Sample records for mg o2 kg-1

  1. Rapacuronium 2.0 or 2.5 mg kg(-1) for rapid-sequence induction : comparison with succinylcholine 1.0 mg kg(-1)

    Blobner, M; Mirakhur, RK; Wierda, JMKH; Wright, PMC; Olkkola, KT; Debaene, B; Pendeville, P; Engbaek, J; Rietbergen, H; Sparr, HJ


    The purpose of this nine-centre study in 602 patients was to show that the frequency of acceptable intubating conditions after rapacuronium 2.0 or 2.5 mg kg(-1) is not more than 10% lower than the frequency after succinylcholine 1.0 mg kg(-1) during rapid-sequence induction of anaesthesia with fenta

  2. Sugammadex 4.0 mg kg-1 reversal of deep rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade

    Yu, Buwei; Wang, Xiangrui; Hansen, Søren Helbo


    Objective: Maintenance of deep Neuro Muscular Blockade (NMB) until the end of surgery may be beneficial in some surgical procedures. The selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex rapidly reverses deep levels of rocuronium-induced NMB. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy...... and safety of sugammadex 4.0 mg kg-1 for reversal of deep rocuronium-induced NMB in Chinese and Caucasian patients. Methods: This was an open-label, multicenter, prospective Phase III efficacy study in adult American Society of Anesthesiologists Class 1-3 patients scheduled for surgery under general...... anesthesia and requiring deep NMB. All patients received intravenous propofol and opioids for induction and maintenance of anesthesia, and a single intubation dose of rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg, with maintenance doses of 0.1-0.2 mg/kg as required. Sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg was administered after the last dose...

  3. Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of sugammadex 4 mg kg-1 for reversal of deep neuromuscular blockade in patients with severe renal impairment.

    Panhuizen, I F; Gold, S J A; Buerkle, C; Snoeck, M M J; Harper, N J N; Kaspers, M J G H; van den Heuvel, M W; Hollmann, M W


    This study evaluated efficacy and safety of sugammadex 4 mg kg(-1) for deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversal in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance [CLCR] Sugammadex 4 mg kg(-1) was administered at 1-2 post-tetanic counts for reversal of rocuronium NMB. Primary efficacy variable was time from sugammadex to recovery to train-of-four (T4/T1) ratio 0.9. Equivalence between groups was demonstrated if two-sided 95% CI for difference in recovery times was within -1 to +1 min interval. Pharmacokinetics of rocuronium and overall safety were assessed. The intent-to-treat group comprised 67 patients (renal n=35; control n=32). Median (95% CI) time from sugammadex to recovery to T4/T1 ratio 0.9 was 3.1 (2.4-4.6) and 1.9 (1.6-2.8) min for renal patients vs controls. Estimated median (95% CI) difference between groups was 1.3 (0.6-2.4) min; thus equivalence bounds were not met. One control patient experienced acceleromyography-determined NMB recurrence, possibly as a result of premature sugammadex (4 mg kg(-1)) administration, with no clinical evidence of NMB recurrence observed. Rocuronium, encapsulated by Sugammadex, was detectable in plasma at day 7 in 6 patients. Bioanalytical data for sugammadex were collected but could not be used for pharmacokinetics. Sugammadex 4 mg kg(-1) provided rapid reversal of deep rocuronium-induced NMB in renal and control patients. However, considering the prolonged sugammadex-rocuronium complex exposure in patients with severe renal impairment, current safety experience is insufficient to support recommended use of sugammadex in this population. NCT00702715. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  4. Postoperative impairment of motor function at train-of-four ratio ≥0.9 cannot be improved by sugammadex (1 mg kg-1).

    Baumüller, E; Schaller, S J; Chiquito Lama, Y; Frick, C G; Bauhofer, T; Eikermann, M; Fink, H; Blobner, M


    A train-of-four ratio (TOFR) ≥0.9 measured by quantitative neuromuscular monitoring is accepted as an indication of sufficient neuromuscular recovery for extubation, even though many postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors may still be inhibited. We investigated whether antagonism with sugammadex after spontaneous recovery to TOFR≥0.9 further improves muscle function or subjective well-being. Following recovery to TOFR≥0.9 and emergence from anaesthesia, 300 patients randomly received either sugammadex 1.0 mg kg(-1) or placebo. Fine motor function (Purdue Pegboard Test) and maximal voluntary grip strength were measured before and after surgery (before and after test drug administration). At discharge from the postanaesthesia care unit, well-being was assessed with numerical analogue scales and the Quality-of-Recovery Score 40 (QoR-40). Patients' fine motor function [6 (sd 4) vs 15 (3) pegs (30 s)(-1), Psugammadex or placebo, motor function was significantly improved in both groups but did not reach the preoperative level. There was no difference between groups at any time. Global well-being was unaffected (QoR-40: placebo, 174 vs 185; sugammadex, 175 vs 186, P>0.05). Antagonizing rocuronium at TOF≥0.9 with sugammadex 1.0 mg kg(-) (1) did not improve patients' motor function or well-being when compared with placebo. Our data support the view that TOFR≥0.9 measured by electromyography signifies sufficient recovery of neuromuscular function. The trial is registered at (NCT01101139). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  5. Children and parental anxiolysis in paediatric ambulatory surgery: a randomized controlled study comparing 0.3 mg kg-1 midazolam to tablet computer based interactive distraction.

    Marechal, C; Berthiller, J; Tosetti, S; Cogniat, B; Desombres, H; Bouvet, L; Kassai, B; Chassard, D; de Queiroz Siqueira, M


    The operating theatre, anaesthesia induction and separation from parents create fear and anxiety in children. Anxiety leads to adverse behavioral changes appearing and sometimes persisting during the postoperative period. Our aim was to compare the effects of midazolam (0.3 mg kg(-)(1): MDZ) for premedication with age-appropriate tablet game apps (TAB) on children anxiety during and after ambulatory surgery. A randomized controlled trial was conducted from May 16th, 2013 to March 25th, 2014 at the Children Hospital of Lyon. The primary outcome of this study was the change in m-YPAS score at the time of anaesthetic mask induction. Anxiety was also assessed in the waiting surgical area, at the time of separation with parents and when back in the ambulatory surgery ward. One hundred and eighteen patients aged four-11 yr were recruited, 60 in the TAB Group and 58 in the MDZ Group. Main endpoint was missing for three patients from the MDZ Group. At the time of mask induction, there was no significant difference between MDZ and TAB Group for the m-YPAS score (40.5 (18.6) vs 41.8 (20.7), P = 0.99). There was no significant correlation between m-YPAS score and its evolution over the four period of time between subjects. We were not able to show whether TAB is superior to MDZ to blunt anxiety in children undergoing ambulatory surgery. TAB is a non-pharmacological tool which has the capacity in reducing perioperative stress without any sedative effect in this population. NCT 02192710. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  6. Theoretical Limiting Potentials in Mg/O2 Batteries

    Smith, Jeffrey G.; Naruse, Junichi; Hiramatsu, Hidehiko


    A rechargeable battery based on a multivalent Mg/O2 couple is an attractive chemistry due to its high theoretical energy density and potential for low cost. Nevertheless, metal-air batteries based on alkaline earth anodes have received limited attention and generally exhibit modest performance....... In addition, many fundamental aspects of this system remain poorly understood, such as the reaction mechanisms associated with discharge and charging. The present study aims to close this knowledge gap and thereby accelerate the development of Mg/O2 batteries by employing first-principles calculations...... by the presence of large thermodynamic overvoltages. In contrast, MgO2-based cells are predicted to be much more efficient: superoxide-terminated facets on MgO2 crystallites enable low overvoltages and round-trip efficiencies approaching 90%. These data suggest that the performance of Mg/O2 batteries can...

  7. The conduction bands of MgO, MgS and HfO2

    Boer, P.K. de; Groot, R.A. de


    Electronic structure calculations for MgO, MgS and HfO2 are reported. It is shown that the conduction bands of MgO and MgS have predominantly anion character, contrary to the common picture of the conduction band being derived from cation states. In transition metal oxides, unoccupied anion states a

  8. Porous Ceramic Composite ZrO2(MgO)-MgO for Osteoimplantology

    Buyakov, A. S.; Kulkov, S. N.


    Pore and crystalline structure, biocompatibility of ceramic composite ZrO2(MgO)-MgO were studied. The main mechanical characteristics were determined and it has been shown that compression strength directly depends on microstresses obtained from X-ray data. In-vitro studies of mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MMSC), cultivated on material surface are shown that cell proliferation and differentiation of MMSC goes throw osteogenic type.

  9. Intrinsic Conductivity in Magnesium-Oxygen Battery Discharge Products: MgO and MgO2

    Smith, Jeffrey G.; Naruse, Junichi; Hiramatsu, Hidehiko


    O, the equilibrium concentration of carriers in MgO2 is low, and moderate-to-poor mobility further limits conductivity. If equilibrium behavior is realized, then we conclude that (i) sluggish charge transport in MgO or MgO2 will limit battery performance when these compounds cover the cathode support and (ii) what...

  10. Effect of Fused MgO-ZrO2 Clinker Addition on Thermal Shock Resistance of MgO-ZrO2 Unfired Bricks


    MgO-ZrO2 unfired bricks with ZrO2 content up to 8% at the interval of 2% were prepared,using fused magnesia(mgo:97%)and fused MgO-ZrO2 clinker (ZrO2:14.33%) as starting materials and phenolic resin as binder.The effects of ZrO2 content on thermal shock resistance (TSR) and other properties such as cold and hot modulus of rupture have been investigated.Re-sidual cold modulus of rupture ratio after heating at 1 000 ℃ and quenching by air blowing was adopted to characterize TSR.Addition of the Mgo-ZrO2 clinker improves TSR,attributing to the microcrack toughening effect by thermal expansion mismatch between different phases.When ZrO2 content goes above 4%,the impro-ving effect tends to be moderate.The introduction of MgO-ZrO2 clinker can also improve the HMOR at 1 500 ℃,while the increased ZrO2 content reduces CMOR of the bricks prefired at 1 600 ℃.due to the thermal expansion mismatch effect.Compromising the overall properties,the optimal ZrO2 content for such magnesia based unfired brick is suggested to be 4%.

  11. Viscosities of FenO-MgO-SiO2 and FenO-MgO-CaO-SiO2 slags

    戴曦; 甘雪萍; 张传福


    The viscosities of molten Fen O-MgO-SiO2 and Fen O-MgO-CaO-SiO2 semi-synthetic slags for nickel flash smelting were mearured in the temperature range of 1 200-1 450℃ by use of a rotational viscometer.The mass ratio of Fe to SiO2 was fixed at 1.2,calcium oxide and magnesium oxide contents varied in the range of 2%-8% and 9%-12%(mass fraction),respectively.The results show that silicate anions become smaller by increasing CaO content,which results in the viscosity decrease of slag.In the case of addition of MgO the viscosity behaviour is complicated When MgO content is less than 11%,the viscosity increases with the increase of MgO at all temperatures tested .However,when the MgO content is more than 11%,the viscosity decreases slightly for Fen O-MgO-CaOSiO2 system.At higher MgO contents,low-viscosity slags can be obtained by adding CaO.As for a given composition,the viscosity decreased with increasing temperature.The higher the temperature,the more MgO can be added before saturation.The effect of Fe3 O4 on the viscosity is quite significant.The viscosity of slag increases to 300 mpa tions of temperature and composition.A comparison between Fen O-MgO-SiO2 and Fen O-MgO-CaO-SiO2 systems are also given.

  12. Bulk and surface properties of magnesium peroxide MgO2

    Esch, Tobit R.; Bredow, Thomas


    Magnesium peroxide has been identified in Mg/air batteries as an intermediate in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) [1]. It is assumed that MgO2 is involved in the solid-electrolyte interphase on the cathode surface. Therefore its structure and stability play a crucial role in the performance of Mg/air batteries. In this work we present a theoretical study of the bulk and low-index surface properties of MgO2. All methods give a good account of the experimental lattice parameters for MgO2 and MgO bulk. The reaction energies, enthalpies and free energies for MgO2 formation from MgO are compared among the different DFT methods and with the local MP2 method. A pronounced dependence from the applied functional is found. At variance with a previous theoretical study but in agreement with recent experiments we find that the MgO2 formation reaction is endothermic (HSE06-D3BJ: ΔH = 51.9 kJ/mol). The stability of low-index surfaces MgO2 (001) (Es = 0.96 J/m2) and (011) (Es = 1.98 J/m2) is calculated and compared to the surface energy of MgO (001). The formation energy of neutral oxygen vacancies in the topmost layer of the MgO2 (001) surface is calculated and compared with defect formation energies for MgO (001).

  13. Electric circuit model for MgO-doped ZrO2-TiO2 ceramic humidity sensor

    Jain, M. K.; Bhatnagar, M. C.; Sharma, G. L.


    The MgO-doped ZrO2-TiO2 ceramic pellets were studied for its humidity-sensitive electrical conduction. An equivalent circuit model has been proposed to define the humidity-sensitive electrical properties. This model is in agreement with the experimental findings. The electrical conduction is largely controlled by the intergranular impedance except at very high humidities. The impedance of the pellets showed inductive behavior in high-humidity region. This behavior can be attributed to the spherical paths adopted by charge carrier because conduction is mainly through the spherical grain surface.

  14. Structural and electronic properties of Mg and Mg-Nb co-doped TiO2 (101) anatase surface

    Sasani, Alireza; Baktash, Ardeshir; Mirabbaszadeh, Kavoos; Khoshnevisan, Bahram


    In this paper, by using density functional theory, Mg and Nb-Mg co-doping of TiO2 anatase (101) surfaces are studied. By studying the formation energy of the defects and the bond length distribution of the surface, it is shown that Mg defects tend to stay as far as possible to induce least possible lattice distortion while Nb and Mg defects stay close to each other to cause less stress to the surface. By investigating band structure of the surface and changes stemmed from the defects, potential effects of Mg and Mg-Nb co-doping of TiO2 surface on dye-sensitized solar cells are investigated. In this study, it is shown that the Nb-Mg co-doping could increase JSC of the surface while slightly decreasing VOC compared to Mg doped surface, which might result in an increase in efficiency of the DSSCs compared to Nb or Mg doped surfaces.

  15. Raman study of TiO2 role in SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-TiO2-ZnO glass crystallization.

    Furić, Kresimir; Stoch, Leszek; Dutkiewicz, Jan


    Tough glass-ceramic material of special mechanical properties with nanosize crystal phases formed by appropriately controlled crystallization was studied by Raman spectroscopy. It was obtained by TiO2 activated crystallization of Mg-aluminosilicate glass of SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-TiO2-ZnO composition. Crystallization was preceded by a change in the TiO2 structural position and state, which is manifested by a changed color of glass from yellow into blue shortly before the glass transformation (Tg) temperature. Raman spectroscopy was applied to explain the mechanism of this process and to establish the role of TiO2 in the early stage of glass crystallization that precedes a complete crystal phase formation. The starting glasses were found in almost complete disorder, since all bands were weak, broad and dominated by a Bose band at about 90 cm-1. After the sample annealing all bands turned out better resolved and the Bose band practically disappeared, both confirming the amorphous structure reorganization process. A multiplet observed in the vicinity of 150 cm-1 we assigned to the anatase and other titania structures that can be considered prime centers of crystallization. Finally, in the closest neighborhood of the Rayleigh line the low frequency mode characterizing nanoparticles was observed. According to this band theory, the mean size of initial titania crystallites is about 10nm for all samples, but the size distribution varies within factor two among them.

  16. Mg/O2 Battery Based on the Magnesium-Aluminum Chloride Complex (MACC) Electrolyte

    Vardar, Galin; Smith, Jeffrey G.; Thomson, Travis


    Mg/O2 cells employing a MgCl2/AlCl3/DME (MACC/DME) electrolyte are cycled and compared to cells with modified Grignard electrolytes, showing that performance of magnesium/oxygen batteries depends strongly on electrolyte composition. Discharge capacity is far greater for MACC/DME-based cells, while...... substantially and likely explains the poor rechargeability. An additional impedance rise consistent with film formation on the Mg negative electrode suggests the presence of detrimental O2 crossover. Minimizing O2 crossover and bypassing charge transfer through the discharge product would improve battery...

  17. Preparation and characterization of MgO nanorods coated with SnO2.

    Kim, Hyunsu; Jin, Changhyun; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Lee, Chongmu


    MgO nanorods have been grown by thermal evaporation of Mg3N2 powders on Si (100) substrates coated with gold (Au) thin films. The MgO nanorods grown on Al2O3 (0001) were 0.1-0.2 microm in diameter and up to a few tens of micrometers in length. MgO/SnO2 coaxial nanorods have also been prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of SnO2 onto the nanorods. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results indicate that the MgO-cores and the SnO2 shells of the annealed coaxial nanorods are of a single crystalline nature with cubic and orthorhombic structures, respectively. The photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy analysis results show that SnO2 coating slightly increases the PL emission intensity of MgO nanorods. The PL emission of the SnO2-coated MgO nanorods is found to be considerably enhanced by thermal annealing and to strongly depend on the annealing atmosphere. The PL emission intensity of the MgO/SnO2 coaxial nanorods has been significantly increased by annealing in a reducing atmosphere. The origin of the PL enhancement by annealing in a reducing atmosphere is discussed on the basis of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses.

  18. Biomedical bandpass filter for fluorescence microscopy imaging based on TiO2/SiO2 and TiO2/MgF2 dielectric multilayers

    Butt, M. A.; Fomchenkov, S. A.; Ullah, A.; Verma, P.; Khonina, S. N.


    We report a design for creating a multilayer dielectric optical filters based on TiO2 and SiO2/MgF2 alternating layers. We have selected Titanium dioxide (TiO2) for high refractive index (2.5), Silicon dioxide (SiO2) and Magnesium fluoride (MgF2) as a low refractive index layer (1.45 & 1.37) respectively. Miniaturized visible spectrometers are useful for quick and mobile characterization of biological samples. Such devices can be fabricated by using Fabry-Perot (FP) filters consisting of two highly reflecting mirrors with a central cavity in between. Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBRs) consisting of alternating high and low refractive index material pairs are the most commonly used mirrors in FP filters, due to their high reflectivity. However, DBRs have high reflectivity for a selected range of wavelengths known as the stopband of the DBR. This range is usually much smaller than the sensitivity range of the spectrometer range. Therefore a bandpass filters are required to restrict wavelength outside the stopband of the FP DBRs. The proposed filter shows a high quality with average transmission of 97.4% within the passbands and the transmission outside the passband is around 4%. Special attention has been given to keep the thickness of the filters within the economic limits. It can be suggested that these filters are exceptional choice for florescence imaging and Endoscope narrow band imaging.

  19. Photocatalytic Degradation of Dichlorvos in Visible Light by Mg2+-TiO2 Nanocatalyst

    T. Siva Rao


    Full Text Available Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 was studied by doping with magnesium (Mg2+-TiO2 with varying magnesium weight percentages ranging from 0.75–1.5 wt%. The doped and undoped samples were synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption (BET, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The XRD data has shown that anatase crystalline phase in Mg2+-TiO2 catalysts, indicating that Mg2+ ions did not influence the crystal patterns of TiO2. The presence of magnesium ions in TiO2 matrix has been determined by XPS spectra. DRS spectra showed that there is a significant absorption shift towards the visible region for doped TiO2. The SEM images and BET results showed that doped catalyst has smaller particle size and highest surface area than undoped TiO2. The photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized catalysts was investigated by the photocatalytic degradation of aqueous dichlorvos (DDVP under visible light irradiation, and it was found that the Mg2+-doped catalysts have better catalytic activity than undoped TiO2. This can be attributed that there is a more efficient electron-hole creation in Mg2+-TiO2 in visible light, contrary to undoped TiO2 which can be excited only in UV irradiation. The effect of dopant concentration, pH of solution, dosage of catalysts, and initial pesticide concentration has been studied.

  20. Effect of Additives on Properties of MgO—ZrO2—C Material

    TIAShouxin; LIUShanlin; 等


    The paper describes the effect of additives Al,Si,SiC and A4C on the expanson of MgO-ZrO2-C material after being coked.Theresults indicate that Al and Si were oxi-dized to form Al2O3 and SiO2 respectively,and then re-acted with CaZrO3 or stabilizer in c-ZrO2 to form calcium aluminate,spinel(MA),dicalcium silicate(C2S) and forsterite (M2S) ,Meznwhile,α-C2S ras transformed to γ-C2S and c-ZrO2 to m-ZrO2 when temperature changed.All the above reactions resulted in the decrease of the amount of Al4C3 and SiC and the increase in bulk volume,which caused the stucture of MgO-ZrO2-C material de-stroyed.Hence,contrary to the MgO-C material,when adding Al,and Si,the MgO-ZrO2-C material would be structurally deteriorated after heat-treatment and its strength and corrosion resistance decreased.

  1. Effect of Additives on Properties of MgO-ZrO2-C Material

    TIAN Shouxin; LIU Shanlin; XIE Mengqin


    The paper describes the effect of additives Al, Si,SiC and B4 C on the expansion of MgO-ZrO2-C material after being coked . The results indicate that Al and Si can not increase its hot and cold strength. Al and Si were oxidized to form Al2 O3 and SiO2 respectively, and then reacted with CaZrO3 or stabilizer in c-ZrO2 to form calcium aluminate , spinel ( MA ), dicalcium silicate ( C2 S ) and forsterite (M2S). Meanwhile, α-C2S was transformed to γ-C2S and c-ZrO2 to m-ZrO2 when temperature changed.All the above reactions resulted in the decrease of the amount of Al4 C3 and SiC and the increase in bulk volume ,which caused the structure of MgO-ZrO2-C material destroyed. Hence, contrary to the MgO-C material, when adding Al. and Si, the MgO-ZrO2-C material would be structurally deteriorated after heat-treatment and its strength and corrosion resistance decreased.

  2. Synthesis and lithium storage properties of Zn, Co and Mg doped SnO2 Nano materials

    Palaniyandy, Nithyadharseni


    Full Text Available In this paper, we show that magnesium and cobalt doped SnO2 (Mg-SnO2 and Co-SnO2) nanostructures have profound influence on the discharge capacity and coulombic efficiency of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) employing pure SnO2 and zinc doped SnO2 (Zn-Sn...

  3. Characterization of MgO-coated-LiCoO2 particles by analytical transmission electron microscopy

    Taguchi, Noboru; Akita, Tomoki; Tatsumi, Kuniaki; Sakaebe, Hikari


    The surfaces of LiCoO2 particles were modified to improve the charge-discharge cycling properties of Li-ion batteries containing LiCoO2 cathodes. The sol-gel technique was used to modify the surface of LiCoO2 particles with magnesium oxide. Capacity retention during cycling of the magnesium oxide-coated LiCoO2 cathode was superior to that of a cathode comprising pristine LiCoO2. Moreover, results obtained from TEM measurements indicate that the Li concentration was relatively homogeneous in the magnesium oxide-coated LiCoO2 particles after cycling tests. The crystallographic planes of the coating were found to be coherently oriented with those of the substrate, MgO(111)[1-10]//LiCoO2(003)[100]. Therefore, we believe that a thin cover of Mg on the surface of LiCoO2 stabilizes the surface, contributing to the homogeneity of charge and discharge reactions.

  4. Hydriding/dehydriding properties of NdMgNi alloy with catalyst CeO2

    李霞; 张羊换; 杨泰; 许剑轶; 赵栋梁


    Hydrogen storage composites Nd2Mg17-50 wt.%Ni-x wt.%CeO2 (x=0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) were obtained by induction-ball milling method. The catalytic effect of CeO2 on hydriding kinetics of Nd2Mg17-50 wt.%Ni composite was investigated. X-ray diffrac-tion (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analyses showed that Nd2Mg17-50 wt.%Ni alloy had a multiphase structure, consisting of NdMg12, NdMg2Ni, Mg2Ni and Ni phases and the addition of catalyst CeO2 prompted the composites to be partly transformed into amorphous strucutre. The CeO2 improved the maxi-mum hydrogen capacity of Nd2Mg17-50 wt.%Ni alloy from 3.192 wt.% to 3.376 wt.% (x=1.0). What’s more, the increment of diffu-sion coefficientD led to the faster hydriding kinetics, which was calculated by Avrami-Erofeev equation. The dehydrogenation tem-perature reduced from 515.54 to 504.72 K was mainly caused by the decrease of activation energy from 93.28 to 69.36 kJ/mol, which was proved by the Kissinger equation.

  5. Oxidation and reduction behaviors of a prototypic MgO-PuO2-x inert matrix fuel

    Miwa, Shuhei; Osaka, Masahiko


    Oxidation and reduction behaviors of prototypic MgO-based inert matrix fuels (IMFs) containing PuO2-x were experimentally investigated by means of thermogravimetry. The oxidation and reduction kinetics of the MgO-PuO2-x specimen were determined. The oxidation and reduction rates of the MgO-PuO2-x were found to be low compared with those of PuO2-x. It is note that the changes in O/Pu ratios of MgO-PuO2-x from stoichiometry were smaller than those of PuO2-x at high oxygen partial pressure.

  6. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of ethanol over Ni/MgO-CeO_2 catalyst at low temperature

    石秋杰; 刘承伟; 谌伟庆


    MgO,CeO2 and MgO-CeO2 with different mole ratio of Mg:Ce were prepared by solid-phase burning method.Catalysts Ni/MgO,Ni/CeO2 and Ni/MgO-CeO2 were prepared by impregnation method.The catalytic properties were evaluated in ethanol steam reforming(ESR) reaction.Specific surface areas of the supports were measured by nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77 K,and the catalysts were characterized with X-ray diffraction(XRD),temperature programmed reduction(TPR) and thermogravimetric(TG).The results showed that well...

  7. Ti-Mg alloy powder synthesis via mechanochemical reduction of TiO 2 by elemental magnesium

    Mushove, T


    Full Text Available This paper reports the preliminary results of an investigation on the synthesis of a Ti-Mg alloy powder through mechanochemical processing of TiO 2 and Mg powders. TiO 2 was mixed with elemental Mg according to a nominal stoichiometric composition...

  8. Polar catastrophe at the MgO(100)/SnO2(110) interface

    Albar, Arwa


    First principles calculations, based on density functional theory, are used to investigate the structural and electronic properties of the epitaxial MgO(100)/SnO2(110) interface of wide band gap insulators. Depending on the interface termination, nonmagnetic metallic and half-metallic interface states are observed. The formation of these states is explained by a polar catastrophe model for nonpolar-polar interfaces. Strong lattice distortions and buckling develop in SnO2, which influence the interface properties as the charge discontinuity is partially screened. Already a single unit cell of SnO2 is sufficient to drive the polar catastrophe scenario. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Fabrication of Mg2Si/AZ91D Composites from Mg-SiO2%Mg-SiO2体系制备Mg2Si/AZ91D复合材料的研究

    王军; 陈刚; 赵玉涛; 徐萌; 张道理; 黄康; 彭蕾


    采用原位合成技术制备了Mg2Si/AZ91D复合材料, 并通过光学显微镜(OM)、扫描电镜(SEM)、能谱仪(EDS)和X射线衍射仪(XRD)等对添加碱土、稀土元素的影响进行了研究. 结果表明: AZ91D镁合金中加入SiO2(其中Si占合金质量的3%)后, 出现多边形状或树枝晶状的初生Mg2Si相, 以及汉字状的共晶Mg2Si相, 树枝晶状Mg2Si的平均尺寸约25~50 μm, 汉字状Mg2Si的平均尺寸约12~15 μm;Mg2Si对镁合金中的β-Mg17Al12相有细化作用. 添加Ca, Sr, Y对Mg2Si形貌、尺寸有明显的改善, 当添加0.9%Ca, 0.1%Sr, 0.5%RE(80%Y)变质处理后, Mg2Si形貌全部变为多边形状, 平均尺寸约0.8~5 μm.

  10. Synthesis, structural properties and catalytic activity of MgO-SnO2 nanocatalysts

    Perveen, Hina; Farrukh, Muhammad Akhyar; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, Muhammad; Munir, Badar; Tahir, Muhammad Ashraf


    Surfactant controlled synthesis of magnesium oxide-tin oxide (MgO-SnO2) nanocatalysts was carried out via the hydrothermal method. Concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was varied while all other reaction conditions were kept constant same for this purpose. Furthermore, MgO-SnO2 nanocatalysts were also prepared by changing the precursor's concentration. These precursors are magnesium nitrate Mg(NO3)2 · 6H2O and tin chloride (SnCl4 · 5H2O). The influence of these reaction parameters on the sizes and morphology of the nanocatalysts were studied by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy-Energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy and Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The catalytic efficiency of MgO-SnO2 was checked against 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), which is an explosive compound. The nanocatalysts were found as a good catalyst to degrade the DNPH. Catalytic activity of nanocatalysts was observed up to 19.13% for the degradation DNPH by using UV-spectrophotometer.

  11. Making MgO/SiO2 Glasses By The Sol-Gel Process

    Bansal, Narottam P.


    Silicon dioxide glasses containing 15 mole percent magnesium oxide prepared by sol-gel process. Not made by conventional melting because ingredients immiscible liquids. Synthesis of MgO/SiO2 glass starts with mixing of magnesium nitrate hexahydrate with silicon tetraethoxide, both in alcohol. Water added, and transparent gel forms. Subsequent processing converts gel into glass. Besides producing glasses of new composition at lower processing temperatures, sol-gel method leads to improved homogeneity and higher purity.

  12. Auto-combustion synthesis and characterization of Mg doped CuAlO2 nanoparticles

    Agrawal, Shraddha; Parveen, Azra; Naqvi, A. H.


    The synthesis of pure and Mg doped Copper aluminumoxide CuAlO2nanoparticles, a promising p-type TCO (transparent conducting oxide) have been done bysol gel auto combustion method using NaOH as a fuel, calcinated at 600°C. The structural properties were examined by XRD and SEM techniques. The optical absorption spectra of CuAlO2 sample recorded by UV-VIS spectrophotometer in the range of 200 to 800 nm have been presented. The crystallite size was determined by powder X-ray diffraction technique. The electrical behavior of pure and Mg doped CuAlO2 has been studied over a wide range of frequencies by using complex impedance spectroscopy.The variation of a.c. conductivity has been studied as function of frequency and temperature. The data taken together conclude that doping causes decreases in the ac conductivity of the nanoparticles as compared with the pure nanoparticles. Mg doping affects the optical properties and band gap.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of Mg-Impregnated ZnO-SnO2 Coupled Nanoparticles.

    Behnajady, Mohammad A; Tohidi, Yasamin


    ZnO-SnO2 nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitation method; then Mg, with different molar ratios and calcination temperatures, was loaded on the coupled nanoparticles by impregnation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) techniques. Based on XRD results, the ZnO-SnO2 and Mg/ZnO-SnO2 nanoparticles were made of ZnO and SnO2 nanocrystallites. According to DRS spectra, the band gap energy value of 3.13 and 3.18 eV were obtained for ZnO-SnO2 and Mg/ZnO-SnO2 nanoparticles, respectively. BET analysis revealed a Type III isotherm with a microporous structure and surface area of 32.051 and 49.065 m(2)  g(-1) for ZnO-SnO2 and Mg/ZnO-SnO2 , respectively. Also, the spherical shape of nanocrystallites was deduced from TEM and FESEM images. The photocatalytic performance of pure ZnO-SnO2 and Mg/ZnO-SnO2 was analyzed in the photocatalytic removal of methyl orange (MO). The results indicated that Mg/ZnO-SnO2 exhibited superior photocatalytic activity to bare ZnO-SnO2 photocatalyst due to high surface area, increased MO adsorption and larger band gap energy. Maximum photocatalytic activity of Mg/ZnO-SnO2 nanoparticles was obtained with 0.8 mol% Mg and calcination temperature of 350°C.

  14. Integrated Mg/TiO2-ionic liquid system for deep desulfurization

    Yin, Yee Cia; Kait, Chong Fai; Fatimah, Hayyiratul; Wilfred, Cecilia


    A series of Mg/TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared using wet impregnation method followed by calcination at 300, 400 and 500°C for 1 h. The photocatalysts were characterized using Thermal Gravimetric Analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The performance for deep desulfurization was investigated using model oil with 100 ppm sulfur (in the form of dibenzothiophene). The integrated system involves photocatalytic oxidation followed by ionic liquid-extraction processes. The best performing photocatalyst was 0.25wt% Mg loaded on titania calcined at 400°C (0.25Mg400), giving 98.5% conversion of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone. The highest extraction efficiency of 97.8% was displayed by 1,2-diethylimidazolium diethylphosphate. The overall total sulfur removal was 96.3%.

  15. Study on the Characteristics of SiO2 Distribution and Silicate Phases in MgO—ZrO2 Composites

    ZHUBoquan; GANFeifang; 等


    This work studied the characteristics of SiO2 distribution and structure of silicate phases in MgO-ZrO2 composites synthesizedby raw materials of light fired magnesite nd zircon,The results indicate that 30 wt%-40wt% SiO2 content in the system is existed in the form of crystalline of forsterite (M2S),the remaindering of SiO content (60wt%0-70wt%) is existed in the glass phase,The chemical composition of glass phase is well agreed with the chemical composition of monticellite(CMS).

  16. In vitro reactivity of Na2O MgO SiO2 glasses

    Roy, Debdas


    A variety of bioactive glasses have been investigated over the last two decades as substitute material for diseased or damaged tissues in a human body. In this investigation, three different melt derived bioactive glasses, each having 55% by mole SiO2 and ratio of MgO to Na2O varying from 1:8 to 8:1, were prepared by melting various oxides at temperature >1250 °C. After microstructure evolution, vitro reactivity of these glasses was examined by keeping them in simulated body fluid (trans buffered pH 7.25 at 25 cc). The surface reactivity of these glasses gradually increased with increasing Na2O/MgO ratio.

  17. Effect of TiO2 Concentration on Properties of MgO - TiO2 - Al2O3 Clinker%TiO2加入量对MgO - TiO2-Al2O3系熟料特性的影响

    高宏适; 全荣



  18. Mg3(VO4)2-MgO-ZrO2 nano-catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane.

    Lee, Jong Kwon; Seo, Hyun; Hong, Ung Gi; Yoo, Yeonshick; Cho, Young-Jin; Lee, Jinsuk; Park, Gle; Chang, Hosik; Song, In Kyu


    A series of X-Mg3(VO4)2-MgO-ZrO2 nano-catalysts with different vanadium content (X = 3.3, 5.3, 7.0, 10.2, and 13.4) were prepared by a single-step citric acid-derived sol-gel method for use in the oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane to n-butene and 1,3-butadiene. The effect of vanadium content of X-Mg3(VO4)2-MgO-ZrO2 nano-catalysts on their physicochemical properties and catalytic activities in the oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane was investigated. Successful formation of X-Mg3(VO4)2-MgO-ZrO2 nano-catalysts was confirmed by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and ICP-AES analyses. The catalytic performance of X-Mg3(VO4)2-MgO-ZrO2 nano-catalysts strongly depended on vanadium content. All the X-Mg3(VO4)2-MgO-ZrO2 nano-catalysts showed a stable catalytic performance without catalyst deactivation during the reaction. Among the catalysts tested, 7.0-Mg3(VO4)2-MgO-ZrO2 nano-catalyst showed the best catalytic performance in terms of yield for total dehydrogenation products (TDP, n-butene and 1,3-butadiene). TPRO (temperature-programmed reoxidation) experiments were carried out to measure the oxygen capacity of the catalyst. Experimental results revealed that oxygen capacity of the catalyst was closely related to the catalytic performance. Yield for TDP increased with increasing oxygen capacity of the catalyst.

  19. Design and preparation of binary-binary SnO2-ZnO:F/MgF2/SiO2 transparent conducting oxide coatings

    S Hadavi


    Full Text Available   In this study, we prepared the binary-binary TCO compounds of SnO2-ZnO by the spray pyrolysis technique. We also investigated the role of MgF2/SiO2 antireflection coatings in reducing optical reflectance in the visible region of TCO. Before preparation , we simulated the optical transmition of the films for optimizing the layer thicknesses. The results of this study showed increasing of optical transmittance in the visible region of TCO by adding antireflection coating layers.

  20. Property Research on MgO-CaO-ZrO2 Castable

    HU Sihai; ZHU Boquan; HONG Xueqin


    Studies were conducted on how the structure and property of magnesia castable was affected when the magnesia zirconia calcium composite was incorporated. The experimental result indicates that the component CaZrO3 is easily decomposed by reacting with silica fume to form a low melting point material CMS and CaZr4O9 in the silica fume bonded MgO castable, resulting in occurrence of microcracks, which will improve the thermal shock resistance and strength at moderate temperature. In a word, CaZrO3 improves slag infiltration resistance in spite of lowering the slag corrosion resistance, by absorbing and reacting with components in the slag like Al2O3, TiO2 and FeO.

  1. Sintering oxide ceramics based on AI2O3 and ZrO2, activated by MgO, TiO2 and SiO2 additives

    Matrenin, S. V.; Zenin, B. S.; Tayukin, R. V.


    The positive effect of the addition of MgO and TiO2 in an amount of no more than 1 wt. % on sintering and physico-mechanical properties of alumina ceramics is established. Addition of 5% of SiO2 to A12O3 provides the mechanism of liquid phase sintering of ceramics, which leads to increase in its density and strength up to 480 MPa. In ceramic system A12O3 - ZrO2 - Y2O3 highest level of physical and mechanical properties of the composition had a hypereutectic composition 16.6% A12O3 - 76% Z1O2 - 7.4% Y2O3. In this composition two mechanisms of hardening are realized simultaneously, such as transformational hardening by t- m - ZrO2 transition and dispersion strengthening with high-modulus particles of α- A12O3.

  2. ZrO2包覆CaO-MgO-SiO2陶瓷纤维的制备及其性能%Preparation and properties of ZrO2 coated CaO-MgO-SiO2 ceramic fiber

    刘浩; 王玺堂; 王周福; 张保国


    为了解决CaO-MgO-SiO2陶瓷纤维在使用过程中析晶、粉化的问题,采用非均相成核法在CaO-MgO-SiO2陶瓷纤维表面制备了ZrO2涂层.用场发射扫描电子显微镜观察ZrO2包覆层,用X射线衍射仪分析800和1 000℃热处理后原始纤维和ZrO2包覆纤维的晶相变化,并检测了二者在模拟肺液中的溶解性能.结果表明:包覆处理后,CaO-MgO-SiO2陶瓷纤维表面形成了一层ZrO2包覆层;ZrO2包覆层的存在可以显著抑制800℃时纤维的析晶,1000℃时只能抑制纤维中方石英的析出,对其他物相的析晶没有明显抑制作用;ZrO2包覆层的存在降低了纤维在模拟肺液中的早期溶解速率,但对纤维的长期生物可溶性影响不大.%In order to inhibit the crystallization and pulverization of CaO-MgO-SiO2 ceramic fiber at high temperatures,the ZrO2 coating on CaO-MgO-SiOj ceramic fiber was formed by heterogeneous-nucleation method. The crystal phase compositions of the original fiber and ZrO2 coated fiber fired at 800 °C and 1 000 °C were analyzed by X-ray diffractometer.and their solubility in Gamble solution was determined. The results show that; (1) a dense ZrO2 coating is formed on the surface of fiber; (2) the coating on fiber can inhibit the precipitation of crystals at 800 °C markedly and at 1 000 °C it only can inhibit the precipitation of cristobalite and has little effects on other crystal phases; (3) the coating decreases the initial dissolution rate of the fiber in Gamble solution and has little effect on long-term bio-solubility of fiber.

  3. Study on Mg-PSZ Ceramics Doped with Y2O3 and CeO2


    Mg-PSZ ceramics doped with Y2O3 and CeO2 was prepared using traditional processing method. The fine-grain PSZ ceramics(dc≤10 μm) sintered at low temperature(≤1550 ℃) was obtained by means of composition design. The effects of co-stabilization of Y2O3, CeO2 and annealing at 1100 ℃ on material composition, microstructure and mechanical properties were studied. The results show that Y2O3 and CeO2 during annealing at 1100 ℃ can inhibit subeutectoid decomposition reaction effectively, and optimize nucleation and growth of t-ZrO2 precipitates in c-ZrO2 matrix phase. The materials show transgranular and intergranular fracture characteristics, and exhibit better mechanical properties owing to the cooperative effect of stress-induced transformation toughening and microcrack toughening.

  4. Reforming of Ethanol to Produce Hydrogen over PtRuMg/ZrO2 Catalyst

    Josh Y. Z. Chiou


    Full Text Available A modified PtRu/ZrO2 catalyst with Mg is evaluated for the oxidative steam reforming of ethanol (OSRE and the steam reforming of ethanol (SRE. In order to understand the variation in the reaction mechanism on OSRE and SRE, further analysis of both fresh and used catalyst is concentrated on for TEM, TG, Raman, and TPR characterization. The results show that the OSRE reaction requires a higher temperature (∼390°C to achieve 100% ethanol conversion than the SRE reaction (∼2500°C. The distribution of CO is minor for both reactions (< 5% for OSRE, < 1% for SRE. This demonstrates that the water gas shift (WGS reaction is an important side-reaction in the reforming of ethanol to produce H2 and CO2. A comparison of the temperature of WGS (WGS shows it is lower for the SRE reaction (WGS∼250°C for SRE, ~340°C for OSRE.

  5. Effect of Pore Size Distribution on Humidity Sensing Properties of MgO doped ZrO2-TiO2 Ceramic

    Jain, M. K.; Bhatnagar, M. C.; Sharma, G. L.


    The MgO doped ZrO2-TiO2 composite is studied for its humidity sensing characteristics. Though dc electrical properties show very high sensitivity to humidity, it is not useful for practical applications because of the charging effect. The ac conductivity vs relative humidity characteristics of the pellet becomes linear with an increase in sintering temperature. The post treatment at high temperature and high humidity is found to accelerate initial ageing of the pellet and therefore, stabilizes the characteristics more quickly. A physical model has been proposed to correlate initial ageing, effect of sintering temperature and response time with pore size distribution. Pores below 300 Å radii are present in abundance near the ZrTiO4 phase formation temperature. These pores are responsible for higher sensitivity in low humidity region and linear characteristics.

  6. Slao corrosion resistance of MaO-MaAI2O4-ZrO2 series materials%MgO-MgAl2O4-ZrO2系材料的抗渣性研究

    高杰; 李友胜; 韩兵强; 李楠


    MgO-MgAl204 specimen,MgO-ZrO2 specimen,and MgO-MgAl204-ZrO2 specimen were prepared using magnesite powder (d50=6.62μm),m-ZrO2 micropowder (d50=3.99μm) and α-Al203 micropowder (d50=1.89 μm) as starting materials by semi-dry pressing and firing at 1 600 C for 3 h. The permanent linear change on heating, apparent porosity, bulk density, slag corrosion resistance, and slag penetration resistance of the specimens were determined. Slag resistance of specimens was analyzed using thermodynamic software Factsage6.1. The results show that: ( 1 ) MgO-ZrO2 material has better sintering ability than MgOMgAl2O4 material and MgO-MgAl2O4-ZrO2 material; (2) when adding ZrO2 into MgO-MgAl204 material ,the slag corrosion resistance is improved and the slag penetration resistance is poor ,which is mainly resulted from relatively loose microstructure of the specimens and the penetration of Fe3+ and Mg2+ in the slag;(3)experimental results are in good agreement with thermodynamic simulation results.%以菱镁矿粉(d=6.62 μm)、m-ZrO微粉(d=3.99μm)、α-AlO微粉(d=1.89μm)为原料,采用半干法成型,于1 600 ℃保温3 h烧成后制成MgO-MgAlO、MgO-ZrO和MgO-MgAlO-ZrO质试样,检测试样的加热永久线变化率、显气孔率、体积密度、抗渣侵蚀性、抗渣渗透性,并利用Factsage6.1热力学软件对试样的抗渣性进行了分析.结果表明:1.MgO-ZrO材料的烧结性能优于MgO-MgAlO材料及MgO-MgAlO-ZrO材料;2.在MgO-MgAIO材料中引入ZrO,有利于提高其抗渣侵蚀性,但抗渣渗透性较差,主要同试样的组织结构相对疏松及熔渣中的Fe和Mg的渗透有关;3)试验结果与热力学模拟结果吻合较好.

  7. Network structure of SiO2 and MgSiO3 in amorphous and liquid States

    Lan, Mai Thi; Thuy Duong, Tran; Viet Huy, Nguyen; Van Hong, Nguyen


    Network structure of SiO2 and MgSiO3 at 300 K and 3200 K is investigated by molecular dynamics simulation and visualization of simulation data. Structural organization of SiO2 and MgSiO3 is clarified via analysis the short range order (SRO) and intermediate range order (IRO). Network topology is determined via analyzing the bond between structural units, the cluster of structural units as well as spatial distribution of structural units. The polyamorphism as well as structural and dynamic heterogeneities are also discussed in this work.

  8. Structural and electronic properties of Mg and Mg-Nb co-doped TiO2 (101) anatase surface

    Sasani, Alireza [Department of Science, Karaj Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Alborz, P.O. Box 31485-313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baktash, Ardeshir [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirabbaszadeh, Kavoos, E-mail: [Department of Energy Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, P. O. Box 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshnevisan, Bahram [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317-51167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Highlights: • Formation energy of Mg and Mg-Nb co-doped TiO{sub 2} anatase surface (101) is studied. • Effect of Mg defect to the TiO{sub 2} anatase (101) surface and bond length distribution of the surface is studied and it is shown that Mg defects tend to stay far from each other. • Effect of Mg and Nb to the bond length distribution of the surface studied and it is shown that these defects tend to stay close to each other. • Effects of Mg and Mg-Nb defects on DSSCs using TiO{sub 2} anatase hosting these defects are studied. - Abstract: In this paper, by using density functional theory, Mg and Nb-Mg co-doping of TiO{sub 2} anatase (101) surfaces are studied. By studying the formation energy of the defects and the bond length distribution of the surface, it is shown that Mg defects tend to stay as far as possible to induce least possible lattice distortion while Nb and Mg defects stay close to each other to cause less stress to the surface. By investigating band structure of the surface and changes stemmed from the defects, potential effects of Mg and Mg-Nb co-doping of TiO{sub 2} surface on dye-sensitized solar cells are investigated. In this study, it is shown that the Nb-Mg co-doping could increase J{sub SC} of the surface while slightly decreasing V{sub OC} compared to Mg doped surface, which might result in an increase in efficiency of the DSSCs compared to Nb or Mg doped surfaces.

  9. Design and fabrication of SiO2/TiO2 and MgO/TiO2 based high selective optical filters for diffuse reflectance and fluorescence signals extraction.

    Pimenta, S; Cardoso, S; Miranda, A; De Beule, P; Castanheira, E M S; Minas, G


    This paper presents the design, optimization and fabrication of 16 MgO/TiO2 and SiO2/TiO2 based high selective narrow bandpass optical filters. Their performance to extract diffuse reflectance and fluorescence signals from gastrointestinal tissue phantoms was successfully evaluated. The obtained results prove their feasibility to correctly extract those spectroscopic signals, through a Spearman's rank correlation test (Spearman's correlation coefficient higher than 0.981) performed between the original spectra and the ones obtained using those 16 fabricated optical filters. These results are an important step for the implementation of a miniaturized, low-cost and minimal invasive microsystem that could help in the detection of gastrointestinal dysplasia.

  10. Synthesis of Y2O2S:Eu3+, Mg2+, Ti4+ hollow microspheres via homogeneous precipitation route

    Peng-Fei Ai, Ying-Liang Liu, Li-Yuan Xiao, Hou-Jin Wang and Jian-Xin Meng


    Full Text Available A phosphorescent material in the form of Y2O2S:Eu3+, Mg2+, Ti4+ hollow microspheres was prepared by homogeneous precipitation using monodispersed carbon spheres as hard templates. Y2O3:Eu3+ hollow microspheres were first synthesized to serve as the precursor. Y2O2S:Eu3+, Mg2+, Ti4+ powders were obtained by calcinating the precursor in a CS2 atmosphere. The crystal structure, morphology and optical properties of the composites were characterized. X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the purity of the Y2O2S phase. Electron microscopy observations revealed that the Y2O2S:Eu3+, Mg2+, Ti4+ particles inherited the hollow spherical shape from the precursor after being calcined in a CS2 atmosphere and that they had a diameter of 350–450 nm and a wall thickness of about 50–80 nm. After ultraviolet radiation at 265 or 325 nm for 5 min, the particles emitted strong red long-lifetime phosphorescence originating from Eu3+ ions. This phosphorescence is associated with the trapping of charge carriers by Ti4+ and Mg2+ ions.

  11. Experimental constraints on melting temperatures in the MgO-SiO2 system at lower mantle pressures

    Baron, Marzena A.; Lord, Oliver T.; Myhill, Robert; Thomson, Andrew R.; Wang, Weiwei; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Walter, Michael J.


    Eutectic melting curves in the system MgO-SiO2 have been experimentally determined at lower mantle pressures using laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) techniques. We investigated eutectic melting of bridgmanite plus periclase in the MgO-MgSiO3 binary, and melting of bridgmanite plus stishovite in the MgSiO3-SiO2 binary, as analogues for natural peridotite and basalt, respectively. The melting curve of model basalt occurs at lower temperatures, has a shallower dT / dP slope and slightly less curvature than the model peridotitic melting curve. Overall, melting temperatures detected in this study are in good agreement with previous experiments and ab initio simulations at ∼25 GPa (Liebske and Frost, 2012; de Koker et al., 2013). However, at higher pressures the measured eutectic melting curves are systematically lower in temperature than curves extrapolated on the basis of thermodynamic modelling of low-pressure experimental data, and those calculated from atomistic simulations. We find that our data are inconsistent with previously computed melting temperatures and melt thermodynamic properties of the SiO2 endmember, and indicate a maximum in short-range ordering in MgO-SiO2 melts close to Mg2SiO4 composition. The curvature of the model peridotite eutectic relative to an MgSiO3 melt adiabat indicates that crystallization in a global magma ocean would begin at ∼100 GPa rather than at the bottom of the mantle, allowing for an early basal melt layer. The model peridotite melting curve lies ∼ 500 K above the mantle geotherm at the core-mantle boundary, indicating that it will not be molten unless the addition of other components reduces the solidus sufficiently. The model basalt melting curve intersects the geotherm at the base of the mantle, and partial melting of subducted oceanic crust is expected.

  12. Decaying shock studies of phase transitions in MgOSiO2 systems: implications for the Super-Earths interiors

    Bolis, R M; Vinci, T; Ravasio, A; Bambrink, E; Guarguaglini, M; Koenig, M; Musella, R; Remus, F; Bouchet, J; Ozaki, N; Miyanishi, K; Sekine, T; Sakawa, Y; Sano, T; Kodama, R; Guyot, F; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A


    We report an experimental study of the phase diagrams of periclase (MgO), enstatite (MgSiO3) and forsterite (Mg2SiO4) at high pressures. We investigated with laser driven decaying shocks the pressure/temperature curves of MgO, MgSiO3 and Mg2SiO4 between 0.2-1.2 TPa, 0.12-0.5 TPa and 0.2-0.85 TPa respectively. A melting signature has been observed in MgO at 0.47 TPa and 9860 K, while no phase changes were observed neither in MgSiO3 nor in Mg2SiO4. An increasing of reflectivity of MgO, MgSiO3 and Mg2SiO4 liquids have been detected at 0.55 TPa -12 760 K, 0.15 TPa - 7540 K, 0.2 TPa - 5800 K, respectively. In contrast to SiO2, melting and metallization of these compounds do not coincide implying the presence of poor electrically conducting liquids close to the melting lines. This has important implications for the generation of dynamos in Super-earths mantles.

  13. Fabrication and Properties of 3Y-TZP/ZrO2 / Al2O3/MgO Ceramics


    Studies on the sintering, microstructure, mechanical properties and low temperature degradation behavior of yttria stabilized-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) were carried out. The results show that the addition of Al2O3 and MgO improve the sintering at low temperatures, and cause exaggerated grain growth and the transformation of tetragonal-ZrO2 to monoclinic-ZrO2 with corresponding changes in the mechanical properties. The addition of the yttria-free monoclinic zirconia particles change the overall yttria distribution and induce an active transformation toughening mechanism. Furthermore, the dispersed yttria-free ZrO2 can inhibit the tetragonal zirconia transformarion, which is beneficial to the improvement of the low temperature degradation behavior of 3Y-TZP ceramics.

  14. Role of MgO in WO3/SiO2-catalyzed olefin metathesis reaction%MgO在WO3/SiO2催化烯烃歧化反应中的作用

    徐峰; 姜伟丽; 李沛东; 周广林; 周红军


    This paper reviews the progress of heterogeneous W-based catalysts used for olefin metathesis and introduces the research progress of olefin metathesis catalyst and metathesis reaction mechanism. This review focuses on the role of MgO aid in WO3/SiO2 catalytic propylene metathesis reaction,such as generating active gas-phase“excited species”,promoting double bond isomerization, adjusting acidity to reduce side effects and adsorbing poisons to purify the raw material,etc. In addition,this paper also presents the research trend of heterogeneous MgO-WO3/SiO2 metathesis catalysts to provide guidance and reference for development of highly active MgO-WO3/SiO2 catalytic systems.%综述了负载型钨基催化剂用于烯烃歧化领域的研究情况,简要介绍了烯烃歧化催化剂的研究进展以及歧化反应机理,着重介绍了 MgO 助剂在 WO3/SiO2催化的丙烯歧化反应中的作用,如生成活性的气相激发物种、促进1-丁烯异构成2-丁烯、调节酸性以减少副反应以及吸附毒物净化原料等,并对MgO在歧化体系中的作用机理问题进行了部分探讨。此外,还提出了共催化体系的研究趋势,希望能对以后开发高活性的 MgO-WO3/SiO2共催化体系提供有益的指导和参考依据。

  15. Fabrication and microstructure of nanostructured Mg-3Ni-2MnO_2 by ball milling in hydrogen atmosphere

    FANG Wen-bin; FANG Wa; SUN Hong-fei; YU Zhen-xing


    Nanostructured Mg-3Ni-2MnO_2 was synthesized by ball milling elemental powders of Mg, Ni and MnO_2 in hydrogen atmosphere. The microstructures of the powder prepared at different milling time were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry(XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and high resolution electron microscopy(HREM). The milling time is the most key parameter impacting on the grain size and the microstructure of material. With prolonging the milling time, particle size becomes smaller and smaller. But after the ball milling time reaches about 20 h, reduction of grain size becomes slowly. When the milling time is more than 50 h, nanocrystailine fully forms. When the milling time is more than 80 h, there are more amorphous phases in materials. The average particle diameter of material is about 1 μm and the grain size is 10-30 nm.

  16. Competition between insertion of Li+ and Mg2+: An example of TiO2-B nanowires for Mg rechargeable batteries and Li+/Mg2+ hybrid-ion batteries

    Meng, Yuan; Wang, Dashuai; Wei, Yingjin; Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Yingying; Bian, Xiaofei; Du, Fei; Liu, Bingbing; Gao, Yu; Chen, Gang


    Titanium dioxide bronze (TiO2-B) nanowires were prepared by the hydrothermal method and used as the positive electrode for Mg rechargeable batteries and Li+/Mg2+ hybrid-ion batteries. First-principles calculations showed that the diffusion barrier for Mg2+ (0.6 eV) in the TiO2-B lattice was more than twice of that for Li+ (0.3 eV). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the charge transfer resistance of TiO2-B in the Mg2+ ion electrolyte was much larger than that in the Li+/Mg2+ hybrid electrolyte. For these reasons, the Mg rechargeable battery showed a small discharge capacity of 35 mAh g-1 resulting from an electrochemical double-layer capacitive process. In comparison, the TiO2-B nanowires exhibited a large capacity (242 mAh g-1 at the 20 mA g-1 current density), high rate capability (114 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1), and excellent cycle stability in the Li+/Mg2+ hybrid-ion battery. The dominant reaction occurred in the TiO2-B electrode was intercalation of Li+ ions, of which about 74% of the total capacity was attributed to Li+ pseudo-capacitance.

  17. Role of chemical interaction between MgH2 and TiO2 additive on the hydrogen storage behavior of MgH2

    Pukazhselvan, D.; Nasani, Narendar; Sandhya, K. S.; Singh, Budhendra; Bdikin, Igor; Koga, Nobuaki; Fagg, Duncan Paul


    The present study explores how the additive titania chemically reacts with magnesium hydride and influences the dehydrogenation of MgH2. Quantitative X - ray diffraction study of ball milled MgH2 + xTiO2 (x = 0.25, 0.33, 0.5 and 1) suggests that Ti substituted MgO is the main reaction product in all the product powders. Convincing evidence is obtained to conclude that Ti dissolution in MgO makes a dramatic behavioral change to MgO; passive MgO turns as an active in-built catalyst. The analysis correlating the dehydrogenation kinetics, composition of in-situ catalyst and sample durability suggests that effectiveness of Ti substituted MgO (MgxTiyOx+y) as a catalyst for MgH2 depends on the concentration of Ti in MgxTiyOx+y rock salt. These observations are immensely helpful for understanding the hydrogen desorption mechanism of metal oxide additives loaded MgH2 system.

  18. Study of Optical Humidity Sensing Properties of Sol-Gel Processed TiO2 and MgO Films

    B. C. Yadav


    Full Text Available Paper reports a comparative study of humidity sensing properties of TiO2 and MgO films fabricated by Sol-gel technique using optical method. One sensing element of the optical humidity sensor presented here consists of rutile structured two-layered TiO2 thin film deposited on the base of an isosceles glass prism. The other sensing element consists of a film of MgO deposited by same technique on base of the prism. Light from He-Ne laser enters prism from one of refracting faces of the prism and gets reflected from the glass-film interface, before emerging out from its other isosceles face. This emergent beam is allowed to pass through an optical fiber. Light coming out from the optical fiber is measured with an optical power meter. Variations in the intensity of light caused by changes in humidity lying in the range 5%RH to 95%RH have been recorded. MgO film shows better sensitivity than TiO2 film.

  19. Influence of mechanical activation on synthesis and properties of the MgO-TiO2 system

    Petrović Vera V.


    Full Text Available Materials applied in electronics such as multilayer capacitors are an important field of ceramic materials. Magnesium titanate based dielectric materials are used for producing type-I capacitors. A common way of obtaining this material is a solid-state reaction during reaction sintering. The process of sintering can be enhanced if mechanical activation precedes. In this work starting powders of magnesium carbonate (MgCO3 and titanium dioxide (TiO2 with a rutile crystal modification were weighed to attain a 1:1 molar MgCO3:TiO2 ratio. Mechanical activation of the starting mixture was performed by high energy ball milling using ZrO balls and vessels with a ball to powder mass ratio of 40:1. The observed grinding times were 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes. Powder characterization was conducted using X ray powder diffraction, DTA analysis up to 1000 o C and particle morphology changes were observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy. Isothermal sintering of compacted powders was conducted at 1100ºC during 30, 60 and 180 minutes. For specimens synthesized in such a manner, microwave dielectric properties were measured, quality factor Q, specific electrical resistivity (ρ and the dielectric constant (Єr. In this work we explain the influence of mechanical activation on the MgCO3-TiO2 system leading to titanate formation during sintering, as well as induced changes in microwave dielectric properties.

  20. Sol-Gel synthesis of MgO-SiO2 glass compositions having stable liquid-liquid immiscibility

    Bansal, Narottam P.


    MgO-SiO2 glasses containing up to 15 mol % MgO, which could not have been prepared by the conventional glass melting method due to the presence of stable liquid-liquid immiscibility, were synthesized by the sol-gel technique. Clear and transparent gels were obtained from the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon tetraethoxide (TEOS) and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate when the water/TEOS mole ratio was four or more. The gelling time decreased with increase in magnesium content, water/TEOS ratio, and reaction temperature. Magnesium nitrate hexahydrate crystallized out of the gels containing 15 and 20 mol % MgO on slow drying. This problem was partially alleviated by drying the gels quickly at higher temperatures. Monolithic gel samples were prepared using glycerol as the drying control additive. The gels were subjected to various thermal treatments and characterized by several methods. No organic groups could be detected in the glasses after heat treatments to approx. 800 C, but trace amounts of hydroxyl groups were still present. No crystalline phase was found from X-ray diffraction in the gel samples to approx. 890 C. At higher temperatures, alpha quartz precipitated out as the crystalline phase in gels containing up to 10 mol % MgO. The overall activation energy for gel formation in 10MgO-90SiO2 (mol %) system for water/TEOS mole ratio of 7.5 was calculated to be 58.7 kJ/mol.

  1. Synthesis of high-surface-area spinel-type MgAl$_2$O$_4$ nanoparticles by [Al(sal)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$[Mg(dipic)$_2$] and [Mg(H$_2$O)$_6$][Al(ox)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$·5H$_2$O: influence of inorganic precursor type


    Spinel-type MgAl$_2$O$_4$ nanoparticles with high surface area were synthesized by thermal decomposition of three different ion-pair complexes precursors, including [Mg(H$_2$O)$_6$][Al(dipic)$_2$]$_2$·6H$_2$O, [Al(sal)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$[Mg(dipic)$_2$] and [Mg(H$_2$O)$_6$][Al(ox)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$·5H$_2$O. Influence of the inorganic precursor was investigated on synthesis and textural properties of magnesium aluminate nanopowders. The precursors [Mg(H$_2$O)$_6$][Al(dipic)$_2$]$_2$·6H$_2$O and [Al(sal)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$[Mg(dipic)$_2$] displayed pure spinel-type MgAl$_2$O$_4$, while the sample synthesized by [Mg(H$_2$O)$_6$][Al(ox)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$·5H$_2$O precursor consisted of MgAl$_2$O$_4$ and MgO. The MgAl$_2$O$_4$ synthesizedvia [Al(sal)$_2$(H$_2$O)$_2$]$_2$[Mg(dipic)$_2$] precursor exhibited higher BET specific surface area (226.7 m$^2$ g$^{−1}$) and smaller particle size than those of the samples obtained from the two other precursors.

  2. Study of structure and antireflective properties of LaF3/HfO2/SiO2 and LaF3/HfO2/MgF2 trilayers for UV applications

    Marszalek, K.; Jaglarz, J.; Sahraoui, B.; Winkowski, P.; Kanak, J.


    The aim of this paper is to study antireflective properties of the tree-layer systems LaF3/HfO2/SiO2 and LaF3/HfO2/MgF2 deposited on heated optical glass substrates. The films were evaporated by the use two deposition techniques. In first method oxide films were prepared by means of e-gun evaporation in vacuum of 5 × 10-5 mbar in the presence of oxygen. The second was used for the deposition of fluoride films. They were obtained by means of thermal source evaporation. Simulation of reflectance was performed for 1M2H1L (Quarter Wavelength Optical Thickness) film stack on an optical quartz glass with the refractive index n = 1.46. The layer thickness was optimized to achieve the lowest light scattering from glass surface covered with dioxide and fluoride films. The values of the interface roughness were determined through atomic force microscopy measurements. The essence of performed calculation was to find minimum reflectance of light in wide ultraviolet region. The spectral dispersion of the refractive index needed for calculations was determined from ellipsometric measurements using the spectroscopic ellipsometer M2000. Additionally, the total reflectance measurements in integrating sphere coupled with Perkin Elmer 900 spectrophotometer were performed. These investigations allowed to determine the influence of such film features like surface and interface roughness on light scattering.

  3. TiO2加入量对替代铬的MgO-TiO2-Al2O3系熟料特性的影响




  4. A Gaseous Acrolein Sensor Based on Cataluminescence Using ZrO2 /MgO Composite.%复合ZrO2/MgO催化发光丙烯醛气体传感器

    刘永慧; 曹小安; 陈福高; 张润坤


    设计了基于在纳米ZrO2中掺杂Mg0的催化发光传感器,以快速检测丙烯醛气体.与纯ZrO2相比,MgO的掺杂量为5%时,丙烯醛的催化发光强度增大了1.8倍,干扰气体乙醛的催化发光强度降为原来的约1/7.传感器在波长425 nm,温度279 ℃,流速200 mL/min条件下,对丙烯醛具有高灵敏度和选择性,发光强度与丙烯醛浓度在5-5000 mL/m3 范围内呈线性关系(r= 0.9996),检出限为1.6 ML/m3,响应时间12 s.浓度均为1000 ML/m3 的10种干扰气体通过传感器时,乙醛、甲醇、苯、甲苯和二甲苯的发光强度分别相当于丙烯醛的6.1%,2.9%,2.5%,2.5%和3.0%,其它气体不产生明显信号.本方法可方便、快速测定空气中丙烯醛气体.%A new cataluminescence (CTL) sensor using nanosized ZrO2 doped with MgO was developed to monitor gaseous acrolein promptly. When the mass content of MgO was about 5%, acrolein CTL intensity over ZrO2/MgO was 1. 8 times higher than that of pure ZrO2, moreover, the CTL intensity of acetaldehyde, a main disturbing material was only about one 7th of pure ZrO2. The proposed sensor showed high sensitivity and selectivity to acrolein at optimal conditions of: tempera-ture at 279 °C , wavelength at 425 nm; and gas flow rate at 200 mL/min. Under the optimal condi-tion, the linear range of the CTL sensor versus acrolein concentration was 5 - 5000 mL/m3 , with a detection limit of 1. 65 mL/m3 and response time of 12 s. Among ten tested species under the concen-tration of 1000 mL/m3, the CTL intensity of acetaldehyde, methanol, benzene, toluene, dimethyl-benzene were only 6. 1%, 2. 9%, 2. 5%, 2. 5%, 3. 0% of acrolein, respectively, while no obvious signal was monitored for the others. The sensor can be applied to facilitate rapid detection of acrolein in the air.

  5. Effect of ZrO2 Additives on the Thermal Shock Resistance of MgO—MA Refractory

    YANGDaoyuan; SUNHongwei; 等


    The additirn of three kins ZrO2-bearing additives into MgO-MA refractory could all increase the latter's C.C.S.and the thermal shock resistance,XRD,polarizing microscope and electron probe analysis were used to analyze the mechanism to improve the thermal shock resistance of the material.The mechanism is that ZrO added into the material improves the microstructure,introduces asppropriate micro cracks into matrix ,enhances the matrix,and therefore increases the thermal shock resistance of ther refractory.

  6. Studies on bare and Mg-doped LiCoO2 as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    Reddy, MV


    Full Text Available at ScienceDirect Electrochimica Acta jo ur nal ho me p age: www.elsev ier .com/ locate /e lec tac ta Graphical Abstract Electrochimica Acta xxx (2013) xxx–xxx Studies on Bare and Mg-doped LiCoO2 as a cathode material for Lithium ion Batteries M.V. Reddy... for Lithium ion Batteries M.V. Reddy∗, Thor Wei Jie, Charl J. Jafta, Kenneth I. Ozoemena, Mkhulu K. Mathe, A. Sree Kumaran Nair, Soo Soon Peng, M. Sobri Idris, Geetha Balakrishna, Fabian I. Ezema, B.V.R. Chowdari • Layered compounds, Li...

  7. Harnessing Photovoltage: Effects of Film Thickness, TiO2 Nanoparticle Size, MgO and Surface Capping with DSCs.

    Cheema, Hammad; Delcamp, Jared H


    High photovoltage dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) offer an exceptional opportunity to power electrocatalysts for the production of hydrogen from water and the reduction of CO2 to usable fuels with a relatively cost-effective, low-toxicity solar cell. Competitive recombination pathways such as electron transfer from TiO2 films to the redox shuttle or oxidized dye must be minimized to achieve the maximum possible photovoltage (Voc) from DSC devices. A high Voc of 882 mV was achieved with the iodide/triiodide redox shuttle and a ruthenium NCS-ligated dye, HD-2-mono, by utilizing a combined approach of (1) modulating the TiO2 surface area through film thickness and nanoparticle size selection, (2) addition of a MgO insulating layer, and (3) capping available TiO2 film surface sites post film sensitization with an F-SAM (fluorinated self-assembled monolayer) treatment. The exceptional Voc of 882 mV observed is the highest achieved for the popular NCS containing ruthenium sensitizers with >5% PCE and compares favorably to the 769 mV value observed under common device preparation conditions.

  8. Phase equilibria in the systems Fe2O3-MgO-TiO2 and FeO-MgO-TiO2 between 1173 and 1473K, and Fe2+-Mg mixing properties of ilmenite, ferrous-pseudobrookite and ulvöspinel solid solutions

    Pownceby, Mark I.; Fisher-White, Michael J.

    Detailed phase relations have been determined within the systems Fe2O3-MgO-TiO2 and FeO-MgO-TiO2. Experiments were performed over the temperature interval 1173-1473K by equilibrating pelletized, fine-grained oxide mixtures in either inert calcia-stabilized zirconia pots (Fe2O3-MgO-TiO2 system) or evacuated silica tubes (FeO-MgO-TiO2 system). Equilibrium phase assemblages were determined by combined optical microscope, X-ray diffraction and EMP examination. Phase relations in the Fe2O3-MgO-TiO2 ternary are dominated by the instability of the M2O3 solid solution relative to the phase assemblage M3O4+M3O5. A miscibility gap along the M2O3 binary also gives rise to two, 3-phase fields (α-M2O3+M3O5+M3O4 and α'-M2O3+M3O5+M3O4) separated by the M3O4+M3O5 phase field. Phase relations in the FeO-MgO-TiO2 ternary were divided into two sub-systems. For the FeTiO3-MgTiO3-TiO2 sub-ternary, there is complete solid solution along the M2O3 and M3O5 binary joins at high temperature. At low temperatures (TTiO2. Increasing the concentration of MgO in M3O5 phase results in a decrease in the temperature at which M3O5 becomes unstable and compositional tie lines linking M2O3 and TiO2 fan out, before the appearance of a three-phase region where M2O3, M3O5, and TiO2 coexist. Within the expanded FeO-MgO-TiO2 system, at temperatures above 1273K there is a continuous solid solution along the M3O4 binary. At low temperatures (TTiO2 ternary. Assuming a regular solution mixing model for all phases, the M2O3 and M3O4 solid solutions were both found to exhibit moderate positive deviations from ideality ( 2600J/mol), whereas the data for the M3O5 binary suggest close to ideal behaviour.

  9. Mg掺杂TiO2光催化降解孔雀绿染料的研究%Photodegradation of malachite green dye by Mg-doped TiO2

    田菲; 董社英; 马彩莲; 黄廷林


    The treatment of water containing malachite green using Mg-doped TiO2 photocatalyst prepared by a sol-gel method was introduced. The effect of initial concentration of MG,catalyst amount on degradation were studied. The results indicated that Mg-doping remarkably improved the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 for malachite green degradation. The degradation rate of malachite green solution (30 mg/L) reached 84% over Mg-doped TiO2 (1.0 g/L) in 120 min under the irradiation of ultraviolet light, and the catalytic reaction mechanism was forecasted.%采用溶胶-凝胶法制备的Mg掺杂TiO2光催化剂降解孔雀石绿(MG)染料废水,考察了MG初始浓度、催化剂加入量等因素对其降解的影响.结果表明,Mg的掺杂显著提高了TiO2光催化降解孔雀石绿的活性,当催化剂用量为1.0 g/L,经120 min紫外光照射后,可使30 mg/L孔雀石绿溶液降解率达到84%,同时讨论了光催化机制.

  10. Experience melting through the Earth's lower mantle via LH-DAC experiments on MgO-SiO2 and CaO-MgO-SiO2 systems

    Baron, Marzena A.; Lord, Oliver T.; Walter, Michael J.; Trønnes, Reidar G.


    The large low shear-wave velocity provinces (LLSVPs) and ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs) of the lowermost mantle [1] are likely characterized by distinct chemical compositions, combined with temperature anomalies. The heterogeneities may have originated by fractional crystallization of the magma ocean during the earliest history of the Earth [2,3] and/or the continued accretion at the CMB of subducted basaltic oceanic crust [4,5]. These structures and their properties control the distribution and magnitude of the heat flow at the CMB and therefore the convective dynamics and evolution of the whole Earth. To determine the properties of these structures and thus interpret the seismic results, a good understanding of the melting phase relations of relevant basaltic and peridotitic compositions are required throughout the mantle pressure range. The melting phase relations of lower mantle materials are only crudely known. Recent experiments on various natural peridotitic and basaltic compositions [6-8] have given wide ranges of solidus and liquidus temperatures at lower mantle pressures. The melting relations for MgO, MgSiO3 and compositions along the MgO-SiO2 join from ab initio theory [e.g. 9,10] is broadly consistent with a thermodynamic model for eutectic melt compositions through the lower mantle based on melting experiments in the MgO-SiO2 system at 16-26 GPa [3]. We have performed a systematic study of the melting phase relations of analogues for peridotitic mantle and subducted basaltic crust in simple binary and ternary systems that capture the major mineralogy of Earth's lower mantle, using the laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) technique at 25-100 GPa. We determined the eutectic melting temperatures involving the following liquidus mineral assemblages: 1. bridgmanite (bm) + periclase (pc) and bm + silica in the system MgO-SiO2 (MS), corresponding to model peridotite and basalt compositions 2. bm + pc + Ca-perovskite (cpv) and bm + silica + cpv in the

  11. Super-microporous solid base MgO-ZrO2 composite and their application in biodiesel production

    Su, Jiaojiao; Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Huigang; Yan, Xiaoliang; Pan, Dahai; Fan, Binbin; Li, Ruifeng


    The super-microporous microcrystalline MgO-ZrO2 nanomaterials (pore size 1-2 nm) was prepared successfully via a facile one-pot evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method and employed in the transesterification of soybean oil and methanol. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, temperature programmed desorption of CO2, and N2 adsorption porosimetry were employed to characterize the nanocomposites. Nitrogen sorption isotherms revealed that these materials had large surface areas of more than 200 m2/g. Moreover, the sample with a Mg/Zr molar ratio of 0.5 and calcined at 400 °C showed high biodiesel yield (around 99% at 150 °C).

  12. Phase Relations In The System MgO-SiO2-H2O At Lower Mantle Conditions

    Walter, M. J.; Frost, J.; Kohn, S. C.; WANG, W.; Thomson, A. R.; Lord, O. T.


    Transport of water into the lower mantle within subducted slabs has important implications for understanding chemical mass transfer and dynamics in the deep mantle. Dehydration of the slab in the upper mantle strips the slab of much of its water cargo, however, a significant amount of water can be retained in nominally anhydrous phases such as olivine and its high-pressure polymorphs, and pyroxenes. These phases are not stable beyond the transition zone, and water may become bound in high-pressure, dense hydrous silicates, such as Phase D, and transported into the lower mantle. Here we report on experiments in the System MgO-SiO2-H2O made in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell in the pressure range of 25 to 60 GPa and at temperatures of ~1400 to 2000 K. Starting materials are synthesized as mixtures of MgSiO3 and SiO2 glasses plus brucite, have a range of water contents of ~ 5 to 30 mol% H2O, and include both MgO-rich (model peridotite) and SiO2-rich (model eclogite) bulk compositions. Experiments are made using multi-chambered (three or four laser-drilled 25 micron holes) Re gaskets. In order to avoid Al2O3 contamination, a ruby grain is inserted into only one of the chambers for initial pressure measurement. Post-heating pressures are measured in all chambers from the calibrated shift of the Raman singlet peak of diamond that is related to stress at the culet surface. Run products are analyzed using a combination of synchrotron X-ray diffraction and FEG-EPMA to identify synthesized phases and textural relations. Perturbations in the laser-power vs temperature function that correlate with visual movement of the sample and post-quench textural features are interpreted as the hydrous silicate solidus. We will discuss the implications of the following observations: (1) The hydrous silicate melting curve occurs at ~ 1750 to 1950 K for all compositions over the studied pressure range, (2) Phase D has a high-pressure stability limit that is only mildly dependent on

  13. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2-impregnated with MgZnAl mixed oxides obtained from layered double hydroxides for phenol degradation

    de Almeida, Marciano Fabiano; Bellato, Carlos Roberto; Mounteer, Ann Honor; Ferreira, Sukarno Olavo; Milagres, Jaderson Lopes; Miranda, Liany Divina Lima


    A series of TiO2/MgZnAl photocatalysts were successfully synthesized from ternary (Mg, Zn and Al) layered double hydroxides impregnated with TiO2 nanoparticles by the co-precipitation method at variable pH with different Zn2+/Mg2+ molar ratios. The composite photocatalysts were calcined at 500 °C resulting in the incorporation of oxide zinc, in the calcined MgZnAl LDH structure. Synergistic effect between ZnO and TiO2 lead to significant enhancement of TiO2/MgZnAl photocatalytic activity. Composite photocatalysts were characterized by ICP-MS, N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, SEM, EDS, IR and UV-vis DRS. Phenol in aqueous solution (50 mg/L) was used as a model compound for evaluation of UV-vis (filter cut-off for λ > 300 nm) photocatalytic activity. The most efficient photocatalyst composite was obtained at a 5% Zn2+/Mg2+ molar ratio, in the catalyst identified as TiO2/MgZnAl-5. This composite catalyst had high photocatalytic activity, completely destroying phenol and removing 80% of total organic carbon in solution after 360 min. The TiO2/MgZnAl-5 catalyst remained relatively stable, presenting a 15% decrease in phenol degradation efficiency after five consecutive photocatalytic cycles.

  14. TiO2/Mg(OH)2新型抗菌阻燃复合材料的研究%Research on New Antibacterial Flame Retardant TiO2/Mg(OH)2 Composite Material

    李雪; 李艳平; 杨鹏飞; 孟波; 刘云义


    采用氨气鼓泡法制备TiO2/Mg(OH)2多功能复合材料,其中以钛酸正丁酯为前躯体,硝酸铵和九水硝酸铁为氮、铁掺杂源,利用水热法制备了氮、铁共掺杂TiO2粉体.通过XRD、FE-SEM、FT-IR、TG等手段对所制备样品进行了表征,结果表明:75℃条件下,通氨时间为1h,产品粒度分散均匀,二次粒径为0.69μm;产品形貌为六方片状;其(001)面与(101)面特征衍射峰的强度比值I001/I101为0.71;在322 ~ 396℃的分解失重为24.9%,最高吸热温度为376.2℃,技术指标符合氢氧化镁阻燃剂的使用要求;对罗丹明b溶液的光降解率为56.3%.%A new TiO2/Mg(OH)2 multifunctional composite material was prepared by ammonia bubbling process. Nitrogen and iron codoped TiO2 powder were obtained by the hydrothermal method using titanium tetrabutoxide as precursor and ammonium nitrate and Iron( Ⅲ) nitrate nonahydrate as nitrogen and I-ron source. The composite material was characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, FT-IR and TG. The results indicate that at 75 ℃, the particle size distribute uniformly (D50 = 0. 69 μm) with ammonia feeding time for lh. SEM analysis shows that the flake-like hexagonal product is of good dispersibility. XRD analysis indicates that it'sI(001)/I(101) =0. 71. TG-DTA analysis indicates that the water loss was 24. 9% of the total weight between 322℃ and 396℃ with the highest endothermic temperature at 376. 2℃. The quality of samples could satisfy the demand of flame retardants. The photodegradation rate of the Rhodamine b is 56.3%.

  15. Evaluation of the photocatalytic ability of a sol-gel-derived MgO-ZrO2 oxide material

    Ciesielczyk Filip


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the synthesis and characterization of a novel group of potential photocatalysts, based on sol-gel-derived MgO-ZrO2 oxide material. The material was synthesized in a typical sol-gel system using organic precursors of magnesia and zirconia, ammonia as a promoter of hydrolysis and methanol as a solvent. All materials were thoroughly analyzed, including morphology and particle sizes, chemical composition, identification of characteristic functional groups, porous structure parameters and crystalline structure. The proposed methodology of synthesis resulted in obtaining pure MgO-ZrO2 oxide material with micrometric-sized particles and a relatively high surface area. The samples underwent an additional calcination process which led to the crystalline phase of zirconia being formed. The key element of the study was the evaluation of the effectiveness of decomposition of C.I. Basic Blue 9 dye. It was shown that the calcined materials exhibit both satisfactory adsorption and photocatalytic activity with respect to the decomposition of a selected model organic impurity. Total dye removal varied in the range of 50-70%, and was strongly dependent on process parameters such as quantity of photocatalyst, time of irradiation, and the addition of promoters.

  16. Magnesium cinnamate complex, [Mg(cinn)2(H2O)2]n; structural, spectroscopic, thermal, biological and pharmacokinetical characteristics

    Puszyńska-Tuszkanow, Mariola; Zierkiewicz, Wiktor; Grabowski, Tomasz; Daszkiewicz, Marek; Maciejewska, Gabriela; Adach, Anna; Kucharska-Ziembicka, Katarzyna; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Filip-Psurska, Beata; Cieślak-Golonka, Maria


    The composition and structure of the magnesium complex with cinnamic acid, [Mg(cinn)2(H2O)2]n(1), were determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction data, IR, NMR spectroscopies, thermal and mass spectrometry analysis. Magnesium cinnamate complex, like the isostructural cobalt(II) species reported in the literature, appears to belong to the group of coordination polymers forming layered solids with pseudooctahedral coordination around the metal centre and Osbnd Csbnd O bridging units. The vibrational assignments of the experimental spectra of the complex (1) were performed on the basis of the DFT results obtained for the [Mg(cinn)4(H2O)2]2- ion, serving as a model. The complex was found to exhibit a very low cytotoxicity against neoplastic: A549 (lung), MCF-7 (breast), P388 (murine leukemia) and normal BALB3T3 (mouse fibroblasts) cell lines. In silico pharmacokinetical parameter calculations for (1) and seven known magnesium complexes with carboxylic acids: lactic, malic, glutamic, hydroaspartic and aspartic allowed for comparison of their potential bioavailability. Magnesium cinnamate complex appeared to exhibit a superior lipophilic property that suggests an optimal pharmacokinetics profile.

  17. Effect of ZrO2 (9mol% Y2O3) coating thickness on the electronic conductivity of Mg-PSZ oxygen sensors

    Changhe Gao; Hailei Zhao; Qingguo Liu; Weijiang Wu; Weihua Qiu


    The ZrO2 (9mol% Y2O3) coating was prepared evenly on the surface of MgO partially stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ) tube (oxygen sensor probe) by dipping the green Mg-PSZ tube in a ZrO2 (9mol% Y2O3) slurry and then co-firing at 1750℃ for 8 h. The double-cell method was employed to measure the electronic conductivity parameter and exam the reproducibility of the coated MgPSZ tube. The experimental results indicate that the good thermal shock resistance of the Mg-PSZ tube can be retained when the coating thickness is not more than 3.4 μm. The ZrO2 (9mol% Y2O3) coating reduces the electronic conductivity parameter remarka -bly, probably due to the lower electronic conductivity of Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 than that of MgO-stabilized ZrO2. Moreover, the ZrO2 (9mol% Y2O3) coating can improve the reproducibility and accuracy of the Mg-PSZ tube significantly in the low oxygen measurement. The smooth surface feature and lower electronic conductivity of the coated Mg-PSZ tube should be responsible for this improvement.

  18. Nano SiO2 and MgO improve the properties of porous β-TCP scaffolds via advanced manufacturing technology.

    Gao, Chengde; Wei, Pingpin; Feng, Pei; Xiao, Tao; Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping


    Nano SiO2 and MgO particles were incorporated into β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds to improve the mechanical and biological properties. The porous cylindrical β-TCP scaffolds doped with 0.5 wt % SiO2, 1.0 wt % MgO, 0.5 wt % SiO2 + 1.0 wt % MgO were fabricated via selective laser sintering respectively and undoped β-TCP scaffold was also prepared as control. The phase composition and mechanical strength of the scaffolds were evaluated. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the phase transformation from β-TCP to α-TCP was inhibited after the addition of MgO. The compressive strength of scaffold was improved from 3.12 ± 0.36 MPa (β-TCP) to 5.74 ± 0.62 MPa (β-TCP/SiO2), 9.02 ± 0.55 MPa (β-TCP/MgO) and 10.43 ± 0.28 MPa (β-TCP/SiO2/MgO), respectively. The weight loss and apatite-forming ability of the scaffolds were evaluated by soaking them in simulated body fluid. The results demonstrated that both SiO2 and MgO dopings slowed down the degradation rate and improved the bioactivity of β-TCP scaffolds. In vitro cell culture studies indicated that SiO2 and MgO dopings facilitated cell attachment and proliferation. Combined addition of SiO2 and MgO were found optimal in enhancing both the mechanical and biological properties of β-TCP scaffold.

  19. Nano SiO2 and MgO Improve the Properties of Porous β-TCP Scaffolds via Advanced Manufacturing Technology

    Chengde Gao


    Full Text Available Nano SiO2 and MgO particles were incorporated into β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffolds to improve the mechanical and biological properties. The porous cylindrical β-TCP scaffolds doped with 0.5 wt % SiO2, 1.0 wt % MgO, 0.5 wt % SiO2 + 1.0 wt % MgO were fabricated via selective laser sintering respectively and undoped β-TCP scaffold was also prepared as control. The phase composition and mechanical strength of the scaffolds were evaluated. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the phase transformation from β-TCP to α-TCP was inhibited after the addition of MgO. The compressive strength of scaffold was improved from 3.12 ± 0.36 MPa (β-TCP to 5.74 ± 0.62 MPa (β-TCP/SiO2, 9.02 ± 0.55 MPa (β-TCP/MgO and 10.43 ± 0.28 MPa (β-TCP/SiO2/MgO, respectively. The weight loss and apatite-forming ability of the scaffolds were evaluated by soaking them in simulated body fluid. The results demonstrated that both SiO2 and MgO dopings slowed down the degradation rate and improved the bioactivity of β-TCP scaffolds. In vitro cell culture studies indicated that SiO2 and MgO dopings facilitated cell attachment and proliferation. Combined addition of SiO2 and MgO were found optimal in enhancing both the mechanical and biological properties of β-TCP scaffold.

  20. The influence of SiO2 Addition on 2MgO-Al2O3-3.3P2O5 Glass

    Larsen, P.H.; Poulsen, F.W.; Berg, Rolf W.


    2MgO-Al2O3-3.3P2O5 glasses with increasing amounts of SiO2 are considered for sealing applications in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). The change in chemical durability under SOFC anode conditions and the linear thermal expansion is measured as functions of the SiO2 concentration. Raman spectroscopy...

  1. TiO2 effect on crystallization mechanism and physical properties of nano glass-ceramics of MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 glass system.

    Jo, Sinae; Kang, Seunggu


    The effect of TiO2 on the degree of crystallization, thermal properties and microstructure for MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 glass-ceramics system containing 0-13 wt% TiO2 and 0-1.5 wt% B2O3 in which the cordierite is the main phase was studied. Using Kissinger and Augis-Bennett equations, the activation energy, 510 kJ/mol and Avrami constant, 1.8 were calculated showing the surface-oriented crystallization would be preferred. The alpha-cordierite phase was generated in the glass-ceramics of containing TiO2 of 0-5.6 wt%. However, for the glass-ceramics of TiO2 content above 7 wt%, an alpha-cordierite disappeared and micro-cordierite phase was formed. The glass-ceramics of no TiO2 added had spherical crystals of few tens nanometer size spread in the matrix. As TiO2 content increased up to 5.6 wt%, a lump of dendrite was formed. In the glass-ceramics containing TiO2 7-13 wt%, in which the main phase is micro-cordierite, the dendrite crystal disappeared and a few hundred nanometer sized crystal particles hold tightly each other were generated. The thermal conductivity of glass-ceramics of both a-cordierite and micro-cordierite base decreased with TiO2 contend added. The thermal conductivity of glass-ceramics of 1.5 wt% TiO2 added was 3.4 W/mK which is 36% higher than that of glass-ceramics of no TiO2 added. The sintering temperature for 1.5 wt% TiO2 glass-ceramics was 965 degrees C which could be concluded as to apply to LTCC process for LED packaging.

  2. Effect of MgO contents on the mechanical properties and biological performances of bioceramics in the MgO-CaO-SiO2 system.

    Chen, Xianchun; Ou, Jun; Wei, Yan; Huang, Zhongbing; Kang, Yunqing; Yin, Guangfu


    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of the chemical composition on the mechanical properties, bioactivity, and cytocompatibility in vitro of bioceramics in the MgO-CaO-SiO(2) system. Three single-phase ceramics (merwinite, akermanite and monticellite ceramics) with different MgO contents were fabricated. The mechanical properties were tested by an electronic universal machine, while the bioactivity in vitro of the ceramics was detected by investigating the bone-like apatite-formation ability in simulated body fluid (SBF), and the cytocompatibility was evaluated through osteoblast proliferation and adhesion assay. The results showed that their mechanical properties were improved from merwinite to akermanite and monticellite ceramics with the increase of MgO contents, whereas the apatite-formation ability in SBF and cell proliferation decreased. Furthermore, osteoblasts could adhere, spread and proliferate on these ceramic wafers. Finally, the elongated appearance and minor filopodia of cells on merwinite ceramic were more obvious than the other two ceramics.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of Y_2O_2S:Eu~(3+),Mg~(2+),Ti~(4+) nanorods via a solvothermal routine

    李文宇; 刘应亮; 艾鹏飞; 陈小博


    Y2O2S:Eu3+,Mg2+,Ti4+ nanorods were prepared by a solvothermal procedure.Rod-like Y(OH)3 was firstly synthesized by hydrothermal method to serve as the precursor.Y2O2S:Eu3+,Mg2+,Ti4+ powders were obtained by calcinating the precursor at CS2 atmosphere.The Y2O2S:Eu3+,Mg2+,Ti4+ phosphor with diameters of 30-50 nm and lengths up to 200-400 nm inherited the rod-like shape from the precursor after calcined at CS2 atmosphere.The Y2O2S:Eu3+,Mg2+,Ti4+ nanorods showed hexagonal pure phase,good dispersion and exhibite...

  4. A Novel MgO-CaO-SiO2 System for Fabricating Bone Scaffolds with Improved Overall Performance

    Hang Sun


    Full Text Available Although forsterite (Mg2SiO4 possesses good biocompatibility and suitable mechanical properties, the insufficient bioactivity and degradability hinders its further application. In this study, a novel MgO-CaO-SiO2 system was developed by adding wollastonite (CaSiO3 into Mg2SiO4 to fabricate bone scaffolds via selective laser sintering (SLS. The apatite-forming ability and degradability of the scaffolds were enhanced because the degradation of CaSiO3 could form silanol groups, which could offer nucleation sites for apatite. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of the scaffolds grew with increasing CaSiO3 to 20 wt %. It was explained that the liquid phase of CaSiO3 promoted the densification during sintering due to its low melting point. With the further increase in CaSiO3, the mechanical properties decreased due to the formation of the continuous filling phase. Furthermore, the scaffolds possessed a well-interconnected porous structure and exhibited an ability to support cell adhesion and proliferation.

  5. A Novel MgO-CaO-SiO2 System for Fabricating Bone Scaffolds with Improved Overall Performance

    Sun, Hang; He, Shiwei; Wu, Ping; Gao, Chengde; Feng, Pei; Xiao, Tao; Deng, Youwen; Shuai, Cijun


    Although forsterite (Mg2SiO4) possesses good biocompatibility and suitable mechanical properties, the insufficient bioactivity and degradability hinders its further application. In this study, a novel MgO-CaO-SiO2 system was developed by adding wollastonite (CaSiO3) into Mg2SiO4 to fabricate bone scaffolds via selective laser sintering (SLS). The apatite-forming ability and degradability of the scaffolds were enhanced because the degradation of CaSiO3 could form silanol groups, which could offer nucleation sites for apatite. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of the scaffolds grew with increasing CaSiO3 to 20 wt %. It was explained that the liquid phase of CaSiO3 promoted the densification during sintering due to its low melting point. With the further increase in CaSiO3, the mechanical properties decreased due to the formation of the continuous filling phase. Furthermore, the scaffolds possessed a well-interconnected porous structure and exhibited an ability to support cell adhesion and proliferation. PMID:28773411

  6. MgO-Al2O3-ZrO2 Amorphous Ternary Composite: A Dense and Stable Optical Coating

    Shaoo, Naba K.; Shapiro, Alan P.


    The process-parameter-dependent optical and structural properties of MgO-Al2O3-ZrO2 ternary mixed-composite material were investigated. Optical properties were derived from spectrophotometric measurements. The surface morphology, grain size distributions, crystallographic phases, and process- dependent material composition of films were investigated through the use of atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis made evident the correlation between the optical constants and the process-dependent compositions in the films. It is possible to achieve environmentally stable amorphous films with high packing density under certain optimized process conditions.

  7. Synthesis of Dimethyl Carbonate from Ethylene Carbonate and Methanol Over Nano-Catalysts Supported on CeO2-MgO.

    Jun, Jin Oh; Lee, Joongwon; Kang, Ki Hyuk; Song, In Kyu


    A series of CeO2(X)-MgO(1-X) (X = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0) nano-catalysts were prepared by a co-precipitation method for use in the synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from ethylene carbonate and methanol. Among the CeO2(X)-MgO(1-X) catalysts, CeO2(0.25)-MgO(0.75) nano-catalyst showed the best catalytic performance. Alkali and alkaline earth metal oxides (MO = Li2O, K2O, Cs2O, SrO, and BaO) were then supported on CeO2(0.25)-MgO(0.75) by an incipient wetness impregnation method with an aim of improving the catalytic performance of CeO2(0.25)-MgO(0.75). Basicity of the catalysts was determined by CO2-TPD experiments in order to elucidate the effect of basicity on the catalytic performance. The correlation between catalytic performance and basicity showed that basicity played an important role in the reaction. Yield for dimethyl carbonate increased with increasing basicity of the catalysts. Among the catalysts tested, Li2O/CeO2(0.25)-MgO(0.75) nano-catalyst with the largest basicity showed the best catalytic performance in the synthesis of dimethyl carbonate.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of structural and optical properties of single crystalline a-TiO2 films on MgAl2O4(111) substrate

    Xu, Haisheng; Feng, Xianjin; Luan, Caina; Ma, Jin


    Anatase phase TiO2 (a-TiO2) films have been deposited on MgAl2O4(111) substrates by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method at the substrate temperatures of 500-650°C. The structural analyses showed that the films were highly (004) oriented with tetragonal anatase structure and the epitaxial relationship was given as a-TiO2(004)||MgAl2O4 (111). The sample prepared at 600°C exhibited the best crystallization with a single-crystalline epitaxial film. The average transmittance of every TiO2 film in the visible range exceeded 90% excluding the influence of the substrate. The morphology and composition of the TiO2 films have also been studied in detail.

  9. Interface role in the enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2-Na0.9Mg0.45Ti3.55O8 nanoheterojunction

    Ze-Qing Guo


    Full Text Available TiO2-Na0.9Mg0.45Ti3.55O8 (TiO2-NMTO nanocomposites were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method. TiO2 nanoparticles were loaded on NMTO nanosheets with well matched lattices. The TiO2-NMTO nanoheterojunctions enjoyed high photodegradative ability for a RhB pollutant. The photoinduced electron-hole pairs were separated effectively by the TiO2-NMTO nanoheterojunctions, which were directly observed by surface potential measurements with a scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The photogenerated electrons accumulate at interface due to the high density of interface states, and holes remain TiO2 and NMTO particles, other than they migrate from one part to another in heterojunctions by comparing the surface potentials under illumination with different wavelengths.

  10. Thermochemistry of MgCr2O4, MgAl2O4, MgFe2O4 spinels in SO2-O2-SO3 atmosphere

    Anna Gerle


    Full Text Available The present paper investigates high-temperature sulphate corrosion of basic refractory ceramics containing magnesium spinels (MgAl2O4, MgFe2O4, MgCr2O4 and their solid solutions widely used in metallurgy, chemical, ceramic and glass industry. This group of refractories are exposed to a number of destructive factors during a working campaign. One of such factors is gas corrosion caused by sulphur oxides. However, gas sulphate corrosion of basic refractory materials containing magnesium spinels, which has a great practical meaning for the corrosion resistance of the material main components, is not sufficiently examined. This work presents a thermodynamic analysis of (MgCr2O4, MgAl2O4, MgFe2O4−SO2−O2−SO3 system aimed to calculate: i the standard free enthalpy of chemical reactions, ii the equilibrium composition of the gas mixture initially containing SO2 and O2 and iii sulphates equilibrium dissociation pressure and equilibrium partial pressure for the reaction of SO3 with the spinels to predict the temperature range of corrosion products’ stability. A thermochemical calculation provides information about equilibrium state in the analysed system. In real conditions the state of equilibrium does not have to be achieved. For this reason, the results of calculations were compared with experimental data. The experiment results were consistent with the theoretical predictions.


    Göktuğ GÜNKAYA


    Full Text Available According to the relevant literature, the utilization of different kind of glass fibers in concrete introduces positive effect on the mechanical behavior, especially toughness. There are many glassfibers available to reinforce concretes. Glass fiber composition is so important because it may change the properties such as strength, elastic modulus and alkali resistance. Its most important property to be used in concrete is the alkali resistance. Some glasses of SrO–MgO–ZrO2–SiO2 (SMZS quaternary system, such as 26SrO, 20MgO, 14ZrO2, 40SiO2 (Zrn glass, have been found to be highly alkali resistant thanks to their high ZrO2 and MgO contents. Previous researches on these glasses with MnO and/or Fe2O3 partially replacing SrO have been made with the aim of improving the chemical resistance and decreasing the production cost.The main target of the present study, first of all, was to characterize commercially available alkali resistant glass fiber for concrete reinforcement and then to compare its alkali durability with those of the SrO-Mn2O3-Fe2O3-MgO-ZrO2-SiO2 (SMFMZS system glasses. For such purposes, XRF, Tg-DTA, alkali resistance tests and SEM analysis conducted with EDX were employed. According tothe alkali endurance test results it was revealed that some of the SMFMZS system glass powders are 10 times resistant to alkali environments than the commercial glass fibers used in this study.Therefore, they can be considered as alternative filling materials on the evolution of chemically resistant concrete structures.

  12. Vibrational properties of silica species in MgO-SiO2 glasses from ab initio molecular dynamics

    Spiekermann, G.; Steele-MacInnis, M.; Kowalski, P. M.; Schmidt, C.; Jahn, S.


    Glasses and melts in the system MgO-SiO2 are analogs for magmas of the Earth's mantle. Therefore knowledge of the structure of these glasses and melts is important for understanding numerous geological processes. Raman spectroscopy is useful for probing the atomic-scale structure of glasses and melts. However, correct assignment of observed vibrational bands to specific structural and modal origins is challenging. We present the mode-projection technique to calculate vibrational subspectra for specific modal vibrations of several fundamental silica structures in silicate glasses. Structural subunits that we have studied include Q0 to Q4 tetrahedra, Si-O-Si bridging oxygen atoms for any degree of polymerization of the adjacent tetrahedra, the ethane-like symmetry of the dimer, and three- and four-fold rings. We apply this technique to ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories of MgO-SiO2 glasses at 1000 K. We found the tetrahedral symmetric stretch at 863 cm-1 for Q0, 885 cm-1 for Q1, a double peak of 960 cm-1 and 1037 cm-1 for Q2, 1032 cm-1 for Q3 and 1080 cm-1 for Q4. The bridging oxygen asymmetric stretch is at about 980 cm-1 for Q1-Q1, and it shifts to about 1100 cm-1 with increasing polymerization. This analysis has applications especially for understanding the structure of silica-poor glasses. For instance, two contradicting Raman spectroscopy studies of Mg2SiO4 glasses reported the most polymerized SiO4 tetrahedra in the glass structure to be either Q0 [1] or Q3 [2]. Our results indicate that the degree of polymerization is overestimated, if the Si-O-Si stretching modes are not considered in the interpretation of the measured Raman spectra. [1] Nasikas, N. K. and Chrissanthopoulos, A. and Bouropoulos, N. and Sen, S. and Papatheodorou, G. N., 2011, Chemistry of Materials 23, 3692-3697. [2] Kalampounias, A. G. and Nasikas, N. K. and Papatheodorou, G. N., 2009, Journal of Chemical Physics 131, 114513.

  13. FTIR study of CO adsorption on Rh/MgO modified with Co, Ni, Fe, or CeO2 for the catalytic partial oxidation of methane.

    Li, Dalin; Sakai, Shigemasa; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi


    The surface state of Rh/MgO catalysts modified with Co, Ni, Fe, or CeO(2) after the reduction and partial oxidation pretreatments as well as during the catalytic partial oxidation of methane has been investigated by FTIR of adsorbed CO. The results of CO adsorption on the reduced catalysts suggest the formation of Rh-M alloy on Rh-M/MgO (M = Co, Ni, Fe) and Rh particles partially covered with reduced ceria on Rh-CeO(2)/MgO. The strength of CO adsorption on Rh/MgO is weakened by the modification with Co, Ni, Fe, or CeO(2). Partial oxidation pretreatment of Rh/MgO leads to a significant decrease in the CO adsorption due to the oxidation of Rh. In contrast, on partially oxidized Rh-M/MgO (M = Co, Ni, Fe) and Rh-CeO(2)/MgO, the preferential oxidation of the surface M atoms or reduced ceria maintains the metallic Rh and preserves the CO adsorbed on the surface Rh atoms. The CO adsorption during the reaction of catalytic partial oxidation of methane on Rh/MgO and Rh-Ni/MgO is similar to that on the reduced catalysts. On the other hand, the CO adsorption during the reaction on Rh-Co/MgO, Rh-Fe/MgO, and Rh-CeO(2)/MgO is different from that on the reduced catalysts, and this is related to the structural change of these catalysts during the reaction.

  14. Wetting and reaction characteristics of crystalline and amorphous SiO2 derived rice-husk ash and SiO2/SiC substrates with Al-Si-Mg alloys

    Bahrami, A.; Pech-Canul, M. I.; Gutiérrez, C. A.; Soltani, N.


    A study of the wetting behavior of three substrate types (SiC, SiO2-derived RHA and SiC/SiO2-derived RHA) by two Al-Si-Mg alloys using the sessile drop method has been conducted, using amorphous and crystalline SiO2 in the experiment. Mostly, there is a transition from non-wetting to wetting contact angles, being the lowest θ values achieved with the alloy of high Mg content in contact with amorphous SiO2. The observed wetting behavior is attributed to the deposited Mg on the substrates. A strong diffusion of Si from the SiC/Amorphous RHA substrate into the metal drop explains the free Si segregated at the drop/substrate interface and drop surface. Although incorporation of both SiO2-derived RHA structures into the SiC powder compact substrates increases the contact angles in comparison with the SiC substrate alone, the still observed acute contact angles in RHA/SiC substrates make them promising for fabrication of composites with high volume fraction of reinforcement by the pressureless infiltration technique. The observed wetting characteristics, with decrease in surface tension and contact angles is explained by surface related phenomena. Based on contact angle changes, drop dimensions and surface tension values, as well as on the interfacial elemental mapping, and XRD analysis of substrates, some wetting and reaction pathways are proposed and discussed.

  15. CaO+SiO2+Al2O3+MgO+FeO五元渣系中FeO活度的研究%Activities of FeO in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-FeO slags

    吕庆; 赵丽树; 王成立; 张淑会; 李福民; 刘增勋


    Activities of FeO in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-FeO slags were determined at 1673 K by electrochemical measurements of the solid electrolyte cell: Mo |Mo+MoO2[ZrO2(MgO)[Fe+(CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-FeO)+Ag|Fe. The influences of slag compositions and basicity on FeO activities were analyzed. The results reveal that, for slags of fixed (%CaO)/(%SiO2) ratio, MgO and Al2O3 content, there was an increase of FeO activities with increase of FeO content. For slags with constant {(%CaO)+ (%MgO)}/(%SiO2) ratio, fixed FeO and Al,2O3 content, FeO activities decreased when MgO content increased from 5% to 10%, and increased with the increase of MgO content when it was over 10%. The FeO activities increased when (%CaO)/(%SiO2) ratio changed from 1.03 to 1.30 in the slags of constant MgO, FeO and Al2O3 content.

  16. MgO含量对CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO熔渣中液态相影响的模拟

    林腾昌; 朱荣; 王成杰; 李超; 李明钢



  17. Degradation of selected industrial dyes using Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales under natural sun light as an alternative driving energy

    Shivaraju, H. P.; Midhun, G.; Anil Kumar, K. M.; Pallavi, S.; Pallavi, N.; Behzad, Shahmoradi


    Designing photocatalytic materials with modified functionalities for the utilization of renewable energy sources as an alternative driving energy has attracted much attention in the area of sustainable wastewater treatment applications. Catalyst-assisted advanced oxidation process is an emerging treatment technology for organic pollutants and toxicants in industrial wastewater. Preparation of visible-light-responsive photocatalyst such as Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales was carried out under mild sol-gel technique. Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales were characterized by powder XRD, SEM, FTIR, and optical and photocatalytic activity techniques. The Mg-doped TiO2 showed a mixed phase of anatase and rutile with an excellent crystallinity, structural elucidations, polyscales morphology, consequent shifting of bandgap energy and adequate photocatalytic activities under visible range of light. Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales were investigated for their efficiencies in the degradation of most commonly used industrial dyes in the real-time textile wastewater. Mg-doped TiO2 polyscales showed excellent photocatalytic degradation efficiency in both model industrial dyes (65-95%) and textile wastewater (92%) under natural sunlight as an alternative and renewable driving energy.

  18. Wide band antireflective coatings Al2O3 / HfO2 / MgF2 for UV region

    Winkowski, P.; Marszałek, Konstanty W.


    Deposition technology of the three layers antireflective coatings consists of hafnium compound are presented in this paper. Oxide films were deposited by means of e-gun evaporation in vacuum of 5x10-5 mbar in presence of oxygen and fluoride films by thermal evaporation. Substrate temperature was 250°C. Coatings were deposited onto optical lenses made from quartz glass (Corning HPFS). Thickness and deposition rate were controlled by thickness measuring system Inficon XTC/2. Simulations leading to optimization of thickness and experimental results of optical measurements carried during and after deposition process were presented. Physical thickness measurements were made during deposition process and were equal to 43 nm/74 nm/51 nm for Al2O3 / HfO2 / MgF2 respectively. Optimization was carried out for ultraviolet region from 230nm to the beginning of visible region 400 nm. In this region the average reflectance of the antireflective coating was less than 0.5% in the whole range of application.

  19. Combustion Synthesis in a Mechanically Activated Mg-C-TiO2-H3BO3 System

    Aminikia, B.; Tayebifard, S. A.; Youzbashi, A. A.


    TiC-TiB2 nanocomposite was fabricated by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) of mechanically milled powders. H3BO3, TiO2, Mg, and C as starting materials were milled for 0.5, 1, and 3 h then pressed to form pellets. Green compacts were placed in a tube furnace which had been preheated to three different temperatures of 900, 1000, and 1100 °C with argon atmosphere, for the synthesis. The prepared samples were studied by XRD, SEM, and TEM analytical technique. TiC and TiB2 were not formed during milling process. According to the XRD patterns of synthesized samples, ball milling for 0.5 h is the optimum time for mechanical activation of the mixed powders. Further investigation indicated that 900 °C is the best temperature for the synthesis of this mixture. By using Williamson-Hall method, the average crystallite sizes of TiB2 and TiC were calculated 40.7 and 75.6 nm, respectively, which were confirmed by TEM images.

  20. Effect of LiBF4 Salt Concentration on the Properties of Plasticized MG49-TiO2 Based Nanocomposite Polymer Electrolyte

    Ahmad, A.; M. Y. A. Rahman; S. P. Low; H. Hamzah


    A nanocomposite polymer electrolyte (NCPE) comprising of 49% poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted natural rubber (MG49) as polymer host, titanium dioxide (TiO2) as a ceramic filler, lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4) as dopant salt, and ethylene carbonate (EC) as plasticizer was prepared by solution casting technique. The ceramic filler, TiO2, was synthesized in situ by a sol-gel process. The ionic conductivity, chemical interaction, structure, and surface morphology of nanocomposite polymer elec...

  1. The removal of formaldehyde from concentrated synthetic wastewater using O3/MgO/H2O2 process integrated with the biological treatment.

    Moussavi, Gholamreza; Yazdanbakhsh, Ahmadreza; Heidarizad, Mahdi


    The catalytic advanced oxidation process (CAOP) of O(3)/MgO/H(2)O(2) was integrated with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system to completely treat concentrated formaldehyde wastewater, demonstrating that this combination is an effective method for treating such wastewaters. The influence of several operational variables--including pH, MgO powder dosage, and the concentrations of H(2)O(2) and O(3)--was investigated for the O(3)/MgO/H(2)O(2) degradation of a 7000 mg/L formaldehyde wastewater. The optimum conditions were found to be a pH of 8, 5 g/L dose of MgO powder, 0.09 mole/L concentration of H(2)O(2), and 0.153 g/L min dose of O(3). The formaldehyde and COD concentrations were reduced 79% and 65.6%, respectively, in the CAOP for 120 min of reaction time under the optimum condition stated above. The remaining concentrations of formaldehyde and COD were 1500 mg/L and 3200 mg/L, respectively, in the effluent. The degradation of formaldehyde in CAOP was determined to be a first-order reaction with a constant of 0.015/min, and radical oxidation was the predominant degradation mechanism. This effluent was post-treated in SBR system for a total cycle time of 24h. The SBR completely removed the formaldehyde and removed 98% of the COD, reducing the COD concentration to lower than 60 mg/L. Therefore, the integrated O(3)/MgO/H(2)O(2) and SBR process is demonstrated as a promising technology for the complete treatment of wastewater with high concentrations of toxic and inhibitory compounds such as formaldehyde.

  2. Impact of Mg2+ ion incorporation on the phase development of ZrO2-type solid solutions and their application in the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Nemec, Vinko; Kaper, Helena; Pétaud, Guillaume; Ivanda, Mile; Štefanić, Goran


    The precursors of ZrO2-MgO system covering the whole concentration range were prepared by co-precipitation of the corresponding nitrate salts. The obtained precursors were calcined in air at different temperatures up to 1000 °C and analyzed at room temperature using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). Maximum solubility of Mg2+ ions (∼32 mol%) was obtained in the amorphous precursor. After crystallization at 600 °C the solid solubility of Mg2+ ions decreases to ∼26 mol% of which ∼22 mol% was incorporated inside ZrO2-type lattice while the remaining part of Mg2+ ions was adsorbed on the surface of the particles. Further thermal treatment decreases solubility of Mg2+ ions to 18 mol% (800 °C) and finally to 9 mol% (1000 °C). On the other side of the concentration range, the solubility of Zr4+ ions in MgO lattice was 10 mol%) polymorphs. A precise determination of unit-cell parameters shows that the increase in the Mg2+ content causes a decrease in the parameter c of tetragonal ZrO2 lattice, which in a solid solution with a Mg2+ content ≥10 mol% becomes very close to the lattice parameter a (approaching cubic lattice). The results of FE-SEM analysis show that the addition of Mg2+ ions promotes sintering of samples. The influence of thermal treatment on the crystallization of the amorphous precursors to ZrO2-type lattice was examined by differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric measurement. The obtained results show that the crystallization temperature increases with increasing Mg content, from 445 °C (0 mol% MgO) to 625 °C (∼50 mol% MgO). The ZrO2 doped with 3 mol% MgO was used as catalyst support for platinum nanoparticles and compared to commercially available 3% yttria-doped stabilized zirconia (3YSZ). The catalysts were used for catalytic CO oxidation and show slightly better performance of the ZrO2-MgO system, which

  3. Dynamic Wetting of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO Liquid Oxide on MgAl2O4 Spinel

    Abdeyazdan, Hamed; Dogan, Neslihan; Rhamdhani, M. Akbar; Chapman, Michael W.; Monaghan, Brian J.


    Inclusion type and content in steel is critical in steelmaking, affecting both productivity through clogging, and downstream physical properties of the steel. They are normally removed from steel by reacting with a slag (liquid oxide) phase. For efficient inclusion removal, the inclusions must attach/bond with this liquid phase. The strength of the attachment can be in part characterized by the wettability of the liquid oxide on the inclusions. In this study, the dynamic wetting of liquid oxides of the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO system on a solid spinel (MgAl2O4) substrate with low porosity of 1.9 pct was measured at 1773 K (1500 °C) using a modified sessile drop technique. The dynamic contact angle between the liquid and solid spinel was determined for different CaO/Al2O3 mass percent ratios ranging from 0.98 to 1.55. Characteristic curves of wettability ( θ) vs time showed a rapid decrease in wetting in the first 10 seconds tending to a plateau value at extended times. A mathematical model for spreading behavior of liquid oxides by Choi and Lee was adopted and shown to provide a reasonable representation of the spreading behavior with time. The chemical interaction at the interface between spinel (MgAl2O4) and slag was analyzed by carrying out detailed thermodynamic evaluation and characterization using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy. There is evidence of liquid penetrating the substrate via pores and along grain boundaries, forming a penetration layer in the substrate. The depth of the penetration layer was found to be a function of substrate porosity and sample cooling rate. It decreased from ~350 µm for 6.7 pct-porous substrate to ~190 µm for substrate with porosity of 1.9 pct and from ~190 µm to ~50 µm for a slow-cooled liquid oxide-spinel substrate sample in the furnace to a rapidly cooled liquid cooled-spinel substrate sample, respectively.

  4. Diamond formation in the deep lower mantle: a high-pressure reaction of MgCO3 and SiO2

    Maeda, Fumiya; Ohtani, Eiji; Kamada, Seiji; Sakamaki, Tatsuya; Hirao, Naohisa; Ohishi, Yasuo


    Diamond is an evidence for carbon existing in the deep Earth. Some diamonds are considered to have originated at various depth ranges from the mantle transition zone to the lower mantle. These diamonds are expected to carry significant information about the deep Earth. Here, we determined the phase relations in the MgCO3-SiO2 system up to 152 GPa and 3,100 K using a double sided laser-heated diamond anvil cell combined with in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. MgCO3 transforms from magnesite to the high-pressure polymorph of MgCO3, phase II, above 80 GPa. A reaction between MgCO3 phase II and SiO2 (CaCl2-type SiO2 or seifertite) to form diamond and MgSiO3 (bridgmanite or post-perovsktite) was identified in the deep lower mantle conditions. These observations suggested that the reaction of the MgCO3 phase II with SiO2 causes formation of super-deep diamond in cold slabs descending into the deep lower mantle. PMID:28084421

  5. Oxidation of Flash-Anodized Al-Mg Alloy in Dry Atmospheres of N2, CO2, and O2 and Humid Atmosphere of Ar

    LaPointe, Kyle; Bao, Sarina; Kvithyld, Anne


    Production of anodized Al alloy is increasing with increased recycling of Al. To study recycling of anodized material, a flash-anodized 3000 series Al alloy containing 0.34 wt pct Mg was remelted in pure atmospheres of CO2, O2, and N2, and Ar with 5 mol pct H2O at 1073 K (800 °C). Hopefully, the results should be of general influence concerning dross formation and scrap remelting in the Al industry. Oxidation studies using a thermogravimetric analyser were performed. Following the treatment, the samples oxide layers were characterized. The highest oxidation rates were observed in atmospheres of O2 and CO2. However, the onset of a break-away oxidation period in O2 is delayed in comparison to CO2. Oxidation in CO2 showed substantially less MgO formation compared to O2. The main source of mass gain can be attributed to the reaction of Mg with oxygen to form MgO and MgAl x O y . Heating in N2 resulted in the lowest mass gain of all atmospheres. Experiments in humid (5 mol pct H2O) Ar atmospheres indicate that there is a minimum threshold of Mg activity to initiate oxidation via H2O. Oxidation kinetics (mechanisms) has been investigated.

  6. Performance enhancement of perovskite solar cells with Mg-doped TiO2 compact film as the hole-blocking layer

    Wang, Jing; Qin, Minchao; Tao, Hong; Ke, Weijun; Chen, Zhao; Wan, Jiawei; Qin, Pingli; Xiong, Liangbin; Lei, Hongwei; Yu, Huaqing; Fang, Guojia


    In this letter, we report perovskite solar cells with thin dense Mg-doped TiO2 as hole-blocking layers (HBLs), which outperform cells using TiO2 HBLs in several ways: higher open-circuit voltage (Voc) (1.08 V), power conversion efficiency (12.28%), short-circuit current, and fill factor. These properties improvements are attributed to the better properties of Mg-modulated TiO2 as compared to TiO2 such as better optical transmission properties, upshifted conduction band minimum (CBM) and downshifted valence band maximum (VBM), better hole-blocking effect, and higher electron life time. The higher-lying CBM due to the modulation with wider band gap MgO and the formation of magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxides together resulted in an increment of Voc. In addition, the Mg-modulated TiO2 with lower VBM played a better role in the hole-blocking. The HBL with modulated band position provided better electron transport and hole blocking effects within the device.

  7. In vitro cytotoxicity of SiO2 or ZnO nanoparticles with different sizes and surface charges on U373MG human glioblastoma cells

    Kim JE


    Full Text Available Jung-Eun Kim,1,* Hyejin Kim,1,* Seong Soo A An,2 Eun Ho Maeng,3 Meyoung-Kon Kim,4 Yoon-Jae Song1 1Department of Life Science, 2Department of Bionano Technology, Gachon University, Seongnam-Si, South Korea; 3Korea Testing and Research Institute, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Silicon dioxide (SiO2 and zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles are widely used in various applications, raising issues regarding the possible adverse effects of these metal oxide nanoparticles on human cells. In this study, we determined the cytotoxic effects of differently charged SiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, with mean sizes of either 100 or 20 nm, on the U373MG human glioblastoma cell line. The overall cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles against U373MG cells was significantly higher than that of SiO2 nanoparticles. Neither the size nor the surface charge of the ZnO nanoparticles affected their cytotoxicity against U373MG cells. The 20 nm SiO2 nanoparticles were more toxic than the 100 nm nanoparticles against U373MG cells, but the surface charge had little or no effect on their cytotoxicity. Both SiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles activated caspase-3 and induced DNA fragmentation in U373MG cells, suggesting the induction of apoptosis. Thus, SiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles appear to exert cytotoxic effects against U373MG cells, possibly via apoptosis. Keyword: apoptosis

  8. Radiation-induced amorphization of Ce-doped Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 silicate apatite

    Zhou, Jianren; Yao, Tiankai; Lian, Jie; Shen, Yiqiang; Dong, Zhili; Lu, Fengyuan


    Ce-doped Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 silicate apatite (Ce = 0.05 and 0.5) were irradiated with 1 MeV Kr2+ ion beam irradiation at different temperatures and their radiation response and the cation composition dependence of the radiation-induced amorphization were studied by in situ TEM. The two Ce-doped Mg2Y8(SiO4)6O2 silicate apatites are sensitive to ion beam induced amorphization with a low critical dose (0.096 dpa) at room temperature, and exhibits significantly different radiation tolerance at elevated temperatures. Ce concentration at the apatite AI site plays a critical role in determining the radiation response of this silicate apatite, in which the Ce3+ rich Mg2Y7.5Ce0.5(SiO4)6O2 displays lower amorphization susceptibility than Mg2Y7.95Ce0.05(SiO4)6O2 with a lower Ce3+ occupancy at the AI sites. The critical temperature (Tc) and activation energy (Ea) change from 667.5 ± 33 K and 0.162 eV of Mg2Y7.5Ce0.5(SiO4)6O2 to 963.6 ± 64 K and 0.206 eV of Mg2Y7.95Ce0.05(SiO4)6O2. We demonstrate that the radiation tolerance can be controlled by varying the chemical composition, and enhanced radiation tolerance is achieved by increasing the Ce concentration at the AI site.

  9. Study on sulphide capacity of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-FetO slags


    The sulphide capacity of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-FetO slags was studied at 1773 K using gas-slag equilibrium techniques.Utilizing a Pt crucible, the slag was equilibrated with a mixture of gases, namely, CO, CO2, SO2 and N2 to provide the partial pressure of oxygen and sulphur. It was shown that at fixed FetO and Al2O3 contents and a fixed {(%CaO)+(%MgO)}/(%SiO2) ratio, the sulphide capacity decreases with increasing MgO content. At a constant (%CaO)/(%SiO2) ratio and constant MgO and Al2O3 contents, increasing the FetO content of the slags also results in an increase of the sulphide capacity. The rising basicity of (%CaO)/(%SiO2) from 1.0 to 1.4 at fixed MgO, FetO and Al2O3 contents significantly increases the sulphide capacity.

  10. Magnetic bioactive glass ceramic in the system CaO-P2O5-SiO2-MgO-CaF2-MnO2-Fe2O3 for hyperthermia treatment of bone tumor.

    Li, Guangda; Feng, Shuying; Zhou, Dali


    Magnetic bioactive glass ceramic (MG) in the system CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-MgO-CaF(2)-MnO(2)-Fe(2)O(3) for hyperthermia treatment of bone tumor was synthesized. The phase composition was investigated by XRD. The magnetic property was measured by VSM. The in vitro bioactivity was investigated by simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking experiment. Cell growth on the surface of the material was evaluated by co-culturing osteoblast-like ROS17/2.8 cells with materials for 7 days. The results showed that MG contained CaSiO(3) and Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)F as the main phases, and MnFe(2)O(4) and Fe(3)O(4) as the magnetic phases. Under a magnetic field of 10,000 Oe, the saturation magnetization and coercive force of MG were 6.4 emu/g and 198 Oe, respectively. After soaking in SBF for 14 days, hydroxyapatite containing CO(3)(2-) was observed on the surface of MG. The experiment of co-culturing cells with material showed that cells could successfully attach and well proliferate on MG.

  11. Effect of ZrO(2) additions on the crystallization, mechanical and biological properties of MgO-CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) bioactive glass-ceramics.

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Meng, X G; Chen, C Z


    A series of ZrO(2) doped MgO-CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) bioactive glass-ceramics were obtained by sintering method. The crystallization behavior, phase composition, morphology and structure of glass-ceramics were characterized. The bending strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, micro-hardness and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of glass-ceramics were investigated. The in vitro bioactivity and cytotoxicity tests were used to evaluate the bioactivity and biocompatibility of glass-ceramics. The sedimentation mechanism and growth process of apatites on sample surface were discussed. The results showed that the mainly crystalline phases of glass-ceramics were Ca(5)(PO4)3F (fluorapatite) and β-CaSiO(3). (β-wollastonite). m-ZrO(2) (monoclinic zirconia) declined the crystallization temperatures of glasses. t-ZrO(2) (tetragonal zirconia) increased the crystallization temperature of Ca(5)(PO4)(3)F and declined the crystallization temperature of β-CaSiO(3). t-ZrO(2) greatly increased the fracture toughness, bending strength and micro-hardness of glass-ceramics. The nanometer apatites were induced on the surface of glass-ceramic after soaking 28 days in SBF (simulated body fluid), indicating the glass-ceramic has good bioactivity. The in vitro cytotoxicity test demonstrated the glass-ceramic has no toxicity to cell.

  12. Local structure characterization and thermal properties of P2O5sbnd MgOsbnd Na2Osbnd Li2O glasses doped with SiO2

    Wu, Fengnian; Li, Sheng; Chang, Ziyuan; Liu, Hongting; Huang, Sanxi; Yue, Yunlong


    Pure and SiO2 doped P2O5sbnd MgOsbnd Na2Osbnd Li2O glass has been prepared by the traditional melt quenching and heat treatment techniques. Via X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, all the samples are proved to be amorphous. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and macroscopic observation show that all the samples are homogeneous glasses and no phase splitting phenomenon. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum shows that the amount of non-bridging oxygen decreases and the polymerization degree of the glass network structure increases after introducing SiO2 into glasses. Meanwhile, density and molar volume gradually decline with the increasing of SiO2. The glass transition (Tg) and the first crystallization temperature (Tc) indicates thermal stability increases in SiO2 added glasses.

  13. Effect of CeO2, MgO and Y2O3 additions on the sinterability of a milled Si3N4 with 14.5 wt% SiO2

    Arias, A.


    The sinterability of alpha Si3N4 with 0-5.07 equivalent per cent of CeO2, MgO, or Y2O3 has been studied in the temperature range 1650-1820 C by density measurements and X-ray diffraction analysis. Maximum densities were obtained in the range 1765-1820 C and were 99.6% of theoretical with 2.5% CeO2; 98.5% of theoretical with 1.24 to 1.87% MgO, and 99.2% of theoretical with 2.5% Y2O3. Densities 94% or more of theoretical value were obtained with as little as 0.62 equivalent per cent additive.

  14. Optical Properties of MgF2 / MgF2 / Glass and MgF2 / TiO2 / Glass

    S. Ghahramani


    Full Text Available MgF2 thin films by thickness of 93 nm were deposited on MgF2 / glass and TiO2 / glass thin layers by resistance evaporation method under ultra-high vacuum (UHV conditions, rotating pre layer for sample one and normal deposition for second one. Optical properties were measured via spectrophotometer in spectral range of 300-1100 nm wave length. The optical constants such as, real part of refractive index (n, imaginary part of refractive index (k, real and imaginary parts of dielectric function ε1, ε2 respectively and absorption coefficient (, were obtained from Kramers-Kronig analysis of reflectivity curves. Band-gap energy was also estimated for these films.

  15. SiO2@MgO nanoparticles templated mesoporous carbon with rich electro-active oxygenic functionalities and enhanced supercapacitive performances

    Tian, Zhengfang; Duan, Shuyi; Shen, Yu; Xie, Mingjiang; Guo, Xuefeng


    As a member of carbon-based materials, ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) still suffers from poor capacity for supercapacitive applications. Functionalization the skeleton with pseudocapacitive functionalities is an efficient way to enhance the capacity of OMCs. Herein, a designed SiO2@MgO nanoparticle with uniform diameters was employed as template towards the synthesis of pseudocapacitive oxygen functionalized OMC. The obtained carbons possess ordered mesoporous structure, large surface area, and rich pseudocapacitive oxygen species. As electrode for supercapacitor in 1.0 M H2SO4, the SiO2@MgO templated OMC achieves higher capacitance (257 F/g) than pure SiO2 templated OMC (180 F/g), surfactant templated OMC (152 F/g) and commercial activated carbon (110 F/g) owing to the high pseudocapacitive oxygen functionalities, providing more capacity by reversible Faradaic reaction.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and visible light photocatalytic activity of Mg2+ and Zr4+ co-doped TiO2 nanomaterial for degradation of methylene blue

    Desta Shumuye Meshesha


    Full Text Available Mg2+ and Zr4+ co-doped TiO2 was synthesized by sol–gel method. Catalysts were characterized by XRD, UV–vis DRS, SEM-EDX, TEM, BET, XPS and FT-IR to evaluate the crystal patterns and crystallite size (5.07–18.9 nm, bandgap energy, morphology, surface area, surface composition with oxidation states and incorporation of dopants into TiO2 lattice. Degradation of methylene blue was carried out under visible light irradiation by varying the reaction parameters such as initial dye concentration, catalyst loading and pH of the solution. 1.0 wt% Mg2+ and 0.25 wt% Zr4+ codoped TiO2 was found to be an efficient catalyst.

  17. Screening of MgO- and CeO2-Based Catalysts for Carbon Dioxide Oxidative Coupling of Methane to C2+ Hydrocarbons

    Istadi; Nor Aishah Saidina Amin


    The catalyst screening tests for carbon dioxide oxidative coupling of methane (CO2-OCM)have been investigated over ternary and binary metal oxide catalysts. The catalysts are prepared by doping MgO- and CeO2-based solids with oxides from alkali (Li2O), alkaline earth (CaO), and transition metal groups (WO3 or MnO). The presence of the peroxide (O22-) active sites on the Li2O2, revealed by Raman spectroscopy, may be the key factor in the enhanced performance of some of the Li2O/MgO catalysts.The high reducibility of the CeO2 catalyst, an important factor in the CO2-OCM catalyst activity, may be enhanced by the presence of manganese oxide species. The manganese oxide species increases oxygen mobility and oxygen vacancies in the CeO2 catalyst. Raman and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopies revealed the presence of lattice vibrations of metal-oxygen bondings and active sites in which the peaks corresponding to the bulk crystalline structures of Li2O, CaO, WO3 and MnO are detected. The performance of 5%MnO/15%CaO/CeO2 catalyst is the most potential among the CeO2-based catalysts,although lower than the 2%Li2O/MgO catalyst. The 2%Li2O/MgO catalyst showed the most promising C2+ hydrocarbons selectivity and yield at 98.0% and 5.7%, respectively.

  18. Prediction of a hexagonal SiO2 phase affecting stabilities of MgSiO3 and CaSiO3 at multimegabar pressures.

    Tsuchiya, Taku; Tsuchiya, Jun


    Ultrahigh-pressure phase relationship of SiO(2) silica in multimegabar pressure condition is still quite unclear. Here, we report a theoretical prediction on a previously uncharacterized stable structure of silica with an unexpected hexagonal Fe(2)P-type form. This phase, more stable than the cotunnite-type structure, a previously postulated postpyrite phase, was discovered to stabilize at 640 GPa through a careful structure search by means of ab initio density functional computations over various structure models. This is the first evidential result of the pressure-induced phase transition to the Fe(2)P-type structure among all dioxide compounds. The crystal structure consists of closely packed, fairly regular SiO(9) tricapped trigonal prisms with a significantly compact lattice. Additional investigation further elucidates large effects of this phase change in SiO(2) on the stability of MgSiO(3) and CaSiO(3) at multimegabar pressures. A postperovskite phase of MgSiO(3) breaks down at 1.04 TPa along an assumed adiabat of super-Earths and yields Fe(2)P-type SiO(2) and CsCl (B2)-type MgO. CaSiO(3) perovskite, on the other hand, directly dissociates into SiO(2) and metallic CaO, skipping a postperovskite polymorph. Predicted ultrahigh-pressure and temperature phase diagrams of SiO(2), MgSiO(3), and CaSiO(3) indicate that the Fe(2)P-type SiO(2) could be one of the dominant components in the deep mantles of terrestrial exoplanets and the cores of gas giants.

  19. Preparation and characterization of PEG–Mg(CH3COO)2–CeO2 composite polymer electrolytes for battery application

    Anji Reddy Polu; Ranveer Kumar


    Composite polymer electrolytes based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), magnesium acetate [Mg(CH3COO)2], and wt% of cerium oxide (CeO2) ceramic fillers (where = 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20, respectively) have been prepared using solution casting technique. X-ray diffraction patterns of PEG–Mg(CH3COO)2 with CeO2 ceramic filler indicated the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing concentration of the filler. DSC measurements of PEG–Mg(CH3COO)2-CeO2 composite polymer electrolyte system showed that the melting temperature is shifted towards the lower temperature with increase of the filler concentration. The conductivity results indicate that the incorporation of ceramic filler up to a certain concentration (i.e. 15 wt%) increases the ionic conductivity and upon further addition the conductivity decreases. The transference number data indicated the dominance of ion-type charge transport in these specimens. Using this (PEG–Mg(CH3COO)2-CeO2) (85-15-15) electrolyte, solid-state electrochemical cell was fabricated and their discharge profiles were studied under a constant load of 100 k.

  20. Influence of acid-base properties on the Lebedev ethanol-to-butadiene process catalyzed by SiO2-MgO materials

    Angelici, Carlo; Velthoen, Marjolein E. Z.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.


    The Lebedev ethanol-to-butadiene process entails a complex chain of reactions that require catalysts to possess a subtle balance in the number and strength of acidic and basic sites. SiO2-MgO materials can be excellent Lebedev catalysts if properly prepared, as catalyst performance has been found to

  1. Effects of MgO and TiO2 on the viscous behaviors and phase compositions of titanium-bearing slag

    Cong Feng; Man-sheng Chu; Jue Tang; Jin Qin; Feng Li; Zheng-gen Liu


    The effects of MgO and TiO2 on the viscosity, activation energy for viscous flow, and break-point temperature of titanium-bearing slag were studied. The correlation between viscosity and slag structure was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Subsequently, main phases in the slag and their content changes were investigated by X-ray diffraction and Factsage 6.4 software package. The results show that the viscosity decreases when the MgO content increases from 10.00wt%to 14.00wt%. Moreover, the break-point tem-perature increases, and the activation energy for viscous flow initially increases and subsequently decreases. In addition, with increasing TiO2 content from 5.00wt%to 9.00wt%, the viscosity decreases, and the break-point temperature and activation energy for viscous flow initially decrease and subsequently increase. FTIR analyses reveal that the polymerization degree of complex viscous units in titanium-bearing slag decreases with increasing MgO and TiO2 contents. The mechanism of viscosity variation was elucidated. The basic phase in experimental slags is melilite. Besides, as the MgO content increases, the amount of magnesia–alumina spinel in the slag increases. Similarly, the sum of pyroxene and perovskite phases in the slag increases with increasing TiO2 content.

  2. Formation of CaO·TiO2-MgO·Al2O3 dual phase inclusion in Ti stabilized stainless steel


    The formation of CaO.TiO2-MgO.Al2O3 dual phase inclusion in 321 stainless steel was investigated in the laboratory. The result indicated that the condition for the formation of CaO.TiO2-MgO.Al2O3 in 321 steel is [Ca]>0.001wt%, [Ti]>0.1wt%, and[Al]>0.01wt%. The mechanism is the following: Al2O3 inclusion turns into CaO-Al2O3 after Ca-Si wire is fed into the molten steel;[Mg] is then obtained by reducing MgO in slag or crucible wall by [Al] and [Ti]; finally CaO-Al2O3 inclusion is changed into CaO.TiO2-MgO-Al2O3 by the reaction with [Mg], [Ti], and [O] in the molten steel simultaneously.

  3. Building of CoFe2/CoFe2O4/MgO architectures: Structure, magnetism and surface functionalized by TiO2

    Wang, M.; Ma, Y. Q.; Sun, X.; Geng, B. Q.; Wu, M. Z.; Zheng, G. H.; Dai, Z. X.


    Well-dispersed uniform CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were prepared and then coated by MgO through thermal decomposition of a metal-organic salt in organic solvent. Then CoFe2O4/MgO were reduced in a H2/N2 mixture gas and subsequently oxidized in an ambient atmosphere in order to build CoFe2/CoFe2O4/MgO architectures with high magnetization, good chemical stability and dispersivity, which are useful in some practical applications. MgO can be dissolved by the HCl solution. The surfaces of CoFe2O4, CoFe2/MgO, CoFe2 and CoFe2/CoFe2O4 magnetic particles were functionalized by TiO2 to prepare the magnetically separable photocatalysts. The rattle-type particles were obtained without the assistance of template and etchant. The photocatalytic activity of these photocatalysts in degradation of methylene blue and the magnetic separability were investigated: The nanosheet-shaped TiO2 and rattle-type particles exhibited good photocatalytic performance; The highest degradation efficiency reaches 93% for the CoFe2/TiO2 sample which has the highest magnetization value of 42 emu/g, beneficial for the recovery of catalyst after degradation.

  4. Decaying shock studies of phase transitions in MgO-SiO2 systems: Implications for the super-Earths' interiors

    Bolis, R. M.; Morard, G.; Vinci, T.; Ravasio, A.; Bambrink, E.; Guarguaglini, M.; Koenig, M.; Musella, R.; Remus, F.; Bouchet, J.; Ozaki, N.; Miyanishi, K.; Sekine, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Sano, T.; Kodama, R.; Guyot, F.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.


    We report an experimental study of the phase diagrams of MgO, MgSiO3, and Mg2SiO4 at high pressures. We measured the shock compression response, including pressure-temperature Hugoniot curves of MgO, MgSiO3, and Mg2SiO4 between 0.2-1.2 TPa, 0.12-0.5 TPa, and 0.2-0.85 TPa, respectively, using laser-driven decaying shocks. A melting signature has been observed in MgO at 0.47 ± 0.04 TPa and 9860 ± 810 K, while no such phase changes were observed either in MgSiO3 or in Mg2SiO4. Increases of reflectivity of MgO, MgSiO3, and Mg2SiO4 liquids have been detected above 0.55 TPa (12760 K), 0.15 TPa (7540 K), 0.2 TPa (5800 K), respectively. In contrast to SiO2, melting and metallization of these compounds do not coincide, implying the presence of poorly electrically conducting liquids close to the melting lines. This has important implications for the generation of dynamos in super-Earth's mantles.

  5. MgO-SiO2-ZrO2-C系复合材料显微结构及其抗蚀性研究%The Microstructure and Corrosion Resistant of Corbon-Bonded Forsterito-zirconia Materials


    The forsterite-zirconia material have been produced from the zircon and magnesia, adding graphite, to produce a Mg2SiOZrO2-C. The microstructure and Mineral composition have been studied by means of microscope, SFM,X-ray, diffractometer and DTA. It is a nice refractories that the brick have densed structure, thermal stability, good thermal conductivity and wear-resistance, and good resistance to the corrosion by iron-oxide slay.%以锆英砂和电熔镁砂为原料,合成ZrO2增韧的镁橄榄石材料,进而加入鳞片状石墨,得到Mg2SiO4(-ZrO2)-C复合材料。用扫描电镜、X射线衍射仪、差热、红外光谱等手段研究了该材料的显微结构和矿物组成。表明该材料具有优异的高温强度、抗侵蚀性和热震稳定性,是一种新型耐火材料。

  6. Study on the water durability of zinc boro-phosphate glasses doped with MgO, Fe2O3, and TiO2

    Hwang, Moon Kyung; Ryu, Bong Ki


    The water durability of zinc boro-phosphate (PZB) glasses with the composition 60P2O5-20ZnO-20B2O3- xMeO ( x = 0, 2, 4, 6 and MeO = MgO, Fe2O3, or TiO2) (mol%) was measured, and PZB glass was studied in terms of its thermal properties, density, and FTIR characteristics. The surface conditions and corrosion byproducts were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. When MgO, Fe2O3, and TiO2 were doped into the PZB glass, Q2 was decreased and Q1 was increased in the phosphate structure, while the number of BO4 structures increased with increasing MeO content. The density of the PZB glass was increased by the addition of Fe2O3 and TiO2, while the glass transition temperature ( T g ) and dilatometric softening temperature ( T d ) were increased when additional MgO, Fe2O3, and TiO2 were added. From the weight loss analysis (95 ◦ C, 96 h), TiO2 doped glass showed the lowest weight loss (1.70 × 10 -3 g/cm2) while MgO doped glass showed the highest value (2.44 × 10 -3 g/cm2), compared with PZB glass (3.07 × 10 -3 g/cm2). These results were discussed in terms of the Me n+ ions in the glass structure, and their different coordination numbers and bonding strengths.

  7. Diagramas de equilibrio cuaternarios ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2-(CaO, MgO, TiO2). Una poderosa herramienta para el desarrollo de nuevos materiales por sinterización reactiva

    Moya, J. S.; Bartolomé, J. F.; Peña, P.


    En este articulo se exponen, discuten y evalúan los trabajos que sobre materiales de Mullita-Circona obtenidos por sinterización reactiva dirigió e inspiro Salvador de Aza sobre la base de los diagramas de equilibrio de fase multicomponentes ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2-(CaO, MgO, TiO2). Se analiza su impacto en distintas áreas de la ciencia y tecnología cerámicas tales como chamotas refractarias, industria del aluminio, etc. También se proponen posibles campos de aplicación futura como es el ...

  8. MgO-TiO2-Al2O3系原料在无铬耐火材料中的应用%The Application of MgO - TiO2 - Al2O3 Aggregates for Chrome Free Refractories

    高宏适; 全荣



  9. Synergy Effects of the Mixture of Bismuth Molybdate Catalysts with SnO2/ZrO2/MgO in Selective Propene Oxidation and the Connection between Conductivity and Catalytic Activity

    Le, Minh Thang; Do, Van Hung; Truong, Duc Duc


    Bismuth molybdate catalysts have been used for partial oxidation and ammoxidation of light hydrocarbons since the 1950s. In particular, there is the synergy effect (the enhancement of the catalytic activity in the catalysts mixed from different components) in different phases of bismuth molybdate...... catalysts which has been observed and studied since the 1980s; however, despite it being interpreted differently by different research groups, there is still no decisive conclusion on the origin of the synergy effect that has been obtained. The starting idea of this work is to find an answer...... for the question: does the electrical conductivity influence the catalytic activity (which has been previously proposed by some authors). In this work, highly conductive materials (SnO2, ZrO2) and nonconductive materials (MgO) are added to beta bismuth molybdates (beta-Bi2Mo2O9) using mechanical mixing...

  10. Synthesis and optical properties of SiO$_2$–Al$_2$O$_3$–MgO–K$_2$CO$_3$–CaO–MgF$_2$–La$_2$O$_3$ glasses



    A series of five glass compositions were prepared by using the conventional melt quenching technique in the system SiO$_2$–Al$_2$O$_3$–MgO–K$_2$CO$_3$–CaO–MgF$_2$–La$_2$O$_3$ with different contents of SiO$_2$, MgO, K$_2$CO$_3$, MgF$_2$ and La$_2$O$_3$. The effects on the optical and physical properties of these glasses due to the addition of La$_2$O$_3$ as well as variation of the various oxides have been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis is used to confirm the amorphous nature of the prepared glasses. Structures of glasses were studied by using UV–Vis and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The drilling test was also performed on their glass ceramic samples to confirm the machinability.

  11. MgO-hybridized TiO2 interfacial layers assisting efficiency enhancement of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    Sakai, Nobuya; Ikegami, Masashi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu


    Interfacial modification of a thin TiO2 compact layer (T-CL) by hybridization with MgO enhanced the quantum conversion efficiency of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs) comprising a multilayer structure of transparent electrode/T-CL/dye-sensitized mesoporous TiO2/hole conductor/metal counter electrode. The Mg(CH3COO)2 treatment was employed to introduce a MgO-TiO2 CL (T/M-CL), which enhanced the physical connection and conduction between the CL and mesoporous semiconductor layer as a consecutive interface, owing to the dehydration reaction of Mg(CH3COO)2. The photocurrent density of ssDSSC was increased 33% by the T/M-CL compared with the T-CL, using an equivalent amount of adsorbed dye. The ssDSSC with the T/M-CL yielded the highest efficiency of 4.02% under irradiation at 100 mW cm-2. The electrical impedance spectroscopy showed that the charge-transfer resistance (Rct) of the photoelectrode with T/M-CL was reduced by 300 Ω from the reference non-treated T-CL electrode. Characterized by the intrinsically low Rct of the compact layer, the T/M-CL is capable of improving the photovoltaic performance of solid-state sensitized mesoscopic solar cells.

  12. Characterization of Y2O2S:Eu3+, Mg2+, Ti4+ Long-Lasting Phosphor Synthesized by Flux Method


    Long-lasting phosphor Y2O2S∶Eu3+, Mg2+, Ti4+ was synthesized by a flux method and their luminescence properties were investigated. The result indicates that the unit cell parameter c is linearly increased with the increase of Eu2O3 content in Y2O2S∶Eu3+x(0.01≤x≤0.10). On the other hand, the change of unit cell parameter a is not linear dependence. In the Y2O2S∶ Eu3+ crystal structure, Eu3+ ions only replaced Y3+ ions′ places in which it posited center position of c axis. With the increase of Eu2O3 content, the position of the strongest emission peak changed from 540 nm (5D1→7F2 transition) to 626 nm (5D0→7F2 transition), and the maximum intensity was obtained when x=0.09 in Y2O2S∶Eu3+x(0.01≤x≤0.10). This is due to the environment of trivalent europium in the crystal structure of Y2O2S. Doping with Mg2+ or Ti4+ ions alone cannot get the good long-lasting afterglow effect, whereas co-doping with Mg2+ and Ti4+ ions and excited with 365 nm ultraviolet light, a strong thermoluminesence peak appeared, red and orange long-lasting phosphorescence (LLP) was also observed and the phosphorescence lasted nearly 3 h in the light perception of the dark-adapted human eye (0.32 mcd*m-2). Thus the LLP mechanism was analyzed.

  13. Study on the coating of nano-scale SiO2 film on the surface of nanocrystalline Mg-Al layered double hydroxides

    ZHANG Zejiang; MEI Xiujuan; XU Chenghua; QIU Fali


    The coating process of a nano-scale SiO2 film on the nanocrystalline Mg-Al layered double hydroxides via a sol-gel process was investigated. The uniform and dense SiO2 film with a thickness of about 5 nm on the nano-LDHs particles was characterized by the solubility test in the dilute HNO3 or HCl acid, TEM and FT-IR, XRD, TG and DSC. The chemical shifts of binding energies of Al 2p, Mg 2p, Si 2s and O 1s on the coated particles indicate that the coating of the SiO2 nano-film on the surface of the nano-LDHs proceeds through the formation of Mg-O-Si and Al-O-Si bonds. The thermal analysis shows that both the SiO2-coated nano-LDHs and the nano-LDHs have a similar mass loss process, in which there are three obvious stages of mass loss in the temperature range of 40-700℃. Furthermore, the more the coated amount of SiO2 on the surface of the nano-LDHs is, the less the mass loss of the samples is at 700℃.The nano- LDHs have two obvious endothermic peaks at 244.67℃ and 430.13℃, whose corresponding heat absorption capacities are 412.28 J/g and 336.30 J/g, respectively. In contrast, the coated nano-LDHs have only one endothermic peak at 243.60℃ with a heat absorption capacity of 221.25 J/g.

  14. Thermodynamics Behavior of Germanium During Equilibrium Reactions between FeOx-CaO-SiO2-MgO Slag and Molten Copper

    Shuva, M. A. H.; Rhamdhani, M. A.; Brooks, G. A.; Masood, S.; Reuter, M. A.


    The distribution ratio of germanium (Ge), L_{{Ge}}^{s/m} during equilibrium reactions between magnesia-saturated FeOx-CaO-SiO2 (FCS) slag and molten copper has been measured under oxygen partial pressures from 10-10 to 10-7 atm and at temperatures 1473 to 1623 K (1200 to 1350 °C). It was observed that the Ge distribution ratio increases with increasing oxygen partial pressure, and with decreasing temperature. It was also observed that the distribution ratio is strongly dependent on slag basicity. The distribution ratio was observed to increase with increasing optical basicity. At fixed CaO concentration in the slag, the distribution ratio was found to increase with increasing Fe/SiO2 ratio, tending to a plateau at L_{{Ge}}^{s/m} = 0.8. This behavior is consistent with the assessment of ionic bond fraction carried out in this study, and suggested the acidic nature of germanium oxide (GeO2) in the slag system studied. The characterisation results of the quenched slag suggested that Ge is present in the FeOx-CaO-SiO2-MgO slag predominantly as GeO2. At 1573 K (1300 °C) and p_{{{{O}}2 }} = 10-8 atm, the activity coefficient of GeO2 in the slag was calculated to be in the range of 0.24 to 1.50. The results from the current study suggested that less-basic slag, high operating temperature, and low oxygen partial pressure promote a low Ge distribution ratio. These conditions are desired for maximizing Ge recovery, for example, during pyrometallurgical processing of Ge-containing e-waste through secondary copper smelting. Overall, the thermodynamics data generated from this study can be used for process modeling purposes for improving recovery of Ge in primary and secondary copper smelting processes.

  15. Combustion Synthesis of TiB2 Ceramics Powder from B2O3-TiO2-Mg System in Air Atmosphere

    HE Jinyun; WANG Weimin; FU Zhengyi; SUN Hui


    TiB2 ceramics powder was synthesized from B2O3-TiO2-Mg system. The effects of TiB2 addition as diluent on the combustion synthesis process were investigated. The results of thermodynamic calculation and experiments show that the increase of TiB2 content ranging from 0 to 20wt% can reduce the adiabatic temperature Tad from 3100 K to 2896 K and combustion temperature Tc from 2139 K to 1621 K respectively. The particle size and half width of the particle distribution are also increased with the addition of TiB2 increasing from 0 to 20wt%. The combustion product is a mixture of TiB2, MgO, and other intermediate phases. The leached product contains mainly TiB2, TiO2 and TiN, and its oxygen content is 7.77wt%.

  16. Low temperature biosynthesis of Li2O-MgO-P2O5-TiO2 nanocrystalline glass with mesoporous structure exhibiting fast lithium ion conduction.

    Du, Xiaoyong; He, Wen; Zhang, Xudong; Ma, Jinyun; Wang, Chonghai; Li, Chuanshan; Yue, Yuanzheng


    We demonstrate a biomimetic synthesis methodology that allows us to create Li2O-MgO-P2O5-TiO2 nanocrystalline glass with mesoporous structure at lower temperature. We design a 'nanocrystal-glass' configuration to build a nanoarchitecture by means of yeast cell templates self-assembly followed by the controlled in-situ biomineralization of materials on the cell wall. Electrochemically active nanocrystals are used as the lamellar building blocks of mesopores, and the semiconductive glass phase can act both as the 'glue' between nanocrystals and functionalized component. The Li2O-MgO-P2O5-TiO2 nanocrystalline glass exhibits outstanding thermal stability, high conductivity and wide potential window. This approach could be applied to many other multicomponent glass-ceramics to fabricate mesoporous conducting materials for solid-state lithium batteries.

  17. Diagramas de equilibrio cuaternarios ZrO2-Al2O 3-SiO 2- (CaO, MgO, TiO2. Una poderosa herramienta para el desarrollo de nuevos materiales por sinterización reactiva

    Pena, P.


    Full Text Available In this paper we set out, discuss and evaluate the work on Mullite-zirconia composites obtained by reaction sintering led and inspired by Salvador de Aza on the basis of ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2(CaO, MgO, TiO2 multicomponent phase equilibrium diagrams. We analyze their impact on different areas of ceramic science and technology such as refractory grogs, aluminum industry, etc. The possible fields of future applications such as dental prosthesis replacing partially stabilized zirconia materials with rare earths are also reported.En este articulo se exponen, discuten y evalúan los trabajos que sobre materiales de Mullita-Circona obtenidos por sinterización reactiva dirigió e inspiro Salvador de Aza sobre la base de los diagramas de equilibrio de fase multicomponentes ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2-(CaO, MgO, TiO2. Se analiza su impacto en distintas áreas de la ciencia y tecnología cerámicas tales como chamotas refractarias, industria del aluminio, etc. También se proponen posibles campos de aplicación futura como es el caso de prótesis dentales sustituyendo a los materiales de circona parcialmente estabilizada con tierras raras.

  18. Effect of Rare Earth Oxides on the Microstructure and Microwave Dielectric Properties of CaO-MgO-Nb2O5-TiO2 System Ceramics

    WANG Hao; CHEN Wen; LIU Tao


    La2 O3 and SrO-doped CaO-MgO-Nb2 O5-TiO2 system ceramics were prepared by solid-state ceramic technique. The microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of CaO-MgO-Nb2 O5 -TiO2-La2 O3 ceramics can be adjusted by varying the amount of La3+ or Sr2+ ions respectively. The replacement of Ca2+ by La3+ at A-site of the ceramics increases the quality factor Q value ( at 7.6 GHz) as well as the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency τfand decreases the dielectric constant εr and the substitution of Sr2+ at A-site in this ceramics system exhibits opposite characteristics. The microwave properties of La3+ , Sr2+ -doped CaO-MgO-Nb2 O5 - TiO2 system ceramics depend on the degree of octahedral distortion inside materials .

  19. Understanding In Vivo Response and Mechanical Property Variation in MgO, SrO and SiO2 doped β-TCP

    Bose, Susmita; Tarafder, Solaiman; Banerjee, Shashwat S.; Davies, Neal M.; Bandyopadhyay, Amit


    The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of MgO, SrO and SiO2 doping on mechanical and biological properties of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) to achieve controlled resorption kinetics of β-TCP system for maxillofacial and spinal fusion application. We prepared dense TCP compacts of four different compositions, i) pure β-TCP, ii) β-TCP with 1.0 wt. % MgO + 1.0 wt. % SrO, iii) β-TCP with 1.0 wt. % SrO + 0.5 wt. % SiO2, and iv) β-TCP with 1.0 wt. % MgO + 1.0 wt. % SrO + 0.5 wt. % SiO2, by uniaxial pressing and sintering at 1250 °C. β phase stability is observed at 1250 °C sintering temperature due to MgO doping in β-TCP. In vitro mineralization in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 16 weeks shows excellent apatite growth on undoped and doped samples. Strength degradation of TCP samples in SBF is significantly influenced by both dopant chemistry and amount of dopant. Compressive strengths for all samples show degradation in SBF over the 16 week time period with varying degradation kinetics. MgO/SrO/SiO2 doped sample shows no strength loss, while undoped TCP shows the maximum strength loss from 419 ±28 MPa to 158 ±28 MPa over the 16 week study. In case of MgO/SrO doped TCP, strength loss is slow and gradual. TCP doped with 1.0 wt. % MgO and 1.0 wt. % SrO shows excellent in vivo biocompatibility when tested in male Sprague-Dawley rats for 16 weeks. Histomorphology analysis reveals that MgO/SrO doped TCP promoted osteogenesis by excellent early stage bone remodeling as compared to undoped TCP. PMID:21419884

  20. Effects of SiO2, SrO, MgO and ZnO dopants in TCP on osteoblastic Runx2 expression

    Fielding, Gary A.; Smoot, Will; Bose, Susmita


    Calcium phosphate materials share a compositional similarity to natural bone which makes them excellent for use in orthopedic applications. Although these materials are osteoconductive, they lack strong osteoinductive capabilities and recent research has focused on the addition of biologics and pharmacologics with varying successes. In this study, trace elements that have been proven to play important roles in bone health and bone formation were incorporated into β-tricalcium phosphate compacts in their oxide forms (SiO2, ZnO, SrO, and MgO). Cell material interactions were characterized using human fetal preosteoblastic cells. An MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay was used to evaluate cellular proliferation. Cellular differentiation was evaluated using an enzymatic colorimetric alkaline phosphatase assay as well as immunohistochemistry for Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) expression. Results prove ZnO and MgO to be effective mitogenic factors and SiO2, ZnO and SrO to be capable of inducing rapid cellular differentiation. MgO was found to have little effect on the modulation of osteoblastic differentiation, likely due to more aggressive inherent cellular regulation of Mg2+. In addition to the results from the study, a signaling mechanism is proposed as to the action of the dopants for further consideration. PMID:23946240

  1. Effects of SiO2, SrO, MgO, and ZnO dopants in tricalcium phosphates on osteoblastic Runx2 expression.

    Fielding, Gary A; Smoot, Will; Bose, Susmita


    Calcium phosphate materials share a compositional similarity to natural bone, which makes them excellent for use in orthopedic applications. Although these materials are osteoconductive, they lack strong osteoinductive capabilities and recent research has focused on the addition of biologics and pharmacologics with varying successes. In this study, trace elements that have been proven to play important roles in bone health and bone formation were incorporated into β-tricalcium phosphate compacts in their oxide forms (SiO2, ZnO, SrO, and MgO). Cell material interactions were characterized using human fetal preosteoblastic cells. An MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay was used to evaluate cellular proliferation. Cellular differentiation was evaluated using an enzymatic colorimetric alkaline phosphatase assay as well as immunohistochemistry for Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) expression. Results prove ZnO and MgO to be effective mitogenic factors and SiO2, ZnO, and SrO to be capable of inducing rapid cellular differentiation. MgO was found to have little effect on the modulation of osteoblastic differentiation, likely due to more aggressive inherent cellular regulation of Mg(2+). In addition to the results from the study, a signaling mechanism is proposed as to the action of the dopants for further consideration. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Surface Crystallization of a MgO/Y2O3/SiO2/Al2O3/ZrO2 Glass: Growth of an Oriented β-Y2Si2O7 Layer and Epitaxial ZrO2

    Wisniewski, Wolfgang; Seidel, Sabrina; Patzig, Christian; Rüssel, Christian


    The crystallization behavior of a glass with the composition 54.7 SiO2·10.9 Al2O3·15.0 MgO·3.4 ZrO2·16.0 Y2O3 is studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) including electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and (scanning) transmission electron microscopy [(S)TEM] including energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS). This glass shows the sole surface crystallization of four different yttrium silicates of the composition Y2Si2O7 (YS). The almost simultaneous but independent nucleation of α-, β-, δ-, and ε-YS at the surface is followed by growth into the bulk, where ε-YS quickly dominates a first crystallized layer. An accumulation of Mg at the growth front probably triggers a secondary nucleation of β-YS, which forms a thin compact layer before fragmenting into a highly oriented layer of fine grained crystals occupying the remaining bulk. The residual glass between the YS growth structures allows the crystallization of indialite, yttrium stabilized ZrO2 (Y-ZrO2) and very probably μ-cordierite during cooling. Hence, this glass basically shows the inverted order of crystallization observed in other magnesium yttrium alumosilicate glasses containing less Y2O3. An epitaxial relationship between Y-ZrO2 and ε-YS is proven and multiple twinning relationships occur in the YS phases.

  3. 从相图讨论MgO-CaO-ZrO2耐火材料抗炉外精炼渣与水泥的侵蚀%Discussion on corrosion resistances of MgO -CaO -ZrO2 refractories to secondary refining slag and cement from phase diagrams




  4. The effect of CaF2 on thermodynamics of CaO-CaF2-SiO2(-MgO) slags

    Choi, Chul-Hwan; Jo, Sung-Koo; Kim, Seon-Hyo; Lee, Kwang-Ro; Kim, Jeong-Tae


    To address the role of CaF2 in the CaO-CaF2-SiO2(-MgO) slag system employed for the production of low-pressure rotor steels, the thermodynamic aspects of the slag were investigated by equilibrating it with liquid iron at 1873 K in CaO or MgO crucibles. Presaturation of slag with an oxide block piece of CaO or MgO in a Pt crucible and application of a carbon paste to the outside of an oxide crucible were designed to prevent crucible failure during the slag-metal experiments. The liquidus isotherm and phase boundary of the preceding slag system were investigated using the slag-metal equilibria. Also, the effect of CaF2 on the sulfide capacity and the activity coefficient of Fe t O were of particular interest in controlling the sulfur level and cleanliness of low-pressure rotor steels.

  5. Chemically anchoring of TiO2 coating on OH-terminated Mg3(PO3)2 surface and its influence on the in vitro degradation resistance of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy

    Cao, Guoqin; Wang, Lijie; Fu, Zhenya; Hu, Junhua; Guan, Shaokang; Zhang, Caili; Wang, Liguo; Zhu, Shijie


    Surface treatment is of particular interest to slow down the in vitro degradation of Mg-based implants. In this work, micro arc oxidation (MAO) coating was fabricated on Mg-Zn-Ca alloy which has been developed by our group especially for the application of bio-implants. Evident improvement in corrosion resistance was obtained although the MAO coating was porous. In order to further diminish the contact with SBF, a composite coating was prepared by introducing a TiO2 layer by liquid phase deposition (LPD) method on the MAO pre-treated alloy. The coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results of the potentiodynamic polarization experiments showed that, compared with the bare alloy, the corrosion potential of TiO2/MAO/alloy increased from -1.771 to -1.607 V. At the same time, the corrosion current density decreased from 1.43 × 10-4 A cm-2 to 5.69 × 10-7 A cm-2. The improvement of degradation resistance in SBF was ascribed to both barrier effect and enhanced interface condition. The OH-terminated MAO layer surface can make the TiO2 layer anchor tightly on the MOA surface. The chemical bonding of composite layer induced by Mg2+ cations bridges was also analyzed.

  6. Agglomeration Control of Ultrafine Y2 O3-ZrO2 and (MgO, Y2 O3)-ZrO2 Powders Synthesized by Coprecipitation Process

    MA Yalu; ZHANG Yu; ZHENG Junping


    Chemical coprecipitation was used to produce ultrafine and easily sinterable Y2O3-stabilized and (Y2O3,MgO)-stabilized ZrO2 powders. Six precipitation processes for preparation of ZrO2-based ultrafine powders were designed separately, meanwhile different techniques used to control the agglomeration formation were proposed. By means of TEM, SEM, Raman spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy, the mechanisms of agglomeration control in the precipitation processes and post-precipitation and drying process were investigated. The experimental results show that adding appropriate anion surface active agents (such as PAA1460) or polymer (PEG1540 matching with PEG200) in aqueous solution systems during precipitation processes could reinforce charge effect and location effect for gel particles interface. Adding wetting agents to wet gels washing with distilled water during drying process could change interface structure of gel particles and decrease surface tension between gel particles. The agglomeration control in the precipitation, post-precipitation and drying processes had remarkable influence on the characteristics of powders. By adding various macromolecules in the processes, the agglomeration state could be controlled efficiently, and the characteristics of powders were improved.

  7. Towards scalable binderless electrodes: carbon coated silicon nanofiber paper via Mg reduction of electrospun SiO2 nanofibers.

    Favors, Zachary; Bay, Hamed Hosseini; Mutlu, Zafer; Ahmed, Kazi; Ionescu, Robert; Ye, Rachel; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S


    The need for more energy dense and scalable Li-ion battery electrodes has become increasingly pressing with the ushering in of more powerful portable electronics and electric vehicles (EVs) requiring substantially longer range capabilities. Herein, we report on the first synthesis of nano-silicon paper electrodes synthesized via magnesiothermic reduction of electrospun SiO2 nanofiber paper produced by an in situ acid catalyzed polymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in-flight. Free-standing carbon-coated Si nanofiber binderless electrodes produce a capacity of 802 mAh g(-1) after 659 cycles with a Coulombic efficiency of 99.9%, which outperforms conventionally used slurry-prepared graphite anodes by over two times on an active material basis. Silicon nanofiber paper anodes offer a completely binder-free and Cu current collector-free approach to electrode fabrication with a silicon weight percent in excess of 80%. The absence of conductive powder additives, metallic current collectors, and polymer binders in addition to the high weight percent silicon all contribute to significantly increasing capacity at the cell level.

  8. Towards Scalable Binderless Electrodes: Carbon Coated Silicon Nanofiber Paper via Mg Reduction of Electrospun SiO2 Nanofibers

    Favors, Zachary; Bay, Hamed Hosseini; Mutlu, Zafer; Ahmed, Kazi; Ionescu, Robert; Ye, Rachel; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.


    The need for more energy dense and scalable Li-ion battery electrodes has become increasingly pressing with the ushering in of more powerful portable electronics and electric vehicles (EVs) requiring substantially longer range capabilities. Herein, we report on the first synthesis of nano-silicon paper electrodes synthesized via magnesiothermic reduction of electrospun SiO2 nanofiber paper produced by an in situ acid catalyzed polymerization of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in-flight. Free-standing carbon-coated Si nanofiber binderless electrodes produce a capacity of 802 mAh g-1 after 659 cycles with a Coulombic efficiency of 99.9%, which outperforms conventionally used slurry-prepared graphite anodes by over two times on an active material basis. Silicon nanofiber paper anodes offer a completely binder-free and Cu current collector-free approach to electrode fabrication with a silicon weight percent in excess of 80%. The absence of conductive powder additives, metallic current collectors, and polymer binders in addition to the high weight percent silicon all contribute to significantly increasing capacity at the cell level.

  9. Properties of the ZrO2MgO/MgZrO3NiCr/NiCr triple-layer thermal barrier coating deposited by the atmospheric plasma spray process

    Mihailo R. Mrdak


    This paper presents the results of the examinations of TBC - ZrO2MgO / MgZrO3NiCr / NiCr thermal barrier layers deposited by the plasma spray process at the atmospheric pressure on substrates of Al alloys. In order to obtain the structural and mechanical properties of layers, which will provide a good heat and abrasion protection of the tail elevators of aircraft J-22 when firing '.Lightning' and 'Thunder' rockets, the deposition of three powder types was performed on 0.6 mm thick Al alloy su...

  10. Novel Flower-Like Ag-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 Material: Preparation, Characterization and Catalytic Application in Methanol Dehydrogenation

    LI,Jing-Xia; REN,Li-Ping; DAI,Wei-Lin; CAO,Yong; FAN,Kang-Nian


    Catalytic direct dehydrogenation of methanol to formaldehyde was carried out over Ag-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 catalysts prepared by sol-gel method.The optimal preparation mass fractions were determined as 8.3% MgO,16.5% Al2O3 and 20% silver loading.Using this optimum catalyst,excellent activity and selectivity were obtained.The conversion of methanol and the selectivity to formaldehyde both reached 100%,which were much higher than other previously reported silver supported catalysts.Based on combined characterizations,such as X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electronic microscopy (SEM),diffuse reflectance ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis,DRS),nitrogen adsorption at low temperature,temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (NH3-TPD),desorption of CO2 (CO2-TPD),etc.,the correlation of the catalytic performance to the structural properties of the Ag-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 catalyst was discussed in detail.This perfect catalytic performance in the direct dehydrogenation of methanol to formaldehyde without any side-products is attributed to its unique flower-like structure with a surface area less than 1 m2/g,and the strong interactions between neutralized support and the nano-sized Ag particles as active centers.

  11. The synergistic effect of catalysts on hydrogen desorption properties of MgH2–TiO2–NiO nanocomposite

    Farshad Rajabpour


    Full Text Available Abstract The high desorption temperature and slow desorption kinetics of MgH2 makes it less competitive for future mobile applications; using a catalyst accompanied by mechanical milling seems to be a good solution to overcome those problems. Therefore, the addition of TiO2 and NiO to MgH2 accompanied by 15 h of mechanical milling was considered in this study. The phase constituent and hydrogen desorption of the powder mixture were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD and a Sievert-type apparatus, respectively. XRD results showed that after milling, no binary or ternary compounds were formed, but hydrogen desorption time decreased and the desorbed hydrogen content increased. It seems that the increase in desorbed hydrogen was related to the simultaneous catalytic effect of TiO2 and NiO as well as mechanical milling. The results showed that the addition of both catalysts can improve the hydrogen desorption behavior of MgH2-based nanocomposite compared to the addition of only one catalyst of the same amount.

  12. Evolution of reduced Ti containing phase(s) in MgH2/TiO2 system and its effect on the hydrogen storage behavior of MgH2

    Pukazhselvan, D.; Nasani, Narendar; Correia, Pedro; Carbó-Argibay, Enrique; Otero-Irurueta, Gonzalo; Stroppa, Daniel G.; Fagg, Duncan Paul


    The present study aims to consolidate information regarding the catalytic reaction mechanism of MgH2/TiO2 hydrogen storage system. Reduction of titania, resulting to evolution of a monoxide rock salt nanocrystalline phase was identified by in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) study of a 3 mol% TiO2 additive mixed MgH2. Existence of homogeneously distributed Ti in a crystalline rock salt matrix was confirmed by combined analysis of X - ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and elemental chemical mapping techniques. Moreover, titanium in Ti3+ and Ti2+ valance states was confirmed by X - ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study proves that the reduced Ti oxide phases promote the low temperature dehydrogenation of MgH2. The present observations reiterate that the MgO rock salt layer existing in oxide additives loaded MgH2 is not necessarily a barrier layer that blocks the diffusion of hydrogen.

  13. [Effect of temperature on the structure of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 nanocrystalline glass-ceramics studied by Raman spectroscopy].

    Li, Bao-Wei; Ouyang, Shun-Li; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Jia, Xiao-Lin; Deng, Lei-Bo; Liu, Fang


    In the present paper, nanocrystalline glass-ceramic of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system was produced by melting method. The CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 nanocrystalline glass-ceramic was measured by Raman spectroscopy in the temperature range from -190 to 310 degrees C in order to study the effect of temperature on the structure of this system nanocrystalline glass-ceramics. The results showed that different non-bridge oxygen bond silicon-oxygen tetrahedron structural unit changes are not consistent with rising temperature. Further analyses indicated that: the SiO4 tetrahedron with 2 non-bridged oxygen (Q2), the SiO4 tetrahedron with 3 non-bridged oxygen (Q(1)), which are situated at the edge of the 3-D SiO4 tetrahedrons network, and the SiO4 tetrahedron with 4 non-bridged oxygen (Q(0)), which is situated outside the 3-D network all suffered a significant influence by the temperature change, which has been expressed as: shifts towards the high wave-number, increased bond force constants, and shortened bond lengths. This paper studied the influence of temperature on CMAS system nanocrystalline glass-ceramics using variable temperature Raman technology. It provides experiment basis to the research on external environment influence on CMAS system nanocrystalline glass-ceramics materials in terms of structure and performance. In addition, the research provides experimental basis for controlling the expansion coefficient of nanocrystalline glass-ceramic of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system.

  14. Temperature dependence of the momentum distribution of positronium in MgF2, SiO2, and H2O

    Nagai, Y.; Kakimoto, M.; Hyodo, T.;


    Temperature dependence of the momentum distribution of delocalized Bloch-positronium in solids is studied. The momentum distribution of the positronium, which is proportional to the energy integration of the spectral function weighted with the Bose distribution, is expressed in terms...... of the effective mass and the deformation potential of the crystal for positronium. A simple formula for the shape of the positronium peak in the 1D-ACAR spectrum is derived and applied to the analysis of the experimental data for MgF2, SiO2, and H2O in wide temperature ranges. An extraordinary broadening...

  15. Performance of B-Mg Co-doped LiCoO2 for Li-ion Batteries%B-Mg共掺杂LiCoO2正极材料的性能研究

    曹景超; 肖可颂; 姜锋; 习小明; 何杜


    Cathode material of LiCo1-2yMgyByO2 was prepared at high temperature with Co3O4, Li2CO3, Mg(OH)2 and H3 BO3 as starting materials mixed at a stoichiometric ratio. The morphology, structure and Li+ diffusion coefficient were characterized by SEM, XRD and GITT, respectively. The electrochemical performance of the material assembled into CR2016 button cell was tested by using LAND tester. The results show that the LiCo0.98Mg0.01B0.01O2 cathode exhibits an initial discharge capacity of 190 mAh/g at 0.2C and 3.0~4.5 V and a retention of 88.6% after 100 cycles.%采用Co3 O4为钴源,Li2 CO3为锂源,Mg( OH)2和H3 BO3分别为镁源和硼源,按照化学计量比称取各原料并混合均匀后在高温条件下合成LiCo1-2y Mgy By O2正极材料。采用扫描电镜( SEM)、X射线衍射( XRD)和恒电流间歇滴定( GITT)分别表征了样品的形貌、结构和锂离子扩散系数。将材料组装成CR2016型扣式电池,采用LAND测试仪进行电化学性能测试,结果表明,当掺杂的摩尔总量为2.0%时,材料在3.0~4.5 V范围内以0.2C充放电首次放电比容量达到190 mAh/g,循环100次后容量保持率为88.6%。

  16. Leonardsenite, MgAlF5(H2O)(2), a new mineral species from Eldfell Volcano, Heimaey Island, Iceland

    Mitolo, Donatella; Garavelli, Anna; Zunic, Tonci Balic


    is white and the luster is earthy. The calculated density is 2.31 g cm(-3). Leonardsenite is orthorhombic, space group Imma; the lattice parameters, obtained from Rietveld refinement of the XRPD data, are: a 7.055(1) A, b 10.117(2) angstrom, c 6.813(1) angstrom, V 486.3(1) angstrom(3), and Z = 4. The eight...... microscope produced a mean elemental composition as follows (wt.: Mg 14.66, Al 16.16, F 52.98, 0 15.88, H 1.78, total 101.46. The corresponding empirical formula, calculated on the basis of 2 cations pfu, is Mgi.00Ali 004.64(011)0.361E5.00(1420)1 29. On the basis of chemical analyses and X-ray diffraction...

  17. Formation Mechanism of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-(MgO) Inclusions in Si-Mn-Killed Steel with Limited Aluminum Content During the Low Basicity Slag Refining

    Wang, Kunpeng; Jiang, Min; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Haoqian; Cao, Zhanmin


    Pilot trails were carried out to study the formation mechanism of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-(MgO) inclusions in tire cord steel. 48 samples were taken from 8 heats of liquid steel during secondary refining, which were subsequently examined by an automatic scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). Characteristics of thousands of oxide inclusions at different refining stages were obtained, including their compositions, sizes, morphologies, etc. Based on the obtained information of inclusions, details during formation of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-(MgO) inclusions were revealed and a new mechanism was proposed, including their origin, formation, and evolution during the refining process. It was found that CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-(MgO) inclusions were initially originated from the CaO-SiO2-MnO-(MgO) inclusions, which were formed during BOF tapping by the coalescence between MnO-SiO2 deoxidation products and the emulsified slag particles because of violent flow of steel. This can be well confirmed by the evaluation of the formation thermodynamics of CaO-SiO2-MnO-(MgO) inclusions, which was proved very difficult to be produced by intrinsic reactions inside liquid steel. Because of chemical reactions between CaO-SiO2-MnO-(MgO) inclusions and molten steel, they were mainly changed into CaO-SiO2-MnO-Al2O3-(MgO) and partially into CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-(MgO), which may be detrimental to the cold drawing ability of coils. Based on this finding, improvements were made in industrial production during BOF tapping and secondary refining. The results indicated that such (CaO-SiO2)-based inclusions existed in conventional process were effectively decreased after the improvements.

  18. An Investigation into the Corrosion Behavior of MgO/ZrO2 Nanocomposite Coatings Prepared by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation on the AZ91 Magnesium Alloy

    Eslamzadeh, Nasrollah; Ebrahimi-Kahrizsangi, Reza; Karbasi, Saeed; Zarebidaki, Arman; Gharavi, Farhad


    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of AZ91 Mg alloys was performed in ZrO2 nanoparticles containing Na2SiO3-based electrolytes. The phase composition and the microstructure of PEO coatings were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy followed by energy dispersive spectroscopy. Pitting corrosion properties of the coatings were investigated using cyclic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests in a Ringer solution. The results showed the better pitting corrosion resistance of the composite coating, as compared to the oxide one, due to the thickened inner layer and the decrease in the surface defects of the composite coating. Also, the PEO process decreased the corrosion current density from 25.06 µA/cm2 in the Mg alloy to 2.7 µA/cm2 in the oxide coating and 0.47 µA/cm2 in the composite coating.

  19. Hydrous melting and partitioning in and above the mantle transition zone: Insights from water-rich MgO-SiO2-H2O experiments

    Myhill, R.; Frost, D. J.; Novella, D.


    Hydrous melting at high pressures affects the physical properties, dynamics and chemical differentiation of the Earth. However, probing the compositions of hydrous melts at the conditions of the deeper mantle such as the transition zone has traditionally been challenging. In this study, we conducted high pressure multianvil experiments at 13 GPa between 1200 and 1900 °C to investigate the liquidus in the system MgO-SiO2-H2O. Water-rich starting compositions were created using platinic acid (H2Pt(OH)6) as a novel water source. As MgO:SiO2 ratios decrease, the T -XH2O liquidus curve develops an increasingly pronounced concave-up topology. The melting point reduction of enstatite and stishovite at low water contents exceeds that predicted by simple ideal models of hydrogen speciation. We discuss the implications of these results with respect to the behaviour of melts in the deep upper mantle and transition zone, and present new models describing the partitioning of water between the olivine polymorphs and associated hydrous melts.

  20. Oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane over vanadium magnesium oxide catalysts supported on nano-structured MgO and ZrO2: effect of oxygen capacity of the catalyst.

    Lee, Howon; Lee, Jong Kwon; Hong, Ung Gi; Song, In Kyu; Yoo, Yeonshick; Cho, Young-Jin; Lee, Jinsuk; Chang, Hosik; Jung, Ji Chul


    Vanadium-magnesium oxide catalysts supported on nano-structured MgO and ZrO2 (Mg3(VO4)2/MgO/ZrO2) were prepared by a wet impregnation method with a variation of Mg:Zr ratio (8:1, 4:1, 2:1, and 1:1). For comparison, Mg3(VO4)2/MgO and Mg3(VO4)2/ZrO2 catalysts were also prepared by a wet impregnation method. The prepared catalysts were applied to the oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane in a continuous flow fixed-bed reactor. Mg3(VO4)2/MgO/ZrO2 (Mg:Zr = 4:1, 2:1, and 1:1) and Mg3(VO4)2/ZrO2 catalysts showed a stable catalytic activity during the whole reaction time, while Mg3(VO4)2/MgO/ZrO2 (8:1) and Mg3(VO4)2/MgO catalysts experienced a severe catalyst deactivation. Deactivation of Mg3(VO4)2/MgO/ZrO2 (8:1) and Mg3(VO4)2/MgO catalysts was due to their low oxygen mobility. Effect of oxygen capacity (the amount of oxygen in the catalyst involved in the reaction) of the supported Mg3(V04)2 catalysts on the catalytic performance in the oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane was investigated. Experimental results revealed that oxygen capacity of the catalyst was closely related to the catalytic activity in the oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butane. A large oxygen capacity of the catalyst was favorable for obtaining a high catalytic activity in this reaction. Among the catalysts tested, Mg3(VO4)2/MgO/ZrO2 (4:1) catalyst with the largest oxygen capacity showed the best catalytic performance.

  1. Effects of basicity and MgO content on the viscosity of the SiO2-CaO-MgO-9wt%Al2O3 slag system

    Yun-ming Gao; Shao-bo Wang; Chuan Hong; Xiu-juan Ma; Fu Yang


    The effects of basicity and MgO content on the viscosity of SiO2-CaO-MgO-9wt%Al2O3 slags with basicity from 0.4 to 1.0 and MgO content from 13wt%to 19wt%were investigated using the rotating cylinder method. A correlation between the viscosity and the slag structure was determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. It is indicated that the complex network structure of the slag melt is depolymerized into simpler network units with increasing basicity or MgO content, resulting in a continuous decrease in viscosity of the slag. The viscosity is strongly dependent on the combined action of basic oxide components in the slag. Under the present experimental conditions, increasing the basicity is found to be more effective than increasing the MgO content in decreasing the viscosity of the slag. At higher temperatures, the increase of basicity or MgO content does not appreciably decrease the viscosity of the slag, as it does at lower tem-peratures. The calculated activation energy of viscous flow is between 154 and 200 kJ·mol-1, which decreases with an increase in basicity from 0.4 to 1.0 at a fixed MgO content in the range of 13wt%to 19wt%.

  2. Rapid detection of TiO2 (E171) in table sugar using Raman spectroscopy.

    Tan, Chen; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Zhiyun; He, Lili


    The potential toxic effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) to humans remain debatable despite its broad application as a food additive. Thus, confirmation of the existence of TiO2 particles in food matrices and subsequently quantifying them are becoming increasingly critical. This study developed a facile, rapid (TiO2 particles (E171) from food products (e.g., table sugar) by Raman spectroscopy. To detect TiO2 particles from sugar solution, sequential centrifugation and washing procedures were effectively applied to separate and recover 97% of TiO2 particles from the sugar solution. The peak intensity of TiO2 sensitively responded to the concentration of TiO2 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.073 mg kg(-1). In the case of sugar granules, a mapping technique was applied to directly estimate the level of TiO2, which can be potentially used for rapid online monitoring. The plot of averaged intensity to TiO2 concentration in the sugar granules exhibited a good linear relationship in the wide range of 5-2000 mg kg(-1), with an LOD of 8.46 mg kg(-1). Additionally, we applied Raman spectroscopy to prove the presence of TiO2 in sugar-coated doughnuts. This study begins to fill in the analytical gaps that exist regarding the rapid detection and quantification of TiO2 in food, which facilitate the risk assessment of TiO2 through food exposure.

  3. Significant enhancement of yellow-green light emission of TiO2 thin films using Au localized surface plasmons: effect of dielectric MgO spacer layer thickness.

    Zhang, Cen; Liu, Weizhen; Xu, Haiyang; Ma, Jiangang; Liu, Yichun


    TiO2/MgO/Au composite thin films with different MgO spacer layer thicknesses (0-41 nm) were fabricated on c-sapphire substrates by sputtering and pulsed laser deposition. Through optimizing the thickness of MgO spacer layer, which can effectively prevent nonradiative Förster resonant energy transfer and charge transfer between Au and TiO2, defect-related yellow-green light emission of TiO2 thin film was greatly enhanced - 12 times. The enhancement mechanism is attributed to the efficient increase of luminescence efficiency of deep levels in TiO2 induced by resonant coupling between localized surface plasmons in Au nanoparticles and electron-hole pairs in defect-related levels of TiO2.

  4. Thermodynamic model of sulphide capacity in CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 ironmaking slags%CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3炼铁渣系硫化物容量的热力学模型

    张盟; 郭汉杰; 丁汝才; 王效东; 史成斌; 杨学民


    基于炉渣离子-分子共存理论(IMCT)建立了CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3炼铁渣系的硫化物容量预报模型,即IMCT-CS2-模型,比较了该渣系1773 K时实测的硫化物容量、IMCT-CS2-模型预报的硫化物容量及其他五种硫化物容量模型的计算结果.结果表明,由IMCT-CS2-模型预报的1773K时CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3炼铁渣系的硫化物容量更精确.本文建立的IMCT-CS2-模型不仅可计算该渣系的总硫化物容量,而且可计算该渣系中自由CaO和MgO各自的硫化物容量.1 773 K时CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3炼铁渣系中Al2O3质量分数由10%增加到17%,CaO质量分数由38%增加到44%,MgO质量分数由12%降低到4%可使自由CaO对该渣系的总硫化物容量贡献率由97%提高到99%,同时使自由MgO的贡献率由3%降低到1%.%A prediction model of sulphide capacity in CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 slag systems was developed based on the ion and molecule coexistence theory (IMCT) of slags, i. e. , IMCT-Cs2- model. The predicted sulphide capacity by the IMCT-Cs2- model was compared with the measured one from experiments and the predicted one by other five prediction models of sulphide capacity. The predicted sulphide capacity of CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 slags at 1 773 K by the developed IMCT-Cs2- model has a higher accuracy than the measured one as well as the predicted one by other sulphide capacity models. The developed IMCT-Cs2- model can calculate not only the total sulphide capacity of the slags but also the respective sulphide capacity of free CaO and MgO in the slags. Increasing the A12 03 content from 10% to 17% , increasing the CaO content from 38 % to 44 % and decreasing the MgO content from 12% to 4% can improve the contribution ratio of free CaO from 97% to 99 % and decrease the contribution ratio of free MgO from 3% to about 1% to the total sulphide capacity of CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 slags.

  5. A study on microstructure and corrosion resistance of ZrO2-containing PEO coatings formed on AZ31 Mg alloy in phosphate-based electrolyte

    Zhuang, J. J.; Guo, Y. Q.; Xiang, N.; Xiong, Y.; Hu, Q.; Song, R. G.


    ZrO2-containing ceramic coatings formed on the AZ31 Mg alloy were fabricated in an alkaline electrolyte containing sodium phosphate and potassium fluorozirconate (K2ZrF6) by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques were used to study the phase structure and composition of the coatings. It is indicated that the coatings formed in the K2ZrF6-containing electrolyte were composed of MgO, MgF2 and t-ZrO2. Morphological investigation carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and stereoscopic microscopy, revealed that the uniformity of coatings increased and roughness of coatings decreased after the addition of K2ZrF6. Electrochemical investigation was achieved by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test. The results showed that the PEO coating formed in K2ZrF6-containing electrolyte exhibited an improved corrosion resistance than that of the coating formed in K2ZrF6-free electrolyte. In addition, the polarization and EIS tests results both showed that the suitable concentration (2.5 g/l) of K2ZrF6 is of significant ability to improve the corrosion resistance of coatings. However, 5 g/l and 10 g/l K2ZrF6 has a negative effect on improving the corrosion resistance of PEO coatings compared with the coating formed in 2.5 g/l K2ZrF6-containing electrolyte.


    李建朝; 齐素慈; 许继芳; 张捷宇; 李竹



  7. Research on Properties of Low Fluorine CaF2-CaO-Al2O3-MgO-SiO2 Refining Slag%低氟CaF2-CaO-Al2O3-MgO-SiO2系精炼渣的性能

    史冠勇; 张廷安; 牛丽萍; 豆志河


    设计了精炼铜-铬合金用低氟CaF2-CaO-Al2O3-MgO-SiO2五元渣系,并研究了其粘度、密度、表面张力及熔化温度等性能.结果表明,该渣系的熔化温度在1336~1402℃之间;高温F该渣系的密度和表面张力均随温度升高而减小,且随CaF2含量和MgO含量增加逐渐降低;增加CaF2添加量可降低渣系粘度;CaF2含量较低时,MgO含量增加也可降低渣系粘度,CaF2含量较高时,渣粘度在MgO含量为6%时最小,MgO含量续增加到9%时粘度反而上升.该渣系粘度较低,表面张力较小,具有良好的精炼效果.%Low fluorine CaF2-CaO-Al2O3-MgO-SiO2 slag system was used as refining slag for preparation of Cu-Cr alloy. Its viscosity, density, surface tension and melting temperature were studied. The results indicated that the melting temperature of the slag was between 1336-1402'C. The density and surface tension of CaF2-CaO-Al2O3-MgO-SiO2 slag decreased with increasing of temperature, adding of CaF2 and MgO could decrease its density and surface tension. Its viscosity decreased with increasing of MgO and CaF2 content, and achieved the minimum value when MgO content was 6%, and increased when MgO content up to 9% with 10% and 15% CaF2 content. The slag had lower surface tension and better fluidity, so the refining efficiency with it was very good.

  8. Titanium-bearing phases in the Earth's mantle (evidence from experiments in the MgO-SiO2-TiO2 ±Al2O3 system at 10-24 GPa)

    Sirotkina, Ekaterina; Bobrov, Andrey; Bindi, Luca; Irifune, Tetsuo


    Introduction Despite significant interest of experimentalists to the study of geophysically important phase equilibria in the Earth's mantle and a huge experimental database on a number of the model and multicomponent systems, incorporation of minor elements in mantle phases was mostly studied on a qualitative level. The influence of such elements on structural peculiarities of high-pressure phases is poorly investigated, although incorporation of even small portions of them may have a certain impact on the PT-parameters of phase transformations. Titanium is one of such elements with the low bulk concentrations in the Earth's mantle (0.2 wt % TiO2) [1]; however, Ti-rich lithologies may occur in the mantle as a result of oceanic crust subduction. Thus, the titanium content is 0.6 wt% in Global Oceanic Subducted Sediments (GLOSS) [2], and 1.5 wt% TiO2, in MORB [3]. In this regard, accumulation of titanium in the Earth's mantle is related to crust-mantle interaction during the subduction of crustal material at different depths of the mantle. Experimental methods At 10-24 GPa and 1600°C, we studied the full range of the starting materials in the MgSiO3 (En) - MgTiO3 (Gkl) system in increments of 10-20 mol% Gkl and 1-3 GPa, which allowed us to plot the phase PX diagram for the system MgSiO3-MgTiO3 and synthesize titanium-bearing phases with a wide compositional range. The experiments were performed using a 2000-t Kawai-type multi-anvil high-pressure apparatus at the Geodynamics Research Center, Ehime University (Japan). The quenched samples were examined by single-crystal X-ray diffractometer, and the composition of phases was analyzed using SEM-EDS. Results The main phases obtained in experiments were rutile, wadsleyite, MgSiO3-enstatite, MgTiO3-ilmenite, MgTiSi2O7 with the weberite structure type (Web), Mg(Si,Ti)O3 and MgSiO3 with perovskite-type structure. At a pressure of 13 GPa for Ti-poor bulk compositions, an association of En+Wad+Rt is replaced by the


    Seyed Mehdi Sajjadi


    Full Text Available Ni-Co/Al2O3-MgO-ZrO2 nanocatalyst with utilization of two different zirconia precursors, namely, zirconyl nitrate hydrate (ZNH and zirconyl nitrate solution (ZNS, was synthesized via the sol-gel method. The physiochemical properties of nanocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET and FTIR analyses and employed for syngas production from CO2-reforming of CH4. XRD patterns, exhibiting proper crystalline structure and homogeneous dispersion of active phase for the nanocatalyst ZNS precursor employed (NCAMZ-ZNS. FESEM and BET results of NCAMZ-ZNS presented more uniform morphology and smaller particle size and consequently higher surface areas. In addition, average particle size of NCAMZ-ZNS was 15.7 nm, which is close to the critical size for Ni-Co catalysts to avoid carbon formation. Moreover, FESEM analysis indicated both prepared samples were nanoscale. EDX analysis confirmed the existence of various elements used and also supported the statements made in the XRD and FESEM analyses regarding dispersion. Based on the excellent physiochemical properties, NCAMZ-ZNS exhibited the best reactant conversion across all of the evaluated temperatures, e.g. CH4 and CO2 conversions were 97.2 and 99% at 850 ºC, respectively. Furthermore, NCAMZ-ZNS demonstrated a stable yield with H2/CO close to unit value during the 1440 min stability test.

  10. Influence of heat treatments upon the mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity of ZrO2-toughened MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass-ceramics.

    Li, Huan-Cai; Wang, Dian-Gang; Meng, Xiang-Guo; Chen, Chuan-Zhong


    Zirconia-toughened MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass-ceramics are prepared using sintering techniques, and a series of heat treatment procedures are designed to obtain a glass-ceramic with improved properties. The crystallization behavior, phase composition, and morphology of the glass-ceramics are characterized. The bending strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, and microhardness of the glass-ceramics are investigated, and the effect mechanism of heat treatments upon the mechanical properties is discussed. The bioactivity of glass-ceramics is then evaluated using the in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking test, and the mechanism whereby apatite forms on the glass-ceramic surfaces in the SBF solution is discussed. The results indicate that the main crystal phase of the G-24 sample undergoing two heat treatment procedures is Ca5(PO4)3F (fluorapatite), and those of the G-2444 sample undergoing four heat treatment procedures are Ca5(PO4)3F and β-CaSiO3 (β-wollastonite). The heat treatment procedures are found to greatly influence the mechanical properties of the glass-ceramic, and an apatite layer is induced on the glass-ceramic surface after soaking in the SBF solution.

  11. FeO2/MgO(1 0 0) supported cluster: Computational pursual for a low-cost and low-temperature CO nanocatalyst

    Zamora, A. Y.; Reveles, J. U.; Mejia-Olvera, R.; Baruah, T.; Zope, R. R.


    We study the electronic and catalytic properties of FeO2 adsorbed on a MgO(1 0 0) surface which shows potential as a novel low-cost and low-temperature CO nanocatalyst in an overall exothermic reaction. The CO oxidation may be separated into two steps, namely (1) oxidation of CO by the metal oxide leaving a reduced metal oxide and (2) oxidation of the reduced metal by oxygen to regenerate the active metal oxide. It is found that CO and O2 adsorption energies are the driving force for the CO oxidation by providing the energy required to surmount the activation energies along the reaction path. A low CO chemisorption binding energy (of the order of 0.4 eV) that avoids the blocking of the active metal sites (CO poisoning) for processes following the LH reaction mechanism, and Low energy barriers (around 0.6 eV) along the reaction path that enable the reaction to occur at low temperatures (∼100 °C). Examples of catalyst formulations that fulfill the above requirements and remain stable under moisture, are Aux nanoparticles adsorbed on base transition metal oxides [21], and Co3O4 nanorods [13]. In a recent report, Li et al. [22] proposed Fe-anchored graphene oxide as a low-cost CO catalyst. Having found that the LH mechanism presents a large energy barrier of 2 eV, Li et al. proposed an Eley-Rideal mechanism, in which CO reacted with an adsorbed and activated O2 molecule to form a carbonate-like intermediate with an energy barrier of only 0.6 eV. Martynova et al. [23] studied the low-temperature CO oxidation of Ruthenium oxide films, finding that the reaction sets in only when the oxygen coverage exceeded 1 monolayer (1 ML) and presents a low energy barrier of 0.6 eV in the range of 127-197 °C. Xie. et al. [13] experimentally studied the low-temperature oxidation of CO catalyzed by Co3O4 nanorods. It was found that the nanorods preferentially exposed the {1 1 0} planes, favoring the presence of active Co3+ species at the surface and with an activating energy toward

  12. Structural and thermal characterization of CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glasses

    Kansal, Ishu; Goel, Ashutosh; Tulyaganov, Dilshat U.; Rajagopal, Raghu R.; Ferreira, Jose M.


    The paper presents the influence of varying CaO/MgO ratio on the structure and thermal properties of CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glasses. A series of eight glass compositions in the glass forming region of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) - fluorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3F] - wollastonite (CaSiO3) ternary system have been designed and synthesized by varying diopside/wollastonite ratio in glasses. The as prepared melt-quenched glasses have been characterized for their structure by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and magic angle spinning (MAS)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Silicon is predominantly present as Q2 (Si) species, while phosphorus tends to coordinate in orthophosphate environment in all the investigated glasses. The change in CaO/MgO ratio had an insignificant affect on the structure of glasses. The thermal sintering and crystallization parameters for the studied glasses have been obtained from differential thermal analysis (DTA) while crystalline phase fractions in the sintered glass-ceramics have been analyzed by X-ray diffraction adjoined with Rietveld refinement. Diopside, fluorapatite, wollastonite and pseudowollastonite have crystallized as the main crystalline phases in all the glass-ceramics with their content varying with respect to variation in CaO/MgO ratio in glasses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been used to shed light on the microstructure of glass-ceramics. The possible implications of structure and sintering behaviour of glasses on their bioactivity have been discussed.

  13. Thermochemistry of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) and Advanced Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Systems

    Costa, Gustavo C. C.; Zhu, Dongming


    CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS) oxides are constituents in a broad number of materials and minerals which have recently inferred to discussions in materials science, planetary science, geochemistry and cosmochemistry communities. In materials science, there is increasing interest in the degradation studies of thermal (TBC) and environmental (EBC) barrier coatings of gas turbines by molten CMAS. These coatings have been explored to be applied on silicon-based ceramics and composites which are lighter and more temperature capable hot-section materials of gas turbines than the current Ni-based superalloys. The degradation of the coatings occurs when CMAS minerals carried by the intake air into gas turbines, e.g. in aircraft engines, reacts at high temperatures (1000C) with the coating materials. This causes premature failure of the static and rotating components of the turbine engines. We discuss some preliminary results of the reactions between CMAS and Rare-Earth (RE Y, Yb and Gd) oxide stabilized ZrO2 systems, and stability of the resulting oxides and silicates.

  14. Sol-gel-derived bioactive glass containing SiO2-MgO-CaO-P2O5 as an antibacterial scaffold.

    Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani; Hosseini, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh; Hafezi, Forough; Hosseinnejad, Fatemeh; Nourani, Mohammad Reza


    Bioactive glass (BG) composites with a base of SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 are biocompatible biomaterials. The assessment of their abilities for medical applications has interested researchers. We produced a BG-containing SiO2-MgO-CaO-P2O5 by the sol-gel method. To determine the antibacterial effects, we analyzed the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) properties of this product on three microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, known causative agents for biofilm formation on implant surfaces. In addition, we performed the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay to study the cytotoxic effects of our composite on animal cells. Our results demonstrated that our BG product inhibited the growth of bacteria in a concentration-dependent manner without any cytotoxic effects. Therefore, our BG product can be utilized as an appropriate implant for treating bone and tooth defects.

  15. Viscosity and structure evolution of the SiO2-MgO-FeO-CaO-Al2O3 slag in ferronickel smelting process from laterite

    Lv X.M.


    Full Text Available The SiO2 fractions in laterite-nickel ores are quite high, thus certain amount of lime should be used as fluxing material to achieve good fluidity and desulfurization capacity in industrial smelting process. However, this operation leads to an additional cost of lime. In addition, the increase of slag volume decreases the effective furnace volume. To avoid such problem, partial reduction of FeO has been suggested. Therefore, the high SiO2, low MgO and FeO and very little CaO slag is formed, which was less studied in the previous literature. Therefore, the viscosity and slag structure are investigated in the present study through FT-IR and Raman analysis methods. Experimental results show that the slag is a mixture of liquid and solid phases under the experimental temperature. The FT-IR and Raman spectra show that the fractions of the complex polymerization structure decrease significantly with the increase of FeO content and slag basicity, resulting in the decrease of apparent viscosity.

  16. Characterization of Ni porous electrode covered by a thin film of LiMg 0.05Co 0.95O 2

    Simonetti, E.; Presti, R. Lo

    A porous electrode of nickel covered by a thin film of lithium cobaltite doped with magnesium (LiMg 0.05Co 0.95O 2) was prepared in order to protect nickel cathode against dissolution into the molten carbonate. A sol impregnation technique was used to deposit gel precursors on the porous surface of the substrate; the covered substrate was submitted to thermal treatments, which produced a lithium cobaltite layer. The cathode was characterized by the following measurements: biaxial bending test, SEM/EDX analysis, which demonstrated the uniformity of the lithium cobaltite layer and the presence of cobalt homogeneously distributed over the nickel particles, electrical conductivity. To test the cathodic performance of the material under study a cell was assembled and tested in a 10 cm × 10 cm electrodes area plant. The cell performance during the time was studied carrying out polarization curves for many hours (more than 1000 h). To determine the influence of the cathodic gas composition on the electrode performance the atmosphere was changed maintaining alternatively at a constant value the partial pressure of CO 2 and O 2. In such a way the kinetic effect of the single gas was studied. By the technique of IR interruption the internal resistance of the cell was measured.

  17. Synthesis of pigments of Fe2O3·SiO2 system, with Ca, Mg, or Co oxide additions

    Dimitrov, T.; Kozhukharov, S.; Velinov, N.


    The present research work is based on the comparative evaluation of the Ca, Mg, and Co dopant impact on the properties of new ceramic pigments from the system Fe2O3·SiO2 obtained via classical ceramic technology. This approach enabled determination of the optimal temperature for the synthesis and the most appropriate mineralizer. The obtained specimens were submitted to systematical analysis, including X-ray Diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy for crystalline phase determination. The color characteristics are quantified by spectrophotometric measurements. The pigments particle size has been determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined by Energy Dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The obtained results enabled to determine the correlation between the calcination temperature and the phase compositions of the obtained pigments. In addition, some interesting magnetic properties were detected for the Co-doped composition. (Author)

  18. Solubilities of Chlorine in CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO Slags: Correlation Between Sulfide and Chloride Capacities

    Okeda, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Iwase, M.


    To derive a correlation between sulfide and chloride capacities through our own systematic experimental studies by using a gas equilibrium technique involving Ar-H2-H2O-HCl gas mixtures, the solubilities of chlorine were determined for CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 slags at temperatures between 1673 K and 1823 K (1400 °C and 1550 °C). As a formula to correlate sulfide and chloride capacities, the following equation that is the function of temperature only was obtainable; 2log C_{{Cl}} - log C_{{S}} = - 64.4 + {82,890/{T({{K})}}} ± 0.75 whereas chloride capacities were formulated as the function of temperature and optical basicity in the following equation: 2log C_{{Cl}} = ( {43.6 - {54,600/{T({{K})}}}} )Uplambda + ( { - 39.2 + {60,200/{T({{K})}}}} ) ± 0.5{.}

  19. Sulfide Capacities of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-CrO x Slags

    Wang, Lijun; Wang, Yaxian; Chou, Kuo-chih; Seetharaman, Seshadri


    The sulfide capacities of CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-CrO x slags were measured by gas-slag equilibration method in the temperature range of 1823 K to 1898 K (1550 °C to 1625 °C) to reveal the effect of CrO x on the sulfide capacities of slags. Both higher basicity and temperature enhanced sulfide capacities. The CrO x additions in the range of 0 to 5 mass pct increased the sulfide capacity, but, further increase of CrO x contents to 7 pct was found to lower the sulfide capacity. Utilizing the relationship for estimating the ratio of Cr(II)/Cr(III) put forward by the present authors, the influence of Cr(II) on the sulfide capacities of the slags studied is discussed.

  20. Preparation and characterization on nano-hybrid composite solid polymer electrolyte of PVdF-HFP /MG49-ZrO2 for battery application

    Lee T., K.; Ahmad, A.; Hasyareeda, N.


    Initial study on nano composite polymer electrolyte of PVdF-HFP/MG49-ZrO2 has been done. The zirconium was synthesis via in-situ sol-gel method in a dissolved polymer blends. The effects of different concentrations of zirconium and pH values have been investigated on nano composite polymer (NCP). Analysis impedance show that only at 6 wt. % of zirconium for all pH values show a semi-circle arc which have lowest value of bulk resistance. No ionic conductivity value is obtain due to the absent of ion charge carriers. Analysis of XRD revealed that crystallinity phase of the nano composite polymer was affect by different pH values. However, no significant changes have been observed in IR bands. This could well indicate that different pH medium did not affect the chemical bonding in the structure.

  1. Effect of calcium fluoride on sintering behaviour of SiO2-CaO-Na2O-MgO glass-ceramic system

    Bahman Mirhadi


    Full Text Available The crystallization characteristics of glasses based on the SiO2-CaO-Na2O-MgO (SCNM system containing calcium fluoride (CaF2 have been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The partial replacement of CaO by CaF2 in the studied glass-ceramics led to the development of different crystalline phase assemblages, including wollastonite and diopside using various heat-treatment processes. With the increase of CaF2 content, the crystallization temperature of the glass and the strength of the crystallization peak temperature decreases. Addition of CaF2 up to 6.0 mol%, as expected, improved the sinterability. This sample reached to maximum density by sintering at 950 °C.

  2. Modelling Equilibrium and Fractional Crystallization in the System MgO-FeO-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2

    Herbert, F.


    A mathematical modelling technique for use in petrogenesis calculations in the system MgO-FeO-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 is reported. Semiempirical phase boundary and elemental distribution information was combined with mass balance to compute approximate equilibrium crystallization paths for arbitrary system compositions. The calculation is applicable to a range of system compositions and fractionation calculations are possible. The goal of the calculation is the computation of the composition and quantity of each phase present as a function of the degree of solidification. The degree of solidification is parameterized by the heat released by the solidifying phases. The mathematical requirement for the solution of this problem is: (1) An equation constraining the composition of the magma for each solid phase in equilibrium with the liquidus phase, and (2) an equation for each solid phase and each component giving the distribution of that element between that phase and the magma.

  3. Effect of crystallization of CaO-P2O5-SiO2-MgO-F glass-ceramics on its mechanical properties


    The microstructure of CaO-P2O5-SiO2-MgO-F glass-ceramics during crystallization were investigated and the crystallized phases wereidentified with DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) and XRD (X- ray Diffraction) techniques. The mechanical properties such as bending strength and fracture toughness, as well as their changes with advancing crystallization were determined. The results show that the changes of the mechanical properties are correlated with the microstructures. The sample heated up to 810℃ and soaked for 4 h has smaller crystalline size and less volum fraction of fluorophlogopite, so it has higher bending strength (about 190 MPa), and higher crack toughness (about 2.63 MPa·m1/2).

  4. Process-Parameter-Dependent Optical and Structural Properties of ZrO2MgO Mixed-Composite Films Evaporated from the solid Solution

    Sahoo, N. K.; Shapiro, A. P.


    The process-parameter-dependent optical and structural properties of ZrO2MgO mixed-composite material have been investigated. Optical properties were derived from spectrophotometric measurements. By use of atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, and energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis, the surface morphology, grain size distributions, crystallographic phases, and process-dependent material composition of films have been investigated. EDX analysis made evident the correlation between the oxygen enrichment in the films prepared at a high level of oxygen pressure and the very low refractive index. Since oxygen pressure can be dynamically varied during a deposition process, coatings constructed of suitable mixed-composite thin films can benefit from continuous modulation of the index of refraction. A step modulation approach is used to develop various multilayer-equivalent thin-film devices.

  5. Single doses of ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg-1: the most effective dosage in bancroftian filariasis.

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, L N; Cartel, J L


    Forty-three Wuchereria bancrofti carriers were given four successive semi-annual single doses of ivermectin 100 (IVER 100). The geometric mean microfilaremia (mf) recurrence percentage as compared to the pre-initial treatment mf level was 35%, 21%, 17% and 17% at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, respectively. However, the recurrence of mf 6 months after the fourth treatment remained high in several individuals: 15 have been considered as 'bad responders' and 28 as 'good responders' individuals. At month 24 (M 24), they were randomly allocated into 2 groups. A first group was treated with a fifty and a sixth dose of IVER 100, at M24 and M30, respectively; the second one was treated, at the same time, with single doses of IVER 400 (IVER 400). At M 36, the mf recurrence percentage (mf M36/mf M0) was significantly higher in patients treated with IVER 100 than IVER 400 (11% vs 1%, p < 10(-4). From the group IVER 100, 6 out of the 8 'bad responders' remained 'bad responders' whereas there were none of the 7 in the group IVER 400. Moreover, there were only 2 more patients in the group IVER 100 showing sustained complete zero mf, whereas they were 13 in the group IVER 400. Single doses of IVER 400 were effective on 'bad responders'; IVER 400 must be recommended for semi-annual mass treatment in bancroftian filariasis.

  6. Effects of the combination of decitabine and homoharringtonine in SKM-1 and Kg-1a cells.

    Geng, Suxia; Yao, Han; Weng, Jianyu; Tong, Jiaqi; Huang, Xin; Wu, Ping; Deng, Chengxin; Li, Minming; Lu, Zesheng; Du, Xin


    The methylation inhibitor decitabine (DAC) has great therapeutic value for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, DAC monotherapy is associated with relatively low rates of overall response and complete remission. Previous studies have shown promising results for combination treatment regimens including DAC. Homoharringtonine (HHT), an alkaloid from Chinese natural plants and Cephalotaxus, has demonstrated potential for leukemia treatment. Our studies have suggested that the combination of DAC and HHT has synergistic effects for inhibiting the viability of SKM-1 and Kg-1a cells. This combination leads to enhanced inhibition of colony formation and apoptosis induction compared with DAC alone in SKM-1 but not Kg-1a cells. Only high-dose DAC and HHT significantly up-regulate caspase-3 and caspase-9 and inhibit BCL-XL in the SKM-1 cell line. The combined effects of DAC plus HHT on apoptosis may not only depend on regulation of the apoptosis-related genes we examined but others as well. HHT had no demethylation effects, and HHT in combination with DAC had no enhanced effects on hypomethylation and DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B mRNA expression in SKM-1 cells. Overall, these results suggest that DAC used in combination with HHT may have clinical potential for MDS treatment.

  7. Effect of ZrO2 Doping on the Microwave Dielectric Properties of Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 Ceramics

    Peng, Sen; Luo, Gaofeng; Wu, Mengqiang; Yu, Shengquan; Xu, Jianming; Huang, Tongcheng; Zhou, Jianhua


    The microwave dielectric properties of Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics with x ( x = 0-10) wt.% ZrO2 (BMZN) were investigated by the solid-state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis suggested that there were two phases: the main crystalline phase Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3(BMN) and a secondary phase Ba5Nb4O15. Meanwhile, the Zr ions entered the B site of BMN and disturbed the 1:2 ordering. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis demonstrated that Zr4+ could promote the grain growth obviously. The addition of Zr4+ had a huge and positive influence on the Q × f value, for example, the sample with x = 8 had the highest Q × f value of 106,410 GHz. The BMZN ceramics with x = 8 sintered at 1400°C for 5 h had excellent microwave dielectric properties: ɛ r = 32.9, Q × f = 106,410 GHz ( f = 8 GHz) and τf = +0.7 ppm/°C.

  8. Fast reactor irradiation effects on fracture toughness of Si3N4 in comparison with MgAl2O4 and yttria stabilized ZrO2

    Tada, K.; Watanabe, M.; Tachi, Y.; Kurishita, H.; Nagata, S.; Shikama, T.


    Fracture toughness of silicon nitride (Si3N4), magnesia-alumina spinel (MgAl2O4) and yttria stabilized zirconia (8 mol%Y2O3-ZrO2) was evaluated by the Vickers-indentation technique after the fast reactor irradiation up to 55 dpa (displacement per atom) at about 700 °C in the Joyo. The change of the fracture toughness by the irradiation was correlated with nanostructural evolution by the irradiation, which was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The observed degradation of fracture toughness in Si3N4 is thought to be due to the relatively high density of small-sized of the irradiation induced defects, which should be resulted from a large amount of transmutation gases of hydrogen and helium. Observed improvement of fracture toughness in MgAl2O4 was due to the blocking of crack propagation by the antiphase boundaries. The radiation effects affected the fracture toughness of yttria stabilized zirconia at 55 dpa, suggesting that the generated high density voids would affect the propagation of cracks.

  9. Synthesis and spectral properties of Nd-doped glass-ceramics in SiO2-CaO-MgO system prepared by sol-gel method

    Masoud Eslami; Zohreh Hamnabard; Ali Nemati


    SiO2-CaO-MgO glass and glass-ceramic powder doped with Nd3+ were synthesized with sol-gel method.Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS),Ca(NO3)2·4H2O,Mg(NO3)2·6H2O,Nd(NO3)3·6H2O,ethanol,distilled water,and HNO3 were used as starting materials.The synthesized powder's properties were examined with simultaneous thermal analysis (STA),X-ray diffraction (XRD),photoluminescence (PL) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis.The STA curves showed that the softening point and crystallization temperatures were shifted to higher temperatures with increasing dopant content.Regarding XRD pattems of glass samples,Nd was found to act as an intermediate oxide in glass matrix.The XRD patterns of glass-ceramic samples indicated that bredigite and akermanite crystallized in the glass matrix after heat treating at 900 ℃.The ()luorescence spectra showed that glass-ceramics emitted much stronger irradiation than glasses with the same dopant content.The SEM images illustrated uniform and homogeneous distribution of applied oxides in glass and glass-ceramic compositions.

  10. Microwave energy-assisted formation of bioactive CaO–MgO–SiO$_2$ ternary glass from bio-wastes



    Regeneration technique is extensively being sought after as a means of achieving bone repair without adverse immunological response. Silicate-based bioactive glasses containing Mg are gaining increasing attention for their biocompatibility. The current work has been focused on designing a facile and economic route using bio-wastes for synthesizing bioactive glasses in the CaO–MgO–SiO$_2$ system. Rice husk ash (RHA) obtained from burning ricehusk was used as silica source, while Ca was extracted from eggshells for preparing the glass through a modified sol–gel approach. The gel formed was irradiated in microwave before sintering at 950$^{\\circ}$C for 3 h. Thereafter, bioactivity test was conducted on the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) at physiological conditions for a maximum of 14 days. Characterization of samples were performed before and after immersion in SBF to evaluate thecomposition, morphology and phases present in the glass using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Apatite formation was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.Results obtained showed the presence of diopside, wollastonite and pseudo-wollastonite as major bioactive phases. Hydroxyapatite formed on the material within 3 days in SBF, indicating good bioactivity.

  11. Effect of ZrO2 Doping on the Microwave Dielectric Properties of Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 Ceramics

    Peng, Sen; Luo, Gaofeng; Wu, Mengqiang; Yu, Shengquan; Xu, Jianming; Huang, Tongcheng; Zhou, Jianhua


    The microwave dielectric properties of Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics with x (x = 0-10) wt.% ZrO2 (BMZN) were investigated by the solid-state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis suggested that there were two phases: the main crystalline phase Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3(BMN) and a secondary phase Ba5Nb4O15. Meanwhile, the Zr ions entered the B site of BMN and disturbed the 1:2 ordering. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis demonstrated that Zr4+ could promote the grain growth obviously. The addition of Zr4+ had a huge and positive influence on the Q × f value, for example, the sample with x = 8 had the highest Q × f value of 106,410 GHz. The BMZN ceramics with x = 8 sintered at 1400°C for 5 h had excellent microwave dielectric properties: ɛ r = 32.9, Q × f = 106,410 GHz (f = 8 GHz) and τf = +0.7 ppm/°C.

  12. Thermodynamic simulation on mineralogical composition of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO quaternary slag system.

    Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yu-Zhu; Li, Jie; Li, Jun-Guo; Kang, Yue


    It is necessary to elucidate the crystallization thermodynamic of mineralogical phases during the cooling process of the molten BFS with different chemical composition, because the high-melting point mineral phase maybe crystallized during the fiber forming and thereafter cooling process. Thermodynamic calculation software FactSage6.4 and the hot remelting experiments were performed to explore the influence of basicity, Al2O3 content and MgO content on the crystallization of mineralogical components and their transformation. The results showed that the main mineralography of the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO quaternary slag system was melilite, and a certain amount of anorthite and calcium metasilicate. The crystallographic temperature of melilite is increased with the increasing of basicity, MgO and Al2O3 content, which has a significant impact on the utilization performance of the mineral wool prepared with the hot blast furnace slag directly. With the increasing of basicity, there was a tendency that crystallographic amount of melilite increased to the summit and then declined, while the amount of anorthite and calcium metasilicate decreased consistently. Finally, these two mineralogical components could be replaced by magnesium rhodonite and spinel with the increasing of basicity. When the basicity and MgO content were 1.0 and 9 %, the crystallographic mass ratio of melilite and anorthite increased, while that of calcium silicate declined, and replaced by spinel finally with the increasing of Al2O3 content. When the basicity and Al2O3 content were 1.0 and 13 %, the crystallographic mass ratio of melilite increased, while that of anorthite and calcium silicate declined, and replaced by pyroxene and spinel with the increasing of MgO content. To decline fiberization temperature of the melt BFS, the basicity, MgO and Al2O3 content should be decreased during the modification process of chemical composition, because the crystallization temperature of the primary crystalline

  13. Calculating models on surface tension of RE2O3-MgO-SiO2 (RE=La, Nd, Sm, Gd and Y) melts%RE2O3-MgO-SiO2(RE=La,Nd,Sm,Gd和Y)熔体表面张力的计算模型

    吴铖川; 成国光


    基于熔体组元离子半径和Butler方程,建立RE2O3−MgO−SiO2(RE=La,Nd,Sm,Gd和Y)熔体表面张力热力学计算模型。本模型利用纯组元的表面张力和摩尔体积以及熔体中各组元阳离子和阴离子半径可以获得E2O3−MgO−SiO2熔体表面张力随熔渣成分和温度的变化规律。计算1873 K La2O3−MgO−SiO2熔体等表面张力线并研究熔体成分对表面张力的影响。1873 K的纯组元La2O3,Gd2O3,Nd2O3和Y2O3的表面张力通过本模型计算分别为686、677、664和541 mN/m。除了Y2O3外,纯稀土氧化物的表面张力随其阳离子磁场强度增加而呈线性减小,而Y2O3的表面张力相对减小更多。表面张力的计算结果与文献数据一致,1873 K本模型平均偏差为1.05%。%A thermodynamic model was developed for determining the surface tension of RE2O3−MgO−SiO2 (RE=La, Nd, Sm, Gd and Y) melts considering the ionic radii of the components and Butler’s equation. The temperature and composition dependence of the surface tensions in molten RE2O3−MgO−SiO2 slag systems was reproduced by the present model using surface tensions and molar volumes of pure oxides, as well as the anionic and cationic radii of the melt components. The iso-surface tension lines of La2O3−MgO−SiO2 slag melt at 1873 K were calculated and the effects of slag composition on the surface tension were also investigated. The surface tensions of La2O3, Gd2O3, Nd2O3 and Y2O3 at 1873 K were evaluated as 686, 677, 664 and 541 mN/m, respectively. The surface tension of pure rare earth oxide melts linearly decreases with increasing cationic field strength, except for Y2O3 oxide, while Y2O3 has a much weaker surface tension. The evaluated results of the surface tension show good agreements with literature data, and the mean deviation of the present model is found to be 1.05% at 1873 K.

  14. Quantificação da segregação de MgO em pós nanométricos de SnO2 preparados por método químico Quantification of MgO surface segregation on SnO2 nanopowders prepared by chemical method

    D. Gouvêa


    Full Text Available Um dos maiores desafios na síntese de nanopartículas é a instabilidade da estrutura relativa ao aumento de energia advindo da grande área de superfície específica desta classe de materiais. O conhecimento dos mecanismos pelos quais a estabilidade pode ser alcançada é de fundamental importância para o controle de seu crescimento e para potenciais aplicações. Fenômenos de segregação superficial em sistemas bi-componentes envolvem diminuição de energia do sistema devido ao excesso de superfície - conhecido como fenômeno de tensoatividade. Apesar de muito bem conhecidos em tecnologias de emulsões e em fenômenos que envolvem molhabilidade, o uso destes conceitos para estabilização da superfície sólido-vapor e controle de nanopartículas é menos expressivo. Embora a segregação seja conhecida para vários sistemas de óxidos nanoparticulados, sua quantificação visando o controle é limitada pela dificuldade de obtenção de resultados confiáveis. Neste trabalho foi realizada a quantificação da segregação de MgO na superfície de nanopartículas de SnO2 através da análise química dos pós antes e após lavagem em meio ácido para lixiviação do MgO superficial. Foi demonstrado que a solubilidade do MgO no bulk do SnO2 é preferencial em concentrações inferiores a 5% em mol de MgO, existindo, no entanto, uma distribuição do MgO ao longo da superfície e do bulk, gerando um efeito tenso-ativo e restringindo o crescimento das partículas de SnO2. Para concentrações maiores que 5% em mol, a maior parte do MgO foi detectada na superfície das nanopartículas de SnO2, sendo o controle tenso-ativo mais expressivo. Apesar dos resultados serem restritos para o sistema SnO2-MgO, esta técnica pode ser extrapolada para o controle de quaisquer sistemas onde o elemento segregado é solúvel em condições específicas.Particle size stability is a fundamental requirement in the synthesis and application of nanoparticles

  15. Efeito da segregação e solubilização do MgO na morfologia de pós de ZrO2 durante a síntese pelo método Pechini Effect of MgO segregation and solubilization on the morphology of ZrO2 powders during synthesis by the Pechini's method

    P. J. B. Marcos


    Full Text Available Trabalhos realizados em vários sistemas de óxidos cerâmicos têm demonstrado que a segregação dos íons durante a síntese de materiais cerâmicos pelo método Pechini tem conseqüências muito importantes tanto para a morfologia dos pós como para a sinterização. Este trabalho tem como objetivo estabelecer a influência da segregação/solubilização do MgO na morfologia e na sinterização de pós à base de ZrO2. O estudo foi realizado em pós preparados por síntese química derivada do método Pechini a 500 °C por 15 h. Observa-se que para concentrações de MgO até o limite de solubilidade no ZrO2 ocorre o crescimento de partículas e uma diminuição da área de superfície específica por causa da solubilização e do aumento do coeficiente de difusão pela geração de vacâncias de oxigênio. Contudo, após o limite de solubilidade, ocorre um aumento gradual da área de superfície específica devido à segregação dos íons na superfície dos pós e à diminuição da energia de superfície. Concentrações de MgO até 60 % molar foram utilizadas e áreas de superfície específica tão elevadas quanto 120 m²/g foram obtidas, mas as fases cristalinas formadas foram exclusivamente da zircônia solução sólida sem a presença de fases cristalinas de MgO.Studies carried out in several ceramic oxide systems have shown that segregation of ions during synthesis of ceramic materials by the Pechini's method has important morphology consequences for the powder. The aim of this paper is to establish the influence of the MgO segregation/solubilization on the morphology of ZrO2 powders. The study was performed in powders prepared by chemical synthesis derived from the Pechini's method at 500 ºC for 15 h. It is observed that MgO concentrations up to the solubility limit promote ZrO2 particle coarsening and a reduction of specific surface area by increasing the diffusion coefficient. However, MgO amounts higher than the solubility

  16. Surface tension investigation and model forecasting of SiO2--Al2 O3--CaO--MgO quaternary mineral wool slag%SiO2--Al2 O3--CaO--MgO四元矿渣棉体系的表面张力测定与模型预报

    彭犇; 唐续龙; 勾立争; 胡一文; 郭敏; 张梅


    Surface tension is one of the major parameters for mineral wool production, and it may influence burdening and processing parameter selection. The surface tension of melts for mineral wool production using blast furnace slag as a major material was systematically investigated by experiment measurements and model forecasting. Firstly, a series of surface tension values of SiO2 (40%-- 60%)--Al2 O3 (5%--20%)--CaO(20%--30%)--MgO(5%) quaternary systems were measured, and they showed in the range of 350 to 500 mN·m-1 . Then in combination with data from reports in literature, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was constructed to calculate the surface tension of melts in an extension system of SiO2 (35%--60%)--Al2 O3 (5%--20%)--CaO(20%--45%)--MgO(0-- 10%). The average error of the developed model is 9. 32%, proving a higher accuracy for predicting the surface tension of those melts in the extension system.%表面张力是矿物棉生产的重要参数,直接影响到配料和工艺参数的选择.通过实验测量并建立模型预报系统研究了以高炉渣为主要原料制备矿物棉时熔体的表面张力.首先测量了SiO2(40%~60%)- Al2 O3(5%~20%)- CaO(20%~30%)-MgO(5%)四元系的表面张力,其值处于350~500 mN·m-1之间;然后结合文献报道的表面张力数据,利用人工神经网络技术建立了SiO2(35%~60%)-Al2 O3(5%~20%)-CaO(20%~45%)-MgO(0~10%)四元渣系的表面张力预报模型.该模型对成分范围内的表面张力预报平均误差为9.32%,预报精度较高,可以预报矿物棉熔体成分范围内的表面张力.

  17. 白藜芦醇增强TRAIL对人髓系白血病KG-1a细胞的细胞毒作用%Resveratrol enhances cytotoxicity of TRAIL to human promyloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells

    胡亮杉; 孙茂本; 曾雅丽; 李玉华; 邓兰; 郭坤元


    目的:观察白藜芦醇作用前后TRAIL对人髓系白血病KG-1a细胞的细胞毒作用的变化.方法:流式细胞仪检测KG-1a细胞表面CD34 和CD38的表达,二甲氧唑黄(XTT)细胞增殖及细胞毒性检测试剂盒检测白藜芦醇作用前后TRAIL对KG-1a细胞增殖的影响,AnnexinV-FITC/PI染色流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡变化.流式细胞仪检测白藜芦醇作用前后KG-1a细胞表面TRAIL死亡受体表达变化.结果:人髓系白血病KG-1a细胞 CD34+CD38-占(58.67±2.87)%,10~1 000 ng/ml 的TRAIL对KG-1a细胞增殖无明显影响,但对白藜芦醇作用后的KG-1a细胞的增殖有明显抑制作用,白藜芦醇能促进TRAIL诱导KG-1a细胞凋亡,并能上调KG-1a细胞表面TRAIL死亡受体DR5的表达.结论:白藜芦醇能增强TRAIL对人髓系白血病KG-1a细胞的细胞毒作用,其机制可能与白藜芦醇上调KG-1a细胞表面TRAIL死亡受体DR5的表达有关.%Objective :To explore the cytotoxicity of TRAIL to human acute promyeloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells treated with resvera trol .Methods :The expression of CD34 and CD38 on the Surface of KG-1 cells was detected by flow cytometry ;The effects of various concentration TRAIL on proliferation of KG-1a cells treated with or without resveratrol were analyzed by XTT cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assay kit ;The changes of apoptosis in KG-1a cells treated with or without resveratrol induced by TRAIL were detected by flow cytometry through the staining of AnnexinV-FITC /PI ;The effects of resveratrol on the expression of DR4/5 on the surface of KG-1a cells were detected by flow cytometry .Results :The CD34+ CD38- percent age of KG-1a cells was (58 .67±2 .87 )% ;10-1 000 ng/ml of TRAIL had no effects on the proliferation of KG-1a cells ,while could inhibit the proliferation of KG-1a cells treated with resveratrol ;Moreover ,resveratrol could enhance the apoptosis of KG-1a cells induced by TRAIL and up-regulate the expression of TIRAIL death receptors DR5

  18. Sintering behavior of mullite with addition of SiO2-MgO-Y2O3-SrCO3

    Lim, Chang-Bin; Yeo, Dong-Hun; Shin, Hyo-Soon


    As the size of semiconducting silicon (Si) wafers increases, that of the ceramic substrate, which is main part of a semiconductor probing system, has also increased. The increased number of layers due to high integrity of Si wafers and the narrow pattern linewidths for impedance matching require the use of Cu-Mo conducting paste, rather than conventional Mo paste, for low electrical resistivity. For co-firing of a Cu-Mo electrode with a ceramic substrate, a green ceramic substrate with a printed pattern must be sintered at a temperature below 1400 °C. To obtain a mullite composition that can be co-fired with a Cu-Mo electrode at a temperature below 1400 °C, we added 1.0 wt% of SiO2, 1.0 wt% of MgO, 1.5 wt% of Y2O3, and 7.0 wt% of SrCO3 to a commercial mullite composition, and we sintered the specimen with that composition at 1350 °C in a reducing atmosphere to obtain a density of 3.20 g/cm3. The sintered specimen's coefficient of thermal expansion at temperatures from room temperature to 200 °C was 4.53 ppm/°C, which is acceptable for a semiconductor probing system.

  19. Carbonate apatite formation on novel multiphase CaO-SiO2-P2O5-MgO glass-ceramics in TRIS-HCl buffer

    Lachezar Radev


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the presented article is the preparation of novel glass-ceramics in CaO-SiO2-P2O5-MgO system and evaluation of carbonate apatite formation after soaking in TRIS-HCl buffer solution for 14 days. The investigated samples were prepared via sol-gel method and structure of the obtained samples was studied using XRD, FTIR, SEM, XPS and ICP-AES. XRD of the thermally treated samples showed that the presence of some crystalline phases is depended on the gel composition. FTIR revealed the existence of all characteristic bands for the observed crystalline phases. SEM monitored the presence of particles with different morphology. After soaking in TRIS-HCl solution, FTIR confirmed that carbonate apatite was formed on the soaked surface. The obtained data are in a good agreement with XPS analysis. The change of ions concentrations in TRIS-HCl buffer solution after immersion of the prepared glass-ceramics was recorded by ICP-AES measurements.

  20. Direct Measuring Methods of Water Vapor Content and Air Velocity at High Temperature using ZrO2-MgO Gas Chemisorption Type Ceramic Body

    Nomura, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Nobuya; Shiba, Tooru; Hyodo, Tsutomu

    The control of humidity or air velocity as well as temperature is imperative for industrial process equipment such as air conditioners, dryers. At present, much about humidity sensors has been reported, and recently, ceramic sensors have been used with improved results. However, the effective operating temperature of these sensors for a direct measurement of the humidity is about 423 K at the highest. From the various ceramic sensors so far investigated, the authors selected composite ceramics ZrO2-MgO with porous structure and n-type semiconductor for humidity sensing at high temperature. This is because, when the working temperature of the ceramic sensor is between 673 and 973K, the sensor detects the presence of water vapor and gas velocity by the variations in the electronic condition caused by the reversible of the water vapor. From the test, the sensor that use a single sensing ceramic element can detect directly both the water vapor content in a mixed gas of air and superheated vapor in the temperature range 373-773 K and the air velocity(O.5-4m/s) in the range 373-573K.

  1. Phase diagrams, thermodynamic properties and sound velocities derived from a multiple Einstein method using vibrational densities of states: an application to MgO-SiO2

    Jacobs, Michael H. G.; Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer; van den Berg, Arie P.


    In a previous paper, we showed a technique that simplifies Kieffer's lattice vibrational method by representing the vibrational density of states with multiple Einstein frequencies. Here, we show that this technique can be applied to construct a thermodynamic database that accurately represents thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams for substances in the system MgO-SiO2. We extended our technique to derive shear moduli of the relevant phases in this system in pressure-temperature space. For the construction of the database, we used recently measured calorimetric and volumetric data. We show that incorporating vibrational densities of states predicted from ab initio methods into our models enables discrimination between different experimental data sets for heat capacity. We show a general technique to optimize the number of Einstein frequencies in the VDoS, such that thermodynamic properties are affected insignificantly. This technique allows constructing clones of databases from which we demonstrate that the VDoS has a significant effect on heat capacity and entropy, and an insignificant effect on volume properties.

  2. Kinetics of Reduction of CaO-FeO x -MgO-PbO-SiO2 Slags by CO-CO2 Gas Mixtures

    Jahanshahi, Sharif; Wright, Steven


    Kinetics of the reaction of lead slags (PbO-CaO-SiO2-FeO x -MgO) with CO-CO2 gas mixtures was studied by monitoring the changes in the slag composition when a stream of CO-CO2 gas mixture was blown on the surface of thin layers of slags (3 to 10 mm) at temperatures in the range of 1453 K to 1593 K (1180 °C to 1320 °C). These measurements were carried out under conditions where mass transfer in the gas phase was not the rate-limiting step and the reduction rates were insensitive to factors affecting mass transfer in the slag phase. The results show simultaneous reduction of PbO and Fe2O3 in the slag. The measured specific rate of oxygen removal from the melts varied from about 1 × 10-6 to 4 × 10-5 mol O cm-2 s-1 and was strongly dependent on the slag chemistry and its oxidation state, partial pressure of CO in the reaction gas mixture, and temperature. The deduced apparent first-order rate constant increased with increasing iron oxide content, oxidation state of the slag, and temperature. The results indicate that under the employed experimental conditions, the rate of formation of CO2 at the gas-slag interface is likely to be the rate-limiting step.

  3. Interfacial Tension in the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-(MgO) Liquid Slag-Solid Oxide Systems

    Abdeyazdan, Hamed; Monaghan, Brian J.; Longbottom, Raymond J.; Rhamdhani, M. Akbar; Dogan, Neslihan; Chapman, Michael W.


    Interfacial phenomenon is critical in metal processing and refining. While it is known to be important, there are little data available for key oxide systems in the literature. In this study, the interfacial tension ( σ LS) of liquid slag on solid oxides (alumina, spinel, and calcium aluminate), for a range of slags in the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-(MgO) system at 1773 K (1500 °C), has been evaluated. The results show that basic ladle-type slags exhibit lower σ LS with oxide phases examined compared to that of acid tundish-type slags. Also, within the slag types (acid and base), σ LS was observed to decrease with increasing slag basicity. A correlation between σ LS and slag structure was observed, i.e., σ LS was found to decrease linearly with increasing of slag optical basicity (Λ) and decrease logarithmically with decreasing of slag viscosity from acid to base slags. This indicated a higher σ LS as the ions in the slag become larger and more complex. Through a work of adhesion ( W) analysis, it was shown that basic ladle slags with lower σ LS result in a greater W, i.e., form a stronger bond with the solid oxide phases examined. This indicates that all other factors being equal, the efficiency of inclusion removal from steel of inclusions of similar phase to these solid oxides would be greater.

  4. Melting features and viscosity of SiO2-CaO-MgO-Al2O3-FeO nickel slag in laterite metallurgy

    Pan C.


    Full Text Available Physic-chemical properties of slag at high temperature were very important for the production of ferronickel alloy by pyrometallurgical process. It determines the operation efficiency, metal recovery ratio, energy consumption and the distribution of elements (like S and P between the slag and metal. In the present work, the effect of slag basicity on melting features and viscosity of the slag was investigated. The basicity of the SiO2-CaO-MgO-Al2O3-FeO quinary slag system varied from 0.76 to 0.99. The results showed that: 1 all the slag samples began to soften at the same temperature; 2 the softening temperature, melting temperature and flowing temperature decreased with the increase of basicity from 0.76 to 0.92, after that, the temperatures would increase sharply. 3 the inflection point temperature of viscosity-temperature curve became larger and larger with the increase of basicity within 0.76 ~ 0.99.

  5. Study of the productivity of MWCNT over Fe and Fe–Co catalysts supported on SiO2, Al2O3 and MgO

    S.A. Shokry


    Full Text Available In the present study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT were prepared in good quality and quantity, MWCNT were produced using the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD technique and the carbon source was acetylene. Different catalysts were synthesized based on iron and a mixture of iron and cobalt metal supported on SiO2, Al2O3 or MgO. The effect of parameters such as iron concentration, support type, bimetallic catalyst and the method of catalyst preparation has been investigated in the production of MWCNT. The quality of as-made nanotubes was investigated by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The best yield of MWCNT was 30 times of the amount of the used catalyst. The high yield of MWCNT was gained by 40 wt.% Fe on alumina support which was prepared by the sol–gel method. TEM analysis was done for the carbon deposit, which revealed that the walls of the MWCNT were graphitized, with regular inner channel and uniform diameter. It reflected a reasonable degree of purity. The TGA showed that MWCNT was decomposed at 635 °C by a small rate indicating a high thermal stability and well crystalline formation of the produced MWCNT.


    吴铖川; 成国光; 马琦琦



  7. Ce2O3掺杂SrO-MgO-SiO2微晶玻璃结构与发光性能研究%Preparation and Luminescent Properties of Ce3 + Doped SrO-MgO-SiO2 Glass Ceramics

    何峰; 吴成龙; 刘庭伟; 谢峻林; 张文涛; 刘佳


    制备了一种新型的以黄长石为主晶相的Ce离子激活发光微晶玻璃,采用X射线衍射仪和荧光光谱仪研究了热处理温度对微晶玻璃的结构及发光性能的影响.结果表明:Ce3+掺杂SrO-MgO-SiO2微晶玻璃,激发光谱激发峰位在475 nm处,发射光谱发射峰位在715 nm处,Ce3+离子的发光属于5d-4f跃迁.热处理温度的升高不会改变Ce3+掺杂SrO-MgO-SiO2微晶玻璃荧光光谱的峰位,随着热处理温度的升高,荧光光谱强度呈现增强的趋势.掺杂Ce3+离子浓度的增加能增强荧光光谱的强度.

  8. Influence of ZrO2-Y2O3 and ZrO2-CaO coatings on microstructural and mechanical properties on Mg-1,3Ca- 5,5Zr biodegradable alloy

    Istrate, B.; Munteanu, C.; Matei, MN; Oprisan, B.; Chicet, D.; Earar, K.


    Zirconia (ZrO2) as a ceramic biomaterial facilitates the osteoconductivity in new bone formation around implant. In order to improve the degradation and the surface properties, it is necessary to apply a surface film to satisfy multiple clinical requirements such as mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and degradation rate. Therefore, surface changing to form a tenacious, biocompatible and corrosion resistant modified layer has become a necessary study in biodegradable materials. The aim of the study is to observe the morphology, structural and scratch analysis for some coatings of ZrO2-CaO and ZrO2-Y2O3 having similar thickness deposited with an atmospheric plasma spraying facility, Sulzer Metco 9MCE, using scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction. Some mechanical aspects were highlighted during the scratch test. Comparative scratch tests were carried out to study the bonding properties between the coatings and the substrates.

  9. Effect of CeO2 and CaO Promoters on Ignition Performance for Partial Oxidation of Methane over Ni/MgO-Al2O3 Catalyst

    Yejun Qiu; Jixiang Chen; Jiyan Zhang


    The effect of CeO2 and CaO promoters on the ignition performance over Ni/MgO-Al2O3 catalyst for the partial oxidation of methane (POM) to synthesis gas was investigated. It was found that the POM reaction could not be ignited over 1wt%Ni/MgO-Al2O3 catalyst without the promoters in the temperature range from 773 K to 1073 K. CeO2 and CaO promoters enhanced the ignition performance and the POM reactivity of 1wt%Ni/MgO-Al2O3 catalyst remarkably. Moreover, the improving effect became greater with the increase of the promoter content under the investigated reactionconditions. The modification effects of CeO2 and CaO promoters were closely related to the concentration and reducibility of the surface and bulk oxygen species.

  10. Evaluation of Existing Viscosity Data and Models and Developments of New Viscosity Model for Fully Liquid Slag in the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO System

    Han, Chen; Chen, Mao; Zhang, Weidong; Zhao, Zhixing; Evans, Tim; Zhao, Baojun


    Metallurgical properties of slag are determined to a great extent by its viscosity. High-temperature viscosity measurements are time-consuming and expensive. It is necessary to develop an accurate viscosity model for blast furnace slag in the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO system using reliable viscosity data. This paper describes a systemic evaluation procedure to determine the viscosity data to be used for model development. 1780 viscosity data from 10 to 65 wt pct SiO2, 3.5 to 40 wt pct Al2O3, 2 to 60 wt pct CaO, and 2 to 38 wt pct MgO in the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO system have been accepted for model evaluation after critical reviews. The existing 14 viscosity models in SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO system is also reviewed and evaluated. Based on the structure of alumina-silicate slag and evaluated viscosity data, a new viscosity model has been proposed for the system SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO. A new term "probability," based on the basic oxide and electronegativity, is introduced to calculate the integral activation energy of slag. The model has been evaluated and compared with existing viscosity models in three different composition ranges in SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO system for different applications. The new model reports an outstanding agreement between predictions and experimental data. The industrial implications of the new model have also been discussed in ironmaking and steelmaking processes.

  11. Optical and scintillation properties of Ce:(Gd8AE2)(SiO4)6O2 (AE = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) crystals

    Igashira, Takuya; Mori, Masaki; Okada, Go; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Yanagida, Takayuki


    1% Ce-doped and non-doped (Gd8AE2)(SiO4)6O2 (AE = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) (denoted as GMS, GCS, GSrS and GBS, respectively) single crystals were grown by the Floating Zone (FZ) method to evaluate their optical and scintillation properties. The Ce:GCS and Ce:GSrS samples exhibited scintillation and photoluminescence (PL) around 400 nm due to the 5d-4f transitions of Ce3+. On the other hand, Ce:GMS and Ce:GBS showed much weaker emissions in the wavelength range of 500-650 nm, in which the origin was associated with the host matrices. The PL decay curves were approximated by a double exponential decay function for all the Ce-doped samples. The decay times ranged around 10-30 and 40-90 ns, and faster components coincided with those of the non-doped samples. The scintillation decay curves of Ce-doped samples, on the other hand, were approximated by single exponential functions with slower decay constants than those of PL decay. These constants were very similar to those of non-doped samples. In the X-ray induced afterglow measurements, Ce:GCS exhibited the lowest afterglow level. The pulse height spectrum of these samples showed a full-energy peak under 241Am 5.5 MeV α-ray irradiation. Among these samples, Ce:GSrS exhibited the highest light yield which was around 600 ph/5.5 MeV-α.

  12. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiB$_2$ powder from TiO$_2$, B$_2$O$_3$ and Mg reactants through microwave-assisted self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method



    In this research work, microwave-assisted self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process was employed for the fabrication of titanium diboride (TiB$_2$) compound from TiO$_2$–B$_2$O$_3$–Mg mixtures. Thermodynamicevaluations of this system and its relevant subsystems revealed that TiB$_2$–MgO composite powder can be easily produced by a SHS reaction. However, experimental results of a TiO$_2$ : B$_2$O$_3$ : 5 Mg mixture heated in a domestic oven showed the formation of some intermediate compounds such as Mg3B2O6, presumably due to some degree of Mg loss. The optimum amount of Mg in TiO$_2$ : B$_2$O$_3$ : xMg mixtures, yielding the highest amount of TiB$_2$ phase, was found to be around 7 mol, i.e., 40 mol% more than the stoichiometric amount. Experimental results revealed thata pure TiB$_2$ compound could be obtained by leaching the unwanted by-products in an HCl acid solution. Scanning electron microscopic observations and Scherrer calculations showed that the produced TiB$_2$ contains sub-micron (150–200 nm) particles, where each particle consists of a number of nanosized (32 nm) crystallites.

  13. 二甲醚催化氧化制下游化学品(Ⅱ)V/Mn改性的SnO2/MgO催化氧化制碳氢化合物%Catalytic oxidation of dimethyl ether to downstream products (Ⅱ) Over V or Mn modified SnO2/MgO catalysts

    吕逵弟; 余林; 向杰; 孙明; 郝志峰; 余倩; 许洁瑜; 王雪涛


    考察了SnO2/MgO催化剂和添加助剂V、Mn对二甲醚(DME)催化氧化制取乙二醇二甲醚(DMET)和其他碳氢化合物的催化性能.结果表明,锡镁催化剂对DME在275~325 ℃有良好的催化活性;添加VOx能较大提高DME转化率和产物DMET的选择性,DME转化率可达23%,DMET选择性可达44%,在300℃收率达9%以上.

  14. 复合精炼球团中SiO2、CaO、MgO等7组分的测定%Determination of the SiO2, CaO, MgO, TAl, P, MAl and Al2O3 in Composite Refining Pellet

    王俊秀; 傅士刚; 张小燕; 魏新晖; 李龙霞


      试样用混合熔剂熔融,稀盐酸浸取,定容,移取部分试液,通过控制各元素的酸度,分别用光度法测定SiO2和P;EG-TA滴定法测定CaO,EDTA滴定法测定MgO;强碱沉淀分离氟盐置换、EDTA滴定法测定TAl.另称取1份试样用三氯化铁溶解,加入过量的氢氧化钠,滤液在pH值4.5的乙酸—乙酸铵缓冲介质中,加入过量的EDTA标准溶液,在煮沸条件下与MAl络合后,以PAN为指示剂,用铜标准溶液返滴定过量的EDTA;加氟化物取代,铜标准溶液二次返滴定,计算MAl量,再换算为 Al2O3量.实验确定三氯化铁浓度为8%、用量50 mL 及用振荡器或摇动的最佳时间为60 min.该方法测定 SiO2、CaO、MgO、P、Al2O3及MAl的相对偏差分别小于0.718%、2.819%、1.171%、7.143%、0.178%和1.013%,完全满足快速分析的需要.%  The sample melted with mixed flux, leaching with dilute hydrochloric acid, constant volume, removing a part of solution, through the control of the acidity of each element, respectively the SiO2 and P were determined by photometric method; the CaO was determined by EGTA titration method and the MgO was determined by EDTA titration method; the TAl was determined by alkali precipitation separation of fluoride salt replacement and EDTA titration method. The other a sample with ferric chloride dissolving, excess sodium hydroxide was added. The filtrate in acetic acid-ammonium acetate buffer solution at pH 4.5 was added excessive EDTA standard solution and made complexation with the MAl in the boiling condition. Making PAN as indicator, using copper standard solution back titration of excess EDTA, adding fluoride to replace copper standard solution, two times back titration, the mass fraction of the MAl was calculated and the mass fraction of the Al2O3 was converted. The concentration and dosage of the ferric chloride determined by test are 8% and 50 mL and the best shake time or by an oscillator is 60 min. The RSDs of SiO2, CaO, Mg

  15. Co-hydrothermal synthesis of LiMn23/24Mg1/24PO4·LiAlO2/C nano-hybrid cathode material with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries

    Zhang, Jun; Luo, Shaohua; Chang, Longjiao; Hao, Aimin; Wang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yanguo; Xu, Qian; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Yahui


    LiMn23/24Mg1/24PO4·LiAlO2/C is synthesized by a co-hydrothermal method in water/PEG system using Li2CO3, AAO and Mn1-xMgxPO4 as raw material. The electronic structure and micromorphology of multi-component compound LiMn1-xMgxPO4/C (x = 0, 1/24, 1/12, 1/6) and nano-hybrid LiMn23/24Mg1/24PO4·LiAlO2/C cathode materials are studied by first-principles calculation and experimental research including XRD, SEM, TEM. The calculated band gap of LiMn23/24Mg1/24PO4/C is 2.296 eV, which is lower than other percentages Mg2+ doping samples. Electrochemical tests exhibit LiMn23/24Mg1/24PO4/C has better cycling performance and rate capability than other contents Mg2+ doping samples with the discharge capacity of 143.5 mAh/g, 141.5 mAh/g, 139.2 mAh/g and 136.3 mAh/g at 0.05C, 0.1C, 0.5C and 1C in order. After compositing and preparation of LiMn23/24Mg1/24PO4·LiAlO2/C composite material by co-hydrothermal route, the initial discharge capacity reaches up to 151.8 mAh/g, which suggests that co-modified with Mg2+ doping and LiAlO2 compositing material can improve the electronic conductivity of LiMnPO4/C by facilitating the lithium ion diffusion rate in the interior of the materials.

  16. Thermodynamic Assessment of MnO and FeO Activities in FeO–MnO–MgO–P2O5–SiO2(–CaO) Molten Slag

    Kim, Sun-Joong; Takekawa, Jun; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Shin-ya; Yamaguchi, Katsunori; Kang, Youn-Bae


    The activity coefficients of MnO and FeO in an FeO–MnO–MgO–P2O5–SiO2(–CaO) slag system were measured on the basis of the equilibrium between Ag and molten slag at 1673 K under a controlled atmosphere...

  17. Fabrication of a dye-sensitized solar cell containing a Mg-doped TiO2 electrode and a Br3(-)/Br- redox mediator with a high open-circuit photovoltage of 1.21 V.

    Kakiage, Kenji; Tokutome, Toru; Iwamoto, Shinji; Kyomen, Toru; Hanaya, Minoru


    A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) fabricated by using a Mg(2+)-doped anatase-TiO(2) electrode with an alkoxysilyl dye and a Br(3)(-)/Br(-) electrolyte solution exhibited successfully a remarkably high open-circuit photovoltage over 1.2 V, demonstrating a new possibility of DSSCs as practical photovoltaic devices.

  18. Low temperature biosynthesis of Li2O–MgO–P2O5–TiO2 nanocrystalline glass with mesoporous structure exhibiting fast lithium ion conduction

    Du, X.Y.; He, W.; Zhang, X.D.


    We demonstrate a biomimetic synthesis methodology that allows us to create Li2O–MgO–P2O5–TiO2 nanocrystalline glass with mesoporous structure at lower temperature. We design a ‘nanocrystal-glass’ configuration to build a nanoarchitecture by means of yeast cell templates self-assembly followed by ...

  19. Dissolution Behavior of Alumina-Based Inclusions in CaF2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2 Slag Used for the Electroslag Metallurgy Process

    Yanwu Dong


    Full Text Available Removal of non-metallic inclusions to CaF2-based slag is one of the most important functions of electroslag remelting. In this work, the dissolution behavior for alumina-based inclusions in CaF2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2 slag has been investigated. Results indicate that the diffusion or permeability capacity of slag components into alumina particles is F−, Ca2+, Si4+, Mg2+, from strongest to weakest, for CaF2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-SiO2 slag. Alumina inclusions react with F− in liquid slag at first and then react with CaO to form xCaO-yAl2O3 system. Subsequently, MgO substitutes for CaO to form a MgO-Al2O3 system layer surrounding the other product and reactant, and then enters the liquid slag. CaF2 can improve the dissolution capacity of slag to alumina inclusions. A complex region was formed between alumina-based particles and the slag, with different areas dominated by CaF2, CaO-Al2O3, CaO-SiO2 and MgO-Al2O3. The dissolution process of alumina particles in slag is different from the formation of compound inclusions originated from the Al-O deoxidization reaction.

  20. 复合添加Al和TiO2对低碳镁碳砖基质物相组成及性能的影响%Effect of additives Al and TiO2 on the matrix phase composition and properties of low carbon MgO-C bricks

    夏忠锋; 王周福; 王玺堂; 刘浩


    Low carbon MgO-C bricks were prepared with fused magnesia and fine flake graphite as the raw materials, thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin as the binder, added with Al and TiO2. The effect of additives Al and TiO2 on the matrix phase composition and properties of low carbon MgO-C bricks were investigated. The matrix phase composition' was analyzed by XRD, and the microstruc-ture was characterized by SEM and EDS. The results show that the formation of MgAl2O4 and TiN or Ti(C,N) from the reaction of additives with the matrix can significantly improve the oxidation resistance and cold crush strength of low carbon MgO-C bricks. In addition, the addition of Al and TiO2 can avoid the formation of Al4C3 and prevent the bricks from hydration.%以电熔镁砂、超细鳞片石墨为主要原料,以热固性酚醛树脂为结合剂,添加Al和TiO2制备低碳镁碳砖,研究复合引入Al粉和TiO2对低碳镁碳砖基质物相组成及性能的影响.结果表明,埋炭热处理后,添加剂与基质反应生成新相MgAl2O4和TiN或Ti(C,N),使低碳镁碳砖的抗氧化性能明显提高,材料的强度显著增加;此外,添加剂的复合引入有利于改善单独引入Al粉时镁碳砖埋炭处理后易水化的问题.

  1. Structure and Fluorescence Quenching of Li2O-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 Glasses Doped with Trivalent Cerium%Ce3+掺杂Li2O-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2玻璃的结构与荧光猝灭现象

    陈艳平; 罗德礼; 徐钦英; 杨锁龙; 唐涛; 王小英


    20Li2O-5MgO-20Al2O3-55SiO2glass doped with different concentrations ofCe3+ions was synthesized by using melt-quenching method. The glass density as a function of Ce3+ ions doping concentration was tested by Ar-chimedes’ method. The structural characteristics of Ce3+-doped 20Li2O-5MgO-20Al2O3-55SiO2were detected by using X-rays diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) techniques. The photolumines-cence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectra were recorded in a spectrofluorimeter by photon counting techniques. Results showed that 5d energy level of Ce3+ ion was splitted to five components under the strong crystal filed sur-rounding Ce3+ ions. The higher the doping concentration of Ce3+ ions, the higher the degree of non-crystalline con-figuration of lithium magnesium aluminosilicate glass was. With the increase of the degree of non-crystalline configu-ration, the splitting width of 5d energy level increased, resulting in the redshift of excitation and emission spectra ap-parently. The PL emission intensity first increased, and then decreased with the increase of Ce3+ ions doping concen-tration. The concentration quenching processes were found to be the key reason for the reduction of the PL emission efficiency.%采用熔融淬冷法制备了不同浓度 Ce3+离子掺杂的20Li2O-5MgO-20Al2O3-55SiO2玻璃闪烁材料。采用 X 射线衍射(XRD)、高分辨透射电镜(HRTEM)技术、密度检测等方法研究了玻璃的微观结构随 Ce3+离子掺杂浓度的变化规律,采用荧光分光技术检测了玻璃的紫外光致激发光谱(PLE)、发射光谱(PE)。研究结果表明:在不对称的晶体场作用下, Ce3+离子5d能级被劈裂为5个组分;随着玻璃基质内Ce3+离子掺杂浓度增大,玻璃的非晶化程度加深;5d能级的劈裂宽度随之增大,由此导致激发带向低能量端展宽、发射光谱明显红移; Ce3+离子的荧光发射强度随Ce3+离子掺杂浓度先升高、

  2. CaO-SiO2-MgO-CaF2熔渣对氧化锆的侵蚀行为%Corrosion behaviors of zirconia refractory by CaO-SiO2-MgO-CaF2 slag



    本文研究了在1 873K的温度下,随着CaF2含量的变化CaO-SiO2-MgO-CaF2系熔渣对氧化锆(部分氧化镁-稳定氧化锆)耐火材料的侵蚀行为.通过测试高温下此熔渣的熔点和汽化行为表征其侵蚀机理.采用HM(加热显微镜)进行侵蚀实验和熔点测定,并利用TG-DSC(微量差热分析和示差扫描量热法)研究其汽化现象,然后使用扫描电子显微镜能谱仪和电子探针分析熔渣对氧化锆的侵蚀界面.结果表明随着CaF2的增加,在熔渣和氧化锆耐火材料表面形成了3个不同的层,并且发现随着能促进中间氧化物分解的CaF2,的增加,氧化锆耐火材料的侵蚀行为不断地加重.另一方面随着CaF2含量的增加,CaO-SiO2-MgO-CaF2熔渣的熔点并没有持续降低.同时,在HM试验中发现CaF2含量过高会导致大量氟化物气体出现,这将会引起熔渣成分的逐渐改变并产生环境污染.这些研究结果表明,为了避免熔渣对氧化锆基耐火材料的严重损坏,可以添加适量的CaF2以提高熔渣的精炼能力.

  3. AZ91D镁合金表面原位合成TiO2陶瓷层及其性能的研究%Surface Modification of AZ91D Mg Alloy with TiO2 Coatingsand Improvement of Mechanical Properties

    孙永花; 王波; 王若云; 姚晓红; 张翔宇; 王振霞


    The AZ91 D Mg alloy was surface-modified with TiO2 coatings,deposited bymicro-arc oxidation and magnetron sputter ion plating.The impact of the micro-arc oxidation time on the microstructures,phase-structures, corrosion /wear resistance was investigated with scanning electron microscopy,X-ray diffraction electrochemical a-nalysis.The results show that depending on the micro-arc oxidation time,the TiO2 coatings significantly improved the microstructures,corrosion resistance and tribological behavior of the Mg-alloy.For example,as the micro-arc oxida-tion time increased,the thickness of TiO2 coatings increased to about 5 μm,consisting mainly of rutile /anatase-phased TiO2 and Mg2 SiO4 ,accompanied by increased pore-size and decreased pore-density.Oxidized for 1 2 min,the porous TiO2 layers were found to cover the inner compact TiO2 layer.The free corrosion potential of the TiO2 coat-ings increases by 299 mV and its free corrosion current decreases by two-order of magnitude.Besides,the corrosion and wear resistance were markedly improved.%采用磁控溅射-微弧氧化复合处理技术,在AZ91 D镁合金表面原位合成TiO2陶瓷层。利用扫描电镜、X射线衍射的方法分析了陶瓷层的形貌特征及物相构成。通过电化学测试、摩擦磨损实验分别研究了陶瓷层的耐蚀性能和耐磨性能。结果表明:陶瓷层表面分布着微米级的微孔,随着氧化时间的延长,微孔的孔径逐渐增大而数量逐渐减少。从截面形貌上可以看出,纯钛膜层的厚度大约为5μm,TiO2陶瓷层由内层致密层和外层疏松层组成,并且厚度随着氧化时间的延长而增加。陶瓷层主要有金红石型 TiO2相、锐钛矿型 TiO2相及 Mg2 SiO4相构成。TiO2陶瓷层的自腐蚀电位比基体提高了299 mv,腐蚀电流降低了2个数量级。此外,陶瓷层表现出了一定的减摩作用,综合性能显著提高。

  4. First-principles study of fission product (Xe, Cs, Sr) incorporation and segregation in alkaline earth metal oxides, HfO2, and MgO-HfO2 interface

    Liu, Xiang-yang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uberuaga, Blas P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sickafus, Kurt E [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In order to close the nuclear fuel cycle, advanced concepts for separating out fission products are necessary. One approach is to use a dispersion fuel form in which a fissile core is surrounded by an inert matrix that captures and immobilizes the fission products from the core. If this inert matrix can be easily separated from the fuel, via e.g. solution chemistry, the fission products can be separated from the fissile material. We examine a surrogate dispersion fuel composition, in which hafnia (HfO{sub 2}) is a surrogate for the fissile core and alkaline earth metal oxides are used as the inert matrix. The questions of fission product incorporation in these oxides and possible segregation behavior at interfaces are considered. Density functional theory based calculations for fission product elements (Xe, Sr, and Cs) in these oxides are carried out. We find smaller incorporation energy in hafnia than in MgO for Cs and Sr, and Xe if variation of charge state is allowed. We also find that this trend is reversed or reduced for alkaline earth metal oxides with large cation sizes. Model interfacial calculations show a strong tendency of segregation from bulk MgO to MgO-HfO{sub 2} interfaces.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Mg_3(PO_4)_2-coated Li_(1.05)Ni_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)Co_(1/3)O_2 Cathode Material for Li-ion Battery

    CHEN Yuhong; TANG Zhiyuan; ZHANG Guoqing; ZHANG Xuemei; CHEN Ruizhen; LIU Yuangang; LIU Qiang


    Mg_3(PO_4)_2-coated Li_(1.05)Ni_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)Co_(1/3)O_2 cathode materials were synthesized via co-precipitation method.The morphology,structure,electrochemical performance and thermal stability were characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM),X-ray diffraction(XRD),cyclic voltammetry(CV),electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS),charge/discharge cycling and differential scanning calorimeter(DSC).SEM analysis shows that Mg_3(PO_4)_2-coating changes the morphologies of their particles and increases the grains size.XRD and CV results show that Mg_3(PO_4)_2-coating powder is homogeneous and has better layered structure than the bare one. Mg_3(PO_4)_2-coating improved high rate discharge capacity and cycle-life performance.The reason why the cycling performance of Mg_3(PO_4)_2-coated sample at 55℃was better than that of room temperature was the increasing of lithium-ion diffusion rate and charge transfer rate with temperature rising. Mg_3(PO_4)_2-coating improved the cathode thermal stability,and the result was consistent with thermal abuse tests using Li-ion cells:the Mg_3(PO_4)_2 coated Li_(1.05)Ni_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)Co_(1/3)O_2 cathode did not exhibit thermal runaway with smoke and explosion,in contrast to the cells containing the bare Li_(1.05)Ni_(1/3)Mn_(1/3)Co_(1/3)O_2.

  6. Sulfide Capacity Model and Its Application in CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-FetO Slag System%硫容量模型和在五元渣系CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-FetO中的应用

    李京社; 唐海燕; 孙开明; 温德松



  7. TGF-β1对白血病KG-1细胞株Gli1表达的影响%Effect of TGF-β1 on Gli1 expression in KG-1 cell line

    李哲; 潘静


    Objective To prove that there was cross talk between Hh signaling pathway and TGF-β signaling pathway in KG-1 cells line. Methods (1) KG-1 cells were treated with 0. 1 ng/mL,l ng/mL,and 10 ng/mL TGF-β1 for 6 h,12 h,and 24 h respectively. Cells were collected after stimulation. Total mRNA was extracted. Glil expression was detected by real-time PCR. (2) KG-1 cells were treated with 5 ng/mL TGFβ1 and 5 ng/mL TGF-β1 +5 μmol SIS3 respectively for 24h. Cells were collected after stimulation. Total mRNA was extracted. Glil expression was detected. Results (1) When 1- 10 ng/mL TGF-β1 acted on the KG-1 cells respectively for 6 h, 12 h and 24 h, significant reduction of Glil mRNA in response to TGF-β1 was observed in KG-1 cells, emerging at 12 h and lasting at least 24 h,lower than that of the control group. (2) When 5 ng/mL TGF-β1 and 5 ng/mL TGF-β1 +5 μmol SIS3 acted on the KG-1 cells respectively for 24 h respectively,Glil expression of mRNA of control group was higher than that of TGF-β1 group, while much lower than that of TGF-β1 +SIS3 group. Conclusion TGF-β1significantly decreased Glil expression in KG-1 cells. Glil induction in KG-1 cells by TGF-β1 was a Smad3-dependent manner. This effect was independent from the Ptch/Smo axis.%目的 证明在白血病KG-1细胞株中存在TGF-β信号通路对Gli的调控作用.方法 (1)用0.1、1、10 ng/mL TGF-β1分别作用于KG-1细胞,时间分别为6、12、24 h.处理结束后收集细胞,提取mRNA,检测Gli1的表达.(2)5 ng/mL TGF-β1、5 ng/mL TGF-β1联合5 μmol SIS3分别作用于KG-1细胞24 h.处理结束后收集细胞,提取mRNA,检测Gli1的表达.结果 (1)1~10 ng/mL TGF-β1分别作用于KG-1细胞6、12、24 h,从12 h起并至少持续至24 h,其Gli1的mRNA表达较对照组明显减少;(2)5 ng/mL TGF-β1、5ng/mL TGF-β1联合5 μmol SIS3分别作用于KG-1细胞24 h,其Gli1的mRNA表达与对照组比较:5 ng/mL TGF-β1组较对照组降低,而5 ng/mL TGF-β1联合5 μmol SIS3组较

  8. Thermal measurements and computational simulations of three-phase (CeO2-MgAl2O4-CeMgAl11O19) and four-phase (3Y-TZP-Al2O3-MgAl2O4-LaPO4) composites as surrogate inert matrix nuclear fuel

    Angle, Jesse P.; Nelson, Andrew T.; Men, Danju; Mecartney, Martha L.


    This study investigates the temperature dependent thermal conductivity of multiphase ceramic composites for simulated inert matrix nuclear fuel. Fine grained composites were made of CeO2-MgAl2O4-CeMgAl11O19 or 3Y-TZP-Al2O3-MgAl2O4-LaPO4. CeO2 and 3Y-TZP are used as UO2 surrogates due to their similar structures and low thermal conductivities. Laser flash analysis from room temperature to 1273 K (1000 °C) was used to determine the temperature dependent thermal conductivity. A computational approach using Object Oriented Finite Element Analysis Version 2 (OOF2) was employed to simulate the composite thermal conductivity based on the microstructure. Observed discrepancies between experimental and simulated thermal conductivities at low temperature may be due to Kapitza resistance; however, there is less than 3% deviation between models and experiments above 673 K (400 °C) for both compositions. When the surrogate phase was replaced with UO2 in the computational model for the four-phase composite, a 12-16% increase in thermal conductivity resulted compared to single phase UO2, in the range of 673-1273 K (400-1000 °C). This computational approach may be potentially viable for the high-throughput evaluation of composite systems and the strategic selection of inert phases without extensive sample fabrication during the initial development stages of composite nuclear fuel design.

  9. Phase Equilibrium Studies of CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 System with Binary Basicity of 1.5 Related to Blast Furnace Slag

    Kou, Mingyin; Wu, Shengli; Ma, Xiaodong; Wang, Laixin; Chen, Mao; Cai, Qingwu; Zhao, Baojun


    Slags play an important role in blast furnace operation, and their compositions are based on the CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 quaternary system in many steel companies. The binary basicity (CaO/SiO2 weight ratio) of blast furnace slags, especially primary slag and bosh slag, can be as high as 1.5 or higher. Phase equilibria and liquidus temperatures in the CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3 system with binary basicity of 1.50 are experimentally determined for temperatures in the range 1723 K to 1823 K (1450 °C to 1550 °C). High temperature equilibration, quenching, and electron probe X-ray microanalysis techniques have been used in the present study. The isotherms are obtained in the primary phase fields of Ca2SiO4, melilite, spinel, periclase, and merwinite related to blast furnace slags. Effects of Al2O3, MgO, and binary basicity on liquidus temperatures have been discussed. In addition, extensive solid solutions have been measured for different primary phases and will be used for development and optimization of the thermodynamic database.

  10. Development of MgO-CaO-ZrO2 Refractories in Cement Rotary Kiln%水泥窑用镁钙锆质耐火材料的发展

    田晓利; 薛崇勃; 薛群虎; 闫振华


    The development process of cement rotary kiln refractories in cement rotary kiln and the research status of MgO-CaO-ZrO2 refractories in home and abroad were introduced. The MgO-CaO-ZrO2 composite material had advantages of magnesia materials, and its mineral composition contained a certain amount calcium silicate phase. Thus, it had a good thermal shock resistance, a high softening temperature under load, an excellent erosion resistance and suitable mechanical properties, which had important significance and high practical value.%介绍了水泥回转窑用耐火材料的发展历程以及国内外镁钙锆质耐火材料的研究现状,指出MgO-CaO-ZrO2复相材料既具有镁质材料的优点,矿物相组成中又包含一定数量的钙硅酸盐相,从而具有良好的抗热震性、较高的荷重软化温度及优异的抗硅酸盐水泥熟料的侵蚀性能、适宜的力学强度等,具有较高的实用价值.

  11. Materiales vitrocerámicos del sistema MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 a partir de ceniza de cáscara de arroz

    Romero, M.


    Full Text Available This wok shows the results of a valorisation study to use rice husk ash as raw material to develop glass-ceramic materials. An original glass has been formulated in the base system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 with addition of B2O3 and Na2O to facilitate the melting and poring processes. Glass characterization was carried out by determining its chemical composition. Sintering behaviour has been examined by Hot Stage Microscopy (HSM. Thermal stability and crystallization mechanism have been studied by Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA. Mineralogy analyses of the glass-ceramic materials were carried out using X-ray Diffraction (XRD. Results show that it is possible to use ash rice husk to produce glass-ceramic materials by a sintercrystallization process, with nepheline (Na2O·Al2O3 · SiO2 as major crystalline phase in the temperature interval 700-950ºC and forsterite (2MgO·SiO2 at temperatures above 950ºC.En este trabajo se muestran los resultados de un estudio de valorización de la ceniza de cáscara de arroz como materia prima en la obtención de materiales vitrocerámicos. Se ha formulado un vidrio en el sistema base MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 incorporando B2O3 y Na2O para facilitar los procesos de fusión y colado del vidrio. El vidrio se ha caracterizado mediante la determinación de su composición química. Su comportamiento frente a la sinterización se ha llevado a cabo mediante Microscopía de Calefacción (MC. La estabilidad térmica de las muestras y el mecanismo de cristalización preferente se ha estudiado mediante Análisis Térmico Diferencial (ATD. La mineralogía de los materiales vitrocerámicos se ha llevado a cabo por Difracción de rayos-X (DRX. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que es posible utilizar ceniza de cáscara de arroz para producir materiales vitrocerámicos mediante un proceso de sinterización seguido de cristalización, con nefelina (Na2O·Al2O3·2SiO2 como fase cristalina mayoritaria en el intervalo de temperatura 700º-950ºC y

  12. The Influence of Sintering Temperature on the Microwave Dielectric Properties of Mg2SiO4 Ceramics with CaO-B2O3-SiO2 Addition

    Yang, Hongyu; Li, Enzhu; Sun, Chengli; Duan, Shuxin; Yuan, Ying; Tang, Bin


    Conventional solid-state methods were used to synthesize Mg2SiO4 ceramic at relatively low sintering temperatures with the assistance of CaO-B2O3-SiO2 (CBS) glass. The effects of the CBS additions on the sintering behavior, crystal structures, microstructures, and microwave dielectric properties of Mg2SiO4 ceramic have been investigated in detail. The results indicate that the addition of CBS glass lowered the sintering temperature of Mg2SiO4 ceramic significantly. The Mg2SiO4 ceramic with 7 wt.% CBS addition sintered at 1325°C for 4 h shows excellent microwave dielectric properties: ɛ r = 6.47, Q × f = 16,552 GHz, τ f = -23.34 ppm/°C.

  13. Role of basicity and tetrahedral speciation in controlling the thermodynamic properties of silicate liquids, part 1: the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2

    Beckett, John R.


    Activity coefficients of oxide components in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 (CMAS) were calculated with the model of Berman (Berman R. G., "A thermodynamic model for multicomponent melts with application to the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2," Ph.D. dissertation, University of British Columbia, 1983) and used to explore large-scale relationships among these variables and between them and the liquid composition. On the basis of Berman's model, the natural logarithm of the activity coefficient of MgO, ln(γ MgOLiq), and ln(γ MgOLiq/γ SiO 2Liq) are nearly linear functions of ln(γ CaOLiq). All three of these variables are simple functions of the optical basicity Λ with which they display minima near Λ ˜ 0.54 that are generated by liquids with low ratios of nonbridging to tetrahedral oxygens (NBO/T) (factor in determining the thermodynamic properties of aluminosilicate liquids. For a constant NBO/T, ln(γ CaOLiq/γ Al 2O 3Liq) and ln(γ MgOLiqγ Al 2O 3Liq) form curves in terms of X SiO 2Liq/X Al 2O 3Liq. The same liquids that generate minima in the Λ plots are also associated with minima in ln(γ CaOLiqγ Al 2O 3Liq) and ln(γ MgOLiqγ Al 2O 3Liq) as a function of X SiO 2Liq/X Al 2O 3Liq. In addition, there are maxima or sharp changes in slope for NBO/T > 0.3, which occur for X SiO 2Liq/X Al 2O 3Liq ranging from ˜0 to ˜6 and increase with increasing NBO/T. The systematic variations in activity coefficients as a function of composition and optical basicity reflect underlying shifts in speciation as the composition of the liquid is changed. On the basis of correlations among the activity coefficients, it is likely that the use of CaO, an exchange component such as SiMg -1 and two of MgO, CaAl 2O 4, or MgAl 2O 4 would yield significant savings in the number of parameters required to model the excess free energy surface of liquids over large portions of CMAS relative to the use of oxide end members. Systematic behavior of thermodynamic properties extends to small

  14. Fate and Phytotoxicity of CeO2 Nanoparticles on Lettuce Cultured in the Potting Soil Environment.

    Gui, Xin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Shutong; Ma, Yuhui; Zhang, Peng; He, Xiao; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jing; Li, Huafen; Rui, Yukui; Liu, Liming; Cao, Weidong


    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) have been shown to have significant interactions in plants. Previous study reported the specific-species phytotoxicity of CeO2 NPs by lettuce (Lactuca sativa), but their physiological impacts and vivo biotransformation are not yet well understood, especially in relative realistic environment. Butterhead lettuce were germinated and grown in potting soil for 30 days cultivation with treatments of 0, 50, 100, 1000 mg CeO2 NPs per kg soil. Results showed that lettuce in 100 mg·kg-1 treated groups grew significantly faster than others, but significantly increased nitrate content. The lower concentrations treatment had no impact on plant growth, compared with the control. However, the higher concentration treatment significantly deterred plant growth and biomass production. The stress response of lettuce plants, such as Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Peroxidase (POD), Malondialdehyde(MDA) activity was disrupted by 1000 mg·kg-1 CeO2 NPs treatment. In addition, the presence of Ce (III) in the roots of butterhead lettuce explained the reason of CeO2 NPs phytotoxicity. These findings demonstrate CeO2 NPs modification of nutritional quality, antioxidant defense system, the possible transfer into the food chain and biotransformation in vivo.

  15. Improved Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Fabricated from a Coumarin NKX-2700 Dye-Sensitized TiO2/MgO Core-Shell Photoanode with an HfO2 Blocking Layer and a Quasi-Solid-State Electrolyte

    Maheswari, D.; Venkatachalam, P.


    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) were fabricated from a coumarin NKX-2700 dye-sensitized core-shell photoanode and a quasi-solid-state electrolyte, sandwiched together, with a cobalt sulfide-coated counter electrode. The core-shell photoanode consisted of a composite mixture of 90% TiO2 nanoparticles and 10% TiO2 nanowires (TNPW) as core layer and MgO nanoparticles (MNP) as shell layer. Hafnium oxide (HfO2) was applied to the core-shell photoanode film as a blocking layer. TiO2 nanoparticles, TiO2 nanowires, and TNPW/MNP were characterized by x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It was apparent from the UV-visible spectrum of the sensitizing dye coumarin NKX-2700 that its absorption was maximum at 525 nm. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) was greater for DSSC-1, fabricated with a core-shell TNPW/MNP/HfO2 photoanode, than for the other DSSC; its photovoltaic properties were: short circuit photocurrent J sc = 19 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage ( V oc) = 720 mV, fill factor ( FF) = 66%, and PCE ( η) = 9.02%. The charge-transport and charge-recombination behavior of the DSSC were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; the results showed that the composite core-shell film resulted in the lowest charge-transfer resistance ( R CE) and the longest electron lifetime ( τ eff). Hence, the improved performance of DSSC-1 could be ascribed to the core-shell photoanode with blocking layer, which increased electron transport and suppressed recombination of charge carriers at the photoanode/dye/electrolyte interface.

  16. Magnetic gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and its application in the delivery of FITC into KG-1 cells.

    Hao, Yuzhi; Song, Steven; Yang, Xiaoyan; Xing, James; Chen, Jie


    In this article, we report a new method-a sonication method to disperse iron oxide nanoparticles into smaller nanoparticles and make gold ions absorb onto the surface or trapped in the micropores of the iron oxide nanoparticles using sonication action. By using quick reduction of ascorbic acid and post-HCI solution treatment, gold covered magnetic nanoparticles (mGNPs) with spherical morphology and uniform size were synthesized in a water solution. The size of the mGNPs was found to be 20-30 nm. Some ideal mGNPs possessed a core-shell structure. The mGNPs were non-cytotoxic and mGNP-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) can enter KG-1 cells when driven by an external magnetic force, which was confirmed by confocal imaging. The confocal image also showed the FITC inside the KG-1 cells was near the nucleus. The fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) delivery efficiency is about 100% according to the flow cytometry results.

  17. Microwave dielectric properties of (A2+(1/3)B5+(2/3))0.5Ti0(0.5)O2 (A2+ = Zn, Mg, B5+ = Nb, Ta) ceramics.

    Kim, E S; Kang, D H


    Dielectric properties of (A(2+)(1/3)B(5+)(2/3))(0.5)Ti0(0.5)O(2) (A(2+) = Zn, Mg, B(5+) = Nb, Ta) ceramics were investigated at microwave frequencies. A single phase with tetragonal rutile structure was obtained through the entire compositions. Dielectric properties were strongly dependent on the structural characteristics. The specimens with B(5+) = Nb showed a larger dielectric constant than those with B(5+) = Ta due to the decrease of bond valence. Quality factors (Qf) of the specimens with B(5+) = Ta were larger than those with B(5+) = Nb. Temperature coefficient of the resonant frequencies (TCF) of (Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3) )0(0.5)Ti0(0.5)O(2) was larger than that of (Mg(1/3)Ta(2/3))0(0.5)Ti0(0.5)O(2). These results could be attributed to the changes of the temperature coefficient of dielectric constant and the degree of oxygen octahedral distortion.

  18. A Sulfide Capacity Prediction Model of CaO-SiO2-MgO-FeO-MnO-Al2O3 Slags during the LF Refining Process Based on the Ion and Molecule Coexistence Theory

    Yang, Xue-Min; Zhang, Meng; Shi, Cheng-Bin; Chai, Guo-Ming; Zhang, Jian


    A sulfide capacity prediction model of CaO-SiO2-MgO-FeO-MnO-Al2O3 ladle furnace (LF) refining slags has been developed based on the ion and molecule coexistence theory (IMCT). The predicted sulfide capacity of the LF refining slags has better accuracy than the measured sulfide capacity of the slags at the middle and final stages during the LF refining process. Increasing slag binary basicity, optical basicity, and the Mannesmann index can lead to an increase of the predicted sulfide capacity for the LF refining slags as well as to an increase of the sulfur distribution ratio between the slags and molten steel at the middle and final stages during the LF refining process. The calculated equilibrium mole numbers, mass action concentrations of structural units or ion couples, rather than mass percentages of components, are recommended to represent the slag composition for correlating with the sulfide capacity of the slags. The developed sulfide capacity IMCT model can calculate not only the total sulfide capacity of the slags but also the respective sulfide capacity of free CaO, MgO, FeO, and MnO in the slags. The comprehensive contribution of the combined ion couples (Ca2+ + O2-) and (Mn2+ + O2-) on the desulfurization reactions accounts for 96.23 pct; meanwhile, the average contribution of the ion couple (Fe2+ + O2-) and (Mg2+ + O2-) only has a negligible contribution as 3.13 pct and 0.25 pct during the LF refining process, respectively. The oxygen activity of bulk molten steel in LF is controlled by the [Al]-[O] equilibrium, and the oxygen activity of molten steel at the slag-metal interface is controlled by the (FeO)-[O] equilibrium. The ratio of the oxygen activity of molten steel at the slag-metal interface to the oxygen activity of bulk molten steel will decrease from 37 to 5 at the initial stage, and further decrease from 28 to 4 at the middle stage, but will maintain at a reliable constant as 5 to 14 at the final stage during the LF refining process. The

  19. Effect of Al2O3, MgO, and CuOx on the dissolution behavior of rhodium in the Na2O-SiO2 slags

    Wiraseranee C.


    Full Text Available Aiming to optimize rhodium recovery in the high temperature recycling process by minimizing rhodium loss into slags in an oxidizing atmosphere by controlling slag composition, the effects of representative slag components, such as Al2O3, MgO, and CuOx, on the dissolution behavior of rhodium into the Na2O-SiO2 slags was investigated. The solubility of rhodium was measured by equilibrating the sodium silicate based slags with pure solid rhodium at 1473 K in air. Considering that rhodium dissolved into slags as RhO1.5, the effect of the oxide addition on the activity coefficient of RhO1.5 in slags was determined. The dissolution of rhodium in slags was suppressed by the addition of Al2O3 and MgO, where Al2O3 behaved as an acidic oxide and MgO behaved as a diluent of slag basicity at a fixed Na2O/SiO2 ratio of 0.97. The content of copper in solid rhodium equilibrated with the CuOx bearing slags slightly increased with increasing content of CuOx, and CuOx was found to slightly enhance the dissolution of rhodium. Rhodate capacity of all slag systems increased with increasing optical basicity, suggesting that the correlation between rhodate capacity and the optical basicity enables the estimation of the content of rhodium in slags of which thermodynamic properties of rhodium are not clarified.

  20. Effect of Mg-doping on the structural and magnetic properties of CoFe_2O_4/SiO_2 nanocomposite films%掺杂Mg对纳米CoFe_2O_4/SiO_2复合薄膜结构和磁性的影响

    刘宇; 李季; 张玉梅; 华杰; 刘梅; 李海波


    采用溶胶-凝胶旋涂法制备了纳米Co1-xMgxFe2O4/SiO2(x=0,0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8)复合薄膜。利用XRD、SEM、原子力显微镜、振动样品磁强计对薄膜的结构、形貌和磁性进行了分析,研究了Mg2+含量对样品结构和磁性的影响。结果表明,样品中Co1-xMgxFe2O4具有尖晶石结构,晶粒尺寸在38~46nm之间。随着Mg2+含量的增加,Co1-xMgxFe2O4的晶格常数减小,样品的饱和磁化强度减小,矫顽力先增大后减小。样品Co0.4Mg0.6Fe2O4/SiO2垂直和平行膜面的矫顽力分别为350.7kA.m-1和279.4kA.m-1,剩磁比分别为67.2%和53.9%,Co1-xMgxFe2O4/SiO2复合薄膜具有较明显的垂直磁各向异性。%Co1-xMgxFe2O4/SiO2(x=0,0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8) nanocomposite films were prepared by the sol-gel spin-coating process.The effect of the addition of Mg2+ with various content on the structure and magnetic properties of the samples was investigated.The structure,morphology and magnetic properties of the films had been studied through XRD,SEM,atomic force microscopy(AFM) and vibrating sample magnetometer(VSM).The results show that the Co1-xMgxFe2O4 presents spinel structure in composite films with the grain size of about 38~46 nm.As the content of Mg increases,the lattice constant of Co1-xMgxFe2O4 decreases,the saturation magnetization of sample films also decreases,while the coercivity first increases and then decreases.The value of coercivity and remanence ratio in the direction of parallel to the plane for Co0.4Mg0.6Fe2O4/SiO2 sample film is 279.4 kA·m-1 and 53.9%,respectively,while the corresponding value in the direction of perpendicular to the plane is 350.7 kA·m-1 and 67.2%.The Co1-xMgxFe2O4/SiO2 nanocomposite films display distinct perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  1. 钠离子电池正极材料Na(Mn0.4Fe0.2Ni0.35Mg0.05)O2的制备及电化学性能研究%Synthesis and electrochemical performance of Na (Mn0.4Fe0.2Ni0.35Mg0.05)O2 as cathode materials for sodium ion batteries

    阮艳莉; 郑斌; 刘萍


    采用溶胶-凝胶法合成钠离子电池正极材料Na(Mn0.4Fe0.2Ni0.4)O2,并对其进行Mg元素掺杂合成Na(Mn0.4Fe0.2Ni0.35Mg0.05)O2材料,分别对2种材料的表面形貌、结构以及电化学性能进行了研究.结果表明:掺杂合成的样品Na(Mn0.4Fe0.2Ni0.35Mg0.05)O2同样具有O3型层状结构,虽然首次放电比容量降低至125.6 mAh/g,但是其循环性能和倍率性能却明显优于原始样品.在循环50次之后,其放电比容量仍可达114.7 mAh/g,对应的容量保持率为91.3%.在1C倍率下,仍能释放出90.1 mAh/g的可逆容量.此外,交流阻抗结果表明,该材料具有更小的电荷转移阻抗.%Na(Mn0.4Fe0.2Ni0.4)O2 and Na (Mn0.4Fe0.2Ni0.35Mg0.05)O2 are synthesized by a sol-gel method and used as cathode materials for sodium ion batteries.The morphology,structure and electrochemical performances of the samples are investigated by scanning electron microscope,X-ray diffraction and charge-discharge test.The results manifeste that the O3-type structure remains unchanged after substitution.The magnesium-substituted sample,Na(Mn0.4 Fe0.2Ni0.35Mg0.05)O2,exhibits improved capacity retention and rate performance at the price of the initial reversible capacity.The initial discharge capacity is 125.6 mAh/g and the capacity retention is 91.3% after 50 cycles at the current density of 10 mA/g.Even at a high discharge rate of 1 C,it still delivers a discharge capacity of 90.1 mAh/g.Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements demonstrate that the charge transfer resistance of Na (Mn0.4Fe0.2Ni0.35Mg0.05) O2 is smaller than the pristine sample.

  2. The MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system - Free energy of pyrope and Al2O3-enstatite. [in earth mantle formation

    Saxena, S. K.


    The model of fictive ideal components is used to determine Gibbs free energies of formation of pyrope and Al2O3-enstatite from the experimental data on coexisting garnet and orthopyroxene and orthopyroxene and spinel in the temperature range 1200-1600 K. It is noted that Al2O3 forms an ideal solution with MgSiO3. These thermochemical data are found to be consistent with the Al2O3 isopleths that could be drawn using most recent experimental data and with the reversed experimental data on the garnet-spinel field boundary.

  3. Studies in the system MgO-SiO2-CO2-H2O(I): The activity-product constant of chrysotile

    Hostetler, P.B.; Christ, C.L.


    Chrysotile dissolves congruently in water according to the reaction: Mg3Si2O6(OH)4c + 5H2Ol = 3Mgaq2+ + 6OHaq- + 2H4SiO4aq. Experimental determination of the activity-product constant of chrysotile, Kchr = [Mg2+]3[OH-]6[H4SiO4aq]2, at 90??C, yields the value of Kchr = 10-49.2 ?? 100.5. A synthetic sample and a natural sample from New Idria, California, were used in the determination. Values of Kchr were calculated for temperatures ranging from 0??C to 200??C, using the thermochemical data of King et al. (1967) for chrysotile and antigorite, various solubility data for silica, and ionic partial molal heat capacities estimated by the method of criss and Cobble (1964a). Kchr is 10-54.1 at 0??C, rises to a maximum value of 10-48.5 at approximately 135??C, and is 10-49.1 at 200??C (all values for the three-phase system, chrysotile plus solution plus vapor). The calculated 90??C value is 10-49.1, in excellent agreement with the experimental value; for 25??C, the calculated value is 10-50.8. ?? 1968.

  4. Synthesis of MgO-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 nanocomposite powder by polymeric complex method as a novel sintering additive of AlN ceramics

    Lee, Hwa-Jun; Cho, Woo-Seok; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Pan, Wei; Shahid, Mohammad; Ryu, Sung-Soo


    A MgO-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 (MCAS) nanocomposite powder with a particle size of 50 nm and a specific surface area of 40.6 m2/g was successfully synthesized via heat-treatment of polymeric precursors containing Mg, Ca, Al and Si in air at 700 °C for 5 h. It was characterized as a novel sintering additive for the densification AlN ceramics at a low temperature below 1600 °C. It was found that the nanosized MCAS powder was suitable for the densification of AlN ceramics. In particular, full densification could be achieved when only 1.0 wt% MCAS additive-doped AlN powder compact was sintered for 1 h at 1600 °C, and a thermal conductivity of 84 W/m·K was attained.

  5. Thermodynamic Behavior of Manganese and Phosphorus between Liquid Iron and CaO-MgO-SiO2-Al2O3-FetO-MnO-P2O5 Slags


    The thermodynamic behavior of manganese and phosphorus betwe en liquid iron and CaO-MgO-SiO2-Al2O3-FetO-MnO-P2O5 ladle slag system was addressed by investigating the thermodynamic equilibria between li quid iron containing Mn and P and the ladle slag at 1873K. The Mn dist ribution ratio LMn increases with increasing FetO content and decreasi ng the basicity ((%CaO + %MgO)/ +%Al2O3+%P2O5)) in slag, while the P d istribution ratio LP seems to be increased as FetO content and the bas icity increases. The values of LMn and LP decrease by the addition of Al2O3 into slag. The expression of the dependence of LMn and LP on the basicity and content in slag was obtained.

  6. The Effect of Water on the Growth of Multi-layered Polycrystalline Reaction rims in the System CaO-MgO-SiO2

    Wohlers, A.; Joachim, B.; Koch-Mueller, M.; Schade, U.


    The effect of traces of water is of paramount importance for kinetics in natural rocks. Experimental results show that traces of water released at a reaction front have a major effect on the growth rates and phase sequence of the reaction rim. Experiments on polished synthetic, single crystals of OH-doped periclase (MgO) and wollastonite (dry) (CaSiO3) were reacted in an Internally Heated Pressure device at 0.5 GPa and 1200°C, 21.5hr to 96hr. Water-doped periclase as starting material allows to control the water initiation to the experiments on the ppm level. Homogenous OH distribution of the periclase starting material was analyzed with FTIR spectroscopy. In the absence of an periclase-specific calibration, the quantification of hydrogen concentration expressed as H2O-equivalent was done after [1] and gives 3.5 wt ppm H2O at ambient P/T. Raman spectroscopy, which shows OH-defect related bands at identical wavenumbers yields an H2O equivalent concentration of about 9 wt ppm quantified after [2]. A complex multi-layered rim consisting of the phases forsterite, monticellite, merwinite and akermanite grows between periclase and wollastonite at the P/T conditions mentioned above. Rim thickness of individual rim phases are between 3 to 20 μm. Conventional and synchrotron IR radiation was used at Bessy II (Berlin, Germany) with a spatial resolution down to 5 x 5 μm to analyze how water prevails in the starting material and reaction rims. A series of FTIR spectra were recorded in a line scan over the periclase toward the rim sequence. The periclase spectra show typical absorption bands at 3297 and 3310.5 cm-1 which are interpreted as OH stretching vibrations [3]. In addition an absorption band at 3697 cm-1 is observed, which is associated to Mg(OH)2 precipitate [4], which develops during quenching. In general the initial OH-doped periclase partially dehydrated during the rim growth experiments. We observe a gradient towards the reaction rim: water concentration

  7. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of bioactivity and antibacterial activity of quinary glass system (SiO2–CaO–P2O5–MgO–ZnO): In vitro study

    Fatemeh Baghbani; Fathollah Moztarzadeh; Leila Hajibaki; Masoud Mozafari


    Bioactive glasses in the systems SiO2–CaO–P2O5–MgO (BGZn0) and SiO2–CaO–P2O5–MgO–ZnO (BGZn5), were prepared by sol–gel method and then characterized. Surface reactivity was studied in simulated body fluid (SBF) to determine the effect of zinc (Zn) addition as a trace element. The effect of Zn addition to the glass matrix on the formation of apatite layer on the glass surface was investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also, inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy (ICP–OES) was used to determine the concentrations of released ions in SBF solution after different time intervals in SBF solution. The antibacterial activity of Zn containing glass against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was measured by the halo zone test. The presence of Zn in glass composition improved chemical durability, slowed down the formation rate of Ca–P layer and decreased the size of crystalline apatite particles. Zn containing glass exhibited an excellent antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa which could demonstrate its ability to treat bone infection.

  8. Effects of Al2O3 and MgO on Softening, Melting, and Permeation Properties of CaO-FeO-SiO2 on a Coke Bed

    Ueda, Shigeru; Kon, Tatsuya; Miki, Takahiro; Kim, Sun-Joong; Nogami, Hiroshi


    In ironmaking, maintaining gas permeability in blast furnace with low coke rate operation is essential to reduce carbon emissions. The high pressure loss in the cohesive zone decreases the gas permeability and affects the productivity of blast furnace. In order to increase the gas permeability in the cohesive zone, the thickness of the cohesive layer should be decreased. For this purpose, increasing softening temperature and decreasing dripping temperature of the iron ore are desired. In this study, softening, melting, and permeation of SiO2-FeO-CaO-Al2O3-MgO on a coke bed were investigated. The oxide sample in a tablet form was heated under CO/CO2 atmosphere, and the shape of the tablet was observed. The softening and melting temperatures of the SiO2-FeO-CaO system changed with the addition of Al2O3 and MgO. Oxide tablets with and without Al2O3 softened below and above the solidus temperature, respectively. The melting temperatures varied with the ratio of CO/CO2 in the gas. The permeation temperature was independent of the melting temperature, but dependent on the wettability.

  9. Effect of Al2O3 on the Viscosity and Structure of CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-FetO Slags

    Wang, Zhanjun; Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min; Zhang, Zuotai


    The present paper provided a fundamental investigation on the effect of Al2O3 on the viscosity and structure of CaO-SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-FetO slags for the purpose of efficiently recycling the valuable elements from the steelmaking slags. The results show that the viscosity of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-FetO slags slightly increases with increasing Al2O3 content. The degree of the polymerization (DOP) of quenched slags, determined from Raman spectra and magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance, is also found to increase with increasing Al2O3 content. It can be deduced that the increasing DOP can promote the formation of gehlenite phase (Ca2Al2SiO7), thus facilitating the formation of higher phosphorous (or vanadium) contained solid solution ( n'Ca2SiO4·Ca3((P or V)O4)2). As Al2O3 content increases up to a specific value, the charge compensating ions which present near [AlO4]-tetrahedra and [FeO4]-tetrahedra are not fully supplied due to the scarcity of Ca2+. In this case, the existing Fe3+ in the melt cannot completely form [FeO4]-tetrahedra and part of Fe3+ would form [FeO6]-octahedra to substitute Ca2+ to modify the slags.

  10. Effect of La2O3-Dopant on Microstructure and Microwave Dielectric Properties of CaO-MgO-Nb2O5-TiO2 System Ceramics

    Wang Hao; Chen Wen; Liu Tao


    La2O3-doped CaO-MgO-Nb2O5-TiO2 system ceramics were prepared by solid-state ceramic technique. The microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of CaO-MgO-Nb2O5-TiO2-La2O3 ceramics can be adjusted by varying the amount of La3+ ions. The results show that the replacement of Ca2+ by La3+ at A-site of the ceramics can increase the quality factor Q*f value as well as the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency τf and decrease the dielectric constant εr. With increase of La3+ contents, the dielectric constant decreases from 57 to 35 and Q*f value increases from 33400 GHz to 35000 GHz (at 7.6 GHz). Meanwhile, the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency is improved towards near zero. The dielectric properties of these compounds are related to octahedra tilting due to deficient vacancies at A-site.

  11. Shear viscosities of CaO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 and MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 liquids: Implications for the structural role of aluminium and the degree of polymerisation of synthetic and natural aluminosilicate melts

    Toplis, Michael J.; Dingwell, Donald B.


    The shear viscosity of 66 liquids in the systems CaO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 (CAS) and MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2 (MAS) have been measured in the ranges 1-10 4 Pa s and 10 8-10 12 Pa s. Liquids belong to series, nominally at 50, 67, and 75 mol.% SiO 2, with atomic M 2+/(M 2++ 2Al) typically in the range 0.60 to 0.40 for each isopleth. In the system CAS at 1600°C, viscosity passes through a maximum at all silica contents. The maxima are clearly centered in the peraluminous field, but the exact composition at which viscosity is a maximum is poorly defined. Similar features are observed at 900°C. In contrast, data for the system MAS at 1600°C show that viscosity decreases with decreasing Mg/(Mg + 2Al) at all silica contents, but that a maximum in viscosity must occur in the field where Mg/2Al >1. On the other hand, the viscosity at 850°C increases with decreasing Mg/(Mg + 2Al) and shows no sign of reaching a maximum, even for the most peraluminous composition studied. The data from both systems at 1600°C have been analysed assuming that shear viscosity is proportional to average bond strength and considering the equilibrium: Al-(⇔(-NBO+Al where Al [4]-(Mg,Ca) 0.5 represents a charge-balanced tetrahedrally coordinated Al; (Mg, Ca) 0.5-NBO represents a nonbridging oxygen (NBO) associated with Ca or Mg, and Al XS represents any structural role of Al that does not require a charge-balancing cation. The viscosity data were fitted using two adjustable variables: i) the equilibrium constant of the above reaction, and ii) the relative bond strength of Al XS. The values of these parameters in the system CAS suggest that Al XS remains in tetrahedral coordination, its charge deficit being satisfied by association with a three-coordinate oxygen in a structure called a tricluster. In contrast, fits to the MAS data at 1600°C infer the presence of high-coordinate Al. These interpretations are found to be consistent with independent spectroscopic and theoretical data. Furthermore, the fitted

  12. 退火温度对纳米Co0.8Mg0.2Fe2O4/SiO2复合薄膜结构和磁性的影响%Effects of Annealing Temperature on Structure and Magnetic Properties of Co0.8Mg0.2Fe2O4/SiO2 Nanocomposite Films

    刘宇; 刘梅; 张玉梅; 李季; 李海波


    Co0.8Mg0.2Fe2O4/SiO2 nanocomposite films were prepared by the sol-gel method. Structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the nanocomposite films were characterized by the X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), and effects of annealing temperature on structure and magnetic properties of the nanocomposite films were studied. Results show that the sample exhibits a Co0.8Mg0.2Fe2O4 spinel structure after being annealed at 800 ℃. With the increasing of the annealing temperature, the grain size of Co0.8Mg0.2Fe2O4 in the nanocomposite films increases, while the lattice constant decreases. The VSM results show that magnetization and remanence ratio (Mr/M5) increases with the increasing of the grain size of Co0.8Mg0.2Fe2O4, while the coercivity of samples tends to increase first, and then decrease. Perpendicular coercivity of the sample annealed at 1 100 ℃ reaches 296.1 kA/m. The films possess an obvious perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.%采用溶胶-凝胶旋涂法制备纳米Co0.8Mg0.2Fe2O4/SiO2复合薄膜.用X射线衍射仪、原子力显微镜及振动样品磁强计分析复合薄膜的结构、表面形貌和磁性,研究退火温度对复合薄膜结构和磁性的影响.结果表明:经800℃退火处理的样品中已形成Co0.8Mg0.2Fe2O4晶相;随着退火温度的提高,Co0.8Mg0.2Fe2O4晶粒尺寸变大,晶格常数减小:随着Co0.8Mg0.2Fe2O4晶粒尺寸的增大,样品的磁化强度和剩磁比变大,矫顽力先增大后减小,经1 100℃退火处理样品的垂直膜面矫顽力达到296.1 kA/m:样品存在较明显的垂直磁各向异性.

  13. CaF2-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO五元渣的表面张力及其在镍基合金电渣重熔的应用%Surface Tension of Pentary Slag CaF2-CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO and Its Application in Nickel Base Alloy Electro-Slag Remelting

    刘立; 赵俊学; 李献民; 丁五洲; 陈峰; 李小孟


    试验研究了五元渣(/%:50~65CaF2,6~15CaO,18~30Al2O3,4~10SiO2,1~7MgO)的组元含量、熔渣温度(1 330 ~1 463℃)对表面张力的影响.结果表明,随熔渣温度升高,其表面张力下降,1 463℃五元渣的表面张力为0.372~0.418 N/m.60CaF2-15CaO-6SiO2-18Al2 O3-5MgO具有较低的表面张力(0.375 N/m),较好的流动性和低粘度值.3t电渣炉熔炼镍基合金Inconel600和625的工业应用结果表明,电渣锭成分均匀,[O]≤20×10-6,[N]≤50 ×10-6,平均电耗从原ANF-6渣重熔的1 933 kWh/t降至1 326 kWh/t.

  14. Atomistic origins of pressure-induced changes in the O K -edge x-ray Raman scattering features of Si O2 and MgSi O3 polymorphs: Insights from ab initio calculations

    Yi, Yoo Soo; Lee, Sung Keun


    Despite its fundamental importance in condensed matter physics and geophysical implications, establishing the systematic and direct link between the pressure-induced structural changes in crystalline and noncrystalline low-z oxides and their corresponding evolution in O K -edge core-electron excitation features under extreme compression has been challenging. Here we calculated the site-resolved partial density of states and O K -edge x-ray Raman scattering (XRS) spectra for two of the important oxide phases in the Earth's lower mantle, MgSi O3 bridgmanite and post-bridgmanite, up to 120 GPa using ab initio calculations, revealing the electronic origins of the O K -edge features for oxides under compression. The absorption threshold (EA) and band gap increase linearly with a decrease in the O-O distance in diverse Si O2 and MgSi O3 high-pressure phases [EA(eV ) ≈-10.9 dO-O(Å ) +34.4 ] , providing a predictive relationship between the EA and the O-O distances in the oxide at high pressure. Despite densification, upon isobaric phase transition from bridgmanite to post-bridgmanite at 120 GPa, a decrease in band gap results in a decrease in edge energy because of an increase in O-O distance. The oxygen proximity is a useful structural proxy of oxide densification upon compression, as it explains the pressure-induced changes in O K -edge XRS features of crystalline and amorphous Si O2 and MgSi O3 at high pressures. These results can be applied to studies of the pressure-bonding transitions in a wide range of oxides under extreme compression.

  15. Space group and hydrogen positions of single crystal delta-AlOOH, (Al0.84Mg0.07Si0.09)H0.98O2 and its relation to stishovite and brucite

    Kudoh, Y.; Kuribayashi, T.; Suzuki, A.; Ohtani, E.; Kamada, T.


    A single crystal of δ-AlOOH synthesized by Suzuki et al. (2000) at conditions of 1000^oC and 21 GPa was used in this study. A set of X-ray diffraction intensities up to sinθ/λ=0.80 Å-1 were measured with a single crystal of 83×35×24 μm using MoKα radiation (50 kV, 40 mA). Al:Mg:Si ratio 0.84:0.07:0.09 measured by EDS with the same crystal used in the X-ray diffraction intensity measurement yielded the chemical formula (Al0.84Mg0.07Si0.09)H0.98O_2. Suzuki et al. (2000) reported the space group P2_1nm from powder X-ray data but the systematic absence of reflections observed in this study indicated another space group Pnn2. The systematic absence of reflections observed in the present work were h+l odd for h0l and k+l odd for 0kl, indicating possible space group Pnn2 or Pnnm. The N(Z) test for a center of symmetry indicated an acentric space group. The non-centrosymmetric space group Pnn2 was therefore employed and was confirmed by the structural refinement. The agreement factors for 109 independent reflections (Io>= 3.0σ Io) were R=3.6% with anisotropic temperature factors. The difference Fourier synthesis was calculated and two significant Fourier peaks H1 and H2 for the possible hydrogen sites were found. The H1 site locates around two-fold rotation axis with H1-H1 distance of 0.55 Å. The H1 site is considered to be for symmetrical statistical distribution of hydrogen atoms. The H2-H2 are separated with H2-H2 distance 2.12 Å which is larger than the sum of van der Waals radii of hydrogen atoms. The partial occupancy of Mg and Si atoms at Al site suggests the possibility of limited solid solution among δ-AlOOH, stishovite SiO_2 and hypothetical rutile-structured Mg(OH)_2. The H1 site is considered to be for AlOOH and the H_2 site for Mg(OH)_2.

  16. Cristalización de Cordierita en vidrios derivados del sistema cuaternario CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2. Influencia de la composición del vidrio

    Alarcón, J.


    Full Text Available It has been studied the calcium effect on the crystallization of cordierite for obtaining a glassceramic material into the CaOáMgOáAl2O3áSiO2 quaternary system. With this propose it has been selected six compositions into de cordierite primary field of crystallization and obtained the original glasses. The obtained samples have been analysed after a thermal treatment in three steps (glass transformation, nucleation and growth by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The composition of phases in microstructures have been analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The microstructures have been related with the crystalline phases by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX. The amount of CaO in glasses is directly related with the anorthite crystallization, suggesting that the great amount of crystallized anorthite in relation with the low amount of CaO in the original glasses is due to the formation of one anorthite-diopside solid solution, what was tested by EDX. At growth temperature almost every samples partly crystallized, as primary or secondary cordierite phase. The anorthite microstructure was very particulated in spherulites forms of radius near to 250 nm, while the cordierite phase showed different morphologies, from almost-spherulitic crystallization nucleus ("rosettes" of μ-cordierite for direct crystallization from glass, to dense dendrites coming from μ transformation. Finally it can be found homogeneous blocks of α-cordierite with dimension of 10 x 10 μm2.Se ha estudiado el efecto del calcio en la cristalización de cordierita para la obtención de un material vitrocerámico dentro del sistema cuaternario CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2. Con este objetivo se han seleccionado seis composiciones dentro del campo primario de cristalización de la cordierita y se han obtenido por fusión sus correspondientes vidrios. Se han analizado las muestras obtenidas tras un tratamiento térmico en tres etapas (transformación vítrea, nucleación y crecimiento

  17. Active MgO-SiO2 hybrid material for organic dye removal: A mechanism and interaction study of the adsorption of C.I. Acid Blue 29 and C.I. Basic Blue 9.

    Ciesielczyk, Filip; Bartczak, Przemysław; Zdarta, Jakub; Jesionowski, Teofil


    A comparative analysis was performed concerning the removal of two different organic dyes from model aqueous solution using an inorganic oxide adsorbent. The key element of the study concerns evaluation of the influence of the dyes' structure and their acid-base character on the efficiency of the adsorption process. The selection of sorbent material for this research - an MgO-SiO2 oxide system synthesized via a modified sol-gel route - is also not without significance. The relatively high porous structure parameters of this material (ABET = 642 m(2)/g, Vp = 1.11 mL and Sp = 9.8 nm) are a result of the proposed methodology for its synthesis. Both organic dyes (C.I. Acid Blue 29 and C.I. Basic Blue 9) were subjected to typical batch adsorption tests, including investigation of such process parameters as time, initial adsorbate concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature. An attempt was also made to estimate the sorption capacity of the oxide material with respect to the analyzed organic dyes. To achieve the objectives of the research - determine the efficiency of adsorption - it was important to perform a thorough physicochemical analysis of the adsorbents (e.g. FTIR, elemental analysis and porous structure parameters). The results confirmed the significantly higher affinity of the basic dye to the oxide adsorbents compared with the acidic dye. The regeneration tests, which indirectly determine the nature of the adsorbent/adsorbate interactions, provide further evidence for this finding. On this basis, a probable mechanism of dyes adsorption on the MgO-SiO2 oxide adsorbent was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of M2+ (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba Addition on Crystallization and Microstructure of SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-B2O3-K2O-F Glass

    Mrinmoy Garai


    Full Text Available In understanding the effect of K+ substitution by M2+ (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba on crystallization and microstructural properties of boroaluminosilicate glass system, the SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-B2O3-MgF2-K2O-Li2O-AlPO4 glasses were prepared by single-step melt-quenching at 1500°C. Density of base glass (2.64 g·cm−3 is found to be decreased in presence of CaO and SrO. Tg is increased by 5–10°C and Td decreased by 13–20°C on addition of M2+. The variation of Tg, Td and decrease of thermal expansion (CTE from 7.55 to 6.67–6.97 (×10−6/K, at 50–500°C in substituting K+ by M2+ are attributed to the higher field-strength of Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+. Opaque mica glass-ceramics were derived from the transparent boroaluminosilicate glasses by controlled heat treatment at 1050°C (duration = 4 h; and the predominant crystalline phase was identified as fluorophlogopite (KMg3AlSi3O10F2 by XRD and FTIR study. Glass-ceramic microstructure reveals that the platelike mica flake crystals predominate in presence of K2O and CaO but restructured to smaller droplet like spherical shaped mica on addition of SrO and BaO. Wide range of CTE values (9.54–13.38 × 10−6/K at 50–800°C are obtained for such glass-ceramics. Having higher CTE value after crystallization, the CaO containing SiO2-MgO-Al2O3-B2O3-MgF2-K2O-Li2O-AlPO4 glass can be useful as SOFC sealing material.

  19. Surface coating changes the physiological and biochemical impacts of nano-TiO2 in basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants.

    Tan, Wenjuan; Du, Wenchao; Barrios, Ana C; Armendariz, Raul; Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Ji, Zhaoxia; Chang, Chong Hyun; Zink, Jeffrey I; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L


    Little is known about the effects of surface coating on the interaction of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with plants. In this study, basil (Ocimum basilicum) was cultivated for 65 days in soil amended with unmodified, hydrophobic (coated with aluminum oxide and dimethicone), and hydrophilic (coated with aluminum oxide and glycerol) titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) at 125, 250, 500, and 750 mg nano-TiO2 kg(-1) soil. ICP-OES/MS, SPAD meter, and UV/Vis spectrometry were used to determine Ti and essential elements in tissues, relative chlorophyll content, carbohydrates, and antioxidant response, respectively. Compared with control, hydrophobic and hydrophilic nano-TiO2 significantly reduced seed germination by 41% and 59%, respectively, while unmodified and hydrophobic nano-TiO2 significantly decreased shoot biomass by 31% and 37%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05). Roots exposed to hydrophobic particles at 750 mg kg(-1) had 87% and 40% more Ti than the pristine and hydrophilic nano-TiO2; however, no differences were found in shoots. The three types of particles affected the homeostasis of essential elements: at 500 mg kg(-)(1), unmodified particles increased Cu (104%) and Fe (90%); hydrophilic increased Fe (90%); while hydrophobic increased Mn (339%) but reduced Ca (71%), Cu (58%), and P (40%). However, only hydrophobic particles significantly reduced root elongation by 53%. Unmodified, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic particles significantly reduced total sugar by 39%, 38%, and 66%, respectively, compared with control. Moreover, unmodified particles significantly decreased reducing sugar (34%), while hydrophobic particles significantly reduced starch (35%). Although the three particles affected basil plants, coated particles impacted the most its nutritional quality, since they altered more essential elements, starch, and reducing sugars.

  20. Effect of B2O3 on Crystallization Behavior, Structure, and Heat Transfer of CaO-SiO2-B2O3-Na2O-TiO2-Al2O3-MgO-Li2O Mold Fluxes

    Yang, Jian; Zhang, Jianqiang; Sasaki, Yasushi; Ostrovski, Oleg; Zhang, Chen; Cai, Dexiang; Kashiwaya, Yoshiaki


    The effect of B2O3 on crystallization behavior, structure, and heat transfer of CaO-SiO2-Na2O-B2O3-TiO2-Al2O3-MgO-Li2O fluorine-free mold fluxes was investigated using hot thermocouple technique (HTT), Raman spectroscopy, and infrared emitter technique (IET), respectively. The critical cooling rate in continuous cooling experiments decreased and the incubation time determined in isothermal experiments increased with increasing B2O3 content, both implying a decreasing crystallization tendency. The major phases of mold fluxes determined using X-ray diffraction changed from Ca2MgSi2O7 and Ca11Si4B2O22 to CaSiO3 with the increasing amount of B2O3. B2O3 increased the degree of polymerization in silicate network, forming 3D borate structures. Addition of B2O3 decreased the flux melting temperature which has a significant impeding effect on the crystal nucleation and growth. The heat flux of mold fluxes measured using IET showed that the increase of B2O3 from 4.7 to 6.8 mass pct impeded the heat flux; while a further increase of B2O3 from 6.8 to 10.4 mass pct promoted the heat transfer. This phenomenon was attributed to the variation of crystallization behavior and crystal morphology with different B2O3 content in the mold fluxes.

  1. Structure and Electrical Conductivity of Compositely Doped Oxide Solid Electrolyte La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.12Co0.08O2.8

    Ma Xu; Zhao Jie; Wang Zhiqi; Bao Juncheng; Li Jianping; Sun Jiashu


    (La, Sr) (Ga, Mg) O3-δ, (LSGM) perovskite compositions doped with transition metal Co on the B-site were prepared by solid state reaction. The effect of partial substitution of Ga for Co, La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.12Co0.08O2.8 (LSGMC2008) on the electrical conductivity was discussed. The results showed the compacted samples sintered at 1350℃ possesses increased electrical conductivity at low temperatures. The XRD patterns of the title materials indicated that LSGMC2008 possessed orthorhombic perovskite-type structure. The grains distributed relatively uniform from SEM photo. The Arrhenius plots of ionic conductivity in air of the LSGMC2008 exhibited differing slopes in the low-and high-temperature regions, and the corresponding Ea values were much lower than that of LSGM2020. All of these suggested that even at low sintering temperature, proper amount Co doped was beneficial to improve ionic conductivity of LSGM.

  2. Toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles on soil nitrification at environmentally relevant concentrations: Lack of classical dose-response relationships.

    Simonin, Marie; Martins, Jean M F; Le Roux, Xavier; Uzu, Gaëlle; Calas, Aude; Richaume, Agnès


    Titanium-dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are increasingly released in agricultural soils through, e.g. biosolids, irrigation or nanoagrochemicals. Soils are submitted to a wide range of concentrations of TiO2-NPs depending on the type of exposure. However, most studies have assessed the effects of unrealistically high concentrations, and the dose-response relationships are not well characterized for soil microbial communities. Here, using soil microcosms, we assessed the impact of TiO2-NPs at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 500 mg kg(-1 )dry-soil, on the activity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrobacter and Nitrospira). In addition, aggregation and oxidative potential of TiO2-NPs were measured in the spiking suspensions, as they can be important drivers of TiO2-NPs toxicity. After 90 days of exposure, non-classical dose-response relationships were observed for nitrifier abundance or activity, making threshold concentrations impossible to compute. Indeed, AOA abundance was reduced by 40% by TiO2-NPs whatever the concentration, while Nitrospira was never affected. Moreover, AOB and Nitrobacter abundances were decreased mainly at intermediate concentrations nitrification was reduced by 25% at the lowest (0.05 mg kg(-1)) and the highest (100 and 500 mg kg(-1)) TiO2-NPs concentrations. Path analyses indicated that TiO2-NPs affected nitrification through an effect on the specific activity of nitrifiers, in addition to indirect effects on nitrifier abundances. Altogether these results point out the need to include very low concentrations of NPs in soil toxicological studies, and the lack of relevance of classical dose-response tests and ecotoxicological dose metrics (EC50, IC50…) for TiO2-NPs impact on soil microorganisms.

  3. Study of a Mixed Alkaline–Earth Effect on Some Properties of Glasses of the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 System

    Valle-Fuentes, J. F.


    Full Text Available In the present work, we studied a “Mixed Alkaline–Earth Effect”, i.e. the non-linear behaviour showed by the glass transition temperature as well as by the compressive strength of glasses of the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system, when a part of the CaO contained in them was substituted by a BaO/SrO mixture, in variable molar proportions. An important factor for the occurrence of this phenomenon was the difference in atomic weight, ionic radii and field strength of the Ba2+ and Sr2+ ions in comparison with those corresponding to the Ca2+ ion. Another factor considered was the likely occurrence of a microphase separation caused by the addition of BaO and/or SrO, together with the presence of F- and Mg2+ in the glasses. Other glass properties studied as a function of the CaO substitution level were density, glass molar volume, oxygen molar volume, packing fraction, and chemical resistance in neutral, basic and acidic aqueous media. In general, the structural reinforcement of the glass network caused by the partial substitution of CaO by a BaO/SrO mixture was accompanied by an improvement in the alkaline resistance of the materials, which were found to be suitable for applications in corrosive environments, especially in basic media. Keywords: Mixed alkaline–earth effect; CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system; glass properties.En el presente trabajo, se estudia el comportamiento no lineal mostrado por la temperatura de transición vítrea y por la resistencia a la compresión de vidrios del sistema CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2, cuando una parte del CaO contenido en los mismos es sustituido por una mezcla de BaO/SrO, en relación molar variable. Factores importantes para que se de este comportamiento son la diferencia entre pesos atómicos, radios iónicos e intensidad de campo de los iones Ba2+ y Sr2+ y los del propio ión Ca2+. Otro factor considerado ha sido la probable existencia de una separación de microfases originada por la adición de BaO y/o SrO, junto con la

  4. Orientation of FePt nanoparticles on top of a-SiO2/Si(001), MgO(001) and sapphire(0001): effect of thermal treatments and influence of substrate and particle size.

    Schilling, Martin; Ziemann, Paul; Zhang, Zaoli; Biskupek, Johannes; Kaiser, Ute; Wiedwald, Ulf


    Texture formation and epitaxy of thin metal films and oriented growth of nanoparticles (NPs) on single crystal supports are of general interest for improved physical and chemical properties especially of anisotropic materials. In the case of FePt, the main focus lies on its highly anisotropic magnetic behavior and its catalytic activity, both due to the chemically ordered face-centered tetragonal (fct) L10 phase. If the c-axis of the tetragonal system can be aligned normal to the substrate plane, perpendicular magnetic recording could be achieved. Here, we study the orientation of FePt NPs and films on a-SiO2/Si(001), i.e., Si(001) with an amorphous (a-) native oxide layer on top, on MgO(001), and on sapphire(0001) substrates. For the NPs of an approximately equiatomic composition, two different sizes were chosen: "small" NPs with diameters in the range of 2-3 nm and "large" ones in the range of 5-8 nm. The 3 nm thick FePt films, deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), served as reference samples. The structural properties were probed in situ, particularly texture formation and epitaxy of the specimens by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and, in case of 3 nm nanoparticles, additionally by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) after different annealing steps between 200 and 650 °C. The L10 phase is obtained at annealing temperatures above 550 °C for films and 600 °C for nanoparticles in accordance with previous reports. On the amorphous surface of a-SiO2/Si substrates we find no preferential orientation neither for FePt films nor nanoparticles even after annealing at 630 °C. On sapphire(0001) supports, however, FePt nanoparticles exhibit a clearly preferred (111) orientation even in the as-prepared state, which can be slightly improved by annealing at 600-650 °C. This improvement depends on the size of NPs: Only the smaller NPs approach a fully developed (111) orientation. On top of MgO(001) the effect of annealing on

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabonomic profiling using tO2PLS.

    Kirwan, Gemma M; Hancock, Timothy; Hassell, Kathryn; Niere, Julie O; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Goto, Susumu; Adams, Michael J


    Blood plasma collected from adult fish (black bream, Sparidae) exposed to a dose of 5 mg kg(-1) 17β-estradiol underwent metabonomic profiling using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). An extension of the orthogonal 2 projection to latent structure (O2PLS) analysis, tO2PLS, was proposed and utilized to classify changes between the control and experimental metabolic profiles. As a bidirectional modeling tool, O2PLS examines the (variable) commonality between two different data blocks, and extracts the joint correlations as well as the unique variations present within each data block. tO2PLS is a proposed matrix transposition of O2PLS to allow for commonality between experiments (spectral profiles) to be observed, rather than between sample variables. tO2PLS analysis highlighted two potential biomarkers, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and choline, that distinguish between control and 17β-estradiol exposed fish. This study presents an alternative way of examining spectroscopic (metabolite) data, providing a method for the visual assessment of similarities and differences between control and experimental spectral features in large data sets.

  6. Synthesis of pure powder of La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O2.825 by microwave-induced solution combustion method

    翟玉玲; 叶畅; 肖建中


    The method of microwave-induced solution combustion was used to prepare the powder of La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O2.825(LS0.1GM0.2). For the more homogenous heating manner without thermal gradients in the microwave oven, the homogenous pure powder of LS0.1GM0.2 after calcination at 1 400 ℃ for 9 h was obtained. The calcination behavior of the precursor powder was studied in the temperature range of500 ~ 1 400 ℃. By this method, the desired perovskite phase with little secondary phases was existed before calcination. The grain size of the powder of LS0.1GM0.2 after calcination at 1 400 ℃ for 9 h was about 2 ~ 3 μm.However, the density of the pellet was 5.43 g/cm3, lower than other reports for the mechanism of the combustion method itself.

  7. In vitro mineralization of a glass-ceramic of the MgO-3CaO x P2O5-SiO2 system: wettability studies.

    Serro, A P; Fernandes, A C; Saramago, B; Fernandes, M H V


    The calcium phosphate deposition on the surface of a bioactive glass-ceramic of the MgO-3CaO. P(2)O(5)-SiO(2) system during a 1-week immersion in biological model fluids, was investigated through wettability studies. Two model fluids with chemical composition similar to the human blood plasma were tested: Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) and a simulated body fluid (SBF) with a higher calcium content. The effect of the presence of albumin, both in solution or previously adsorbed to the surface, was assessed. The behavior observed using two SBF solutions prepared with and without TRIS buffer was compared. The surface free energy of the glass-ceramic samples was determined, before and after immersion, and dynamic contact angle analysis was performed using the biological model fluids as scanning liquids. Scanning electron microscope observations and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis were performed to complement the wettability studies. The experimental results led to the conclusion that the precipitation of a calcium phosphate film in HBSS occurred mainly when the immersion solution was renewed daily or in the presence of adsorbed albumin. In SBF, the addition of TRIS buffer seemed to inhibit the formation of the calcium phosphate film.

  8. Orientation of FePt nanoparticles on top of a-SiO2/Si(001, MgO(001 and sapphire(0001: effect of thermal treatments and influence of substrate and particle size

    Martin Schilling


    Full Text Available Texture formation and epitaxy of thin metal films and oriented growth of nanoparticles (NPs on single crystal supports are of general interest for improved physical and chemical properties especially of anisotropic materials. In the case of FePt, the main focus lies on its highly anisotropic magnetic behavior and its catalytic activity, both due to the chemically ordered face-centered tetragonal (fct L10 phase. If the c-axis of the tetragonal system can be aligned normal to the substrate plane, perpendicular magnetic recording could be achieved. Here, we study the orientation of FePt NPs and films on a-SiO2/Si(001, i.e., Si(001 with an amorphous (a- native oxide layer on top, on MgO(001, and on sapphire(0001 substrates. For the NPs of an approximately equiatomic composition, two different sizes were chosen: “small” NPs with diameters in the range of 2–3 nm and “large” ones in the range of 5–8 nm. The 3 nm thick FePt films, deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD, served as reference samples. The structural properties were probed in situ, particularly texture formation and epitaxy of the specimens by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED and, in case of 3 nm nanoparticles, additionally by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM after different annealing steps between 200 and 650 °C. The L10 phase is obtained at annealing temperatures above 550 °C for films and 600 °C for nanoparticles in accordance with previous reports. On the amorphous surface of a-SiO2/Si substrates we find no preferential orientation neither for FePt films nor nanoparticles even after annealing at 630 °C. On sapphire(0001 supports, however, FePt nanoparticles exhibit a clearly preferred (111 orientation even in the as-prepared state, which can be slightly improved by annealing at 600–650 °C. This improvement depends on the size of NPs: Only the smaller NPs approach a fully developed (111 orientation. On top of MgO(001 the

  9. Influence of strontium on structure, sintering and biodegradation behaviour of CaO-MgO-SrO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glasses

    Goel, Ashutosh; Rajagopal, Raghu R.; Ferreira, Jose M.


    The present study investigates the influence of SrO on structure, apatite forming ability, physico-chemical degradation and sintering behaviour of melt-quenched bioactive glasses with composition: mol.% (36.07 – x) CaO – x SrO - 19.24 MgO – 5.61 P2O5 – 38.49 SiO2 – 0.59 CaF2, where x varies between 0 – 10. The detailed structural analysis of glasses has been made by infra red spectroscopy (FTIR) and magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS-NMR). Silicon was predominantly present as Q2 (Si) species while phosphorus was found in orthophosphate type environment in all the investigated glasses. The apatite forming ability of glasses was investigated by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) for time durations varying between 1 h – 7 days. While increasing Sr2+/Ca2+ ratio in glasses did not affect the structure of glasses significantly, their apatite forming ability was decreased considerably. Further, physico-chemical degradation of glasses has been studied in accordance with ISO 10993-14 “Biological evaluation of medical devices – Part 14: Identification and quantification of degradation products from ceramics” in Tris HCl and citric acid buffer and the possible implications of ion release profile from glasses in different solutions has been discussed. The addition of strontium in glasses led to a 7-fold decrease in chemical degradation of glasses in Tris-HCl. The sintering of glass powders rendered glass-ceramics (GCs) with varying degree of crystallinity and good flexural strength (98-131 MPa) where the mechanical properties depend on the nature and amount of crystalline phases present in GCs.

  10. Influence of strontium on structure, sintering and biodegradation behaviour of CaO-MgO-SrO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) glasses.

    Goel, Ashutosh; Rajagopal, Raghu Raman; Ferreira, José M F


    The present study investigates the influence of SrO on structure, apatite-forming ability, physico-chemical degradation and sintering behaviour of melt-quenched bioactive glasses with the composition (mol.%): (36.07 - x) CaO-xSrO-19.24MgO-5.61P(2)O(5)-38.49SiO(2)-0.59CaF(2), where x varies between 0 and 10. The detailed structural analysis of the glasses is made by infrared spectroscopy and magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Silicon is predominantly present as Q(2) (Si) species, while phosphorus is found as orthophosphate in all the investigated glasses. The apatite-forming ability of glasses is investigated by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid for time durations varying between 1 h and 7 days. While increasing the Sr(2+)/Ca(2+) ratio in the glasses does not affect their structure significantly, their apatite-forming ability is decreased considerably. Further, physico-chemical degradation of glasses is studied in accordance with ISO 10993-14 "Biological evaluation of medical devices - Part 14: Identification and quantification of degradation products from ceramics" in Tris-HCl and citric acid buffer, and the possible implications of the ion release profiles from the glasses in different solutions are discussed. The addition of strontium to the glasses leads to a sevenfold decrease in chemical degradation of glasses in Tris-HCl. The sintering of glass powders renders glass ceramics (GCs) with varying degrees of crystallinity and good flexural strength (98-131 MPa), where the mechanical properties depend on the nature and amount of crystalline phases present in the GCs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Salinomycin overcomes ABC transporter-mediated multidrug and apoptosis resistance in human leukemia stem cell-like KG-1a cells

    Fuchs, Dominik [Research Group Molecular Neuro-Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute of Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Daniel, Volker; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Opelz, Gerhard [Institute of Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Naujokat, Cord, E-mail: [Institute of Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)


    Leukemia stem cells are known to exhibit multidrug resistance by expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters which constitute transmembrane proteins capable of exporting a wide variety of chemotherapeutic drugs from the cytosol. We show here that human promyeloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells exposed to the histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate resemble many characteristics of leukemia stem cells, including expression of functional ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein, BCRP and MRP8. Consequently, KG-1a cells display resistance to the induction of apoptosis by various chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance to apoptosis induction by chemotherapeutic drugs can be reversed by cyclosporine A, which effectively inhibits the activity of P-glycoprotein and BCRP, thus demonstrating ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance in KG-1a cells. However, KG-1a are highly sensitive to apoptosis induction by salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to kill human breast cancer stem cell-like cells and to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells displaying multiple mechanisms of drug and apoptosis resistance. Whereas KG-1a cells can be adapted to proliferate in the presence of apoptosis-inducing concentrations of bortezomib and doxorubicin, salinomycin does not permit long-term adaptation of the cells to apoptosis-inducing concentrations. Thus, salinomycin should be regarded as a novel and effective agent for the elimination of leukemia stem cells and other tumor cells exhibiting ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance.

  12. MnO2-Carbon nanotube composite for high-areal-density supercapacitors with high rate performance

    Wang, Ke; Gao, Shan; Du, Zhaolong; Yuan, Anbao; Lu, Wei; Chen, Liwei


    Practical supercapacitor devices require high areal capacitance and areal power density, and thus demand high utilization of active material and good rate performance under high areal mass loading. However, ion transport in high-mass-loading electrodes can be a challenge, which leads to deteriorate specific capacitance and rate performance. In this paper, a well-dispersed porous MnO2-carbon nanotube (CNT) composite was prepared for use as a supercapacitor electrode material. The small MnO2 nanoparticles and porous CNT network facilitated fast electron/ion transfer kinetics in the electrode. With a mass loading as high as 6.4 mg cm-2 on the electrode, the MnO2-CNT composite exhibited an excellent areal capacitance of 1.0 F cm-2 at 0.2 A g-1 (1.28 mA cm-2), with a retention of 77% even at a high current density of 20 A g-1 (128 mA cm-2). The electrode exhibited a high power density of 45.2 kW kg-1 (0.29 W cm-2) while maintaining a reasonable energy density of 16.7 Wh kg-1 (106 μWh cm-2). No apparent fading was observed even after 3000 charge/discharge cycles at 1 A g-1. This porous and evenly distributed MnO2-CNT composite has great potential for practical applications in supercapacitors.

  13. Effect of Sintering Aid CuO-MnO2 on Dielectric Proper-ties of 0.5Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.5Ba(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 Ceramics

    TIAN Zhongqing; ZHANG Chunyan; WANG Hao; HUANG Weijiu; LIN Lin


    Microstructures and microwave dielectric properties of 0.5Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.5Ba(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics with x wt% CuO-x wt% MnO2 additions (x=0.25-1) prepared by conventional solid-state route were investigated. It is found that low level-doping of CuO-MnO2 can significantly improve the density of the specimens and their microwave dielectric properties. The relative density of 0.5Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.5Ba(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics can be increased by 95% sintering at 1 330 ℃due to the liquid phase effect. The second phase is not observed in ceramics with CuO-MnO2 addition.The parameterεr increases with increasing sintering temperature, and Qf is effectively promoted by CuO-MnO2 addition. Higher CuO-MnO2 content would make τf value more positive. Meanwhile, εr value of 30.5, Qf value of 63 200 GHz and τf value of 0.5 ppm/ ℃ were obtained for 0.5Ba(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.5Ba(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics with 0.5 wt% CuO-0.5 wt% MnO2 addition sin-tered at 1 330 ℃ for 4 h.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of local pulmonary distribution of TiO2 in rats following single or multiple intratracheal administrations of TiO2 nanoparticles using X-ray fluorescence microscopy.

    Zhang, Guihua; Shinohara, Naohide; Kano, Hirokazu; Senoh, Hideki; Suzuki, Masaaki; Sasaki, Takeshi; Fukushima, Shoji; Gamo, Masashi


    Uneven pulmonary nanoparticle (NP) distribution has been described when using single-dose intratracheal administration tests. Multiple-dose intratracheal administrations with small quantities of NPs are expected to improve the unevenness of each dose. The differences in local pulmonary NP distribution (called microdistribution) between single- and multiple-dose administrations may cause differential pulmonary responses; however, this has not been evaluated. Here, we quantitatively evaluated the pulmonary microdistribution (per mesh: 100 μm × 100 μm) of TiO2 in lung sections from rats following one, two, three, or four doses of TiO2 NPs at a same total dosage of 10 mg kg(-1) using X-ray fluorescence microscopy. The results indicate that: (i) multiple-dose administrations show lower variations in TiO2 content (ng mesh(-1) ) for sections of each lobe; (ii) TiO2 appears to be deposited more in the right caudal and accessory lobes located downstream of the administration direction of NP suspensions, and less so in the right middle lobes, irrespective of the number of doses; (iii) there are not prominent differences in the pattern of pulmonary TiO2 microdistribution between rats following single and multiple doses of TiO2 NPs. Additionally, the estimation of pulmonary TiO2 deposition for multiple-dose administrations imply that every dose of TiO2 would be randomly deposited only in part of the fixed 30-50% of lung areas. The evidence suggests that multiple-dose administrations do not offer remarkable advantages over single-dose administration on the pulmonary NP microdistribution, although multiple-dose administrations may reduce variations in the TiO2 content for each lung lobe. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Long-term efficacy of single-dose treatment with 400 of ivermectin in bancroftian filariasis: results at one year.

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, L N; Chanteau, S; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L


    In April 1992, a safety trial was performed with a single dose of ivermectin 400 (IVER 400). In 37 bancroftian filariasis carriers, 6 and 12 months after IVER 400 treatment, the microfilaremia recurrences were 3.2% and 13.5%, respectively. As compared to results from other studies with diethylcarbamazine and IVER at different dosages and periodicities, the dosage of IVER 400 seems the most effective; but a yearly intake might not be sufficient.

  16. Exposure of agricultural crops to nanoparticle CeO2 in biochar-amended soil.

    Servin, Alia D; De la Torre-Roche, Roberto; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Pagano, Luca; Hawthorne, Joseph; Musante, Craig; Pignatello, Joseph; Uchimiya, Minori; White, Jason C


    Biochar is seeing increased usage as an amendment in agricultural soils but the significance of nanoscale interactions between this additive and engineered nanoparticles (ENP) remains unknown. Corn, lettuce, soybean and zucchini were grown for 28 d in two different soils (agricultural, residential) amended with 0-2000 mg engineered nanoparticle (ENP) CeO2 kg(-1) and biochar (350 °C or 600 °C) at application rates of 0-5% (w/w). At harvest, plants were analyzed for biomass, Ce content, chlorophyll and lipid peroxidation. Biomass from the four species grown in residential soil varied with species and biochar type. However, biomass in the agricultural soil amended with biochar 600 °C was largely unaffected. Biochar co-exposure had minimal impact on Ce accumulation, with reduced or increased Ce content occurring at the highest (5%) biochar level. Soil-specific and biochar-specific effects on Ce accumulation were observed in the four species. For example, zucchini grown in agricultural soil with 2000 mg CeO2 kg(-1) and 350 °C biochar (0.5-5%) accumulated greater Ce than the control. However, for the 600 °C biochar, the opposite effect was evident, with decreased Ce content as biochar increased. A principal component analysis showed that biochar type accounted for 56-99% of the variance in chlorophyll and lipid peroxidation across the plants. SEM and μ-XRF showed Ce association with specific biochar and soil components, while μ-XANES analysis confirmed that after 28 d in soil, the Ce remained largely as CeO2. The current study demonstrates that biochar synthesis conditions significantly impact interactions with ENP, with subsequent effects on particle fate and effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. An alternative method to determine maximal accumulated O2 deficit in runners.

    Hill, D W; Ferguson, C S; Ehler, K L


    An accepted measure of anaerobic capacity is the maximal O2 deficit. But it is not feasible to use O2 deficit if > or =10 submaximal runs are needed to extrapolate the O2 demand of high velocity running (Medbø et al. 1988). Recently, an alternative method to determine O2 deficit was proposed (Hill 1996) using only results of supramaximal cycle ergometer tests. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this alternative method with data from treadmill tests. Twenty-six runners ran at 95%, 100%, 105%, and 110% of their velocity at VO2max. Times to exhaustion, velocity, and accumulated oxygen uptake (VO2) from each individual's four tests were fit to the following equation using iterative nonlinear regression: accumulated VO2 = (O2 demand x velocity x time)-O2 deficit. The mean value s derived for O2 demand and O2 deficit were 0.198+/-0.031 ml x kg(-1) x m(-1) and 42+/-22 ml x kg(-1). SEE for the parameters were 0.007+/-0.007 ml x kg(-1) x m(-1) and 8+/-10 ml x kg(-1), respectively. Mean R2 was 0.998+/-0.003. It was concluded that O2 deficit can be determined from all-out treadmill tests without the need to perform submaximal tests.

  18. Influencia de la síntesis y del grado de dopaje en las propiedades morfológicas, estructurales y electroquímicas de óxidos LiCo1‑xMxO2 (M = Ni, Al, Mg

    Castro‑Couceiro, A.


    Full Text Available In this work we have prepared, by a sol‑gel method, LiCo1‑ xMxO2 compounds (M= Ni, Al and Mg, in order to study the doping effect in their electrochemical behaviour as cathodes in lithium‑batteries. We have studied the influence of the synthesis conditions (using various chelating agents for the formation of the gel on their morphologic, structural and electrochemical properties. We have obtained monophasic materials: LiCo1‑xNixO2 (0≤x≤0.8, LiCo1‑xMgxO2 (0≤x≤0.05, LiCo1‑xAlxO2 (0≤x≤0.3 and LiCo0.5Ni0.5‑xAlxO2 (0≤x≤0.3. In general, the samples obtained with succinic acid have better ordered lithium layers than malic samples.The capacity of the Li//LiCo1‑ xMxO2 batteries decrease upon doping. However, more stable charge‑discharge cycling performances have been obtained as compared to those displayed by the native oxides. In LiCo1‑xMgxO2, small amounts of MgO appear as secondary phases for 0.05 En este trabajo preparamos, mediante un método sol‑gel, óxidos LiCo1‑xMxO2 dopando LiCoO2 con Ni, Al y Mg, con el fin de comprobar la influencia del catión dopante y del grado de dopaje en su comportamiento electroquímico como cátodos de baterías de litio. Estudiamos la influencia de las condiciones de síntesis (utilizando diferentes agentes quelatantes para la formación del gel en las propiedades morfológicas y estructurales de los materiales obtenidos, que condicionan, a su vez, su comportamiento electroquímico. Se obtuvieron muestras monofásicas para distintos grados de dopaje: LiCo1‑xNixO2 (0≤x≤0.8, LiCo1‑xMgxO2 (0≤x≤0.05, LiCo1‑xAlxO2 (0≤x≤0.3 y LiCo0.5Ni0.5‑xAlxO2 (0≤x≤0.3. En general, se logra un mejor orden catiónico en la estructura utilizando ácido succínico como agente quelatante que utilizando ácido málico. Los estudios electroquímicos muestran que los tres dopantes (Ni, Mg y Al provocan una disminución de la capacidad de las baterías, pero contribuyen a mantener

  19. 蝎毒多肽对白血病细胞株KG1a干细胞活性的影响%Study on the effects of PESV on the viability of leukemia stem cells line KG1a

    杨向东; 李红玉; 李德冠; 史哲新; 杨文华; 颜田赅; 闫理想; 王兴丽



  20. Corrosion behavior of MgO -C based refractory in slag containing TiO2%含钛熔渣对镁炭质耐火材料的侵蚀

    刘清才; 许原; 陈登福



  1. Air Plasma-Sprayed La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 Composite Thermal Barrier Coating Subjected to CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMAS)

    Cai, Lili; Ma, Wen; Ma, Bole; Guo, Feng; Chen, Weidong; Dong, Hongying; Shuang, Yingchai


    La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 composite thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were prepared by air plasma spray (APS). The La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 composite TBCs covered with calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicate (CMAS) powder, as well as the powder mixture of CMAS and spray-dried La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 composite powder, were heat-treated at 1250 °C in air for 1, 4, 8, and 12 h. The phase constituents and microstructures of the reaction products were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Experimental results showed that the La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 composite TBCs had higher CMAS resistance than 8YSZ coating. A dense new layer developed between CMAS and La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 composite TBCs during interaction, and this new layer consisted mostly of apatite (Ca2La8(SiO4)6O2) and c-ZrO2. The newly developed layer effectively protected the La2Zr2O7-SrZrO3 composite TBCs from further CMAS attack.

  2. Resistance of Leukemia KG1 a Cells with Positive N-cadherin in Phase G0Against Killing Activity of VP16%N-cadherin阳性白血病KG1a细胞系在G0期抵抗VP16杀伤的作用

    何侃; 于沛; 邢海燕; 李艳; 田征; 王敏; 唐克晶; 饶青


    抗药性是白血病干细胞的重要特征,为探索N-cadherin阳性的白血病细胞耐受化疗药物VP16杀伤作用的机制,本研究以白血病细胞系KGla为研究模型,利用流式细胞术测定N-cadherin阳性和N-cadherin阴性细胞在G0期比例的差异,利用G-CSF诱导KG1a细胞进入细胞周期,观察G0期细胞比例的变化,并测定诱导后KG1a细胞对VP16的敏感性;再利用EGTA抑制N-cadherin介导的细胞间黏附后,观察KG1a细胞耐药性的变化.结果 显示,N-cadherin阳性的KG1a细胞G0期比例高于N-cadherin阴性的细胞;诱导KG1a细胞进入细胞周期后G0期细胞比例明显下降,KG1a细胞对VP16的敏感性显著升高;利用EGTA处理KG1a细胞24小时抑制N-cadherin的作用后,KG1a细胞在G0期比例降低,KG1a细胞对VP16的药物敏感性显著升高.结论:N-cadherin通过介导白血病细胞之间的黏附作用,使白血病细胞处于G0期的静息状态,从而耐受VP16的杀伤作用.%This study was aimed to investigate the methylation status of WTI gene in leukemia cell lines and its relation with expression of WTI gene. The WTI gene was silenced by DNA methylation or histone deacetylation, and the expression of WTI gene was induced by using HDAC inhibitor and/or demethylation agent of DNA. Some leukemia cell lines (U937, HL-60, K562, KG1) were detected by RT-PCR, MS-PCR, restriction analysis, and DNA sequencing. U937 leukemic cells without WTI mRNA expression were incubated with HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) and/or demethylation agent decitabine. The results showed that the U937 cells did not express WTI gene, but HL-60, K562 and KG1 cells hyghly expressed WTI gene; WTI gene was unmethylated in HL-60 cells, but methylated in K562 and U937 cells. WTI expression could be reactivated by co-incubation with TSA and decitabine, but not was observed by using single drug. It is concluded that WTI promoter is methylated in some leukemia cells, however, the methylation can not affect

  3. Study on the Functional Expression of P2X7 Receptor in Human Leukemic Cell Line KG1a%人白血病细胞系KG1a中P2X7受体的表达和功能研究

    张秀军; 孟丽君



  4. High-performance asymmetric supercapacitor based on graphene hydrogel and nanostructured MnO2.

    Gao, Hongcai; Xiao, Fei; Ching, Chi Bun; Duan, Hongwei


    We have successfully fabricated an asymmetric supercapacitor with high energy and power densities using graphene hydrogel (GH) with 3D interconnected pores as the negative electrode and vertically aligned MnO(2) nanoplates on nickel foam (MnO(2)-NF) as the positive electrode in a neutral aqueous Na(2)SO(4) electrolyte. Because of the desirable porous structure, high specific capacitance and rate capability of GH and MnO(2)-NF, complementary potential window of the two electrodes, and the elimination of polymer binders and conducting additives, the asymmetric supercapacitor can be cycled reversibly in a wide potential window of 0-2.0 V and exhibits an energy density of 23.2 Wh kg(-1) with a power density of 1.0 kW kg(-1). Energy density of the asymmetric supercapacitor is significantly improved in comparison with those of symmetric supercapacitors based on GH (5.5 Wh kg(-1)) and MnO(2)-NF (6.7 Wh kg(-1)). Even at a high power density of 10.0 kW kg(-1), the asymmetric supercapacitor can deliver a high energy density of 14.9 Wh kg(-1). The asymmetric supercapacitor also presents stable cycling performance with 83.4% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles.

  5. A comparative study on removal of trace nitrobenzene in water by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2/H2O2%UV/H2O2和UV/TiO2/H2O2去除水中微量硝基苯的比较研究

    尹菁菁; 张彭义; 孙莉


    研究比较了UV/H2O2和UV/TiO2/H2O2对水中微量硝基苯的降解效果,并考察了水中常见HCO-3和腐殖酸对硝基苯降解的影响.结果表明,薄膜状TiO2的存在对UV/H2O2降解硝基苯有显著的促进作用,在最佳H2O2投加量2.1 mg/L时,UV/TiO2/H2O2的反应速率常数比UV/H2O2高32.8%;2 min内UV/TiO2/H2O2对硝基苯的去除率达到80%以上.HCO-3和腐殖酸对硝基苯降解有很强的抑制作用,HCO-3和腐殖酸浓度分别为2 mmol/L和3.2 mg/L时,UV/TiO2/H2O2对硝基苯的反应速率常数分别下降84.6%和92.2%.

  6. Evaluación de matrices vítreas del sistema SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO para fundentes aglomerados a través la basicidad óptica y criterios estructuro-químicos Vitreous matrices evaluation of the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO system for agglomerate fluxes across the optic basicity and structural-chemical criteria

    Rafael Quintana-Puchol


    Full Text Available La constitución estructural y la naturaleza iónica o molecular de las matrices aluminosilicáticas vítreas en estado líquido están gobernadas fundamentalmente por la relación molar O:(Si+Al, que durante el proceso de soldadura repercuten en sus propiedades termodinámicas, químicas y físicas, así como en sus interacciones con la gota metálica y el baño de soldadura. En fusiones aluminosilicáticas, las interacciones del ión O2-con otras sustancias de la matriz del fundente no aleado y con los metales de aporte y base son de considerable importancia durante la constitución del metal depositado mediante el proceso soldadura automática bajo fundente (SAW. En el presente trabajo, se valora la correspondencia entre los índices de basicidad clásicos y varios índices de basicidad óptica acorde a los criterios Zhang (BO Zh, Duffy e Ingram (BO D y el propuesto en este trabajo por los autores (BO P, así como también entre BO P y la relación molar O:(Si+Al de cada matriz. Todo esto brinda criterios estructuro-químicos de las matrices y de su actividad metalúrgica. A partir de un análisis termodinámico se determina la posible cantidad oxígeno en el metal depositado, con lo cual se estima las posibles propiedades físico-mecánicas del mismo.The structural constitution and ionic or molecular nature of the glassy matrix in liquid aluminosilicates are governed mainly by the molar ratio O: (Si + Al, and during the welding process affect its thermodynamic, chemical and physical properties as well as in their interactions with the metal droplet and the weld pool. In aluminosilicate fusion, O2-ion interactions with other substances from the unalloyed flux matrix and filler metals and base are of considerable importance during the formation of the weld metal by submerged arc welding process (SAW. In this study, assessing the relation between the classical basicity index and several optical basicity indices using criteria according to Zhang

  7. Solubility of BaS in BaO-BaF2 slag and the Influence of FeOx, SiO2, Cr2O3, BaCI2, CaO, and MgO on the sulfide capacity of this system

    Rachev, Ivan P.; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka; Sano, Nobuo


    The influence of SiO2, FeOx, Cr2O3, BaCl2, CaO, and MgO on the sulfide capacity of the BaO-BaF2 system was measured at 1473 K, using a gas-slag-metal equilibration technique. It was found that the substitution of BaF2 by SiO2, FeOx, Cr2O3, and BaCl2 decreases the sulfide capacity of the BaO-BaF2 system. Similar results were obtained for the carbonate capacity. The CaO-saturated BaO-BaF2 flux, however, was found to have slightly higher sulfide and carbonate capacities than the pure BaO-BaF2 flux. The solubility of CaO increased with increasing BaF2 content and was 18 mol pet in BaF2 at 1473 K. The solubility of MgO in the BaO-BaF2 system at the same temperature is very low, and it has no effect on the sulfide and carbonate capacities. The solubility of BaS in the BaO-BaF2 system was also measured at 1473 K and had its maximum for the slag containing 40 mass pet BaO. The activity of BaO in the system was calculated from those data.

  8. Effects of fly ash and boric acid on Y2O3-stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 dispersed with MgAl2O4: An experimental study on rat subcutaneous tissue.

    Ergun, Gulfem; Guru, Metin; Egilmez, Ferhan; Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Yilmaz, Dervis


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the subcutaneous tissue reaction around zirconia-based materials. Forty-eight male Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. Disk-shaped (1mm height and 5mm diameter) samples composed of 67% spinel (MgAl2O4), 27% tetragonal zirconia polycrystal, 4% (m/m) fly ash and 2% (m/m) boric acid were inserted into dorsal muscles of rats. After 1, 4, 8 and 16 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and zirconia materials were removed with the surrounding tissue. Tissue sections were made with a microtome and then stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Sections were evaluated for the intensity of inflammation. Additionally, the somatic and visceral lymph nodes were evaluated. Data were submitted to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD tests at a significant level of p < 0.05. There were statistically significant differences between mean inflammatory scores in different experimental periods (p <0.05). In addition, the inflammatory reaction decreased over time. The tested materials had no damaging effect on the rat lymph nodes and did not have a toxic action on the internal organs. Therefore, zirconia polycrystal tested in the present study may offer a promising treatment alternative after further mechanical and biological studies are performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Selective Crystallization Behavior of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-FetO-P2O5 Steelmaking Slags Modified through P2O5 and Al2O3

    Wang, Zhanjun; Sun, Yongqi; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min; Zhang, Zuotai


    In this study, the selective crystallization behavior of synthetic FetO-rich steelmaking slags modified by P2O5 and Al2O3 additions was explored using non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and field emission scanning electron microscopy techniques. Continuous cooling transformation diagrams of Fe-enriched and P-enriched phases were constructed. It was found that P2O5 addition can suppress the crystallization due to the increasing viscosity caused by increasing degree of polymerization; however, an increase of Al2O3 content accelerated the precipitation of dystectic MgFeAlO4, copolymerized by [AlO4]-tetrahedra and [FeO4]-tetrahedra units. It was also noted that the content of phosphorus in P-enriched phase can reach a high value as 28.71 wt pct for the slags modified by 15.17 wt pct Al2O3. The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics derived from activation energy and the structure of the slags explained by Raman spectra were further analyzed, which was well in accordance with the above analysis.

  10. Electrocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes prepared by pulse electrodeposition.

    Yao, Yingwu; Zhao, Chunmei; Zhao, Manman; Wang, Xiao


    PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes (P) were prepared by pulse electrodeposition and used for the electrocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB). The SEM and XRD tests show that PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes (P) possess more compact structure and finer grain size than PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes (D) prepared by direct electrodeposition. The electrochemical measurements show that PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes (P) have higher oxygen evolution overpotential and the oxidation regions of MB and water are significantly separated. The experimental parameters on electrocatalytic degradation of MB by PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes (P) were evaluated, such as initial MB concentration, current density, pH value and supporting electrolyte concentration. The results indicate that MB and COD removal efficiency of PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes (P) reach 100% and 72.7%, respectively, after 120 min electrolysis at initial 30 mg L(-1) MB concentration at current density of 50 mA cm(-2) in 0.2 mol L(-1) Na2SO4 supporting electrolyte solution, and the degradation of MB follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. Compared with PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes (D), PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes (P) show higher COD removal efficiency and instantaneous current efficiency with MB degradation. The experimental results demonstrate that PbO2-ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes (P) possesses the excellent electrocatalytic properties and show great potential applications in refractory pollutants.

  11. Avaliação do molhamento da matriz de um concreto refratário (Al2O3-SiC-SiO2-C por escórias sintéticas contendo distintos teores de MgO Wetting evaluation of a refractory castable matrix (Al2O3-SiC-SiO2-C by synthetic slags containing different amounts of MgO

    A. P. Luz


    Full Text Available O comportamento de espalhamento de quatro escórias sintéticas foi investigado pelo método da gota séssil, quando em contato com a matriz de um concreto refratário contendo alto teor de carbono e carbeto de boro como agente antioxidante. A evolução do molhamento do sólido foi monitorada a 1450, 1550 e 1650 ºC por 1800 s. Além disso, simulações termodinâmicas foram efetuadas, usando o programa FactSage®, visando promover um maior entendimento das reações químicas que podem ocorrer na interface dos materiais avaliados. Foi observado que a composição química do líquido afetou diretamente o espalhamento deste e quanto maior o teor de MgO na composição da escória, maiores foram os valores do ângulo de contato entre líquido e sólido. No entanto, em altas temperaturas e tempos prolongados, foram verificadas a formação de bolhas na superfície do líquido e a infiltração das escórias nos poros do refratário. Estes fatores afetaram negativamente e tornaram menos conclusivos os dados coletados nos ensaios propostos, apontando que ainda são necessários aperfeiçoamentos da técnica de molhabilidade para a avaliação de materiais complexos, tais como os concretos refratários.The wetting behavior of four synthetic slags was investigated by the sessile drop technique, when in contact with the matrix of a high carbon containing refractory castable. The wetting evolution was monitored at 1450, 1550 and 1650 ºC during 1800 s. Besides that, thermodynamic simulations were carried out using the FactSage® software aiming to attain a better understanding of the chemical reactions at the materials interface. It was observed that the chemical composition of the liquid directly affected its spreading and the higher the MgO content in the slag composition, the higher contact angles values were attained. However, the formation of bubbles on the liquid surface and the slags infiltration in the refractory pores at high temperatures and

  12. Anaerobic energy production and O2 deficit-debt relationship during exhaustive exercise in humans

    Bangsbo, Jens; Gollnick, PD; Graham, T;


    before and immediately after the intense exercise, and at 3, 10 and 60 min into recovery. 2. Individual linear relations (r = 0.95-1.00) between the power outputs for submaximal exercise and oxygen uptakes (leg and pulmonary) were used to estimate the energy demand during intense exercise. Pulmonary...... including pyruvate (and alanine). Estimated leg oxygen deficit corresponded to an ATP production of 94.7 mmol ATP kg-1; this value included 3.1 mmol kg-1 related to unloading of HbO2 and MbO2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  13. Selective adsorption of thiophenic compounds from fuel over TiO2/SiO2 under UV-irradiation.

    Miao, Guang; Ye, Feiyan; Wu, Luoming; Ren, Xiaoling; Xiao, Jing; Li, Zhong; Wang, Haihui


    This study investigates selective adsorption of thiophenic compounds from fuel over TiO2/SiO2 under UV-irradiation. The TiO2/SiO2 adsorbents were prepared and then characterized by N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Adsorption isotherms, selectivity and kinetics of TiO2/SiO2 were measured in a UV built-in batch reactor. It was concluded that (a) with the employment of UV-irradiation, high organosulfur uptake of 5.12 mg/g was achieved on the optimized 0.3TiO2/0.7SiO2 adsorbent at low sulfur concentration of 15 ppmw-S, and its adsorption selectivity over naphthalene was up to 325.5; (b) highly dispersed TiO2 served as the photocatalytic sites for DBT oxidation, while SiO2 acted as the selective adsorption sites for the corresponding oxidized DBT using TiO2 as a promoter, the two types of active sites worked cooperatively to achieve the high adsorption selectivity of TiO2/SiO2; (c) The kinetic rate-determining step for the UV photocatalysis-assisted adsorptive desulfurization (PADS) over TiO2/SiO2 was DBT oxidation; (d) consecutive adsorption-regeneration cycles suggested that the 0.3TiO2/0.7SiO2 adsorbent can be regenerated by acetonitrile washing followed with oxidative air treatment. This work demonstrated an effective PADS approach to greatly enhance adsorption capacity and selectivity of thiophenic compounds at low concentrations for deep desulfurization under ambient conditions.

  14. Catalytic wet air oxidation of phenol over CeO2-TiO2 catalyst in the batch reactor and the packed-bed reactor.

    Yang, Shaoxia; Zhu, Wanpeng; Wang, Jianbing; Chen, Zhengxiong


    CeO2-TiO2 catalysts are prepared by coprecipitation method, and the activity and stability in the catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol are investigated in a batch reactor and packed-bed reactor. CeO2-TiO2 mixed oxides show the higher activity than pure CeO2 and TiO2, and CeO2-TiO2 1/1 catalyst displays the highest activity in the CWAO of phenol. In a batch reactor, COD and TOC removals are about 100% and 77% after 120 min in the CWAO of phenol over CeO2-TiO2 1/1 catalyst at reaction temperature of 150 degrees C, the total pressure of 3 MPa, phenol concentration of 1000 mg/L, and catalyst dosage of 4 g/L. In a packed-bed reactor using CeO2-TiO2 1/1 particle catalyst, over 91% COD and 80% TOC removals are obtained at the reaction temperature of 140 degrees C, the air total pressure of 3.5 MPa, the phenol concentration of 1000 mg/L for 100 h continue reaction. Leaching of metal ions of CeO2-TiO2 1/1 particle catalyst is very low during the continuous reaction. CeO2-TiO2 1/1 catalyst exhibits the excellent activity and stability in the CWAO of phenol.

  15. Optical performance study of Sr2ZnSi2O7:Eu2+,Dy3+, SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+and Y2O2S:Eu3+,Mg2+,Ti4+ ternary luminous fiber

    晋阳; 龙啸云; 朱亚楠; 葛明桥


    In this study, down-conversion fluorescent powder of Sr2ZnSi2O7:Eu2+,Dy3+, SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ and Y2O2S:Eu3+,Mg2+,Ti4+, which were the common three primary colors materials with long afterglow, were synthesized by high temperature solid state method. The blends of rare earth (RE) luminescent materials have been of interest to reinvest the luminescent characteristics of polyethylene terephtahalate (PET) luminous fiber. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an inversion fluorescence microscope were used to characterize the surface morphology and the dispersion of inclusion. Through analysis of microcosmic morphology, three typical dispersions of luminescent particles were summarized. The X-ray diffraction indicated that the phase structure of fiber samples and crystal structure of luminescence materials kept complete after prilling and spinning. From the fluorescence spectra and CIE 1931 co-ordinates, it could be found that different combinations of luminous fibers were desired to obtain divers colors emission luminous fi-ber. And the fiber samples were a light sensation which could induct different excitation wavelengths and convert it down to different colors. The afterglow decay curve and its differential curve were summarized indicating the three decay stages. The decay curve and decay rate curve showed that the contents of Sr2ZnSi2O7:Eu2+,Dy3+, SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ and Y2O2S:Eu3+,Mg2+,Ti4+ had obvious in-fluence on the afterglow of fiber samples.

  16. Synthesis and Photocatalytie Property of the ZrO2/TiO2Pillared Laponite

    LIN Yingguang; PI Pihui; YANG Zhuoru; WANG Lianshi


    The ZrO2/TiO2 pillared laponite (Ti-Zr-lap) photocatalysts were prepared with intercalation reaction by supercritical fluid drying (SCFD),and characterized by XRD,TEM,SEM and BET surface area analysis,and the photocatalytic properties of Ti-Zr-lap were investigated by degradation of azo dye acid red B (ARB).The results showed that the ZrO2/TiO2 pillared structures in laponite could be formed,with the mass fraction of (Zr+++Ti4+)/laponite (Xm) increasing,the basal spacing and the BET surface area of Ti-Zr-lap significantly increased.The Ti-Zr-lap used as photocatalyst had the advantages of stable and porous layered structure,large surface area with the anatase type TiO2+ Compared with the Ti-Zr-lap dried by air drying,the TiZr-lap dried by SCFD showed better photocatalytic property which was very close to that of P25 TiO2.Using the Ti-Zr-lap as photocatalyst with the optimum Xm of 0.16 and the calcination temperature of 500 ℃,under the conditions of the initial concentration of ARB 20 mg/L,photocatalyst concentration of 1.5 g/L and irradiation time 60 min,the decoloring rate of ARB could achieve 98.3%,indicating that the Ti-Zr-lap had excellent photocatalytic property.

  17. Metallic Nanoparticle (TiO2 and Fe3O4) Application Modifies Rhizosphere Phosphorus Availability and Uptake by Lactuca sativa.

    Zahra, Zahra; Arshad, Muhammad; Rafique, Rafia; Mahmood, Arshad; Habib, Amir; Qazi, Ishtiaq A; Khan, Saud A


    Application of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) with respect to nutrient uptake in plants is not yet well understood. The impacts of TiO2 and Fe3O4 NPs on the availability of naturally soil-bound inorganic phosphorus (Pi) to plants were studied along with relevant parameters. For this purpose, Lactuca sativa (lettuce) was cultivated on the soil amended with TiO2 and Fe3O4 (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg kg(-1)) over a period of 90 days. Different techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to monitor translocation and understand the possible mechanisms for phosphorus (P) uptake. The trends for P accumulation were different for roots (TiO2 > Fe3O4 > control) and shoots (Fe3O4 > TiO2 > control). Cystine and methionine were detected in the rhizosphere in Raman spectra. Affinities of NPs to adsorb phosphate ions, modifications in P speciation, and NP stress in the rhizosphere had possibly contributed to enhanced root exudation and acidification. All of these changes led to improved P availability and uptake by the plants. These promising results can help to develop an innovative strategy for using NPs for improved nutrient management to ensure food security.

  18. Treatment of olive mill wastewater by photooxidation with ZrO2-doped TiO2 nanocomposite and its reuse capability.

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Oztekin, Rukiye


    Zirconium dioxide (zirconia, ZrO2)-doped TiO2 (TiO2/ZrO2) nanocomposite was used for the photocatalytic oxidation of pollutant parameters [COD components (CODtotal, CODdissolved and CODinert)], polyphenols (catechol, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, tyrosol and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid) and total polyaromatic amines [aniline, 4-nitroaniline, o-toluidine and o-anisidine] from the olive mill effluent wastewaters at different operational conditions such as at different mass ratios of ZrO2 (50, 25, 14, 10 and 5 wt%) in the TiO2/ZrO2 nanocomposite, at different TiO2/ZrO2 photocatalyst concentrations (1, 4, 15 and 50 mg/L) and pH values (4.0-7.0-10.0) under 300 W UV irradiations, respectively. Under the optimized conditions (pH = 4.6, 15 mg/L ZrO2/TiO2 nanocomposite with a ZrO2 mass ratio of 14 wt%, 300 W UV light, after 60 min photooxidation time, at 21°C), the maximum CODdissolved, total phenol and total aromatic amines photooxidation yields were 99%, 89% and 95%, respectively. High pollutant removal (89%) yields after sequential five times utilization of ZrO2/TiO2 nanocomposite show that this catalyst can be effectively used commercially in the treatment of olive mill effluent.

  19. Nano-sized Mo- and Nb-doped TiO2 as anode materials for high energy and high power hybrid Li-ion capacitors

    Bauer, Dustin; Roberts, Alexander J.; Matsumi, Noriyoshi; Darr, Jawwad A.


    Nano-sized Mo-doped titania (Mo0.1Ti0.9O2) and Nb-doped titania (Nb0.25Ti0.75O2) were directly synthesized via a continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis process. Materials characterization was conducted using physical techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area measurements and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Hybrid Li-ion supercapacitors were made with either a Mo-doped or Nb-doped TiO2 negative electrode material and an activated carbon (AC) positive electrode. Cells were evaluated using electrochemical testing (cyclic voltammetry, constant charge discharge cycling). The hybrid Li-ion capacitors showed good energy densities at moderate power densities. When cycled in the potential window 0.5-3.0 V, the Mo0.1Ti0.9O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor showed the highest energy densities of 51 Wh kg-1 at a power of 180 W kg-1 with energy densities rapidly declining with increasing applied specific current. In comparison, the Nb0.25Ti0.75O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor maintained its energy density of 45 Wh kg-1 at 180 W kg-1 better, showing 36 Wh g-1 at 3200 W kg-1, which is a very promising mix of high energy and power densities. Reducing the voltage window to the range 1.0-3.0 V led to an increase in power density, with the Mo0.1Ti0.9O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor giving energy densities of 12 Wh kg-1 and 2.5 Wh kg-1 at power densities of 6700 W kg-1 and 14 000 W kg-1, respectively.

  20. Properties of the ZrO2MgO/MgZrO3NiCr/NiCr triple-layer thermal barrier coating deposited by the atmospheric plasma spray process / Характеристики трехслойных термобарьерных покрытий ZrO2MgO/ MgZrO3NiCr/ NiCr, нанесенных воздушно-плазменным напылением / Svojstva troslojne termo barijerne prevlake ZrO2MgO/ MgZrO3NiCr/ NiCr deponovane atmosferskim plazma sprej procesom

    Mihailo R. Mrdak


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the examinations of TBC - ZrO2MgO / MgZrO3NiCr / NiCr thermal barrier layers deposited by the plasma spray process at the atmospheric pressure on substrates of Al alloys. In order to obtain the structural and mechanical properties of layers, which will provide a good heat and abrasion protection of the tail elevators of aircraft J-22 when firing '.Lightning' and 'Thunder' rockets, the deposition of three powder types was performed on 0.6 mm thick Al alloy substrates. This study describes a procedure of using triple-layer TBC coatings as a good combination among many available ones, which gives a good compromise between thermal protection and resistance to abrasion for protecting aircraft tail elevators. The study is mainly based on the experimental approach. The evaluation of the mechanical properties of layers was done by the examination of microhardness by method HV0.3 and bond strength on the tensile machine. The structure of layers was examined by the method of light microscopy while the surface of ZrO2MgO ceramic layers was examined by the method of scanning electron microscopy (SEM.The thermal protection of TBC layers and resistance to abrasion were tested in the tunnel of the Military Technical Institute, Zarkovo. The obtained characteristics of the surface layers and the rocket firing simulations have proven the triple-layer system of TBC coatings reliable. / В данной статье представлены результаты испытаний термобарьерных покрытий ТБС ZrO2MgO/MgZrO3NiCr/NiCr, нанесенных воздушно-плазменным напылением при атмосферном давлении на субстраты сплавов Al. Испытания проводились с целью получения структурных и механических характеристик слоев, обеспечивающих ка

  1. Physiological and biochemical responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) exposed to nano-CeO2 and excess boron: Modulation of boron phytotoxicity.

    Tassi, E; Giorgetti, L; Morelli, E; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L; Barbafieri, M


    Little is known about the interaction of nanoparticles (NPs) with soil constituents and their effects in plants. Boron (B), an essential micronutrient that reduces crop production at both deficiency and excess, has not been investigated with respect to its interaction with cerium oxide NPs (nano-CeO2). Considering conflicting results on the nano-CeO2 toxicity and protective role as antioxidant, their possible modulation on B toxicity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was investigated. Sunflower was cultivated for 30 days in garden pots containing original or B-spiked soil amended with nano-CeO2 at 0-800 mg kg(-1). At harvest, Ce and B concentrations in tissues, biomass, and activities of stress enzymes in leaves were determined. Results showed that in the original soil, Ce accumulated mainly in roots, with little translocation to stems and leaves, while reduced root Ce was observed in plants from B-spiked soil. In the original soil, higher levels of nano-CeO2 reduced plant B concentration. Although morphological effects were not visible, changes in biomass and oxidative stress response were observed. Sunflower leaves from B-spiked soil showed visible symptoms of B toxicity, such as necrosis and chlorosis in old leaves, as well as an increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. However, at high nano-CeO2 level, SOD activity decreased reaching values similar to that of the control. This study has shown that nano-CeO2 reduced both the B nutritional status of sunflower in original soil and the B phytotoxicity in B-spiked soil.

  2. Scavenging of H2O2 by mouse brain mitochondria.

    Starkov, Anatoly A; Andreyev, Alexander Yu; Zhang, Steven F; Starkova, Natalia N; Korneeva, Maria; Syromyatnikov, Mikhail; Popov, Vasily N


    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism is unique in that mitochondria both generate and scavenge ROS. Recent estimates of ROS scavenging capacity of brain mitochondria are surprisingly high, ca. 9-12 nmol H2O2/min/mg, which is ~100 times higher than the rate of ROS generation. This raises a question whether brain mitochondria are a source or a sink of ROS. We studied the interaction between ROS generation and scavenging in mouse brain mitochondria by measuring the rate of removal of H2O2 added at a concentration of 0.4 μM, which is close to the reported physiological H2O2 concentrations in tissues, under conditions of low and high levels of mitochondrial H2O2 generation. With NAD-linked substrates, the rate of H2O2 generation by mitochondria was ~50-70 pmol/min/mg. The H2O2 scavenging dynamics was best approximated by the first order reaction equation. H2O2 scavenging was not affected by the uncoupling of mitochondria, phosphorylation of added ADP, or the genetic ablation of glutathione peroxidase 1, but decreased in the absence of respiratory substrates, in the presence of thioredoxin reductase inhibitor auranofin, or in partially disrupted mitochondria. With succinate, the rate of H2O2 generation was ~2,200-2,900 pmol/min/mg; the scavenging of added H2O2 was masked by a significant accumulation of generated H2O2 in the assay medium. The obtained data were fitted into a simple model that reasonably well described the interaction between H2O2 scavenging and production. It showed that mitochondria are neither a sink nor a source of H2O2, but can function as both at the same time, efficiently stabilizing exogenous H2O2 concentration at a level directly proportional to the ratio of the H2O2 generation rate to the rate constant of the first order scavenging reaction.

  3. Cellulose Tailored Anatase TiO2 Nanospindles in Three-Dimensional Graphene Composites for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Ding, Yangbin; Bai, Wei; Sun, Jinhua; Wu, Yu; Memon, Mushtaque A; Wang, Chao; Liu, Chengbin; Huang, Yong; Geng, Jianxin


    The morphologies of transition metal oxides have decisive impact on the performance of their applications. Here, we report a new and facile strategy for in situ preparation of anatase TiO2 nanospindles in three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (RGO) structure (3D TiO2@RGO) using cellulose as both an intermediate agent eliminating the negative effect of graphene oxide (GO) on the growth of TiO2 crystals and as a structure-directing agent for the shape-controlled synthesis of TiO2 crystals. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometer analysis indicated that the spindle shape of TiO2 crystals was formed through the restriction of the growth of high energy {010} facets due to preferential adsorption of cellulose on these facets. Because of the 3D structure of the composite, the large aspect ratio of the TiO2 nanospindles, and the exposed high-energy {010} facets of the TiO2 crystals, the 3D TiO2@RGO(Ce 1.7) exhibited excellent capacitive performance as an electrode material for supercapacitors, with a high specific capacitance (ca. 397 F g(-1)), a high energy density (55.7 Wh kg(-1)), and a high power density (1327 W kg(-1)) on the basis of the masses of RGO and TiO2. These levels of capacitive performance far exceed those of previously reported TiO2-based composites.

  4. Catalysis by Using TiO2 Nanoparticles and Nanotubes

    Chien Shu-Hua; Kuo Ming-Chih; Liou Yuh-Cherng


    TiO2 has attracted considerable attention due to its stability, non-toxicity, low cost, and great potential for use as a photocatalyst in environmental applications. Since strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) of titania-supported noble metals was first reported in 1978, titania supported catalyst has been intensively studied in heterogeneous catalysis. However, the effective catalytic activity was restricted due to the low surface area of TiO2. Recently, TiO2-based nanotubes were extensively investigated because of their potentials in many areas such as highly efficient photocatalysis and hydrogen sensor.In the present study, formation of titanium oxide (TiO2) nanotubes was carried out by hydrothermal method, with TiO2 nanoparticle-powders immersed in concentrated NaOH solution in an autoclave at 110 ℃. Preparation of nano-size Pt on TiO2-nanoparticles or TiO2-nanotubes was performed by photochemical deposition method with UV irradiation on an aqueous solution containing TiO2 and hexachloroplatinic acid or tetrachloroauric acid. The TEM micrographs show that TiO2-nanotubes exhibit ~300 nm in length with an inner diameter of ~ 6 nm and the wall thickness of ~ 2 nm, and homogeneous nanosize Pt particles (~ 2 nm) were well-dispersed on both nanoparticle- and nanotube- titania supports. It also shows the nanotube morphology was retained up2o n Pt-immobilization. Nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77K resulted a high surface area (~ 200m/g) of TiO2-nanotubes, which is about 40 times greater than that of "mother" TiO2 nanoparticles (~5 m/g). All the spectroscopic results exhibited that the nanotube structure was not significantly affected by the immobilized Pt particles. Ti K-edge XANES spectra of TiO2 nanotube and Pt/TiO2-nanotube represent that most titanium are in a tetrahedral coordination with few retained in the octahedral structure.In the in-situ FT-IR experiments, an IR cell was evacuated to a pressure of 10-5 torr at room temperature as soon as the

  5. Efficient drug delivery using SiO2-layered double hydroxide nanocomposites.

    Li, Li; Gu, Zi; Gu, Wenyi; Liu, Jian; Xu, Zhi Ping


    MgAl-layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) nanoparticles have great potentials in drug and siRNA delivery. In this work, we used a nanodot-coating strategy to prepare SiO2 dot-coated layered double hydroxide (SiO2@MgAl-LDH) nanocomposites with good dispersibility and controllable size for drug delivery. The optimal SiO2@MgAl-LDH nanocomposite was obtained by adjusting synthetic parameters including the mass ratio of MgAl-LDH to SiO2, the mixing temperature and time. The optimal SiO2@MgAl-LDH nanocomposite was shown to have SiO2 nanodots (10-15nm in diameter) evenly deposited on the surface of MgAl-LDHs (110nm in diameter) with the plate-like morphology and the average hydrodynamic diameter of 170nm. We further employed SiO2@MgAl-LDH nanocomposite as a nanocarrier to deliver methotrexate (MTX), a chemotherapy drug, to the human osteosarcoma cell (U2OS) and found that MTX delivered by SiO2@MgAl-LDH nanocomposite apparently inhibited the U2OS cell growth.

  6. H2O2O2协同引发的TiO2/Fe3+光催化降解苯酚%H2O2 and O2 combined-leading photo-catalytic degradation of phenol with TiO2/Fe3+ 

    王西峰; 彭党聪; 胡晓莲


    Class fiber used as carrier, TiO2/Fe3+ has been loaded to its surfacee,forming the space glass fiber reactor. Using high pressure mercury lamp as its light source,so as to carry out the experimental research on the degradation of phenol in water. The influences of the synergistic effect of H2O2 and O2 on photo-catalysis oxidation are investigated emphatically. It is found through experiments that adding H2O2 has remarkable initiation effect on the production of HO? ,and oxygenizing to the solution can obviously improve the efficiency of photo-catalysis and reduce H2O2 dosage. The results show that the phenol mineralization rate can reach about 83% ,when the power of UV365 high pressure mercury lamp is 250 W,pH 3-5,O2 inlet quantity 1.0 L/(min?L),H2O2 dosage 0.1 mmol/L, rising flow rate in the reactor 0.7 m/min, initial mass concentration of phenol wastewater 30 mg/L,and photo-catalystic reaction time 120 min.%以玻璃纤维为载体,将TiO2/Fe3+负载到其表面制成了空间玻璃纤维反应器.利用该反应器以高压汞灯为光源进行了光催化降解水中苯酚的试验研究,重点考察了H2O2O2的协同作用对光催化氧化的影响.试验发现,H2O2的加入对HO·的产生有显著的引发作用,同时向溶液中充入O2可明显提高光催化效率,降低H2O2用量.试验结果表明,以UV365-250W光源照射,在初始pH为3~5,O2通入量为1.0L/(min·L),上升流速为0.7 m/min,H2O2浓度为0.1mmol/L等试验条件下,初始质量浓度为30mgL的苯酚废水经120 min光催化反应后,其矿化率可达83%左右.

  7. Hexagonal CeO2 nanostructures: an efficient electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Maheswari, Nallappan; Muralidharan, Gopalan


    Cerium oxide (CeO2) has emerged as a new and promising pseudocapacitive material due to its prominent valance states and extensive applications in various fields. In the present study, hexagonal CeO2 nanostructures have been prepared via the hydrothermal method employing cationic surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). CTAB ensures a slow rate of hydrolysis to form small sized CeO2 nanostructures. The role of calcination temperature on the morphological, structural, electrochemical properties and cyclic stability has been assessed for supercapacitor applications. The mesoscopic hexagonal architecture endows the CeO2 with not only a higher specific capacity, but also with an excellent rate capability and cyclability. When the charge/discharge current density is increased from 2 to 10 A g(-1) the reversible charge capacity decreased from 927 F g(-1) to 475 F g(-1) while 100% capacity retention at a high current density of 20 A g(-1) even after 1500 cycles could be achieved. Furthermore, the asymmetric supercapacitor based on CeO2 exhibited a significantly higher energy density of 45.6 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 187.5 W kg(-1) with good cyclic stability. The electrochemical richness of the CeO2 nanostructure makes it a suitable electrode material for supercapacitor applications.

  8. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange: influence of H2O2 in the TiO2-based system.

    Andronic, Luminita; Manolache, Simona; Duta, Anca


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the photocatalytic oxidation of a reactive azo dye. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 was studied using a reactor equipped with UV-A sources, with maximum emission at 365 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 powder (99.9% anatase) and thin films has been measured through the decomposition of methyl orange solutions. The thin film was prepared by doctor blade and spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD). The TiO2 suspensions were prepared at 1 g/L concentration, and the initial methyl orange concentration was fixed at 7.8125 mg/L. The influence of the TiO2 (powder or thin films) and/or O2 and H2O2 on the photobleaching rate, was tested under different experiments, at pH = 5. Thin films (doctor blade) of TiO2 formed of mezo-sized aggregates formed of nanosized anatase crystallites show better photobleaching efficiency than thin film (SPD) due to their large internal surface. The rate is even higher in H2O2 compared to oxygen environment.

  9. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of ternary composite catalyst:Ce-SiO2-TiO2%Ce-SiO2-TiO2三元复合催化剂的制备及其光催化降解性能

    刘涛; 隋国哲; 甄德帅; 李金龙; 佟白


    采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了Ce-SiO2-TiO2三元复合纳米催化剂,用TG-DTA、FT-IR、XRD和UV-Vis等对样品的结构进行了表征,并以罗丹明B(RhB)作为探针反应,分别在紫外光和可见光照下评价了其光催化性能.与TiO2一元纳米催化剂和Ce-TiO2、SiO2-TiO2二元纳米催化剂进行对比,Ce-SiO2-TiO2三元复合纳米催化剂对罗丹明B溶液(5 mg/L)表现出更高的光催化降解性能,可见光下的降解率达到98.5%.%The ternary composite nano photocatalysts of Ce-SiO2-TiO2 were prepared by sol-gel meth-od, which were characterized by TG-DTA, FT-IR, XRD and UV-Vis. The photocatalytic activities of Ce-SiO2-TiO2 nanocomposites were investigated for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) as a probe under the il umina-tion of UV and visible light. Compared with the photocatalytic activities of TiO2, Ce-TiO2 and SiO2-TiO2, the ter-nary composite nano photocatalyst of Ce-SiO2-TiO2 showed the highest photodegradation, and the photodeg-radation rate of RhB (5 mg/L) could reach above 98.5%under visible light.

  10. Determination of TiO2 and AgTiO2 Nanoparticles in Artemia salina: Toxicity, Morphological Changes, Uptake and Depuration.

    Ozkan, Yesim; Altinok, Ilhan; Ilhan, Hasan; Sokmen, Munevver


    In this study, aquatic stability and toxic effects of TiO2 and AgTiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were investigated on Artemia salina nauplii. AgTiO2 was found to be more toxic to nauplii compared to TiO2. The mortality rate in nauplii increased significantly with increasing concentrations and duration of exposure. TiO2 eliminations ranged between 27.8% and 96.5% at 50 and 1 mg/L TiO2 exposed to nauplii, respectively. Accumulation and elimination of Ag in AgTiO2 exposed nauplii were similar except at 1 mg/L AgTiO2. When NPs were mixed with water, the hydrodynamic dimensions of NPs significantly increased because of aggregation in saltwater but NP size decreased over time. NPs-exposed nauplii showed changes in eye formation, enlargement of the intestine, malformations in the outer shell and antennae loss were also observed. Since accumulation and toxicity of AgTiO2 NPs was higher than TiO2 alone, inevitably release of AgTiO2 into aqueous environments can cause ecological risks.

  11. An aqueous rechargeable battery based on zinc anode and Na(0.95)MnO2.

    Zhang, Baihe; Liu, Yu; Wu, Xiongwei; Yang, Yaqiong; Chang, Zheng; Wen, Zubiao; Wu, Yuping


    An aqueous rechargeable battery system is assembled by using metallic zinc and Na(0.95)MnO2 as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively. It is cheap and environmentally friendly, and its energy density is 78 Wh kg(-1). Its cycling performance is very good with only 8% capacity loss after 1000 cycles at 4 C between 1 and 2 V.

  12. Photocatalytic antibacterial performance of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 against S. aureus. P. aeruginosa and E. coli.

    Gupta, Kiran; Singh, R P; Pandey, Ashutosh; Pandey, Anjana


    This paper reports the structural and optical properties and comparative photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles against different bacterial strains under visible-light irradiation. The TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized by acid catalyzed sol-gel technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). The XRD pattern revealed that the annealed sample of TiO2 has both anatase and rutile phases while only an anatase phase was found in Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. The decreased band-gap energy of Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles in comparison to TiO2 nanoparticles was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy. The rate of recombination and transfer behaviour of the photoexcited electron-hole pairs in the semiconductors was recorded by photoluminescence. The antimicrobial activity of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (3% and 7%) was investigated against both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) bacteria. As a result, the viability of all three microorganisms was reduced to zero at 60 mg/30 mL culture in the case of both (3% and 7% doping) concentrations of Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. Annealed TiO2 showed zero viability at 80 mg/30 mL whereas doped Ag-TiO2 7% showed zero viability at 40 mg/30 mL culture in the case of P. aeruginosa only.

  13. Photocatalytic antibacterial performance of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 against S. aureus. P. aeruginosa and E. coli

    Kiran Gupta


    Full Text Available This paper reports the structural and optical properties and comparative photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles against different bacterial strains under visible-light irradiation. The TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized by acid catalyzed sol–gel technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV–vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL. The XRD pattern revealed that the annealed sample of TiO2 has both anatase and rutile phases while only an anatase phase was found in Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. The decreased band-gap energy of Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles in comparison to TiO2 nanoparticles was investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy. The rate of recombination and transfer behaviour of the photoexcited electron–hole pairs in the semiconductors was recorded by photoluminescence. The antimicrobial activity of TiO2 and Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (3% and 7% was investigated against both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli bacteria. As a result, the viability of all three microorganisms was reduced to zero at 60 mg/30 mL culture in the case of both (3% and 7% doping concentrations of Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. Annealed TiO2 showed zero viability at 80 mg/30 mL whereas doped Ag-TiO2 7% showed zero viability at 40 mg/30 mL culture in the case of P. aeruginosa only.

  14. Degradation of Pentachlorophenol in Aqueous Solution by the UV/ZrO 2 /H 2 O 2 Photocatalytic Process

    Mohammad Reza Samarghandi


    Full Text Available Pentachlorophenol (PCP, which is one of the resistant phenolic compounds, has been classified in the category of EPA’s priority pollutants due to its high toxicity and carcinogenic potential. Therefore, its removal from water and wastewater is very important. Various methods have been studied for removing the compound, among which advanced oxidation processes (AOPs have attracted much attention because of ease of application and high efficiency. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the UV/ZrO2/H2O2 process, as an AOP, for PCP removal from aquatic environments. The effects of several parameters such as ultraviolet (UV exposure time, initial PCP concentration, pH, concentration of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2 nanoparticles, and H2O2 concentration were studied. Kinetics of the reaction was also detected. The concentration of the stated materials in the samples was determined using a spectrophotometer at 500 nm. The results showed that the highest efficiency (approximately 100% was reached at optimized conditions of pH 6, contact time of 30 minutes, initial PCP concentration of 20 mg/L, the nanoparticles concentration of 0.1 g/L and H2O2 concentration of 14.7 mM/L. Also, the process followed the first order kinetics reaction. The obtained results illustrated that the UV/ZrO2/H2O2 process has a high ability in removing PCP.

  15. Structural characterization of nanosized CeO(2)-SiO(2), CeO(2)-TiO(2), and CeO(2)-ZrO(2) catalysts by XRD, Raman, and HREM techniques.

    Reddy, Benjaram M; Khan, Ataullah; Lakshmanan, Pandian; Aouine, Mimoun; Loridant, Stéphane; Volta, Jean-Claude


    Structural characteristics of nanosized ceria-silica, ceria-titania, and ceria-zirconia mixed oxide catalysts have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, BET surface area, thermogravimetry, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM). The effect of support oxides on the crystal modification of ceria cubic lattice was mainly focused. The investigated oxides were obtained by soft chemical routes with ultrahighly dilute solutions and were subjected to thermal treatments from 773 to 1073 K. The XRD results suggest that the CeO(2)-SiO(2) sample primarily consists of nanocrystalline CeO(2) on the amorphous SiO(2) surface. Both crystalline CeO(2) and TiO(2) anatase phases were noted in the case of CeO(2)-TiO(2) sample. Formation of cubic Ce(0.75)Zr(0.25)O(2) and Ce(0.6)Zr(0.4)O(2) (at 1073 K) were observed in the case of the CeO(2)-ZrO(2) sample. Raman measurements disclose the fluorite structure of ceria and the presence of oxygen vacancies/Ce(3+). The HREM results reveal well-dispersed CeO(2) nanocrystals over the amorphous SiO(2) matrix in the cases of CeO(2)-SiO(2), isolated CeO(2), and TiO(2) (anatase) nanocrystals, some overlapping regions in the case of CeO(2)-TiO(2), and nanosized CeO(2) and Ce-Zr oxides in the case of CeO(2)-ZrO(2) sample. The exact structural features of these crystals as determined by digital diffraction analysis of HREM experimental images reveal that the CeO(2) is mainly in cubic fluorite geometry. The oxygen storage capacity (OSC) as determined by thermogravimetry reveals that the OSC of the mixed oxide systems is more than that of pure CeO(2) and is system dependent.

  16. Comparative study of diethyl phthalate degradation by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2: kinetics, mechanism, and effects of operational parameters.

    Song, Chengjie; Wang, Liping; Ren, Jie; Lv, Bo; Sun, Zhonghao; Yan, Jing; Li, Xinying; Liu, Jingjing


    The photodegradation of diethyl phthalate (DEP) by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 is studied. The DEP degradation kinetics and multiple crucial factors effecting the clearance of DEP are investigated, including initial DEP concentration ([DEP]0), initial pH values (pH0), UV light intensity, anions (Cl(-), NO(3-), SO4 (2-), HCO3 (-), and CO3 (2-)), cations (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Mn(2+), and Fe(3+)), and humic acid (HA). Total organic carbon (TOC) removal is tested by two treatments. And, cytotoxicity evolution of DEP degradation intermediates is detected. The relationship between molar ratio ([H2O2]/[DEP] or [TiO2]/[DEP]) and degradation kinetic constant (K) is also studied. And, the cytotoxicity tests of DEP and its degradation intermediates in UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 treatments are researched. The DEP removal efficiency of UV/H2O2 treatment is higher than UV/TiO2 treatment. The DEP degradation fitted a pseudo-first-order kinetic pattern under experimental conditions. The K linearly related with molar ratio in UV/H2O2 treatment while nature exponential relationship is observed in the case of UV/TiO2. However, K fitted corresponding trends better in H2O2 treatment than in TiO2 treatment. The Cl(-) is in favor of the DEP degradation in UV/H2O2 treatment; in contrast, it is disadvantageous to the DEP degradation in UV/TiO2 treatment. Other anions are all disadvantageous to the DEP degradation in two treatments. Fe(3+) promotes the degradation rates significantly. And, all other cations in question inhibit the degradation of DEP. HA hinders DEP degradation in two treatments. The intermediates of DEP degradation in UV/TiO2 treatment are less toxic to biological cell than that in UV/H2O2 treatment.

  17. Effects of TiO2 NPs on Silkworm Growth and Feed Efficiency.

    Li, YangYang; Ni, Min; Li, FanChi; Zhang, Hua; Xu, KaiZun; Zhao, XiaoMing; Tian, JiangHai; Hu, JingSheng; Wang, BinBin; Shen, WeiDe; Li, Bing


    Silkworm (Bombyx mori) (B. mori) is an economically important insect and a model species for Lepidoptera. It has been reported that feeding of low concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) can improve feed efficiency and increase cocoon mass, cocoon shell mass, and the ratio of cocoon shell. However, high concentrations of TiO2 NPs are toxic. In this study, we fed B. mori with different concentrations of TiO2 NPs (5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/L) and investigated B. mori growth, feed efficiency, and cocoon quality. We found that low concentrations of TiO2 NPs (5 and 10 mg/L) were more effective for weight gains, with significant weight gain being obtained at 72 h (P TiO2 NPs at 20 mg/L or higher had certain inhibitory effects, with significant inhibition to B. mori growth being observed at 48 h. The feed efficiency was significantly improved at low concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/L for 14.6 and 13.1 %, respectively (P TiO2 NPs showed increased cocoon mass and cocoon shell mass; at 5 and 10 mg/L TiO2 NPs, cocoon mass was significantly increased by 8.29 and 9.39 %, respectively (P TiO2 NPs promoted B. mori growth and development, improved feed efficiency, and increased cocoon production, while high concentrations (20 mg/L or higher) of TiO2 NPs showed inhibitory effect to the B. mori. Consecutive feeding of high concentrations of TiO2 NPs led to some degrees of adaptability. This study provides a reference for the research on TiO2 NPs toxicity and the basis for the development of TiO2 NPs as a feed additive for B. mori.

  18. UV/TiO2 and UV/TiO2/chemical oxidant processes for the removal of humic acid, Cr and Cu in aqueous TiO2 suspensions.

    Jung, J-T; Choi, J-Y; Chung, J; Lee, Y-W; Kim, J-O


    The objective of this study was to investigate the treatment efficiency of UV/TiO2 and UV/TiO2/chemical oxidant processes for the removal of humic acid and hazardous heavy metals in aqueous TiO2 suspensions. The reaction rate (k) of humic acid and hazardous heavy metals by UV/TiO2 was higher than that of UV illumination alone or TiO2 alone. The removal efficiency for humic acid and Cr(VI) at acid or neutral pH values was higher than that at basic pH values. However, the removal efficiency for Cu(II) at acid pH values was smaller compared with that at neutral or basic pH values. The reaction rate (k) of humic acid and hazardous heavy metals in the TiO2 concentration range of 0.1-0.3 g l(-1) increased with increasing TiO2 dosage. However, amounts higher than a TiO2 dosage of 0.3 g l(-1) reduced the removal efficiency for humic acid and hazardous heavy metals because of the shielding effect on the UV light penetration in the aqueous solution caused by the presence of excessive amounts of TiO2. The addition of oxidants to the UV/TiO2 system showed an increase in degradation efficiency for the treatment of humic acid and hazardous heavy metals. The optimal concentration of oxidants was: H2O2 50 mg l(-1), O3 20 g m(-3) and K2S2O8 50 mg l(-1), respectively. The degradation efficiency of UV/TiO2/oxidant systems for the removal of humic acid and hazardous heavy metals was much greater when H2O2 was used as the oxidant.



    Composite TiO2-montmorillonite (Ti-MMT) has been synthesized with the aim to improve the ability of TiO2 photocatalysts degrade methyl orange. Synthesis of composite made by mixing TiO2 and montmorillonite in ethanol solution, then heated using the furnace at a temperature of 450 °C for 5 hours. TiO2-MMT composites were characterized by FT-IR, XRD and SAA. Test photodegradation activity of TiO2-MMT composites made to dye Methyl Orange 8 mg / L with UV light irradiation time variation and mass...

  20. Hydrophilic property of SiO2-TiO2 overlayer films and TiO2/SiO2 mixing films

    关凯书; 徐宏; 吕宝君


    The photo-induced hydrophilicity of SiO2 overlayer on TiO2 films prepared by sol-gel method was investigated by means of soak angle measurement, XPS, UV-VIS and FTIR spectra. The results show that, compared with the TiO2 film without SiO2 overlayer, when the TiO2 film is thoroughly covered by SiO2 overlayer, the hydrophilicity and the sustained effect are enhanced. It is found that the significant growth of the OH group occurs in the surface of SiO2 overlayer. The different mechanism of enhanced hydrophilicity between SiO2 overlayer on TiO2 films and TiO2/SiO2 mixing films was analyzed. The result suggests that the photo-generated electrons created in the interface between TiO2 and SiO2 tend to reduce the Ti(Ⅳ) cation to the Ti(Ⅲ) state, and the photogenerated holes transmit through the SiO2 layer to uppermost surface efficiently. Once the holes go up to the surface, they tend to make the surface hydrophilic. The stable hydrophilicity of SiO2 overlayer which adsorbs more stable OH groups, enhances the sustained effect, i.e. the super-hydrophilic state can be maintained for a long time in dark place.

  1. Valence electron structure and properties of stabilized ZrO2

    LI JinPing; HAN JieOai; MENG SongHe; ZHANG XingHong


    To reveal the properties of stabilizers in ZrO2 on nanoscopic levels,the valence elec-tron structures of four stable ZrO2 phases and c-ZrO2 were analyzed on the basis of the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules.The results showed that the hybridization levels of Zr atoms in c-ZrO2 doped with Ca and Mg dropped from B17 to B13,the hybridization levels of Zr atoms in c-ZrO2 doped with Y and Ce dropped from B17 to B15,and that the four stabilizing atoms all made the hybridization levels of O atoms drop from level 4 to level 2.The numbers of covalent electrons in the strongest covalent bond in the descending order are c-ZrO2>ZrCeO2>ZrYOZrMgO>ZrCaO.The bond energies of the strongest covalent bond and the melting points of the solid solutions in the descending order are ZrCeO2>c-ZrO2>ZrYO>ZrMgO>ZrCaO.The percent-ages of the total number of covalent electrons in the descending order arec-ZrO2>ZrYO> ZrCeO2>ZrMgO> ZrCaO.From the above analysis,it can be concluded that the stabilizing degrees of the four stabilizers in the descending order are CaO> MgO>Y2O3>CeO2.

  2. Comparative study on nanostructured MnO2/carbon composites synthesized by spontaneous reduction for supercapacitor application

    Lin, Yen-Po


    MnO2 has been deposited onto two types of carbon (C) substrates, including a non-porous multi-wall carbon nano-tube (CNT) and a porous carbon black (CB) powder, by a solution reduction process where MnO4 - was reduced at 80 °C by the C substrate so as to give nano-crystalline MnO2 directly at the C surface. The nature of the C substrate has profound effects on polymorphicity, microstructure and electrochemical properties, in terms of supercapacitor application, of the resulting oxide. Deposition on CNT produces meso/macro-porous layer containing predominantly spinel MnO2 strongly bonded to the CNTs and having a larger surface area, while that on CB results in birnessite granules with a lower surface area. In addition to having a higher specific capacitance (309 F g-1), the MnO2/CNT electrode exhibits superior power performance (221 F g-1 at 500 mV s-1 or ca. 20 Wh kg -1at 88 kW kg-1) to MnO2/CB due to reduced electronic and ion-diffusion resistances. Furthermore, the MnO2/CNT electrode also exhibits slower self-discharging rate and greater cycling stability. The results indicate that the MnO2 spinel/CNT holds promise for supercapacitor applications. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Photocatalytic decomposition of gaseous formaldehyde using TiO2, SiO2−TiO2 and Pt−TiO2

    Byung-Yong Lee; Sung-Wook Kim; Sung-Chul Lee; Hyun-Ho Lee; Suk-Jin Choung


    In this study, in order to improve the photocatalytic decomposition activities of formaldehyde, TiO2 catalyst modified with SiO2 substitution and metal (Pt, Cu and Fe) impregnation, were tested. In case of TiO2 substituted by SiO2, the optimal catalytic activity was found at the mole ration of 2 : 8. Among the metal impregnated TiO2, the Pt impregnated TiO2 showed the best activity even better than that of P-25 which is widely used in commercial application. However, Cu and Fe impregnated TiO...

  4. Degradability of Treated Ethion Insecticide by TiO2 Photocatalysis.

    Hassarangsee, Siriporn; Uthaibutra, Jamnong; Nomura, Nakao; Whangchai, Kanda


    Ethion, an insecticide, is widely used with fruit and vegetable crops. This research studied the reduction and oxidative degradation of standard ethion by TiO2 photocatalysis. A standard ethion solution (1 mg L(-1)) was treated with different concentrations of TiO2 powder (5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mg mL(-1)) for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. The amount of ethion residue was detected by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) and the concentration of anions produced as major degradation products was determined by Ion Chromatography (IC). The TiO2 photocatalysis efficiently reduced ethion concentrations, with the highest degradation rate occurring within the first 15 min of reaction. The reaction produced sulphate and phosphate anions. The TiO2photocatalysis reduced 1 mg L(-1) ethion to 0.18 mg L(-1) when treated with 60 mg mL(-1) TiO2 powder for 60 min. The lethal concentration (LC50) of standard ethion was also estimated and compared to the treated ethion. All treatments, especially 60 mg mL(-1) TiO2 powder, markedly detoxified ethion, as tested with brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.), with an LC50 value of 765.8 mg mL(-1), compared to the control of 1.01 mg mL(-1).

  5. Ultrathin MnO2 nanoflakes deposited on carbon nanotube networks for symmetrical supercapacitors with enhanced performance

    Sun, Peng; Yi, Huan; Peng, Tianquan; Jing, Yuting; Wang, Ruijing; Wang, Huanwen; Wang, Xuefeng


    Manganese dioxide is a promising electrode material for electrochemical supercapacitors, but its poor electronic conductivity (10-5∼10-6 S cm-1) limits the fast charge/discharge rate for practical applications. In the present work, we use the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to grow highly conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) networks on flexible Ni mesh, on which MnO2 nanoflake layers are deposited by a simple solution method, forming a hierarchical core-shell structure. Under the optimized mass loading, the as-fabricated MnO2 nanoflake@CNTs/Ni mesh electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of 1072 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 in three-electrode configuration. Due to advantageous features of these core-shell electrodes (e.g., high conductivity, direct current path, structure stability), the as-assembled symmetric supercapacitor (SSC) based on MnO2@CNTs/Ni mesh has a wide working voltage (2.0 V) in 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. Finally an impressive energy density of 94.4 Wh kg-1 at 1000 W kg-1 and a high power density of 30.2 kW kg-1 at 33.6 Wh kg-1 have been achieved for the as-assembled SSC, which exhibits a great potential as a low-cost, high energy density and attractive wearable energy storage device.

  6. Partial oxidation of methanol catalyzed with Au/TiO2, Au/ZrO2 and Au/ZrO2-TiO2 catalysts

    Hernández-Ramírez, E.; Wang, J. A.; Chen, L. F.; Valenzuela, M. A.; Dalai, A. K.


    Mesoporous TiO2, ZrO2 and ZrO2-TiO2 mixed oxides were synthesized by the sol-gel method and the Au/TiO2, Au/ZrO2 and Au/ZrO2-TiO2 catalysts were prepared by deposition-precipitation method using urea solution as a precipitating agent. These materials were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and in situ FTIR-pyridine (FTIR-Py) adsorption. XRD patterns of the samples confirmed the formation of ZrTiO4 phase in the ZrO2-TiO2 mixed oxides. TEM micrographs showed that nanosized gold particles on the catalyst had an average diameter smaller than 5 nm. Metallic gold (Au0) and oxidized Au species (Aunδ+) on the surface of the catalysts were evidenced by UV-vis and XPS characterization. In the partial oxidation of methanol (POM) reaction, among the six catalysts, the high metallic Au0/Au+ ratio and low surface acidity in the Au/ZrO2 catalysts are chiefly responsible for the highest hydrogen production rate in the whole temperature range between 210 and 300 °C. Methanol decomposition as secondary reaction was favored on TiO2-based catalysts at higher temperature, producing a large amount of CO. Formation of ZrO2-TiO2 solid solution resulted in generation of both Brønsted and Lewis acid sites; as a result, dehydrogenation and oxidative dehydrogenation of methanol was allowed over Au/ZrO2-TiO2 catalysts.

  7. Stress response and tolerance of Zea mays to CeO2 nanoparticles: cross talk among H2O2, heat shock protein, and lipid peroxidation.

    Zhao, Lijuan; Peng, Bo; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Rico, Cyren; Sun, Youping; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Tang, Xiaolei; Niu, Genhua; Jin, Lixin; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Zhang, Jian-ying; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L


    The rapid development of nanotechnology will inevitably release nanoparticles (NPs) into the environment with unidentified consequences. In addition, the potential toxicity of CeO(2) NPs to plants and the possible transfer into the food chain are still unknown. Corn plants (Zea mays) were germinated and grown in soil treated with CeO(2) NPs at 400 or 800 mg/kg. Stress-related parameters, such as H(2)O(2), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), lipid peroxidation, cell death, and leaf gas exchange were analyzed at 10, 15, and 20 days post-germination. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to image H(2)O(2) distribution in corn leaves. Results showed that the CeO(2) NP treatments increased accumulation of H(2)O(2), up to day 15, in phloem, xylem, bundle sheath cells and epidermal cells of shoots. The CAT and APX activities were also increased in the corn shoot, concomitant with the H(2)O(2) levels. Both 400 and 800 mg/kg CeO(2) NPs triggered the up-regulation of the HSP70 in roots, indicating a systemic stress response. None of the CeO(2) NPs increased the level of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, indicating that no lipid peroxidation occurred. CeO(2) NPs, at both concentrations, did not induce ion leakage in either roots or shoots, suggesting that membrane integrity was not compromised. Leaf net photosynthetic rate, transpiration, and stomatal conductance were not affected by CeO(2) NPs. Our results suggest that the CAT, APX, and HSP70 might help the plants defend against CeO(2) NP-induced oxidative injury and survive NP exposure.

  8. Biological effects of TiO2 and CeO2 nanoparticles on the growth, photosynthetic activity, and cellular components of a marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Deng, Xiang-Yuan; Cheng, Jie; Hu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Ling; Li, Da; Gao, Kun


    It is very important to have a good understanding of the biological effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on marine diatoms. In this study, the physiological and biochemical responses of a marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum to titanium dioxide NPs (nano-TiO2) and cerium oxide NPs (nano-CeO2) were compared and evaluated using 96h growth tests in a batch-culture system. At 96h of exposure, the growth inhibition rate (IR, %) of P. tricornutum increased from 5.46 to 27.31% with increasing nano-TiO2 concentrations from 2.5 to 40mgL(-1). The maximum IR of 49.59% occurred in 40mgL(-1) nano-TiO2 treatments at 48h of exposure. Growth of the diatom was increased in low nano-CeO2 treatments (≤5mgL(-1)), but was inhibited in high nano-CeO2 treatments (≥10mgL(-1)). Large aggregates of NPs were attached to the cells of P. tricornutum in 20 and 40mgL(-1) nano-TiO2 and nano-CeO2 treatments. In addition, the effective quantum yields (ΦPSII) of P. tricornutum in 40mgL(-1) nano-TiO2 and nano-CeO2 treatments were 83.33 and 71.13% of that in the controls at 96h of exposure, respectively. Compared with that of the controls at 96h of exposure, chlorophyll a content, soluble sugar content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, SOD and POD activities of P. tricornutum in 40mgL(-1) nano-TiO2 and nano-CeO2 treatments increased by 57.56, 142.97, 373.25, 698.76, 204.85% and 21.43, 89.41, 194.97, 340.05, 502.86%, while soluble protein content decreased by 70.38 and 28.64%, respectively. These findings will be helpful to understand the effect mechanisms of NPs on marine organisms.

  9. Study on Properties of Composite Oxides TiO2/SiO2

    ZHOUYasong; JIANGGuowei


    The nanometer particles of TiO2 and TiO2/SiO2 oxides were prepared by sol-gel and supercritical fluid drying method.The properties of TiO2 and TiO2/SiO2 were characterized by means of BET(Brunner-Emmett-Teller method), TEM(transmission electron microscopy), SEM(Scanning electron microscopy), XRD(X-ray differaction) and FTIR(Fourier transform-infrared) techniques.The effects of different preparation route,prehydrolysis and non-prehydrolysis,on the properties of TiO2/SiO2 oxide were also examined.Experimental results show that the termal stability of pure TiO2 is improved greatly when it is mixed with SiO2 in nanometer level.The composite TiO2/SiO2 oxides form Ti-O-Si chemical bonds,which creates new Broensted acidity stes.The acidity character is related to TiO2/SiO2 chemical composition and preparation methods.The acidity of TiO2/SiO2 oxides by prehydrolysis is greater than that of by non-prehydrolysis.Ti atom is rich on the surface of TiO2/SiO2.

  10. Synthesis of Hydroxide-TiO2 Compounds with Photocatalytic Activity for Degradation of Phenol

    Contreras-Ruiz, J. C.; Martínez-Gallegos, S.; Ordoñez, E.; González-Juárez, J. C.; García-Rivas, J. L.


    Photocatalytic degradation of phenol using titanium dioxide (TiO2), either alone or in combination with other materials, has been tested. Mg/Al hydrotalcites prepared by two methods using inorganic (HC) or organic (HS) chemical reagents, along with mixed oxides produced by calcination of these products (HCC and HSC), were mixed with titanium isopropoxide to obtain hydroxide-TiO2 compounds (HCC-TiO2 and HSC-TiO2) and their photocatalytic activity tested in solutions of 10 mg/L phenol at 120 min under illumination at λ UV = 254 nm with power of 4 W or 8 W. The obtained materials were characterized by various techniques, revealing that TiO2 was incorporated into the mixed oxides of the calcined hydrotalcite to form the above-mentioned compounds. The photocatalytic test results indicate that the activity of HCC-TiO2 can be attributed to increased phenol adsorption by hydrotalcite for transfer to the active photocatalytic phase of the impregnated TiO2 particles, while the better results obtained for HSC-TiO2 are due to greater catalyst impregnation on the surface of the calcined hydrotalcite, reducing the screening phenomenon and achieving HSC-TiO2 degradation of up to 21.0% at 8 W. Reuse of both compounds indicated tight combination of HCC or HSC with TiO2, since in four successive separation cycles there was little reduction of activity, being associated primarily with material loss during recovery.

  11. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on the hydrogen sorption characteristics of magnesium hydride.

    Pandey, Sunita K; Bhatnagar, Ashish; Shahi, Rohit R; Hudson, M Sterlin Leo; Singh, Milind K; Srivastava, O N


    The present paper explores the enhancement in hydrogen sorption behavior of MgH2 with TiO2 nanoparticles. The catalytic effect of TiO2 nanoparticles with different sizes (7, 25, 50, 100 and 250 nm) were used for improving the sorption characteristics of MgH2. The MgH2 catalyzed with 50 nm of TiO2 exhibited the optimum catalytic effect for hydrogen sorption behavior. The desorption temperature of MgH2 catalyzed through 50 nm TiO2 was found to be 310 degrees C. This is 80 degrees C lower as compared to MgH2 having a desorption temperature of 390 degrees C. It was noticed that the dehydrogenated MgH2 catalyzed with 50 nm TiO2 reabsorbed 5.1 wt% of H2 within 6 minutes at temperature and pressure of 250 degrees C and 50 atm, respectively. The 50 nm TiO2 catalyst lowered the absorption activation energy of MgH2 from - 92 to - 52.7 kJ mol(-1).

  12. Fenton助UV/TiO2光催化降解TCAA的研究%Fenton assisted UV/TiO2 Photocatalytic Degradation of TCAA

    王芬; 赵宝秀; 李想; 杨龙


    研究了反应时间、通气种类、TiO2用量及初始pH值对UV/TiO2光催化降解三氯乙酸(TCAA)的影响,探讨Fenton助UV/TiO2光催化降解TCAA最佳Fe2 +/H2O2投料比,分析Fenton助TiO2光催化降解TCAA动力学方程.结果表明:当通入气体为O2,TiO2用量为1.0 g/L,TCAA初始质量浓度为2.0 mg/L,初始pH值为5.80,Fe2+/H2O2摩尔浓度投量比为1:10,反应时间为120 min时,Fenton助UV/TiO2光催化降解TCAA降解率高达99.78%.用Langmuir-Hinshelwood模型模拟TiO2光催化降解TCAA反应动力学,UV/TiO2、Fe2+/UV/TiO2、Fenton/UV/TiO2反应体系对TCAA的降解速率常数分别为0.013 1min-1、0.023 7 min-1、0.045 6min-1;半衰期分别为52.92 min、29.25 min、15.20 min.

  13. Oxidation of Mixed Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in Biologically Treated Wastewater by ClO2

    Moradas, Gerly; Fick, Jerker; Ledin, Anna


    Biologically treated wastewater containing a mixture of 53 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs)was treated with 0-20 mg/l chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution. Wastewater effluents were taken from two wastewater treatment plants in Sweden, one with (low COD) and one without (high COD) extended...... removed at 5 mg/l ClO2 dose. Removal of the same APIs from the high COD effluent was observed when the ClO2 dose was increased to 1.25 mg/l and an increase in API removal only after treatment with 8 mg/l ClO2. This illustrates that treatment of wastewater effluents with chlorine dioxide has potential...

  14. TiO2 nanorods grown on carbon fiber cloth as binder-free electrode for sodium-ion batteries and flexible sodium-ion capacitors

    Liu, Sainan; Luo, Zhigao; Tian, Gengyu; Zhu, Mengnan; Cai, Zhenyang; Pan, Anqiang; Liang, Shuquan


    Na-ion batteries (NIBs) and Na-ion capacitors (NICs) have tremendous potential in many large-scale energy storage applications. Here, NIBs based on TiO2 nanorods/carbon fiber cloth (TiO2/CFC) flexible anode materials are introduced. The as-prepared flexible anode exhibited a notable rate performance and high specific capacity of 148.7 mAh g-1 after 2000 cycles at 1 A g-1. Furthermore, we demonstrate a highly flexible NIC system employing the TiO2/CFC anode and carbon fibers (CFs) as the cathode material. The flexible TiO2/CFC//CFs NIC device achieved a high energy density of 73.8 Wh kg-1 and high power density of 13,750 W kg-1, as well as long-term cycling stability over 4000 cycles with a capacity retention of ∼90%.

  15. An Asymmetric Supercapacitor with Both Ultra-High Gravimetric and Volumetric Energy Density Based on 3D Ni(OH)2/MnO2@Carbon Nanotube and Activated Polyaniline-Derived Carbon.

    Shen, Juanjuan; Li, Xiaocheng; Wan, Liu; Liang, Kun; Tay, Beng Kang; Kong, Lingbin; Yan, Xingbin


    Development of a supercapacitor device with both high gravimetric and volumetric energy density is one of the most important requirements for their practical application in energy storage/conversion systems. Currently, improvement of the gravimetric/volumetric energy density of a supercapacitor is restricted by the insufficient utilization of positive materials at high loading density and the inferior capacitive behavior of negative electrodes. To solve these problems, we elaborately designed and prepared a 3D core-shell structured Ni(OH)2/MnO2@carbon nanotube (CNT) composite via a facile solvothermal process by using the thermal chemical vapor deposition grown-CNTs as support. Owing to the superiorities of core-shell architecture in improving the service efficiency of pseudocapacitive materials at high loading density, the prepared Ni(OH)2/MnO2@CNT electrode demonstrated a high capacitance value of 2648 F g(-1) (1 A g(-1)) at a high loading density of 6.52 mg cm(-2). Coupled with high-performance activated polyaniline-derived carbon (APDC, 400 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1)), the assembled Ni(OH)2/MnO2@CNT//APDC asymmetric device delivered both high gravimetric and volumetric energy density (126.4 Wh kg(-1) and 10.9 mWh cm(-3), respectively), together with superb rate performance and cycling lifetime. Moreover, we demonstrate an effective approach for building a high-performance supercapacitor with high gravimetric/volumetric energy density.

  16. The associations between peak O2 consumption and leptin in 10- to 12-year-old boys.

    Cicchella, Antonio; Stefanelli, Claudio; Purge, Priit; Lätt, Evelin; Saar, Meeli; Jürimäe, Toivo


    The aim of this study was to assess the associations of circulating levels of leptin with the peak O(2) consumption (VO(2)peak ) in 10- to 12-year-old boys of different BMI selected by Cole et al. (BMJ, 320,2000,1-6): total group (n = 248), normal (n = 190), overweight (n = 34) and obese (n = 24). We hypothesized that there is a close relationship in overweight and obese subgroups of boys with relative VO(2)peak kg (-1) (ml min(-1) kg(-1)) and leptin. Most of the subjects were Tanner stage 2. Peak O(2) consumption was measured directly using an increasing incremental protocol until volitional exhaustion on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. The expired gas was sampled continuously breadth-by-breadth mode for the measurement of oxygen consumption (MetaMax, Germany). Blood samples were obtained after an overnight fast from an antecubital vein for leptin measurements. Peak O(2) consumption (l min(-1)) was higher or lower (ml min(-1) kg(-1)) in overweight and obese groups, compared with normal BMI group. Leptin was higher in overweight and obese groups, compared with normal BMI group. Peak O(2) consumption (l min(-1)) correlated significantly with leptin only in total group (n = 248, r = 0·196). Contrary, relative VO(2)peak kg (-1) correlated significantly and negatively with leptin. The relationship was highest on the total group (r = -0·674). We can conclude that leptin first of all correlated negatively with relative peak O(2) consumption. Absolute VO(2)peak correlated with leptin only in total group.

  17. Degradation of pesticides chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil in aqueous solution by TiO2 photocatalysis.

    Affam, Augustine Chioma; Chaudhuri, Malay


    Degradation of pesticides chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil in aqueous solution by TiO2 photocatalysis under UVA (365 nm) irradiation was examined. Enhancement of degradation and improvement in biodegradability index (BOD5/COD ratio) by H2O2 addition were also evaluated. UVA irradiation per se produced insignificant degradation of the pesticides. In UV/TiO2 photocatalysis (TiO2 1.5 g L(-1), pH 6 and 300 min irradiation), COD and TOC removal were 25.95 and 8.45%, respectively. In UV/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalysis (TiO2 1.5 g L(-1), H2O2 100 mg L(-1), pH 6 and 300 min irradiation), COD and TOC removal were 53.62 and 21.54%, respectively and biodegradability index improved to 0.26. Ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) decreased from 22 to 7.8 mg L(-1) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) increased from 0.7 to 13.8 mg L(-1) in 300 min, indicating mineralization. Photocatalytic degradation followed pseudo-first order kinetics with rate constant (k) of 0.0025 and 0.0008 min(-1) for COD and TOC removal, respectively. FTIR spectra indicated degradation of the organic bonds of the pesticides. UV/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalysis is effective in degradation of pesticides chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil in aqueous solution. UV/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalysis may be applied as pretreatment of a chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil pesticide wastewater at pH 6, for biological treatment.

  18. Characterization of RuO2+SnO2/Ti anodes with high SnO2-concentrations

    王欣; 唐电; 周敬恩


    Two SnO2 + RuO2/Ti anodes with high SnO2-concentrations were prepared by painting, sintering and annealing through a sol-gel technique. The microstructure, morphology and grain size of coatings and the electrochemical properties of the anodes were investigated by XRD, DTA, SEM, TEM and CV. It is demonstrated that the anodic coatings consist of solid solution (Sn, X)O2 (X represents Ru or Ti) phases. The average grain size of the coatings is about less than 30 nm. When the annealing temperature increases from 450 ℃ to 600 ℃, the solid solutions decompose. The crystal of the coating is equiaxial. The morphology of TiO2 + SnO2/Ti coatings is a mixture of mud-flat cracking with a kind of agglomerated structure.

  19. Composite Electrode SnO2/TiO2 for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Jiang Bin XIA; Fu You LI; Shu Ming YANG; Chun Hui HUANG


    Composite nanoporous electrode SnO2/TiO2 was fabricated for the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with N3 (Cis-Ru). After introducing of TiO2, the open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) was higher than that of the pure SnO2 electrode, while short-circuit photocurrent (Isc) was varied with the ratio of the TiO2. Appropriate content of the TiO2 can be beneficial to the efficiency of the solar cell, and it gives negative impact on the composite electrode when the content of TiO2 is higher.

  20. α-PbO2-type high-pressure polymorph of GeO2

    Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S.; Shen, Guoyin; Rivers, Mark L.; Sutton, Stephen R.; Dmitriev, V.; Weber, H.-P.; Le Bihan, T.


    We have studied the high pressure polymorphism of GeO2 at pressures up to 60 GPa and temperatures to ˜1800 K in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. We have synthesized an α-PbO2-type (space group Pbcn) phase of GeO2 and demonstrated that it is the stable post-CaCl2-type (space group Pnnm) polymorph at pressures above 44 GPa. The α-PbO2-structured GeO2, with a bulk modulus of 256(5) GPa, is denser than CaCl2 type by 1.6% at 60 GPa. Our study shows that group-IV element dioxides (SiO2, GeO2, SnO2, and PbO2) have a common sequence of high-pressure structural transformations: rutile-type⇒CaCl2-type⇒α-PbO2-type.

  1. Interactions between TiO2 nanoparticles and cadmium: consequences for uptake and ecotoxicity

    Hartmann, B.; Baun, Anders


    subcapitata, crustacean Daphnia magna and sediment organism Lumbriculus variegatus, was investigated both in the absence and presence of TiO2 nanoparticles. Also uptake of cadmium in D. magna and L. variegatus was investigated in tests where organisms were exposed to cadmium in sublethal concentrations...... in the absence and presence of 2mg/L TiO2 nanoparticles (P25 Evonic, d: 30 nm). Mass balances for cadmium in the test systems were determined. A high degree of sorption of cadmium onto TiO2 particles was found, which makes TiO2 nanoparticles potential carriers for cadmium. The observed toxicity was higher than...

  2. Interactions between TiO2 nanoparticles and cadmium: consequences for uptake and ecotoxicity

    Hartmann, B.; Baun, Anders


    subcapitata, crustacean Daphnia magna and sediment organism Lumbriculus variegatus, was investigated both in the absence and presence of TiO2 nanoparticles. Also uptake of cadmium in D. magna and L. variegatus was investigated in tests where organisms were exposed to cadmium in sublethal concentrations...... in the absence and presence of 2mg/L TiO2 nanoparticles (P25 Evonic, d: 30 nm). Mass balances for cadmium in the test systems were determined. A high degree of sorption of cadmium onto TiO2 particles was found, which makes TiO2 nanoparticles potential carriers for cadmium. The observed toxicity was higher than...

  3. High Photocatalytic Activity of Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 Functional Particles with Core-Shell Structure

    Chenyang Xue


    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel method of synthesizing Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 functional nanoparticles with the core-shell structure. The Fe3O4 cores which were mainly superparamagnetic were synthesized through a novel carbon reduction method. The Fe3O4 cores were then modified with SiO2 and finally encapsulated with TiO2 by the sol-gel method. The results of characterizations showed that the encapsulated 700 nm Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 particles have a relatively uniform size distribution, an anatase TiO2 shell, and suitable magnetic properties for allowing collection in a magnetic field. These magnetic properties, large area, relative high saturation intensity, and low retentive magnetism make the particles have high dispersibility in suspension and yet enable them to be recovered well using magnetic fields. The functionality of these particles was tested by measuring the photocatalytic activity of the decolouring of methyl orange (MO and methylene blue (MB under ultraviolet light and sunlight. The results showed that the introduction of the Fe3O4-SiO2-TiO2 functional nanoparticles significantly increased the decoloration rate so that an MO solution at a concentration of 10 mg/L could be decoloured completely within 180 minutes. The particles were recovered after utilization, washing, and drying and the primary recovery ratio was 87.5%.

  4. Sol-Gel Synthesis of TiO2/SiO2 and ZnO/SiO2 Composite Films and Evaluation of Their Photocatalytic Activity towards Methyl Green

    V. L. Chandraboss


    Full Text Available The TiO2/SiO2 and ZnO/SiO2 composite films were prepared by sol-gel dip coating method. The surface morphology and crystal structure of thin films were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM with elementary dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX and X-ray diffractometer (XRD. Optical properties of films have been investigated using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy (UV-visible spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was established by testing the degradation and decolorization of methyl green (MG from aqueous solution with artificial UV-light.

  5. Melting behavior of (Th,U)O2 and (Th,Pu)O2 mixed oxides

    Ghosh, P. S.; Kuganathan, N.; Galvin, C. O. T.; Arya, A.; Dey, G. K.; Dutta, B. K.; Grimes, R. W.


    The melting behaviors of pure ThO2, UO2 and PuO2 as well as (Th,U)O2 and (Th,Pu)O2 mixed oxides (MOX) have been studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The MD calculated melting temperatures (MT) of ThO2, UO2 and PuO2 using two-phase simulations, lie between 3650-3675 K, 3050-3075 K and 2800-2825 K, respectively, which match well with experiments. Variation of enthalpy increments and density with temperature, for solid and liquid phases of ThO2, PuO2 as well as the ThO2 rich part of (Th,U)O2 and (Th,Pu)O2 MOX are also reported. The MD calculated MT of (Th,U)O2 and (Th,Pu)O2 MOX show good agreement with the ideal solidus line in the high thoria section of the phase diagram, and evidence for a minima is identified around 5 atom% of ThO2 in the phase diagram of (Th,Pu)O2 MOX.

  6. Optimization of Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Chloroxylenol Using TiO2, Er3+/TiO2, and Ni2+/TiO2 via the Taguchi Orthogonal Array Technique

    Ahmed J. Mohammed


    Full Text Available In this study, the optical properties of a TiO2 photocatalyst were enhanced with various impregnations of Er3+ and Ni2+ separately, using the impregnation method as photocatalysts for the direct solar photolysis degradation of chloroxylenol. The synthesized Er3+/TiO2 and Ni2+/TiO2 catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, metal mapping, and ultraviolet visible (UV–Vis spectroscopy. The results showed that the Er3+/TiO2 and Ni2+/TiO2 nano-particles have the same structures of TiO2 nano-particles with little difference in particle size. The Er3+ and Ni2+ ions were well-distributed on the TiO2 surface, and it was found that the maximum band gap decreased from 3.13 eV for intrinsic TiO2 to 2.63 eV at 1.8 wt % Er3+/TiO2 and to 2.47 eV at 0.6 wt % for Ni2+/TiO2. The initial concentration of chloroxylenol, catalyst loading, and pH of the solution are the most important factors affecting the solar photocatalytic degradation efficiency that were optimized using Design Expert software (version 6.0.10, Minneapolis, MN, USA, 2003. The results showed that the optimal conditions for chloroxylenol degradation include a pH of 4, TiO2 loading at 3 g/L, and a chloroxylenol concentration of 50 mg/L. These conditions resulted in a degradation efficiency of 90.40% after 60 min of direct solar irradiation, wherein the solar energy recorded during a clear sunny day is 1000 W/m2. However, some experiments were conducted on a semi-cloudy day to cover all weather stated and to study the degradation kinetics. During semi-cloudy day experiments, using Er3+/TiO2 and Ni2+/TiO2 with a solar irradiation activity of 600 W/m2 for a 60 min exposure at optimal conditions increased the degradation efficiency from 68.28% for intrinsic TiO2 to 82.38% for Er3+/TiO2 and 80.70% for Ni2+/TiO2.

  7. Purification of O2-sensitive metalloproteins.

    Echavarri-Erasun, Carlos; Arragain, Simon; Rubio, Luis M


    The most dependable factor to perform successful biochemical experiments in an O2-free environment is the experience required to set up an efficient laboratory, to properly manipulate samples, to anticipate potential O2-related problems, and to maintain the complex laboratory setup operative. There is a long list of O2-related issues that may ruin your experiments. We provide here a guide to minimize these risks.

  8. THz pulse generation using a contact grating device composed of TiO2/SiO2 thin films on LiNbO3 crystal

    Yoshida, Fumiko; Nagashima, Keisuke; Tsubouchi, Masaaki; Maruyama, Momoko; Ochi, Yoshihiro


    We developed a new contact grating device for terahertz (THz) pulse generation by optical rectification. The device was made from polycrystalline rutile TiO2 thin film in the grating region and an amorphous SiO2 layer deposited on a Mg-doped LiNbO3 crystal. Our calculations indicated that the TiO2 grating on the SiO2 layer would yield an increase in diffraction efficiency of up to 0.69. The prepared TiO2 thin film had a sufficient laser induced damage threshold (140 GW/cm2) to enable effective THz pulse generation. Using a prototype device, we demonstrated THz pulse generation and investigated the phase-matching conditions experimentally.

  9. Pengaruh Penggunaan Fotokatalis TiO2/Resin, TiO2/Zeolit Dan TiO2/Karbon Aktif dalam Proses Fotoreduksi Ion Hg(II dengan Metode SODIS (Solar Desinfection Water

    Rosyid Ridho


    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan proses pembuatan fotokatalis TiO2/resin, TiO2/zeolit dan TiO2/karbon aktif yang selanjutnya dikarakterisasi dengan XRD dan Energi Band Gap (Eg. Karakterisasi XRD bertujuan untuk mengetahui telah terbentuknya fotokatalis. Sedangkan karaktererisasi Energi Band Gap (Eg bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat celah energi pada masing-masing fotokatalis dimana semakin tinggi harga Energi Band Gap maka efektivitas fotoreduksi akan semakin tinggi. Hasil dari karakterisasi XRD menunjukkan bahwa fotokatalis TiO2-resin, TiO2-zeolit, dan TiO2/karbon aktif telah terbentuk, sedangkan hasil energi band gap untuk TiO2/zeolit sebesar 3,608 eV, TiO2/resin sebesar 3,38 eV, sedangkan TiO2/karbon aktif adalah 3,48 eV. Didasarkan pada harga Eg tersebut diharapkan aktivitas fotokatalis TiO2/zeolit lebih tinggi daripada fotokatalis yang lain. Pengujian aktivitas fotokatalis dilakukan dengan mereaksikan 50 mg masing-masing fotokatalis untuk mereduksi 50 mL larutan Hg (II 5 ppm yang disinari oleh sinar matahari sebagai sumber cahaya dengan variasi waktu penyinaran (1,2,3,4,5 dan 6 jam. Dari hasil penyinaran menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi waktu penyinaran semakin tinggi % Hg tereduksi, dalam penelitian ini efektivitas fotokatalis terbaik adalah TiO2/zeolit dengan efektivitas fotoreduksi pada penyinaran 6 jam sebesar 98,5%. Pada tahap ini juga dipelajari pengaruh konsentrasi Ion Hg (II (0; 2,5; 5; 10; 20; dan 25 dengan waktu penyinaran 6 jam. Data yang diperoleh menunjukkan semakin tinggi konsentrasi awal ion Hg, semakin rendah efektivitas fotoreduksinya.

  10. Theoretical simulation of CO2 capture by an \\text{A}{{\\text{l}}_{11}}\\text{Mg}_{3}^{-} cluster

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Xuefang; Hamid, Ilyar; Chen, Chu; Duan, Haiming


    In order to have an impact on carbon emissions, new stable materials for carbon capture should be able to adsorb CO2 from a mixture of other gases efficiently. Based on density functional theory calculations, we showed that the \\text{A}{{\\text{l}}11}\\text{Mg}3- cluster has an excellent capture capacity of CO2 and high CO2 selectivity under ambient conditions. \\text{A}{{\\text{l}}11}\\text{Mg}3- has an O2-resist property because this cluster is similar to \\text{Al}13- which contains 40 electrons with a larger energy gap. The \\text{A}{{\\text{l}}11}\\text{Mg}3- cluster prefers to adsorb CO2 compared with CH4, H2 and N2, and the CO2 molecule can be chemically adsorbed on the cluster by overcoming a lower barrier, which originates from the introduction of the Mg atom. When seven CO2 molecules are chemically adsorbed on the cluster, the capture capacity of CO2 can reach up to 18.99 mol kg-1 this means that the \\text{A}{{\\text{l}}11}\\text{Mg}3- cluster can be viewed as a potential candidate material for CO2 capture.

  11. Catalytic combustion of toluene on Pd/CeO2-TiO2 catalysts.

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Lee, Der-Shing


    Pd/TiO2 and Pd/CeO2 were reported to be very active to destruct toluene. Combination of TiO2 and CeO2 is an interesting candidate to achieve a catalyst with higher activity. In this study, a series of Pd/CeO2-TiO2 catalysts with various Pd loadings were prepared. CeO2-TiO2 was prepared by impregnation of aqueous solution of cerium nitrate into TiO2 support. It was then calcined at 400 degrees C. Pd was loaded by incipient-wetness impregnation method. The Pd loadings in all samples were fixed at 0.5 wt.%. The catalysts were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, temperature-programmed reduction of hydrogen, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalysts were tested for total oxidation of toluene. The feed concentration of toluene was 8.564 g/m3 (2085 ppm), with GHSV = 10,000 h(-1). Pd particle sizes were 3-5 nm and well-dispersed on the support. CeO2 on TiO2 was easier to reduce than the bulk CeO2, therefore it could enhance the activity of VOC destruction. Pd/CeO2-TiO2 was more active than Pd/CeO2 and Pd/TiO2. Pd/CeO2-TiO2 with Ce/Ti ratio of 2/8 was very active for toluene destruction, due to its lower oxygen reduction temperature of ceria and higher concentration of Pd(0).

  12. Surface Properties and Catalytic Performance of Activated Carbon Fibers Supported TiO2 Photocatalyst

    Yang, Huifen; Fu, Pingfeng

    Activated carbon fibers supported TiO2 photocatalyst (TiO2/ACF) in felt-form was successfully prepared with a dip-coating process using organic silicon modified acrylate copolymer as a binder followed by calcination at 500°C in a stream of Ar gas. The photocatalyst was characterized by SEM, XRD, XPS, FTIR, and BET surface area. Most of carbon fibers were coated with uniformly distributed TiO2 clusters of nearly 100 nm. The loaded TiO2 layer was particulate for the organic binder in the compact film was carbonized. According to XPS and FTIR analysis, amorphous silica in carbon grains was synthesized after carbonizing organic silicon groups, and the Ti-O-Si bond was formed between the interface of loaded TiO2 and silica. Additionally, the space between adjacent carbon fibers still remained unfilled after TiO2 coating, into which both UV light and polluted solutions could penetrate to form a three-dimensional environment for photocatalytic reactions. While loaded TiO2 amount increased to 456 mg TiO2/1 g ACF, the TiO2/ACF catalyst showed its highest photocatalytic activity, and this activity only dropped about 10% after 12 successive runs, exhibiting its high fixing stability of coated TiO2.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabonomic profiling using tO2PLS

    Kirwan, Gemma M., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, City Campus, Vic 3001 (Australia); Bioinformatics Center, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Hancock, Timothy [Bioinformatics Center, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Hassell, Kathryn [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Vic 3083 (Australia); Niere, Julie O. [Department of Chemistry, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, City Campus, Vic 3001 (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Vic 3083 (Australia); Goto, Susumu [Bioinformatics Center, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Adams, Michael J. [Department of Chemistry, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, City Campus, Vic 3001 (Australia)


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Transposition of O2PLS input matrix (tO2PLS) to analyze metabonomics data. •tO2PLS specific components describe features that separate and define sample groups. •Application of tO2PLS to a {sup 1}H NMR metabonomics study of black bream fish. -- Abstract: Blood plasma collected from adult fish (black bream, Sparidae) exposed to a dose of 5 mg kg{sup −1} 17β-estradiol underwent metabonomic profiling using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). An extension of the orthogonal 2 projection to latent structure (O2PLS) analysis, tO2PLS, was proposed and utilized to classify changes between the control and experimental metabolic profiles. As a bidirectional modeling tool, O2PLS examines the (variable) commonality between two different data blocks, and extracts the joint correlations as well as the unique variations present within each data block. tO2PLS is a proposed matrix transposition of O2PLS to allow for commonality between experiments (spectral profiles) to be observed, rather than between sample variables. tO2PLS analysis highlighted two potential biomarkers, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and choline, that distinguish between control and 17β-estradiol exposed fish. This study presents an alternative way of examining spectroscopic (metabolite) data, providing a method for the visual assessment of similarities and differences between control and experimental spectral features in large data sets.

  14. Is V̇O2 supressed during nonapnoeic facial submersion?

    Anderson, Sarah; Chamberlain, Maggie R; Musgrove, Samantha; Partusch, Antonia; Tice, Keagan R J; Thorp, David B


    The mammalian dive response (DR) is described as oxygen-conserving based on measures of bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and decreased ventilation (V̇E). Using a model of simulated diving, this study examined the effect of nonapnoeic facial submersions (NAFS) on oxygen consumption (V̇O2). 19 participants performed four 2-min NAFS with 8 min of rest between each. Two submersions were performed in 5 °C water, 2 in 25 °C water. Heart rate (HR) was collected using chest strap monitors. A tube connected to the inspired port of a non-rebreathing valve allowed participants to breathe during facial submersion. Expired air was directed to a metabolic cart to determine V̇O2 and V̇E. Baseline (BL) HR, V̇O2, and V̇E values were determined by the average during the 2 min prior to facial submersion; cold shock response (CSR) values were the maximum during the first 30 s of facial submersion; and NAFS values were the minimum during the last 90 s of facial submersion. A 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA indicated that both HR and V̇E were greater during the CSR (92.5 ± 3.6 beats/min, 16.3 ± 0.8 L/min) compared with BL (78.9 ± 3.2 beats/min, 8.7 ± 0.4 L/min), while both were decreased from BL during the NAFS (60.0 ± 4.0 beats/min, 6.0 ± 0.4 L/min) (all, p < 0.05). HRCSR was higher and HRNAFS lower in 5 °C versus 25 °C water (p < 0.05), while V̇E was greater in 5 °C conditions (p < 0.05). V̇O2 exceeded BL during the CSR and decreased below BL during the NAFS (BL: 5.3 ± 0.1, CSR: 9.8 ± 0.4, NAFS: 3.1 ± 0.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), p < 0.05). The data illustrate that NAFS alone contributes to the oxygen conservation associated with the human DR.

  15. Ultrathin, Lightweight, and Wearable Li-O2 Battery with High Robustness and Gravimetric/Volumetric Energy Density.

    Liu, Tong; Xu, Ji-Jing; Liu, Qing-Chao; Chang, Zhi-Wen; Yin, Yan-Bin; Yang, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Xin-Bo


    An ultrathin, lightweight, and wearable Li-O2 battery with a novel segmented structure is first fabricated by employing a "break up the whole into parts" strategy. Superior battery performance including low overpotential, high specific capacity, good rate capability, excellent cycle stability, and high gravimetric/volumetric energy density (294.68 Wh kg(-1) /274.06 Wh L(-1) ) is successfully achieved even under repeatedly various deformation.

  16. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of Cu2+-doped TiO2/SiO2

    Ru-fen Chen; Cui-xuan Zhang; Juan Deng; Guo-qiang Song


    Cu2+-doped nanostructured TiO2-coated SiO2. (TiO2./SiO2) particles were prepared by the layer-by-layer assembly technique and their photocatalytic property was studied. TiO2 colloids were synthesized by the sol-gel method using TiOSO4 as a precursor. The experimental results showed that TiO2 nanopowders on the surface of SiO2 particles were well distributed and compact. The amount of TiO2 increased with the increase in coating layers. The shell structure appeared to be composed of anatase titania nanocrystals at 550℃. The 2-layer coated TiO2 particles on the surface showed a higher degradation rate compared with all the dif-ferent-layer samples. The photocatalytic activity of Cu2+-doped TiO2/SiO2 was higher than that of undoped TiO2/SiO2. The optimum dopant content was about 0.10wt%.

  17. Photoelectrochemical Properties of CuS-GeO2-TiO2 Composite Coating Electrode

    Wen, Xinyu; Zhang, Huawei


    The ITO (indium tin oxide) conductive glass-matrix CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating was generated via EPD (electrophoretic deposition) and followed by a sintering treatment at 450°C for 40 minutes. Characterizations of the CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating were taken by SEM (scanning electron microscope), XRD (X-ray diffraction), EDX (energy dispersive X-ray), UV-Vis DRS (ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectrum), and FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). Results showed that CuS and GeO2 had dispersed in this CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating (mass percentages for CuS and GeO2 were 1.23% and 2.79%, respectively). The electrochemical studies (cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization) of this CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating electrode were performed in pH = 9.51 Na2CO3-NaHCO3 buffer solution containing 0.50 mol/L CH3OH under the conditions of visible light, ultraviolet light (λ = 365 nm), and dark (without light irradiation as control), respectively. Electrochemical studies indicated that this CuS-GeO2-TiO2 composite coating electrode had better photoelectrocatalytic activity than the pure TiO2 electrode in the electrocatalysis of methanol under visible light. PMID:27055277

  18. Isometric strength training lowers the O2 cost of cycling during moderate-intensity exercise.

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Majerczak, Joanna; Grandys, Marcin; Duda, Krzysztof; Grassi, Bruno


    The effect of maximal voluntary isometric strength training of knee extensor muscles on pulmonary V'O(2) on-kinetics, the O(2) cost of cycling and peak oxygen uptake (V'O(2peak)) in humans was studied. Seven healthy males (mean ± SD, age 22.3 ± 2.0 years, body weight 75.0 ± 9.2 kg, V'O(2peak) 49.5 ± 3.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) performed maximal isometric strength training lasting 7 weeks (4 sessions per week). Force during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) increased by 15 % (P < 0.001) after 1 week of training, and by 19 % (P < 0.001) after 7 weeks of training. This increase in MVC was accompanied by no significant changes in the time constant of the V'O(2) on-kinetics during 6 min of moderate and heavy cycling intensities. Strength training resulted in a significant decrease (by ~7 %; P < 0.02) in the amplitude of the fundamental component of the V'O(2) on-kinetics, and therefore in a lower O(2) cost of cycling during moderate cycling intensity. The amplitude of the slow component of V'O(2) on-kinetics during heavy cycling intensity did not change with training. Training had no effect on the V'O(2peak), whereas the maximal power output reached at V'O(2peak) was slightly but significantly increased (P < 0.05). Isometric strength training rapidly (i.e., after 1 week) decreases the O(2) cost of cycling during moderate-intensity exercise, whereas it does not affect the amplitude of the slow component of the V'O(2) on-kinetics during heavy-intensity exercise. Isometric strength training can have beneficial effects on performance during endurance events.

  19. Photoactivity and hydrophilic property of SiO2 and SnO2 co-doped TiO2 nano-composite thin films

    Lek Sikong


    Full Text Available SiO2 and SnO2 co-doped TiO2 nano-composite thin films were prepared by sol-gel method. The effects of film thicknessand amount of SiO2 and SnO2 co-doping into TiO2 nano-composite films on phase presence, crystallite size, photocatalyticreaction and hydrophilicity were investigated. Thickness of 3-coating layers (238 nm seems to provide the highest photocatalyticactivity. The crystallinity of anatase phases, crystallite sizes and photocatalytic reactions of SiO2 and SnO2 co-dopedTiO2 films decrease with an increase in SiO2 content. It was found that more amount of SiO2 addition seems to inhibit graingrowth and the formation of anatase phase; especially when it was synthesized at temperature less than 600°C. The photocatalyticreaction seems to decrease with an increase in SiO2 doping when the concentrations of SnO2 in the composite films are fixed. It was apparent that 1SiO2/1SnO2/TiO2 composite film exhibits the highest photoactivity. Suitable amounts of SiO2and SnO2 doping into the TiO2 composite films tend to enhance the hydrophilic property of the films. It was also apparentthat the 3SiO2/3SnO2/TiO2, 5SiO2/5SnO2/TiO2 and 10SiO2/3SnO2/TiO2 composite films exhibit super hydrophilic characteristicsunder UV irradiation for 30 min.

  20. Electrocatalysis of Oxygen Evolution Reaction on Ti/SnO2+ RuO2+ MnO2/MnO2 Electrode in Sulfuric Acid Solution


    The Ti-Supported MnO2 electrode was modified by introducing SnO2 +RuO2 +MnO2 as an intermediate layer into the Ti/MnO2 interface. The anodic polarization curves were measured at various temperatures ranging from 30 to 80 ℃ and the activation energy for the oxygen evolution reaction was evaluated. The experimental activation energy increased linearly with increasing the overpotential. The activation energy at the equilibrium potential was linearly correlated with the difference between the crystal field stabilization energies of Mn4+ at initial state and Mn4+ at transition state. The electrocatalysis characteristics of the anode were discussed by means of themechanism of the substitution reaction of the ligand(SN 1 and SN2) and molecular orbital theory.The results show that the anode has better electrocatalystic characteristics.

  1. A successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method to fabricate a layer-by-layer (LbL) MnO2-reduced graphene oxide assembly for supercapacitor application

    Jana, Milan; Saha, Sanjit; Samanta, Pranab; Murmu, Naresh Chandra; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kuila, Tapas; Lee, Joong Hee


    A facile, cost effective and additive-free successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique is demonstrated to develop layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and MnO2 (MnO2-RGOSILAR) on a stainless steel current collector, for designing light-weight and small size supercapacitor electrode. The transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy images shows uniform distribution of RGO and MnO2 in the MnO2-RGOSILAR. The LbL (MnO2-RGOSILAR) demonstrates improved physical and electrochemical properties over the hydrothermally prepared MnO2-RGO (MnO2-RGOHydro). The electrochemical environment of MnO2-RGOSILAR is explained by constant phase element in the high frequency region, and a Warburg element in the low frequency region in the Z-View fitted Nyquist plot. The equivalent circuit of the MnO2-RGOHydro, displays the co-existence of EDL and constant phase element, indicating inhomogeneous distribution of MnO2 and RGO by the hydrothermal technique. An asymmetric supercapacitor device is designed with MnO2-RGOSILAR as positive electrode, and thermally reduced GO (TRGO) as negative electrode. The designed cell exhibits high energy density of ∼88 Wh kg-1, elevated power density of ∼23,200 W kg-1, and ∼79% retention in capacitance after 10,000 charge-discharge cycles.

  2. Fenton助UV/TiO2光催化降解TCAA的研究

    王芬; 赵宝秀; 李想; 杨龙


    研究了反应时间、通气种类、TiO2用量及初始pH值对UV/TiO2光催化降解三氯乙酸(TCAA)的影响,探讨Fenton助UV/TiO2光催化降解TCAA最佳Fe2+/H2O2投料比,分析Fenton助TiO2光催化降解TCAA动力学方程.结果表明:当通入气体为O2,TiO2用量为1.0 g/L,TCAA初始质量浓度为2.0 mg/L,初始pH值为5.80,Fe2+/H2O2摩尔浓度投量比为1:10,反应时间为120 min时,Fenton助UV/TiO2光催化降解TCAA降解率高达99.78%.用Langmuir-Hinshelwood模型模拟TiO2光催化降解TCAA反应动力学,UV/TiO2、Fe2+/UV/TiO2、Fenton/UV/TiO2反应体系对TCAA的降解速率常数分别为0.013 1min-1、0.023 7 min-1、0.045 6min-1;半衰期分别为52.92 min、29.25 min、15.20 min.

  3. Sandwich structure of Pd doped nanostructure TiO2 film as O2 sensor.

    Wang, Hairong; Sun, Quantao; Chen, Lei; Zhao, Yulong


    In this paper, we investigated the sensing properties of sandwich structure of TiO2/Pd/TiO2 thin films at various operating temperatures and oxygen partial pressures. The nanostructure TiO2 thin films were prepared by the sol-gel method. Various thickness of Pd buried layer was deposited by magnetron sputtering of a pure Pd target. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis and SEM. It was found that TiO2/Pd/TiO2 thin films have the p-type behavior while the pure TiO2 thin film is n-type semiconductor materials. We found that the structure of TiO2/Pd/TiO2 thin films with 10 s sputtering Pd layer has a better stability at 240 °C.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 and Ag/TiO2 nanostructure

    Gahlot, Swati; Thakur, Amit Kumar; Kulshrestha, Vaibhav; Shahi, V. K.


    Single phase anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared using Titanium tertachloride (TiCl4) as precursor through an inexpensive method. Well dispersed nanocomposites of silver at TiO2 were synthesized successfully by photochemical route. Both TiO2 and Ag/TiO2 were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The particle size of TiO2 is found to be ˜ 11 nm and ˜ 22 nm for Ag/TiO2, by XRD and confirmed by TEM. TEM micrographs also show the single phase crystal of TiO2 and confirm the deposition of silver among TiO2.

  5. SnO2/TiO2 bilayer thin films exhibiting superhydrophilic properties

    Talinungsang, Nibedita Paul; Purkayastha, Debarun Dhar


    Nanostructured thin films of TiO2, SnO2, and SnO2/TiO2 have been deposited by sol-gel method. The films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, wettability and optical properties. In the present work, we have achieved a way of converting hydrophilic to super-hydrophilic state by incorporating TiO2 buffer layer in between substrate and SnO2 film, which has its utility in anti-fogging surfaces. The decrease in contact angle of water over SnO2/TiO2 bilayer is attributed to the increase in roughness of the film as well as surface energy of the substrate.

  6. A Comparison Study of New TiO2/PEG Immobilized Techniques Under Normal and Visible Light Irradiations

    Zaharudin R.; Ain S. K.; Bakar F.; Azami M. S.; Nawawi W. I.


    Novel photocatalysts of TiO2 and TiO2/PEG were immobilized using new technique which is double sided adhesive tape (DSAT) as a thin layer binder onto glass plate. The photocatalytic activity study of immobilized/TiO2 and immobilized/TiO2/PEG were carried out by irradiating of 36 mg L-1 MB dye in the presence of normal and visible light with rate of decolourization was estimated from aliquot concentration spectrophotometrically. The high photocatalytic activity from immobilized/TiO2/PEG was ob...

  7. Comparative study of three magnetic nano-particles (FeSO4, FeSO4/SiO2, FeSO4/SiO2/TiO2) in plasmid DNA extraction.

    Rahnama, H; Sattarzadeh, A; Kazemi, F; Ahmadi, N; Sanjarian, F; Zand, Z


    Recent updates on Magnetic Nano-Particles (MNPs) based separation of nucleic acids have received more attention due to their easy manipulation, simplicity, ease of automation and cost-effectiveness. It has been indicated that DNA molecules absorb on solid surfaces via hydrogen-bonding, and hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. These properties highly depend on the surface condition of the solid support. Therefore, surface modification of MNPs may enhance their functionality and specification. In the present study, we functionalized Fe3O4 nano-particle surface utilizing SiO2 and TiO2 layer as Fe3O4/SiO2 and Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 and then compare their functionality in the adsorption of plasmid DNA molecules with the naked Fe3O4 nano-particles. The result obtained showed that the purity and amount of DNA extracted by Fe3O4 coated by SiO2 or SiO2/TiO2 were higher than the naked Fe3O4 nano-particles. Furthermore, we obtained pH 8 and 1.5 M NaCl as an optimal condition for desorption of DNA from MNPs. The result further showed that, 0.2 mg nano-particle and 10 min at 55 °C are the optimal conditions for DNA desorption from nano-particles. In conclusion, we recommended Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 as a new MNP for separation of DNA molecules from biological sources.

  8. High-reflectivity HfO2/SiO2 ultraviolet mirrors.

    Torchio, Philippe; Gatto, Alexandre; Alvisi, Marco; Albrand, Gérard; Kaiser, Norbert; Amra, Claude


    High-reflectivity dense multilayer coatings were produced for the ultraviolet spectral region. Thin-film single layers and UV mirrors were deposited by ion plating and plasma ion-assisted deposition high-energetic technologies. Optical characterizations of HfO2 and SiO2 single layers are made. The optical constants obtained for these two materials are presented. HfO2 and SiO2 mirrors with a reflectance of approximately 99% near 250 nm are reported.

  9. Spectroscopic Studies of MnO2 and SiO2 Containing Soil-Active Phosphate Glasses

    Szumera, M.; Łagowska, B.


    FT-IR and Raman spectra were measured and structurally interpreted for glasses of the 41P2O5·8SiO2·6K2O·(26 - x) MgO·(19 - y)CaO·(x+y)MnO2 system where 0 ≤ x+y ≤ 40 mol.%, acting as slow-release fertilizers. It was shown that increasing the amount of MnO2 in the structure of the investigated glasses causes their gradual depolymerization, as is particularly apparent in the case of the phospho-oxygen subnetwork. Spectroscopic methods, on the other hand, showed no influence of manganese ions on the silicate subnetwork. Research on the chemical activity of the analyzed glasses conducted under conditions simulating a natural soil environment showed their low solubility with a simultaneous gradual increase in solubility occurring with an increasing number of manganese ions in the glass composition. It was found that this behavior resulted from the formation of less chemically stable bonds of the P-O-Mn2+ type, as compared with bonds of the P-O-Ca2+ and P-O-Mg2+ types. This is consistent with the depolymerizing influence of manganese ions on the analyzed vitreous structure as shown by the FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy and, thus, its weakening.

  10. Mg spin affects adenosinetriphosphate activity

    Tulub, Alexander A


    The Schlegel-Frisch ab initio molecular dynamics (ADMP) (DFT:B3LYP), T = 310 K, is used to study complexation between adenosinetriphosphate (ATP), ATP subsystem, and magnesium cofactor [Mg(H2O)6]2+, Mg subsystem, in a water pool, modeled with 78 water molecules, in singlet (S) and triplet (T) states. The computations prove that the way of ATP cleavage is governed by the electron spin of Mg. In the S state Mg prefers chelation of \\gamma-\\beta-phosphate oxygens (O1-O2), whereas in the T state it chelates \\beta-\\alpha-phosphate oxygens (O2-O3) or produces a single-bonded intermediate. Unlike the chelates, which initiate ionic reaction paths, the single-bonded intermediate starts off a free-radical path of ATP cleavage, yielding a highly reactive adenosinemonophosphate ion-radical, .AMP-, earlier observed in the CIDNP (Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization) experiment (A.A. Tulub, 2006). The free-radical path is highly sensitive to Mg nuclear spin, which through a hyperfine interaction favors the produc...

  11. Doped-TiO2 Photocatalysts and Synthesis Methods to Prepare TiO2 Films

    Ying CUI; Hao DU; Lishi WEN


    TiO2 is a promising photocatalyst. However, the low photocatalytic efficiency calls for the modification of TiO2. Metal- and nonmetal-doping of TiO2 have been proved to be effective ways to enhance photocatalytic properties. This review provides a deep insight into the understanding of the metal- and nonmetal-doped TiO2 photocatalysts. This article begins with the introduction of the crystal structures of TiO2 and applications of TiO2 materials. We then reviewed the doped-TiO2 system in two categories: (1) metal-doped TiO2photocatalysts system, and (2) nonmetal-doped TiO2 photocatalysts system. Both experimental results and theoretical analyses are elaborated in this section. In the following part, for the advantages of TiO2 thin films over particles, various preparation methods to obtain TiO2 thin films are briefly discussed. Finally, this review ends with a concise conclusion and outlook of new trends in the development of TiO2-based photocatalysts.

  12. Hazards of TiO2 and amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles

    Reijnders, L.; Kahn, H.A.; Arif, I.A.


    TiO2 and amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles have been described as ‘safe’, ‘non-toxic’ and ‘environment friendly’ in scientific literature. However, though toxicity data are far from complete, there is evidence that these nanoparticles are hazardous. TiO2 nanoparticles have been found hazardous to humans

  13. Enhanced photocatalytic performances of CeO2/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructures.

    Tian, Jian; Sang, Yuanhua; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Zhou, Weijia; Wang, Dongzhou; Kang, Xueliang; Liu, Hong; Wang, Jiyang; Chen, Shaowei; Cai, Huaqiang; Huang, Hui


    CeO2 /TiO2 nanobelt heterostructures are synthesized via a cost-effective hydrothermal method. The as-prepared nanocomposites consist of CeO2 nanoparticles assembled on the rough surface of TiO2 nanobelts. In comparison with P25 TiO2 colloids, surface-coarsened TiO2 nanobelts, and CeO2 nanoparticles, the CeO2 /TiO2 nanobelt heterostructures exhibit a markedly enhanced photocatalytic activity in the degradation of organic pollutants such as methyl orange (MO) under either UV or visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic performance is attributed to a novel capture-photodegradation-release mechanism. During the photocatalytic process, MO molecules are captured by CeO2 nanoparticles, degraded by photogenerated free radicals, and then released to the solution. With its high degradation efficiency, broad active light wavelength, and good stability, the CeO2 /TiO2 nanobelt heterostructures represent a new effective photocatalyst that is low-cost, recyclable, and will have wide application in photodegradation of various organic pollutants. The new capture-photodegradation-release mechanism for improved photocatalysis properties is of importance in the rational design and synthesis of new photocatalysts.

  14. Hazards of TiO2 and amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles

    Reijnders, L.; Kahn, H.A.; Arif, I.A.


    TiO2 and amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles have been described as ‘safe’, ‘non-toxic’ and ‘environment friendly’ in scientific literature. However, though toxicity data are far from complete, there is evidence that these nanoparticles are hazardous. TiO2 nanoparticles have been found hazardous to humans

  15. Understanding the Magnesiothermic Reduction Mechanism of TiO2 to Produce Ti

    Choi, Kyunsuk; Choi, Hanshin; Sohn, Il


    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) powders in the mineral form of rutile were reduced to metallic and an intermediate phase via a magnesiothermic reaction in molten Mg at temperatures between 973 K and 1173 K (700 °C and 900 °C) under high-purity Ar atmosphere. The reaction behavior and pathway indicated intermediate phase formation during the magnesiothermic reduction of TiO2 using XRD (X-ray diffraction), SEM (scanning electron microscope), and TEM (transmission electron microscope). Mg/TiO2 = 2 resulted in various intermediate phases of oxygen containing titanium, including Ti6O, Ti3O, and Ti2O, with metallic Ti present. MgTi2O4 ternary intermediate phases could also be observed, but they were dependent on the excess Mg present in the sample. Nevertheless, even with excessive amounts of Mg at Mg/TiO2 = 10, complete reduction to metallic Ti could not be obtained and some Ti6O intermediate phases were present. Although thermodynamics do not predict the formation of the MgTi2O4 spinel phase, detailed phase identification through XRD, SEM, and TEM showed significant amounts of this intermediate ternary phase even at excess Mg additions. Considering the stepwise reduction of TiO2 by Mg and the pronounced amounts of MgTi2O4 phase observed, the rate-limiting reaction is likely the reduction of MgTi2O4 to the TitO phase. Thus, an additional reduction step beyond thermodynamic predictions was developed.

  16. Understanding the Magnesiothermic Reduction Mechanism of TiO2 to Produce Ti

    Choi, Kyunsuk; Choi, Hanshin; Sohn, Il


    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) powders in the mineral form of rutile were reduced to metallic and an intermediate phase via a magnesiothermic reaction in molten Mg at temperatures between 973 K and 1173 K (700 °C and 900 °C) under high-purity Ar atmosphere. The reaction behavior and pathway indicated intermediate phase formation during the magnesiothermic reduction of TiO2 using XRD (X-ray diffraction), SEM (scanning electron microscope), and TEM (transmission electron microscope). Mg/TiO2 = 2 resulted in various intermediate phases of oxygen containing titanium, including Ti6O, Ti3O, and Ti2O, with metallic Ti present. MgTi2O4 ternary intermediate phases could also be observed, but they were dependent on the excess Mg present in the sample. Nevertheless, even with excessive amounts of Mg at Mg/TiO2 = 10, complete reduction to metallic Ti could not be obtained and some Ti6O intermediate phases were present. Although thermodynamics do not predict the formation of the MgTi2O4 spinel phase, detailed phase identification through XRD, SEM, and TEM showed significant amounts of this intermediate ternary phase even at excess Mg additions. Considering the stepwise reduction of TiO2 by Mg and the pronounced amounts of MgTi2O4 phase observed, the rate-limiting reaction is likely the reduction of MgTi2O4 to the TitO phase. Thus, an additional reduction step beyond thermodynamic predictions was developed.

  17. TiO2 ve ZrO2/TiO2 Kompozit Mikrokürecik Sentezi ve Metilen Mavisinin Degradasyonunda Fotokatalitik Aktiviteleri

    Vaizoğulları, Ali İmran; Balcı, Ahmet; Uğurlu, Mehmet; KARAOĞLU, Muhammet Hamdi


    TiO2 and ZrO2/TiO2 composite microsphere particles were synthesized using the sol‐gel method. Photoactivity of TiO2 and ZrO2/TiO2 were compared.  Particles were characterized using X‐ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of X‐ray (EDAX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The study revealed that TiO2 particles were microspheres.    The decorating of ZrO2 particles on TiO2 surface was successfully carried out that was pr...

  18. Synthesis of TiO2 and ZrO2/TiO2 Composite Microspheres and Their Photo‐Catalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue

    Vaizoğulları, Ali İmran; Balcı, Ahmet; UĞURLU, Mehmet; Karaoğlu, Muhammet Hamdi


    TiO2 and ZrO2/TiO2 composite microsphere particles were synthesized using the sol‐gel method. Photoactivity of TiO2 and ZrO2/TiO2 were compared.  Particles were characterized using X‐ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of X‐ray (EDAX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The study revealed that TiO2 particles were microspheres.    The decorating of ZrO2 particles on TiO2 surface was successfully carried out that was pr...

  19. Evidence of phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in Hordeum vulgare L. exposed to CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles

    Alessandro eMattiello


    Full Text Available Engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs are considered emerging contaminants since they are perceived as a potential threat to the environment and the human health. The reactions of living organisms when exposed to metal nanoparticles (NPs or NPs of different size are not well known. Very few studies on NPs-plant interactions have been published, so far. For this reason there is also great concern regarding the potential NPs impact to food safety. Early genotoxic and phytotoxic effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2 and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2 were investigated in seedlings of Hordeum vulgare L.Caryopses were exposed to an aqueous dispersion of nCeO2 and nTiO2 at respectively 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg l-1 for 7 days. Genotoxicity was studied by Randomly Amplified Polymorphism DNA (RAPDs and mitotic index on root tip cells. Differences between treated and control plants were observed in RAPD banding patterns as well as at the chromosomal level with a reduction of cell divisions. At cellular level we monitored the oxidative stress of treated plants in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and ATP content. Again nCeO2 influenced clearly these two physiological parameters, while nTiO2 were ineffective. In particular, the dose 500 mg l-1 showed the highest increase regarding both ROS generation and ATP content; the phenomenon were detectable, at different extent, both at root and shoot level. Total Ce and Ti concentration in seedlings was detected by ICP-OES. TEM EDSX microanalysis demonstrated the presence of aggregates of nCeO2 and nTiO2 within root cells of barley. nCeO2 induced modifications in the chromatin aggregation mode in the nuclei of both root and shoot cells.

  20. MgO-ZrO2材料的抗侵蚀性能研究%Corrosion resistance of MgO-ZrO2 materials

    程本军; 杨彬; 王金相; 钟香崇



  1. SiO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles synergistically trigger macrophage inflammatory responses.

    Tsugita, Misato; Morimoto, Nobuyuki; Nakayama, Masafumi


    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs are the most widely used inorganic nanomaterials. Although the individual toxicities of SiO2 and TiO2 NPs have been extensively studied, the combined toxicity of these NPs is much less understood. In this study, we observed unexpected and drastic activation of the caspase-1 inflammasome and production of IL-1β in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages stimulated simultaneously with SiO2 and TiO2 NPs at concentrations at which these NPs individually do not cause macrophage activation. Consistent with this, marked lung inflammation was observed in mice treated intratracheally with both SiO2 and TiO2 NPs. In macrophages, SiO2 NPs localized in lysosomes and TiO2 NPs did not; while only TiO2 NPs produced ROS, suggesting that these NPs induce distinct cellular damage leading to caspase-1 inflammasome activation. Intriguingly, dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that, although individual SiO2 and TiO2 NPs immediately aggregated to be micrometer size, the mixture of these NPs formed a stable and relatively monodisperse complex with a size of ~250 nm in the presence of divalent cations. Taken together, these results suggest that SiO2 and TiO2 NPs synergistically induce macrophage inflammatory responses and subsequent lung inflammation. Thus, we propose that it is important to assess the synergistic toxicity of various combinations of nanomaterials.

  2. Oxidation of Mg adsorbed on Ru(001): A photoemission study

    Malik, I.J.; Hrbek, J. (Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)); Shek, M. (National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)); Bzowski, A.; Kristof, P.; Sham, T.K. (Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario NA6 5B7 (Canada))


    We studied the interaction of oxygen with Mg overlayers adsorbed on Ru(001). Soft x-ray synchrotron radiation was used to explore photoemission from the valence band, the O 2{ital p}, O 2{ital s}, and Mg 2{ital p} levels, as well as intra- and interatomic Auger processes. The photoemission results are complemented by thermal desorption data. The O/Mg/Ru system shows photoemission features characteristic of molecular orbitals of a dioxygen species.

  3. Nanocrystalline TiO2/SnO2 heterostructures for gas sensing.

    Lyson-Sypien, Barbara; Kusior, Anna; Rekas, Mieczylaw; Zukrowski, Jan; Gajewska, Marta; Michalow-Mauke, Katarzyna; Graule, Thomas; Radecka, Marta; Zakrzewska, Katarzyna


    The aim of this research is to study the role of nanocrystalline TiO2/SnO2 n-n heterojunctions for hydrogen sensing. Nanopowders of pure SnO2, 90 mol % SnO2/10 mol % TiO2, 10 mol % SnO2/90 mol % TiO2 and pure TiO2 have been obtained using flame spray synthesis (FSS). The samples have been characterized by BET, XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, Mössbauer effect and impedance spectroscopy. Gas-sensing experiments have been performed for H2 concentrations of 1-3000 ppm at 200-400 °C. The nanomaterials are well-crystallized, anatase TiO2, rutile TiO2 and cassiterite SnO2 polymorphic forms are present depending on the chemical composition of the powders. The crystallite sizes from XRD peak analysis are within the range of 3-27 nm. Tin exhibits only the oxidation state 4+. The H2 detection threshold for the studied TiO2/SnO2 heterostructures is lower than 1 ppm especially in the case of SnO2-rich samples. The recovery time of SnO2-based heterostructures, despite their large responses over the whole measuring range, is much longer than that of TiO2-rich samples at higher H2 flows. TiO2/SnO2 heterostructures can be intentionally modified for the improved H2 detection within both the small (1-50 ppm) and the large (50-3000 ppm) concentration range. The temperature Tmax at which the semiconducting behavior begins to prevail upon water desorption/oxygen adsorption depends on the TiO2/SnO2 composition. The electrical resistance of sensing materials exhibits a power-law dependence on the H2 partial pressure. This allows us to draw a conclusion about the first step in the gas sensing mechanism related to the adsorption of oxygen ions at the surface of nanomaterials.

  4. Nanocrystalline TiO2/SnO2 heterostructures for gas sensing

    Kusior, Anna; Rekas, Mieczylaw; Zukrowski, Jan; Gajewska, Marta; Michalow-Mauke, Katarzyna; Graule, Thomas; Radecka, Marta; Zakrzewska, Katarzyna


    The aim of this research is to study the role of nanocrystalline TiO2/SnO2 n–n heterojunctions for hydrogen sensing. Nanopowders of pure SnO2, 90 mol % SnO2/10 mol % TiO2, 10 mol % SnO2/90 mol % TiO2 and pure TiO2 have been obtained using flame spray synthesis (FSS). The samples have been characterized by BET, XRD, SEM, HR-TEM, Mössbauer effect and impedance spectroscopy. Gas-sensing experiments have been performed for H2 concentrations of 1–3000 ppm at 200–400 °C. The nanomaterials are well-crystallized, anatase TiO2, rutile TiO2 and cassiterite SnO2 polymorphic forms are present depending on the chemical composition of the powders. The crystallite sizes from XRD peak analysis are within the range of 3–27 nm. Tin exhibits only the oxidation state 4+. The H2 detection threshold for the studied TiO2/SnO2 heterostructures is lower than 1 ppm especially in the case of SnO2-rich samples. The recovery time of SnO2-based heterostructures, despite their large responses over the whole measuring range, is much longer than that of TiO2-rich samples at higher H2 flows. TiO2/SnO2 heterostructures can be intentionally modified for the improved H2 detection within both the small (1–50 ppm) and the large (50–3000 ppm) concentration range. The temperature T max at which the semiconducting behavior begins to prevail upon water desorption/oxygen adsorption depends on the TiO2/SnO2 composition. The electrical resistance of sensing materials exhibits a power-law dependence on the H2 partial pressure. This allows us to draw a conclusion about the first step in the gas sensing mechanism related to the adsorption of oxygen ions at the surface of nanomaterials. PMID:28144570

  5. Study on Sulfation of CeO2/γ-Al2O3 Sorbent in Simulated Flue Gas


    The sulfation of CeO2/γ-Al2O3 sorbent in simulated flue gas was studied. A series of CeO2/γ-Al2O3 sorbents with different CeO2 loadings were prepared by impregnation and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Thermogravimetric technique was used to study the sulfation of CeO2/γ-Al2O3 sorbents, mainly on the CeO2 loading, sulfation cycles, and intrinsic kinetics. The study revealed that monolayer coverage of CeO2 supported on γ-Al2O3 was 0.125 g CeO2/g (γ-Al2O3). Below monolayer coverage, CeO2 was highly dispersed on γ-Al2O3. The optimal CeO2 loading on sulfation was 0.03 g CeO2/g (γ-Al2O3). CeO2/γ-Al2O3 sorbent was recyclable by controlling sulfation time. Intrinsic kineticd equation was R=1.1394×10-4×exp (-1,508.39/T) mg·mg-1·s-1. Activation energy and reaction order were 12.54 kJ·mol-1 and first order, respectively.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of Fe3O4@SiO2 magnetic composite nanoparticles by a one-pot process

    Zhang, Le; Shao, Hui-ping; Zheng, Hang; Lin, Tao; Guo, Zhi-meng


    Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell composite nanoparticles were successfully prepared by a one-pot process. Tetraethyl-orthosilicate was used as a surfactant to synthesize Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell structures from prepared Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The properties of the Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@SiO2 composite nanoparticles were studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The prepared Fe3O4 particles were approximately 12 nm in size, and the thickness of the SiO2 coating was approximately 4 nm. The magnetic properties were studied by vibrating sample magnetometry. The results show that the maximum saturation magnetization of the Fe3O4@SiO2 powder (34.85 A·m2·kg-1) was markedly lower than that of the Fe3O4 powder (79.55 A·m2·kg-1), which demonstrates that Fe3O4 was successfully wrapped by SiO2. The Fe3O4@SiO2 composite nanoparticles have broad prospects in biomedical applications; thus, our next study will apply them in magnetic resonance imaging.

  7. Valence electron structure and properties of stabilized ZrO2


    To reveal the properties of stabilizers in ZrO2 on nanoscopic levels, the valence electron structures of four stable ZrO2 phases and c-ZrO2 were analyzed on the basis of the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules. The results showed that the hybridization levels of Zr atoms in c-ZrO2 doped with Ca and Mg dropped from B17 to B13, the hybridization levels of Zr atoms in c-ZrO2 doped with Y and Ce dropped from B17 to B15, and that the four stabilizing atoms all made the hybridization levels of O atoms drop from level 4 to level 2. The numbers of covalent electrons in the strongest covalent bond in the descending order are c-ZrO2>Zr0.82Ce0.18O2> Zr0.82Y0.18O1.91>Zr0.82Mg0.18O1.82>Zr0.82Ca0.18O1.82. The bond energies of the strongest covalent bond and the melting points of the solid solutions in the descending order are Zr0.82Ce0.18O2> c-ZrO2>Zr0.82Y0.18O1.91>Zr0.82Mg0.18O1.82>Zr0.82Ca0.18O1.82. The percent-ages of the total number of covalent electrons in the descending order are c-ZrO2>Zr0.82Y0.18O1.91> Zr0.82Ce0.18O2>Zr0.82Mg0.18O1.82> Zr0.82Ca0.18O1.82. From the above analysis, it can be concluded that the stabilizing degrees of the four stabilizers in the descending order are CaO> MgO>Y2O3>CeO2.

  8. High photoactive TiO2/SnO2 nanocomposites prepared by laser pyrolysis

    Scarisoreanu, Monica; Fleaca, Claudiu; Morjan, Ion; Niculescu, Ana-Maria; Luculescu, Catalin; Dutu, Elena; Ilie, Alina; Morjan, Iuliana; Florescu, Lavinia Gavrila; Vasile, Eugeniu; Fort, Carmen Ioana


    TiO2/SnO2 nanocomposites have been prepared by laser pyrolysis of volatile TiCl4 and SnCl4 precursors introduced together or separately in the reaction zone in the presence of air as oxidant and ethylene as sensitizer. Prior to the obtaining of TiO2/SnO2 nanocomposites with the different Sn concentrations (1.1-4.8 at.%), the best experimental conditions were identified for preparing pure anatase phase TiO2 samples considered as photoactive reference sample. The TiO2/SnO2 composites were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) techniques. The structural results show the presence of both TiO2 main phases: anatase (65-82% - the majority one) and rutile, as well as of small amounts of SnO2 tetragonal phase, all those with mean crystallite dimensions in the 8-22 nm range. Laser synthesized TiO2/SnO2 samples have a lower band gap energy and some of them (containing 1.8 or 4.8 at.% Sn) show higher photoactivity in the process of Methyl Orange solutions UV discoloration when compared with the P25 Degussa commercial sample.

  9. Electrochemical degradation of nitrobenzene by anodic oxidation on the constructed TiO2-NTs/SnO2-Sb/PbO2 electrode.

    Chen, Yong; Li, Hongyi; Liu, Weijing; Tu, Yong; Zhang, Yaohui; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Lianjun


    The interlayer of Sb-doped SnO2 (SnO2-Sb) and TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2-NTs) on Ti has been introduced into the PbO2 electrode system with the aim to reveal the mechanism of enhanced electrochemical performance of TiO2-NTs/SnO2-Sb/PbO2 electrode. In contrast with the traditional Ti/SnO2-Sb/PbO2 electrode, the constructed PbO2 electrode has a more regular and compact morphology with better oriented crystals of lower size. The TiO2-NTs/SnO2-Sb interlayer prepared by electrodeposition process improves PbO2 coating structure effectively, and enhances the electrochemical performance of PbO2 electrode. Kinetic analyses indicated that the electrochemical oxidation of nitrobenzene on the PbO2 electrodes followed pseudo-first-order reaction, and mass transport was enhanced at the constructed electrode. The accumulation of nitrocompounds of degradation intermediates on constructed electrode was lower, and almost all of the nitro groups were eliminated from aromatic rings after 6h of electrolysis. Higher combustion efficiency was obtained on the constructed TiO2-NTs/SnO2-Sb/PbO2 electrode. The intermediates of nitrobenzene oxidation were confirmed by IC and GC/MS.

  10. O2 adsorption dependent photoluminescence emission from metal oxide nanoparticles.

    Gheisi, Amir R; Neygandhi, Chris; Sternig, Andreas K; Carrasco, Esther; Marbach, Hubertus; Thomele, Daniel; Diwald, Oliver


    Optical properties of metal oxide nanoparticles are subject to synthesis related defects and impurities. Using photoluminescence spectroscopy and UV diffuse reflectance in conjunction with Auger electron spectroscopic surface analysis we investigated the effect of surface composition and oxygen adsorption on the photoluminescence properties of vapor phase grown ZnO and MgO nanoparticles. On hydroxylated MgO nanoparticles as a reference system, intense photoluminescence features exclusively originate from surface excitons, the radiative deactivation of which results in collisional quenching in an O2 atmosphere. Conversely, on as-prepared ZnO nanoparticles a broad yellow emission feature centered at hνEm = 2.1 eV exhibits an O2 induced intensity increase. Attributed to oxygen interstitials as recombination centers this enhancement effect originates from adsorbate-induced band bending, which is pertinent to the photoluminescence active region of the nanoparticles. Annealing induced trends in the optical properties of the two prototypical metal oxide nanoparticle systems, ZnO and MgO, are explained by changes in the surface composition and underline that particle surface and interface changes that result from handling and processing of nanoparticles critically affect luminescence.

  11. Synthesis of TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and its applications

    Xiaojun Zhang; Huagui Zheng


    The TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films were prepared by two-step sol–gel method and then it was applied in the degradation of methylene red (MR) as photocatalysts. In XRD, FT–IR, and TEM investigations of these TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films, the titanium oxide species are highly dispersed in the SiO2 matrixes and exist in a tetrahedral form. And special attention has been focused on the relationship between the local structure of the titanium oxide species in the TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and the photocatalytic reactivity in order to provide vital information for the design and application of such highly efficient photocatalytic systems in the degradation of toxic compounds diluted in a liquid phase.

  12. Structural and dielectric properties of amorphous ZrO2 and HfO2

    Ceresoli, Davide; Vanderbilt, David


    Zirconia (ZrO2) and hafnia (HfO2) are leading candidates for replacing SiO2 as the gate insulator in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology. Amorphous versions of these materials ( a-ZrO2 and a-HfO2 ) can be grown as metastable phases on top of a silicon buffer; while they tend to recrystallize during subsequent annealing steps, they would otherwise be of considerable interest because of the promise they hold for improved uniformity and electrical passivity. In this work, we report our theoretical studies of a-ZrO2 and a-HfO2 by first-principles density-functional methods. We construct realistic amorphous models using the “activation-relaxation” technique of Barkema and Mousseau. The structural, vibrational, and dielectric properties of the resulting models are analyzed in detail. The overall average dielectric constant is computed and found to be comparable to that of the monoclinic phase.


    David Medved


    Full Text Available The interactions of magnesia-chromite refractory brick with Cu-Na2O.2SiO2 and CuO-Na2O.2SiO2 melts are studied and the chemical durability of corrosion products in water is evaluated. The corrosion tests confirm intensive infiltration of the slag melts into the tested refractory bricks and formation of Cr(6+ compounds. The molten copper partially oxidizes during corrosion test by air and penetrates into bricks. Interactions among periclase (MgO and chromite (FeCr2O4 grains with the melt Na2O.2SiO2 and copper oxides makes possible to form several compounds (e.g. Cu2MgO3, CuCrO4, CaCrO4, Na2CrO4, MgCrO4. Just the marked yellow spots, which were observed on the corroded brick surface after 30 days of free storage, suggest hydration of the high-temperature corrosion products. The yellow color of spots points out to chromates as Na2CrO4 and MgCrO4, which are well soluble in water. The leaching of corroded bricks in water (batch leaching test of a ratio of S (solid : W (water = 0.1 taking up to 28 days confirmed the Cr, Na, Mg and Ca ions leach-out. The pH value of solution increased up to 9 during leaching mainly as a consequence of elevated Na+ ion concentration. The Cr ion concentration rises in the solution up to 1 mmol.l-1. The observed moderate decrease of Cr ion concentration in the solution with the length of leaching indicates super-saturation of the solution and precipitation of the products.

  14. Embryotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk).

    Libralato, Giovanni; Minetto, Diego; Totaro, Sara; Mičetić, Ivan; Pigozzo, Andrea; Sabbioni, Enrico; Marcomini, Antonio; Volpi Ghirardini, Annamaria


    Few data exist on the ecotoxicological effects of nanosized titanium dioxide (nTiO2) towards marine species with specific reference to bivalve molluscs and their relative life stages. Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck was selected to assess the potential adverse effects of nTiO2 (0-64 mg/L) on its early larval development stages (pre-D shell stage, malformed D-shell stage and normal D-shell stage larvae) considering two exposure scenarios characterised by total darkness (ASTM protocol) and natural photoperiod (light/dark). This approach was considered to check the presence of potential effects associated to the photocatalytic properties of nTiO2. Parallel experiments were carried on with the bulk reference TiCl4. The toxicity of nTiO2 showed to be mainly related to its "nano" condition and to be influenced by the exposure to light that supported the increase in the number of pre-D shell stage (retarded) larvae compared to the malformed ones especially at the maximum effect concentrations (4 and 8 mg nTiO2/L). The non-linear regression toxicity data analysis showed the presence of two EC50 values per exposure scenario: a) EC(50)1 = 1.23 mg/L (0.00-4.15 mg/L) and EC(50)2 = 38.56 mg/L (35.64-41.47 mg/L) for the dark exposure conditions; b) EC(50)1 = 1.65 mg/L (0.00-4.74 mg/L) and EC(50)2 = 16.39 mg/L (13.31-19.48 mg/L) for the light/dark exposure conditions. The potential implication of agglomeration and sedimentation phenomena on ecotoxicological data was discussed.

  15. Efek Adsorpsi Dye ke dalam Lapisan TiO2 dengan Metode Elektroforesis : DSSC Berbasis Lapisan TiO2 Terbuat dengan Metode Slip Casting dan Metode Elektroforesis

    Ratno Nuryadi


    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the effect of dye adsorption into TiO2 layer in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC, which the TiO2 layer is formed by slip casting and electrophoresis methods. Adsorption process of the dye into the cavities of the TiO2 layer was conducted by electrophoresis technique. As results, two DSSCs prepared by the slip casting and electrophoresis methods were successfully realized and tested. In case of DSSC based on electrophoresis method, XRD results show the appearance of MgO on TiO2 layer, which is probably caused by the addition of salt Mg(NO32 in the electrophoresis solution. Therefore, electrophoresis condition without the addition of salt needs to be investigated in the next research. It is found that the electrophoresis method can be used in the process of dye adsorption into the TiO2 layer. The electrophoresis with larger voltage results in the larger DSSC output. It is also seen that open circuit voltage for the slip casting-based DSSC is found to be greater than that for the electrophoresis-based one. This may be due to the larger size of the pores in TiO2 layer for the slip casting process compared to that for the electrophoresis process. For larger size of the pores, the dye can easily fit into the pores with the help of electrophoresis. Keywords: Dye-sensitized solar cell, Dye adsorption, Electrophoresis, Slip casting

  16. TiO2 thin film photocatalyst

    YU Jiaguo


    It is well known that the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films strongly depends on the preparing methods and post-treatment conditions, since they have a decisive influence on the chemical and physical properties of TiO2 thin films.Therefore, it is necessary to elucidate the influence of the preparation process and post-treatment conditions on the photocatalytic activity and surface microstructures of the films. This review deals with the preparation of TiO2 thin film photocatalysts by wet-chemical methods (such as sol-gel, reverse micellar and liquid phase deposition) and the comparison of various preparation methods as well as their advantage and disadvantage. Furthermore, it is discussed that the advancement of photocatalytic activity, super-hydrophilicity and bactericidal activity of TiO2 thin film photocatalyst in recent years.

  17. Electrosynthesis of nanocomposite PbO2-TiO2 and PbO2-ZrO2 materials for electrochemical systems

    Velichenkoa, A.B.; Knysha, V.A.; Luk' yanenko, T.V. [Ukrainian State Chemical Technology Univ., Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine). Dept. of Physical Chemistry; Devilliers, D. [Pierre et Marie Curie Univ., Paris (France). Lab. de Electrolytes et Electrochimie


    This paper reported on a study that examined the electrodeposition of nanocomposite materials based on lead dioxide from suspension electrolytes with TiO2 or ZrO2 particles as a dispersed phase. The study was conducted in response to the growing interest in improving lead dioxide as an electrode material for use in lead-acid batteries with high electrocatalytic activity. The presence of foreign oxides in the suspension electrolytes caused only a quantitative difference in the PbO2 electrodeposition process without apparently changing the qualitative relationships. In the suspension, electrolyte nanocomposite PbO2 based materials were formed. It was shown that the content of foreign oxides in the composite can be changed by modifying the composition of the electrolyte as well as the conditions of electrodeposition. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis, structure and photocatalytic property of nano-TiO2-MnO2

    DING; Shiwen(丁士文); WANG; Liyong(王利勇); ZHANG; Shaoyan(张绍岩); ZHOU; Qiuxiang(周秋香); DING; Yu(丁宇); LIU; Shujuan(刘淑娟); LIU; Yanchao(刘燕朝); KANG; Quanying(康全影)


    TiCl4 and MnSO4·H2O as raw materials are hydrolyzed stiochiometrically, following the intermediate of oxide hydrating reacts at 150℃, 0.5 Mpa in high-pressure reactor, after filtering, washing and drying, nanometric TiO2-MnO2 (Ti1-xMnxO2) is prepared. The effects of the reaction temperature and time on nanometric TiO2-MnO2 are also discussed. XRD shows that the product is TiO2-MnO2 with amorphous phase. After being sintered at above 780℃, it transfers into Ti1-xMnxO2 with a rutile structure. TEM shows that TiO2-MnO2 is the spherical particle. And the average diameter of the particles is 20 nm. The optical absorbance was determined by UV-265 spectrophotometer after dispersing the sample in the mixture of water and glycerol with the ratio of 1︰1 equably. It is found that the nano-material possesses the advantages of both nano-TiO2 and nano-MnO2, and it has strong absorption in the UV and visible region. Photodegradation of dyes in an aqueous solution is investigated using nanometricTiO2-MnO2 as a photocatalyst. The results show that after 60 min illumination, the decolorization rate of the acidic red B and acidic black 234 dye can be as high as 100%.

  19. Synthesis of SnO2/TiO2 composite photocatalyst loaded with Ag nanoparticles and its application in wastewater treatment%Ag负载SnO2/TiO2复合光催化剂的合成及其废水处理



    目的 合成Ag负载SnO2/TiO2复合光催化剂,并对其在废水处理中的应用加以研究.方法 以钛酸四丁酯、无水乙醇和四氯化锡为原料,采用光还原法制备载Ag纳米SnO2/TiO2光催化剂,以罗丹明B为模型污染物,借助XRD和UV-Vis等测试手段研究了SnO2/TiO2复合光催化剂的UV-Vis吸收光谱和光催化活性.结果 纳米SnO2/TiO2光催化剂的最佳钛锡比为156∶1时的光催化剂具有较高的光催化活性;在氙灯照射下,Ag负载SnO2/TiO2的活性明显增强,具有很强的可见光活性.废水处理实验结果表明,太阳光照射2h,炼油厂废水COD值由原始的844 mg/L降低至472mg/L,去除率为44.08%,照光5h,COD去除率为76.78%,且色度和气味均全部去除.载Ag纳米SnO2/TiO2复合光催化剂(摩尔比为1∶1)对炼油厂废水COD有较高的去除效果.结论 以最佳工艺条件下制备的TiO2为原料,采用光还原法成功制备出栽Ag纳米SnO2/TiO2复合光催化剂,适用于采油厂工业废水的处理,太阳光下照射5h,COD去除率可达76.78%.

  20. A study of bactericidal effect and optimization of pathogenic bacteria using TiO2 photocatalyst.

    Kim, Tae-Young; Park, Seung-Shik; Kim, Seung-Jai; Cho, Sung-Young


    The photocatalytic degradation of Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in water by TiO2 catalysts was investigated in a batch reactor. After 30 min of irradiation with UV light in the presence of 1 mg/ml of TiO2, death ratio of S. choleraesuis subsp. and V. parahaemolyticus was 60% and 83%, respectively. And complete killing of the cells was achieved after 3 h of illumination in the presence of TiO2. We established the response surface methodology to investigate the effect of principal parameters on the pathogenic bacteria sterilization such as TiO2 concentration, pH and temperature. By applying response surface analysis to the bactericidal effect of S. almonella choleraesuis subsp. and V. parahaemolyticus, we found that the cell death ratio was influenced significantly by the first order term of TiO2 concentration.

  1. Application of H2O2 and H2O2/Fe0 in removal of Acid Red 18 dye from aqueous solutions

    Nazari Shahram


    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Organic dyes with a complex structure are often toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, non-biodegradation and stable in the environment and if released to the environment without treatment can endanger the environment and human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of H2O2 and H2O2/Fe0 Iron in removal of dye Acid Red 18 from aqueous solutions. Materials & Methods: This study was conducted at the laboratory scale. In this study, the removal efficiency of Acid Red 18 from a synthetic solution by H2O2 and H2O2/Fe0 was investigated. As well as Effect of solution pH, dye concentration, Concentration of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron, H2O2 and contact time in decolorization efficiency was investigated. Results: Results show that in pH=3, Contact time of 80 minutes, dye concentration of 50 mg/l and Concentration of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron of 2 g/l and H2O2 concentration equal to 200 mmol/l, the removal efficiency was about 98%. Conclusions: According to the results of experiments, H2O2/Fe0 has high efficiency in removal of Acid Red 18 from aqueous solution.

  2. Investigation of UV-TiO2 photocatalysis and its mechanism in Bacillus subtilis spore inactivation.

    Zhang, Yiqing; Zhou, Lingling; Zhang, Yongji


    The inactivation levels of Bacillus subtilis spores for various disinfection processes (ultraviolet (UV), TiO2 and UV-TiO2) were compared. The results showed that the inactivation effect of B. subtilis spores by UV treatment alone was far below that for bacteria without endospores. TiO2 alone in the dark, as a control experiment, exhibited almost no inactivation effect. Compared with UV treatment alone, the inactivation effect increased significantly with the addition of TiO2. Increases of the UV irradiance and TiO2 concentration both contributed to the increase of the inactivation effect. Lipid peroxidation was found to be the underlying mechanism of inactivation. Malondialdehyde (MDA), the degradation product of lipid peroxidation, was used as an index to determine the extent of the reaction. The MDA concentration surged surprisingly to 3.24nmol/mg dry cell with the combination disinfection for 600sec (0.10mW/cm(2) irradiance and 10mg/L TiO2). In contrast, for UV alone or TiO2 in the dark, the MDA concentration was 0.38 and 0.25nmol/mg dry cell, respectively, under the same conditions. This indicated that both UV and TiO2 were essential for lipid peroxidation. Changes in cell ultrastructure were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The cell membrane was heavily damaged and cellular contents were completely lysed with the UV-TiO2 process, suggesting that lipid peroxidation was the root of the enhancement in inactivation efficiency.

  3. Catalytic efficiency of Pd/TiO_2-SnO_2 in reduction of nitrate and control of the reaction%Pd/TiO2-SnO2催化还原硝酸盐效能及反应调控

    郭燕妮; 胡勇有; 程建华


    采用共沉淀法制备了掺杂TiO2的复合载体TiO2-SnO2;浸渍法制备了单金属负载型催化剂Pd/TiO2-SnO2.用X射线衍射(XRD)、X射线光电子能谱(XPS)、比表面仪(BET)和透射电镜(TEM)表征表明Pd和TiO2在SnO2上成单层或亚单层分散,增加了反应活性位.催化剂分散性良好,比表面积为100.8m.2g-1,是平均粒径为9.1nm的纳米颗粒.常压下考察了甲酸-Pd/TiO2-SnO2-硝酸盐催化还原反应体系的主要影响因素.结果表明,Pd/TiO2-SnO2催化活性与负载比、甲酸量正相关%The monometallic catalyst Pd/TiO2-SnO2 was prepared by impregnating Pd on the surface of a composite support of TiO2-SnO2,which was prepared by coprecipitation.The prepared sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD),specific surface area analysis(BET) and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) as nano-sized particles with average size of 9.1 nm and specific surface area of 100.08 m2·g-1.The Pd and TiO2 were dispersed on the surface of the SnO2 support in one monolayer,resulting in an increase of catalytic active sites.The catalytic performance of the Pd /TiO2-SnO2 catalyst for reduction of nitrate was investigated under normal atmosphere,with formic acid used as reducing agent.The results showed that the catalytic activity of the Pd/TiO2-SnO2 was positively related to load ratio and initial formic acid concentration but fluctuated with the temperature over the range of 15~45℃.With the temperature increasing,the catalytic activity initially increased then decreased.Increasing the amount of catalyst accelerated the reaction rate.The selectivity of Pd/TiO2-SnO2 was positively related to catalyst amount,but negatively related to load ratio,initial formic acid concentration and temperature.Strategies for control of the catalytic reduction of nitrate based on the formic acid-Pd/TiO2-SnO2 system are as follows:① To maintain high catalytic selectivity,the catalyst amount should be more than 0

  4. Interaction between nanoparticulate anatase TiO2 and lactate dehydrogenase.

    Duan, Yanmei; Li, Na; Liu, Chao; Liu, Huiting; Cui, Yaling; Wang, Han; Hong, Fashui


    In order to study the mechanisms underlying the effects of TiO(2) nanoparticles on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, EC1.1.1.27), Institute of Cancer Research region mice were injected with nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2) (5 nm) of various doses into the abdominal cavity daily for 14 days. We then examined LDH activity in vivo and in vitro and direct evident for interaction between nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2) and LDH using spectral methods. The results showed that nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2) could significantly activate LDH in vivo and in vitro; the kinetics constant (Km) and Vmax were 0.006 microM and 1,149 unit mg(-1) protein min(-1), respectively, at a low concentration of nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2), and 3.45 and 0.031 microM and 221 unit mg(-1) protein min(-1), respectively, at a high concentration of nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2). By fluorescence spectral assays, the nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2) was determined to be directly bound to LDH, and the binding constants of the binding site were 1.77 x 10(8) L mol(-1) and 2.15 x 10(7) L mol(-1), respectively, and the binding distance between nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2) and the Trp residue of LDH was 4.18 nm, and nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2) induced the protein unfolding. It was concluded that the binding of nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2) altered LDH structure and function.

  5. Thermoelectric Properties of Self Assemble TiO2/SnO2 Nanocomposites

    Dynys, Fred; Sayir, Ali; Sehirlioglu, Alp


    Recent advances in improving efficiency of thermoelectric materials are linked to nanotechnology. Thermodynamically driven spinodal decomposition was utilized to synthesize bulk nanocomposites. TiO2/SnO2 system exhibits a large spinodal region, ranging from 15 to 85 mole % TiO2. The phase separated microstructures are stable up to 1400 C. Semiconducting TiO2/SnO2 powders were synthesized by solid state reaction between TiO2 and SnO2. High density samples were fabricated by pressureless sintering. Self assemble nanocomposites were achieved by annealing at 1000 to 1350 C. X-ray diffraction reveal phase separation of (Ti(x)Sn(1-x))O2 type phases. The TiO2/SnO2 nanocomposites exhibit n-type behavior; a power factor of 70 (mu)W/m sq K at 1000 C has been achieved with penta-valent doping. Seebeck, thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity and microstructure will be discussed in relation to composition and doping.

  6. Thermoelectric Properties of Self Assembled TiO2/SnO2 Nanocomposites

    Dynys, Fred; Sayir, Ali; Sehirlioglu, Alp


    Recent advances in improving efficiency of thermoelectric materials are linked to nanotechnology. Thermodynamically driven spinodal decomposition was utilized to synthesize bulk nanocomposites. TiO2/SnO2 system exhibits a large spinodal region, ranging from 15 to 85 mole % TiO2. The phase separated microstructures are stable up to 1400 C. Semiconducting TiO2/SnO2 powders were synthesized by solid state reaction between TiO2 and SnO2. High density samples were fabricated by pressureless sintering. Self assemble nanocomposites were achieved by annealing at 1000 to 1350 C. X-ray diffraction reveal phase separation of (Ti(x)Sn(1-x))O2 type phases. The TiO2/SnO2 nanocomposites exhibit n-type behavior; a power factor of 70 W/mK2 at 1000 C has been achieved with penta-valent doping. Seebeck, thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity and microstructure will be discussed in relation to composition and doping.

  7. Nanoimprint lithography using TiO2-SiO2 ultraviolet curable materials

    Takei, Satoshi


    Ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography has great potential for commercial device applications that are closest to production such as optical gratings, planar waveguides, photonic crystals, semiconductor, displays, solar cell panel, sensors, highbrightness LEDs, OLEDs, and optical data storage. I report and demonstrate the newly TiO2-SiO2 ultraviolet curable materials with 20-25 wt% ratio of high titanium for CF4/O2 etch selectivity using nanoimprint lithography process. The multiple structured three-dimensional micro- and nanolines patterns were observed to be successfully patterned over the large areas. The effect of titanium concentration on CF4/O2 etch selectivity with pattern transferring carbon layer imprinting time was investigated. CF4/O2 etching rate of the TiO2-SiO2 ultraviolet curable material was approximately 3.8 times lower than that of the referenced SiO2 sol-gel ultraviolet curable material. The TiO2-SiO2 ultraviolet curable material with high titanium concentration has been proved to be versatile in advanced nanofabrication.

  8. Kinetics of HO2 + HO2 -> H2O2 + O2: Implications for Stratospheric H2O2

    Christensen, L. E.; Okumura, M.; Sander, S. P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Toon, G. C.; Sen, B.; Blavier, J.-F.; Jucks, K. W.


    The reaction HO2 + HO2 -> H2O2 + O2refid="df01" type="formula">(1) has been studied at 100 Torr and 222 K to 295 K. Experiments employing photolysis of Cl2/CH3OH/O2/N2 and F2/H2/O2/N2 gas mixtures to produce HO2 confirmed that methanol enhanced the observed reaction rate. At 100 Torr, zero methanol, k1 = (8.8 +/- 0.9) 10-13 × exp[(210 +/- 26)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1 (2σ uncertainties), which agrees with current recommendations at 295 K but is nearly 2 times slower at 231 K. The general expression for k1, which includes the dependence on bath gas density, is k1 = (1.5 +/- 0.2) × 10-12 × exp[(19 +/- 31)/T] + 1.7 × 10-33 × [M] × exp[1000/T], where the second term is taken from the JPL00-3 recommendation. The revised rate largely accounts for a discrepancy between modeled and measured [H2O2] in the lower to middle stratosphere.

  9. Magnetocaloric effect and thermal conductivity of Gd(OH)3 and Gd2O(OH)4(H2O)2.

    Yang, Yan; Zhang, Qian-Chong; Pan, Yin-Yin; Long, La-Sheng; Zheng, Lan-Sun


    Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and thermal conductivity of two gadolinium hydroxides, Gd(OH)3 (1) and Gd2O(OH)4(H2O)2 (2), are investigated. Magnetic studies indicate that both 1 and 2 exhibit antiferromagnetic interaction, and the MCE values for 1 and 2 at 2 K and ΔH = 7 T are 62.00 J kg(-1) K(-1) and 59.09 J kg(-1) K(-1), respectively. Investigation of their thermal conductivity reveals that the thermal conductivity for 1 is significantly better than that for 2.

  10. The H2O2 scavenger ebselen decreases ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation in mice.

    Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Font, Laura; Aragon, Carlos M G


    In the brain, the enzyme catalase by reacting with H(2)O(2) forms Compound I (catalase-H(2)O(2) system), which is the main system of central ethanol metabolism to acetaldehyde. Previous research has demonstrated that acetaldehyde derived from central-ethanol metabolism mediates some of the psychopharmacological effects produced by ethanol. Manipulations that modulate central catalase activity or sequester acetaldehyde after ethanol administration modify the stimulant effects induced by ethanol in mice. However, the role of H(2)O(2) in the behavioral effects caused by ethanol has not been clearly addressed. The present study investigated the effects of ebselen, an H(2)O(2) scavenger, on ethanol-induced locomotion. Swiss RjOrl mice were pre-treated with ebselen (0-50mg/kg) intraperitoneally (IP) prior to administration of ethanol (0-3.75g/kg; IP). In another experiment, animals were pre-treated with ebselen (0 or 25mg/kg; IP) before caffeine (15mg/kg; IP), amphetamine (2mg/kg; IP) or cocaine (10mg/kg; IP) administration. Following these treatments, animals were placed in an open field to measure their locomotor activity. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of ebselen on the H(2)O(2)-mediated inactivation of brain catalase activity by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT). Ebselen selectively prevented ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation without altering the baseline activity or the locomotor stimulating effects caused by caffeine, amphetamine and cocaine. Ebselen reduced the ability of AT to inhibit brain catalase activity. Taken together, these data suggest that a decline in H(2)O(2) levels might result in a reduction of the ethanol locomotor-stimulating effects, indicating a possible role for H(2)O(2) in some of the psychopharmacological effects produced by ethanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Core-Shell MnO2-SiO2 Nanorods for Catalyzing the Removal of Dyes from Water

    Wei Gong; Xianling Meng; Xiaohong Tang; Peijun Ji


    This work presented a novel core-shell MnO2@m-SiO2 for catalyzing the removal of dyes from wastewater. MnO2 nanorods were sequentially coated with polydopamine (PDA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) forming MnO2@PDA-PEI. By taking advantage of the positively charged amine groups, MnO2@PDA-PEI was further silicificated, forming MnO2@PDA-PEI-SiO2. After calcination, the composite MnO2@m-SiO2 was finally obtained. MnO2 nanorod is the core and mesoporous SiO2 (m-SiO2) is the shell. MnO2@m-SiO2 has bee...

  12. EffectofCeriaAdditiononWearResistanceofAluminaCeramics%CeO2掺入对氧化铝陶瓷耐磨性能的影响


    TheeffectofCeO2additiononsinteringperformance,wearresistanceandmicrostructureofCaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2sys-temceramicsmaterialswereinvestigatedusingcommercialAl2O3 asthe mainraw material.Theresultsshowthattheadditionof CeO2cansignificantlyreducethesinteringtemperatureandimproveabrasionresistanceofthealuminaceramicsmaterials.Average particlesizeofCeO2 hasasignificantimpactontheperformanceoftheceramic material.Aluminaceramicsadded withsubmicron CeO2 havelowersinteringtemperatureandwearratethanthatofwithmicronCeO2.%  实验以工业用 Al2O3为主要原料,在 MgO-CaO-SiO2系统里添加稀土氧化物 CeO2,研究了 CeO2的掺入及 CeO2的粒度对氧化铝陶瓷烧结性能、耐磨性和显微结构的影响。结果表明:CeO2的掺入可明显降低氧化铝陶瓷材料的烧结温度并改善耐磨损性。掺入 CeO2的平均粒度对陶瓷材料的性能有显著的影响,掺入亚微米级的 CeO2比掺入微米级 CeO2制备的陶瓷材料具有更低的烧结温度和磨损率。

  13. Modest effect on plaque progression and vasodilatory function in atherosclerosis-prone mice exposed to nanosized TiO2

    Mikkelsen Lone


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that exposure to small size particulate matter increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Methods We investigated plaque progression and vasodilatory function in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/- mice exposed to TiO2. ApoE-/- mice were intratracheally instilled (0.5 mg/kg bodyweight with rutile fine TiO2 (fTiO2, 288 nm, photocatalytic 92/8 anatase/rutile TiO2 (pTiO2, 12 nm, or rutile nano TiO2 (nTiO2, 21.6 nm at 26 and 2 hours before measurement of vasodilatory function in aorta segments mounted in myographs. The progression of atherosclerotic plaques in aorta was assessed in mice exposed to nanosized TiO2 (0.5 mg/kg bodyweight once a week for 4 weeks. We measured mRNA levels of Mcp-1, Mip-2, Vcam-1, Icam-1 and Vegf in lung tissue to assess pulmonary inflammation and vascular function. TiO2-induced alterations in nitric oxide (NO production were assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Results The exposure to nTiO2 was associated with a modest increase in plaque progression in aorta, whereas there were unaltered vasodilatory function and expression levels of Mcp-1, Mip-2, Vcam-1, Icam-1 and Vegf in lung tissue. The ApoE-/- mice exposed to fine and photocatalytic TiO2 had unaltered vasodilatory function and lung tissue inflammatory gene expression. The unaltered NO-dependent vasodilatory function was supported by observations in HUVECs where the NO production was only increased by exposure to nTiO2. Conclusion Repeated exposure to nanosized TiO2 particles was associated with modest plaque progression in ApoE-/- mice. There were no associations between the pulmonary TiO2 exposure and inflammation or vasodilatory dysfunction.

  14. Electrochemical degradation of reactive brilliant red X-3B with the (CeO2/C)-β-PbO2-PTFE composite electrode

    孙鹏哲; 陈东辉


    The (CeO2/C)-β-PbO2-PTFE composite electrodes modified by graphite powder, cerium oxide powder, polytetrafluoro-ethylene (PTFE) and the homemadeβ-PbO2 powder were prepared by the high pressure molding technique. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to test the purity of the homemadeβ-PbO2 powder. The surface structure and electrical property of electrodes were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the cyclic voltammetry curves (CV). Those images indicated that in electrolysis the (CeO2/C)-β-PbO2-PTFE composite electrodes had higher activity than theβ-PbO2-PTFE electrodes, as good as the excellent catalytic performance. In the electrode system the composite electrodes were applied to treat reactive brilliant red (RBR) X-3B solution and we studied the degradation influence factors and the reaction mechanism. The results showed that the electrode system was well in treating RBR X-3B solution with the 20%(CeO2/C)-β-PbO2-PTFE composite electrodes at the initial 100 mg/L RBR X-3B concentration, Na2SO4concentration of 0.35 mol/L, the constant current density of 30 mA/cm2 and electrolyte pH=2. Af-ter electrolytic time of 90 min, the maximum decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates reached 88.92% and 54.54%. And the decolorization rate of RBR X-3B was in conformity with pseudo-first-order kinetics equation. The RBR X-3B deg-radation mechanism in the electrochemical oxidation system was used with LC-MS to analyze the possible intermediates and degra-dation pathway.

  15. Enhanced Photoelectrocatalytic Reduction of Oxygen Using Au@TiO2 Plasmonic Film.

    Guo, Limin; Liang, Kun; Marcus, Kyle; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Le; Mani, Prabhu Doss; Chen, Hao; Shen, Chen; Dong, Yajie; Zhai, Lei; Coffey, Kevin R; Orlovskaya, Nina; Sohn, Yong-Ho; Yang, Yang


    Novel Au@TiO2 plasmonic films were fabricated by individually placing Au nanoparticles into TiO2 nanocavity arrays through a sputtering and dewetting process. These discrete Au nanoparticles in TiO2 nanocavities showed strong visible-light absorption due to the plasmonic resonance. Photoelectrochemical studies demonstrated that the developed Au@TiO2 plasmonic films exhibited significantly enhanced catalytic activities toward oxygen reduction reactions with an onset potential of 0.92 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode), electron transfer number of 3.94, and limiting current density of 5.2 mA cm(-2). A superior ORR activity of 310 mA mg(-1) is achieved using low Au loading mass. The isolated Au nanoparticle size remarkably affected the catalytic activities of Au@TiO2, and TiO2 coated with 5 nm Au (Au5@TiO2) exhibited the best catalytic function to reduce oxygen. The plasmon-enhanced reductive activity is attributed to the surface plasmonic resonance of isolated Au nanoparticles in TiO2 nanocavities and suppressed electron recombination. This work provides comprehensive understanding of a novel plasmonic system using isolated noble metals into nanostructured semiconductor films as a potential alternative catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction.

  16. Characterization of La/Fe/TiO2 and Its Photocatalytic Performance in Ammonia Nitrogen Wastewater

    Xianping Luo


    Full Text Available La/Fe/TiO2 composite photocatalysts were synthesized by Sol-Gel method and well characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, nitrogen-physical adsorption, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS. It is interesting that the doped catalysts were in anatase phase while the pure TiO2 was in rutile phase. In addition, the composites possessed better physical chemical properties in photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2: stronger visible-light-response ability, larger specific surface area, and more regular shape in morphology. The photodegradation results of ammonia nitrogen indicate that: the La/Fe/TiO2 had higher catalytic activity to ammonia nitrogen waste water compared pure TiO2 and the other single metal-doped TiO2. pH 10 and 2 mmol/L H2O2 were all beneficial to the removal of ammonia nitrogen by La/Fe/TiO2. However, the common inorganic ions of Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, HCO3−/CO32−, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in water all inhibited the degradation of ammonia nitrogen. By balance calculation, at least 20% of ammonia nitrogen was converted to N2 during the 64.6% removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen.

  17. Characterization of La/Fe/TiO2 and Its Photocatalytic Performance in Ammonia Nitrogen Wastewater

    Luo, Xianping; Chen, Chunfei; Yang, Jing; Wang, Junyu; Yan, Qun; Shi, Huquan; Wang, Chunying


    La/Fe/TiO2 composite photocatalysts were synthesized by Sol-Gel method and well characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen-physical adsorption, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS). It is interesting that the doped catalysts were in anatase phase while the pure TiO2 was in rutile phase. In addition, the composites possessed better physical chemical properties in photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2: stronger visible-light-response ability, larger specific surface area, and more regular shape in morphology. The photodegradation results of ammonia nitrogen indicate that: the La/Fe/TiO2 had higher catalytic activity to ammonia nitrogen waste water compared pure TiO2 and the other single metal-doped TiO2. pH 10 and 2 mmol/L H2O2 were all beneficial to the removal of ammonia nitrogen by La/Fe/TiO2. However, the common inorganic ions of Cl−, NO3−, SO42−, HCO3−/CO32−, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in water all inhibited the degradation of ammonia nitrogen. By balance calculation, at least 20% of ammonia nitrogen was converted to N2 during the 64.6% removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen. PMID:26593929

  18. UV/H(2)O(2) treatment of drinking water increases post-chlorination DBP formation.

    Dotson, Aaron D; Keen, Volha Olya S; Metz, Debbie; Linden, Karl G


    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation has become popular as a primary disinfectant because it is very effective against Cryptosporidium and does not directly form regulated disinfection by-products. Higher UV doses and UV advanced oxidation (UV/H2O2) processes are under consideration for the treatment of trace organic pollutants (e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products). Despite the disinfection effectiveness of UV light, a secondary disinfectant capable of maintaining a distribution system residual is required to meet current U.S. regulation. This study investigated changes in disinfection by-product (DBP) formation attributed to UV or UV/H2O2 followed by application of free chlorine to quench hydrogen peroxide and provide residual disinfectant. At a UV dose of 1000 mJ/cm(2), trihalomethane (THM) yield increased by up to 4 microg/mg-C and 13 microg/mg-C when treated with low and medium pressure UV, respectively. With the addition of hydrogen peroxide, THM yield increased by up to 25 microg/mg-C (5mg-H2O2/L) and 37 microg/mg-C (10 mg-H2O2/L). Although no changes in DBPs are expected during UV disinfection, application of UV advanced oxidation followed by chlorine addition was assessed with regard to impacts on DBP formation.

  19. Optimal conditions for producing bactericidal sodium hyaluronate-TiO2 bionanocomposite and its characterization.

    Safaei, Mohsen; Taran, Mojtaba


    In this research, the creation of optimum conditions for the formation of sodium hyaluronate-TiO2 bionanocomposite and its antibacterial effect on gram positive and gram negative bacteria was evaluated. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra, scanning electron microscopy images and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy pattern confirmed the formation of the bionanocomposite. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis indicated that the thermal stability rate had significantly improved with formation of the bionanocomposite. Nine experiments were designed based on the Taguchi method by applying different proportions of sodium hyaluronate biopolymer and TiO2 nanoparticles at different stirring times. Bionanocomposite produced under conditions of experiment 5 (TiO2 4mg/ml, sodium hyaluronate 1mg/ml and stirring time of 90min) and experiment 9 (TiO2 8mg/ml, sodium hyaluronate 2mg/ml and stirring time of 60min) completely prevented the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. It can be concluded that sodium hyaluronate-TiO2 bionanocomposite can be used as an effective antimicrobial compound in food, pharmaceutical, medical and environmental sectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. H(2)O(2)-sensitized TiO(2)/SiO(2) composites with high photocatalytic activity under visible irradiation.

    Zou, Jian; Gao, Jiacheng


    TiO(2)/SiO(2) composite photocatalysts were prepared by depositing of TiO(2) onto nano-SiO(2) particles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron micrograph (TEM), Raman spectrometer, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize the properties of the synthesized TiO(2)/SiO(2) composites. These results indicated that the products without calcination were amorphous, and calcination could enhance the crystallinity of TiO(2). Increases in the amount of TiO(2) would decrease the dispersion in the composites. H(2)O(2)-sensitized TiO(2)/SiO(2) composite photocatalysts could absorb visible light at wavelength below 550 nm. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared catalysts was characterized by methyl-orange degradation. The results showed the uncalcined composite photocatalysts with amorphous TiO(2) exhibited higher photocatalytic activity under visible light, and the activity of catalysts with TiO(2) content over 30% decreased with increasing of TiO(2) content. Increases in the calcination temperature and TiO(2) content promote the formation of bulk TiO(2) and result in a decrease in activity.

  1. Preparation and Performances of RuO2/TiO2 Films Photocatalyst Supported on Float Pearls%RuO2/TiO2/漂珠复合光催化剂的制备及性能

    姚秉华; 王理明; 王骋; 王逸迅; 赵高阳


    利用RuO2/TiO2前驱体溶胶,采用溶胶-凝胶-浸渍法在漂珠(FP)表面沉积RuO2/TiO2膜,经120℃干燥、500℃焙烧制备复合光催化剂RuO2/TiO2/FP,并通过SEM、XRD以及FT-IR分别对其结构进行了表征.结果表明,RuO2/TiO2膜的平均厚度(三层)约1μm,膜材料中TiO2主要呈现锐钛矿型结构,而RuO2是以非晶态高度分散在粒子表面.以高效氯氰菊酯杀虫剂的光催化降解为模型反应,研究了RuO2/TiO2/FP的光催化性能,探讨了影响催化剂活性的因素及采用太阳光做光源处理BEC的可行性.实验表明,当RuO2/TiO2/FP用量为5 g/L、BEC初始浓度为45 mg/L、初始pH为6.5、通气量为200 mL/min,反应60 min,BEC降解率分别为88.1%(125 W高压汞灯,主波长365 nm)、82.8%(5W紫外灯,主波长256 nm)和75.1%(8 W日光灯).BEC的降解反应遵从L-H动力学模型,测得反应速率常数17.5 mg/(L min)和吸附常数3.48 L/g.%RuO2/TiO2 films were deposited on float pearls (FP) by the sol-gel-dipping method. The substrates were coated with RuO2/TiO2 precursor sol, air-dried at 120 ℃ and further heated at 500 ℃ to obtain the coupled photocatalyst of RuO2/TiO2 films supported on FP (RuO2/TiO2/FP). The structure of coupled photocatalyst was characterized by SEM, XRD, and FT-IR technique, respectively. The results showed TiO2 has anatase structure and doped RuO2 was highly dispersed on the surface of TiO2 particles as amorphous. The average thickness of RuO2/TiO2 films (3 layers) on FP was determined to be about 1 μm. This study was carried out under the following conditions: volume 60 mL, initial concentration of beta-cypermethrin (BEC) 45 mg/L, pH 6.5, amount of RuO2/TiO2/PF 5 g/L, air flow rate 200 mL/min, reaction time 60 min.The degradation rates of BEC are 88.1% (125 W Hg lamp), 82.8% (8 W UV lamp), and 75.1% (8 W solar lamp), respectively. The photocatalytic degradation of BEC was experimentally demonstrated to follow the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model, and the

  2. Core-Shell MnO2-SiO2 Nanorods for Catalyzing the Removal of Dyes from Water

    Wei Gong


    Full Text Available This work presented a novel core-shell MnO2@m-SiO2 for catalyzing the removal of dyes from wastewater. MnO2 nanorods were sequentially coated with polydopamine (PDA and polyethyleneimine (PEI forming MnO2@PDA-PEI. By taking advantage of the positively charged amine groups, MnO2@PDA-PEI was further silicificated, forming MnO2@PDA-PEI-SiO2. After calcination, the composite MnO2@m-SiO2 was finally obtained. MnO2 nanorod is the core and mesoporous SiO2 (m-SiO2 is the shell. MnO2@m-SiO2 has been used to degrade a model dye Rhodamine B (RhB. The shell m-SiO2 functioned to adsorb/enrich and transfer RhB, and the core MnO2 nanorods oxidized RhB. Thus, MnO2@m-SiO2 combines multiple functions together. Experimental results demonstrated that MnO2@m-SiO2 exhibited a much higher efficiency for degradation of RhB than MnO2. The RhB decoloration and degradation efficiencies were 98.7% and 84.9%, respectively. Consecutive use of MnO2@m-SiO2 has demonstrated that MnO2@m-SiO2 can be used to catalyze multiple cycles of RhB degradation. After six cycles of reuse of MnO2@m-SiO2, the RhB decoloration and degradation efficiencies were 98.2% and 71.1%, respectively.

  3. Algal toxicity of the alternative disinfectants performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and their by-products hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite (ClO2-)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Baun, Anders; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus


    : performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as well as two by-products of their use: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite. All of the five chemicals investigated showed clear toxicity to the algae with well-defined dose response curves. The EC50 values ranged from 0.16 to 2.9 mg....../L based on nominal concentrations leading to the labeling of the chemicals as either toxic or very toxic. The five investigated chemicals decreased in toxicity in the order chlorine dioxide, performic acid, peracetic acid, chlorite and hydrogen peroxide. The stability of the chemicals increased...

  4. Instability of Hydrogenated TiO2

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Schwarz, Ashleigh M.; Oxenford, Lucas S.; Kennedy, John V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Henderson, Michael A.


    Hydrogenated TiO2 (H-TiO2) is toted as a viable visible light photocatalyst. We report a systematic study on the thermal stability of H-implanted TiO2 using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Protons (40 keV) implanted at a ~2 atom % level within a ~120 nm wide profile of rutile TiO2(110) were situated ~300 nm below the surface. NRA revealed that this H-profile broadened preferentially toward the surface after annealing at 373 K, dissipated out of the crystal into vacuum at 473 K, and was absent within the beam sampling depth (~800 nm) at 523 K. Photoemission showed that the surface was reduced in concert with these changes. Similar anneals had no effect on pristine TiO2(110). The facile bulk diffusivity of H in rutile, as well as its activity toward interfacial reduction, significantly limits the utilization of H-TiO2 as a photocatalyst. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The research was performed using the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  5. TiO2-graphene sponge for the removal of tetracycline

    Zhao, Lianqin; Xue, Fumin; Yu, Baowei; Xie, Jingru; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Wu, Ruihan; Wang, Ruijue; Hu, Zhiyan; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Luo, Jianbin


    Spongy graphene adsorbents have attracted great research interest recently, because of the high adsorption capacity, easy handling, and low operating cost. Fabrication of graphene sponge with other high-performance adsorbents might combine the merits of both materials, thus deserves more investigations. In this study, TiO2-graphene sponge (TiO2-GS) was prepared by the deposition of amorphous TiO2 on graphene oxide (GO) sheets for the adsorption of tetracycline antibiotics, where lyophilization was adopted to obtain the porous structure. TiO2-GS adsorbed tetracycline with a large adsorption capacity of 1,805 mg/g, larger than that of GO (313 mg/g) and GO-chitosan aerogel (1,470 mg/g). The adsorption kinetics, which finally reached the equilibrium at 48 h, was clearly controlled by the diffusion of tetracycline to TiO2-GS in the initial stage according to intraparticle diffusion model. Thermodynamics investigation indicated that the adsorption process was endothermic and promoted at higher temperature, with a positive Δ H of 35.8 kJ/mol. Generally, higher pH facilitated the adsorption of tetracycline on TiO2-GS, except that the adsorption was also very effective at pH 1. In contrast, ionic strength had insignificant influence. The adsorbed tetracycline could be washed out with acidic ice-cold water to regenerate TiO2-GS. The implication to the applications of TiO2-GS in water treatment is discussed.

  6. Production of superoxide/H2O2 by dihydroorotate dehydrogenase in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Goncalves, Renata L S; Orr, Adam L; Brand, Martin D


    Dehydrogenases that use ubiquinone as an electron acceptor, including complex I of the respiratory chain, complex II, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are known to be direct generators of superoxide and/or H2O2. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase oxidizes dihydroorotate to orotate and reduces ubiquinone to ubiquinol during pyrimidine metabolism, but it is unclear whether it produces superoxide and/or H2O2 directly or does so only indirectly from other sites in the electron transport chain. Using mitochondria isolated from rat skeletal muscle we establish that dihydroorotate oxidation leads to superoxide/H2O2 production at a fairly high rate of about 300pmol H2O2·min(-1)·mg protein(-1) when oxidation of ubiquinol is prevented and complex II is uninhibited. This H2O2 production is abolished by brequinar or leflunomide, known inhibitors of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. Eighty percent of this rate is indirect, originating from site IIF of complex II, because it can be prevented by malonate or atpenin A5, inhibitors of complex II. In the presence of inhibitors of all known sites of superoxide/H2O2 production (rotenone to inhibit sites in complex I (site IQ and, indirectly, site IF), myxothiazol to inhibit site IIIQo in complex III, and malonate plus atpenin A5 to inhibit site IIF in complex II), dihydroorotate dehydrogenase generates superoxide/H2O2, at a small but significant rate (23pmol H2O2·min(-1)·mg protein(-1)), from the ubiquinone-binding site. We conclude that dihydroorotate dehydrogenase can generate superoxide and/or H2O2 directly at low rates and is also capable of indirect production at higher rates from other sites through its ability to reduce the ubiquinone pool.

  7. Ciprofloxacin@SiO2: Fluorescent nanobubbles

    M J Rosemary; V Suryanarayanan; P Ganapati Reddy; Ian Maclaren; S Baskaran; T Pradeep


    We report a new nanomaterial in which ciprofloxacin molecules are incorporated inside silica nanobubbles, denoted as ciprofloxacin@SiO2. The material has been characterised using UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and emission spectroscopy. The material is stable and the freestanding particles can be precipitated and redispersed in several solvents. Confinement of the molecule is complete as leaching through the shell is minimal. The material behaves like free ciprofloxacin in solution; however, effects of confinement are manifested. Energy transfer reaction between ciprofloxacin@SiO2 and Tb3+ was monitored by emission spectroscopy. The emission intensity decreased with metal ion exposure indicating selective electronic interaction.

  8. Gradient Mn-La-Pt Catalysts with Three-layered Structure for Li-O2 battery.

    Cai, Kedi; Yang, Rui; Lang, Xiaoshi; Zhang, Qingguo; Wang, Zhenhua; He, Tieshi


    Gradient Mn-La-Pt catalysts with three-layered structure of manganese dioxide (MnO2), lanthanum oxide (La2O3), and Platinum (Pt) for Li-O2 battery are prepared in this study. The mass ratio of the catalysts is respectively 5:2:3, 4:2:4, and 3:2:5 (MnO2: La2O3: Pt) which is start from the side of the electrolyte. The relationship between morphology structure and electrochemical performance of gradient catalyst is investigated by energy dispersive spectrometry and constant current charge/discharge test. The Li-O2 battery based on gradient Mn-La-Pt catalysts shows high discharge specific capacity (2707 mAh g(-1)), specific energy density (8400 Wh kg(-1)) and long cycle life (56 cycles). The improvement of the Li-O2 battery discharge capacity is attributed to the gradient distribution of MnO2 and Pt and the involvement of La2O3 that can improve the energy density of the battery. More important, this work will also provide new ideas and methods for the research of other metal-air battery.

  9. Effects of Homogenization Scheme of TiO2 Screen-Printing Paste for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Seigo Ito


    Full Text Available TiO2 porous electrodes have been fabricated for photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs using TiO2 screen-printing paste from nanocrystalline TiO2 powder dried from the synthesized sol. We prepared the TiO2 screen-printing paste by two different methods to disperse the nanocrystalline TiO2 powder: a “ball-milling route” and a “mortal-grinding route.” The TiO2 ball-milling (TiO2-BM route gave monodisperse TiO2 nanoparticles, resulting in high photocurrent density (14.2 mA cm−2 and high photoconversion efficiency (8.27%. On the other hand, the TiO2 mortal-grinding (TiO2-MG route gave large aggregate of TiO2 nanoparticles, resulting in low photocurrent density (11.5 mA cm−2 and low photoconversion efficiency (6.43%. To analyze the photovoltaic characteristics, we measured the incident photon-to-current efficiency, light absorption spectroscopy, and electrical impedance spectroscopy of DSCs.

  10. Double-Shelled TiO2 Hollow Spheres Assembled with TiO2 Nanosheets.

    Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Yuming; Zhang, Yiwei; Zhao, Shuo; Fang, Jiasheng; Sheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Hongxing


    High-quality double-shelled TiO2 hollow spheres (DHS-Ti) assembled with TiO2 nanosheets have been synthesized for the first time through a simple hydrothermal treatment of sSiO2 @TiO2 (TiO2 -coated solid SiO2 spheres). The double-shelled structure shows a high BET surface area up to 417.6 m(2)  g(-1) . Anatase DHS-Ti of high crystallinity can be obtained without structural collapse by calcination treatment. The effects of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) concentration, pH, and hydrothermal reaction temperature have also been investigated with a series of contrast experiments. A formation mechanism involving the in situ growth of amorphous TiO2 nanosheets followed by the redeposition of dissolved silica species is proposed. Lastly, the DHS-Ti forming strategy can be extended as a general strategy to fabricate various morphological hollow nanostructures and double-shelled Pt nanocatalysts by rationally selecting functional sSiO2 nanoparticles as core materials. This work could open up a new strategy for controllable synthesis of complex hollow structures and other functional materials.

  11. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of ZrO2-SiO2 Nanoparticles by Platinum Doping

    Mohammad W. Kadi


    Full Text Available ZrO2-SiO2 mixed oxides were prepared via the sol-gel method. Photo-assisted deposition was utilized for doping the prepared mixed oxide with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 wt% of Pt. XRD spectra showed that doping did not result in the incorporation of Pt within the crystal structure of the material. UV-reflectance spectrometry showed that the band gap of ZrO2-SiO2 decreased from 3.04 eV to 2.48 eV with 0.4 wt% Pt doping. The results show a specific surface area increase of 20%. Enhanced photocatalysis of Pt/ZrO2-SiO2 was successfully tested on photo degradation of cyanide under illumination of visible light. 100% conversion was achieved within 20 min with 0.3 wt% of Pt doped ZrO2-SiO2.

  12. Activity and Selectivity for O-2 Reduction to H2O2 on Transition Metal Surfaces

    Siahrostami, Samira; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Karamad, Mohammadreza;


    Industrially viable electrochemical production of H2O2 requires active, selective and stable electrocatalyst materials to catalyse the oxygen reduction reaction to H2O2. On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we explain why single site catalysts such as Pd/Au show improved select...

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of CeO2-doped TiO2 Composite Nanocrystals

    Oman ZUAS


    Full Text Available Pure TiO2 and CeO2-doped TiO2 (3 % CeO2-97 %TiO2 composite nanocrystals were synthesized via co-precipitation method and characterized using TGA, XRD, FTIR, DR-UV-vis and TEM. The XRD data revealed that the phase structure of the synthesized samples was mainly in pure anatase having crystallite size in the range of 7 nm – 11 nm. Spherical shapes with moderate aggregation of the crystal particles were observed under the TEM observation. The presence of the CeO2 at TiO2 site has not only affected morphologically but also induced the electronic property of the TiO2 by lowering the band gap energy from 3.29 eV (Eg-Ti to 3.15 eV (Eg-CeTi. Performance evaluation of the synthesized samples showed that both samples have a strong adsorption capacity toward Congo red (CR dye in aqueous solution at room temperature experiment, where  the capacity of the CeTi was higher than the Ti sample. Based on DR-UV data, the synthesized samples obtained in this study may also become promising catalysts for photo-assisted removal of synthetic dye in aqueous solution. DOI:

  14. Cytotoxicity Property of Nano-TiO2 Sol and Nano-TiO2 Powder

    Pingting He


    Full Text Available A homogeneous and transparent titania (TiO2 sol with nanosized anatase TiO2 particles was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method. The transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the structure and morphology of particulates in the TiO2 sol and purchased TiO2 powder. The results show that the homogeneous anatase crystalline phase was formed and the size of the spindle-like particle in sol was about 20 nm in width and 150 nm in average length, and the particulates of the purchased powder were globular-like about 50 nm in diameter. In addition, a consistent set of in vitro experimental protocols was used to study the effects of nano-TiO2 sol as prepared and nano-TiO2 powder on mouse peritoneal macrophage. The cytotoxicity tests in vitro indicate that, with the increasing of TiO2 sol concentration contaminated with the cells, the relative proliferation rate of macrophage cells was improved slightly after the cells contaminated for 24 h, but it reduced rapidly after contaminated for 48 h. The purchased nano-TiO2 powder inhibited the growth of the cells obviously as cultivating with macrophage both for 24 h and 48 h.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel PVA/SiO2-TiO2 Hybrid Fibers

    Haihong Ma


    Full Text Available Hybrid sols of poly (vinyl alcohol (PVA/Silicon oxide-titanium oxide (SiO2-TiO2 were prepared with tetraethoxylsilane and tetrabutyl titanate as precursor using Sol-Gel method. PVA/SiO2-TiO2 hybrid fibers were prepared by drawing from the hybrid sols using dip-coating method and aging treatment. The spinnability of hybrid sols was investigated. Spinnable time (t and spinnable length (l of hybrid sols increased with either the PVA content or the molar ratio of SiO2 and TiO2. The hybrid fibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Ultraviolet Visible Spectrometry (UV-Vis and (Thermo-gravimetric Analysis TGA. FT-IR results suggested that PVA was linked with (SiO2-TiO2 network by chemical bonds. SEM measurements indicated that when the fibers arrives the maximum spinning length, the diameter of the fibers was about 50 μm, and the whole system was homogeneous. XRD results revealed that the crystallinity of hybrid fibers was decreased distinctly. UV-Vis measurements confirmed that the shielding properties to Ultraviolet (UV were greatly improved with titania filled in the hybrid fibers. TG measurements suggested that the hybrid fibers show better resistance to heat than pure PVA fibers.

  16. O2(a1Δ) Quenching In The O/O2/O3 System

    Azyazov, V. N.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Postell, D.; Heaven, M. C.


    The development of discharge singlet oxygen generators (DSOG's) that can operate at high pressures is required for the power scaling of the discharge oxygen iodine laser. In order to achieve efficient high-pressure DSOG operation it is important to understand the mechanisms by which singlet oxygen (O2(a1Δ)) is quenched in these devices. It has been proposed that three-body deactivation processes of the type O2(a1Δ)+O+M→2O2+M provide significant energy loss channels. To further explore these reactions the physical and reactive quenching of O2(a1Δ) in O(3P)/O2/O3/CO2/He/Ar mixtures has been investigated. Oxygen atoms and singlet oxygen molecules were produced by the 248 nm laser photolysis of ozone. The kinetics of O2(a1Δ) quenching were followed by observing the 1268 nm fluorescence of the O2a1Δ-X3∑ transition. Fast quenching of O2(a1Δ) in the presence of oxygen atoms and molecules was observed. The mechanism of the process has been examined using kinetic models, which indicate that quenching by vibrationally excited ozone is the dominant reaction.

  17. Catalytic combustion of trichloroethylene over TiO2-SiO2 supported catalysts

    Kulazynski, M.; Ommen, van J.G.; Trawczynski, J.; Walendziewski, J.


    Combustion of trichloroethylene (TCE) on Cr2O3, V2O5, Pt or Pd catalysts supported on TiO2-SiO2 as a carrier has been investigated. It was found that oxide catalysts are very active but their activity quickly diminishes due to loss of the active component, especially at higher reaction temperatures

  18. On the rutile alpha-PbO"2-type phase boundary of TiO"2

    Olsen, J.S.; Gerward, Leif; Jiang, Jianzhong


    The high-pressure, high-temperature phase quilibria of TiO"2 have been studied with special emphasis on the rutile and alpha-PbO"2-type phases. It is found that the phase boundary, when plotted in a pressure-temperature diagram, changes from having a negative to having a positive slope...

  19. Thermoelectric Properties in the TiO2/SnO2 System

    Dynys, F.; Sayir, A.; Sehirlioglu, A.; Berger, M.


    Nanotechnology has provided a new interest in thermoelectric technology. A thermodynamically driven process is one approach in achieving nanostructures in bulk materials. TiO2/SnO2 system exhibits a large spinodal region with exceptional stable phase separated microstructures up to 1400 C. Fabricated TiO2/SnO2 nanocomposites exhibit n-type behavior with Seebeck coefficients greater than -300 .V/K. Composites exhibit good thermal conductance in the range of 7 to 1 W/mK. Dopant additions have not achieved high electrical conductivity (<1000 S/m). Formation of oxygen deficient composites, TixSn1-xO2-y, can change the electrical conductivity by four orders of magnitude. Achieving higher thermoelectric ZT by oxygen deficiency is being explored. Seebeck coeffcient, thermal conductivity, electrical conductance and microstructure will be discussed in relation to composition and doping.

  20. Spray deposited CeO2–TiO2 counter electrode for electrochromic devices

    A K Bhosale; S R Kulal; V M Gurame; P S Patil


    Optically passive thin films of CeO2–TiO2 mixed oxides with molar ratio of Ce/Ti of 0.05 were deposited by the spray pyrolysis technique (SPT) on a glass and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates. Precursor solution containing cerium nitrate hexahydrate (Ce(NO3)2·6H2O) and titanium tetraiso-propoxide (Ti(OiPr)4) having different volumetric proportions (0–5 vol% of Ti) in methanol were used. These films were characterized for structural, morphological, molecular, optical, electrochromic and colourimetric analysis. CeO2–TiO2 films deposited at 400° C were found to be polycrystalline with cubic fluorite crystal structure. Transformation from polycrystalline to amorphous phase was observed with increasing TiO2 content. The band centred at 539 cm−1 is assigned to Ce–O stretching vibration and the two medium intensity bands assigned to (Ti–O) and (Ti–O–Ti) stretching modes at 798 and 451 cm−1, which confirms the mixed CeO2 and TiO2 phases. The band gap energy decreases (g) from 3.45 eV for pristine CeO2 to 2.98–3.09 eV for CeO2–TiO2 films. The ion storage capacity (ISC) of CeO2–TiO2 thin film with 3 vol% Ti (Ce–Ti3 sample) was found to be 26 mC cm−2 and electrochemical stability up to 30,000 cycles in 0.5 M LiClO4-PC electrolyte. The optically passive behaviour of CeO2–TiO2 thin film is confirmed by its negligible transmission modulation ( ∼ 2.5%) upon Li+ ion insertion/extraction, irrespective of the extent of Li+ ion intercalation. The optical modulation of sputter deposited electrochromic WO3 thin film was found to be enhanced from 56 to 61% with rapid increase in colouration efficiency (CE) from 42 to 231 cm2 C−1 when CeO2–TiO2 is coupled as a counter electrode with WO3 in an electrochromic device (ECD). On reduction of WO3 thin film with CeO2–TiO2 as counter electrode, the CIELAB 1931 2° colour space coordinates show the transition from colourless to the deep blue state (* = 88.07, * = −2.37, * = 24.59 and

  1. Photoelectrochemical characterization and photocatalytic properties of mesoporous TiO 2 / ZrO 2 films


    Full Text Available Optically transparent, crack-free mesoporous titania and zirconia-doped titania thin film photocatalysts were fabricated by sol-gel technique, using nonionic amphiphilic block copolymer Pluronic P123 as template. The structural and optical properties of these films were characterized using SEM, low-angle XRD, and UV/Vis spectroscopy, hexane adsorption investigation. Band gap energy and the position of flatband potentials were estimated by photoelectrochemical measurements. Enhancing of photocatalytic activity of zirconia-doped films relative to pure TiO 2 originates from an anodic shift of the valence band edge potential. Catalytic activity of mesoporous TiO 2 and TiO 2 / ZrO 2 ( 5 –50% of ZrO 2 films in the processes of Cr VI to Cr III photoreduction and 2,4-dinitroaniline photooxidation correlates with crystalline size and growth with increasing of specific surface area of the samples.

  2. Chemical synthesis of nanocrystalline ZrO2-SnO2 composite powders

    YANG Huaming; ZHANG Xiangchao; YANG Wuguo; HUANG Chenghuan; QIU Guanzhou


    ZrO2-SnO2 composite nanoparticles were prepared by heating the hydrate precursors synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation reaction of ZrOCl2 and SnCl4. The precursors were examined by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The composite powder was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and desorption isotherm (Barrett-Joyner-Halenda method). The average crystal size of the nanoparticle ranges from 15 to 30 nm for the sample containing 5%-25% ZrO2 (mass fraction). Most of the pores in the ZrO2-SnO2 nanoparticles are about 10-20 nm in diameter. The composite powder is promising for chemical sensors.

  3. Electrochemical and optical properties of CeO2-SnO2 and CeO2-SnO2:X (X = Li, C, Si films

    Berton Marcos A.C.


    Full Text Available Thin solid films of CeO2-SnO2 (17 mol% Sn and CeO2-SnO2:X (X = Li, C and Si were prepared by the sol-gel route, using an aqueous-based process. The addition of Li, C and Si to the precursor solution leads to films with different electrochemical performances. The films were deposited by the dip-coating technique on ITO coated glass (Donnelly Glass at a speed of 10 cm/min and submitted to a final thermal treatment at 450 °C during 10 min in air. The electrochemical and optical properties of the films were determined from the cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements using 0.1 M LiOH as supporting electrolyte. The ion storage capacity of the films was investigated using in situ spectroelectrochemical method and during the insertion/extraction process the films remained transparent. The powders were characterized by thermal analysis (DSC/TGA and X-ray diffraction.

  4. Coating SiO2 Support with TiO2 or ZrO2 and Effects on Structure and CO Oxidation Performance of Pt Catalysts

    Mi-Young Kim


    Full Text Available In this work, we studied how TiO2 and ZrO2 coatings enhance the CO oxidation performance of SiO2-supported Pt catalysts under conditions relevant to automotive emissions control. SiO2 was coated with metal oxides TiO2 or ZrO2 by sol-gel method and the subsequent Pt loading was done by incipient wetness method. The prepared catalysts Pt/TiO2-SiO2 and Pt/ZrO2-SiO2 were compared with Pt/SiO2 and Pt/Al2O3 in fresh, sulfated, and hydrothermally aged states. The structure of the catalysts was characterized with BET, XRD, TEM, EDS, EXAFS, XANES, TPD and TPR to help interpret the CO oxidation performance. Higher dispersion, stability, and oxidation state of Pt were achieved on TiO2-SiO2 and ZrO2-SiO2 supports due to stronger metal-support interaction leading to superior CO oxidation performance compared to Pt/SiO2 and Pt/Al2O3. TiO2 and ZrO2 coatings introduced surface acidity but negligible basicity, which is a likely reason for the weak and low adsorption of SO2. The results suggest that the sol-gel coating of SiO2 with metal oxides could be an attractive strategy for designing automotive oxidation catalysts with enhanced performance such as low-temperature activity, sulfur tolerance, and hydrothermal stability.

  5. Study on Properties of Composite Oxides TiO2/SiO2%复合氧化物TiO2/SiO2性质研究

    周亚松; 姜国伟


    The nanometer particles of TiO2 and TiO2/SiO2 oxides were prepared by sol-gel and supercritical fluid drying method. The properties of TiO2 and TiO2/SiO2 were characterized by means of BET(Brunner-EmmettTeller method), TEM(transmission electron microscopy), SEM(scanning electron microscopy), XRD(X-ray diffraction) and FTIR(Fourier transform-infrared) techniques. The effects of different preparation route, prehydrolysis and non-prehydrolysis, on the properties of TiO2/SiO2 oxide were also examined. Experimental results show that the thermal stability of pure TiO2 is improved greatly when it is mixed with SiO2 in nanometer level. The composite TiO2/SiO2 oxides form Ti-O-Si chemical bonds, which creates new BrSnsted acidity sites. The acidity character is related to TiO2/SiO2 chemical composition and preparation methods. The acidity of TiO2/SiO2 oxides by prehydrolysis is greater than that of by non-prehydrolysis. Ti atom is rich on the surface of TiO2/SiO2.

  6. Cosmetic wastewater treatment using the Fenton, Photo-Fenton and H2O2/UV processes.

    Marcinowski, Piotr P; Bogacki, Jan P; Naumczyk, Jeremi H


    Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs), such as the Fenton, photo-Fenton and H2O2/UV processes, have been investigated for the treatment of cosmetic wastewaters that were previously coagulated by FeCl3. The Photo-Fenton process at pH 3.0 with 1000/100 mg L(-1) H2O2/Fe(2+) was the most effective (74.0% Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal). The Fenton process with 1200/500 mg L(-1) H2O2/Fe(2+) achieved a COD removal of 72.0%, and the H2O2/UV process achieved a COD removal of 47.0%. Spreading the H2O2 doses over time to obtain optimal conditions did not improve COD removal. The kinetics of the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes may be described by the following equation: d[COD]/dt = -a[COD] t(m) (t represents time and a and m are constants). The rate of COD removal by the H2O2/UV process may be described by a second-order reaction equation. Head Space, Solid-Phase MicroExtraction, Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) were used to identify 48 substances in precoagulated wastewater. Among these substances, 26 were fragrances. Under optimal AOP conditions, over 99% of the identified substances were removed in 120 min.

  7. Synthesis of iron(Ⅲ)-doped nanostructure TiO2/SiO2 and their photocatalytic activity


    Iron(Ⅲ)-doped nanostructure TiO2-coated SiO2 (TiO2/SiO2) particles were prepared using the layer-by-layer assembly technique and their photocatalytic property was studied. TiO2 colloids were synthesized employing the sol-gel method with TiCl4 as a precursor. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), SEM, EDS, XPS, and XRD. The experimental results show that TiO2 nanopowders on the surface of SiO2 particles are well distributed, the amount of TiO2 is increased with the adding of coating layers, the pure anatase-TiO2 coating layers are synthesized at 500℃, and the photocatalytic activity of Fe3+-doped TiO/SiO2 is higher than tnat of undoped TiO2/SiO2.

  8. Sonocatalytic degradation of methyl orange in the presence of (nanometer and ordinary) anatase TiO2 powders

    WANG Jun; GUO Bao-dong; ZHANG Zhao-hong; ZHANG Xiang-dong; WU Jing; LI Hong


    The nanometer and ordinary anatase titanium dioxide(TiO2 ) powders were adopted as the sonocatalysts for the degradation of methyl orange used as a model compound for the first time. It was found that the sonocatalytic degradation effect of methyl orange in the presence of TiO2 powder were much better than that without TiO2, but the sonocatalytic activity of the nanometer anatase TiO2 particle was obviously higher than that of ordinary anatase TiO2 particle. Although there are many factors influencing sonocatalytic degradation of methyl orange, the experimental results showed that the best degradation ratio of methyl orange could be obtained when the experimental conditions were: initial concentration 15 mg/L, nanometer anatase TiO2 adding amount 750 mg/L, ultrasonic frequency 40 kHz, output power 50 W, pH = 3.0 and temperature 40℃ within 150 min. In addition, the catalytic activity of reused nanometer anatase TiO2 catalyst was also studied and found to decline gradually comparing with initial nanometer anatase TiO2 catalyst. All experiments indicated that the method of the sonocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in the presence of TiO2 powder was an advisable choice for non- or lowtransparent organic wastewaters.

  9. Modest effect on plaque progression and vasodilatory function in atherosclerosis-prone mice exposed to nanosized TiO2

    Mikkelsen, Lone; Sheykhzade, Majid; Jensen, Keld A


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that exposure to small size particulate matter increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We investigated plaque progression and vasodilatory function in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice exposed to TiO2. ApoE-/- mice...... were intratracheally instilled (0.5 mg/kg bodyweight) with rutile fine TiO2 (fTiO2, 288 nm), photocatalytic 92/8 anatase/rutile TiO2 (pTiO2, 12 nm), or rutile nano TiO2 (nTiO2, 21.6 nm) at 26 and 2 hours before measurement of vasodilatory function in aorta segments mounted in myographs. The progression...... of atherosclerotic plaques in aorta was assessed in mice exposed to nanosized TiO2 (0.5 mg/kg bodyweight) once a week for 4 weeks. We measured mRNA levels of Mcp-1, Mip-2, Vcam-1, Icam-1 and Vegf in lung tissue to assess pulmonary inflammation and vascular function. TiO2-induced alterations in nitric oxide (NO...

  10. Microstructure and hardness of Mg-based composites reinforced with Mg2Si particles

    Mustafa Aydin; Cem Ozgür; Osman San


    Magnesium powders were mechanically alloyed with SiO2 powder particles having different particle sizes using high-energy ball milling techniques under Ar atmosphere for 1 h. The powders were consolidated with cold pressing under 560 Mpa. They were then sintered at 550℃ for 45 min under Ar atmosphere. The composites obtained on the Mg-SiO2 system were investigated using the Archimedes principle, a differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray diffraction, optic microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. For the mechanically alloyed powders, the solid-state reaction of the synthesis of Mg2Si and MgO progressed further during sintering of the materials. The results showed that the strengthening mechanisms were dependent on dispersion hardening of fine Mg2Si and MgO particulates dispersed homogeneously in the matrix.

  11. TiO2/beads as a photocatalyst for the degradation of X3B azo dye


    The feasibility of photocatalytic degradation of X3B azo dye by TiO2/beads photocatalyst was studied. The effects of parameters such as the amount of TiO2/beads, airflow, as well as the concentrations of H2O2, Fe3+, Mg2+ and Na+ on the photocatalytic degradation of X3B azo dye were also studied. The results showed that 25 mg/dm3 X3B azo dye can be photocatalytically degraded completely by 30 min illumination with a 375W medium pressure mercury lamp. Adding a small amount of H2O2 or Fe3+, the efficiencies of photocatalytic degradation of X3B azo dye were increased rapidly. The mechanisms of the reaction and the role of the additives were also investigated. After 120 hours TiO2/beads showed no significant loss of the photocatalytic activity.

  12. Human serum albumin adsorption on TiO2 from single protein solutions and from plasma.

    Sousa, S R; Moradas-Ferreira, P; Saramago, B; Melo, L Viseu; Barbosa, M A


    In the present work, the adsorption of human serum albumin (HSA) on commercially pure titanium with a titanium oxide layer formed in a H(2)O(2) solution (TiO(2) cp) and on TiO(2) sputtered on Si (TiO(2) sp) was analyzed. Adsorption isotherms, kinetic studies, and work of adhesion determinations were carried out. HSA exchangeability was also evaluated. Surface characterization was performed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and wettability studies. The two TiO(2) surfaces have very distinct roughnesses, the TiO(2) sp having a mean R(a) value 14 times smaller than the one of TiO(2) cp. XPS analysis revealed consistent peaks representative of TiO(2) on sputtered samples as well as on Ti cp substrate after 48 h of H(2)O(2) immersion. Nitrogen was observed as soon as protein was present, while sulfur, present in disulfide bonds in HSA, was observed for concentrations of protein higher than 0.30 mg/mL. The work of adhesion was determined from contact angle measurements. As expected from the surface free energy values, the work of adhesion of HSA solution is higher for the TiO(2) cp substrate, the more hydrophilic one, and lower for the TiO(2) sp substrate, the more hydrophobic one. The work of adhesion between plasma and the substrates assumed even higher values for the TiO(2) cp surface, indicating a greater interaction between the surface and the complex protein solutions. Adsorption studies by radiolabeling of albumin ((125)I-HSA) suggest that rapid HSA adsorption takes place on both surfaces, reaching a maximum value after approximately 60 min of incubation. For the higher HSA concentrations in solution, a multilayer coverage was observed on both substrates. After the adsorption step from single HSA solutions, the exchangeability of adsorbed HSA molecules by HSA in solution was evaluated. The HSA molecules adsorbed on TiO(2) sp seem to be more easily exchanged by HSA itself than those adsorbed on TiO(2) cp after 24 h. In

  13. Preparation of Photocatalytic TiO2 and TiO2-SiO2 Particles and Application to Degradation of Trace Organics in Aqueous Solution



    TiO2 and TiO2-SiO2 photocatalysts were prepared by sol-gel and supercritical CO2 fluid drying method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), etc. Their catalytic properties were tested through the photocatalytic degradation of phenol and aniline in wastewater. The results show that the developed fluidized photocatalytic reactor (FPR) and TiO2 catalyst had better performance in degrading pollutants as compared with slurry photocatalytic reactor (SPR) and commercial TiO2 catalyst. The composition and crystal form of TiO2-SiO2 composite oxide had obvious influence on catalytic effect and TiO2-SiO2 photocatalysts showed better catalytic activity and stability.

  14. Characterization of TiO2–MnO2 composite electrodes synthesized using spark plasma sintering technique

    Tshephe, TS


    Full Text Available and electrochemical stability of the resulting materials were investigated. Relative densities of 99.33% and 98.49% were obtained for 90TiO2–10MnO2 and 80TiO2–10MnO2 when ball was incorporated. The 90TiO2–10MnO2 powder mixed with balls had its Vickers hardness value...

  15. Degradation and Mineralization of Benzohydroxamic Acid by Synthesized Mesoporous La/TiO2

    Xianping Luo


    Full Text Available Rare earth element La-doped TiO2 (La/TiO2 was synthesized by the sol-gel method. Benzohydroxamic acid was used as the objective pollutant to investigate the photocatalytic activity of La/TiO2. The physicochemical properties of the prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, specific surface area and porosity, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. As a result, the doping of La could inhibit the crystal growth of TiO2, increase its specific surface area and expand its response to visible light, thus improving its photocatalytic activity. La/TiO2 with the doping ratio of 0.75% calcined at 500 °C, showing the highest photocatalytic activity to degrade benzohydroxamic acid under the irradiation of 300 W mercury lamp. About 94.1% of benzohydroxamic acid with the original concentration at 30 mg·L−1 was removed after 120 min in a solution of pH 4.4 with an La/TiO2 amount of 0.5 g·L−1. Furthermore, 88.5% of the total organic carbon was eliminated after 120 min irradiation. In addition, after four recycling runs, La/TiO2 still kept high photocatalytic activity on the photodegradation of benzohydroxamic acid. The interfacial charge transfer processes were also hypothesized.

  16. Preparation and Photocatalytic Property of TiO2/Diatomite-Based Porous Ceramics Composite Materials

    Shuilin Zheng


    Full Text Available The diatomite-based porous ceramics was made by low-temperature sintering. Then the nano-TiO2/diatomite-based porous ceramics composite materials were prepared by hydrolysis deposition method with titanium tetrachloride as the precursor of TiO2 and diatomite-based porous as the supporting body of the nano-TiO2. The structure and microscopic appearance of nano-TiO2/diatomite-based porous ceramics composite materials was characterized by XRD and SEM. The photocatalytic property of the composite was investigated by the degradation of malachite green. Results showed that, after calcination at 550°C, TiO2 thin film loaded on the diatomite-based porous ceramics is anatase TiO2 and average grain size of TiO2 is about 10 nm. The degradation ratio of the composite for 5 mg/L malachite green solution reached 86.2% after irradiation for 6 h under ultraviolet.

  17. Degradation and Mineralization of Benzohydroxamic Acid by Synthesized Mesoporous La/TiO2

    Luo, Xianping; Wang, Junyu; Wang, Chunying; Zhu, Sipin; Li, Zhihui; Tang, Xuekun; Wu, Min


    Rare earth element La-doped TiO2 (La/TiO2) was synthesized by the sol-gel method. Benzohydroxamic acid was used as the objective pollutant to investigate the photocatalytic activity of La/TiO2. The physicochemical properties of the prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, specific surface area and porosity, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. As a result, the doping of La could inhibit the crystal growth of TiO2, increase its specific surface area and expand its response to visible light, thus improving its photocatalytic activity. La/TiO2 with the doping ratio of 0.75% calcined at 500 °C, showing the highest photocatalytic activity to degrade benzohydroxamic acid under the irradiation of 300 W mercury lamp. About 94.1% of benzohydroxamic acid with the original concentration at 30 mg·L−1 was removed after 120 min in a solution of pH 4.4 with an La/TiO2 amount of 0.5 g·L−1. Furthermore, 88.5% of the total organic carbon was eliminated after 120 min irradiation. In addition, after four recycling runs, La/TiO2 still kept high photocatalytic activity on the photodegradation of benzohydroxamic acid. The interfacial charge transfer processes were also hypothesized. PMID:27735877

  18. Sonocatalytic degradation of ciprofloxacin using synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles on montmorillonite.

    Hassani, Aydin; Khataee, Alireza; Karaca, Semra; Karaca, Canan; Gholami, Peyman


    TiO2/Montmorillonite (TiO2/MMT) nanocomposite as sonocatalyst was produced by immobilizing synthesized TiO2 on the surface of montmorillonite. The characteristics of produced nanocomposite were investigated using XRD, XRF, FTIR, TEM, SEM, EDX, UV-vis DRS and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analyses. The synthesized TiO2 and TiO2/MMT samples were applied as catalysts for sonocatalytic degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP). The performance of the TiO2/MMT was greater than pure TiO2 sample in treatment of CIP solution. The degradation efficiency of the CIP by sonocatalytic process was affected by solution pH, catalyst dosage, initial CIP concentrations and ultrasonic power. Degradation efficiency of 65.01% was obtained at the pH of 6, catalyst dosage of 0.2gL(-1), initial CIP concentration of 10mgL(-1) and ultrasonic power of 650WL(-1). It was observed that the presence of inorganic and organic scavengers suppressed the performance of sonocatalytic process. The stability of the nanocomposite was studied in several successive experiments, and the degradation efficiency declined only 61.48% after 4 repeated experiments. The main degradation by-products were recognized by GC-MS method to propose the possible sonocatalytic mechanism for the degradation of CIP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. TiO2 nanoparticle biosynthesis and its physiological effect on mung bean (Vigna radiata L.

    Ramesh Raliya


    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticle (NPs biosynthesis is a low cost, ecofriendly approach developed using the fungi Aspergillus flavus TFR 7. To determine whether TiO2 NPs is suitable for nutrient, we conducted a two part study; biosynthesis of TiO2 NP and evaluates their influence on mung bean. The characterized TiO2 NPs were foliar sprayed at 10 mgL−1 concentration on the leaves of 14 days old mung bean plants. A significant improvement was observed in shoot length (17.02%, root length (49.6%, root area (43%, root nodule (67.5%, chlorophyll content (46.4% and total soluble leaf protein (94% as a result of TiO2 NPs application. In the rhizosphere microbial population increased by 21.4–48.1% and activity of acid phosphatase (67.3%, alkaline phosphatase (72%, phytase (64% and dehydrogenase (108.7% enzyme was observed over control in six weeks old plants owing to application of TiO2 NPs. A possible mechanism has also been hypothesized for TiO2 NPs biosynthesis.

  20. Nanosized TiO2-induced reproductive system dysfunction and its mechanism in female mice.

    Xiaoyang Zhao

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2-induced fertility reduction and ovary injury in animals. To better understand how nano-TiO2 act in mice, female mice were exposed to 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg nano-TiO2 by intragastric administration for 90 consecutive days; the ovary injuries, fertility, hormone levels, and inflammation-related or follicular atresia-related cytokine expression were investigated. The results showed that nano-TiO2 was deposited in the ovary, resulting in significant reduction of body weight, relative weight of ovary and fertility, alterations of hematological and serum parameters and sex hormone levels, atretic follicle increases, inflammation, and necrosis. Furthermore, nano-TiO2 exposure resulted in marked increases of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2, epidermal growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, tissue plasminogen activator, interleukin-1β, interleukin -6, Fas, and FasL expression, and significant decreases of insulin-like growth factor-1, luteinizing hormone receptor, inhibin α, and growth differentiation factor 9 expression in mouse ovary. These findings implied that fertility reduction and ovary injury of mice following exposure to nano-TiO2 may be associated with alteration of inflammation-related or follicular atresia-related cytokine expressions, and humans should take great caution when handling nano-TiO2.

  1. Reaction pathways of dimethyl phthalate degradation in TiO2-UV-O2 and TiO2-UV-Fe(VI) systems.

    Yuan, Bao-ling; Li, Xiang-zhong; Graham, Nigel


    The photocatalytic degradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in aqueous TiO2 suspension under UV illumination has been investigated using oxygen (O2) and ferrate (Fe(VI)) as electron acceptors. The experiments demonstrated that Fe(VI) was a more effective electron acceptor than O2 for scavenging the conduction band electrons from the surface of the catalyst. Some major intermediate products from DMP degradation were identified by HPLC and GC/MS analyses. The analytical results identified dimethyl 3-hydroxyphthalate and dimethyl 2-hydroxyphthalate as the two main intermediate products from the DMP degradation in the TiO2-UV-O2