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Sample records for mgal precision compared

  1. Comparative Study of Ni-Zn LHS and Mg-Al LDH Adsorbents of Navy Blue and Yellow F3G Dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idha Yulia Ikhsani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of disperse dyes from wastewater onto Ni-Zn LHS (layered hydroxide salts and Mg-Al LDH (layered double hydroxides has been compared in this study. Effects of initial pH solution, contact time and initial dye concentration were investigated. The ability of the adsorbent to be reused was also studied. The results showed that acidic condition was favorable for the adsorption of each dyes onto both adsorbent. The adsorption kinetics was studied using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Santosa’s kinetics models. The experimental data fits well with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The results showed that adsorption of navy blue onto both adsorbent followed Freundlich isotherm adsorption, while yellow F3G followed Langmuir isotherm adsorption. In the application for the adsorption the wastewater containing dyes, Ni-Zn LHS has a better adsorption capacity of 52.33 mg/g than that of Mg-Al LDH that 30.54 mg/g. Calcination of the adsorbent which has already been used increased the adsorption capacity of Mg-Al LDH to 84.75 mg/g, but decreased the adsorption capacity of the Ni-Zn LHS to 42.65 mg/g.

  2. Newly synthesized MgAl2Ge2: A first-principles comparison with its silicide and carbide counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer Karim, A. M. M.; Hadi, M. A.; Alam, M. A.; Parvin, F.; Naqib, S. H.; Islam, A. K. M. A.

    2018-06-01

    Using plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory (DFT), the first-principle calculations are performed to investigate the structural aspects, mechanical behaviors and electronic features of the newly synthesized CaAl2Si2-prototype intermetallic compound, MgAl2Ge2 for the first time and the results are compared with those calculated for its silicide and carbide counterparts MgAl2Si2 and MgAl2C2. The calculated lattice constants agree fairly well with their corresponding experimental values. The estimated elastic tensors satisfy the mechanical stability conditions for MgAl2Ge2 along with MgAl2Si2 and MgAl2C2. The level of elastic anisotropy increases following the sequence of X-elements Ge → Si → C. MgAl2Ge2 and MgAl2Si2 are expected to be ductile and damage tolerant, while MgAl2C2 is a brittle one. MgAl2Ge2 and MgAl2Si2 should exhibit better thermal shock resistance and low thermal conductivity and accordingly these can be used as thermal barrier coating (TBC) materials. The Debye temperature of MgAl2Ge2 is lowest among three intermetallic compounds. MgAl2Ge2 and MgAl2Si2 should exhibit metallic conductivity; while the dual characters of weak-metals and semiconductors are expected for MgAl2C2. The values of theoretical Vickers hardness for MgAl2Ge2, MgAl2Si2, and MgAl2C2 are 3.3, 2.7, and 7.7 GPa, respectively, indicating that these three intermetallics are soft and easily machinable.

  3. TL and OSL studies of carbon doped magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4:C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sanu S.; Mishra, D. R.; Soni, Anuj; Grover, V.; Polymeris, G. S.; Muthe, K. P.; Jha, S. K.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2016-10-01

    The MgAl2O4:C has been synthesized by using two different methods by electron gun and vacuum assisted melting of MgAl2O4 in presence of graphite. The MgAl2O4:C phosphor thus developed by these two different methods have similar types of the TL/OSL defects with multiple overlapping TL glow peaks from 100 °C to 400 °C. The Computerized Curve De-convolution Analysis (CCDA) has been used to measure TL parameters such as thermal trap depth, frequency factor and order of kinetic associated with charge transfer process in TL phenomenon. The investigated TL/OSL results show that these two methods of incorporating carbon in MgAl2O4 have generated closely resemble the defects of similar types in MgAl2O4:C lattice. However, the MgAl2O4:C synthesized by electron gun shows relatively larger concentration of the TL/OSL defects as compared to MgAl2O4:C synthesized using vacuum assisted melting method. The photo-ionization cross-section (PIC) associated with fastest OSL component of MgAl2O4: C is found to be ∼ 0.5 times than that of fastest OSL component of commercially available dosimetric grade α-Al2O3:C. The MgAl2O4:C thus developed shows good dynamic OSL dose linearity from few mGy to 1 Gy. This work reveals that MgAl2O4:C could be developed as potential tissue equivalent OSL / TL material.

  4. Synthesis and structural transformations of hydrotalcite-like materials Mg-Al and Zn-Al

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prihod'ko, R.V.; Sychev, M.V.; Astrelin, I.M.; Erdmann, K.; Mangel, A.; Santen, van R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Mg-Al and Zn-Al hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides of various compositions were synthesized and characterized. A detailed comparative analysis of the structure and composition of starting and reconstructed layered double hydroxides was made

  5. Comparative study of 2-DOF micromirrors for precision light manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Johanna I.; Shkel, Andrei M.

    2001-08-01

    Many industry experts predict that the future of fiber optic telecommunications depends on the development of all-optical components for switching of photonic signals from fiber to fiber throughout the networks. MEMS is a promising technology for providing all-optical switching at high speeds with significant cost reductions. This paper reports on the the analysis of two designs for 2-DOF electrostatically actuated MEMS micromirrors for precision controllable large optical switching arrays. The behavior of the micromirror designs is predicted by coupled-field electrostatic and modal analysis using a finite element analysis (FEA) multi-physics modeling software. The analysis indicates that the commonly used gimbal type mirror design experiences electrostatic interference and would therefore be difficult to precisely control for 2-DOF motion. We propose a new design approach which preserves 2-DOF actuation while minimizing electrostatic interference between the drive electrodes and the mirror. Instead of using two torsional axes, we use one actuator which combines torsional and flexural DOFs. A comparative analysis of the conventional gimbal design and the one proposed in this paper is performed.

  6. Divorced Eutectic Solidification of Mg-Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monas, Alexander; Shchyglo, Oleg; Kim, Se-Jong; Yim, Chang Dong; Höche, Daniel; Steinbach, Ingo

    2015-08-01

    We present simulations of the nucleation and equiaxed dendritic growth of the primary hexagonal close-packed -Mg phase followed by the nucleation of the -phase in interdendritic regions. A zoomed-in region of a melt channel under eutectic conditions is investigated and compared with experiments. The presented simulations allow prediction of the final properties of an alloy based on process parameters. The obtained results give insight into the solidification processes governing the microstructure formation of Mg-Al alloys, allowing their targeted design for different applications.

  7. Cryogenic current comparators for precise ion beam current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurian, Febin

    2015-01-01

    The planned Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI has to cope with a wide range of beam intensities in its high-energy beam transport systems and in the storage rings. To meet the requirements of a non-intercepting intensity measurement down to nA range, it is planned to install a number of Cryogenic Current Comparator (CCC) units at different locations in the FAIR beamlines. In this work, the first CCC system for intensity measurement of heavy ion beams, which was developed at GSI, was re-commissioned and upgraded to be used as a 'GSI - CCC prototype' for extensive optimization and development of an improved CCC for FAIR. After installation of a new SQUID sensor and related electronics, as well as implementation of improved data acquisition components, successful beam current measurements were performed at a SIS18 extraction line. The measured intensity values were compared with those of a Secondary Electron Monitor (SEM). Furthermore, the spill-structure of a slowly extracted beam was measured and analyzed, investigating its improvement due to bunching during the slow-extraction process. Due to the extreme sensitivity of the superconducting sensor, the determined intensity values as well as the adjustment of the system for optimal performance are strongly influenced by the numerous noise sources of the accelerators environment. For this reason, detailed studies of different effects caused by noise have been carried out, which are presented together with proposals to reduce them. Similarly, studies were performed to increase the dynamic range and overcome slew rate limitations, the results of which are illustrated and discussed as well. By combining the various optimizations and characterizations of the GSI CCC prototype with the experiences made during beam operation, criteria for a more efficient CCC System could be worked out, which are presented in this work. The details of this new design are worked out with respect to the

  8. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of 3R Polytypes of Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budhysutanto, W.N.

    2010-01-01

    Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH) is a unique group of clays that have an anionic exchange capability. This research explored the hydrothermal method as an alternative method to synthesize Mg-Al LDH. It is a simple and more environmentally friendly compared to the conventional method of

  9. Microstructure and properties of Mg-Al binary alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHENG Wei-chao

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different amounts of added Al, ranging from 1 % to 9 %, on the microstructure and properties of Mg-Al binary alloys were investigated. The results showed that when the amount of added Al is less than 5%, the grain size of the Mg-Al binary alloys decreases dramatically from 3 097 μm to 151 μm with increasing addition of Al. Further addition of Al up to 9% makes the grain size decrease slowly to 111 μm. The α-Mg dendrite arms are also refined. Increasing the amount of added Al decreases the hot cracking susceptibility of the Mg-Al binary alloys remarkably, and enhances the micro-hardness of the α-Mg matrix.

  10. Interaction of hydrogen with an Mg-Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasen, A.; Sorensen, M.B.; Burkarl, R.; Moller, B.; Molenbroek, A.M.; Pedersen, A.S.; Andreasen, J.W.; Nielsen, M.M.; Jensen, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of hydrogen with an Mg-Al alloy pre-exposed to air have been studied with in situ time resolved X-ray powder diffraction. Phase fractions as a function of time are derived from series of consecutive diffraction patterns allowing kinetic analysis. The apparent activation energy for dehydrogenation of the Mg-Al alloy is found to be 160 kJ/mol. This is not significantly higher than for pure and fully activated Mg. It is suggested that the addition of Al improves the resistance towards oxygen contamination

  11. Comparing the Scale of Web Subject Directories Precision in Technical-Engineering Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdokht Wazirpour Keshmiri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to compare the scale of web subject directories precision in information retrieval of technical-engineering science. Information gathering was documentary and webometric. Keywords of technical-engineering science were chosen at twenty different subjects from IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and engineering magazines that situated in sciencedirect site. These keywords are used at five subject directories Yahoo, Google, Infomine, Intute, Dmoz, that were web directories high-utilization. Usually first results in searching tools are connected to searching keywords. Because, first ten results was evaluated in every search. These assessments to consist of scale of precision, scale of error, scale retrieval items in technical-engineering categories to retrieval items entirely. The used criteria for determining the scale of precision that was according to high-utilization standards in different documents, to consist of presence of the keywords in title, appearance of keywords at the part of web retrieved pages, keywords adjacency, URL of page, page description and subject categories. Information analysis was according to Kruskal-Wallis Test and L.S.D fisher. Results revealed that there was meaningful difference about precision of web subject directories in information retrieval of technical-engineering science, Therefore this theory was confirmed.web subject directories ranked from point of precision as follows. Google, Yahoo, Intute, Dmoz, and Infomine. The scale of observed error at the first results was another criterion that was used for comparing web subject directories. In this research, Yahoo had minimum scale of error and Infomine had most of error. This research also compared the scale of retrieval items in all of categories web subject directories entirely to retrieval items in technical-engineering categories, results revealed that there was meaningful difference between them. And

  12. A Comparative Study of Precise Point Positioning (PPP Accuracy Using Online Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowski Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Precise Point Positioning (PPP is a technique used to determine the position of receiver antenna without communication with the reference station. It may be an alternative solution to differential measurements, where maintaining a connection with a single RTK station or a regional network of reference stations RTN is necessary. This situation is especially common in areas with poorly developed infrastructure of ground stations. A lot of research conducted so far on the use of the PPP technique has been concerned about the development of entire day observation sessions. However, this paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of accuracy of absolute determination of position from observations which last between 1 to 7 hours with the use of four permanent services which execute calculations with PPP technique such as: Automatic Precise Positioning Service (APPS, Canadian Spatial Reference System Precise Point Positioning (CSRS-PPP, GNSS Analysis and Positioning Software (GAPS and magicPPP - Precise Point Positioning Solution (magicGNSS. On the basis of acquired results of measurements, it can be concluded that at least two-hour long measurements allow acquiring an absolute position with an accuracy of 2-4 cm. An evaluation of the impact on the accuracy of simultaneous positioning of three points test network on the change of the horizontal distance and the relative height difference between measured triangle vertices was also conducted. Distances and relative height differences between points of the triangular test network measured with a laser station Leica TDRA6000 were adopted as references. The analyses of results show that at least two hours long measurement sessions can be used to determine the horizontal distance or the difference in height with an accuracy of 1-2 cm. Rapid products employed in calculations conducted with PPP technique reached the accuracy of determining coordinates on a close level as in elaborations which employ

  13. Experimental Investigation of Comparative Process Capabilities of Metal and Ceramic Injection Molding for Precision Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Giannekas, Nikolaos; Marhöfer, David Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    and discussion presented in the paper will be useful for thorough understanding of the MIM and CIM processes and to select the right material and process for the right application or even to combine metal and ceramic materials by molding to produce metal–ceramic hybrid components.......The purpose of this paper is to make a comparative study on the process capabilities of the two branches of the powder injection molding (PIM) process—metal injection molding (MIM) and ceramic injection molding (CIM), for high-end precision applications. The state-of-the-art literature does...

  14. Different Techniques For Producing Precision Holes (>20 mm) In Hardened Steel—Comparative Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, R. T.; Tanikawa, S. T.

    2009-11-01

    High speed machining (HSM), or high performance machining, has been one of the most recent technological advances. When applied to milling operations, using adequate machines, CAM programs and tooling, it allows cutting hardened steels, which was not feasible just a couple of years ago. The use of very stiff and precision machines has created the possibilities of machining holes in hardened steels, such as AISI H13 with 48-50 HRC, using helical interpolations, for example. Such process is particularly useful for holes with diameter bigger than normal solid carbide drills commercially available, around 20 mm, or higher. Such holes may need narrow tolerances, fine surface finishing, which can be obtained just by end milling operations. The present work compares some of the strategies used to obtain such holes by end milling, and also some techniques employed to finish them, by milling, boring and also by fine grinding at the same machine. Results indicate that it is possible to obtain holes with less than 0.36 m in circularity, 7.41 m in cylindricity and 0.12 m in surface roughness Ra. Additionally, there is less possibilities of obtaining heat affected layers when using such technique.

  15. Dual-scale phase-field simulation of Mg-Al alloy solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monas, A; Shchyglo, O; Tegeler, M; Steinbach, I; Höche, D

    2015-01-01

    Phase-field simulations of the nucleation and growth of primary α-Mg phase as well as secondary, β-phase of a Mg-Al alloy are presented. The nucleation model for α- and β-Mg phases is based on the “free growth model” by Greer et al.. After the α-Mg phase solidification we study a divorced eutectic growth of α- and β-Mg phases in a zoomed in melt channel between α-phase dendrites. The simulated cooling curves and final microstructures of α-grains are compared with experiments. In order to further enhance the resolution of the interdendritic region a high-performance computing approach has been used allowing significant simulation speed gain when using supercomputing facilities. (paper)

  16. Robotic-Arm Assisted Total Knee Arthroplasty Demonstrated Greater Accuracy and Precision to Plan Compared with Manual Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampp, Emily L; Chughtai, Morad; Scholl, Laura Y; Sodhi, Nipun; Bhowmik-Stoker, Manoshi; Jacofsky, David J; Mont, Michael A

    2018-05-01

    This study determined if robotic-arm assisted total knee arthroplasty (RATKA) allows for more accurate and precise bone cuts and component position to plan compared with manual total knee arthroplasty (MTKA). Specifically, we assessed the following: (1) final bone cuts, (2) final component position, and (3) a potential learning curve for RATKA. On six cadaver specimens (12 knees), a MTKA and RATKA were performed on the left and right knees, respectively. Bone-cut and final-component positioning errors relative to preoperative plans were compared. Median errors and standard deviations (SDs) in the sagittal, coronal, and axial planes were compared. Median values of the absolute deviation from plan defined the accuracy to plan. SDs described the precision to plan. RATKA bone cuts were as or more accurate to plan based on nominal median values in 11 out of 12 measurements. RATKA bone cuts were more precise to plan in 8 out of 12 measurements ( p  ≤ 0.05). RATKA final component positions were as or more accurate to plan based on median values in five out of five measurements. RATKA final component positions were more precise to plan in four out of five measurements ( p  ≤ 0.05). Stacked error results from all cuts and implant positions for each specimen in procedural order showed that RATKA error was less than MTKA error. Although this study analyzed a small number of cadaver specimens, there were clear differences that separated these two groups. When compared with MTKA, RATKA demonstrated more accurate and precise bone cuts and implant positioning to plan. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Ionizing radiation effects in MgAl2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra Sanchez, A.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation in MgAl2O4 has been studied, paying special interest to the influence of the high concentration of intrinsic dsefects of this material. Optical absorption, ESR, photoluminiscence, radioluminiscence, and thermoluminiscence are the main techniques used. The ionizing radiation induces to formation of V centres. During the work its characteristics (structure, thermal stability, absorption spectra, etc.) has been studied. The thermoluminiscence spectra allowed the discovery of several charge release processes between 85 and 650 K, all of them associated to electron release. The V-centres and several impurities (Cr, Mn,...) appear as recombination centres. The obtained data show that the kinetic of these charge release processes is regulated by the presence of a point defect with a very high concentration. This defect is an electron trap and its structure is an Al ion in a lattice site of tetraedral symmetry. (Author)

  18. Lithium containing MgAl mixed oxides obtained from sol-gel hydrotalcite for transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata A. B. Lima-Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract The innumerous advantages of heterogeneous catalysts employed in biodiesel production have stimulated the search for a solid catalyst capable of replacing the industrially used homogeneous catalysts. This paper investigates the effect of the sol-gel method in the catalytic activity and stability of Li-MgAl mixed oxides prepared by the “in situ” lithium addition to a MgAl hydrotalcite. The analyses based on N2 physisorption, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and temperature-programmed desorption of CO2 were carried out to elucidate the properties of the catalysts. Considerable differences in the physico-chemical properties of the catalysts were observed with the Li addition. Li reduced the surface area and increased the crystallite size of the oxides. Furthermore, Li-MgAl mixed oxides prepared by the calcination of the sol-gel MgAl hydrotalcites presented substantial morphological differences when compared to the same oxides obtained by heat treatment of hydrotalcites synthesized via the conventional co-precipitation route. Furthermore, Li increased the number and strength of the base sites which resulted in the increase of the oxide reactivities towards the transesterification reaction between methyl acetate and ethanol. The activity was dependent on the Li loading on the catalysts. The catalyst containing only 5 wt.% Li turned out to be highly active (( 85% conversion at 50°C, ethanol/methyl acetate molar ratio = 6/1, 4 wt.% of catalyst and 30 min of reaction. Stability tests showed that the Li-MgAl catalysts lose activity after 3 reuse cycles.

  19. Equilibrium studies of the adsorption of aromatic disulfonates by Mg-Al oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tomohito; Umetsu, Mami; Kumagai, Shogo; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2018-03-01

    The removal of m-benzenedisulfonate (BDS2-) and 2,6-naphthalenedisulfonate (NDS2-) anions by Mg-Al oxide was investigated. Langmuir model best describes the adsorption of both aromatic disulfonate anions, with the maximum amount of uptake higher for BDS2-. Mg-Al oxide reacts easier with the aromatic disulfonate anion with higher charge density, a trend that is the opposite of that observed in aromatic sulfonate anions. After increasing the charge from -1 to -2, the removal of aromatic disulfonates by Mg-Al oxide is controlled by electrostatic interactions, instead of hydrophobic interactions that are dominant for aromatic sulfonate anions.

  20. Investigation of fluorine adsorption on nitrogen doped MgAl_2O_4 surface by first-principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Xiaojun; Xu, Zhenming; Li, Jie; Chen, Jiangan; Liu, Qingsheng

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: First-principles calculations indicate that MgAl_2O_4 surface is fluorine-loving, but hydrophobic. N doped MgAl_2O_4 (100) surface structure shows the highest fluorine adsorption performance and fluorine atom is more preferentially adsorbed on the Mg-Al bridge site. The fluorine adsorption intensity follow this order: N doped MgAl_2O_4 (100) > Al_2O_3 (0001) > MgAl_2O_4 (100) > MgO (100). N doped MgAl_2O_4 is a promising candidate for fluorine removal. - Highlights: • MgAl_2O_4 surface is fluorine-loving, not hydrophilic. • Fluorine preferentially adsorbs on the Mg-Al bridge site. • Adsorption intensity follow this order: N doped MgAl_2O_4 > Al_2O_3 > MgAl_2O_4 > MgO. • Excellent adsorption performance attributes to electron compensation of N atom. • Nitrogen doped MgAl_2O_4 is a promising candidate for fluorine removal. - Abstract: The nature of fluorine adsorption on pure and N doped MgAl_2O_4 surface has been investigated by first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory. Calculated results indicate that MgAl_2O_4 surface is fluorine-loving, not hydrophilic. Nitrogen doped MgAl_2O_4 (100) surface shows the highest fluorine adsorption performance and fluorine atom preferentially adsorbs on the Mg-Al bridge site. The fluorine adsorption intensity follow this order: Nitrogen doped MgAl_2O_4 (100) > Al_2O_3 (0001) > MgAl_2O_4 (100) > MgO (100). In-depth PDOS analysis suggested that 2p orbitals of F atom strongly hybridized with 3s- and 3p-orbitals of Al atom contribute to its high adsorption intensity. According to the analysis of Hirshfeld charge, the excellent fluorine adsorption performance of nitrogen doped MgAl_2O_4 attributes to the electron compensation effect of nitrogen atom and strong electrostatic interactions. All these evidences demonstrate a fact nitrogen doped MgAl_2O_4 is a promising candidate for fluorine removal.

  1. Accuracy and Precision of Three-Dimensional Low Dose CT Compared to Standard RSA in Acetabular Cups: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodén, Cyrus; Olivecrona, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q; Noz, Marilyn E; Zeleznik, Michael P; Sköldenberg, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The gold standard for detection of implant wear and migration is currently radiostereometry (RSA). The purpose of this study is to compare a three-dimensional computed tomography technique (3D CT) to standard RSA as an alternative technique for measuring migration of acetabular cups in total hip arthroplasty. Materials and Methods. With tantalum beads, we marked one cemented and one uncemented cup and mounted these on a similarly marked pelvic model. A comparison was made between 3D CT and standard RSA for measuring migration. Twelve repeated stereoradiographs and CT scans with double examinations in each position and gradual migration of the implants were made. Precision and accuracy of the 3D CT were calculated. Results. The accuracy of the 3D CT ranged between 0.07 and 0.32 mm for translations and 0.21 and 0.82° for rotation. The precision ranged between 0.01 and 0.09 mm for translations and 0.06 and 0.29° for rotations, respectively. For standard RSA, the precision ranged between 0.04 and 0.09 mm for translations and 0.08 and 0.32° for rotations, respectively. There was no significant difference in precision between 3D CT and standard RSA. The effective radiation dose of the 3D CT method, comparable to RSA, was estimated to be 0.33 mSv. Interpretation. Low dose 3D CT is a comparable method to standard RSA in an experimental setting.

  2. Low noise buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators for precise time and frequency measurement and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichinger, R. A.; Dachel, P.; Miller, W. H.; Ingold, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Extremely low noise, high performance, wideband buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators were developed. These buffer amplifiers are designed to distribute reference frequencies from 30 KHz to 45 MHz from a hydrogen maser without degrading the hydrogen maser's performance. The buffered phase comparators are designed to intercompare the phase of state of the art hydrogen masers without adding any significant measurement system noise. These devices have a 27 femtosecond phase stability floor and are stable to better than one picosecond for long periods of time. Their temperature coefficient is less than one picosecond per degree C, and they have shown virtually no voltage coefficients.

  3. Study on synthesizing Mg/Al layered double hydroxides at different pHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Otgonjargal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH was successfully synthesized at different pHs values. The Mg/AL LDH was well characterized by X-Ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analysis. The morphology of the LDH was observed using Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The influence of pH values on the morphology of the Mg/Al LDHs were studied. The result showed that the well-synthesized Mg/Al LDHs could be obtained when the pH value was about 10.0 at room temperature.DOI: http://doi.dx.org/10.5564/mjc.v15i0.319 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 15 (41, 2014, p36-39

  4. Synthesis of high surface area spinel-type MgAl2O4 nanoparticles by

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    68

    Spinel-type magnesium aluminate, MgAl2O4, is an effective refractory ceramic for ... such as good mechanical strength at high temperatures, high resistance to ... Materials. The starting chemicals with laboratory grade purity were provided ...

  5. Mg/Al HYDROTALCITE-LIKE SYNTHESIZED FROM BRINE WATER FOR EOSIN YELLOW REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Heraldy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to synthesis of Mg/Al HTlc using magnesium from several raw material resources are widely investigated. One of raw material would purpose as source of magnesium to synthesis of Mg/Al HTlc is brine water which is well known as the desalination process wastewater. Mg/Al HTlc are widely investigated for their potential applications in research and industrial processes as adsorbents, anionic exchange, catalysts and /or catalyst precursors for the preparation of inorganic materials and pharmaceutical industry excipients. As adsorbents, Mg/Al HTlc are receiving greater interests in the environmental community due to their high adsorption capacity. However, there is no literature available on the synthesis of Mg/Al HTlc from brine water except from artificial seawater. The objective of this research is to synthesis of Mg/Al HTlc from brine water and its ability tested for eosin yellow (EY removal. Characterization of the Mg/Al HTlc synthesized was confirmed through X-ray Diffraction and FT-IR Spectroscopy. The effect of various experimental parameters was investigated using a batch adsorption technique. In this manner, the adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics, and pH effects upon EY adsorption on Mg/Al HTlc were examined. The result showed that EY data fit well with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The isothermal data could be well described by the Freundlich equation. The adsorption capacity was 2.41 × 10-1 mol g-1, and adsorption energy of EY was 24.89 kJ mol-1.

  6. Accuracy and precision of flash glucose monitoring sensors inserted into the abdomen and upper thigh compared with the upper arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleer, Sara; Mathieu, Chantal; Nobels, Frank; Gillard, Pieter

    2018-06-01

    Nowadays, most Belgian patients with type 1 diabetes use flash glucose monitoring (FreeStyle Libre [FSL]; Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, California) to check their glucose values, but some patients find the sensor on the upper arm too visible. The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy and precision of FSL sensors when placed on different sites. A total of 23 adults with type 1 diabetes used three FSL sensors simultaneously for 14 days on the upper arm, abdomen and upper thigh. FSL measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose (BG) measurements obtained with a built-in FSL BG meter. The aggregated mean absolute relative difference was 11.8 ± 12.0%, 18.5 ± 18.4% and 12.3 ± 13.8% for the arm, abdomen (P = .002 vs arm) and thigh (P = .5 vs arm), respectively. Results of Clarke error grid analysis for the arm and thigh were similar (zone A: 84.9% vs 84.5%; P = .6), while less accuracy was seen for the abdomen (zone A: 69.4%; P = .01). Apart from the first day, the accuracy of FSL sensors on the arm and thigh was more stable across the 14-day wear duration than accuracy of sensors on the abdomen, which deteriorated mainly during week 2 (P < .0005). The aggregated precision absolute relative difference was markedly lower for the arm/thigh (10.9 ± 11.9%) compared with the arm/abdomen (20.9 ± 22.8%; P = .002). Our results indicate that the accuracy and precision of FSL sensors placed on the upper thigh are similar to the upper arm, whereas the abdomen performed unacceptably poorly. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Comparing exposure zones by different exposure metrics using statistical parameters: contrast and precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Young; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Raynor, Peter C; Eberly, Lynn E; Olson, Greg

    2010-10-01

    Recently, the appropriateness of using the 'mass concentration' metric for ultrafine particles has been questioned and surface area (SA) or number concentration metrics has been proposed as alternatives. To assess the abilities of various exposure metrics to distinguish between different exposure zones in workplaces with nanoparticle aerosols, exposure concentrations were measured in preassigned 'high-' and 'low-'exposure zones in a restaurant, an aluminum die-casting factory, and a diesel engine laboratory using SA, number, and mass concentration metrics. Predetermined exposure classifications were compared by each metric using statistical parameters and concentration ratios that were calculated from the different exposure concentrations. In the restaurant, SA and fine particle number concentrations showed significant differences between the high- and low-exposure zones and they had higher contrast (the ratio of between-zone variance to the sum of the between-zone and within-zone variances) than mass concentrations. Mass concentrations did not show significant differences. In the die cast facility, concentrations of all metrics were significantly greater in the high zone than in the low zone. SA and fine particle number concentrations showed larger concentration ratios between the high and low zones and higher contrast than mass concentrations. None of the metrics were significantly different between the high- and low-exposure zones in the diesel engine laboratory. The SA and fine particle number concentrations appeared to be better at differentiating exposure zones and finding the particle generation sources in workplaces generating nanoparticles. Because the choice of an exposure metric has significant implications for epidemiologic studies and industrial hygiene practice, a multimetric sampling approach is recommended for nanoparticle exposure assessment.

  8. Degeneration and height of cervical discs classified from MRI compared with precise height measurements from radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, Frode [National Centre of Spinal Disorders, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway)]. E-mail: frode.kolstad@medisin.ntnu.no; Myhr, Gunnar [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Kvistad, Kjell Arne [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Nygaard, Oystein P. [National Centre of Spinal Disorders, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Leivseth, Gunnar [Department of Neuromedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway)

    2005-09-01

    Study design: Descriptive study comparing MRI classifications with measurements from radiographs. Objectives: 1.Define the relationship between MRI classified cervical disc degeneration and objectively measured disc height. 2.Assess the level of inter- and intra-observer errors using MRI in defining cervical disc degeneration. Summary of background data: Cervical spine degeneration has been defined radiologically by loss of disc height, decreased disc and bone marrow signal intensity and disc protrusion/herniation on MRI. The intra- and inter-observer error using MRI in defining cervical degeneration influences data interpretation. Few previous studies have addressed this source of error. The relation and time sequence between cervical disc degeneration classified by MRI and cervical disc height decrease measured from radiographs is unclear. Methods: The MRI classification of degeneration was based on nucleus signal, prolaps identification and bone marrow signal. Two neuro-radiologists evaluated the MR-images independently in a blinded fashion. The radiographic disc height measurements were done by a new computer-assisted method compensating for image distortion and permitting comparison with normal level-, age- and gender-appropriate disc height. Results/conclusions: 1.Progressing disc degeneration classified from MRI is on average significantly associated with a decrease of disc height as measured from radiographs. Within each MRI defined category of degeneration measured disc heights, however, scatter in a wide range. 2.The inter-observer agreement between two neuro-radiologists in both defining degeneration and disc height by MRI was only moderate. Studies addressing questions related to cervical disc degeneration should take this into consideration.

  9. Degeneration and height of cervical discs classified from MRI compared with precise height measurements from radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstad, Frode; Myhr, Gunnar; Kvistad, Kjell Arne; Nygaard, Oystein P.; Leivseth, Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    Study design: Descriptive study comparing MRI classifications with measurements from radiographs. Objectives: 1.Define the relationship between MRI classified cervical disc degeneration and objectively measured disc height. 2.Assess the level of inter- and intra-observer errors using MRI in defining cervical disc degeneration. Summary of background data: Cervical spine degeneration has been defined radiologically by loss of disc height, decreased disc and bone marrow signal intensity and disc protrusion/herniation on MRI. The intra- and inter-observer error using MRI in defining cervical degeneration influences data interpretation. Few previous studies have addressed this source of error. The relation and time sequence between cervical disc degeneration classified by MRI and cervical disc height decrease measured from radiographs is unclear. Methods: The MRI classification of degeneration was based on nucleus signal, prolaps identification and bone marrow signal. Two neuro-radiologists evaluated the MR-images independently in a blinded fashion. The radiographic disc height measurements were done by a new computer-assisted method compensating for image distortion and permitting comparison with normal level-, age- and gender-appropriate disc height. Results/conclusions: 1.Progressing disc degeneration classified from MRI is on average significantly associated with a decrease of disc height as measured from radiographs. Within each MRI defined category of degeneration measured disc heights, however, scatter in a wide range. 2.The inter-observer agreement between two neuro-radiologists in both defining degeneration and disc height by MRI was only moderate. Studies addressing questions related to cervical disc degeneration should take this into consideration

  10. Grain Growth in Nanocrystalline Mg-Al Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruska, Karen; Rohatgi, Aashish; Vemuri, Venkata Rama Ses; Kovarik, Libor; Moser, Trevor H.; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2017-10-05

    An improved understanding of grain growth kinetics in nanocrystalline materials, and in metals and alloys in general, is of continuing interest to the scientific community. In this study, Mg - Al thin films containing ~10 wt.% Al and with 14.5 nm average grain size were produced by magnetron-sputtering and subjected to heat-treatments. The grain growth evolution in the early stages of heat treatment at 423 K (150 °C), 473 K (200 °C) and 573K (300 °C) was observed with transmission electron microscopy and analyzed based upon the classical equation developed by Burke and Turnbull. The grain growth exponent was found to be 7±2 and the activation energy for grain growth was 31.1±13.4 kJ/mol, the latter being significantly lower than in bulk Mg-Al alloys. The observed grain growth kinetics are explained by the Al supersaturation in the matrix and the pinning effects of the rapidly forming beta precipitates and possibly shallow grain boundary grooves. The low activation energy is attributed to the rapid surface diffusion which is dominant in thin film systems.

  11. Mixed methanol/ethanol on transesterification of waste cooking oil using Mg/Al hydrotalcite catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Yingqun; Wang, Qunhui; Zheng, Lu; Gao, Zhen; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Yuhui

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using calcined Mg/Al HT (hydrotalcite) as heterogeneous catalyst was investigated. This study describes the calcined Mg/Al HT prepared under optimal conditions to catalyse waste cooking oil for biodiesel preparation and proposes a plausible catalysis mechanism. The catalysts were characterised by Fourier Transform-Infrared, X-ray diffraction, Thermal Gravity Analysis-Differential thermal gravity and Brunner−Emmet−Teller measurements. Hydrotalcite with Mg/Al ratio of 3:1 showed a uniform mesoporous structure, excellent crystallinity, high surface area (270.5 m 2 /g) and good catalytic activity (at 500 °C calcination). The highest biodiesel yield obtained was 95.2% under optimised conditions of alcohol/oil molar ratio of 6:1, methanol/ethanol molar ratio of 4:2, catalyst content of 1.5%, reaction time of 2.5 h, reaction temperature of 80 °C. Mixed methanol/ethanol showed good synergistic effects as an ester exchange agent, and the catalyst was easily separated and recycled. Therefore, Mg/Al hydrotalcite can effectively catalyse waste cooking oil for biodiesel preparation with mixed methanol/ethanol. - Highlights: • Mg/Al hydrotalcite filtered and stirred with acetone has the better dispersion. • Mg/Al hydrotalcite used as catalyst to prepare biodiesel. • Catalytic mechanism of Mg/Al hydrotalcite was investigated. • Mixed Methanol/Ethanol used as transesterification agent to prepare biodiesel. • Regenerative catalyst was assessed to make catalyst reuse well.

  12. Influence of Zn Interlayer on Interfacial Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TIG Lap-Welded Mg/Al Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiong; Wang, Kehong

    2016-03-01

    This study explored 6061 Al alloy and AZ31B Mg alloy joined by TIG lap welding with Zn foils of varying thicknesses, with the additional Zn element being imported into the fusion zone to alloy the weld seam. The microstructures and chemical composition in the fusion zone near the Mg substrate were examined by SEM and EDS, and tensile shear strength tests were conducted to investigate the mechanical properties of the Al/Mg joints, as well as the fracture surfaces, and phase compositions. The results revealed that the introduction of an appropriate amount of Zn transition layer improves the microstructure of Mg/Al joints and effectively reduces the formation of Mg-Al intermetallic compounds (IMCs). The most common IMCs in the fusion zone near the Mg substrate were Mg-Zn and Mg-Al-Zn IMCs. The type and distribution of IMCs generated in the weld zone differed according to Zn additions; Zn interlayer thickness of 0.4 mm improved the sample's mechanical properties considerably compared to thicknesses of less than 0.4 mm; however, any further increase in Zn interlayer thickness of above 0.4 mm caused mechanical properties to deteriorate.

  13. Comparing the Precision of Information Retrieval of MeSH-Controlled Vocabulary Search Method and a Visual Method in the Medline Medical Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Nadjla; Ravandi, Somayyeh Nadi

    2014-01-01

    Medline is one of the most important databases in the biomedical field. One of the most important hosts for Medline is Elton B. Stephens CO. (EBSCO), which has presented different search methods that can be used based on the needs of the users. Visual search and MeSH-controlled search methods are among the most common methods. The goal of this research was to compare the precision of the retrieved sources in the EBSCO Medline base using MeSH-controlled and visual search methods. This research was a semi-empirical study. By holding training workshops, 70 students of higher education in different educational departments of Kashan University of Medical Sciences were taught MeSH-Controlled and visual search methods in 2012. Then, the precision of 300 searches made by these students was calculated based on Best Precision, Useful Precision, and Objective Precision formulas and analyzed in SPSS software using the independent sample T Test, and three precisions obtained with the three precision formulas were studied for the two search methods. The mean precision of the visual method was greater than that of the MeSH-Controlled search for all three types of precision, i.e. Best Precision, Useful Precision, and Objective Precision, and their mean precisions were significantly different (P searches. Fifty-three percent of the participants in the research also mentioned that the use of the combination of the two methods produced better results. For users, it is more appropriate to use a natural, language-based method, such as the visual method, in the EBSCO Medline host than to use the controlled method, which requires users to use special keywords. The potential reason for their preference was that the visual method allowed them more freedom of action.

  14. Formation and Corrosion Resistance of Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Film on Mg-Gd-Zn Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Z. X.; Dong, Q. S.; Kong, S. X.; Zhang, X. B.; Xue, Y. J.; Chen, Y. J.

    2017-06-01

    An environment-friendly technique for depositing a Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT) (Mg6Al2(OH)16-CO3ṡ4H2O) conversion film was developed to protect the Mg-Gd-Zn alloy from corrosion. The morphology and chemical compositions of the film were analyzed by scanning electronic microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy (RS), respectively. The electrochemical test and hydrogen evolution test were employed to evaluate the biocorrosion behavior of Mg-Gd-Zn alloy coated with the Mg-Al HT film in the simulated body fluid (SBF). It was found that the formation of Mg-Al HT film was a transition from amorphous precursor to a crystalline HT structure. The HT film can effectively improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy. It indicates that the process provides a promising approach to modify Mg-Gd-Zn alloy.

  15. Adsorption of procion red using layer double hydroxide Mg/Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imron

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Layer double hydroxide Mg/Al was synthesized by inorganic synthetic method. Material was characterized using FTIR and XRD analyses and used as adsorbent of procion red dye in aqueous medium.  Factors that affect the adsorption process are adsorption time as the kinetic parameter; and the temperature and concentration of procion red as the thermodynamic parameter. FTIR spectra of layer double hydroxides showed unique vibration at wavenumber 1300 cm-1 and 1600 cm-1. Characterization using XRD shows diffraction angles at 29o, 27o, and 28o, which are typical of Mg/Al double layer hydroxides. Adsorption of procion red using layer double hydroxide Mg/Al resulted adsorption rate 7.1 minutes-1, maximum adsorption capacity 111.1 mg/g at 60 oC with increasing energy by increasing adsorption temperature.   Keywords: Layered double hydroxides, adsorption, procion red.

  16. Extended Traffic Crash Modelling through Precision and Response Time Using Fuzzy Clustering Algorithms Compared with Multi-layer Perceptron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Aghayan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two fuzzy clustering algorithms – fuzzy subtractive clustering and fuzzy C-means clustering – to a multi-layer perceptron neural network for their ability to predict the severity of crash injuries and to estimate the response time on the traffic crash data. Four clustering algorithms – hierarchical, K-means, subtractive clustering, and fuzzy C-means clustering – were used to obtain the optimum number of clusters based on the mean silhouette coefficient and R-value before applying the fuzzy clustering algorithms. The best-fit algorithms were selected according to two criteria: precision (root mean square, R-value, mean absolute errors, and sum of square error and response time (t. The highest R-value was obtained for the multi-layer perceptron (0.89, demonstrating that the multi-layer perceptron had a high precision in traffic crash prediction among the prediction models, and that it was stable even in the presence of outliers and overlapping data. Meanwhile, in comparison with other prediction models, fuzzy subtractive clustering provided the lowest value for response time (0.284 second, 9.28 times faster than the time of multi-layer perceptron, meaning that it could lead to developing an on-line system for processing data from detectors and/or a real-time traffic database. The model can be extended through improvements based on additional data through induction procedure.

  17. Synthesis of glycerol carbonate by transesterification of glycerol with dimethyl carbonate over MgAl mixed oxide catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, P.; Derchi, M.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A series of hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDHx) with different Mg/Al atomic ratios (x = 2–6) were prepared by using the co-precipitation method. Further calcination yields mixed oxides with tunable basicity. The basicity of the calcined LDHx (LDOx) strongly depends on the Mg/Al ratio

  18. Linear thermal expansion coefficient of MgAl2O4(s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, A.; Samui, P.; Naik, Y.P.; Chaudhary, Z.S.

    2011-01-01

    The coefficient of linear thermal expansion (α av ) of MgAl 2 O 4 (s) has been determined using a Netzsch 402 PC dilatometer with Al 2 O 3 (s) as the push-rod. The change in length per unit length was recorded as a function of temperature between room temperature to 1273 K at a heating rate of 8 K.min /1 , in argon flowing atmosphere. The average of three measurements was quoted as the α av for MgAl 2 O 4 (s). The linear thermal expansion was measured to an accuracy of ±3%. (author)

  19. Comparative evaluation of 11C-MET PET-CT and MRI for GTV delineation in precision radiotherapy for gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ru; Qian Liting; Wang Shicun; Liu Wei; Luo Wenguang; Zhang Hongbo; Li Guanghu; Hu Zhigang; Liu Lei

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the difference between MRI and 11 C-MET PET-CT for gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation in the precision radiotherapy for gliomas. Methods: Six patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of gliomas were selected for target delineation. Five physicians in our department were called to delineate the GTV based on the preoperative MRI and 11 C-MET PET-CT images of these patients. The GTVs based on the two methods were compared. Results: There was no significant difference between the GTVs based on MRI and 11 C-MET PET-CT (P=0.917), and their coefficients of variation were also similar (P=0.600). The coincidences of GTVs were different among the patients, with a maximum value of 73.0% and a minimum value of 51.8%. GTV showed no significant difference when defined by different physicians on MRI and PET-CT (P=0.709); the biggest difference was 27.66 cm 3 on PET-CT and 40.37 cm 3 on MRI. Conclusions: The boundaries of gliomas defined on MRI and PET-CT are different. The GTVs delineated by different physicians on MRI and PET-CT are similar, and the biggest difference on PET-CT is smaller than that on MRI, which suggests that 11 C-MET PET-CT is a more direct way for displaying GTV. (authors)

  20. IMPACT OF A REVISED {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al REACTION RATE ON THE OPERATION OF THE Mg-Al CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straniero, O.; Cristallo, S. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, Teramo (Italy); Imbriani, G.; DiLeva, A.; Limata, B. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Strieder, F. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Bemmerer, D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstr. 400 (Germany); Broggini, C.; Caciolli, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Corvisiero, P.; Costantini, H.; Lemut, A. [Universita di Genova and INFN Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Formicola, A.; Gustavino, C.; Junker, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Zs.; Gyuerky, Gy. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Gervino, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Torino and INFN Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Guglielmetti, A., E-mail: straniero@oa-teramo.inaf.it [Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano (Italy); and others

    2013-02-15

    Proton captures on Mg isotopes play an important role in the Mg-Al cycle active in stellar H-burning regions. In particular, low-energy nuclear resonances in the {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al reaction affect the production of radioactive {sup 26}Al{sup gs} as well as the resulting Mg/Al abundance ratio. Reliable estimations of these quantities require precise measurements of the strengths of low-energy resonances. Based on a new experimental study performed at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics, we provide revised rates of the {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al{sup gs} and the {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al {sup m} reactions with corresponding uncertainties. In the temperature range 50-150 MK, the new recommended rate of {sup 26}Al {sup m} production is up to five times higher than previously assumed. In addition, at T = 100 MK, the revised total reaction rate is a factor of two higher. Note that this is the range of temperature at which the Mg-Al cycle operates in a H-burning zone. The effects of this revision are discussed. Due to the significantly larger {sup 25}Mg(p, {gamma}){sup 26}Al {sup m} rate, the estimated production of {sup 26}Al{sup gs} in H-burning regions is less efficient than previously obtained. As a result, the new rates should imply a smaller contribution from Wolf-Rayet stars to the galactic {sup 26}Al budget. Similarly, we show that the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) extra-mixing scenario does not appear able to explain the most extreme values of {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al, i.e., >10{sup -2}, found in some O-rich presolar grains. Finally, the substantial increase of the total reaction rate makes the hypothesis of self-pollution by massive AGBs a more robust explanation for the Mg-Al anticorrelation observed in globular-cluster stars.

  1. Effect of Calcination at Synthesis of Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Using co-Precipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niar Kurnia Julianti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydrotalcite in catalysis has wide attention in academic research and industrial parties. Based on its utilization, hydrotalcite can be active catalyst or support. This research is focused on the investigation of characteristic like spesific surface area of Mg-Al hydrotalcite which is prepared with different temperature of calcination. Synthesis of Mg-Al hydrotalcites with Mg/Al molar ratio 3:1 were prepared by co-precipitation method. Mg(NO33.6H2O and Al(NO33.9H2O as precursors of Mg-Al hydrotalcite. Na2CO3 was used as precipitant agent and NaOH was used as buffer solution. The solution was mixed and aging for 5 hours at 650oC. The dried precipitate was calcined at 2500oC, 3500oC, 4500oC, 5500oC and 6500oC. The characterization of functional group was determined by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR. The Identical peaks diffractogram were analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. The spesific surface area was determined by adsorption-desorption of nitrogen. The largest surface area that obtained from the calcination temperature of 650oC is 156.252 m2/g.

  2. Mesoporous mixed metal oxides derived from P123-templated Mg-Al layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Zhou Jideng; Li Zhanshuang; He Yang; Lin Shuangshuang; Liu Qi; Zhang Milin; Jiang Zhaohua

    2010-01-01

    We report the preparation of mesoporous mixed metal oxides (MMOs) through a soft template method. Different amounts of P123 were used as structure directing agent to synthesize P123-templated Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs). After calcination of as-synthesized LDHs at 500 o C, the ordered mesopores were obtained by removal of P123. The mesoporous Mg-Al MMOs fabricated by using 2 wt% P123 exhibited a high specific surface area of 108.1 m 2 /g, and wide distribution of pore size (2-18 nm). An investigation of the 'memory effect' of the mesoporous MMOs revealed that they were successfully reconstructed to ibuprofen intercalated LDHs having different gallery heights, which indicated different intercalation capacities. Due to their mesoporosity these unique MMOs have particular potential as drug or catalyst carriers. - Graphical abstract: Ordered mesoporous Mg-Al MMOs can be obtained through the calcination of P123-templated Mg-Al-CO 3 LDHs. The pore diameter is 2.2 nm. At the presence of ibuprofen, the Mg-Al MMOs can recover to Mg-Al-IBU LDHs, based on its 'remember effect'. Display Omitted

  3. Effect of tool offsetting on microstructure and mechanical properties dissimilar friction stir welded Mg-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Amir Hossein; Fazilah Mohamad Selamat, Nor; Sajuri, Zainuddin

    2017-09-01

    Automotive and aerospace industries are attempting to produce lightweight structure by using materials with low density such as aluminum and magnesium alloys to increase the fuel efficiency and consequently reduce the environmental pollution. It can be beneficial to join Mg to Al to acquire ideal performance in special applications. Friction stir welding (FSW) is solid state welding processes and relatively lower temperature of the process compared to fusion welding processes. This makes FSW a potential joining technique for joining of the dissimilar materials. In this study, Mg-Al butt joints were performed by FSW under different tool offset conditions, rotation rates (500-600 rpm) and traverse speeds (20 mm/min) with tool axis offset 1 mm shifted into AZ31B or Al6061 (T6), and without offset. During the welding process AZ31B was positioned at the advancing side (AS) and Al6061 (T6) was located at the retreating side (RS). Defect free AZ31B-Al6061 (T6) dissimilar metal FSW joints with good mechanical properties were obtained with the combination of intermediate rotation rate and low traverse speed pin is in the middle. When tool positioned in -1 mm or +1 mm offsetting, some defects were found in SZ of dissimilar FSWed joints such as cavity, tunnel, and crack. Furthermore, a thin layer of intermetallic compounds was observed in the stir zone at the interface between Mg-Al plates. The strength of the joint was influenced by FSW parameters. Good mechanical properties obtained with the combination of intermediate rotational speed of 600 rpm and low travelling speed of 20 mm/min by locating Mg on advancing side when pin is in the middle. Also, Joint efficiency of the welds prepared in the present study was between 29% and 68% for the different welding parameters.

  4. The electrochemical properties and mechanism of formation of anodic oxide films on Mg-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Jong; Okido, Masazumi

    2003-01-01

    The electronchemical properties and the mechanism of formation of anodic oxide films on Mg alloys containing 0-15 mass% Al, when anodized in NaOH solution, were investigated by focusing on the effects of anodizing potential, Al content, and anodizing time. The intensity ratio of Mg(OH) 2 in the XRD analysis decreased with increasing applied potential, while that of MgO increased. Mg(OH) 2 was barely detected at 80 V, while MgO was readily detected. The anti-corrosion properties of anodized specimens at each constant potential were better than those of non-anodized specimens. The specimen anodized at an applied potential of 3 V had the best anti-corrosion property. The intensity ratio of the β phase increased with aluminum content in Mg-Al alloys. During anodizing, the active dissolution reaction occurred preferentially in β phase until about 4 min, and then the current density increased gradually until 7 min. The dissolution reaction progressed in α phase, which had a lower Al content. In the anodic polarization test in 0.017 mol·dm -3 NaCl and 0.1 mol·dm -3 Na 2 SO 4 at 298 K, the current density of Mg-15 mass% Al alloy anodized for 10 min increased, since the anodic film that forms on the α phase is a non-compacted film. The anodic film on the α phase at 30 min was a compact film as compared with that at 10 min

  5. The electrochemical properties and mechanism of formation of anodic oxide films on Mg-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Jong; Okido, Masazumi [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The electronchemical properties and the mechanism of formation of anodic oxide films on Mg alloys containing 0-15 mass% Al, when anodized in NaOH solution, were investigated by focusing on the effects of anodizing potential, Al content, and anodizing time. The intensity ratio of Mg(OH){sub 2} in the XRD analysis decreased with increasing applied potential, while that of MgO increased. Mg(OH){sub 2} was barely detected at 80 V, while MgO was readily detected. The anti-corrosion properties of anodized specimens at each constant potential were better than those of non-anodized specimens. The specimen anodized at an applied potential of 3 V had the best anti-corrosion property. The intensity ratio of the {beta} phase increased with aluminum content in Mg-Al alloys. During anodizing, the active dissolution reaction occurred preferentially in {beta} phase until about 4 min, and then the current density increased gradually until 7 min. The dissolution reaction progressed in {alpha} phase, which had a lower Al content. In the anodic polarization test in 0.017 mol{center_dot}dm{sup -3} NaCl and 0.1 mol{center_dot}dm{sup -3} Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 298 K, the current density of Mg-15 mass% Al alloy anodized for 10 min increased, since the anodic film that forms on the {alpha} phase is a non-compacted film. The anodic film on the {alpha} phase at 30 min was a compact film as compared with that at 10 min.

  6. Effect of solution concentration on sealing treatment of Mg-Al hydrotalcite film on AZ91D Mg alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangsheng Dong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerium-based sealing treatment was developed for Mg-Al hydrotalcite film on AZ91D Mg alloy, and the influence of cerium salt solution was investigated to modify the surface integrity and corrosion resistance. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD measurements were carried out to analyze the surface morphology and phase composition. The corrosion resistance of Mg-Al hydrotalcite film after sealing treatment was evaluated by the polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS tests. The results showed that lower concentration of Ce-containing solution was beneficial to seal the micro-cracks on Mg-Al hydrotalcite film, and improve the surface integrity and corrosion resistance; higher concentration of Ce-containing solution could seal fewer micro-cracks, and the corrosion resistance was decreased owing to the disintegration of Mg-Al hydrotalcite film.

  7. Comparing the coverage, recall, and precision of searches for 120 systematic reviews in Embase, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar: A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M. Bramer (Wichor); D. Giustini (Dean); B.M.R. Kramer (Bianca)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Previously, we reported on the low recall of Google Scholar (GS) for systematic review (SR) searching. Here, we test our conclusions further in a prospective study by comparing the coverage, recall, and precision of SR search strategies previously performed in Embase,

  8. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  9. Variations of Microsegregation and Second Phase Fraction of Binary Mg-Al Alloys with Solidification Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Manas; Kang, Dae Hoon; Essadiqi, Elhachmi; Jung, In-Ho

    2014-07-01

    A systematic experimental investigation on microsegregation and second phase fraction of Mg-Al binary alloys (3, 6, and 9 wt pct Al) has been carried out over a wide range of cooling rates (0.05 to 700 K/s) by employing various casting techniques. In order to explain the experimental results, a solidification model that takes into account dendrite tip undercooling, eutectic undercooling, solute back diffusion, and secondary dendrite arm coarsening was also developed in dynamic linkage with an accurate thermodynamic database. From the experimental data and solidification model, it was found that the second phase fraction in the solidified microstructure is not determined only by cooling rate but varied independently with thermal gradient and solidification velocity. Lastly, the second phase fraction maps for Mg-Al alloys were calculated from the solidification model.

  10. Mechanical properties of individual MgAl2O4 agglomerates and their effects on densification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufner, Jorgen F.; Castro, Ricardo H.R.; Holland, Troy B.; Benthem, Klaus van

    2014-01-01

    The presence of agglomerates during nanopowder sintering can be problematic and can limit achievable final densities. Typically, the practical solution is to use high pressures to overcome agglomerate breakdown strengths to reach higher packing fractions. The strength of agglomerates is often difficult to determine and makes processing parameters challenging to optimize. In this work, we used in situ transmission electron microscopy nanoindentation experiments to assess the mechanical properties of individual MgAl 2 O 4 agglomerates under constant indenter head displacement rates. Electron microscopy revealed highly porous agglomerates with pores on both the micron and nanometric length scales. Individual agglomerate strength, at fracture, was calculated from compression tests with deformation behavior correlating well with previously reported modeling results. Macroscopic powder properties were also investigated using green-pressed pellets consolidated at pressures up to 910 MPa. The unexpectedly high strength is indicative of the role agglomerates play in MgAl 2 O 4 nanopowder densification

  11. Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of Formability of Explosive Welded Mg/Al Bimetallic Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mróz S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper has presented the results of theoretical studies and experimental tests of the plastic deformation of Mg/Al bimetallic specimens. Theoretical studies were carried out using the Forge2011® computer program. Physical modeling, on the other hand, was performed using the Gleeble3800 simulator. Bimetallic bars of an outer diameter of 22.5 mm and a cladding layer thickness of 1.7 mm were obtained by the explosive welding method. Samples for formability tests, characterized by a diameter-to-length ratio of 1, were taken from the bars. The theoretical studies and experimental tests were carried out for the temperature range from 300 to 400°C and for different strain rates. Based on the obtained investigation results it has been found that the main parameters influencing the formability of Mg/Al bimetallic bars are strain rate than the process temperature.

  12. Synthesis of high-surface-area spinel-type MgAl2O4 nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 1. Synthesis of high-surface-area spinel-type MgAl 2 O 4 nanoparticles by [Al(sal) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] 2 [Mg(dipic) 2 ] and [Mg(H 2 O) 6 ][Al(ox) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] 2 ·5H 2 O: influence of inorganic precursor type. Volume 40 Issue 1 February 2017 pp 45-53 ...

  13. Preparation and properties of Mg/Al layered double hydroxide-oleate and -stearate intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Kazuya; Ogawa, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    Mg/Al layered double hydroxide-oleate and -stearate intercalation compounds were successfully synthesized by the reconstruction method under hydrothermal conditions from calcined hydrotalcite. The intercalation compounds were characterized by the high structural regularity as evidenced by the sharp and intense X-ray diffraction peaks. The oleate intercalated layered double hydroxide exhibits unique physicochemical properties such as a reversible thermoresponsive change in the basal spacing and swelling in organic solvents such as n-alkanes. (author)

  14. Activation of Mg-Al hydrotalcite catalysts for transesterification of rape oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-yan Zeng; Zhen Feng; Xin Deng; Yu-qin Li [University of Xiangtan, Hunan (China). Institute of Biotechnology

    2008-10-15

    Mg-Al hydrotalcites with different Mg/Al molar ratios were prepared and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FTIR), thermogravimetric apparatus and differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) and scanning electron micrograph (SEM). It was confirmed by XRD that the materials had hydrotalcite structure. The hydrotalcite catalyst calcined at 773 K with Mg/Al molar ratio of 3.0 exhibited the highest catalytic activity in the transesterification. In addition, a study for optimizing the transesterification reaction conditions such as molar ratio of the methanol to oil, the reaction temperature, the reaction time, the stirring speed and the amount of catalyst, was performed. The optimized parameters, 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio with 1.5% catalyst (w/w of oil) reacted under stirring speed 300 rpm at 65{sup o}C for 4 h reaction, gave a maximum ester conversion of 90.5%. Moreover, the solid catalyst could be easily separated and possibly reused. 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Novel strip-cast Mg/Al clad sheets with excellent tensile and interfacial bonding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Su; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Seung-Pill; Lee, Kwang Seok; Kim, Ki Jong; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Byeong-Joo; Chang, Young Won; Yuh, Junhan; Lee, Sunghak

    2016-06-01

    In order to broaden industrial applications of Mg alloys, as lightest-weight metal alloys in practical uses, many efforts have been dedicated to manufacture various clad sheets which can complement inherent shortcomings of Mg alloys. Here, we present a new fabrication method of Mg/Al clad sheets by bonding thin Al alloy sheet on to Mg alloy melt during strip casting. In the as-strip-cast Mg/Al clad sheet, homogeneously distributed equi-axed dendrites existed in the Mg alloy side, and two types of thin reaction layers, i.e., γ (Mg17Al12) and β (Mg2Al3) phases, were formed along the Mg/Al interface. After post-treatments (homogenization, warm rolling, and annealing), the interfacial layers were deformed in a sawtooth shape by forming deformation bands in the Mg alloy and interfacial layers, which favorably led to dramatic improvement in tensile and interfacial bonding properties. This work presents new applications to multi-functional lightweight alloy sheets requiring excellent formability, surface quality, and corrosion resistance as well as tensile and interfacial bonding properties.

  16. Synthesis and optical properties of Mg-Al layered double hydroxides precursor powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsuan Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and optical properties of Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH precursor powders were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED, high-resolution TEM (HRTEM, UV-transmission spectrometer, and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The FT-IR results show that the intense absorption at around 1363–1377 cm-1 can be assigned to the antisymmetric ν3 mode of interlayer carbonate anions because the LDH phase contains some CO32-. The XRD results show that all of the Mg-Al LDH precursor powders contain only a single phase of [Mg0.833Al0.167(OH2](CO30.083·(H2O0.75 but have broad and weak intensities of peaks. All of Mg-Al LDHs precursor powders before calcination have the same photoluminescence (PL spectra. Moreover, these spectra were excited at λex = 235 nm, and the broad emission band was in the range 325-650 nm. In the range, there were relatively strong intensity at around 360, 407 and 510 nm, respectively.

  17. Lubrication performance and mechanisms of Mg/Al-, Zn/Al-, and Zn/Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide nanoparticles as lubricant additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shuo; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mg/Al-, Zn/Al- and Zn/Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide were synthesized. • Mg/Al-LDH had superior tribological performance compared to other LDHs. • The best thermal stability of Mg/Al-LDH was responsible for its friction property. - Abstract: Solid lubricant particles are commonly used as oil additives for low friction and wear. Mg/Al-, Zn/Al-, and Zn/Mg/Al-layered double hydroxides (LDH) were synthesized by coprecipitation method. The benefits of LDH nanoparticles are that they can be synthesized using chemical methods where size and shape can be controlled, and can be modified organically to allow dispersal in fluids. The LDH nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry. A pin-on-disk friction and wear tester was used for evaluating the friction and wear properties of LDH nanoparticles as lubricant additives. LDH nanoparticles have friction-reducing and anti-wear properties compared to oil without LDHs. Mg/Al-LDH has the best lubrication, possibly due to better thermal stability in severe conditions.

  18. Lubrication performance and mechanisms of Mg/Al-, Zn/Al-, and Zn/Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide nanoparticles as lubricant additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuo [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), 29 Xueyuan Road, Haidian Distract, Beijing 100083 (China); Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- & Nanotechnology and Biomimetics (NLBB), The Ohio State University, 201 W. 19th Avenue Columbus, OH 43210-1142 (United States); Bhushan, Bharat, E-mail: bhushan.2@osu.edu [Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- & Nanotechnology and Biomimetics (NLBB), The Ohio State University, 201 W. 19th Avenue Columbus, OH 43210-1142 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Mg/Al-, Zn/Al- and Zn/Mg/Al-layered double hydroxide were synthesized. • Mg/Al-LDH had superior tribological performance compared to other LDHs. • The best thermal stability of Mg/Al-LDH was responsible for its friction property. - Abstract: Solid lubricant particles are commonly used as oil additives for low friction and wear. Mg/Al-, Zn/Al-, and Zn/Mg/Al-layered double hydroxides (LDH) were synthesized by coprecipitation method. The benefits of LDH nanoparticles are that they can be synthesized using chemical methods where size and shape can be controlled, and can be modified organically to allow dispersal in fluids. The LDH nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry. A pin-on-disk friction and wear tester was used for evaluating the friction and wear properties of LDH nanoparticles as lubricant additives. LDH nanoparticles have friction-reducing and anti-wear properties compared to oil without LDHs. Mg/Al-LDH has the best lubrication, possibly due to better thermal stability in severe conditions.

  19. Higher Precision of Heart Rate Compared with VO2 to Predict Exercise Intensity in Endurance-Trained Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Victor M; den Tillaar, Roland Van; Marques, Mario C

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the precision of oxygen uptake with heart rate regression during track running in highly-trained runners. Twelve national and international level male long-distance road runners (age 30.7 ± 5.5 yrs, height 1.71 ± 0.04 m and mass 61.2 ± 5.8 kg) with a personal best on the half marathon of 62 min 37 s ± 1 min 22 s participated in the study. Each participant performed, in an all-weather synthetic track five, six min bouts at constant velocity with each bout at an increased running velocity. The starting velocity was 3.33 m·s(-1) with a 0.56 m·s(-1) increase on each subsequent bout. VO2 and heart rate were measured during the runs and blood lactate was assessed immediately after each run. Mean peak VO2 and mean peak heart rate were, respectively, 76.2 ± 9.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) and 181 ± 13 beats·min(-1). The linearity of the regressions between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 were all very high (r > 0.99) with small standard errors of regression (i.e. Sy.x at the velocity associated with the 2 and 4 mmol·L(-1) lactate thresholds). The strong relationships between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 found in this study show that, in highly trained runners, it is possible to have heart rate as an accurate indicator of energy demand and of the running speed. Therefore, in this subject cohort it may be unnecessary to use VO2 to track changes in the subjects' running economy during training periods. Key pointsHeart rate is used in the control of exercise intensity in endurance sports.However, few studies have quantified the precision of its relationship with oxygen uptake in highly trained runners.We evaluated twelve elite half-marathon runners during track running at various intensities and established three regressions: oxygen uptake / heart rate; heart rate / running velocity and oxygen uptake / running velocity.The three regressions presented, respectively, imprecision of 4,2%, 2,75% and 4,5% at the velocity

  20. Examining the Internal Validity and Statistical Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time Series Design by Comparison with a Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.Clair, Travis; Cook, Thomas D.; Hallberg, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Although evaluators often use an interrupted time series (ITS) design to test hypotheses about program effects, there are few empirical tests of the design's validity. We take a randomized experiment on an educational topic and compare its effects to those from a comparative ITS (CITS) design that uses the same treatment group as the experiment…

  1. The Validity and Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time-Series Design: Three Within-Study Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair, Travis; Hallberg, Kelly; Cook, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the conditions under which short, comparative interrupted time-series (CITS) designs represent valid alternatives to randomized experiments in educational evaluations. To do so, we conduct three within-study comparisons, each of which uses a unique data set to test the validity of the CITS design by comparing its causal estimates to…

  2. Neurally mediated airway constriction in human and other species: a comparative study using precision-cut lung slices (PCLS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Schlepütz

    Full Text Available The peripheral airway innervation of the lower respiratory tract of mammals is not completely functionally characterized. Recently, we have shown in rats that precision-cut lung slices (PCLS respond to electric field stimulation (EFS and provide a useful model to study neural airway responses in distal airways. Since airway responses are known to exhibit considerable species differences, here we examined the neural responses of PCLS prepared from mice, rats, guinea pigs, sheep, marmosets and humans. Peripheral neurons were activated either by EFS or by capsaicin. Bronchoconstriction in response to identical EFS conditions varied between species in magnitude. Frequency response curves did reveal further species-dependent differences of nerve activation in PCLS. Atropine antagonized the EFS-induced bronchoconstriction in human, guinea pig, sheep, rat and marmoset PCLS, showing cholinergic responses. Capsaicin (10 µM caused bronchoconstriction in human (4 from 7 and guinea pig lungs only, indicating excitatory non-adrenergic non-cholinergic responses (eNANC. However, this effect was notably smaller in human responder (30 ± 7.1% than in guinea pig (79 ± 5.1% PCLS. The transient receptor potential (TRP channel blockers SKF96365 and ruthenium red antagonized airway contractions after exposure to EFS or capsaicin in guinea pigs. In conclusion, the different species show distinct patterns of nerve-mediated bronchoconstriction. In the most common experimental animals, i.e. in mice and rats, these responses differ considerably from those in humans. On the other hand, guinea pig and marmoset monkey mimic human responses well and may thus serve as clinically relevant models to study neural airway responses.

  3. HIGHER PRECISION OF HEART RATE COMPARED WITH VO2 TO PREDICT EXERCISE INTENSITY IN ENDURANCE-TRAINED RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Reis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the precision of oxygen uptake with heart rate regression during track running in highly-trained runners. Twelve national and international level male long-distance road runners (age 30.7 ± 5.5 yrs, height 1.71 ± 0.04 m and mass 61.2 ± 5.8 kg with a personal best on the half marathon of 62 min 37 s ± 1 min 22 s participated in the study. Each participant performed, in an all-weather synthetic track five, six min bouts at constant velocity with each bout at an increased running velocity. The starting velocity was 3.33 m·s-1 with a 0.56 m·s-1 increase on each subsequent bout. VO2 and heart rate were measured during the runs and blood lactate was assessed immediately after each run. Mean peak VO2 and mean peak heart rate were, respectively, 76.2 ± 9.7 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 181 ± 13 beats·min-1. The linearity of the regressions between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 were all very high (r > 0.99 with small standard errors of regression (i.e. Sy.x < 5% at the velocity associated with the 2 and 4 mmol·L-1 lactate thresholds. The strong relationships between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 found in this study show that, in highly trained runners, it is possible to have heart rate as an accurate indicator of energy demand and of the running speed. Therefore, in this subject cohort it may be unnecessary to use VO2 to track changes in the subjects' running economy during training periods.

  4. Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of Mg-Al alloys with thermal spray Al/SiCp composite coatings; Comportamiento a la corrosion electroquimica de aleaciones MgAl con recubrimientos de materiales compuestos Al/SiCp mediante proyeccion termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, A.; Feliu Jr, S.; Merino, M. C.; Mohedano, M.; Casajus, P.; Arrabal, R.

    2010-07-01

    The corrosion protection of Mg-Al alloys by flame thermal spraying of Al/SiCp composite coatings was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The volume fraction of SiC particles (SiCp) varied between 5 and 30%. The as-sprayed Al/SiCp composite coatings revealed a high number of micro-channels, largely in the vicinity of the SiC particles, that facilitated the penetration of the electrolyte and the subsequent galvanic corrosion of the magnesium substrates. The application of a cold-pressing post-treatment reduced the degree of porosity of the coatings and improved the bonding at the coating/substrate and Al/SiC interfaces. This resulted in improved corrosion resistance of the coated specimens. The effectiveness of the coatings slightly decreased with the addition of 5-30 vol.% SiCp compared with the un reinforced thermal spray aluminium coatings. (Author) 31 refs.

  5. Poly-(amidoamine) dendrimers with a precisely core positioned sulforhodamine B molecule for comparative biological tracing and profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Lin-Ping; Ficker, Mario; Mejlsøe, Søren Leth

    2017-01-01

    of the fluorophore was not affected by pH and temperature. Since the stoichiometry of the fluorophore to the dendrimer is 1:1, we were able to directly compare uptake kinetics, the mode of uptake, trafficking and safety of dendrimers of different end-terminal functionality (carboxylated vs. pyrrolidonated) by two...... phenotypically different human endothelial cell types (the human brain capillary endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells), and without interference of the fluorophore in uptake processes. The results demonstrate comparable uptake kinetics and a predominantly clathrin...

  6. Composition driven monolayer to bilayer transformation in a surfactant intercalated Mg-Al layered double hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Vikrant V; Chalasani, Rajesh; Vasudevan, S

    2011-03-15

    The structure and organization of dodecyl sulfate (DDS) surfactant chains intercalated in an Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH), Mg(1-x)Alx(OH)2, with differing Al/Mg ratios has been investigated. The Mg-Al LDHs can be prepared over a range of compositions with x varying from 0.167 to 0.37 and therefore provides a simple system to study how the organization of the alkyl chains of the intercalated DDS anions change with packing density; the Al/Mg ratio or x providing a convenient handle to do so. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements showed that at high packing densities (x ≥ 0.3) the alkyl chains of the intercalated dodecyl sulfate ions are anchored on opposing LDH sheets and arranged as bilayers with an interlayer spacing of ∼27 Å. At lower packing densities (x flat in the galleries with an interlayer spacing of ∼8 Å. For the in between compositions, 0.2 ≤ x organization of the chains and the interlayer spacing. The simulations are able to reproduce the composition driven monolayer to bilayer transformation in the arrangement of the intercalated surfactant chains and in addition provide insights into the factors that decide the arrangement of the surfactant chains in the two situations. In the bilayer arrangement, it is the dispersive van der Waals interactions between chains in opposing layers of the anchored bilayer that is responsible for the cohesive energy of the solid whereas at lower packing densities, where a monolayer arrangement is favored, Coulomb interactions between the positively charged Mg-Al LDH sheets and the negatively charged headgroup of the DDS anion dominate.

  7. Innovative methods to study human intestinal drug metabolism in vitro : Precision-cut slices compared with Ussing chamber preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kerkhof, Esther G.; Ungell, Anna-Lena B.; Sjoberg, Asa K.; de Jager, Marina H.; Hilgendorf, Constanze; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Predictive in vitro methods to investigate drug metabolism in the human intestine using intact tissue are of high importance. Therefore, we studied the metabolic activity of human small intestinal and colon slices and compared it with the metabolic activity of the same human intestinal segments

  8. New materials for biodiesel production. The use of MgAl hydrotalcites solid catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Joao F.P.; Puna, Jaime F.B.; Goncalves, L. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa (ISEL), Lisboa (Portugal). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Bordado, Joao C. [Instituto Superior Tecnico (IST), Lisboa (Portugal). Inst. of Biotechnology and Bioengineering

    2010-07-01

    This work, reports preliminary studies and experimental work done so far in this field, using new solid basic catalysts: Double oxides of Mg and Al, produced by the calcination, at high temperature, of MgAl lamellar structures, the hidrotalcites. A brief introduction of its characterization, utilisation and synthesis of these catalysts, experimental conditions, experimental results and respective conclusions are described, here, with specific detail. The oil treatment procedure, the biodiesel production and purification processes and their respective morphological and textural characterizations are also described, with appropriate tables and figures, using, for instance, SEM, X-Ray Diffraction, Thermo gravimetric analysis (TG) and Middle Infrared Spectroscopy (MIR). (orig.)

  9. Extended defects in insulating MgAl2O4 ceramic materials studied by PALS methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klym, H; Ingram, A; Shpotyuk, O; Filipecki, J; Hadzaman, I

    2010-01-01

    Extended positron-trapping defects in technological modified insulating nanoporous MgAl 2 O 4 ceramics are characterized by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The results are achieved using three-component fitting procedure with arbitrary lifetimes applied to treatment of measured spectra. Within this approach, the first component in the lifetime spectra reflects microstructure specificity of the spinel structure, the second component responsible to extended defects near intergranual boundaries and the third component correspond to ortho-positronium 'pick-off' decaying in nanopores of ceramics. It is shown that in ceramics of different technological modifications the same type of positron traps prevails.

  10. Fabrication of MgAl2O4 spinel/niobium laminar composites by plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncoeur, M.; Lochet, N.; Miomandre, F.; Schnedecker, G.

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of plasma spray manufacturing of laminar ceramic matrix composites made of alternate thin layers of a ceramic oxide and a metal is demonstrated with a composite made of 7 layers, each 0.2 mm thick, of MgAl 2 O 4 spinel and niobium. Microstructure and mechanical characteristics have been studied with both as-sprayed and heat-treated under vacuum at 1400 C conditions. It is shown that the as-sprayed composite is brittle but becomes pseudo-plastic after heat treatment. These laminar composites are very attractive for the manufacturing of large surface, few millimeter thick components. (from authors). 4 figs., 4 refs

  11. Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of Mg-Al alloys with thermal spray Al/SiCp composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, A.; Feliu Jr, S.; Merino, M. C.; Mohedano, M.; Casajus, P.; Arrabal, R.

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion protection of Mg-Al alloys by flame thermal spraying of Al/SiCp composite coatings was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The volume fraction of SiC particles (SiCp) varied between 5 and 30%. The as-sprayed Al/SiCp composite coatings revealed a high number of micro-channels, largely in the vicinity of the SiC particles, that facilitated the penetration of the electrolyte and the subsequent galvanic corrosion of the magnesium substrates. The application of a cold-pressing post-treatment reduced the degree of porosity of the coatings and improved the bonding at the coating/substrate and Al/SiC interfaces. This resulted in improved corrosion resistance of the coated specimens. The effectiveness of the coatings slightly decreased with the addition of 5-30 vol.% SiCp compared with the un reinforced thermal spray aluminium coatings. (Author) 31 refs.

  12. Comparing the accuracy and precision of three techniques used for estimating missing landmarks when reconstructing fossil hominin crania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeser, Rudolph; Ackermann, Rebecca Rogers; Gain, James

    2009-09-01

    Various methodological approaches have been used for reconstructing fossil hominin remains in order to increase sample sizes and to better understand morphological variation. Among these, morphometric quantitative techniques for reconstruction are increasingly common. Here we compare the accuracy of three approaches--mean substitution, thin plate splines, and multiple linear regression--for estimating missing landmarks of damaged fossil specimens. Comparisons are made varying the number of missing landmarks, sample sizes, and the reference species of the population used to perform the estimation. The testing is performed on landmark data from individuals of Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla, and nine hominin fossil specimens. Results suggest that when a small, same-species fossil reference sample is available to guide reconstructions, thin plate spline approaches perform best. However, if no such sample is available (or if the species of the damaged individual is uncertain), estimates of missing morphology based on a single individual (or even a small sample) of close taxonomic affinity are less accurate than those based on a large sample of individuals drawn from more distantly related extant populations using a technique (such as a regression method) able to leverage the information (e.g., variation/covariation patterning) contained in this large sample. Thin plate splines also show an unexpectedly large amount of error in estimating landmarks, especially over large areas. Recommendations are made for estimating missing landmarks under various scenarios. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Why precision?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes

    2012-05-15

    Precision measurements together with exact theoretical calculations have led to steady progress in fundamental physics. A brief survey is given on recent developments and current achievements in the field of perturbative precision calculations in the Standard Model of the Elementary Particles and their application in current high energy collider data analyses.

  14. Why precision?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, Johannes

    2012-05-01

    Precision measurements together with exact theoretical calculations have led to steady progress in fundamental physics. A brief survey is given on recent developments and current achievements in the field of perturbative precision calculations in the Standard Model of the Elementary Particles and their application in current high energy collider data analyses.

  15. Physical and Microstructure Properties of MgAl2C2 Matrix Composite Coating on Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng

    2014-12-01

    This work is based on the dry sliding wear of the MgAl2C2-TiB2-FeSi composite coating deposited on a pure Ti using a laser cladding technique. Scanning electron microscope images indicate that the nanocrystals and amorphous phases are produced in such coating. X-ray diffraction result indicated that such coating mainly consists of MgAl2C2, Ti-B, Ti-Si, Fe-Al, Ti3SiC2, TiC and amorphous phases. The high resolution transmission electron microscope image indicated that the TiB nanorods were produced in the coating, which were surrounded by other fine precipitates, favoring the formation of a fine microstructure. With increase of the laser power from 0.85 kW to 1.00 kW, the micro-hardness decreased from 1350 1450 HV0.2 to 1200 1300 HV0.2. The wear volume loss of the laser clad coating was 1/7 of pure Ti.

  16. Physical and Chemical Interactions between Mg:Al Layered Double Hydroxide and Hexacyanoferrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boclair, Joseph W.; Braterman, Paul S.; Brister, Brian D.; Wang, Zhiming; Yarberry, Faith

    2001-11-01

    The physical and chemical interactions of ferrocyanide (potassium and ammonium salts) and ferricyanide (potassium salt) with Mg:Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) (having Mg:Al ratios of 2 and 3) are investigated using powder XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. Physically, the potassium ferricyanide is shown to intercalate with a small local field deformation similar to that seen for hexacyanocobaltate (III) in similar materials. Chemically, the reduction of ferricyanide to ferrocyanide upon intercalation is confirmed. Physical interactions of ferrocyanide with 3:1 LDH are shown spectroscopically to include the possible generation of anions in differing environments. Chemically, ferrocyanide is shown to generate cubic ferrocyanides (of the type M2MgFe(CN)6, where M=K+ or NH+4) under conditions where free Mg2+ is likely present in solution, namely, solutions with a pH lower than ∼7.5. It is shown that the reported 2112-cm-1 band found in some chemically altered LDH ferrocyanide is indeed due to interlayer ferricyanide, but that the 2080 cm-1 band is due to the cubic material.

  17. Radiation-induced electrical conductivity in MgAl2O4 spinel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pells, G.P.

    1990-12-01

    The d.c. electrical conductivity of high purity, polycrystalline MgAl 2 O 4 spinel of 99.5% theoretical density has been measured during irradiation by 18 MeV protons at reactor relevant ionization dose rates. The radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) at 200 C varied in a slightly sub-linear manner with dose rate. At temperatures between 250-350 C the RIC varied in a complex manner with the dose rate dependence being itself dose rate dependent. At higher temperatures the RIC reverted to an essentially linear variation with dose rate. The complex dose rate dependence is ascribed to the magnesium vacancy concentration introduced by the small Al 2 O 3 excess (MgO:Al 2 O = 1:1.05) and the presence of anti-structure defects producing large concentrations of intrinsic electron and hole traps. There was no evidence that the accumulation of radiation damage influenced the details of radiation-induced conductivity and MgAl 2 O 4 retained reasonable insulating properties at the highest dose rate and temperature. (author)

  18. Precision, accuracy, cross reactivity and comparability of serum indices measurement on Abbott Architect c8000, Beckman Coulter AU5800 and Roche Cobas 6000 c501 clinical chemistry analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolac Gabaj, Nora; Miler, Marijana; Vrtarić, Alen; Hemar, Marina; Filipi, Petra; Kocijančić, Marija; Šupak Smolčić, Vesna; Ćelap, Ivana; Šimundić, Ana-Maria

    2018-04-25

    The aim of our study was to perform verification of serum indices on three clinical chemistry platforms. This study was done on three analyzers: Abbott Architect c8000, Beckman Coulter AU5800 (BC) and Roche Cobas 6000 c501. The following analytical specifications were verified: precision (two patient samples), accuracy (sample with the highest concentration of interferent was serially diluted and measured values compared to theoretical values), comparability (120 patients samples) and cross reactivity (samples with increasing concentrations of interferent were divided in two aliquots and remaining interferents were added in each aliquot. Measurements were done before and after adding interferents). Best results for precision were obtained for the H index (0.72%-2.08%). Accuracy for the H index was acceptable for Cobas and BC, while on Architect, deviations in the high concentration range were observed (y=0.02 [0.01-0.07]+1.07 [1.06-1.08]x). All three analyzers showed acceptable results in evaluating accuracy of L index and unacceptable results for I index. The H index was comparable between BC and both, Architect (Cohen's κ [95% CI]=0.795 [0.692-0.898]) and Roche (Cohen's κ [95% CI]=0.825 [0.729-0.922]), while Roche and Architect were not comparable. The I index was not comparable between all analyzer combinations, while the L index was only comparable between Abbott and BC. Cross reactivity analysis mostly showed that serum indices measurement is affected when a combination of interferences is present. There is heterogeneity between analyzers in the hemolysis, icteria, lipemia (HIL) quality performance. Verification of serum indices in routine work is necessary to establish analytical specifications.

  19. Microstructure, mechanical, thermal, EPR, and optical properties of MgAl2O4:Cr3+ spinel glass–ceramic nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, A.R.; Kesavulu, C.R.; Chakradhar, R.P.S.; Tarafder, A.; Mohanty, S.K.; Rao, J.L.; Karmakar, B.; Biswas, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • E c of MgAl 2 O 4 spinel glass–ceramics has been found to be 250–270 kJ/mol. • TEM images show presence of cubic crystals of uniform size 10–15 nm in the GC. • HV ∼6.0 GPa, K c ∼ 5.0 MPa m 1/2 , flexural strength ∼100 MPa and E ∼ 55 GPa obtained. • Observed red emission of Cr 3+ ions due to spin-forbidden 2 E g → 4 A 2g transition. -- Abstract: The mechanical, thermal, and optical properties, along with the microstructure and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, have been studied for MgAl 2 O 4 :Cr 3+ spinel glass and glass–ceramics. The activation energy of the crystallization has been estimated from the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study using different models and is found to vary within 255–270 kJ/mol for the un-doped precursor glass. The microstructure of the glass–ceramics has been characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM images demonstrate the presence of cubic crystals in the glass–ceramics of uniform size 10–15 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy reveal the presence of MgAl 2 O 4 spinel as the only crystalline phase, formed in the heat-treated glass–ceramics. The EPR spectrum of Cr 3+ doped glass sample exhibits a broad resonance signal with effective g = 1.97 whereas in glass–ceramic sample an additional weak resonance signal is observed at g = 3.83. The excitation spectrum exhibits two bands in the visible region. The emission spectrum exhibits an intense red emission at 690 nm which is characteristic of Cr 3+ ions caused by the spin-forbidden 2 E g → 4 A 2g transition. All the mechanical properties are found to have improved in the glass–ceramics when compared to glasses. A good combination of micro-hardness (∼6.0 GPa), high fracture toughness (∼5.0 MPa m 1/2 ), 3 point flexural strength (∼100 MPa) and elastic modulus (∼55 GPa) has been obtained

  20. The effect of two types of modified Mg-Al hydrotalcites on reinforcement corrosion in cement mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Polder, R.; Mol, J.M.C.; Andrade, C.

    2017-01-01

    Two modified Mg-Al hydrotalcites (MHTs), (MHT-pAB and MHT-NO2) were incorporated into mortar (with different w/c ratios) in two different ways: (1) as one of the mixing components in bulk mortar; (2) as part of cement paste coating of the reinforcing steel. Accelerated chloride migration, cyclic

  1. Environmental Benign Synthesis of Lithium Silicates and Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide from Vermiculite Mineral for CO2 Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research introduces a completely new environmental benign synthesis route for obtaining two kinds of inter-mediate and high temperature CO2 sorbents, Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH and Li4SiO4, from vermiculite. The mineral vermiculite was leached with acid, from which the obtained SiO2 was used for the synthesis of Li4SiO4 and the leaching waste water was used for the synthesis of Mg-Al LDH. Therefore, no waste was produced during the whole process. Both Li4SiO4 and Mg-Al LDH sorbents were carefully characterized using XRD, SEM, and BET analyses. The CO2 capturing performance of these two sorbents was comprehensively evaluated. The influence of the Li/Si ratio, calcination temperature, calcination time, and sorption temperature on the CO2 sorption capacity of Li4SiO4, and the sorption temperature on the CO2 sorption capacity of LDH, were investigated. The optimal leaching acid concentration for vermiculite and the CO2 sorption/desorption cycling performance of both the Li4SiO4 and Mg-Al LDH sorbents were determined. In sum, this demonstrated a unique and environment-friendly scheme for obtaining two CO2 sorbents from cheap raw materials, and this idea is applicable to the efficient utilization of other minerals.

  2. Synthesis of high-surface-area spinel-type MgAl2O4 nanoparticles by

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Institute of Chemical Technologies, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology, Tehran ... on synthesis and textural properties of magnesium aluminate nanopowders. .... −1 over temper- ature range of 10–900. ◦. C, in air atmosphere. XRD patterns ..... assigned to two phases of MgAl2O4 (JCPDS PDF no.

  3. Precision and accuracy of ST-EDXRF performance for As determination comparing with ICP-MS and evaluation of As deviation in the soil media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Songul; Cevik, Ugur; Van, Aydın Ali; De Wael, Karolien; Van Grieken, Rene

    2014-02-01

    The present study was conducted to (i) determine the precision and accuracy of arsenic measurement in soil samples using ST-EDXRF by comparison with the results of ICP-MS analyses and (ii) identify the relationship of As concentration with soil characteristics. For the analysis of samples, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) were performed. According to the results found in the soil samples, the addition of HCl to HNO3, used for the digestion gave significant variations in the recovery of As. However, spectral interferences between peaks for As and Pb can affect detection limits and accuracy for XRF analysis. When comparing the XRF and ICP-MS results a correlation was observed with R(2)=0.8414. This means that using a ST-EDXRF spectrometer, it is possible to achieve accurate and precise analysis by the calibration of certified reference materials and choosing an appropriate secondary target. On the other hand, with regard to soil characteristics analyses, the study highlighted that As is mostly anthropogenically enriched in the studied area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Properties of Mg-Al alloys in relation to hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A.

    2005-01-01

    storage e.g. in stationary applications. In this report the properties of Mg-Al alloys are reviewed in relation to solid state hydrogen storage. Alloying with Al reduces the hydrogen capacity since Al doesnot form a hydride under conventional hydriding conditions, however both the thermodynamical......Magnesium theoretically stores 7.6 wt. % hydrogen, although it requires heating to above 300 degrees C in order to release hydrogen. This limits its use for mobile application. However, due to its low price and abundance magnesium should still beconsidered as a potential candidate for hydrogen...... properties (lower desorption temperature), and kinetics of hydrogenation/dehydrogenation are improved. In addition to this, the low price of the hydride isretained along with improved heat transfer properties and improved resistance towards oxygen contamination....

  5. Properties of MgAl alloys in relation to hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreasen, Anders

    2005-08-01

    Magnesium theoretically stores 7.6 wt. % hydrogen, although it requires heating to above 300 degrees C in order to release hydrogen. This limits its use for mobile application. However, due to its low price and abundance magnesium should still be considered as a potential candidate for hydrogen storage e.g. in stationary applications. In this report the properties of Mg-Al alloys are reviewed in relation to solid state hydrogen storage Alloying with Al reduces the hydrogen capacity since Al does not form a hydride under conventional hydriding conditions, however both the thermodynamical properties (lower desorption temperature), and kinetics of hydrogenation/dehydrogenation are improved. In addition to this, the low price of the hydride is retained along with improved heat transfer properties and improved resistance towards oxygen contamination. (au)

  6. Optical and dielectric properties of neutron irradiated MgAl2O4 spinels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, A.

    1996-01-01

    The radiation effects on the optical and electrical properties of stoichiometric MgAl 2 O 4 spinel specimens irradiated in FFTF-MOTA at temperatures between 385 and 750 C to fluence ranging from 5.3 to 24.9 x 10 26 n m -2 (E>0.1 McV) are measured. In the optical properties a strong absorption in the ultraviolet range is observed together with a small band around 20 000 cm -1 (510 nm). Two strong luminescence emissions are also observed around 700 nm, with excitation spectra in the ultraviolet region. In the electrical properties a strong decrease of conductivity is observed in the temperature range from 0 to 500 C. Other techniques (like dielectric spectroscopy and EPR) have been used. (orig.)

  7. Assessing the relationship between computational speed and precision: a case study comparing an interpreted versus compiled programming language using a stochastic simulation model in diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Phil; Bergenheim, Klas; Yuan, Yong; Tetlow, Anthony P; Gordon, Jason P

    2010-01-01

    Simulation techniques are well suited to modelling diseases yet can be computationally intensive. This study explores the relationship between modelled effect size, statistical precision, and efficiency gains achieved using variance reduction and an executable programming language. A published simulation model designed to model a population with type 2 diabetes mellitus based on the UKPDS 68 outcomes equations was coded in both Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and C++. Efficiency gains due to the programming language were evaluated, as was the impact of antithetic variates to reduce variance, using predicted QALYs over a 40-year time horizon. The use of C++ provided a 75- and 90-fold reduction in simulation run time when using mean and sampled input values, respectively. For a series of 50 one-way sensitivity analyses, this would yield a total run time of 2 minutes when using C++, compared with 155 minutes for VBA when using mean input values. The use of antithetic variates typically resulted in a 53% reduction in the number of simulation replications and run time required. When drawing all input values to the model from distributions, the use of C++ and variance reduction resulted in a 246-fold improvement in computation time compared with VBA - for which the evaluation of 50 scenarios would correspondingly require 3.8 hours (C++) and approximately 14.5 days (VBA). The choice of programming language used in an economic model, as well as the methods for improving precision of model output can have profound effects on computation time. When constructing complex models, more computationally efficient approaches such as C++ and variance reduction should be considered; concerns regarding model transparency using compiled languages are best addressed via thorough documentation and model validation.

  8. Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with sodium lauryl sulfate as a sorbent for 152+154Eu from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.R.; Someda, H.H.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with nitrate anions (LDH-NO 3 ) was synthesized, modified with the anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate, and applied for the removal of 152+154 Eu from aqueous solutions. Modification of the as-synthesized Mg-Al layered double hydroxide was carried out at surfactant concentration of 0.01 M (the organo-LDH produced denoted LDH-NaLS). The as-synthesized and surfactant-intercalated LDHs were characterized by FT-IR and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The effect of some variables such as solution pH, contact time and sorbate concentration on removal of 152+154 Eu was investigated. The kinetic data obtained were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model rather than the pseudo-first-order model. Intraparticle diffusion model showed that sorption of 152+154 Eu proceed by intraparticle diffusion together with boundary layer diffusion. Experimental isotherm data were well described by Langmuir model. Organo-LDH was found to have higher capacity (156.45 mg g -1 ) for europium than the as-synthesized LDH-NO 3 (119.56 mg g -1 ). Comparing LDHs capacities obtained for Eu(III) in the present work with other sorbents reported in literature indicated that LDHs have the highest capacities. Application of the developed process for removal of 152+154 Eu(III) from radioactive process wastewaters was also studied and the obtained results revealed that these LDHs are promising materials for treatment of radioactive wastewaters. (author)

  9. Direct observation of grafting interlayer phosphate in Mg/Al layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Akihiro; Kanezaki, Eiji; Jones, Mark I.; Metson, James B.

    2012-01-01

    The grafting of interlayer phosphate in synthetic Mg/Al layered double hydroxides with interlayer hydrogen phosphate (LDH-HPO 4 ) has been studied by XRD, TG/DTA, FT-IR, XPS and XANES. The basal spacing of crystalline LDH-HPO 4 decreases in two stages with increasing temperature, from 1.06 nm to 0.82 nm at 333 K in the first transition, and to 0.722 nm at 453 K in the second. The first stage occurs due to the loss of interlayer water and rearrangement of the interlayer HPO 4 2− . In the second transition, the interlayer phosphate is grafted to the layer by the formation of direct bonding to metal cations in the layer, accompanied by a change in polytype of the crystalline structure. The grafted phosphate becomes immobilized and cannot be removed by anion-exchange with 1-octanesulfonate. The LDH is amorphous at 743 K but decomposes to Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , AlPO 4 , MgO and MgAl 2 O 4 after heated to 1273 K. - Graphical abstract: The cross section of the synthetic Mg, Al layered double hydroxides in Phase 1, with interlayer hydrogen phosphate Phase 2, and with grafted phosphate, Phase 3. Highlights: ► The grafting of hydrogen phosphate intercalated Mg/Al-LDH has been studied. ► The basal spacing of crystalline LDH-HPO 4 decreases in two stages with increasing temperature. ► The first decrease is due to loss of interlayer water, the second is attributed to phosphate grafting. ► The grafted interlayer phosphate becomes immobilized and cannot be removed by anion-exchange.

  10. Accuracy and precision of the CKD-EPI and MDRD predictive equations compared with glomerular filtration rate measured by inulin clearance in a Saudi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wakeel, Jamal Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Predictive equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in different clinical conditions should be validated by comparing with the measurement of GFR using inulin clearance, a highly accurate measure of GFR. Our aim was to validate the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations by comparing it to the GFR measured using inulin clearance in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Cross-sectional study performed in adult Saudi patients with CKD. King Saud University Affiliated Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2014. We compared GFR measured by inulin clearance with the estimated GFR calculated using CKD-EPI and MDRD predictive formulas. Correlation, bias, precision and accuracy between the estimated GFR and inulin clearance. Comparisons were made in 31 participants (23 CKD and 8 transplanted), including 19 males (mean age 42.2 [15] years and weight 68.7 [18] kg). GFR using inulin was 51.54 (33.8) mL/min/1.73 m2 in comparison to inulin clearance, the GFR by the predictive equations was: CKD-EPI creatinine 52.6 (34.4) mL/ min/1.73 m2 (P=.490), CKD-EPI cystatin C 41.39 (30.30) mL/min/1.73 m2 (P=.002), CKD creatinine-cystatin C 45.03 (30.9) mL/min/1.73 m2 (P=.004) and MDRD GFR 48.35 (31.5) mL/min/1.73 m2 (P=.028) (statistical comparisons vs inulin). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated that GFR estimated by the CKD-EPI creatinine was the most accurate compared with inulin clearance, having a mean difference (estimated bias) and limits of agreement of -1.1 (15.6,-17.7). By comparison the mean differences for predictive equations were: CKD-EPI cystatin C 10.2 (43.7,-23.4), CKD creatinine-cystatin C 6.5 (29.3,-16.3) and MDRD 3.2 (18.3,-11.9). except for CKD-EPI creatinine, all of the equations underestimated GFR in comparison with inulin clearance. When compared with inulin clearance, the CKD-EPI creatinine equation is the most accurate, precise and least biased equation for estimation of GFR

  11. Precision translator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  12. Precision Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.

    2017-04-01

    Preface; Notation and conventions; Part I. 100 Years of Cosmology: 1. Emerging cosmology; 2. The cosmic expansion; 3. The cosmic microwave background; 4. Recent cosmology; Part II. Newtonian Cosmology: 5. Newtonian cosmology; 6. Dark energy cosmological models; 7. The early universe; 8. The inhomogeneous universe; 9. The inflationary universe; Part III. Relativistic Cosmology: 10. Minkowski space; 11. The energy momentum tensor; 12. General relativity; 13. Space-time geometry and calculus; 14. The Einstein field equations; 15. Solutions of the Einstein equations; 16. The Robertson-Walker solution; 17. Congruences, curvature and Raychaudhuri; 18. Observing and measuring the universe; Part IV. The Physics of Matter and Radiation: 19. Physics of the CMB radiation; 20. Recombination of the primeval plasma; 21. CMB polarisation; 22. CMB anisotropy; Part V. Precision Tools for Precision Cosmology: 23. Likelihood; 24. Frequentist hypothesis testing; 25. Statistical inference: Bayesian; 26. CMB data processing; 27. Parametrising the universe; 28. Precision cosmology; 29. Epilogue; Appendix A. SI, CGS and Planck units; Appendix B. Magnitudes and distances; Appendix C. Representing vectors and tensors; Appendix D. The electromagnetic field; Appendix E. Statistical distributions; Appendix F. Functions on a sphere; Appendix G. Acknowledgements; References; Index.

  13. A Monte Carlo Simulation Comparing the Statistical Precision of Two High-Stakes Teacher Evaluation Methods: A Value-Added Model and a Composite Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Bryden

    2016-01-01

    Value-added models are a class of growth models used in education to assign responsibility for student growth to teachers or schools. For value-added models to be used fairly, sufficient statistical precision is necessary for accurate teacher classification. Previous research indicated precision below practical limits. An alternative approach has…

  14. Precision of a photogrammetric method to perform 3D wound measurements compared to standard 2D photographic techniques in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labens, R; Blikslager, A

    2013-01-01

    Methods of 3D wound imaging in man play an important role in monitoring of healing and determination of the prognosis. Standard photographic assessments in equine wound management consist of 2D analyses, which provide little quantitative information on the wound bed. 3D imaging of equine wounds is feasible using principles of stereophotogrammetry. 3D measurements differ significantly and are more precise than results with standard 2D assessments. Repeated specialised photographic imaging of 4 clinical wounds left to heal by second intention was performed. The intraoperator variability in measurements due to imaging and 3D processing was compared to that of a standard 2D technique using descriptive statistics and multivariate repeated measures ANOVA. Using a custom made imaging system, 3D analyses were successfully performed. Area and circumference measurements were significantly different between imaging modalities. The intraoperator variability of 3D measurements was up to 2.8 times less than that of 2D results. On average, the maximum discrepancy between repeated measurements was 5.8% of the mean for 3D and 17.3% of the mean for 2D assessments. The intraoperator repeatability of 3D wound measurements based on principles of stereophotogrammetry is significantly increased compared to that of a standard 2D photographic technique indicating it may be a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool. The equine granulation bed plays an important role in equine wound healing. When compared to 2D analyses 3D monitoring of the equine wound bed allows superior quantitative characterisation, contributing to clinical and experimental investigations by offering potential new parameters. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Precision Airdrop (Largage de precision)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    NAVIGATION TO A PRECISION AIRDROP OVERVIEW RTO-AG-300-V24 2 - 9 the point from various compass headings. As the tests are conducted, the resultant...rate. This approach avoids including a magnetic compass for the heading reference, which has difficulties due to local changes in the magnetic field...Scientifica della Difesa ROYAUME-UNI Via XX Settembre 123 Dstl Knowledge Services ESPAGNE 00187 Roma Information Centre, Building 247 SDG TECEN / DGAM

  16. Cr diffusion in MgAl2O4 synthetic spinels: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freda, C.; Celata, B.; Andreozzi, G.; Perinelli, C.; Misiti, V.

    2012-04-01

    Chromian spinel is an accessory phase common in crustal and mantle rocks, including peridotites, gabbros and basalts. Spinel, it has been identified as one of the most effective, sensible, and versatile petrogenetic indicator in mafic and ultramafic rock systems due to the strict interdependence between its physico-chemical properties (chemical composition, cation configuration etc.) and genetic conditions (temperature, pressure, and chemical characteristics of the system). In particular, studies on intra- and inter-crystalline Mg-Fe2+, Cr-Al exchange demonstrated the close relationship between spinel composition and both degree of partial melting and equilibrium temperature of spinel-peridotites. Moreover, studies focused on the chemical zoning of Mg-Fe2+ and/or Cr-Al components in spinel have been used, combined with a diffusion model, to provide quantitative information on peridotites and gabbros pressure-temperature paths and on deformation mechanisms. Although these potentials, most of the experimental studies have been performed on spinels hosting a limited content of divalent iron (sensu stricto, MgAl2O4), whereas the scarce studies on Cr-Al inter-diffusion coefficient have been performed at 3-7 GPa as pressure boundary condition. In order to contribute to the understanding of processes occurring in the lithospheric mantle, we have initiated an experimental research project aiming at determining the Cr-Al inter-diffusion in spinel at 2 GPa pressure and temperature ranging from 1100 to 1250 °C. The experiments were performed in a end-loaded piston cylinder by using a 19 mm assembly and graphite-Pt double capsules. As starting materials we used synthetic Mg-Al spinel (200-300 μm in size) and Cr2O3 powder. Microanalyses of experimental charge were performed on polished carbon-coated mounts by electronic microprobe. Line elemental analyses were made perpendicular to the contact surface between Cr2O3 powder and spinel, at interval of 2 μm. By processing these

  17. Effect of cutting edge radius on surface roughness in diamond tool turning of transparent MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaobin; Xu, Min; Du, Wenhao; Chu, Chong

    2017-09-01

    Transparent magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) ceramic is one of an important optical materials. However, due to its pronounced hardness and brittleness, the optical machining of this material is very difficult. Diamond turning has advantages over the grinding process in flexibility and material removal rate. However, there is a lack of research that could support the use of diamond turning technology in the machining of MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic. Using brittle-ductile transition theory of brittle material machining, this work provides critical information that may help to realize ductile-regime turning of MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic. A characterization method of determination the cutting edge radius is introduced here. Suitable diamond tools were measured for sharpness and then chosen from a large number of candidate tools. The influence of rounded cutting edges on surface roughness of the MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic is also investigated. These results indicate that surface quality of MgAl2O4 spinel is relate to the radius of diamond tool's cutting edge, cutting speed, and feed rate. Sharp diamond tools (small radius of cutting edge) facilitated ductile-regime turning of MgAl2O4 spinel and shows great potential to reduce surface roughness and produce smoother final surface.

  18. Aminobenzoate modified MgAl hydrotalcites as a novel smart additive of reinforced concrete for anticorrosion applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Fischer, H.R.; Cerezo, J.; Mol, J.M.C.; Polder, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    A carbonate form of MgAl hydrotalcite, Mg(2)Al-CO3 and its p-aminobenzoate (pAB) modified derivative, Mg(2)Al-pAB, were synthesized and characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR and TG/DSC. The anticorrosion behavior of Mg(2)Al-pAB was evaluated based on open circuit potential (OCP) of carbon steel in

  19. An analytical approach to elucidate the mechanism of grain refinement in calcium added Mg-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasivamuni, B.; Ravi, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Minor additions of Ca (<0.2%) refines the grain structure in Mg-(3, 6 and 9)Al alloys. • Analytical model elucidate that nucleation potency is enhanced after Ca addition. • Ternary Mg-Al-xCa growth restriction values (Q t ) are computed using Scheil equations. • Grain size predictions elucidate that nucleation events dominate grain refinement. • Growth restriction due to the higher Ca addition on grain refinement is not significant. - Abstract: The present study investigates the grain refinement of Mg-3Al, Mg-6Al and Mg-9Al alloys by calcium addition. The maximum reduction in grain size has been observed at 0.2% Ca addition in Mg-Al alloys, in which any further addition (up to 0.4%) has marginal improvement in grain refinement. The mechanism associated with the grain refinement of Mg-Al alloys by Ca addition is discussed in terms of growth restriction factor (Q) and constitutional undercooling (ΔT CS ) using analytical model. The influence of growth restriction factor (Q) on the final grain size of Ca-added Mg-Al alloys are calculated with the help analytical model by assuming that the number of nucleant particles is not altered through Ca addition. For accurate grain size calculations, the value of Q has been estimated with reliable thermodynamic database using Scheil solidification simulation. The comparison of predicted and experimental grain size results indicate that constitutional undercooling activation of nucleation events plays dominant role in grain refinement in Mg-Al alloys by calcium addition, whereas the increase in growth restriction value has negligible effect

  20. Fabrication and Characterization of Porous MgAl2O4 Ceramics via a Novel Aqueous Gel-Casting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yuan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel and aqueous gel-casting process has been successfully developed to fabricate porous MgAl2O4 ceramics by using hydratable alumina and MgO powders as raw materials and deionized water as hydration agent. The effects of different amounts of deionized water on the hydration properties, apparent porosity, bulk density, microstructure, pore size distribution and compressive strength of the samples were investigated. The results indicated that the porosity and the microstructure of porous MgAl2O4 ceramics were governed by the amounts of deionized water added. The porous structure was formed by the liberation of physisorbed water and the decomposition of hydration products such as bayerite, brucite and boehmite. After determining the addition amounts of deionized water, the fabricated porous MgAl2O4 ceramics had a high apparent porosity (52.5–65.8%, a small average pore size structure (around 1–3 μm and a relatively high compressive strength (12–28 MPa. The novel aqueous gel-casting process with easy access is expected to be a promising candidate for the preparation of Al2O3-based porous ceramics.

  1. Anisotropic dislocation loop nucleation in ion-irradiated MgAl2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    This work is intended to investigate the effects of transmutation products and varying ionizing-to-displacive damage ratio on microstructural evolution in ceramics for fusion machine. Polycrystalline disks of stoichiometric magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) were irradiated with 2 MeV Al + ions at 650C and subsequently analyzed in cross section using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Interstitial dislocation loops were observed on [110] and [111] habit planes. The population of loops on both sets of habit planes was strongly dependent on their orientation with respect to the ion beam direction. The density of loops with habit plane normals nearly perpendicular to the ion beam direction was much higher than loops with habit plane normals nearly parallel to the ion beam direction. On the other hand, the loop size was nearly independent of habit plane orientation. This anisotropic loop nucleation does not occur in ion-irradiated metals such as copper and may be associated with the structure of displacement cascades in ceramics

  2. Anisotropic dislocation loop nucleation in ion-irradiated MgAl2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Polycrystalline disks of stoichiometric magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) were irradiated with 2 MeV Al + ions at 650 degrees C and subsequently analyzed in cross-section using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Interstitial dislocation loops were observed on 110 and 11 habit planes. The population of loops on both sets of habit planes was strongly dependent on their orientation with respect to the ion beam direction. The density of loops with habit plane normals nearly perpendicular to the ion beam direction much higher than loops with habit plane normals nearly parallel to the ion beam direction. On the other hand, the loop size was nearly independent of habit plane orientation. This anisotropic loop nucleation does not occur in ion-irradiated metals such as copper. An additional anomaly associated with ion-irradiated spinel is that the loops on 111 planes were partially unfaulted with a Burgers vector of b = a/4 . Previous neutron irradiation studies have never reported unfaulted loops in stoichiometric spinel. Possible cause of the unusual response of spinel to ion irradiation are discussed. 12 refs., 14 figs

  3. Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by α-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 μm-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated.

  4. First-principles calculations on Mg/Al2CO interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, F.; Li, K.; Zhou, N.G.

    2013-01-01

    The electronic structure, work of adhesion, and interfacial energy of the Mg(0 0 0 2)/Al 2 CO(0 0 0 1) interface were studied with the first-principles calculations to clarify the heterogeneous nucleation potential of Al 2 CO particles in Mg melt. AlO-terminated Al 2 CO(0 0 0 1) slabs with seven atomic layers were adopted for interfacial model geometries. Results show that the “Over O” stacking interface is more stable than the “Over Al” stacking interface due to the larger interfacial adhesion and stronger mixed ionic/metallic bond formed across the interface. The calculated interfacial energies of Mg/Al 2 CO depend on the value of Δμ Al + Δμ C , proving Al 2 CO particles can exist stably in Mg–Al alloys melt and become effective nucleation substrate for α-Mg grain under certain conditions. The above calculation and corresponding analysis provide strong theoretical support to the Al 2 CO nucleus hypothesis from interfacial atomic structure and atomic bonding energy considerations.

  5. MgAl_2O_4 foams obtained by combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, G.G.; Rosa, M.A.; Kronbauer, D.P.; Pozzobom, I.F.; Fernandes, C.P.; Oliveira, A.P. Novaes de

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to study magnesium aluminate (MgAl_2O_4) ceramic foams obtained by combustion synthesis in solution without the need of surfactants to stabilize bubbles. The precursors, Al(NO_3)_3_.9H_2O and Mg(NO_3)_2_.6H_2_O, dispersed in distilled water (20 wt%) were magnetically stirred under heating (70°C). At the beginning of the reaction, a fuel composed by a mixture of residual glycerins from the production of biodiesel was added. The foams were produced by controlling the stirring speed and temperature. The applied thermal cycle to consolidate the foams consisted of heating at 1°C/min to 600°C/120 min and subsequently raising the temperature at 10°C/min to 1600°C/120 min. The obtained materials were characterized by SEM,TEM and from tomographic images. The results showed that the obtained magnesium aluminate foams have a high porosity (97%), a high connectivity and pore sizes (diameters) between 30 and 1200 μm. (author)

  6. Phenomenological analysis of densification mechanism during spark plasma sintering of MgAl2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Granger, Guillaume; Benameur, Nassira; Addad, Ahmed; Nygren, Mats; Guizard, Christian; Deville, Sylvain

    2009-05-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) of MgAl2O4 powder was investigated at temperatures between 1200 and 1300{\\deg}C. A significant grain growth was observed during densification. The densification rate always exhibits at least one strong minimum, and resumes after an incubation period. Transmission electron microscopy investigations performed on sintered samples never revealed extensive dislocation activity in the elemental grains. The densification mechanism involved during SPS was determined by anisothermal (investigation of the heating stage of a SPS run) and isothermal methods (investigation at given soak temperatures). Grain-boundary sliding, accommodated by an in-series {interface-reaction/lattice diffusion of the O$^2$-anions} mechanism controlled by the interface-reaction step, governs densification. The zero-densification-rate period, detected for all soak temperatures, arise from the difficulty of annealing vacancies, necessary for the densification to proceed. The detection of atomic ledges at grain boundaries and the modification of the stoichiometry of spinel during SPS could be related to the difficulty to anneal vacancies at temperature soaks.

  7. Adsorption properties of Mg-Al layered double hydroxides thin films grown by laser based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matei, A., E-mail: andreeapurice@nipne.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Birjega, R.; Vlad, A.; Filipescu, M.; Nedelcea, A.; Luculescu, C. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Zavoianu, R.; Pavel, O.D. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemical Technology and Catalysis, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Bd., Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest, Magurele (Romania)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser techniques MAPLE and PLD can successfully be used to produce LDHs thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydration treatments of the PLD and MAPLE deposited films lead to the LDH reconstruction effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ni retention from aqueous solution occurs in the films via a dissolution-reconstruction mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films are suitable for applications in remediation of contaminated drinking water or waste waters. - Abstract: Powdered layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely studied due to their applications as catalysts, anionic exchangers or host materials for inorganic and/or organic molecules. Assembling nano-sized LDHs onto flat solid substrates forming thin films is an expanding area of research due to the prospects of novel applications as sensors, corrosion-resistant coatings, components in optical and magnetic devices. Continuous and adherent thin films were grown by laser techniques (pulsed laser deposition - PLD and matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation - MAPLE) starting from targets of Mg-Al LDHs. The capacity of the grown thin films to retain a metal (Ni) from contaminated water has been also explored. The thin films were immersed in an Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} aqueous solutions with Ni concentrations of 10{sup -3}% (w/w) (1 g/L) and 10{sup -4}% (w/w) (0.1 g/L), respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were the techniques used to characterize the prepared materials.

  8. Synthesis and fabrication of MgAl2O4 ceramic foam via a simple, low-cost and eco-friendly method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvendu Tripathy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The MgAl2O4 nanocrystalline powder was synthesized using naturally available egg white and inexpensive metal nitrate salts. During this process, the freshly extracted egg white was mixed with metal nitrate salt and subsequently heated at 350 °C in a pit furnace. The entire dehydration of the aqueous solution thus facilitates the low-density fluffy mass. From TGDTG results, it was observed that maximum decomposition of the precursors occurred below 600 °C. Therefore, the calcination temperature of as-synthesized powder was set at 600 °C. The MgAl2O4 bulk ceramic foam was fabricated by dispersing different loading of MgAl2O4 nanoparticles in the egg white, and then coating on polyurethane sponge prior to drying and sintering at a higher temperature. The ceramic suspensions exhibit a typical shear thinning behavior, and its viscosity was found to be significantly influenced by MgAl2O4 powder content. An optimum loading of 40 wt% MgAl2O4 nanoparticles in the egg white was found to show maximum porosity up to 90%. The obtained ceramic foam has potential applications in catalysis, absorption and sensor.

  9. Comparing Landsat7 ETM+ and NAIP imagery for precision agriculture application in small scale farming: A case study in the south eastern part of Pittsylvania County, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Robert Kevin, Jr.

    Problem. In Ezek 36:27, God foretells that he will put his Spirit within his people and he will "do" so that Israel will obey his laws. Ezekiel 36:27 indicates a close relationship between the Spirit of God and Israel in observing the statutes and judgments of God in the Babylonian exile among the nations and after the exile. In this text, every major phrase and clause has varied interpretations or calls for further investigation. We address the following questions: What is the identity of the Spirit of God? What is the nature of the statutes and judgments of God? What is the precise relationship between the Spirit of the Lord and the people in observing the divine laws? When is the bestowal of the Spirit of God and obedience to the laws of God realized by Israel? The purpose of this research was to conduct an exegetical, intratextual, intertextual, and theological study in order to investigate further the Spirit of God in relationship to Israel in keeping the laws of God in the context of restoration in Ezek 36. Methodology. This study uses the final form and close reading of the MT in its canonical text. The method entails analytical, inductive, synchronic, and diachronic approaches to v. 27, involving OT canonical and extra-canonical Hebrew selected texts. In chapter 1, various interpretive views by scholars regarding v. 27 are presented. The views differ concerning the identity of the Spirit of God, the precise relationship between the Spirit of God and Israel in obeying the laws of God, the concept of "within," what God "does," the nature of the statutes and judgments of God, and the role of Israel as God puts his Spirit within them. In chapter 2, an exegetical investigation is undertaken for the purpose of examining the identity of the Spirit of God and the nature of the statutes and judgments of God and their relationship. The structure of v. 27 is studied in order to analyze the logical progression of the thought and intent of the author. A semantic study

  10. Precision genome editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Catharina; Bennett, Eric P; Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram

    2014-01-01

    Precise and stable gene editing in mammalian cell lines has until recently been hampered by the lack of efficient targeting methods. While different gene silencing strategies have had tremendous impact on many biological fields, they have generally not been applied with wide success in the field...... of glycobiology, primarily due to their low efficiencies, with resultant failure to impose substantial phenotypic consequences upon the final glycosylation products. Here, we review novel nuclease-based precision genome editing techniques enabling efficient and stable gene editing, including gene disruption...... by introducing single or double-stranded breaks at a defined genomic sequence. We here compare and contrast the different techniques and summarize their current applications, highlighting cases from the field of glycobiology as well as pointing to future opportunities. The emerging potential of precision gene...

  11. Development and validation of an automated and marker-free CT-based spatial analysis method (CTSA) for assessment of femoral hip implant migration: In vitro accuracy and precision comparable to that of radiostereometric analysis (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerlinck, Thierry; Polfliet, Mathias; Deklerck, Rudi; Van Gompel, Gert; Buls, Nico; Vandemeulebroucke, Jef

    2016-01-01

    We developed a marker-free automated CT-based spatial analysis (CTSA) method to detect stem-bone migration in consecutive CT datasets and assessed the accuracy and precision in vitro. Our aim was to demonstrate that in vitro accuracy and precision of CTSA is comparable to that of radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Stem and bone were segmented in 2 CT datasets and both were registered pairwise. The resulting rigid transformations were compared and transferred to an anatomically sound coordinate system, taking the stem as reference. This resulted in 3 translation parameters and 3 rotation parameters describing the relative amount of stem-bone displacement, and it allowed calculation of the point of maximal stem migration. Accuracy was evaluated in 39 comparisons by imposing known stem migration on a stem-bone model. Precision was estimated in 20 comparisons based on a zero-migration model, and in 5 patients without stem loosening. Limits of the 95% tolerance intervals (TIs) for accuracy did not exceed 0.28 mm for translations and 0.20° for rotations (largest standard deviation of the signed error (SD(SE)): 0.081 mm and 0.057°). In vitro, limits of the 95% TI for precision in a clinically relevant setting (8 comparisons) were below 0.09 mm and 0.14° (largest SD(SE): 0.012 mm and 0.020°). In patients, the precision was lower, but acceptable, and dependent on CT scan resolution. CTSA allows detection of stem-bone migration with an accuracy and precision comparable to that of RSA. It could be valuable for evaluation of subtle stem loosening in clinical practice.

  12. DFT-Based Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Topotactic Transformation of MgAl Layered Double Hydroxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Tong; Dou, Yibo; Zhou, Junyao; Pu, Min; Yan, Hong; Wei, Min; Evans, David G; Duan, Xue

    2016-09-05

    The thermal topotactic transformation mechanism of MgAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs) is investigated by a combined theoretical and experimental study. Thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) results reveal that the LDH phase undergoes four key endothermic events at 230, 330, 450, and 800 °C. DFT calculations show that the LDH decomposes into CO2 and residual O atoms via a monodentate intermediate at 330 °C. At 450 °C, the metal cations almost maintain their original distribution within the LDH(001) facet during the thermal dehydration process, but migrate substantially along the c-axis direction perpendicular to the (001) facet; this indicates that the metal arrangement/dispersion in the LDH matrix is maintained two-dimensionally. A complete collapse of the layered structure occurs at 800 °C, which results in a totally disordered cation distribution and many holes in the final product. The structures of the simulated intermediates are highly consistent with the observed in situ powder XRD data for the MgAl LDH sample calcined at the corresponding temperatures. Understanding the structural topotactic transformation process of LDHs would provide helpful information for the design and preparation of metal/metal oxides functional materials derived from LDH precursors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Optimization of the Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil with Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureano Costarrosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, biodiesel has become a very promising alternative to fossil diesel fuel, regarding environmental concerns and fuel resource depletion. Biodiesel is usually produced through homogeneous or heterogeneous transesterification of different fatty raw materials. Although main research has been carried out with homogenous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts may be of interest due to ease of recovery and recycling, as well as readiness for continuous processing. In this work, calcined Mg-Al hydrotalcite (HT was used for the heterogeneous transesterification of waste cooking oil. Three reaction parameters, namely, reaction time, amount of catalyst, and methanol-to-oil molar ratio, were optimized by means of Response Surface Methodology (RSM at constant temperature (65 °C, using a Box-Behnken design. Optimal fatty acid methyl ester (FAME content (86.23% w/w FAME/sample was predicted by the model with an R-squared value of 98.45%, using 3.39 g of HT (8.5% w/w oil and an 8:1 methanol-oil molar ratio, for a duration of 3.12 h. It was observed that calcination of HT, while avoiding the previous washing step, allowed the presence of chemical species that enhanced the effect of the catalyst. It can be concluded from this field trial that calcined and nonwashed Mg-Al hydrotalcite may be considered an effective basic catalyst for the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Also, RSM proved to be a useful tool for predicting biodiesel yield.

  14. Rational design of Mg-Al mixed oxide-supported bimetallic catalysts for dry reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganok, Andrey I. [Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation, Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, D' Iorio Hall, 10 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ont. (Canada); Inaba, Mieko [Natural Gas Technology Development Team, Teikoku Oil Co., 9-23-30 Kitakarasuyama, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-0061 (Japan); Tsunoda, Tatsuo; Uchida, Kunio; Suzuki, Kunio; Hayakawa, Takashi [Institute for Materials and Chemical Process, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan); Takehira, Katsuomi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)

    2005-09-18

    A novel synthetic strategy for preparing bimetallic Ru-M (M=Cr, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) catalysts, supported on Mg-Al mixed oxide, has been introduced. It was based on a 'memory effect', i.e. on the ability of Mg-Al mixed oxide to reconstruct a layered structure upon rehydration with an aqueous solution. By repeated calcinations-rehydration cycles, layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors of catalysts containing two different metals were synthesized. Bimetallic catalysts were then generated (1) in situ from LDH under methane reforming reaction conditions and (2) from mixed metal oxides obtained by preliminary LDH calcination. Among all the LDH-derived catalysts, a Ru{sup 0.1%}-Ni{sup 5.0%}/MgAlO{sub x} sample revealed the highest activity and selectivity to syngas, a suitable durability and a low coking capacity. A promoting effect of ruthenium on catalytic function of supported nickel was demonstrated. Preliminary LDH calcination was shown to markedly affect the catalytic activity of the derived catalysts and especially their coking properties.

  15. Atomistic simulation of solid solution hardening in Mg/Al alloys: Examination of composition scaling and thermo-mechanical relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Peng; Cammarata, Robert C.; Falk, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Dislocation mobility in a solid solution was studied using atomistic simulations of an Mg/Al system. The critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) for the dislocations on the basal plane was calculated at temperatures from 0 K to 500 K with solute concentrations from 0 to 7 at%, and with four different strain rates. Solute hardening of the CRSS is decomposed into two contributions: one scales with c 2/3 , where c is the solute concentration, and the other scales with c 1 . The former was consistent with the Labusch model for local solute obstacles, and the latter was related to the athermal plateau stress due to the long range solute effect. A thermo-mechanical model was then used to analyze the temperature and strain rate dependences of the CRSS, and it yielded self-consistent and realistic results. The scaling laws were confirmed and the thermo-mechanical model was successfully parameterized using experimental measurements of the CRSS for Mg/Al alloys under quasi-static conditions. The predicted strain rate sensitivity from the experimental measurements of the CRSS is in reasonable agreement with separate mechanical tests. The concentration scaling and the thermo-mechanical relationships provide a potential tool to analytically relate the structural and thermodynamic parameters on the microscopic level with the macroscopic mechanical properties arising from dislocation mediated deformation.

  16. The Influence of Home Scrap on Porosity of MgAl9Zn1 Alloy Pressure Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopka Z.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of examinations concerning the influence of various amounts of home scrap additions on the porosity of castings made of MgAl9Zn1 alloy. The fraction of home scrap in the metal charge ranged from 0 to 100%. Castings were pressure cast by means of the hot-chamber pressure die casting machine under the industrial conditions in one of the domestic foundries. Additionally, for the purpose of comparison, the porosity of specimens cut out directly of the MgAl9Zn1 ingot alloy was also determined. The examinations consisted in the qualitative assessment of porosity by means of the optical microscopy and its quantitative determination by the method of weighting specimens in air and in water. It was found during the examination that the porosity of castings decreases with an increase in the home scrap fraction in the metal charge. The qualitative examinations confirmed the beneficial influence of the increased home scrap fraction on the porosity of castings. It was concluded that the reusing of home scrap in a foundry can be a good way of reduction of costs related to the production of pressure castings.

  17. Synthesis of Al₂Ca Dispersoids by Powder Metallurgy Using a Mg-Al Alloy and CaO Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Junji; Umeda, Junko; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi

    2017-06-28

    The elemental mixture of Mg-6 wt %Al-1 wt %Zn-0.3 wt %Mn (AZ61B) alloy powder and CaO particles was consolidated by an equal-channel angular bulk mechanical alloying (ECABMA) process to form a composite precursor. Subsequently, the precursor was subjected to a heat treatment to synthesize fine Al₂Ca particles via a solid-state reaction between the Mg-Al matrix and CaO additives. Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and electron probe micro-analysis on the precursor indicated that 4.7-at % Al atoms formed a supersaturated solid solution in the α-Mg matrix. Transmission electron microscopy-EDS and X-ray diffraction analyses on the AZ61B composite precursor with 10-vol % CaO particles obtained by heat treatment confirmed that CaO additives were thermally decomposed in the Mg-Al alloy, and the solid-soluted Ca atoms diffused along the α-Mg grain boundaries. Al atoms also diffused to the grain boundaries because of attraction to the Ca atoms resulting from a strong reactivity between Al and Ca. As a result, needle-like (Mg,Al)₂Ca intermetallics were formed as intermediate precipitates in the initial reaction stage during the heat treatment. Finally, the precipitates were transformed into spherical Al₂Ca particles by the substitution of Al atoms for Mg atoms in (Mg,Al)₂Ca after a long heat treatment.

  18. CO2 capture at low temperatures (30-80 °C) and in the presence of water vapor over a thermally activated Mg-Al layered double hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rodríguez, Daniela A; Lima, Enrique; Valente, Jaime S; Pfeiffer, Heriberto

    2011-11-10

    The carbonation process of a calcined Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) was systematically analyzed at low temperatures, varying the relative humidity. Qualitative and quantitative experiments were performed. In a first set of experiments, the relative humidity was varied while maintaining a constant temperature. Characterization of the rehydrated products by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and solid-state NMR revealed that the samples did not recover the LDH structure; instead hydrated MgCO(3) was produced. The results were compared with similar experiments performed on magnesium oxide for comparison purposes. Then, in the second set of experiments, a kinetic analysis was performed. The results showed that the highest CO(2) capture was obtained at 50 °C and 70% of relative humidity, with a CO(2) absorption capacity of 2.13 mmol/g.

  19. A background subtraction routine for enhancing energy-filtered plasmon images of MgAl2O4 implanted with Al+ and Mg+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, N.D.; Kenik, E.A.; Bentley, J.; Zinkle, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    MgAl 2 O 4 , a candidate fusion reactor material, was irradiated with Al + or Mg + ions; electron energy-loss spectra and energy-filtered plasmon images showed that metallic Al colloids are present in the ion-irradiated regions. This paper shows the subtraction of the spinel plasmon component in images using 15-eV-loss electrons in some detail

  20. Atomic-deficient nanostructurization in water-sorption alumomagnesium spinel ceramics MgAl2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, A.

    2018-02-01

    Atomic-deficient nanostructurization in alumomagnesium MgAl2O4 ceramics sintered at 1100-1400 °C caused by water sorption are studied employing positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Detected PAL spectra are reconstructed from unconstrained x4-term decomposition, and further transformed to x3-term form to be applicable for analysis with x3-x2-CDA (coupling decomposition algorithm). It is proved that water-immersion processes reduce positronium (Ps) decaying in large-size holes of ceramics (1.70-1.84 nm in radius) at the expense of enhanced trapping in tiny ( 0.2 nm in radius) Ps-traps. The water sorption is shown to be more pronounced in structurally imperfect ceramics sintered at T s = 1100-1200 °C due to irreversible transformations between constituting phases, while reversible physical-sorption processes are dominated in structurally uniform ceramics composed of main spinel phase.

  1. Corrosion Resistance of the Superhydrophobic Mg(OH2/Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide Coatings on Magnesium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coatings of the Mg(OH2/Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH composite were formed by a combined co-precipitation method and hydrothermal process on the AZ31 alloy substrate in alkaline condition. Subsequently, a superhydrophobic surface was successfully constructed to modify the composite coatings on the AZ31 alloy substrate using stearic acid. The characteristics of the composite coatings were investigated by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electronic microscope (SEM and contact angle (CA. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was assessed by potentiodynamic polarization, the electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS, the test of hydrogen evolution and the immersion test. The results showed that the superhydrophobic coatings considerably improved the corrosion resistant performance of the LDH coatings on the AZ31 alloy substrate.

  2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir lap welded Mg/Al joint assisted by stationary shoulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shude; Li, Zhengwei

    2017-11-01

    Using magnesium alloy as upper sheet, 3 mm-thick AZ31 magnesium alloy and 6061 aluminum alloy were joined using friction stir lap welding assisted by stationary shoulder. The effects of tool rotating speed on cross-sections, microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg/Al lap joints were mainly discussed. Results showed that stationary shoulder contributed to joint formation, by which stir zones (SZ) were characterized by big onion rings after welding. Because of the big forging force exerted by stationary shoulder, the upper region of hook was well bonded. SZ showed much higher hardness because of intermetallic compounds (IMCs). The bonding conditions at the base material (BM)/SZ interface at advancing side and the hook region played important roles on joint lap shear properties. The X-ray diffraction pattern analysis revealed that the main IMCs were Al3Mg2 and Al12Mg17.

  3. A comparison of the doppler-broadened positron annihilation spectra of neutron irradiated Al 2O 3 and MgAl 2O 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P. L.; Schaffer, J. P.; Cocks, F. H.; Clinard, F. W.; Hurley, G. F.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation damage studies of oxides and ceramics have become of increasing importance due to the projected use of these materials in thermonuclear fusion reactors as electronic insulators and first wall materials. In addition these materials are important in RAD waste disposal. As part of a study of the defect structure in radiation damaged ceramics Doppler-broadened positron annihilation spectra have been obtained for a series of single crystal sapphire (α-Al 2O 3) and polycrystal (1:1) and (1:2) magnesium aluminate spinel (MgO·Al 2O 3 and MgO-2Al 2O 3) samples. These samples were irradiated in EBR-II to a fluence of 3 × 10 25 n/m 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) at 740°C, and 2 × 10 26 n/m 2 (E > 0.1 MeV) at ~ 550°C respectively. Positron annihilation spectra lineshapes for the irradiated, annealed, and as-received samples of both materials were compared using S parameter analysis. These calculations were made on deconvoluted gamma ray spectra that were free of any instrumental broadening effects. In this way, absolute S parameter changes could be calculated. The observed changes in the S parameter are consistent with independent volume swelling measurements for both the α-A1 2O 3 and the (1:2) MgAl 2O 4 samples. However, the change in S parameter measured for the (1:1) spinel is contrary to the measured volume change. This apparent anomaly indicates a predominence of interstitial as opposed to vacancy type defects in this material.

  4. Detection and precise mapping of germline rearrangements in BRCA1, BRCA2, MSH2, and MLH1 using zoom-in array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staaf, Johan; Törngren, Therese; Rambech, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Disease-predisposing germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes may consist of large genomic rearrangements that are challenging to detect and characterize using standard PCR-based mutation screening methods. Here, we describe a custom-made zoom-in microarray comparative genomic hybridizat......Disease-predisposing germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes may consist of large genomic rearrangements that are challenging to detect and characterize using standard PCR-based mutation screening methods. Here, we describe a custom-made zoom-in microarray comparative genomic...... deletions or duplications occurring in BRCA1 (n=11), BRCA2 (n=2), MSH2 (n=7), or MLH1 (n=9). Additionally, we demonstrate its applicability for uncovering complex somatic rearrangements, exemplified by zoom-in analysis of the PTEN and CDKN2A loci in breast cancer cells. The sizes of rearrangements ranged...... from several 100 kb, including large flanking regions, to rearrangements, allowing convenient design...

  5. Google Scholar Out-Performs Many Subscription Databases when Keyword Searching. A Review of: Walters, W. H. (2009. Google Scholar search performance: Comparative recall and precision. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 9(1, 5-24.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Badia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To compare the search performance (i.e., recall and precision of Google Scholar with that of 11 other bibliographic databases when using a keyword search to find references on later-life migration. Design – Comparative database evaluation. Setting – Not stated in the article. It appears from the author’s affiliation that this research took place in an academic institution of higher learning. Subjects – Twelve databases were compared: Google Scholar, Academic Search Elite, AgeLine, ArticleFirst, EconLit, Geobase, Medline, PAIS International, Popline, Social Sciences Abstracts, Social Sciences Citation Index, and SocIndex. Methods – The relevant literature on later-life migration was pre-identified as a set of 155 journal articles published from 1990 to 2000. The author selected these articles from database searches, citation tracking, journal scans, and consultations with social sciences colleagues. Each database was evaluated with regards to its performance in finding references to these 155 papers.Elderly and migration were the keywords used to conduct the searches in each of the 12 databases, since these were the words that were the most frequently used in the titles of the 155 relevant articles. The search was performed in the most basic search interface of each database that allowed limiting results by the needed publication dates (1990-2000. Search results were sorted by relevance when possible (for 9 out of the 12 databases, and by date when the relevance sorting option was not available. Recall and precision statistics were then calculated from the search results. Recall is the number of relevant results obtained in the database for a search topic, divided by all the potential results which can be obtained on that topic (in this case, 155 references. Precision is the number of relevant results obtained in the database for a search topic, divided by the total number of results that were obtained in the database on

  6. Precision electroweak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarteau, M.

    1996-11-01

    Recent electroweak precision measurements fro e + e - and p anti p colliders are presented. Some emphasis is placed on the recent developments in the heavy flavor sector. The measurements are compared to predictions from the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. All results are found to be consistent with the Standard Model. The indirect constraint on the top quark mass from all measurements is in excellent agreement with the direct m t measurements. Using the world's electroweak data in conjunction with the current measurement of the top quark mass, the constraints on the Higgs' mass are discussed

  7. A comparative study of sample dissolution techniques and plasma-based instruments for the precise and accurate quantification of REEs in mineral matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty-Léveillé, Laurence; Turgeon, Keven [Département de génie des mines, de la métallurgie et des matériaux, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada); Département de chimie, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada); Bazin, Claude [Département de génie des mines, de la métallurgie et des matériaux, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada); Larivière, Dominic, E-mail: dominic.lariviere@chm.ulaval.ca [Département de chimie, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada)

    2017-04-08

    The recent commercialisation of inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometric (ICP-MS/MS) instruments has provided analytical chemists with a new tool to properly quantify atomic composition in a variety of matrices with minimal sample preparation. In this article, we report on our assessment of the compatibility of 3 sample preparation techniques (open-vessel acid digestion, microwave digestion and alkaline fusion) for the quantification of rare earth elements (REEs) in mineral matrices. The combination of the high digestion temperatures (1050 °C) and using LiBO{sub 2} as a flux was the most effective strategy for the digestion of all rare earth elements in mineral matrices and was compatible with ICP-MS/MS measurements. We also assessed the analytical performances of ICP-MS/MS against other plasma-based instrumentation (microwave induced plasma and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MIP-AES and ICP-AES, respectively) and single quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The comparative study showed that the concentrations obtained by ICP-MS/MS are in excellent agreement with the certified reference material values, and much more suited than the other analytical techniques tested for the quantification of REEs, which exhibited low detectability and/or spectral interferences for some elements/isotopes. Finally, the ruggedness of the analytical protocol proposed which combines a rapid sample dissolution step performed by an automated fusion unit and an ICP-MS/MS as a detector was established using various certified mineral matrices containing variable levels of REEs. - Highlights: • Three types of digestion methods were tested. • Four types of analytical techniques were compared. • Elimination of the spectral interferences encountered in ICP-MS was achieved by the use of Tandem ICP-MS. • Robustness of the analytical procedure was successfully evaluate on four types of certified reference material.

  8. A comparative study of sample dissolution techniques and plasma-based instruments for the precise and accurate quantification of REEs in mineral matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty-Léveillé, Laurence; Turgeon, Keven; Bazin, Claude; Larivière, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    The recent commercialisation of inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometric (ICP-MS/MS) instruments has provided analytical chemists with a new tool to properly quantify atomic composition in a variety of matrices with minimal sample preparation. In this article, we report on our assessment of the compatibility of 3 sample preparation techniques (open-vessel acid digestion, microwave digestion and alkaline fusion) for the quantification of rare earth elements (REEs) in mineral matrices. The combination of the high digestion temperatures (1050 °C) and using LiBO_2 as a flux was the most effective strategy for the digestion of all rare earth elements in mineral matrices and was compatible with ICP-MS/MS measurements. We also assessed the analytical performances of ICP-MS/MS against other plasma-based instrumentation (microwave induced plasma and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MIP-AES and ICP-AES, respectively) and single quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The comparative study showed that the concentrations obtained by ICP-MS/MS are in excellent agreement with the certified reference material values, and much more suited than the other analytical techniques tested for the quantification of REEs, which exhibited low detectability and/or spectral interferences for some elements/isotopes. Finally, the ruggedness of the analytical protocol proposed which combines a rapid sample dissolution step performed by an automated fusion unit and an ICP-MS/MS as a detector was established using various certified mineral matrices containing variable levels of REEs. - Highlights: • Three types of digestion methods were tested. • Four types of analytical techniques were compared. • Elimination of the spectral interferences encountered in ICP-MS was achieved by the use of Tandem ICP-MS. • Robustness of the analytical procedure was successfully evaluate on four types of certified reference material.

  9. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  10. Single-crystalline MgAl2O4 spinel nanotubes using a reactive and removable MgO nanowire template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Hongjin; Knez, Mato; Scholz, Roland; Nielsch, Kornelius; Pippel, Eckhard; Hesse, Dietrich; Goesele, Ulrich; Zacharias, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Using MgO nanowires as a reactive template, we fabricated for the first time single-crystal MgAl 2 O 4 spinel nanotubes through an interfacial solid-state reaction of MgO-Al 2 O 3 core-shell nanowires. Single-crystal MgO nanowires are coated with a conformal thin layer of amorphous Al 2 O 3 via atomic layer deposition. Subsequent annealing at 700 deg. C activates the interfacial reaction between MgO and Al 2 O 3 , transforming the alumina shell into a spinel shell. Finally, after etching away the remaining MgO core in ammonia sulfuric solution, MgAl 2 O 4 spinel nanotubes are obtained. As a transition from conventional planar spinel layers via thin-film interface reactions, our result might open a window for the fabrication of a wide variety of MgO-based spinel one-dimensional nanostructures

  11. Role of 3d-ions for radiation defect production in MgO and MgAl2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironova, N.A.; Grinvald, G.A.; Skvortsova, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    Optical properties of MgO and MgAl 2 O 4 crystals containing chromium and manganese impurity ions were studied by exposure to but all types of radiation. Complicated defects of the ''impurity-intrinsic matrix defect'' type were preferably considered. It has been shown that different symmetry center forming chromium ions in MgO:Crsup(3+) change their valency with various efficiency being exposed to external action. Besides, the compensating vacancy does not participate in the hole center formation. For MgOxAl 2 O 3 single crystals the presence of octahedrally coordinated manganese ions suppresses the hole center creation by gamma-irradiation. Studying luminescence spectra of Crsup(3+) ions in MgAl 2 O 4 it has been states that neutron irradiation increases the degree of inversion for the magnesium-aluminium spinel

  12. Fast reactor irradiation effects on fracture toughness of Si_3N_4 in comparison with MgAl_2O_4 and yttria stabilized ZrO_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, K.; Watanabe, M.; Tachi, Y.; Kurishita, H.; Nagata, S.; Shikama, T.

    2016-01-01

    Fracture toughness of silicon nitride (Si_3N_4), magnesia-alumina spinel (MgAl_2O_4) and yttria stabilized zirconia (8 mol%Y_2O_3–ZrO_2) was evaluated by the Vickers-indentation technique after the fast reactor irradiation up to 55 dpa (displacement per atom) at about 700 °C in the Joyo. The change of the fracture toughness by the irradiation was correlated with nanostructural evolution by the irradiation, which was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The observed degradation of fracture toughness in Si_3N_4 is thought to be due to the relatively high density of small-sized of the irradiation induced defects, which should be resulted from a large amount of transmutation gases of hydrogen and helium. Observed improvement of fracture toughness in MgAl_2O_4 was due to the blocking of crack propagation by the antiphase boundaries. The radiation effects affected the fracture toughness of yttria stabilized zirconia at 55 dpa, suggesting that the generated high density voids would affect the propagation of cracks. - Highlights: • Si_3N_4, MgAl_2O_4 and YSZ were neutron irradiated up to 55dpa around 700 °C in the Joyo. • They are candidate ceramics for the inert matrices of nuclear fuels in the fast reactors. • The irradiation enhanced the fracture toughness of MgAl_2O_4 and YSZ, while degraded that of Si_3N_4. • The toughness changes were correlated with radiation induced defects and transmutation gases.

  13. Color-tunable and highly thermal stable Sr_2MgAl_2_2O_3_6:Tb"3"+ phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haiming; Zhang, Haoran; Liu, Yingliang; Lei, Bingfu; Deng, Jiankun; Liu, Wei-Ren; Zeng, Yuan; Zheng, Lingling; Zhao, Minyi

    2017-01-01

    Tb"3"+ activated Sr_2MgAl_2_2O_3_6 phosphor was prepared by a high-temperature solid-state reaction route. The X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to characterize the as-prepared samples. The Sr_2MgAl_2_2O_3_6:Tb"3"+ phosphors show intense green light emission under UV excitation. The phosphor exhibit two groups of emission lines from about 370 to 700 nm, which originating from the characteristic "5D_3-"7F_J and "5D_4-"7F_J transitions of the Tb"3"+ ion, respectively. The cross-relaxation mechanism between the "5D_3 and "5D_4 emission was investigated and discussed. The emission colors of these phosphors can be tuned from bluish-green to green by adjusting the Tb"3"+ doping concentration. Furthermore, the thermal quenching temperature (T_1_/_2) is higher than 500 K. The excellent thermal stability and color-tunable luminescent properties suggest that the developed material is a promising green-emitting phosphor candidate for optical devices. - Highlights: • A Color-tunable emitting phosphor Sr_2MgAl_2_2O_3_6:Tb"3"+ was prepared successfully via high-temperature solid-state reaction. • The photoluminescence of Sr_2MgAl_2_2O_3_6:Tb"3"+ shows highly thermal stable. • The cross-relaxation mechanism between the "5D_3 and "5D_4 emission was investigated and discussed.

  14. Unravelling regolith material types using Mg/Al and K/Al plot to support field regolith identification in the savannah regions of NW Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhin, Emmanuel; Zango, Saeed M.

    2015-12-01

    The XRF analytical method was used to measure the weight % of the major oxides in regolith samples. The metal weight % of Mg, K and Al were calculated from their oxides and were normalised relative to immobile Al calculated from its oxide. The plot of Mg/Al and K/Al identified the regolith of the study area to consist of 137 transported clays, 4 ferruginous sediments or ferricrete, 2 lateritic duricrust and 4 saprolites. Surface regolith that had undergone secondary transformation and shows compositional overlaps were 4 transported clays with Fe-oxide impregnation may be referred to as nodular laterite and 5 ferruginous saprolites. The variable regolith materials features identified from the 154 samples enabled the characterisation and identification of the different sample materials because an overprint of bedrock geochemistry is reflected in the regolith. Plot of Mg/Al and K/Al highlighted the compositional variability of the regolith samples and refute the notion of the homogeneity of all the sampled materials in the area. The study thus recognized Mg/Al versus K/Al plots to be used in supporting field identification of regolith mapping units particularly in complex regolith terrains of savannah regions of Ghana and in similar areas where geochemical exploration surveys are being carried out under cover.

  15. Mechanical Properties and Fabrication of Nanostructured Mg_2SiO_4-MgAl_2O_4 Composites by High-Frequency Induction Heated Combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shon, In-Jin; Kang, Hyun-Su; Hong, Kyung-Tae; Doh, Jung-Mann; Yoon, Jin-Kook

    2011-01-01

    Nanopowders of MgO, Al_2O_3 and SiO_2 were made by high energy ball milling. The rapid sintering of nanostructured MgAl_2O_4-Mg_2SiO_4 composites was investigated by a high-frequency induction heating sintering process. The advantage of this process is that it allows very quick densification to near theoretical density and inhibition of grain growth. Nanocrystalline materials have received much attention as advanced engineering materials with improved physical and mechanical properties. As nanomaterials possess high strength, high hardness, excellent ductility and toughness, undoubtedly, more attention has been paid for the application of nanomaterials. Highly dense nanostructured MgAl_2O_4-Mg_2SiO_4 composites were produced with simultaneous application of 80 MPa pressure and induced output current of total power capacity (15 kW) within 2 min. The sintering behavior, gain size and mechanical properties of MgAl_2O_4-Mg_2SiO_4 composites were investigated.

  16. Epitaxial growth of manganese oxide films on MgAl2O4 (001) substrates and the possible mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lizhu; Wu, Shuxiang; Zhou, Wenqi; Li, Shuwei

    2014-03-01

    Three types of manganese oxide films were grown on MgAl2O4 (001) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) under different growth rates and substrate temperatures. The structural characteristics and chemical compositions of the films were investigated by using in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), ex-situ X-ray diffraction, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). At a lower substrate temperature (730 K), the epitaxial film tends to form mixed phases with a coexistence of Mn3O4 and Mn5O8 in order to relieve the mismatch-strain. However, at a higher substrate temperature (750 K), all of the films crystallize into Mn3O4; the critical thickness of the film grown under a lower growth rate (7 Å/min) is much larger than that under a high growth rate (10 Å/min). When the film reaches a certain critical thickness, the surface will become fairly rough, and another oriented phase Mn3O4 would crystallize on such a surface.

  17. Effect of Grain Size on Mechanical Properties of Irradiated Mono- and Polycrystalline MgAl2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagielski, J.; Piatkowska, A.; Wajler, A.; Boniecki, M.; Romaniec, M.; Jozwik, I.; Aubert, P.; Labdi, S.; Maciejak, O.; Thome, L.; Debelle, A.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the size of crystalline regions on mechanical properties of irradiated oxides has been studied using a magnesium aluminate spinel MgAl 2 O 4 . The samples characterized by different dimensions of crystalline domains, varying from sintered ceramics with grains of few micrometers in size up to single crystals, were used in the experiments. The samples were irradiated at room temperature with 320 keV Ar 2+ ions up to fluences reaching 5x10 16 cm -2 . Nanomechanical properties (nanohardness and Young's modulus) were measured by using a nanoindentation technique and the resistance to crack formation by measurement of the total crack lengths made by the Vickers indenter. The results revealed several effects: correlation of nanohardness evolution with the level of accumulated damage, radiation-induced hardness increase in grain-boundary region and significant improvement of material resistance to crack formation. This last effect is especially surprising as the typical depth of cracks formed by Vickers indenter in unirradiated material exceeds several tens of micrometers, i.e. is more than hundred times larger than the thickness of the modified layer. (author)

  18. The Influence of Home Scrap on Mechanical Properties of MgAl9Zn1 Alloy Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopka Z.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of examinations concerning the influence of various amounts of home scrap additions on the properties of castings made of MgAl9Zn1 alloy. The fraction of home scrap in the metal charge ranged from 0 to 100%. Castings were pressure cast by means of the hot-chamber pressure die casting machine under the industrial conditions in one of the domestic foundries. The examinations consisted in the determination of the following properties: tensile strength Rm, yield strength Rp0.2, and the unit elongation A5, all being measured during the static tensile test. Also, the hardness measurements were taken by the Brinell method. It was found that the mechanical properties (mainly the strength properties are being improved up to the home scrap fraction of 50%. Their values were increased by about 30% over this range. Further rise in the home scrap content, however, brought a definite decrease in these properties. The unit elongation A5 exhibited continual decrease with an increase in the home scrap fraction in the metal charge. A large growth of hardness was noticed for the home scrap fraction increasing up to the value of 50%. Further increasing the home scrap percentage, however, did not result in a significant rise of the hardness value any more.

  19. Use of Raman spectroscopy to assess the efficiency of MgAl mixed oxides in removing cyanide from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosano, Daniel; Esquinas, Carlos; Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César; Ruiz, José Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Raman is used by first time for adsorption of cyanide on calcined LDHs. • Raman is an effective, accurate and expeditious method for monitoring this process. • Cyanide is adsorbed by a rehydration process based on the “memory effect”. • The metal ratio of the LDH has a crucial influence on the adsorption capacity. - Abstract: Calcining magnesium/aluminium layered double hydroxides (Mg/Al LDHs) at 450 °C provides excellent sorbents for removing cyanide from aqueous solutions. The process is based on the “memory effect” of LDHs; thus, rehydrating a calcined LDH in an aqueous solution restores its initial structure. The process, which conforms to a first-order kinetics, was examined by Raman spectroscopy. The metal ratio of the LDH was found to have a crucial influence on the adsorption capacity of the resulting mixed oxide. In this work, Raman spectroscopy was for the first time use to monitor the adsorption process. Based on the results, this technique is an effective, expeditious choice for the intended purpose and affords in situ monitoring of the adsorption process. The target solids were characterized by using various instrumental techniques including X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, which confirmed the layered structure of the LDHs and the periclase-like structure of the mixed oxides obtained by calcination.

  20. Use of Raman spectroscopy to assess the efficiency of MgAl mixed oxides in removing cyanide from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosano, Daniel; Esquinas, Carlos; Jiménez-Sanchidrián, César; Ruiz, José Rafael, E-mail: qo1ruarj@uco.es

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Raman is used by first time for adsorption of cyanide on calcined LDHs. • Raman is an effective, accurate and expeditious method for monitoring this process. • Cyanide is adsorbed by a rehydration process based on the “memory effect”. • The metal ratio of the LDH has a crucial influence on the adsorption capacity. - Abstract: Calcining magnesium/aluminium layered double hydroxides (Mg/Al LDHs) at 450 °C provides excellent sorbents for removing cyanide from aqueous solutions. The process is based on the “memory effect” of LDHs; thus, rehydrating a calcined LDH in an aqueous solution restores its initial structure. The process, which conforms to a first-order kinetics, was examined by Raman spectroscopy. The metal ratio of the LDH was found to have a crucial influence on the adsorption capacity of the resulting mixed oxide. In this work, Raman spectroscopy was for the first time use to monitor the adsorption process. Based on the results, this technique is an effective, expeditious choice for the intended purpose and affords in situ monitoring of the adsorption process. The target solids were characterized by using various instrumental techniques including X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, which confirmed the layered structure of the LDHs and the periclase-like structure of the mixed oxides obtained by calcination.

  1. The newest precision measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jing Gu; Lee, Jong Dae

    1974-05-01

    This book introduces basic of precision measurement, measurement of length, limit gauge, measurement of angles, measurement of surface roughness, measurement of shapes and locations, measurement of outline, measurement of external and internal thread, gear testing, accuracy inspection of machine tools, three dimension coordinate measuring machine, digitalisation of precision measurement, automation of precision measurement, measurement of cutting tools, measurement using laser, and point of choosing length measuring instrument.

  2. Practical precision measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Ho Chan; Lee, Hui Jun

    1999-01-01

    This book introduces basic knowledge of precision measurement, measurement of length, precision measurement of minor diameter, measurement of angles, measurement of surface roughness, three dimensional measurement, measurement of locations and shapes, measurement of screw, gear testing, cutting tools testing, rolling bearing testing, and measurement of digitalisation. It covers height gauge, how to test surface roughness, measurement of plan and straightness, external and internal thread testing, gear tooth measurement, milling cutter, tab, rotation precision measurement, and optical transducer.

  3. [Precision and personalized medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipka, Sándor

    2016-10-01

    The author describes the concept of "personalized medicine" and the newly introduced "precision medicine". "Precision medicine" applies the terms of "phenotype", "endotype" and "biomarker" in order to characterize more precisely the various diseases. Using "biomarkers" the homogeneous type of a disease (a "phenotype") can be divided into subgroups called "endotypes" requiring different forms of treatment and financing. The good results of "precision medicine" have become especially apparent in relation with allergic and autoimmune diseases. The application of this new way of thinking is going to be necessary in Hungary, too, in the near future for participants, controllers and financing boards of healthcare. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(44), 1739-1741.

  4. Precision Clock Evaluation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Tests and evaluates high-precision atomic clocks for spacecraft, ground, and mobile applications. Supports performance evaluation, environmental testing,...

  5. The effect of CNT content and sintering temperature on some properties of CNT-reinforced MgAl composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islak Serkan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium and its alloys are considered as an important material for modern light structures at the present time and therefore they have a wide area of usage especially in electronics, aircraft, and automotive industries. Its popularity increases further as a result of its production as a composite material. In this study, carbon nanotube (CNT reinforced MgAl matrix composite materials were produced by using the hot pressing method. While 0.25 wt%, 0.50 wt%, 0.75 wt%, and 1.00 wt% CNT were added, 450°C, 500°C, and 550°C was selected as sintering temperatures. The effect of sintering temperature and amount of CNT on some properties of the composites was examined. Microstructure and phase composition of the materials were examined by using optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The hardness of the composites was measured in Brinell. Relative densities of the materials were determined in accordance with Archimedes’ principle. A dense and slightly porous structure was obtained based on both SEM images and density measurements. XRD analyses showed that there were Mg, Mg17Al12, and MgO phases in the composites. The reason for the absence of Al in graphics was that Al formed the solid solution by being dissolved in Mg. Also, the C peak could not be determined for CNT. The hardness of the composites increased with the increasing sintering temperature and CNT addition. The highest hardness value was measured as 88.45 HB10 with the addition of 1.00 wt% CNT at 550°C. Free distribution of CNT in the matrix caused this hardness increase.

  6. Comportamiento a la corrosión electroquímica de aleaciones MgAl con recubrimientos de materiales compuestos Al/SiCp mediante proyección térmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardo, A.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion protection of Mg-Al alloys by flame thermal spraying of Al/SiCp composite coatings was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The volume fraction of SiC particles (SiCp varied between 5 and 30%. The as-sprayed Al/SiCp composite coatings revealed a high number of micro-channels, largely in the vicinity of the SiC particles, that facilitated the penetration of the electrolyte and the subsequent galvanic corrosion of the magnesium substrates. The application of a cold-pressing post-treatment reduced the degree of porosity of the coatings and improved the bonding at the coating/substrate and Al/SiC interfaces. This resulted in improved corrosion resistance of the coated specimens. The effectiveness of the coatings slightly decreased with the addition of 5-30 vol.% SiCp compared with the unreinforced thermal spray aluminium coatings.

    Se estudia, mediante espectroscopía de impedancia electroquímica en solución 3,5 % NaCl, la protección frente a la corrosión de aleaciones Mg-Al recubiertas por proyección térmica con materiales compuestos Al/SiCp. Se varió la fracción de volumen de las partículas de SiC (SiCp entre 5 y 30 %. Los recubrimientos efectuados por proyección térmica revelan un elevado número de microcanales, en la vecindad de las partículas de SiC, que facilitan la penetración del electrolito originando procesos de corrosión galvánica en los substratos de las aleaciones de magnesio. Un tratamiento posterior mediante la aplicación de una presión en frío reduce el grado de porosidad de los recubrimientos y mejora la unión, tanto entre el substrato y el recubrimiento como entre las partículas de aluminio y SiC, mejorando la resistencia a la corrosión de las aleaciones recubiertas. La efectividad de los recubrimientos disminuye ligeramente con la adición de SiCp cuando se comparan con los mismos recubrimientos de aluminio sin refuerzo.

  7. Precision machining commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    To accelerate precision machining development so as to realize more of the potential savings within the next few years of known Department of Defense (DOD) part procurement, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) is sponsoring the Precision Machining Commercialization Project (PMC). PMC is part of the Tri-Service Precision Machine Tool Program of the DOD Manufacturing Technology Five-Year Plan. The technical resources supporting PMC are provided under sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of PMC is to minimize precision machining development time and cost risk for interested vendors. PMC will do this by making available the high precision machining technology as developed in two DOE contractor facilities, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California and the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Y-12 Plant, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  8. Precisely predictable Dirac observables

    CERN Document Server

    Cordes, Heinz Otto

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a "Clean Quantum Theory of the Electron", based on Dirac’s equation. "Clean" in the sense of a complete mathematical explanation of the well known paradoxes of Dirac’s theory, and a connection to classical theory, including the motion of a magnetic moment (spin) in the given field, all for a charged particle (of spin ½) moving in a given electromagnetic field. This theory is relativistically covariant, and it may be regarded as a mathematically consistent quantum-mechanical generalization of the classical motion of such a particle, à la Newton and Einstein. Normally, our fields are time-independent, but also discussed is the time-dependent case, where slightly different features prevail. A "Schroedinger particle", such as a light quantum, experiences a very different (time-dependent) "Precise Predictablity of Observables". An attempt is made to compare both cases. There is not the Heisenberg uncertainty of location and momentum; rather, location alone possesses a built-in uncertainty ...

  9. Corrosion behaviour of Mg/Al alloys in high humidity atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrabal, R.; Pardo, A.; Merino, M.C.; Mohedano, M.; Casajus, P. [Facultad de Quimicas, Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Merino, S. [Departamento de Tecnologia Industrial, Universidad Alfonso X El Sabio, Villanueva de la Canada, 28691 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    The influence of relative humidity (80-90-98% RH) and temperature (25 and 50 C) on the corrosion behaviour of AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium alloys was evaluated using gravimetric measurements. The results were compared with the data obtained for the same alloys immersed in Madrid tap water. The corrosion rates of AZ alloys increased with the RH and temperature and were influenced by the aluminium content and alloy microstructure for RH values above 90%. The initiation of corrosion was localised around the Al-Mn inclusions in the AZ31 alloy and at the centre of the {alpha}-Mg phase in the AZ80 and AZ91D alloys. The {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase acted as a barrier against corrosion. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Full-potential calculations of structural, elastic and electronic properties of MgAl2O4 and ZnAl2O4 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khenata, R.; Sahnoun, M.; Baltache, H.; Rerat, M.; Reshak, Ali H.; Al-Douri, Y.; Bouhafs, B.

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical studies of structural, elastic and electronic properties of spinel MgAl 2 O 4 and ZnAl 2 O 4 oxides are presented, using the full-potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method as implemented in the WIEN97 code. In this approach the local density approximation (LDA) is used for the exchange-correlation (XC) potential. Results are given for lattice constant, bulk modulus, and its pressure derivative. The band structure, density of states, pressure coefficients of energy gaps and elastic constants are also given. We present a detailed comparison with available experimental data and previous calculations. Good agreement is found

  11. Magnetic and optical properties of MgAl2O4-(Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Misu, Naonori Sakamoto, Kazuo Shinozaki, Nobuyasu Adachi, Hisao Suzuki and Naoki Wakiya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films composed of MgAl2O4 and (Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ([MA(100-x-NZFx] films were grown on fused SiO2 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the films were polycrystalline, and that their lattice constant varied linearly with composition, indicating the formation of a solid solution. The film with x=60 was paramagnetic and those with x ≥ 70 were ferromagnetic. The films had a transparency above 75% in the visible range, but the transparency decreased with the x value. The optical band gaps were 2.95, 2.55, 2.30 and 1.89 eV for x=20, 40, 60, 80 and 100, respectively. The Faraday rotation angle increased with x in the visible range, and the film with x=70 exhibited a value of 2000 degrees cm-1 at 570 nm, which is comparable to the rotation angle of Y3Fe5O12. Owing to their high transparency, which extends into the visible range, the [MA(100-x-NZFx] films can be used in novel magneto-optical devices.

  12. Intercalation and structural aspects of macroRAFT agents into MgAl layered double hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessislava Kostadinova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention has been devoted to the design of layered double hydroxide (LDH-based hybrid materials. In this work, we demonstrate the intercalation by anion exchange process of poly(acrylic acid (PAA and three different hydrophilic random copolymers of acrylic acid (AA and n-butyl acrylate (BA with molar masses ranging from 2000 to 4200 g mol−1 synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization, into LDH containing magnesium(II and aluminium(III intralayer cations and nitrates as counterions (MgAl-NO3 LDH. At basic pH, the copolymer chains (macroRAFT agents carry negative charges which allowed the establishment of electrostatic interactions with the LDH interlayer and their intercalation. The resulting hybrid macroRAFT/LDH materials displayed an expanded interlamellar domain compared to pristine MgAl-NO3 LDH from 1.36 nm to 2.33 nm. Depending on the nature of the units involved into the macroRAFT copolymer (only AA or AA and BA, the intercalation led to monolayer or bilayer arrangements within the interlayer space. The macroRAFT intercalation and the molecular structure of the hybrid phases were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and solid-state 13C, 1H and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopies to get a better description of the local structure.

  13. Precision digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  14. submitter LEP precision results

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamoto, T

    2001-01-01

    Precision measurements at LEP are reviewed, with main focus on the electroweak measurements and tests of the Standard Model. Constraints placed by the LEP measurements on possible new physics are also discussed.

  15. Description of precision colorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Acosta, Joaquín; Pons Aglio, Alicia; Corróns, Antonio

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of a fully automatic, computer-controlled absolute spectroradiometer as a precision colorimeter. The chromaticity coordinates of several types of light sources have been obtained with this measurement system.

  16. NCI Precision Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This illustration represents the National Cancer Institute’s support of research to improve precision medicine in cancer treatment, in which unique therapies treat an individual’s cancer based on specific genetic abnormalities of that person’s tumor.

  17. Laser precision microfabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Sugioka, Koji; Pique, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Miniaturization and high precision are rapidly becoming a requirement for many industrial processes and products. As a result, there is greater interest in the use of laser microfabrication technology to achieve these goals. This book composed of 16 chapters covers all the topics of laser precision processing from fundamental aspects to industrial applications to both inorganic and biological materials. It reviews the sate of the art of research and technological development in the area of laser processing.

  18. Thermophysical properties of αAl2O3, MgAl2O4 and AlN at low tempertures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burghartz, S.

    1995-12-01

    A possibility for producing energy in future might be the nuclear fusion. The process of nuclear fusion is characterized by melting nuclei of hydrogen atoms (deuterium and tritium) which yield to the production of helium atom nuclei. For this process extremely high temperatures of the deuterium-tritium-gas plasma are necessary. The additional heating of the plasma by microwaves requires materials with low diaelectric losses and high thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity can be increased by cooling the windows which lead to the plasma chambre. Experimental investigations with the aim to check the influence of liquid nitrogen (T=70 K) on the cooling of the windows were performed in the temperature region 70 K 2 O 3 , MgAl 2 O 4 and AlN were measured. The thermal conductivity can be calculated using the equation λ=αc p ρ λ=thermal conductivity α=thermal diffusivity c p =specific heat (at constant pressure) ρ=density. Furthermore a theoretical method to calculate the thermal conductivity at low temperatures is presented; this is done by using a model modification of heat transport in electric insulators. As result the influence of intrinsic parameters (crystal structure, interatomar binding, anharmonicity) and extrinsic parameters (point defects, dislocations, boundary areas) upon thermal conductivity of α-Al 2 O 3 , MgAl 2 O 4 and AlN are achieved. (orig.)

  19. Heavy ion induced damage in MgAl sub 2 O sub 4 , an inert matrix candidate for the transmutation of minor actinides

    CERN Document Server

    Wiss, T

    1999-01-01

    Magnesium aluminum spinel (MgAl sub 2 O sub 4) is a material selected as a possible matrix for transmutation of minor actinides by neutron capture or fission in nuclear reactors. To study the radiation stability of this inert matrix, especially against fission product impact, irradiations with heavy energetic ions or clusters have been performed. The high electronic energy losses of the heavy ions in this material led to the formation of visible tracks as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy for 30 MeV C sub 6 sub 0 -Buckminster fullerenes and for ions of energy close to or higher than fission energy ( sup 2 sup 0 sup 9 Bi with 120 MeV and 2.38 GeV energy). The irradiations at high energies showed a pronounced degradation of the spinel. Additionally, MgAl sub 2 O sub 4 exhibited a large swelling for irradiation at high fluences with fission products of fission energy (here I-ions of 72 MeV) and at temperatures <= 500 deg. C. These observations are discussed from the technological point of view in ...

  20. Depth-dependent and surface damages in MgAl sub 2 O sub 4 and MgO irradiated with energetic iodine ions

    CERN Document Server

    Aruga, T; Ohmichi, T; Okayasu, S; Kazumata, Y; Jitsukawa, S

    2002-01-01

    Samples of polycrystalline ceramics of MgAl sub 2 O sub 4 irradiated at the ambient temperature with 85 MeV I sup 7 sup + iodine ions to doses up to 1x10 sup 1 sup 9 m sup - sup 2 is observed to be amorphized up to depths around 6 mu m from the ion-incident surface for a dose of 1.2x10 sup 1 sup 9 m sup - sup 2 , through a cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. A step height of 1 mu m is formed across the border between the masked and irradiated regions of the surface. The height of the step is observed to increase sharply from the irradiated area towards the edge at the border, forming a peak as tall as 1.5 mu m. A glossy, silver-gray film with a thickness less than 0.1 mu m is unexpectedly observed to have formed on the surface of samples of MgAl sub 2 O sub 4 and MgO, in about 3.5 years aging after the irradiation to 1.2x10 sup 1 sup 9 m sup - sup 2 , being left untouched in the air. The film is easily peeled off along grain boundaries and found to be amorphous from the electron diffraction patt...

  1. Precision Experiments at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    de Boer, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) established the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics with unprecedented precision, including all its radiative corrections. These led to predictions for the masses of the top quark and Higgs boson, which were beautifully confirmed later on. After these precision measurements the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 1999 jointly to 't Hooft and Veltman "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics". Another hallmark of the LEP results were the precise measurements of the gauge coupling constants, which excluded unification of the forces within the SM, but allowed unification within the supersymmetric extension of the SM. This increased the interest in Supersymmetry (SUSY) and Grand Unified Theories, especially since the SM has no candidate for the elusive dark matter, while Supersymmetry provides an excellent candidate for dark matter. In addition, Supersymmetry removes the quadratic divergencies of the SM and {\\it predicts} the Hig...

  2. Precision muonium spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmann, Klaus P.

    2016-01-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 µs. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In particular ground state hyperfine structure transitions can be measured by microwave spectroscopy to deliver the muon magnetic moment. The frequency of the 1s–2s transition in the hydrogen-like atom can be determined with laser spectroscopy to obtain the muon mass. With such measurements fundamental physical interactions, in particular quantum electrodynamics, can also be tested at highest precision. The results are important input parameters for experiments on the muon magnetic anomaly. The simplicity of the atom enables further precise experiments, such as a search for muonium–antimuonium conversion for testing charged lepton number conservation and searches for possible antigravity of muons and dark matter. (author)

  3. Precision electron polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudakov, E.

    2013-01-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. Mo/ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at 300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100%-polarized electron target for Mo/ller polarimetry

  4. A passion for precision

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2006-01-01

    For more than three decades, the quest for ever higher precision in laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired many advances in laser, optical, and spectroscopic techniques, culminating in femtosecond laser optical frequency combs as perhaps the most precise measuring tools known to man. Applications range from optical atomic clocks and tests of QED and relativity to searches for time variations of fundamental constants. Recent experiments are extending frequency comb techniques into the extreme ultraviolet. Laser frequency combs can also control the electric field of ultrashort light pulses, creating powerful new tools for the emerging field of attosecond science.

  5. Improving Precision of Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    Types in programming languages provide a powerful tool for the programmer to document the code so that a large aspect of the intent can not only be presented to fellow programmers but also be checked automatically by compilers. The precision with which types model the behavior of programs...... is crucial to the quality of these automated checks, and in this thesis we present three different improvements to the precision of types in three different aspects of the Java programming language. First we show how to extend the type system in Java with a new type which enables the detection of unintended...

  6. Precision physics at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1997-05-01

    In this talk the author gives a brief survey of some physics topics that will be addressed by the Large Hadron Collider currently under construction at CERN. Instead of discussing the reach of this machine for new physics, the author gives examples of the types of precision measurements that might be made if new physics is discovered

  7. Precision Muonium Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, Klaus P.

    2016-01-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 mu s. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In

  8. What is precision medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Inke R; Fuchs, Oliver; Hansen, Gesine; von Mutius, Erika; Kopp, Matthias V

    2017-10-01

    The term "precision medicine" has become very popular over recent years, fuelled by scientific as well as political perspectives. Despite its popularity, its exact meaning, and how it is different from other popular terms such as "stratified medicine", "targeted therapy" or "deep phenotyping" remains unclear. Commonly applied definitions focus on the stratification of patients, sometimes referred to as a novel taxonomy, and this is derived using large-scale data including clinical, lifestyle, genetic and further biomarker information, thus going beyond the classical "signs-and-symptoms" approach.While these aspects are relevant, this description leaves open a number of questions. For example, when does precision medicine begin? In which way does the stratification of patients translate into better healthcare? And can precision medicine be viewed as the end-point of a novel stratification of patients, as implied, or is it rather a greater whole?To clarify this, the aim of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive definition that focuses on precision medicine as a process. It will be shown that this proposed framework incorporates the derivation of novel taxonomies and their role in healthcare as part of the cycle, but also covers related terms. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  9. Precision synchrotron radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, M.; Rouse, F.; Butler, J.

    1989-03-01

    Precision detectors to measure synchrotron radiation beam positions have been designed and installed as part of beam energy spectrometers at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The distance between pairs of synchrotron radiation beams is measured absolutely to better than 28 /mu/m on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This contributes less than 5 MeV to the error in the measurement of SLC beam energies (approximately 50 GeV). A system of high-resolution video cameras viewing precisely-aligned fiducial wire arrays overlaying phosphorescent screens has achieved this accuracy. Also, detectors of synchrotron radiation using the charge developed by the ejection of Compton-recoil electrons from an array of fine wires are being developed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  10. A passion for precision

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    For more than three decades, the quest for ever higher precision in laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired many advances in laser, optical, and spectroscopic techniques, culminating in femtosecond laser optical frequency combs  as perhaps the most precise measuring tools known to man. Applications range from optical atomic clocks and tests of QED and relativity to searches for time variations of fundamental constants. Recent experiments are extending frequency comb techniques into the extreme ultraviolet. Laser frequency combs can also control the electric field of ultrashort light pulses, creating powerful new tools for the emerging field of attosecond science.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  11. Quad precision delay generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shanti; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.; Marballi, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    A Quad Precision Delay Generator delays a digital edge by a programmed amount of time, varying from nanoseconds to microseconds. The output of this generator has an amplitude of the order of tens of volts and rise time of the order of nanoseconds. This was specifically designed and developed to meet the stringent requirements of the plasma focus experiments. Plasma focus is a laboratory device for producing and studying nuclear fusion reactions in hot deuterium plasma. 3 figs

  12. Correlation between stoichiometry and surface structure of the polar MgAl2O4(100) surface as a function of annealing temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Nørregaard; Rasmussen, Morten Karstoft; Knudsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    is found to significantly increase as the surface is sputtered and annealed in oxygen at intermediate temperatures ranging from 800-1000 [degree]C. The Al excess is explained by the observed surface structure, where the formation of nanometer sized pits and elongated patches with Al terminated step edges....... The excess of Al and high concentration of octahedral vacancies, very interestingly means, that the top few surface layers of the MgAl2O4(100) adopts a surface structure similar to that of a spinel-like transition Al2O3 film. However, after annealing at a high temperature of 1200 [degree]C, the Al/Mg ratio...... are filled by Mg from the bulk, due to the increased mobility at high annealing temperatures....

  13. Fabrication of Polycrystalline Transparent Co+2: MgAl2O4 by a Combination of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS and Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokol Maxim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent Co2+ doped MgAl2Ob4 spinel was fabricated by SPS consolidation followed by and HIP treatment. It was established that HIP treatment significantly improved transparency of the ceramic in a wide range of wavelengths, especially, in a range, which is relevant for Q-switching. Nonlinear absorption was demonstrated and the ground and excited state absorption cross sections were estimated. The positive effect of the HIP treatment on the optical properties is related to an elimination of extremely fine porosity and to the location of Co ions at Mg2+sites in the spinel ionic structure. The experimental results indicate that the fabricated specimens can be used as a passive laser Q-switching material.

  14. Surface enrichment of Pt in stable Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles on MgAl 2 O 4 spinel in oxidizing atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weizhen; Nie, Lei; Chen, Ying; Kovarik, Libor; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    With the capability of MgAl2O4 spinel {111} nano-facets in stabilizing small Rh, Ir and Pt particles, bimetallic Ir-Pt catalysts on the same support were investigated, aiming at further lowering the catalyst cost by substituting expensive Pt with cheaper Ir in the bulk. Small Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles (< 2nm) were successfully stabilized on the spinel {111} nano-facets as expected. Interestingly, methanol oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) rate on the surface Pt atoms increases with oxidizing aging but decreases upon reducing treatment, where Ir is almost inactive under the same reaction conditions. Up to three times enhancement in Pt exposure was achieved when the sample was oxidized at 800 °C in air for 1 week and subsequently reduced by H2 for 2 h, demonstrating successful surface enrichment of Pt on Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles. A dynamic stabilization mechanism involving wetting\

  15. High - speed steel for precise cased tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwiarz, J.; Mazur, A.

    2001-01-01

    The test results of high-vanadium high - speed steel (SWV9) for precise casted tools are presented. The face -milling cutters of NFCa80A type have been tested in industrial operating conditions. An average life - time of SWV9 steel tools was 3-10 times longer compare to the conventional high - speed milling cutters. Metallography of SWB9 precise casted steel revealed beneficial for tool properties distribution of primary vanadium carbides in the steel matrix. Presented results should be a good argument for wide application of high - vanadium high - speed steel for precise casted tools. (author)

  16. Electroweak precision tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteil, St.

    2009-12-01

    This document aims at summarizing a dozen of years of the author's research in High Energy Physics, in particular dealing with precision tests of the electroweak theory. Parity violating asymmetries measurements at LEP with the ALEPH detector together with global consistency checks of the Kobayashi-Maskawa paradigm within the CKM-fitter group are gathered in the first part of the document. The second part deals with the unpublished instrumental work about the design, tests, productions and commissioning of the elements of the Pre-Shower detector of the LHCb spectrometer at LHC. Physics perspectives with LHCb are eventually discussed as a conclusion. (author)

  17. Ultra-precision bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, F

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  18. Antihydrogen production and precision experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.M.; Goldman, T.; Holzscheiter, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    The study of CPT invariance with the highest achievable precision in all particle sectors is of fundamental importance for physics. Equally important is the question of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter. In recent years, impressive progress has been achieved in capturing antiprotons in specially designed Penning traps, in cooling them to energies of a few milli-electron volts, and in storing them for hours in a small volume of space. Positrons have been accumulated in large numbers in similar traps, and low energy positron or positronium beams have been generated. Finally, steady progress has been made in trapping and cooling neutral atoms. Thus the ingredients to form antihydrogen at rest are at hand. Once antihydrogen atoms have been captured at low energy, spectroscopic methods can be applied to interrogate their atomic structure with extremely high precision and compare it to its normal matter counterpart, the hydrogen atom. Especially the 1S-2S transition, with a lifetime of the excited state of 122 msec and thereby a natural linewidth of 5 parts in 10 16 , offers in principle the possibility to directly compare matter and antimatter properties at a level of 1 part in 10 16

  19. Precision lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    Precision measurements of atomic lifetimes provide important information necessary for testing atomic theory. The authors employ resonant laser excitation of a fast atomic beam to measure excited state lifetimes by observing the decay-in-flight of the emitted fluorescence. A similar technique was used by Gaupp, et al., who reported measurements with precisions of less than 0.2%. Their program includes lifetime measurements of the low lying p states in alkali and alkali like systems. Motivation for this work comes from a need to test the atomic many-body-perturbation theory (MBPT) that is necessary for interpretation of parity nonconservation experiments in atomic cesium. The authors have measured the cesium 6p 2 P 1/2 and 6p 2 P 3/2 state lifetimes to be 34.934±0.094 ns and 30.499±0.070 ns respectively. With minor changes to the apparatus, they have extended their measurements to include the lithium 2p 2 P 1/2 and 2p 2 P 3/2 states

  20. Fundamentals of precision medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, Kimon

    2018-01-01

    Imagine a world where clinicians make accurate diagnoses and provide targeted therapies to their patients according to well-defined, biologically-informed disease subtypes, accounting for individual differences in genetic make-up, behaviors, cultures, lifestyles and the environment. This is not as utopic as it may seem. Relatively recent advances in science and technology have led to an explosion of new information on what underlies health and what constitutes disease. These novel insights emanate from studies of the human genome and microbiome, their associated transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, as well as epigenomics and exposomics—such ‘omics data can now be generated at unprecedented depth and scale, and at rapidly decreasing cost. Making sense and integrating these fundamental information domains to transform health care and improve health remains a challenge—an ambitious, laudable and high-yield goal. Precision dentistry is no longer a distant vision; it is becoming part of the rapidly evolving present. Insights from studies of the human genome and microbiome, their associated transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, and epigenomics and exposomics have reached an unprecedented depth and scale. Much more needs to be done, however, for the realization of precision medicine in the oral health domain. PMID:29227115

  1. Precision measurements in supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Johnathan Lee [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Supersymmetry is a promising framework in which to explore extensions of the standard model. If candidates for supersymmetric particles are found, precision measurements of their properties will then be of paramount importance. The prospects for such measurements and their implications are the subject of this thesis. If charginos are produced at the LEP II collider, they are likely to be one of the few available supersymmetric signals for many years. The author considers the possibility of determining fundamental supersymmetry parameters in such a scenario. The study is complicated by the dependence of observables on a large number of these parameters. He proposes a straightforward procedure for disentangling these dependences and demonstrate its effectiveness by presenting a number of case studies at representative points in parameter space. In addition to determining the properties of supersymmetric particles, precision measurements may also be used to establish that newly-discovered particles are, in fact, supersymmetric. Supersymmetry predicts quantitative relations among the couplings and masses of superparticles. The author discusses tests of such relations at a future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider, using measurements that exploit the availability of polarizable beams. Stringent tests of supersymmetry from chargino production are demonstrated in two representative cases, and fermion and neutralino processes are also discussed.

  2. Precision muon physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorringe, T. P.; Hertzog, D. W.

    2015-09-01

    The muon is playing a unique role in sub-atomic physics. Studies of muon decay both determine the overall strength and establish the chiral structure of weak interactions, as well as setting extraordinary limits on charged-lepton-flavor-violating processes. Measurements of the muon's anomalous magnetic moment offer singular sensitivity to the completeness of the standard model and the predictions of many speculative theories. Spectroscopy of muonium and muonic atoms gives unmatched determinations of fundamental quantities including the magnetic moment ratio μμ /μp, lepton mass ratio mμ /me, and proton charge radius rp. Also, muon capture experiments are exploring elusive features of weak interactions involving nucleons and nuclei. We will review the experimental landscape of contemporary high-precision and high-sensitivity experiments with muons. One focus is the novel methods and ingenious techniques that achieve such precision and sensitivity in recent, present, and planned experiments. Another focus is the uncommonly broad and topical range of questions in atomic, nuclear and particle physics that such experiments explore.

  3. Precision Joining Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. W.; Westphal, D. A.

    1991-08-01

    A workshop to obtain input from industry on the establishment of the Precision Joining Center (PJC) was held on July 10-12, 1991. The PJC is a center for training Joining Technologists in advanced joining techniques and concepts in order to promote the competitiveness of U.S. industry. The center will be established as part of the DOE Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Initiative, and operated by EG&G Rocky Flats in cooperation with the American Welding Society and the Colorado School of Mines Center for Welding and Joining Research. The overall objectives of the workshop were to validate the need for a Joining Technologists to fill the gap between the welding operator and the welding engineer, and to assure that the PJC will train individuals to satisfy that need. The consensus of the workshop participants was that the Joining Technologist is a necessary position in industry, and is currently used, with some variation, by many companies. It was agreed that the PJC core curriculum, as presented, would produce a Joining Technologist of value to industries that use precision joining techniques. The advantage of the PJC would be to train the Joining Technologist much more quickly and more completely. The proposed emphasis of the PJC curriculum on equipment intensive and hands-on training was judged to be essential.

  4. Precision validation of MIPAS-Envisat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Piccolo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the variation and validation of the precision, or estimated random error, associated with the ESA Level 2 products from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS. This quantity represents the propagation of the radiometric noise from the spectra through the retrieval process into the Level 2 profile values. The noise itself varies with time, steadily rising between ice decontamination events, but the Level 2 precision has a greater variation due to the atmospheric temperature which controls the total radiance received. Hence, for all species, the precision varies latitudinally/seasonally with temperature, with a small superimposed temporal structure determined by the degree of ice contamination on the detectors. The precision validation involves comparing two MIPAS retrievals at the intersections of ascending/descending orbits. For 5 days per month of full resolution MIPAS operation, the standard deviation of the matching profile pairs is computed and compared with the precision given in the MIPAS Level 2 data, except for NO2 since it has a large diurnal variation between ascending/descending intersections. Even taking into account the propagation of the pressure-temperature retrieval errors into the VMR retrieval, the standard deviation of the matching pairs is usually a factor 1–2 larger than the precision. This is thought to be due to effects such as horizontal inhomogeneity of the atmosphere and instability of the retrieval.

  5. Precision Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision medicine helps doctors select cancer treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. Learn about the promise of precision medicine and the role it plays in cancer treatment.

  6. Precision experiments in electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, M.L.

    1990-03-01

    The electroweak theory of Glashow, Weinberg, and Salam (GWS) has become one of the twin pillars upon which our understanding of all particle physics phenomena rests. It is a brilliant achievement that qualitatively and quantitatively describes all of the vast quantity of experimental data that have been accumulated over some forty years. Note that the word quantitatively must be qualified. The low energy limiting cases of the GWS theory, Quantum Electrodynamics and the V-A Theory of Weak Interactions, have withstood rigorous testing. The high energy synthesis of these ideas, the GWS theory, has not yet been subjected to comparably precise scrutiny. The recent operation of a new generation of proton-antiproton (p bar p) and electron-positron (e + e - ) colliders has made it possible to produce and study large samples of the electroweak gauge bosons W ± and Z 0 . We expect that these facilities will enable very precise tests of the GWS theory to be performed in the near future. In keeping with the theme of this Institute, Physics at the 100 GeV Mass Scale, these lectures will explore the current status and the near-future prospects of these experiments

  7. A comparative evaluation of the in vitro penetration performance of the improved Crest complete toothbrush versus the Current Crest complete toothbrush, the Colgate Precision toothbrush and the Oral-B P40 toothbrush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpenhein, D W; Handel, S E; Hughes, T J; Wild, J

    1996-01-01

    Removal of plaque and debris from interproximal surfaces during toothbrushing has generally been difficult to achieve, in large part because traditional flat-bristled toothbrushes do not offer good interproximal penetration. As a result, a number of varying bristle designs have been developed, with the rippled-design brush shown to be particularly effective at removing interproximal plaque. Recently, an existing brush, the original Crest Complete, was modified to offer a more deeply rippled version. This study evaluated the interproximal penetration of four bristle designs: rippled pattern (original Crest Complete), deeper rippled pattern (improved Crest Complete), multi-level (Colgate Precision), and flat-tufted (Oral-B P40). The study used a previously reported in vitro model for determining interproximal penetration of manual toothbrushes (J Clin Dent 5:27-33, 1994). In order to effectively mimic the in-use characteristics of toothbrushing, this model is based on analysis of videotaped consumer brushing habits, tooth morphology, and in vivo plaque tenacity characteristics and uses the three most predominantly used brushing techniques (circular, up-and-down, and back-and-forth, with the brush held at both 45 and 90 degrees to the tooth surface). In addition, the model's brush stroke length, brush force, and brush speed are likewise based on analysis of consumer brushing patterns. The results of the study indicate that the new Crest Complete with deeper rippled bristles provided significantly superior (p Colgate Precision and Oral-B brushes overall and for three of the four brush strokes tested. In addition, the new Crest Complete was found to provide significantly superior interproximal penetration to the original Crest Complete overall and in circular and up-and-down strokes, and the original Crest Complete provided superior overall interproximal penetration to the Colgate and Oral-B brushes.

  8. Precision Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since President Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in the United States, more and more attention has been paid to precision medicine. However, clinicians have already used it to treat conditions such as cancer. Many cardiovascular diseases have a familial presentation, and genetic variants are associated with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which are the basis for providing precise care to patients with cardiovascular diseases. Large-scale cohorts and multiomics are critical components of precision medicine. Here we summarize the application of precision medicine to cardiovascular diseases based on cohort and omic studies, and hope to elicit discussion about future health care.

  9. Prompt and Precise Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    For Sanders Design International, Inc., of Wilton, New Hampshire, every passing second between the concept and realization of a product is essential to succeed in the rapid prototyping industry where amongst heavy competition, faster time-to-market means more business. To separate itself from its rivals, Sanders Design aligned with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop what it considers to be the most accurate rapid prototyping machine for fabrication of extremely precise tooling prototypes. The company's Rapid ToolMaker System has revolutionized production of high quality, small-to-medium sized prototype patterns and tooling molds with an exactness that surpasses that of computer numerically-controlled (CNC) machining devices. Created with funding and support from Marshall under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Rapid ToolMaker is a dual-use technology with applications in both commercial and military aerospace fields. The advanced technology provides cost savings in the design and manufacturing of automotive, electronic, and medical parts, as well as in other areas of consumer interest, such as jewelry and toys. For aerospace applications, the Rapid ToolMaker enables fabrication of high-quality turbine and compressor blades for jet engines on unmanned air vehicles, aircraft, and missiles.

  10. Precisely Tracking Childhood Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Tamer H; Koplan, Jeffrey P; Breiman, Robert F; Madhi, Shabir A; Heaton, Penny M; Mundel, Trevor; Ordi, Jaume; Bassat, Quique; Menendez, Clara; Dowell, Scott F

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about the specific causes of neonatal and under-five childhood death in high-mortality geographic regions due to a lack of primary data and dependence on inaccurate tools, such as verbal autopsy. To meet the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 to eliminate preventable child mortality in every country, better approaches are needed to precisely determine specific causes of death so that prevention and treatment interventions can be strengthened and focused. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a technique that uses needle-based postmortem sampling, followed by advanced histopathology and microbiology to definitely determine cause of death. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is supporting a new surveillance system called the Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance network, which will determine cause of death using MITS in combination with other information, and yield cause-specific population-based mortality rates, eventually in up to 12-15 sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. However, the Gates Foundation funding alone is not enough. We call on governments, other funders, and international stakeholders to expand the use of pathology-based cause of death determination to provide the information needed to end preventable childhood mortality.

  11. Expansion during the formation of the magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl(2)O(4)) from its basic oxide (MgO and Al(2)O(3)) powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Flavia Cunha

    The extraordinary expansion during the reaction sintering of the magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) from its basic oxide (MgO and Al2O3) powders was studied. Experimental series of different size fractions of the reacting materials were formulated to produce the Mg-Al spinel. After batches were prepared, specimens were compacted and fired in air from 1200° to 1700°C for a fixed firing time. A separate set of specimens was fired as a function of time to determine the reaction kinetic parameters. Dimensional changes confirmed that extraordinary expansions of three to four times greater than the prediction from the reaction of solids occur. The solid-state reactions were monitored by X-ray diffraction. The activation energy of the spinel reaction formation was determined to be 280 +/- 20 kJ/mol. It is believed to be associated with the diffusivity of Mg 2+ in either magnesia or spinel during the development of the final spinel structure. New porosity developed in the compacts during the reaction formation of spinel. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the magnesia evaporated leaving behind porous magnesia grains, condensed on the alumina particles and reacted to form a shell of spinel. Hollow spinel particles resulted from the original particles of alumina. These porosities generated within the reacting materials influenced the expansions. Final volumetric expansion could potentially reach 56% as a result of the reaction of solids and the porosity generation within MgO and Al2O3. Models of a single alumina particle with and without development of internal porosity were developed. 3-D arrangements of particles showed additional porosity, influencing on the expansions. The decrease in porosity of some specimens fired at higher temperatures indicated that sintering and densification occur simultaneously with the reaction formation of spinel. The decrease in the interparticle porosity limits the full expansion of the particulates to levels lower than the

  12. Precise Truss Assembly Using Commodity Parts and Low Precision Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendera, Erik; Reishus, Dustin; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, W. R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Hardware and software design and system integration for an intelligent precision jigging robot (IPJR), which allows high precision assembly using commodity parts and low-precision bonding, is described. Preliminary 2D experiments that are motivated by the problem of assembling space telescope optical benches and very large manipulators on orbit using inexpensive, stock hardware and low-precision welding are also described. An IPJR is a robot that acts as the precise "jigging", holding parts of a local structure assembly site in place, while an external low precision assembly agent cuts and welds members. The prototype presented in this paper allows an assembly agent (for this prototype, a human using only low precision tools), to assemble a 2D truss made of wooden dowels to a precision on the order of millimeters over a span on the order of meters. The analysis of the assembly error and the results of building a square structure and a ring structure are discussed. Options for future work, to extend the IPJR paradigm to building in 3D structures at micron precision are also summarized.

  13. [Precision nutrition in the era of precision medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P Z; Wang, H

    2016-12-06

    Precision medicine has been increasingly incorporated into clinical practice and is enabling a new era for disease prevention and treatment. As an important constituent of precision medicine, precision nutrition has also been drawing more attention during physical examinations. The main aim of precision nutrition is to provide safe and efficient intervention methods for disease treatment and management, through fully considering the genetics, lifestyle (dietary, exercise and lifestyle choices), metabolic status, gut microbiota and physiological status (nutrient level and disease status) of individuals. Three major components should be considered in precision nutrition, including individual criteria for sufficient nutritional status, biomarker monitoring or techniques for nutrient detection and the applicable therapeutic or intervention methods. It was suggested that, in clinical practice, many inherited and chronic metabolic diseases might be prevented or managed through precision nutritional intervention. For generally healthy populations, because lifestyles, dietary factors, genetic factors and environmental exposures vary among individuals, precision nutrition is warranted to improve their physical activity and reduce disease risks. In summary, research and practice is leading toward precision nutrition becoming an integral constituent of clinical nutrition and disease prevention in the era of precision medicine.

  14. Precision medicine in myasthenia graves: begin from the data precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yu; Xie, Yanchen; Hao, Hong-Jun; Sun, Ren-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a prototypic autoimmune disease with overt clinical and immunological heterogeneity. The data of MG is far from individually precise now, partially due to the rarity and heterogeneity of this disease. In this review, we provide the basic insights of MG data precision, including onset age, presenting symptoms, generalization, thymus status, pathogenic autoantibodies, muscle involvement, severity and response to treatment based on references and our previous studies. Subgroups and quantitative traits of MG are discussed in the sense of data precision. The role of disease registries and scientific bases of precise analysis are also discussed to ensure better collection and analysis of MG data. PMID:27127759

  15. Enhanced photocatalytic properties of the 3D flower-like Mg-Al layered double hydroxides decorated with Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} under visible light illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ao, Yanhui, E-mail: andyao@hhu.edu.cn; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun; Qian, Jin

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • 3D flower-like Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Mg-Al layered double hydroxide composite was prepared. • The nanocomposites exhibited high photocatalytic activities on different organic pollutants. • The mechanism of the enhanced activity were investigated. - Abstract: A facile anion-exchange precipitation method was employed to synthesize 3D flower-like Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Mg-Al layered double hydroxide composite photocatalyst. Results showed that Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} nanoparticles dispersed uniformly on the petals of the flower-like Mg-Al LDH. The obtained nanocomposites exhibited high photocatalytic activities on different organic pollutants (cationic and anionic dyes, phenol) under visible light illumination. The high photocatalytic activity can be ascribed to the special structure which accomplishes the wide-distribution of Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} nanoparticles on the surfaces of the 3D flower-like nanocomposites. Therefore, it can provide much more active sites for the degradation of organic pollutant. Then the photocatalytic mechanism was also verified by reactive species trapping experiments in detail. The work would pave a facile way to prepare LDHs based hierarchical photocatalysts with high activity for the degradation of wide range organic pollutants under visible light irradiation.

  16. The Precision Field Lysimeter Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fank, J.

    2009-04-01

    The understanding and interpretation of leaching processes have improved significantly during the past decades. Unlike laboratory experiments, which are mostly performed under very controlled conditions (e.g. homogeneous, uniform packing of pre-treated test material, saturated steady-state flow conditions, and controlled uniform hydraulic conditions), lysimeter experiments generally simulate actual field conditions. Lysimeters may be classified according to different criteria such as type of soil block used (monolithic or reconstructed), drainage (drainage by gravity or vacuum or a water table may be maintained), or weighing or non-weighing lysimeters. In 2004 experimental investigations have been set up to assess the impact of different farming systems on groundwater quality of the shallow floodplain aquifer of the river Mur in Wagna (Styria, Austria). The sediment is characterized by a thin layer (30 - 100 cm) of sandy Dystric Cambisol and underlying gravel and sand. Three precisely weighing equilibrium tension block lysimeters have been installed in agricultural test fields to compare water flow and solute transport under (i) organic farming, (ii) conventional low input farming and (iii) extensification by mulching grass. Specific monitoring equipment is used to reduce the well known shortcomings of lysimeter investigations: The lysimeter core is excavated as an undisturbed monolithic block (circular, 1 m2 surface area, 2 m depth) to prevent destruction of the natural soil structure, and pore system. Tracing experiments have been achieved to investigate the occurrence of artificial preferential flow and transport along the walls of the lysimeters. The results show that such effects can be neglected. Precisely weighing load cells are used to constantly determine the weight loss of the lysimeter due to evaporation and transpiration and to measure different forms of precipitation. The accuracy of the weighing apparatus is 0.05 kg, or 0.05 mm water equivalent

  17. Preparation and Lithium-Storage Performance of a Novel Hierarchical Porous Carbon from Sucrose Using Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides as Template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Liluo; Chen, Yaxin; Song, Huaihe; Li, Ang; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Ma, Zhaokun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hierarchical porous carbon containing slit-shaped mesopores and 3D carbon nanosheets were prepared using Mg-Al layered double hydroxides as template. • The hierarchical porous carbon electrode showed a high capacity and excellent cycle stability when used in lithium-ion battery. • The excellent performance is ascribed to its hierarchical porous structure, especially the mesoporous struture. - Abstract: Novel hierarchical porous carbons (NHPCs) containing 3D carbon nanosheets and slit-mesopores are prepared in this work, using MgAl-layered double hydroxides as template and sucrose as carbon source, and their electrochemical performances as anodes of lithium-ion batteries are also investigated. Owing to the existence of abundant carbon nanosheets and slit-mesopores, the NHPCs electrode exhibits the specific reversible capacity of 1151.9 mA h/g at the current density of 50 mA/g, which is significantly higher than other hierarchical porous carbons reported in previous literatures. The contributions of carbon nanosheets and mesopores to the electrochemical performance are further clarified by nitrogen adsorption-desorption test, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammograms and galvanostatic charge/discharge test. This work not only provides an easy and effective method to prepare hierarchical porous carbon materials, but also is beneficial for the design of high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  18. Effect of polymorphism of Al2O3 on the sintering and microstructure of transparent MgAl2O4 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dan; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Peng; Wang, Shiwei

    2017-09-01

    Transparent MgAl2O4 ceramics were fabricated by reactive sintering in air followed by hot isostatic press treatment using commercial Al2O3 powder (γ-Al2O3 or α-Al2O3) and MgO powder as raw materials. The densification rate, microstructure and optical properties of the ceramics were investigated. Densification temperature of the sample from γ-Al2O3/MgO was lower than that from α-Al2O3/MgO. However, in-line transmission (2 mm thick) of the sample from α-Al2O3/MgO at the wavelength of 600 nm and 1100 nm were respectively 77.7% and 84.3%, higher than those (66.7%, 81.4%) of the sample from γ-Al2O3/MgO. SEM observation revealed that the sample from α-Al2O3/MgO exhibited a homogeneous and pore-free microstructure, while, the sample from γ-Al2O3/MgO showed an apparent bimodal microstructure containing pores.

  19. Effect of MgCl2 addition on the sintering behavior of MgAl2O4 spinel and formation of nano-particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of MgCl2 addition on the sintering behavior of MgAl2O4 spinel produced via oxide mixture method was investigated. For this reason, the stoichiometric mixture of magnesite and calcined alumina as raw materials was calcined at 1100°C. The calcined mixture was milled, pressed and then, fired at 1300 and 1500°C after addition of various amounts of MgCl2. Besides, the physical properties, phase composition and microstructure of fired samples were investigated. The results showed that MgCl2 addition has great effect on the densification and particle size of spinel. Besides, MgCl2 addition increases the amount of spinel phase at all firing temperatures. Due to the decomposition of MgCl2 and then formation of ultra-fine MgO particles, the nano-sized spinel is formed on the surface of the larger spinel particles.

  20. Effect of the Mg/Al Ratio on Activated Sol-Gel Hydrotalcites for Photocatalytic Degradation of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esthela Ramos-Ramírez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, interest has grown in finding effective solutions for the treatment of water pollution by toxic compounds. Some of the latter that have acquired importance are phenols and chlorophenols, due to their employment in the manufacture of pesticides, insecticides, cords of wood, paper industry, among others. The problem is rooted in that these compounds are very persistent in the environment because they are partially biodegradable and cannot be photodegraded directly by sunlight. Chlorophenols are extremely toxic, especially 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, which is potentially carcinogenic. In this work, Mg/Al-mixed oxide catalysts were obtained from the thermal treatment of hydrotalcite-type materials, synthesized by sol-gel method with different Mg/Al ratios. Hydrotalcites and Mg/Al-mixed oxides were physicochemically characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis (DTA and TGA, and N2 physisorption. The results were obtained on having proven the photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol as a pollutant model by water. The catalysts obtained present the hydrotalcite phase with thermal evolution until achieving Mg/Al-mixed oxides at 500°C. The catalysts are of mesoporous materials and exhibiting large surface areas. The catalysts demonstrated good photocatalytic activity with good efficiency, reaching degradation percentages with Mg/Al = 1, 2, 4, 5, and 7 ratios of 94.2, 92.5, 86.2, 84.2, and 63.9%, respectively, until achieving mineralization.

  1. Defect kinetics in spinels: Long-time simulations of MgAl2O4, MgGa2O4, and MgIn2O4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uberuaga, B. P.; Voter, A. F.; Sickafus, K. E.; Bacorisen, D.; Smith, Roger; Ball, J. A.; Grimes, R. W.

    2007-01-01

    Building upon work in which we examined defect production and stability in spinels, we now turn to defect kinetics. Using temperature accelerated dynamics (TAD), we characterize the kinetics of defects in three spinel oxides: magnesium aluminate MgAl 2 O 4 , magnesium gallate MgGa 2 O 4 , and magnesium indate MgIn 2 O 4 . These materials have varying tendencies to disorder on the cation sublattices. In order to understand chemical composition effects, we first examine defect kinetics in perfectly ordered, or normal, spinels, focusing on point defects on each sublattice. We then examine the role that cation disorder has on defect mobility. Using TAD, we find that disorder creates local environments which strongly trap point defects, effectively reducing their mobility. We explore the consequences of this trapping via kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations on the oxygen vacancy (V O ) in MgGa 2 O 4 , finding that V O mobility is directly related to the degree of inversion in the system

  2. Conducting Precision Medicine Research with African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; McDonald, Jasmine; Vadaparampil, Susan; Rice, LaShanta; Jefferson, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine is an approach to detecting, treating, and managing disease that is based on individual variation in genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Precision medicine is expected to reduce health disparities, but this will be possible only if studies have adequate representation of racial minorities. It is critical to anticipate the rates at which individuals from diverse populations are likely to participate in precision medicine studies as research initiatives are being developed. We evaluated the likelihood of participating in a clinical study for precision medicine. Observational study conducted between October 2010 and February 2011 in a national sample of African Americans. Intentions to participate in a government sponsored study that involves providing a biospecimen and generates data that could be shared with other researchers to conduct future studies. One third of respondents would participate in a clinical study for precision medicine. Only gender had a significant independent association with participation intentions. Men had a 1.86 (95% CI = 1.11, 3.12, p = 0.02) increased likelihood of participating in a precision medicine study compared to women in the model that included overall barriers and facilitators. In the model with specific participation barriers, distrust was associated with a reduced likelihood of participating in the research described in the vignette (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.96, p = 0.04). African Americans may have low enrollment in PMI research. As PMI research is implemented, extensive efforts will be needed to ensure adequate representation. Additional research is needed to identify optimal ways of ethically describing precision medicine studies to ensure sufficient recruitment of racial minorities.

  3. MEASUREMENT AND PRECISION, EXPERIMENTAL VERSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    THIS DOCUMENT IS AN EXPERIMENTAL VERSION OF A PROGRAMED TEXT ON MEASUREMENT AND PRECISION. PART I CONTAINS 24 FRAMES DEALING WITH PRECISION AND SIGNIFICANT FIGURES ENCOUNTERED IN VARIOUS MATHEMATICAL COMPUTATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS. PART II BEGINS WITH A BRIEF SECTION ON EXPERIMENTAL DATA, COVERING SUCH POINTS AS (1) ESTABLISHING THE ZERO POINT, (2)…

  4. Precision medicine for nurses: 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Colleen

    2014-05-01

    To introduce the key concepts and terms associated with precision medicine and support understanding of future developments in the field by providing an overview and history of precision medicine, related ethical considerations, and nursing implications. Current nursing, medical and basic science literature. Rapid progress in understanding the oncogenic drivers associated with cancer is leading to a shift toward precision medicine, where treatment is based on targeting specific genetic and epigenetic alterations associated with a particular cancer. Nurses will need to embrace the paradigm shift to precision medicine, expend the effort necessary to learn the essential terminology, concepts and principles, and work collaboratively with physician colleagues to best position our patients to maximize the potential that precision medicine can offer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Advanced bioanalytics for precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Aldo; Michelini, Elisa; Caliceti, Cristiana; Guardigli, Massimo; Mirasoli, Mara; Simoni, Patrizia

    2018-01-01

    Precision medicine is a new paradigm that combines diagnostic, imaging, and analytical tools to produce accurate diagnoses and therapeutic interventions tailored to the individual patient. This approach stands in contrast to the traditional "one size fits all" concept, according to which researchers develop disease treatments and preventions for an "average" patient without considering individual differences. The "one size fits all" concept has led to many ineffective or inappropriate treatments, especially for pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Now, precision medicine is receiving massive funding in many countries, thanks to its social and economic potential in terms of improved disease prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. Bioanalytical chemistry is critical to precision medicine. This is because identifying an appropriate tailored therapy requires researchers to collect and analyze information on each patient's specific molecular biomarkers (e.g., proteins, nucleic acids, and metabolites). In other words, precision diagnostics is not possible without precise bioanalytical chemistry. This Trend article highlights some of the most recent advances, including massive analysis of multilayer omics, and new imaging technique applications suitable for implementing precision medicine. Graphical abstract Precision medicine combines bioanalytical chemistry, molecular diagnostics, and imaging tools for performing accurate diagnoses and selecting optimal therapies for each patient.

  6. Precision Oncology: Between Vaguely Right and Precisely Wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Amy; Huang, Sui

    2017-12-01

    Precision Oncology seeks to identify and target the mutation that drives a tumor. Despite its straightforward rationale, concerns about its effectiveness are mounting. What is the biological explanation for the "imprecision?" First, Precision Oncology relies on indiscriminate sequencing of genomes in biopsies that barely represent the heterogeneous mix of tumor cells. Second, findings that defy the orthodoxy of oncogenic "driver mutations" are now accumulating: the ubiquitous presence of oncogenic mutations in silent premalignancies or the dynamic switching without mutations between various cell phenotypes that promote progression. Most troublesome is the observation that cancer cells that survive treatment still will have suffered cytotoxic stress and thereby enter a stem cell-like state, the seeds for recurrence. The benefit of "precision targeting" of mutations is inherently limited by this counterproductive effect. These findings confirm that there is no precise linear causal relationship between tumor genotype and phenotype, a reminder of logician Carveth Read's caution that being vaguely right may be preferable to being precisely wrong. An open-minded embrace of the latest inconvenient findings indicating nongenetic and "imprecise" phenotype dynamics of tumors as summarized in this review will be paramount if Precision Oncology is ultimately to lead to clinical benefits. Cancer Res; 77(23); 6473-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Numerical precision control and GRACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, J.; Hamaguchi, N.; Ishikawa, T.; Kaneko, T.; Morita, H.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Tokura, A.; Shimizu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The control of the numerical precision of large-scale computations like those generated by the GRACE system for automatic Feynman diagram calculations has become an intrinsic part of those packages. Recently, Hitachi Ltd. has developed in FORTRAN a new library HMLIB for quadruple and octuple precision arithmetic where the number of lost-bits is made available. This library has been tested with success on the 1-loop radiative correction to e + e - ->e + e - τ + τ - . It is shown that the approach followed by HMLIB provides an efficient way to track down the source of numerical significance losses and to deliver high-precision results yet minimizing computing time

  8. Lung Cancer Precision Medicine Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with lung cancer are benefiting from the boom in targeted and immune-based therapies. With a series of precision medicine trials, NCI is keeping pace with the rapidly changing treatment landscape for lung cancer.

  9. Precision engineering: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Chris J

    2012-08-28

    Precision engineering is a relatively new name for a technology with roots going back over a thousand years; those roots span astronomy, metrology, fundamental standards, manufacturing and money-making (literally). Throughout that history, precision engineers have created links across disparate disciplines to generate innovative responses to society's needs and wants. This review combines historical and technological perspectives to illuminate precision engineering's current character and directions. It first provides us a working definition of precision engineering and then reviews the subject's roots. Examples will be given showing the contributions of the technology to society, while simultaneously showing the creative tension between the technological convergence that spurs new directions and the vertical disintegration that optimizes manufacturing economics.

  10. How GNSS Enables Precision Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Precision farming: Feeding a Growing Population Enables Those Who Feed the World. Immediate and Ongoing Needs - population growth (more to feed) - urbanization (decrease in arable land) Double food production by 2050 to meet world demand. To meet thi...

  11. FROM PERSONALIZED TO PRECISION MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Raskina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to maintain a high quality of life against a backdrop of its inevitably increasing duration is one of the main problems of modern health care. The concept of "right drug to the right patient at the right time", which at first was bearing the name "personalized", is currently unanimously approved by international scientific community as "precision medicine". Precision medicine takes all the individual characteristics into account: genes diversity, environment, lifestyles, and even bacterial microflora and also involves the use of the latest technological developments, which serves to ensure that each patient gets assistance fitting his state best. In the United States, Canada and France national precision medicine programs have already been submitted and implemented. The aim of this review is to describe the dynamic integration of precision medicine methods into routine medical practice and life of modern society. The new paradigm prospects description are complemented by figures, proving the already achieved success in the application of precise methods for example, the targeted therapy of cancer. All in all, the presence of real-life examples, proving the regularity of transition to a new paradigm, and a wide range  of technical and diagnostic capabilities available and constantly evolving make the all-round transition to precision medicine almost inevitable.

  12. Corrosion behaviour of chemical conversion treatments on as-cast Mg-Al alloys: Electrochemical and non-electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, E.; Juers, C.; Steinmetz, J.

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are often used in as-cast conditions. So, the aim of this work is to characterize the corrosion protection of as-cast AZ91D alloys coated with simple chemical conversion (phosphate-permanganate, and cerium-based coatings). With the two coatings, the electrochemical measurements show that the corrosion protection is due to both the inhibition of cathodic and anodic reactions, because of the presence of stable CeO 2 or manganese oxides in basic pH. Nevertheless, the non-electrochemical tests of corrosion are required to bring to light the healing effect of phosphate-permanganate coating compared to Ce-coating and to describe the corrosion behaviour completely. Finally phosphoric and soda pickling associated to phosphate-permanganate conversion treatment or cerium coating are ecologically efficient alternatives to fluoride-based pickling and the chromating treatment.

  13. Catalytic removal of sulfur dioxide from dibenzothiophene sulfone over Mg-Al mixed oxides supported on mesoporous silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Nansuk; Kim, Min Ji; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Park, Young-Kwon; Jeon, Jong-Ki

    2010-05-01

    Dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTS), one of the products of the oxidative desulfurization of heavy oil, can be removed through extraction as well as by an adsorption process. It is necessary to utilize DBTS in conjunction with catalytic cracking. An object of the present study is to provide an Mg-Al-mesoporous silica catalyst for the removal of sulfur dioxide from DBTS. The characteristics of the Mg-Al-mesoporous silica catalyst were investigated through N2 adsorption, XRD, ICP, and XRF. An Mg-Al-mesoporous silica catalyst formulated in a direct incorporation method showed higher catalytic performance compared to pure MgO during the catalytic removal of sulfur dioxide from DBTS. The higher dispersion of Mg as well as the large surface area of the Mg-Al-mesoporous silica catalyst strongly influenced the catalyst basicity in DBTS cracking.

  14. Corrosion behaviour of chemical conversion treatments on as-cast Mg-Al alloys: Electrochemical and non-electrochemical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, E. [Institut Jean Lamour UMR CNRS 7198, Nancy Universite - Corrosion Group, B.P. 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France)], E-mail: emmanuel.rocca@lcsm.uhp-nancy.fr; Juers, C.; Steinmetz, J. [Institut Jean Lamour UMR CNRS 7198, Nancy Universite - Corrosion Group, B.P. 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France)

    2010-06-15

    Magnesium alloys are often used in as-cast conditions. So, the aim of this work is to characterize the corrosion protection of as-cast AZ91D alloys coated with simple chemical conversion (phosphate-permanganate, and cerium-based coatings). With the two coatings, the electrochemical measurements show that the corrosion protection is due to both the inhibition of cathodic and anodic reactions, because of the presence of stable CeO{sub 2} or manganese oxides in basic pH. Nevertheless, the non-electrochemical tests of corrosion are required to bring to light the healing effect of phosphate-permanganate coating compared to Ce-coating and to describe the corrosion behaviour completely. Finally phosphoric and soda pickling associated to phosphate-permanganate conversion treatment or cerium coating are ecologically efficient alternatives to fluoride-based pickling and the chromating treatment.

  15. Nanomaterials for Cancer Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yilong; Sun, Shuyang; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Shi, Donglu

    2018-04-01

    Medical science has recently advanced to the point where diagnosis and therapeutics can be carried out with high precision, even at the molecular level. A new field of "precision medicine" has consequently emerged with specific clinical implications and challenges that can be well-addressed by newly developed nanomaterials. Here, a nanoscience approach to precision medicine is provided, with a focus on cancer therapy, based on a new concept of "molecularly-defined cancers." "Next-generation sequencing" is introduced to identify the oncogene that is responsible for a class of cancers. This new approach is fundamentally different from all conventional cancer therapies that rely on diagnosis of the anatomic origins where the tumors are found. To treat cancers at molecular level, a recently developed "microRNA replacement therapy" is applied, utilizing nanocarriers, in order to regulate the driver oncogene, which is the core of cancer precision therapeutics. Furthermore, the outcome of the nanomediated oncogenic regulation has to be accurately assessed by the genetically characterized, patient-derived xenograft models. Cancer therapy in this fashion is a quintessential example of precision medicine, presenting many challenges to the materials communities with new issues in structural design, surface functionalization, gene/drug storage and delivery, cell targeting, and medical imaging. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Precision Medicine and Men's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Douglas A; Katchi, Farhan M; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2017-07-01

    Precision medicine can greatly benefit men's health by helping to prevent, diagnose, and treat prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, infertility, hypogonadism, and erectile dysfunction. For example, precision medicine can facilitate the selection of men at high risk for prostate cancer for targeted prostate-specific antigen screening and chemoprevention administration, as well as assist in identifying men who are resistant to medical therapy for prostatic hyperplasia, who may instead require surgery. Precision medicine-trained clinicians can also let couples know whether their specific cause of infertility should be bypassed by sperm extraction and in vitro fertilization to prevent abnormalities in their offspring. Though precision medicine's role in the management of hypogonadism has yet to be defined, it could be used to identify biomarkers associated with individual patients' responses to treatment so that appropriate therapy can be prescribed. Last, precision medicine can improve erectile dysfunction treatment by identifying genetic polymorphisms that regulate response to medical therapies and by aiding in the selection of patients for further cardiovascular disease screening.

  17. Precision Medicine in Gastrointestinal Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David H; Park, Jason Y

    2016-05-01

    -Precision medicine is the promise of individualized therapy and management of patients based on their personal biology. There are now multiple global initiatives to perform whole-genome sequencing on millions of individuals. In the United States, an early program was the Million Veteran Program, and a more recent proposal in 2015 by the president of the United States is the Precision Medicine Initiative. To implement precision medicine in routine oncology care, genetic variants present in tumors need to be matched with effective clinical therapeutics. When we focus on the current state of precision medicine for gastrointestinal malignancies, it becomes apparent that there is a mixed history of success and failure. -To present the current state of precision medicine using gastrointestinal oncology as a model. We will present currently available targeted therapeutics, promising new findings in clinical genomic oncology, remaining quality issues in genomic testing, and emerging oncology clinical trial designs. -Review of the literature including clinical genomic studies on gastrointestinal malignancies, clinical oncology trials on therapeutics targeted to molecular alterations, and emerging clinical oncology study designs. -Translating our ability to sequence thousands of genes into meaningful improvements in patient survival will be the challenge for the next decade.

  18. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  19. Precision measurement with atom interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin

    2015-01-01

    Development of atom interferometry and its application in precision measurement are reviewed in this paper. The principle, features and the implementation of atom interferometers are introduced, the recent progress of precision measurement with atom interferometry, including determination of gravitational constant and fine structure constant, measurement of gravity, gravity gradient and rotation, test of weak equivalence principle, proposal of gravitational wave detection, and measurement of quadratic Zeeman shift are reviewed in detail. Determination of gravitational redshift, new definition of kilogram, and measurement of weak force with atom interferometry are also briefly introduced. (topical review)

  20. ELECTROWEAK PHYSICS AND PRECISION STUDIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARCIANO, W.

    2005-01-01

    The utility of precision electroweak measurements for predicting the Standard Model Higgs mass via quantum loop effects is discussed. Current values of m W , sin 2 θ W (m Z ) # ovr MS# and m t imply a relatively light Higgs which is below the direct experimental bound but possibly consistent with Supersymmetry expectations. The existence of Supersymmetry is further suggested by a 2σ discrepancy between experiment and theory for the muon anomalous magnetic moment. Constraints from precision studies on other types of ''New Physics'' are also briefly described

  1. Universal precision sine bar attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to an attachment for a sine bar which can be used to perform measurements during lathe operations or other types of machining operations. The attachment can be used for setting precision angles on vises, dividing heads, rotary tables and angle plates. It can also be used in the inspection of machined parts, when close tolerances are required, and in the layout of precision hardware. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in a specific versatile sine bar attachment for measuring a variety of angles on a number of different types of equipment.

  2. Introduction to precise numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Aberth, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Precise numerical analysis may be defined as the study of computer methods for solving mathematical problems either exactly or to prescribed accuracy. This book explains how precise numerical analysis is constructed. The book also provides exercises which illustrate points from the text and references for the methods presented. All disc-based content for this title is now available on the Web. · Clearer, simpler descriptions and explanations ofthe various numerical methods· Two new types of numerical problems; accurately solving partial differential equations with the included software and computing line integrals in the complex plane.

  3. High precision target center determination from a point cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kregar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many applications of terrestrial laser scanners (TLS require the determination of a specific point from a point cloud. In this paper procedure of high precision planar target center acquisition from point cloud is presented. The process is based on an image matching algorithm but before we can deal with raster image to fit a target on it, we need to properly determine the best fitting plane and project points on it. The main emphasis of this paper is in the precision estimation and propagation through the whole procedure which allows us to obtain precision assessment of final results (target center coordinates. Theoretic precision estimations – obtained through the procedure were rather high so we compared them with the empiric precision estimations obtained as standard deviations of results of 60 independently scanned targets. An χ2-test confirmed that theoretic precisions are overestimated. The problem most probably lies in the overestimated precisions of the plane parameters due to vast redundancy of points. However, empirical precisions also confirmed that the proposed procedure can ensure a submillimeter precision level. The algorithm can automatically detect grossly erroneous results to some extent. It can operate when the incidence angles of a laser beam are as high as 80°, which is desirable property if one is going to use planar targets as tie points in scan registration. The proposed algorithm will also contribute to improve TLS calibration procedures.

  4. Precision experiments with antihydrogen: an outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doser, Michael

    2011-01-01

    After a first generation of experiments has demonstrated the feasibility of forming - in a controlled manner - low-energy antihydrogen atoms via several different techniques, a second generation of experiments is now attempting to trap sufficiently cold atoms, or to form an atomic beam of antihydrogen atoms. The goal of these experiments is to carry out comparative precision spectroscopy between hydrogen and antihydrogen, in view of testing the CPT theorem, either through 1S-2S spectroscopy or via a measurement of the hyperfine splitting of the ground state of antihydrogen. A related class of experiments combines techniques from these experiments with recent developments in the formation of positronium to test the gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter. A significant number of challenges and limitations will still need to be overcome before precision measurements with antihydrogen become feasible, with the next significant milestones being either trapping of antihydrogen or the formation of a beam of antihydrogen.

  5. STANFORD (SLAC): Precision electroweak result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Precision testing of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model has intensified with the recent publication* of results from the SLD collaboration's 1993 run on the Stanford Linear Collider, SLC. Using a highly polarized electron beam colliding with an unpolarized positron beam, SLD physicists measured the left-right asymmetry at the Z boson resonance with dramatically improved accuracy over 1992

  6. Spin and precision electroweak physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, W.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-12-01

    A perspective on fundamental parameters and precision tests of the Standard Model is given. Weak neutral current reactions are discussed with emphasis on those processes involving (polarized) electrons. The role of electroweak radiative corrections in determining the top quark mass and probing for {open_quotes}new physics{close_quotes} is described.

  7. Spin and precision electroweak physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    A perspective on fundamental parameters and precision tests of the Standard Model is given. Weak neutral current reactions are discussed with emphasis on those processes involving (polarized) electrons. The role of electroweak radiative corrections in determining the top quark mass and probing for ''new physics'' is described

  8. Precision surveying system for PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.; Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.; Pellisier, P.F.

    1977-01-01

    A semi-automatic precision surveying system is being developed for PEP. Reference elevations for vertical alignment will be provided by a liquid level. The short range surveying will be accomplished using a Laser Surveying System featuring automatic data acquisition and analysis

  9. Precision medicine at the crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Maynard V

    2017-10-11

    There are bioethical, institutional, economic, legal, and cultural obstacles to creating the robust-precompetitive-data resource that will be required to advance the vision of "precision medicine," the ability to use molecular data to target therapies to patients for whom they offer the most benefit at the least risk. Creation of such an "information commons" was the central recommendation of the 2011 report Toward Precision Medicine issued by a committee of the National Research Council of the USA (Committee on a Framework for Development of a New Taxonomy of Disease; National Research Council. Toward precision medicine: building a knowledge network for biomedical research and a new taxonomy of disease. 2011). In this commentary, I review the rationale for creating an information commons and the obstacles to doing so; then, I endorse a path forward based on the dynamic consent of research subjects interacting with researchers through trusted mediators. I assert that the advantages of the proposed system overwhelm alternative ways of handling data on the phenotypes, genotypes, and environmental exposures of individual humans; hence, I argue that its creation should be the central policy objective of early efforts to make precision medicine a reality.

  10. Proton gyromagnetic precision measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Deming; Deming Zhu

    1991-01-01

    A computerized control and measurement system used in the proton gyromagnetic precision meausrement is descirbed. It adopts the CAMAC data acquisition equipment, using on-line control and analysis with the HP85 and PDP-11/60 computer systems. It also adopts the RSX11M computer operation system, and the control software is written in FORTRAN language

  11. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Ta|Co40Fe40B20|MgAl2O4 structures and perpendicular CoFeB|MgAl2O4|CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, B. S.

    2014-09-08

    Magnetic properties of Co40Fe40B20(CoFeB) thin films sandwiched between Ta and MgAl2O4layers have been systematically studied. For as-grown state, Ta/CoFeB/MgAl2O4structures exhibit good perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with interface anisotropy Ki=1.22erg/cm2, which further increases to 1.30erg/cm2after annealing, while MgAl2O4/CoFeB/Ta multilayer shows in-plane magnetic anisotropy and must be annealed in order to achieve PMA. For bottom CoFeB layer, the thickness window for PMA is from 0.6 to 1.0nm, while that for top CoFeB layer is between 0.8 and 1.4nm. Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) with a core structure of CoFeB/MgAl2O4/CoFeB have also been fabricated and tunneling magnetoresistance ratio of about 36% at room temperature and 63% at low temperature have been obtained. The intrinsic excitations in the p-MTJs have been identified by inelastic electron-tunneling spectroscopy.

  12. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Ta|Co40Fe40B20|MgAl2O4 structures and perpendicular CoFeB|MgAl2O4|CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, B. S.; Li, D. L.; Yuan, Z. H.; Liu, H. F.; Ali, S. S.; Feng, J. F.; Wei, H. X.; Han, X. F.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y. G.; Zhang, Q.; Guo, Zaibing; Zhang, Xixiang

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic properties of Co40Fe40B20(CoFeB) thin films sandwiched between Ta and MgAl2O4layers have been systematically studied. For as-grown state, Ta/CoFeB/MgAl2O4structures exhibit good perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) with interface anisotropy Ki=1.22erg/cm2, which further increases to 1.30erg/cm2after annealing, while MgAl2O4/CoFeB/Ta multilayer shows in-plane magnetic anisotropy and must be annealed in order to achieve PMA. For bottom CoFeB layer, the thickness window for PMA is from 0.6 to 1.0nm, while that for top CoFeB layer is between 0.8 and 1.4nm. Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) with a core structure of CoFeB/MgAl2O4/CoFeB have also been fabricated and tunneling magnetoresistance ratio of about 36% at room temperature and 63% at low temperature have been obtained. The intrinsic excitations in the p-MTJs have been identified by inelastic electron-tunneling spectroscopy.

  13. Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Doman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III

    2016-01-01

    The Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance (PL&HA) domain addresses the development, integration, testing, and spaceflight infusion of sensing, processing, and GN&C functions critical to the success and safety of future human and robotic exploration missions. PL&HA sensors also have applications to other mission events, such as rendezvous and docking. Autonomous PL&HA builds upon the core GN&C capabilities developed to enable soft, controlled landings on the Moon, Mars, and other solar system bodies. Through the addition of a Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) function, precision landing within tens of meters of a map-based target is possible. The addition of a 3-D terrain mapping lidar sensor improves the probability of a safe landing via autonomous, real-time Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA). PL&HA significantly improves the probability of mission success and enhances access to sites of scientific interest located in challenging terrain. PL&HA can also utilize external navigation aids, such as navigation satellites and surface beacons. Advanced Lidar Sensors High precision ranging, velocimetry, and 3-D terrain mapping Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) TRN compares onboard reconnaissance data with real-time terrain imaging data to update the S/C position estimate Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) Generates a high-resolution, 3-D terrain map in real-time during the approach trajectory to identify safe landing targets Inertial Navigation During Terminal Descent High precision surface relative sensors enable accurate inertial navigation during terminal descent and a tightly controlled touchdown within meters of the selected safe landing target.

  14. Precision and accuracy in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The required precision due to random errors in the delivery of fractionated dose regime is considered. It is argued that suggestions that 1-3% precision is needed may be unnecessarily conservative. It is further suggested that random and systematic errors should not be combined with equal weight to yield an overall target uncertainty in dose delivery, systematic errors being of greater significance. The authors conclude that imprecise dose delivery and inaccurate dose delivery affect patient-cure results differently. Whereas, for example, a 10% inaccuracy in dose delivery would be quite catastrophic in the case considered here, a corresponding imprecision would have a much smaller effect on overall success rates. (author). 14 refs.; 2 figs

  15. Precision electroweak physics at LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannelli, M.

    1994-12-01

    Copious event statistics, a precise understanding of the LEP energy scale, and a favorable experimental situation at the Z{sup 0} resonance have allowed the LEP experiments to provide both dramatic confirmation of the Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions and to place substantially improved constraints on the parameters of the model. The author concentrates on those measurements relevant to the electroweak sector. It will be seen that the precision of these measurements probes sensitively the structure of the Standard Model at the one-loop level, where the calculation of the observables measured at LEP is affected by the value chosen for the top quark mass. One finds that the LEP measurements are consistent with the Standard Model, but only if the mass of the top quark is measured to be within a restricted range of about 20 GeV.

  16. Environment-assisted precision measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, G.; Cappellaro, P.; Maze, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method to enhance the sensitivity of precision measurements that takes advantage of the environment of a quantum sensor to amplify the response of the sensor to weak external perturbations. An individual qubit is used to sense the dynamics of surrounding ancillary qubits, which...... are in turn affected by the external field to be measured. The resulting sensitivity enhancement is determined by the number of ancillas that are coupled strongly to the sensor qubit; it does not depend on the exact values of the coupling strengths and is resilient to many forms of decoherence. The method...... achieves nearly Heisenberg-limited precision measurement, using a novel class of entangled states. We discuss specific applications to improve clock sensitivity using trapped ions and magnetic sensing based on electronic spins in diamond...

  17. Precise object tracking under deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H

    2010-01-01

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This frame-work focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling , rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results.

  18. Fit to Electroweak Precision Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erler, Jens

    2006-01-01

    A brief review of electroweak precision data from LEP, SLC, the Tevatron, and low energies is presented. The global fit to all data including the most recent results on the masses of the top quark and the W boson reinforces the preference for a relatively light Higgs boson. I will also give an outlook on future developments at the Tevatron Run II, CEBAF, the LHC, and the ILC

  19. Precise Object Tracking under Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    The precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high precession results. xiiiThe precise object tracking is an essential issue in several serious applications such as; robot vision, automated surveillance (civil and military), inspection, biomedical image analysis, video coding, motion segmentation, human-machine interface, visualization, medical imaging, traffic systems, satellite imaging etc. This framework focuses on the precise object tracking under deformation such as scaling, rotation, noise, blurring and change of illumination. This research is a trail to solve these serious problems in visual object tracking by which the quality of the overall system will be improved. Developing a three dimensional (3D) geometrical model to determine the current pose of an object and predict its future location based on FIR model learned by the OLS. This framework presents a robust ranging technique to track a visual target instead of the traditional expensive ranging sensors. The presented research work is applied to real video stream and achieved high

  20. Precision measurements of electroweak parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Savin, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    A set of selected precise measurements of the SM parameters from the LHC experiments is discussed. Results on W-mass measurement and forward-backward asymmetry in production of the Drell--Yan events in both dielectron and dimuon decay channels are presented together with results on the effective mixing angle measurements. Electroweak production of the vector bosons in association with two jets is discussed.

  1. Precision titration mini-calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensor, D.; Kullberg, L.; Choppin, G.

    1977-01-01

    The design and test of a small volume calorimeter of high precision and simple design is described. The calorimeter operates with solution sample volumes in the range of 3 to 5 ml. The results of experiments on the entropy changes for two standard reactions: (1) reaction of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane with hydrochloric acid and (2) reaction between mercury(II) and bromide ions are reported to confirm the accuracy and overall performance of the calorimeter

  2. Knowledge of Precision Farming Beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Greena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Precision Farming is one of the many advanced farming practices that make production more efficient by better resource management and reducing wastage. TN-IAMWARM is a world bank funded project aims to improve the farm productivity and income through better water management. The present study was carried out in Kambainallur sub basin of Dharmapuri district with 120 TN-IAMWARM beneficiaries as respondents. The result indicated that more than three fourth (76.67 % of the respondents had high level of knowledge on precision farming technologies which was made possible by the implementation of TN-IAMWARM project. The study further revealed that educational status, occupational status and exposure to agricultural messages had a positive and significant contribution to the knowledge level of the respondents at 0.01 level of probability whereas experience in precision farming and social participation had a positive and significant contribution at 0.05 level of probability.

  3. Millisecond Pulsar Timing Precision with NICER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneva, Julia; Ray, Paul S.; Ransom, Scott; Wood, Kent S.; Kerr, Matthew T.; Lommen, Andrea; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Black, Kevin; Gendreau, Keith C.; Lewandowska, Natalia; Markwardt, Craig B.; Price, Samuel; Winternitz, Luke

    2018-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is an array of 56 X-ray detectors mounted on the outside of the International Space Station. It allows high-precision timing of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) without the pulse broadening effects due to dispersion and scattering by the interstellar medium that plague radio timing. We present initial timing results from four months of NICER data on the MSPs B1937+21, B1821-24, and J0218+4232, and compare them to simulations and theoretical models for X-ray times-of-arrival, and radio observations.

  4. Autocalibration of high precision drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacci, C.; Bini, C.; Ciapetti, G.; De Zorzi, G.; Gauzzi, P.; Lacava, F.; Nisati, A.; Pontecorvo, L.; Rosati, S.; Veneziano, S.; Cambiaghi, M.; Casellotti, G.; Conta, C.; Fraternali, M.; Lanza, A.; Livan, M.; Polesello, G.; Rimoldi, A.; Vercesi, V.

    1997-01-01

    We present the results on MDT (monitored drift tubes) autocalibration studies obtained from the analysis of the data collected in Summer 1995 on the H8B Muon Test Beam. In particular we studied the possibility of autocalibration of the MDT using four or three layers of tubes, and we compared the calibration obtained using a precise external tracker with the output of the autocalibration procedure. Results show the feasibility of autocalibration with four and three tubes and the good accuracy of the autocalibration procedure. (orig.)

  5. The precision of locomotor odometry in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgin, Frank H; Akagi, Mikio; Gallistel, Charles R; Haiken, Woody

    2009-03-01

    Two experiments measured the human ability to reproduce locomotor distances of 4.6-100 m without visual feedback and compared distance production with time production. Subjects were not permitted to count steps. It was found that the precision of human odometry follows Weber's law that variability is proportional to distance. The coefficients of variation for distance production were much lower than those measured for time production for similar durations. Gait parameters recorded during the task (average step length and step frequency) were found to be even less variable suggesting that step integration could be the basis for non-visual human odometry.

  6. Recent high precision surveys at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, R.C.

    1980-12-01

    The task of surveying and aligning the components of PEP has provided an opportunity to develop new instruments and techniques for the purpose of high precision surveys. The new instruments are quick and easy to use, and they automatically encode survey data and read them into the memory of an on-line computer. When measurements of several beam elements have been taken, the on-line computer analyzes the measured data, compares them with desired parameters, and calculates the required adjustments to beam element support stands

  7. Behavior of methyl orange and orange 10 (orange G) in the presence of hydrotalcite type compounds of Mg/Al and Mg/Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz N, G.

    2015-01-01

    This work is focused on studying the sorption capacity of methyl orange dye (Nm) and orange 10 (N-10) in the presence of hydrotalcite type compounds of Mg/Al and Mg/Fe uncalcined and calcined previously at 500 degrees Celsius. Sorption isotherms were determined and the study of the kinetics of sorption was performed. The materials were characterized before and after sorption processes of these dyes by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, the specific surface area determination by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, thermogravimetry coupled to mass and infrared spectrometry. The hydrotalcite type compounds reported in this paper were prepared in the laboratory and their acronyms are: HTMgAlG1, HTMgAlMO, HTMgFeG1 and HTMgFeG2. Note that in this work the best conditions for preparing compounds of Mg/Fe were found. From patterns of X-ray diffraction was identified the typical crystal structure of the hydrotalcite type compounds. By scanning electron microscopy the morphology could be determined in the form of flakes characteristics of these compounds. Likewise with elemental analysis of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy the presence of Mg, Al, Fe and C, elements of interest for this study was determined. The compounds presented a specific surface area relatively high from 80 to 120 m 2 /g. Thermogravimetry results presented spectra of mass loss very characteristic associated to water losses, dehydroxylation and decarboxylation. The characteristic bands of water and carbonate were assigned by infrared spectroscopy and the bands corresponding to the dyes sulfonates were identified only for the calcined materials. The sorption capacities found of these compounds were as follows: for Nm in the compound HTMgAlG1 uncalcined was 17.82 mg/g for an initial concentration of 200 mg/L and for calcined (HTMgAlMOcal) of 99.8 mg/g with and initial concentration of 1000 mg/L. Moreover, the sorption capacity of the dye N-10 in this same material was 17.92 mg/g and 99.4 mg

  8. QCD corrections, virtual heavy quark effects and electroweak precision measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Kuehn, J.H.; Stuart, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    QCD corrections to virtual heavy quark effects on electroweak parameters are calculated, which may affect planned precision measurements at SLC and LEP. The influence of toponium and T b resonances is incorporated as well as the proper threshold behaviour of the imaginary part of the vacuum polarization function. The shift of the W-boson mass from these corrections and their influence on the polarization asymmetry are calculated and compared to the envisaged experimental precision. (orig.)

  9. Constraining supersymmetry with precision data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, D.M.; Erler, J.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the results of a global fit to precision data in supersymmetric models. We consider both gravity- and gauge-mediated models. As the superpartner spectrum becomes light, the global fit to the data typically results in larger values of χ 2 . We indicate the regions of parameter space which are excluded by the data. We discuss the additional effect of the B(B→X s γ) measurement. Our analysis excludes chargino masses below M Z in the simplest gauge-mediated model with μ>0, with stronger constraints for larger values of tanβ. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  10. High precision Standard Model Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, J.

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of the LHCb experiment, one of the four large experiments of the Large Hadron Collider, is to try to give answers to the question of why Nature prefers matter over antimatter? This will be done by studying the decay of b quarks and their antimatter partners, b-bar, which will be produced by billions in 14 TeV p-p collisions by the LHC. In addition, as 'beauty' particles mainly decay in charm particles, an interesting program of charm physics will be carried on, allowing to measure quantities as for instance the D 0 -D-bar 0 mixing, with incredible precision.

  11. Electroweak precision measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Dordevic, Milos

    2017-01-01

    An overview of recent results on electroweak precision measurements from the CMS Collaboration is presented. Studies of the weak boson differential transverse momentum spectra, Z boson angular coefficients, forward-backward asymmetry of Drell-Yan lepton pairs and charge asymmetry of W boson production are made in comparison to the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo generators and theoretical predictions. The results show a good agreement with the Standard Model. As a proof of principle for future W mass measurements, a W-like analysis of the Z boson mass is performed.

  12. Precision proton spectrometers for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We plan to add high precision tracking- and timing-detectors at z = +/- 240 m to CMS to study exclusive processes p + p -- p + X + p at high luminosity. This enables the LHC to be used as a tagged photon-photon collider, with X = l+l- and W+W-, and as a "tagged" gluon-gluon collider (with a spectator gluon) for QCD studies with jets. A second stage at z = 240 m would allow observations of exclusive Higgs boson production.

  13. Precise Analysis of String Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Aske Simon; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2003-01-01

    We perform static analysis of Java programs to answer a simple question: which values may occur as results of string expressions? The answers are summarized for each expression by a regular language that is guaranteed to contain all possible values. We present several applications of this analysis...... are automatically produced. We present extensive benchmarks demonstrating that the analysis is efficient and produces results of useful precision......., including statically checking the syntax of dynamically generated expressions, such as SQL queries. Our analysis constructs flow graphs from class files and generates a context-free grammar with a nonterminal for each string expression. The language of this grammar is then widened into a regular language...

  14. The Many Faces of Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy eClark

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An appreciation of the many roles of ‘precision-weighting’ (upping the gain on select populations of prediction error units opens the door to better accounts of planning and ‘offline simulation’, makes suggestive contact with large bodies of work on embodied and situated cognition, and offers new perspectives on the ‘active brain’. Combined with the complex affordances of language and culture, and operating against the essential backdrop of a variety of more biologically basic ploys and stratagems, the result is a maximally context-sensitive, restless, constantly self-reconfiguring architecture.

  15. Thin films for precision optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J.F.; Maurici, N.; Castro, J.C. de

    1983-01-01

    The technology of producing dielectric and/or metallic thin films for high precision optical components is discussed. Computer programs were developed in order to calculate and register, graphically, reflectance and transmittance spectra of multi-layer films. The technology of vacuum evaporation of several materials was implemented in our thin-films laboratory; various films for optics were then developed. The possibility of first calculate film characteristics and then produce the film is of great advantage since it reduces the time required to produce a new type of film and also reduces the cost of the project. (C.L.B.) [pt

  16. Glass ceramic ZERODUR enabling nanometer precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Nieder, Johannes; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The IC Lithography roadmap foresees manufacturing of devices with critical dimension of digit nanometer asking for nanometer positioning accuracy requiring sub nanometer position measurement accuracy. The glass ceramic ZERODUR® is a well-established material in critical components of microlithography wafer stepper and offered with an extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), the tightest tolerance available on market. SCHOTT is continuously improving manufacturing processes and it's method to measure and characterize the CTE behavior of ZERODUR® to full fill the ever tighter CTE specification for wafer stepper components. In this paper we present the ZERODUR® Lithography Roadmap on the CTE metrology and tolerance. Additionally, simulation calculations based on a physical model are presented predicting the long term CTE behavior of ZERODUR® components to optimize dimensional stability of precision positioning devices. CTE data of several low thermal expansion materials are compared regarding their temperature dependence between - 50°C and + 100°C. ZERODUR® TAILORED 22°C is full filling the tight CTE tolerance of +/- 10 ppb / K within the broadest temperature interval compared to all other materials of this investigation. The data presented in this paper explicitly demonstrates the capability of ZERODUR® to enable the nanometer precision required for future generation of lithography equipment and processes.

  17. Precise Point Positioning with Partial Ambiguity Fixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-06-10

    Reliable and rapid ambiguity resolution (AR) is the key to fast precise point positioning (PPP). We propose a modified partial ambiguity resolution (PAR) method, in which an elevation and standard deviation criterion are first used to remove the low-precision ambiguity estimates for AR. Subsequently the success rate and ratio-test are simultaneously used in an iterative process to increase the possibility of finding a subset of decorrelated ambiguities which can be fixed with high confidence. One can apply the proposed PAR method to try to achieve an ambiguity-fixed solution when full ambiguity resolution (FAR) fails. We validate this method using data from 450 stations during DOY 021 to 027, 2012. Results demonstrate the proposed PAR method can significantly shorten the time to first fix (TTFF) and increase the fixing rate. Compared with FAR, the average TTFF for PAR is reduced by 14.9% for static PPP and 15.1% for kinematic PPP. Besides, using the PAR method, the average fixing rate can be increased from 83.5% to 98.2% for static PPP, from 80.1% to 95.2% for kinematic PPP respectively. Kinematic PPP accuracy with PAR can also be significantly improved, compared to that with FAR, due to a higher fixing rate.

  18. Precision luminosity measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-12-05

    Measuring cross-sections at the LHC requires the luminosity to be determined accurately at each centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$. In this paper results are reported from the luminosity calibrations carried out at the LHC interaction point 8 with the LHCb detector for $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV (proton-proton collisions) and for $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5 TeV (proton-lead collisions). Both the "van der Meer scan" and "beam-gas imaging" luminosity calibration methods were employed. It is observed that the beam density profile cannot always be described by a function that is factorizable in the two transverse coordinates. The introduction of a two-dimensional description of the beams improves significantly the consistency of the results. For proton-proton interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV a relative precision of the luminosity calibration of 1.47% is obtained using van der Meer scans and 1.43% using beam-gas imaging, resulting in a combined precision of 1.12%. Applying the calibration to the full data set determin...

  19. Laser precision microfabrication in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Isamu; Ooie, Toshihiko; Takeno, Shozui

    2000-11-01

    Electronic devices such as handy phones and micro computers have been rapidly expanding their market recent years due to their enhanced performance, down sizing and cost down. This has been realized by the innovation in the precision micro- fabrication technology of semiconductors and printed wiring circuit boards (PWB) where laser technologies such as lithography, drilling, trimming, welding and soldering play an important role. In phot lithography, for instance, KrF excimer lasers having a resolution of 0.18 micrometers has been used in production instead of mercury lamp. Laser drilling of PWB has been increased up to over 1000 holes per second, and approximately 800 laser drilling systems of PWB are expected to be delivered in the world market this year, and most of these laser processing systems are manufactured in Japan. Trend of laser micro-fabrication in Japanese industry is described along with recent topics of R&D, government supported project and future tasks of industrial laser precision micro-fabrication on the basis of the survey conducted by Japan laser Processing Society.

  20. Laser fusion and precision engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Sadao

    1989-01-01

    The development of laser nuclear fusion energy for attaining the self supply of energy in Japan and establishing the future perspective as the nation is based in the wide fields of high level science and technology. Therefore to its promotion, large expectation is placed as the powerful traction for the development of creative science and technology which are particularly necessary in Japan. The research on laser nuclear fusion advances steadily in the elucidation of the physics of pellet implosion which is its basic concept and compressed plasma parameters. In September, 1986, the number of neutron generation 10 13 , and in October, 1988, the high density compression 600 times as high as solid density have been achieved. Based on these results, now the laser nuclear fusion is in the situation to begin the attainment of ignition condition for nuclear fusion and the realization of break even. The optical components, high power laser technology, fuel pellet production, high resolution measurement, the simulation of implosion using a supercomputer and so on are closely related to precision engineering. In this report, the mechanism of laser nuclear fusion, the present status of its research, and the basic technologies and precision engineering are described. (K.I.)

  1. Photoluminescence of the Mg2Al4Si5O18-Al2O3-MgAl2O4-SiO2 ceramic system containing Fe3+ and Cr3+ as impurity ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosman, L. P.; López, A.; Pedro, S. S.; Papa, A. R. R.

    2018-02-01

    This work presents the results of photoluminescence, excitation and radiative decay time for a ceramic system containing Mg2Al4Si5O18-Al2O3-MgAl2O4-SiO2 with Fe3+ and Cr3+ as impurity ions. Emission data were obtained using several excitation wavelengths and the excitation data were acquired for the most intense emission bands. The optical results were analyzed according to the Tanabe-Sugano (TS) theory from which the crystalline field parameter Dq and Racah parameters B and C were obtained for the Fe3+ and Cr3+ sites. The results indicate that the Fe3+ and Cr3+ ions occupy tetrahedral and octahedral sites, respectively. The emission from Fe3+ and Cr3+ ions causes an intense and broad band ranging between 350 nm and 850 nm, showing that this material is a potential tunable radiation source at room temperature.

  2. Low Cost Precision Lander for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. N.; Gardner, T. G.; Hoppa, G. V.; Seybold, K. G.

    2004-12-01

    For 60 years the US Defense Department has invested heavily in producing small, low mass, precision guided vehicles. The technologies matured under these programs include terrain-aided navigation, closed loop terminal guidance algorithms, robust autopilots, high thrust-to-weight propulsion, autonomous mission management software, sensors, and data fusion. These technologies will aid NASA in addressing New Millennium Science and Technology goals as well as the requirements flowing from the Vision articulated in January 2004. Establishing and resupplying a long term lunar presence will require automated landing precision not yet demonstrated. Precision landing will increase safety and assure mission success. In the DOD world, such technologies are used routinely and reliably. Hence, it is timely to generate a point design for a precise planetary lander useful for lunar exploration. In this design science instruments amount to 10 kg, 16% of the lander vehicle mass. This compares favorably with 7% for Mars Pathfinder and less than 15% for Surveyor. The mission design flies the lander in an inert configuration to the moon, relying on a cruise stage for navigation and TCMs. The lander activates about a minute before impact. A solid booster reduces the vehicle speed to 300-450 m/s. The lander is now about 2 minutes from touchdown and has 600 to 700 m/s delta-v capability, allowing for about 10 km of vehicle divert during terminal descent. This concept of operations is chosen because it closely mimics missile operational timelines used for decades: the vehicle remains inert in a challenging environment, then must execute its mission flawlessly on a moment's notice. The vehicle design consists of a re-plumbed propulsion system, using propellant tanks and thrusters from exoatmospheric programs. A redesigned truss provides hard points for landing gear, electronics, power supply, and science instruments. A radar altimeter and a Digital Scene Matching Area Correlator (DSMAC

  3. Precision pharmacology for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Harald; Vergallo, Andrea; Aguilar, Lisi Flores; Benda, Norbert; Broich, Karl; Cuello, A Claudio; Cummings, Jeffrey; Dubois, Bruno; Federoff, Howard J; Fiandaca, Massimo; Genthon, Remy; Haberkamp, Marion; Karran, Eric; Mapstone, Mark; Perry, George; Schneider, Lon S; Welikovitch, Lindsay A; Woodcock, Janet; Baldacci, Filippo; Lista, Simone

    2018-04-01

    The complex multifactorial nature of polygenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) presents significant challenges for drug development. AD pathophysiology is progressing in a non-linear dynamic fashion across multiple systems levels - from molecules to organ systems - and through adaptation, to compensation, and decompensation to systems failure. Adaptation and compensation maintain homeostasis: a dynamic equilibrium resulting from the dynamic non-linear interaction between genome, epigenome, and environment. An individual vulnerability to stressors exists on the basis of individual triggers, drivers, and thresholds accounting for the initiation and failure of adaptive and compensatory responses. Consequently, the distinct pattern of AD pathophysiology in space and time must be investigated on the basis of the individual biological makeup. This requires the implementation of systems biology and neurophysiology to facilitate Precision Medicine (PM) and Precision Pharmacology (PP). The regulation of several processes at multiple levels of complexity from gene expression to cellular cycle to tissue repair and system-wide network activation has different time delays (temporal scale) according to the affected systems (spatial scale). The initial failure might originate and occur at every level potentially affecting the whole dynamic interrelated systems within an organism. Unraveling the spatial and temporal dynamics of non-linear pathophysiological mechanisms across the continuum of hierarchical self-organized systems levels and from systems homeostasis to systems failure is key to understand AD. Measuring and, possibly, controlling space- and time-scaled adaptive and compensatory responses occurring during AD will represent a crucial step to achieve the capacity to substantially modify the disease course and progression at the best suitable timepoints, thus counteracting disrupting critical pathophysiological inputs. This approach will provide the conceptual basis for effective

  4. Precision cosmology and the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael

    2006-01-01

    After reviewing the cosmological constant problem--why is Lambda not huge?--I outline the two basic approaches that had emerged by the late 1980s, and note that each made a clear prediction. Precision cosmological experiments now indicate that the cosmological constant is nonzero. This result strongly favors the environmental approach, in which vacuum energy can vary discretely among widely separated regions in the universe. The need to explain this variation from first principles constitutes an observational constraint on fundamental theory. I review arguments that string theory satisfies this constraint, as it contains a dense discretuum of metastable vacua. The enormous landscape of vacua calls for novel, statistical methods of deriving predictions, and it prompts us to reexamine our description of spacetime on the largest scales. I discuss the effects of cosmological dynamics, and I speculate that weighting vacua by their entropy production may allow for prior-free predictions that do not resort to explicitly anthropic arguments

  5. GPS Precision Timing at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Beetham, C G

    1999-01-01

    For the past decade, the Global Positioning System (GPS) has been used to provide precise time, frequency and position co-ordinates world-wide. Recently, equipment has become available specialising in providing extremely accurate timing information, referenced to Universal Time Co-ordinates (UTC). This feature has been used at CERN to provide time of day information for systems that have been installed in the Proton Synchrotron (PS), Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the Large Electron Positron (LEP) machines. The different systems are described as well as the planned developments, particularly with respect to optical transmission and the Inter-Range Instrumentation Group IRIG-B standard, for future use in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  6. French Meteor Network for High Precision Orbits of Meteoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, P.; Vaubaillon, J.; Colas, F.; Bouley, S.; Gaillard, B.; Sauli, I.; Kwon, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of precise meteoroids orbit from video observations as most of the meteor stations use off-the-shelf CCD cameras. Few meteoroids orbit with precise semi-major axis are available using film photographic method. Precise orbits are necessary to compute the dust flux in the Earth s vicinity, and to estimate the ejection time of the meteoroids accurately by comparing them with the theoretical evolution model. We investigate the use of large CCD sensors to observe multi-station meteors and to compute precise orbit of these meteoroids. An ideal spatial and temporal resolution to get an accuracy to those similar of photographic plates are discussed. Various problems faced due to the use of large CCD, such as increasing the spatial and the temporal resolution at the same time and computational problems in finding the meteor position are illustrated.

  7. The PPP Precision Analysis Based on BDS Regional Navigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Yongxing

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BeiDou navigation satellite system(BDS has opened service in most of the Asia-Pacific region, it offers the possibility to break the technological monopoly of GPS in the field of high-precision applications, so its performance of precise point positioning (PPP has been a great concern. Firstly, the constellation of BeiDou regional navigation system and BDS/GPS tracking network is introduced. Secondly, the precise ephemeris and clock offset accuracy of BeiDou satellite based on domestic tracking network is analyzed. Finally, the static and kinematic PPP accuracy is studied, and compared with the GPS. The actual measured numerical example shows that the static and kinematic PPP based on BDS can achieve centimeter-level and decimeter-level respectively, reaching the current level of GPS precise point positioning.

  8. Precision and reproducibility in AMS radiocarbon measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkis, M A; Fink, D; Hua, Q; Jacobsen, G E; Lawson, E M; Smith, A M; Tuniz, C [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is a technique by which rare radioisotopes such as {sup 14}C can be measured at environmental levels with high efficiency. Instead of detecting radioactivity, which is very weak for long-lived environmental radioisotopes, atoms are counted directly. The sample is placed in an ion source, from which a negative ion beam of the atoms of interest is extracted, mass analysed, and injected into a tandem accelerator. After stripping to positive charge states in the accelerator HV terminal, the ions are further accelerated, analysed with magnetic and electrostatic devices and counted in a detector. An isotopic ratio is derived from the number of radioisotope atoms counted in a given time and the beam current of a stable isotope of the same element, measured after the accelerator. For radiocarbon, {sup 14}C/{sup 13}C ratios are usually measured, and the ratio of an unknown sample is compared to that of a standard. The achievable precision for such ratio measurements is limited primarily by {sup 14}C counting statistics and also by a variety of factors related to accelerator and ion source stability. At the ANTARES AMS facility at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories we are currently able to measure {sup 14}C with 0.5% precision. In the two years since becoming operational, more than 1000 {sup 14}C samples have been measured. Recent improvements in precision for {sup 14}C have been achieved with the commissioning of a 59 sample ion source. The measurement system, from sample changing to data acquisition, is under common computer control. These developments have allowed a new regime of automated multi-sample processing which has impacted both on the system throughput and the measurement precision. We have developed data evaluation methods at ANTARES which cross-check the self-consistency of the statistical analysis of our data. Rigorous data evaluation is invaluable in assessing the true reproducibility of the measurement system and aids in

  9. Precision and reproducibility in AMS radiocarbon measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkis, M.A.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.E.; Lawson, E. M.; Smith, A.M.; Tuniz, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is a technique by which rare radioisotopes such as {sup 14}C can be measured at environmental levels with high efficiency. Instead of detecting radioactivity, which is very weak for long-lived environmental radioisotopes, atoms are counted directly. The sample is placed in an ion source, from which a negative ion beam of the atoms of interest is extracted, mass analysed, and injected into a tandem accelerator. After stripping to positive charge states in the accelerator HV terminal, the ions are further accelerated, analysed with magnetic and electrostatic devices and counted in a detector. An isotopic ratio is derived from the number of radioisotope atoms counted in a given time and the beam current of a stable isotope of the same element, measured after the accelerator. For radiocarbon, {sup 14}C/{sup 13}C ratios are usually measured, and the ratio of an unknown sample is compared to that of a standard. The achievable precision for such ratio measurements is limited primarily by {sup 14}C counting statistics and also by a variety of factors related to accelerator and ion source stability. At the ANTARES AMS facility at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories we are currently able to measure {sup 14}C with 0.5% precision. In the two years since becoming operational, more than 1000 {sup 14}C samples have been measured. Recent improvements in precision for {sup 14}C have been achieved with the commissioning of a 59 sample ion source. The measurement system, from sample changing to data acquisition, is under common computer control. These developments have allowed a new regime of automated multi-sample processing which has impacted both on the system throughput and the measurement precision. We have developed data evaluation methods at ANTARES which cross-check the self-consistency of the statistical analysis of our data. Rigorous data evaluation is invaluable in assessing the true reproducibility of the measurement system and aids in

  10. Ultra-wideband ranging precision and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGougan, Glenn; O'Keefe, Kyle; Klukas, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of ultra-wideband (UWB) in the context of ranging applications and assesses the precision and accuracy of UWB ranging from both a theoretical perspective and a practical perspective using real data. The paper begins with a brief history of UWB technology and the most current definition of what constitutes an UWB signal. The potential precision of UWB ranging is assessed using Cramer–Rao lower bound analysis. UWB ranging methods are described and potential error sources are discussed. Two types of commercially available UWB ranging radios are introduced which are used in testing. Actual ranging accuracy is assessed from line-of-sight testing under benign signal conditions by comparison to high-accuracy electronic distance measurements and to ranges derived from GPS real-time kinematic positioning. Range measurements obtained in outdoor testing with line-of-sight obstructions and strong reflection sources are compared to ranges derived from classically surveyed positions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the potential applications for UWB ranging

  11. The precise temporal calibration of dinosaur origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsicano, Claudia A; Irmis, Randall B; Mancuso, Adriana C; Mundil, Roland; Chemale, Farid

    2016-01-19

    Dinosaurs have been major components of ecosystems for over 200 million years. Although different macroevolutionary scenarios exist to explain the Triassic origin and subsequent rise to dominance of dinosaurs and their closest relatives (dinosauromorphs), all lack critical support from a precise biostratigraphically independent temporal framework. The absence of robust geochronologic age control for comparing alternative scenarios makes it impossible to determine if observed faunal differences vary across time, space, or a combination of both. To better constrain the origin of dinosaurs, we produced radioisotopic ages for the Argentinian Chañares Formation, which preserves a quintessential assemblage of dinosaurian precursors (early dinosauromorphs) just before the first dinosaurs. Our new high-precision chemical abrasion thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-TIMS) U-Pb zircon ages reveal that the assemblage is early Carnian (early Late Triassic), 5- to 10-Ma younger than previously thought. Combined with other geochronologic data from the same basin, we constrain the rate of dinosaur origins, demonstrating their relatively rapid origin in a less than 5-Ma interval, thus halving the temporal gap between assemblages containing only dinosaur precursors and those with early dinosaurs. After their origin, dinosaurs only gradually dominated mid- to high-latitude terrestrial ecosystems millions of years later, closer to the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

  12. Multineuronal Spike Sequences Repeat with Millisecond Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki eMatsumoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cortical microcircuits are nonrandomly wired by neurons. As a natural consequence, spikes emitted by microcircuits are also nonrandomly patterned in time and space. One of the prominent spike organizations is a repetition of fixed patterns of spike series across multiple neurons. However, several questions remain unsolved, including how precisely spike sequences repeat, how the sequences are spatially organized, how many neurons participate in sequences, and how different sequences are functionally linked. To address these questions, we monitored spontaneous spikes of hippocampal CA3 neurons ex vivo using a high-speed functional multineuron calcium imaging technique that allowed us to monitor spikes with millisecond resolution and to record the location of spiking and nonspiking neurons. Multineuronal spike sequences were overrepresented in spontaneous activity compared to the statistical chance level. Approximately 75% of neurons participated in at least one sequence during our observation period. The participants were sparsely dispersed and did not show specific spatial organization. The number of sequences relative to the chance level decreased when larger time frames were used to detect sequences. Thus, sequences were precise at the millisecond level. Sequences often shared common spikes with other sequences; parts of sequences were subsequently relayed by following sequences, generating complex chains of multiple sequences.

  13. Development of sensor guided precision sprayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.; Zande, van de J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Sensor guided precision sprayers were developed to automate the spray process with a focus on emission reduction and identical or increased efficacy, with the precision agriculture concept in mind. Within the project “Innovations2” sensor guided precision sprayers were introduced to leek,

  14. Precision production: enabling deterministic throughput for precision aspheres with MRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Chris; Entezarian, Navid; Dumas, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Aspherical lenses offer advantages over spherical optics by improving image quality or reducing the number of elements necessary in an optical system. Aspheres are no longer being used exclusively by high-end optical systems but are now replacing spherical optics in many applications. The need for a method of production-manufacturing of precision aspheres has emerged and is part of the reason that the optics industry is shifting away from artisan-based techniques towards more deterministic methods. Not only does Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) empower deterministic figure correction for the most demanding aspheres but it also enables deterministic and efficient throughput for series production of aspheres. The Q-flex MRF platform is designed to support batch production in a simple and user friendly manner. Thorlabs routinely utilizes the advancements of this platform and has provided results from using MRF to finish a batch of aspheres as a case study. We have developed an analysis notebook to evaluate necessary specifications for implementing quality control metrics. MRF brings confidence to optical manufacturing by ensuring high throughput for batch processing of aspheres.

  15. Precision measurements with atom interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christian; Abend, Sven; Schlippert, Dennis; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2017-04-01

    Interferometry with matter waves enables precise measurements of rotations, accelerations, and differential accelerations [1-5]. This is exploited for determining fundamental constants [2], in fundamental science as e.g. testing the universality of free fall [3], and is applied for gravimetry [4], and gravity gradiometry [2,5]. At the Institut für Quantenoptik in Hannover, different approaches are pursued. A large scale device is designed and currently being set up to investigate the gain in precision for gravimetry, gradiometry, and fundamental tests on large baselines [6]. For field applications, a compact and transportable device is being developed. Its key feature is an atom chip source providing a collimated high flux of atoms which is expected to mitigate systematic uncertainties [7,8]. The atom chip technology and miniaturization benefits from microgravity experiments in the drop tower in Bremen and sounding rocket experiments [8,9] which act as pathfinders for space borne operation [10]. This contribution will report about our recent results. The presented work is supported by the CRC 1227 DQ-mat, the CRC 1128 geo-Q, the RTG 1729, the QUEST-LFS, and by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under Grant No. DLR 50WM1552-1557. [1] P. Berg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 114, 063002, 2015; I. Dutta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 116, 183003, 2016. [2] J. B. Fixler et al., Science 315, 74 (2007); G. Rosi et al., Nature 510, 518, 2014. [3] D. Schlippert et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 112, 203002, 2014. [4] A. Peters et al., Nature 400, 849, 1999; A. Louchet-Chauvet et al., New J. Phys. 13, 065026, 2011; C. Freier et al., J. of Phys.: Conf. Series 723, 012050, 2016. [5] J. M. McGuirk et al., Phys. Rev. A 65, 033608, 2002; P. Asenbaum et al., arXiv:1610.03832. [6] J. Hartwig et al., New J. Phys. 17, 035011, 2015. [7] H. Ahlers et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 173601

  16. Digitalization of highly precise fluxgate magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerman, Ales; Kuna, A.; Ripka, P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the theory behind all three known ways of digitalizing the fluxgate magnetometers: analogue magnetometers with digitalized output using high resolution ADC, application of the delta-sigma modulation to the sensor feedback loop and fully digital signal detection. At present time...... the Delta-Sigma ADCs are mostly used for the digitalization of the highly precise fluxgate magnetorneters. The relevant part of the paper demonstrates some pitfalls of their application studied during the design of the magnetometer for the new Czech scientific satellite MIMOSA. The part discussing...... the application of the A-E modulation to the sensor feedback loop theoretically derives the main advantage of this method-increasing of the modulation order and shows its real potential compared to the analog magnetometer with consequential digitalization. The comparison is realized on the modular magnetometer...

  17. Precision is in their nature

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    There are more than 100 of them in the LHC ring and they have a total of about 400 degrees of freedom. Each one has 4 motors and the newest ones have their own beam-monitoring pickups. Their jaws constrain the relativistic, high-energy particles to a very small transverse area and protect the machine aperture. We are speaking about the LHC collimators, those ultra-precise instruments that leave escaping unstable particles no chance.   The internal structure of a new LHC collimator featuring (see red arrow) one of the beam position monitor's pickups. Designed at CERN but mostly produced by very specialised manufacturers in Europe, the LHC collimators are among the most complex elements of the accelerator. Their job is to control and safely dispose of the halo particles that are produced by unavoidable beam losses from the circulating beam core. “The LHC collimation system has been designed to ensure that beam losses in superconducting magnets remain below quench limits in al...

  18. The Age of Precision Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, our understanding of the evolution and fate of the universe has increased dramatically. This "Age of Precision Cosmology" has been ushered in by measurements that have both elucidated the details of the Big Bang cosmology and set the direction for future lines of inquiry. Our universe appears to consist of 5% baryonic matter; 23% of the universe's energy content is dark matter which is responsible for the observed structure in the universe; and 72% of the energy density is so-called "dark energy" that is currently accelerating the expansion of the universe. In addition, our universe has been measured to be geometrically flat to 1 %. These observations and related details of the Big Bang paradigm have hinted that the universe underwent an epoch of accelerated expansion known as Uinflation" early in its history. In this talk, I will review the highlights of modern cosmology, focusing on the contributions made by measurements of the cosmic microwave background, the faint afterglow of the Big Bang. I will also describe new instruments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to search for evidence of cosmic inflation.

  19. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.K.D.

    1998-01-01

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs

  20. Studying antimatter with laser precision

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of antihydrogen trapping devices, ALPHA-2, is moving into CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (AD) hall. This brand-new experiment will allow the ALPHA collaboration to conduct studies of antimatter with greater precision. ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst was recently awarded a grant by the Carlsberg Foundation, which will be used to purchase equipment for the new experiment.   A 3-D view of the new magnet (in blue) and cryostat. The red lines show the paths of laser beams. LHC-type current leads for the superconducting magnets are visible on the top-right of the image. The ALPHA collaboration has been working to trap and study antihydrogen since 2006. Using antiprotons provided by CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (AD), ALPHA was the first experiment to trap antihydrogen and to hold it long enough to study its properties. “The new ALPHA-2 experiment will use integrated lasers to probe the trapped antihydrogen,” explains Jeffrey Hangst, ALP...

  1. Validating precision--how many measurements do we need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ÅSberg, Arne; Solem, Kristine Bodal; Mikkelsen, Gustav

    2015-10-01

    A quantitative analytical method should be sufficiently precise, i.e. the imprecision measured as a standard deviation should be less than the numerical definition of the acceptable standard deviation. We propose that the entire 90% confidence interval for the true standard deviation shall lie below the numerical definition of the acceptable standard deviation in order to assure that the analytical method is sufficiently precise. We also present power function curves to ease the decision on the number of measurements to make. Computer simulation was used to calculate the probability that the upper limit of the 90% confidence interval for the true standard deviation was equal to or exceeded the acceptable standard deviation. Power function curves were constructed for different scenarios. The probability of failure to assure that the method is sufficiently precise increases with decreasing number of measurements and with increasing standard deviation when the true standard deviation is well below the acceptable standard deviation. For instance, the probability of failure is 42% for a precision experiment of 40 repeated measurements in one analytical run and 7% for 100 repeated measurements, when the true standard deviation is 80% of the acceptable standard deviation. Compared to the CLSI guidelines, validating precision according to the proposed principle is more reliable, but demands considerably more measurements. Using power function curves may help when planning studies to validate precision.

  2. Precision machining of pig intestine using ultrafast laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Rainer J.; Góra, Wojciech S.; Carter, Richard M.; Gunadi, Sonny; Jayne, David; Hand, Duncan P.; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2015-07-01

    Endoluminal surgery for the treatment of early stage colorectal cancer is typically based on electrocautery tools which imply restrictions on precision and the risk of harm through collateral thermal damage to the healthy tissue. As a potential alternative to mitigate these drawbacks we present laser machining of pig intestine by means of picosecond laser pulses. The high intensities of an ultrafast laser enable nonlinear absorption processes and a predominantly nonthermal ablation regime. Laser ablation results of square cavities with comparable thickness to early stage colorectal cancers are presented for a wavelength of 1030 nm using an industrial picosecond laser. The corresponding histology sections exhibit only minimal collateral damage to the surrounding tissue. The depth of the ablation can be controlled precisely by means of the pulse energy. Overall, the application of ultrafast lasers to ablate pig intestine enables significantly improved precision and reduced thermal damage to the surrounding tissue compared to conventional techniques.

  3. Structural relaxation and colour in the spinel-magnesiochromite (MgAl2O4-MgCr2O4) and gahnite-zincochromite (ZnAl2O4-ZnCr2O4) solid solution series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hålenius, U.; Andreozzi, G. B.; Skogby, H.

    2009-04-01

    Recent studies on binary mineral solid solution series utilising synchrotron based x-ray absorption spectroscopies have indicated strong structural relaxation. For instance, it has been suggested that the real Cr-O bond distances remain nearly constant (relaxation parameter (ɛ) of 0.85, where ɛ=1 equals full relaxation) over the entire compositional range of the MgAl2O4-MgCr2O4 series (Juhin et al. 2007). In the present study we have measured room temperature optical absorption spectra of synthetic single crystals of the ZnAl2-2xCr2xO4 (0.03?x?1) and MgAl2-2xCr2xO4(0.02?x?1) series with the aim to explore the real architecture of the structure and in particular the Cr-O distance as function of composition. Our crystals were synthesized by means of flux-growth methods under atmospheric pressure and temperature profiles resulting in an estimated cation ordering temperature of ca 850 °C. Crystals close to the spinel (sensu stricto) and gahnite end-member compositions were faintly red in colour. With increasing Cr-content the crystals become more intensely red-coloured and at the higher Cr-contents there is a distinct shift towards a dark greenish colouration. These colour changes are reflected in the measured optical spectra by the position and intensity of the two spin-allowed electronic d-d transitions in octahedrally coordinated Cr3+ at ca 18000 (4A2g -4T2g (4F) transition) and 25000 cm-1(4A2g -4T1g (4F) transition). The energy of the first transition (?1-band) is ca 1200 cm-1 lower in magnesiochromite than in weakly Cr-doped spinel (x=0.02) and ca 1400 cm-1 lower in zincochromite than in gahnite with the lowest Cr-content (x=0.03). Concomitantly the energy of the second transition (?2-band) decreases with increasing Cr-content in both series by ca. 1800 cm-1. From the position of the ?1-band, a decrease in crystal field splitting, 10Dq, for six-coordinated Cr3+ with increasing Cr-content in the MgAl2-2xCr2xO4 and ZnAl2-2xCr2xO4 series of 6.5 and 7

  4. High precision anatomy for MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-02-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were <1.5mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High precision anatomy for MEG☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1 mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were < 1.5 mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6 month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5 mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. PMID:23911673

  6. [Progress in precision medicine: a scientific perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Li, L M

    2017-01-10

    Precision medicine is a new strategy for disease prevention and treatment by taking into account differences in genetics, environment and lifestyles among individuals and making precise diseases classification and diagnosis, which can provide patients with personalized, targeted prevention and treatment. Large-scale population cohort studies are fundamental for precision medicine research, and could produce best evidence for precision medicine practices. Current criticisms on precision medicine mainly focus on the very small proportion of benefited patients, the neglect of social determinants for health, and the possible waste of limited medical resources. In spite of this, precision medicine is still a most hopeful research area, and would become a health care practice model in the future.

  7. Precision Medicine, Cardiovascular Disease and Hunting Elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine postulates improved prediction, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease based on patient specific factors especially DNA sequence (i.e., gene) variants. Ideas related to precision medicine stem from the much anticipated "genetic revolution in medicine" arising seamlessly from the human genome project (HGP). In this essay I deconstruct the concept of precision medicine and raise questions about the validity of the paradigm in general and its application to cardiovascular disease. Thus far precision medicine has underperformed based on the vision promulgated by enthusiasts. While niche successes for precision medicine are likely, the promises of broad based transformation should be viewed with skepticism. Open discussion and debate related to precision medicine are urgently needed to avoid misapplication of resources, hype, iatrogenic interventions, and distraction from established approaches with ongoing utility. Failure to engage in such debate will lead to negative unintended consequences from a revolution that might never come. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavior of methyl orange and orange 10 (orange G) in the presence of hydrotalcite type compounds of Mg/Al and Mg/Fe; Comportamiento de naranja de metilo y naranja 10 (orange G) en presencia de compuestos tipo hidrotalcita de mg/Al y Mg/Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz N, G.

    2015-07-01

    This work is focused on studying the sorption capacity of methyl orange dye (Nm) and orange 10 (N-10) in the presence of hydrotalcite type compounds of Mg/Al and Mg/Fe uncalcined and calcined previously at 500 degrees Celsius. Sorption isotherms were determined and the study of the kinetics of sorption was performed. The materials were characterized before and after sorption processes of these dyes by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, the specific surface area determination by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, thermogravimetry coupled to mass and infrared spectrometry. The hydrotalcite type compounds reported in this paper were prepared in the laboratory and their acronyms are: HTMgAlG1, HTMgAlMO, HTMgFeG1 and HTMgFeG2. Note that in this work the best conditions for preparing compounds of Mg/Fe were found. From patterns of X-ray diffraction was identified the typical crystal structure of the hydrotalcite type compounds. By scanning electron microscopy the morphology could be determined in the form of flakes characteristics of these compounds. Likewise with elemental analysis of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy the presence of Mg, Al, Fe and C, elements of interest for this study was determined. The compounds presented a specific surface area relatively high from 80 to 120 m{sup 2}/g. Thermogravimetry results presented spectra of mass loss very characteristic associated to water losses, dehydroxylation and decarboxylation. The characteristic bands of water and carbonate were assigned by infrared spectroscopy and the bands corresponding to the dyes sulfonates were identified only for the calcined materials. The sorption capacities found of these compounds were as follows: for Nm in the compound HTMgAlG1 uncalcined was 17.82 mg/g for an initial concentration of 200 mg/L and for calcined (HTMgAlMOcal) of 99.8 mg/g with and initial concentration of 1000 mg/L. Moreover, the sorption capacity of the dye N-10 in this same material was 17.92 mg/g and 99

  9. New methods for precision Moeller polarimetry*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskell, D.; Meekins, D.G.; Yan, C.

    2007-01-01

    Precision electron beam polarimetry is becoming increasingly important as parity violation experiments attempt to probe the frontiers of the standard model. In the few GeV regime, Moeller polarimetry is well suited to high-precision measurements, however is generally limited to use at relatively low beam currents (<10 μA). We present a novel technique that will enable precision Moeller polarimetry at very large currents, up to 100 μA. (orig.)

  10. The Development of Precise Engineering Surveying Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Guangyun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the construction of big science projects in China, the precise engineering surveying technology developed rapidly in the 21th century. Firstly, the paper summarized up the current development situation for the precise engineering surveying instrument and theory. Then the three typical cases of the precise engineering surveying practice such as accelerator alignment, industry measurement and high-speed railway surveying technology are focused.

  11. Modeling and control of precision actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Kiong, Tan Kok

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionGrowing Interest in Precise ActuatorsTypes of Precise ActuatorsApplications of Precise ActuatorsNonlinear Dynamics and ModelingHysteresisCreepFrictionForce RipplesIdentification and Compensation of Preisach Hysteresis in Piezoelectric ActuatorsSVD-Based Identification and Compensation of Preisach HysteresisHigh-Bandwidth Identification and Compensation of Hysteretic Dynamics in Piezoelectric ActuatorsConcluding RemarksIdentification and Compensation of Frict

  12. Precise measurement and calculation of 238U neutron transmissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; de Saussure, G.; Silver, E.G.; Perez, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    The total neutron cross section of 238 U has been measured above 0.5 eV in precise transmission experiments and results are compared with ENDF/B-IV. Emphasis has been on measuring transmissions through thick samples in order to obtain accurate total cross sections in the potential-resonance interference regions between resonances. 4 figures, 1 table

  13. Avaliação da acurácia de uma barra de luz utilizada na agricultura de precisão, em relação ao marcador de espuma Evaluation of the accuracy of a light bar used in precision farming compared to a foam marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio H. R. Baio

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Alguns equipamentos utilizados na agricultura de precisão têm, por finalidade, a melhoria das condições operacionais. A barra de luz é um equipamento utilizado para a orientação de um veículo em faixas adjacentes, diminuindo a sobreposição da operação agrícola entre passadas consecutivas e otimizando a eficiência da aplicação agrícola. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo a determinação da acurácia da barra de luz em relação ao marcador de espuma e a verificação da adaptação dos operadores à nova tecnologia. Para tanto, foram realizados dois ensaios em locais distintos, com operadores diferentes e foram comparados os erros de sobreposição e falhas nas passadas adjacentes de um pulverizador automotriz. Ocorreu alta adaptação dos operadores à nova tecnologia, devido a uma facilidade operacional maior em relação ao marcador de espuma. Concluiu-se que o marcador de espuma pode ser substituído pela barra de luz na aplicação de defensivos agrícolas.Some equipments are used in precision farming to improve operational conditions. A light bar is an equipment used to guide a vehicle in adjacent bands, reducing the overlap of the parallel swathing and optimizing the efficiency of the agricultural application. The objective of this work was to determine the accuracy of a light bar compared to a foam marker, and to verify the adaptation of the operators to this new technology. Experiments were conducted at two different places with several operators. The overlap errors and missed applications in the parallel swathing system were compared for both systems. There was a high adaptability of the operators to the light bar since this system was easier to operate than the foam marker. It was concluded that the light bar for the application of agricultural chemicals could replace the foam marker.

  14. High Precision GNSS Guidance for Field Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Jurišica

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System guidance for field mobile robots. Several GNSS systems and receivers, as well as multiple measurement methods and principles of GNSS systems are examined. We focus mainly on sources of errors and investigate diverse approaches for precise measuring and effective use of GNSS systems for real-time robot localization. The main body of the article compares two GNSS receivers and their measurement methods. We design, implement and evaluate several mathematical methods for precise robot localization.

  15. Energy helps accuracy: electroweak precision tests at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Farina, Marco

    2017-09-10

    We show that high energy measurements of Drell-Yan at the LHC can serve as electroweak precision tests. Dimension-6 operators, from the Standard Model Effective Field Theory, modify the high energy behavior of electroweak gauge boson propagators. Existing measurements of the dilepton invariant mass spectrum, from neutral current Drell-Yan at 8 TeV, have comparable sensitivity to LEP. We propose measuring the transverse mass spectrum of charged current Drell-Yan, which can surpass LEP already with 8 TeV data. The 13 TeV LHC will elevate electroweak tests to a new precision frontier.

  16. Energy helps accuracy: Electroweak precision tests at hadron colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Farina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We show that high energy measurements of Drell–Yan at the LHC can serve as electroweak precision tests. Dimension-6 operators, from the Standard Model Effective Field Theory, modify the high energy behavior of electroweak gauge boson propagators. Existing measurements of the dilepton invariant mass spectrum, from neutral current Drell–Yan at 8 TeV, have comparable sensitivity to LEP. We propose measuring the transverse mass spectrum of charged current Drell–Yan, which can surpass LEP already with 8 TeV data. The 13 TeV LHC will elevate electroweak tests to a new precision frontier.

  17. Are torque values of preadjusted brackets precise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Motta Streva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to verify the torque precision of metallic brackets with MBT prescription using the canine brackets as the representative sample of six commercial brands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty maxillary and 20 mandibular canine brackets of one of the following commercial brands were selected: 3M Unitek, Abzil, American Orthodontics, TP Orthodontics, Morelli and Ortho Organizers. The torque angle, established by reference points and lines, was measured by an operator using an optical microscope coupled to a computer. The values were compared to those established by the MBT prescription. RESULTS: The results showed that for the maxillary canine brackets, only the Morelli torque (-3.33º presented statistically significant difference from the proposed values (-7º. For the mandibular canines, American Orthodontics (-6.34º and Ortho Organizers (-6.25º presented statistically significant differences from the standards (-6º. Comparing the brands, Morelli presented statistically significant differences in comparison with all the other brands for maxillary canine brackets. For the mandibular canine brackets, there was no statistically significant difference between the brands. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant variations in torque values of some of the brackets assessed, which would clinically compromise the buccolingual positioning of the tooth at the end of orthodontic treatment.

  18. Precise Orbit Determination of GPS Satellites Using Phase Observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Kook Jee

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of user position by GPS is heavily dependent upon the accuracy of satellite position which is usually transmitted to GPS users in radio signals. The real-time satellite position information directly obtained from broadcast ephimerides has the accuracy of 3 x 10 meters which is very unsatisfactory to measure 100km baseline to the accuracy of less than a few mili-meters. There are globally at present seven orbit analysis centers capable of generating precise GPS ephimerides and their orbit quality is of the order of about 10cm. Therefore, precise orbit model and phase processing technique were reviewed and consequently precise GPS ephimerides were produced after processing the phase observables of 28 global GPS stations for 1 day. Initial 6 orbit parameters and 2 solar radiation coefficients were estimated using batch least square algorithm and the final results were compared with the orbit of IGS, the International GPS Service for Geodynamics.

  19. Weak gravitational lensing towards high-precision cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, Joel

    2007-01-01

    This thesis aims at studying weak gravitational lensing as a tool for high-precision cosmology. We first present the development and validation of a precise and accurate tool for measuring gravitational shear, based on the shapelets formalism. We then use shapelets on real images for the first time, we analyze CFHTLS images, and combine them with XMM-LSS data. We measure the normalisation of the density fluctuations power spectrum σ 8 , and the one of the mass-temperature relation for galaxy clusters. The analysis of the Hubble space telescope COSMOS field confirms our σ 8 measurement and introduces tomography. Finally, aiming at optimizing future surveys, we compare the individual and combined merits of cluster counts and power spectrum tomography. Our results demonstrate that next generation surveys will allow weak lensing to yield its full potential in the high-precision cosmology era. (author) [fr

  20. Precision tests of CPT invariance with single trapped antiprotons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmer, Stefan [RIKEN, Ulmer Initiative Research Unit, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Collaboration: BASE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The reason for the striking imbalance of matter and antimatter in our Universe has yet to be understood. This is the motivation and inspiration to conduct high precision experiments comparing the fundamental properties of matter and antimatter equivalents at lowest energies and with greatest precision. According to theory, the most sensitive tests of CPT invariance are measurements of antihydrogen ground-state hyperfine splitting as well as comparisons of proton and antiproton magnetic moments. Within the BASE collaboration we target the latter. By using a double Penning trap we performed very recently the first direct high precision measurement of the proton magnetic moment. The achieved fractional precision of 3.3 ppb improves the currently accepted literature value by a factor of 2.5. Application of the method to a single trapped antiproton will improve precision of the particles magnetic moment by more than a factor of 1000, thus providing one of the most stringent tests of CPT invariance. In my talk I report on the status and future perspectives of our efforts.

  1. Precision measurements at a muon collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, S.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the potential for making precision measurements of M W and M T at a muon collider and the motivations for each measurement. A comparison is made with the precision measurements expected at other facilities. The measurement of the top quark decay width is also discussed

  2. Visual thread quality for precision miniature mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1981-04-01

    Threaded features have eight visual appearance factors which can affect their function in precision miniature mechanisms. The Bendix practice in deburring, finishing, and accepting these conditions on miniature threads is described as is their impact in assemblies of precision miniature electromechanical assemblies.

  3. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  4. An aberrant precision account of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca P Lawson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by problems with social-communication, restricted interests and repetitive behaviour. A recent and controversial article presented a compelling normative explanation for the perceptual symptoms of autism in terms of a failure of Bayesian inference (Pellicano and Burr, 2012. In response, we suggested that when Bayesian interference is grounded in its neural instantiation – namely, predictive coding – many features of autistic perception can be attributed to aberrant precision (or beliefs about precision within the context of hierarchical message passing in the brain (Friston et al., 2013. Here, we unpack the aberrant precision account of autism. Specifically, we consider how empirical findings – that speak directly or indirectly to neurobiological mechanisms – are consistent with the aberrant encoding of precision in autism; in particular, an imbalance of the precision ascribed to sensory evidence relative to prior beliefs.

  5. Precision medicine for psychopharmacology: a general introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Cheolmin; Han, Changsu; Pae, Chi-Un; Patkar, Ashwin A

    2016-07-01

    Precision medicine is an emerging medical model that can provide accurate diagnoses and tailored therapeutic strategies for patients based on data pertaining to genes, microbiomes, environment, family history and lifestyle. Here, we provide basic information about precision medicine and newly introduced concepts, such as the precision medicine ecosystem and big data processing, and omics technologies including pharmacogenomics, pharamacometabolomics, pharmacoproteomics, pharmacoepigenomics, connectomics and exposomics. The authors review the current state of omics in psychiatry and the future direction of psychopharmacology as it moves towards precision medicine. Expert commentary: Advances in precision medicine have been facilitated by achievements in multiple fields, including large-scale biological databases, powerful methods for characterizing patients (such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, diverse cellular assays, and even social networks and mobile health technologies), and computer-based tools for analyzing large amounts of data.

  6. Precision surveying the principles and geomatics practice

    CERN Document Server

    Ogundare, John Olusegun

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of high precision surveying, including recent developments in geomatics and their applications This book covers advanced precision surveying techniques, their proper use in engineering and geoscience projects, and their importance in the detailed analysis and evaluation of surveying projects. The early chapters review the fundamentals of precision surveying: the types of surveys; survey observations; standards and specifications; and accuracy assessments for angle, distance and position difference measurement systems. The book also covers network design and 3-D coordinating systems before discussing specialized topics such as structural and ground deformation monitoring techniques and analysis, mining surveys, tunneling surveys, and alignment surveys. Precision Surveying: The Principles and Geomatics Practice: * Covers structural and ground deformation monitoring analysis, advanced techniques in mining and tunneling surveys, and high precision alignment of engineering structures *...

  7. Accuracy and precision of oscillometric blood pressure in standing conscious horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Emil; Pedersen, Tilde Louise Skovgaard; Robinson, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    from a teaching and research herd. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy and precision of systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in conscious horses obtained with an oscillometric NIBP device when compared to invasively measured...... administration. Agreement analysis with replicate measures was utilized to calculate bias (accuracy) and standard deviation (SD) of bias (precision). RESULTS: A total of 252 pairs of invasive arterial BP and NIBP measurements were analyzed. Compared to the direct BP measures, the NIBP MAP had an accuracy of -4...... mm Hg and precision of 10 mm Hg. SAP had an accuracy of -8 mm Hg and a precision of 17 mm Hg and DAP had an accuracy of -7 mm Hg and a precision of 14 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: MAP from the evaluated NIBP monitor is accurate and precise in the adult horse across a range of BP...

  8. Precise Plan in the analysis of volume precision in SynergyTM conebeam CT image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Sen; Xu Qingfeng; Zhong Renming; Jiang Xiaoqin; Jiang Qingfeng; Xu Feng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: A method of checking the volume precision in Synergy TM conebeam CT image. Methods: To scan known phantoms (big, middle, small spheres, cubes and cuniform cavum) at different positions (CBCT centre and departure centre from 5, 8, 10 cm along the accelerator G-T way)with conebeam CT, the phantom volume of reconstructed images were measure. Then to compared measured volume of Synergy TM conebeam CT with fanbeam CT results and nominal values. Results: The middle spheres had 1.5% discrepancy in nominal values and metrical average values at CBCT centre and departure from centre 5, 8 cm along accelerator G-T way. The small spheres showed 8.1%, with 0.8 % of the big cube and 2.9% of small cube, in nominal values and metrical average values at CBCT centre and departure from centre 5, 8, 10 cm along the accelerator G-T way. Conclusion: In valid scan range of Synergy TM conebeam CT, reconstructed precision is independent of the distance deviation from the center. (authors)

  9. Toward precision holography with supersymmetric Wilson loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, Alberto [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile,Casilla 306, Santiago (Chile); Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Silva, Guillermo A. [Instituto de Física de La Plata - CONICET & Departamento de Física - UNLP,C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Trancanelli, Diego [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo,05314-970 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-04-11

    We consider certain 1/4 BPS Wilson loop operators in SU(N)N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, whose expectation value can be computed exactly via supersymmetric localization. Holographically, these operators are mapped to fundamental strings in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5}. The string on-shell action reproduces the large N and large coupling limit of the gauge theory expectation value and, according to the AdS/CFT correspondence, there should also be a precise match between subleading corrections to these limits. We perform a test of such match at next-to-leading order in string theory, by deriving the spectrum of quantum fluctuations around the classical string solution and by computing the corresponding 1-loop effective action. We discuss in detail the supermultiplet structure of the fluctuations. To remove a possible source of ambiguity in the ghost zero mode measure, we compare the 1/4 BPS configuration with the 1/2 BPS one, dual to a circular Wilson loop. We find a discrepancy between the string theory result and the gauge theory prediction, confirming a previous result in the literature. We are able to track the modes from which this discrepancy originates, as well as the modes that by themselves would give the expected result.

  10. Precise GNSS Positioning Using Smart Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Realini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent access to GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System phase observations on smart devices, enabled by Google through its Android operating system, opens the possibility to apply precise positioning techniques using off-the-shelf, mass-market devices. The target of this work is to evaluate whether this is feasible, and which positioning accuracy can be achieved by relative positioning of the smart device with respect to a base station. Positioning of a Google/HTC Nexus 9 tablet was performed by means of batch least-squares adjustment of L1 phase double-differenced observations, using the open source goGPS software, over baselines ranging from approximately 10 m to 8 km, with respect to both physical (geodetic or low-cost and virtual base stations. The same positioning procedure was applied also to a co-located u-blox low-cost receiver, to compare the performance between the receiver and antenna embedded in the Nexus 9 and a standard low-cost single-frequency receiver with external patch antenna. The results demonstrate that with a smart device providing raw GNSS phase observations, like the Nexus 9, it is possible to reach decimeter-level accuracy through rapid-static surveys, without phase ambiguity resolution. It is expected that sub-centimeter accuracy could be achieved, as demonstrated for the u-blox case, if integer phase ambiguities were correctly resolved.

  11. Precision electroweak measurements on the $Z$ resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Schael, S; Brunelière, R; Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Jézéquel, S; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Martin, F; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Trocmé, B; Bravo, S; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Comas, P; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Park, I C; Perlas, J; Riu, I; Ruiz, H; Sánchez, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; Iaselli, G; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Bazarko, A; Becker, U; Boix, G; Bird, F; Blucher, E; Bonvicini, B; Bright-Thomas, P; Barklow, T; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Clerbaux, B; Drevermann, H; Forty, R W; Frank, M; Greening, T C; Hagelberg, R; Halley, A W; Gianotti, F; Girone, M; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Janot, P; Jost, B; Knobloch, J; Kado, M; Lehraus, Ivan; Lazeyras, Pierre; Maley, P; Mato, P; May, J; Moutoussi, A; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, B; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tomalin, I R; Tournefier, E; Veenhof, R; Valassi, A; Wiedenmann, W; Wright, A E; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Chazelle, G; Deschamps, O; Dessagne, S; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Fayolle, D; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Pascolo, J M; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Bertelsen, H; Fernley, T; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Kraan, A C; Lindahl, A; Møllerud, R; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, E; Siotis, I; Vayaki, A; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G; Brient, J C; Machefert, F; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Swynghedauw, M; Tanaka, R; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Ciulli, V; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Picchi, P; Colrain, P; ten Have, I; Hughes, I S; Kennedy, J; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Thompson, A S; Turnbull, R M; Wasserbaech, S R; Buchmüller, O L; Cavanaugh, R J; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, W; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, D M; Cameron, W; Davies, G; Dornan, P J; Goodsir, S M; Marinelli, N; Martin, E; Nash, J; Nowell, J; Rutherford, S A; Sedgbeer, J K; Thompson, J C; White, R; Williams, M D; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bouhova-Thacker, E; Bowdery, C K; Buck, P G; Clarke, D P; Ellis, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Keemer, N R; Pearson, M R; Robertson, N A; Sloan, T; Smizanska, M; Snow, S W; Williams, M I; van der Aa, O; Delaere, C; Leibenguth, G; Lemaître, V; Bauerdick, L A T; Blumenschein, U; Van Gemmeren, P; Giehl, I; Hölldorfer, F; Jakobs, K; Kasemann, M; Kayser, F; Kleinknecht, K; Müller, A S; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Schmeling, S; Wachsmuth, H W; Wanke, R; Zeitnitz, C; Ziegler, T; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Curtil, C; Ealet, A; Etienne, F; Fouchez, D; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Thulasidas, M; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Büscher, V; David, A; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Settles, R; Seywerd, H; Stenzel, H; Villegas, M; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Mutz, A M; Schune, M H; Serin, L; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Bettarini, S; Boccali, T; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Foà, L; Giammanco, A; Giassi, A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, F; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Sguazzoni, G; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, J; Tenchini, R; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Awunor, O; Blair, G A; Cowan, G; García-Bellido, A; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Strong, J A; Teixeira-Dias, P; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Edwards, M; Haywood, S J; Norton, P R; Ward, J J; Bloch-Devaux, B; Boumediene, D E; Colas, P; Emery, S; Fabbro, B; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Tuchming, B; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Kim, H Y; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S; Combley, F; Hodgson, P N; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Barberio, E; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Burkhardt, H; Feigl, E; Grupen, C; Hess, J; Lutters, G; Meinhard, H; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Mirabito, L; Misiejuk, A; Neugebauer, E; Ngac, A; Prange, G; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Schäfer, U; Sieler, U; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Trier, H; Apollonio, M; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Pitis, L; He, H; Kim, H; Pütz, J; Rothberg, J E; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Berkelman, K; Cinabro, D; Conway, J S; Cranmer, K; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Johnson, R P; Kile, J; McNamara, P A; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Walsh, A M; Walsh, J; Wear, J; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zobernig, G; Dissertori, G; Abdallah, J; Abreu, P; Adam, W; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Ajinenko, I; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, G; Barbier, R; Bardin, D; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, M; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N; Benvenuti, A C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Bracko, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, C; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Castro, N; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Colomer, M; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; D'Hondt, J; D'Almagne, B; Dalmau, J; Damgaard, G; Davenport, M; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Diodato, A; Di Simone, A; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, G; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, M; Fenyuk, A; Fernández, J; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, G; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Grimm, H J; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hennecke, M; Henriques, R; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huber, M; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P; Knoblauch, D; Kokkinias, P; Konoplyannikov, A K; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, M; Kreuter, C; Kriznic, E; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, G; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Lokajícek, M; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; 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Rooke, A M; Ros, E; Rosati, S; Roscoe, K; Rossberg, S; Rossi, A M; Rosvick, M; Routenburg, P; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Ruppel, U; Rust, D R; Rylko, R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sanghera, S; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sasaki, M; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Schappert, W; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schenk, P; Schieck, J; von der Schmitt, H; Schmitt, S; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schreiber, S; Schröder, M; Schütz, P; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schulz, M; Schumacher, M; Schwarz, J; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Settles, M; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Shypit, R; Simon, A; Singh, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Smith, T J; Snow, G A; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spagnolo, S; Spanó, F; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Starks, M; Steiert, M; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stier, H E; Stockhausen, B; Stoll, K; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strumia, F; Stumpf, L; Surrow, B; Szymanski, P; Tafirout, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Taylor, R J; Tecchio, M; Tesch, N; Teuscher, R; Thackray, N J; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Towers, S; Toya, D; Trócsányi, Z L; Tran, P; Trefzger, T; Tresilian, N J; Trigger, I; Tscheulin, M; Tsukamoto, T; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Tysarczyk-Niemeyer, G; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Utzat, P; Vachon, B; Van den Plas, D; Van Kooten, R; VanDalen, G J; Vannerem, P; Vasseur, G; Vertesi, R; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Vincter, M G; Virtue, C J; Vokurka, E H; Vollmer, C F; Voss, H; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Wagner, D L; Wahl, C; Walker, J P; Waller, D; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Weber, P; Weisz, S; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wetterling, D; Weymann, M; Whalley, M A; White, J S; Wilkens, B; Wilson, J A; Wilson, G W; Wingerter, Isabelle; Winterer, V H; Wood, N C; Wotton, S; Wyatt, T R; Yaari, R; Yamashita, S; Yang, Y; Yeaman, A; Yekutieli, G; Yurko, M; Zacek, V; Zacharov, I E; Zer-Zion, D; Zeuner, W; Zivkovic, L; Zorn, G T; Abe, Kenji; Abe, Koya; Abe, T; Abt, I; Acton, P D; Adam, I; Agnew, G; Akagi, T; Akimoto, H; Allen, N J; Ash, W W; Aston, D; Bacchetta, N; Baird, K G; Baltay, C; Band, H R; Barakat, M B; Baranko, G J; Bardon, O; Barklow, T L; Bashindzhagian, G L; Bauer, J M; Bazarko, A O; Bean, A; Bellodi, G; Ben-David, R; Berger, R; Bienz, T; Bilei, G M; Bisello, D; Blaylock, G; Bogart, J R; Bolen, B; Bolton, T; Bower, G R; Brau, J E; Breidenbach, M; Bugg, W M; Burke, D; Burnett, T H; Burrows, P N; Busza, W; Calcaterra, A; Caldwell, D O; Camanzi, B; Carpinelli, M; Cassell, R; Castaldi, R; Castro, A; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Chadwick, George B; Chou, A; Church, E; Claus, R; Cohn, H O; Coller, J A; Convery, M R; Cook, V; Cotton, R; Cowan, R F; Coyne, D G; Crawford, G; de Oliveira, A; Damerell, C J S; Daoudi, M; Dasu, S; De Groot, N; De Sangro, R; De Simone, P; De Simone, S; Dervan, P J; Dima, M; Dong, D N; Doser, Michael; Du, P Y C; Dubois, R; Duboscq, J E; Eisenstein, B I; Elia, R; Erdos, E; Erofeeva, I; Eschenburg, V; Etzion, E; Fahey, S; Falciai, D; Fan, C; Fernández, J P; Fero, M J; Flood, K; Frey, R; Friedman, Jerome Isaac; Furuno, K; Garwin, E L; Gillman, T; Gladding, G; Hallewell, G D; Hart, E L; Hasegawa, Y; Hasuko, K; Hedges, S; Hertzbach, S S; Hildreth, M D; Hitlin, D G; Honma, A; Huber, J S; Huffer, M E; Hughes, E W; Huynh, X; Hwang, H; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Izen, J M; Jackson, D J; Jacques, P; Jaros, J A; Jiang, Z Y; Johnson, A S; Johnson, J R; Johnson, R A; Junk, T R; Kajikawa, R; Kalelkar, M; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kang, H J; Karliner, I; Kawahara, H; Kelsey, M H; Kendall, H W; Kim, Y D; King, M; King, R; Kofler, R R; Krishna, N M; Kwon, Y; Labs, J F; Kroeger, R S; Langston, M; Lath, A; Lauber, J A; Leith, D W G S; Lia, V; Lin, C; Liu, M X; Loreti, M; Lu, A; Lynch, H L; Ma, J; Mancinelli, G; Manly, S; Mantovani, G C; Markiewicz, T W; Maruyama, T; Masuda, H; Mazzucato, E; McGowan, J F; McKemey, A K; Meadows, B T; Messner, R; Mockett, P M; Moffeit, K C; Moore, T B; Morii, M; Mours, B; Müller, D; Müller, G; Murzin, V; Nagamine, T; Narita, S; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Nesom, G; Nussbaum, M; Ohnishi, Y; Oishi, N; Onoprienko, D; Osborne, L S; Panvini, R S; Park, C H; Park, H; Pavel, T J; Peruzzi, I; Pescara, L; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pieroni, E; Pitts, K T; Plano, R J; Prepost, R; Prescott, C Y; Punkar, G; Quigley, J; Ratcliff, B N; Reeves, K; Reeves, T W; Reidy, J; Reinertsen, P L; Rensing, P E; Rochester, L S; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Saxton, O H; Schalk, T; Schindler, R H; Schneekloth, U; Schumm, B A; Schwiening, J; Seiden, A; Sen, S; Serbo, V V; Shaevitz, M H; Shank, J T; Shapiro, G; Sherden, D J; Shmakov, K D; Simopoulos, C; Sinev, N B; Smith, S R; Smy, M B; Snyder, J A; Sokoloff, M D; Stängle, H; Stahl, A; Stamer, P; Steiner, H; Steiner, R; Strauss, M G; Su, D; Suekane, F; Sugiyama, A; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, S; Swartz, M; Szumilo, A; Takahashi, T; Taylor, F E; Thaler, J J; Thom, J; Torrence, E; Trandafir, A I; Turk, J D; Usher, T; Vavra, J; Vella, E; Venuti, J P; Verdier, R; Wagner, S R; Waite, A P; Walston, S; Wang, J; Watts, S J; Weidemann, A W; Weiss, E R; Whitaker, J S; White, S L; Wickens, F J; Williams, D A; Williams, D C; Williams, S H; Willocq, S; Wilson, R J; Wisniewski, W J; Wittlin, J L; Woods, M; Word, G B; Wright, T R; Wyss, J; Yamamoto, R K; Yang, X Q; Yashima, J; Yellin, S J; Young, C C; Yuta, H; Zapalac, G; Zdarko, R W; Zeitlin, C; Zhou, J

    2006-01-01

    We report on the final electroweak measurements performed with data taken at the Z resonance by the experiments operating at the electron-positron colliders SLC and LEP. The data consist of 17 million Z decays accumulated by the ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL experiments at LEP, and 600 thousand Z decays by the SLD experiment using a polarised beam at SLC. The measurements include cross-sections, forward-backward asymmetries and polarised asymmetries. The mass and width of the Z boson, $MZ$ and $GZ$, and its couplings to fermions, for example the $ ho$ parameter and the effective electroweak mixing angle for leptons, are precisely measured: egin{eqnarray*} MZ & = & 91.1875 pm 0.0021~GeV \\ GZ & = & 2.4952 pm 0.0023~GeV \\ ho_ell & = & 1.0050 pm 0.0010 \\ swsqeffl & =& 0.23153 pm 0.00016 ,. end{eqnarray*} The number of light neutrino species is determined to be $2.9840pm0.0082$, in agreement with the three observed generations of fundamental fermions. The results are compared to the pr...

  12. Pharmacogenetics of asthma: toward precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Elin T G; Koppelman, Gerard H

    2017-01-01

    Although currently available drugs to treat asthma are effective in most patients, a proportion of patients do not respond or experience side-effects; which is partly genetically determined. Pharmacogenetics is the study of how genetic variations influence drug response. In this review, we summarize prior results and recent studies in pharmacogenetics to determine if we can use genetic profiles for personalized treatment of asthma. The field of pharmacogenetics has moved from candidate gene studies in single populations toward genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis of multiple studies. New technologies have been used to enrich results, and an expanding number of genetic loci have been associated with therapeutic responses to asthma drugs. Prospective, genotype-stratified treatment studies have been conducted for β2-agonists, showing attenuated response in children carrying the Arg16 variant in the β2-adrenoreceptor gene. Although there has been much progress, many findings have not been replicated and currently known genetic loci only account for a fraction of variability in drug response. More research is necessary to translate into clinical practice. A polygenic predictive approach integrated in complex networks with other 'omics' technologies could aid to achieve this goal. Finally, to change clinical practice, studies that compare precision medicine with traditional medicine are needed.

  13. Precise GNSS Positioning Using Smart Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, Eugenio; Caldera, Stefano; Pertusini, Lisa; Sampietro, Daniele

    2017-10-24

    The recent access to GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) phase observations on smart devices, enabled by Google through its Android operating system, opens the possibility to apply precise positioning techniques using off-the-shelf, mass-market devices. The target of this work is to evaluate whether this is feasible, and which positioning accuracy can be achieved by relative positioning of the smart device with respect to a base station. Positioning of a Google/HTC Nexus 9 tablet was performed by means of batch least-squares adjustment of L1 phase double-differenced observations, using the open source goGPS software, over baselines ranging from approximately 10 m to 8 km, with respect to both physical (geodetic or low-cost) and virtual base stations. The same positioning procedure was applied also to a co-located u-blox low-cost receiver, to compare the performance between the receiver and antenna embedded in the Nexus 9 and a standard low-cost single-frequency receiver with external patch antenna. The results demonstrate that with a smart device providing raw GNSS phase observations, like the Nexus 9, it is possible to reach decimeter-level accuracy through rapid-static surveys, without phase ambiguity resolution. It is expected that sub-centimeter accuracy could be achieved, as demonstrated for the u-blox case, if integer phase ambiguities were correctly resolved.

  14. Toward precision medicine in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Christiane

    2016-03-01

    In Western societies, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and the sixth leading cause of death. In recent years, the concept of precision medicine, an approach for disease prevention and treatment that is personalized to an individual's specific pattern of genetic variability, environment and lifestyle factors, has emerged. While for some diseases, in particular select cancers and a few monogenetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis, significant advances in precision medicine have been made over the past years, for most other diseases precision medicine is only in its beginning. To advance the application of precision medicine to a wider spectrum of disorders, governments around the world are starting to launch Precision Medicine Initiatives, major efforts to generate the extensive scientific knowledge needed to integrate the model of precision medicine into every day clinical practice. In this article we summarize the state of precision medicine in AD, review major obstacles in its development, and discuss its benefits in this highly prevalent, clinically and pathologically complex disease.

  15. [Precision Nursing: Individual-Based Knowledge Translation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Su, Sui-Lung

    2016-12-01

    U.S. President Obama announced a new era of precision medicine in the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI). This initiative aims to accelerate the progress of personalized medicine in light of individual requirements for prevention and treatment in order to improve the state of individual and public health. The recent and dramatic development of large-scale biologic databases (such as the human genome sequence), powerful methods for characterizing patients (such as genomics, microbiome, diverse biomarkers, and even pharmacogenomics), and computational tools for analyzing big data are maximizing the potential benefits of precision medicine. Nursing science should follow and keep pace with this trend in order to develop empirical knowledge and expertise in the area of personalized nursing care. Nursing scientists must encourage, examine, and put into practice innovative research on precision nursing in order to provide evidence-based guidance to clinical practice. The applications in personalized precision nursing care include: explanations of personalized information such as the results of genetic testing; patient advocacy and support; anticipation of results and treatment; ongoing chronic monitoring; and support for shared decision-making throughout the disease trajectory. Further, attention must focus on the family and the ethical implications of taking a personalized approach to care. Nurses will need to embrace the paradigm shift to precision nursing and work collaboratively across disciplines to provide the optimal personalized care to patients. If realized, the full potential of precision nursing will provide the best chance for good health for all.

  16. Precision fiducialization of transport components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.E.; Bressler, V.E.; Cobb, J.K.; Jensen, D.R.; Ruland, R.E.; Walz, H.V.; Williams, S.H.

    1992-03-01

    The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a transport line designed to test both concept and advanced technology for application to future linear colliders. It is currently under construction at SLAC in the central beam line. Most of the quadrupoles of the FFTB have ab initio alignment tolerances of less than 30 microns, if the planned for beam based alignment tuning procedure is to converge. For such placement tolerances to have any meaning requires that the coordinates of the effective centers, seen by the beam particles, be tansferred to tooling (that can be reached by mechanical or optical alignment methods) located on the outside of the components to comparable or better values. We have constructed an apparatus that simultaneously locates to micron tolerances, the effective magnetic center of fussing lenses, as well as the electrical center of beam position monitors (BPM) imbedded therein, and once located, for transferring these coordinates to specially mounted tooling frames that supported the external retroreflectors used in a laser tracker based alignment of the beam line. Details of construction as well as experimental results from the method are presented

  17. Advances in Precision Medicine: Tailoring Individualized Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Kyle B; Lynam-Lennon, Niamh; Watson, R William; Brown, James A L

    2017-10-25

    The traditional bench-to-bedside pipeline involves using model systems and patient samples to provide insights into pathways deregulated in cancer. This discovery reveals new biomarkers and therapeutic targets, ultimately stratifying patients and informing cohort-based treatment options. Precision medicine (molecular profiling of individual tumors combined with established clinical-pathological parameters) reveals, in real-time, individual patient's diagnostic and prognostic risk profile, informing tailored and tumor-specific treatment plans. Here we discuss advances in precision medicine presented at the Irish Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, highlighting examples where personalized medicine approaches have led to precision discovery in individual tumors, informing customized treatment programs.

  18. Mixed-Precision Spectral Deferred Correction: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grout, Ray W. S.

    2015-09-02

    Convergence of spectral deferred correction (SDC), where low-order time integration methods are used to construct higher-order methods through iterative refinement, can be accelerated in terms of computational effort by using mixed-precision methods. Using ideas from multi-level SDC (in turn based on FAS multigrid ideas), some of the SDC correction sweeps can use function values computed in reduced precision without adversely impacting the accuracy of the final solution. This is particularly beneficial for the performance of combustion solvers such as S3D [6] which require double precision accuracy but are performance limited by the cost of data motion.

  19. Accuracy and precision in thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, T.O.

    1984-01-01

    The question of accuracy and precision in thermoluminescent dosimetry, particularly in relation to lithium fluoride phosphor, is discussed. The more important sources of error, including those due to the detectors, the reader, annealing and dosemeter design, are identified and methods of reducing their effects on accuracy and precision to a minimum are given. Finally, the accuracy and precision achievable for three quite different applications are discussed, namely, for personal dosimetry, environmental monitoring and for the measurement of photon dose distributions in phantoms. (U.K.)

  20. PRECISION COSMOGRAPHY WITH STACKED VOIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a purely geometrical method for probing the expansion history of the universe from the observation of the shape of stacked voids in spectroscopic redshift surveys. Our method is an Alcock-Paczyński (AP) test based on the average sphericity of voids posited on the local isotropy of the universe. It works by comparing the temporal extent of cosmic voids along the line of sight with their angular, spatial extent. We describe the algorithm that we use to detect and stack voids in redshift shells on the light cone and test it on mock light cones produced from N-body simulations. We establish a robust statistical model for estimating the average stretching of voids in redshift space and quantify the contamination by peculiar velocities. Finally, assuming that the void statistics that we derive from N-body simulations is preserved when considering galaxy surveys, we assess the capability of this approach to constrain dark energy parameters. We report this assessment in terms of the figure of merit (FoM) of the dark energy task force and in particular of the proposed Euclid mission which is particularly suited for this technique since it is a spectroscopic survey. The FoM due to stacked voids from the Euclid wide survey may double that of all other dark energy probes derived from Euclid data alone (combined with Planck priors). In particular, voids seem to outperform baryon acoustic oscillations by an order of magnitude. This result is consistent with simple estimates based on mode counting. The AP test based on stacked voids may be a significant addition to the portfolio of major dark energy probes and its potentialities must be studied in detail.

  1. Precise and accurate isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J S; Dietze, H J

    2000-09-01

    The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) is important for quite different application fields (e.g. for isotope ratio measurements of stable isotopes in nature, especially for the investigation of isotope variation in nature or age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic elements in the nuclear industry, quality assurance of fuel material, for reprocessing plants, nuclear material accounting and radioactive waste control, for tracer experiments using stable isotopes or long-lived radionuclides in biological or medical studies). Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which used to be the dominant analytical technique for precise isotope ratio measurements, is being increasingly replaced for isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS due to its excellent sensitivity, precision and good accuracy. Instrumental progress in ICP-MS was achieved by the introduction of the collision cell interface in order to dissociate many disturbing argon-based molecular ions, thermalize the ions and neutralize the disturbing argon ions of plasma gas (Ar+). The application of the collision cell in ICP-QMS results in a higher ion transmission, improved sensitivity and better precision of isotope ratio measurements compared to quadrupole ICP-MS without the collision cell [e.g., for 235U/238U approximately 1 (10 microg x L(-1) uranium) 0.07% relative standard deviation (RSD) vs. 0.2% RSD in short-term measurements (n = 5)]. A significant instrumental improvement for ICP-MS is the multicollector device (MC-ICP-MS) in order to obtain a better precision of isotope ratio measurements (with a precision of up to 0.002%, RSD). CE- and HPLC-ICP-MS are used for the separation of isobaric interferences of long-lived radionuclides and stable isotopes by determination of spallation nuclide abundances in an irradiated tantalum target.

  2. PRECISION POINTING OF IBEX-Lo OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hłond, M.; Bzowski, M.; Möbius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Heirtzler, D.; Schwadron, N. A.; Neill, M. E. O'; Clark, G.; Crew, G. B.; Fuselier, S.; McComas, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Post-launch boresight of the IBEX-Lo instrument on board the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) is determined based on IBEX-Lo Star Sensor observations. Accurate information on the boresight of the neutral gas camera is essential for precise determination of interstellar gas flow parameters. Utilizing spin-phase information from the spacecraft attitude control system (ACS), positions of stars observed by the Star Sensor during two years of IBEX measurements were analyzed and compared with positions obtained from a star catalog. No statistically significant differences were observed beyond those expected from the pre-launch uncertainty in the Star Sensor mounting. Based on the star observations and their positions in the spacecraft reference system, pointing of the IBEX satellite spin axis was determined and compared with the pointing obtained from the ACS. Again, no statistically significant deviations were observed. We conclude that no systematic correction for boresight geometry is needed in the analysis of IBEX-Lo observations to determine neutral interstellar gas flow properties. A stack-up of uncertainties in attitude knowledge shows that the instantaneous IBEX-Lo pointing is determined to within ∼0. 0 1 in both spin angle and elevation using either the Star Sensor or the ACS. Further, the Star Sensor can be used to independently determine the spacecraft spin axis. Thus, Star Sensor data can be used reliably to correct the spin phase when the Star Tracker (used by the ACS) is disabled by bright objects in its field of view. The Star Sensor can also determine the spin axis during most orbits and thus provides redundancy for the Star Tracker.

  3. Precision mechatronics based on high-precision measuring and positioning systems and machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerd; Manske, Eberhard; Hausotte, Tino; Mastylo, Rostyslav; Dorozhovets, Natalja; Hofmann, Norbert

    2007-06-01

    Precision mechatronics is defined in the paper as the science and engineering of a new generation of high precision systems and machines. Nanomeasuring and nanopositioning engineering represents important fields of precision mechatronics. The nanometrology is described as the today's limit of the precision engineering. The problem, how to design nanopositioning machines with uncertainties as small as possible will be discussed. The integration of several optical and tactile nanoprobes makes the 3D-nanopositioning machine suitable for various tasks, such as long range scanning probe microscopy, mask and wafer inspection, nanotribology, nanoindentation, free form surface measurement as well as measurement of microoptics, precision molds, microgears, ring gauges and small holes.

  4. Precision spectroscopy on atomic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthey, Christian Godehard

    2011-12-15

    This Thesis reports on three measurements involving the 1S-2S transition in atomic hydrogen and deuterium conducted on a 5.8 K atomic beam. The transition is excited Doppler-free via two counter-propagating photons near 243 nm. The H/D isotope shift has been determined as {delta}{integral}{sub exp}=670 994 334 606(15) Hz. Comparing with the theoretical value for the isotope shift, excluding the leading nuclear size effect, {delta}{integral}{sub th}=670 999 566.90(66)(60) kHz we confirm, twice more accurate, the rms charge radius difference of the deuteron and the proton as left angle r{sup 2} right angle {sub d}- left angle r{sup 2} right angle {sub p}=3.82007(65) fm{sup 2} and the deuteron structure radius r{sub str}=1.97507(78) fm. The frequency ratio of the 1S-2S transition in atomic hydrogen to the cesium ground state hyperfine transition provided by the mobile cesium fountain clock FOM is measured to be {integral}{sub 1S-2S}=2 466 061 413 187 035 (10) Hz which presents a fractional frequency uncertainty of 4.2 x 10{sup -15}. The second absolute frequency measurement of the 1S-2S transition in atomic hydrogen presents the first application of a 900 km fiber link between MPQ and Physikalisch- Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig which we have used to calibrate the MPQ hydrogen maser with the stationary cesium fountain clock CSF1 at PTB. With the result of {integral}{sub 1S-2S}=2 466 061 413 187 017 (11) Hz we can put a constraint on the electron Lorentz boost violating coefficients 0.95c{sub (TX)}-0.29c{sub (TY)}-0.08 c{sub (TZ)}=(2.2{+-}1.8) x 10{sup -11} within the framework of minimal standard model extensions. We limit a possible drift of the strong coupling constant through the ratio of magnetic moments at a competitive level ({partial_derivative})/({partial_derivative}t)ln ({mu}{sub Cs})/({mu}{sub B})=-(3.0{+-}1.2) x 10{sup -15} yr{sup -1}.

  5. Precision spectroscopy on atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthey, Christian Godehard

    2011-01-01

    This Thesis reports on three measurements involving the 1S-2S transition in atomic hydrogen and deuterium conducted on a 5.8 K atomic beam. The transition is excited Doppler-free via two counter-propagating photons near 243 nm. The H/D isotope shift has been determined as Δ∫ exp =670 994 334 606(15) Hz. Comparing with the theoretical value for the isotope shift, excluding the leading nuclear size effect, Δ∫ th =670 999 566.90(66)(60) kHz we confirm, twice more accurate, the rms charge radius difference of the deuteron and the proton as left angle r 2 right angle d - left angle r 2 right angle p =3.82007(65) fm 2 and the deuteron structure radius r str =1.97507(78) fm. The frequency ratio of the 1S-2S transition in atomic hydrogen to the cesium ground state hyperfine transition provided by the mobile cesium fountain clock FOM is measured to be ∫ 1S-2S =2 466 061 413 187 035 (10) Hz which presents a fractional frequency uncertainty of 4.2 x 10 -15 . The second absolute frequency measurement of the 1S-2S transition in atomic hydrogen presents the first application of a 900 km fiber link between MPQ and Physikalisch- Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig which we have used to calibrate the MPQ hydrogen maser with the stationary cesium fountain clock CSF1 at PTB. With the result of ∫ 1S-2S =2 466 061 413 187 017 (11) Hz we can put a constraint on the electron Lorentz boost violating coefficients 0.95c (TX) -0.29c (TY) -0.08 c (TZ) =(2.2±1.8) x 10 -11 within the framework of minimal standard model extensions. We limit a possible drift of the strong coupling constant through the ratio of magnetic moments at a competitive level (∂)/(∂t)ln (μ Cs )/(μ B )=-(3.0±1.2) x 10 -15 yr -1 .

  6. High precision spectrophotometric analysis of thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, H.E.L.

    1984-01-01

    An accurate and precise determination of thorium is proposed. Precision of about 0,1% is required for the determination of macroquantities of thorium when processed. After an extensive literature search concerning this subject, spectrophotometric titration has been chosen, using dissodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) solution and alizarin-S as indicator. In order to obtain such a precision, an amount of 0,025 M EDTA solution precisely measured has been added and the titration was completed with less than 5 ml of 0,0025 M EDTA solution. It is usual to locate the end-point graphically, by plotting added titrant versus absorbance. The non-linear minimum square fit, using the Fletcher e Powell's minimization process and a computer programme. Besides the equivalence point, other parameters of titration were determined: the indicator concentration, the absorbance of the metal-indicator complex, and the stability constants of the metal-indicator and the metal-EDTA complexes. (Author) [pt

  7. Thorium spectrophotometric analysis with high precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, H.E.L.

    1983-06-01

    An accurate and precise determination of thorium is proposed. Precision of about 0,1% is required for the determination of macroquantities of thorium processed. After an extensive literature search concerning this subject, spectrophotometric titration has been chosen, using disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) solution and alizarin S as indicator. In order to obtain such a precision, an amount of 0,025 M EDTA solution precisely measured has been added and the titration was completed with less than 5 ml of 0,0025 M EDTA solution. It is usual to locate the end-point graphically, by plotting added titrant versus absorbance. The non-linear minimum square fit, using the Fletcher e Powell's minimization process and a computer program. (author)

  8. Cardiovascular Precision Medicine in the Genomics Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M. Dainis, BS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Precision medicine strives to delineate disease using multiple data sources—from genomics to digital health metrics—in order to be more precise and accurate in our diagnoses, definitions, and treatments of disease subtypes. By defining disease at a deeper level, we can treat patients based on an understanding of the molecular underpinnings of their presentations, rather than grouping patients into broad categories with one-size-fits-all treatments. In this review, the authors examine how precision medicine, specifically that surrounding genetic testing and genetic therapeutics, has begun to make strides in both common and rare cardiovascular diseases in the clinic and the laboratory, and how these advances are beginning to enable us to more effectively define risk, diagnose disease, and deliver therapeutics for each individual patient. Key Words: genome sequencing, genomics, precision medicine, targeted therapeutics

  9. Equity and Value in 'Precision Medicine'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Muir; Lagerberg, Tyra; Dombrádi, Viktor

    2017-04-01

    Precision medicine carries huge potential in the treatment of many diseases, particularly those with high-penetrance monogenic underpinnings. However, precision medicine through genomic technologies also has ethical implications. We will define allocative, personal, and technical value ('triple value') in healthcare and how this relates to equity. Equity is here taken to be implicit in the concept of triple value in countries that have publicly funded healthcare systems. It will be argued that precision medicine risks concentrating resources to those that already experience greater access to healthcare and power in society, nationally as well as globally. Healthcare payers, clinicians, and patients must all be involved in optimising the potential of precision medicine, without reducing equity. Throughout, the discussion will refer to the NHS RightCare Programme, which is a national initiative aiming to improve value and equity in the context of NHS England.

  10. The forthcoming era of precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamulin, Stjepan

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this essay is to present the definition and principles of personalized or precision medicine, the perspective and barriers to its development and clinical application. The implementation of precision medicine in health care requires the coordinated efforts of all health care stakeholders (the biomedical community, government, regulatory bodies, patients' groups). Particularly, translational research with the integration of genomic and comprehensive data from all levels of the organism ("big data"), development of bioinformatics platforms enabling network analysis of disease etiopathogenesis, development of a legislative framework for handling personal data, and new paradigms of medical education are necessary for successful application of the concept of precision medicine in health care. In the present and future era of precision medicine, the collaboration of all participants in health care is necessary for its realization, resulting in improvement of diagnosis, prevention and therapy, based on a holistic, individually tailored approach. Copyright © 2016 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  11. Epistemology, Ethics, and Progress in Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Barsanti-Innes, Brianna

    2016-01-01

    The emerging paradigm of precision medicine strives to leverage the tools of molecular biology to prospectively tailor treatments to the individual patient. Fundamental to the success of this movement is the discovery and validation of "predictive biomarkers," which are properties of a patient's biological specimens that can be assayed in advance of therapy to inform the treatment decision. Unfortunately, research into biomarkers and diagnostics for precision medicine has fallen well short of expectations. In this essay, we examine the portfolio of research activities into the excision repair cross complement group 1 (ERCC1) gene as a predictive biomarker for precision lung cancer therapy as a case study in elucidating the epistemological and ethical obstacles to developing new precision medicines.

  12. A Note on "Accuracy" and "Precision"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Gillmore, Gerald M.

    1971-01-01

    Advocates the use of precision" rather than accuracy" in defining reliability. These terms are consistently differentiated in certain sciences. Review of psychological and measurement literature reveals, however, interchangeable usage of the terms in defining reliability. (Author/GS)

  13. Precision axial translator with high stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösch, M A

    1979-08-01

    We describe a new type of translator which is inherently stable against torsion and twisting. This concentric translator is also ideally suited for precise axial motion with clearance of the center line.

  14. Mechanics and Physics of Precise Vacuum Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Deulin, E. A; Panfilov, Yu V; Nevshupa, R. A

    2010-01-01

    In this book the Russian expertise in the field of the design of precise vacuum mechanics is summarized. A wide range of physical applications of mechanism design in electronic, optical-electronic, chemical, and aerospace industries is presented in a comprehensible way. Topics treated include the method of microparticles flow regulation and its determination in vacuum equipment and mechanisms of electronics; precise mechanisms of nanoscale precision based on magnetic and electric rheology; precise harmonic rotary and not-coaxial nut-screw linear motion vacuum feedthroughs with technical parameters considered the best in the world; elastically deformed vacuum motion feedthroughs without friction couples usage; the computer system of vacuum mechanisms failure predicting. This English edition incorporates a number of features which should improve its usefulness as a textbook without changing the basic organization or the general philosophy of presentation of the subject matter of the original Russian work. Exper...

  15. Precision Munition Electro-Sciences Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility allows the characterization of the electro-magnetic environment produced by a precision weapon in free flight. It can measure the radiofrequency (RF)...

  16. Precision electroweak physics at the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, Eric B.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of Tevatron electroweak measurements performed by the CDF and Dφ experiments is presented. The current status and future prospects for high precision measurements of electroweak parameters and detailed studies of boson production are highlighted. (author)

  17. Precision Guidance with Impact Angle Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ford, Jason

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines a weapon system precision guidance problem in which the objective is to guide a weapon onto a non-manoeuvring target so that a particular desired angle of impact is achieved using...

  18. Precise subtyping for synchronous multiparty sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangiola Dezani-Ciancaglini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The notion of subtyping has gained an important role both in theoretical and applicative domains: in lambda and concurrent calculi as well as in programming languages. The soundness and the completeness, together referred to as the preciseness of subtyping, can be considered from two different points of view: operational and denotational. The former preciseness has been recently developed with respect to type safety, i.e. the safe replacement of a term of a smaller type when a term of a bigger type is expected. The latter preciseness is based on the denotation of a type which is a mathematical object that describes the meaning of the type in accordance with the denotations of other expressions from the language. The result of this paper is the operational and denotational preciseness of the subtyping for a synchronous multiparty session calculus. The novelty of this paper is the introduction of characteristic global types to prove the operational completeness.

  19. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A. [Fermilab

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  20. Precise Calculation of Complex Radioactive Decay Chains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harr, Logan J

    2007-01-01

    ...). An application of the exponential moments function is used with a transmutation matrix in the calculation of complex radioactive decay chains to achieve greater precision than can be attained through current methods...

  1. Collaborative Genomics Study Advances Precision Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaborative study conducted by two Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG) initiatives highlights the importance of integrating structural and functional genomics programs to improve cancer therapies, and more specifically, contribute to precision oncology treatments for children.

  2. Nucleon measurements at the precision frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Carl E. [Physics Department, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    We comment on nucleon measurements at the precision frontier. As examples of what can be learned, we concentrate on three topics, which are parity violating scattering experiments, the proton radius puzzle, and the symbiosis between nuclear and atomic physics.

  3. The forthcoming era of precision medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Gamulin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of this essay is to present the definition and principles of personalized or precision medicine, the perspective and barriers to its development and clinical application. The implementation of precision medicine in health care requires the coordinated efforts of all health care stakeholders (the biomedical community, government, regulatory bodies, patients’ groups. Particularly, translational research with the integration of genomic and comprehensive data from all levels of the organism (“big data”, development of bioinformatics platforms enabling network analysis of disease etiopathogenesis, development of a legislative framework for handling personal data, and new paradigms of medical education are necessary for successful application of the concept of precision medicine in health care. Conclusion. In the present and future era of precision medicine, the collaboration of all participants in health care is necessary for its realization, resulting in improvement of diagnosis, prevention and therapy, based on a holistic, individually tailored approach.

  4. PRECISION ELECTROWEAK MEASUREMENTS AND THE HIGGS MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARCIANO, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    The utility of precision electroweak measurements for predicting the Standard Model Higgs mass via quantum loop effects is discussed. Current constraints from m w and sin 2 θ w (m z ) ovr MS imply a relatively light Higgs ∼< 154 GeV which is consistent with Supersymmetry expectations. The existence of Supersymmetry is further suggested by a discrepancy between experiment and theory for the muon anomalous magnetic moment. Constraints from precision studies on other types of ''New Physics'' are also briefly described

  5. Precision Medicine-Nobody Is Average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinks, A A

    2017-03-01

    Medicine gets personal and tailor-made treatments are underway. Hospitals have started to advertise their advanced genomic testing capabilities and even their disruptive technologies to help foster a culture of innovation. The prediction in the lay press is that in decades from now we may look back and see 2017 as the year precision medicine blossomed. It is all part of the Precision Medicine Initiative that takes into account individual differences in people's genes, environments, and lifestyles. © 2017 ASCPT.

  6. The role of precise time in IFF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    The application of precise time to the identification of friend or foe (IFF) problem is discussed. The simple concept of knowing when to expect each signal is exploited in a variety of ways to achieve an IFF system which is hard to detect, minimally exploitable and difficult to jam. Precise clocks are the backbone of the concept and the various candidates for this role are discussed. The compact rubidium-controlled oscillator is the only practical candidate.

  7. Precision siting of a particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintra, Jorge Pimentel

    1996-01-01

    Precise location is a specific survey job that involves a high skilled work to avoid unrecoverable results at the project installation. As a function of the different process stages, different specifications can be applied, invoking different instruments: theodolite, measurement tape, distanciometer, invar wire. This paper, based on experience obtained at the installation of particle accelerator equipment, deals with general principles of precise location: tolerance definitions, increasing accuracy techniques, schedule of locations, sensitivity analysis, quality control methods. (author)

  8. Principles of precision medicine in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Jason D; Rost, Natalia S; Leung, Thomas W; Montaner, Joan; Muir, Keith W; Brown, Scott; Arenillas, Juan F; Feldmann, Edward; Liebeskind, David S

    2017-01-01

    The era of precision medicine has arrived and conveys tremendous potential, particularly for stroke neurology. The diagnosis of stroke, its underlying aetiology, theranostic strategies, recurrence risk and path to recovery are populated by a series of highly individualised questions. Moreover, the phenotypic complexity of a clinical diagnosis of stroke makes a simple genetic risk assessment only partially informative on an individual basis. The guiding principles of precision medicine in stroke underscore the need to identify, value, organise and analyse the multitude of variables obtained from each individual to generate a precise approach to optimise cerebrovascular health. Existing data may be leveraged with novel technologies, informatics and practical clinical paradigms to apply these principles in stroke and realise the promise of precision medicine. Importantly, precision medicine in stroke will only be realised once efforts to collect, value and synthesise the wealth of data collected in clinical trials and routine care starts. Stroke theranostics, the ultimate vision of synchronising tailored therapeutic strategies based on specific diagnostic data, demand cerebrovascular expertise on big data approaches to clinically relevant paradigms. This review considers such challenges and delineates the principles on a roadmap for rational application of precision medicine to stroke and cerebrovascular health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Precision medicine needs pioneering clinical bioinformaticians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Dopazo, Joaquín; Cigudosa, Juan C; Valencia, Alfonso; Al-Shahrour, Fátima

    2017-10-25

    Success in precision medicine depends on accessing high-quality genetic and molecular data from large, well-annotated patient cohorts that couple biological samples to comprehensive clinical data, which in conjunction can lead to effective therapies. From such a scenario emerges the need for a new professional profile, an expert bioinformatician with training in clinical areas who can make sense of multi-omics data to improve therapeutic interventions in patients, and the design of optimized basket trials. In this review, we first describe the main policies and international initiatives that focus on precision medicine. Secondly, we review the currently ongoing clinical trials in precision medicine, introducing the concept of 'precision bioinformatics', and we describe current pioneering bioinformatics efforts aimed at implementing tools and computational infrastructures for precision medicine in health institutions around the world. Thirdly, we discuss the challenges related to the clinical training of bioinformaticians, and the urgent need for computational specialists capable of assimilating medical terminologies and protocols to address real clinical questions. We also propose some skills required to carry out common tasks in clinical bioinformatics and some tips for emergent groups. Finally, we explore the future perspectives and the challenges faced by precision medicine bioinformatics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Towards precision medicine; a new biomedical cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegter, M W

    2018-02-10

    Precision Medicine has become a common label for data-intensive and patient-driven biomedical research. Its intended future is reflected in endeavours such as the Precision Medicine Initiative in the USA. This article addresses the question whether it is possible to discern a new 'medical cosmology' in Precision Medicine, a concept that was developed by Nicholas Jewson to describe comprehensive transformations involving various dimensions of biomedical knowledge and practice, such as vocabularies, the roles of patients and physicians and the conceptualisation of disease. Subsequently, I will elaborate my assessment of the features of Precision Medicine with the help of Michel Foucault, by exploring how precision medicine involves a transformation along three axes: the axis of biomedical knowledge, of biomedical power and of the patient as a self. Patients are encouraged to become the managers of their own health status, while the medical domain is reframed as a data-sharing community, characterised by changing power relationships between providers and patients, producers and consumers. While the emerging Precision Medicine cosmology may surpass existing knowledge frameworks; it obscures previous traditions and reduces research-subjects to mere data. This in turn, means that the individual is both subjected to the neoliberal demand to share personal information, and at the same time has acquired the positive 'right' to become a member of the data-sharing community. The subject has to constantly negotiate the meaning of his or her data, which can either enable self-expression, or function as a commanding Superego.

  11. Precision oncology: origins, optimism, and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay; Fojo, Tito; Brada, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Imatinib, the first and arguably the best targeted therapy, became the springboard for developing drugs aimed at molecular targets deemed crucial to tumours. As this development unfolded, a revolution in the speed and cost of genetic sequencing occurred. The result--an armamentarium of drugs and an array of molecular targets--set the stage for precision oncology, a hypothesis that cancer treatment could be markedly improved if therapies were guided by a tumour's genomic alterations. Drawing lessons from the biological basis of cancer and recent empirical investigations, we take a more measured view of precision oncology's promise. Ultimately, the promise is not our concern, but the threshold at which we declare success. We review reports of precision oncology alongside those of precision diagnostics and novel radiotherapy approaches. Although confirmatory evidence is scarce, these interventions have been widely endorsed. We conclude that the current path will probably not be successful or, at a minimum, will have to undergo substantive adjustments before it can be successful. For the sake of patients with cancer, we hope one form of precision oncology will deliver on its promise. However, until confirmatory studies are completed, precision oncology remains unproven, and as such, a hypothesis in need of rigorous testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The economic case for precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavan, Sean P; Thompson, Alexander J; Payne, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Introduction : The advancement of precision medicine into routine clinical practice has been highlighted as an agenda for national and international health care policy. A principle barrier to this advancement is in meeting requirements of the payer or reimbursement agency for health care. This special report aims to explain the economic case for precision medicine, by accounting for the explicit objectives defined by decision-makers responsible for the allocation of limited health care resources. Areas covered : The framework of cost-effectiveness analysis, a method of economic evaluation, is used to describe how precision medicine can, in theory, exploit identifiable patient-level heterogeneity to improve population health outcomes and the relative cost-effectiveness of health care. Four case studies are used to illustrate potential challenges when demonstrating the economic case for a precision medicine in practice. Expert commentary : The economic case for a precision medicine should be considered at an early stage during its research and development phase. Clinical and economic evidence can be generated iteratively and should be in alignment with the objectives and requirements of decision-makers. Programmes of further research, to demonstrate the economic case of a precision medicine, can be prioritized by the extent that they reduce the uncertainty expressed by decision-makers.

  13. Comparative evaluation of 11C-MET PET-CT and MRI for GTV delineation in precision radiotherapy for gliomas%基于11C-MET PET-CT与MRI对脑胶质瘤精确放疗GTV勾画的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王如; 钱立庭; 汪世存; 刘伟; 罗文广; 张洪波; 李广虎; 胡智刚; 刘磊

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨11C-MET PET-CT和MRI图像对脑胶质瘤GTV确定的差异.方法 选取6例经病理证实为胶质瘤患者的术前MRI及11C-MET PET-CT图像,分别由我科5位医师在两种图像资料上勾画GTV,比较两者差异.结果 在MRI11C-MET PET-CT上勾画的GTV体积相似(P=0.917),GTV变异系数也相似(P =0.600).勾画的GTV重合度最大为73.0%、最小为51.8%.方差分析显示不同勾画者之间在两种图像资料上勾画的GTV相似(P =0.709),但PET-CT组GTV最大差值为27.66 cm3,而MRI组的为40.37 cm3.结论 MRI与PET-CT显示的肿瘤边界存在差异,不同勾画者勾画的GTV相似,PET-CT组的GTV最大差值较MRI组的小,11C-MET PET-CT显示GTV较为直观.%Objective To evaluate the difference between MRI and 11C-MET PET-CT for gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation in the precision radiotherapy for gliomas.Methods Six patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of gliomas were selected for target delineation.Five physicians in our department were called to delineate the GTV based on the preoperative MRI and 11C-MET PET-CT images of these patients.The GTVs based on the two methods were compared.Results There was no significant difference between the GTVs based on MRI and 11C-MET PET-CT (P =0.917),and their coefficients of variation were also similar (P =0.600).The coincidences of GTVs were different among the patients,with a maximum value of 73.0% and a minimum value of 51.8%.GTV showed no significant difference when defined by different physicians on MRI and PET-CT (P =0.709) ; the biggest difference was 27.66 cm3 on PET-CT and 40.37 cm3 on MRI.Conclusions The boundaries of gliomas defined on MRI and PET-CT are different.The GTVs delineated by different physicians on MRI and PET-CT are similar,and the biggest difference on PET-CT is smaller than that on MRI,which suggests that 11C-MET PET-CT is a more direct way for displaying GTV.

  14. Precision and Accuracy Parameters in Structured Light 3-D Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiríksson, E. R.; Wilm, J.; Pedersen, D. B.; Aanæs, H.

    2016-04-01

    Structured light systems are popular in part because they can be constructed from off-the-shelf low cost components. In this paper we quantitatively show how common design parameters affect precision and accuracy in such systems, supplying a much needed guide for practitioners. Our quantitative measure is the established VDI/VDE 2634 (Part 2) guideline using precision made calibration artifacts. Experiments are performed on our own structured light setup, consisting of two cameras and a projector. We place our focus on the influence of calibration design parameters, the calibration procedure and encoding strategy and present our findings. Finally, we compare our setup to a state of the art metrology grade commercial scanner. Our results show that comparable, and in some cases better, results can be obtained using the parameter settings determined in this study.

  15. Cliché fabrication method using precise roll printing process with 5 um pattern width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yejin; Kim, Inyoung; Oh, Dong-Ho; Lee, Taik-Min

    2016-09-01

    Among the printing processes for printed electronic devices, gravure offset and reverse offset method have drawn attention for its fine pattern printing possibility. These printing methods use cliché, which has critical effect on the final product precision and quality. In this research, a novel precise cliché replica method is proposed. It consists of copper sputtering, precise mask pattern printing with 5 um width using reverse offset printing, Ni electroplating, lift-off, etching, and DLC coating. We finally compare the fabricated replica cliché with the original one and print out precise patterns using the replica cliché.

  16. Students as Toolmakers: Refining the Results in the Accuracy and Precision of a Trigonometric Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoe, D. P.; Parisi, A. V.; Wagner, S.

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones used as tools provide opportunities for the teaching of the concepts of accuracy and precision and the mathematical concept of arctan. The accuracy and precision of a trigonometric experiment using entirely mechanical tools is compared to one using electronic tools, such as a smartphone clinometer application and a laser pointer. This…

  17. Statistical precision in charged particle EDM search in storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksentev, A. E.; Senichev, Y. V.

    2017-12-01

    Currently, the “Jülich Electric Dipole moment Investigations” (JEDI) collaboration, together with present EDM experiments at the COSY ring, is developing the conceptual design of a ring specifically for the search for the deuteron electric dipole moment (dEDM). One of the main problems in the EDM study is the spin precession in the vertical plane caused by the non-ideal positioning of accelerator elements through the magnetic dipole moment (MDM). The idea of how to separate the EDM from MDM is based on measuring the spin tune in different processes and comparing the results. The high precision of the spin tune measurement is achieved by collecting huge amounts of data. The JEDI collaboration aims at detecting the EDM at a level better than 10-29 e · cm, for which one requires a precision in the frequency estimate ˜ 10-9 rad/sec. An estimate’s statistical precision is conditional on the following factors: the total measurement time, determining the independent variable spread; measurement error; temporal modulation and spacing of sample points. In this paper we analyze the interplay between these factors, and estimate the best achievable precision under given conditions.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging for precise radiotherapy of small laboratory animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, Thorsten [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Bereich Strahlentherapie; Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Anatomie und Experimentelle Morphologie; Kaul, Michael Gerhard; Ernst, Thomas Michael; Salamon, Johannes [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Jaeckel, Maria [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie; Schumacher, Udo [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Anatomie und Experimentelle Morphologie; Kruell, Andreas [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Bereich Strahlentherapie

    2017-05-01

    Radiotherapy of small laboratory animals (SLA) is often not as precisely applied as in humans. Here we describe the use of a dedicated SLA magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner for precise tumor volumetry, radiotherapy treatment planning, and diagnostic imaging in order to make the experiments more accurate. Different human cancer cells were injected at the lower trunk of pfp/rag2 and SCID mice to allow for local tumor growth. Data from cross sectional MRI scans were transferred to a clinical treatment planning system (TPS) for humans. Manual palpation of the tumor size was compared with calculated tumor size of the TPS and with tumor weight at necropsy. As a feasibility study MRI based treatment plans were calculated for a clinical 6 MV linear accelerator using a micro multileaf collimator (μMLC). In addition, diagnostic MRI scans were used to investigate animals which did clinical poorly during the study. MRI is superior in precise tumor volume definition whereas manual palpation underestimates their size. Cross sectional MRI allow for treatment planning so that conformal irradiation of mice with a clinical linear accelerator using a μMLC is in principle feasible. Several internal pathologies were detected during the experiment using the dedicated scanner. MRI is a key technology for precise radiotherapy of SLA. The scanning protocols provided are suited for tumor volumetry, treatment planning, and diagnostic imaging.

  19. Derivation and precision of mean field electrodynamics with mesoscale fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongzhe; Blackman, Eric G.

    2018-06-01

    Mean field electrodynamics (MFE) facilitates practical modelling of secular, large scale properties of astrophysical or laboratory systems with fluctuations. Practitioners commonly assume wide scale separation between mean and fluctuating quantities, to justify equality of ensemble and spatial or temporal averages. Often however, real systems do not exhibit such scale separation. This raises two questions: (I) What are the appropriate generalized equations of MFE in the presence of mesoscale fluctuations? (II) How precise are theoretical predictions from MFE? We address both by first deriving the equations of MFE for different types of averaging, along with mesoscale correction terms that depend on the ratio of averaging scale to variation scale of the mean. We then show that even if these terms are small, predictions of MFE can still have a significant precision error. This error has an intrinsic contribution from the dynamo input parameters and a filtering contribution from differences in the way observations and theory are projected through the measurement kernel. Minimizing the sum of these contributions can produce an optimal scale of averaging that makes the theory maximally precise. The precision error is important to quantify when comparing to observations because it quantifies the resolution of predictive power. We exemplify these principles for galactic dynamos, comment on broader implications, and identify possibilities for further work.

  20. Layered compression for high-precision depth data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Dan; Fu, Jingjing; Lu, Yan; Li, Shipeng; Chen, Chang Wen

    2015-12-01

    With the development of depth data acquisition technologies, access to high-precision depth with more than 8-b depths has become much easier and determining how to efficiently represent and compress high-precision depth is essential for practical depth storage and transmission systems. In this paper, we propose a layered high-precision depth compression framework based on an 8-b image/video encoder to achieve efficient compression with low complexity. Within this framework, considering the characteristics of the high-precision depth, a depth map is partitioned into two layers: 1) the most significant bits (MSBs) layer and 2) the least significant bits (LSBs) layer. The MSBs layer provides rough depth value distribution, while the LSBs layer records the details of the depth value variation. For the MSBs layer, an error-controllable pixel domain encoding scheme is proposed to exploit the data correlation of the general depth information with sharp edges and to guarantee the data format of LSBs layer is 8 b after taking the quantization error from MSBs layer. For the LSBs layer, standard 8-b image/video codec is leveraged to perform the compression. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed coding scheme can achieve real-time depth compression with satisfactory reconstruction quality. Moreover, the compressed depth data generated from this scheme can achieve better performance in view synthesis and gesture recognition applications compared with the conventional coding schemes because of the error control algorithm.

  1. Force, reaction time, and precision of Kung Fu strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Bolander, Richard; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares; Bir, Cynthia

    2009-08-01

    The goal was to compare values of force, precision, and reaction time of several martial arts punches and palm strikes performed by advanced and intermediate Kung Fu practitioners, both men and women. 13 Kung Fu practitioners, 10 men and three women, participated. Only the men, three advanced and seven intermediate, were considered for comparisons between levels. Reaction time values were obtained using two high speed cameras that recorded each strike at 2500 Hz. Force of impact was measured by a load cell. For comparisons of groups, force data were normalized by participant's body mass and height. Precision of the strikes was determined by a high speed pressure sensor. The results show that palm strikes were stronger than punches. Women in the study presented, on average, lower values of reaction time and force but higher values of precision than men. Advanced participants presented higher forces than intermediate participants. Significant negative correlations between the values of force and precision and the values of force and reaction time were also found.

  2. An Empirical Study of Precise Interprocedural Array Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hind

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we examine the role played by the interprocedural analysis of array accesses in the automatic parallelization of Fortran programs. We use the PTRAN system to provide measurements of several benchmarks to compare different methods of representing interprocedurally accessed arrays. We examine issues concerning the effectiveness of automatic parallelization using these methods and the efficiency of a precise summarization method.

  3. The landscape of precision cancer medicine clinical trials in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Nitin; Stensland, Kristian D; Hendricks, Ryan; Galsky, Matthew D

    2015-05-01

    Advances in tumor biology and multiplex genomic analysis have ushered in the era of precision cancer medicine. Little is currently known, however, about the landscape of prospective "precision cancer medicine" clinical trials in the U.S. We identified all adult interventional cancer trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov between September 2005 and May 2013. Trials were classified as "precision cancer medicine" if a genomic alteration in a predefined set of 88 genes was required for enrollment. Baseline characteristics were ascertained for each trial. Of the initial 18,797 trials identified, 9094 (48%) were eligible for inclusion: 684 (8%) were classified as precision cancer medicine trials and 8410 (92%) were non-precision cancer medicine trials. Compared with non-precision cancer medicine trials, precision cancer medicine trials were significantly more likely to be phase II [RR 1.19 (1.10-1.29), pPrecision medicine trials required 38 unique genomic alterations for enrollment. The proportion of precision cancer medicine trials compared to the total number of trials increased from 3% in 2006 to 16% in 2013. The proportion of adult cancer clinical trials in the U.S. requiring a genomic alteration for enrollment has increased substantially over the past several years. However, such trials still represent a small minority of studies performed within the cancer clinical trials enterprise and include a small subset of putatively "actionable" alterations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of the precision of three commonly used GPS models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Chavoshi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Development of science in various fields has caused change in the methods to determine geographical location. Precision farming involves new technology that provides the opportunity for farmers to change in factors such as nutrients, soil moisture available to plants, soil physical and chemical characteristics and other factors with the spatial resolution of less than a centimeter to several meters to monitor and evaluate. GPS receivers based on precision farming operations specified accuracies are used in the following areas: 1 monitoring of crop and soil sampling (less than one meter accuracy 2 use of fertilizer, pesticide and seed work (less than half a meter accuracy 3 Transplantation and row cultivation (precision of less than 4 cm (Perez et al., 2011. In one application of GPS in agriculture, route guidance precision farming tractors in the fields was designed to reduce the transmission error that deviate from the path specified in the range of 50 to 300 mm driver informed and improved way to display (Perez et al., 2011. In another study, the system automatically guidance, based on RTK-GPS technology, precision tillage operations was used between and within the rows very close to the drip irrigation pipe and without damage to their crops at a distance of 50 mm (Abidine et al., 2004. In another study, to compare the accuracy and precision of the receivers, 5 different models of Trimble Mark GPS devices from 15 stations were mapped, the results indicated that minimum error was related to Geo XT model with an accuracy of 91 cm and maximum error was related to Pharos model with an accuracy of 5.62 m (Kindra et al., 2006. Due to the increasing use of GPS receivers in agriculture as well as the lack of trust on the real accuracy and precision of receivers, this study aimed to compare the positioning accuracy and precision of three commonly used GPS receivers models used to specify receivers with the lowest error for precision

  5. Precision forging technology for aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Wang, Xinyun; Jin, Junsong; Xia, Juchen

    2018-03-01

    Aluminum alloy is a preferred metal material for lightweight part manufacturing in aerospace, automobile, and weapon industries due to its good physical properties, such as low density, high specific strength, and good corrosion resistance. However, during forging processes, underfilling, folding, broken streamline, crack, coarse grain, and other macro- or microdefects are easily generated because of the deformation characteristics of aluminum alloys, including narrow forgeable temperature region, fast heat dissipation to dies, strong adhesion, high strain rate sensitivity, and large flow resistance. Thus, it is seriously restricted for the forged part to obtain precision shape and enhanced property. In this paper, progresses in precision forging technologies of aluminum alloy parts were reviewed. Several advanced precision forging technologies have been developed, including closed die forging, isothermal die forging, local loading forging, metal flow forging with relief cavity, auxiliary force or vibration loading, casting-forging hybrid forming, and stamping-forging hybrid forming. High-precision aluminum alloy parts can be realized by controlling the forging processes and parameters or combining precision forging technologies with other forming technologies. The development of these technologies is beneficial to promote the application of aluminum alloys in manufacturing of lightweight parts.

  6. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullane, Stephanie A; Van Allen, Eliezer M

    2016-05-01

    Precision cancer medicine, the use of genomic profiling of patient tumors at the point-of-care to inform treatment decisions, is rapidly changing treatment strategies across cancer types. Precision medicine for advanced prostate cancer may identify new treatment strategies and change clinical practice. In this review, we discuss the potential and challenges of precision medicine in advanced prostate cancer. Although primary prostate cancers do not harbor highly recurrent targetable genomic alterations, recent reports on the genomics of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has shown multiple targetable alterations in castration-resistant prostate cancer metastatic biopsies. Therapeutic implications include targeting prevalent DNA repair pathway alterations with PARP-1 inhibition in genomically defined subsets of patients, among other genomically stratified targets. In addition, multiple recent efforts have demonstrated the promise of liquid tumor profiling (e.g., profiling circulating tumor cells or cell-free tumor DNA) and highlighted the necessary steps to scale these approaches in prostate cancer. Although still in the initial phase of precision medicine for prostate cancer, there is extraordinary potential for clinical impact. Efforts to overcome current scientific and clinical barriers will enable widespread use of precision medicine approaches for advanced prostate cancer patients.

  7. The Challenges of Precision Medicine in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, Mario; Calzetta, Luigino; Rogliani, Paola; Matera, Maria Gabriella

    2017-08-01

    Pheno-/endotyping chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is really important because it provides patients with precise and personalized medicine. The central concept of precision medicine is to take individual variability into account when making management decisions. Precision medicine should ensure that patients get the right treatment at the right dose at the right time, with minimum harmful consequences and maximum efficacy. Ideally, we should search for genetic and molecular biomarker-based profiles. Given the clinical complexity of COPD, it seems likely that a panel of several biomarkers will be required to characterize pathogenetic factors and their course over time. The need for biomarkers to guide the clinical care of individuals with COPD and to enhance the possibilities of success in drug development is clear and urgent, but biomarker development is tremendously challenging and expensive, and translation of research efforts to date has been largely ineffective. Furthermore, the development of personalized treatments will require a much more detailed understanding of the clinical and biological heterogeneity of COPD. Therefore, we are still far from being able to apply precision medicine in COPD and the treatable traits and FEV 1 -free approaches are attempts to precision medicine in COPD that must be considered still quite unsophisticated.

  8. Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1998-04-28

    A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialographic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone. 1 fig.

  9. Assessing Precision in Conventional Field Measurements of Individual Tree Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Luoma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Forest resource information has a hierarchical structure: individual tree attributes are summed at the plot level and then in turn, plot-level estimates are used to derive stand or large-area estimates of forest resources. Due to this hierarchy, it is imperative that individual tree attributes are measured with accuracy and precision. With the widespread use of different measurement tools, it is also important to understand the expected degree of precision associated with these measurements. The most prevalent tree attributes measured in the field are tree species, stem diameter-at-breast-height (dbh, and tree height. For dbh and height, the most commonly used measuring devices are calipers and clinometers, respectively. The aim of our study was to characterize the precision of individual tree dbh and height measurements in boreal forest conditions when using calipers and clinometers. The data consisted of 319 sample trees at a study area in Evo, southern Finland. The sample trees were measured independently by four trained mensurationists. The standard deviation in tree dbh and height measurements was 0.3 cm (1.5% and 0.5 m (2.9%, respectively. Precision was also assessed by tree species and tree size classes; however, there were no statistically significant differences between the mensurationists for dbh or height measurements. Our study offers insights into the expected precision of tree dbh and height as measured with the most commonly used devices. These results are important when using sample plot data in forest inventory applications, especially now, at a time when new tree attribute measurement techniques based on remote sensing are being developed and compared to the conventional caliper and clinometer measurements.

  10. Estimating thumb–index finger precision grip and manipulation potential in extant and fossil primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feix, Thomas; Kivell, Tracy L.; Pouydebat, Emmanuelle; Dollar, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Primates, and particularly humans, are characterized by superior manual dexterity compared with other mammals. However, drawing the biomechanical link between hand morphology/behaviour and functional capabilities in non-human primates and fossil taxa has been challenging. We present a kinematic model of thumb–index precision grip and manipulative movement based on bony hand morphology in a broad sample of extant primates and fossil hominins. The model reveals that both joint mobility and digit proportions (scaled to hand size) are critical for determining precision grip and manipulation potential, but that having either a long thumb or great joint mobility alone does not necessarily yield high precision manipulation. The results suggest even the oldest available fossil hominins may have shared comparable precision grip manipulation with modern humans. In particular, the predicted human-like precision manipulation of Australopithecus afarensis, approximately one million years before the first stone tools, supports controversial archaeological evidence of tool-use in this taxon. PMID:25878134

  11. The Future of Precision Medicine in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Lori M; Strotman, Lindsay N

    2016-09-01

    Precision medicine in oncology focuses on identifying which therapies are most effective for each patient based on genetic characterization of the cancer. Traditional chemotherapy is cytotoxic and destroys all cells that are rapidly dividing. The foundation of precision medicine is targeted therapies and selecting patients who will benefit most from these therapies. One of the newest aspects of precision medicine is liquid biopsy. A liquid biopsy includes analysis of circulating tumor cells, cell-free nucleic acid, or exosomes obtained from a peripheral blood draw. These can be studied individually or in combination and collected serially, providing real-time information as a patient's cancer changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Toward precision medicine in primary biliary cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Marco; Ronca, Vincenzo; Bruno, Savino; Invernizzi, Pietro; Mells, George F

    2016-08-01

    Primary biliary cholangitis is a chronic, cholestatic liver disease characterized by a heterogeneous presentation, symptomatology, disease progression and response to therapy. In contrast, clinical management and treatment of PBC is homogeneous with a 'one size fits all' approach. The evolving research landscape, with the emergence of the -omics field and the availability of large patient cohorts are creating a unique opportunity of translational epidemiology. Furthermore, several novel disease and symptom-modifying agents for PBC are currently in development. The time is therefore ripe for precision medicine in PBC. In this manuscript we describe the concept of precision medicine; review current approaches to risk-stratification in PBC, and speculate how precision medicine in PBC might develop in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. High-Precision Computation and Mathematical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    At the present time, IEEE 64-bit floating-point arithmetic is sufficiently accurate for most scientific applications. However, for a rapidly growing body of important scientific computing applications, a higher level of numeric precision is required. Such calculations are facilitated by high-precision software packages that include high-level language translation modules to minimize the conversion effort. This paper presents a survey of recent applications of these techniques and provides some analysis of their numerical requirements. These applications include supernova simulations, climate modeling, planetary orbit calculations, Coulomb n-body atomic systems, scattering amplitudes of quarks, gluons and bosons, nonlinear oscillator theory, Ising theory, quantum field theory and experimental mathematics. We conclude that high-precision arithmetic facilities are now an indispensable component of a modern large-scale scientific computing environment.

  14. Subdomain Precise Integration Method for Periodic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A subdomain precise integration method is developed for the dynamical responses of periodic structures comprising many identical structural cells. The proposed method is based on the precise integration method, the subdomain scheme, and the repeatability of the periodic structures. In the proposed method, each structural cell is seen as a super element that is solved using the precise integration method, considering the repeatability of the structural cells. The computational efforts and the memory size of the proposed method are reduced, while high computational accuracy is achieved. Therefore, the proposed method is particularly suitable to solve the dynamical responses of periodic structures. Two numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method through comparison with the Newmark and Runge-Kutta methods.

  15. Microhartree precision in density functional theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulans, Andris; Kozhevnikov, Anton; Draxl, Claudia

    2018-04-01

    To address ultimate precision in density functional theory calculations we employ the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave + local-orbital (LAPW + lo) method and justify its usage as a benchmark method. LAPW + lo and two completely unrelated numerical approaches, the multiresolution analysis (MRA) and the linear combination of atomic orbitals, yield total energies of atoms with mean deviations of 0.9 and 0.2 μ Ha , respectively. Spectacular agreement with the MRA is reached also for total and atomization energies of the G2-1 set consisting of 55 molecules. With the example of α iron we demonstrate the capability of LAPW + lo to reach μ Ha /atom precision also for periodic systems, which allows also for the distinction between the numerical precision and the accuracy of a given functional.

  16. Nanotechnology: The new perspective in precision agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joginder Singh Duhan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary research field. In recent past efforts have been made to improve agricultural yield through exhaustive research in nanotechnology. The green revolution resulted in blind usage of pesticides and chemical fertilizers which caused loss of soil biodiversity and developed resistance against pathogens and pests as well. Nanoparticle-mediated material delivery to plants and advanced biosensors for precision farming are possible only by nanoparticles or nanochips. Nanoencapsulated conventional fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides helps in slow and sustained release of nutrients and agrochemicals resulting in precise dosage to the plants. Nanotechnology based plant viral disease detection kits are also becoming popular and are useful in speedy and early detection of viral diseases. In this article, the potential uses and benefits of nanotechnology in precision agriculture are discussed. The modern nanotechnology based tools and techniques have the potential to address the various problems of conventional agriculture and can revolutionize this sector.

  17. Pushing the precision frontier in Collider Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The interplay between precise theory predictions and experimental measurements has written a success story in particle physics. After a brief journey into history we will review recent developments which have led  to "revolutions" with regard to precision calculations and to new insights into the structure of quantum field theory. The second part of the talk will focus on phenomenology, especially on Higgs boson pair production as a window to physics beyond the Standard Model, manifesting itself in a modification of those Higgs couplings which are still to a large extent unconstrained, in particular the Higgs boson self-coupling.

  18. Non-precision approach in manual mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. В. Коршунов

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Considered is the method of non-precision approach of an aircraft in the manual mode with a constant angle of path. Advantage of this method consists in the fact that the construction of approach with a constant angle of path provides the stable path of flight. It is also considered a detailed analysis of the possibility of the approach by the above-mentioned method. Conclusions contain recommendations regarding the use of the described method of non-precision approach during training flights.

  19. A method for consistent precision radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, J.

    1985-01-01

    Using a meticulous setup procedure in which repeated portal films were taken before each treatment until satisfactory portal verifications were obtained, a high degree of precision in patient positioning was achieved. A fluctuation from treatment to treatment, over 11 treatments, of less than +-0.10 cm (S.D.) for anatomical points inside the treatment field was obtained. This, however, only applies to specific anatomical points selected for this positioning procedure and does not apply to all points within the portal. We have generalized this procedure and have suggested a means by which any target volume can be consistently positioned which may approach this degree of precision. (orig.)

  20. Precision medicine: what's all the fuss about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine is now recognized globally as a major new era in medicine. It is being driven by advances in genomics and other 'omics' but also by the desire on the part of both health systems and governments to offer more targeted and cost-effective care. However, it faces a number of challenges, from the economics of developing more expensive companion diagnostics to the need to educate patients and the public on the advantages for them. New models of both R&D and care delivery are needed to capture the scientific, clinical and economic benefits of precision medicine.

  1. High precision detector robot arm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  2. Fundamental limits of scintillation detector timing precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, Stephen E; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review the primary factors that affect the timing precision of a scintillation detector. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to explore the dependence of the timing precision on the number of photoelectrons, the scintillator decay and rise times, the depth of interaction uncertainty, the time dispersion of the optical photons (modeled as an exponential decay), the photodetector rise time and transit time jitter, the leading-edge trigger level, and electronic noise. The Monte Carlo code was used to estimate the practical limits on the timing precision for an energy deposition of 511 keV in 3 mm × 3 mm × 30 mm Lu 2 SiO 5 :Ce and LaBr 3 :Ce crystals. The calculated timing precisions are consistent with the best experimental literature values. We then calculated the timing precision for 820 cases that sampled scintillator rise times from 0 to 1.0 ns, photon dispersion times from 0 to 0.2 ns, photodetector time jitters from 0 to 0.5 ns fwhm, and A from 10 to 10 000 photoelectrons per ns decay time. Since the timing precision R was found to depend on A −1/2  more than any other factor, we tabulated the parameter B, where R = BA −1/2 . An empirical analytical formula was found that fit the tabulated values of B with an rms deviation of 2.2% of the value of B. The theoretical lower bound of the timing precision was calculated for the example of 0.5 ns rise time, 0.1 ns photon dispersion, and 0.2 ns fwhm photodetector time jitter. The lower bound was at most 15% lower than leading-edge timing discrimination for A from 10 to 10 000 photoelectrons ns −1 . A timing precision of 8 ps fwhm should be possible for an energy deposition of 511 keV using currently available photodetectors if a theoretically possible scintillator were developed that could produce 10 000 photoelectrons ns −1 . (paper)

  3. Automatic titrator for high precision plutonium assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Highly precise assay of plutonium metal is required for accountability measurements. We have developed an automatic titrator for this determination which eliminates analyst bias and requires much less analyst time. The analyst is only required to enter sample data and start the titration. The automated instrument titrates the sample, locates the end point, and outputs the results as a paper tape printout. Precision of the titration is less than 0.03% relative standard deviation for a single determination at the 250-mg plutonium level. The titration time is less than 5 min

  4. High-speed precision motion control

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Takashi; Pang, Chee Khiang

    2011-01-01

    Written for researchers and postgraduate students in Control Engineering, as well as professionals in the Hard Disk Drive industry, this book discusses high-precision and fast servo controls in Hard Disk Drives (HDDs). The editors present a number of control algorithms that enable fast seeking and high precision positioning, and propose problems from commercial products, making the book valuable to researchers in HDDs. Each chapter is self contained, and progresses from concept to technique, present application examples that can be used within automotive, aerospace, aeronautical, and manufactu

  5. Fundamentals of Pharmacogenetics in Personalized, Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Roland; Yin, DeLu Tyler

    2016-09-01

    This article introduces fundamental principles of pharmacogenetics as applied to personalized and precision medicine. Pharmacogenetics establishes relationships between pharmacology and genetics by connecting phenotypes and genotypes in predicting the response of therapeutics in individual patients. We describe differences between precision and personalized medicine and relate principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to applications in laboratory medicine. We also review basic principles of pharmacogenetics, including its evolution, how it enables the practice of personalized therapeutics, and the role of the clinical laboratory. These fundamentals are a segue for understanding specific clinical applications of pharmacogenetics described in subsequent articles in this issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Laser technology for high precision satellite tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    Fixed and mobile laser ranging stations have been developed to track satellites equipped with retro-reflector arrays. These have operated consistently at data rates of once per second with range precision better than 50 cm, using Q-switched ruby lasers with pulse durations of 20 to 40 nanoseconds. Improvements are being incorporated to improve the precision to 10 cm, and to permit ranging to more distant satellites. These include improved reflector array designs, processing and analysis of the received reflection pulses, and use of sub-nanosecond pulse duration lasers.

  7. Precision measurements in nuclear beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar, E-mail: naviliat@nscl.msu.edu [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Precision measurements in nuclear beta decay provide sensitive means to determine the fundamental coupling of charged fermions to weak bosons and to test discrete symmetries in the weak interaction. The main motivation of such measurements is to find deviations from Standard Model predictions as possible indications of new physics. I focus here on two topics related to precision measurements in beta decay, namely: (i) the determination of the V{sub ud} element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix from nuclear mirror transitions and (ii) selected measurements of time reversal violating correlations in nuclear and neutron decays. These topics complement those presented in other contributions to this conference.

  8. Examination of tumor diameter measurement precision by RECIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Masami; Ino, Kenji; Akahane, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    Image evaluation with Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) evaluates the change in a measurable lesion as determined by ruler or micrometer caliper. However, there is no definition of the conditions thought to influence the precision of measurement. We therefore examined the effects on measurement precision by changing image amplification, window width (WW), window level (WL), and time phase. Moreover, to determine response rate, one-dimensional evaluation with RECIST was compared with the two-dimensional evaluation of World Health Organization (WHO) for a hepatocellular carcinoma. The results of measuring the object lesion for measured value variation were as follows. Under image conditions of 1 time expansion/WW 150/WL 100 was (4.92±1.94)%. Under image conditions of 1 time expansion/WW 350/WL 75 was (4.42±1.70)%. Under image conditions of 4 times expansion/WW 150/WL 100 was (2.52±0.82)%. Under image conditions of 4 times expansion/WW 350/WL 75 was (2.83±1.10)%. When an image was enlarged to 4 times, precision doubled. There was no a difference in comparing RECIST to WHO in terms of response rate. Thus the best method was considered to be RECIST because of its convenience. (author)

  9. Precision Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2010-01-01

    This note presents constraints on Standard Model parameters using published and preliminary precision electroweak results measured at the electron-positron colliders LEP and SLC. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably CDF and DØ at the Tevatron. Constraints on the input parameters of the Standard Model are derived from the combined set of results obtained in high-$Q^2$ interactions, and used to predict results in low-$Q^2$ experiments, such as atomic parity violation, Møller scattering, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in 2009 are new combinations of results on the width of the W boson and the mass of the top quark.

  10. PRECISION SPECTROPHOTOMETRY AT THE LEVEL OF 0.1%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Renbin

    2011-01-01

    Accurate relative spectrophotometry is critical for many science applications. Small wavelength-scale residuals in the flux calibration can significantly impact the measurements of weak emission and absorption features in the spectra. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, we demonstrate that the average spectra of carefully selected red-sequence galaxies can be used as a spectroscopic standard to improve the relative spectrophotometry precision to 0.1% on small wavelength scales (from a few to hundreds of Angstroms). We achieve this precision by comparing stacked spectra across tiny redshift intervals. The redshift intervals must be small enough that any systematic stellar population evolution is minimized and is less than the spectrophotometric uncertainty. This purely empirical technique does not require any theoretical knowledge of true galaxy spectra. It can be applied to all large spectroscopic galaxy redshift surveys that sample a large number of galaxies in a uniform population.

  11. Chemically induced magnetism in atomically precise gold clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Katla Sai; Tarakeshwar, Pilarisetty; Mujica, Vladimiro; Kumar, Challa S S R

    2014-03-12

    Comparative theoretical and experimental investigations are reported into chemically induced magnetism in atomically-precise, ligand-stabilized gold clusters Au25 , Au38 and Au55 . The results indicate that [Au25 (PPh3 )10 (SC12 H25 )5 Cl2 ](2+) and Au38 (SC12 H25 )24 are diamagnetic, Au25 (SC2 H4 Ph)18 is paramagnetic, and Au55 (PPh3 )12 Cl6 , is ferromagnetic at room temperature. Understanding the magnetic properties resulting from quantum size effects in such atomically precise gold clusters could lead to new fundamental discoveries and applications. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Through precision straits to next standard model heights

    CERN Document Server

    David, André

    2016-01-01

    After the LHC Run 1, the standard model (SM) of particle physics has been completed. Yet, despite its successes, the SM has shortcomings vis-\\`{a}-vis cosmological and other observations. At the same time, while the LHC restarts for Run 2 at 13 TeV, there is presently a lack of direct evidence for new physics phenomena at the accelerator energy frontier. From this state of affairs arises the need for a consistent theoretical framework in which deviations from the SM predictions can be calculated and compared to precision measurements. Such a framework should be able to comprehensively make use of all measurements in all sectors of particle physics, including LHC Higgs measurements, past electroweak precision data, electric dipole moment, $g-2$, penguins and flavor physics, neutrino scattering, deep inelastic scattering, low-energy $e^{+}e^{-}$ scattering, mass measurements, and any search for physics beyond the SM. By simultaneously describing all existing measurements, this framework then becomes an intermed...

  13. Environmental impacts of precision feeding programs applied in pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Hauschild, L; Kipper, M; Pires, P G S; Pomar, C

    2017-12-04

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect that switching from conventional to precision feeding systems during the growing-finishing phase would have on the potential environmental impact of Brazilian pig production. Standard life-cycle assessment procedures were used, with a cradle-to-farm gate boundary. The inputs and outputs of each interface of the life cycle (production of feed ingredients, processing in the feed industry, transportation and animal rearing) were organized in a model. Grain production was independently characterized in the Central-West and South regions of Brazil, whereas the pigs were raised in the South region. Three feeding programs were applied for growing-finishing pigs: conventional phase feeding by group (CON); precision daily feeding by group (PFG) (whole herd fed the same daily adjusted diet); and precision daily feeding by individual (PFI) (diets adjusted daily to match individual nutrient requirements). Raising pigs (1 t pig BW at farm gate) in South Brazil under the CON feeding program using grain cultivated in the same region led to emissions of 1840 kg of CO2-eq, 13.1 kg of PO4-eq and 32.2 kg of SO2-eq. Simulations using grain from the Central-West region showed a greater climate change impact. Compared with the previous scenario, a 17% increase in climate change impact was found when simulating with soybeans produced in Central-West Brazil, whereas a 28% increase was observed when simulating with corn and soybeans from Central-West Brazil. Compared with the CON feeding program, the PFG and PFI programs reduced the potential environmental impact. Applying the PFG program mitigated the potential climate change impact and eutrophication by up to 4%, and acidification impact by up to 3% compared with the CON program. Making a further adjustment by feeding pigs according to their individual nutrient requirements mitigated the potential climate change impact by up to 6% and the potential eutrophication and acidification impact

  14. Ultrasonic and hydrothermal mediated synthesis routes for functionalized Mg-Al LDH: Comparison study on surface morphology, basic site strength, cyclic sorption efficiency and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Collins I; Tomatis, Marco; Yang, Xiaogang; He, Jun; Sun, Chenggong

    2018-01-01

    Amine functionalized layered double hydroxide (LDHs) adsorbents prepared using three different routes: co-precipitation, sono-chemical and ultrasonic-assisted high pressure hydrothermal. The prepared adsorbent samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning electron microscope-Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The performance of the prepared adsorbents was tested in a controlled thermal-swing adsorption process to measure its adsorption capacity, regeneration and cyclic efficiencies subsequently. The characterisation results were compared with those obtained using the conventional preparation routes but taking into account of the impact of sonochemical and hydrothermal pre-treatment on textural properties, adsorption capacity, regeneration and cyclic efficiencies. Textural results depicts a surge in surface area of the adsorbent synthesised by hydrothermal route (311m 2 /g) from 25 to 171m 2 /g for conventional and ultrasonic routes respectively. Additionally, it has been revealed from the present study that adsorbents prepared using ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal route exhibit a better CO 2 uptake capacity than that prepared using sonochemical and conventional routes. Thus, the ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal treatment can effectively promote the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent. This is probably due to the decrease of moderate (M-O) and weak (OH - groups) basic sites with subsequent surge in the number of strong basic sites (O 2- ) resulting from the hydrothermal process. Moreover, the cyclic adsorption efficiency of the ultrasonic mediated process was found to be 76% compared with 60% for conventional and 53% for hydrothermal routes, respectively. According to the kinetic model analysis, adsorption mechanism is mostly dominated by physisorption before amine

  15. Precision Medicine In Action | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: NIH Precision Medicine Initiative Precision Medicine In Action Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of ... Dishman "I am totally motivated to support precision medicine because I am one of the early prototype ...

  16. NCI and the Precision Medicine Initiative®

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's activities related to precision medicine focuses on new and expanded precision medicine clinical trials; mechanisms to overcome drug resistance to cancer treatments; and developing a shared digital repository of precision medicine trials data.

  17. Ionospheric Modeling for Precise GNSS Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Memarzadeh, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop a procedure for modeling and predicting ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) for high precision differential GNSS applications. As the ionosphere is a highly dynamic medium, we believe that to have a reliable procedure it is necessary to transfer

  18. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2013-04-02

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  19. 40 CFR 75.41 - Precision criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... correlation analysis according to the following procedures. (i) Plot each of the paired emissions readings as... and analysis. To demonstrate precision equal to or better than the continuous emission monitoring system, the owner or operator shall conduct an F-test, a correlation analysis, and a t-test for bias as...

  20. Precise relative cross sections for np scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, J.; Brogli-Gysin, C.; Hammans, M.; Haffter, P.; Henneck, R.; Jourdan, J.; Masson, G.; Qin, L.M.; Robinson, S.; Sick, I.; Tuccillo, M.

    1994-01-01

    We present data on the differential cross section for neutron-proton scattering for an incident neutron energy of 67 MeV. These data allow a precise determination of the 1 P 1 phase which, in phase-shift analyses, is strongly correlated with the S-D amplitude which we are measuring via different observables. ((orig.))

  1. Surfaces in Precision Engineering, Microengineering and Nanotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Kunzmann, H.; Peggs, G. N.

    2003-01-01

    with precision engineering, microengineering and nanotechnology are presented, encompassing surfaces in computers, MEMS, biomedical systems, light and X-ray optics, as well as in chemical systems. Surface properties at micro and nanoscale are considered, including geometry as well as physical and chemical...

  2. Precision tests of the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ol'shevskij, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    The present status of the precision measurements of electroweak observables is discussed with the special emphasis on the results obtained recently. All together these measurements provide the basis for the stringent test of the Standard Model and determination of the SM parameters. 22 refs., 23 figs., 11 tabs

  3. Lane Determination with GPS Precise Point Positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, V.L.; de Bakker, P.F.; Tiberius, C.C.J.M.; van Arem, B.

    2017-01-01

    Modern intelligent transport solutions can achieve an improvement of traffic flow on motorways. With lane-specific measurements and lane-specific control, more measures are possible. Single frequency precise point positioning (PPP) is a newly developed and affordable technique to achieve an

  4. Bringing Precision Medicine to Community Oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Quest Diagnostics has teamed up with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and IBM Watson Health to offer IBM Watson Genomics to its network of community cancer centers and hospitals. This new service aims to advance precision medicine by combining genomic tumor sequencing with the power of cognitive computing. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. High-precision positioning of radar scatterers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dheenathayalan, P.; Small, D.; Schubert, A.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing radar satellites cover wide areas and provide spatially dense measurements, with millions of scatterers. Knowledge of the precise position of each radar scatterer is essential to identify the corresponding object and interpret the estimated deformation. The absolute position accuracy

  6. Precision of quantum tomographic detection of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ariano, G.M. (Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' Alessandro Volta' ' , Via A. Bassi 6, I-27100, Pavia (Italy) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, Via A. Bassi 6, I-27100, Pavia (Italy)); Macchiavello, Chiara (Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' Alessandro Volta' ' , Via A. Bassi 6, I-27100, Pavia (Italy)); Paris, M.G.A. (Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' Alessandro Volta' ' , Via A. Bassi 6, I-27100, Pavia (Italy))

    1994-11-21

    Homodyne tomography provides an experimental technique for reconstructing the density matrix of the radiation field. Here we analyze the tomographic precision in recovering observables like the photon number, the quadrature, and the phase. We show that tomographic reconstruction, despite providing a complete characterization of the state of the field, is generally much less efficient than conventional detection techniques. ((orig.))

  7. Precision of quantum tomographic detection of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ariano, G.M.; Macchiavello, Chiara; Paris, M.G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Homodyne tomography provides an experimental technique for reconstructing the density matrix of the radiation field. Here we analyze the tomographic precision in recovering observables like the photon number, the quadrature, and the phase. We show that tomographic reconstruction, despite providing a complete characterization of the state of the field, is generally much less efficient than conventional detection techniques. ((orig.))

  8. Precision about the automatic emotional brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The question of automaticity in emotion processing has been debated under different perspectives in recent years. Satisfying answers to this issue will require a better definition of automaticity in terms of relevant behavioral phenomena, ecological conditions of occurrence, and a more precise mechanistic account of the underlying neural circuits.

  9. Technology on precision measurement of mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    This book mentions mass and scales about technology for precision measurement, which deal with how to measure mass with scale. So it describes the basic things of mass and scales. It includes translated book of international standard OIML with demand of measurement and technology and form for test report and international original standard OIML with metrological and technical requirements and test report format.

  10. Artificial intelligence, physiological genomics, and precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Anna Marie; Liu, Yong; Regner, Kevin R; Jotterand, Fabrice; Liu, Pengyuan; Liang, Mingyu

    2018-04-01

    Big data are a major driver in the development of precision medicine. Efficient analysis methods are needed to transform big data into clinically-actionable knowledge. To accomplish this, many researchers are turning toward machine learning (ML), an approach of artificial intelligence (AI) that utilizes modern algorithms to give computers the ability to learn. Much of the effort to advance ML for precision medicine has been focused on the development and implementation of algorithms and the generation of ever larger quantities of genomic sequence data and electronic health records. However, relevance and accuracy of the data are as important as quantity of data in the advancement of ML for precision medicine. For common diseases, physiological genomic readouts in disease-applicable tissues may be an effective surrogate to measure the effect of genetic and environmental factors and their interactions that underlie disease development and progression. Disease-applicable tissue may be difficult to obtain, but there are important exceptions such as kidney needle biopsy specimens. As AI continues to advance, new analytical approaches, including those that go beyond data correlation, need to be developed and ethical issues of AI need to be addressed. Physiological genomic readouts in disease-relevant tissues, combined with advanced AI, can be a powerful approach for precision medicine for common diseases.

  11. Big Data's Role in Precision Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, Shawn

    2018-01-01

    Precision public health is an emerging practice to more granularly predict and understand public health risks and customize treatments for more specific and homogeneous subpopulations, often using new data, technologies, and methods. Big data is one element that has consistently helped to achieve these goals, through its ability to deliver to practitioners a volume and variety of structured or unstructured data not previously possible. Big data has enabled more widespread and specific research and trials of stratifying and segmenting populations at risk for a variety of health problems. Examples of success using big data are surveyed in surveillance and signal detection, predicting future risk, targeted interventions, and understanding disease. Using novel big data or big data approaches has risks that remain to be resolved. The continued growth in volume and variety of available data, decreased costs of data capture, and emerging computational methods mean big data success will likely be a required pillar of precision public health into the future. This review article aims to identify the precision public health use cases where big data has added value, identify classes of value that big data may bring, and outline the risks inherent in using big data in precision public health efforts.

  12. Explicit Covariance Matrix for Particle Measurement Precision

    CERN Document Server

    Karimäki, Veikko

    1997-01-01

    We derive explicit and precise formulae for 3 by 3 error matrix of the particle transverse momentum, direction and impact parameter. The error matrix elements are expressed as functions of up to fourth order statistical moments of the measured coordinates. The formulae are valid for any curvature and track length in case of negligible multiple scattering.

  13. Precision cryogenic temperature data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, Y.; Sondericker, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    A Multiplexed Temperature Data Acquisition System with an overall precision of +-25 ppM has been designed using state-of-the-art electronics to accurately read temperature between 2.4 K and 600 K from pre-calibrated transducers such as germanium, silicon diode, thermistor or platinum temperature sensors

  14. A fluence device for precise radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, R.G.T.; Peak, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    An instrument is described which has been designed to ensure precise positioning of samples and sensing devices in three dimensions at all times during irradiation procedures. The system, which is both robust and sensitive, overcomes difficulties experienced when slight variations in the positioning of a sample under irradiation results in large changes in fluence. (UK)

  15. Fiber Scrambling for High Precision Spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Zachary; Spronck, J. F. P.; Fischer, D.

    2011-05-01

    The detection of Earth-like exoplanets with the radial velocity method requires extreme Doppler precision and long-term stability in order to measure tiny reflex velocities in the host star. Recent planet searches have led to the detection of so called "super-Earths” (up to a few Earth masses) that induce radial velocity changes of about 1 m/s. However, the detection of true Earth analogs requires a precision of 10 cm/s. One of the largest factors limiting Doppler precision is variation in the Point Spread Function (PSF) from observation to observation due to changes in the illumination of the slit and spectrograph optics. Thus, this stability has become a focus of current instrumentation work. Fiber optics have been used since the 1980's to couple telescopes to high-precision spectrographs, initially for simpler mechanical design and control. However, fiber optics are also naturally efficient scramblers. Scrambling refers to a fiber's ability to produce an output beam independent of input. Our research is focused on characterizing the scrambling properties of several types of fibers, including circular, square and octagonal fibers. By measuring the intensity distribution after the fiber as a function of input beam position, we can simulate guiding errors that occur at an observatory. Through this, we can determine which fibers produce the most uniform outputs for the severest guiding errors, improving the PSF and allowing sub-m/s precision. However, extensive testing of fibers of supposedly identical core diameter, length and shape from the same manufacturer has revealed the "personality” of individual fibers. Personality describes differing intensity patterns for supposedly duplicate fibers illuminated identically. Here, we present our results on scrambling characterization as a function of fiber type, while studying individual fiber personality.

  16. Proposal for a CLEO precision vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Fermilab experiment E691 and CERN experiment NA32 have demonstrated the enormous power of precision vertexing for studying heavy quark physics. Nearly all collider experiments now have or are installing precision vertex detectors. This is a proposal for a precision vertex detector for CLEO, which will be the pre-eminent heavy quark experiment for at least the next 5 years. The purpose of a precision vertex detector for CLEO is to enhance the capabilities for isolating B, charm, and tau decays and to make it possible to measure the decay time. The precision vertex detector will also significantly improve strange particle identification and help with the tracking. The installation and use of this detector at CLEO is an important step in developing a vertex detector for an asymmetric B factory and therefore in observing CP violation in B decays. The CLEO environment imposes a number of unique conditions and challenges. The machine will be operating near the γ (4S) in energy. This means that B's are produced with a very small velocity and travel a distance about 1/2 that of the expected vertex position resolution. As a consequence B decay time information will not be useful for most physics. On the other hand, the charm products of B decays have a higher velocity. For the long lived D + in particular, vertex information can be used to isolate the charm particle on an event-by-event basis. This helps significantly in reconstructing B's. The vertex resolution for D's from B's is limited by multiple Coulomb scattering of the necessarily rather low momentum tracks. As a consequence it is essential to minimize the material, as measured in radiation lengths, in the beam pip and the vertex detector itself. It is also essential to build the beam pipe and detector with the smallest possible radius

  17. Spike timing precision of neuronal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Deniz; Demir, Alper

    2018-04-17

    Spike timing is believed to be a key factor in sensory information encoding and computations performed by the neurons and neuronal circuits. However, the considerable noise and variability, arising from the inherently stochastic mechanisms that exist in the neurons and the synapses, degrade spike timing precision. Computational modeling can help decipher the mechanisms utilized by the neuronal circuits in order to regulate timing precision. In this paper, we utilize semi-analytical techniques, which were adapted from previously developed methods for electronic circuits, for the stochastic characterization of neuronal circuits. These techniques, which are orders of magnitude faster than traditional Monte Carlo type simulations, can be used to directly compute the spike timing jitter variance, power spectral densities, correlation functions, and other stochastic characterizations of neuronal circuit operation. We consider three distinct neuronal circuit motifs: Feedback inhibition, synaptic integration, and synaptic coupling. First, we show that both the spike timing precision and the energy efficiency of a spiking neuron are improved with feedback inhibition. We unveil the underlying mechanism through which this is achieved. Then, we demonstrate that a neuron can improve on the timing precision of its synaptic inputs, coming from multiple sources, via synaptic integration: The phase of the output spikes of the integrator neuron has the same variance as that of the sample average of the phases of its inputs. Finally, we reveal that weak synaptic coupling among neurons, in a fully connected network, enables them to behave like a single neuron with a larger membrane area, resulting in an improvement in the timing precision through cooperation.

  18. High Precision Edge Detection Algorithm for Mechanical Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Zhenyun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available High precision and high efficiency measurement is becoming an imperative requirement for a lot of mechanical parts. So in this study, a subpixel-level edge detection algorithm based on the Gaussian integral model is proposed. For this purpose, the step edge normal section line Gaussian integral model of the backlight image is constructed, combined with the point spread function and the single step model. Then gray value of discrete points on the normal section line of pixel edge is calculated by surface interpolation, and the coordinate as well as gray information affected by noise is fitted in accordance with the Gaussian integral model. Therefore, a precise location of a subpixel edge was determined by searching the mean point. Finally, a gear tooth was measured by M&M3525 gear measurement center to verify the proposed algorithm. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the local edge fluctuation is reduced effectively by the proposed method in comparison with the existing subpixel edge detection algorithms. The subpixel edge location accuracy and computation speed are improved. And the maximum error of gear tooth profile total deviation is 1.9 μm compared with measurement result with gear measurement center. It indicates that the method has high reliability to meet the requirement of high precision measurement.

  19. The structure of the proton in the LHC precision era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Harland-Lang, Lucian; Rojo, Juan

    2018-05-01

    We review recent progress in the determination of the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of the proton, with emphasis on the applications for precision phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). First of all, we introduce the general theoretical framework underlying the global QCD analysis of the quark and gluon internal structure of protons. We then present a detailed overview of the hard-scattering measurements, and the corresponding theory predictions, that are used in state-of-the-art PDF fits. We emphasize here the role that higher-order QCD and electroweak corrections play in the description of recent high-precision collider data. We present the methodology used to extract PDFs in global analyses, including the PDF parametrization strategy and the definition and propagation of PDF uncertainties. Then we review and compare the most recent releases from the various PDF fitting collaborations, highlighting their differences and similarities. We discuss the role that QED corrections and photon-initiated contributions play in modern PDF analysis. We provide representative examples of the implications of PDF fits for high-precision LHC phenomenological applications, such as Higgs coupling measurements and searches for high-mass New Physics resonances. We conclude this report by discussing some selected topics relevant for the future of PDF determinations, including the treatment of theoretical uncertainties, the connection with lattice QCD calculations, and the role of PDFs at future high-energy colliders beyond the LHC.

  20. Discovery Mondays "State-of-the-art technologies for precision"

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Ceramic plate drilled with high precision in CERN’s workshop. The diameter of each hole is only 0.02 millimetres, comparable to the diameter of a hair.Scientists have to be infinitely precise to study the infinitely small. Thus, even though the LHC is the world’s largest accelerator, it has to be aligned to within a tenth of a millimetre. The detectors weigh several thousand tonnes but are capable of detecting the tiniest vibration of the Earth. Join us at the next Discovery Monday to find out about CERN’s state-of-the-art tools for achieving the degrees of resolution required in the field of particle physics. Don’t miss this opportunity to discover the world of precision! The event will be conducted in FrenchCome along to the Microcosm (Reception Building 33, Meyrin site) on Monday 5 November from 7.30 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Entrance Free http://www.cern.ch/LundisDecouverte/

  1. Multicore fibre photonic lanterns for precision radial velocity Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gris-Sánchez, Itandehui; Haynes, Dionne M.; Ehrlich, Katjana; Haynes, Roger; Birks, Tim A.

    2018-04-01

    Incomplete fibre scrambling and fibre modal noise can degrade high-precision spectroscopic applications (typically high spectral resolution and high signal to noise). For example, it can be the dominating error source for exoplanet finding spectrographs, limiting the maximum measurement precision possible with such facilities. This limitation is exacerbated in the next generation of infra-red based systems, as the number of modes supported by the fibre scales inversely with the wavelength squared and more modes typically equates to better scrambling. Substantial effort has been made by major research groups in this area to improve the fibre link performance by employing non-circular fibres, double scramblers, fibre shakers, and fibre stretchers. We present an original design of a multicore fibre (MCF) terminated with multimode photonic lantern ports. It is designed to act as a relay fibre with the coupling efficiency of a multimode fibre (MMF), modal stability similar to a single-mode fibre and low loss in a wide range of wavelengths (380 nm to 860 nm). It provides phase and amplitude scrambling to achieve a stable near field and far-field output illumination pattern despite input coupling variations, and low modal noise for increased stability for high signal-to-noise applications such as precision radial velocity (PRV) science. Preliminary results are presented for a 511-core MCF and compared with current state of the art octagonal fibre.

  2. High Precision Edge Detection Algorithm for Mechanical Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhenyun; Wang, Ning; Fu, Jingshun; Zhao, Wenhui; Duan, Boqiang; Zhao, Jungui

    2018-04-01

    High precision and high efficiency measurement is becoming an imperative requirement for a lot of mechanical parts. So in this study, a subpixel-level edge detection algorithm based on the Gaussian integral model is proposed. For this purpose, the step edge normal section line Gaussian integral model of the backlight image is constructed, combined with the point spread function and the single step model. Then gray value of discrete points on the normal section line of pixel edge is calculated by surface interpolation, and the coordinate as well as gray information affected by noise is fitted in accordance with the Gaussian integral model. Therefore, a precise location of a subpixel edge was determined by searching the mean point. Finally, a gear tooth was measured by M&M3525 gear measurement center to verify the proposed algorithm. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the local edge fluctuation is reduced effectively by the proposed method in comparison with the existing subpixel edge detection algorithms. The subpixel edge location accuracy and computation speed are improved. And the maximum error of gear tooth profile total deviation is 1.9 μm compared with measurement result with gear measurement center. It indicates that the method has high reliability to meet the requirement of high precision measurement.

  3. Precision enhancement of pavement roughness localization with connected vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridgelall, R; Huang, Y; Zhang, Z; Deng, F

    2016-01-01

    Transportation agencies rely on the accurate localization and reporting of roadway anomalies that could pose serious hazards to the traveling public. However, the cost and technical limitations of present methods prevent their scaling to all roadways. Connected vehicles with on-board accelerometers and conventional geospatial position receivers offer an attractive alternative because of their potential to monitor all roadways in real-time. The conventional global positioning system is ubiquitous and essentially free to use but it produces impractically large position errors. This study evaluated the improvement in precision achievable by augmenting the conventional geo-fence system with a standard speed bump or an existing anomaly at a pre-determined position to establish a reference inertial marker. The speed sensor subsequently generates position tags for the remaining inertial samples by computing their path distances relative to the reference position. The error model and a case study using smartphones to emulate connected vehicles revealed that the precision in localization improves from tens of metres to sub-centimetre levels, and the accuracy of measuring localized roughness more than doubles. The research results demonstrate that transportation agencies will benefit from using the connected vehicle method to achieve precision and accuracy levels that are comparable to existing laser-based inertial profilers. (paper)

  4. Precision half-life measurement of 17F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, M.; Nicoloff, C.; Ahn, T.; Allen, J.; Bardayan, D. W.; Becchetti, F. D.; Gupta, Y. K.; Hall, M. R.; Hall, O.; Hu, J.; Kelly, J. M.; Kolata, J. J.; Long, J.; O'Malley, P.; Schultz, B. E.

    2016-02-01

    Background: The precise determination of f t values for superallowed mixed transitions between mirror nuclide are gaining attention as they could provide an avenue to test the theoretical corrections used to extract the Vu d matrix element from superallowed pure Fermi transitions. The 17F decay is particularly interesting as it proceeds completely to the ground state of 17O, removing the need for branching ratio measurements. The dominant uncertainty on the f t value of the 17F mirror transition stems from a number of conflicting half-life measurements. Purpose: A precision half-life measurement of 17F was performed and compared to previous results. Methods: The life-time was determined from the β counting of implanted 17F on a Ta foil that was removed from the beam for counting. The 17F beam was produced by transfers reaction and separated by the TwinSol facility of the Nuclear Science Laboratory of the University of Notre Dame. Results: The measured value of t1/2 new=64.402 (42) s is in agreement with several past measurements and represents one of the most precise measurements to date. In anticipation of future measurements of the correlation parameters for the decay and using the new world average t1/2 world=64.398 (61) s, we present a new estimate of the mixing ratio ρ for the mixed transition as well as the correlation parameters based on assuming Standard Model validity. Conclusions: The relative uncertainty on the new world average for the half-life is dominated by the large χ2=31 of the existing measurements. More precision measurements with different systematics are needed to remedy to the situation.

  5. Modeling applications for precision agriculture in the California Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklein, A. R.; Riley, W. J.; Grant, R. F.; Mezbahuddin, S.; Mekonnen, Z. A.; Liu, Y.; Ying, S.

    2017-12-01

    Drought in California has increased the motivation to develop precision agriculture, which uses observations to make site-specific management decisions throughout the growing season. In agricultural systems that are prone to drought, these efforts often focus on irrigation efficiency. Recent improvements in soil sensor technology allow the monitoring of plant and soil status in real-time, which can then inform models aimed at improving irrigation management. But even on farms with resources to deploy soil sensors across the landscape, leveraging that sensor data to design an efficient irrigation scheme remains a challenge. We conduct a modeling experiment aimed at simulating precision agriculture to address several questions: (1) how, when, and where does irrigation lead to optimal yield? and (2) What are the impacts of different precision irrigation schemes on yields, soil organic carbon (SOC), and total water use? We use the ecosys model to simulate precision agriculture in a conventional tomato-corn rotation in the California Central Valley with varying soil water content thresholds for irrigation and soil water sensor depths. This model is ideal for our question because it includes explicit process-based functions for the plant growth, plant water use, soil hydrology, and SOC, and has been tested extensively in agricultural ecosystems. Low irrigation thresholds allows the soil to become drier before irrigating compared to high irrigation thresholds; as such, we found that the high irrigation thresholds use more irrigation over the course of the season, have higher yields, and have lower water use efficiency. The irrigation threshold did not affect SOC. Yields and water use are highest at sensor depths of 0.5 to 0.15 m, but water use efficiency was also lowest at these depths. We found SOC to be significantly affected by sensor depth, with the highest SOC at the shallowest sensor depths. These results will help regulate irrigation water while maintaining yield

  6. Full-wave current conveyor precision rectifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Slobodan R.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A circuit that provides precision rectification of small signal with low temperature sensitivity for frequencies up to 100 kHz without waveform distortion is presented. It utilizes an improved second type current conveyor based on current-steering output stage and biased silicon diodes. The use of a DC current source to bias the rectifying diodes provides higher temperature stability and lower DC offset level at the output. Proposed design of the precision rectifier ensures good current transfer linearity in the range that satisfy class A of the amplifier and good voltage transfer characteristic for low level signals. Distortion during the zero crossing of the input signal is practically eliminated. Design of the proposed rectifier is realized with standard components.

  7. A precision pulser for main ring extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkel, J.; Biggs, J.

    1985-01-01

    A pulser has been designed to produce a 14 Hz sinusoid current pulse at a 2 s rate with peak amplitudes from 400 amps to 3750 amps, and a long term stability of + or -400 mA. Short term stability is achieved by the use of a precision voltage regulator for the capacitor bank. This voltage regulator uses gate turnoff thyristors to control the charging current to the 13 mF capacitor bank. Load current is monitored with a precision dc current transductor. The peak value is read into a single chip microcomputer programmed to act as a digital regulator. The microcomputer calculates reference values for the capacitor bank charging supply and the capacitor bank voltage regulator

  8. A precision pulser for main ring extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkel, J.; Biggs, J.

    1985-10-01

    A pulser has been designed to produce a 14 Hz sinusoid current pulse at a 2 s rate with peak amplitudes from 400 amps to 3750 amps, and a long term stability of + or -400 mA. Short term stability is achieved by the use of a precision voltage regulator for the capacitor bank. This voltage regulator uses gate turnoff thyristors to control the charging current to the 13 mF capacitor bank. Load current is monitored with a precision dc current transductor. The peak value is read into a single chip microcomputer programmed to act as a digital regulator. The microcomputer calculates reference values for the capacitor bank charging supply and the capacitor bank voltage regulator.

  9. Precision pulser for main ring extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkel, J.; Biggs, J.

    1985-01-01

    A pulser has been designed to produce a 14 Hz sinusoid current pulse at a 2 s rate with peak amplitudes from 400 amps to 3750 amps, and a long term stability of +/-400 mA. Short term stability is achieved by the use of a precision voltage regulator for the capacitor bank. This voltage regulator uses gate turnoff thyristors to control the charging current to the 13 mF capacitor bank. Load current is monitored with a precision dc current transductor. The peak value is read into a single chip microcomputer programmed to act as a digital regulator. The microcomputer calculates reference values for the capacitor bank charging supply and the capacitor bank voltage regulator

  10. Mobile Robotic Teams Applied to Precision Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Matthew Oley; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Mckay, Mark D; Willis, Walter David; Gunderson, R.W.; Flann, N.S.

    1999-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Utah State University’s Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) have developed a team of autonomous robotic vehicles applicable to precision agriculture. A unique technique has been developed to plan, coordinate, and optimize missions in large structured environments for these autonomous vehicles in realtime. Two generic tasks are supported: 1) Driving to a precise location, and 2) Sweeping an area while activating on-board equipment. Sensor data and task achievement data is shared among the vehicles enabling them to cooperatively adapt to changing environmental, vehicle, and task conditions. This paper discusses the development of the autonomous robotic team, details of the mission-planning algorithm, and successful field demonstrations at the INEEL.

  11. Mobile Robotic Teams Applied to Precision Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.D. McKay; M.O. Anderson; N.S. Flann (Utah State University); R.A. Kinoshita; R.W. Gunderson; W.D. Willis (INEEL)

    1999-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Utah State University�s Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) have developed a team of autonomous robotic vehicles applicable to precision agriculture. A unique technique has been developed to plan, coordinate, and optimize missions in large structured environments for these autonomous vehicles in real-time. Two generic tasks are supported: 1) Driving to a precise location, and 2) Sweeping an area while activating on-board equipment. Sensor data and task achievement data is shared among the vehicles enabling them to cooperatively adapt to changing environmental, vehicle, and task conditions. This paper discusses the development of the autonomous robotic team, details of the mission-planning algorithm, and successful field demonstrations at the INEEL.

  12. Improving the precision of noisy oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehlis, Jeff

    2014-04-01

    We consider how the period of an oscillator is affected by white noise, with special attention given to the cases of additive noise and parameter fluctuations. Our treatment is based upon the concepts of isochrons, which extend the notion of the phase of a stable periodic orbit to the basin of attraction of the periodic orbit, and phase response curves, which can be used to understand the geometry of isochrons near the periodic orbit. This includes a derivation of the leading-order effect of noise on the statistics of an oscillator’s period. Several examples are considered in detail, which illustrate the use and validity of the theory, and demonstrate how to improve a noisy oscillator’s precision by appropriately tuning system parameters or operating away from a bifurcation point. It is also shown that appropriately timed impulsive kicks can give further improvements to oscillator precision.

  13. Precision measurements of the CKM angle gamma

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The level of CP-violation permitted within the Standard Model cannot account for the matter dominated universe in which we live. Within the Standard Model the CKM matrix, which describes the quark couplings, is expected to be unitary. By making precise measurements of the CKM matrix parameters new physics models can be constrained, or with sufficient precision the effects of physics beyond the standard model might become apparent. The CKM angle gamma is the least well known angle of the unitarity triangle. It is the only angle easily accessible at tree-level, and furthermore has almost no theoretical uncertainties. Therefore it provides an invaluable Standard Model benchmark against which other new physics sensitive tests of the CP-violation can be made. I will discuss recent measurements of gamma using the the Run 1 LHCb dataset, which improve our knowledge of this key parameter.

  14. Precision measurements with LPCTrap at GANIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liénard, E., E-mail: lienard@lpccaen.in2p3.fr; Ban, G. [LPC CAEN, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Couratin, C. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Delahaye, P. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Durand, D.; Fabian, X. [LPC CAEN, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Fabre, B. [CELIA, Université Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA (France); Fléchard, X. [LPC CAEN, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Finlay, P. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Mauger, F. [LPC CAEN, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Méry, A. [CIMAP, CEA/CNRS/ENSICAEN, Université de Caen (France); Naviliat-Cuncic, O. [NSCL and Department of Physics and Astronomy, MSU (United States); Pons, B. [CELIA, Université Bordeaux, CNRS, CEA (France); Porobic, T. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Quéméner, G. [LPC CAEN, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Severijns, N. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium); Thomas, J. C. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3 (France); Velten, Ph. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-11-15

    The experimental achievements and the results obtained so far with the LPCTrap device installed at GANIL are presented. The apparatus is dedicated to the study of the weak interaction at low energy by means of precise measurements of the β − ν angular correlation parameter in nuclear β decays. So far, the data collected with three isotopes have enabled to determine, for the first time, the charge state distributions of the recoiling ions, induced by shakeoff process. The analysis is presently refined to deduce the correlation parameters, with the potential of improving both the constraint deduced at low energy on exotic tensor currents ({sup 6}He{sup 1+}) and the precision on the V{sub ud} element of the quark-mixing matrix ({sup 35}Ar{sup 1+} and {sup 19}Ne{sup 1+}) deduced from the mirror transitions dataset.

  15. A primer on precision medicine informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sboner, Andrea; Elemento, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we describe key components of a computational infrastructure for a precision medicine program that is based on clinical-grade genomic sequencing. Specific aspects covered in this review include software components and hardware infrastructure, reporting, integration into Electronic Health Records for routine clinical use and regulatory aspects. We emphasize informatics components related to reproducibility and reliability in genomic testing, regulatory compliance, traceability and documentation of processes, integration into clinical workflows, privacy requirements, prioritization and interpretation of results to report based on clinical needs, rapidly evolving knowledge base of genomic alterations and clinical treatments and return of results in a timely and predictable fashion. We also seek to differentiate between the use of precision medicine in germline and cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Precision beam splitters for CO2 lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Beam splitters for 10-μm lasers are discussed and then applied to the precision measurement of high average powers. In particular, beam splitter stability has been investigated in various materials over the 20--600-W power range with power densities up to 1 kW/cm 2 . The absolute beam splitter ratios are given along with the achieved measurement precisions. The semiconductors investigated were GaAs, CdTe, and ZnSe in addition to one alkali-halide KC1. Standard deviations for the beam splitter ratios of 1% over the power range were typical. Absolute ratios agree with the predictions from Fresnel's equations to 1% or better. The best measurement was made on ZnSe when a standard deviation of 0.4% was obtained for the measurement of a ratio that agreed with a calculation from Fresnel's equations to better than 0.5%

  17. Cyclotrons as Drivers for Precision Neutrino Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.; Barletta, W. A.; Winslow, L. A.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spitz, J.; Conrad, J. M.; Toups, M.; Adelmann, A.

    2014-01-01

    As we enter the age of precision measurement in neutrino physics, improved flux sources are required. These must have a well defined flavor content with energies in ranges where backgrounds are low and cross-section knowledge is high. Very few sources of neutrinos can meet these requirements. However, pion/muon and isotope decay-at-rest sources qualify. The ideal drivers for decay-at-rest sources are cyclotron accelerators, which are compact and relatively inexpensive. This paper describes a scheme to produce decay-at-rest sources driven by such cyclotrons, developed within the DAEδALUS program. Examples of the value of the high precision beams for pursuing Beyond Standard Model interactions are reviewed. New results on a combined DAEδALUS—Hyper-K search for CP violation that achieve errors on the mixing matrix parameter of 4° to 12° are presented

  18. Selective Attention to Auditory Memory Neurally Enhances Perceptual Precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung-Joo; Wöstmann, Malte; Obleser, Jonas

    2015-12-09

    Selective attention to a task-relevant stimulus facilitates encoding of that stimulus into a working memory representation. It is less clear whether selective attention also improves the precision of a stimulus already represented in memory. Here, we investigate the behavioral and neural dynamics of selective attention to representations in auditory working memory (i.e., auditory objects) using psychophysical modeling and model-based analysis of electroencephalographic signals. Human listeners performed a syllable pitch discrimination task where two syllables served as to-be-encoded auditory objects. Valid (vs neutral) retroactive cues were presented during retention to allow listeners to selectively attend to the to-be-probed auditory object in memory. Behaviorally, listeners represented auditory objects in memory more precisely (expressed by steeper slopes of a psychometric curve) and made faster perceptual decisions when valid compared to neutral retrocues were presented. Neurally, valid compared to neutral retrocues elicited a larger frontocentral sustained negativity in the evoked potential as well as enhanced parietal alpha/low-beta oscillatory power (9-18 Hz) during memory retention. Critically, individual magnitudes of alpha oscillatory power (7-11 Hz) modulation predicted the degree to which valid retrocues benefitted individuals' behavior. Our results indicate that selective attention to a specific object in auditory memory does benefit human performance not by simply reducing memory load, but by actively engaging complementary neural resources to sharpen the precision of the task-relevant object in memory. Can selective attention improve the representational precision with which objects are held in memory? And if so, what are the neural mechanisms that support such improvement? These issues have been rarely examined within the auditory modality, in which acoustic signals change and vanish on a milliseconds time scale. Introducing a new auditory memory

  19. Seismic Motion Stability, Measurement and Precision Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    azimuth reference used for precision alignment of test fixtures and components is a porro prism mounted within the inner labora- tory. The orientation of...14 6.2 Low Frequency Tilt Loop. .................... 15 6.3 Mechanical Resonances . ..................... 17 6.4 Seismometer Matching...this prism is ascertained, using autocollimating theodolites, either by directly "swinging" Polaris into the laboratory from outside through optical

  20. Hidden SUSY from precision gauge unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krippendorf, Sven; Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Winkler, Martin Wolfgang [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    We revisit the implications of naturalness and gauge unification in the MSSM. We find that precision unification of the couplings in connection with a small {mu} parameter requires a highly compressed gaugino pattern as it is realized in mirage mediation. Due to the small mass difference between gluino and LSP, collider limits on the gluino mass are drastically relaxed. Without further assumptions, the relic density of the LSP is very close to the observed dark matter density due to coannihilation effects.

  1. Static quarks with improved statistical precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Morte, M.; Duerr, S.; Molke, H.; Heitger, J.

    2003-09-01

    We present a numerical study for different discretisations of the static action, concerning cut-off effects and the growth of statistical errors with Euclidean time. An error reduction by an order of magnitude can be obtained with respect to the Eichten-Hill action, for time separations up to 2 fm, keeping discretization errors small. The best actions lead to a big improvement on the precision of the quark mass M b and F B s in the static approximation. (orig.)

  2. Precision Index in the Multivariate Context

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šiman, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 2 (2014), s. 377-387 ISSN 0361-0926 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06047 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : data depth * multivariate quantile * process capability index * precision index * regression quantile Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.274, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/SI/siman-0425059.pdf

  3. Proliferation of Precision Strike: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    industrial base. Finally, should Congress legislate requirements for DOD to develop precision strike countermeasures and then provide funding for that...Defense, Part 187 – Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Department of Defense Actions, Section 187.3: Definitions. 32 Bryan Clark and Dan Whiteneck...so many missiles ... referring to reports of Venezuelan arms flowing to Colombian guerrillas.... The Chavez regime also has close ties with

  4. Electroweak Precision Measurements with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Linck, Rebecca Anne; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    As part of its ongoing exploration into the nature of the particles produced in high energy proton-proton collisions, the ATLAS detector has been used to perform a number of new precision electroweak measurements. In this talk the recent measurements of the W-boson mass, the Drell-Yan triple-differential cross-section and the polarisation of tau leptons in Z/γ* → ττ decays will be discussed.

  5. Electroweak precision data and gravitino dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We analyze the precision observables in the context of the GDM, focusing on parameter combina- tions that fulfill 0.094 < ΩCDMh2 < 0.129 [7]. In order to simplify the analysis in a motivated manner, we .... m1/2 discussed above maps into an analogous preference for moderate tan β (see ref. [2]). It can be shown that, at the ...

  6. Precision Jet production for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Jet production is one of the basic processes at the LHC with numerous uses for standard model and BSM phenomenology. Understanding this process with suitable precision has been a long-standing goal for the particle physics community. I will report on our recent calculation of the NNLO contribution to jet production using antenna subtraction and discuss what these results might mean for jet phenomenology in the near future.

  7. Accuracy and precision in activation analysis: counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1974-01-01

    Accuracy and precision in activation analysis was investigated with regard to counting of induced radioactivity. The various parameters discussed include configuration, positioning, density, homogeneity, intensity, radioisotopic purity, peak integration, and nuclear constants. Experimental results are presented for many of these parameters. The results obtained indicate that counting errors often contribute significantly to the inaccuracy and imprecision of analyses. The magnitude of these errors range from less than 1 percent to 10 percent or more in many cases

  8. Hidden SUSY from precision gauge unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krippendorf, Sven; Nilles, Hans Peter

    2013-06-01

    We revisit the implications of naturalness and gauge unification in the MSSM. We find that precision unification of the couplings in connection with a small μ parameter requires a highly compressed gaugino pattern as it is realized in mirage mediation. Due to the small mass difference between gluino and LSP, collider limits on the gluino mass are drastically relaxed. Without further assumptions, the relic density of the LSP is very close to the observed dark matter density due to coannihilation effects.

  9. Precision Rescue Behavior in North American Ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Taylor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Altruistic behavior, in which one individual provides aid to another at some cost to itself, is well documented. However, some species engage in a form of altruism, called rescue, that places the altruist in immediate danger. Here we investigate one such example, namely rescuing victims captured by predators. In a field experiment with two North American ant species, Tetramorium sp. E and Prenolepis imparis, individuals were held in artificial snares simulating capture. T. sp. E, but not P. imparis, exhibited digging, pulling, and snare biting, the latter precisely targeted to the object binding the victim. These results are the first to document precision rescue in a North American ant species; moreover, unlike rescue in other ants, T. sp. E rescues conspecifics from different colonies, mirroring their atypical social behavior, namely the lack of aggression between non-nestmate (heterocolonial conspecifics. In a second, observational study designed to demonstrate rescue from an actual predator, T. sp. E victims were dropped into an antlion's pit and the behavior of a single rescuer was observed. Results showed that T. sp. E not only attempted to release the victim, but also risked attacking the predator, suggesting that precision rescue may play an important role in this species' antipredator behavior.

  10. Automation of Precise Time Reference Stations (PTRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, P. J.

    1985-04-01

    The U.S. Naval Observatory is presently engaged in a program of automating precise time stations (PTS) and precise time reference stations (PTBS) by using a versatile mini-computer controlled data acquisition system (DAS). The data acquisition system is configured to monitor locally available PTTI signals such as LORAN-C, OMEGA, and/or the Global Positioning System. In addition, the DAS performs local standard intercomparison. Computer telephone communications provide automatic data transfer to the Naval Observatory. Subsequently, after analysis of the data, results and information can be sent back to the precise time reference station to provide automatic control of remote station timing. The DAS configuration is designed around state of the art standard industrial high reliability modules. The system integration and software are standardized but allow considerable flexibility to satisfy special local requirements such as stability measurements, performance evaluation and printing of messages and certificates. The DAS operates completely independently and may be queried or controlled at any time with a computer or terminal device (control is protected for use by authorized personnel only). Such DAS equipped PTS are operational in Hawaii, California, Texas and Florida.

  11. Precision of different quantitative ultrasound densitometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocock, N.A.; Harris, N.D.; Griffiths, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus, which measures Speed of Sound (SOS) and Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), is predictive of the risk of osteoporotic fracture. However, the utility of QUS for predicting fracture risk or for monitoring treatment efficacy depends on its precision and reliability. Published results and manufacturers data vary significantly due to differences in statistical methodology. We have assessed the precision of the current model of the Lunar Achilles and the McCue Cuba QUS densitometers; the most commonly used QUS machines in Australia. Twenty seven subjects had duplicate QUS measurements performed on the same day on both machines. These data were used to calculate the within pair standard deviation (SD) the co-efficient of variation, CV and the standardised co efficient of variation (sCV) which is corrected for the dynamic range. In addition, the co-efficient of reliability (R) was calculated as an index of reliability which is independent of the population mean value, or the dynamic range of the measurements. R ranges between 0 (for no reliability) to 1(for a perfect reliability). The results indicate that the precision of QUS is dependent on the dynamic range and the instrument. Furthermore, they suggest that while QUS is a useful predictor of fracture risk, at present it has limited clinical value in monitoring short term age-related bone loss of 1-2% per year

  12. Precision medicine driven by cancer systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipp, Fabian V

    2017-03-01

    Molecular insights from genome and systems biology are influencing how cancer is diagnosed and treated. We critically evaluate big data challenges in precision medicine. The melanoma research community has identified distinct subtypes involving chronic sun-induced damage and the mitogen-activated protein kinase driver pathway. In addition, despite low mutation burden, non-genomic mitogen-activated protein kinase melanoma drivers are found in membrane receptors, metabolism, or epigenetic signaling with the ability to bypass central mitogen-activated protein kinase molecules and activating a similar program of mitogenic effectors. Mutation hotspots, structural modeling, UV signature, and genomic as well as non-genomic mechanisms of disease initiation and progression are taken into consideration to identify resistance mutations and novel drug targets. A comprehensive precision medicine profile of a malignant melanoma patient illustrates future rational drug targeting strategies. Network analysis emphasizes an important role of epigenetic and metabolic master regulators in oncogenesis. Co-occurrence of driver mutations in signaling, metabolic, and epigenetic factors highlights how cumulative alterations of our genomes and epigenomes progressively lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation. Precision insights have the ability to identify independent molecular pathways suitable for drug targeting. Synergistic treatment combinations of orthogonal modalities including immunotherapy, mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, epigenetic inhibitors, and metabolic inhibitors have the potential to overcome immune evasion, side effects, and drug resistance.

  13. Precision lens assembly with alignment turning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Fang; Huang, Chien-Yao; Lin, Yi-Hao; Kuo, Hui-Jean; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Chen, Fong-Zhi

    2017-10-01

    The poker chip assembly with high precision lens barrels is widely applied to ultra-high performance optical system. ITRC applies the poker chip assembly technology to the high numerical aperture objective lenses and lithography projection lenses because of its high efficiency assembly process. In order to achieve high precision lens cell for poker chip assembly, an alignment turning system (ATS) is developed. The ATS includes measurement, alignment and turning modules. The measurement module is equipped with a non-contact displacement sensor (NCDS) and an autocollimator (ACM). The NCDS and ACM are used to measure centration errors of the top and the bottom surface of a lens respectively; then the amount of adjustment of displacement and tilt with respect to the rotational axis of the turning machine for the alignment module can be determined. After measurement, alignment and turning processes on the ATS, the centration error of a lens cell with 200 mm in diameter can be controlled within 10 arcsec. Furthermore, a poker chip assembly lens cell with three sub-cells is demonstrated, each sub-cells are measured and accomplished with alignment and turning processes. The lens assembly test for five times by each three technicians; the average transmission centration error of assembly lens is 12.45 arcsec. The results show that ATS can achieve high assembly efficiency for precision optical systems.

  14. Surface characterization protocol for precision aspheric optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarepaka, RamaGopal V.; Sakthibalan, Siva; Doodala, Somaiah; Panwar, Rakesh S.; Kotaria, Rajendra

    2017-10-01

    In Advanced Optical Instrumentation, Aspherics provide an effective performance alternative. The aspheric fabrication and surface metrology, followed by aspheric design are complementary iterative processes for Precision Aspheric development. As in fabrication, a holistic approach of aspheric surface characterization is adopted to evaluate actual surface error and to aim at the deliverance of aspheric optics with desired surface quality. Precision optical surfaces are characterized by profilometry or by interferometry. Aspheric profiles are characterized by contact profilometers, through linear surface scans to analyze their Form, Figure and Finish errors. One must ensure that, the surface characterization procedure does not add to the resident profile errors (generated during the aspheric surface fabrication). This presentation examines the errors introduced post-surface generation and during profilometry of aspheric profiles. This effort is to identify sources of errors and is to optimize the metrology process. The sources of error during profilometry may be due to: profilometer settings, work-piece placement on the profilometer stage, selection of zenith/nadir points of aspheric profiles, metrology protocols, clear aperture - diameter analysis, computational limitations of the profiler and the software issues etc. At OPTICA, a PGI 1200 FTS contact profilometer (Taylor-Hobson make) is used for this study. Precision Optics of various profiles are studied, with due attention to possible sources of errors during characterization, with multi-directional scan approach for uniformity and repeatability of error estimation. This study provides an insight of aspheric surface characterization and helps in optimal aspheric surface production methodology.

  15. Precise Documentation: The Key to Better Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnas, David Lorge

    The prime cause of the sorry “state of the art” in software development is our failure to produce good design documentation. Poor documentation is the cause of many errors and reduces efficiency in every phase of a software product's development and use. Most software developers believe that “documentation” refers to a collection of wordy, unstructured, introductory descriptions, thousands of pages that nobody wanted to write and nobody trusts. In contrast, Engineers in more traditional disciplines think of precise blueprints, circuit diagrams, and mathematical specifications of component properties. Software developers do not know how to produce precise documents for software. Software developments also think that documentation is something written after the software has been developed. In other fields of Engineering much of the documentation is written before and during the development. It represents forethought not afterthought. Among the benefits of better documentation would be: easier reuse of old designs, better communication about requirements, more useful design reviews, easier integration of separately written modules, more effective code inspection, more effective testing, and more efficient corrections and improvements. This paper explains how to produce and use precise software documentation and illustrate the methods with several examples.

  16. Animal Models for Tuberculosis in Translational and Precision Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjun Zhan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a health threat to the global population. Anti-TB drugs and vaccines are key approaches for TB prevention and control. TB animal models are basic tools for developing biomarkers of diagnosis, drugs for therapy, vaccines for prevention and researching pathogenic mechanisms for identification of targets; thus, they serve as the cornerstone of comparative medicine, translational medicine, and precision medicine. In this review, we discuss the current use of TB animal models and their problems, as well as offering perspectives on the future of these models.

  17. exchanged Mg-Al hydrotalcite catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) catalysts, ... The catalyst can be easily separated by simple filtration ... surface area by the single-point N2 adsorption method ... concentration of carbonate anions (by treating the cat- .... hydrotalcite phase along with copper hydroxide and.

  18. Reference satellite selection method for GNSS high-precision relative positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the optimal reference satellite is an important component of high-precision relative positioning because the reference satellite directly influences the strength of the normal equation. The reference satellite selection methods based on elevation and positional dilution of precision (PDOP value were compared. Results show that all the above methods cannot select the optimal reference satellite. We introduce condition number of the design matrix in the reference satellite selection method to improve structure of the normal equation, because condition number can indicate the ill condition of the normal equation. The experimental results show that the new method can improve positioning accuracy and reliability in precise relative positioning.

  19. Precision of quantization of the hall conductivity in a finite-size sample: Power law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greshnov, A. A.; Kolesnikova, E. N.; Zegrya, G. G.

    2006-01-01

    A microscopic calculation of the conductivity in the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) mode is carried out. The precision of quantization is analyzed for finite-size samples. The precision of quantization shows a power-law dependence on the sample size. A new scaling parameter describing this dependence is introduced. It is also demonstrated that the precision of quantization linearly depends on the ratio between the amplitude of the disorder potential and the cyclotron energy. The data obtained are compared with the results of magnetotransport measurements in mesoscopic samples

  20. High-precision efficiency calibration of a high-purity co-axial germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, B., E-mail: blank@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Souin, J.; Ascher, P.; Audirac, L.; Canchel, G.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Giovinazzo, J.; Guérin, H.; Nieto, T. Kurtukian; Matea, I. [Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Bouzomita, H.; Delahaye, P.; Grinyer, G.F.; Thomas, J.C. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM, CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 CAEN Cedex 5 (France)

    2015-03-11

    A high-purity co-axial germanium detector has been calibrated in efficiency to a precision of about 0.15% over a wide energy range. High-precision scans of the detector crystal and γ-ray source measurements have been compared to Monte-Carlo simulations to adjust the dimensions of a detector model. For this purpose, standard calibration sources and short-lived online sources have been used. The resulting efficiency calibration reaches the precision needed e.g. for branching ratio measurements of super-allowed β decays for tests of the weak-interaction standard model.

  1. High precision localization of intracerebral hemorrhage based on 3D MPR on head CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianyong; Hou, Xiaoshuai; Sun, Shujie; Zhang, Jianguo

    2017-03-01

    The key step for minimally invasive intracerebral hemorrhage surgery is precisely positioning the hematoma location in the brain before and during the hematoma surgery, which can significantly improves the success rate of puncture hematoma. We designed a 3D computerized surgical plan (CSP) workstation precisely to locate brain hematoma based on Multi-Planar Reconstruction (MPR) visualization technique. We used ten patients' CT/MR studies to verify our designed CSP intracerebral hemorrhage localization method. With the doctor's assessment and comparing with the results of manual measurements, the output of CSP WS for hematoma surgery is more precise and reliable than manual procedure.

  2. Development of Real-Time Precise Positioning Algorithm Using GPS L1 Carrier Phase Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ho Joh

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed Real-time Phase DAta Processor(RPDAP for GPS L1 carrier. And also, we tested the RPDAP's positioning accuracy compared with results of real time kinematic(RTK positioning. While quality of the conventional L1 RTK positioning highly depend on receiving condition, the RPDAP can gives more stable positioning result because of different set of common GPS satellites, which searched by elevation mask angle and signal strength. In this paper, we demonstrated characteristics of the RPDAP compared with the L1 RTK technique. And we discussed several improvement ways to apply the RPDAP to precise real-time positioning using low-cost GPS receiver. With correcting the discussed weak points in near future, the RPDAP will be used in the field of precise real-time application, such as precise car navigation and precise personal location services.

  3. High Precision Fast Projective Synchronization for Chaotic Systems with Unknown Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Fuzhong; Wang, Xingyuan; Lin, Da; Niu, Yujun

    2013-08-01

    A high precision fast projective synchronization method for chaotic systems with unknown parameters was proposed by introducing optimal matrix. Numerical simulations indicate that the precision be improved about three orders compared with other common methods under the same condition of software and hardware. Moreover, when average error is less than 10-3, the synchronization speed is 6500 times than common methods, the iteration needs only 4 times. The unknown parameters also were identified rapidly. The theoretical analysis and proof also were given.

  4. Research on the high-precision non-contact optical detection technology for banknotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaofeng; Liang, Tiancai; Luo, Pengfeng; Sun, Jianfeng

    2015-09-01

    The technology of high-precision laser interferometry was introduced for optical measurement of the banknotes in this paper. Taking advantage of laser short wavelength and high sensitivity, information of adhesive tape and cavity about the banknotes could be checked efficiently. Compared with current measurement devices, including mechanical wheel measurement device, Infrared measurement device, ultrasonic measurement device, the laser interferometry measurement has higher precision and reliability. This will improve the ability of banknotes feature information in financial electronic equipment.

  5. Studies in precise neutron optics at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimitsu, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    Studies in the field of so-called 'Precise Neutron Optics' at JAERI were reported, since the beginning of 1970. It started with the photographic detection of the 'Pendellusung Fringes' in a wedge-shaped Si crystal, promoted by Prof.K.Kohra. Neutron diffraction topography was also tried and used for the 'direct' observation of the substructure in a Cu-5%Ge single crystal, carried out by the present author. So-called 'VSANS' (Very Small Angle Neutron Scattering) was also tried, with the angular resolution better than 0.1 sec. of arc, for the structural observation of several kinds of 'amorphous' materials, such as neutron-irradiated silica glasses, Pb-containing glasses and several ribbon-shaped amorphous alloys, carried out by Dr.K.Doi. Recently with the co-operation with Prof.S.Kikuta's group, some interferometric experiments were tried, such as the detection of the double-refraction phenomenon of the neutron in the magnetic materials, carried out by Dr.S.Nakatani. The apparatus for precise neutron optics and topography (PNO) was constructed at the JRR-3M in JAERI in 1992, which was just properly made for the studies in the present thema. With the PNO, the characterization of Ni-Ti multilayer mirror for the interferometer with the cold/ ultra-cold neutrons was carried out, the results being reported in the other article of this symposium by Dr.H.Funahashi. Through the test use of the PNO with the neutron interferometry, carried out by Dr.Y.Hasegawa, it was revealed that the PNO is the best facility in the world for the neutron interferometry; with the datas of the count ratio upto 20 cps and the contrast more than 40%. Dr.K.Aizawa is now refining the VSANS-technique on the PNO, for the precise observation of the precipitation behaviour of high density small particles such as metatic alloy-system. (author)

  6. SPOTTED STAR LIGHT CURVES WITH ENHANCED PRECISION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    2012-01-01

    The nearly continuous timewise coverage of recent photometric surveys is free of the large gaps that compromise attempts to follow starspot growth and decay as well as motions, thereby giving incentive to improve computational precision for modeled spots. Due to the wide variety of star systems in the surveys, such improvement should apply to light/velocity curve models that accurately include all the main phenomena of close binaries and rotating single stars. The vector fractional area (VFA) algorithm that is introduced here represents surface elements by small sets of position vectors so as to allow accurate computation of circle-triangle overlap by spherical geometry. When computed by VFA, spots introduce essentially no noticeable scatter in light curves at the level of one part in 10,000. VFA has been put into the Wilson-Devinney light/velocity curve program and all logic and mathematics are given so as to facilitate entry into other such programs. Advantages of precise spot computation include improved statistics of spot motions and aging, reduced computation time (intrinsic precision relaxes needs for grid fineness), noise-free illustration of spot effects in figures, and help in guarding against false positives in exoplanet searches, where spots could approximately mimic transiting planets in unusual circumstances. A simple spot growth and decay template quantifies time profiles, and specifics of its utilization in differential corrections solutions are given. Computational strategies are discussed, the overall process is tested in simulations via solutions of synthetic light curve data, and essential simulation results are described. An efficient time smearing facility by Gaussian quadrature can deal with Kepler mission data that are in 30 minute time bins.

  7. Rapid whole genome sequencing and precision neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrikin, Joshua E; Willig, Laurel K; Smith, Laurie D; Kingsmore, Stephen F

    2015-12-01

    Traditionally, genetic testing has been too slow or perceived to be impractical to initial management of the critically ill neonate. Technological advances have led to the ability to sequence and interpret the entire genome of a neonate in as little as 26 h. As the cost and speed of testing decreases, the utility of whole genome sequencing (WGS) of neonates for acute and latent genetic illness increases. Analyzing the entire genome allows for concomitant evaluation of the currently identified 5588 single gene diseases. When applied to a select population of ill infants in a level IV neonatal intensive care unit, WGS yielded a diagnosis of a causative genetic disease in 57% of patients. These diagnoses may lead to clinical management changes ranging from transition to palliative care for uniformly lethal conditions for alteration or initiation of medical or surgical therapy to improve outcomes in others. Thus, institution of 2-day WGS at time of acute presentation opens the possibility of early implementation of precision medicine. This implementation may create opportunities for early interventional, frequently novel or off-label therapies that may alter disease trajectory in infants with what would otherwise be fatal disease. Widespread deployment of rapid WGS and precision medicine will raise ethical issues pertaining to interpretation of variants of unknown significance, discovery of incidental findings related to adult onset conditions and carrier status, and implementation of medical therapies for which little is known in terms of risks and benefits. Despite these challenges, precision neonatology has significant potential both to decrease infant mortality related to genetic diseases with onset in newborns and to facilitate parental decision making regarding transition to palliative care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Precision of working memory for speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sabine; Iverson, Paul; Manohar, Sanjay; Fox, Zoe; Scott, Sophie K; Husain, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Memory for speech sounds is a key component of models of verbal working memory (WM). But how good is verbal WM? Most investigations assess this using binary report measures to derive a fixed number of items that can be stored. However, recent findings in visual WM have challenged such "quantized" views by employing measures of recall precision with an analogue response scale. WM for speech sounds might rely on both continuous and categorical storage mechanisms. Using a novel speech matching paradigm, we measured WM recall precision for phonemes. Vowel qualities were sampled from a formant space continuum. A probe vowel had to be adjusted to match the vowel quality of a target on a continuous, analogue response scale. Crucially, this provided an index of the variability of a memory representation around its true value and thus allowed us to estimate how memories were distorted from the original sounds. Memory load affected the quality of speech sound recall in two ways. First, there was a gradual decline in recall precision with increasing number of items, consistent with the view that WM representations of speech sounds become noisier with an increase in the number of items held in memory, just as for vision. Based on multidimensional scaling (MDS), the level of noise appeared to be reflected in distortions of the formant space. Second, as memory load increased, there was evidence of greater clustering of participants' responses around particular vowels. A mixture model captured both continuous and categorical responses, demonstrating a shift from continuous to categorical memory with increasing WM load. This suggests that direct acoustic storage can be used for single items, but when more items must be stored, categorical representations must be used.

  9. Lasers the power and precision of light

    CERN Document Server

    Diels, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    ""Lasers"" are active ingredients of our modern life, but they are inconspicuous as they often go unnoticed. This intuitive introductory guide will tell you all you want to know about laser technologies in very diverse fields from nuclear and particle physics to medicine, astronomy and ultra-precise metrology. The book is coherently focused on fundamentals, and is aimed to stimulate intuition about present and future applications, while unveiling the halo of myths around lasers. Written by reputable laser experts who think that science should be entertaining, this useful reference relies on si

  10. Precision Mass Measurement of Argon Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Lunney, D

    2002-01-01

    % IS388\\\\ \\\\ A precision mass measurement of the neutron-deficient isotopes $^{32,33,34}$Ar is proposed. Mass values of these isotopes are of importance for: a) a stringent test of the Isobaric-Multiplet- Mass-Equation, b) a verification of the correctness of calculated charge-dependent corrections as used in super-allowed $\\beta$- decay studies aiming at a test of the CVC hypothesis, and c) the determination of the kinematics in electron-neutrino correlation experiments searching for scalar currents in weak interaction. The measurements will be carried out with the ISOLTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer.

  11. Precision medicine in patients with allergic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, Antonella; Lemanske, Robert F; Hellings, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    In this consensus document we summarize the current knowledge on major asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis endotypes under the auspices of the PRACTALL collaboration platform. PRACTALL is an initiative of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy...... of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology aiming to harmonize the European and American approaches to best allergy practice and science. Precision medicine is of broad relevance for the management of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis in the context of a better selection of treatment responders, risk prediction...

  12. A precise technique for manufacturing correction coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, L.

    1992-01-01

    An automated method of manufacturing correction coils has been developed which provides a precise embodiment of the coil design. Numerically controlled machines have been developed to accurately position coil windings on the beam tube. Two types of machines have been built. One machine bonds the wire to a substrate which is wrapped around the beam tube after it is completed while the second machine bonds the wire directly to the beam tube. Both machines use the Multiwire reg-sign technique of bonding the wire to the substrate utilizing an ultrasonic stylus. These machines are being used to manufacture coils for both the SSC and RHIC

  13. Environmental Testing for Precision Parts and Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Yun, Kyu Tek

    2001-01-01

    Precision parts and instruments are tested to evaluate performance in development-process and product-step to prement a potential defect due to a failure design. In this paper, Environmental test technology, which is the basis of reliability analysis, is introduced with examples of test criterion, test method for products, encoder and traffic signal controller, and measuring instruments. Recently, as the importance of the environmental test technology is recognised. It is proposed that training of test technician and technology of jig design and failure analysis are very essential

  14. Preliminary results of absolute and high-precision gravity measurements at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumberge, M.A.; Harris, R.N.; Oliver, H.W.; Sasagawa, G.S.; Ponce, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Absolute gravity measurements were made at 4 sites in southern Nevada using the absolute gravity free-fall apparatus. Three of the sites are located on the Nevada Test Site at Mercury, Yucca Pass, and in northern Jackass Flats. The fourth site is at Kyle Canyon ranger station near Charleston Park where observed gravity is 216.19 mGal lower than at Mercury. Although there is an uncertainty of about 0.02 mGal in the absolute measured values, their gravity differences are considered accurate to about 0.03 mGal. Therefore, the absolute measurements should provide local control for the calibration of gravity meters between Mercury and Kyle Canyon ranger station to about 1 to 2 parts in 10,000. The average gravity differences between Mercury and Kyle Canyon obtained using LaCoste and Romberg gravity meters is 216.13 mGal, 0.06 mGal lower, or 3 parts in 10,000 lower than using the absolute gravity meter. Because of the discrepancy between the comparison of the absolute and relative gravity meters, more absolute and relative gravity control in southern Nevada, as well as the Mt. Hamilton area where the LaCoste and Romberg instruments were calibrated, is needed. Multiple gravity meter ties were also made between each of the four absolute stations to nearby base stations located on bedrock. These stations were established to help monitor possible real changes in gravity at the absolute sites that could result from seasonal variations in the depth to the water table or other local mass changes. 8 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Precision profiles and analytic reliability of radioimmunologic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaneva, Z.; Popova, Yu.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate and compare some methods for creation of 'precision profiles' (PP) and to clarify their possibilities for determining the analytical reliability of RIA. Only methods without complicated mathematical calculations has been used. The reproducibility in serums with a concentration of the determinable hormone in the whole range of the calibration curve has been studied. The radioimmunoassay has been performed with TSH-RIA set (ex East Germany), and comparative evaluations - with commercial sets of HOECHST (Germany) and AMERSHAM (GB). Three methods for obtaining the relationship concentration (IU/l) -reproducibility (C.V.,%) are used and a comparison is made of their corresponding profiles: preliminary rough profile, Rodbard-PP and Ekins-PP. It is concluded that the creation of a precision profile is obligatory and the method of its construction does not influence the relationship's course. PP allows to determine concentration range giving stable results which improves the efficiency of the analitical work. 16 refs., 4 figs

  16. Antihydrogen Production and Precision Experiments The ATHENA Collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    Filippini, V

    2002-01-01

    The ATHENA (AnTiHydrogEN Apparatus) experiment has the goal of producing slow antihydrogen atoms and comparing their physical properties to those of hydrogen. For example, the measurement of the 1S-2S transition offers the possibility for comparing hydrogen and antihydrogen to a precision of 1 part in 10$^{15}$, owing to the long lifetime of the metastable 2S state (122 msec). This would be the most precise test of CPT invariance in the lepton and baryon sector. The first phase of the experiment, which has been installed and commissioned at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) - is devoted to the study of antihydrogen production. For this purpose, about 10$^{5}$ antiprotons (p=100 MeV/c ) are trapped and cooled to milli-eV energies. Independently, about 10$^{8}$ low energy positrons per minute are collected in the positron accumulator, using a Na-22 source (2 GBq). Formation of antihydrogen will take place in the recombination region, where the antiproton cloud is made to interact with the dense positron plasma tr...

  17. Precise positioning of patients for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhey, L.J.; Goitein, M.; McNulty, P.; Munzenrider, J.E.; Suit, H.D.

    1982-01-01

    A number of immobilization schemes which permit precise daily positioning of patients for radiation therapy are discussed. Pretreatment and post-treatment radiographs have been taken with the patient in the treatment position and analyzed to determine the amount of intratreatment movement. Studies of patients in the supine, seated and decubitus positions indicate mean movements of less than 1 mm with a standard deviation of less than 1 mm. Patients immobilized in the seated position with a bite block and a mask have a mean movement of about 0.5 mm +/- 0.3 mm (s.d.), and patients immobilized in the supine position with their necks hyperextended for submental therapy evidence a mean movement of about 1.4 mm +/- 0.9 mm (s.d.). With the exception of those used for the decubitus position, the immobilization devices are simply fabricated out of thermoplastic casting materials readily available from orthopedic supply houses. A study of day-to-day reproducibility of patient position using laser alignment and pretreatment radiographs for final verification of position indicates that the initial laser alignment can be used to position a patient within 2.2 mm +/- 1.4 mm (s.d.) of the intended position. These results indicate that rigid immobilization devices can improve the precision of radiotherapy, which would be advantageous with respect to both tumor and normal tissue coverage in certain situations

  18. High precision innovative micropump for artificial pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappel, E.; Mefti, S.; Lettieri, G.-L.; Proennecke, S.; Conan, C.

    2014-03-01

    The concept of artificial pancreas, which comprises an insulin pump, a continuous glucose meter and a control algorithm, is a major step forward in managing patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The stability of the control algorithm is based on short-term precision micropump to deliver rapid-acting insulin and to specific integrated sensors able to monitor any failure leading to a loss of accuracy. Debiotech's MEMS micropump, based on the membrane pump principle, is made of a stack of 3 silicon wafers. The pumping chamber comprises a pillar check-valve at the inlet, a pumping membrane which is actuated against stop limiters by a piezo cantilever, an anti-free-flow outlet valve and a pressure sensor. The micropump inlet is tightly connected to the insulin reservoir while the outlet is in direct communication with the patient skin via a cannula. To meet the requirement of a pump dedicated to closed-loop application for diabetes care, in addition to the well-controlled displacement of the pumping membrane, the high precision of the micropump is based on specific actuation profiles that balance effect of pump elasticity in low-consumption push-pull mode.

  19. Software for precise tracking of cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Hiroshi; Noda, Hisayori; Sugiyama, Mayu; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Fukami, Kiyoko; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed software for analyzing cultured cells that divide as well as migrate. ► The active contour model (Snakes) was used as the core algorithm. ► The time backward analysis was also used for efficient detection of cell division. ► With user-interactive correction functions, the software enables precise tracking. ► The software was successfully applied to cells with fluorescently-labeled nuclei. -- Abstract: We have developed a multi-target cell tracking program TADOR, which we applied to a series of fluorescence images. TADOR is based on an active contour model that is modified in order to be free of the problem of locally optimal solutions, and thus is resistant to signal fluctuation and morphological changes. Due to adoption of backward tracing and addition of user-interactive correction functions, TADOR is used in an off-line and semi-automated mode, but enables precise tracking of cell division. By applying TADOR to the analysis of cultured cells whose nuclei had been fluorescently labeled, we tracked cell division and cell-cycle progression on coverslips over an extended period of time.

  20. Usefulness of Models in Precision Nutrient Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Manevski, Kiril; Zhenjiang, Zhou

    Modern agriculture increasingly applies new methods and technologies to increase production and nutrient use efficiencies and at the same time reduce leaching of nutrients and greenhouse gas emissions. GPS based ECa-measurement equipment, ER or EM instrumentations, are used to spatially character......Modern agriculture increasingly applies new methods and technologies to increase production and nutrient use efficiencies and at the same time reduce leaching of nutrients and greenhouse gas emissions. GPS based ECa-measurement equipment, ER or EM instrumentations, are used to spatially...... and mineral composition. Mapping of crop status and the spatial-temporal variability within fields with red-infrared reflection are used to support decision on split fertilisation and more precise dosing. The interpretation and use of these various data in precise nutrient management is not straightforward...... of mineralisation. However, whether the crop would benefit from this depended to a large extent on soil hydraulic conductivity within the range of natural variation when testing the model. In addition the initialisation of the distribution of soil total carbon and nitrogen into conceptual model compartments...

  1. Golden Jubilee photos: Precision is their motto

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1980s, CERN embarked on the enormous Large Electron-Positron Collider construction project. The excavation of the 27-kilometre LEP tunnel was a huge technical challenge. The tunnel-boring machines excavated the tunnel in 3.3 km octants and had to be operated with extraordinary precision to ensure that they reached their destination - the bottom of the next vertical shaft - precisely on target. The tunnel was excavated before high-performance instruments were developed for the construction of the Channel Tunnel. As no firms were willing to perform the surveying work, CERN's own surveyors, with experience from the SPS behind them, took up the challenge. At the surface, the surveyors established the world's most accurate geodetic network, performing measurements to an accuracy of 10-7, or 1mm per 10 km, using the Terrameter (see photo). The excavation of the tunnel was completed in 1988 and the finished tunnel's trajectory was found to diverge from the theoretical value specified by the...

  2. Structurally uniform and atomically precise carbon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, Yasutomo; Ito, Hideto; Itami, Kenichiro

    2016-01-01

    Nanometre-sized carbon materials consisting of benzene units oriented in unique geometric patterns, hereafter named nanocarbons, conduct electricity, absorb and emit light, and exhibit interesting magnetic properties. Spherical fullerene C60, cylindrical carbon nanotubes and sheet-like graphene are representative forms of nanocarbons, and theoretical simulations have predicted several exotic 3D nanocarbon structures. At present, synthetic routes to nanocarbons mainly lead to mixtures of molecules with a range of different structures and properties, which cannot be easily separated or refined into pure forms. Some researchers believe that it is impossible to synthesize these materials in a precise manner. Obtaining ‘pure’ nanocarbons is a great challenge in the field of nanocarbon science, and the construction of structurally uniform nanocarbons, ideally as single molecules, is crucial for the development of functional materials in nanotechnology, electronics, optics and biomedical applications. This Review highlights the organic chemistry approach — more specifically, bottom-up construction with atomic precision — that is currently the most promising strategy towards this end.

  3. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Soviet precision timekeeping research and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessot, R.F.C.; Allan, D.W.; Crampton, S.J.B.; Cutler, L.S.; Kern, R.H.; McCoubrey, A.O.; White, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    This report is the result of a study of Soviet progress in precision timekeeping research and timekeeping capability during the last two decades. The study was conducted by a panel of seven US scientists who have expertise in timekeeping, frequency control, time dissemination, and the direct applications of these disciplines to scientific investigation. The following topics are addressed in this report: generation of time by atomic clocks at the present level of their technology, new and emerging technologies related to atomic clocks, time and frequency transfer technology, statistical processes involving metrological applications of time and frequency, applications of precise time and frequency to scientific investigations, supporting timekeeping technology, and a comparison of Soviet research efforts with those of the United States and the West. The number of Soviet professionals working in this field is roughly 10 times that in the United States. The Soviet Union has facilities for large-scale production of frequency standards and has concentrated its efforts on developing and producing rubidium gas cell devices (relatively compact, low-cost frequency standards of modest accuracy and stability) and atomic hydrogen masers (relatively large, high-cost standards of modest accuracy and high stability). 203 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs

  5. High precision timing in a FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoek, Matthias; Cardinali, Matteo; Dickescheid, Michael; Schlimme, Soeren; Sfienti, Concettina; Spruck, Bjoern; Thiel, Michaela [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A segmented highly precise start counter (FLASH) was designed and constructed at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Mainz. Besides determining a precise reference time, a Time-of-Flight measurement can be performed with two identical FLASH units. Thus, particle identification can be provided for mixed hadron beam environments. The detector design is based on the detection of Cherenkov light produced in fused silica radiator bars with fast multi-anode MCP-PMTs. The segmentation of the radiator improves the timing resolution while allowing a coarse position resolution along one direction. Both, the arrival time and the Time-over-Threshold are determined by the readout electronics, which enables walk correction of the arrival time. The performance of two FLASH units was investigated in test experiments at the Mainz Microton (MAMI) using an electron beam with an energy of 855 MeV and at CERN's PS T9 beam line with a mixed hadron beam with momenta between 3-8 GeV/c. Effective Time-walk correction methods based on Time-over-Threshold were developed for the data analysis. The achieved Time-Of-Flight resolution after applying all corrections was found to be 70 ps. Furthermore, the PID and position resolution capabilities are discussed in this contribution.

  6. Towards High Productivity in Precision Grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Brian Rowe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last century, substantial advances have been made, based on improved understanding of the requirements of grinding processes, machines, control systems, materials, abrasives, wheel preparation, coolants, lubricants, and coolant delivery. This paper reviews a selection of areas in which the application of scientific principles and engineering ingenuity has led to the development of new grinding processes, abrasives, tools, machines, and systems. Topics feature a selection of areas where relationships between scientific principles and new techniques are yielding improved productivity and better quality. These examples point towards further advances that can fruitfully be pursued. Applications in modern grinding technology range from high-precision kinematics for grinding very large lenses and reflectors through to medium size grinding machine processes and further down to grinding very small components used in micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS devices. The importance of material issues is emphasized for the range of conventional engineering steels, through to aerospace materials, ceramics, and composites. It is suggested that future advances in productivity will include the wider application of artificial intelligence and robotics to improve precision, process efficiency, and features required to integrate grinding processes into wider manufacturing systems.

  7. Human genomics projects and precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Ramiro, F; Peiró-Pastor, R; Aguado, B

    2017-09-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project (HGP) in 2001 opened the floodgates to a deeper understanding of medicine. There are dozens of HGP-like projects which involve from a few tens to several million genomes currently in progress, which vary from having specialized goals or a more general approach. However, data generation, storage, management and analysis in public and private cloud computing platforms have raised concerns about privacy and security. The knowledge gained from further research has changed the field of genomics and is now slowly permeating into clinical medicine. The new precision (personalized) medicine, where genome sequencing and data analysis are essential components, allows tailored diagnosis and treatment according to the information from the patient's own genome and specific environmental factors. P4 (predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory) medicine is introducing new concepts, challenges and opportunities. This review summarizes current sequencing technologies, concentrates on ongoing human genomics projects, and provides some examples in which precision medicine has already demonstrated clinical impact in diagnosis and/or treatment.

  8. Precision of hyaline cartilage thickness measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, K.; Buckwalter, K.; Helvie, M.; Niklason, L.; Martel, W. (Univ. of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1992-05-01

    Measurement of cartilage thickness in vivo is an important indicator of the status of a joint as the various degenerative and inflammatory arthritides directly affect the condition of the cartilage. In order to assess the precision of thickness measurements of hyaline articular cartilage, we undertook a pilot study using MR imaging, plain radiography, and ultrasonography (US). We measured the cartilage of the hip and knee joints in 10 persons (4 healthy volunteers and 6 patients). The joints in each patient were examined on two separate occasions using each modality. In the hips a swell as the knee joints, the most precise measuring method was plain film radiography. For radiographs of the knees obtained in the standing position, the coefficient of variation was 6.5%; in the hips this figure was 6.34%. US of the knees and MR imaging of the hips were the second best modalities in the measurement of cartilage thickness. In addition, MR imaging enabled the most complete visualization of the joint cartilage. (orig.).

  9. Precise Point Positioning Using Triple GNSS Constellations in Various Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Afifi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new dual-frequency precise point positioning (PPP model, which combines the observations from three different global navigation satellite system (GNSS constellations, namely GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou. Combining measurements from different GNSS systems introduces additional biases, including inter-system bias and hardware delays, which require rigorous modelling. Our model is based on the un-differenced and between-satellite single-difference (BSSD linear combinations. BSSD linear combination cancels out some receiver-related biases, including receiver clock error and non-zero initial phase bias of the receiver oscillator. Forming the BSSD linear combination requires a reference satellite, which can be selected from any of the GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou systems. In this paper three BSSD scenarios are tested; each considers a reference satellite from a different GNSS constellation. Natural Resources Canada’s GPSPace PPP software is modified to enable a combined GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou PPP solution and to handle the newly introduced biases. A total of four data sets collected at four different IGS stations are processed to verify the developed PPP model. Precise satellite orbit and clock products from the International GNSS Service Multi-GNSS Experiment (IGS-MGEX network are used to correct the GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou measurements in the post-processing PPP mode. A real-time PPP solution is also obtained, which is referred to as RT-PPP in the sequel, through the use of the IGS real-time service (RTS for satellite orbit and clock corrections. However, only GPS and Galileo observations are used for the RT-PPP solution, as the RTS-IGS satellite products are not presently available for BeiDou system. All post-processed and real-time PPP solutions are compared with the traditional un-differenced GPS-only counterparts. It is shown that combining the GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou observations in the post-processing mode improves the

  10. Method of high precision interval measurement in pulse laser ranging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Lv, Xin-yuan; Mao, Jin-jin; Liu, Wei; Yang, Dong

    2013-09-01

    Laser ranging is suitable for laser system, for it has the advantage of high measuring precision, fast measuring speed,no cooperative targets and strong resistance to electromagnetic interference,the measuremen of laser ranging is the key paremeters affecting the performance of the whole system.The precision of the pulsed laser ranging system was decided by the precision of the time interval measurement, the principle structure of laser ranging system was introduced, and a method of high precision time interval measurement in pulse laser ranging system was established in this paper.Based on the analysis of the factors which affected the precision of range measure,the pulse rising edges discriminator was adopted to produce timing mark for the start-stop time discrimination,and the TDC-GP2 high precision interval measurement system based on TMS320F2812 DSP was designed to improve the measurement precision.Experimental results indicate that the time interval measurement method in this paper can obtain higher range accuracy. Compared with the traditional time interval measurement system,the method simplifies the system design and reduce the influence of bad weather conditions,furthermore,it satisfies the requirements of low costs and miniaturization.

  11. Long-term in-vitro precision of direct digital X-ray radiogrammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhainaut, Alvilde; Hoff, Mari; Kaelvesten, Johan; Lydersen, Stian; Forslind, Kristina; Haugeberg, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) calculates peripheral bone mineral density (BMD) from hand radiographs. The short-term precision for direct DXR has been reported to be highly satisfactory. However, long-term precision for this method has not been examined. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the long-term in-vitro precision for the new direct digital version of DXR. The in-vitro precision for direct DXR was tested with cadaver phantoms on four different X-ray systems at baseline, 3 months, 6 months, and in one machine also at 12 months. At each time point, 31 measurements were performed. The in-vitro longitudinal precision for the four radiographic systems ranged from 0.22 to 0.43% expressed as coefficient of variation (CV%). The smallest detectable difference (SDD) ranged from 0.0034 to 0.0054 g/cm 2 . The in vitro long-term precision for direct DXR was comparable to the previous reported short-term in-vitro precision for all tested X-ray systems. These data show that DXR is a stable method for detecting small changes in bone density during 6-12 months of follow-up. (orig.)

  12. The study of the precision and accuracy of quality control in DXA bone mineral densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Jian; Xu Hao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the precision and accuracy of quality control (QC) in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone mineral densitometry so as to raise the reliability and necessity of the results. Methods: 1) Short-term precision trial: 30 people and 30 SD male rats were chosen, and a precision trail was performed. Each people was scanned twice and reposited in next study. The precision and the least significant change (LSC) of each examinated region were calculated. The short-term precision trail of the rats was performed in the similar way. 2) Accuracy trial: measured the body phantom supplied by factor daily, and compared the results with real value, then calculated the accuracy and correction factor. A Shewhart chart was set up based on average values. Results: 1) People's coefficient of variation (CV) and LSC in the lumbar and proximal femur were 0.7%-2.2% and 0.018-0.048 g/cm 2 . Rats' whole body short-term precision was 0.9%. 2) The average accuracy of DXA densitometer was -0.81%, the correction factor was 0.992. The average bone mineral density measured in successive 25 d was 1.244 g/cm 2 , the standard deviation (SD) was 0.008. Conclusion: The precision and accuracy trail can help to get the information about the working state of the instrument and to analyze the measured results, and can effectively raise the reliability of the measure. (authors)

  13. A Dynamic Precision Evaluation Method for the Star Sensor in the Stellar-Inertial Navigation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiazhen; Lei, Chaohua; Yang, Yanqiang

    2017-06-28

    Integrating the advantages of INS (inertial navigation system) and the star sensor, the stellar-inertial navigation system has been used for a wide variety of applications. The star sensor is a high-precision attitude measurement instrument; therefore, determining how to validate its accuracy is critical in guaranteeing its practical precision. The dynamic precision evaluation of the star sensor is more difficult than a static precision evaluation because of dynamic reference values and other impacts. This paper proposes a dynamic precision verification method of star sensor with the aid of inertial navigation device to realize real-time attitude accuracy measurement. Based on the gold-standard reference generated by the star simulator, the altitude and azimuth angle errors of the star sensor are calculated for evaluation criteria. With the goal of diminishing the impacts of factors such as the sensors' drift and devices, the innovative aspect of this method is to employ static accuracy for comparison. If the dynamic results are as good as the static results, which have accuracy comparable to the single star sensor's precision, the practical precision of the star sensor is sufficiently high to meet the requirements of the system specification. The experiments demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Precision wildlife medicine: applications of the human-centred precision medicine revolution to species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whilde, Jenny; Martindale, Mark Q; Duffy, David J

    2017-05-01

    The current species extinction crisis is being exacerbated by an increased rate of emergence of epizootic disease. Human-induced factors including habitat degradation, loss of biodiversity and wildlife population reductions resulting in reduced genetic variation are accelerating disease emergence. Novel, efficient and effective approaches are required to combat these epizootic events. Here, we present the case for the application of human precision medicine approaches to wildlife medicine in order to enhance species conservation efforts. We consider how the precision medicine revolution, coupled with the advances made in genomics, may provide a powerful and feasible approach to identifying and treating wildlife diseases in a targeted, effective and streamlined manner. A number of case studies of threatened species are presented which demonstrate the applicability of precision medicine to wildlife conservation, including sea turtles, amphibians and Tasmanian devils. These examples show how species conservation could be improved by using precision medicine techniques to determine novel treatments and management strategies for the specific medical conditions hampering efforts to restore population levels. Additionally, a precision medicine approach to wildlife health has in turn the potential to provide deeper insights into human health and the possibility of stemming and alleviating the impacts of zoonotic diseases. The integration of the currently emerging Precision Medicine Initiative with the concepts of EcoHealth (aiming for sustainable health of people, animals and ecosystems through transdisciplinary action research) and One Health (recognizing the intimate connection of humans, animal and ecosystem health and addressing a wide range of risks at the animal-human-ecosystem interface through a coordinated, collaborative, interdisciplinary approach) has great potential to deliver a deeper and broader interdisciplinary-based understanding of both wildlife and human

  15. Sensing Characteristics of A Precision Aligner Using Moire Gratings for Precision Alignment System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lizhong; Hideo Furuhashi; Yoshiyuki Uchida

    2001-01-01

    Sensing characteristics of a precision aligner using moire gratings for precision alignment sysem has been investigated. A differential moire alignment system and a modified alignment system were used. The influence of the setting accuracy of the gap length and inclination of gratings on the alignment accuracy has been studied experimentally and theoretically. Setting accuracy of the gap length less than 2.5μm is required in modified moire alignment. There is no influence of the gap length on the alignment accuracy in the differential alignment system. The inclination affects alignment accuracies in both differential and modified moire alignment systems.

  16. Estimating precise metallicity and stellar mass evolution of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of galaxies can be conveniently broken down into the evolution of their contents. The changing dust, gas, and stellar content in addition to the changing dark matter potential and periodic feedback from a super-massive blackhole are some of the key ingredients. We focus on the stellar content that can be observed, as the stars reflect information about the galaxy when they were formed. We approximate the stellar content and star formation histories of unresolved galaxies using stellar population modeling. Though simplistic, this approach allows us to reconstruct the star formation histories of galaxies that can be used to test models of galaxy formation and evolution. These models, however, suffer from degeneracies at large lookback times (t > 1 Gyr) as red, low luminosity stars begin to dominate a galaxy’s spectrum. Additionally, degeneracies between stellar populations at different ages and metallicities often make stellar population modeling less precise. The machine learning technique diffusion k-means has been shown to increase the precision in stellar population modeling using a mono-metallicity basis set. However, as galaxies evolve, we expect the metallicity of stellar populations to vary. We use diffusion k-means to generate a multi-metallicity basis set to estimate the stellar mass and chemical evolution of unresolved galaxies. Two basis sets are formed from the Bruzual & Charlot 2003 and MILES stellar population models. We then compare the accuracy and precision of these models in recovering complete (stellar mass and metallicity) histories of mock data. Similarities in the groupings of stellar population spectra in the diffusion maps for each metallicity hint at fundamental age transitions common to both basis sets that can be used to identify stellar populations in a given age range.

  17. Síntese de MgAl2O4 por combustão assistida por micro-ondas: influência dos parâmetros de síntese na formação e na estrutura cristalina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. B. A. Medeiros

    Full Text Available Resumo Nos últimos anos a técnica de combustão assistida por micro-ondas vem recebendo uma atenção especial, por ser uma técnica rápida, de baixo custo e de fácil manuseio, que permite obter materiais com boa homogeneidade química. O aluminato de magnésio (MgAl2O4 é um dos mais bem conhecidos materiais cerâmicos devido às suas excelentes propriedades, como alto ponto de fusão, elevada resistência mecânica em altas temperaturas, boa resistência ao choque térmico e resistência a ácidos e bases. O propósito deste trabalho é avaliar a influência da razão combustível/oxidante (Rco, temperatura de calcinação (Tcal e da potência do micro-ondas (Pmic na formação e na estrutura cristalina do MgAl2O4. Para realizar a reação de combustão foram utilizadas três potências (450, 675 e 900 W e três razões combustível/oxidante (0,8:1, 1:1 e 1,2:1. O material foi calcinado em três temperaturas (700, 800 e 900 ºC e foram realizadas análises de difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica por varredura. Um planejamento fatorial 23 foi utilizado para avaliar a influência da Rco, Tcal e Pmic nos parâmetros como a cristalinidade e o tamanho de cristalito. Os resultados mostram que para os MgAl2O4 sintetizados com Rco maiores que 1:1 e Pmic menores que 675 W são obtidos tamanhos de cristalito entre 10 e 20 nm quando calcinados a 700 e 800 ºC. Com relação ao grau de cristalinidade, somente a Tcal exerce uma influência significativa.

  18. Finishing of precision generated metal optical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, P.C.; Sonderman, J.B.

    1975-08-01

    Diamond turning and precision generation of aspheric metal surfaces has promoted a change in lapping techniques due to the extremely close figure tolerances and surface finishes that have been achieved. Special tooling, diamond abrasive, silicon oil and special techniques used to polish the unusual aspheric figures are described. The studies include small flat diamond turned samples of copper, electroplated copper, electroplated silver, electroplated nickel and silver as well as large aspheres such as an f/0.75, 35 cm dia copper ellipse. Results from cleaning studies on flat samples using ultrasonics and vapor degreasers are also summarized. Interferograms of wavefront distortion and analysis of focal volume are included as well as 10.6 μm reflectivity and a summary of laser damage experiments. (TFD)

  19. Precision cosmology the first half million years

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Bernard J T

    2017-01-01

    Cosmology seeks to characterise our Universe in terms of models based on well-understood and tested physics. Today we know our Universe with a precision that once would have been unthinkable. This book develops the entire mathematical, physical and statistical framework within which this has been achieved. It tells the story of how we arrive at our profound conclusions, starting from the early twentieth century and following developments up to the latest data analysis of big astronomical datasets. It provides an enlightening description of the mathematical, physical and statistical basis for understanding and interpreting the results of key space- and ground-based data. Subjects covered include general relativity, cosmological models, the inhomogeneous Universe, physics of the cosmic background radiation, and methods and results of data analysis. Extensive online supplementary notes, exercises, teaching materials, and exercises in Python make this the perfect companion for researchers, teachers and students i...

  20. Sfermion Precision Measurements at a Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Freitas, A.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Bartl, A.; Blair, G.A.; Blochinger, C.; Boos, E.; Brandenburg, A.; Datta, A.; Djouadi, A.; Fraas, H.; Guasch, J.; Hesselbach, S.; Hidaka, K.; Hollik, W.; Kernreiter, T.; Maniatis, M.; von Manteuffel, A.; Martyn, H.U.; Miller, D.J.; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid A.; Muhlleitner, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Kluge, Hannelies; Porod, W.; Sola, J.; Sopczak, A.; Stahl, A.; Weber, M.M.; Zerwas, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    At future e+- e- linear colliders, the event rates and clean signals of scalar fermion production - in particular for the scalar leptons - allow very precise measurements of their masses and couplings and the determination of their quantum numbers. Various methods are proposed for extracting these parameters from the data at the sfermion thresholds and in the continuum. At the same time, NLO radiative corrections and non-zero width effects have been calculated in order to match the experimental accuracy. The substantial mixing expected for the third generation sfermions opens up additional opportunities. Techniques are presented for determining potential CP-violating phases and for extracting tan(beta) from the stau sector, in particular at high values. The consequences of possible large mass differences in the stop and sbottom system are explored in dedicated analyses.