene oxide (GO) has attracted considerable attention because of its remarkable enhanced adsorption and multifunctional properties. However, the toxic properties of GO nanosheets released into the environment could lead to the instability of biological system. In aqueous phase, GO may interact with fine mineral particles, such as chloridion intercalated nanocrystallined Mg/Al layered double hydroxides (LDH-Cl) and nanocrystallined Mg/Al LDHs (LDH-CO3), which are considered as coagulant molecules for the coagulation and removal of GO from aqueous solutions. Herein the coagulation of GO on LDHs were studied as a function of solution pH, ionic strength, contact time, temperature and coagulant concentration. The presence of LDH-Cl and LDH-CO3 improved the coagulation of GO in solution efficiently, which was mainly attributed to the surface oxygen-containing functional groups of LDH-Cl and LDH-CO3 occupying the binding sites of GO. The coagulation of GO by LDH-Cl and LDH-CO3 was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. Results of theoretical DFT calculations indicated that the coagulation of GO on LDHs was energetically favored by electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds, which was further evidenced by FTIR and XPS analysis. By integrating the experimental results, it was clear that LDH-Cl could be potentially used as a cost-effective coagulant for the elimination of GO from aqueous solutions, which could efficiently decrease the potential toxicity of GO in the natural environment.
Rational design of Mg-Al mixed oxide-supported bimetallic catalysts for dry reforming of methane
Tsyganok, Andrey I. [Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation, Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, D' Iorio Hall, 10 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ont. (Canada); Inaba, Mieko [Natural Gas Technology Development Team, Teikoku Oil Co., 9-23-30 Kitakarasuyama, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-0061 (Japan); Tsunoda, Tatsuo; Uchida, Kunio; Suzuki, Kunio; Hayakawa, Takashi [Institute for Materials and Chemical Process, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan); Takehira, Katsuomi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)
2005-09-18
A novel synthetic strategy for preparing bimetallic Ru-M (M=Cr, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) catalysts, supported on Mg-Al mixed oxide, has been introduced. It was based on a 'memory effect', i.e. on the ability of Mg-Al mixed oxide to reconstruct a layered structure upon rehydration with an aqueous solution. By repeated calcinations-rehydration cycles, layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors of catalysts containing two different metals were synthesized. Bimetallic catalysts were then generated (1) in situ from LDH under methane reforming reaction conditions and (2) from mixed metal oxides obtained by preliminary LDH calcination. Among all the LDH-derived catalysts, a Ru{sup 0.1%}-Ni{sup 5.0%}/MgAlO{sub x} sample revealed the highest activity and selectivity to syngas, a suitable durability and a low coking capacity. A promoting effect of ruthenium on catalytic function of supported nickel was demonstrated. Preliminary LDH calcination was shown to markedly affect the catalytic activity of the derived catalysts and especially their coking properties.
An discussion on Graphological Deviation in Oliver Twist
肖潇
2016-01-01
In stylistic analysis,when we identifying the stylistic features in literary works,deviation serves as an important sign.According to Leech,there are eight types of deviation in poetry:lexical deviation,grammatical deviation,phonological deviation,graphological deviation,semantic deviation,dialectal deviation,deviation of register,deviation of historical period. Realism marks as an significant development in the history of fiction,for its success in achieving an exposure of the truth of people’s real life and fierce social problems.And foregrounded feature is inevitable part that constitute his language style.We will focus on Oliver Twist,for it is presented with unique writing style,which worthy our investigation.
Large Deviations for Random Matricial Moment Problems
Nagel, Jan; Gamboa, Fabrice; Rouault, Alain
2010-01-01
We consider the moment space $\\mathcal{M}_n^{K}$ corresponding to $p \\times p$ complex matrix measures defined on $K$ ($K=[0,1]$ or $K=\\D$). We endow this set with the uniform law. We are mainly interested in large deviations principles (LDP) when $n \\rightarrow \\infty$. First we fix an integer $k$ and study the vector of the first $k$ components of a random element of $\\mathcal{M}_n^{K}$. We obtain a LDP in the set of $k$-arrays of $p\\times p$ matrices. Then we lift a random element of $\\mathcal{M}_n^{K}$ into a random measure and prove a LDP at the level of random measures. We end with a LDP on Carth\\'eodory and Schur random functions. These last functions are well connected to the above random measure. In all these problems, we take advantage of the so-called canonical moments technique by introducing new (matricial) random variables that are independent and have explicit distributions.
Meiosis and its deviations in polyploid animals.
Stenberg, P; Saura, A
2013-01-01
We review the different modes of meiosis and its deviations encountered in polyploid animals. Bisexual reproduction involving normal meiosis occurs in some allopolyploid frogs with variable degrees of polyploidy. Aberrant modes of bisexual reproduction include gynogenesis, where a sperm stimulates the egg to develop. The sperm may enter the egg but there is no fertilization and syngamy. In hybridogenesis, a genome is eliminated to produce haploid or diploid eggs or sperm. Ploidy can be elevated by fertilization with a haploid sperm in meiotic hybridogenesis, which elevates the ploidy of hybrid offspring such that they produce diploid gametes. Polyploids are then produced in the next generation. In kleptogenesis, females acquire full or partial genomes from their partners. In pre-equalizing hybrid meiosis, one genome is transmitted in the Mendelian fashion, while the other is transmitted clonally. Parthenogenetic animals have a very wide range of mechanisms for restoring or maintaining the mother's ploidy level, including gamete duplication, terminal fusion, central fusion, fusion of the first polar nucleus with the product of the first division, and premeiotic duplication followed by a normal meiosis. In apomictic parthenogenesis, meiosis is replaced by what is effectively mitotic cell division. The above modes have different evolutionary consequences, which are discussed. See also the sister article by Grandont et al. in this themed issue.
Large deviations in the random sieve
Grimmett, Geoffrey
1997-05-01
The proportion [rho]k of gaps with length k between square-free numbers is shown to satisfy log[rho]k=[minus sign](1+o(1))(6/[pi]2) klogk as k[rightward arrow][infty infinity]. Such asymptotics are consistent with Erdos's challenge to prove that the gap following the square-free number t is smaller than clogt/log logt, for all t and some constant c satisfying c>[pi]2/12. The results of this paper are achieved by studying the probabilities of large deviations in a certain ‘random sieve’, for which the proportions [rho]k have representations as probabilities. The asymptotic form of [rho]k may be obtained in situations of greater generality, when the squared primes are replaced by an arbitrary sequence (sr) of relatively prime integers satisfying [sum L: summation operator]r1/sr<[infty infinity], subject to two further conditions of regularity on this sequence.
Long-chain (C18) unsaturated fatty acid anions, elaidate (ELA), oleate (OLE), linoleate (LINO), and linolenate (LINOLEN), were intercalated into Mg/Al (3:1) layered double hydroxide (LDH) and the resultant organo-LDH nanohybrid materials were characterized and subsequently evaluated as sorbents of s...
Javad Safari; Soheila Gandomi-Ravandi; Mahmoud Borjian Borujeni
2013-09-01
Design and development of a heterogeneous nanocatalyst for condensation reaction of acetophenone derivatives, aromatic aldehydes, and ammonium acetate to yield 2,4,6-triarylpyridines followed by microwave irradiation is described. Nanocrystalline MgAl2O4 as a novel heterogeneous recyclable catalyst shows high activity for the above reaction. In addition, the easily recoverable nanosized catalysts showed good reusability.
A Historical Study of Contemporary Human Rights: Deviation or Extinction?
Tanel Kerikmäe
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Human rights is a core issue of continuing political, legal and economic relevance. The current article discusses the historical perceptions of the very essence of human rights standards and poses the question whether the Realpolitik of the changed world and Europe can justify the deviation from the “purist” approach to human rights. The EU Charter, as the most eminent and contemporary “bill of rights”, is chosen as an example of the divergence from “traditional values”. The article does not offer solutions but rather focuses on the expansive development in the doctrinal approach of interpreting human rights that has not been conceptually agreed upon by historians, philosophers and legal scholars.
Deviation Optimal Learning using Greedy Q-aggregation
Dai, Dong; Zhang, Tong
2012-01-01
Given a finite family of functions, the goal of model selection is to construct a procedure that mimics the function from this family that is the closest to an unknown regression function. More precisely, we consider a general regression model with fixed design and measure the distance between functions by the mean squared error at the design points. While procedures based on exponential weights are known to solve the problem of model selection in expectation, they are, surprisingly, sub-optimal in deviation. We propose a new formulation called Q-aggregation that addresses this limitation; namely, its solution leads to sharp oracle inequalities that are optimal in a minimax sense. Moreover, based on the new formulation, we design greedy Q-aggregation procedures that produce sparse aggregation models achieving the optimal rate. The convergence and performance of these greedy procedures are illustrated and compared with other standard methods on simulated examples.
Large deviations of the maximal eigenvalue of random matrices
Borot, Gaëtan; Majumdar, Satya; Nadal, Céline
2011-01-01
We present detailed computations of the 'at least finite' terms (three dominant orders) of the free energy in a one-cut matrix model with a hard edge a, in beta-ensembles, with any polynomial potential. beta is a positive number, so not restricted to the standard values beta = 1 (hermitian matrices), beta = 1/2 (symmetric matrices), beta = 2 (quaternionic self-dual matrices). This model allows to study the statistic of the maximum eigenvalue of random matrices. We compute the large deviation function to the left of the expected maximum. We specialize our results to the gaussian beta-ensembles and check them numerically. Our method is based on general results and procedures already developed in the literature to solve the Pastur equations (also called "loop equations"). It allows to compute the left tail of the analog of Tracy-Widom laws for any beta, including the constant term.
Leila Torkian; Mostafa M Amini; Zohreh Bahrami
2011-01-01
Stoichiometric MgAl2O4 spinel nanoparticles were synthesized by microwave assisted combustion reaction from aluminium nitrate nanohydrate (Al(NO3)3.9H2O) and Sol-Gel prepared magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) in the presence of urea ((NH2)2CO) as a fuel, in about 20 min of irradiation. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies reveal that microwave assisted combustion synthesis route yields single-phase spinel nanoparticles with larger crystalline size (around 75 nm) than other conventional heating methods. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM) images show nanoparticles with spherical shape and homogenous morphology. The surface area measurements (SBET) show crystals with 2.11 m2/g and 0.0033 mL/g pore volume.
The improvement of the method on the preparation of Mg-Al whisker compounds%镁铝晶须的制备及测试
冯雨
2013-01-01
The Synthesis of fireproof material Mg-Al hydrotal-cite whisker compounds were studied with MgSO4 and A1C13 by the ultra-sonic one-step method. The crystal structure and heat stability of Mg-Al hydrotalcite whisker compounds with different Mg-Al ratio and preparation methods are investigated. The crystal structure and heat stability of Mg-Al hydrotalcite whisker compounds is discussed according to the test results of SEM,XRD,IR,and DTA TG. The results show that with the mole ratio of Mg:Al:OH:CO3 :Ca is 3:1:16:0. 5:0. 1 and 20 min ultrasound and seasoning in 90℃ for 3 days, can prepare Mg-Al hydrotalcite whisker compounds with better crystal structure and heat stability.%以MgSO4和A1Cl3为原料,采用超声一步法制备了镁铝水滑石晶须.考察了不同镁铝配比、不同制备方法对镁铝水滑石晶须晶形结构以及热稳定性能的影响,采用扫描电镜(SEM)、X射线衍射(XRD)和红外光谱(IR)对镁铝水滑石晶须试样的相组成及其结晶状况进行分析和表征,利用差热(DTA)-热重(TG)分析测定试样的热性能.当Mg2+;A13+:OHˉ:CO32-:Ca2+=3:1:16:0.5:0.1(摩尔比),超声时间20min,90℃,陈化3d时,得到的晶须形貌更佳性能更好.
Ardi Kurniawan
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Paduan magnesium banyak dikembangkan sebagai Hydrogen Storage Materials. Penambahan unsur Al dan Ni dalam paduan magnesium berguna untuk mengurangi energi ketika proses hidrogenasi berlangsung. Sintesa paduan magnesium dilakukan dengan metode mechanical alloying menggunakan Modification Horizontal Ball Mill. Paduan Mg-Al akan didoping dengan menambahkan 10at.% Ni menggunakan variasi waktu milling selama 2, 5, 10, dan 20 jam. Paduan yang terbentuk hasil milling akan dilakukan proses sintering pada temperatur 6000C. Pengujian BET, Sieving, XRD, SEM/EDX, dan DSC/TGA dilakukan untuk menganalisa paduan yang terbentuk. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa variasi waktu milling selama 10 jam dengan temperatur sintering 6000C mampu membentuk paduan Mg-Al-Ni berupa larutan padat Mg, AlNi dan Mg3AlNi2.
Chen, Yufeng; Li, Fei; Yu, Gensheng; Wei, Junchao
2012-10-01
The paper describes a study on the fluorescence of a Eu-doped Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Eu-doped LDH) response to glutamic acid (Glu). Various characterizations (UV-Vis transmittance, TG-DTA and IR-spectrum) indicated that there is an interaction between the Eu-doped LDH and Glu. Fluorescent study was found that the red emissions resulted from (5)D(0)-(7)F(J) transition (J=1, 2) of Eu(3+) markedly decreased, while the blue emission at 440 nm contributed to Glu shifted to low energy after the addition of Glu to the Eu-doped LDH. The fluorescent changes may be relevant to the hydrogen-bond interaction between the Eu-doped LDH and Glu, and the mechanism of the interaction between Eu-doped LDH and Glu was discussed.
Fen Zhang
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Coatings of the Mg(OH2/Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH composite were formed by a combined co-precipitation method and hydrothermal process on the AZ31 alloy substrate in alkaline condition. Subsequently, a superhydrophobic surface was successfully constructed to modify the composite coatings on the AZ31 alloy substrate using stearic acid. The characteristics of the composite coatings were investigated by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electronic microscope (SEM and contact angle (CA. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was assessed by potentiodynamic polarization, the electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS, the test of hydrogen evolution and the immersion test. The results showed that the superhydrophobic coatings considerably improved the corrosion resistant performance of the LDH coatings on the AZ31 alloy substrate.
Zhang, Y.; Su, Q.; Gao, X. [Institute of Internal Combustion Engine, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China); Li, Q.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, Z. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan (China)
2011-11-15
Soot oxidation with NO (in the absence of gas phase O{sub 2}) on potassium-supported Mg-Al hydrotalcite mixed oxides (K/MgAlO) was studied using a temperature-programmed reaction and in situ FTIR techniques. Nitrite and the ketene group were identified as the reaction intermediates and thus a nitrite-ketene mechanism was proposed in which surface active oxygen on K sites of K/MgAlO is transferred to soot by NO through nitrites. In the absence of gas phase O{sub 2}, soot oxidation with NO at lower temperatures (below 450 C) is limited by the amount of active oxygen on the K sites. This kind of active oxygen is not reusable but can be replenished in the presence of gas phase O{sub 2}. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Assessment of gait deviation on the Babinski-Weill test in healthy Brazilians
Camila Souza Miranda
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to validate a simple and reproducible method for assessing gait deviation on the Babinski-Weill test in a representative sample of healthy Brazilians. Methods Gait deviations were measured in 75 individuals (median=30 years, 41 women for forward, backwards, and Babinski-Weill steps. The test entailed blindfolded individuals walking 10 paces at a frequency of 1 Hz with deviations subsequently measured by a protractor. Results Mean gait deviation forward was 0.53° with standard deviation (SD=4.22 and backwards was 2.14° with SD=4.29. No significant difference in deviation was detected between genders (t test p=0.40 forward and p=0.77 backwards or for age (ANOVA, p=0.33 forward and p=0.63 backwards. On the Babinski-Weill test, mean gait deviation was 5.26°; SD=16.32 in women and -3.11°; SD=12.41 in men, with no significant difference between genders (t test, p=0.056. Discussion Defining normative gait patterns helps distinguish pathological states.
9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.
2010-01-01
... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...) Deviations in processing (or process deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned...) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...
21 CFR 330.11 - NDA deviations from applicable monograph.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false NDA deviations from applicable monograph. 330.11... EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED Administrative Procedures § 330.11 NDA deviations from applicable monograph. A new drug application requesting approval of an OTC drug deviating in any respect from a monograph that...
Large deviations for Glauber dynamics of continuous gas
2008-01-01
This paper is devoted to the large deviation principles of the Glauber-type dynamics of finite or infinite volume continuous particle systems.We prove that the level-2 empirical process satisfies the large deviation principles in the weak convergence topology,while it does not satisfy the large deviation principles in the T-topology.
Shi Laixin [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials (Ministry of Education), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, No. 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China); Shen Ping, E-mail: shenping@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials (Ministry of Education), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, No. 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China); Zhang Dan; Jiang Qichuan [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials (Ministry of Education), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, No. 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China)
2011-11-01
Highlights: {yields} The wetting in the Mg-Al/SiC system was coupled with reaction and evaporation. {yields} The effect of the alloy composition on the wettability was investigated. {yields} Representative wetting stages were identified. {yields} A mechanism for the time-dependent diminishing in the drop volume was proposed. {yields} The interfacial reaction was analyzed based on thermodynamic considerations. - Abstract: The wetting and evaporation behaviors of Mg-Al alloys over a full composition range on partially oxidized polycrystalline {alpha}-SiC substrates were studied in a flowing Ar atmosphere using an improved sessile drop method. The time dependence of the changes in contact angle and drop geometry was monitored and representative wetting stages were identified. The initial contact angles at 1173 K were 100{sup o} for pure Al and 76{sup o} for pure Mg, with the maximum value of 106{sup o} for the 7.6 mol.% Mg-Al alloy. The interfacial reaction and the evaporation of Mg led to the decrease in the apparent contact angle in the spreading stage and their respective contribution was evaluated. After the pinning of the triple line, the decrease in the contact angle resulted from the diminishing drop volume as a consequence of the Mg evaporation. The effects of Mg concentration on the wetting and evaporation behaviors were discussed. A mechanism for the time-dependent diminishing drop volume was proposed in light of the competition between the Mg evaporation and its diffusion from the drop bulk to the surface. Finally, the interfacial reaction was analyzed based on thermodynamic considerations.
Temperature deviation index and elderly mortality in Japan
Lim, Youn-Hee; Reid, Colleen E.; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho
2016-07-01
Few studies have examined how the precedence of abnormal temperatures in previous neighboring years affects the population's health. In the present study, we attempted to quantify the health effects of abnormal weather patterns by creating a metric called the temperature deviation index (TDI) and estimated the effects of TDI on mortality in Japan. We used data from 47 prefectures in Japan to compute the TDI on days between May and September from 1966 to 2010. The TDI is a summed product of an indicator of absence of high temperatures in the neighboring years, and more weights were assigned to the years closest to the current year. To estimate the TDI effects on elderly mortality, we used generalized linear modeling with a Poisson distribution after adjusting for apparent temperature, barometric pressure, day of the week, and time trend. For each prefecture, we estimated the TDI effects and pooled the estimates to yield a national average for 1991-2010 in Japan. The estimated effects of TDI in middle- or high-latitude prefectures were greater than in low-latitude prefectures. The estimated national average of TDI effects was a 0.5 % (95 % confidence intervals [CI], 0.1, 1.0) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit (around 1 standard deviation) increase in the TDI. The significant pooled estimation of TDI effects was mainly due to the TDI effects on summer days with moderate temperature (25th-49th percentile, mean temperature 22.9 °C): a 1.9 % (95 % CI, 1.1, 2.6) increase in elderly mortality per 1-unit increase in the TDI. However, TDI effects were insignificant in other temperature ranges. These findings suggest that elderly deaths increased on moderate temperature days in the summer that differed substantially from days during that time window in the neighboring years. Therefore, not only high temperature itself but also temperature deviation compared to previous years could be considered to be a risk factor for elderly mortality in the summer.
49 CFR 192.943 - When can an operator deviate from these reassessment intervals?
2010-10-01
...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When can an operator deviate from these reassessment intervals? 192.943 Section 192.943 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...
无
2010-01-01
In this paper, we study an even order neutral differential equation with deviating arguments, and obtain new oscillation results without the assumptions which were required for related results given before. Our results extend and improve many known oscillation criteria, based on the standard integral averaging technique.
Vasant R Choudhary; Deepa K Dumbre; Vijay S Narkhede
2012-07-01
A number of hydrotalcite (Mg-Al, Mn-Al, Co-Al, Ni-Al, Mg-Fe, Mg-Cr and Cu-Al) catalysts, with or without MnO$^{−1}_{4}$-exchange, were evaluated for their performance in the solvent-free oxidation of benzaldehyde to benzoic acid by tert-butyl hydroperoxide under reflux in the absence of any solvent. The MnO$^{−1}_{4}$-exchanged Mg-Al-hydrotalcite (Mg/Al = 10) showed high activity in the oxidation of different aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to their corresponding acids and also showed excellent reusability in the oxidation process which is environmental-friendly.
Xu, Haisheng; Feng, Xianjin; Luan, Caina; Ma, Jin
2017-01-01
Anatase phase TiO2 (a-TiO2) films have been deposited on MgAl2O4(111) substrates by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method at the substrate temperatures of 500-650°C. The structural analyses showed that the films were highly (004) oriented with tetragonal anatase structure and the epitaxial relationship was given as a-TiO2(004)||MgAl2O4 (111). The sample prepared at 600°C exhibited the best crystallization with a single-crystalline epitaxial film. The average transmittance of every TiO2 film in the visible range exceeded 90% excluding the influence of the substrate. The morphology and composition of the TiO2 films have also been studied in detail.
Mechanism Modeling and Simulation Based on Dimensional Deviation
无
2008-01-01
To analyze the effects on motion characteristics of mechanisms of dimensional variations, a study on random dimensional deviation generation techniques for 3D models on the basis of the present mechanical modeling software was carried out, which utilized the redeveloped interfaces provided by the modeling software to develop a random dimensional deviation generation system with certain probability distribution characteristics. This system has been used to perform modeling and simulation of the specific mechanical time delayed mechanism under multiple deviation varieties, simulation results indicate the dynamic characteristics of the mechanism are influenced significantly by the dimensional deviation in the tolerance distribution range, which should be emphasized in the design.
Deviation and rotation of the larynx in computer tomography
Shibusawa, Mitsunobu (Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Medical Research Institute); Yano, Kazuhiko
1990-01-01
Many authors described the clinical importance of asymmetry of the laryngeal framework. However, its pathogenesis is generally unknown. In this study, CT images of 315 Japanese subjects were investigated to define the laryngeal position relative to the midline of the cervical vertebra. The CT slice of each subject within 5 mm cephalad of the cricoarytenoid joint was traced. Then, the deviation and rotation angles were measured using our method. Seventy one percent of the subjects' larynges deviated and/or rotated to the right side, while 17% to the left side. Six percent showed neither deviation nor rotation. As to the rest of 6%, deviation and rotation were in opposite directions. Besides, the length of the thyroid alae were measured in 282 subjects. Left ala was longer in 55%, and right was in 23%, and almost equal in 22%. The conclusions are as follows. The majority of the subjects' CT images showed deviation and/or rotation of the laryngeal framework to the right side. So called idiopathic laryngeal deviation is a case which observed in those cases with remarkable deviation and/or rotation of the laryngeal framework. Aging seemed to be an important factor in accerelation of the laryngeal deviation and rotation. The type of diseases and the side of mass lesions had no statistical significance in deviation and rotation of the larynx. (author).
Javad Safari
2016-09-01
Full Text Available An efficient and eco-friendly procedure has been developed using nanocrystalline MgAl2O4 with specific surface area as catalyst for rapid and an improved synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted and 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted imidazoles under solvent-free conditions in excellent yields. The method has several benefits, such as shorter reaction time, recyclable catalyst and excellent yields.
Arhin, Emmanuel; Zango, Saeed M.
2015-12-01
The XRF analytical method was used to measure the weight % of the major oxides in regolith samples. The metal weight % of Mg, K and Al were calculated from their oxides and were normalised relative to immobile Al calculated from its oxide. The plot of Mg/Al and K/Al identified the regolith of the study area to consist of 137 transported clays, 4 ferruginous sediments or ferricrete, 2 lateritic duricrust and 4 saprolites. Surface regolith that had undergone secondary transformation and shows compositional overlaps were 4 transported clays with Fe-oxide impregnation may be referred to as nodular laterite and 5 ferruginous saprolites. The variable regolith materials features identified from the 154 samples enabled the characterisation and identification of the different sample materials because an overprint of bedrock geochemistry is reflected in the regolith. Plot of Mg/Al and K/Al highlighted the compositional variability of the regolith samples and refute the notion of the homogeneity of all the sampled materials in the area. The study thus recognized Mg/Al versus K/Al plots to be used in supporting field identification of regolith mapping units particularly in complex regolith terrains of savannah regions of Ghana and in similar areas where geochemical exploration surveys are being carried out under cover.
Nassar, Mostafa Y.; Ahmed, Ibrahim S.; Samir, Ihab
2014-10-01
In this paper a novel and inexpensive route for the preparation of spinel magnesium aluminate nanoparticles (MgAl2O4) is proposed. Magnesium aluminate photocatalyst was synthesized via sol-gel auto combustion method using oxalic acid, urea, and citric acid fuels at 350 °C. Subsequently, the burnt samples were calcined at different temperatures. The pure spinel MgAl2O4 with average crystallite size 27.7, 14.6 and 15.65 nm was obtained at 800 °C calcinations using the aforementioned fuels, respectively. The obtained samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope. The photo catalytic activity of MgAl2O4 product was studied by performing the decomposition of Reactive Red Me 4BL dye under UV illumination or sunlight irradiation. The dye considerably photocatalytically degraded by 90.0% and 95.45% under UV and sunlight irradiation, respectively, within ca. 5 h with pseudo first order rate constants of 5.85 × 10-3 and 8.38 × 10-3 min-1, respectively.
Saha, Subhajit; Das, Swati; Ghorai, Uttam Kumar; Mazumder, Nilesh; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar
2013-09-28
Highly-luminescent nanophosphors have a decisive role in solid-state lighting (SSL) as well as in field emission display (FED) applications due to their potential use in fabrication of nanophosphor based FED and solid state display devices. Herein, the red emitting highly-luminescent Eu(3+)-Li(+) co-doped magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) nanophosphors were synthesized by a customized sol-gel route with an average particle size of 18 nm, which can be easily scaled up in a large quantity. The resulting nanophosphor exhibits hypersensitive red emission, peaking at 615 nm upon 394 nm excitation. Furthermore, comparative photoluminescence (PL) studies have been carried out for Eu(3+) doped and Eu(3+) doped-Li(+) co-doped magnesium aluminate (Li(+) co-doped MgAl2O4:Eu(3+)) nanophosphors, which indicated that Li(+) co-doping significantly improves luminescence intensity along with good crystallinity. Moreover, the charge compensation by addition of Li(+) co-activator in MgAl2O4:Eu(3+) lattice led to the two fold enhancement of PL intensity. The obtained results suggest that this nanophosphor could be an ultimate choice for next generation advanced luminescent nanomaterials for solid state lighting and portable FED devices.
Nassar, Mostafa Y; Ahmed, Ibrahim S; Samir, Ihab
2014-10-15
In this paper a novel and inexpensive route for the preparation of spinel magnesium aluminate nanoparticles (MgAl2O4) is proposed. Magnesium aluminate photocatalyst was synthesized via sol-gel auto combustion method using oxalic acid, urea, and citric acid fuels at 350°C. Subsequently, the burnt samples were calcined at different temperatures. The pure spinel MgAl2O4 with average crystallite size 27.7, 14.6 and 15.65nm was obtained at 800°C calcinations using the aforementioned fuels, respectively. The obtained samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope. The photo catalytic activity of MgAl2O4 product was studied by performing the decomposition of Reactive Red Me 4BL dye under UV illumination or sunlight irradiation. The dye considerably photocatalytically degraded by 90.0% and 95.45% under UV and sunlight irradiation, respectively, within ca. 5h with pseudo first order rate constants of 5.85×10(-3) and 8.38×10(-3)min(-1), respectively.
Pardo, A.; Feliu Jr, S.; Merino, M. C.; Mohedano, M.; Casajus, P.; Arrabal, R.
2010-07-01
The corrosion protection of Mg-Al alloys by flame thermal spraying of Al/SiCp composite coatings was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The volume fraction of SiC particles (SiCp) varied between 5 and 30%. The as-sprayed Al/SiCp composite coatings revealed a high number of micro-channels, largely in the vicinity of the SiC particles, that facilitated the penetration of the electrolyte and the subsequent galvanic corrosion of the magnesium substrates. The application of a cold-pressing post-treatment reduced the degree of porosity of the coatings and improved the bonding at the coating/substrate and Al/SiC interfaces. This resulted in improved corrosion resistance of the coated specimens. The effectiveness of the coatings slightly decreased with the addition of 5-30 vol.% SiCp compared with the un reinforced thermal spray aluminium coatings. (Author) 31 refs.
Ramalingam, S; Jayaprakash, A; Mohan, S; Karabacak, M
2011-11-01
FT-IR and FT-Raman (4000-100 cm(-1)) spectral measurements of 3-methyl-1,2-butadiene (3M12B) have been attempted in the present work. Ab-initio HF and DFT (LSDA/B3LYP/B3PW91) calculations have been performed giving energies, optimized structures, harmonic vibrational frequencies, IR intensities and Raman activities. Complete vibrational assignments on the observed spectra are made with vibrational frequencies obtained by HF and DFT (LSDA/B3LYP/B3PW91) at 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. The results of the calculations have been used to simulate IR and Raman spectra for the molecule that showed good agreement with the observed spectra. The potential energy distribution (PED) corresponding to each of the observed frequencies are calculated which confirms the reliability and precision of the assignment and analysis of the vibrational fundamentals modes. The oscillation of vibrational frequencies of butadiene due to the couple of methyl group is also discussed. A study on the electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures reveal the correlations between standard heat capacities (C) standard entropies (S), and standard enthalpy changes (H).
Refraction in Terms of the Deviation of the Light.
Goldberg, Fred M.
1985-01-01
Discusses refraction in terms of the deviation of light. Points out that in physics courses where very little mathematics is used, it might be more suitable to describe refraction entirely in terms of the deviation, rather than by introducing Snell's law. (DH)
Downhole control of deviation with steerable straight-hole turbodrills
Gaynor, T.M.
1988-03-01
Advances in directional drilling have until recently been confined to issues that are peripheral to the central problem of controlling assembly behavior downhole. Examples of these advances are measurement while drilling (MWD) and the increasing use of computer assistance in well planning. These were significant steps forward, but the major problem remained. Changes in formation deviation tendencies led to trips to change bottomhole assemblies (BHA's) to cope with the new conditions. There is almost no direct control of deviation behavior. The steerable straight-hole turbodrill (SST) addresses this problem directly, allowing alteration of the well course without the need to trip. The availability of such a system radically changes the way in which directional well planning may be approached. This paper describes the equipment used and the equipment's construction and operational requirements. It discusses the capabilities and current limitation of the systems. Field results are presented for some 300,000 ft (91 500 m) of deviated drilling carried out over 2 years in Alaska and the North Sea. A series of four highly deviated wells totaling 35,000 ft (10 700m) with only three deviation trips is included. The SST is the first deviation drilling system to achieve deviation control over long sections without tripping to change BHA's. Bits and downhole equipment are now more reliable and long-lived than ever, therefore, deviation trips are becoming a major target for well cost saving.
7 CFR 3015.3 - Conflicting policies and deviations.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicting policies and deviations. 3015.3 Section... Conflicting policies and deviations. (a) Statutory provisions. Federal statutes that apply to some USDA grant..., when permissible under existing laws. In those instances where a program receives an exception to...
Large Deviations without Principle: Join the Shortest Queue
Ridder, Ad; Shwartz, Adam
2004-01-01
We develop a methodology for studying "large deviations type" questions. Our approach does not require that the large deviations principle holds, and is thus applicable to a larg class of systems. We study a system of queues with exponential servers, which share an arrival stream. Arrivals are route
38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.
2010-07-01
... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate...
Large deviations for stochastic flows and their applications
高付清; 任佳刚
2001-01-01
Large deviations for stochastic flow solutions to SDEs containing a small parameter are studied. The obtained results are applied to establish a Cp, r-large deviation principle for stochastic flows and for solutions to anticipating SDEs. The recent results of Millet-Nualart-Sans and Yoshida are improved and refined.
Large Deviations and a Fluctuation Symmetry for Chaotic Homeomorphisms
Maes, Christian; Verbitskiy, Evgeny
2003-01-01
We consider expansive homeomorphisms with the specification property. We give a new simple proof of a large deviation principle for Gibbs measures corresponding to a regular potential and we establish a general symmetry of the rate function for the large deviations of the antisymmetric part, under t
[The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].
Foda, H M T
2010-09-01
The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.
Cosano, Daniel; Esquinas, Carlos; Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César; Ruiz, José Rafael, E-mail: qo1ruarj@uco.es
2016-02-28
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Raman is used by first time for adsorption of cyanide on calcined LDHs. • Raman is an effective, accurate and expeditious method for monitoring this process. • Cyanide is adsorbed by a rehydration process based on the “memory effect”. • The metal ratio of the LDH has a crucial influence on the adsorption capacity. - Abstract: Calcining magnesium/aluminium layered double hydroxides (Mg/Al LDHs) at 450 °C provides excellent sorbents for removing cyanide from aqueous solutions. The process is based on the “memory effect” of LDHs; thus, rehydrating a calcined LDH in an aqueous solution restores its initial structure. The process, which conforms to a first-order kinetics, was examined by Raman spectroscopy. The metal ratio of the LDH was found to have a crucial influence on the adsorption capacity of the resulting mixed oxide. In this work, Raman spectroscopy was for the first time use to monitor the adsorption process. Based on the results, this technique is an effective, expeditious choice for the intended purpose and affords in situ monitoring of the adsorption process. The target solids were characterized by using various instrumental techniques including X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, which confirmed the layered structure of the LDHs and the periclase-like structure of the mixed oxides obtained by calcination.
First-Principles Thermodynamics Study of Spinel MgAl _{2} O _{4} Surface Stability
Cai, Qiuxia; Wang, Jian-guo; Wang, Yong; Mei, Donghai
2016-09-01
The surface stability of all possible terminations for three low-index (111, 110, 100) structures of the spinel MgAl2O4 has been studied using first-principles based thermodynamic approach. The surface Gibbs free energy results indicate that the 100_AlO2 termination is the most stable surface structure under ultra-high vacuum at T=1100 K regardless of Al-poor or Al-rich environment. With increasing oxygen pressure, the 111_O2(Al) termination becomes the most stable surface in the Al-rich environment. The oxygen vacancy formation is thermodynamically favorable over the 100_AlO2, 111_O2(Al) and the (111) structure with Mg/O connected terminations. On the basis of surface Gibbs free energies for both perfect and defective surface terminations, the 100_AlO2 and 111_O2(Al) are the most dominant surfaces in Al-rich environment under atmospheric condition. This is also consistent with our previously reported experimental observation. This work was supported by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The computing time was granted by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). Part of computing time was also granted by a scientific theme user proposal in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), which is a U.S. Department of Energy national scientific user facility located at PNNL in Richland, Washington.
ZHANG Zejiang; XU Chenghua; QIU Fali; MEI Xiujuan; LAN Bin; ZHANG Shuosheng
2004-01-01
Nanocrystalline Mg-Al layered double hydroxides with the particle size being 10-40 nm were firstly prepared by the technology of the microwave-crystallization and the variable-speed addition of the alkali. The obtained samples were characterized by TEM and XRD. The roles of the microwave and addition rate of the alkali were also discussed in the present work. The thermal decomposition activation energy of the nano-LDHs was calculated according to their TG, DTG and DSC curves by the Ozawa method. The results showed that the thermal decomposition of the nano-LDHs had four steps. Thereby the decomposition model of the nano-LDHs was supposed according to the analysis of their thermal decomposition. After PS, ABS, HDPE and PVC were filled with the nano-LDHs, their LOI values could be increased up to 28, 27, 26 and 33, respectively. When the fire-retardant coating contained 1.9% of the nano-LDHs that was 0.27 times the dosage of the conventional TiO2, its fire endurance time reached 32.75min that was 7.05 min longer than that of the best coating containing TiO2 according to the model big-panel combustion test method.
Goh, K H; Lim, T T; Dong, Z L
2010-01-01
Removal of arsenate (As(V)) from aqueous solution using both nanocrystalline and coprecipitated Mg/Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) was examined under different sorption/desorption conditions. The surface area, pore volume, and pore size of the nanocrystalline LDH were significantly higher than those of the coprecipitated LDH, thus resulting in a higher As(V) sorption maximum than the coprecipitated LDH. The calculated activation energy (E(a)) value was 24.7 kJ/mol, suggesting the occurrence of anion exchange process for As(V) removal by the nanocrystalline LDH. The predominance of anion exchange process was further supported by the investigation of ionic strength effect, and XRD and FTIR analyses. The effect of aqueous matrix on As(V) sorption by the nanocrystalline LDH was found to increase in the order of nitrate nanocrystalline LDH besides the predominant anion exchange process. Prospects and challenges for practical application of the nanocrystalline LDH were also discussed in the latter part of this study.
Yu, Jiaying; Fan, Guoli; Yang, Yang; Li, Feng
2014-10-15
Novel three-dimensional (3D) rosette-like carbonate-type Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) hierarchical microstructures were fabricated successfully by a surfactant-assisted coprecipitation method in the presence of hexamethylenetetramine as precipitant, and the morphology-dependent basic catalytic property was exploited. The morphologies of MgAl-LDH aggregates were diversified depending on the synthesis parameters including the type of precipitant, concentration of sodium stearate surfactant, and hydrothermal aging time. Specifically, the morphology of MgAl-LDH particles could change progressively from platelet-like aggregates to rosette-like microspheres with the increasing concentration of sodium stearate. A possible formation mechanism for special 3D flower-like MgAl-LDH microstructures was proposed based on the synergistic effect of precipitant with surfactant. Moreover, the resulting activated rosette-like MgAl-LDH, which was prepared through calcination-rehydration process, showed a higher catalytic activity in the transesterification of tributyrin with methanol, compared with that derived from the conventional platelet-like MgAl-LDH precursor, which was attributed to its higher specific basicity originating from multi-level hierarchical superstructure offering an advantage in contact with more exposed base sites.
Malherbe, François; Besse, Jean-Pierre
2000-12-01
A starting [Mg-Al-Cl] LDH, prepared by coprecipitation, was further anion-exchanged to incorporate a variety of anions in the interlayer domain: (Fe(CN)6)3-, (P2O7)4-, (V2O7)4-, (CrO4)2-, and (Cr2O7)2-. The resulting materials were fully characterized using classical techniques like XRPD, FTIR, TGA/DTA, and BET, and their structural modifications studied as a function of calcination temperatures. Under mild calcination, only the oxo-anions were shown to interact strongly with the host matrix. This resulted in a systematic shrinkage of the interlamellar domain, with a negative impact on the surface properties. However, intercalation of oxo-anions proved to be beneficial to thermal stability, the lamellar structure being maintained up to 400°C in the case of the dichromate intercalated [Mg-Al]. A thorough analysis of the FTIR spectra, revealing an evolution in the symmetry of some oxo-anions, confirmed the occurrence of a grafting process. Furthermore, the permanent character of the pillars was evidenced through unsuccessful rehydration and back-exchange reactions.
Vibrational spectroscopy of aluminate spinels at 1 atm and of MgAl2O4 to over 200 kbar
Chopelas, A.; Hofmeister, A. M.
1991-12-01
Single-crystal Raman and infrared reflectivity data including high pressure results to over 200 kbar on a natural, probably fully ordered MgAl2O4 spinel reveal that many of the reported frequencies from spectra of synthetic spinels are affected by disorder at the cation sites. The spectra are interpreted in terms of factor group analysis and show that the high energy modes are due to the octahedral internal modes, in contrast to the behavior of silicate spinels, but in agreement with previous data based on isotopic and chemical cation substitutions and with new Raman data on gahnite (˜ ZnAl2O4) and new IR reflectivity data on both gahnite and hercynite (˜Fe0.58Mg0.42Al2O4). Therefore, aluminate spinels are inappropriate as elastic or thermodynamic analogs for silicate spinels. Fluorescence sideband spectra yield complementary information on the vibrational modes and provide valuable information on the acoustic modes at high pressure. The transverse acoustic modes are nearly pressure independent, which is similar to the behavior of the shear modes previously measured by ultrasonic techniques. The pressure derivative of all acoustic modes become negative above 110 kbar, indicating a lattice instability, in agreement with previous predictions. This lattice instability lies at approximately the same pressure as the disproportionation of spinel to MgO and Al2O3 reported in high temperature, high pressure work.
Yang, Lei; Yao, Qi; Yuan, Xue-hua; Yang, Yan-ling
2015-03-01
In order to achieve the highly selective and Simple detection for ferric ion, strong-fluorescent 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) Mg-Al layered double hydroxide(Mg(χ)Al-8-HQ LDH) was designed and prepared by 8-HQ's intercalation and ready coordination based on adjustment of Al3+ on Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (MgAl LDH) laminates. Meanwhile its structure and property were characterized by IR, XRD, UV-Vis and fluorescent spectrometer. IR analysis showed coordinate bonds of C-O-Al and C-N-Al between 8-HQ and Al3+ were generated. XRD revealed that 8-HQ had already inserted in MgAl LDH laminates, and it made (003) diffraction peaks move to low 2θ angle direction, and the diffraction peak intensity was enhanced with the molar ratio of Mg and Al increasing. Because the coordination reaction between 8-HQ and Al3+ in MgAl LDH laminates took place, it induced the absorption peak of 8-HQ at 314 nm disappeared, at the same time the transition absorption peak at 376 nm between metal ions and ligands appeared. As demonstrated by fluorescence spectroscopic analysis, fluorescence intensity of Mg(χ)Al-8-HQ LDH increased with the content of Al3+ reducing, when the molar ratio of Magnesium and Aluminium ion is 4 : 1, its fluorescence intensity enhanced more significantly than 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum. Through the research on the influence of metal ions on the fluorescence spectra of Mg4 Al-8-HQ LDH particle, it was found that the particle to metal ions exhibited significant selection and difference, especially with high selectivity for Fe3+ ion. The effect of [Fe3+] on the color and fluorescence intensity of Mg4Al-8-HQ LDH particle solution was further studied, and the results showed that the solution varied from light yellow to dark green with the content of Fe3+ in 10(-6) to 10(-2) mol x L(-1) increasing, so it can implement colorimetric sensing for Fe3+ in the above range. And at the same time its fluorescence intensity significantly decreased, and its fluorescence could be
Measurement of z-axis deviation angle of electro-optic crystal by conoscopic interference
Li, Dong; Liu, Yong; Liu, Xu; Jiang, Hongzhen; Zheng, Fanglan
2016-09-01
Properties of plasma electrode pockels cell is directly affected by the Z-axis deviation angle of the electro-optic crystal. Therefore, high precision measurement of the Z-axis deviation angle is indispensable. By using conoscopic interference technique, a measurement system for Z-axis deviation angle of electro-optic crystal is introduced. The principle of conoscopic interference method is described in detail, and a series of techniques are implied in this measurement system to improve the accuracy. High-precision positioning method of the crystal based on Michelson interference is proposed to determine the normal consistency of crystal, which can ensure the high positioning repeatability of crystal in the measurement process. The positioning comparison experiment of the crystal shows that the standard deviation of our method is less than 1pixel, which is much better than the traditional method (nearly 4pixels). Moreover, melatope extraction algorithm of optical axis based on image matching technique is proposed to ensure the melatope can be extracted in high precision. Calibration method of the normal of transmission surface of crystal is also proposed. The experiment results show that the PV and rms of Z-axis deviation angle is less than 0.05mrad and 0.02mrad, respectively. The repeatability accuracy is less than 0.01mrad.
Vertical deviations of the midplane of the Galaxy.
Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J. E.
Besides the integral sign warp in the outer Galaxy, the gas in the Milky Way shows small, but systematic deviations from a flat z = 0 plane both in the inner and the outer Galaxy. In the inner Galaxy, the tangent points have no distance ambiguity, so their distances, and hence midplane deviations, can be measured. From the tangent point analysis the authors find that the molecular and atomic gas layers deviate from the z = 0 plane with an amplitude of ≅50 pc. Whether these deviations are due to a small, smooth inner warp or are similar to the m = 10 mode corrugations found in the outer Galaxy (Kulkarni, Blitz & Heiles, 1982) can be checked by looking at the two-dimensional (in Galactic radius and azimuthal angle) structure of the z deviations. For the inner Galaxy, distance ambiguity at points other than the tangent points makes the interpretation difficult, but these hypotheses can be checked in a limited way. Magnetic instabilities can cause vertical deviations of the gas, but if stars share the same deviations the origin has to be gravitational.
Structure of deviations from optimality in biological systems.
Pérez-Escudero, Alfonso; Rivera-Alba, Marta; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G
2009-12-01
Optimization theory has been used to analyze evolutionary adaptation. This theory has explained many features of biological systems, from the genetic code to animal behavior. However, these systems show important deviations from optimality. Typically, these deviations are large in some particular components of the system, whereas others seem to be almost optimal. Deviations from optimality may be due to many factors in evolution, including stochastic effects and finite time, that may not allow the system to reach the ideal optimum. However, we still expect the system to have a higher probability of reaching a state with a higher value of the proposed indirect measure of fitness. In systems of many components, this implies that the largest deviations are expected in those components with less impact on the indirect measure of fitness. Here, we show that this simple probabilistic rule explains deviations from optimality in two very different biological systems. In Caenorhabditis elegans, this rule successfully explains the experimental deviations of the position of neurons from the configuration of minimal wiring cost. In Escherichia coli, the probabilistic rule correctly obtains the structure of the experimental deviations of metabolic fluxes from the configuration that maximizes biomass production. This approach is proposed to explain or predict more data than optimization theory while using no extra parameters. Thus, it can also be used to find and refine hypotheses about which constraints have shaped biological structures in evolution.
Fluctuations and large deviations in non-equilibrium systems
B Derrida
2005-05-01
For systems in contact with two reservoirs at different densities or with two thermostats at different temperatures, the large deviation function of the density gives a possible way of extending the notion of free energy to non-equilibrium systems. This large deviation function of the density can be calculated explicitly for exclusion models in one dimension with open boundary conditions. For these models, one can also obtain the distribution of the current of particles flowing through the system and the results lead to a simple conjecture for the large deviation function of the current of more general diffusive systems.
Velocity Structure Determination Through Seismic Waveform Modeling and Time Deviations
Savage, B.; Zhu, L.; Tan, Y.; Helmberger, D. V.
2001-12-01
Through the use of seismic waveforms recorded by TriNet, a dataset of earthquake focal mechanisms and deviations (time shifts) relative to a standard model facilitates the investigation of the crust and uppermost mantle of southern California. The CAP method of focal mechanism determination, in use by TriNet on a routine basis, provides time shifts for surface waves and Pnl arrivals independently relative to the reference model. These shifts serve as initial data for calibration of local and regional seismic paths. Time shifts from the CAP method are derived by splitting the Pnl section of the waveform, the first arriving Pn to just before the arrival of the S wave, from the much slower surface waves then cross-correlating the data with synthetic waveforms computed from a standard model. Surface waves interact with the entire crust, but the upper crust causes the greatest effect. Whereas, Pnl arrivals sample the deeper crust, upper mantle, and source region. This natural division separates the upper from lower crust for regional calibration and structural modeling and allows 3-D velocity maps to be created using the resulting time shifts. Further examination of Pnl and other arrivals which interact with the Moho illuminate the complex nature of this boundary. Initial attempts at using the first 10 seconds of the Pnl section to determine upper most mantle structure have proven insightful. Two large earthquakes north of southern California in Nevada and Mammoth Lakes, CA allow the creation of record sections from 200 to 600 km. As the paths swing from east to west across southern California, simple 1-D models turn into complex structure, dramatically changing the waveform character. Using finite difference models to explain the structure, we determine that a low velocity zone is present at the base of the crust and extends to 100 km in depth. Velocity variations of 5 percent of the mantle in combination with steeply sloping edges produces complex waveform variations
Deviation of the statistical fluctuation in heterogeneous anomalous diffusion
Itto, Yuichi
2016-01-01
The exponent of anomalous diffusion of virus in cytoplasm of a living cell is experimentally known to fluctuate depending on localized areas of the cytoplasm, indicating heterogeneity of diffusion. In a recent paper (Itto, 2012), a maximum-entropy-principle approach has been developed in order to propose an Ansatz for the statistical distribution of such exponent fluctuations. Based on this approach, here the deviation of the statistical distribution of the fluctuations from the proposed one is studied from the viewpoint of Einstein's theory of fluctuations (of the thermodynamic quantities). This may present a step toward understanding the statistical property of the deviation. It is shown in a certain class of small deviations that the deviation obeys the multivariate Gaussian distribution.
A Hybrid Method with Deviational Particles for Spatial Inhomogeneous Plasma
Yan, Bokai
2015-01-01
In this work we propose a Hybrid method with Deviational Particles (HDP) for a plasma modeled by the inhomogeneous Vlasov-Poisson-Landau system. We split the distribution into a Maxwellian part evolved by a grid based fluid solver and a deviation part simulated by numerical particles. These particles, named deviational particles, could be both positive and negative. We combine the Monte Carlo method proposed in \\cite{YC15}, a Particle in Cell method and a Macro-Micro decomposition method \\cite{BLM08} to design an efficient hybrid method. Furthermore, coarse particles are employed to accelerate the simulation. A particle resampling technique on both deviational particles and coarse particles is also investigated and improved. The efficiency is significantly improved compared to a PIC-MCC method, especially near the fluid regime.
Spin-geodesic deviations in the Schwarzschild spacetime
Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T.
2011-04-01
The deviation of the path of a spinning particle from a circular geodesic in the Schwarzschild spacetime is studied by an extension of the idea of geodesic deviation. Within the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon model and assuming the spin parameter to be sufficiently small so that it makes sense to linearize the equations of motion in the spin variables as well as in the geodesic deviation, the spin-curvature force adds an additional driving term to the second order system of linear ordinary differential equations satisfied by nearby geodesics. Choosing initial conditions for geodesic motion leads to solutions for which the deviations are entirely due to the spin-curvature force, and one finds that the spinning particle position for a given fixed total spin oscillates roughly within an ellipse in the plane perpendicular to the motion, while the azimuthal motion undergoes similar oscillations plus an additional secular drift which varies with spin orientation.
Spin-geodesic deviations in the Schwarzschild spacetime
Bini, Donato; Jantzen, Robert T
2014-01-01
The deviation of the path of a spinning particle from a circular geodesic in the Schwarzschild spacetime is studied by an extension of the idea of geodesic deviation. Within the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon model and assuming the spin parameter to be sufficiently small so that it makes sense to linearize the equations of motion in the spin variables as well as in the geodesic deviation, the spin-curvature force adds an additional driving term to the second order system of linear ordinary differential equations satisfied by nearby geodesics. Choosing initial conditions for geodesic motion leads to solutions for which the deviations are entirely due to the spin-curvature force, and one finds that the spinning particle position for a given fixed total spin oscillates roughly within an ellipse in the plane perpendicular to the motion, while the azimuthal motion undergoes similar oscillations plus an additional secular drift which varies with spin orientation.
Large Deviations for Multi-valued Stochastic Differential Equations
Ren, Jiagang; Zhang, Xicheng
2009-01-01
We prove a large deviation principle of Freidlin-Wentzell's type for the multivalued stochastic differential equations with monotone drifts, which in particular contains a class of SDEs with reflection in a convex domain.
Static large deviations of boundary driven exclusion processes
Farfan, Jonathan
2009-01-01
We prove that the stationary measure associated to a boundary driven exclusion process in any dimension satisfies a large deviation principle with rate function given by the quasi potential of the Freidlin and Wentzell theory.
ALTERNATING HYPERPHORIA - DISSOCIATED VERTICAL DEVIATION (DVD) OCCLUSION HYPERPHORIA
HOUTMAN, WA; ROZE, JH; DEVRIES, B; LETSCH, MC
1991-01-01
Alternating hyperphoria (synonyms: dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) or occlusion hyperphoria) and variants like 'unilateral patching hyperphoria' ('periodic vertical squint') and monocular vertical nystagmus, which may arise after strabismus operations or loss of the function of one of the eyes,
Large Deviations: An Introduction to 2007 Abel Prize
S Ramasubramanian
2008-05-01
2007 Abel prize has been awarded to S R S Varadhan for creating a unified theory of large deviations. We attempt to give a flavour of this branch of probability theory, highlighting the role of Varadhan.
Quenched moderate deviations principle for random walk in random environment
无
2010-01-01
We derive a quenched moderate deviations principle for the one-dimensional nearest random walk in random environment,where the environment is assumed to be stationary and ergodic.The approach is based on hitting time decomposition.
General Freidlin-Wentzell large deviations and positive diffusions
P. Baldi; Caramellino, L.
2011-01-01
Abstract We prove Freidlin-Wentzell Large Deviation estimates under rather minimal assumptions. This allows to derive Wentzell-Freidlin Large Deviation estimates for diffusions on the positive half line with coefficients that are neither bounded nor Lipschitz continuous. This applies to models of interest in Finance, i.e. the CIR and the CEV models, which are positive diffusion processes whose diffusion coefficient is only Holder continuous. correspondence: C...
The Analysis of a Deviation of Investment and Corporate Governance.
HISA Shoichi
2008-01-01
Investment of firms is affected by not only fundamentals factors, but liquidity constraint, ownership or corporate structure. Information structure between manager and owner is a significant factor to decide the level of investment, and deviation of investment from optimal condition. The reputation model between manager and owner suggest that the separate of ownership and management may induce the deviation of investment, and indicate that governance structure is important to reduce it. In th...
Large Deviations and a Fluctuation Symmetry for Chaotic Homeomorphisms
Maes, Christian; Verbitskiy, Evgeny
We consider expansive homeomorphisms with the specification property. We give a new simple proof of a large deviation principle for Gibbs measures corresponding to a regular potential and we establish a general symmetry of the rate function for the large deviations of the antisymmetric part, under time-reversal, of the potential. This generalizes the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem to a larger class of chaotic systems.
Perception of midline deviations in smile esthetics by laypersons
Ferreira, Jamille Barros; da Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo; Caetano, Márcia Tereza de Oliveira; da Motta, Andrea Fonseca Jardim; Cury-Saramago, Adriana de Alcantara; Mucha, José Nelson
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the esthetic perception of upper dental midline deviation by laypersons and if adjacent structures influence their judgment. Methods: An album with 12 randomly distributed frontal view photographs of the smile of a woman with the midline digitally deviated was evaluated by 95 laypersons. The frontal view smiling photograph was modified to create from 1 mm to 5 mm deviations in the upper midline to the left side. The photographs were cropped in two different manners and divided into two groups of six photographs each: group LCN included the lips, chin, and two-thirds of the nose, and group L included the lips only. The laypersons performed the rate of each smile using a visual analog scale (VAS). Wilcoxon test, Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney test were applied, adopting a 5% level of significance. Results: Laypersons were able to perceive midline deviations starting at 1 mm. Statistically significant results (p< 0.05) were found for all multiple comparisons of the values in photographs of group LCN and for almost all comparisons in photographs of group L. Comparisons between the photographs of groups LCN and L showed statistically significant values (p< 0.05) when the deviation was 1 mm. Conclusions: Laypersons were able to perceive the upper dental midline deviations of 1 mm, and above when the adjacent structures of the smiles were included. Deviations of 2 mm and above when the lips only were included. The visualization of structures adjacent to the smile demonstrated influence on the perception of midline deviation. PMID:28125140
Perception of midline deviations in smile esthetics by laypersons
Jamille Barros Ferreira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the esthetic perception of upper dental midline deviation by laypersons and if adjacent structures influence their judgment. Methods: An album with 12 randomly distributed frontal view photographs of the smile of a woman with the midline digitally deviated was evaluated by 95 laypersons. The frontal view smiling photograph was modified to create from 1 mm to 5 mm deviations in the upper midline to the left side. The photographs were cropped in two different manners and divided into two groups of six photographs each: group LCN included the lips, chin, and two-thirds of the nose, and group L included the lips only. The laypersons performed the rate of each smile using a visual analog scale (VAS. Wilcoxon test, Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney test were applied, adopting a 5% level of significance. Results: Laypersons were able to perceive midline deviations starting at 1 mm. Statistically significant results (p< 0.05 were found for all multiple comparisons of the values in photographs of group LCN and for almost all comparisons in photographs of group L. Comparisons between the photographs of groups LCN and L showed statistically significant values (p< 0.05 when the deviation was 1 mm. Conclusions: Laypersons were able to perceive the upper dental midline deviations of 1 mm, and above when the adjacent structures of the smiles were included. Deviations of 2 mm and above when the lips only were included. The visualization of structures adjacent to the smile demonstrated influence on the perception of midline deviation.
A phase deviation based split-spectrum processing algorithm for ultrasonic flaw detection
LIU Zhenqing
2002-01-01
The Split Spectrum Processing (SSP) technique has proved its ability in reduction of interference noise in ultrasonic nondestructive testing for coarse grained materials. However,the results of SSP algorithms are not sufficiently stable since they are sensitive to the filter bank and filter parameters. And the mechanism of the technique to fully explore the signals is not clear. The statistical phase response characteristic of filter outputs for ultrasonic testing is discussed. Thus, a new SSP algorithm based on phase standard deviation is proposed. The performance is examined for both computer simulated and experimental data, and compared to commonly used minimum algorithm. The phase standard deviation algorithm is proved its superior effect and is less sensitive on the number of filters.
Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems
Jeffrey Teixeira
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research.
Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems
Teixeira, Jeffrey; Certal, Victor; Chang, Edward T.; Camacho, Macario
2016-01-01
Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE) were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research. PMID:26933510
The skin effect and the yielding behavior of cold chamber high pressure die cast Mg-Al alloys
Yang, K. Vanna [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Materials Engineering School of Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072 (Australia); Caceres, C.H., E-mail: c.caceres@uq.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Materials Engineering School of Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072 (Australia); Nagasekhar, A.V. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Materials Engineering School of Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072 (Australia); Easton, M.A. [CAST Co-operative Research Centre, Department of Materials Engineering Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 3800 (Australia)
2012-04-30
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The area fraction of elastic skin was calculated for a range of Mg-Al alloys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The skin was defined using micro mechanistic concepts and tensile testing data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The elastic constraint imposed by the skin on the core is discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The skin covers {approx}30% of the cross section of the most concentrated alloy. - Abstract: The volume fraction of material that remained elastic as yielding developed in cast-to-shape tensile specimens of binary alloys with Al contents between 0.47 and 11.6 mass% was calculated using the Kocks-Mecking method of analysis. In the most dilute alloys the elastic fraction decreased rapidly to zero at a well-defined stress, suggesting that yielding was uniform across the specimen, whereas in the concentrated ones it decreased gradually over a wide range of stresses, suggesting that yielding developed first in the softer core of the casting while the harder outer layer, or skin, remained elastic. Comparison with specimens of the concentrated alloys which had a surface layer removed showed that the strain hardening behavior of the core resembled that of full specimens of the most dilute alloy. The maximum amount of elastic material in comparison with the most dilute alloy was used to define the area fraction covered by the skin, for each alloy. The skin covered between {approx}10% and {approx}30% of the cross section, the greater values for the concentrated alloys. The skin imposed an elastic constraint that delayed the development of full plasticity at the core.
Pérez-Ramírez, Javier; Abelló, Sònia; van der Pers, Niek M
2007-01-01
The thermal decomposition of Mg-Al hydrotalcite and the subsequent reconstruction of the decomposed products in the presence of water vapor (2 vol. % H(2)O in N(2)) have been investigated by in situ XRD. Thermographic analysis and temperature-programmed desorption MS results complemented the diffraction data. Valuable mechanistic and kinetic insights into these processes, which are of prime importance for optimal activation of this type of material for catalytic applications, were obtained. Hydrotalcite decomposition to the mixed oxide proceeds via formation at 423-473 K of an intermediate phase, consisting of a highly disordered, dehydrated, layered structure. The latter evolves by removal of interlayer water on heating, causing a shrinking of the interlayer space (it is up to 45 % smaller than in the as-synthesized hydrotalcite). Above 623 K, Mg(Al)O(x) oxide with the periclase structure is formed. Reversion of the intermediate dehydrated structure to hydrotalcite upon contact with water vapor is complete and very fast at room temperature. Recovery of hydrotalcite from the oxide calcined at 723 K is two orders of magnitude slower than rehydration of the intermediate layered structure and one order of magnitude slower than the typically practiced liquid-phase reconstruction. In contrast to the decomposition, the reconstruction mechanism does not involve an intermediate phase. The gas-phase rehydration and reconstruction was interrupted above 303 K. This is attributed to the poor wetting of the surface of the decomposed materials induced by hampered H(2)O adsorption above room temperature at the water vapor pressure applied. The Avrami-Erofe'ev model describes the reconstruction kinetics well.
Knowledge of food and drug administration reportable deviations.
Lam, Rebecca; Bryant, Barbara J
2011-07-01
As early as 2001, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required blood centers and hospital transfusion services to report events associated with testing, storage, or distribution of blood products that deviated from current good manufacturing practices or affected the safety, purity, or potency of the product. Between 2004 and 2009, an average of only 8.6% of hospitals reported blood product deviations. Case scenarios designed to evaluate knowledge of FDA reportable deviations were developed and sent for evaluation to the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) and FDA division directors for FDA reportable deviations. A final survey containing eight cases was launched in a web-based online survey tool and sent to blood bank medical technologists. Additional information was queried regarding job title/responsibilities and the size of the blood center and/or transfusion service. There were 176 respondents to the survey. Only 5.7% (10/176) answered all questions correctly. Analysis by job title and place of employment revealed no correlation to the number of correct responses. More importance was attached to deviations involving quality control, blood bank identification, unit specifications, and antibody identification. Less importance was attached to deviations involving phlebotomist's initials, failure to issue units in the computer, and using a recent sample from a previous hospitalization. This study revealed that blood bankers did not have clear understanding of what constituted an FDA reportable occurrence. Size or type of blood establishment or individual job title was not associated with more knowledge of FDA reportable deviations. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.
Investigation on the Combustion Behavior of CMDB Propellant with Mg/Al Alloy%Mg/Al合金对CMDB推进剂燃烧性能的影响
吴雄岗; 宋桂贤; 严启龙; 李笑江; 党永战; 张晓宏
2012-01-01
The particle size and distribution of particle size of Mg/Al were analyzed by Mastersizer. The thermal characterisitics of CDMB propellant were analyzed by TG-DSC. The flame structure was studied by using the burning device and the differences of the flame structure were compared amongst CMDB, Al-CMDB, Mg-CMDB and Mg/Al-CMDB propellants. The surface appearance of the propellant quenched and surface composition were researched by the SEM and EDS. The results show that the Mg/Al alloy has a peak 630.3℃ of the heat of CMDB propellant. The combustion condition of CMDB propellant with Mg/Al is changed. Meanwhile,the metallic Al fuel combustion efficiency is improved.%通过激光粒度仪分析了Mg/Al合金粉的粒径及粒度分布。利用TG-DSC热分析仪分析推进剂的热分解特性。用燃烧实验装置研究了推进剂的火焰结构,并对CMDB,Al-CMDB,Mg-CMDB和Mg/Al-CMDB推进剂四种火焰结构进行比较。用SEM和EDS研究了CMDB推进剂的熄火表面形貌和表面特征组成。结果表明：Mg/Al-CM-DB推进剂在DSC曲线上存在一放热峰660.3℃。Mg/Al合金粉改变了推进剂的燃烧状态,提高金属燃料Al粉的燃烧效率。
Mei, Donghai; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Kovarik, Libor; Wan, Haiying; Albrecht, Karl O.; Gerber, Mark A.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dagle, Robert A.
2014-07-01
In this work we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of stable MgAl2O4 spinel-supported Rh and Ir catalysts for the steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction. Firstly, catalytic performance for a series of noble metal catalysts supported on MgAl2O4 spinel was evaluated for SMR at 600-850°C. Turnover rate at 850°C follows the order: Pd > Pt > Ir > Rh > Ru > Ni. However, Rh and Ir were found to have the best combination of activity and stability for methane steam reforming in the presence of simulated biomass-derived syngas. It was found that highly dispersed ~2 nm Rh and ~1 nm Ir clusters were formed on the MgAl2O4 spinel support. Scanning Transition Electron Microscopy (STEM) images show that excellent dispersion was maintained even under challenging high temperature conditions (e.g. at 850°C in the presence of steam) while Ir and Rh catalysts supported on Al2O3 were observed to sinter at increased rates under the same conditions. These observations were further confirmed by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations which find that ~1 nm Rh and Ir particles (50-atom cluster) bind strongly to the MgAl2O4 surfaces via a redox process leading to a strong metal-support interaction, thus helping anchor the metal clusters and reduce the tendency to sinter. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that these supported smaller Rh and Ir particles have a lower work function than larger more bulk-like ones, which enables them to activate both water and methane more effectively than larger particles, yet have a minimal influence on the relative stability of coke precursors. In addition, theoretical mechanistic studies were used to probe the relationship between structure and reactivity. Consistent with the experimental observations, our theoretical modeling results also suggest that the small spinel-supported Ir particle catalyst is more active than the counterpart of Rh catalyst for SMR. This work was financially supported by the
Jensen, Thomas Nørregaard; Rasmussen, Morten Karstoft; Knudsen, Jan
2015-01-01
The correlation between surface structure, stoichiometry and atomic occupancy of the polar MgAl2O4(100) surface has been studied with an interplay of noncontact atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface x-ray diffraction under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The Al/Mg ratio...... restores to its initial value, the occupancy of all elements increases, and the surface transforms into a well-defined structure with large flat terraces and straight step edges, indicating a restoration of the surface stoichiometry. It is proposed, that the tetrahedral vacancies at these high temperatures...
无
2003-01-01
Based on the phase diagrams and the mass action law in combination with the coexistence theory of metallic melts structure, the calculation model of mass action concentration for Mg-Al, Sr-Al and Ba-Al was built, and their thermodynamic parameters were determined. The agreement between calculated and measured results shows that the model and the determined thermodynamic parameters can reflect the structural characteristics of relevant melts. However, the fact that the thermodynamic parameters from literature don′t give the value agree with the measured result may be due to unconformity of these parameters to real chemical reactions in metallic melts.
Cosolvency and deviations from log-linear solubilization.
Rubino, J T; Yalkowsky, S H
1987-06-01
The solubilities of three nonpolar drugs, phenytoin, diazepam, and benzocaine, have been measured in 14 cosolvent-water binary mixtures. The observed solubilities were examined for deviations from solubilities calculated by the equation log Sm = f log Sc + (1 - f) log Sw, where Sm is the solubility of the drug in the cosolvent-water mixture, Sc is the solubility of the drug in neat cosolvent, f is the volume fraction of cosolvent, and Sw is the solubility of the drug in water. When presented graphically, the patterns of the deviations were similar for all three drugs in mixtures of amphiprotic cosolvents (glycols, polyols, and alcohols) and water as well as nonpolar, aprotic cosolvents (dioxane, triglyme, dimethyl isosorbide) and water. The deviations were positive for phenytoin and benzocaine but negative for diazepam in mixtures of dipolar, aprotic cosolvents (dimethylsulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and dimethylacetamide) and water. The source of the deviations could not consistently be attributed to physical properties of the cosolvent-water mixtures or to alterations in the solute crystal. Similarities between the results of this study and those of previous investigations suggest that changes in the structure of the solvent play a role in the deviations from the expected solubilities.
DYSFUNCTION OF THE MODERN RUSSIAN FAMILY AND PROBLEM OF THE DEVIATING SOCIALIZATION OF TEENAGERS
Tatyana I. BARSUKOVA
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In article influence of dysfunction of the family interpreted by authors as a negative consequence of its transformation, on deviations in socialization of teenagers, in their sotsializatsionnykh trajectories, on a gabitualization of "trouble" is analysed. Locates that violation of functioning of a family (its dysfunction in the attitude towards the teenager can be referred to determinants of deviations of socialization. Negative influence of a disfunktsionalnost of a family on formation of the identity of the modern teenager is shown in his deviant acts of a negative orientation now; forms of deviant behavior in which these deviations, and also consequences of refusal of a number of families of performance of economic and economic and protective functions prove are described. Author's definition of the normal and deviating socialization is presented. Attempt to define border between the normal and deviating socialization, between normal sotsializatsionny process and anomiyny, deformable becomes. By authors of article it is proved that the deviating socialization the deviation from sotsializatsionny norm as multidimensional a standard is the cornerstone, of fiksiruyushchy a sotsializirovannost of the person. Definition of sotsializatsionny norm as interval, as admissible in behavior of people and as its regulator is given. The emphasis is placed on a role of trajectory model of socialization which changes depending on influence of a family on socialization of teenagers. The choice locates in article as object of research of the teenager that at such age some "binarity" of the personality, a combination in it of lines, both the adult, and the child is observed. It, according to authors, complicates a choice the teenager of ethical standards and vital values. Besides, variety of alternatives at a choice of norms and behavior models it is complicated by a polinormativnost of social space of the teenager. The
Deviations of the distributions of seismic energies from the Gutenberg-Richter law
Pisarenko, V; Rodkin, M
2003-01-01
A new non-parametric statistic is introduced for the characterization of deviations from power laws. It is tested on the distribution of seismic energies given by the Gutenberg-Richter law. Based on the two first statistical log-moments, it evaluates quantitatively the deviations of the distribution of scalar seismic moments from a power-like (Pareto) law. This statistic is close to zero for the Pareto law with arbitrary power index, and deviates from zero for any non-Pareto distribution. A version of this statistic for discrete distribution of quantified magnitudes is also given. A methodology based on this statistics consisting in scanning the lower threshold for earthquake energies provides an explicit visualization of deviations from the Pareto law, surpassing in sensitivity the standard Hill estimator or other known techniques. This new statistical technique has been applied to shallow earthquakes (h < 70 km) both in subduction zones and in mid-ocean ridge zones (using the Harvard catalog of seismic m...
Jacobson, Gloria; Rella, Chris; Farinas, Alejandro
2014-05-01
Technological advancement of instrumentation in atmospheric and other geoscience disciplines over the past decade has lead to a shift from discrete sample analysis to continuous, in-situ monitoring. Standard error analysis used for discrete measurements is not sufficient to assess and compare the error contribution of noise and drift from continuous-measurement instruments, and a different statistical analysis approach should be applied. The Allan standard deviation analysis technique developed for atomic clock stability assessment by David W. Allan [1] can be effectively and gainfully applied to continuous measurement instruments. As an example, P. Werle et al has applied these techniques to look at signal averaging for atmospheric monitoring by Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) [2]. This presentation will build on, and translate prior foundational publications to provide contextual definitions and guidelines for the practical application of this analysis technique to continuous scientific measurements. The specific example of a Picarro G2401 Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer used for continuous, atmospheric monitoring of CO2, CH4 and CO will be used to define the basics features the Allan deviation, assess factors affecting the analysis, and explore the time-series to Allan deviation plot translation for different types of instrument noise (white noise, linear drift, and interpolated data). In addition, the useful application of using an Allan deviation to optimize and predict the performance of different calibration schemes will be presented. Even though this presentation will use the specific example of the Picarro G2401 CRDS Analyzer for atmospheric monitoring, the objective is to present the information such that it can be successfully applied to other instrument sets and disciplines. [1] D.W. Allan, "Statistics of Atomic Frequency Standards," Proc, IEEE, vol. 54, pp 221-230, Feb 1966 [2] P. Werle, R. Miicke, F. Slemr, "The Limits
Scaling Deviations for Neutrino Reactions in Aysmptotically Free Field Theories
Wilczek, F. A.; Zee, A.; Treiman, S. B.
1974-11-01
Several aspects of deep inelastic neutrino scattering are discussed in the framework of asymptotically free field theories. We first consider the growth behavior of the total cross sections at large energies. Because of the deviations from strict scaling which are characteristic of such theories the growth need not be linear. However, upper and lower bounds are established which rather closely bracket a linear growth. We next consider in more detail the expected pattern of scaling deviation for the structure functions and, correspondingly, for the differential cross sections. The analysis here is based on certain speculative assumptions. The focus is on qualitative effects of scaling breakdown as they may show up in the X and y distributions. The last section of the paper deals with deviations from the Callan-Gross relation.
Minimizing Hexapod Robot Foot Deviations Using Multilayer Perceptron
Vytautas Valaitis
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Rough-terrain traversability is one of the most valuable characteristics of walking robots. Even despite their slower speeds and more complex control algorithms, walking robots have far wider usability than wheeled or tracked robots. However, efficient movement over irregular surfaces can only be achieved by eliminating all possible difficulties, which in many cases are caused by a high number of degrees of freedom, feet slippage, frictions and inertias between different robot parts or even badly developed inverse kinematics (IK. In this paper we address the hexapod robot-foot deviation problem. We compare the foot-positioning accuracy of unconfigured inverse kinematics and Multilayer Perceptron-based (MLP methods via theory, computer modelling and experiments on a physical robot. Using MLP-based methods, we were able to significantly decrease deviations while reaching desired positions with the hexapod’s foot. Furthermore, this method is able to compensate for deviations of the robot arising from any possible reason.
Exact Large Deviation Function in the Asymmetric Exclusion Process
Derrida, Bernard; Lebowitz, Joel L.
1998-01-01
By an extension of the Bethe ansatz method used by Gwa and Spohn, we obtain an exact expression for the large deviation function of the time averaged current for the fully asymmetric exclusion process in a ring containing N sites and p particles. Using this expression we easily recover the exact diffusion constant obtained earlier and calculate as well some higher cumulants. The distribution of the deviation y of the average current is, in the limit N-->∞, skew and decays like exp-\\(Ay5/2\\) for y-->+∞ and exp-\\(A'\\|y\\|3/2\\) for y-->-∞. Surprisingly, the large deviation function has an expression very similar to the pressure (as a function of the density) of an ideal Bose or Fermi gas in 3D.
Mean-deviation analysis in the theory of choice.
Grechuk, Bogdan; Molyboha, Anton; Zabarankin, Michael
2012-08-01
Mean-deviation analysis, along with the existing theories of coherent risk measures and dual utility, is examined in the context of the theory of choice under uncertainty, which studies rational preference relations for random outcomes based on different sets of axioms such as transitivity, monotonicity, continuity, etc. An axiomatic foundation of the theory of coherent risk measures is obtained as a relaxation of the axioms of the dual utility theory, and a further relaxation of the axioms are shown to lead to the mean-deviation analysis. Paradoxes arising from the sets of axioms corresponding to these theories and their possible resolutions are discussed, and application of the mean-deviation analysis to optimal risk sharing and portfolio selection in the context of rational choice is considered.
Spin-geodesic deviations in the Kerr spacetime
Bini, D.; Geralico, A.
2011-11-01
The dynamics of extended spinning bodies in the Kerr spacetime is investigated in the pole-dipole particle approximation and under the assumption that the spin-curvature force only slightly deviates the particle from a geodesic path. The spin parameter is thus assumed to be very small and the back reaction on the spacetime geometry neglected. This approach naturally leads to solve the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations linearized in the spin variables as well as in the deviation vector, with the same initial conditions as for geodesic motion. General deviations from generic geodesic motion are studied, generalizing previous results limited to the very special case of an equatorial circular geodesic as the reference path.
Spin-geodesic deviations in the Kerr spacetime
Bini, Donato
2014-01-01
The dynamics of extended spinning bodies in the Kerr spacetime is investigated in the pole-dipole particle approximation and under the assumption that the spin-curvature force only slightly deviates the particle from a geodesic path. The spin parameter is thus assumed to be very small and the back reaction on the spacetime geometry neglected. This approach naturally leads to solve the Mathisson-Papapetrou-Dixon equations linearized in the spin variables as well as in the deviation vector, with the same initial conditions as for geodesic motion. General deviations from generic geodesic motion are studied, generalizing previous results limited to the very special case of an equatorial circular geodesic as the reference path.
Large deviation theory for coin tossing and turbulence.
Chakraborty, Sagar; Saha, Arnab; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K
2009-11-01
Large deviations play a significant role in many branches of nonequilibrium statistical physics. They are difficult to handle because their effects, though small, are not amenable to perturbation theory. Even the Gaussian model, which is the usual initial step for most perturbation theories, fails to be a starting point while discussing intermittency in fluid turbulence, where large deviations dominate. Our contention is: in the large deviation theory, the central role is played by the distribution associated with the tossing of a coin and the simple coin toss is the "Gaussian model" of problems where rare events play significant role. We illustrate this by applying it to calculate the multifractal exponents of the order structure factors in fully developed turbulence.
Deviations From Newton's Law in Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions
Callin, P
2006-01-01
Deviations from Newton's Inverse-Squared Law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the Cosmological Constant Problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the Dark Energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant natu...
Heterodyne Angle Deviation Interferometry in Vibration and Bubble Measurements
Ming-Hung Chiu
2016-07-01
Full Text Available We proposed heterodyne angle deviation interferometry (HADI for angle deviation measurements. The phase shift of an angular sensor (which can be a metal film or a surface plasmon resonance (SPR prism is proportional to the deviation angle of the test beam. The method has been demonstrated in bubble and speaker’s vibration measurements in this paper. In the speaker’s vibration measurement, the voltage from the phase channel of a lock-in amplifier includes the vibration level and frequency. In bubble measurement, we can count the number of bubbles passing through the cross section of the laser beam and measure the bubble size from the phase pulse signal.
Deviation of eyes and head in acute cerebral stroke
Ilg UJ
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a well-known phenomenon that some patients with acute left or right hemisphere stroke show a deviation of the eyes (Prévost's sign and head to one side. Here we investigated whether both right- and left-sided brain lesions may cause this deviation. Moreover, we studied the relationship between this phenomenon and spatial neglect. In contrast to previous studies, we determined not only the discrete presence or absence of eye deviation with the naked eye through clinical inspection, but actually measured the extent of horizontal eye-in-head and head-on-trunk deviation. In further contrast, measurements were performed early after stroke onset (1.5 days on average. Methods Eye-in-head and head-on-trunk positions were measured at the bedside in 33 patients with acute unilateral left or right cerebral stroke consecutively admitted to our stroke unit. Results Each single patient with spatial neglect and right hemisphere lesion showed a marked deviation of the eyes and the head to the ipsilesional, right side. The average spontaneous gaze position in this group was 46° right, while it was close to the saggital body midline (0° in the groups with acute left- or right-sided stroke but no spatial neglect as well as in healthy subjects. Conclusion A marked horizontal eye and head deviation observed ~1.5 days post-stroke is not a symptom associated with acute cerebral lesions per se, nor is a general symptom of right hemisphere lesions, but rather is specific for stroke patients with spatial neglect. The evaluation of the patient's horizontal eye and head position thus could serve as a brief and easy way helping to diagnose spatial neglect, in addition to the traditional paper-and-pencil tests.
Moderate Deviation Principles for Stochastic Differential Equations with Jumps
2014-01-15
random measure and an in�nite dimensional Brownian motion) was derived. As in the Brownian motion case, the representation is motivated in part by...deviations of a smaller order than in large deviation theory . Consider for example an independent and identically distributed (iid) sequence fYigi1 of...8217") " E " 1 2 Z X[0;T ] ( ")21fj "jB"gdT + F G "("N " 1’") # " 1 2 3M 2(1); (3.6) where the last inequality follows from (3.5) on
Influence of Deviation on Optical Transmission through Aperiodic Superlattices
YIN Hai-Long; YANG Xiang-Bo; LAN Sheng; HU Wei
2007-01-01
We propose a deviation model and study the influences of the relative error and sensitivity of a machine on the transmission coefficients (TCs) of Fibonacci superlattices. It is found that for a system with fewer layers, the influence of deviation can be ignored. When superlattices become more complicated, they may be fabricated by a machine with suitable relative error and possess the designed value of TC. However, when the number of system layers exceeds some critical value, superlattices should be manufactured only by precise machines. The influence of the sensitivity is also discussed.
Small shape deviations causes complex dynamics in large electric generators
Lundström, Niklas L. P.; Grafström, Anton; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov
2014-05-01
We prove that combinations of small eccentricity, ovality and/or triangularity in the rotor and stator can produce complex whirling motions of an unbalanced rotor in large synchronous generators. It is concluded which structures of shape deviations that are more harmful, in the sense of producing complex whirling motions, than others. For each such structure, we derive simplified equations of motions from which we conclude analytically the relation between shape deviations and mass unbalance that yield non-smooth whirling motions. Finally we discuss validity of our results in the sense of modeling of the unbalanced magnetic pull force.
Sample-path Large Deviations in Credit Risk
Leijdekker, Vincent; Spreij, Peter
2009-01-01
The event of large losses plays an important role in credit risk. As these large losses are typically rare, and portfolios usually consist of a large number of positions, large deviation theory is the natural tool to analyze the tail asymptotics of the probabilities involved. We first derive a sample-path large deviation principle (LDP) for the portfolio's loss process, which enables the computation of the logarithmic decay rate of the probabilities of interest. In addition, we derive exact asymptotic results for a number of specific rare-event probabilities, such as the probability of the loss process exceeding some given function.
UNUSUAL SEXUAL DEVIATIONS IN A YOUNG MAN: A CASE REPORT
John Dinesh
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Sexual deviance in human refers to abnormal sexual expression. Though it is very difficult to exactly say what is normal or abnormal in sexual relationships, some sexual behaviors are clearly documented as abnormal in our society. Paraphilias or perversions are sexual stimuli or acts that are deviations from normal sexual behaviors, but are necessary for some individual’s to experience arousal and orgasm. Here we discuss abnormal sexual deviations in a young married male who presented with just feelings of guilt and without any psychosocial dysfunctions because of his uncommon sexual perversions.
78 FR 2273 - Canned Tuna Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing
2013-01-10
... INFORMATION CONTACT: Loretta A. Carey, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-820), Food and Drug..., and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 341). ] The permit covers limited interstate marketing tests of products... panels on the labels of the test products must bear nutrition labeling in accordance with 21 CFR...
Violation of a temporal Bell inequality for single spins in solid by over 50 standard deviations
Waldherr, G; Huelga, S F; Jelezko, F; Wrachtrup, J
2011-01-01
Quantum non-locality has been experimentally investigated by testing different forms of Bell's inequality, yet a loophole-free realization has not been achieved up to now. Much less explored are temporal Bell inequalities, which are not subject to the locality assumption, but impose a constrain on the system's time-correlations. In this paper, we report on the experimental violation of a temporal Bell's inequality using a nitrogen vacancy defect (NV) in diamond and provide a novel quantitative test of quantum coherence. We therefore present a new technique to initialize the electronic state of the NV with high fidelity, a necessary requirement for reliable quantum information processing and/or the implementation of protocols for quantum metrology.
SNR and Standard Deviation of cGNSS-R and iGNSS-R Scatterometric Measurements.
Alonso-Arroyo, Alberto; Querol, Jorge; Lopez-Martinez, Carlos; Zavorotny, Valery U; Park, Hyuk; Pascual, Daniel; Onrubia, Raul; Camps, Adriano
2017-01-19
This work addresses the accuracy of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) scatterometric measurements considering the presence of both coherent and incoherent scattered components, for both conventional GNSS-R (cGNSS-R) and interferometric GNSS-R (iGNSS-R) techniques. The coherent component is present for some type of surfaces, and it has been neglected until now because it vanishes for the sea surface scattering case. Taking into account the presence of both scattering components, the estimated Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) for both techniques is computed based on the detectability criterion, as it is done in conventional GNSS applications. The non-coherent averaging operation is considered from a general point of view, taking into account that thermal noise contributions can be reduced by an extra factor of 0.88 dB when using partially overlapped or partially correlated samples. After the SNRs are derived, the received waveform's peak variability is computed, which determines the system's capability to measure geophysical parameters. This theoretical derivations are applied to the United Kingdom (UK) TechDemoSat-1 (UK TDS-1) and to the future GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry on board the International Space Station (ISS) (GEROS-ISS) scenarios, in order to estimate the expected scatterometric performance of both missions.
7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.
2010-01-01
... may not have the extra measure of protection needed in areas frequented by eagles and other large...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of this publication may be obtained from the Raptor Research Foundation, Inc... Division, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC, Room 1246-S, and at the National Archives...
Rating Slam Dunks to Visualize the Mean, Median, Mode, Range, and Standard Deviation
Robinson, Nick W.; Castle Bell, Gina
2014-01-01
Among the many difficulties beleaguering the communication research methods instructor is the problem of contextualizing abstract ideas. Comprehension of variable operationalization, the utility of the measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion, and the visual distribution of data sets are difficult, since students have not handled data.…
SNR and Standard Deviation of cGNSS-R and iGNSS-R Scatterometric Measurements
Alberto Alonso-Arroyo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This work addresses the accuracy of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R scatterometric measurements considering the presence of both coherent and incoherent scattered components, for both conventional GNSS-R (cGNSS-R and interferometric GNSS-R (iGNSS-R techniques. The coherent component is present for some type of surfaces, and it has been neglected until now because it vanishes for the sea surface scattering case. Taking into account the presence of both scattering components, the estimated Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR for both techniques is computed based on the detectability criterion, as it is done in conventional GNSS applications. The non-coherent averaging operation is considered from a general point of view, taking into account that thermal noise contributions can be reduced by an extra factor of 0.88 dB when using partially overlapped or partially correlated samples. After the SNRs are derived, the received waveform’s peak variability is computed, which determines the system’s capability to measure geophysical parameters. This theoretical derivations are applied to the United Kingdom (UK TechDemoSat-1 (UK TDS-1 and to the future GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry on board the International Space Station (ISS (GEROS-ISS scenarios, in order to estimate the expected scatterometric performance of both missions.
Endong, Floribert Patrick Calvain
2015-01-01
This paper presents the content analysis of randomly selected print advertising copies partially written in Nigerian Pidgin English (NPE), and used for the promotion of services and products made in Nigeria. It is equally based on a focus group discussion with 15 literate and semi literate users (readers) of these copies. It attempts to show how the writing of advertising copy is complex due to the prevalence of different and personalized spelling systems in the representation of NPE words. I...
Doppler standard deviation imaging for clinical monitoring of in vivo human skin blood flow
Zhao, Yonghua; Chen, Zhongping; Saxer, Christopher; Shen, Qimin; Xiang, Shaohua; Boer, Johannes F. de; Nelson, J. Stuart
2000-09-15
We used a novel phase-resolved optical Doppler tomographic (ODT) technique with very high flow-velocity sensitivity (10 {mu}m/s) and high spatial resolution (10 {mu}m) to image blood flow in port-wine stain (PWS) birthmarks in human skin. In addition to the regular ODT velocity and structural images, we use the variance of blood flow velocity to map the PWS vessels. Our device combines ODT and therapeutic systems such that PWS blood flow can be monitored in situ before and after laser treatment. To the authors' knowledge this is the first clinical application of ODT to provide a fast semiquantitative evaluation of the efficacy of PWS laser therapy in situ and in real time. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America.
Li, Shuo [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), 29 Xueyuan Road, Haidian Distract, Beijing 100083 (China); Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- & Nanotechnology and Biomimetics (NLBB), The Ohio State University, 201 W. 19th Avenue Columbus, OH 43210-1142 (United States); Bhushan, Bharat, E-mail: bhushan.2@osu.edu [Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- & Nanotechnology and Biomimetics (NLBB), The Ohio State University, 201 W. 19th Avenue Columbus, OH 43210-1142 (United States)
2016-08-15
Highlights: • Mg/Al-, Zn/Al- and Zn/Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide were synthesized. • Mg/Al-LDH had superior tribological performance compared to other LDHs. • The best thermal stability of Mg/Al-LDH was responsible for its friction property. - Abstract: Solid lubricant particles are commonly used as oil additives for low friction and wear. Mg/Al-, Zn/Al-, and Zn/Mg/Al-layered double hydroxides (LDH) were synthesized by coprecipitation method. The benefits of LDH nanoparticles are that they can be synthesized using chemical methods where size and shape can be controlled, and can be modified organically to allow dispersal in fluids. The LDH nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry. A pin-on-disk friction and wear tester was used for evaluating the friction and wear properties of LDH nanoparticles as lubricant additives. LDH nanoparticles have friction-reducing and anti-wear properties compared to oil without LDHs. Mg/Al-LDH has the best lubrication, possibly due to better thermal stability in severe conditions.
Luminescence of Ba0.85MgAl10O16.94:Eu0.09:2+ with different fluxes
Deng Chao-Yong; He Da-Wei; Zhuang Wei-Dong; Wang Yong-Sheng; Kang Kai; Huang Xiao-Wei
2004-01-01
BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+, known as BAM, is a very important blue-emitting phosphor used in plasma display panels (PDP) and three band fluorescent lamps. In this paper, the Ba0.85MgAl10O16.94:Eu0.092+ phosphors with different fluxes (BaF2, MgF2, AlF3, BaCl2, MgCl2, AlCl3, H3BO3) were prepared by high temperature solid-state reaction method and the influence of different fluxes on the luminescence of Ba0.85MgAl10O16.94:Eu0.09 phosphor was studied under 254nm excitation and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation. It was found that fluorides have better flux effects than chlorides and H3BO3. The mechanism of particle growth in the presence of flux in the process of phosphor preparation is discussed in detail. Particle size distribution and the crystal structure of the phosphors are also analysed.
Non-contact atomic force microscopy study of hydroxyl groups on the spinel MgAl2O4(100) surface.
Federici Canova, F; Foster, A S; Rasmussen, M K; Meinander, K; Besenbacher, F; Lauritsen, J V
2012-08-17
Atom-resolved non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) studies of the magnesium aluminate (MgAl(2)O(4)) surface have revealed that, contrary to expectations, the (100) surface is terminated by an aluminum and oxygen layer. Theoretical studies have suggested that hydrogen plays a strong role in stabilizing this surface through the formation of surface hydroxyl groups, but the previous studies did not discuss in depth the possible H configurations, the diffusion behaviour of hydrogen atoms and how the signature of adsorbed H is reflected in atom-resolved NC-AFM images. In this work, we combine first principles calculations with simulated and experimental NC-AFM images to investigate the role of hydrogen on the MgAl(2)O(4)(100) surface. By means of surface energy calculations based on density functional theory, we show that the presence of hydrogen adsorbed on the surface as hydroxyl groups is strongly predicted by surface stability considerations at all relevant partial pressures of H(2) and O(2). We then address the question of how such adsorbed hydrogen atoms are reflected in simulated NC-AFM images for the most stable surface hydroxyl groups, and compare with experimental atom-resolved NC-AFM data. In the appendices we provide details of the methods used to simulate NC-AFM using first principles methods and a virtual AFM.
Aruga, T; Ohmichi, T; Okayasu, S; Kazumata, Y; Jitsukawa, S
2002-01-01
Samples of polycrystalline ceramics of MgAl sub 2 O sub 4 irradiated at the ambient temperature with 85 MeV I sup 7 sup + iodine ions to doses up to 1x10 sup 1 sup 9 m sup - sup 2 is observed to be amorphized up to depths around 6 mu m from the ion-incident surface for a dose of 1.2x10 sup 1 sup 9 m sup - sup 2 , through a cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. A step height of 1 mu m is formed across the border between the masked and irradiated regions of the surface. The height of the step is observed to increase sharply from the irradiated area towards the edge at the border, forming a peak as tall as 1.5 mu m. A glossy, silver-gray film with a thickness less than 0.1 mu m is unexpectedly observed to have formed on the surface of samples of MgAl sub 2 O sub 4 and MgO, in about 3.5 years aging after the irradiation to 1.2x10 sup 1 sup 9 m sup - sup 2 , being left untouched in the air. The film is easily peeled off along grain boundaries and found to be amorphous from the electron diffraction patt...
Wiss, T
1999-01-01
Magnesium aluminum spinel (MgAl sub 2 O sub 4) is a material selected as a possible matrix for transmutation of minor actinides by neutron capture or fission in nuclear reactors. To study the radiation stability of this inert matrix, especially against fission product impact, irradiations with heavy energetic ions or clusters have been performed. The high electronic energy losses of the heavy ions in this material led to the formation of visible tracks as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy for 30 MeV C sub 6 sub 0 -Buckminster fullerenes and for ions of energy close to or higher than fission energy ( sup 2 sup 0 sup 9 Bi with 120 MeV and 2.38 GeV energy). The irradiations at high energies showed a pronounced degradation of the spinel. Additionally, MgAl sub 2 O sub 4 exhibited a large swelling for irradiation at high fluences with fission products of fission energy (here I-ions of 72 MeV) and at temperatures <= 500 deg. C. These observations are discussed from the technological point of view in ...
Tada, K.; Watanabe, M.; Tachi, Y.; Kurishita, H.; Nagata, S.; Shikama, T.
2016-04-01
Fracture toughness of silicon nitride (Si3N4), magnesia-alumina spinel (MgAl2O4) and yttria stabilized zirconia (8 mol%Y2O3-ZrO2) was evaluated by the Vickers-indentation technique after the fast reactor irradiation up to 55 dpa (displacement per atom) at about 700 °C in the Joyo. The change of the fracture toughness by the irradiation was correlated with nanostructural evolution by the irradiation, which was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The observed degradation of fracture toughness in Si3N4 is thought to be due to the relatively high density of small-sized of the irradiation induced defects, which should be resulted from a large amount of transmutation gases of hydrogen and helium. Observed improvement of fracture toughness in MgAl2O4 was due to the blocking of crack propagation by the antiphase boundaries. The radiation effects affected the fracture toughness of yttria stabilized zirconia at 55 dpa, suggesting that the generated high density voids would affect the propagation of cracks.
Han Bingqiang
2011-12-01
Full Text Available MgAl2O4–W composite was synthesized by aluminothermic reducing method using Al, WO3, MgO and corundum as raw materials under coke protection. The effects of temperature, content of corundum on the synthesis of MgAl2O4–W composite and lattice parameter of spinel has been discussed. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric (TG analysis indicated that spinel began to form at 1058.2°C without corundum and shifted to 1120.7°C with 0.8 mol of corundum. The XRD analysis confirmed that spinel and tungsten are the main phases under coke protection. Alumina rich spinel with a high solubility of alumina was easily formed because of the high exothermic heats. The solubility limit of Al2O3 in spinel is reached when corundum content is 2.1 mol. Furthermore, the calculated lattice parameter of spinel increases with the increment of added corundum content and rising of temperature. Microstructural observation indicates that cubic tungsten located at grain boundaries of well crystallized spinel. Residual WO3 has needle like morphology.
Dynamic deviation Volterra predistorter designed for linearizing power amplifiers
2011-01-01
Polynomial models of predistorter combined by the "black box" principle have been considered. A Volterra model using one-dimensional dynamic deviation was proposed. An adaptive predistorter was synthesized for linearizing the Wiener–Hammerstein model of power amplifiers. Estimates of the linearization accuracy and a comparative analysis of predistorter models were also presented.
A Positional Deviation Sensor for Training of Robots
Fredrik Dessen
1988-04-01
Full Text Available A device for physically guiding a robot manipulator through its task is described. It consists of inductive, contact-free positional deviation sensors. The sensor will be used in high performance sensory control systems. The paper describes problems concerning multi-dimensional, non-linear measurement functions and the design of the servo control system.
Large Deviation for Supercritical Branching Processes with Immigration
Jing Ning LIU; Mei ZHANG
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study the large deviation for a supercritical branching process with immigration controlled by a sequence of non-negative integer-valued independently identical distributed random variables, improving the previous results for non immigration processes. We rely heavily on the detail description and limit property of the generating function of immigration processes.
9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.
2010-01-01
... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY...) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned product that addresses hazards associated... (d) of this section. (c) (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan...
Current Large Deviations for Asymmetric Exclusion Processes with Open Boundaries
Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.
2006-04-01
We study the large deviation functional of the current for the Weakly Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process in contact with two reservoirs. We compare this functional in the large drift limit to the one of the Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process, in particular to the Jensen-Varadhan functional. Conjectures for generalizing the Jensen-Varadhan functional to open systems are also stated.
48 CFR 2901.403 - Individual deviations from the FAR.
2010-10-01
... the FAR. 2901.403 Section 2901.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and DOLAR 2901.403 Individual... provisions (see FAR 1.403) or DOLAR provisions, which affect only one contracting action, unless FAR...
Freidlin-Wentzell's Large Deviations for Stochastic Evolution Equations
Ren, Jiagang; Zhang, Xicheng
2008-01-01
We prove a Freidlin-Wentzell large deviation principle for general stochastic evolution equations with small perturbation multiplicative noises. In particular, our general result can be used to deal with a large class of quasi linear stochastic partial differential equations, such as stochastic porous medium equations and stochastic reaction diffusion equations with polynomial growth zero order term and $p$-Laplacian second order term.
Process Measurement Deviation Analysis for Flow Rate due to Miscalibration
Oh, Eunsuk; Kim, Byung Rae; Jeong, Seog Hwan; Choi, Ji Hye; Shin, Yong Chul; Yun, Jae Hee [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
An analysis was initiated to identify the root cause, and the exemption of high static line pressure correction to differential pressure (DP) transmitters was one of the major deviation factors. Also the miscalibrated DP transmitter range was identified as another major deviation factor. This paper presents considerations to be incorporated in the process flow measurement instrumentation calibration and the analysis results identified that the DP flow transmitter electrical output decreased by 3%. Thereafter, flow rate indication decreased by 1.9% resulting from the high static line pressure correction exemption and measurement range miscalibration. After re-calibration, the flow rate indication increased by 1.9%, which is consistent with the analysis result. This paper presents the brief calibration procedures for Rosemount DP flow transmitter, and analyzes possible three cases of measurement deviation including error and cause. Generally, the DP transmitter is required to be calibrated with precise process input range according to the calibration procedure provided for specific DP transmitter. Especially, in case of the DP transmitter installed in high static line pressure, it is important to correct the high static line pressure effect to avoid the inherent systematic error for Rosemount DP transmitter. Otherwise, failure to notice the correction may lead to indicating deviation from actual value.
Vertex deviation maps to bracked the Milky Way resonant radius
Roca-Fàbrega, S.; Antoja, T.; Figueras, F.; Valenzuela, O.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Pichardo, B.
2015-05-01
We map the kinematics of stars in simulated galaxy disks with spiral arms using the velocity ellipsoid vertex deviation (l_v). We use test particle simulations, and for the first time, fully self-consistent high resolution N-body models. We compare our maps with the Tight Winding Approximation model analytical predictions. We see that for all barred models spiral arms rotate closely to a rigid body manner and the vertex deviation values correlate with the density peaks position bounded by overdense and underdense regions. In such cases, vertex deviation sign changes from negative to positive when crossing the spiral arms in the direction of disk rotation, in regions where the spiral arms are in between corotation (CR) and the Outer Lindblad Resonance (OLR). By contrast, when the arm sections are inside the CR and outside the OLR, l_v changes from negative to positive.We propose that measurements of the vertex deviations pattern can be used to trace the position of the main resonances of the spiral arms. We propose that this technique might exploit future data from Gaia and APOGEE surveys. For unbarred N-body simulations with spiral arms corotating with disk material at all radii, our analysis suggests that no clear correlation exists between l_v and density structures.
Optical vibration and deviation measurement of rotating machine parts
无
2008-01-01
It is of interest to get appropriate information about the dynamic behaviour of rotating machinery parts in service. This paper presents an approach of optical vibration and deviation measurement of such parts. Essential of this method is an image derotator combined with a high speed camera or a laser doppler vibrometer (LDV).
The one-shot deviation principle for sequential rationality
Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte
1996-01-01
We present a decentralization result which is useful for practical and theoretical work with sequential equilibrium, perfect Bayesian equilibrium, and related equilibrium concepts for extensive form games. A weak consistency condition is sufficient to obtain an analogy to the well known One-Stage......-Stage-Deviation Principle for subgame perfect equilibrium...
An experimental study of credible deviations and ACDC
de Groot Ruiz, A.; Offerman, T.; Onderstal, S.
2011-01-01
We test the Average Credible Deviation Criterion (ACDC), a stability measure and refinement for cheap talk equilibria introduced in De Groot Ruiz, Offerman & Onderstal (2011b). ACDC has been shown to be predictive under general conditions and to organize data well in previous experiments meant to te
International asset pricing under segmentation and PPP deviations
Chaieb, I.; Errunza, V.
2007-01-01
We analyze the impact of both purchasing power parity (PPP) deviations and market segmentation on asset pricing and investor's portfolio holdings. The freely traded securities command a world market risk premium and an inflation risk premium. The securities that can be held by only a subset of
Dispersion in Rectangular Networks: Effective Diffusivity and Large-Deviation Rate Function
Tzella, Alexandra; Vanneste, Jacques
2016-09-01
The dispersion of a diffusive scalar in a fluid flowing through a network has many applications including to biological flows, porous media, water supply, and urban pollution. Motivated by this, we develop a large-deviation theory that predicts the evolution of the concentration of a scalar released in a rectangular network in the limit of large time t ≫1 . This theory provides an approximation for the concentration that remains valid for large distances from the center of mass, specifically for distances up to O (t ) and thus much beyond the O (t1 /2) range where a standard Gaussian approximation holds. A byproduct of the approach is a closed-form expression for the effective diffusivity tensor that governs this Gaussian approximation. Monte Carlo simulations of Brownian particles confirm the large-deviation results and demonstrate their effectiveness in describing the scalar distribution when t is only moderately large.
Confusing Sterile Neutrinos with Deviation from Tribimaximal Mixing at Neutrino Telescopes
Awasthi, Ram Lal
2007-01-01
We expound the impact of extra sterile species on the ultra high energy neutrino fluxes in neutrino telescopes. We use three types of well-known flux ratios and compare the values of these flux ratios in presence of sterile neutrinos, with those predicted by deviation from the tribimaximal mixing scheme. We show that in neutrino telescopes, its easy to confuse between the signature of sterile neutrinos with that of the deviation from tribimaximal mixing. We also show that if the measured flux ratios acquire a value well outside the range predicted by the standard scenario with three active neutrinos only, it might be possible to tell the presence of extra sterile neutrinos by observing ultra high energy neutrinos in the upcoming neutrino telescopes.
MUSiC - A Generic Search for Deviations from Monte Carlo Predictions in CMS
Hof, Carsten
2009-05-01
We present a model independent analysis approach, systematically scanning the data for deviations from the Standard Model Monte Carlo expectation. Such an analysis can contribute to the understanding of the CMS detector and the tuning of the event generators. Furthermore, due to the minimal theoretical bias this approach is sensitive to a variety of models of new physics, including those not yet thought of. Events are classified into event classes according to their particle content (muons, electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy). A broad scan of various distributions is performed, identifying significant deviations from the Monte Carlo simulation. We outline the importance of systematic uncertainties, which are taken into account rigorously within the algorithm. Possible detector effects and generator issues, as well as models involving supersymmetry and new heavy gauge bosons have been used as an input to the search algorithm.
Comparison of setup deviations for two thermoplastic immobilization masks in glottis cancer
Jung, Jae Hong [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2017-03-15
The purpose of this study was compare to the patient setup deviation of two different type thermoplastic immobilization masks for glottis cancer in the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A total of 16 glottis cancer cases were divided into two groups based on applied mask type: standard or alternative group. The mean error (M), three-dimensional setup displacement error (3D-error), systematic error (Σ), random error (σ) were calculated for each group, and also analyzed setup margin (mm). The 3D-errors were 5.2 ± 1.3 mm and 5.9 ± 0.7 mm for the standard and alternative groups, respectively; the alternative group was 13.6% higher than the standard group. The systematic errors in the roll angle and the x, y, z directions were 0.8°, 1.7 mm, 1.0 mm, and 1.5 mm in the alternative group and 0.8°, 1.1 mm, 1.8 mm, and 2.0 mm in the alternative group. The random errors in the x, y, z directions were 10.9%, 1.7%, and 23.1% lower in the alternative group than in the standard group. However, absolute rotational angle (i.e., roll) in the alternative group was 12.4% higher than in the standard group. For calculated setup margin, the alternative group in x direction was 31.8% lower than in standard group. In contrast, the y and z direction were 52.6% and 21.6% higher than in the standard group. Although using a modified thermoplastic immobilization mask could be affect patient setup deviation in terms of numerical results, various point of view for an immobilization masks has need to research in terms of clinic issue.
Deviation from the superparamagnetic behaviour of fine-particle systems
Malaescu, I
2000-01-01
Studies concerning superparamagnetic behaviour of fine magnetic particle systems were performed using static and radiofrequency measurements, in the range 1-60 MHz. The samples were: a ferrofluid with magnetite particles dispersed in kerosene (sample A), magnetite powder (sample B) and the same magnetite powder dispersed in a polymer (sample C). Radiofrequency measurements indicated a maximum in the imaginary part of the complex magnetic susceptibility, for each of the samples, at frequencies with the magnitude order of tens of MHz, the origin of which was assigned to Neel-type relaxation processes. The static measurements showed a Langevin-type dependence of magnetisation M and of susceptibility chi, on the magnetic field for sample A. For samples B and C deviations from this type of dependence were found. These deviations were analysed qualitatively and explained in terms of the interparticle interactions, dispersion medium influence and surface effects.
Geodesics and Geodesic Deviation for Impulsive Gravitational Waves
Steinbauer, R
1998-01-01
The geometry of impulsive pp-waves is explored via the analysis of the geodesic and geodesic deviation equation using the distributional form of the metric. The geodesic equation involves formally ill-defined products of distributions due to the nonlinearity of the equations and the presence of the Dirac delta distribution. Thus, strictly speaking, it cannot be treated within Schwartz's linear theory of distributions. To cope with this problem we proceed by first regularizing the delta singularity, then solving the regularized equation within classical smooth functions and, finally, obtaining a distributional, regularization-idependent limit as solution to the original problem. We also treat the Jacobi equation which, despite being linear in the deviation vector field, involves even more delicate singular expressions, like the ``square'' of the delta distribution. Again the same regularization procedure provides us with a perfectly well behaved smooth regularization and a regularization-independent distributi...
Deviations in delineated GTV caused by artefacts in 4DCT
Persson, Gitte Fredberg; Nygaard, Ditte Eklund; Brink, Carsten;
2010-01-01
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) is used for breathing-adapted radiotherapy planning. Irregular breathing, large tumour motion or interpolation of images can cause artefacts in the 4DCT. This study evaluates the impact of artefacts on gross tumour volume (GTV......) size. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 19 4DCT scans of patients with peripheral lung tumours, GTV was delineated in all bins. Variations in GTV size between bins in each 4DCT scan were analysed and correlated to tumour motion and variations in breathing signal amplitude and breathing signal period. End......-expiration GTV size (GTVexp) was considered as reference for GTV size. Intra-session delineation error was estimated by re-delineation of GTV in eight of the 4DCT scans. RESULTS: In 16 of the 4DCT scans the maximum deviations from GTVexp were larger than could be explained by delineation error. The deviations...
Large Deviations for the Macroscopic Motion of an Interface
Birmpa, P.; Dirr, N.; Tsagkarogiannis, D.
2017-03-01
We study the most probable way an interface moves on a macroscopic scale from an initial to a final position within a fixed time in the context of large deviations for a stochastic microscopic lattice system of Ising spins with Kac interaction evolving in time according to Glauber (non-conservative) dynamics. Such interfaces separate two stable phases of a ferromagnetic system and in the macroscopic scale are represented by sharp transitions. We derive quantitative estimates for the upper and the lower bound of the cost functional that penalizes all possible deviations and obtain explicit error terms which are valid also in the macroscopic scale. Furthermore, using the result of a companion paper about the minimizers of this cost functional for the macroscopic motion of the interface in a fixed time, we prove that the probability of such events can concentrate on nucleations should the transition happen fast enough.
Magnetic Elements at Finite Temperature and Large Deviation Theory
Kohn, R. V.; Reznikoff, M. G.; vanden-Eijnden, E.
2005-08-01
We investigate thermally activated phenomena in micromagnetics using large deviation theory and concepts from stochastic resonance. We give a natural mathematical definition of finite-temperature astroids, finite-temperature hysteresis loops, etc. Generically, these objects emerge when the (generalized) Arrhenius timescale governing the thermally activated barrier crossing event of magnetic switching matches the timescale at which the magnetic element is pulsed or ramped by an external field; in the special and physically relevant case of multiple-pulse experiments, on the other hand, short-time switching can lead to non-Arrhenius behavior. We show how large deviation theory can be used to explain some properties of the astroids, like their shrinking and sharpening as the number of applied pulses is increased. We also investigate the influence of the dynamics, in particular the relative importance of the gyromagnetic and the damping terms. Finally, we discuss some issues and open questions regarding spatially nonuniform magnetization.
Distributed Detection over Time Varying Networks: Large Deviations Analysis
Bajovic, Dragana; Xavier, Joao; Sinopoli, Bruno; Moura, Jose M F
2010-01-01
We apply large deviations theory to study asymptotic performance of running consensus distributed detection in sensor networks. Running consensus is a stochastic approximation type algorithm, recently proposed. At each time step k, the state at each sensor is updated by a local averaging of the sensor's own state and the states of its neighbors (consensus) and by accounting for the new observations (innovation). We assume Gaussian, spatially correlated observations. We allow the underlying network be time varying, provided that the graph that collects the union of links that are online at least once over a finite time window is connected. This paper shows through large deviations that, under stated assumptions on the network connectivity and sensors' observations, the running consensus detection asymptotically approaches in performance the optimal centralized detection. That is, the Bayes probability of detection error (with the running consensus detector) decays exponentially to zero as k goes to infinity at...
Contiguous Uniform Deviation for Multiple Linear Regression in Pattern Recognition
Andriana, A. S.; Prihatmanto, D.; Hidaya, E. M. I.; Supriana, I.; Machbub, C.
2017-01-01
Understanding images by recognizing its objects is still a challenging task. Face elements detection has been developed by researchers but not yet shows enough information (low resolution in information) needed for recognizing objects. Available face recognition methods still have error in classification and need a huge amount of examples which may still be incomplete. Another approach which is still rare in understanding images uses pattern structures or syntactic grammars describing shape detail features. Image pixel values are also processed as signal patterns which are approximated by mathematical function curve fitting. This paper attempts to add contiguous uniform deviation method to curve fitting algorithm to increase applicability in image recognition system related to object movement. The combination of multiple linear regression and contiguous uniform deviation method are applied to the function of image pixel values, and show results in higher resolution (more information) of visual object detail description in object movement.
Observable Deviations from Homogeneity in an Inhomogeneous Universe
Giblin, John T; Starkman, Glenn D
2016-01-01
How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer's sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.
Large Deviation Principle for Benedicks-Carleson Quadratic Maps
Chung, Yong Moo; Takahasi, Hiroki
2012-11-01
Since the pioneering works of Jakobson and Benedicks & Carleson and others, it has been known that a positive measure set of quadratic maps admit invariant probability measures absolutely continuous with respect to Lebesgue. These measures allow one to statistically predict the asymptotic fate of Lebesgue almost every initial condition. Estimating fluctuations of empirical distributions before they settle to equilibrium requires a fairly good control over large parts of the phase space. We use the sub-exponential slow recurrence condition of Benedicks & Carleson to build induced Markov maps of arbitrarily small scale and associated towers, to which the absolutely continuous measures can be lifted. These various lifts together enable us to obtain a control of recurrence that is sufficient to establish a level 2 large deviation principle, for the absolutely continuous measures. This result encompasses dynamics far from equilibrium, and thus significantly extends presently known local large deviations results for quadratic maps.
Large deviations for stochastic flows and their applications
GAO; Fuqing(
2001-01-01
［1］Yoshida, N., A large deviation principle for (r,p)-capacities on the Wiener space, Proba. Th. Rel. Fields, 1993, 94:473-488.［2］Gao, F. Q., Large deviations of (r,p)-capacities for diffusion processes, Advances in Math. (in Chinese), 1996, 25:500-509.［3］Millet, A., Nualart, D., Sanz, M., Large deviations for a class of anticipating stochastic differential equations, Ann.Prob.. 1993, 20: 1902-1931.［4］Millet, A., Nualart, D., Sans, M., Composition of large deviation principles and applications, in Stochastic Analysis (ed.Mayer, E. ), San Diego: Academic Press, 1991, 383-395.［5］Ocone, D., Pardoux, E., A generalized Ito-Ventzell formula, Applications to a class of anticipating stochastic differentialequations, Ann. Inst. Poincaré, Sect. B, 1989, 25: 39-71.［6］Malliavin, P., Nualart, D., Quasi sure analysis of stochastic flows and Banach space valued smooth functionals on the Wiener space, J. Funct. Anal., 1993, 112: 287-317.［7］Huang, Z., Ren, J. , Quasi sure stochastic flows, Stoch. Stoch. Rep. , 1990, 33: 149-157.［8］Gao, E. Q., Large deviations for diffusion processes in Hslder norm, Advances in Math. (in Chinese), 1997, 26: 147-158.［9］Arous, B. G. , Ledoux, M., Grandes déviations sur la déviations de Freidlin-Wentzell en norme holderienne, 1994, Lecr.Notes in Math. , 1994, 987: 1583.［10］Baldi, P. , Sanz, M. , Une remarque sur la théorie des grandes deviations, Lect. Notes Math., 1991, 1485: 345-348.［11］Airault, H., Malliavin, P., Intégration géometrique sur l'espace de Wiener, Bull. Sci. Math., 1988, 112: 3-52.［12］Ikeda, N. , Watanabe, S., Stochastic Differential Equations and Diffusion Processes, 2nd ed., Amsterdam-Kodansha-Tokyo:North-Holland, 1988.［13］Malliavin, P., Stochastic Analysis, Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften 313, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1997.［14］Brzezniak, Z., Elworthy, K. D., Stochastic flows of diffeomorphism. In Stochastic Analysis and Applications (eds. Davies,I. M.. Truman
Kameda, Tomohito; Yamazaki, Takashi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki
2010-05-01
Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (Mg-Al LDHs) intercalated with 1,3,6-naphthalenetrisulfonate (NTS 3-) and 3-amino-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonate (ANDS 2-) ions were prepared by coprecipitation and were characterized by X-ray diffraction and chemical analyses. Based on X-ray diffraction patterns, the naphthalene rings of NTS 3- and ANDS 2- were most likely oriented parallel to the brucite-like host layers of the Mg-Al LDH, midway between layers. The prepared Mg-Al LDHs were able to selectively take up aromatics from aqueous solutions, and the order of percentage uptake was as follows: 1,3-dinitrobenzene > nitrobenzene > benzaldehyde > N,N-dimethylaniline > anisole > 1,2-dimethoxybenzene. The differences in the extent of π-π stacking interactions occurring between the benzene rings of the aromatics and the naphthalene ring of the intercalated NTS 3- and ANDS 2- probably resulted in these differences among the absorbed quantities of the various aromatics.
Moderate deviations for the eigenvalue counting function of Wigner matrices
Doering, Hanna
2011-01-01
We establish a moderate deviation principle (MDP) for the number of eigenvalues of a Wigner matrix in an interval. The proof relies on fine asymptotics of the variance of the eigenvalue counting function of GUE matrices due to Gustavsson. The extension to large families of Wigner matrices is based on the Tao and Vu Four Moment Theorem and applies localization results by Erd\\"os, Yau and Yin. Moreover we investigate families of covariance matrices as well.
Maritime Group Motion Analysis: Representation, Learning, Recognition, and Deviation Detection
2017-02-01
Maritime Group Motion Analysis : Representation, Learning, Recognition, and Deviation Detection § Allen Waxman MultiSensor Scientific, LLC...while the authors were employed by, or sub-contractors of, Intelligent Software Solutions, Inc., of Colorado Springs, CO, USA, funded under contract...reading the PDF file of this manuscript.) Abstract - This paper introduces new concepts and methods in the analysis of group motions over extended
OSMOSIS: A CAUSE OF APPARENT DEVIATIONS FROM DARCY'S LAW.
Olsen, Harold W.
1985-01-01
This review of the existing evidence shows that osmosis causes intercepts in flow rate versus hydraulic gradient relationships that are consistent with the observed deviations from Darcy's law at very low gradients. Moreover, it is suggested that a natural cause of osmosis in laboratory samples could be chemical reactions such as those involved in aging effects. This hypothesis is analogous to the previously proposed occurrence of electroosmosis in nature generated by geochemical weathering reactions. Refs.
Large Deviation Functional of the Weakly Asymmetric Exclusion Process
Enaud, C.; Derrida, B.
2004-02-01
We obtain the large deviation functional of a density profile for the asymmetric exclusion process of L sites with open boundary conditions when the asymmetry scales like 1/L. We recover as limiting cases the expressions derived recently for the symmetric (SSEP) and the asymmetric (ASEP) cases. In the ASEP limit, the non linear differential equation one needs to solve can be analysed by a method which resembles the WKB method.
Probing the deviation from maximal mixing of atmospheric neutrinos
Choubey, S; Choubey, Sandhya; Roy, Probir
2006-01-01
Pioneering atmospheric muon neutrino experiments have demonstrated the near-maximal magnitude of the flavor mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$. But the precise value of the deviation $D \\equiv 1/2 - \\sin^2 \\theta_{23}$ from maximality (if nonzero) needs to be known, being of great interest -- especially to builders of neutrino mass and mixing models. We quantitatively investigate in a three generation framework the feasibility of determining $D$ in a statistically significant manner from studies of the atmospheric $\
Predictive visual tracking based on least absolute deviation estimation
Rongtai Cai; Yanjie Wang
2008-01-01
To cope with the occlusion and intersection between targets and the environment, location prediction is employed in the visual tracking system. Target trace is fitted by sliding subsection polynomials based on least absolute deviation (LAD) estimation, and the future location of target is predicted with the fitted trace. Experiment results show that the proposed location prediction algorithm based on LAD estimation has significant robustness advantages over least square (LS) estimation, and it is more effective than LS-based methods in visual tracking.
Detecting deviations from pure EOF during CE separations.
O'Grady, John F; Noonan, Kathryn Y; McDonnell, Patrick; Mancuso, Aaron J; Frederick, Kimberley A
2007-07-01
CE separations are known for their high separation efficiencies. In systems with EOF, the high efficiencies benefit from the flat, plug profile that is characteristic of EOF. When a velocity gradient is present, such as in separations which have nonuniform buffer ionic strength, surface adsorption or differences in the height of the ends of the capillary, a parabolic flow component is introduced. This deviation from purely EOF yields increased peak dispersion and a subsequent decrease in separation performance. This work details a rapid method for detecting deviations from ideal plug flow during the course of a separation using the radially averaged flow profile of a photobleached fluorophore added to the BGE. By comparing the ratio of two different data analysis procedures, deviations from ideal plug flow can be detected. This method allows rapid measurement of flow character and does not interfere with the concurrent separation. We demonstrate easy detection of the onset of hydrodynamic flow induced by both gravity siphoning and an ionic strength buffer discontinuity. A brief analysis of the radially averaged peak shapes is also presented.
Geometric deviation modeling by kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate
Liu, Weidong; Hu, Yueming; Liu, Yu; Dai, Wanyi
2015-09-01
Typical representation of dimension and geometric accuracy is limited to the self-representation of dimension and geometric deviation based on geometry variation thinking, yet the interactivity affection of geometric variation and gesture variation of multi-rigid body is not included. In this paper, a kinematic matrix model based on Lagrangian coordinate is introduced, with the purpose of unified model for geometric variation and gesture variation and their interactive and integrated analysis. Kinematic model with joint, local base and movable base is built. The ideal feature of functional geometry is treated as the base body; the fitting feature of functional geometry is treated as the adjacent movable body; the local base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the ideal geometry, and the movable base of the kinematic model is fixed onto the fitting geometry. Furthermore, the geometric deviation is treated as relative location or rotation variation between the movable base and the local base, and it's expressed by the Lagrangian coordinate. Moreover, kinematic matrix based on Lagrangian coordinate for different types of geometry tolerance zones is constructed, and total freedom for each kinematic model is discussed. Finally, the Lagrangian coordinate library, kinematic matrix library for geometric deviation modeling is illustrated, and an example of block and piston fits is introduced. Dimension and geometric tolerances of the shaft and hole fitting feature are constructed by kinematic matrix and Lagrangian coordinate, and the results indicate that the proposed kinematic matrix is capable and robust in dimension and geometric tolerances modeling.
PROBABILISTIC MEASURES FOR INTERESTINGNESS OF DEVIATIONS – A SURVEY
Adnan Masood
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Association rule mining has long being plagued with the problem of finding meaningful, actionable knowledge from the large set of rules. In this age of data deluge with modern computing capabilities, we gather, distribute, and store information in vast amounts from diverse data sources. With such data profusion, the core knowledge discovery problem becomes efficient data retrieval rather than simply finding heaps of information. The most common approach is to employ measures of rule interestingness to filter the results of the association rule generation process. However, study of literature suggests that interestingness is difficult to define quantitatively and can be best summarized as, a record or pattern is interesting if it suggests a change in an established model. Almost twenty years ago, Gregory Piatetsky-Shapiro and Christopher J. Matheus, in their paper, “The Interestingness of Deviations,” argued that deviations should be grouped together in a finding and that the interestingness of a finding is the estimated benefit from a possible action connected to it. Since then, this field has progressed and new data mining techniques have been introduced to address the subjective, objective, and semantic interestingness measures. In this brief survey, we review the current state of literature around interestingness of deviations, i.e. outliers with specific interest around probabilistic measures using Bayesian belief networks.
Quantifying prosthetic gait deviation using simple outcome measures
Kark, Lauren; Odell, Ross; McIntosh, Andrew S; Simmons, Anne
2016-01-01
AIM: To develop a subset of simple outcome measures to quantify prosthetic gait deviation without needing three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA). METHODS: Eight unilateral, transfemoral amputees and 12 unilateral, transtibial amputees were recruited. Twenty-eight able-bodied controls were recruited. All participants underwent 3DGA, the timed-up-and-go test and the six-minute walk test (6MWT). The lower-limb amputees also completed the Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire. Results from 3DGA were summarised using the gait deviation index (GDI), which was subsequently regressed, using stepwise regression, against the other measures. RESULTS: Step-length (SL), self-selected walking speed (SSWS) and the distance walked during the 6MWT (6MWD) were significantly correlated with GDI. The 6MWD was the strongest, single predictor of the GDI, followed by SL and SSWS. The predictive ability of the regression equations were improved following inclusion of self-report data related to mobility and prosthetic utility. CONCLUSION: This study offers a practicable alternative to quantifying kinematic deviation without the need to conduct complete 3DGA. PMID:27335814
Tiago André Fontoura de Melo
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This study aimed to analyze the influence of root curvature’s initial position on apical deviation occurrence after oscillatory system preparation. Material and methods: For this purpose, we used twenty simulated root canals with 21 mm length and 30 degree angle, which were divided into two experimental groups according to curvature’s initial position: 8 mm (group A and 12 mm (group B short of the canal orifice. The canals were prepared using crown-down technique, and memory instrument was size #30. For apical deviation analysis, before and after preparation, canals were filled with Indian ink and standardly photographed with the aid of a platform. After that, the images were manipulated by Adobe Photoshop® software, through superimposing pre- and post-operative images. Deviation occurrence was measured 1 mm short of working length and at the middle of the curvature by using the ruler tool. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA with significance level set at 5%. Results: Although group B showed a significantly greater deviation mean than group A, no significant interaction was verified between the analysis site and the experimental group. Conclusion: According to the present data, it could be observed that the smaller the curvature radius, the greater the deviation. Concerning to the analysis site, it could be noted that the area 1 mm short of working length presented a higher deviation than the point at the middle of the curvature.
A study on the deviation aspects of the poem “The Eightieth Stage”
Soghra Salmaninejad Mehrabadi
2016-02-01
's innovation. New expressions are also used in other parts of abnormality in “The Eightieth Stag e” . Stylistic deviation Sometimes, Akhavan uses local and slang words, and words with different songs and music produces deviation as well. This Application is one kind of abnormality. Words such as “han, hey, by the truth, pity, hoome, kope, meydanak and ...” are of this type of abnormality . Ancient deviation One way to break out of the habit of poetry , is attention to ancient words and actions . Archaism is one of the factors affecting the deviation. Archaism deviation helps to make the old sp. According to Leach, the ancient is the survival of the old language in the now. Syntactic factors, type of music and words, are effective in escape from the standard language. ”Sowrat (sharpness, hamgenan (counterparts, parine (last year, pour ( son, pahlaw (champion’’are Words that show Akhavan’s attention to archaism. The ancient pronunciation is another part of his work. Furthermore, use of mythology and allusion have created deviation of this type. Cases such as anagram adjectival compounds, the use of two prepositions for a word, the use of the adjective and noun in the plural form, are signs of archaism in grammar and syntax. He is interested in grammatical elements of Khorasani Style. Most elements of this style used in “The Eightieth Stage” poetry. S emantic deviation Semantic deviation is caused by the imagery . The poet uses frequently literary figures. By this way, he produces new meaning and therefore highlights his poem. Simile, metaphor, personification and irony are the most important examples of this deviation. Apparently the maximum deviation from the norm in this poem is of periodic deviation (ancient or archaism. The second row belongs to the semantic deviation in which metaphor is the most meaningful. The effect of metaphor in this poem is quite well. In general, Poet’s notice to the different deviations is one of his techniques and the key
The retest distribution of the visual field summary index mean deviation is close to normal.
Anderson, Andrew J; Cheng, Allan C Y; Lau, Samantha; Le-Pham, Anne; Liu, Victor; Rahman, Farahnaz
2016-09-01
When modelling optimum strategies for how best to determine visual field progression in glaucoma, it is commonly assumed that the summary index mean deviation (MD) is normally distributed on repeated testing. Here we tested whether this assumption is correct. We obtained 42 reliable 24-2 Humphrey Field Analyzer SITA standard visual fields from one eye of each of five healthy young observers, with the first two fields excluded from analysis. Previous work has shown that although MD variability is higher in glaucoma, the shape of the MD distribution is similar to that found in normal visual fields. A Shapiro-Wilks test determined any deviation from normality. Kurtosis values for the distributions were also calculated. Data from each observer passed the Shapiro-Wilks normality test. Bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals for kurtosis encompassed the value for a normal distribution in four of five observers. When examined with quantile-quantile plots, distributions were close to normal and showed no consistent deviations across observers. The retest distribution of MD is not significantly different from normal in healthy observers, and so is likely also normally distributed - or nearly so - in those with glaucoma. Our results increase our confidence in the results of influential modelling studies where a normal distribution for MD was assumed. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.
C Van Der Horst
2003-08-01
Full Text Available PURPOSE: The Schroeder-Essed plication procedure is a standard technique for the correction of penile curvature. In a retrospective analysis we compared functional results and quality of life (LQ of the original technique with inverted sutures as described by Schroeder-Essed and our slight modification consisting of horizontal incisions into the tunica albuginea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with congenital penis deviation were treated for penile deviation by the original Schroeder-Essed plication with inverted sutures (11 patients and by the described modification (15 patients. In case of modified technique, horizontal and parallel incisions 4 mm to 6 mm apart and about 8 mm - 10 mm long were made through the tunica albuginea. The outer edges of the incisions were then approximated with permanent inverted sutures (Gore-Tex® 3-0. Mean age was 21.6 years in the first group and 23.2 years in the second group. Average follow-up was 28 months and 13 months, respectively. The preoperative penile deviation angle was > 25º in all patients without difference between the 2 groups. RESULTS: All patients in both groups reported an improvement in their quality of life and full ability to engage in sexual intercourse. Nine patients (88% in the first group and 14 patients (93% in the second group were satisfied with the cosmetic result. In contrast, 10 patients (91% of the first and 13 patients (87% of the second group complained of penile shorting. Recurrence of deviation was only noticed in 2 males in the first group (18%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that this simple modification of the Schroeder-Essed plication offers good functional and cosmetic results. Most patients were satisfied with the penile angle correction results.
Sokol Maxim
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Transparent Co2+ doped MgAl2Ob4 spinel was fabricated by SPS consolidation followed by and HIP treatment. It was established that HIP treatment significantly improved transparency of the ceramic in a wide range of wavelengths, especially, in a range, which is relevant for Q-switching. Nonlinear absorption was demonstrated and the ground and excited state absorption cross sections were estimated. The positive effect of the HIP treatment on the optical properties is related to an elimination of extremely fine porosity and to the location of Co ions at Mg2+sites in the spinel ionic structure. The experimental results indicate that the fabricated specimens can be used as a passive laser Q-switching material.
Li, Shuo; Bhushan, Bharat
2016-08-01
Solid lubricant particles are commonly used as oil additives for low friction and wear. Mg/Al-, Zn/Al-, and Zn/Mg/Al-layered double hydroxides (LDH) were synthesized by coprecipitation method. The benefits of LDH nanoparticles are that they can be synthesized using chemical methods where size and shape can be controlled, and can be modified organically to allow dispersal in fluids. The LDH nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry. A pin-on-disk friction and wear tester was used for evaluating the friction and wear properties of LDH nanoparticles as lubricant additives. LDH nanoparticles have friction-reducing and anti-wear properties compared to oil without LDHs. Mg/Al-LDH has the best lubrication, possibly due to better thermal stability in severe conditions.
Li, Wei-Zhen; Nie, Lei; Cheng, Yingwen; Kovarik, Libor; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong
2017-04-01
With the capability of MgAl2O4 spinel {111} nano-facets in stabilizing small Rh, Ir and Pt particles, bimetallic Ir-Pt catalysts on the same support were investigated, aiming at further lowering the catalyst cost by substituting expensive Pt with cheaper Ir in the bulk. Small Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles (< 2nm) were successfully stabilized on the spinel {111} nano-facets as expected. Interestingly, methanol oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) rate on the surface Pt atoms increases with oxidizing aging but decreases upon reducing treatment, where Ir is almost inactive under the same reaction conditions. Up to three times enhancement in Pt exposure was achieved when the sample was oxidized at 800 °C in air for 1 week and subsequently reduced by H2 for 2 h, demonstrating successful surface enrichment of Pt on Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles. A dynamic stabilization mechanism involving wetting\
Beat the Deviations in Estimating Maximum Power of Thermoelectric Modules
Gao, Junling; Chen, Min
2013-01-01
Under a certain temperature difference, the maximum power of a thermoelectric module can be estimated by the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current. In practical measurement, there exist two switch modes, either from open to short or from short to open, but the two modes can give...... different estimations on the maximum power. Using TEG-127-2.8-3.5-250 and TEG-127-1.4-1.6-250 as two examples, the difference is about 10%, leading to some deviations with the temperature change. This paper analyzes such differences by means of a nonlinear numerical model of thermoelectricity, and finds out...
Elimination of Nonlinear Deviations in Thermal Lattice BGK Models
Chen, Y; Hongo, T; Chen, Yu; Ohashi, Hirotada; Akiyam, Mamoru
1993-01-01
Abstracet: We present a new thermal lattice BGK model in D-dimensional space for the numerical calculation of fluid dynamics. This model uses a higher order expansion of equilibrium distribution in Maxwellian type. In the mean time the lattice symmetry is upgraded to ensure the isotropy of 6th order tensor. These manipulations lead to macroscopic equations free from nonlinear deviations. We demonstrate the improvements by conducting classical Chapman-Enskog analysis and by numerical simulation of shear wave flow. The transport coefficients are measured numerically, too.
Brief Analysis of the Semantic Deviation in Oliver Twist
黄二靓
2016-01-01
As one of the foremost critical realist writers of the Victorian era, Charles Dickens is adept at using language to create all kinds of characters in a humorous or ironic tone. Therefore he received massive popularity for his unique style in storytelling. Oliver Twist is one of Charles Dickens's masterpieces and also the most appropriate choice for the stylistic study on Charles Dickens. This thesis endeavors to explore the aesthetic effect of semantic deviation appearing in Oliver Twist so that we can have a better comprehension about the excellent writing skill of Charles Dickens.
Quenched Large Deviations for Interacting Diffusions in Random Media
Luçon, Eric
2017-03-01
The aim of the paper is to establish a large deviation principle (LDP) for the empirical measure of mean-field interacting diffusions in a random environment. The point is to derive such a result once the environment has been frozen (quenched model). The main theorem states that a LDP holds for every sequence of environment satisfying appropriate convergence condition, with a rate function that does not depend on the disorder and is different from the rate function in the averaged model. Similar results concerning the empirical flow and local empirical measures are provided.
Pitch deviation analysis of pathological voice in connected speech.
Laflen, J Brandon; Lazarus, Cathy L; Amin, Milan R
2008-02-01
This study compares normal and pathologic voices using a novel voice analysis algorithm that examines pitch deviation during connected speech. The study evaluates the clinical potential of the algorithm as a mechanism to distinguish between normal and pathologic voices using connected speech. Adult vocalizations from normal subjects and patients with known benign free-edge vocal fold lesions were analyzed. Recordings had been previously obtained in quiet under controlled conditions. Two phrases and sustained /a/ were recorded per subject. The subject populations consisted of 10 normal and 31 abnormal subjects. The voice analysis algorithm generated 2-dimensional patterns that represent pitch deviation in time and under variable window widths. Measures were collected from these patterns for window widths between 10 and 250 ms. For comparison, jitter and shimmer measures were collected from sustained /a/ by means of the Computerized Speech Lab (CSL). A t-test and tests of sensitivity and specificity assessed discrimination between normal and abnormal populations. More than 58% of the measures collected from connected speech outperformed the CSL jitter and shimmer measures in population discrimination. Twenty-five percent of the experimental measures (including /a/) indicated significantly different populations (p connected speech.
Cohen, Mervyn D. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Riley Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Cooper, Matt L.; Piersall, Kelly [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Riley Children' s Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Apgar, Bruce K. [Agfa HealthCare Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States)
2011-05-15
Many methods are used to track patient exposure during acquisition of plain film radiographs. A uniform international standard would aid this process. To evaluate and describe a new, simple quality-assurance method for monitoring patient exposure. This method uses the ''exposure index'' and the ''deviation index,'' recently developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The deviation index measures variation from an ideal target exposure index value. Our objective was to determine whether the exposure index and the deviation index can be used to monitor and control exposure drift over time. Our Agfa workstation automatically keeps a record of the exposure index for every patient. The exposure index and deviation index were calculated on 1,884 consecutive neonatal chest images. Exposure of a neonatal chest phantom was performed as a control. Acquisition of the exposure index and calculation of the deviation index was easily achieved. The weekly mean exposure index of the phantom and the patients was stable and showed <10% change during the study, indicating no exposure drift during the study period. The exposure index is an excellent tool to monitor the consistency of patient exposures. It does not indicate the exposure value used, but is an index to track compliance with a pre-determined target exposure. (orig.)
Kalman Filtering with Intermittent Observations: Weak Convergence and Moderate Deviations
Kar, Soummya
2009-01-01
The paper considers the problem of Kalman filtering with intermittent observations, where the observation packet arrival process is modeled as a Bernoulli process. We start by extending the results of \\cite{Riccati-weakconv} to show that the sequence of random conditional error covariance matrices converges in distribution to a unique invariant distribution $\\mathbb{\\mu}^{\\bar{\\gamma}}$, as long as the packet arrival probability $\\bar{\\gamma}>0$. We completely characterize the sequence ${\\mathbb{\\mu}^{\\bar{\\gamma}}}$ of invariant distributions as $\\bar{\\gamma}\\uparrow 1$, by showing that the sequence ${\\mathbb{\\mu}^{\\bar{\\gamma}}}$ satisfies a moderate deviations principle (MDP) with a good rate function $I$, which is explicitly characterized. We then study the sequence of invariant distributions ${\\mathbb{\\mu}^{\\bar{\\gamma}}}$ as $\\bar{\\gamma}\\uparrow 1$. We show that, as $\\bar{\\gamma}\\uparrow 1$, ...
Mod-ϕ convergence normality zones and precise deviations
Féray, Valentin; Nikeghbali, Ashkan
2016-01-01
The canonical way to establish the central limit theorem for i.i.d. random variables is to use characteristic functions and Lévy’s continuity theorem. This monograph focuses on this characteristic function approach and presents a renormalization theory called mod-ϕ convergence. This type of convergence is a relatively new concept with many deep ramifications, and has not previously been published in a single accessible volume. The authors construct an extremely flexible framework using this concept in order to study limit theorems and large deviations for a number of probabilistic models related to classical probability, combinatorics, non-commutative random variables, as well as geometric and number-theoretical objects. Intended for researchers in probability theory, the text is carefully well-written and well-structured, containing a great amount of detail and interesting examples. .
Prevalence of voice quality deviations in the normal adult population.
Brindle, B R; Morris, H L
1979-11-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of voice quality deviations in a normal adult population. One-hundred twelve subjects, aged 17 to 80, read a short paragraph aloud into a high-fidelity tape recorder and completed a case history questionnaire. A group of 11 pretrained judges rated overall performance of each taped sample on a seven-point equal-appearing intervals scale, then designated those quality components which contributed toward deviant ratings. Eighty-two percent of the group received a mean severity rating lower than 1.99; 16% had a rating between 2.00 and 2.99; and 2% was assigned a mean rating higher than 3.00.
Lyapunov exponents of linear cocycles continuity via large deviations
Duarte, Pedro
2016-01-01
The aim of this monograph is to present a general method of proving continuity of Lyapunov exponents of linear cocycles. The method uses an inductive procedure based on a general, geometric version of the Avalanche Principle. The main assumption required by this method is the availability of appropriate large deviation type estimates for quantities related to the iterates of the base and fiber dynamics associated with the linear cocycle. We establish such estimates for various models of random and quasi-periodic cocycles. Our method has its origins in a paper of M. Goldstein and W. Schlag. Our present work expands upon their approach in both depth and breadth. We conclude this monograph with a list of related open problems, some of which may be treated using a similar approach.
Interpreting spacetimes of any dimension using geodesic deviation
Podolsky, Jiri
2012-01-01
We present a general method which can be used for geometrical and physical interpretation of an arbitrary spacetime in four or any higher number of dimensions. It is based on the systematic analysis of relative motion of free test particles. We demonstrate that local effect of the gravitational field on particles, as described by equation of geodesic deviation with respect to a natural orthonormal frame, can always be decomposed into a canonical set of transverse, longitudinal and Newton-Coulomb-type components, isotropic influence of a cosmological constant, and contributions arising from specific matter content of the universe. In particular, exact gravitational waves in Einstein's theory always exhibit themselves via purely transverse effects with D(D-3)/2 independent polarization states. To illustrate the utility of this approach we study the family of pp-wave spacetimes in higher dimensions and discuss specific measurable effects on a detector located in four spacetime dimensions. For example, the corres...
Geodesic deviation in Kundt spacetimes of any dimension
Svarc, Robert
2012-01-01
Using the invariant form of the equation of geodesic deviation, which describes relative motion of free test particles, we investigate a general family of D-dimensional Kundt spacetimes. We demonstrate that local influence of the gravitational field can be naturally decomposed into Newton-type tidal effects typical for type II spacetimes, longitudinal deformations mainly present in spacetimes of algebraic type III, and type N purely transverse effects corresponding to gravitational waves with D(D-3)/2 independent polarization states. We explicitly study the most important examples, namely exact pp-waves, gyratons, and VSI spacetimes. This analysis helps us to clarify the geometrical and physical interpretation of the Kundt class of nonexpanding, nontwisting and shearfree geometries.
Deviations from Wick's theorem in the canonical ensemble
Schönhammer, K.
2017-07-01
Wick's theorem for the expectation values of products of field operators for a system of noninteracting fermions or bosons plays an important role in the perturbative approach to the quantum many-body problem. A finite-temperature version holds in the framework of the grand canonical ensemble, but not for the canonical ensemble appropriate for systems with fixed particle number such as ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices. Here we present formulas for expectation values of products of field operators in the canonical ensemble using a method in the spirit of Gaudin's proof of Wick's theorem for the grand canonical case. The deviations from Wick's theorem are examined quantitatively for two simple models of noninteracting fermions.
A sella turcica bridge in subjects with severe craniofacial deviations.
Becktor, J P; Einersen, S; Kjaer, I
2000-02-01
In earlier studies, a sella turcica bridge was stated to occur in 1.75 to 6 per cent of the population. The occurrence of a sella turcica bridge has not previously been studied in a group of patients with craniofacial deviations treated by surgery. Profile radiographs from 177 individuals who had undergone combined orthodontic and surgical treatment at the Copenhagen School of Dentistry were studied. A sella turcica bridge was registered in those subjects where the radiograph revealed a continuous band of bony tissue from the anterior cranial fossa to the posterior cranial fossa across the sella turcica. Two types of sella turcica bridge were identified. A sella turcica bridge occurred in 18.6 per cent of the subjects.
Large Deviation Results for Generalized Compound Negative Binomial Risk Models
Fan-chao Kong; Chen Shen
2009-01-01
In this paper we extend and improve some results of the large deviation for random sums of random variables.Let {Xn;n≥1} be a sequence of non-negative,independent and identically distributed random variables with common heavy-tailed distribution function F and finite mean μ∈R+,{N(n);n≥0} be a sequence of negative binomial distributed random variables with a parameter p ∈(0,1),n≥0,let {M(n);n≥0} be a Poisson process with intensity λ0.Suppose {N(n);n≥0},{Xn;n≥1} and {M(n);n≥0} are mutually results.These results can be applied to certain problems in insurance and finance.
Regulation on radial position deviation for vertical AMB systems
Tsai, Nan-Chyuan; Kuo, Chien-Hsien; Lee, Rong-Mao
2007-10-01
As a source of model uncertainty, gyroscopic effect, depending on rotor speed, is studied for the vertical active magnetic bearing (VAMB) systems which are increasingly used in various industries such as clean rooms, compressors and satellites. This research applies H∞ controller to regulate the rotor position deviations of the VAMB systems in four degrees of freedom. The performance of H∞ controller is examined by experimental simulations to inspect its closed-loop stiffness, rise time and capability to suppress the high frequency disturbances. Although the H∞ is inferior to the LQR in position deviation regulation, the required control current in the electromagnetic bearings is much less than that for LQR or PID and the performance robustness is well retained. In order to ensure the stability robustness of H∞ controller, two approaches, by Kharitonov polynomials and TITO (two inputs & two outputs) Nyquist Stability Criterion, are employed to synthesize the control feedback loop. A test rig is built to further verify the efficacy of the proposed H∞ controller experimentally. Two Eddy-current types of gap sensors, perpendicular to each other, are included to the realistic rotor-bearing system. A four-pole magnetic bearing is used as the actuator for generation of control force. The commercial I/O module unit with A/D and D/A converters, dSPACE DS1104, is integrated to the VAMB, gap sensors, power amplifiers and signal processing circuits. The H∞ is designed on the basis of rotor speed 10 K rpm but in fact it is significantly robust with respect to the rotor speed, varying from 6.5 to 13.5 K rpm.
Spine deviations and orthodontic treatment of asymmetric malocclusions in children
Lippold Carsten
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to assess the effect of early orthodontic treatment for unilateral posterior cross bite in the late deciduous and early mixed dentition using orthopedic parameters. Methods Early orthodontic treatment was performed by initial maxillary expansion and subsequent activator therapy (Münster treatment concept. The patient sample was initially comprised of 80 patients with unilateral posterior cross bite (mean age 7.3 years, SD 2.1 years. After randomization, 77 children attended the initial examination appointment (therapy = 37, control = 40; 31 children in the therapy group and 35 children in the control group were monitored at the follow-up examination (T2. The mean interval between T1 and T2 was 1.1 years (SD 0.2 years. Rasterstereography was used for back shape analysis at T1 and T2. Using the profile, the kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, the lateral deviation, pelvic tilt and pelvic torsion, statistical differences at T1 and T2 between the therapy and control groups were calculated (t-test. Our working hypothesis was, that early orthodontic treatment can induce negative therapeutic changes in body posture through thoracic and lumbar position changes in preadolescents with uniltaral cross bite. Results No clinically relevant differences between the control and the therapy groups at T1 and T2 were found for the parameters of kyphotic and lordotic angle, the surface rotation, lateral deviation, pelvic tilt, and pelvic torsion. Conclusions Our working hypothesis was tested to be not correct (within the limitations of this study. This randomized clinical trial demonstrates that in a juvenile population with unilateral posterior cross bite the selected early orthodontic treatment protocol does not affect negatively the postural parameters. Trial registration DRKS00003497 on DRKS
Deviations in Ukrainian gender culture: social and systemologic aspect
I. O. Svyatnenko
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of understanding of traditional (internal deviations in Ukrainian gender culture, which are developing rapidly under the influence of the spread of foreign cultures’ (mainly European and American ones gender deviations. As a result of the study, the following conclusion has been made by the author that matriarchy, cultivated by mistrust of men to each other, their mutual demonization due to the idealization of mothers and devaluation of fathers, contributes to the growth of misandry and homophobia of non-sexual content. We are talking about fears associated with non-sexual (socio-cultural and socio-economic spheres, which, however, can sexualize and take the form of sexual homophobia. These fears relate mostly to various manifestations of lies and fraud, which become normal for men’s relationships precisely because of the inferiority of communications between them. It has been stated in the article that mizandry and homophobia in Ukrainian gender culture express the fears of men before the masculine manifestations of themselves in any sphere of activity (including the sexual sphere that are projected onto other men as external objects and cause social and behavioral reactions or other technologies of gender castration (cultural, social, mental or bodily. The society reacts to masculine men with gender repression as their behavior is interpreted by other participants of social interactions as carrying a threat to the developed scenarios of suppression of social aggression. The damage of these scenarios is that any constructive activity causes social feelings of suspicion and envy, which entails centrifugal social reactions in the form of isolation of the initiator of this activity or sabotage and social escapism. This defectiveness manifests itself in the predominant concealment of the motives and intentions of participants and the disparity of verbal behavior with real behavioral characteristics.
张维光; 葛欣; 沈俭一
1999-01-01
Mg-Fe and Mg-Al Hydrotalcite were prepared by the conprecipitation method. A new technique of temperature programmed calcination (TPC) is designed to investigate the thermal decomposition of the hydrotalcites. The kinetic equation of thermal decomposition ln(h/S)=lnA-Ea/RT is derived from TPC graph, and then the thermal decomposition kinetics parameters of Mg-Fe and Mg-Al hydrotalcite can be obtained. Experimental results show that this method is more definite, convenient and sensitive for characterizing the thermal decomposition process of Mg-Fe and Mg-Al Hydrotalcite. The active energy Ea of decomposition of Mg-Fe and Mg-Al hydrotalcite is about 83～48 kJ·mol-1.
Pudji Andayani
2006-10-01
Full Text Available This report aimed to assess mothers’ perceptions on normal and deviation of development in their children. The study was done in underfive children and their mothers from May 1st 1999 to June 30th 1999 who visited the Nutrition, Growth & Development Clinic of the Child Health Department, Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar. A total of 76 children between 2 and 59 months of age and their mothers were enrolled. Data were collected by interview with mothers concerning the following items: perception of their children development, age of child, sex, mother’s education, mother’s job, number of sibling, and mother ability in making referral decisions. Denver II screening test was administered to each child to identify of development status as a gold standard. Sixteen (21% children was identified as having developmental deviation (by mother’s perception and 21 (28% by authors using Denver II screening test. The mother’s perception sensitivity was 67% and specificity was 97%. There were no significant differences of development status perception according to child’s age, mother’s education, mother’s job, and number of sibling. Most of mother’s perceptions about normal development were if the body weight increased and had no disability. Most of the sources of information about development was from the relatives. Thirteen of 21 children who had developmental deviation were referred by mothers. We conclude that mother’s perception can be used as early detection of developmental problems. Mother’s concerns of their children growth development had focused on again body weight, physical developmental and gross motor skill.
Deviation from Power Law Behavior in Landslide Phenomenon
Li, L.; Lan, H.; Wu, Y.
2013-12-01
Power law distribution of magnitude is widely observed in many natural hazards (e.g., earthquake, floods, tornadoes, and forest fires). Landslide is unique as the size distribution of landslide is characterized by a power law decrease with a rollover in the small size end. Yet, the emergence of the rollover, i.e., the deviation from power law behavior for small size landslides, remains a mystery. In this contribution, we grouped the forces applied on landslide bodies into two categories: 1) the forces proportional to the volume of failure mass (gravity and friction), and 2) the forces proportional to the area of failure surface (cohesion). Failure occurs when the forces proportional to volume exceed the forces proportional to surface area. As such, given a certain mechanical configuration, the failure volume to failure surface area ratio must exceed a corresponding threshold to guarantee a failure. Assuming all landslides share a uniform shape, which means the volume to surface area ratio of landslide regularly increase with the landslide volume, a cutoff of landslide volume distribution in the small size end can be defined. However, in realistic landslide phenomena, where heterogeneities of landslide shape and mechanical configuration are existent, a simple cutoff of landslide volume distribution does not exist. The stochasticity of landslide shape introduce a probability distribution of the volume to surface area ratio with regard to landslide volume, with which the probability that the volume to surface ratio exceed the threshold can be estimated regarding values of landslide volume. An experiment based on empirical data showed that this probability can induce the power law distribution of landslide volume roll down in the small size end. We therefore proposed that the constraints on the failure volume to failure surface area ratio together with the heterogeneity of landslide geometry and mechanical configuration attribute for the deviation from power law
Amplification biases: possible differences among deviating gene expressions
Piumi Francois
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling has become a tool of choice to study pathological or developmental questions but in most cases the material is scarce and requires sample amplification. Two main procedures have been used: in vitro transcription (IVT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, the former known as linear and the latter as exponential. Previous reports identified enzymatic pitfalls in PCR and IVT protocols; however the possible differences between the sequences affected by these amplification defaults were only rarely explored. Results Screening a bovine cDNA array dedicated to embryonic stages with embryonic (n = 3 and somatic tissues (n = 2, we proceeded to moderate amplifications starting from 1 μg of total RNA (global PCR or IVT one round. Whatever the tissue, 16% of the probes were involved in deviating gene expressions due to amplification defaults. These distortions were likely due to the molecular features of the affected sequences (position within a gene, GC content, hairpin number but also to the relative abundance of these transcripts within the tissues. These deviating genes mainly encoded housekeeping genes from physiological or cellular processes (70% and constituted 2 subsets which did not overlap (molecular features, signal intensities, gene ID. However, the differential expressions identified between embryonic stages were both reliable (minor intersect with biased expressions and relevant (biologically validated. In addition, the relative expression levels of those genes were biologically similar between amplified and unamplified samples. Conclusion Conversely to the most recent reports which challenged the use of intense amplification procedures on minute amounts of RNA, we chose moderate PCR and IVT amplifications for our gene profiling study. Conclusively, it appeared that systematic biases arose even with moderate amplification procedures, independently of (i the sample used: brain, ovary or embryos, (ii
JIANG Tao
2008-01-01
We establish an asymptotic relation for the large-deviation probabilities of the maxima of sums of subexponential random variables centered by multiples of order statistics of i.i.d. standard uniform random variables. This extends a corresponding result of Korshunov. As an application, we generalize a result of Tang,the uniform asymptotic estimate for the finite-time ruin probability, to the whole strongly subexponential class.
2008-01-01
We establish an asymptotic relation for the large-deviation probabilities of the maxima of sums of subexponential random variables centered by multiples of order statistics of i.i.d.standard uniform random variables.This extends a corresponding result of Korshunov.As an application,we generalize a result of Tang,the uniform asymptotic estimate for the finite-time ruin probability,to the whole strongly subexponential class.
程晓丹; 徐爱菊; 王奖; 贾美林; 照日格图
2012-01-01
Mg-Al hydrotalcite was prepared by coprecipitation method and characterized by XRD, N2-adsorption-desorption,TG-DTA and FT-IR. The results showed that the as-prepared Mg-Al hydrotalcite with 121 m2·g-1 specific surface area possessed hexagonal phase. The influence of nitrate solution concentration on the memory effect of Mg-Al hydrotalcite was investigated. It was found that Mg-Al mixed oxides formed after being calcined at 400℃ for 5 h was dipped in different concentration of Cu (NO3) 2 and Fe ( NO3) 3 aqueous solution. The hydrotalcite structure could be recovered and the memory effect of hydrotalcite was influenced by salt solution concentration. Furthermore, the lower concentration was more advantageous to the recovery of hydrotalcite structure. The results of FT-IR demonstrated that the insertion of NO3- in the layer of hydrotalcite could be observed,which might form a new type application function material.%用共沉淀法制备了镁铝水滑石,并进行XRD、N2吸附-脱附、TG-DTA和FT-IR等表征.结果表明,制备的镁铝水滑石呈六方晶型,比表面积为121 m2·g-1.研究了硝酸盐溶液浓度对水滑石结构记忆性的影响,发现400℃焙烧5h的镁铝水滑石在硝酸铜和硝酸铁溶液中浸泡可以恢复水滑石结构,溶液浓度越低越容易恢复,同时NO3-插入水滑石的层间可以形成一种新型应用功能材料.
Salor, Oezguel [TUeBiTAK - Uzay, Power Electronics Group, METU Campus, TR 06531, Ankara (Turkey)
2009-07-15
In this paper, a spectral correction-based algorithm for interharmonic computation is proposed for especially highly fluctuating fundamental frequency cases in the power system. It has been observed and reported that fluctuating demands of some loads such as arc furnaces, or disturbances and subsequent system transients make the fundamental frequency of the power system deviate and this causes non-existing interharmonics to appear in the spectrum due to grid-effect when a standard window length is used for the entire FFT process. The proposed method uses a synthetic waveform produced at the fundamental frequency and amplitude to determine the amount of the leakage due to the grid-effect at each frequency. Then the leakage is subtracted from the original FFT of the signal to correct the frequency spectrum. It has been shown that the leakage effect caused by the fundamental frequency variation is avoided with a correction algorithm applied after FFT and the error in the first interharmonic computation due to frequency deviation is reduced to zero exactly if the fundamental frequency can be determined accurately. Both simulative and field data tests have been performed. The method does not require online sampling frequency or FFT window length adjustment and it is simple to implement. (author)
Dynamic Wetting of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO Liquid Oxide on MgAl2O4 Spinel
Abdeyazdan, Hamed; Dogan, Neslihan; Rhamdhani, M. Akbar; Chapman, Michael W.; Monaghan, Brian J.
2015-02-01
Inclusion type and content in steel is critical in steelmaking, affecting both productivity through clogging, and downstream physical properties of the steel. They are normally removed from steel by reacting with a slag (liquid oxide) phase. For efficient inclusion removal, the inclusions must attach/bond with this liquid phase. The strength of the attachment can be in part characterized by the wettability of the liquid oxide on the inclusions. In this study, the dynamic wetting of liquid oxides of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO system on a solid spinel (MgAl2O4) substrate with low porosity of 1.9 pct was measured at 1773 K (1500 °C) using a modified sessile drop technique. The dynamic contact angle between the liquid and solid spinel was determined for different CaO/Al2O3 mass percent ratios ranging from 0.98 to 1.55. Characteristic curves of wettability ( θ) vs time showed a rapid decrease in wetting in the first 10 seconds tending to a plateau value at extended times. A mathematical model for spreading behavior of liquid oxides by Choi and Lee was adopted and shown to provide a reasonable representation of the spreading behavior with time. The chemical interaction at the interface between spinel (MgAl2O4) and slag was analyzed by carrying out detailed thermodynamic evaluation and characterization using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy. There is evidence of liquid penetrating the substrate via pores and along grain boundaries, forming a penetration layer in the substrate. The depth of the penetration layer was found to be a function of substrate porosity and sample cooling rate. It decreased from ~350 µm for 6.7 pct-porous substrate to ~190 µm for substrate with porosity of 1.9 pct and from ~190 µm to ~50 µm for a slow-cooled liquid oxide-spinel substrate sample in the furnace to a rapidly cooled liquid cooled-spinel substrate sample, respectively.
Study on the preparation of nanosized Mg-Al hydrotalcite from magnesite%菱镁矿制备纳米镁铝水滑石的研究
张悦; 张连红; 赵驰鹏
2015-01-01
以天然菱镁矿为原料，采用尿素法制备纳米Mg-Al水滑石。考察了煅烧时间和温度对菱镁矿分解率的影响。结果表明，最佳条件为700℃下煅烧0.5 h。另外考察了尿素用量对水滑石形貌、尺寸、结晶度的影响，还有不同n( Mg)∶ n ( Al )对水滑石纯度的影响。用 XRD、SEM 对产物进行分析。 XRD 分析结果表明，当溶液中n(尿素)∶n(NO3-)=3∶1时，合成的水滑石样品具有较高的结晶度；n(Mg)∶n(Al)=2∶1时，合成的水滑石纯度可达到100%；随着尿素用量的增多，合成样品的粒径逐渐增大。 SEM分析结果表明，用菱镁矿合成的样品层比用硝酸镁试剂合成的样品层厚很多。%Natural magnesite were used as raw material to synthesis nanosized Mg-Al hydrotalcite by a u-rea homogeneous precipitation method. The effect of calcining time and temperature on the decomposition rate of magnesite was studied. The results show that the optimum conditions of calcination was 700 ℃ for 0. 5 h. In addition,the effect of the urea amount on hydrotalcite crystal size,appearance and crystallinity, and the effect of different Mg/Al molar ratio on purity. The hydrotalcite products were characterized by means of XRD and SEM. XRD analysis showed that when n(urea)∶n(NO3 -) was 3,the hydrotalcite had high crystallinity;and when n(Mg)∶n(Al) was 2,the purity can reach 100%;with the increase of urea amount,the particle size increased. SEM analysis showed that the crystal layer of the samples prepared from magnesite were much thicker than the samples prepared from magnesium nitrate.
WKB theory of large deviations in stochastic populations
Assaf, Michael; Meerson, Baruch
2017-06-01
Stochasticity can play an important role in the dynamics of biologically relevant populations. These span a broad range of scales: from intra-cellular populations of molecules to population of cells and then to groups of plants, animals and people. Large deviations in stochastic population dynamics—such as those determining population extinction, fixation or switching between different states—are presently in a focus of attention of statistical physicists. We review recent progress in applying different variants of dissipative WKB approximation (after Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) to this class of problems. The WKB approximation allows one to evaluate the mean time and/or probability of population extinction, fixation and switches resulting from either intrinsic (demographic) noise, or a combination of the demographic noise and environmental variations, deterministic or random. We mostly cover well-mixed populations, single and multiple, but also briefly consider populations on heterogeneous networks and spatial populations. The spatial setting also allows one to study large fluctuations of the speed of biological invasions. Finally, we briefly discuss possible directions of future work.
Optimal aggregation of noisy observations: A large deviations approach
Murayama, Tatsuto; Davis, Peter, E-mail: murayama@cslab.kecl.ntt.co.j, E-mail: davis@cslab.kecl.ntt.co.j [NTT Communication Science Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 2-4, Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Keihanna, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan)
2010-06-01
Sensing and data aggregation tasks in distributed systems should not be considered as separate issues. The quality of collective estimation involves a fundamental tradeoff between sensing quality, which can be increased by increasing the number of sensors, and aggregation quality under a given capacity of the network, which decreases if the number of sensors is too large. In this paper, we examine a system level strategy for optimal aggregation of data from an ensemble of independent sensors. In particular, we consider large scale aggregation from very many sensors, in which case the network capacity diverges to infinity. Then, by applying the large deviations techniques, we conclude the following significant result: larger scale aggregation always outperforms smaller scale aggregation at higher noise levels, while below a critical value of noise, there exist moderate scale aggregation levels at which optimal estimation is realized. At a critical value of noise, there is an abrupt change in the behavior of a parameter characterizing the aggregation strategy, similar to a phase transition in statistical physics.
Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review
Deirdre Kindregan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning.
Geometry of River Networks; 1, Scaling, Fluctuations, and Deviations
Dodds, P S; Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.
2000-01-01
This article is the first in a series of three papers investigating the detailed geometry of river networks. Large-scale river networks mark an important class of two-dimensional branching networks, being not only of intrinsic interest but also a pervasive natural phenomenon. In the description of river network structure, scaling laws are uniformly observed. Reported values of scaling exponents vary suggesting that no unique set of scaling exponents exists. To improve this current understanding of scaling in river networks and to provide a fuller description of branching network structure, we report here a theoretical and empirical study of fluctuations about and deviations from scaling. We examine data for continent-scale river networks such as the Mississippi and the Amazon and draw inspiration from a simple model of directed, random networks. We center our investigations on the scaling of the length of sub-basin's dominant stream with its area, a characterization of basin shape known as Hack's law. We gene...
Large deviations of ergodic counting processes: a statistical mechanics approach.
Budini, Adrián A
2011-07-01
The large-deviation method allows to characterize an ergodic counting process in terms of a thermodynamic frame where a free energy function determines the asymptotic nonstationary statistical properties of its fluctuations. Here we study this formalism through a statistical mechanics approach, that is, with an auxiliary counting process that maximizes an entropy function associated with the thermodynamic potential. We show that the realizations of this auxiliary process can be obtained after applying a conditional measurement scheme to the original ones, providing is this way an alternative measurement interpretation of the thermodynamic approach. General results are obtained for renewal counting processes, that is, those where the time intervals between consecutive events are independent and defined by a unique waiting time distribution. The underlying statistical mechanics is controlled by the same waiting time distribution, rescaled by an exponential decay measured by the free energy function. A scale invariance, shift closure, and intermittence phenomena are obtained and interpreted in this context. Similar conclusions apply for nonrenewal processes when the memory between successive events is induced by a stochastic waiting time distribution.
Testing large-angle deviation from Gaussianity in CMB maps
Bernui, A; Teixeira, A F F
2010-01-01
A detection of the level of non-Gaussianity in the CMB data is essential to discriminate among inflationary models and also to test alternative primordial scenarios. However, the extraction of primordial non-Gaussianity is a difficult endeavor since several effects of non-primordial nature can produce non-Gaussianity. On the other hand, different statistical tools can in principle provide information about distinct forms of non-Gaussianity. Thus, any single statistical estimator cannot be sensitive to all possible forms of non-Gaussianity. In this context, to shed some light in the potential sources of deviation from Gaussianity in CMB data it is important to use different statistical indicators. In a recent paper we proposed two new large-angle non-Gaussianity indicators which provide measures of the departure from Gaussianity on large angular scales. We used these indicators to carry out analyses of non-Gaussianity of the bands and of the foreground-reduced WMAP maps with and without the KQ75 mask. Here we ...
Characterizing pathological deviations from normality using constrained manifold-learning.
Duchateau, Nicolas; De Craene, Mathieu; Piella, Gemma; Frangi, Alejandro F
2011-01-01
We propose a technique to represent a pathological pattern as a deviation from normality along a manifold structure. Each subject is represented by a map of local motion abnormalities, obtained from a statistical atlas of motion built from a healthy population. The algorithm learns a manifold from a set of patients with varying degrees of the same pathology. The approach extends recent manifold-learning techniques by constraining the manifold to pass by a physiologically meaningful origin representing a normal motion pattern. Individuals are compared to the manifold population through a distance that combines a mapping to the manifold and the path along the manifold to reach its origin. The method is applied in the context of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), focusing on a specific motion pattern of intra-ventricular dyssynchrony called septal flash (SF). We estimate the manifold from 50 CRT candidates with SF and test it on 38 CRT candidates and 21 healthy volunteers. Experiments highlight the need of nonlinear techniques to learn the studied data, and the relevance of the computed distance for comparing individuals to a specific pathological pattern.
A Maximum Likelihood Approach to Least Absolute Deviation Regression
Yinbo Li
2004-09-01
Full Text Available Least absolute deviation (LAD regression is an important tool used in numerous applications throughout science and engineering, mainly due to the intrinsic robust characteristics of LAD. In this paper, we show that the optimization needed to solve the LAD regression problem can be viewed as a sequence of maximum likelihood estimates (MLE of location. The derived algorithm reduces to an iterative procedure where a simple coordinate transformation is applied during each iteration to direct the optimization procedure along edge lines of the cost surface, followed by an MLE of location which is executed by a weighted median operation. Requiring weighted medians only, the new algorithm can be easily modularized for hardware implementation, as opposed to most of the other existing LAD methods which require complicated operations such as matrix entry manipulations. One exception is Wesolowsky's direct descent algorithm, which among the top algorithms is also based on weighted median operations. Simulation shows that the new algorithm is superior in speed to Wesolowsky's algorithm, which is simple in structure as well. The new algorithm provides a better tradeoff solution between convergence speed and implementation complexity.
Inertial Manifold and Large Deviations Approach to Reduced PDE Dynamics
Cardin, Franco; Favretti, Marco; Lovison, Alberto
2017-09-01
In this paper a certain type of reaction-diffusion equation—similar to the Allen-Cahn equation—is the starting point for setting up a genuine thermodynamic reduction i.e. involving a finite number of parameters or collective variables of the initial system. We firstly operate a finite Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction of the cited reaction-diffusion equation when reformulated as a variational problem. In this way we gain a finite-dimensional ODE description of the initial system which preserves the gradient structure of the original one and that is exact for the static case and only approximate for the dynamic case. Our main concern is how to deal with this approximate reduced description of the initial PDE. To start with, we note that our approximate reduced ODE is similar to the approximate inertial manifold introduced by Temam and coworkers for Navier-Stokes equations. As a second approach, we take into account the uncertainty (loss of information) introduced with the above mentioned approximate reduction by considering the stochastic version of the ODE. We study this reduced stochastic system using classical tools from large deviations, viscosity solutions and weak KAM Hamilton-Jacobi theory. In the last part we suggest a possible use of a result of our approach in the comprehensive treatment non equilibrium thermodynamics given by Macroscopic Fluctuation Theory.
Serkan Dayan; Sevgi Öztürk; Nilgün Kayaci; Nilgun Kalaycioglu Ozpozan; Esra Öztürk
2015-10-01
Five new MgAl2Si2O8 : M0.01 (M = Ni2+, Cu2+, Pd2+, Pt2+ and Ru3+) materials were developed for the reduction of nitroarenes as catalysts by conventional solid state reaction at 1300°C. The prepared materials were characterized by thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis. The catalytic activities of the prepared catalysts were tested in the reduction of 2- or 4-nitroanilines in aqueous media at ambient temperature in the presence of NaBH4 by UV–vis spectrophotometer. Furthermore, the MgAl2Si2O8 : M0.01 catalysts can be recovered by filtration and reused for five cycles for the reduction of 2-nitroaniline. These results show that the MgAl2Si2O8 : M0.01 catalysts can be used in practical applications in the reduction of nitroanilines.
Ao, Yanhui, E-mail: andyao@hhu.edu.cn; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin
2016-08-15
Highlights: • 3D flower-like Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Mg-Al layered double hydroxide composite was prepared. • The nanocomposites exhibited high photocatalytic activities on different organic pollutants. • The mechanism of the enhanced activity were investigated. - Abstract: A facile anion-exchange precipitation method was employed to synthesize 3D flower-like Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Mg-Al layered double hydroxide composite photocatalyst. Results showed that Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} nanoparticles dispersed uniformly on the petals of the flower-like Mg-Al LDH. The obtained nanocomposites exhibited high photocatalytic activities on different organic pollutants (cationic and anionic dyes, phenol) under visible light illumination. The high photocatalytic activity can be ascribed to the special structure which accomplishes the wide-distribution of Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} nanoparticles on the surfaces of the 3D flower-like nanocomposites. Therefore, it can provide much more active sites for the degradation of organic pollutant. Then the photocatalytic mechanism was also verified by reactive species trapping experiments in detail. The work would pave a facile way to prepare LDHs based hierarchical photocatalysts with high activity for the degradation of wide range organic pollutants under visible light irradiation.
Motloung, S. V.; Dejene, F. B.; Sithole, M. E.; Koao, L. F.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Swart, H. C.; Motaung, T. E.
2016-10-01
Cadmium-doped magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4: x% Cd2+) powders with different cadmium concentrations (0 Cd). The x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the powders crystallized into the cubic spinel structure. Cd2+ doping influenced crystallinity of the powder samples. The crystallite size and particle morphology were not affected by variation in the Cd2+ concentration. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) measurements revealed that the band gap of the MgAl2O4 was influenced by Cd2+ doping. Un-doped and Cd2+-doped MgAl2O4 nanophosphors exhibited violet emission at 392 nm. There was no evidence of the emission peak shift, which suggested that all emissions originated from the defects within the host material. Increasing the Cd2+ concentration up-to 0.88 mol.% lead to luminescence intensity enhancement, while further increase of Cd2+ concentration lead to concentration quenching. The critical energy transfer distance ( R c) between the neighbouring donors and acceptors was found to be 5.21 Å, suggesting that the multipole-multipole interaction (M-MI) is the major cause of concentration quenching. Commission Internationale de l'Elcairage (CIE) colour coordinates confirmed non-tuneable violet emission with intensity dependent on the Cd2+ concentration.
Back in the saddle: Large-deviation statistics of the cosmic log-density field
Uhlemann, Cora; Pichon, Christophe; Bernardeau, Francis; Reimberg, Paulo
2015-01-01
We present a first principle approach to obtain analytical predictions for spherically-averaged cosmic densities in the mildly non-linear regime that go well beyond what is usually achieved by standard perturbation theory. A large deviation principle allows us to compute the leading-order cumulants of average densities in concentric cells. In this symmetry, the spherical collapse model leads to cumulant generating functions that are robust for finite variances and free of critical points when logarithmic density transformations are implemented. They yield in turn accurate density probability distribution functions (PDFs) from a straightforward saddle-point approximation valid for all density values. Based on this easy-to-implement modification, explicit analytic formulas for the evaluation of the one- and two-cell PDF are provided. The theoretical predictions obtained for the PDFs are accurate to a few percent compared to the numerical integration, regardless of the density under consideration and in excellen...
Classical diffusion and quantum level velocities: systematic deviations from random matrix theory.
Lakshminarayan, A; Cerruti, N R; Tomsovic, S
1999-10-01
We study the response of the quasienergy levels in the context of quantized chaotic systems through the level velocity variance and relate them to classical diffusion coefficients using detailed semiclassical analysis. The systematic deviations from random matrix theory, assuming independence of eigenvectors from eigenvalues, are shown to be connected to classical higher-order time correlations of the chaotic system. We study the standard map as a specific example, and thus the well-known oscillatory behavior of the diffusion coefficient with respect to the parameter is reflected exactly in the oscillations of the variance of the level velocities. We study the case of mixed phase-space dynamics as well and note a transition in the scaling properties of the variance that occurs along with the classical transition to chaos.
B. N. Patel, S. S. Jaiwar, N. A. Patel, V. R. Akbari and P. B. Dave
2014-12-01
Full Text Available A line x tester analysis was undertaken to estimates the magnitude of heterosis and dominance deviation in Gossypium hirsutum L. for yield, its components and other matricate characters in 60 test entries including (44 F1s along with 15 parents and 1 standard check hybrid. Analysis of variance indicated the significant difference among the parents and hybrids for all 12 characters studied which revealed existence of variability among the genotypes. Studies revealed that out of 44 cross combinations, only 3 hybrids viz., BC-68-2 x MCU 11, BC-68-2 x AC 738 and BN 1 x Reba-B-50 depicted significant and positive heterosis over standard check hybrid G. Cot. Hy. 12. The hybrid BC-68-2 x MCU 11 exhibited significant positive standard heterosis for seed cotton yield per plant and other attributing characters i.e. total number of bolls per plant, average boll weight, lint yield per plant and lint index. The mean values of potence ratio in all twelve characters suggested that degree of dominance was governed by over dominance genes for the expression of all the characters under study.
Outcomes of minimally invasive strabismus surgery for horizontal deviation.
Merino, P; Blanco Domínguez, I; Gómez de Liaño, P
2016-02-01
To study the outcomes of minimally invasive strabismus surgery (MISS) for treating horizontal deviation Case Series of the first 26 consecutive patients operated on using the MISS technique in our hospital from February 2010 to March 2014. A total of 40 eyes were included: 26 patients (mean age: 7.7 years old ± 4.9); 34.61%: male. A total of 43 muscles were operated on: 20 medial, and 23 lateral recti; 28 recessions (range: 3-7.5mm), 6 resections (6-7 mm), and 9 plications (6.5-7.5 mm) were performed. No significant difference was found (P>0.05) for visual acuity at postoperative day 1, and 6 months after surgery. A mild hyperaemia was observed in 29.27%, moderate in 48.78%, and severe in 21.95% at postoperative day 1 and in 63.41%, 31.70% and 4.87%, respectively, at 4 days after surgery. The complications observed were 4 intraoperative conjunctival haemorrhages, 1 scleral perforation, and 2 Tenon's prolapses. A conversion from MISS to a fornix approach was necessary in 1 patient because of bad visualization. The operating time range decreased from 30 to 15 minutes. The MISS technique has obtained good results in horizontal strabismus surgery. The conjunctival inflammation was mild in most of the cases at postoperative day 4. The visual acuity was stable during follow-up, and operating time decreased after a 4-year learning curve. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Large-deviation statistics of vorticity stretching in isotropic turbulence.
Johnson, Perry L; Meneveau, Charles
2016-03-01
A key feature of three-dimensional fluid turbulence is the stretching and realignment of vorticity by the action of the strain rate. It is shown in this paper, using the cumulant-generating function, that the cumulative vorticity stretching along a Lagrangian path in isotropic turbulence obeys a large deviation principle. As a result, the relevant statistics can be described by the vorticity stretching Cramér function. This function is computed from a direct numerical simulation data set at a Taylor-scale Reynolds number of Re(λ)=433 and compared to those of the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) for material deformation. As expected, the mean cumulative vorticity stretching is slightly less than that of the most-stretched material line (largest FTLE), due to the vorticity's preferential alignment with the second-largest eigenvalue of strain rate and the material line's preferential alignment with the largest eigenvalue. However, the vorticity stretching tends to be significantly larger than the second-largest FTLE, and the Cramér functions reveal that the statistics of vorticity stretching fluctuations are more similar to those of the largest FTLE. In an attempt to relate the vorticity stretching statistics to the vorticity magnitude probability density function in statistically stationary conditions, a model Kramers-Moyal equation is constructed using the statistics encoded in the Cramér function. The model predicts a stretched-exponential tail for the vorticity magnitude probability density function, with good agreement for the exponent but significant difference (35%) in the prefactor.
Symphysis-fundal height curve in the diagnosis of fetal growth deviations
Djacyr Magna Cabral Freire
2010-12-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To validate a new symphysis-fundal curve for screening fetal growth deviations and to compare its performance with the standard curve adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS: Observational study including a total of 753 low-risk pregnant women with gestational age above 27 weeks between March to October 2006 in the city of João Pessoa, Northeastern Brazil. Symphisys-fundal was measured using a standard technique recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Estimated fetal weight assessed through ultrasound using the Brazilian fetal weight chart for gestational age was the gold standard. A subsample of 122 women with neonatal weight measurements was taken up to seven days after estimated fetal weight measurements and symphisys-fundal classification was compared with Lubchenco growth reference curve as gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The McNemar χ2 test was used for comparing sensitivity of both symphisys-fundal curves studied. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the new curve for detecting small for gestational age fetuses was 51.6% while that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health reference curve was significantly lower (12.5%. In the subsample using neonatal weight as gold standard, the sensitivity of the new reference curve was 85.7% while that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health was 42.9% for detecting small for gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic performance of the new curve for detecting small for gestational age fetuses was significantly higher than that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health reference curve.
[Study on the correlation between chronic sinusitis with nasal septum deviation].
Ji, Xiaoqing; Fu, Hongjuan; Song, Aiqin
2015-06-01
Study on the correlation between chronic sinusitis with nasal septum deviation. Randomly selected 722 patients with coronal sinuses CT, statistics the number of cases of nasal septum deviation, cases of nasal septum deviation with chronic sinusitis, the wide and narrow side cases of nasal septum deviation complicated with sinusitis. The number of sinusitis without deviation, and paired test. The incidence of sinusitis between deviation of nasal septum and non deviation were 54. 13% and 44. 66%, the difference between two groups was statistically significant (Psinusitis with nasal septum deviation of wide and narrow side were 31. 65% and 32. 12%, no significant difference between the two groups (P>0. 01). The incidence of sinusitis high deviation and non high deviation were 59. 54% and 46. 97%, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (Psinusitis was 54, the narrow side was 66, there is no significant difference between the two groups (P>0. 05). The deviation of nasal septum is associated with the formation of chronic sinusitis, the high deviation is more prone to sinusitis, The incidence of sinusitis and nasal septum deviation on both sides was no different.
Single-Crystal Elastic Properties of the Spinel (MgAl2O4) - Galaxite (MnAl2O4) Solid Solution Series
Speziale, S.; Bruschini, E.; Andreozzi, G. B.; Bosi, F.; Hålenius, U.
2014-12-01
Spinels are a subject of intense research in solid state physics, materials science and geosciences. Their general formula is T(A1-i)M(AiB2-i)X4 (A and B are cations, X are anions, T and M indicate tetrahedrally- and octahedrally-coordinated sites and i is the inversion degree). They are ideal materials to study the interplay between chemical substitutions, structure and the physical properties of solids. As spinel-structured ringwoodite (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 is the most abundant mineral in the lower transition zone, understanding the effect of chemical substitution on the elastic properties of spinels is of crucial for geophysics. We have experimentally studied the variation of the elastic properties along the join MgAl2O4 - MnAl2O4. Crystals of 4 compositions along the join were synthesized at the very same experimental conditions and their crystal chemistry was fully characterized. Single-crystal elastic constants Cij of all the samples were measured by Brillouin spectroscopy at ambient conditions. For compositions with Mn/Mg Bosi, F., et al. (2011) Am. Mineral., 96, 594; [3] Shannon, R.D. (1976) Acta Crystall., A32, 751.
Effect of MgCl2 addition on the sintering behavior of MgAl2O4 spinel and formation of nano-particles
Mohammadi F.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of MgCl2 addition on the sintering behavior of MgAl2O4 spinel produced via oxide mixture method was investigated. For this reason, the stoichiometric mixture of magnesite and calcined alumina as raw materials was calcined at 1100°C. The calcined mixture was milled, pressed and then, fired at 1300 and 1500°C after addition of various amounts of MgCl2. Besides, the physical properties, phase composition and microstructure of fired samples were investigated. The results showed that MgCl2 addition has great effect on the densification and particle size of spinel. Besides, MgCl2 addition increases the amount of spinel phase at all firing temperatures. Due to the decomposition of MgCl2 and then formation of ultra-fine MgO particles, the nano-sized spinel is formed on the surface of the larger spinel particles.
Beiyue Ma
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Stoichiometric magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4, MA-samarium aluminate (SmAlO3, SA ceramics have been prepared at 1580oC for 4 h from calcined magnesia (MgO, commercial alumina (Al2O3 and samarium oxide (Sm2O3 by a single-stage in-situ reaction sintering (SIRS method. The phase compositions, microstructures, shrinkage ratio, bulk density and cold compressive strength of the MA-SA ceramics have been investigated. The ceramics with 2.5 - 7.5 wt. % Sm2O3 are composed of MA and SA phases. The microstructures of the ceramics are dense. MA particles exist as angular shape, and their grain size varies between 2 and 10 μm but the average grain size is about 5 μm. SmAlO3 particles form due to the reaction of Sm2O3 and Al2O3, and they distribute in the intergranular space of MA grains. The diameter shrinkage ratio, volume shrinkage ratio, bulk density and cold compressive strength of MA-SA ceramics are greatly improved due to the addition of Sm2O3
Takahashi, Susumu; Imai, Yusuke; Kan, Akinori; Hotta, Yuji; Ogawa, Hirotaka
2015-10-01
MgAl2O4 particles were synthesized through the solid-state reaction method (MAO-S) or molten-salt method (MAO-M). The crystallinity, particle size, and crystal structure of spinel-structured MAO-S and MAO-M particles were characterized and these particles used as dielectric fillers were filled into an isotactic polypropylene matrix, up to 30 vol % filler concentration. Significant differences in the degree of inversion (λ), which represents the cation distribution in tetrahedral and octahedral sites, were obtained for MAO-S and MAO-M by solid-state NMR measurements and the λ value of MAO-S fired for 10 h was 0.39, while that of MAO-M fired for 10 h was 0.64. The dielectric constant of MAO-S- or MAO-M-filled composites increased from 2.4 to 3.7 with increasing filler concentration and was consistent with the Bruggeman model. The dielectric loss and thermal conductivity of the composites were remarkably improved by the addition of the MAO-M filler, depending on the increase in the duration of firing, and were 1.74 × 10-4 and 0.62 W/(m·K), respectively. The coefficient of thermal expansion and the temperature coefficient of the dielectric constant of composites also depended on the filler concentration.
Hydrothermal Synthesis of Cparbonate Pillared Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Compound%镁铝水滑石的高温水热合成研究
王朋仁
2014-01-01
采用水热法合成铝镁水滑石，并通过X射线衍射( XRD)、红外光谱( FT-IR)、透射电镜( TEM)、热分析( DSC)、粒度分析等手段对合成的水滑石进行表征，研究高温水热法合成的水滑石结构及热性能。将自制样品和进口样品进行对比测试，研究结论为自制样品和进口样品结构和热性能基本一致。%Samples of Mg/Al hydrotalcite were synthesized by hydrothermal method, and characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM, DSC, particle analysis, etc. Effect of high-temperature hydrothermal synthesis on structure and thermal property of hydrotalcite was studied. The research showed that homemade samples and imported samples were basically the same on structure and thermal properties.
Zhang, Zhaoliang; Zhang, Yexin; Su, Qingyun; Wang, Zhongpeng; Li, Qian; Gao, Xiyan
2010-11-01
The soot combustion with NO(x) and/or O(2) on potassium-supported Mg-Al hydrotalcite mixed oxides under tight contact condition was studied using temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO), isothermal reaction and in situ FTIR techniques. The presence of NO(x) in O(2) favors the soot combustion at lower temperatures (300 °C), which was accompanied by a substantial NO(x) reduction. The ketene (C═C═O) and isocyanate (NCO(-)) species were determined as the reaction intermediates. In NO(x) + O(2), NO(2) directly interacts with the free carbon sites (C═C*) through two parallel reactions: (1) NO(2) + C═C* → C═C═O + NO; (2) NO(2) + C═C* → NCO(-) + CO(2). The two reactions can proceed easily, which accounts for the promotion effect of NO(x) on soot combustion at lower temperatures. The further oxidation of NCO(-) by NO(2) or O(2) is responsible for the simultaneous reduction of NO(x). However, the reactions between NO(2) and C═C* are limited by the amount of free carbon sites, which can be provided by the oxidation of soot by O(2) at higher temperatures. The interaction of NO(x) and catalyst results in the formation of nitrates and nitrites, which poisoned the active K sites.
Hussein Al Ali, Samer Hasan; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Ismail, Maznah; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul
2012-01-01
The intercalation of a drug active, perindopril, into Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide for the formation of a new nanocomposite, PMAE, was accomplished using a simple ion exchange technique. A relatively high loading percentage of perindopril of about 36.5% (w/w) indicates that intercalation of the active took place in the Mg/Al inorganic interlayer. Intercalation was further supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analysis shows markedly enhanced thermal stability of the active. The release of perindopril from the nanocomposite occurred in a controlled manner governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. MTT assay showed no cytotoxicity effects from either Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide or its nanocomposite, PMAE. Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity, with 5.6% inhibition after 90 minutes of incubation. On incubation of angiotensin-converting enzyme with 0.5 μg/mL of the PMAE nanocomposite, inhibition of the enzyme increased from 56.6% to 70.6% at 30 and 90 minutes, respectively. These results are comparable with data reported in the literature for Zn/Al-perindopril.
Esthela Ramos-Ramírez
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Currently, interest has grown in finding effective solutions for the treatment of water pollution by toxic compounds. Some of the latter that have acquired importance are phenols and chlorophenols, due to their employment in the manufacture of pesticides, insecticides, cords of wood, paper industry, among others. The problem is rooted in that these compounds are very persistent in the environment because they are partially biodegradable and cannot be photodegraded directly by sunlight. Chlorophenols are extremely toxic, especially 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, which is potentially carcinogenic. In this work, Mg/Al-mixed oxide catalysts were obtained from the thermal treatment of hydrotalcite-type materials, synthesized by sol-gel method with different Mg/Al ratios. Hydrotalcites and Mg/Al-mixed oxides were physicochemically characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis (DTA and TGA, and N2 physisorption. The results were obtained on having proven the photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol as a pollutant model by water. The catalysts obtained present the hydrotalcite phase with thermal evolution until achieving Mg/Al-mixed oxides at 500°C. The catalysts are of mesoporous materials and exhibiting large surface areas. The catalysts demonstrated good photocatalytic activity with good efficiency, reaching degradation percentages with Mg/Al = 1, 2, 4, 5, and 7 ratios of 94.2, 92.5, 86.2, 84.2, and 63.9%, respectively, until achieving mineralization.
Li, Yongqiang; Hsi, Wen C.
2017-04-01
To analyze measurement deviations of patient-specific quality assurance (QA) using intensity-modulated spot-scanning particle beams, a commercial radiation dosimeter using 24 pinpoint ionization chambers was utilized. Before the clinical trial, validations of the radiation dosimeter and treatment planning system were conducted. During the clinical trial 165 measurements were performed on 36 enrolled patients. Two or three fields of particle beam were used for each patient. Measurements were typically performed with the dosimeter placed at special regions of dose distribution along depth and lateral profiles. In order to investigate the dosimeter accuracy, repeated measurements with uniform dose irradiations were also carried out. A two-step approach was proposed to analyze 24 sampling points over a 3D treatment volume. The mean value and the standard deviation of each measurement did not exceed 5% for all measurements performed on patients with various diseases. According to the defined intervention thresholds of mean deviation and the distance-to-agreement concept with a Gamma index analysis using criteria of 3.0% and 2 mm, a decision could be made regarding whether the dose distribution was acceptable for the patient. Based measurement results, deviation analysis was carried out. In this study, the dosimeter was used for dose verification and provided a safety guard to assure precise dose delivery of highly modulated particle therapy. Patient-specific QA will be investigated in future clinical operations.
Moderate deviations for the quenched mean of the super-Brownian motion with random immigration
2008-01-01
Moderate deviations for the quenched mean of the super-Brownian motion with random immigration are proved for 3≤d≤6, which fills in the gap between central limit theorem(CLT)and large deviation principle(LDP).
MODERATE DEVIATIONS FROM HYDRODYNAMIC LIMIT OF A GINZBURG-LANDAU MODEL
无
2006-01-01
The authors consider the moderate deviations of hydrodynamic limit for Ginzburg-Landau models. The moderate deviation principle of hydrodynamic limit for a specific Ginzburg-Landau model is obtained and an explicit formula of the rate function is derived.
Rapp, Richard H.; Pavlis, Nikolaos
A method is presented for the estimation of a global gravity anomaly field using the combination of satellite-derived potential coefficient models and the coefficients implied by the Airy-Heiskanen topographic/isostatic potential (Rummel et al., 1988) from topographic models with a 30-km depth of compensation. Gravity anomalies calculated with this method are compared with a terrestrial 1 x 1 degree anomaly file where the anomaly standard deviations were less than 10 mgals. Using the GEM T1 model (Marsh et al., 1988) to degree 36, the rms anomaly discrepency was + or - 19 mgals, while the rms values for the terrestrial anomalies was + or - 28 mgals.
Outcomes of Surgical Treatment in Cases of Dissociated Vertical Deviation
Serpil Akar
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the results of different surgical techniques for treating cases of dissociated vertical deviation (DVD. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of medical records was performed, including 94 eyes of 47 patients who had undergone bilateral superior rectus (SR recessions (Group 1, bilateral SR recession with posterior fixation sutures (Group 2, or bilateral inferior oblique (IO anterior transposition surgery (Group 3 for treatment of DVD. Nineteen patients underwent secondary procedures (SR weakening or IO anterior transposition because of unsatisfactory results. The amount of the DVD in primary position before and after surgery, postoperative success ratios, and probable complications were evaluated. The Wilcoxon signed ranks test and chi-squared test were used for statistical evaluations. Results: In 69% of the 32 eyes in group 1, 65% of the 20 eyes in group 2, and 79% of the 42 eyes in group 3, satisfactory control of the DVD in primary position was achieved. All eyes undergoing both SR weakening and IO anterior transposition had a residual DVD of less than 5 prism diopters (pd. Of the total of 94 eyes, in 26 (89.6% of 29 eyes that had a preoperative DVD angle of more than 15 pd [ten eyes from group 1, seven eyes from group 2, and nine eyes from group 3], the residual DVD angle after surgery was more than 5 pd. However, in the 65 eyes with preoperative DVD of 15 pd or less (21from Group 1, 12 from Group 2, and 32 from Group 3, the residual DVD angle after the operation was less than 5 pd. Two eyes of 2 patients had -1 limitation to elevation after surgery. Conclusion: Only IO anterior transposition or SR weakening surgery appear to be a successful surgical approaches in the management of patients with mild- and moderate-angle (≤15 pd DVD. Weakening both the SR and IO muscles yield a greater success in the management of patients with large-angle (>15 pd DVD. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 132-7
无
2010-01-01
This paper studies the moderate deviations of real-valued extended negatively dependent(END) random variables with consistently varying tails.The moderate deviations of partial sums are first given.The results are then used to establish the necessary and sufficient conditions for the moderate deviations of random sums under certain circumstances.
Parameterization for Neutrino Mixing Matrix with Deviated Unitarity
LU Lei; WANG Wen-Yu; XIONG Zhao-Hua
2009-01-01
Neutrino oscillation experiments provide the first evidence on non-zero neutrino masses and indicate new physics beyond the standard model.With Majorana neutrinos introduced to acquire tiny neutrino maases,it leads to the existence of more than three neutrino species,implying that the ordinary neutrino mixing matrix is only a part of the whole extended unitary mixing matrix and thus no longer unitary.We give a parameterization for a non-unitary neutrino mixing matrix under seesaw framework and further present a method to test the unitarity of the ordinary neutrino mixing matrix.
Abraha, Iosief; Cozzolino, Francesco; Orso, Massimiliano; Marchesi, Mauro; Germani, Antonella; Lombardo, Guido; Eusebi, Paolo; De Florio, Rita; Luchetta, Maria Laura; Iorio, Alfonso; Montedori, Alessandro
2017-04-01
To describe the characteristics, and estimate the incidence, of trials included in systematic reviews deviating from the intention-to-treat (ITT) principle. A 5% random sample of reviews were selected (Medline 2006-2010). Trials from reviews were classified based on the ITT: (1) ITT trials (trials reporting standard ITT analyses); (2) modified ITT (mITT) trials (modified ITT; trials deviating from standard ITT); or (3) no ITT trials. Of 222 reviews, 81 (36%) included at least one mITT trial. Reviews with mITT trials were more likely to contain trials that used placebo, that investigated drugs, and that reported favorable results. The incidence of reviews with mITT trial ranged from 29% (17/58) to 48% (23/48). Of the 2,349 trials, 597 (25.4%) were classified as ITT trials, 323 (13.8%) as mITT trials, and 1,429 (60.8%) as no ITT trials. The mITT trials were more likely to have reported exclusions compared to studies classified as ITT trials and to have received funding. The reporting of the type of ITT may differ according to the clinical area and the type of intervention. Deviation from ITT in randomized controlled trials is a widespread phenomenon that significantly affects systematic reviews. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Large deviations for Markov chains in the positive quadrant
Borovkov, A. A.; Mogul'skii, A. A.
2001-10-01
The paper deals with so-called N-partially space-homogeneous time-homogeneous Markov chains X(y,n), n=0,1,2,\\dots, X(y,0)=y, in the positive quadrant \\mathbb R^{2+}=\\{x=(x_2,x_2):x_1\\geqslant0,\\ x_2\\geqslant0\\}. These Markov chains are characterized by the following property of the transition probabilities P(y,A)=\\mathsf P(X(y,1)\\in A): for some N\\geqslant 0 the measure P(y,dx) depends only on x_2, y_2, and x_1-y_1 in the domain x_1>N, y_1>N, and only on x_1, y_1, and x_2-y_2 in the domain x_2>N, y_2>N. For such chains the asymptotic behaviour of \\displaystyle \\ln\\mathsf P\\Bigl(\\frac 1sX(y,n)\\in B\\Bigr), \\qquad \\ln\\mathsf P\\bigl(X(y,n)\\in x+B\\bigr) is found for a fixed set B as s\\to\\infty, \\vert x\\vert\\to\\infty, and n\\to\\infty. Some other conditions on the growth of parameters are also considered, for example, \\vert x-y\\vert\\to\\infty, \\vert y\\vert\\to\\infty. A study is made of the structure of the most probable trajectories, which give the main contribution to this asymptotics, and a number of other results pertaining to the topic are established. Similar results are obtained for the narrower class of 0-partially homogeneous ergodic chains under less restrictive moment conditions on the transition probabilities P(y,dx). Moreover, exact asymptotic expressions for the probabilities \\mathsf P(X(0,n)\\in x+B) are found for 0-partially homogeneous ergodic chains under some additional conditions. The interest in partially homogeneous Markov chains in positive octants is due to the mathematical aspects (new and interesting problems arise in the framework of general large deviation theory) as well as applied issues, for such chains prove to be quite accurate mathematical models for numerous basic types of queueing and communication networks such as the widely known Jackson networks, polling systems, or communication networks associated with the ALOHA algorithm. There is a vast literature dealing with the analysis of these objects. The
F. M. R. Mesquita
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Viscosities of four binaries mixtures [soybean biodiesel + diesel oil (or n-hexadecane and coconut biodiesel + diesel oil (or n-hexadecane] have been determined at T = (293.15, 313.15, 333.15, 353.15, 373.15 K and atmospheric pressure over the entire composition range. Experimental data were fitted to the Andrade equation and the adjustable parameters and the standard deviations between experimental and calculated values were estimated. From the experimental data, the viscosity deviations, , were calculated by using the Redlich - Kister polynomial equation. The comparison between experimental data determined in this work and four predictive methods used for the estimation of viscosities of biodiesel fuels (based on their fatty acid composition is discussed.
RELIGIOUS ANOMIE AS THE DEVIATION CATALYST IN THE MODERN SOCIETY
Alexander Vladislavovich Pletnev
2015-11-01
Full Text Available In the article features of influence of religion on the individual in the modern society are considered. In the XXI century the religion shows weak ability to execute functions of social control. At the same time the religion remains the major psychological factor which in many respects defines the maintenance of the vital world of individuals. Strengthening of influence of religion as psychological factor allows to study social consequences of this influence. If the classical sociological theory considers religion as a factor certainly constraining an anomy, in modern conditions the religion has rather opposite effect. The Christian religion shows the highest, unrealizable requirements to the individual.As a result of it the individuals strongly subject to influence of Christian values feel ina-bility to correspond to Christian model of ideal human behavior. The variety of religions in the modern society of the western type and conducting interreligious dialogue is other reason of development of religious anomy. The mutual erosion of the valuable and standard bases of each religion turns out to be consequence of this dialogue. In addition, modern society is characterized by essential distinction in understanding individuals of norms and principles of that religion which supporters they are.As for change of functioning of religion as social institute, in this aspect the increasing reorientation of religious institutes of the western society to the market purposes and values is observed. The specified processes in general will lead to increase of deviant behavior due to development of religious anomy.
de Freitas Castro, Kelly Aparecida Dias; Wypych, Fernando; Antonangelo, Ariana; Mantovani, Karen Mary; Bail, Alesandro; Ucoski, Geani Maria; Ciuffi, Kátia Jorge; Cintra, Thais Elita; Nakagaki, Shirley
2016-09-15
Nitrate-intercalated Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized and exfoliated in formamide. Reaction of the single layer suspension with thiosalicylic acid under different conditions afforded two types of solids: LDHA1, in which the outer surface was modified with the anion thiosalicylate, and LDHA2, which contained the anion thiosalicylate intercalated between the LDH layers. LDHA1 and LDHA2 were used as supports to immobilize neutral (FeP1 and FeP2) and anionic (FeP3) iron(III) porphyrins. For comparison purposes, the iron(III) porphyrins (FePs) were also immobilized on LDH intercalated with nitrate anions obtained by the co-precipitation method. Chemical modification of LDH facilitated immobilization of the FePs through interaction of the functionalizing groups in LDH with the peripheral substituents on the porphyrin ring. The resulting FePx-LDHAy solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction (powder) and UV-Vis and EPR spectroscopies and were investigated as catalysts in the oxidation of cyclooctene and cyclohexane. The immobilized neutral FePs and their homogeneous counterparts gave similar product yields in the oxidation of cyclooctene, suggesting that immobilization of the FePs on the thiosalicylate-modified LDHs only supported the catalyst species without interfering in the catalytic outcome. On the other hand, in the oxidation of cyclohexane, the thiosalicylate anions on the outer surface of LDHA1 or intercalated between the LDHA2 layers influenced the catalytic activity of FePx-LDHAy, leading to different efficiency and selectivity results. FeP1-LDHA2 performed the best (29.6% alcohol yield) due to changes in the polarity of the surface of the support and the presence of FeP1. Interestingly, FeP1 also performed better in solution as compared to the other FePs. Finally, it was possible to recycle FeP1-LDHA2 at least three times.
ZHANG Zejiang; MEI Xiujuan; XU Chenghua; QIU Fali
2005-01-01
The coating process of a nano-scale SiO2 film on the nanocrystalline Mg-Al layered double hydroxides via a sol-gel process was investigated. The uniform and dense SiO2 film with a thickness of about 5 nm on the nano-LDHs particles was characterized by the solubility test in the dilute HNO3 or HCl acid, TEM and FT-IR, XRD, TG and DSC. The chemical shifts of binding energies of Al 2p, Mg 2p, Si 2s and O 1s on the coated particles indicate that the coating of the SiO2 nano-film on the surface of the nano-LDHs proceeds through the formation of Mg-O-Si and Al-O-Si bonds. The thermal analysis shows that both the SiO2-coated nano-LDHs and the nano-LDHs have a similar mass loss process, in which there are three obvious stages of mass loss in the temperature range of 40-700℃. Furthermore, the more the coated amount of SiO2 on the surface of the nano-LDHs is, the less the mass loss of the samples is at 700℃.The nano- LDHs have two obvious endothermic peaks at 244.67℃ and 430.13℃, whose corresponding heat absorption capacities are 412.28 J/g and 336.30 J/g, respectively. In contrast, the coated nano-LDHs have only one endothermic peak at 243.60℃ with a heat absorption capacity of 221.25 J/g.
Hussein Al Ali SH
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Samer Hasan Hussein Al Ali,1 Mothanna Al-Qubaisi,2 Mohd Zobir Hussein,1,3 Maznah Ismail,2,4 Zulkarnain Zainal,1 Muhammad Nazrul Hakim51Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, 2Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, 3Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, 4Department of Nutrition and Health Science, 5Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaAbstract: The intercalation of a drug active, perindopril, into Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide for the formation of a new nanocomposite, PMAE, was accomplished using a simple ion exchange technique. A relatively high loading percentage of perindopril of about 36.5% (w/w indicates that intercalation of the active took place in the Mg/Al inorganic interlayer. Intercalation was further supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analysis shows markedly enhanced thermal stability of the active. The release of perindopril from the nanocomposite occurred in a controlled manner governed by pseudo-second order kinetics. MTT assay showed no cytotoxicity effects from either Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide or its nanocomposite, PMAE. Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity, with 5.6% inhibition after 90 minutes of incubation. On incubation of angiotensin-converting enzyme with 0.5 µg/mL of the PMAE nanocomposite, inhibition of the enzyme increased from 56.6% to 70.6% at 30 and 90 minutes, respectively. These results are comparable with data reported in the literature for Zn/Al-perindopril.Keywords: magnesium, aluminum, layered double hydroxide, perindopril erbumine, ion exchange, angiotensin-converting enzyme, Chang cells line
2009-09-01
Full Text Available The MgAl layered double hydroxide (LDH with laurylether phosphate was prepared using reconstruction method. Delamilation of the LDH with laurylether phosphate (LDH-PK in tetrahydrofuran was characterized by AFM (atomic force microscopy, indicating that a large part of the LDH was delaminated into single, double and multi layers. The delaminated LDH-PK suspension was then used with polyvinyl chloride (PVC to prepare a series of high-LDH-loading nanocomposites. Both the XRD (X-ray diffraction patterns and TEM (transmission electron microscopy photographs of the as-prepared PVC/LDH nanocomposites indicated that the LDH nanolayers dispersed uniformly in the PVC matrix. With differential scanning calorimetry (DSC the glass transition temperatures of PVC phases in the PVC/LDH nanocomposites were measured and a slightly lower value than that of pristine PVC has been observed. Thermogravimetric analysis results show that the presence of LDH enhanced the dehydrochlorination temperature (Tmax1, reduced the maximum degradation rate (Rmax1 and the 5% weight loss temperature, and promoted the char formation of PVC. However, the thermal degradation temperature (Tmax2 and thermal degradation rate (Rmax2 of the dehydrochlorinated PVC were slightly affected by the presence of LDH. The apparent activation energies were calculated by the method of Flynn-Wall-Ozawa in nitrogen at four different heating rates, showing that the nanofiller increased the apparent activation energies by 10–26 kJ/mol when compared with pristine PVC, probably implying that the LDH nanolayers improve the stability of chlorine atom on the PVC chains.
A study on the deviation aspects of the poem âThe Eightieth Stageâ
Soghra Salmaninejad Mehrabadi
2016-01-01
of synergistic base has helped to the poet's innovation. New expressions are also used in other parts of abnormality in âThe Eightieth Stag eâ . Stylistic deviation Sometimes, Akhavan uses local and slang words, and words with different songs and music produces deviation as well. This Application is one kind of abnormality. Words such as âhan, hey, by the truth, pity, hoome, kope, meydanak and ...â are of this type of abnormality . Â Ancient deviation One way to break out of the habit of poetry , is attention to ancient words and actions . Archaism is one of the factors affecting the deviation. Archaism deviation helps to make the old sp. According to Leach, the ancient is the survival of the old language in the now. Syntactic factors, type of music and words, are effective in escape from the standard language. âSowrat (sharpness, hamgenan (counterparts, parine (last year, pour ( son, pahlaw (championââare Words that show Akhavanâs attention to archaism. The ancient pronunciation is another part of his work. Furthermore, use of mythology and allusion have created deviation of this type. Cases such as anagram adjectival compounds, the use of two prepositions for a word, the use of the adjective and noun in the plural form, are signs of archaism in grammar and syntax. He is interested in grammatical elements of Khorasani Style. Most elements of this style used in âThe Eightieth Stageâ poetry. S emantic deviation Semantic deviation is caused by the imagery . The poet uses frequently literary figures. By this way, he produces new meaning and therefore highlights his poem. Simile, metaphor, personification and irony are the most important examples of this deviation. Apparently the maximum deviation from the norm in this poem is of periodic deviation (ancient or archaism. The second row belongs to the semantic deviation in which metaphor is the most meaningful. The effect of metaphor in this poem is quite well. In
P. I. Azubuike
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: The Shewhart and S control charts, in the literature, were combined to evaluate the stability of a process. These charts were based on the fundamental assumption of normality of the quality characteristics under investigation. Approach: In practice, the normality assumption was often violated by real life data, therefore, use of the Shewhart and S control charts on real life data might leads to misplacement of control limits. There were many alternatives in the literature to handle non-normality of quality characteristics. The Median Absolute Deviation (MAD claimed in the literature to be the best estimate when the data under consideration is non-normal. Thus in this study, we derived the control limits for the-control chart using the median absolute deviation for monitoring process stability when the quality characteristic under investigation was non-normal. Results: The derived control limits were compared with the control limits when the sample standard deviation was used as a measure of controlling the process variability using manufacturing process (real life data. Furthermore, a simulation study was carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed MAD based control charts on both normal and non-normal process. Conclusion: The obtained results show that the derived control limit is an improvement on the control limit of the Shewhart and that the MAD control charts performed better for non-normal process than for normal process.
A correlational study of scoliosis and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation.
Zhou, Shuncheng; Yan, Juanjuan; Da, Hu; Yang, Yang; Wang, Na; Wang, Wenyong; Ding, Yin; Sun, Shiyao
2013-01-01
Previous studies have confirmed that patients with mandibular deviation often have abnormal morphology of their cervical vertebrae. However, the relationship between mandibular deviation, scoliosis, and trunk balance has not been studied. Currently, mandibular deviation is usually treated as a single pathology, which leads to poor clinical efficiency. We investigated the relationship of spine coronal morphology and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation, and compared the finding to those in healthy volunteers. 35 adult patients with skeletal mandibular deviation and 10 healthy volunteers underwent anterior X-ray films of the head and posteroanterior X-ray films of the spine. Landmarks and lines were drawn and measured on these films. The axis distance method was used to measure the degree of scoliosis and the balance angle method was used to measure trunk balance. The relationship of mandibular deviation, spine coronal morphology and trunk balance was evaluated with the Pearson correlation method. The spine coronal morphology of patients with mandibular deviation demonstrated an "S" type curve, while a straight line parallel with the gravity line was found in the control group (significant difference, pbalance of patients with mandibular deviation was disturbed (imbalance angle >1°), while the control group had a normal trunk balance (imbalance angle <1°). There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01). The degree of scoliosis and shoulder imbalance correlated with the degree of mandibular deviation, and presented a linear trend. The direction of mandibular deviation was the same as that of the lateral bending of thoracolumbar vertebrae, which was opposite to the direction of lateral bending of cervical vertebrae. Our study shows the degree of mandibular deviation has a high correlation with the degree of scoliosis and trunk imbalance, all the three deformities should be clinically evaluated in the management of mandibular
ZHANG Hui; ZHANG Shu-Yi; FAN Li
2009-01-01
A model of high-overtone bulk acoustic resonators is used to study the effects of thickness deviation of elastic plates on resonance frequency spectra in planar multi-layered systems. The resonance frequency shifts induced by the thickness deviations of the elastic plates periodically vary with the resonance order, which depends on the acoustic impedance ratios of the elastic plates to piezoelectric patches. Additionally, the center lines of the frequency shift oscillations Hnearly change with the orders of the resonance modes, and their slopes are sensitive to the thickness deviations of the plates, which can be used to quantitatively evaluate the thickness deviations.
An Analysis of the Linguistic Deviation in Chapter X of Oliver Twist
刘聪
2013-01-01
Charles Dickens is one of the greatest critical realist writers of the Victorian Age. In language, he is often compared with William Shakespeare for his adeptness with the vernacular and large vocabulary. Charles Dickens achieved a recognizable place among English writers through the use of the stylistic features in his fictional language. Oliver Twist is the best representative of Charles Dickens’style, which makes it the most appropriate choice for the present stylistic study on Charles Dickens. No one who has ever read the dehumanizing workhouse scenes of Oliver Twist and the dark, criminal underworld life can forget them. This thesis attempts to investigate Oliver Twist through the approach of modern stylistics, particularly the theory of linguistic devia-tion. This thesis consists of an introduction, the main body and a conclusion. The introduction offers a brief summary of the com-ments on Charles Dickens and Chapter X of Oliver Twist, introduces the newly rising linguistic deviation theories, and brings about the theories on which this thesis settles. The main body explores the deviation effects produced from four aspects: lexical deviation, grammatical deviation, graphological deviation, and semantic deviation. It endeavors to show Dickens ’manipulating language and the effects achieved through this manipulation. The conclusion mainly sums up the previous analysis, and reveals the theme of the novel, positive effect of linguistic deviation and significance of deviation application.
Asaranti Kar
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Neural tube defects (NTD are a group of serious birth defects occurring due to defective closure of neural tube during embryonic development. It comprises of anencephaly, encephalocele and spina bifida. We conducted this prospective fetal autopsy series to study the rate and distribution of NTD, analyze the reproductive factors and risk factors, note any associated anomalies and evaluate the organ weights and their deviation from normal. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study done over a period of 6 years from August, 2007 to July, 2013. All cases of NTDs delivered as abortion, still born and live born were included. The reproductive and risk factors like age, parity, multiple births, previous miscarriage, obesity, diabetes mellitus, socioeconomic status and use of folic acid during pregnancy were collected.Autopsy was performed according to Virchow′s technique. Detail external and internal examination were carried out to detect any associated anomalies. Gross and microscopic examination of organs were done. Results: Out of 210 cases of fetal and perinatal autopsy done, 72 (34.28% had NTD constituting 49 cases of anencephaly, 16 spina bifida and 7 cases of encephalocele. The mothers in these cases predominantly were within 25-29 years (P = 0.02 and primy (P = 0.01. Female sex was more commonly affected than males (M:F = 25:47, P = 0.0005 There was no history of folate use in majority of cases. Organ weight deviations were >2 standard deviation low in most of the cases. Most common associated anomalies were adrenal hypoplasia and thymic hyperplasia. Conclusion: The authors have made an attempt to study NTD cases in respect to maternal reproductive and risk factors and their association with NTD along with the organ weight deviation and associated anomalies. This so far in our knowledge is an innovative study which was not found in literature even after extensive search.
Griffin, James M.; Diaz, Fernanda; Geerling, Edgar; Clasing, Matias; Ponce, Vicente; Taylor, Chris; Turner, Sam; Michael, Ernest A.; Patricio Mena, F.; Bronfman, Leonardo
2017-02-01
By using acoustic emission (AE) it is possible to control deviations and surface quality during micro milling operations. The method of micro milling is used to manufacture a submillimetre waveguide where micro machining is employed to achieve the required superior finish and geometrical tolerances. Submillimetre waveguide technology is used in deep space signal retrieval where highest detection efficiencies are needed and therefore every possible signal loss in the receiver has to be avoided and stringent tolerances achieved. With a sub-standard surface finish the signals travelling along the waveguides dissipate away faster than with perfect surfaces where the residual roughness becomes comparable with the electromagnetic skin depth. Therefore, the higher the radio frequency the more critical this becomes. The method of time-frequency analysis (STFT) is used to transfer raw AE into more meaningful salient signal features (SF). This information was then correlated against the measured geometrical deviations and, the onset of catastrophic tool wear. Such deviations can be offset from different AE signals (different deviations from subsequent tests) and feedback for a final spring cut ensuring the geometrical accuracies are met. Geometrical differences can impact on the required transfer of AE signals (change in cut off frequencies and diminished SNR at the interface) and therefore errors have to be minimised to within 1 μm. Rules based on both Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and Neural Networks (NN) were used to implement a simulation displaying how such a control regime could be used as a real time controller, be it corrective measures (via spring cuts) over several initial machining passes or, with a micron cut introducing a level plain measure for allowing setup corrective measures (similar to a spirit level).
A correlational study of scoliosis and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation.
Shuncheng Zhou
Full Text Available Previous studies have confirmed that patients with mandibular deviation often have abnormal morphology of their cervical vertebrae. However, the relationship between mandibular deviation, scoliosis, and trunk balance has not been studied. Currently, mandibular deviation is usually treated as a single pathology, which leads to poor clinical efficiency. We investigated the relationship of spine coronal morphology and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation, and compared the finding to those in healthy volunteers. 35 adult patients with skeletal mandibular deviation and 10 healthy volunteers underwent anterior X-ray films of the head and posteroanterior X-ray films of the spine. Landmarks and lines were drawn and measured on these films. The axis distance method was used to measure the degree of scoliosis and the balance angle method was used to measure trunk balance. The relationship of mandibular deviation, spine coronal morphology and trunk balance was evaluated with the Pearson correlation method. The spine coronal morphology of patients with mandibular deviation demonstrated an "S" type curve, while a straight line parallel with the gravity line was found in the control group (significant difference, p1°, while the control group had a normal trunk balance (imbalance angle <1°. There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01. The degree of scoliosis and shoulder imbalance correlated with the degree of mandibular deviation, and presented a linear trend. The direction of mandibular deviation was the same as that of the lateral bending of thoracolumbar vertebrae, which was opposite to the direction of lateral bending of cervical vertebrae. Our study shows the degree of mandibular deviation has a high correlation with the degree of scoliosis and trunk imbalance, all the three deformities should be clinically evaluated in the management of mandibular deviation.
Bach, Long Giang [Department of Imaging System Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advanced Materials Research, Nguyen Tat Thanh Unviersity, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Islam, Md. Rafiqul [Department of Imaging System Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Energy and Mineral Resources Division, Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Cao, Xuan Thang [Department of Imaging System Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Myung [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Kwon Taek, E-mail: ktlim@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Imaging System Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-01-05
Highlights: • The photoluminescent LDHs-PCL-Tb{sup 3+} nanohybrid was successfully synthesized. • Structure and morphology of LDHs-g-PCL-Tb{sup 3+} were investigated by FT-IR, SEM, and TGA. • XPS and EDS analyses further suggested the formation of LDHs-g-PCL-Tb{sup 3+}. • Optical property of LDHs-g-PCL-Tb{sup 3+} was investigated by PL. -- Abstract: This paper demonstrates a systematic study of the synthesis and characterization of the hybrid of Mg–Al layer double hydroxides (LDHs), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), and terbium ions (Tb{sup 3+}). The hybrid LDH-g-PCL-Tb{sup 3+}-1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) was prepared by the combination of ring opening polymerization (ROP), click chemistry, and coordination chemistry. First, LDHs with a molar ratio of Mg/Al = 2 were prepared by the co-precipitation method, which was subsequently functionalized with (3-chloropropyl) trimethoxysilane in order to introduce azide groups through the reaction of chlorine with sodium azide. Meanwhile, the acetylene functionalized PCL was prepared by ROP of ε-CL, followed by esterification of the hydroxyl groups using succinic anhydride. The click reaction of alkyne-PCL and N{sub 3}-LDHs successfully afforded LDH-g-PCL, which was coordinated with Tb{sup 3+} ions in the presence of Phen. The structure and properties of the nanohybrids were investigated by FT-IR, XPS, EDS, SEM, and TGA analyses. The data indicate the coordination of Tb{sup 3+} ions with LDH-g-PCL nanohybrids. The content of Tb{sup 3+} ions in the LDH-g-PCL-Tb{sup 3+}-Phen complex was calculated to be 8.7% (w/w). The LDH-g-PCL-Tb{sup 3+}-Phen complexes showed four emission bands with high fluorescence intensity centered at 489 nm ({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 6}), 546 nm ({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 5}), 586 nm ({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 4}) and 623 nm ({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 3}) with excitation at 328 nm ({sup 3}F{sub 6} → {sup 5}G{sub 6}). The stability of LDH-g-PCL-Tb{sup 3+}-Phen complexes
Large Deviations for Parameter Estimators of Some Time Inhomogeneous Diffusion Process
Shou Jiang ZHAO; Fu Qing GAO
2011-01-01
The goal of this paper is to study large deviations for estimator and score function of some time inhomogeneous diffusion process.Large deviation in the non-steepness case with explicit rate functions is obtained by using parameter-dependent change of measure.
Moderate Deviations for M-estimators in Linear Models with φ-mixing Errors
Jun FAN
2012-01-01
In this paper,the moderate deviations for the M-estimators of regression parameter in a linear model are obtained when the errors form a strictly stationary φ-mixing sequence.The results are applied to study many different types of M-estimators such as Huber's estimator,Lp-regression estimator,least squares estimator and least absolute deviation estimator.
Yi Wen JIANG; Li Ming WU
2005-01-01
All known results on large deviations of occupation measures of Markov processes are based on the assumption of (essential) irreducibility. In this paper we establish the weak* large deviation principle of occupation measures for any countable Markov chain with arbitrary initial measures. The new rate function that we obtain is not convex and depends on the initial measure, contrary to the (essentially) irreducible case.
Dynamical Gibbs-non-Gibbs transitions : a study via coupling and large deviations
Wang, Feijia
2012-01-01
In this thesis we use both the two-layer and the large-deviation approach to study the conservation and loss of the Gibbs property for both lattice and mean-field spin systems. Chapter 1 gives general backgrounds on Gibbs and non-Gibbs measures and outlines the the two-layer and the large-deviation
Litvin, Faydor L.; Kuan, Chihping; Zhang, YI
1991-01-01
A numerical method is developed for the minimization of deviations of real tooth surfaces from the theoretical ones. The deviations are caused by errors of manufacturing, errors of installment of machine-tool settings and distortion of surfaces by heat-treatment. The deviations are determined by coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces. The minimization of deviations is based on the proper correction of initially applied machine-tool settings. The contents of accomplished research project cover the following topics: (1) Descriptions of the principle of coordinate measurements of gear tooth surfaces; (2) Deviation of theoretical tooth surfaces (with examples of surfaces of hypoid gears and references for spiral bevel gears); (3) Determination of the reference point and the grid; (4) Determination of the deviations of real tooth surfaces at the points of the grid; and (5) Determination of required corrections of machine-tool settings for minimization of deviations. The procedure for minimization of deviations is based on numerical solution of an overdetermined system of n linear equations in m unknowns (m much less than n ), where n is the number of points of measurements and m is the number of parameters of applied machine-tool settings to be corrected. The developed approach is illustrated with numerical examples.
Zhong Hao XU; Dong HAN
2011-01-01
We model an epidemic with a class of nonhomogeneous Markov chains on the supercritical percolation network on Zd.The large deviations law for the Markov chain is given.Explicit expression of the rate function for large deviation is obtained.
On Translation of Language Deviation from the Perspective of Peter Newmark’s Translation Dichotomy
胡娜; 延宏
2016-01-01
Language deviation can bring fresh vitality to literary creation. In literary works translation,through adoption of proper translation strategies, the effects created by language deviation in the original text can be efficiently reproduced. Here, the writer attempts to make a narration and relevant analyses on it.
Large Deviations Methods and the Join-the-Shortest-Queue Model
Ridder, Ad; Shwartz, Adam
2005-01-01
We develop a methodology for studying ''large deviations type'' questions. Our approach does not require that the large deviations principle holds, and is thus applicable to a larg class of systems. We study a system of queues with exponential servers, which share an arrival stream. Arrivals are rou
2013-09-24
... Program; Single- Case Deviation From Competition Requirements AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice of Single-Case Deviation... purpose to improve the health of all mothers and children, a key objective of the Title V MCH Block Grant...
Martya Rahmaniati; Tris Eryando; Dewi Susanna; Dian Pratiwi; Fajar Nugraha; Andri Ruliansah; Muhammad Umar Riandi
2014-01-01
Dengue Fever Disease is still regarded as an endemic disease in Banjar City. Information is still required to map dengue fever case distribution, mean center of case distribution, and the direction of dengue fever case dispersion in order to support the surveillance program in the relation to the vast area of the dengue fever disease control program. The objective of the research is to obtain information regarding the area of dengue fever disease distribution in Banjar City by utilizing the S...
Rodbard, David
2012-10-01
We describe a new approach to estimate the risks of hypo- and hyperglycemia based on the mean and SD of the glucose distribution using optional transformations of the glucose scale to achieve a more nearly symmetrical and Gaussian distribution, if necessary. We examine the correlation of risks of hypo- and hyperglycemia calculated using different glucose thresholds and the relationships of these risks to the mean glucose, SD, and percentage coefficient of variation (%CV). Using representative continuous glucose monitoring datasets, one can predict the risk of glucose values above or below any arbitrary threshold if the glucose distribution is Gaussian or can be transformed to be Gaussian. Symmetry and gaussianness can be tested objectively and used to optimize the transformation. The method performs well with excellent correlation of predicted and observed risks of hypo- or hyperglycemia for individual subjects by time of day or for a specified range of dates. One can compare observed and calculated risks of hypo- and hyperglycemia for a series of thresholds considering their uncertainties. Thresholds such as 80 mg/dL can be used as surrogates for thresholds such as 50 mg/dL. We observe a high correlation of risk of hypoglycemia with %CV and illustrate the theoretical basis for that relationship. One can estimate the historical risks of hypo- and hyperglycemia by time of day, date, day of the week, or range of dates, using any specified thresholds. Risks of hypoglycemia with one threshold (e.g., 80 mg/dL) can be used as an effective surrogate marker for hypoglycemia at other thresholds (e.g., 50 mg/dL). These estimates of risk can be useful in research studies and in the clinical care of patients with diabetes.
Salomons, E.M.; Janssen, S.A.; Verhagen, H.L.M.; Wessels, P.W.
2014-01-01
Annoyance and sleep disturbance by road and rail traffic noise in an urban area are investigated. Noise levels Lden and Lnight are determined with an engineering noise model that is optimized for the local situation, based on local noise measurements. The noise levels are combined with responses of
OPINIONSCONCERNINGTHE ORGANIZATIONOF STANDARD COSTS ACCOUNTANCY
Ion Ionescu
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to present a way for organizing the accountancy under the conditions of applying the method of standard costs, such that to allow both the registration of standard and effective costs and the separate registration of the deviations from standard costs. Making some pertinent and performance decisions is mainly influenced by the quality of the information provided to managers and by the promptitude they are sent. This desiderate is not possible if using classical methods for calculating costs, reason for which it is mandatory to organize and implement a managerial accountancy, based on using a modern method, namely the method of standard costs. The main implications of this method consist of establishing a pertinent cost, orientated towards the entity management, regardless the activity domain where it is implemented. The carried out study concerns only one of the phases performed for applying the method of standard cost, respectively the organization of the standard costs accountancy.
Melato, L. T.; Motaung, T. E.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Motloung, S. V.
2017-04-01
Indium-doped magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4:03% In3+) spinel powders were prepared by citrate sol-gel method. The effect of annealing period (AP) at a fixed annealing temperature (800 °C) and dopant concentration (0.3% In3+) on the structure, particle morphology and photoluminescent properties of the powders were investigated. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) results showed that the crystalline quality and crystallite sizes of the powders were influenced by the AP. Doping with 0.3% In3+ did not influence the major crystal structure of the MgAl2O4 (host) material. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image suggested that the AP influences the particle morphology of the nanophosphor. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image suggested that the crystallites sizes were in the region of 10 nm. The Photoluminescence (PL) results showed that the violet emission at 388 nm and green emission at 560 nm both originated from the host material and there was no evidence of any emission from the dopant (In3+). Increasing the AP up to 2 h lead to luminescence enhancement, while further increase in AP lead to luminescence quenching. The Commision Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) co-ordinates results showed that the emission colour of all samples was in the blue region and it was not tuned by varying the AP.
Tao, B. S.
2014-09-08
Magnetic properties of Co40Fe40B20(CoFeB) thin films sandwiched between Ta and MgAl2O4layers have been systematically studied. For as-grown state, Ta/CoFeB/MgAl2O4structures exhibit good perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with interface anisotropy Ki=1.22erg/cm2, which further increases to 1.30erg/cm2after annealing, while MgAl2O4/CoFeB/Ta multilayer shows in-plane magnetic anisotropy and must be annealed in order to achieve PMA. For bottom CoFeB layer, the thickness window for PMA is from 0.6 to 1.0nm, while that for top CoFeB layer is between 0.8 and 1.4nm. Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) with a core structure of CoFeB/MgAl2O4/CoFeB have also been fabricated and tunneling magnetoresistance ratio of about 36% at room temperature and 63% at low temperature have been obtained. The intrinsic excitations in the p-MTJs have been identified by inelastic electron-tunneling spectroscopy.
Zöll, Klaus; Manninger, Tanja; Kahlenberg, Volker; Krüger, Hannes; Tropper, Peter
2017-08-01
In a study on parts of the system Fe2O3-CaO-Al2O3-MgO, the previously unknown compound Ca3MgAl6Fe10O28 or FCAM-I (iso-structural with SFCA-I) has been synthesized. The two principal aims of our investigations have been (i) analysis of the stability field of the new phase as a function of T and fO2 and (ii) determination of its crystal structure. Two experimental series in air and under controlled oxygen fugacity via the hematite-magnetite buffer were conducted. Pure polycrystalline FCAM-I has been obtained at 1463.15 K (1190 °C) in air. While increasing the temperature from 1573.15 K to 1673.15 K (1300 °C to 1400 °C), the FCAM-I phase breaks down forming a variety of new compounds depending on T and fO2. Ca3MgAl6Fe10O28 has a triclinic crystal structure (space group P \\overline{1} ). Basic crystallographic data are as follows: a = 10.2980(4) Å, b = 10.4677(4) Å, c = 11.6399(4) Å, α = 94.363(3)°, β = 111.498(3)°, γ = 109.744(3)°, V = 1069.81(7) Å3, Z = 2.
The Research on the Preparation of Isophorone by Mg-Al Oxide Solid Catalyst%镁铝氧化物固体催化剂制备异佛尔酮的研究
邓晓丰
2014-01-01
The research select co-precipitation methods to prepare solid base Mg-Al oxide catalyzer, and use the catalyzer to prepare isophorone. Compared the performance of catalyzer which prepared by dif-ferent methods of drop order and different ratios of Mg-Al. The result was when the ratio amount 1 and use back-titration route method to prepare isophorone had such merit: the catalyzer had higher activity, good se-lectivity and activity.%选用共沉淀法制备Mg-Al氧化物固体催化剂，并以此为基础制备异佛尔酮。比较了不同滴加方法和不同Mg/Al比例的催化剂性能。经研究认为当Mg/Al比例为1.0，采用反滴加的方法制备的催化剂反应活性高、选择性好且不易失活。
Sanfilippo, Paul G; Hammond, Christopher J; Staffieri, Sandra E; Kearns, Lisa S; Melissa Liew, S H; Barbour, Julie M; Hewitt, Alex W; Ge, Dongliang; Snieder, Harold; Mackinnon, Jane R; Brown, Shayne A; Lorenz, Birgit; Spector, Tim D; Martin, Nicholas G; Wilmer, Jeremy B; Mackey, David A
2012-10-01
Strabismus represents a complex oculomotor disorder characterized by the deviation of one or both eyes and poor vision. A more sophisticated understanding of the genetic liability of strabismus is required to guide searches for associated molecular variants. In this classical twin study of 1,462 twin pairs, we examined the relative influence of genes and environment in comitant strabismus, and the degree to which these influences can be explained by factors in common with refractive error. Participants were examined for the presence of latent ('phoria') and manifest ('tropia') strabismus using cover-uncover and alternate cover tests. Two phenotypes were distinguished: eso-deviation (esophoria and esotropia) and exo-deviation (exophoria and exotropia). Structural equation modeling was subsequently employed to partition the observed phenotypic variation in the twin data into specific variance components. The prevalence of eso-deviation and exo-deviation was 8.6% and 20.7%, respectively. For eso-deviation, the polychoric correlation was significantly greater in monozygotic (MZ) (r = 0.65) compared to dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (r = 0.33), suggesting a genetic role (p = .003). There was no significant difference in polychoric correlation between MZ (r = 0.55) and DZ twin pairs (r = 0.53) for exo-deviation (p = .86), implying that genetic factors do not play a significant role in the etiology of exo-deviation. The heritability of an eso-deviation was 0.64 (95% CI 0.50-0.75). The additive genetic correlation for eso-deviation and refractive error was 0.13 and the bivariate heritability (i.e., shared variance) was less than 1%, suggesting negligible shared genetic effect. This study documents a substantial heritability of 64% for eso-deviation, yet no corresponding heritability for exo-deviation, suggesting that the genetic contribution to strabismus may be specific to eso-deviation. Future studies are now needed to identify the genes associated with eso-deviation and
Deformation behavior of A6063 tube with initial thickness deviation in free hydraulic bulging
YANG Lian-fa; GUO Cheng; DENG Yang
2006-01-01
Experiment on seamless tubes of aluminum alloy A6063 with initial thickness deviation of 0-20% was conducted through a free hydraulic bulging with tube ends free. The influence of initial thickness deviation on the cross-section profile, thickness distribution, maximum internal pressure and maximum radial expansion was investigated. FEM simulation was also performed in order to examine and help explaining the experimental results. The results indicate that the internal pressure and maximum internal pressure appear to be little influenced by the initial thickness deviation, and that the cross-section profile of the bulged tube changes diversely and can not be a perfect circle. The results also suggest that the increase in initial thickness deviation may lead to a remarkable decrease in maximum radial expansion, and a rapid increase in thickness deviation and the center eccentricity of the inner and outer profiles.
The role of septal surgery in management of the deviated nose.
Foda, Hossam M T
2005-02-01
The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 260 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 75 percent of them had various degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 232 patients (89 percent), not only to improve breathing but also to achieve a straight, symmetrical, external nose as well. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.
Bongiorno, C; Lillo, F; Mantegna, R N; Miccichè, S
2016-01-01
Understanding the relation between planned and realized flight trajectories and the determinants of flight deviations is of great importance in air traffic management. In this paper we perform an in depth investigation of the statistical properties of planned and realized air traffic on the German airspace during a 28 day periods, corresponding to an AIRAC cycle. We find that realized trajectories are on average shorter than planned ones and this effect is stronger during night-time than daytime. Flights are more frequently deviated close to the departure airport and at a relatively large angle to destination. Moreover, the probability of a deviation is higher in low traffic phases. All these evidences indicate that deviations are mostly used by controllers to give directs to flights when traffic conditions allow it. Finally we introduce a new metric, termed difork, which is able to characterize navigation points according to the likelihood that a deviation occurs there. Difork allows to identify in a statist...
Benkler, Erik; Sterr, Uwe
2015-01-01
The power spectral density in Fourier frequency domain, and the different variants of the Allan deviation (ADEV) in dependence on the averaging time are well established tools to analyse the fluctuation properties and frequency instability of an oscillatory signal. It is often supposed that the statistical uncertainty of a measured average frequency is given by the ADEV at a well considered averaging time. However, this approach requires further mathematical justification and refinement, which has already been done regarding the original ADEV for certain noise types. Here we provide the necessary background to use the modified Allan deviation (modADEV) and other two-sample deviations to determine the uncertainty of weighted frequency averages. The type of two-sample deviation used to determine the uncertainty depends on the method used for determination of the average. We find that the modADEV, which is connected with $\\Lambda$-weighted averaging, and the two sample deviation associated to a linear phase regr...
['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'
Claassen, J.A.H.R.
2005-01-01
In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same w
['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'
Claassen, J.A.H.R.
2005-01-01
In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same
镁／铝合金水反应金属燃料推进剂的燃烧性能%Combustion Performances of Mg-Al Alloy Hydro-reactive Metal Fuel Propellant
高明; 郭晓燕; 邹美帅; 杨荣杰
2015-01-01
通过高能球磨工艺制备了高活性球磨镁／铝合金粉，并制备了两组镁／铝基水反应金属燃料推进剂，用固体推进剂燃速测试系统测定了其燃速。采用氧弹量热仪测定了推进剂的爆热值，并收集推进剂的一次燃烧固相产物，将其放置于水蒸汽高温管式炉中模拟二次燃烧。采用 SEM、XRD 及化学分析方法表征了水反应金属燃料的一、二次燃烧固相产物。结果表明，高活性球磨镁／铝合金水反应金属燃料推进剂具有更高的燃速和爆热值；二次燃烧产物剩余铝含量更低，二次燃烧产物反应更彻底；高活性球磨镁／铝合金能够改善其水反应金属燃料推进剂的一次燃烧效果，可提高其在二次燃烧中铝的燃烧效率。%High active ball-milling Mg-Al alloy powders were prepared by a high-energy ball-milling process from Mg-Al alloy.Two groups of Mg-Al based hydro-reactive metal fuel propellants were prepared.The burning rate of the propellant was measured by a burning rate measuring system of solid propellants.The value of heat of explosion of the propellant was measured by an oxygen bomb calorimeter and the solid products of primary combustion were collected.The secondary combustion of the solid products of primary combustion was simulated in the water vapor high temperature tube furnace.The solid products of primary combustion and secondary combustion of hydro-reac-tive metal fuel propellants were characterized by SEM,XRD and chemical analysis method.Results show that high active ball-milling Mg-Al alloy hydro-reactive metal fuel propellants have higher burning rate and heat of explosion. The residual Al content in secondary combustion products is lower and the reaction of secondary combustion product is more thorough.High active ball-milling Mg-Al alloy can improve the primary combustion effect of hydro-reactive metal fuel propellants and the combustion efficiency of Al in secondary combustion.
USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D project C programming standards
Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Moreau, Dennis R.
1984-01-01
A set of programming standards intended to promote reliability, readability, and portability of C programs written for PC research and development projects is established. These standards must be adhered to except where reasons for deviation are clearly identified and approved by the PC team. Any approved deviation from these standards must also be clearly documented in the pertinent source code.
Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.
2014-01-01
The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed companie
A contribution to large deviations for heavy-tailed random sums
SU; Chun
2001-01-01
［1］ Nagaev, A. V., Integral limit theorems for large deviations when Cramer's condition is not fulfilled I, II, Theory Prob. Appl., 1969, 14: 51-64, 193-208.［2］ Nagaev, A. V., Limit theorems for large deviations where Cramer's conditions are violated (In Russian), Izv. Akad. Nauk USSR Ser., Fiz-Mat Nauk., 1969, 7: 17.［3］ Heyde, C. C., A contribution to the theory of large deviations for sums of independent random variables, Z. Wahrscheinlichkeitsth, 1967, 7: 303.［4］ Heyde, C. C., On large deviation probabilities for sums of random variables which are not attracted to the normal law, Ann. Math. Statist., 1967, 38: 1575.［5］ Heyde, C. C., On large deviation probabilities in the case of attraction to a nonnormal stable law, Sanky, 1968, 30: 253.［6］ Nagaev, S. V., Large deviations for sums of independent random variables, in Sixth Prague Conf. on Information Theory, Random Processes and Statistical Decision Functions, Prague: Academic, 1973, 657674.［7］ Nagaev, S. V., Large deviations of sums of independent random variables, Ann. Prob., 1979, 7: 745.［8］ Embrechts, P., Klüppelberg, C., Mikosch, T., Modelling Extremal Events for Insurance and Finance, Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1997.［9］ Cline, D. B. H., Hsing, T., Large deviation probabilities for sums and maxima of random variables with heavy or subexponential tails, Preprint, Texas A&M University, 1991.［10］ Klüppelberg, C., Mikosch, T., Large deviations of heavy-tailed random sums with applications to insurance and finance, J. Appl. Prob., 1997, 34: 293.
A large deviations approach to limit theory for heavy-tailed time series
Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Wintenberger, Olivier
2016-01-01
In this paper we propagate a large deviations approach for proving limit theory for (generally) multivariate time series with heavy tails. We make this notion precise by introducing regularly varying time series. We provide general large deviation results for functionals acting on a sample path...... and vanishing in some neighborhood of the origin. We study a variety of such functionals, including large deviations of random walks, their suprema, the ruin functional, and further derive weak limit theory for maxima, point processes, cluster functionals and the tail empirical process. One of the main results...
Method for solving fully fuzzy linear programming problems using deviation degree measure
Haifang Cheng; Weilai Huang; Jianhu Cai
2013-01-01
A new ful y fuzzy linear programming (FFLP) prob-lem with fuzzy equality constraints is discussed. Using deviation degree measures, the FFLP problem is transformed into a crispδ-parametric linear programming (LP) problem. Giving the value of deviation degree in each constraint, the δ-fuzzy optimal so-lution of the FFLP problem can be obtained by solving this LP problem. An algorithm is also proposed to find a balance-fuzzy optimal solution between two goals in conflict: to improve the va-lues of the objective function and to decrease the values of the deviation degrees. A numerical example is solved to il ustrate the proposed method.
Non-equilibrium steady states: fluctuations and large deviations of the density and of the current
Derrida, Bernard
2007-07-01
These lecture notes give a short review of methods such as the matrix ansatz, the additivity principle or the macroscopic fluctuation theory, developed recently in the theory of non-equilibrium phenomena. They show how these methods allow us to calculate the fluctuations and large deviations of the density and the current in non-equilibrium steady states of systems like exclusion processes. The properties of these fluctuations and large deviation functions in non-equilibrium steady states (for example, non-Gaussian fluctuations of density or non-convexity of the large deviation function which generalizes the notion of free energy) are compared with those of systems at equilibrium.
Saito, Takuya
2017-09-01
We discuss a deviation of the fluctuation-dissipation relation (FDR) in a driven superdiffusive system as exemplified by polymer stretching. The superdiffusion is found by monitoring momentum transfer to a tracer, which is a conjugate observable with the position. Molecular-dynamics simulation demonstrates that the FDR deviates during the nonequilibrium transient process. We then propose nonequilibrium mode analysis for superdiffusion, which is a counterpart to that for driven subdiffusion. The mode analysis yields results that are in qualitative agreement with the simulation results, suggesting that the fluctuations of the stiffness in the system from initial equilibrium to stretching account for the FDR deviation.
Yue Bao WANG; Kai Yong WANG; Dong Ya CHENG
2006-01-01
In this paper, we obtain results on precise large deviations for non-random and random sums of negatively associated nonnegative random variables with common dominatedly varying tail distribution function. We discover that, under certain conditions, three precise large-deviation probabilities with different centering numbers are equivalent to each other. Furthermore, we investigate precise large deviations for sums of negatively associated nonnegative random variables with certain negatively dependent occurrences. The obtained results extend and improve the corresponding results of Ng, Tang, Yan and Yang (J. Appl. Prob., 41, 93-107, 2004).
Large deviation functions in a system of diffusing particles with creation and annihilation.
Popkov, V; Schütz, G M
2011-08-01
Large deviation functions for an exactly solvable lattice gas model of diffusing particles on a ring, subject to pair annihilation and creation, are obtained analytically using exact free-fermion techniques. Our findings for the large deviation function for the current are compared to recent results of Appert-Rolland et al. [Phys. Rev. E 78, 021122 (2008)] for diffusive systems with conserved particle number. Unlike conservative dynamics, our nonconservative model has no universal finite-size corrections for the cumulants. However, the leading Gaussian part has the same variance as in the conservative case. We also elucidate some properties of the large deviation functions associated with particle creation and annihilation.
Narikawa, Tatsuya
2016-01-01
We discuss the potential of the advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA, to detect generic deviations of gravitational waveforms from the prediction of General Relativity. We use the parameterized post-Einsteinian formalism to characterize the deviations, and assess how much magnitude of the deviations are detectable by using an approximate decision scheme based on Bayesian statistics. We find that there exist detectable regions of the parameterized post-Einsteinian parameters by using a single gravitational wave event. The regions are not excluded by currently existing binary pulsar observations for the parameterized post-Einsteinian parameters at higher post-Newtonian order.
Loewe, Axel; Schulze, Walther H W; Jiang, Yuan; Wilhelms, Mathias; Luik, Armin; Dössel, Olaf; Seemann, Gunnar
2015-01-01
In case of chest pain, immediate diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is required to respond with an appropriate treatment. The diagnostic capability of the electrocardiogram (ECG), however, is strongly limited for ischemic events that do not lead to ST elevation. This computational study investigates the potential of different electrode setups in detecting early ischemia at 10 minutes after onset: standard 3-channel and 12-lead ECG as well as body surface potential maps (BSPMs). Further, it was assessed if an additional ECG electrode with optimized position or the right-sided Wilson leads can improve sensitivity of the standard 12-lead ECG. To this end, a simulation study was performed for 765 different locations and sizes of ischemia in the left ventricle. Improvements by adding a single, subject specifically optimized electrode were similar to those of the BSPM: 2-11% increased detection rate depending on the desired specificity. Adding right-sided Wilson leads had negligible effect. Absence of ST deviation could not be related to specific locations of the ischemic region or its transmurality. As alternative to the ST time integral as a feature of ST deviation, the K point deviation was introduced: the baseline deviation at the minimum of the ST-segment envelope signal, which increased 12-lead detection rate by 7% for a reasonable threshold.
Axel Loewe
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In case of chest pain, immediate diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is required to respond with an appropriate treatment. The diagnostic capability of the electrocardiogram (ECG, however, is strongly limited for ischemic events that do not lead to ST elevation. This computational study investigates the potential of different electrode setups in detecting early ischemia at 10 minutes after onset: standard 3-channel and 12-lead ECG as well as body surface potential maps (BSPMs. Further, it was assessed if an additional ECG electrode with optimized position or the right-sided Wilson leads can improve sensitivity of the standard 12-lead ECG. To this end, a simulation study was performed for 765 different locations and sizes of ischemia in the left ventricle. Improvements by adding a single, subject specifically optimized electrode were similar to those of the BSPM: 2–11% increased detection rate depending on the desired specificity. Adding right-sided Wilson leads had negligible effect. Absence of ST deviation could not be related to specific locations of the ischemic region or its transmurality. As alternative to the ST time integral as a feature of ST deviation, the K point deviation was introduced: the baseline deviation at the minimum of the ST-segment envelope signal, which increased 12-lead detection rate by 7% for a reasonable threshold.
Ascaso Carlos
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In an agreement assay, it is of interest to evaluate the degree of agreement between the different methods (devices, instruments or observers used to measure the same characteristic. We propose in this study a technical simplification for inference about the total deviation index (TDI estimate to assess agreement between two devices of normally-distributed measurements and describe its utility to evaluate inter- and intra-rater agreement if more than one reading per subject is available for each device. Methods We propose to estimate the TDI by constructing a probability interval of the difference in paired measurements between devices, and thereafter, we derive a tolerance interval (TI procedure as a natural way to make inferences about probability limit estimates. We also describe how the proposed method can be used to compute bounds of the coverage probability. Results The approach is illustrated in a real case example where the agreement between two instruments, a handle mercury sphygmomanometer device and an OMRON 711 automatic device, is assessed in a sample of 384 subjects where measures of systolic blood pressure were taken twice by each device. A simulation study procedure is implemented to evaluate and compare the accuracy of the approach to two already established methods, showing that the TI approximation produces accurate empirical confidence levels which are reasonably close to the nominal confidence level. Conclusions The method proposed is straightforward since the TDI estimate is derived directly from a probability interval of a normally-distributed variable in its original scale, without further transformations. Thereafter, a natural way of making inferences about this estimate is to derive the appropriate TI. Constructions of TI based on normal populations are implemented in most standard statistical packages, thus making it simpler for any practitioner to implement our proposal to assess agreement.
2017-02-01
Spinel-type MgAl$_2$O$_4$ nanoparticles with high surface area were synthesized by thermal decomposition of three different ion-pair complexes precursors, including [Mg(H$_2$O)$_6$][Al(dipic)$_2$]$_2$·6H$_2$O, [Al(sal)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$[Mg(dipic)$_2$] and [Mg(H$_2$O)$_6$][Al(ox)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$·5H$_2$O. Influence of the inorganic precursor was investigated on synthesis and textural properties of magnesium aluminate nanopowders. The precursors [Mg(H$_2$O)$_6$][Al(dipic)$_2$]$_2$·6H$_2$O and [Al(sal)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$[Mg(dipic)$_2$] displayed pure spinel-type MgAl$_2$O$_4$, while the sample synthesized by [Mg(H$_2$O)$_6$][Al(ox)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$·5H$_2$O precursor consisted of MgAl$_2$O$_4$ and MgO. The MgAl$_2$O$_4$ synthesizedvia [Al(sal)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$[Mg(dipic)$_2$] precursor exhibited higher BET specific surface area (226.7 m$^2$ g$^{−1}$) and smaller particle size than those of the samples obtained from the two other precursors.
Simulation of heat waves in climate models using large deviation algorithms
Ragone, Francesco; Bouchet, Freddy; Wouters, Jeroen
2016-04-01
One of the goals of climate science is to characterize the statistics of extreme, potentially dangerous events (e.g. exceptionally intense precipitations, wind gusts, heat waves) in the present and future climate. The study of extremes is however hindered by both a lack of past observational data for events with a return time larger than decades or centuries, and by the large computational cost required to perform a proper sampling of extreme statistics with state of the art climate models. The study of the dynamics leading to extreme events is especially difficult as it requires hundreds or thousands of realizations of the dynamical paths leading to similar extremes. We will discuss here a new numerical algorithm, based on large deviation theory, that allows to efficiently sample very rare events in complex climate models. A large ensemble of realizations are run in parallel, and selection and cloning procedures are applied in order to oversample the trajectories leading to the extremes of interest. The statistics and characteristic dynamics of the extremes can then be computed on a much larger sample of events. This kind of importance sampling method belongs to a class of genetic algorithms that have been successfully applied in other scientific fields (statistical mechanics, complex biomolecular dynamics), allowing to decrease by orders of magnitude the numerical cost required to sample extremes with respect to standard direct numerical sampling. We study the applicability of this method to the computation of the statistics of European surface temperatures with the Planet Simulator (Plasim), an intermediate complexity general circulation model of the atmosphere. We demonstrate the efficiency of the method by comparing its performances against standard approaches. Dynamical paths leading to heat waves are studied, enlightening the relation of Plasim heat waves with blocking events, and the dynamics leading to these events. We then discuss the feasibility of this
Hemingway’s Internal Deviation from His Primary Norm in The Old Man and the Sea
Trisnowati Tanto
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Ernest Hemingway is well known for the use of short and simple sentences when writing his novels since he aims at ‘[getting] the most out of the least’. This sentence-simplicity style is Hemingway’s primary norm. The Old Man and the Sea is the perfect example of this. However, in this novel, he sometimes uses long, complex sentences to describe certain points, and this sentence-complexity style can be said to be Hemingway’s secondary norm. In this case, there is a deviation within Hemingway’s own style of writing – an internal deviation. The deviation is obviously done on purpose as a kind of distraction so as to make the readers aware of the special and important ‘message’ that Hemingway wants to convey. In this novel, the deviation is used to build the elements of suspense and foreshadowing in much detail.
THE INFLUENCE OF TECHNICAL DEVIATIONS OVER EFFORTS FROM A 4R SPHERICAL QUADRILATERAL MECHANISM
Nicolae PANDREA
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In the present paper is mechanically defined the notion of technical deviation (geometrical through a matrix of pluckerian coordinates and those influence over the efforts from the 4R spherical quadrilateral mechanism elements.
Large Deviations for Stochastic Partial Differential Equations Driven by a Poisson Random Measure
Budhiraja, Amarjit; Dupuis, Paul
2012-01-01
Stochastic partial differential equations driven by Poisson random measures (PRM) have been proposed as models for many different physical systems, where they are viewed as a refinement of a corresponding noiseless partial differential equations (PDE). A systematic framework for the study of probabilities of deviations of the stochastic PDE from the deterministic PDE is through the theory of large deviations. The goal of this work is to develop the large deviation theory for small Poisson noise perturbations of a general class of deterministic infinite dimensional models. Although the analogous questions for finite dimensional systems have been well studied, there are currently no general results in the infinite dimensional setting. This is in part due to the fact that in this setting solutions may have little spatial regularity, and thus classical approximation methods for large deviation analysis become intractable. The approach taken here, which is based on a variational representation for nonnegative func...
Deviation Prevention Ability of Rollers in Continuous Annealing Furnace and Application
ZHANG Yan; YANG Quan; HE An-rui; YAO Xi-jiang; GUO De-fu
2012-01-01
In order to reduce the strip deviation in the practical production procedure in the continuous annealing fur- nace, a dynamic simulation model was built through finite element method (FEM) to conduct the quantification cal- culation of the effect of regular roller contour types on strip deviation. The result reveals that comparing to the flat roller, forward roller contour can prevent the strip deviation to some degree. In terms of prevention ability, double- taper roller is the strongest, single-taper roller and crown roller are less stronger; and more roller contour values raise the prevention ability. Accordingly, optimization method was applied to continuous annealing furnace, and it largely reduced accidents such as strip break and limited speed that are caused by the deviation.
Large-Deviation Results for Discriminant Statistics of Gaussian Locally Stationary Processes
Junichi Hirukawa
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the large-deviation principle of discriminant statistics for Gaussian locally stationary processes. First, large-deviation theorems for quadratic forms and the log-likelihood ratio for a Gaussian locally stationary process with a mean function are proved. Their asymptotics are described by the large deviation rate functions. Second, we consider the situations where processes are misspecified to be stationary. In these misspecified cases, we formally make the log-likelihood ratio discriminant statistics and derive the large deviation theorems of them. Since they are complicated, they are evaluated and illustrated by numerical examples. We realize the misspecification of the process to be stationary seriously affecting our discrimination.
Ren, Jiagang; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Hua
2015-01-01
In this paper, we prove a large deviation principle of Freidlin-Wentzell's type for the multivalued stochastic differential equations. As an application, we derive a functional iterated logarithm law for the solutions of multivalued stochastic differential equations.
A course on large deviations with an introduction to Gibbs measures
Rassoul-Agha, Firas
2015-01-01
This is an introductory course on the methods of computing asymptotics of probabilities of rare events: the theory of large deviations. The book combines large deviation theory with basic statistical mechanics, namely Gibbs measures with their variational characterization and the phase transition of the Ising model, in a text intended for a one semester or quarter course. The book begins with a straightforward approach to the key ideas and results of large deviation theory in the context of independent identically distributed random variables. This includes Cramér's theorem, relative entropy, Sanov's theorem, process level large deviations, convex duality, and change of measure arguments. Dependence is introduced through the interactions potentials of equilibrium statistical mechanics. The phase transition of the Ising model is proved in two different ways: first in the classical way with the Peierls argument, Dobrushin's uniqueness condition, and correlation inequalities and then a second time through the ...
PERIODIC SOLUTIONS TO p-LAPLACIAN GENERALIZED LINARD EQUATION WITH DEVIATING ARGUMENTS
无
2008-01-01
Using the theory of coincidence degree,we study a kind of periodic solutions to p-Laplacian generalized Liénard equation with deviating arguments. A result on the existence of periodic solutions is obtained.