Sample records for mg l-1 growth

  1. (001)-textured growth of L1{sub 0}-FePt thin films on MgO and Cr seed layers

    Matthes, Patrick; Brombacher, Christoph; Daniel, Marcus; Beddies, Gunther; Albrecht, Manfred [Institute of Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)


    Chemically ordered FePt has a high uniaxial anisotropy with the easy axis in (001)-direction. It has been shown that (001)-textured MgO and Cr [2] seed layers can be used to stabilize the (001)-texture of L1{sub 0}-chemically ordered FePt on amorphous substrates. In this study the growth of MgO and Cr seed layers was optimized by varying the process parameters (deposition temperature and rate as well as Ar pressure) and their influence on the magnetic properties of epitaxially grown FePt films have been analyzed. In addition, reference samples on MgO(100) single crystals were prepared. XRD measurements revealed a high degree of chemical order leading to a K{sub eff} of (8.5{+-}1.3) x 10{sup 6}erg/cm{sup 3} after FePt deposition at 350 C. The low deposition temperature results in a smooth film morphology and a reversal behaviour which is dominated by domain wall propagation.

  2. Effect of interfacial structures on spin dependent tunneling in epitaxial L1{sub 0}-FePt/MgO/FePt perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    Yang, G.; Li, D. L.; Wang, S. G., E-mail:; Ma, Q. L.; Liang, S. H.; Wei, H. X.; Han, X. F. [State Key Laboratory of Magnetism, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hesjedal, T.; Ward, R. C. C. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Kohn, A.; Elkayam, A.; Tal, N. [Department of Materials Engineering and the Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Zhang, X.-G. [Department of Physics and Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences and Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6493 (United States)


    Epitaxial FePt(001)/MgO/FePt magnetic tunnel junctions with L1{sub 0}-FePt electrodes showing perpendicular magnetic anisotropy were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxial growth. Tunnel magnetoresistance ratios of 21% and 53% were obtained at 300 K and 10 K, respectively. Our previous work, based on transmission electron microscopy, confirmed a semi-coherent interfacial structure with atomic steps (Kohn et al., APL 102, 062403 (2013)). Here, we show by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles calculation that the bottom FePt/MgO interface is either Pt-terminated for regular growth or when an Fe layer is inserted at the interface, it is chemically bonded to O. Both these structures have a dominant role in spin dependent tunneling across the MgO barrier resulting in a decrease of the tunneling magnetoresistance ratio compared with previous predictions.

  3. Effects of bovine colostral ultrafiltrates on growth and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    Lee, Seong-Ho; Hossner, Kim L


    This study was designed to compare the effects of whole and size-fractionated bovine colostrum with bovine calf serum (BCS) on the growth and differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. High (HMW) and low (LMW)-molecular-mass ultrafiltrate fractions of colostrum were prepared from defatted colostrum (COL) by diafiltration through membranes with a molecular-mass cut-off of 30 kDa. Incorporation of [(3)H]thymidine into the cells was used as a reflection of DNA synthesis/cell proliferation. The growth-promoting activity of LMW was 2.3- and 2.5-fold higher than COL and HMW, respectively (P insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II and platelet-derived growth factor AB stimulated 3T3-L1 cells, antibodies to these factors did not inhibit the LMW effects. The LMW fraction was about twice as effective as COL and HMW in stimulating differentiation of the cells into adipocytes, but maximal differentiation was only 60% of that seen with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Treatment with COL, HMW, IGF-I and insulin induced peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma RNA, but levels were about half of that with 10% FBS treatment and LMW induction was 80% of FBS. Low amounts of leptin mRNA were detected in adipocytes and abundance did not differ between treatments with BCS, hormones or COL fractions. This study showed that bovine colostral LMW stimulated the growth and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and may be a useful serum substitute to support the growth of these cells.

  4. Identification of neural cell adhesion molecule L1-derived neuritogenic ligands of the fibroblast growth factor receptor

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Li, Shizhong; Kiselyov, Vladislav


    The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 plays an important role in axon growth, neuronal survival, and synaptic plasticity. We recently demonstrated that the L1 fibronectin type III (FN3) modules interact directly with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor (FGFR). Sequence alignment of individ......The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 plays an important role in axon growth, neuronal survival, and synaptic plasticity. We recently demonstrated that the L1 fibronectin type III (FN3) modules interact directly with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor (FGFR). Sequence alignment...... of individual L1 FN3 modules with various FGFs suggested that four sequence motifs located in the third and fifth L1 FN3 modules might be involved in interactions with FGFR. The present study found that corresponding synthetic peptides, termed elcamins 1, 2, 3, and 4, bind and activate FGFR in the absence...... of FGF1. Conversely, in the presence of FGF1, elcamins inhibited receptor phosphorylation, indicating that the peptides are FGFR partial agonists. Elcamins 1, 3, and 4 dose dependently induced neurite outgrowth in cultured primary cerebellar neurons. The neuritogenic effect of elcamins was dependent...

  5. Induction of PD-L1 expression by epidermal growth factor receptor–mediated signaling in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Zhang, Wencheng; Pang, Qingsong; Yan, Cihui; Wang, Qifeng; Yang, Jingsong; Yu, Shufei; Liu, Xiao; Yuan, Zhiyong; Wang, Ping; Xiao, Zefen


    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effect of activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway on the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells with EGFR overexpression. Methods Flow cytometry and Western blot methods were used to assess PD-L1 expression on ESCC cells when EGFR signaling pathway was activated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) with or without EGFR-specific inhibitor AG-1478, and then EGFR signaling array was applied to analyze the potential signaling pathways involved. Results This study found that PD-L1 expression increased significantly in an EGFR-dependent manner by the activation of EGFR signaling and decreased sharply when EGFR signaling was blocked. The upregulated expression of PD-L1 was not associated with EGFR-STAT3 signaling pathway, but may be affected by EGFR–PI3K–AKT, EGFR–Ras–Raf–Erk, and EGR–PLC-γ signaling pathways. Conclusion The expression of PD-L1 can be regulated by EGFR signaling activation in ESCC, which indicates an important role for EGFR-mediated immune escape and potential molecular pathways for EGFR-targeted therapy and immunotherapy.


    Balan Raluca


    Full Text Available We analyzed the immunohistochemical pattern of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs in correlation with L1 HPV capsid protein, in order to determine the relationship between EGFR expression and the infection status of human papillomavirus (HPV. The study included 40 cases, 24 LSIL (low grade SIL (CIN1, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 16 HSIL (high grade SIL (6 cases of CIN2 and 10 cases of CIN3. The immunoexpression of L1 HPV protein was assessed on conventional cervico-vaginal smears and EGFR was immunohistochemically evaluated on the corresponding cervical biopsies. The HPV L1 capsid protein was expressed in 45.83% of LSIL and 25% of HSIL. EGFR was overexpressed in 62,4% of HSIL (58,4% CIN2 and 41,6% CIN3 and 37,6% LSIL. The immunoexpression of L1 HPV has clinical application in the progression assessment of the cervical precancerous lesions without a correlation to the grade of the cervical SIL. EGFR is expressed by all proliferating squamous epithelial cells, thus corresponding with the grade of SIL. The evaluation of EGFR status, correlated with L1 HPV protein expression, can provide useful data of progression risk of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions

  7. Induction of PD-L1 expression by epidermal growth factor receptor–mediated signaling in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Zhang W


    Full Text Available Wencheng Zhang,1 Qingsong Pang,1 Cihui Yan,2 Qifeng Wang,3 Jingsong Yang,3 Shufei Yu,3 Xiao Liu,3 Zhiyong Yuan,1 Ping Wang,1 Zefen Xiao3 1Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Immunology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effect of activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR signaling pathway on the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC cells with EGFR overexpression. Methods: Flow cytometry and Western blot methods were used to assess PD-L1 expression on ESCC cells when EGFR signaling pathway was activated by epidermal growth factor (EGF with or without EGFR-specific inhibitor AG-1478, and then EGFR signaling array was applied to analyze the potential signaling pathways involved. Results: This study found that PD-L1 expression increased significantly in an EGFR-dependent manner by the activation of EGFR signaling and decreased sharply when EGFR signaling was blocked. The upregulated expression of PD-L1 was not associated with EGFR-STAT3 signaling pathway, but may be affected by EGFR–PI3K–AKT, EGFR–Ras–Raf–Erk, and EGR–PLC-γ signaling pathways. Conclusion: The expression of PD-L1 can be regulated by EGFR signaling activation in ESCC, which indicates an important role for EGFR-mediated immune escape and potential molecular pathways for EGFR-targeted therapy and immunotherapy. Keywords: epidermal growth factor receptor, programmed death-ligand 1, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, immune checkpoint


    Kaouther AMMAR; Hicham REDWANE


    We study a class of nonlinear parabolic equations of the type:∂b(u)∂t -diva(x, t, u)∇u+g(u)|∇u|2=f, where the right hand side belongs to L1(Q), b is a strictly increasing C1-function and-div(a(x, t, u)∇u) is a Leray-Lions operator. The function g is just assumed to be con-tinuous on R and to satisfy a sign condition. Without any additional growth assumption on u, we prove the existence of a renormalized solution.

  9. Feeding mice with Aloe vera gel diminishes L-1 sarcoma-induced early neovascular response and tumor growth.

    Kocik, Janusz; Bałan, Barbara Joanna; Zdanowski, Robert; Jung, Leszek; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Skopiński, Piotr


    Aloe vera (Aloe arborescens, aloe barbadensis) is a medicinal plant belonging to the Liliaceae family. Aloe vera gel prepared from the inner part of Aloe leaves is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. Some data suggest its tumor growth modulatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in Balb/c mice the in vivo influence of orally administered Aloe vera drinking gel on the syngeneic L-1 sarcoma tumor growth and its vascularization: early cutaneous neovascular response, tumor-induced angiogenesis (TIA test read after 3 days), and tumor hemoglobin content measured 14 days after L-1 sarcoma cell grafting. Feeding mice for 3 days after tumor cell grafting with 150 μl daily dose of Aloe vera gel significantly diminished the number of newly-formed blood vessels in comparison to the controls. The difference between the groups of control and Aloe-fed mice (150 μl daily dose for 14 days) with respect to the 14 days' tumor volume was on the border of statistical significance. No difference was observed in tumor hemoglobin content.

  10. Features of Mg2Si Layer Growth in Si/Mg2Si Multilayers

    L.E. Konotopskyi


    Full Text Available Features of magnesium siliced layer growth in Si/Mg2Si multilayers in initial state and after thermal annealing were studied by methods of transmission electron microscopy and X-Ray scattering. As-deposited magnesium silicide layers are amorphous with nanocrystal inclusions of metastable h-Mg2Si. Formation of Mg2Si in hexagonal modification occurs under the influence of stress produced by silicon layers. At T = 723 К Mg2Si layers finished crystallizes in hexagonal modification, with some coarsening of grains. That is accompanied with 7.3 % reduction in period of the Si/Mg2Si multilayer.

  11. Growth of MgO on multi-layered graphene and Mg in PVA matrix

    Marka, Sandeep K.; Mohiddon, Md. Ahamad; Prasad, Muvva D.; Srikanth, Vadali V. S. S.


    An easy and low temperature in-situ growth of MgO micro-rods on multi-layered graphene (MLG) in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix is elucidated. MLG decked with nanosized fragments of MgO and PVA are used as the starting materials to form MgO micro-rods (width = ∼1 μm and length = ∼4 μm) and MLG filled PVA composite film. Simple solution mixing, spin coating and simple drying processes are used to obtain the PVA composite. The growth mechanism of MgO micro-rods and the role of PVA in the growth of MgO micro-rods are explained on the basis of the observed morphological, structural and phase characteristics and a further controlled synthesis experiment, respectively.

  12. Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius Reduces Cell Growth, Lipid Acquisition and Increases Adiponectin Expression in 3T3-L1 Cells

    Chia-Rou Yeo


    Full Text Available An American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius extract (GE that contained a quantifiable amount of ginsenosides was investigated for the potential to inhibit proliferation, affect the cell cycle, influence lipid acquisition and adiponectin expression in 3T3-L1 cells. Six fingerprint ginsenosides were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography and the respective molecular weights were confirmed by LC-ESI-MS analysis. The extract contained Rg1 (347.3 ± 99.7 μg g−1, dry weight, Re (8280.4 ± 792.3 μg g−1, Rb1 (1585.8 ± 86.8 μg g−1, Rc (32.9 ± 8 μg g−1, Rb2 (62.6 ± 10.6 μg g−1 and Rd (90.4 ± 3.2 μg g−1. The GE had a dose-dependent effect on 3T3-L1 cell growth, the LC50 value was determined to be 40.3 ± 5 μg ml−1. Cell cycle analysis showed modest changes in the cell cycle. No significant changes observed in both G1 and G2/M phases, however there was a significant decrease (P<.05 in the S phase after 24 and 48 h treatment. Apoptotic cells were modest but significantly (P<.05 increased after 48 h (3.2 ± 1.0% compared to untreated control cells (1.5 ± 0.1%. Lipid acquisition was significantly reduced (P<.05 by 13 and 22% when treated at concentrations of 20.2 and 40.3 μg ml−1 compared to untreated control cells. In relation to adiponectin activation, western blot analysis showed that the protein expression was significantly (P<.05 increased at concentrations tested. A quantified GE reduced the growth of 3T3-L1 cells, down-regulated the accumulation of lipid and up-regulated the expression of adiponectin in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell model.

  13. Fibronectin type III (FN3) modules of the neuronal cell adhesion molecule L1 interact directly with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor

    Kulahin, Nikolaj; Li, Shizhong; Hinsby, Anders Mørkeberg


    The neuronal cell adhesion molecule (CAM) L1 promotes axonal outgrowth, presumably through an interaction with the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). The present study demonstrates a direct interaction between L1 fibronectin type III (FN3) modules I-V and FGFR1 immunoglobulin (Ig) modules ...

  14. Demonstration of immunochemical identity between the nerve growth factor-inducible large external (NILE) glycoprotein and the cell adhesion molecule L1

    Bock, E; Richter-Landsberg, C; Faissner, A


    -treated rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells yielded comigrating bands by SDS-PAGE. NILE antibodies reacted with immunopurified L1 antigen, but not with N-CAM and other L2 epitope-bearing glycoproteins from adult mouse brain. Finally, by sequential immunoprecipitation from detergent extracts of [35S......The nerve growth factor-inducible large external (NILE) glycoprotein and the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 were shown to be immunochemically identical. Immunoprecipitation with L1 and NILE antibodies of [3H]fucose-labeled material from culture supernatants and detergent extracts of NGF...

  15. Microstructure and crystal growth direction of Al-Mg alloy

    Ti-jun Chen


    Full Text Available The microstructures and crystal growth directions of permanent mould casting and directionally solidified Al-Mg alloys with different Mg contents have been investigated. The results indicate that the effect of Mg content on microstructure is basically same for the alloys prepared by these two methods. The primary grains change from cellular crystals to developed columnar dendrites, and then to equiaxed dendrites as the Mg content is increased. Simultaneously, both the cellular or columnar grain region and the primary trunk spacing decrease. All of these changes are mainly attributed to the constitutional supercooling resulting from Mg element. Comparatively, the cellular or columnar crystals of the directionally solidified alloys are straighter and more parallel than those of the permanent mould casting alloys. These have straight or wavy grain boundaries, one of the most important microstructure characteristics of feathery grains. However, the transverse microstructure and growth direction reveal that they do not belong to feathery grains. The Mg seemingly can affect the crystal growth direction, but does not result in the formation of feathery grains under the conditions employed in the study.

  16. Oxidation and growth of Mg thin films on Ru(001)

    Huang, H. H.; Jiang, X.; Siew, H. L.; Chin, W. S.; Sim, W. S.; Xu, G. Q.


    The oxidation and growth of ultra-thin Mg films on a Ru(001) substrate have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) in the temperature range of 300-1500 K. Our results suggest that the growth of Mg thin films follows a layer-by-layer mode. Upon oxygen adsorption at 300 K, two O 1s peaks were detected on the Mg film. The peak at 532.2-532.6 eV could be attributed to either dioxygen or partially reduced species (O δ-, δfilm to 800 K causes the conversion of the dioxygen or partially reduced species to the oxide state. Thermal desorption peaks of MgO were directly detected at 1000-1127 and 1350-1380 K, respectively. However, initial evaporation of Mg atoms onto an oxygen pre-adsorbed surface yields a fully oxidized MgO. Further Mg deposition results in the formation of a partially oxidized film with the observation of an O 1s peak at 532.2 eV.

  17. Mg Isotope Fractionation Between E. coli and Growth Medium

    Basset, R.; Lemelle, L.; Albalat, E.; Telouk, P.; Albarède, F.


    Magnesium is a major element in both microbial cells and minerals, immune to redox conditions and atmospheric interactions. In organic cells, Mg can be associated with membranes, with cytoplasm (either as an isolated ion or bound to proteins). Its isotope composition can be used to constrain the contribution of organic material to carbonate fluxes and the overall cycle of this element in the exogenous environment [1, 2]. Cells of DH5α E. coli strain were grown in Luria Broth medium and the Mg isotope fractionation between the cells and their growth medium determined after calcination in Pt crucibles, chemical purification by cation exchange chemistry in HCl medium [3] and isotopic analysis on a Nu HR MC-ICPMS. The yield is better than 96%. The Mg contents of 2.19 ± 0.08 mg per g DW in cells and 0.117 ± 0.001 mg per g DW in Luria Broth medium are consistent with literature data [4]. About half of the Mg initially present in the LB medium is taken up by the growing cells. At high cellular concentrations (OD600 = 3.5), cells are enriched in 26Mg by 0.97 ± 0.14 ‰ with respect to the culture medium. Although E. coli may not be a good proxy for oceanic plankton, such a substantial fractionation of Mg isotopes suggests that incorporation of even a few percent organic matter into oceanic oozes depletes oceanic Mg in its heavy isotopes and therefore accounts for the isotopic difference between riverine and marine Mg. [1] Drever, The Sea 5 (1974) 337-357 [2] Tipper et al., EPSL 250 (2006) 241-253 [3] Chang et al., JAAS 18 (2003) 296-301 [4] Outten et al., Science 292 (2001), 2488-2492

  18. Growth, structure and magnetic properties of FePt nanostructures on NaCl(001) and MgO(001)

    Liscio, F; Maret, M; Doisneau-Cottignies, B [Science et Ingenierie des Materiaux et Procedes (SIMaP), INP-Grenoble/CNRS/UJF, BP 75, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France); Makarov, D; Albrecht, M [Institute of Physics, Chemnitz University of Technology, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Roussel, H, E-mail: [Consortium des Moyens Technologiques Communs, INP-Grenoble, BP 75, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France)


    A comparison of the structural and magnetic properties of FePt nanostructures grown at different temperatures on NaCl(001) and MgO(001) substrates is presented. A strong influence of the deposition temperature on the epitaxial growth as well as on the size distribution of FePt nanostructures grown on NaCl substrates is observed. In spite of a large lattice mismatch between FePt and NaCl, a 'cube-over-cube' growth of nanostructures with a narrow size distribution was achieved at 520 K. Moreover, the growth of FePt nanostructures on NaCl(001) is not preceded by the formation of a wetting layer as observed on MgO(001). The higher degree of L1{sub 0} chemical ordering in FePt nanostructures grown on MgO(001) accompanied by the absence of L1{sub 0} variants with an in-plane tetragonal c-axis indicates that the tensile epitaxial stress induced by the MgO substrate is a key factor in the formation of the L1{sub 0} phase with an out-of-plane c-axis. Superparamagnetic behavior is revealed for the FePt nanostructures grown on NaCl(001) due to their small size and relatively poor chemical order.

  19. Reduction of [Cp*Sb]4 with Subvalent Main-Group Metal Reductants: Syntheses and Structures of [(L(1) Mg)4 (Sb4 )] and [(L(2) Ga)2 (Sb4 )] Containing Edge-Missing Sb4 Units.

    Ganesamoorthy, Chelladurai; Krüger, Julia; Wölper, Christoph; Nizovtsev, Anton S; Schulz, Stephan


    [Cp*Sb]4 (Cp*=C5 Me5 ) reacts with [L(1) Mg]2 and L(2) Ga with formation of [(L(1) Mg)4 (μ4 ,η(1:2:2:2) -Sb4 )] (L(1) =iPr2 NC[N(2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 )]2 , 1) and [(L(2) Ga)2 (μ,η(2:2) -Sb4 )] (L(2) =HC[C(Me)N(2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 )]2 , 2). The cleavage of the Sb-Sb and Sb-C bonds in [Cp*Sb]4 are the crucial steps in both reactions. The formation of 1 occurred by elimination of the Cp* anion and formation of Cp*MgL(1) , while 2 was formed by reductive elimination of Cp*2 and oxidative addition of L(2) Ga to the Sb4 unit. 1 and 2 were characterized by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and their bonding situation was studied by quantum chemical calculations.

  20. Highly (100) oriented MgO growth on thin Mg layer in MTJ structure

    Jimbo, K [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S3-42 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Nakagawa, S, E-mail:


    In order to apply Stress Assisted Magnetization Reversal (SAMR) method to perpendicular magnetoresistive random access memory (p-MRAM) with magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) using MgO (001) oriented barrier layer, multilayer of Ta/ Terfenol-D/ Mg/ MgO and Ta/ Terfenol-D/ MgO were prepared. While the MgO layer, deposited directly on the Terfenol-D layer, did not show (100) orientatin, very thin metallic Mg layer, deposited prior to the MgO deposition, was effective to attain MgO (100) orientation. The crystalline orientation was very weak without Mg, however, the multilayer with Mg showed very strong MgO(100) peak and the MgO orientation was shifted depending on the Mg thickness.

  1. Análise de crescimento em Heteranthera reniformis, sob diferentes teores de Ca, Mg e S Growth analysis in Heteranthera reniformis under different contents of Ca, Mg and S

    Vanessa David Domingos


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o crescimento, alocação de biomassa e teores de nutrientes em Heteranthera reniformis Ruiz & Pav., sob o efeito de diferentes concentrações de Ca, Mg e S. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos plásticos preenchidos com pedra rolada, em soluções nutritivas a 80% da concentração original de Sarruge, correspondente à solução-base. O experimento foi desenvolvido em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro teores (0%, 25%, 50% e 75% da solução base de 80% avaliados em Ca, Mg e S, além da testemunha (solução-base, com quatro repetições no período de 35 dias em casa de vegetação. O aumento dos teores de Ca na solução propiciou uma redução significativa na área foliar. As maiores áreas foliares ocorreram em soluções a 25% de Ca e 50% de Mg e S. A maior proporção de biomassa seca está no caule, exceto a 25% de Ca (40 mg L-1 que propiciou maior área foliar e área foliar específica. Entre os teores de Mg na solução, as maiores biomassas foram observadas a 50% de Mg (19,2 mg.L-1 e, para o S, não houve diferenças significativas, exceto a 0%. A solução com 160 mg L-1 de Ca propiciou maior concentração de Ca na folha (56,6 g kg-1. Os teores de Ca, Mg e S em solução corresponderam a um aumento proporcional na planta. Os teores de enxofre nas folhas e nos caules aumentaram com a concentração de S na solução, enquanto o teor nas raízes reduziu nas concentrações entre 12,8 e 38,4 mg.L-1.The objective was to study the growth, biomass allocation and concentration of nutrients in Heteranthera reniformis Ruiz & Pav. under the effect of different concentrations of Ca, Mg and S. The plants were cultivated in plastic pots fulfilled with rolled stone, in nutrient solutions of 80% of the original concentration of Sarruge. The experiment was carried out in a complete randomized design, with 4 contents (0, 25, 50 and 75% of the base solution evaluated in Ca, Mg and

  2. Low-pressure ETEM Studies of Au assisted MgO Nanorod Growth

    Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Hansen, Thomas Willum;


    Environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) studies MgO nanorod growth from Au catalyst nanoparticles in a controlled gas atmosphere have been performed, in order to elucidate the mobility of Au surface atoms and the configuration of the Au/MgO interface. MgO nanorod growth is driven...

  3. Growth of high Mg content wurtzite MgZnO epitaxial films via pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Alema, Fikadu; Ledyaev, Oleg; Miller, Ross; Beletsky, Valeria; Osinsky, Andrei; Schoenfeld, Winston V.


    We report on the growth of high Mg content, high quality, wurtzite MgxZn1-xO (MgZnO) epitaxial films using a pulsed metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PMOCVD) method. Series of MgZnO films with variable Mg concentration were deposited on bare and AlN coated sapphire substrates. The band gap of the films estimated using UV-visible transmission spectra ranges from 3.24 eV to 4.49 eV, corresponding to fraction of Mg between x=0.0 and x=0.51, as determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The cathodoluminescence (CL) measurement has shown a blue-shift in the peak position of MgZnO with an increasing Mg content. No multi-absorption edges and CL band splitting were observed, suggesting the absence of phase segregation in the as grown films. The crystal structure and phase purity of the films were also confirmed by XRD analysis. Hall effect measurement in van der Pauw configuration was employed to evaluate the electrical properties of the films. With a rise in Mg incorporation into the ZnO lattice, the films became very resistive, consistent with the widening of the band gap. The AFM measurement on the films has shown a decreasing surface roughness with an Mg content. To the best of our knowledge, the current result shows the highest Mg content (x=0.51), high quality, wurtzite MgZnO epitaxial film ever grown by MOCVD. The high Mg incorporation without phase separation is believed to be due to the non-equilibrium behavior of the PMOCVD in which the kinetic processes dominate the thermodynamic one.

  4. Anomalous α-Mg Dendrite Growth During Directional Solidification of a Mg-Zn Alloy

    Shuai, Sansan; Guo, Enyu; Wang, Mingyue; Callaghan, Mark D.; Jing, Tao; Zheng, Qiwei; Lee, Peter D.


    Dendritic morphology was investigated in a directionally solidified magnesium-zinc alloy using synchrotron X-ray tomography and electron backscattered diffraction. Unexpectedly, primary dendrites grew along {directions. Further, seven asymmetric sets of side branches formed, instead of six-fold symmetric arms, evolving with three coexisting morphologies per trunk of: traditional, seaweed structure, and free growth. The anomalous growth is attributed to the imposed thermal gradient and zinc-induced interfacial energy anisotropy variations.

  5. Inhibitory effect of herbal remedy PERVIVO and anti-inflammatory drug sulindac on L-1 sarcoma tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis in Balb/c mice.

    Skopiński, P; Bałan, B J; Kocik, J; Zdanowski, R; Lewicki, S; Niemcewicz, M; Gawrychowski, K; Skopińska-Różewska, E; Stankiewicz, W


    Anticancer activity of many herbs was observed for hundreds of years. They act as modifiers of biologic response, and their effectiveness may be increased by combining multiple herbal extracts . PERVIVO, traditional digestive herbal remedy, contains some of them, and we previously described its antiangiogenic activity. Numerous studies documented anticancer effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We were the first to show that sulindac and its metabolites inhibit angiogenesis. In the present paper the combined in vivo effect of multicomponent herbal remedy PERVIVO and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac on tumor growth, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor volume in Balb/c mice was studied. These effects were checked after grafting cells collected from syngeneic sarcoma L-1 tumors into mice skin. The strongest inhibitory effect was observed in experimental groups treated with PERVIVO and sulindac together. The results of our investigation showed that combined effect of examined drugs may be the best way to get the strongest antiangiogenic and antitumor effect.

  6. The relationship between the L1 and L2 domains of the insulin and epidermal growth factor receptors and leucine-rich repeat modules

    Ward Colin W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leucine-rich repeats are one of the more common modules found in proteins. The leucine-rich repeat consensus motif is LxxLxLxxNxLxxLxxLxxLxx- where the first 11–12 residues are highly conserved and the remainder of the repeat can vary in size Leucine-rich repeat proteins have been subdivided into seven subfamilies, none of which include members of the epidermal growth factor receptor or insulin receptor families despite the similarity between the 3D structure of the L domains of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor and some leucine-rich repeat proteins. Results Here we have used profile searches and multiple sequence alignments to identify the repeat motif Ixx-LxIxx-Nx-Lxx-Lxx-Lxx-Lxx- in the L1 and L2 domains of the insulin receptor and epidermal growth factor receptors. These analyses were aided by reference to the known three dimensional structures of the insulin-like growth factor type I receptor L domains and two members of the leucine rich repeat family, porcine ribonuclease inhibitor and internalin 1B. Pectate lyase, another beta helix protein, can also be seen to contain the sequence motif and much of the structural features characteristic of leucine-rich repeat proteins, despite the existence of major insertions in some of its repeats. Conclusion Multiple sequence alignments and comparisons of the 3D structures has shown that right-handed beta helix proteins such as pectate lyase and the L domains of members of the insulin receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor families, are members of the leucine-rich repeat superfamily.

  7. 3T3-L1脂肪细胞膜FGF-21结合蛋白的初步鉴定%Identification of Binding Partners of Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 in Cell Membrane of 3T3-L1 Cells

    王文飞; 任桂萍; 侯玉婷; 李德山


    成纤维细胞生长因子(fibroblast growth factor,FGF)-21是最近发现的1个可以独立调节血糖的细胞因子,有望成为治疗2型糖尿病的备选药物,但是,FGF-21调解血糖的机理尚不十分清楚,为探讨该因子功能受体,应用偶联方法,以313-L1脂肪细胞为靶标,以FGF-21为诱饵,在3T3-L1脂肪细胞膜上寻找结合蛋白,结果表明,生物素标记的FGF-21可与脂肪细胞膜蛋白形成分子质量大小约300 kD以上两组复合物,竞争试验显示,非标记的FGF-21可与生物素标记的FGF-21竞争、抑制标记的FGF-21参入复合物;应用非标记FGF-21剂量越大,抑制后者参入复合物的程度越强,结果提示,该复合物是FGF-21特异性的,此外,随着生物素标记的FGF-21剂量增加,观察到的标记复合物越多;但是,当FGF-21剂量达12.5 mg/L以上时,观察到的复合物数量不再增加,实验结果提示,复合物形成与FGF-21剂量相关;FGF-21特异结合的蛋白质结合位点饱和后,复合物形成量最大,同时,采用FGF受体特异性抑制剂SU5402可特异性抑制FGF-21在3T3-L1脂肪细胞中的促进葡萄糖吸收作用,提示本实验所观察到的FGF-21-膜蛋白复合物可能就是FGF-21-FGF受体.

  8. Inhibitory Effect of Herbal Remedy PERVIVO and Anti-Inflammatory Drug Sulindac on L-1 Sarcoma Tumor Growth and Tumor Angiogenesis in Balb/c Mice

    P. Skopiński


    Full Text Available Anticancer activity of many herbs was observed for hundreds of years. They act as modifiers of biologic response, and their effectiveness may be increased by combining multiple herbal extracts . PERVIVO, traditional digestive herbal remedy, contains some of them, and we previously described its antiangiogenic activity. Numerous studies documented anticancer effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We were the first to show that sulindac and its metabolites inhibit angiogenesis. In the present paper the combined in vivo effect of multicomponent herbal remedy PERVIVO and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac on tumor growth, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor volume in Balb/c mice was studied. These effects were checked after grafting cells collected from syngeneic sarcoma L-1 tumors into mice skin. The strongest inhibitory effect was observed in experimental groups treated with PERVIVO and sulindac together. The results of our investigation showed that combined effect of examined drugs may be the best way to get the strongest antiangiogenic and antitumor effect.

  9. Technology in L1

    Elf, Nikolaj Frydensbjerg; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Skaar, Håvard


    In recent decades, several Scandinavian research projects have had an explicit focus on how technology intervenes in L1 (or so-called Mother Tongue Education) practices in Swedish, Norwegian and Danish educational contexts, and how this may impact on understanding of the subject. There is currently......-of-school literacy practices. A final find-ing is the emphasis on teacher uncertainty regarding how and why to integrate technology within exist-ing paradigms of the subject. This calls for further research on how technology may be justified in L1 practice, including various forms of teacher education....... no systematic overview of the documented possibilities and challenges related to the use of technology in L1. At the same time, there is terminological confusion in use of ‘technology’ and related concepts in L1. Finally, there is a general lack of critical reflection on the relation between technological...

  10. Technology in L1

    Elf, Nikolaj Frydensbjerg; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Skaar, Håvard


    of empirical studies, what characterizes the research field?; and 3) for discussion, which broader implications does the review suggest for a rethinking of L1 in terms of practice and research? Introducing the notion of educational boundary objects, a theoretical framework is developed, which suggests four...... metaphors for understanding technology within L1: as a tool, as media, as socialization, and as literacy practices. These are found useful for analyzing and comparing both theoretical perspectives and empirical research on L1. A key finding of the study is that, although the included research......In recent decades, several Scandinavian research projects have had an explicit focus on how technology intervenes in L1 (or so-called Mother Tongue Education) practices in Swedish, Norwegian and Danish educational contexts, and how this may impact on understanding of the subject. There is currently...

  11. Superconducting MgB2 flowers: growth mechanism and their superconducting properties

    Seong, Won Kyung; Ranot, Mahipal; Lee, Ji Yeong; Yang, Cheol-Woong; Lee, Jae Hak; Oh, Young Hoon; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Kang, Won Nam


    We report for the first time the growth and the systematic study of the growth mechanism for flower-like MgB2 structures fabricated on the substrates for solid-state electronics by the hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) technique. The MgB2 flower has a width of 30 μm and a height of 10 μm. The superconductivity of MgB2 flowers was confirmed by a magnetization measurement, and the transition temperature is 39 K, which is comparable with high-quality bulk samples. The excellent current-carrying capability was demonstrated by MgB2 flowers. To understand the nucleation and growth mechanism of MgB2 flowers a very systematic study was performed by a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and atom probe (AP) microscopy. The HRTEM revealed that the seed grain of a MgB2 flower has a [101¯0] direction, and the flower is composed of micro-columnar MgB2 grains having pyramidal tips and which are grown along the (0001) plane. A clear understanding of the growth mechanism for MgB2 flowers could lead to the growth of other low-dimensional MgB2 structures for superconducting electronic devices.

  12. Low-pressure Environmental TEM (ETEM) studies of Au assisted MgO nanorod growth

    Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Hansen, Thomas Willum;


    where they become inactive for CO oxidation. Here, we present an environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) study of shape changes of Au nanoparticles supported on MgO in a controlled gas atmosphere, in order to elucidate the mobility of surface species and the configuration of the Au....../MgO interface. The particles are synthesized by depositing a thin layer of Au onto MgO smoke particles. The Au agglomerates into particles that are a few nanometers in size, providing a model system for the investigation of nanoparticle surface and interface properties. Ajayan et al. [4], Kizuka [5......] and Nasibulin et al. [6] reported growth of nanorods on MgO smoke particles driven by the electron beam in high vacuum. However, the growth is strongly dependent on the gaseous environment. Here we investigate the relation between the surrounding environment and MgO nanorod growth. The electron beam induced...

  13. ATG16L1

    Salem, Mohammad; Ammitzboell, Mette; Nys, Kris;


    Genetic variations in the autophagic pathway influence genetic predispositions to Crohn disease. Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for degrading and recycling cytoplasmic material, constitutes an important homeostatic cellular process. Of interest, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ATG16L1...... (autophagy-related 16-like 1 [S. cerevisiae]), a key component in the autophagic response to invading pathogens, have been associated with an increased risk of developing Crohn disease. The most common and well-studied genetic variant of ATG16L1 (rs2241880; leading to a T300A conversion) exhibits a strong...

  14. Epitaxial growth of MgB2 films at ambient temperature

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Takuya; Nakagami, Takatoshi; Ishida, Takekazu

    We grew crystalline MgB2 thin films using molecular beam epitaxy at a low substrate temperature of 110 °C under an ultrahigh vacuum of about 10-6 Pa. MgB2 thin films were deposited on the (001) surface of a 4H-SiC substrate with an epitaxial Mg buffer layer. The epitaxial growth was confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. MgB2 thin films show a sharp superconducting transition at 27.2 K, with a relatively narrow superconducting transition width ΔTc = 0.9 K. The growth temperature was lower than any in prior reports on superconducting MgB2 thin films. The presence of the epitaxial Mg buffer layer is crucial for reducing the epitaxial temperature.

  15. Grain growth of Al-4Cu-Mg alloy during isothermal heat treatment


    The microstructure of an Al-4Cu-Mg alloy during isothermal heat treatment in the Strain Induced Melt Activation (SIMA)process was investigated and the kinetics of grain growth was analyzed. The grain growth during isothermal heat treatment of the Al4Cu-Mg alloy coincided with the Ostwald ripening theory. During isothermal heat treatment, both grain shape and the high volume fraction of solid phase have significant effects on grain growth. Therefore, a new grain growth model based on the Ostwald ripening theory was proposed taking into consideration the grain shape and the volume fraction of solid phase. By comparing the calculated results with the experimental results, it was confirmed that the present model could be applied to grain growth during isothermal heat treatment of the Al-4Cu-Mg alloy in the SIMA process.

  16. Contro1 Efficacy and Growth-promoting Ability of Marine Bacterium Strain L1-9 in Wheat%海洋细菌L1-9菌株对小麦的促生防病作用研究

    马桂珍; 王淑芳; 暴增海; 吴少杰; 夏振强


    Antimicrobial activities of marine bacterium L1-9 strain against Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium gramin,-earum were detected through dual culture and agar-well diffusion method. Results showed that the fermentation broth and culture filtrate of strain L1-9 was obviously inhibitory to mycelial growth and conidia sporulation of the two pathogenic fungi . Seed germination test and pot experiment demonstrated that after wheat seeds were soaked into the fermentation broth and culture filtrate of strain L1-9, respectively, the germination rate, germinating potential, seedlings rate, plant height, net weight and root length were all increased remarkably, and the growth of wheat seedling was promoted. The fermentation broth and culture filtrate of strain L1-9 exhibited good inhibitory effect on B. Sorokiniana and F. Granrineanan. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of fermentation broth was better than that of culture filtrate, with control efficacy of 82% and 73.84%, respectively.%采用平板对峙法和打孔法测定了海洋细菌L1-9菌株对小麦根腐叶枯病菌Bipolaris sorokiniana和小麦赤霉病菌Fusarium graminearum的抑制作用,结果表明:L1-9菌株及其发酵液对两种病原真菌的菌丝生长和分生孢子萌发均有明显的抑制作用.种子发芽试验和盆栽试验结果表明:L1-9菌株发酵液和无菌发酵液分别处理小麦种子后,能显著提高小麦种子的发芽率、发芽势、出苗率以及小麦幼苗的株高、根长和干重,促进小麦幼苗的生长.该菌株对小麦根腐叶枯病和小麦赤霉病具有较好的防病效果,发酵液的防效分别达到82.00%和73.84%,发酵液的抑菌防病作用显著高于无菌发酵液.

  17. Low-pressure ETEM Studies of Au assisted MgO Nanorod Growth

    Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Ming, Lin;

    with the support and their surroundings. However, information about the crystal structure of their bulk and surface is often obtained from measurements averaged over large numbers of particles. Here, we present environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) studies of the growth of MgO nanorods from Au...... catalyst nanoparticles in a controlled gas atmosphere, in order to elucidate the mobility of Au surface atoms and the configuration of the Au/MgO interface. The particles are synthesized by depositing a thin layer of Au onto MgO smoke particles. The Au agglomerates into particles that are a few nanometers...... in diameter, providing a model system for the investigation of nanoparticle surface and interface properties. Earlier studies report that MgO nanorod growth is driven by the electron beam. The growth is, however, strongly dependent on the gaseous environment in the microscope. We have studied the electron...

  18. Multistage growth of Fe-Mg-carpholite and Fe-Mg-chloritoid, from field evidence to thermodynamic modelling

    Pourteau, Amaury; Bousquet, Romain; Vidal, Olivier; Plunder, Alexis; Duesterhoeft, Erik; Candan, Osman; Oberhänsli, Roland


    We provide new insights into the prograde evolution of HP/LT meta-sedimentary rocks on the basis of detailed petrologic examination, element-partitioning analysis, and thermodynamic modelling of well-preserved Fe-Mg-carpholite- and chloritoid-bearing rocks from the Afyon zone (Anatolia). Study samples, stemming from three different areas of the metamorphic belt, include typical quartz-carpholite veins as well as quartz-free and quartz-bearing phyllites. All samples exhibit multiple stages of carpholite, whereas zoning was until now rarely documented in this type of rocks. We document continuous, and discontinuous compositional (ferro-magnesian substitution) zoning of carpholite (overall XMg = 0.27-0.73) and chloritoid (overall XMg = 0.07-0.30), as well as clear equilibrium, and disequilibrium (i.e. reaction-related) textures involving carpholite and chloritoid, which consistently account for the consistent enrichment in Mg of both minerals through time, and the progressive replacement of carpholite by chloritoid. Mg/Fe distribution coefficients calculated between carpholite and chloritoid vary widely within samples (2.2-20.0). Among this range, only values of 7-11 correlate with equilibrium textures, in agreement with data from the literature. Equilibrium phase diagrams for (NaK)FMASH rock compositions are calculated using a newly modified thermodynamic dataset, including most recent data for carpholite, chloritoid, chlorite, and white mica, as well as further refinements for Fe-carpholite, and both chloritoid end-members, as required to reproduce accurately petrologic observations (phase relations, experimental constraints, Mg/Fe partitioning). Modelling reveals that Mg/Fe partitioning between carpholite and chloritoid is greatly sensitive to temperature, and calls for a future evaluation of possible use as a thermometer, valid for blueschist-facies conditions, which has so far been missing. In addition, calculations show significant effective bulk composition

  19. 大麻素受体1及神经黏附分子L1在宫内发育迟缓大鼠脑组织的表达%Expressions of cannabinoid receptor 1 and L1 cell adhesion molecule in brain of rats with intrauterine growth retardation

    于涛; 范玉颖; 王华


    目的 通过孕期低蛋白饮食的方法建立宫内发育迟缓(IUGR)动物模型,观察大麻素受体1(CB1)及神经黏附分子L1(NCAM-L1)在IUGR及正常大鼠脑不同发育阶段的表达,探讨IUGR大鼠脑发育迟缓的发生机制.方法 将32只孕鼠随机分成正常饮食组和低蛋白饮食组(每组16只),采用孕期全程低蛋白饮食方法建立IUGR大鼠模型.所有新生鼠按出生体质量分为IUGR组及正常对照组.随机于出生0、7、14、21d断头取脑,称取脑质量,免疫组织化学方法检测2组新生鼠脑组织中CB1及NCAM-L1的表达情况.采用Image-Pro Plus 5.1图像处理软件进行半定量分析,计算CB1及NCAM-L1阳性细胞的累积吸光度.结果 新生鼠脑内CB1及NCAM-L1的表达区域基本相同,二者表达量的变化与脑质量变化一致;与正常对照组比较IUGR组幼鼠0d、7d、14 d、21 d脑组织CB1的表达显著降低,NCAM-L1表达显著升高,差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05),且2组CB1表达与NCAM-L1表达均呈负相关(P=0.032,0.010).结论 CB1及NCAM-L1参与大鼠脑发育过程;CB1对大鼠脑发育的影响可能通过NCAM-L1实现.%Objective To study the mechanism of brain development delay in rats with intrauterine growth retardation(IUGR) through establishing IUGR animal model by low protein diet during pregnancy and examining the expressions of cannabinoid receptorl (CB1) and L1 cell adhesion molecule (NCAM-L1) in IUGR and normal rats.Methods Thirty-two pregnant rats were randomly fed with normal diet or lower protein diet during pregnancy (16 rats in each group).The offspring rats were divided into IUGR group and control group by birth weight,and sacrificed on day 0,7,14,21 after birth,brain weight was recorded.The expressions of CB1 and NCAM-L1 in the brain were examined by immunohistochemistry staining.Image-Pro Plus 5.1 image processing software was used for semi-quantitative analysis.The integrated optical density of the CB1 and NCAM-L1 of the

  20. Demonstration of immunochemical identity between the nerve growth factor-inducible large external (NILE) glycoprotein and the cell adhesion molecule L1

    Bock, E; Richter-Landsberg, C; Faissner, A


    -treated rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells yielded comigrating bands by SDS-PAGE. NILE antibodies reacted with immunopurified L1 antigen, but not with N-CAM and other L2 epitope-bearing glycoproteins from adult mouse brain. Finally, by sequential immunoprecipitation from detergent extracts of [35S...

  1. Zn-catalytic growth and photoluminescence properties of branched MgO nanostructures


    Mass production of uniform MgO nanostructures has been achieved by a thermal evaporation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses show the product is composed of pure single-crystalline MgO. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterizations show that the MgO branched nanostructures consist of many slim nanowires growing from the thick MgO rods. The as-synthesized nanowires have a length of several tens of microns and a diameter of several tens of nanometers. The preferred growth direction of the nanowires is [001]. Many nanowires are found to have a dendritic structure and temperature grade is thought to be the main cause of the growth of this structure. Zn nanoparticles scattered on the surface of the MgO rods are thought to be the catalyst of the VLS (vapor-liquid-solid) growth of the MgO nanowires. Room-temperature photoluminescence measurements show that the synthesized MgO nanostructures have a strong emission band at 401 nm and a weak emission band at 502 nm.

  2. Directional growth of Al-Mg2Si eutectic alloy in the SZ2 unmanned spaceship

    PAN; Mingxiang(潘明祥); LI; Shunpu(李顺朴); ZHAO; Deqian(赵德乾); WANG; Weihua(汪卫华); WEN; Ping(闻平); YU; Yude(俞育德); NIE; Yuxin(聂玉昕); ZHAO; Shengxue(赵生旭); ZHUANG; Yanxin(庄艳歆); CHEN; Xichen(陈熙琛)


    This paper reports the investigation results on directional growth of Al-Mg2Si eutectic alloy in the SZ2 unmanned spaceship. The analysis shows that microgravity has influence on the directional growth of Al-Mg2Si eutectic alloy. The eutectic colony in space-grown sample is larger than that in ground-grown sample, and the directional effect is not so good as that of terrestrial sample. But there is no obvious difference in the lamellar thickness between these samples, and lamellar interspacing in space sample is smaller than that grown on the ground. A simple discussion is done on the gravity effect on the directional growth of Al-Mg2Si eutectic alloy.

  3. The effect of growth surface morphology on the crystal structure and magnetic property of L1{sub 0} order PtFe layers deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Ding Wanyu, E-mail: [Graduate School of Saitama Institute of Technology, Fukaya, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan) and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Ishiguro, Satoshi; Ogatsu, Ryo [Graduate School of Saitama Institute of Technology, Fukaya, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan); Ju, Dongying, E-mail: [Graduate School of Saitama Institute of Technology, Fukaya, Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)


    The Fe/Pt/Fe/Pt layers (Pt/Fe multilayer) were deposited on general glass substrate at room temperature by magnetron sputtering technique. Varying the deposition and post-annealing treatment parameters, the PtFe alloy (PtFe) layer with different crystal structures and magnetic properties were obtained at the interface between Fe and Pt layer. The characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the as-deposited Pt/Fe multilayer only contained pure Fe and Pt with body-centered and face-centered cubic structures, respectively. As-deposited Pt layer displayed (2 0 0) preferred orientation, and the columnar grains structure could be observed by the scanning electron microscopy. The PtFe layers with L1{sub 0} face-centered cubic structure could be formed at the interface between Pt and Fe layers by post-annealing the multilayers at 500 Degree-Sign C. In case of Pt/Fe multilayer deposited on smooth substrate, the larger columnar grains in Pt layer resulted in L1{sub 0} PtFe layers without any preferred orientation. While in case of Pt/Fe multilayer deposited on the rough substrate, the thinner columnar grains in Pt layer could induce L1{sub 0} PtFe layers with (2 0 0) preferred orientation. In this case, the vibrating sample magnetometer results indicated that, the magnetic coercivity in plane and out-of-plane model could reach 3.72 and 2.32 kOe, respectively. Based on above results, the L1{sub 0} structure Pt/Fe multilayer with satisfied magnetic properties could be prepared at low temperature by our simple route.

  4. Inactivation of Mg Chelatase during Transition from Anaerobic to Aerobic Growth in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Willows, Robert D.; Lake, Vanessa; Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Beale, Samuel I.


    The facultative photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus can adapt from an anaerobic photosynthetic mode of growth to aerobic heterotrophic metabolism. As this adaptation occurs, the cells must rapidly halt bacteriochlorophyll synthesis to prevent phototoxic tetrapyrroles from accumulating, while still allowing heme synthesis to continue. A likely control point is Mg chelatase, the enzyme that diverts protoporphyrin IX from heme biosynthesis toward the bacteriochlorophyll biosynthetic ...

  5. Study of Mg Powder as Catalyst Carrier for the Carbon Nanotube Growth by CVD

    Jianli Kang


    Full Text Available The possibility of using magnesium powder as catalyst carrier for carbon nanotube growth by chemical vapor deposition, which may pave a new way to in situ fabricate CNT/Mg composites with high CNT dispersion, was investigated for the first time. The fabrication process of the catalyst supported on Mg powder involves the preparation of colloid by a deposition-precipitation method, followed by calcination and reduction. The results show that the interaction between catalyst and support plays an important role for the catalytic property of the catalyst. Ni alloyed with Mg shows no activity for the decomposition of methane. The introduction of Y in Ni/Mg catalyst can promote the reaction temperature between Ni and Mg and thus enhance the activity of the catalyst. A large amount of carbon nanotubes (CNTs with an average diameter of 20 nm was obtained using Ni/Y/Mg catalyst at 450∘C, while only a few short CNTs were obtained using Ni/Mg catalyst due to the low activity of the catalyst at lower temperature.

  6. Heteroepitaxial growth and surface structure of L1{sub 0}-MnGa(111) ultra-thin films on GaN(0001)

    Mandru, Andrada-Oana; Wang, Kangkang; Cooper, Kevin; Ingram, David C.; Smith, Arthur R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Garcia Diaz, Reyes; Takeuchi, Noboru [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 14, Ensenada Baja California, Codigo Postal 22800 (Mexico); Haider, Muhammad [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, 31261 (Saudi Arabia)


    L1{sub 0}-structured MnGa(111) ultra-thin films were heteroepitaxially grown on GaN(0001) under lightly Mn-rich conditions using molecular beam epitaxy. Room-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) investigations reveal smooth terraces and angular step edges, with the surface structure consisting primarily of a 2 × 2 reconstruction along with small patches of 1 × 2. Theoretical calculations were carried out using density functional theory, and the simulated STM images were calculated using the Tersoff-Hamman approximation, revealing that a stoichiometric 1 × 2 and a Mn-rich 2 × 2 surface structure give the best agreement with the observed experimental images.

  7. Heteroepitaxial growth of TiN film on MgO (100) by reactive magnetron sputtering.

    Chen, Wei-Chun; Peng, Chun-Yen; Chang, Li


    TiN thin films were deposited on MgO (100) substrates at different substrate temperatures using rf sputtering with Ar/N2 ratio of about 10. At 700°C, the growth rate of TiN was approximately 0.05 μm/h. The structural and electrical properties of TiN thin films were characterized with x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Hall measurements. For all deposition conditions, XRD results show that the TiN films can be in an epitaxy with MgO with cube-on-cube orientation relationship of (001)TiN // (001)MgO and [100]TiN // [100]MgO. TEM with selected-area electron diffraction pattern verifies the epitaxial growth of the TiN films on MgO. SEM and AFM show that the surface of the TiN film is very smooth with roughness approximately 0.26 nm. The minimum resistivity of the films can be as low as 45 μΩ cm.

  8. Effect of organic ligands on Mg partitioning and Mg isotope fractionation during low-temperature precipitation of calcite in the absence of growth rate effects

    Mavromatis, Vasileios; Immenhauser, Adrian; Buhl, Dieter; Purgstaller, Bettina; Baldermann, Andre; Dietzel, Martin


    Calcite growth rate has been previously shown to be the dominating parameter controlling both Mg partitioning and Mg isotope fractionation during calcite growth. In natural calcite precipitation environments - characterized by abundant organic material - the presence of dissolved organic molecules may affect these two parameters. In order to assess the role of organic molecules, steady state calcite growth experiments have been performed at 25 °C, 1 bar pCO2 and constant, within analytical uncertainty growth rate (rp = 10-7.4 mol m-2 s-1) in the presence of aqueous Mg and six organic ligands in the concentration range from 0.01 to 10 mM. The organic ligands used in this study are: (i) acetic acid, (ii) citric acid, (iii) glutamic acid, (iv) salycilic acid, (v) glycine, and (vi) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). These contain one or more carboxyl- and amino-groups that are commonly present in natural organic substances found in lacustrine, fluvial, soil, cave, as well as in marine and earliest diagenetic porewater environments. Results shown here indicate that the presence of these carboxyl- and amino-groups promotes an increase in the partition coefficient of Mg in calcite (DMg = (Mg/Ca)calcite/(Mg/Ca)fluid) that can be attributed to their adsorption onto the calcite surfaces and the subsequent reduction of the active sites of growth. This increase of DMg values as a function of the supersaturation degree of calcite in the fluid phase can be described by the linear equation:

  9. Growth and Yield Stimulation of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brasssica Napus L. by Mg-Titanit Fertiliser

    Kováčik Peter


    Full Text Available The effort to achieve higher yields at the required qualitative level has led to the intensive studying the problems of the rational usage of the titanium containing fertilisers by the agricultural research in the course the previous thirty years. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to evaluate the impact of two doses of Mg-Titanit (0.2 l/ha and 0.4 l/ha on the formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass, also on the total chlorophyll in leaves, on the titanium and nitrogen content in the seeds and straw, on the quantity and quality of winter rape yield. The doses were applied two or three times on the leaves of winter rape (BBCH 50-52, BBCH 59, BBCH 66-67. The experiment was realized on the Haplic Chernozem (48°42´ N, 17°70´ E - Western Slovakia during two farming years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The results showed that all three applications of Mg-Titanit in both doses stimulated the formation of aboveground and underground phytomass of winter rape. The highest growth of phytomass was detected after the second application. The application of Mg-Titanit in the growth phases BBCH 50-52 and BBCH 59 increased the contents of both chlorophylls (a and b, where the growth of chlorophyll b content was more considerable than the growth of chlorophyll a content. The third spraying by Mg-Titanit decreased the content of the total chlorophyll. The application of Mg-Titanit had the positive impact on the yield of seeds, straw and fat content in the winter oilseed rape seeds.

  10. Effect of Mg on the Grain Growth and Dislocation Creep of Calcite

    Xu, L.


    We tested the effect of variations in the amount of the solute impurity (Mg) on grain growth and strength of calcite aggregate. Synthetic marbles were produced by hot isostatic pressing mixtures of powders of calcite and dolomite at 850° C and 300 MPa confining pressure for different intervals (2 to 30 hrs). The HIP treatment resulted in homogeneous aggregates of calcite with Mg content from 0.5 to 17 mol%. Stress stepping tests and constant strain rate tests were used to examine the effect of Mg content on the dislocation creep of calcite. The grain growth rate under static conditions was decreased with Mg content from 7 to 17 mol%, indicating perhaps that grain boundary mobility is suppressed by the solute drag effect. In the diffusion creep at stresses below 40 Mpa, the strength of calcite decreases with increasing Mg content owing to the difference in grain size at 800° C and 300 MPa confining pressure. The contribution of dislocation creep increases with increasing stress, and the transition between diffusion and dislocation creep occurs at higher stresses for the samples with higher magnesium content and smaller grain size. The creep data were fit assuming a composite flow law consisting of a linear combination of diffusion and dislocation creep and a single-valued grain size. The best agreement was obtained by using a dislocation creep law with exponential dependence of strain rate on stress (e.g. Peierls law). More evidence from microstructure is needed to identify the dominant deformation mechanism conclusively. Most of the samples were compressed up to strains of 0.25; small recrystallized grains are formed resulting in a bimodal grain size distribution in some of the deformed samples. Preliminary data shows that the recrystallized grain sizes are smaller for Mg-calcite compared with that of pure calcite. This study will help to understand the effect of impurities on grain-growth kinetics and strain weakening in localized shear zones.

  11. Effect of plant growth regulators in the rooting of Pinus cuttings

    Henrique Andréia


    Full Text Available This work evaluated the rooting of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis Morelet cuttings under the action of different levels of plant growth regulators. The cuttings consisted of 4-6 cm long shoots of P. caribaea var. hondurensis Morelet with their basal needles removed. The basal part of the cuttings were treated for 2 seconds with the following treatments: 1- NAA 2000mg L-1; 2- NAA 4000mg L-1; 3- NAA 6000mg L-1; 4- NAA 2000mg L-1 + PBZ 100mg L-1; 5- NAA 4000mg L-1 + PBZ; 6- NAA 6000mg L-1 + PBZ; 7- IBA 2000mg L-1; 8- IBA 4000mg L-1; 9- IBA 6000mg L-1; 10-IBA 2000mg L-1 + PBZ; 11- IBA 4000mg L-1 + PBZ; 12- IBA 6000mg L-1 + PBZ; and a control. After receiving the treatment, the cuttings were planted in tubes containing 50% carbonized rice hulls and 50% vermiculite. The evaluations, performed 60 days after planting, showed that P. caribaea var. hondurensis cuttings treated with IBA produced a higher percentage of rooted cuttings than those treated with NAA; the most effective treatment was IBA 4000mg L-1 plus 100mg L-1 paclobutrazol.

  12. Synthesis of dense bulk MgB2 by an infiltration and growth process

    Bhagurkar, A. G.; Yamamoto, A.; Babu, N. Hari; Durrell, J. H.; Dennis, A. R.; Cardwell, D. A.


    We report the processing of dense, superconducting MgB2 (ρ ≈ 2.4 g cm-3) by an infiltration and growth technique. The process, which involves infiltration of liquid magnesium at 750 °C into a pre-defined boron precursor pellet, is relatively simple, results in the formation of a hard, dense structure and has the potential to fabricate large bulk samples of complex geometries. X-ray diffraction has been used to confirm the presence of the MgB2 primary phase with only residual magnesium content in the fully processed samples. The samples exhibit sharp superconducting transitions at 38.4 K and have critical current densities of up to 260 kA cm-2 in self-field at 5 K. Modest measured values of Hc2(0) of 17 T suggest that superconductivity in bulk MgB2 fabricated by this technique is in the clean pairing limit.

  13. Bulk crystal growth of Mg{sub 2}Si by the vertical Bridgman method

    Yoshinaga, M.; Iida, T.; Noda, M.; Endo, T.; Takanashi, Y


    Mg{sub 2}Si were grown by the vertical Bridgman (VB) method in crucibles made of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) pyrolytic graphite (PG) in order to minimize the reaction and sticking of molten Mg-Si during growth. Congruent crystallization was derived from a stoichiometric melt of Mg{sub 2}Si, and incongruent crystallization was derived from nonstoichiometric melts having Mg/Si ratios of 85:15, 70:30 and 60:40. Grown samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and electron-probe microanalysis, and their power factors were calculated from the Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivities measured from room temperature to 773 K. The grown crystals were single-crystal-like and had high Seebeck coefficients at the temperatures from 500 to 773 K. A sample derived from a stoichiometric melt had a Seebeck coefficient of -470 {mu}V/K and the highest power factor, 7.8x10{sup -6} W/cm K{sup 2} at 373 K, was calculated for the sample derived from a melt with an Mg/Si ratio of 70:30.

  14. Fracture resistance and fatigue crack growth characteristics of two Al-Cu-Mg-Zr alloys

    Sarkar, Bhaskar; Lisagor, W. B.


    The dependence of strength, fracture resistance, and fatigue crack growth rate on the aging conditions of two alloy compositions based on Al-3.7Cu-1.85Mg-0.2Mn is investigated. Mechanical properties were evaluated in two heat treatment conditions and in two orientations (longitudinal and transverse). Compact tension specimens were used to determine fatigue crack growth characteristics and fracture resistance. The aging response was monitored on coupons using hardness measurements determined with a standard Rockwell hardness tester. Fracture resistance is found to increase with increasing yield strength during artificial aging of age-hardenable 2124-Zr alloys processed by powder metallurgy techniques. Fatigue crack growth rate increases with increasing strength. It is argued that these changes are related to deformation modes of the alloys; a homogeneous deformation mode tends to increase fracture resistance and to decrease the resistance to the fatigue crack propagation rate.

  15. Study on the Effect between Dynamics of MgO Grain Growth and Additive of Y2O3


    In this paper, samples of CaO-riched MgO-CaO added with Y2O3 were prepared and the growth rate of MgO grains were investigated, and the calculation of the grain growth active energy at different temperatures was done for the high performance anti-hydration CaO-riched MgO-CaO clinker. It is of significance for decreasing the synthetic temperature in industry production.

  16. MgO/Cu2O Superlattices: Growth of Epitaxial Two-Dimensional Nanostructures

    Yang, M. J.; Wadekar, P. V.; Hsieh, W. C.; Huang, H. C.; Lin, C. W.; Chou, J. W.; Liao, C. H.; Chang, C. F.; Seo, H. W.; You, S. T.; Tu, L. W.; Lo, I. K.; Ho, N. J.; Yeh, S. W.; Liao, H. H.; Chen, Q. Y.; Chu, W. K.


    Alternated stacking of dissimilar layers can produce novel superlattice materials with multiple functionalities. The majority of such work reported in literature on epitaxial superlattices has been on alternating layers with the same space group (SG) and crystal structure (CS), whereas superlattices with the same CS but different SG have not been studied as much. We have grown superlattices with two well-known oxide materials, viz. cuprite (Cu2O, CS = cubic and SG = Pn bar{3} m) and magnesium oxide (MgO, CS = cubic, SG = Fm bar{3} m). An MgO buffer layer grown near 650°C at the film-substrate interface was found to be essential to achieving reasonable long-range atomic order. Grazing-angle x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, and electron diffraction analyses as well as transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the interface abruptness, smoothness, and general crystallinity of the individual layers. Interdiffusion between MgO and Cu2O near interfacial regions places a limit of 250°C on the growth temperature for fabrication of superlattices with reasonably sharp interfaces.

  17. Dendritic Growth, Solidification Thermal Parameters, and Mg Content Affecting the Tensile Properties of Al-Mg-1.5 Wt Pct Fe Alloys

    Gomes, Leonardo F.; Silva, Bismarck L.; Garcia, Amauri; Spinelli, José E.


    Al-Mg-Fe alloys are appointed as favorable ones with respect to the costs and all the required properties for successful vessel service. However, the experimental inter-relations of solidification thermal parameters, microstructure, and mechanical strength are still undetermined. In the present research work, the dependences of tensile properties on the length scale of the dendritic morphology of ternary Al-1.2 wt pct Mg-1.5 wt pct Fe and Al-7 wt pct Mg-1.5 wt pct Fe alloys are examined. Transient heat flow conditions during solidification have been achieved by the use of a directional solidification system, thus permitting a comprehensive characterization of the dendritic microstructures to be performed. Thermo-Calc computations, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy analyses are carried out to give support to the extensive microstructural evaluation performed with both ternary Al-Mg-Fe alloys. Experimental growth relations of primary, λ 1, and secondary, λ 2, dendrite arm spacings with cooling rate ( {dot T}_{{L}} ) and of tensile properties with λ 2 are proposed. For both alloys examined, Hall-Petch type formulas show that the tensile strength increases with the decrease in λ 2. The soundest strength-ductility balance is exhibited by the Al-7 wt pct Mg-1.5 wt pct Fe alloy specimen with refined microstructure. This is shown to be due to a more homogeneous distribution of intermetallic particles in connection with solid solution strengthening propitiated by Mg. Functional experimental inter-relations of tensile properties with growth (V L) and cooling rates ( {dot T}_{{L}} ) for both ternary Al-Mg-Fe alloys have also been derived.

  18. Photosynthetic capacity, nutrient status, and growth of maize (Zea mays L.) upon MgSO4 leaf-application.

    Jezek, Mareike; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin; Bayer, Anne; Mühling, Karl-Hermann


    The major plant nutrient magnesium (Mg) is involved in numerous physiological processes and its deficiency can severely reduce the yield and quality of crops. Since Mg availability in soil and uptake into the plant is often limited by unfavorable soil or climatic conditions, application of Mg onto leaves, the site with highest physiological Mg demand, might be a reasonable alternative fertilization strategy. This study aimed to investigate, if MgSO4 leaf-application in practically relevant amounts can efficiently alleviate the effects of Mg starvation in maize, namely reduced photosynthesis capacity, disturbed ion homeostasis and growth depression. Results clearly demonstrated that Mg deficiency could be mitigated by MgSO4 leaf-application as efficiently as by resupply of MgSO4 via the roots in vegetative maize plants. Significant increases in SPAD values and net rate of CO2-assimilation as well as enhanced shoot biomass have been achieved. Ion analysis furthermore revealed an improvement of the nutrient status of Mg-deficient plants with regard to [Mg], [K], and [Mn] in distinct organs, thereby reducing the risk of Mn-toxicity at the rootside, which often occurs together with Mg deficiency on acid soils. In conclusion, foliar fertilization with Mg proved to be an efficient strategy to adequately supply maize plants with Mg and might hence be of practical relevance to correct nutrient deficiencies during the growing season.

  19. Epitaxial growth of Al-Cr-N thin films on MgO(111)

    Willmann, H. [Materials Center Leoben, 8700 Leoben (Austria); IFM Material Physics, Division of Thin Film Physics, Linkoeping University, 58183 Linkoeping (Sweden)], E-mail:; Beckers, M. [IFM Material Physics, Division of Thin Film Physics, Linkoeping University, 58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Birch, J. [IFM Material Physics, Division of Thin Film Physics, Linkoeping University, 58183 Linkoeping (Sweden)], E-mail:; Mayrhofer, P.H.; Mitterer, C. [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, University of Leoben, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Hultman, L. [IFM Material Physics, Division of Thin Film Physics, Linkoeping University, 58183 Linkoeping (Sweden)


    Cubic rock salt structure Al{sub 0.60}Cr{sub 0.40}N and Al{sub 0.68}Cr{sub 0.32}N films of different thicknesses were grown epitaxially onto MgO(111) substrates by reactive unbalanced magnetron sputtering at 500 deg. C . Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy reveals stoichiometric nitrides with Al/Cr ratios close to the ones of the used compound targets of 60/40 and 70/30. High resolution X-ray diffraction proves epitaxial growth over the whole film thickness up to thicknesses of {approx} 1.8 {mu}m. Reciprocal space maps and selected area electron diffraction show that the Al{sub x}Cr{sub 1-x}N films grow fully relaxed. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy imaging reveals columnar microstructures with column widths between 12-16 nm and {l_brace}001{r_brace} surface faceting on individual columns. The fully relaxed growth and the columnar structure can be attributed to limited ad-atom mobility on the initial Al{sub x}Cr{sub 1-x}n (111) growth surface.

  20. Intrinsic fatigue crack growth rates for Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloys in vacuum

    Slavik, D. C.; Blankenship, C. P., Jr.; Starke, E. A., Jr.; Gangloff, R. P.


    The influences of microstructure and deformation mode on inert environment intrinsic fatigue crack propagation were investigated for Al-Li-Cu-Mg alloys AA2090, AA8090, and X2095 compared to AA2024. The amount of coherent shearable delta-prime (Al3Li) precipitates and extent of localized planar slip deformation were reduced by composition (increased Cu/Li in X2095) and heat treatment (double aging of AA8090). Intrinsic growth rates, obtained at high constant K(max) to minimize crack closure and in vacuum to eliminate any environmental effect, were alloy dependent; da/dN varied up to tenfold based on applied Delta-K or Delta-K/E. When compared based on a crack tip cyclic strain or opening displacement parameter, growth rates were equivalent for all alloys except X2095-T8, which exhibited unique fatigue crack growth resistance. Tortuous fatigue crack profiles and large fracture surface facets were observed for each Al-Li alloy independent of the precipitates present, particularly delta-prime, and the localized slip deformation structure. Reduced fatigue crack propagation rates for X2095 in vacuum are not explained by either residual crack closure or slip reversibility arguments; the origin of apparent slip band facets in a homogeneous slip alloy is unclear.

  1. Influence of growth and anneal conditions on the surface roughness of L1{sub 0} Fe{sub 50}Pd{sub x}Pt{sub 50-x} thin films

    Jiang Xin, E-mail: [Almaden Research Center, IBM Research, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, CA 95120 (United States); Liu Ruisheng; Gao Li; Topuria, Teya; Parkin, Stuart [Almaden Research Center, IBM Research, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, CA 95120 (United States)


    We deposit Fe{sub 50}Pd{sub x}Pt{sub 50-x} alloy thin films by magnetron sputtering onto a TiN seed layer. Chemically ordered L1{sub 0} films are obtained which display large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We find that the surface roughness of the film depends strongly on the growth and anneal conditions as well as the Pd composition of the film. Smooth films are obtained by deposition above the chemical ordering temperature and by removing Pd from the alloy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FePdPt thin films with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong dependence of surface roughness on Pd composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FePt roughness strongly influenced by the disorder to order transition process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduced FePt film roughness by deposition above the ordering temperature.

  2. Effect of Aspirin on Cell Growth of Human MG-63 Osteosarcoma Line

    E. De Luna-Bertos


    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are commonly used in bone tissue repair treatment for their pharmacological action. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aspirin, on osteoblast growth, using MG63 cell line as osteoblast model. MTT spectrophotometry results showed that 20, 100, and 1000 μM aspirin doses have an inhibitory effect on growth. Cell cycle analysis revealed that aspirin doses of 100 and 1000 μM arrest the cell cycle in phase GO/G1. Parallel apoptosis/necrosis studies showed no changes in comparison to control cells after treatment with 1 or 10 μM aspirin but a significantly increased percentage of cells in apoptosis at doses of 20, 100, and 1000 μM. We highlight that treatment of osteoblast-like cells with 1000 μM aspirin increased not only the percentage of cells in apoptosis but also the percentage of necrotic cells, which was not observed in aspirin treatments at lower doses.

  3. Photosynthetic capacity, nutrient status and growth of maize (Zea mays L. upon MgSO4 leaf-application

    Mareike eJezek


    Full Text Available The major plant nutrient magnesium is involved in numerous physiological processes and its deficiency can severely reduce the yield and quality of crops. Since Mg availability in soil and uptake into the plant is often limited by unfavorable soil or climatic conditions, application of Mg onto leaves, the site with highest physiological Mg demand, might be a reasonable alternative fertilization strategy. This study aimed to investigate, if MgSO4 leaf-application in practically relevant amounts can efficiently alleviate the effects of Mg starvation in maize, namely reduced photosynthesis capacity, disturbed ion homeostasis and growth depression. Results clearly demonstrated that Mg deficiency could be mitigated by MgSO4 leaf-application as efficiently as by resupply of MgSO4 via the roots in vegetative maize plants. Significant increases in SPAD values and net rate of CO2-assimilation as well as enhanced shoot biomass have been achieved. Ion analysis furthermore revealed an improvement of the nutrient status of Mg-deficient plants with regard to [Mg], [K] and [Mn] in distinct organs, thereby reducing the risk of Mn-toxicity at the rootside, which often occurs together with Mg deficiency on acid soils. In conclusion, foliar fertilization with Mg proved to be an efficient strategy to adequately supply maize plants with magnesium and might hence be of practical relevance to correct nutrient deficiencies during the growing season.

  4. Effect of MgCl2 on Germination, Growth and Biomass Allocation of the Radish CV. "Cherry Belle"

    W. Brandenburg


    Full Text Available Problem statement: To determine the effect of MgCl2 on radish (Raphanus sativus, plants were grown in controlled environmental growth chambers and given one of three watering treatments; 0.01, 0.1 and 0 M (control MgCl2. Approach: At high concentrations (0.1 M, MgCl2 was toxic resulting in very low (44% germination rates and the subsequent death of all but three undersized plants over the 28 day growth period. Results: At lower concentrations (0.01 M, MgCl2 resulted in enhanced germination rates (5.55% and a mass increase (39.54% over the control. Conclusion/Recommendations: While low concentrations of MgCl2 resulted in an increase in total biomass, biomass allocation was shifted largely from roots to shoots (55.88% higher root/shoot ratio in the control.

  5. Epitaxial growth and properties of cubic WN on MgO(001), MgO(111), and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001)

    Ozsdolay, B.D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Mulligan, C.P. [U.S. Army Armament Research Development & Engineering Center, Benet Laboratories, Watervliet, NY 12189 (United States); Guerette, Michael; Huang, Liping [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Gall, D., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)


    Tungsten nitride layers, 1.45-μm-thick, were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on MgO(001), MgO(111), and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) in 20 mTorr N{sub 2} at 700 °C. X-ray diffraction ω-2θ scans, ω-rocking curves, φ scans, and reciprocal space maps show that all layers exhibit a cubic rock salt structure, independent of their N-to-W ratio which ranges from x = 0.83–0.93, as determined by energy dispersive and photoelectron spectroscopies. Growth on MgO(001) leads to an epitaxial WN(001) layer which contains a small fraction of misoriented grains, WN(111)/MgO(111) is an orientation- and phase-pure single-crystal, and WN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) exhibits a 111-preferred orientation containing misoriented cubic WN grains as well as N-deficient BCC W. Layers on MgO(001) and MgO(111) with x = 0.92 and 0.83 have relaxed lattice constants of 4.214 ± 0.005 and 4.201 ± 0.031 Å, respectively, indicating a decreasing lattice constant with an increasing N-vacancy concentration. Nanoindentation provides hardness values of 9.8 ± 2.2, 12.5 ± 1.0, and 10.3 ± 0.4 GPa, and elastic moduli of 240 ± 40, 257 ± 13, and 242 ± 10 GPa for layers grown on MgO(001), MgO(111), and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001), respectively. Brillouin spectroscopy measurements yield shear moduli of 120 ± 2 GPa, 114 ± 2 GPa and 108 ± 2 GPa for WN on MgO(001), MgO(111) and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001), respectively, suggesting a WN elastic anisotropy factor of 1.6 ± 0.3, consistent with the indentation results. The combined analysis of the epitaxial WN(001) and WN(111) layers indicate Hill's elastic and shear moduli for cubic WN of 251 ± 17 and 99 ± 8 GPa, respectively. The resistivity of WN(111)/MgO(111) is 1.9 × 10{sup −5} and 2.2 × 10{sup −5} Ω-m at room temperature and 77 K, respectively, indicating weak carrier localization. The room temperature resistivities are 16% and 42% lower for WN/MgO(001) and WN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001), suggesting a resistivity decrease with decreasing

  6. Growth of thick MgB{sub 2} films by impinging-jet hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition

    Lamborn, D.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Wilke, R.H.T.; Li, Q. [Department of Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Xi, X. [Department of Physics, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16801 (United States); Snyder, D.W. [Applied Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Redwing, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16801 (United States)


    Thick MgB{sub 2} films are grown using a novel impinging-jet hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition process. An increased amount of the boron source gas generates high growth rates. Superconducting properties of the thick films are comparable to previous results from other processes, which indicate that this is a promising new process for MgB{sub 2} deposition for coated conductor applications, such as wires and tapes for MRI magnets. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Growth process and corrosion resistance of ceramic coatings of micro-arc oxidation on Mg-Gd-Y magnesium alloys

    王萍; 李建平; 郭永春; 杨忠


    The regulation of ceramic coating formed by micro-arc oxidation on Mg-11Gd-1Y-0.5Zn (wt.%) magnesium alloys was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The relation of phase structure and corrosion resistance of MgO coating formed by micro-arc oxidation in different growth stages was analyzed. The results showed that the growth of coating accorded with linear regularity in the initial stage of micro-arc oxidation, which was the stage of anodic oxidation controlled ...

  8. Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase L1 in Tumorigenesis

    Jennifer Hurst-Kennedy


    Full Text Available Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1, aka PGP9.5 is an abundant, neuronal deubiquitinating enzyme that has also been suggested to possess E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity and/or stabilize ubiquitin monomers in vivo. Recent evidence implicates dysregulation of UCH-L1 in the pathogenesis and progression of human cancers. Although typically only expressed in neurons, high levels of UCH-L1 have been found in many nonneuronal tumors, including breast, colorectal, and pancreatic carcinomas. UCH-L1 has also been implicated in the regulation of metastasis and cell growth during the progression of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma, colorectal cancer, and lymphoma. Together these studies suggest UCH-L1 has a potent oncogenic role and drives tumor development. Conversely, others have observed promoter methylation-mediated silencing of UCH-L1 in certain tumor subtypes, suggesting a potential tumor suppressor role for UCH-L1. In this paper, we provide an overview of the evidence supporting the involvement of UCH-L1 in tumor development and discuss the potential mechanisms of action of UCH-L1 in oncogenesis.

  9. Sparse Recovery via l1 and L1 Optimization


    Sparse Recovery via `1 and L1 Optimization Stanley Osher and Wotao Yin Department of Mathematics , UCLA and 1...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of California, Los Angeles,Department of Mathematics ,Los Angeles...ϕi, ϕj〉 = δjk, for i, j = 1, . . . , N . We get densely supported ϕj , (think of sines and cosines when V = 0). Physicists and chemists want short

  10. Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Defined Medium Is Very Restricted by Acid pH and Mg2+ Levels

    Piddington, Debra L.; Kashkouli, Ali; Buchmeier, Nancy A.


    Mycobacterium tuberculosis grows within the phagocytic vacuoles of macrophages, where it encounters a moderately acidic and possibly nutrient-restricted environment. Other mycobacterial species encounter acidic conditions in soil and aquatic environments. We have evaluated the influence of pH and divalent cation levels on the growth of M. tuberculosis and seven other mycobacterial species. In a defined medium, the growth of M. tuberculosis was very restricted by acidic pH. Higher levels of Mg...

  11. Growth and electron microscopy study of GaN/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} heterostructures

    Li, Guoqiang; Shih, Shao-Ju [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Fu, Li [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710071 (China)


    We successfully grew Gallium nitride (GaN) films on MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} (111) substrates using low temperature pulsed laser deposition (PLD). X-ray diffraction rocking curves revealed the high quality of as-grown GaN with its full width at half maximum (FWHM) along [0002] as small as 0.08 . Atomic force microscopy images showed very smooth surface of as-grown GaN and indicated a two-dimensional growth. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed high structural perfection of GaN films. The crystalline structure for MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} substrate from its body to its top part adjacent to GaN epitaxy kept constant, and the interface between GaN and MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} was atomically abrupt. We attribute the high quality of as-grown GaN films to the well-controlled Mg atom evaporation from MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} substrate surface owing to the application of low growth temperature in PLD: on the one hand, it avoids the severe interfacial reaction that is very likely to take place in conventional MOCVD or MBE growth, and hence makes the epitaxial growth possible; on the other hand, it conserves the crystalline structure of the substrate surface, and consequently takes good advantage of the small lattice mismatch between GaN and MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. The effect of growth parameters on the Mg acceptor in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N:Mg and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N:Mg

    Zvanut, M.E.; Willoughby, W.R.; Sunay, U.R. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States); Koleske, D.D.; Allerman, A.A. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wang, Ke; Araki, Tsutomu [Department of Photonics, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Nanishi, Yasushi [Department of Photonics, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); WCU Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N alloys are used in many optoelectronic applications due to their tunable band gap, but p-type doping remains a challenge. To better understand the Mg acceptor in nitride alloys, we investigate the effects of In or Al mole fraction, growth temperature and sample thickness on the amount of un-ionized (neutral) Mg using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The results show that neither temperature nor thickness effects the concentration of the neutral Mg-related acceptor defects; however, the mole fraction of metal, In or Al, alters the behavior of the dopant. For In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N, a broadening of the EPR linewidth is shown to be directly related to the presence of a nearby In and is consistent with a lowering of the acceptor level. Incorporation of Al into GaN, on the other hand, produces a systematic decrease in the concentration of neutral Mg-related acceptors as the amount of Al increases. Earlier studies indicate that the reduction is caused by incomplete hydrogen removal from the acceptor impurity. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Growth of thin films of TiN on MgO(100) monitored by high-pressure RHEED

    Pryds, Nini; Cockburn, D.; Rodrigo, Katarzyna Agnieszka


    is produced by PLD directly from a TiN target. At the initial stage of the growth (average thickness similar to 2.4 nm) the formation of islands is observed. During the continuous growth the islands merge into a smooth surface as indicated by the RHEED, atomic force microscopy and field emission scanning...... electron microscopy. These observations are in good agreement with the three-dimensional Volmer-Weber growth type, by which three-dimensional crystallites are formed and later cause a continuous surface roughening. This leads to an exponential decrease in the intensity of the specular spot in the RHEED......Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) operated at high pressure has been used to monitor the initial growth of titanium nitride (TiN) thin films on single-crystal (100) MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). This is the first RHEED study where the growth of TiN films...

  14. Main: L1DCPAL1 [PLACE

    Full Text Available L1DCPAL1 S000504 15-September-2006 (last modified) kehi L1 element, found in PAL1 p...romoter in carrot (Daucus carota), is a protoplastization (dilution) responsive element; L1 contains Box L-l...ike sequence (ACCTACCC); see also S000492 (BOXL CORE of DC PAL1); L1 Daucus carota (carrot) ATTCACCTACCC ...

  15. Growth, structure and magnetic properties of FePt nanostructures on NaCl(001) and MgO(001)

    Liscio, F.; Makarov, D.; Maret, M.; Doisneau-Cottignies, B.; Roussel, H.; Albrecht, M.


    A comparison of the structural and magnetic properties of FePt nanostructures grown at different temperatures on NaCl(001) and MgO(001) substrates is presented. A strong influence of the deposition temperature on the epitaxial growth as well as on the size distribution of FePt nanostructures grown on NaCl substrates is observed. In spite of a large lattice mismatch between FePt and NaCl, a 'cube-over-cube' growth of nanostructures with a narrow size distribution was achieved at 520 K. Moreover, the growth of FePt nanostructures on NaCl(001) is not preceded by the formation of a wetting layer as observed on MgO(001). The higher degree of L10 chemical ordering in FePt nanostructures grown on MgO(001) accompanied by the absence of L10 variants with an in-plane tetragonal c-axis indicates that the tensile epitaxial stress induced by the MgO substrate is a key factor in the formation of the L10 phase with an out-of-plane c-axis. Superparamagnetic behavior is revealed for the FePt nanostructures grown on NaCl(001) due to their small size and relatively poor chemical order.

  16. Crystal growth and electronic structure of low-temperature phase SrMgF{sub 4}

    Atuchin, Victor V. [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Functional Electronics Laboratory, Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Semiconductor and Dielectric Materials, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Goloshumova, Alina A. [Laboratory of Crystal Growth, Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Isaenko, Ludmila I. [Laboratory of Semiconductor and Dielectric Materials, Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Crystal Growth, Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Jiang, Xingxing [BCCRD, Key Laboratory of Functional Crystals and Laser Technology, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Lobanov, Sergey I. [Laboratory of Crystal Growth, Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Zhang, Zhaoming [Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Lin, Zheshuai, E-mail: [BCCRD, Key Laboratory of Functional Crystals and Laser Technology, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)


    Using the vertical Bridgman method, the single crystal of low temperature phase SrMgF{sub 4} is obtained. The crystal is in a very good optical quality with the size of 10×7×5 mm{sup 3}. Detailed photoemission spectra of the element core levels are determined by a monochromatic AlKa (1486.6 eV) X-ray source. Moreover, the first-principles calculations are performed to investigate the electronic structure of SrMgF{sub 4}. A good agreement between experimental and calculated results is achieved. It is demonstrated that almost all the electronic orbitals are strongly localized and the hybridization with the others is very small, but the Mg–F bonds covalency is relatively stronger than that of Sr–F bonds. - Graphical abstract: Large size of low-temperature phase SrMgF{sub 4} crystal was obtained (right) and its electronic structure was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles calculation (left). - Highlights: • Large size single crystal of low-temperature phase SrMgF{sub 4} is obtained. • Electronic structure of SrMgF{sub 4} is measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. • Partial densities of states are determined by first-principles calculation. • Good agreement between experimental and calculated results is achieved. • Strong ionic characteristics of chemical bonds are exhibited in SrMgF{sub 4}.

  17. Growth analysis of soybean plants treated with plant growth regulators Marcelo Ferraz de Campos

    João Domingos Rodrigues


    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify the effect of plant growth regulators on soybean plant growth and chlorophyll content. In an experiment carried out in a greenhouse, soybean plants were cultivated (Glycine max (L. Merrill cv. BRS-184 in 10-liter pots containing soil from the arable layer, corrected and fertilized according to the soil analysis. The treatments used were: control; GA3 100mg.L-1; BAP 100mg.L-1; IBA 100mg.L-1; Stimulate® (IBA, GA3 and kinetin 20mL.L-1; mepiquat chloride 100mg.L-1 and mepiquat chloride 100mg.L-1 + BAP 100mg.L-1 + IBA 100mg.L-1. Treatments were applied three times at 30-day intervals. Six samplings were taken at 13-day intervals. The results indicated that the highest total dry weight value resulted from the application of IBA and Stimulate®, and that the application of mepiquat chloride in association with IBA and BAP reduced total dry matter production. The leaf area was smaller than the control in most treatments. The chlorophyll content and growth rate were slightly influenced by the treatments. The cytokinin treatment alone or in association with other plant growth regulators retained the chlorophyll content. RGR and NAR decreased from 99 days after sowing with the application of mepiquat chloride.

  18. Growth morphology and evolution of quasicrystal in as-solidified Y-rich Mg-Zn-Y ternary alloys


    A petal-like icosahedral quasicrystal with five branches, which is considered to be the representative morphology of the icosahedral quasicrystal, has been observed in the Y-rich Mg-Zn-Y ternary alloys. Moreover, the polygon-like morphology, another pattern of the icosahedral quasicrystal, has also been found in the Y-rich Mg-Zn-Y ternary alloys. The latter morphology results from the evolution of the former one. The growth mechanism of the petal-like morphology of the icosahedral quasicrystal was also discussed. Alloying composition, i.e., Y element content, is a major factor inducing the morphology evolution of the icosahedral quasicrystal.

  19. Growth and optical investigations of high quality individual CdTe/(Cd,Mg)Te core/shell nanowires

    Wojnar, P.; Płachta, J.; Kret, S.; Kaleta, A.; Zaleszczyk, W.; Szymura, M.; Wiater, M.; Baczewski, L. T.; Pietruczik, A.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.; Kossut, J.


    CdTe nanowires with the average diameter of only 40 nm coated with (Cd,Mg)Te shells are grown using Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism in a system for molecular beam epitaxy. High optical quality of individual nanowires is revealed by means of low temperature cathodoluminescence and micro-luminescence. It is found that, the optical emission spectrum consists mostly of the near band edge emission without any significant contribution of defect related luminescence. Moreover, the importance of surface passivation with (Cd,Mg)Te coating shells is demonstrated.

  20. The growth rate of pyrimidine auxotrophic mutants of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 is reduced in the presence of exogenous aspartate

    Hansen, Steen Lyders Lerche; Martinussen, Jan


    encoding enzymes in the distal part of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway of L. lactis MG1363, results in reduction of the growth rate if exogenous aspartate is supplied to the growth medium. This observation can be explained by an increased accumulation of a toxic intermediate, most likely carbamoyl......Nucleotide metabolism is important for all cells as supplier of building blocks for the synthesis of nucleic acids and coenzymes. Furthermore, they act as intracellular energy carriers and allosteric effectors in a large number of enzymatic reactions. Nucleotides can either be made de novo or from...

  1. In situ oxygen conditioning of /001/ MgO thin film substrates for film growth studies by electron microscopy

    Moorhead, R. D.; Poppa, H.


    It was found that the in situ treatment of 001-plane single-crystal films of MgO (prepared by epitaxial growth from the vapor phase) at high temperatures with a jet of oxygen will produce a surface that is almost equivalent, for epitaxial studies, to surfaces with the same orientation prepared by vacuum cleavage of bulk single crystals. The effectiveness of the process is demonstrated by its impact on the epitaxy of silver.

  2. Controlled Growth of Carbon Spheres Through the Mg-Reduction Route

    Lin Hailin


    Full Text Available Abstract Hollow spheres, hollow capsules and solid spheres of carbon were selectively synthesized by Mg-reduction of hexachlorobutadiene at appropriate reaction conditions. X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectra reveal that the as-prepared materials have a well-ordered structure. A possible formation mechanism has been proposed.

  3. Growth and hydrogenation of ultra-thin Mg films on Mo(111)

    Ostenfeld, Christopher Worsøe; Davies, Jonathan Conrad; Vegge, Tejs;


    The growth and hydrogenation of ultra-thin magnesium overlayers have been investigated on a Mo(1 1 1) single crystal substrate. For increasing magnesium coverages we observe intermediate stages in the TPD and LEISS profiles, which illustrate the transition from one monolayer to multilayer growth....... are necessary to sustain this purely adsorbed state. Using predissociated hydrogen we show that the hydride formation is self-stabilizing and the hydride only decomposes at a temperature where a considerable desorption of magnesium occurs....

  4. Growth and superconductivity characteristics of MgB sub 2 thin films

    Chen, K; Nie Rui Juan; Yang, T; Xie, F X; Liu, L Y; Wang, S Z; Dai, Y D; Wang, F


    We attempt to make MgB sub 2 thin films by using a pulsed-laser-deposition (PLD) and a magnetron sputtering method. We have deposited metal magnesium and boron on various substrates under different vacuum conditions. The PLD method has been employed to fabricate layers of magnesium and boron sandwiches under room temperature and the multi-layer system was then annealed in-situ under different temperatures. We also attempted to co-deposit magnesium and boron under high vacuum (5 x 10 sup - sup 5 Pa) on heated substrates with PLD. We have successfully grown superconducting MgB sub 2 thin films on an STO (100) substrate by magnetron sputtering. The onset transition temperature was 37 K and zero resistance temperature was 34 K.

  5. Czochralski growth and characterization of MgAl2O4 single crystals

    Bajor, Andrzej L.; Chmielewski, Marcin; Diduszko, Ryszard; Kisielewski, Jaroslaw; Lukasiewicz, Tadeusz; Orlinski, Krzysztof; Romaniec, Magdalena; Szyrski, Wlodzimierz


    MgAl2O4 (MALO) single crystals were pulled by the Czochralski method in [111] direction. The crystals were doped with Co (0.06-0.6 at% (charge compositions)), because Co2+ ions in tetrahedral positions exhibit non-linear optical properties, and, currently, Co:MALO seems to be the best saturable absorber in the eye-safe region (ca. 1.5 μm). By XRD powder technique a stoichiometric MALO was evidenced without admixtures of higher order spinels (MgAl4O7 and MgAl6O10). Also no excessive residual stresses have been discovered by different optical methods, and irrespective of the doping level we did not face any problem of cracking when cutting the crystals into wafers and other structures. In this work we have concentrated our efforts on investigation of thermal properties of MALO. Due to the 2nd order phase transition ca. 650 °C they seem to be of crucial importance in future thermal bonding of this material to the lasing host (Yb,Er-glass) expected just about this temperature.

  6. Reguladores vegetais na quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. Plant growth regulators on breaking apical dominance in papaya plants (Carica papaya L.

    Elizabeth Orika Ono


    Full Text Available O trabalho avaliou os efeitos de reguladores vegetais sobre a quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv. Improved Sunrise Solo. A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais foi iniciada quando as plantas tinham seis meses de idade, totalizando três aplicações, a intervalos de sete dias, constando dos seguintes tratamentos: T1- água (testemunha; T2- GA3 250 mg L-1; T3- GA3 500 mg L-1; T4- benziladenina (BA 250 mg L-1; T5- BA 500 mg L-1; T6- GA3 125 mg L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1; T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. Esses tratamentos foram acompanhados da remoção ou não da gema apical. Os resultados mostraram que plantas tratadas com GA3 + BA a 125 e 250 mg L-1, com e sem a remoção da gema apical, apresentaram maior número de brotações que a testemunha, a qual não apresentou nenhuma brotação das gemas laterais.The objective of this work was to study the effects of gibberelin and cytokinin on breaking apical dominance and axillary buds growth of the Carica papaya L. Papaya plants sprayed three times within a period of 7 days, with the following treatments: T1- water (control, T2- GA3 250 mg L-1, T3- GA3 500 mg L-1, T4- benzyladenine (BA 250 mg L-1, T5- BA 500 mg L-1, T6- GA3 125 mg L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1, T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. The treatments were carried out with or without removal of the apical buds. After 36 days of the last plant growth regulators application was observed lateral bud numbers, lateral buds length and lateral buds diameter. The results showed that there were a higher number of shoots in plants treated with GA3 at 125 mg L-1 + BA at 125 mg L-1 and GA3 at 250mg L-1 + BA at 250 mg L-1. The removal of the apical bud helped the sprouting of the papaya plants.

  7. Cyclic growth and branching phenomena of calcite grown in Mg(2+) containing solutions and in natural systems

    Wiethoff, Felix; Richter, Detlef K.; Neuser, Rolf D.; Immenhauser, Adrian; Gies, Hermann; Schreuer, Jürgen


    Undulosity in calcites (radiaxial fibrous calcite (RFC) and fascicular-optic fibrous calcite (FOFC)) is a common phenomenon in paleozoic and mesozoic limestones. Despite their importance as archives for climate reconstruction the underlying mechanisms and processes of their formation are still poorly understood [1]. To improve the application of such archives for climate reconstruction a better knowledge of their formation and possible alteration scenarios is necessary. In Mg2+ containing gel based growth experiments calcite crystals develop pathological morphologies. The morphology can be described as a product of a geometrical selective branching process at the rhombohedral crystal faces. Multiple sheet like building blocks evolve at the branching crystal face; each slightly tilted in respect to their substrate. The product is a crystal aggregate consisting out of several misoriented sub domains. In polarized light thin section microscopy the extinction behaviour of these sub units resemble the optical undulosity of radiaxial fibrous cements. In a multi method approach the local Mg2+ concentration was measured using EMPA and compared with maps of the local crystal orientation (via electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)) and thin section microscopy. We found that Mg2+ is enriched at the sub-domain boundaries and deduced that lattice misfit as a consequence of impurity incorporation causes the crystal branching. We propose that this process is cyclic and each new misoriented sheet represents a growth period after a phase of inhibited growth caused by crystal faces covered by Mg2+-ions. In comparison to natural systems we found that radiaxial-fibrous cave cements show a pathological morphology based on the same formation principles. [1] Richter et al. (2011) Sediment. Geol. 239, 23-36 [2] Reeder & Paquette (1989) Sediment. Geol. 65, 239-247 [3] Davis et al. (2004) Am. Min. 89, 714-720

  8. Effects of growth temperature on characteristics of Mg-delta-doped p-AlInGaN epi-layers

    Wu, Zili; Zhang, Xiong; Liang, Tianhui; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Cui, Yiping


    The Mg-delta-doped p-AlInGaN epi-layers were successfully grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The effects of growth temperature on the characteristics of the Mg-delta-doped p-AlInGaN epi-layers were investigated in detail with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), photoluminescence (PL), and Hall effect measurements. The characterization results showed that the surfaces of the p-AlInGaN epi-layers were textured with a high density of hexagonal pits, which was found to be strongly dependent on the growth temperature. This feature should be very helpful to enhance the light extraction efficiency when the p-AlInGaN epi-layers were used as the top p-contact layer for making AlInGaN-based deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs). In addition, the low temperature PL spectra demonstrated that the Mg-H complex-related broad emission band which was observed for the as-grown p-AlInGaN epi-layer samples was not resolvable for the annealed samples. This fact implies that the Mg-H complex can be effectively dissociated by annealing process. Moreover, owing to the improved In incorporation efficiency and crystalline quality for the p-AlInGaN epi-layers, a hole concentration as high as 1.69 × 1017 cm-3 was achieved with the reformed Mg-delta-doping technique developed in this study.

  9. The Transcriptional and Gene Regulatory Network of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 during Growth in Milk

    de Jong, Anne; Hansen, Morten Ejby; Kuipers, Oscar P.;


    analysis of gene expression over time showed that L. lactis adapted quickly to the environmental changes. Using upstream sequences of genes with correlated gene expression profiles, we uncovered a substantial number of putative DNA binding motifs that may be relevant for L. lactis fermentative growth...

  10. Main: L1BOXATPDF1 [PLACE

    Full Text Available L1BOXATPDF1 S000386 05-November-2005 (last modified) kehi L1 box found in promoter ...of Arabidopsis thaliana (A.t.) PROTODERMAL FACTOR1 (PDF1) gene; Located between -134 and -127; Involved in L...ding motif (Wang et al., 2004); HDZip IV; See also S000371; PDF1; L1 box; L1 layer-specific expression; Shoo

  11. In situ growth of carbon nanotubes on Ni/MgO: a facile preparation of efficient catalysts for the production of synthetic natural gas from syngas.

    Fan, M T; Lin, J D; Zhang, H B; Liao, D W


    Ni/MgO-CNTs catalysts are prepared by in situ chemical vapor deposition growth of CNTs on Ni/MgO. These catalysts exhibit an improved performance for the production of synthetic natural gas from syngas, which is attributed to the formation of highly catalytic active interfaces among Ni, CNTs and MgO.

  12. Adaptive Laboratory Evolution of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 for Growth at High Hydrostatic Pressure

    Angeliki eMarietou


    Full Text Available Much of microbial life on Earth grows and reproduces under the elevated hydrostatic pressure conditions that exist in deep-ocean and deep-subsurface environments. In this study adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE experiments were conducted to investigate the possible modification of the piezosensitive Escherichia coli for improved growth at high pressure. After approximately 500 generations of selection, a strain was isolated that acquired the ability to grow at pressure non-permissive for the parental strain. Remarkably, this strain displayed growth properties and changes in the proportion and regulation of unsaturated fatty acids that indicated the acquisition of multiple piezotolerant properties. These changes developed concomitantly with a change in the gene encoding the acyl carrier protein, which is required for fatty acid synthesis.

  13. FeGa/MgO/Fe/GaAs(001) magnetic tunnel junction: Growth and magnetic properties

    Gobaut, B., E-mail: [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S. 14-km 163.5, Area Science Park, 34012 Trieste (Italy); Ciprian, R.; Salles, B.R.; Krizmancic, D. [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14-km 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Rossi, G. [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14-km 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Panaccione, G. [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14-km 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Eddrief, M.; Marangolo, M. [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7588, INSP, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Torelli, P. [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14-km 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy)


    Research on spintronics and on multiferroics leads now to the possibility of combining the properties of these materials in order to develop new functional devices. Here we report the integration of a layer of magnetostrictive material into a magnetic tunnel junction. A FeGa/MgO/Fe heterostructure has been grown on a GaAs(001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and studied by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). The comparison between magneto optical Kerr effect (MOKE) measurements and hysteresis performed in total electron yield allowed distinguishing the ferromagnetic hysteresis loop of the FeGa top layer from that of the Fe buried layer, evidencing a different switching field of the two layers. This observation indicates an absence of magnetic coupling between the two ferromagnetic layers despite the thickness of the MgO barrier of only 2.5 nm. The in-plane magnetic anisotropy has also been investigated. Overall results show the good quality of the heterostructure and the general feasibility of such a device using magnetostrictive materials in magnetic tunnel junction.


    Renato Luiz Grisi Macedo


    Full Text Available This work evaluated the initial growth of Tectona grandis L.f (Teca at different spacings in the northwesternregion of the Minas Gerais State – Brazil. A randomized block experimental design was used. The treatments consisted of fivedifferent planting spacings (3 x 2 m; 6 x 2 m; 6 x 4 m and 12 x 2,5 m with five repetitions each. The permanent experimentalconsisted of an approximate area of 300 m². The survival rate, plant height, diameter at breast height, volume/plant, volume/ha,basal area/plant and basal area/ha, were determined 24 and 36 months after planting, the current increment between the twoevaluation periods was determined for all the characteristics previously cited. The analysis of the results allows concluding thatteca presents potential for plantation in the region. Teca presented the higher growth rate at the 3 x 2 m spacing, whereno intra-specific competitive effects were observed. The main factors that limited initial growth were the long period ofrain insufficiency associated to a high soil compacting level.

  15. Nucleation and Growth Kinetics of MgO in Molten Steel

    Hong Lei; Jicheng He


    The size, number, morphology and type of inclusion particles are the key factors to estimate the quality of steel product. Although considerable efforts have been made in the mathematical modeling of inclusion growth, few papers were involved in inclusionts nucleation and collision-growth, and all the existing researches about the behaviors of magnesia inclusion were based on the experiments. Thus, a mathematical model was developed to investigate the nucleation, Ostwald ripening and collision-growth of magnesia inclusion in the molten steel. Numerical results showed that the predicted particle size distributions are consistent with the previous experimental data. For the magnesia inclusions smaller than 100 nm, Brownian collision is the main collision modes. For the inclusions ranging from 0.1 to 10μm, Brownian collision and turbulent collision are the main collision modes. For the inclusions ranging from 10 to 100μm, turbulent collision and Stokes collision are the main collision modes. Thus, the strong turbulent flow can decrease the peak-value diameter of the magnesia inclusion effectively.

  16. PD-L1-specific T cells

    Ahmad, Shamaila Munir; Borch, Troels Holz; Hansen, Morten


    -specific T cells that recognize both PD-L1-expressing immune cells and malignant cells. Thus, PD-L1-specific T cells have the ability to modulate adaptive immune reactions by reacting to regulatory cells. Thus, utilization of PD-L1-derived T cell epitopes may represent an attractive vaccination strategy...... for targeting the tumor microenvironment and for boosting the clinical effects of additional anticancer immunotherapy. This review summarizes present information about PD-L1 as a T cell antigen, depicts the initial findings about the function of PD-L1-specific T cells in the adjustment of immune responses...

  17. Large-Scale Growth of Tubular Aragonite Whiskers through a MgCl2-Assisted Hydrothermal Process

    Changyin Dong


    Full Text Available In this paper, we have developed a facile MgCl2-assissted hydrothermal synthesis route to grow tubular aragonite whiskers on a large scale. The products have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, optical microscopy, and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM. The results show the as-grown product is pure tubular aragonite crystalline whiskers with a diameter of 5–10 mm and a length of 100–200 mm, respectively. The concentration of Mg2+ plays an important role in determining the quality and purity of the products. Furthermore, the method can be extended to fabricate CaSO4 fibers. The high quality of the product and the mild conditions used mean that the present route has good prospects for the growth of inorganic crystalline whiskers.

  18. Glucose metabolism in Lactococcus lactis MG1363 under different aeration conditions: Requirement of acetate to sustain growth under microaerobic conditions

    Nordkvist, Mikkel; Jensen, N.B.S.; Villadsen, John


    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MG1363 was grown in batch cultures on a defined medium with glucose as the energy source under different aeration conditions, namely, anaerobic conditions, aerobic conditions, and microaerobic conditions with a dissolved oxygen tension of 5% (when saturation...... with air was used as the reference). The maximum specific growth rate was high (0.78 to 0.91 h(-1)) under all aeration conditions but decreased with increasing aeration, and more than 90% of the glucose was converted to lactate. However, a shift in by-product formation was observed. Increasing aeration...

  19. The role of spatial confinement for improvement of laser-induced Mg plasma parameters and growth of surface features

    Hayat, Asma; Bashir, Shazia; Rafique, Muhammad Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Zaheer, Ali


    The role of spatial confinement for improvement of laser-induced Mg plasma parameters and growth of surface features is investigated by introducing a metallic blocker. Nd: YAG laser at various fluences ranging from 7 to 28 J cm-2 was employed as an irradiation source. All measurements were performed in the presence of Ar under different pressures. Confinement effects offered by metallic blocker are investigated by placing the blocker at different distances of 6, 8 and 10 mm from the target surface. It is revealed from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis that both plasma parameters, i.e., excitation temperature and electron number density initially increase with increasing laser fluence due to enhancement in energy deposition. With further increase in laser fluence, a decreasing trend followed by saturation is observed which is attributable to shielding effect and self-regulating regime. It is also observed that spatial confinement offered by metallic blocker is responsible for the significant enhancement of both electron temperature and electron number density of Mg plasma. This is true for all laser fluences and pressures of Ar. Maximum values of electron temperature and electron number density without blocker are 8335 K and 2.4 × 1016 cm-3, respectively, whereas these values are enhanced to 12,200 K and 4 × 1016 cm-3 in the presence of the blocker. The physical mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of Mg plasma parameters are plasma compression, confinement and pronounced collisional excitations due to reflection of shock waves. Scanning electron microscope analysis was performed to explore the surface morphology of laser-ablated Mg. It reveals the formation of cones, cavities and ripples. These features become more distinct and well defined in the presence of the blocker due to plasma confinement. The optimum combination of blocker distance, fluence and Ar pressure can identify the suitable conditions for defining the role of plasma parameters

  20. Voice and Narrative in L1 Writing

    Krogh, Ellen; Piekut, Anke


    This paper investigates issues of voice and narrative in L1 writing. Three branches of research are initial-ly discussed: research on narratives as resources for identity work, research on writer identity and voice as an essential aspect of identity, and research on Bildung in L1 writing....... Subsequently, two empirical investigations of L1 writing in a Danish upper secondary school are presented. The first study is based on longitudinal interview data and analyses one student’s experience as an L1 writer in the transition from lower secondary to upper secondary school. A high-achieving student...... in lower secondary L1, she found that her previous writing strategies were not rewarded in upper secondary school. In the second empiri-cal study, two upper-secondary exam papers are investigated, with a focus on their approaches to exam genres and their use of narrative resources to address issues...

  1. Plant growth regulators on the pre-harvest period of 'Pêra' oranges Reguladores vegetais aplicados na fase pré-colheita de laranjeira "Pêra"

    Isolina Maria Leite de Almeida


    Full Text Available This research evaluated the effects of auxins and gibberellins applied at pre-harvest on the quality of orange juice. Orange trees, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, cv. 'Pêra' were sprayed in three applications, at 45-day intervals, with the following treatments: GA3 + 2,4-D at 12.5mg L-1 each; GA3 + 2,4-D at 25mg L-1; GA3 + 2,4-D at 37.5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA at 12.5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA at 25mg L-1; GA3 + NAA at 37.5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D at 12.5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D at 25mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D at 37.5mg L-1, and a control. The treatments did not change juice quality, and showed no plant growth regulator residues 110 days after the last application in every case below 0.05mg L-1.Neste estudo, avaliou-se os efeitos de auxinas e giberelinas, combinados e aplicados em pré-colheita na qualidade interna de frutos de laranjeira "Pêra". Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivar Pêra foram pulverizadas com três aplicações, em intervalos de 45 dias, com os seguintes tratamentos: GA3 + 2,4-D a 12,5mg L-1 de cada; GA3 + 2,4-D 25mg L-1; GA3 + 2,4-D 37,5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 12,5mg L-1;GA3 + NAA 25mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 37,5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 12,5mg L-1; NAA+2,4-D 25mg L-1; NAA+2,4-D 37,5mg L-1 e testemunha (água. Os resultados mostraram que os tratamentos não prejudicaram a qualidade interna dos frutos. Além disso, os níveis de resíduo de reguladores vegetais no suco, ficaram abaixo de 0,05mg L-1, 110 dias após a última aplicação.

  2. Identification of genes required for growth of Escherichia coli MG1655 at moderately low pH

    Bram Vivijs


    Full Text Available The survival of some pathotypes of E. coli in very low pH environments like highly acidic foods and the stomach has been well documented and contributes to their success as foodborne pathogens. In contrast, the ability of E. coli to grow at moderately low pH has received less attention, although this property can be anticipated to be also very important for the safety of mildly acidic foods. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify cellular functions required for growth of the non-pathogenic strain E. coli MG1655 at low pH. First, the role of the four E. coli amino acid decarboxylase systems, which are the major cellular mechanisms allowing extreme acid survival, was investigated using mutants defective in each of the systems. Only the lysine decarboxylase (CadA was required for low pH growth. Secondly, a screening of 8544 random transposon insertion mutants resulted in the identification of six genes affecting growth in LB broth acidified to pH 4.50 with HCl. Two of the genes, encoding the transcriptional regulator LeuO and the elongation factor P-β-lysine ligase EpmA, can be linked to CadA production. Two other genes, encoding the diadenosine tetraphosphatase ApaH and the tRNA modification GTPase MnmE, have been previously implicated in the bacterial response to stresses other than low pH. A fifth gene encodes the LPS heptosyltransferase WaaC, and its mutant has a deep rough colony phenotype, which has been linked to reduced acid tolerance in earlier work. Finally, tatC encodes a secA-independent protein translocase that exports a few dozen proteins and thus is likely to have a pleiotropic phenotype. For mnmE, apaH, epmA,and waaC, de novo in frame deletion and genetic complementation confirmed their role in low pH growth, and these deletion mutants were also affected in growth in apple juice and tomato juice. However, the mutants were not affected in survival in gastric simulation medium at pH 2.5, indicating that growth at

  3. Heteroepitaxial growth of Pt and Au thin films on MgO single crystals by bias-assisted sputtering.

    Tolstova, Yulia; Omelchenko, Stefan T; Shing, Amanda M; Atwater, Harry A


    The crystallographic orientation of a metal affects its surface energy and structure, and has profound implications for surface chemical reactions and interface engineering, which are important in areas ranging from optoelectronic device fabrication to catalysis. However, it can be very difficult and expensive to manufacture, orient, and cut single crystal metals along different crystallographic orientations, especially in the case of precious metals. One approach is to grow thin metal films epitaxially on dielectric substrates. In this work, we report on growth of Pt and Au films on MgO single crystal substrates of (100) and (110) surface orientation for use as epitaxial templates for thin film photovoltaic devices. We develop bias-assisted sputtering for deposition of oriented Pt and Au films with sub-nanometer roughness. We show that biasing the substrate decreases the substrate temperature necessary to achieve epitaxial orientation, with temperature reduction from 600 to 350 °C for Au, and from 750 to 550 °C for Pt, without use of transition metal seed layers. In addition, this temperature can be further reduced by reducing the growth rate. Biased deposition with varying substrate bias power and working pressure also enables control of the film morphology and surface roughness.

  4. Competition between (001) and (111) MgO thin film growth on Al-doped ZnO by oxygen plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition

    Xiao, Bo; Yang, Qiguang; Walker, Brandon; Gonder, Casey A.; Romain, Gari C.; Mundle, Rajeh; Bahoura, Messaoud; Pradhan, A. K. [Center for Materials Research, Norfolk State University, Norfolk, Virginia 23504 (United States)


    We report on the study of epitaxial MgO thin films on (0001) Al-doped ZnO (Al: ZnO) underlayers, grown by oxygen plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition technique. A systematic investigation of the MgO thin films was performed by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, along with the current-voltage characteristics. A distinguished behavior was observed that the preferred MgO orientation changes from (111) to (001) in the films as the growth temperature increases. Two completely different in-plane epitaxial relationships were also determined from X-ray diffraction as: [110]MgO//[1120]Al: ZnO and [110]MgO//[1100]Al: ZnO for (001) MgO with 60 Degree-Sign rotated triplet domains, and [110]MgO//[1120]Al: ZnO for (111) MgO with 180 Degree-Sign rotated twin. The pronounced temperature dependence indicates a reconciliation of the nucleation driving forces among surface, interfacial, and strain energy for heteroepitaxy of cubic MgO on hexagonal Al: ZnO. The related interfacial atomic registry is considered to be important to the formation of unusual (001) MgO on hexagonal crystals. In addition, the electrical characterization revealed a dramatic reduction of the leakage current in (001) MgO thin films, whereas the small grain size of (111) MgO is identified by atomic force microscopy as a main cause of large leakage current.

  5. Growth and electrical properties of high-quality Mg-doped P-type A10.2Ga0.8N films

    Zhou Xiaowei; Li Peixian; Xu Shengrui; Hao Yue


    The growth of high-performance Mg-doped p-type AlxGa1-xN(X=0.2)using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition is reported.The influence of growth conditions(growth temperature,magnesium flow,and thermal annealing temperature)on the electrical properties of Mg-doped p-type AlxGa1-xN(X=0.2)has been investigated.Using the optimized conditions,we obtained a minimum p-type resistivity of 0.71 Ωcm for p-type AlGaN with 20% Al fraction.

  6. L1-norm minimization for quaternion signals

    Wu, Jiasong; Wang, Xiaoqing; Senhadji, Lotfi; Shu, Huazhong


    The l1-norm minimization problem plays an important role in the compressed sensing (CS) theory. We present in this letter an algorithm for solving the problem of l1-norm minimization for quaternion signals by converting it to second-order cone programming. An application example of the proposed algorithm is also given for practical guidelines of perfect recovery of quaternion signals. The proposed algorithm may find its potential application when CS theory meets the quaternion signal processing.

  7. Effect of growth regulators and explant origin on in vitro propagation of Ceratonia siliqua L. via cuttings

    Boussaid M.


    Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to develop a basic and simple protocol for micropropagation of Ceratonia siliqua. Axillaries bud sprouting and shoot development were stimulated on MS supplemented with BAP (0.5 mg.l-1, IBA (0.1 mg.l-1 and GA3 (0.5 mg.l-1, shoot multiplication was obtained on MS supplemented with BAP (2 mg.l-1 and rooting of microshoots was achieved on MS supplemented with IBA (2 mg.l-1 and charcoal (2 mg.l-1. The best results were obtained with herbaceous explants taken from juvenile trees. Significant differences in proliferation, multiplication and rooting due to the type and origin of explant and to the concentration of growth regulators were found.

  8. Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Nanoparticles for Better Survival and Growth of the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Post-larvae.

    Srinivasan, Veeran; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Rajkumar, Gopalan; Satgurunathan, Thangavelu; Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu


    This study was performed to assess the growth-promoting potential of dietary magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii post-larvae (PL). MgO NPs were supplemented at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet (containing 0.95 g Mg kg(-1)); the concentrations of Mg in MgO NP-supplemented diets were increased correspondingly (1.07, 1.15, 1.24, 1.37 and 1.46 g Mg kg(-1) respectively). MgO NP-supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL (initial weight 0.11 ± 0.04 g) for a period of 90 days. In the carcasses of experimental prawns, the content of Mg was found to be elevated significantly with respect to the individual diet (102.14, 183.29, 205.46, 221.03, 237.10 and 254.36 μg Mg g(-1) respectively) when compared with that of the control. The contents of Cu, Zn, Fe, Ca, Na and K levels were also found to be elevated in the carcasses of experimental prawns. Significant (P MgO NP-supplemented-feed-fed PL. There were no significant elevations recorded in activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)], lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metabolic enzymes [glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)] recorded in any of the MgO NP-supplemented-feed-fed PL when compared with the control. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed increases in the staining intensity of polypeptide bands resolved in 500 mg kg(-1) MgO NP-supplemented-feed-fed PL when compared with the control. Based on the gradual improvement in attaining survival, growth, FCR, biochemical constituents and haemocyte population, this study recommends MgO NP supplementation of 500 mg kg(-1) for sustainable maintenance of M. rosenbergii PL. As the studied highest concentration of MgO NPs showed the best performance, it is necessary to study with beyond 500 mg kg(-1) of MgO NPs to optimize the actual concentration.

  9. The growth-induced microstructural origin of the optical black state of Mg2NiHx thin films

    Westerwaal, R. J.; Borgschulte, A.; Lohstroh, W.; Dam, B.; Kooi, B.; ten Brink, Gert; Hopstaken, M. J. P.; Notten, P. H. L.


    Hydrogen absorption by a thin Mg2Ni film capped with Pd results in the nucleation of the Mg2NiH4 phase at the film/substrate interface. On further hydrogenation, a self-organized two-layer system consisting of a Mg2NiH0.3/Mg2NiH4 bottom-layer and a Mg2NiH0.3 top-layer is formed. This leads to an int

  10. The growth-induced microstructural origin of the optical black state of Mg2NiHx thin films

    Westerwaal, R. J.; Borgschulte, A.; Lohstroh, W.; Dam, B.; Kooi, B.; ten Brink, Gert; Hopstaken, M. J. P.; Notten, P. H. L.


    Hydrogen absorption by a thin Mg2Ni film capped with Pd results in the nucleation of the Mg2NiH4 phase at the film/substrate interface. On further hydrogenation, a self-organized two-layer system consisting of a Mg2NiH0.3/Mg2NiH4 bottom-layer and a Mg2NiH0.3 top-layer is formed. This leads to an int

  11. Canonical Sets of Best L1-Approximation

    Dimiter Dryanov


    Full Text Available In mathematics, the term approximation usually means either interpolation on a point set or approximation with respect to a given distance. There is a concept, which joins the two approaches together, and this is the concept of characterization of the best approximants via interpolation. It turns out that for some large classes of functions the best approximants with respect to a certain distance can be constructed by interpolation on a point set that does not depend on the choice of the function to be approximated. Such point sets are called canonical sets of best approximation. The present paper summarizes results on canonical sets of best L1-approximation with emphasis on multivariate interpolation and best L1-approximation by blending functions. The best L1-approximants are characterized as transfinite interpolants on canonical sets. The notion of a Haar-Chebyshev system in the multivariate case is discussed also. In this context, it is shown that some multivariate interpolation spaces share properties of univariate Haar-Chebyshev systems. We study also the problem of best one-sided multivariate L1-approximation by sums of univariate functions. Explicit constructions of best one-sided L1-approximants give rise to well-known and new inequalities.

  12. Validation of ATLAS L1 Topological Triggers

    Praderio, Marco


    The Topological trigger (L1Topo) is a new component of the ATLAS L1 (Level-1) trigger. Its purpose is that of reducing the otherwise too high rate of data collection from the LHC by rejecting those events considered “uninteresting” (meaning that they have already been studied). This event rate reduction is achieved by applying topological requirements to the physical objects present in each event. It is very important to make sure that this trigger does not reject any “interesting” event. Therefore we need to verify its correct functioning. The goal of this summer student project is to study the response of two L1Topo algorithms (concerning ∆R and invariant mass). To do so I will compare the trigger decisions produced by the L1Topo hardware with the ones produced by the “official” L1Topo simulation. This way I will be able to identify events that could be incorrectly rejected. Simultaneously I will produce an emulation of these triggers that will help me understand the cause of disagreements bet...

  13. [Optimized expression of the L1 protein of human papillomavirus in Hansenula polymorpha].

    Li, Weiwei; He, Xiuping; Guo, Xuena; Zhang, Zhenying; Zhang, Borun


    The heterologously expressed L1 protein of human papilomavirus 16 can assembly into virus-like particles (VLPs), which has been used as prophylactic vaccine for cervical carcinoma. To express L1 protein in Hansenula polymorpha, we analyzed the codon usage of the native gene of L1 protein and redesigned the encoding sequence according to the codon bias of H. polymorpha. We used assembly PCR to synthesize the native gene HPV16L1-N and the codon optimized gene HPV16L1. The synthesized genes were cloned into pMOXZa-A vector to generate plasmids pMOXZ-HPV16N and pMOXZ-HPV16. The expression cassettes MOXp-HPV16L1(N)-AOXTT were cloned into YEp352 vector and transferred into H. polymorpha. After methanol inducement, the expression of L1 protein in H. polymorpha was detected from the codon optimized gene HPV16L1 rather than the native gene HPVI6L1-N. The parameters for induced cultivation for strain HP-U-16L with HPV16L1 were investigated in shaking flask cultures. After induced cultivation in YPM (pH 7.0) medium supplemented with methanol to a final concentration of 1.0% every 12 h at 37 degrees C for 72 h, the recombinant produced 78.6 mg/L of L1 protein. This work offers the possibility for the production of prophylactic vaccine for cervical carcinoma by H. polymorpha.

  14. Face recognition with L1-norm subspaces

    Maritato, Federica; Liu, Ying; Colonnese, Stefania; Pados, Dimitris A.


    We consider the problem of representing individual faces by maximum L1-norm projection subspaces calculated from available face-image ensembles. In contrast to conventional L2-norm subspaces, L1-norm subspaces are seen to offer significant robustness to image variations, disturbances, and rank selection. Face recognition becomes then the problem of associating a new unknown face image to the "closest," in some sense, L1 subspace in the database. In this work, we also introduce the concept of adaptively allocating the available number of principal components to different face image classes, subject to a given total number/budget of principal components. Experimental studies included in this paper illustrate and support the theoretical developments.

  15. Morphologies and growth mechanisms of the eutectic particles in as-cast Al-Mg-Sc alloy; Morphologien und Wachstumsmechanismen eutektischer Partikel in Al-Mg-Sc-Legierung im Gusszustand

    Pan, Dejiang; Zhou, Shi' ang; Li, Heng [Hefei Univ. of Technology (China); Zhang, Zhen; Wu, Yucheng [Laboratories of Nonferrous Metal Material and Processing Engineering of Anhui Province, Hefei (China); Li, Ming [Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Co., Ltd, Hefei (China)


    Primary particles with faceted cubic morphology were produced in as-cast Al-Mg alloy due to the addition of Sc. The cross-section of the particles revealed some eutectic structure composed of multilayer of 'Al{sub 3}Sc + α-Al + Al{sub 3}Sc..'. At the cooling rate of 200 - 300 K/s, Al{sub 3}Sc primary phase nucleated initially on oxides within the melt and developed to a cubic structure with a 'cellular-dendritic' mode of growth. The formation of α-Al structural shells was attributed as a reason for the segregation of Mg-rich lamellar dendrites at later stages. A growth mechanism for multilayer structure was proposed using the results presented.

  16. Effects of the Growth Rate on Microstructures and Room Temperature Mechanical Properties of Directionally Solidified Mg-5.2Zn Alloy

    Liu, Shaojun; Yang, Guangyu; Xiao, Lei; Luo, Shifeng; Jie, Wanqi


    Effects of the growth rate on the microstructures and room temperature mechanical properties of Mg-5.2Zn alloy were investigated using Bridgman method at a constant temperature gradient 30 K/mm with different growth rates (v = 10 ~ 100 μm/s). The microstructure of directionally solidified Mg-5.2Zn alloy is composed of dendrite primary α(Mg) phase and interdendritic α(Mg) + Mg7Zn3 eutectic, which agrees well with the predicted microstructure using Scheil model. The morphology of the primary α(Mg) phase transforms from cellular, to cellular-dendritic, and then to dendritic with the increase of growth rate from 10 μm/s to 100 μm/s. According to the Kurz-Fisher model, the approximate criterion growth rate for cellular/dendrite transition is determined to be about 12.7 μm/s, which just lies in the experimental result interval. Using non-linear fitting analysis, λ 1 (the primary dendrite arm spacing) and λ 2 (secondary dendrite arm spacing) were found to be dependent on v (growth rate) in the form of λ 1 = 8.6964 × 10-6 v -0.23983, λ 2 = 1.7703 × 10-6 v -0.34161, which is in good agreement with the calculated values by the Trivedi model and Kattamis-Flemings model, respectively. Furthermore, tensile test shows that the directional solidified experimental Mg-5.2Zn alloy shows higher strength than the non-directional solidified alloy under the same cooling rate. The dendritic structure shows higher strength than the cellular structure due to the fact that brittle interdendrite eutectic was refined in dendritic structures.

  17. Reference: L1DCPAL1 [PLACE

    Full Text Available L1DCPAL1 Takeda J, Ito Y, Maeda K, Ozeki Y. Assignment of UVB-responsive cis-elemen...anine ammonia-lyase gene (gDcPAL1). Photochem Photobiol. 76:232-238 (2002). PubMed: 12194222 ...

  18. Voice and Narrative in L1 Writing

    Krogh, Ellen; Piekut, Anke


    in lower secondary L1, she found that her previous writing strategies were not rewarded in upper secondary school. In the second empiri-cal study, two upper-secondary exam papers are investigated, with a focus on their approaches to exam genres and their use of narrative resources to address issues...

  19. Time scales of magma recharge and crystal growth rate determined from Mg and Ti zoning in plagioclase phenocrysts from the Upper Toluca Pumice, Mexico

    Dohmen, Ralf; Smith, Victoria C.; Arce, Jose Luis; Blundy, Jonathan D.


    Major and trace element zoning in plagioclase phenocrysts has the potential to stores information on the temporal evolution of the chemical environment during crystal growth, i.e. the surrounding melt composition as well as the intensive parameters temperature (T) and pressure (P), provided that equilibrium partitioning accompanies growth. However, the problem is complicated by the fact that diffusion of mobile elements changes their initial concentrations due to re-equilibration with the surrounding melt at later stages, making estimation of the pre-diffusive element profiles fraught with uncertainty. Here we present a new approach that combines the information from immobile (e.g., Ca, Ti) and mobile (e.g., Mg) elements in plagioclase to unravel the growth history and time scales of magma recharge events from the 10.5 ka Upper Toluca plinian eruption of Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico. Since trace elements are less sensitive to intensive parameters their variations in plagioclase phenocrysts have been used to identify open-system processes in silicic systems [1]. These phenocrysts preserve complex element patterns, such as oscillatory zoning and overgrowths, indicating multiple magma recharging events. Based on available diffusion data major elements and, for example, the trace element Ba, are effectively unchanged since crystallization, but the mobility of Mg [2] is large enough to alter the initial concentration at later growth stages. We made attempts to model the Mg zoning using two endmember cases for the growth history of the plagioclase. In the model the growth rate can either be constant until the final crystal diameter is reached or involve various short growth stages with diffusion relaxation breaks in-between. The corresponding moving boundary problem of the diffusion equation was solved numerically using the method of finite differences and a front-tracking method [3]. A particular challenge of the modelling is to estimate the initial Mg concentration

  20. Biodegradation of alkaline lignin by Bacillus ligniniphilus L1

    Zhu, Daochen; Zhang, Peipei; Xie, Changxiao; Zhang, Weimin; Sun, Jianzhong; Qian, Wei-Jun; Yang, Bin


    Background: Lignin is the most abundant aromatic biopolymer in the biosphere and it comprises up to 30% of plant biomass. Although lignin is the most recalcitrant component of the plant cell wall, still there are microorganisms able to decompose it or degrade it. Fungi are recognized as the most widely used microbes for lignin degradation. However, bacteria have also been known to be able to utilize lignin as a carbon or energy source. Bacillus ligniniphilus L1 was selected in this study due to its capability to utilize alkaline lignin as a single carbon or energy source and its excellent ability to survive in extreme environments. Results: To investigate the aromatic metabolites of strain L1 decomposing alkaline lignin, GC-MS analyze was performed and fifteen single phenol ring aromatic compounds were identified. The dominant absorption peak included phenylacetic acid, 4-hydroxy-benzoicacid, and vanillic acid with the highest proportion of metabolites resulting in 42%. Comparison proteomic analysis were carried out for further study showed that approximately 1447 kinds of proteins were produced, 141 of which were at least 2-fold up-regulated with alkaline lignin as the single carbon source. The up-regulated proteins contents different categories in the biological functions of protein including lignin degradation, ABC transport system, environmental response factors, protein synthesis and assembly, etc. Conclusions: GC-MS analysis showed that alkaline lignin degradation of strain L1 produced 15 kinds of aromatic compounds. Comparison proteomic data and metabolic analysis showed that to ensure the degradation of lignin and growth of strain L1, multiple aspects of cells metabolism including transporter, environmental response factors, and protein synthesis were enhanced. Based on genome and proteomic analysis, at least four kinds of lignin degradation pathway might be present in strain L1, including a Gentisate pathway, the benzoic acid pathway and the

  1. Effect of polymers associated with N and K fertilizer sources on Dendrathema grandiflorum growth and K, Ca and Mg relations

    Sita Regiane Cristina Marcato


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of polymer used with different nitrogen and potassium sources on the growth and nutrition of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiforum, var. "Virginal" and on chemical characteristics of substrate. Two substrates were evaluated: 1 composite with 50 % organic soil, 45 % sand, and 5 % composted tobacco; 2 plow layer soil (0-20 cm depth; red oxisol typical dystrophic. The experimental design was a factorial (4x2x2 and included four polymer rates (0, 1, 2, and 4 g kg-1of substrate, two nitrogen ((NH42SO4 and (H2N2CO, and two potassium (KCl and K2SO4 sources. Dry biomass, flower number, and concentration of K, Ca, and Mg were evaluated. Inverse relationships between polymer rates and plant biomass, macronutrient uptake were noticed, regardless substrate or nutrient source.O polímero agrícola tem um grande potencial de uso como condicionador de solo para produção de mudas. Contudo, pouco conhecimento existe sobre seu uso e interação com fertilizantes.Visando avaliar o efeito do polímero com diferentes fontes de abubações nitrogenadas e potássicas, no crescimento e nutrição do crisântemo (var. "Virginal" e características químicas dos substratos, um experimento foi montado. A instalação foi em casa de vegetação da Empresa CONSPIZZA HIDROSSEMEADURA Ltda., situada no município de Colombo-PR, no verão de 2001. Dois substratos foram testados: 1 composto de 50% de solo orgânico, 45% de areia e 5% de fumo compostado; 2 camada superficial (0-20cm de um LATOSSOLO VERMELHO Distrófico típico, do município de Ponta Grossa. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com 5 repetições, em esquema fatorial 4x2x2, sendo 4 doses de polímero (0; 1; 2 e 4g kg-1 de substrato, 2 fontes nitrogenadas [(NH42SO4 e (H2N2CO] e duas fontes potássicas (KCl e K2SO4, respectivamente. Determinou-se massa seca de ramos, folhas e teores de K, Ca e Mg. Os substratos foram avaliados quanto aos teores de K

  2. Growth and stability of rocksalt Zn1-xMgxO epilayers and ZnO/MgO superlattice on MgO (100) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Lu, C-Y James; Tu, Y-T; Yan, T; Trampert, A; Chang, L; Ploog, K H


    Zn1-xMgxO films with x = 0.04-0.50 grown on MgO (100) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy retain the rocksalt (rs) crystal structure and grow epitaxially for x ≥ 0.17. In addition, the rs-ZnO epilayer is observed to be stable up to a thickness of 5 nm and also in a ZnO/MgO superlattice sample. However, a portion of the superlattice has transformed to wurtzite (wz)-structure islands in a self-accommodated manner during growth. The transformation is a combination of a Bain distortion, an in-plane rotation of 14.5°, and a Peierls distortion, resulting in an orientation relationship of (100)rs//(101̄0)wz and 〈011〉rs ∼//〈1̄21̄3〉wz. In such a manner, the volume expansion is only necessary along the growth direction and the in-plane strains can be minimized. A negative pressure generated during the transformation of ZnO stabilizes the MgO into a wurtzite structure.

  3. The Papillomavirus Major Capsid Protein L1

    Buck, Christopher B.; Day, Patricia M.; Trus, Benes L.


    The elegant icosahedral surface of the papillomavirus virion is formed by a single protein called L1. Recombinant L1 proteins can spontaneously self-assemble into a highly immunogenic structure that closely mimics the natural surface of native papillomavirus virions. This has served as the basis for two highly successful vaccines against cancer-causing human papillomaviruses (HPVs). During the viral life cycle, the capsid must undergo a variety of conformational changes, allowing key functions including the encapsidation of the ~8 kb viral genomic DNA, maturation into a more stable state to survive transit between hosts, mediating attachment to new host cells, and finally releasing the viral DNA into the newly infected host cell. This brief review focuses on conserved sequence and structural features that underlie the functions of this remarkable protein. PMID:23800545

  4. Generalized L1 penalized matrix factorization

    Rasmussen, Morten Arendt


    for constraining models to obey certain structural properties, including parameter sparsity and sparsity on pairwise differences between parameter estimates. The utility of this framework is used to modify principal component analysis, partial least squares, canonical correlation analysis, and multivariate......Traditionally, chemometric models consists of parameters found by solving a least squares criterion. However, these models can suffer from overfitting, as well as being hard to interpret because of the large number of active parameters. This work proposes the use of a generalized L1 norm penalty...... analysis of variance type of models applied to synthetic and chemical data. This work argues that L1 norm penalized models offers parsimony, robustness and predictive performance, and reveals a path for modifying unconstrained chemometric models through convex penalties....

  5. L1-norm packings from function fields

    LI Hongli


    In this paper, we study some packings in a cube, namely, how to pack n points in a cube so as to maximize the minimal distance. The distance is induced by the L1-norm which is analogous to the Hamming distance in coding theory. Two constructions with reasonable parameters are obtained, by using some results from a function field including divisor class group, narrow ray class group, and so on. We also present some asymptotic results of the two packings.

  6. Effect of Bensulfuron-Methyl on Growth of Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    YUE Xia-li; YU Xiao-qing; LIU Yong-hong; DONG Yuan-yan


    To study the growth effects of differing concentrations of bensulfuron-methyl on Chlorella pyrenoidosa and to evaluate the ecological risk, the effects of bensulfuron-methyl on the growth and the content change of chlorophyll and protein in Chlorella pyrenoidosa were studied through 96 h acute toxicity tests. Bensulfuron-methyl accelerated the growth of algae at lower concentrations (< 1 mg L-1) with content increase of chlorophyll or protein, and it inhibited the growth of algae at higher concentrations (>5 mg L-1). The content of chlorophyll or protein in algae cells reduced with the increasing concentration of bensulfuron-methyl, exhibiting the good concentration-effect relationship. The 96 h-EC50 of bensulfuronmethyl upon the algae was 15.7 mg L-1. Bensulfuron-methyl has inhibiting effect on the growth of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and is low in toxicity.

  7. rno-miR-665 targets BCL2L1 (Bcl-xl) and increases vulnerability to propofol in developing astrocytes.

    Sun, Wen-Chong; Pei, Ling


    Propofol exerts a cytotoxic influence over immature neurocytes. Our previous study revealed that clinically relevant doses of propofol accelerated apoptosis of primary cultured astrocytes of developing rodent brains via rno-miR-665 regulation. However, the role of rno-miR-665 during the growth spurt of neonatal rodent brains in vivo is still uncertain. Post-natal day 7 (P7) rats received a single injection of propofol 30 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.), and neuroapoptosis of hippocampal astrocytes was analyzed by immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. The differential expression of rno-miR-665, BCL2L1 (Bcl-xl), and cleaved caspase 3 (CC3) was surveyed by qRT-PCR and western blotting. In addition, the utility of A-1155463, a highly potent and BCL2L1-selective antagonist, was aimed to assess the contribution of BCL2L1 for neuroglial survival. Following the intraventricular injection of lentivirus rno-miR-665, neuroprotection was detected by 5-point scale measurement. The single dose of propofol 30 mg/kg triggered dose-dependent apoptosis of developing hippocampal astrocytes. Meanwhile, propofol triggered both rno-miR-665 and CC3, and depressed BCL2L1, which was predicted as one target gene of rno-miR-665. Combination treatment with A-1155463 and propofol induced lower mRNA and protein levels of BCL2L1 and more CC3 activation than propofol treatment alone in vivo. The lentivirus-mediated knockdown of rno-miR-665 elevated BCL2L1 and attenuated CC3 levels, whereas up-regulation of rno-miR-665 suppressed BCL2L1 and induced CC3 expression in vivo. More importantly, rno-miR-665 antagomir infusion improved neurological outcomes of pups receiving propofol during the brain growth spurt. Rno-miR-665, providing a potential target for alternative therapeutics for pediatric anesthesia, is susceptible to propofol by negatively targeting antiapoptotic BCL2L1. Relatively little is known about the association between exposure of astrocytes to brief propofol

  8. Growth and characterization of {beta}-In N films on Mg O: the key role of a {beta}-Ga N buffer layer in growing cubic In N

    Navarro C, H.; Perez C, M.; Rodriguez, A. G.; Lopez L, E.; Vidal, M. A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Coordinacion para la Innovacion y la Aplicacion de la Ciencia y la Tecnologia, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi (Mexico)


    Cubic In N samples were grown on Mg O (001) substrates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. In general, we find that In N directly deposited onto the Mg O substrate results in polycrystalline or columnar films of hexagonal symmetry. We find that adequate conditions to grow the cubic phase of this compound require the growth of an initial cubic Ga N buffer interlayer ({beta}-t Ga N) on the Mg O surface. Subsequently, the growth conditions were optimized to obtain good photoluminescence (Pl) emission. The resultant In N growth is mostly cubic, with very small hexagonal inclusions, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies. Good crystalline quality requires that the samples to be grown under rich Indium metal flux. The cubic {beta}-t In N/Ga N/Mg O samples exhibit a high signal to noise ratio for Pl at low temperatures (20 K). The Pl is centered at O.75 eV and persist at room temperature. (Author)

  9. The growth of Mg2TiO4 single crystals using a four-mirror furnace

    Golubović Aleksandar


    Full Text Available A single crystal of Mg2TiO4 was grown by the travelling solvent float zone (TSFZ method. The lattice parameter a = 0.8444(8 nm was determined by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The optical properties of the Mg2TiO4 single crystals were studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The obtained results are discussed and compared with published data.

  10. Effect of Second Phase Particles on Grain Growth for Nanocrystalline AZ31 Mg Alloy by Phase Field Methods

    Wu Yan


    Full Text Available The grain growth of nanocrystalline AZ31 magnesium alloy containing spherical particles with different sizes is simulated by phase field methods. It is shown that the role of pinning effect of the second phase particles during grain growth is interesting. There is a critical particle size to affect the grain growth in nanostructure. If the size of particles is lower than the critical value, the effect of pinning for grain growth will be increased with further decreasing the size. If the size is larger than the critical value, the particles nearly have no pinning effects. The critical value is 200 nm when the content of particles is 10%. It is found that the grain growth exponents in kinetic equation decrease when the sizes of particles increase in nanostructure with the same volume fraction of the particles, and the pinning effect of particles on the grain growth is decreased as well.

  11. Effect of MgCl2 stress on germination, plant growth, chlorophyll content, proline content and lipid peroxidation in sorghum cultivars

    Khare T.


    Full Text Available Present report deals with the effect of increasing levels (0-300 mM of MgCl2 salt on sorghum cultivars, Phule Vasudha and Phule Revati. Although MgCl2 stress did not show considerable adverse effects on germination, however, at higher (>200 mM concentrations, the seedlings turned brown and did not showed any further growth, with comparably higher magnitude of negative effects on Phule Revati than Phule Vasudha. Overall, increasing MgCl2 stress reduced plant growth and biomass production significantly in both the cultivars, though with lesser extent in Phule Vsudha as compared to Phule Rvati. Contrasting behavior was evidenced in both the cultivars in terms of protein content under varying levels of MgCl2 concentration at vegetative growth level, where salinity induced reduction in protein content was higher in Phule Revati than Phule Vasudha. The genotype Phule Vasudha showed higher proline content under non-saline condition. MgCl2 stress-induced proline accumulation was observed in both the sorghum cultivars, however, interestingly, Phule Revati (439% of control plants showed comparably higher proline content than Phule Vasudha (324% of control plants at the highest (300 mM level of stress. Even though, malondialdehyde (MDA: lipid peroxidation indicator content was on higher side under non-saline conditions in cultivar Phule Vasudha as compared to cultivar Phule Revati, however the rate of increase in MDA with increasing salt stress was much higher in the latter cultivar, indicating the comparably higher level of lipid peroxidation under the influence of MgCl2 stress. The salt tolerance nature of Phule Vasudha was positively correlated with its better performance in terms of physiological and biochemical parameters.

  12. Growth and magnetic properties of ultrathin epitaxial FeO films and Fe/FeO bilayers on MgO(001)

    Kozioł-Rachwał, A., E-mail: [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Ślęzak, T. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Nozaki, T.; Yuasa, S. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Korecki, J. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 8, 30-239 Kraków (Poland)


    Ultrathin FeO(001) films were grown via molecular beam epitaxy on MgO(001) using reactive deposition of Fe. The growth conditions were adjusted toward stabilization of the wüstite phase, the existence of which was confirmed by means of conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy. It was shown how the metallic Fe overlayer modified the chemical state and the magnetic properties of the FeO oxide. Finally, we observed the exchange bias for an epitaxial Fe/FeO bilayer grown on MgO(001)

  13. Sequential administration of MVA-based vaccines and PD-1/PD-L1-blocking antibodies confers measurable benefits on tumor growth and survival: preclinical studies with MVA-βGal and MVA-MUC1 (TG4010) in a murine tumor model.

    Remy-Ziller, Christelle; Thioudellet, Christine; Hortelano, Julie; Gantzer, Murielle; Nourtier, Virginie; Claudepierre, Marie-Christine; Sansas, Benoit; Préville, Xavier; Bendjama, Kaïdre; Quemeneur, Eric; Rittner, Karola


    TG4010, a Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing human mucin1 (MUC1) has demonstrated clinical benefit for patients suffering from advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in combination with chemotherapy. To support its development, preclinical experiments were performed with either TG4010 or β-galactosidase-encoding MVA vector (MVA-βgal) in mice presenting tumors in the lung. Tumor growth was obtained after intravenous injection of CT26 murine colon cancer cells, engineered to express either MUC1 or βgal. Mice showed increased survival rates after repeated intravenous injections of TG4010 or MVA-βgal, compared to an empty MVA control vector. Treatment with MVA vectors led to the accumulation of CD3(dim)CD8(dim) T cells, with two subpopulations characterized as KLRG1(+)CD127(-) short-lived effector cells (SLECs), and KLRG1(-)CD127(-) early effector cells (EECs) comprising cells releasing IFNγ, Granzyme B and CD107a upon antigen-specific peptide stimulation. EECs were characterized by an up-regulation of PD-1. Tumor growth in the diseased lung correlated with the appearance of PD1(+) Treg cells that partially disappeared after TG4010 treatment. At late stage of tumor development in the lung, PD-L1 was detected on CD45(-) tumor cells, on CD4(+) cells, including Treg cells, on CD3(+)CD8(+) and CD3(dim)CD8(dim) T lymphocytes, on NK cells, on MDSCs and on alveolar macrophages. We demonstrated that targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway with blocking monoclonal antibodies several days after TG4010 treatment, at late stage of tumor development, enhanced the therapeutic protection induced by the vaccine, supporting the ongoing clinical evaluation of TG4010 immunotherapy in combination with Nivolumab.

  14. Microwave assisted rapid growth of Mg(OH){sub 2} nanosheet networks for ethanol chemical sensor application

    Al-Hazmi, Faten [Department of Physics, College of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21569 (Saudi Arabia); Umar, Ahmad, E-mail: [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED) and Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Research (CAMNR), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Dar, G.N. [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED) and Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Research (CAMNR), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Ghamdi, A.A.; Al-Sayari, S.A. [Department of Physics, College of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21569 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Hajry, A. [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED) and Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Research (CAMNR), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, College of Science and Arts, Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Kim, S.H. [Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED) and Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Research (CAMNR), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Tuwirqi, Reem M. [Department of Physics, College of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21569 (Saudi Arabia); Alnowaiserb, Fowzia [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); El-Tantawy, Farid [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A facile microwave-assisted synthesis and characterizations of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) nanosheet networks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of ethanol sensor based on (Mg(OH){sub 2}) nanosheet networks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good sensitivity ({approx}3.991 {mu}A cm{sup -2} mM{sup -1}) and lower detection limit (5 {mu}M). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This research opens a way to utilize Mg(OH){sub 2} nanostructures for chemical sensors applications. - Abstract: This paper reports a facile microwave-assisted synthesis of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) nanosheet networks and their utilization for the fabrication of efficient ethanol chemical sensor. The synthesized nanosheets networks were characterized in terms of their morphological, structural and optical properties using various analysis techniques such as field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The detailed morphological and structural investigations reveal that the synthesized (Mg(OH){sub 2}) products are nanosheet networks, grown in high density, and possessing hexagonal crystal structure. The optical band gap of as-synthesized Mg(OH){sub 2} nanosheet networks was examined by UV-Vis absorption spectrum, and found to be 5.76 eV. The synthesized nanosheet networks were used as supporting matrices for the fabrication of I-V technique based efficient ethanol chemical sensor. The fabricated ethanol sensor based on nanosheet networks exhibits good sensitivity ({approx}3.991 {mu}A cm{sup -2} mM{sup -1}) and lower detection limit (5 {mu}M), with linearity (R = 0.9925) in short response time (10.0 s). This work demonstrate that the simply synthesized Mg(OH){sub 2} nanosheet networks can effectively be used for the fabrication of efficient ethanol chemical sensors.

  15. Three cases with L1 syndrome and two novel mutations in the L1CAM gene.

    Marín, Rosario; Ley-Martos, Miriam; Gutiérrez, Gema; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Felicidad; Arroyo, Diego; Mora-López, Francisco


    Mutations in the L1CAM gene have been identified in the following various X-linked neurological disorders: congenital hydrocephalus; mental retardation, aphasia, shuffling gait, and adducted thumbs (MASA) syndrome; spastic paraplegia; and agenesis of the corpus callosum. These conditions are currently considered different phenotypes of a single entity known as L1 syndrome. We present three families with L1 syndrome. Sequencing of the L1CAM gene allowed the identification of the following mutations involved: a known splicing mutation (c.3531-12G>A) and two novel ones: a missense mutation (c.1754A>C; p.Asp585Ala) and a nonsense mutation (c.3478C>T; p.Gln1160Stop). The number of affected males and carrier females identified in a relatively small population suggests that L1 syndrome may be under-diagnosed. L1 syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intellectual disability or mental retardation in children, especially when other signs such as hydrocephalus or adducted thumbs are present.

  16. Influences of Pressure and Substrate Temperature on Epitaxial Growth of γ-Mg2SiO4 Thin Films on Si Substrates

    KANG Lin; GAO Ju; XU Hua-Rong; ZHAO Shao-Qi; CHEN Hong; WU Pei-Heng


    An epitaxial,γ-Mg2SiO4 thin film can be a good buffer between the Si substrate and some oxide thin films.For high temperature superconducting multilayer structures,hopefully it can be taken as an insulating layer to replace the widely used MgO film.To explore such possibilities,we carry out systematic studies on the influences of pressure and substrate temperature on the epitaxy of γ-Mg2SiO4 thin films grown on Si(100) substrates using rf magnetron sputtering with an Mg target of purity of 99.95 percent.With the substrate temperature kept at 500℃and the pressure changing from 10Pa to 15Pa,in the XRD spectra the γ-Mg2SiO4(400) peak grows drastically while the MgO(200)peak is suppressed.Keeping the pressure at 15 Pa and increasing the temperature from 500℃ to 570℃ further can improve the film epitaxy,while working at 780℃ and 11 Pa seems to give very good results.X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy and φscan are used to characterize the stoichiometry,crystallinity,and in-plane growth of the samples.

  17. Influence of Ca/Mg ratio on phytoextraction properties of Salix viminalis I. The effectiveness of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn bioaccumulation and plant growth.

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Kozlowska, Monika; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Chadzinikolau, Tamara; Golinski, Piotr


    Phytoremediation and its efficiency--influenced by several factors-is prime concern in reduction of environment contamination with heavy metals. The aim of the study was to estimate in controlled conditions--in relation to the natural Ca/Mg ratio 4:1--the influence of different Ca/Mg ratios (1:1/4, 20:1, 1:10) on selected heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) accumulation efficiency shown by three morphological parts of Salix viminalis 'Cinamomea' (cane bark, shoots and roots). Accumulation of heavy metals in experimental conditions was significantly Ca/Mg ratio dependent, and occurred in the following order: 1:10 > 4:1 > 20:1 > 1:1/4. The highest accumulation under 0.5 mM solutions (as compared to 0.1 mM) was noted for copper and zinc, and the lowest for cadmium. Biometric parameters of Salix viminalis cuttings revealed the highest biomass productivity under 20:1 and 4:1 Ca/Mg ratios. In the case of shoot length increase, both metal concentration and kind of metal present in the solution were important. The results indicate that higher calcium ion concentration in solution (Ca/Mg 20:1) stimulates Salix viminalis growth by 3 fold when compared to other Ca/Mg ratio. It can be an important factor in remediation of the environment with this plant.

  18. Effects of Mg on diamond growth and properties in Fe-C system under high pressure and high temperature condition

    Huang, Guo-Feng; Zheng, You-Jin; Li, Zhan-Chang; Gao, Qiang; Ma, Zhuo; Shi, Si-Ming; Jiang, Bao-Gang; Zhao, He


    Diamond crystal crystallized in Fe-Mg-C system with Archimedes buoyancy as a driving force is established under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The experimental results indicate that the addition of the Mg element results in the nitrogen concentration increasing from 87 ppm to 271 ppm in the diamond structure. The occurrence of the {100} plane reveals that the surface character is remarkably changed due to the addition of Mg. Micro-Raman spectra indicate that the half width of full maximum is in a range of 3.01 cm-1-3.26 cm-1, implying an extremely good quality of diamond specimens in crystallization. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China (Grant No. 2013MS0809) and the Open Project of Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Physics and Chemistry (Jilin Normal University) of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 201608).

  19. Hyperspectral IASI L1C Data Compression

    Joaquín García-Sobrino


    Full Text Available The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI, implemented on the MetOp satellite series, represents a significant step forward in atmospheric forecast and weather understanding. The instrument provides infrared soundings of unprecedented accuracy and spectral resolution to derive humidity and atmospheric temperature profiles, as well as some of the chemical components playing a key role in climate monitoring. IASI collects rich spectral information, which results in large amounts of data (about 16 Gigabytes per day. Efficient compression techniques are requested for both transmission and storage of such huge data. This study reviews the performance of several state of the art coding standards and techniques for IASI L1C data compression. Discussion embraces lossless, near-lossless and lossy compression. Several spectral transforms, essential to achieve improved coding performance due to the high spectral redundancy inherent to IASI products, are also discussed. Illustrative results are reported for a set of 96 IASI L1C orbits acquired over a full year (4 orbits per month for each IASI-A and IASI-B from July 2013 to June 2014 . Further, this survey provides organized data and facts to assist future research and the atmospheric scientific community.

  20. The Effects of Test Temperature, Temper, and Alloyed Copper on the Hydrogen-Controlled Crack Growth Rate of an Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    G.A. Young, Jr.; J.R. Scully


    The hydrogen embrittlement controlled stage II crack growth rate of AA 7050 (6.09 wt.% Zn, 2.14 wt% Mg, 2.19 wt.% Cu) was investigated as a function of temper and alloyed copper level in a humid air environment at various temperatures. Three tempers representing the underaged, peak aged, and overaged conditions were tested in 90% relative humidity (RH) air at temperatures between 25 and 90 C. At all test temperatures, an increased degree of aging (from underaged to overaged) produced slower stage II crack growth rates. The stage II crack growth rate of each alloy and temper displayed Arrhenius-type temperature dependence with activation energies between 58 and 99 kJ/mol. For both the normal copper and low copper alloys, the fracture path was predominantly intergranular at all test temperatures (25-90 C) in each temper investigated. Comparison of the stage II crack growth rates for normal (2.19 wt.%) and low (0.06 wt.%) copper alloys in the peak aged and overaged tempers showed the beneficial effect of copper additions on stage II crack growth rate in humid air. In the 2.19 wt.% copper alloy, the significant decrease ({approx} 10 times at 25 C) in stage II crack growth rate upon overaging is attributed to an increase in the apparent activation energy for crack growth. IN the 0.06 wt.% copper alloy, overaging did not increase the activation energy for crack growth but did lower the pre-exponential factor, {nu}{sub 0}, resulting in a modest ({approx} 2.5 times at 25 C) decrease in crack growth rate. These results indicate that alloyed copper and thermal aging affect the kinetic factors that govern stage II crack growth rate. Overaged, copper bearing alloys are not intrinsically immune to hydrogen environment assisted cracking but are more resistant due to an increased apparent activation energy for stage II crack growth.

  1. Growth of Ni and Ni-Cr alloy thin films on MgO(001): Effect of alloy composition on surface morphology

    Ramalingam, Gopalakrishnan; Reinke, Petra


    The effects of substrate treatment, growth temperature, and composition on the surface morphology of Ni-Cr thin films grown on MgO(001) are studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrate that a combination of acid-etched substrates and high temperature deposition (400 °C) will result in smooth films with well-defined terraces (up to 30 nm wide) that are suitable for the study of progression of chemical reactions on the surface. Two different treatments are used to prepare the MgO substrates for deposition and they introduce characteristic differences in film surface morphology. Thin films that are grown on the phosphoric acid-treated substrates present reduced nucleation density during the initial stages of film growth which results in long and wide terraces. Due to the ≈16% lattice mismatch in the Ni(001)/MgO(001) system, film growth at 400 °C yields discontinuous films and a two-step growth process is necessary to obtain a continuous layer. Ni films are deposited at 100 °C and subjected to a post-growth annealing at 300 °C for 2 h to obtain a smoother surface. The addition of just 5 wt. % Cr drastically changes the film growth processes and yields continuous films at 400 °C without de-wetting in contrast to pure Ni films. With increasing Cr content, the films become progressively smoother with wider terraces. Ni5Cr alloy thin films have an rms surface roughness of 3.63 ± 0.75 nm, while Ni33Cr thin film is smoother with an rms roughness of only 0.29 ± 0.13 nm. The changes in film growth initiated by alloying with Cr are due to changes in the interfacial chemistry which favorably alters the initial adsorption of the metal atoms on MgO surface and suggests a reduction of the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier. The growth of smooth Ni-Cr thin films with a well-defined surface structure opens up a new pathway for a wide range of surface science studies related to alloy performance.

  2. Fabrication of L1{sub 0}-MnAl perpendicularly magnetized thin films for perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    Hosoda, Masaki; Oogane, Mikihiko; Kubota, Miho; Saruyama, Haruaki; Iihama, Satoshi; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Ando, Yasuo [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate school of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aza-aoba 6-6-05, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kubota, Takahide [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)


    Structural and magnetic properties of MnAl thin films with different composition, growth temperature, and post-annealing temperature were investigated. The optimum condition for fabrication of L1{sub 0}-MnAl perpendicularly magnetized thin film deposited on Cr-buffered MgO single crystal substrate was revealed. The results of x ray diffraction indicated that the MnAl films annealed at proper temperature had a (001)-orientation and L1{sub 0}-ordered structure. The L1{sub 0}-ordered films were perpendicularly magnetized and had a large perpendicular anisotropy. In addition, low surface roughness was achieved. For the optimized fabrication condition, the saturation magnetization M{sub s} of 600 emu/cm{sup 3} and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy K{sub u} of 1.0 x 10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} was obtained using the Mn{sub 48}Al{sub 52} target at deposition temperature of 200 deg. C and post-annealing temperature of 450 deg. C.

  3. A trapped magnetic field of 3 T in homogeneous, bulk MgB2 superconductors fabricated by a modified precursor infiltration and growth process

    Bhagurkar, A. G.; Yamamoto, A.; Anguilano, L.; Dennis, A. R.; Durrell, J. H.; Babu, N. Hari; Cardwell, D. A.


    The wetting of boron with liquid magnesium is a critical factor in the synthesis of MgB2 bulk superconductors by the infiltration and growth (IG) process. Poor wetting characteristics can therefore result potentially in non-uniform infiltration, formation of defects in the final sample structure and poor structural homogeneity throughout the bulk material. Here we report the fabrication of near-net-shaped MgB2 bulk superconductors by a modified precursor infiltration and growth (MPIG) technique. A homogeneous bulk microstructure has subsequently been achieved via the uniform infiltration of Mg liquid by enriching pre-reacted MgB2 powder within the green precursor pellet as a wetting enhancer, leading to relatively little variation in superconducting properties across the entire bulk sample. Almost identical values of trapped magnetic field of 2.12 T have been measured at 5 K at both the top and bottom surfaces of a sample fabricated by the MPIG process, confirming the uniformity of the bulk microstructure. A maximum trapped field of 3 T has been measured at 5 K at the centre of a stack of two bulk MgB2 samples fabricated using this technique. A steady rise in trapped field was observed for this material with decreasing temperature down to 5 K without the occurrence of flux avalanches and with a relatively low field decay rate (1.5%/d). These properties are attributed to the presence of a fine distribution of residual Mg within the bulk microstructure generated by the MPIG processing technique.

  4. Single chain fragment variable antibodies developed by using as target the 3rd fibronectin type III homologous repeat fragment of human neural cell adhesion molecule L1 promote cell migration and neuritogenesis.

    Tang, Dan-Yang; Yu, Yang; Zhao, Xuan-Jun; Schachner, Melitta; Zhao, Wei-Jiang


    L1CAM plays important roles during ontogeny, including promotion of neuronal cell migration and neuritogenesis, and stimulation of axonal outgrowth, fasciculation and myelination. These functions are at least partially exerted through a 16-mer amino acid sequence in the third fibronectin type III-like repeat of L1, which associates with several interaction partners, including integrins, other adhesion molecules and growth factor receptors. Here, using the Tomlinson I library for phage display, we obtained two single-chain variable fragment antibodies (scFvs) against this peptide sequence of human L1, hereafter called H3 peptide. Both scFvs recognize the H3 peptide and the extracellular domain of L1, as tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining of L1 expresssing cells. Furthermore, both scFvs reduce U-87 MG cell adhesion to fibronectin, while stimulating cell migration. Application of scFvs to human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells promote process outgrowth. Similar to triggering of endogenous L1 functions at the cell surface, both scFvs activate the signal transducers Erk and Src in these cells. Our results indicate that scFvs against a functionally pivotal domain in L1 trigger its regeneration-beneficial functions in vitro, encouraging thoughts on therapy of neurodegenerative diseases in the hope to ameliorate human nervous system diseases.

  5. Extended Lagrange interpolation in L1 spaces

    Occorsio, Donatella; Russo, Maria Grazia


    Let w (x )=e-xβxα , w ¯(x )=x w (x ) and denote by {pm(w)}m,{pn(w¯)}n the corresponding sequences of orthonormal polynomials. The zeros of the polynomial Q2 m +1=pm +1(w )pm(w ¯) are simple and are sufficiently far among them. Therefore it is possible to construct an interpolation process essentially based on the zeros of Q2m+1, which is called "Extended Lagrange Interpolation". Here we study the convergence of this interpolation process in suitable weighted L1 spaces. This study completes the results given by the authors in previous papers in weighted Lup((0 ,+∞ )) , for 1≤p≤∞. Moreover an application of the proposed interpolation process in order to construct an e cient product quadrature scheme for weakly singular integrals is given.

  6. Contribution of L1 in EFL Teaching

    Wahjuningsih Usadiati


    Full Text Available This study is conducted in a classroom action research to improve the students’ achievement in writing English sentences in Present Perfect Tense in Structure 1 lessons. The subject consisted of 20 Semester II students who took Structure I lessons in English Education Department of Palangka Raya University, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The data were taken from the results of pre test and post test after the action was done. The results show that in cycle 1, in which the explanations were fully in English, only 40% of the students got a good achievement; 5-7 out of 20 test items were correct. After cycle 2 was done using L1 interchangeably with English in the explanations, the students’ achievement of writing English sentences in Present Perfect Tense increased to 75%, in which 15-18 out 20 test items were correct.

  7. Growth, structure, crystalline perfection and characterization of Mg(II)-incorporated tris(thiourea)Zn(II) sulfate crystals: Enhanced second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency

    Muthu, K. [Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002 (India); Bhagavannarayana, G. [Crystal Growth and X-ray Analysis Activity, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110 012 (India); Meenakshisundaram, S.P., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002 (India)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small quantity incorporation of Mg(II)- enhances the SHG efficiency of ZTS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal stress is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of Mg(II)-incorporated ZTS is elucidated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystalline perfection is evaluated by HRXRD. - Abstract: Single crystals of Mg(II)-incorporated tris(thiourea)Zn(II) sulfate (MZTS) have been grown from aqueous solution at room temperature by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The incorporation of Mg(II)- into the crystalline lattice was well confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The reduction in the intensities observed in powder X-ray diffraction patterns of doped specimen and slight shifts in vibrational frequencies in FT-IR indicate the lattice stress as a result of doping. Thermal studies reveal the purity of the material and no decomposition is observed up to the melting point. High transmittance is observed in the visible region and the band gap energy is estimated by Kubelka-Munk algorithm. Surface morphology of doped material was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Decreased crystalline perfection by doping observed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) analysis is justified by the crystal stress. Even a small quantity incorporation of Mg(II)- enhances the SHG efficiency significantly. The as-grown crystal is further characterized by microhardness and dielectric studies.

  8. Growth and Annealing Study of Mg-Doped AlGaN and GaN/AlGaN Superlattices

    WANG Bao-Zhu; LI Jin-Min; WANG Zhan-Guo; WANG Xiao-Liang; HU Guo-Xin; RAN Jun-Xue; WANG Xin-Hua; GUO Lun-Chun; XIAO Hong-Ling; LI Jian-Ping; ZENG Yi-Ping


    @@ Mg-doped AlGaN and GaN/AlGaN superlattices are grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD).Rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatments are carried out on the samples. Hall and high resolution x-ray diffraction measurements are used to characterize the electrical and structural prosperities of the as-grown and annealed samples, respectively. The results of hall measurements show that after annealing, the Mg-doped AlGaN sample can not obtain the distinct hole concentration and can acquire a resistivity of 1.4×103 Ωcm. However, with the same annealing treatment, the GaN/AlGaN superlattice sample has a hole concentration of 1.7×1017 cm-3 and a resistivity of 5.6Ωcm. The piezoelectric field in the GaN/AlGaN superlattices improves the activation efficiency of Mg acceptors, which leads to higher hole concentration and lower p-type resistivity.

  9. Effect of Lanthanum on Rice Growth and Physiological Parameters with Split-Root Nutrient Solution Culture

    谢祖彬; 朱建国; 褚海燕; 张雅丽; 高人; 曾青; 曹志洪


    Split-root solution culture was used to study the promoting effect of lanthanum on rice (Oryza sativa) growth and its physiological mechanisms. Results show that low concentration (0.05~1.5 mg*L-1) increases rice yield and grain numbers. High concentration depresses grain formation (9~30 mg*L-1) and root elongation (1.5~30 mg*L-1). No significant influence on straw dry weight was found over the whole concentration range except the 0.05 mg*L-1 treatment. With the increase of La concentration from 0.05 to 0.75 mg*L-1, catalase (CAT) activity in the first fully expandeing leaves and roots decreases. When La concentration is greater than 0.75 mg*L-1 or less than 9 mg*L-1, it significantly decreases superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) in the leaves and roots. No significant effects were found on chlorophyll, protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Possible mechanisms of La′s promoting effect on rice growth and reduction effect of *O-2 were discussed.

  10. Analysis list: Tcf7l1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Tcf7l1 Embryonic fibroblast + mm9

  11. J-integral in the description of fatigue crack growth rate induced by different ratios of torsion to bending Loading in AlCu4Mg1

    Rozumek, D.; Macha, E. [Opole University of Technology, Department of Mechanics and Machine Design, Opole (Poland)


    The paper presents the results of tests on fatigue crack growth under proportional torsion with bending in AlCu4Mg1 aluminium alloy. Specimens with rectangular cross-sections and stress concentrator in the form of external one-sided sharp notch were used. The tests were performed under the different ratios of torsion to bending moments. The results of the experimental tests have been described by a nonlinear formula based on {delta}J-integral range. The tests have shown that the change of ratio of torsion to bending moments from 0.58 to 1.73 caused an increase in crack growth rate. It has been shown that at the constant loading and the change of stress ratio (R) from - 1 to 0, the fatigue crack growth rate also increases. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Growth kinetics of cellular precipitation in a Mg-8.5Al-0.5Zn-0.2Mn (wt.%) alloy

    Contreras-Piedras, Edgar [Instituto Politecnico Nacional-ESIQIE-DIMM-ESFM, Apartado Postal 118-430, Admon. GAM, Mexico, D.F. 07051 (Mexico); Esquivel-Gonzalez, Ramon [Universidad del Valle de Mexico, Depto. Ingenierias, Paseo de las Aves 1, Col. San Mateo Nopala, Lomas Verdes, Naucalpan de Juarez, Edo. Mex. 53220 (Mexico); Lopez-Hirata, Victor M.; Saucedo-Munoz, M.L.; Paniagua-Mercado, Ana M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional-ESIQIE-DIMM-ESFM, Apartado Postal 118-430, Admon. GAM, Mexico, D.F. 07051 (Mexico); Dorantes-Rosales, Hector J., E-mail: [Instituto Politecnico Nacional-ESIQIE-DIMM-ESFM, Apartado Postal 118-430, Admon. GAM, Mexico, D.F. 07051 (Mexico)


    Research highlights: {yields} The growth kinetics of lamellar spacing follows the behavior predicted by Turnbull theory. {yields} The growth kinetics of cellular precipitation is a process controlled by grain boundary diffusion. {yields} The presence of two types of morphology for cellular precipitation depends on the aging temperature. {yields} The highest hardness peak is associated to a fine continuous precipitation at the lowest temperature. {yields} The lowest hardness is attributed to the fast coarsening process of both precipitations. - Abstract: Microstructural evolution and growth kinetics were studied in an isothermally aged Mg-8.5Al-0.5Zn-0.2Mn (wt.%) alloy by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Vickers hardness measurements and transmission electron microscopy. Specimens were solution-treated and then aged at 373, 473 and 573 K for different time period. The characterization results indicated the presence of both continuous and discontinuous precipitations of the Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12}-{gamma} phase in a Mg-rich matrix. The discontinuous or cellular precipitation was present with a lamellar structure, and the growth kinetics was evaluated using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov equation analysis, which gives a time exponent close to 1. This value confirms that cellular precipitation takes place on the saturation sites corresponding to grain boundaries. In addition, the activation energy for cellular precipitation was determined to be about 64.6 kJ mol{sup -1}. This also indicates a grain boundary diffusion process. The variation of cellular spacing with temperature follows the behavior expected by Turnbull theory. The highest hardness peak corresponded to the lowest aging temperature and it is associated with a fine continuous precipitation; while the lowest hardness peak was detected at the highest aging temperature and it is attributed to the rapid coarsening process of both precipitations.

  13. The vulnerability of gender on determiners in L1, 2L1 and L2 acquisition

    van der Linden, E.; Hulk, A.


    The acquisition of gender has been reported to be problematic for some groups of learners acquiring Germanic or Romance languages. It has been shown that L1 learners do better in gender acquisition than others, like bilingual children, child L2 learners and adult L2 learners. The reason for these di

  14. The vulnerability of gender on determiners in L1, 2L1 and L2 acquisition

    van der Linden, E.; Hulk, A.


    The acquisition of gender has been reported to be problematic for some groups of learners acquiring Germanic or Romance languages. It has been shown that L1 learners do better in gender acquisition than others, like bilingual children, child L2 learners and adult L2 learners. The reason for these

  15. Rendezvous missions with minimoons from L1

    Chyba, M.; Haberkorn, T.; Patterson, G.


    We propose to present asteroid capture missions with the so-called minimoons. Minimoons are small asteroids that are temporarily captured objects on orbits in the Earth-Moon system. It has been suggested that, despite their small capture probability, at any time there are one or two meter diameter minimoons, and progressively greater numbers at smaller diameters. The minimoons orbits differ significantly from elliptical orbits which renders a rendezvous mission more challenging, however they offer many advantages for such missions that overcome this fact. First, they are already on geocentric orbits which results in short duration missions with low Delta-v, this translates in cost efficiency and low-risk targets. Second, beside their close proximity to Earth, an advantage is their small size since it provides us with the luxury to retrieve the entire asteroid and not only a sample of material. Accessing the interior structure of a near-Earth satellite in its morphological context is crucial to an in-depth analysis of the structure of the asteroid. Historically, 2006 RH120 is the only minimoon that has been detected but work is ongoing to determine which modifications to current observation facilities is necessary to provide detection algorithm capabilities. In the event that detection is successful, an efficient algorithm to produce a space mission to rendezvous with the detected minimoon is highly desirable to take advantage of this opportunity. This is the main focus of our work. For the design of the mission we propose the following. The spacecraft is first placed in hibernation on a Lissajoux orbit around the liberation point L1 of the Earth-Moon system. We focus on eight-shaped Lissajoux orbits to take advantage of the stability properties of their invariant manifolds for our transfers since the cost to minimize is the spacecraft fuel consumption. Once a minimoon has been detected we must choose a point on its orbit to rendezvous (in position and velocities

  16. Identification of CREB3L1 as a Biomarker Predicting Doxorubicin Treatment Outcome.

    Bray Denard

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin has been shown to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells through proteolytic activation of CREB3L1 (cAMP response element binding protein 3-like 1, a transcription factor synthesized as a membrane-bound precursor. Upon doxorubicin treatment, CREB3L1 is cleaved so that the N-terminal domain of the protein can reach the nucleus where it activates transcription of genes that inhibit cell proliferation. These results suggest that the level of CREB3L1 in cancer cells may determine their sensitivity to doxorubicin.Mice transplanted with 6 lines of renal cell carcinoma (RCC were injected with doxorubicin to observe the effect of the chemotherapy on tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry and bioinformatics analyses were performed to compare CREB3L1 levels in types of cancer known to respond to doxorubicin versus those resistant to doxorubicin.Higher levels of CREB3L1 protein are correlated with increased doxorubicin sensitivity of xenograft RCC tumors (p = 0.017 by Pearson analysis. From patient tumor biopsies we analyzed, CREB3L1 was expressed in 19% of RCC, which is generally resistant to doxorubicin, but in 70% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma that is sensitive to doxorubicin. Doxorubicin is used as the standard treatment for cancers that express the highest levels of CREB3L1 such as osteosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma but is not generally used to treat those that express the lowest levels of CREB3L1 such as RCC.Identification of CREB3L1 as the biomarker for doxorubicin sensitivity may markedly improve the doxorubicin response rate by applying doxorubicin only to patients with cancers expressing CREB3L1.

  17. Influence of organic ligands on the crystal growth of magnesite (MgCO3) : Mechanistic aspects and implications for the mineral sequestration of CO2

    Gautier, Q.; Jordan, G.; Bénézeth, P.; Schott, J.


    The efficiency of Mg-silicates mineral carbonation processes is limited by the slow dissolution of silicate minerals and subsequent formation of a stable Mg-carbonate phase. It is therefore necessary to enhance the whole process to make it economically and energetically viable. It has recently been suggested that organic ligands, whose ability to significantly enhance the rate of dissolution of silicate minerals is well known, could be used in this purpose (Park et al., 2003). Studies on calcite have shown that most organic ligands have an inhibitory effect on its crystal growth (e.g Reddy & Hoch, 2001). However, their effect has not yet been assessed on Mg-carbonates precipitation, and might be different due to the highly hydrated state of the Mg2+ ion in aqueous solution. We will present results of magnesite crystal growth experiments performed in mixed-flow reactors (MFR) as well as under an Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope (HAFM). Three different types of ligands have been chosen for their different chemical properties and chelating effect: Oxalate, Citrate and EDTA. Experiments have been performed at temperatures between 80 and 120°C, alkaline pH, and dissolved CO2 concentration ~ 0.02 mol/L. Chemical speciation was calculated for all experiments, thus allowing to monitor saturation states and to determine magnesite growth rates as a function of solution chemistry. MFR experiments results show that the addition of variable amounts of Oxalate to the solutions leads to a limited decrease of the precipitation rate (up to ~30% decrease with 10-2 M Oxalate). Nonetheless, another set of experiments, performed at constant Oxalate concentration and changing saturation state, revealed an increase of the kinetic constant of magnesite precipitation. Furthermore, HAFM experiments, performed at constant saturation states with Oxalate, Citrate and EDTA, showed an increase of the kinetic constant of the magnesite step advancement rate, which is positively correlated to

  18. Elongation factor P restricts Salmonella’s growth by controlling translation of a Mg2+ transporter gene during infection

    Choi, Eunna; Choi, Soomin; Nam, Daesil; Park, Shinae; Han, Yoontak; Lee, Jung-Shin; Lee, Eun-Jin


    When a ribosome translates mRNA sequences, the ribosome often stalls at certain codons because it is hard to translate. Consecutive proline codons are such examples that induce ribosome stalling and elongation factor P (EF-P) is required for the stalled ribosome to continue translation at those consecutive proline codons. We found that EF-P is required for translation of the mgtB gene encoding a Mg2+ transporter in the mgtCBR virulence operon from the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Salmonella lacking EF-P decreases MgtB protein levels in a manner dependent on consecutive proline codons located in the mgtB coding region despite increasing transcription of the mgtCBR operon via the mgtP open reading frame in the leader RNA, resulting in an altered ratio between MgtC and MgtB proteins within the operon. Substitution of the consecutive proline codons to alanine codons eliminates EF-P-mediated control of the mgtB gene during infection and thus contributes to Salmonella’s survival inside macrophages where Salmonella experiences low levels of EF-P. This suggests that this pathogen utilizes a strategy to coordinate expression of virulence genes by an evolutionarily conserved translation factor. PMID:28181542

  19. Effect of Mg Addition on Inhibiting Austenite Grain Growth in Heat Affected Zones of Ti-Bearing Low Carbon Steels%Effect of Mg Addition on Inhibiting Austenite Grain Growth in Heat Affected Zones of Ti-Bearing Low Carbon Steels

    ZHU Kai; YANG Jian; WANG Rui-zhi; YANG Zhen-guo


    To study the effect of Mg addition on inhibiting weld heat affected zones (HAZ) austenite grain growth of Ti-bearing low carbon steels, two steels with and without Mg treated were prepared using a laboratory vacuum. The welding testing was simulated by Gleeble 3500 thermomechanical simulator. The performance of HAZ was investiga ted that the toughness was improved from 3.3 to 185 J by adding 0. 005%Mg (in mass percent) to the steel, and the fracture mechanism changed from cleavage fracture to toughness fracture. Through in-situ observation by a confocal scanning laser microscope, a significant result was found that the austenite grain of the steel with Mg treated was still keeping fine-grained structure after holding at 1 400℃ and lasting for 300 s. This inhibition of austenite grain growth was mainly attributed to the formation of pinning particles after the addition of Mg. The obtained results pro pose a potential method for improving HAZ toughness of structure steels.

  20. Effects of Neodymium on Growth, Pectinase Activity and Mycelium Permeability of Fusarium oxysporum


    The diameter of the colony of Fusarium oxysporum in solid medium, and the mycelium growth, pectinase activity, and mycelium permeability of Fusarium oxysporum in liquid medium under varying concentrations of Nd3+ (0, 2, 4, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200, 300, and 400 mg·L-1) were measured. The results indicated that the growth of Fusarium oxysporum was stimulated in solid medium when the concentration of Nd3+ ranges from 2 to 180 mg·L-1, whereas it was inhibited when Nd3+ concentration was greater than 200 mg·L-1. The colonies were fewer and smaller when Nd3+ was used in the solid medium. The growth of Fusarium oxysporum was inhibited in liquid medium when Nd3+ was used. The inhibition rate showed by the dry weight of mycelium ranged from 4.83% to 52.18% and increased with Nd3+ concentration. The pectinase activity decreased compared with that of controls. When the concentration of Nd3+ was 10 and 400 mg·L-1, the pectinase activity decreased by 95% at both concentrations. Mycelium cell membrane permeability increased when Nd3+ concentrations ranged from 10 to 400 mg·L-1 but decreased when Nd3+ concentration was 2 mg·L-1.

  1. Analysis list: Whsc1l1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Whsc1l1 Blood + mm9 ...

  2. Effect of L2 phonetic learning on L1 vowels

    Jiang, Haisheng


    This research examines the effect of L2 phonetic learning on L1 vowel production. Mandarin-English bilinguals differing in amount of L1 use produced Mandarin and English vowels. An acoustic analysis showed that both the Mandarin-English bilinguals of high L1 use and those of low L1 use deviated from the norm of Mandarin vowel /i/. The Mandarin-English bilinguals of low L1 use who successfully acquired English vowel /aj/ deviated from the norm of Mandarin vowel /aj/, indicating a carry-over ef...

  3. A Quantified Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer Extract Influences Lipid Acquisition and Increases Adiponectin Expression in 3T3-L1 Cells

    Chia-Rou Yeo


    Full Text Available A Panax ginseng extract (PGE with a quantified amount of ginsenosides was utilized to investigate its potential to inhibit proliferation, influence lipid acquisition and adiponectin expression in 3T3-L1 cells. Seven fingerprint ginsenosides were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography and their respective molecular weights were further confirmed via LC-ESI-MS analysis from four different extraction methods. Extraction using methanol under reflux produced significantly higher amounts of ginsenosides. The methanol extract consisted of Rg1 (47.40 ± 4.28 mg/g, dry weight of extract, Re (61.62 ± 5.10 mg/g, Rf (6.14 ± 0.28 mg/g, Rb1 (21.73 ± 1.29 mg/g, Rc (78.79 ± 4.15 mg/g, Rb2 (56.80 ± 3.79 mg/g, Rd (5.90 ± 0.41 mg/g. MTT analysis showed that PGE had a concentrationdependent cytotoxic effect on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte and the LC50 value was calculated to be 18.2 ± 5 μg/mL. Cell cycle analysis showed minimal changes in all four phases. Differentiating adipocytes treated with ginseng extract had a visible decrease in lipid droplets formation measured by Oil red O staining. Consequently, triglycerides levels in media significantly (P < 0.05 decreased by 39.5% and 46.1% when treated at concentrations of 1 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL compared to untreated control cells. Western blot analysis showed that the adiponectin protein expression was significantly (P < 0.05 increased at 10 μg/mL, but not at 1 μg/mL. A quantified PGE reduced the growth of 3T3-L1 cells, down-regulated lipid accumulation and up-regulated adiponectin expression in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell model.

  4. PD-L1 Expression in Lung Cancer

    Yu, Hui; Boyle, Theresa A.; Zhou, Caicun; Rimm, David L.; Hirsch, Fred R.


    Immunotherapies targeted against programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and its receptor (PD-1) have improved survival in a subset of patients with advanced lung cancer. PD-L1 protein expression has emerged as a biomarker that predicts which patients are more likely to respond to immunotherapy. The understanding of PD-L1 as a biomarker is complicated by the history of use of different immunohistochemistry platforms with different PD-L1 antibodies, scoring systems, and positivity cut-offs for immunotherapy clinical trials with different anti-PD-L1 and anti-PD-1 drugs. Herein, we summarize the brief history of PD-L1 as a biomarker and describe the challenges remaining to harmonize PD-L1 detection and interpretation for best patient care. PMID:27117833

  5. Use of adaptive laboratory evolution to discover key mutations enabling rapid growth of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 on glucose minimal medium.

    LaCroix, Ryan A; Sandberg, Troy E; O'Brien, Edward J; Utrilla, Jose; Ebrahim, Ali; Guzman, Gabriela I; Szubin, Richard; Palsson, Bernhard O; Feist, Adam M


    Adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) has emerged as an effective tool for scientific discovery and addressing biotechnological needs. Much of ALE's utility is derived from reproducibly obtained fitness increases. Identifying causal genetic changes and their combinatorial effects is challenging and time-consuming. Understanding how these genetic changes enable increased fitness can be difficult. A series of approaches that address these challenges was developed and demonstrated using Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 on glucose minimal media at 37°C. By keeping E. coli in constant substrate excess and exponential growth, fitness increases up to 1.6-fold were obtained compared to the wild type. These increases are comparable to previously reported maximum growth rates in similar conditions but were obtained over a shorter time frame. Across the eight replicate ALE experiments performed, causal mutations were identified using three approaches: identifying mutations in the same gene/region across replicate experiments, sequencing strains before and after computationally determined fitness jumps, and allelic replacement coupled with targeted ALE of reconstructed strains. Three genetic regions were most often mutated: the global transcription gene rpoB, an 82-bp deletion between the metabolic pyrE gene and rph, and an IS element between the DNA structural gene hns and tdk. Model-derived classification of gene expression revealed a number of processes important for increased growth that were missed using a gene classification system alone. The methods described here represent a powerful combination of technologies to increase the speed and efficiency of ALE studies. The identified mutations can be examined as genetic parts for increasing growth rate in a desired strain and for understanding rapid growth phenotypes.

  6. Effects of DDT and dicofol on population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus under different algal (Scenedesmus obliquus) densities.

    Xu, Xiao-Ping; Xi, Yi-Long; Chu, Zhao-Xia; Xiang, Xian-Ling


    A number of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT and dicofol, used to be important in crop protection and management. Their residues may reach water bodies and eventually affect the non-target organisms such as rotifers. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of DDT (0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg l(-1)) and dicofol (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg l(-1)) on the population growth of rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus under two levels of Scenedesmus obliquus (1.0 x 10(6) and 3.0 x 10(6) cell ml(-1)). Regardless of the food level, DDT was more toxic than dicofol to B. calyciflorus. Under low food level, DDT at 0.1 and 0.2 mg l(-1) decreased the population growth rate (r), and DDT at 0.05-0.4 mg l(-1) decreased the maximum population density (K). Dicofol at 0.4 and 0.8 mg l(-1) decreased r and K, but dicofol at 0.2 mg l(-1) increased K. Under high food level, DDT at 0.05-0.2 mg l(-1) increased K, whereas DDT at 0.4 mg l(-1) as well as dicofol at 0.4 and 0.8 mg l(-1) decreased r and K. Increase in food level increased r exposed to DDT at 0.05-0.2 mg l(-1) as well as dicofol at 0.8 mg l(-1), and Kexposed to DDTat 0.05-0.2 mg l(-1) as well as dicofol at 0.1 and 0.2 mg l(-1). DDT concentration, algal density and their interaction affected r and K of B. calyciflorus. Both dicofol concentration and algal density affected r. Dicofol concentration, algal density and their interaction affected K. Both r and K were suitable endpoints for assessing the effects of DDT and dicofol on the rotifers population dynamics under two algal densities, and the latter was more sensitive.

  7. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a patient with L1 syndrome: a new report of a contiguous gene deletion syndrome including L1CAM and AVPR2.

    Knops, Noël B B; Bos, Krista K; Kerstjens, Mieke; van Dael, Karin; Vos, Yvonne J


    We report on an infant boy with congenital hydrocephalus due to L1 syndrome and polyuria due to diabetes insipidus. We initially believed his excessive urine loss was from central diabetes insipidus and that the cerebral malformation caused a secondary insufficient pituitary vasopressin release. However, he failed to respond to treatment with a vasopressin analogue, which pointed to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). L1 syndrome and X-linked NDI are distinct clinical disorders caused by mutations in the L1CAM and AVPR2 genes, respectively, located in adjacent positions in Xq28. In this boy we found a deletion of 61,577 basepairs encompassing the entire L1CAM and AVPR2 genes and extending into intron 7 of the ARHGAP4 gene. To our knowledge this is the first description of a patient with a deletion of these three genes. He is the second patient to be described with L1 syndrome and NDI. During follow-up he manifested complications from the hydrocephalus and NDI including global developmental delay and growth failure with low IGF-1 and hypothyroidism.

  8. Characterization of new cell line stably expressing CHI3L1 oncogene

    Chekhonin V. P.


    Full Text Available Aim. To characterize the immortalized 293 cell line after stable transfection with human oncogene (CHI3L1. Methods. 293 cells, stably transfected with pcDNA3.1_CHI3L1, and 293 cells, stably transfected with pcDNA3.1 as a negative control, were used throughout all experiments. The clones of CHI3L1-expressing 293 cells and 293 cells, transfected with pcDNA3.1, were analyzed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Cell proliferation was measured using MTT assay; analyses of ERK1/2 and AKT activation and their cellular localization were performed with anti-phospho-ERK and anti-phospho-AKT antibodies. Specific activation of MAP and PI3 kinases was measured by densitometric analysis of Western-blot signals. Results. The obtained results show quite modest ability of CHI3L1 to stimulate cell growth and reflect rather an improved cellular plating efficiency of the 293 cells stably transfected with pcDNA3.1_CHI3L1 as compared to the 293 cells transfected with an «empty» vector. ERK1/2 and AKT are activated in the 293_CHI3L1 cells. In these cells phosphorylated ERK1/2 were localized in both cell cytoplasm and nuclei while AKT only in cytoplasm. The 293_CHI3L1 cells differed from the 293 cells, transfected with an «empty» vector, in their size and ability to adhere to the culture plates. Conclusions. The overexpression of CHI3L1 is likely to have an important role in tumorigenesis via a mechanism which involves activation of PI3K and ERK1/2 pathways. The tumors which can be induced by orthotopic implantation of the transformed human cells with overexpressed human oncogene CHI3L1 into the rat brain can be used as a target for anticancer drug development.

  9. Identification and Characterization of MEDI4736, an Antagonistic Anti-PD-L1 Monoclonal Antibody.

    Stewart, Ross; Morrow, Michelle; Hammond, Scott A; Mulgrew, Kathy; Marcus, Danielle; Poon, Edmund; Watkins, Amanda; Mullins, Stefanie; Chodorge, Matthieu; Andrews, John; Bannister, David; Dick, Emily; Crawford, Nicola; Parmentier, Julie; Alimzhanov, Marat; Babcook, John S; Foltz, Ian N; Buchanan, Andrew; Bedian, Vahe; Wilkinson, Robert W; McCourt, Matthew


    Programmed cell-death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a member of the B7/CD28 family of proteins that control T-cell activation. Many tumors can upregulate expression of PD-L1, inhibiting antitumor T-cell responses and avoiding immune surveillance and elimination. We have identified and characterized MEDI4736, a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity and specificity to PD-L1 and is uniquely engineered to prevent antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In vitro assays demonstrate that MEDI4736 is a potent antagonist of PD-L1 function, blocking interaction with PD-1 and CD80 to overcome inhibition of primary human T-cell activation. In vivo MEDI4736 significantly inhibits the growth of human tumors in a novel xenograft model containing coimplanted human T cells. This activity is entirely dependent on the presence of transplanted T cells, supporting the immunological mechanism of action for MEDI4736. To further determine the utility of PD-L1 blockade, an anti-mouse PD-L1 antibody was investigated in immunocompetent mice. Here, anti-mouse PD-L1 significantly improved survival of mice implanted with CT26 colorectal cancer cells. The antitumor activity of anti-PD-L1 was enhanced by combination with oxaliplatin, which resulted in increased release of HMGB1 within CT26 tumors. Taken together, our results demonstrate that inhibition of PD-L1 function can have potent antitumor activity when used as monotherapy or in combination in preclinical models, and suggest it may be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer. MEDI4736 is currently in several clinical trials both alone and in combination with other agents, including anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, and inhibitors of IDO, MEK, BRAF, and EGFR.

  10. The vulnerability of gender on determiners in L1, 2L1 and L2 acquisition

    Elisabeth van der Linden


    Full Text Available The acquisition of gender has been reported to be problematic for some groups of learners acquiring Germanic or Romance languages. It has been shown that L1 learners do better in gender acquisition than others, like bilingual children, child L2 learners and adult L2 learners. The reason for these differences is however not always clear. In this paper, we study the acquisition of gender on determiners by different groups of learners. We concentrate on the acquisition of French, Italian, Spanish and Dutch. The picture from a literature survey shows that contradictory results have been found. We suggest that the ‘vulnerability’ of this particular domain of grammar has to do with interacting factors in the acquisition. Among them are the specific characteristics of the language or languages involved, like the semantic and morphophonological characteristics of the nouns in each language, but also the quantity and quality of input, and the cross-linguistic influence exercised by one language on the other in a 2L1 or L2 setting. Instruction also seems to play a role.

  11. Single-crystal growth of NaCl-structure Al-Cr-N thin films on MgO(0 0 1) by magnetron sputter epitaxy

    Willmann, H. [Materials Center Leoben, 8700 Leoben (Austria); IFM Material Physics, Division of Thin Film Physics, Linkoeping University, 58183 Linkoeping (Sweden)], E-mail:; Beckers, M.; Giuliani, F.; Birch, J. [IFM Material Physics, Division of Thin Film Physics, Linkoeping University, 58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Mayrhofer, P.H.; Mitterer, C. [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, University of Leoben, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Hultman, L. [IFM Material Physics, Division of Thin Film Physics, Linkoeping University, 58183 Linkoeping (Sweden)


    Single-crystal NaCl-structure Al{sub 0.68}Cr{sub 0.32}N thin films were deposited onto MgO(0 0 1) substrates. The films exhibit cube-on-cube epitaxial growth with an initial pseudomorphic strained layer before complete relaxation into an isotropic lattice parameter of 4.119 A as shown by symmetric high-resolution X-ray diffraction and asymmetric reciprocal space maps. The relaxation proceeds via a threading dislocation network as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Films of 900 nm thickness have a hardness of 32.4 {+-} 0.5 GPa, an elastic modulus of 460.8 {+-} 5 GPa, and a room-temperature resistivity of 2.7 x 10{sup 3} {omega} cm as determined by nanoindentation and four-point probe measurements, respectively.

  12. Raman imaging of grain growth mechanism in highly textured Pb(Mg{1{/}3}Nb{2{/}3})O{3}-PbTiO{3} piezoelectric ceramics*

    Colomban, P.; Pham Thi, Mai


    Pb(Mg{1 / 3}Nb{2 / 3})O{3}-PbTiO{3} solid solution ((1-x)PMN-xPT) tape cast ceramics have been prepared by homo-epitaxial templated grain growth (HTGG) using cubic 0.75PMN 0.25 PT single crystal seeds as template (a few wt%) and x = 0.35 nanoparticles for the ceramic matrix. Raman imaging studied representative medium and highly textured ceramics. On the base of a previous study which has shown that the Raman peak centre of gravity depends on the solid solution composition whereas peak intensity is correlated to the unit-cell distortion, Raman imaging shows that the final composition and structure is very close to that of the matrix.

  13. FAK–MAPK-dependent adhesion disassembly downstream of L1 contributes to semaphorin3A-induced collapse

    Bechara, Ahmad; Nawabi, Homaira; Moret, Frédéric; Yaron, Avraham; Weaver, Eli; Bozon, Muriel; Abouzid, Karima; Guan, Jun-Lin; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Lemmon, Vance; Castellani, Valérie


    Axonal receptors for class 3 semaphorins (Sema3s) are heterocomplexes of neuropilins (Nrps) and Plexin-As signalling coreceptors. In the developing cerebral cortex, the Ig superfamily cell adhesion molecule L1 associates with Nrp1. Intriguingly, the genetic removal of L1 blocks axon responses of cortical neurons to Sema3A in vitro despite the expression of Plexin-As in the cortex, suggesting either that L1 substitutes for Plexin-As or that L1 and Plexin-A are both required and mediate distinct roles. We report that association of Nrp1 with L1 but not Plexin-As mediates the recruitment and activation of a Sema3A-induced focal adhesion kinase–mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. This signalling downstream of L1 is needed for the disassembly of adherent points formed in growth cones and subsequently their collapse response to Sema3A. Plexin-As and L1 are coexpressed and present in common complexes in cortical neurons and both dominant-negative forms of Plexin-A and L1 impair their response to Sema3A. Consistently, Nrp1-expressing cortical projections are defective in mice lacking Plexin-A3, Plexin-A4 or L1. This reveals that specific signalling activities downstream of L1 and Plexin-As cooperate for mediating the axon guidance effects of Sema3A. PMID:18464795

  14. Curcumin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and angiogenesis and obesity in C57/BL mice.

    Ejaz, Asma; Wu, Dayong; Kwan, Paul; Meydani, Mohsen


    Angiogenesis is necessary for the growth of adipose tissue. Dietary polyphenols may suppress growth of adipose tissue through their antiangiogenic activity and by modulating adipocyte metabolism. We investigated the effect of curcumin, the major polyphenol in turmeric spice, on angiogenesis, adipogenesis, differentiation, apoptosis, and gene expression involved in lipid and energy metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocyte in cell culture systems and on body weight gain and adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet (22%) supplemented with 500 mg curcumin/kg diet for 12 wk. Curcumin (5-20 micromol/L) suppressed 3T3-L1 differentiation, caused apoptosis, and inhibited adipokine-induced angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Supplementing the high-fat diet of mice with curcumin did not affect food intake but reduced body weight gain, adiposity, and microvessel density in adipose tissue, which coincided with reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGFR-2. Curcumin increased 5'AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, reduced glycerol-3-phosphate acyl transferase-1, and increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 expression, which led to increased oxidation and decreased fatty acid esterification. The in vivo effect of curcumin on the expression of these enzymes was also confirmed by real-time RT-PCR in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In addition, curcumin significantly lowered serum cholesterol and expression of PPARgamma and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, 2 key transcription factors in adipogenesis and lipogenesis. The curcumin suppression of angiogenesis in adipose tissue together with its effect on lipid metabolism in adipocytes may contribute to lower body fat and body weight gain. Our findings suggest that dietary curcumin may have a potential benefit in preventing obesity.

  15. Differential effect of metals/metalloids on the growth and element uptake of mesquite plants obtained from plants grown at a copper mine tailing and commercial seeds.

    Haque, N; Peralta-Videa, J R; Duarte-Gardea, M; Gardea-Torresdey, J L


    The selection of appropriate seeds is essential for the success of phytoremediation/restoration projects. In this research, the growth and elements uptake by the offspring of mesquite plants (Prosopis sp.) grown in a copper mine tailing (site seeds, SS) and plants derived from vendor seeds (VS) was investigated. Plants were grown in a modified Hoagland solution containing a mixture of Cu, Mo, Zn, As(III) and Cr(VI) at 0, 1, 5 and 10 mg L(-1) each. After one week, plants were harvested and the concentration of elements was determined by using ICP-OES. At 1 mg L(-1), plants originated from SS grew faster and longer than control plants (0 mg L(-1)); whereas plants grown from VS had opposite response. At 5 mg L(-1), 50% of the plants grown from VS did not survive, while plants grown from SS had no toxicity effects on growth. Finally, plants grown from VS did not survive at 10 mg L(-1) treatment, whilst 50% of the plants grown from SS survived. The ICP-OES data demonstrated that at 1 mg L(-1) the concentration of all elements in SS plants was significantly higher compared to control plants and VS plants. While at 5 mg L(-1), the shoots of SS plants had significantly more Cu, Mo, As, and Cr. The results suggest that SS could be a better source of plants intended to be used for phytoremediation of soil impacted with Cu, Mo, Zn, As and Cr.

  16. The MBE growth and optical quality of BaTiO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3} thin films on MgO

    McKee, R.A.; Specht, E.D.; Alexander, K.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Walker, F.J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)


    High quality epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3} have been grown on MgO; stabilized at a one unit cell height; and grown to film thicknesses of 0.5--0.7 {mu}m. These relatively thick films remain adherent when thermally cycled between growth temperatures and room temperature, are crack free with high optical quality, and have both in-plane and out-of-plane X-ray rocking curves of 0.3--0.5{degree}. These films have been grown using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) methods starting with the TiO{sub 2} layer of the perovskite structure. The TiO{sub 2}-layer/MgO interface uniquely satisfies electrostatic requirements for perovskite heteroepitaxy and provides the template structure that leads to the high quality films that are obtained. Wavelength dependence of optical loss has been characterized between 475 nm and 705 nm with loss coefficients < l dB/cm being obtained at the He-Ne wavelength.

  17. The Facilitating Role of L1 in ESL Classes

    Çağrı Tuğrul Mart


    Full Text Available It has been widely advocated that insistence on English-only policy and the complete prohibition of L1 would maximize the effect of learning L2 but recent studies demonstrate that the appropriate use of L1 has a facilitating role in L2 classroom. This study attempts to demonstrate that the use of L1 in ESL classes does not hinder foreign language learning.

  18. On L1-convergence of Walsh-Fourier series

    C. W. Onneweer


    Full Text Available Let G denote the dyadic group, which has as its dual group the Walsh(-Paley functions. In this paper we formulate a condition for functions in L1(G which implies that their Walsh-Fourier series converges in L1(G-norm. As a corollary we obtain a Dini-Lipschitz-type theorem for L1(G convergence and we prove that the assumption on the L1(G modulus of continuity in this theorem cannot be weakened. Similar results also hold for functions on the circle group T and their (trigonometric Fourier series.

  19. L1TV Computes the Flat Norm for Boundaries

    Simon P. Morgan


    Full Text Available We show that the recently introduced L1TV functional can be used to explicitly compute the flat norm for codimension one boundaries. Furthermore, using L1TV, we also obtain the flat norm decomposition. Conversely, using the flat norm as the precise generalization of L1TV functional, we obtain a method for denoising nonboundary or higher codimension sets. The flat norm decomposition of differences can made to depend on scale using the flat norm with scale which we define in direct analogy to the L1TV functional. We illustrate the results and implications with examples and figures.

  20. The L1-norm best-fit hyperplane problem.

    Brooks, J P; Dulá, J H


    We formalize an algorithm for solving the L(1)-norm best-fit hyperplane problem derived using first principles and geometric insights about L(1) projection and L(1) regression. The procedure follows from a new proof of global optimality and relies on the solution of a small number of linear programs. The procedure is implemented for validation and testing. This analysis of the L(1)-norm best-fit hyperplane problem makes the procedure accessible to applications in areas such as location theory, computer vision, and multivariate statistics.

  1. Influence of nutrient composition and plant growth regulators on callus induction and plant regeneration in glutinous rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Duangsee, K; Bunnag, S


    The potential for callus induction and regeneration depends on nutrient composition and plant growth regulators. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of nutrient composition and plant growth regulators on callus induction and plant regeneration in the glutinous rice cultivar Khunvang. The effect of 2,4-D concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg L(-1)) on callus induction and growth were investigated. The results revealed that the highest percentage of callus induction (97%) was observed in MS medium supplemented with 5 mg L(-1) 2,4-D under 16 h Photoperiod. The effects of casein hydrolysate concentrations of casein hydrolysate (0, 300, 500, 700 and 900 mg L(-1)) and proline (0, 300, 500, 700 and 900 mg L(-1)) on callus induction and growth of Khunvang were also observed. The results indicated that the increasing casein hydrolysate and proline concentrations did not show a significant effect on callus growth. However, proline concentration of 900 mg L(-1) yielded 85.67% of callus growth.

  2. Effects of Nutritional Factors on the Growth and Heterotrophic Eicosapentaenoic Acid Production of Diatom Nitzschia laevis

    CAO Xiaohong; LI Songyao; WANG Chunling; LU Meifang


    The effects of several nutritional factors on the growth and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) production of diatom Nitzschia laevis were studied. 4 LDM (quadrupled concentration of the nutrient salt) was the optimal concentration of nutrient salt for the growth and EPA production ofN. laevis. The growth ofN. laevis was inhibited when the glucose concentration was either lower than 10gL-1 or higher than 15gL-1. Both sodium nitrate and urea were good nitrogen sources for the growth and EPA production, while ammonium chloride seriously decreased the dry cell weight (DW) and the EPA content. Silicate seriously influenced the growth of N. laevis. The maximum DW of 2.34gL-1 was obtained in the presence of 150 mgL-1 Na2SiO3·9H2O. The EPA content remained almost the same when the silicate concentration was lower than 150 mgL-1; however, higher silicate concentrations resulted in a steady de- crease of EPA content. Low medium salinity (≤29) did not seem to influence the DW of N. laevis, and high salinity resulted in a decrease of DW. The highest EPA content (4.08%) and yield (110 mgL-1) were observed at the salinity of 36 and 29, respectively.

  3. FIP1L1-PDGFRA molecular analysis in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilia

    Matsouka Panagiota


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary eosinophlia associated with the FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement represents a subset of chronic eosinophilic leukaemia (CEL and affected patients are very sensitive to imatinib treatment. This study was undertaken in order to examine the prevalence and the associated clinicopathologic and genetic features of FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement in a cohort of 15 adult patients presenting with profound eosinophilia (> 1.5 × 109/L. Methods Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used for the detection of FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement and the results confirmed by direct sequencing. C-KIT-D816V mutation was analysed retrospectively by PCR and restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (PCR-RFLP, in all cases with primary eosinophilia. Results Two male patients with splenomegaly carried the FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement, whilst 2 others were ultimately classified as suffering from idiopathic hypereosinophlic syndrome (HES and one from systemic mastocytosis. These patients were negative for the C-KIT-D816V mutation and received imatinib (100–400 mg daily. Patients with CEL and HES responded to imatinib and remained in complete haematological, clinical and molecular (for carriers of FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement remission for a median of 28.2 months (range: 11–54, whilst the patient with systemic mastocytosis did not respond. Interestingly, in both patients with FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement, the breakpoints into PDGFRA were located within exon 12 and fused with exons 8 and 8a of FIP1L1, respectively. Conclusion An early diagnosis of FIPIL1-PDGFRA-positive CEL and imatinib treatment offer to the affected patients an excellent clinical therapeutic result, avoiding undesirable morbidity. Moreover, although the molecular mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis remain to be determined, imatinib can be effective in patients with idiopathic HES.

  4. Teachers' Language: L1 Attrition in Russian-English Bilinguals

    Isurin, Ludmila


    The present study reports on the evidence of first language (L1) attrition in a population that may appear to be the most resistant to L1 changes. Russian monolinguals (n=3) and Russian-English bilinguals (n=10) participated in the study. The bilinguals were graduate students teaching Russian as a foreign language at a U.S. university. The data…



    L-[1-C-11]tyrosine promises to become an important tracer for determination of the protein synthesis rate (PSR) in tumor tissue and brain. The commercially available Anatech RB-86 robotic system is utilized for the automation of the L-[1-C-11]tyrosine production via the isocyanide method as reported




    L-[1-C-11]tyrosine promises to become an important tracer for determination of the protein synthesis rate (PSR) in tumor tissue and brain. The commercially available Anatech RB-86 robotic system is utilized for the automation of the L-[1-C-11]tyrosine production via the isocyanide method as reported

  7. Growth and antioxidant response in Hydrocharis dubis (Bl.) Backer exposed to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate.

    Wu, Zhonghua; Yu, Dan; Li, Jinlin; Wu, Gongguo; Niu, Xiaona


    A two-week exposure experiment was designed to investigate the toxicity of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on the aquatic plant Hydrocharis dubis (Bl.) Backer, focusing on growth, photosynthetic pigments and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. No significant differences were observed in the growth parameters of H. dubis when H. dubis was exposed to lower LAS doses (10 mg l(-1)) resulted in significant decreases in all growth parameters of H. dubis. No significant effect on pigment contents was observed at up to 50 mg l(-1) LAS, beyond which pigment contents declined gradually. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content did not show obvious differences when H. dubis plants were exposed to mg l(-1) LAS. Peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities showed a concentration-dependent increase up to LAS concentrations of 0.1-10 mg l(-1), followed by a clear decrease. The results of this study suggest that LAS significantly inhibited the growth and physiology of H. dubis when the dose of LAS exceeded 10 mg l(-1) . Therefore, LAS at current environmental concentrations dose not appear to cause evident phytotoxic effects on H. dubis.

  8. Cell Divisions Are Required for L1 Retrotransposition▿

    Shi, Xi; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera


    LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons comprise a large fraction of genomic DNAs of many organisms. Many L1 elements are active and may generate potentially deleterious mutations by inserting into genes, yet little is known about the control of retrotransposition by the host. Here we examined whether retrotransposition depends on the cell cycle by using a retrotransposition assay with cultured human cells. We show that in both cancer cells and primary human fibroblasts, retrotransposition was strongly inhibited in the cells arrested in the G1, S, G2, or M stage of the cell cycle. Retrotransposition was also inhibited during cellular senescence in primary human fibroblasts. The levels of L1 transcripts were strongly reduced in arrested cells, suggesting that the reduction in L1 transcript abundance limits retrotransposition in nondividing cells. We hypothesize that inhibition of retrotransposition in nondividing cells protects somatic tissues from accumulation of deleterious mutations caused by L1 elements. PMID:17145770

  9. Magnesium capability to attenuate the toxicity of aluminum on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2

    Samuel Mariano-da-Silva

    Full Text Available Summary The magnesium (Mg capability to attenuate the toxicity of aluminum (Al for the trehalose content, anaerobic growth, viability and budding rate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was studied in this work. Fermentations were carried out in triplicate with sterilized and diluted sugar cane media (4% total reducing sugars/pH 4.0 containing different Al (0.0, 50, 100 and 150 mg L-1 and Mg (0.0, 50 and 100 mg L-1 concentrations. The media were inoculated with 1 mL of 1% (wet basis yeast suspension and incubated at 30ºC, 70 rpm for 20 hours in orbital shaker. At specific times during fermentation portions of cell suspension were taken out and the biomass concentration, yeast viability, budding rate and trehalose content on cells determined. The increase of Al levels, from 0.0 up to 150 mg L-1, showed a reduction on the yeast growth of approximately 95%, 55% and 18% as Mg increased from 0.0 to 50 and 100 mg L-1, respectively. The trehalose content experienced its lowest reduction when greater amounts of Mg were added to the fermentation process. Cell viability showed greater reductions as the content of Al in the media increased. Magnesium effectively protected yeast cells against the deleterious effects of Al on cell growth, viability, budding and trehalose content.

  10. Microstructure and magnetic properties of (001) textured L1(0) FePt films on amorphous glass substrate

    Speliotis, T; Varvaro, G; Testa, AM; Giannopoulos, G; Agostinelli, E; Li, W; Hadjipanayis, G; Niarchos, D


    L1(0) FePt thin films with an island-like morphology and magnetic perpendicular anisotropy were grown at low temperature (300 < T-dep< 375 degrees C) by magnetron sputtering on Hoya glass substrates using a 30-nm thick Cr (2 0 0) underlayer. An MgO buffer layer with a thickness of 2 nm was used to inhibit the diffusion from the Cr underlayer and promote the growth of (0 0 1) oriented L1(0) FePt films by inducing an in-plane lattice distortion. By varying the substrate temperature and the Ar sputter pressure (3.5 < P-Ar< 15 mTorr) during the deposition, the degree of chemical order, the microstructure and the magnetic properties were tuned and the best properties in term of squareness ratio (M-r/M-s similar to 0.95) and coercive field (H-c similar to 14 kOe) were observed for films deposited at T-dep = 350 degrees C and P-Ar= 5 mTorr, due to the appearance of a tensile strain, which favors the perpendicular anisotropy. The analysis of the angular dependence of remanent magnetization curves on the optimized sample suggests that the magnetization reversal is highly incoherent due to the inter-island interactions. Our results provide useful information on the low temperature growth of FePt films with perpendicular anisotropy onto glass substrates, which are relevant for a variety of technological applications, such as magnetic recording and spintronic devices. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fontes de potássio no crescimento in vitro de plantas de orquídea Cattleya loddigesii Potassium sources of Cattleya loddigesii plants in vitro growth

    Milene Alves de Figueiredo


    Full Text Available Plantas de Cattleya loddigesii com 1,0-1,5cm de comprimento, oriundas de sementes germinadas in vitro, foram inoculadas nos tratamentos, os quais consistiram da adição de diferentes concentrações de cloreto e sulfato de potássio (ambos a 0, 125, 250, 375 e 500mg L-1 ao meio Knudson C, em todas as combinações possíveis, acrescido de 2g L-1 de carvão ativado e 150g L-1 de polpa de banana "Nanica". O meio teve seu pH ajustado para 5,8±0,1 e foi solidificado com 5g L-1 de ágar antes da autoclavagem a 121°C por 20 minutos. Após a inoculação, as culturas foram mantidas por 90 dias em sala de crescimento com irradiância em torno de 35µmol m-2 s-1, temperatura de 25±1°C e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. A combinação de 500mg L-1 de KCl com 500mg L-1 de K2SO4 promoveu maior crescimento in vitro em plantas de Cattleya loddigesii, exceto no comprimento de raízes, que se apresentou melhor com 500mg L-1 de KCl na ausência de K2SO4.Cattleya loddigesii preceding seedlings (with 1.0-1.5cm of in vitro germinated seeds were used as explants. The treatments consisted of the addition of different potassium chloride concentrations (0; 125; 250; 375 e 500mg L-1 and potassium sulphate (0; 125; 250; 375 e 500mg L-1, in the Knudson C medium, in all possible combinations, an addition of 2g L-1 activated coal, 150g L-1 and banana 'Nanica' pulp. The medium had the pH set to 5.8±0.1 and was solidified with agar 5g L-1 before the sterilization at 121°C for 20 minutes. After the inoculation, the cultures were maintained in the growth room with irradiancy around 35µmol m-2 s-1 in, 25±1°C temperature and 16-hour photoperiod for 90 days. The combination of KCl 500mg L-1 with K2SO4 500mg L-1 promotes good in vitro growth in Cattleya loddigesii seedlings, except length of roots who if comported better with KCl500 mg L-1 in absence of K2SO4.

  12. Growth of single-crystal CrN on MgO(001): Effects of low-energy ion-irradiation on surface morphological evolution and physical properties

    Gall, D.; Shin, C.-S.; Spila, T.; Odén, M.; Senna, M. J. H.; Greene, J. E.; Petrov, I.


    CrN layers, 0.5 μm thick, were grown on MgO(001) at Ts=570-775 °C by ultrahigh vacuum magnetically unbalanced magnetron sputter deposition in pure N2 discharges at 20 mTorr. Layers grown at Ts⩽700 °C are stoichiometric single crystals exhibiting cube-on-cube epitaxy: (001)CrN||(001)MgO with [100]CrN||[100]MgO. At higher temperatures, N2 desorption during deposition results in understoichiometric polycrystalline films with N fractions decreasing to 0.35, 0.28, and 0.07 with Ts=730, 760, and 775 °C, respectively. The surface morphologies of epitaxial CrN(001) layers were found to depend strongly on the incident ion-to-metal flux ratio JN2+/JCr which was varied between 1.7 and 14 with the ion energy maintained constant at 12 eV. The surfaces of layers grown with JN2+/JCr=1.7 consist of self-organized square-shaped mounds, due to kinetic roughening, with edges aligned along orthogonal directions. The mounds have an average peak-to-valley height =5.1 nm and an in-plane correlation length of =0.21 μm. The combination of atomic shadowing by the mounds with low adatom mobility results in the formation of nanopipes extending along the growth direction. Increasing JN2+/JCr to 14 leads, due to increased adatom mobilities, to much smoother surfaces with =2.5 nm and =0.52 μm. Correspondingly, the nanopipe density decreases from 870 to 270 μm-2 to JCr is increased from 1.7 to 6 to 10. The hardness of dense CrN(001) is 28.5±1 GPa, but decreases to 22.5±1 GPa for layers containing significant nanopipe densities. The CrN(001) elastic modulus, 405±15 GPa, room-temperature resistivity, 7.7×10-2 Ω cm, and relaxed lattice constant, 0.4162±0.0008 nm, are independent of JN2+/JCr.

  13. Do L1 Reading Achievement and L1 Print Exposure Contribute to the Prediction of L2 Proficiency?

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy


    The study examined whether individual differences in high school first language (L1) reading achievement and print exposure would account for unique variance in second language (L2) written (word decoding, spelling, writing, reading comprehension) and oral (listening/speaking) proficiency after adjusting for the effects of early L1 literacy and…

  14. Do L1 Reading Achievement and L1 Print Exposure Contribute to the Prediction of L2 Proficiency?

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy


    The study examined whether individual differences in high school first language (L1) reading achievement and print exposure would account for unique variance in second language (L2) written (word decoding, spelling, writing, reading comprehension) and oral (listening/speaking) proficiency after adjusting for the effects of early L1 literacy and…

  15. Accessing PBeast and Monitoring the L1 Trigger

    Thompson, Emily


    During the summer student program, I worked in the Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) group of ATLAS, more specifically in the Level 1 (L1) Trigger group. My first project was to design and implement a better way to access a file based system called 'PBeast', which stores all the conditions data of ATLAS. My second project was to improve the monitoring of the L1 trigger by making useful plots to display on the Central Trigger busy monitoring webpage. In this report, I will first briefly describe how the L1 trigger works. Then, I will describe the motivation for both of my projects and detail the progress I made this summer.

  16. L1 radiculopathy mimicking meralgia paresthetica: a case report.

    Yang, Seung Nam; Kim, Dong Hwee


    L1 radiculopathy is very rare and difficult to diagnose with needle electromyography. A patient presented with pain and hypesthesia on the anterolateral aspect of the left thigh. Nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography were normal, except for the quadratus lumborum and iliopsoas muscles, which showed abnormal spontaneous activity and polyphasic motor unit potentials with reduced recruitment patterns. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine showed disc extrusion of the L1-2 intervertebral space with upward migration. This case demonstrates the usefulness of examination of the quadratus lumborum in the diagnosis of L1 radiculopathy.

  17. The Effect of Water on the Growth of Multi-layered Polycrystalline Reaction rims in the System CaO-MgO-SiO2

    Wohlers, A.; Joachim, B.; Koch-Mueller, M.; Schade, U.


    The effect of traces of water is of paramount importance for kinetics in natural rocks. Experimental results show that traces of water released at a reaction front have a major effect on the growth rates and phase sequence of the reaction rim. Experiments on polished synthetic, single crystals of OH-doped periclase (MgO) and wollastonite (dry) (CaSiO3) were reacted in an Internally Heated Pressure device at 0.5 GPa and 1200°C, 21.5hr to 96hr. Water-doped periclase as starting material allows to control the water initiation to the experiments on the ppm level. Homogenous OH distribution of the periclase starting material was analyzed with FTIR spectroscopy. In the absence of an periclase-specific calibration, the quantification of hydrogen concentration expressed as H2O-equivalent was done after [1] and gives 3.5 wt ppm H2O at ambient P/T. Raman spectroscopy, which shows OH-defect related bands at identical wavenumbers yields an H2O equivalent concentration of about 9 wt ppm quantified after [2]. A complex multi-layered rim consisting of the phases forsterite, monticellite, merwinite and akermanite grows between periclase and wollastonite at the P/T conditions mentioned above. Rim thickness of individual rim phases are between 3 to 20 μm. Conventional and synchrotron IR radiation was used at Bessy II (Berlin, Germany) with a spatial resolution down to 5 x 5 μm to analyze how water prevails in the starting material and reaction rims. A series of FTIR spectra were recorded in a line scan over the periclase toward the rim sequence. The periclase spectra show typical absorption bands at 3297 and 3310.5 cm-1 which are interpreted as OH stretching vibrations [3]. In addition an absorption band at 3697 cm-1 is observed, which is associated to Mg(OH)2 precipitate [4], which develops during quenching. In general the initial OH-doped periclase partially dehydrated during the rim growth experiments. We observe a gradient towards the reaction rim: water concentration

  18. Single crystal growth of Ce:Gd3(Ga,Al)5O12 with various Mg concentration and their scintillation properties

    Kamada, Kei; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Kochurikhin, Vladimir V.; Nagura, Aya; Okumura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Seiichi.; Yeom, Jung Yeol; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Pejchal, Jan; Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Yuji; Nikl, Martin; Yoshino, Masao; Yoshikawa, Akira


    1 in. diameter Mg 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 mol% and Zr 0.015% co-doped Ce1%:GGAG crystals were grown by Cz method. Relationship between Mg concentration and absorption, luminescence, light output, decay time, timing resolution was investigated. Mg 0.2 mol% co-doped sample showed the fastest timing resolution of 165 ps among the Mg-co-doped samples.

  19. Requirement of MgtC for Brucella suis Intramacrophage Growth: a Potential Mechanism Shared by Salmonella enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis for Adaptation to a Low-Mg2+ Environment

    Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; O'Callaghan, David; Blanc-Potard, Anne-Béatrice


    A Brucella suis mgtC mutant is defective for growth within macrophages and in low-Mg2+ medium. These phenotypes are strikingly similar to those observed with mgtC mutants from Salmonella enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, two other pathogens that proliferate within phagosomes. MgtC appears as a remarkable virulence factor that would have been acquired by distantly related intracellular pathogens to contribute to the adaptation to a low-Mg2+ environment in the phagosome. PMID:15845525

  20. NOD2 and ATG16L1 polymorphisms affect monocyte responses in Crohn's disease

    Dylan M Glubb; Richard B Gearry; Murray L Barclay; Rebecca L Roberts; John Pearson; Jacqui I Keenan; Judy McKenzie; Robert W Bentley


    AIM: To assess whether polymorphisms in NOD2 and ATG16L1 affect cytokine responses and mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) survival in monocytes from Crohn's disease (CD) patients.METHODS: Monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood of CD patients of known genotype for common single nucleotide polymorphisms of NOD2 and ATG16L1 .Monocytes were challenged with MAP and bacterial persistence assessed at subsequent time-points. Cytokine responses were assayed using a Milliplex multi-analyte profiling assay for 13 cytokines.RESULTS: Monocytes heterozygous for a NOD2 polymorphism (R702W, P268S, or 1007fs) were more permissive for growth of MAP (P = 0.045) than those without. There was no effect of NOD2 genotype on subsequent cytokine expression. The T300A polymorphism of ATG16L1 did not affect growth of MAP in our model (P= 0.175), but did increase expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 (P = 0.047) and IL-6 (P = 0.019).CONCLUSION: CD-associated polymorphisms affected the elimination of MAP from ex vivo monocytes (NOD2 ), or expression of certain cytokines (ATG16L1 ), implying independent but contributory roles in the pathogenesis of CD.

  1. TES/Aura L1B Spectra Limb V004

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The L1B Limb granule consists of radiometrically calibrated spectra & associated NESR, observed at 0.025 cm-1 resolution for an entire Global Survey &...

  2. Nonmonotone Spectral Gradient Method for l_1-regularized Least Squares

    Wanyou Cheng


    Full Text Available In the paper, we investigate a linear constraint optimization reformulation to a more general form of the l_1 regularization problem and give some good properties of it. We first show that the equivalence between the linear constraint optimization problem and the l_1 regularization problem. Second, the KKT point of the linear constraint problem always exists since the constraints are linear; we show that the half constraints must be active at any KKT point. In addition, we show that the KKT points of the linear constraint problem are the same as the stationary points of the l_1 regularization problem. Based on the linear constraint optimization problem, we propose a nonomotone spectral gradient method and establish its global convergence. Numerical experiments with compressive sense problems show that our approach is competitive with several known methods for standard l_2-l_1 problem.

  3. TES/Aura L1B Spectra Limb V002

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The L1B Limb granule consists of radiometrically calibrated spectra & associated NESR, observed at 0.025 cm-1 resolution for an entire Global Survey &...

  4. Phosphatidylcholine induces apoptosis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Li Hailan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylcholine (PPC formulation is used for lipolytic injection, even though its mechanism of action is not well understood. Methods The viability of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells was measured after treatment of PPC alone, its vehicle sodium deoxycholate (SD, and a PPC formulation. Western blot analysis was performed to examine PPC-induced signaling pathways. Results PPC, SD, and PPC formulation significantly decreased 3T3-L1 cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. PPC alone was not cytotoxic to CCD-25Sk human fibroblasts at concentrations Conclusions PPC results in apoptosis of 3T3-L1 cells.

  5. 26 CFR 1.7701(l)-1 - Conduit financing arrangements.


    ... determines that such recharacterization is appropriate to prevent avoidance of any tax imposed by title 26 of...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7701(l)-1 Conduit financing...

  6. TES/Aura L1B Spectra Nadir V003

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The L1B Nadir granule consists of radiometrically calibrated spectra & associated NESR, observed at 0.1 cm-1 resolution for an entire Global Survey &...

  7. TES/Aura L1B Spectra Nadir V004

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The L1B Nadir granule consists of radiometrically calibrated spectra & associated NESR, observed at 0.1 cm-1 resolution for an entire Global Survey &...

  8. Evidence from adult L1 Afrikaans L2 French

    (UG) is operative in adult L2 acquisition, have investigated the role that ... ungrammatical in the L2, and consists of explicit teaching and corrective feedback (Schwartz ..... unlike L1 learners, employ their general problem-solving skills (rather.

  9. Research into communication between L1DDC and FELIX

    Keser, Marceline


    This report describes the summer student project of Marceline Keser, performed with the team for the New Small Wheel electronics upgrade of ATLAS. The main goal of the project is to create communication between the FELIX and L1DDC, in order to create a bidirectional data transmission. During this project, research has been done and has resulted in a GBT link between the L1DDC and FELIX.

  10. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with a fragment of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 stimulate L1-mediated functions

    Schulz, Florian; Lutz, David; Rusche, Norman; Bastús, Neus G.; Stieben, Martin; Höltig, Michael; Grüner, Florian; Weller, Horst; Schachner, Melitta; Vossmeyer, Tobias; Loers, Gabriele


    The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is involved in nervous system development and promotes regeneration in animal models of acute and chronic injury of the adult nervous system. To translate these conducive functions into therapeutic approaches, a 22-mer peptide that encompasses a minimal and functional L1 sequence of the third fibronectin type III domain of murine L1 was identified and conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to obtain constructs that interact homophilically with the extracellular domain of L1 and trigger the cognate beneficial L1-mediated functions. Covalent conjugation was achieved by reacting mixtures of two cysteine-terminated forms of this L1 peptide and thiolated poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) ligands (~2.1 kDa) with citrate stabilized AuNPs of two different sizes (~14 and 40 nm in diameter). By varying the ratio of the L1 peptide-PEG mixtures, an optimized layer composition was achieved that resulted in the expected homophilic interaction of the AuNPs. These AuNPs were stable as tested over a time period of 30 days in artificial cerebrospinal fluid and interacted with the extracellular domain of L1 on neurons and Schwann cells, as could be shown by using cells from wild-type and L1-deficient mice. In vitro, the L1-derivatized particles promoted neurite outgrowth and survival of neurons from the central and peripheral nervous system and stimulated Schwann cell process formation and proliferation. These observations raise the hope that, in combination with other therapeutic approaches, L1 peptide-functionalized AuNPs may become a useful tool to ameliorate the deficits resulting from acute and chronic injuries of the mammalian nervous system.The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is involved in nervous system development and promotes regeneration in animal models of acute and chronic injury of the adult nervous system. To translate these conducive functions into therapeutic approaches, a 22-mer peptide that encompasses a minimal and functional L1

  11. Dose L1 Retrotransposition Cause Neuronal Loss in Neurodegenerative Disorders?

    Laleh Habibi


    Full Text Available "nNeurodegenerative disorders are among debilitating diseases that could affect many aspects of patient's life. Several mechanisms were shown to be involved in neuronal degeneration. However, the direct role of genomic instability is little considered in such disorders. L1 retrotransposons could cause genomic instability in different ways. Studies have shown increasing in L1 retrotransposition due to some reagents like heavy metals, stressors and the ones that may cause neuronal degeneration; Therefore cause cell to die. On the other hand, L1s retrotransposition was shown in neuronal precursor cells (NPCs providing the first evidence for movement of theses elements in nervous system."nHere, we propose that stimulation of L1 retrotransposition by environmental and genetic factors in neurons of central nervous system may lead them to apoptosis and result in neurodegenerative disorders. This hypothesis will be verified using L1-RP vector transfecting to definite neuronal cell line. By adding toxic agents including oxidative stress reagents and heavy metals to cell culture, we may track L1 retrotransposition and effects of this movement on cell physiology. Finding the involvement of mechanism in neurodegeneration may result in inventing new drugs for these disorders.

  12. The Pleiotropic Role of L1CAM in Tumor Vasculature

    Angiolini, Francesca; Cavallaro, Ugo


    Angiogenesis, the formation of new vessels, is a key step in the development, invasion, and dissemination of solid tumors and, therefore, represents a viable target in the context of antitumor therapy. Indeed, antiangiogenic approaches have given promising results in preclinical models and entered the clinical practice. However, in patients, the results obtained so far with antiangiogenic drugs have not completely fulfilled expectations, especially because their effect has been transient with tumors developing resistance and evasion mechanisms. A better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie tumor vascularization and the functional regulation of cancer vessels is a prerequisite for the development of novel and alternative antiangiogenic treatments. The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM), a cell surface glycoprotein previously implicated in the development and plasticity of the nervous system, is aberrantly expressed in the vasculature of various cancer types. L1CAM plays multiple pro-angiogenic roles in the endothelial cells of tumor-associated vessels, thus emerging as a potential therapeutic target. In addition, L1CAM prevents the maturation of cancer vasculature and its inhibition promotes vessel normalization, a process that is thought to improve the therapeutic response of tumors to cytotoxic drugs. We here provide an overview on tumor angiogenesis and antiangiogenic therapies and summarize the current knowledge on the biological role of L1CAM in cancer vasculature. Finally, we highlight the clinical implications of targeting L1CAM as a novel antiangiogenic and vessel-normalizing approach. PMID:28134764

  13. Using L1 in Teaching English to Advanced Students

    Khalid Al Hariri


    Full Text Available Using L1 in the English classroom has long been considered as an unforgivable wrongdoing. Many English teachers who use L1 in the classroom feel guilty about it and in many cases do not admit it. Recent researchers started to question the validity of this claim suggesting contexts and situations in which using L1 can be very helpful in ELT and refuting, on the other hand, the claims upon which the idea of using L2 solely were built.  My paper will examine the attitudes of advanced English language learners toward using L1 in the class of English where the students and the teacher speak the same first language and will also examine the attitudes of a group of EFL and ESL teachers toward the same practice. The same questionnaire given to the students will be redesigned and given to a number of teachers so that the study will look at the viewpoints from both perspectives. Keywords:  L1, Code Switching, Interference of L1, ELT, TESOL




    Aspects of metabolism in prolactinomas were investigated by positron emission tomography using L-[1-C-11]tyrosine, L-[methyl-C-11]methionine and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG). Using L-[1-C-11]tyrosine, four patients were monitored prior to and 18 h after an injection of 50 mg bromocryptine. At 18

  15. Full L1-regularized Traction Force Microscopy over whole cells.

    Suñé-Auñón, Alejandro; Jorge-Peñas, Alvaro; Aguilar-Cuenca, Rocío; Vicente-Manzanares, Miguel; Van Oosterwyck, Hans; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate


    Traction Force Microscopy (TFM) is a widespread technique to estimate the tractions that cells exert on the surrounding substrate. To recover the tractions, it is necessary to solve an inverse problem, which is ill-posed and needs regularization to make the solution stable. The typical regularization scheme is given by the minimization of a cost functional, which is divided in two terms: the error present in the data or data fidelity term; and the regularization or penalty term. The classical approach is to use zero-order Tikhonov or L2-regularization, which uses the L2-norm for both terms in the cost function. Recently, some studies have demonstrated an improved performance using L1-regularization (L1-norm in the penalty term) related to an increase in the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the recovered traction field. In this manuscript, we present a comparison between the previous two regularization schemes (relying in the L2-norm for the data fidelity term) and the full L1-regularization (using the L1-norm for both terms in the cost function) for synthetic and real data. Our results reveal that L1-regularizations give an improved spatial resolution (more important for full L1-regularization) and a reduction in the background noise with respect to the classical zero-order Tikhonov regularization. In addition, we present an approximation, which makes feasible the recovery of cellular tractions over whole cells on typical full-size microscope images when working in the spatial domain. The proposed full L1-regularization improves the sensitivity to recover small stress footprints. Moreover, the proposed method has been validated to work on full-field microscopy images of real cells, what certainly demonstrates it is a promising tool for biological applications.

  16. The L1 Retrotranspositional Stimulation by Particulate and Soluble Cadmium Exposure is Independent of the Generation of DNA Breaks

    Astrid M. Roy-Engel


    Full Text Available Human exposure to toxic metals is a concern of the highest priority, due to their vast array of biological effects, including carcinogenicity. The particulate (water insoluble form of several heavy metals presents a higher carcinogenic potential than its soluble counterparts. Our previous work demonstrates that the particulate forms of different heavy metals, such as nickel oxide, cadmium sulfide and mercury sulfide, stimulate human L1 mobile element activity leading to genomic instability. We present data demonstrating that the soluble form of CdCl2 also stimulates L1 retrotransposition in a dose-dependent manner comparable to the insoluble carcinogenic form of this compound. Reproducible results demonstrated a 2 to 3 fold dose-dependent increase in L1 retrotransposition compared to control cells. Heavy metals may cause DNA breaks through the generation of reactive oxygen species. However, evaluation of DNA damage by comet assay revealed no differences between the negative controls and the CdS-treated cells. In addition, active L1 elements express a protein with endonuclease activity that can generate toxicity through the creation of double strand breaks. To determine the contribution of the L1 endonuclease to the toxicity observed in our metal treatment assays, we compared the wildtype L1 vector with an L1 endonuclease-mutant vector. The presence of an active L1 endonuclease did not contribute significantly to the toxicity observed in any of the CdCl2 or CdS doses evaluated. No correlation between the creation of DNA breaks and L1 activity was observed. Alternatively, heavy metals inhibit enzymatic reactions by displacement of cofactors such as Zn and Mg from enzymes. Concomitant treatment with Mg(Ac2 and Zn(Ac2 ppb suppresses the stimulatory effect on L1 activity induced by the 3.8 ppb CdS treatment. Overall, these results are consistent with our previous observations, suggesting that the mechanism of L1 stimulation by heavy metals is most

  17. Interactions between the L1 cell adhesion molecule and ezrin support traction-force generation and can be regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Gil, Orlando D; Whittard, John D; Gazdoiu, Mihaela; Joseph, Todd; Wu, James; Waksman, Adam; Benson, Deanna L; Salton, Stephen R; Felsenfeld, Dan P


    An Ig superfamily cell-adhesion molecule, L1, forms an adhesion complex at the cell membrane containing both signaling molecules and cytoskeletal proteins. This complex mediates the transduction of extracellular signals and generates actin-mediated traction forces, both of which support axon outgrowth. The L1 cytoplasmic region binds ezrin, an adapter protein that interacts with the actin cytoskeleton. In this study, we analyzed L1-ezrin interactions in detail, assessed their role in generating traction forces by L1, and identified potential regulatory mechanisms controlling ezrin-L1 interactions. The FERM domain of ezrin binds to the juxtamembrane region of L1, demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid interaction traps and protein binding analyses in vitro. A lysine-to-leucine substitution in this domain of L1 (K1147L) shows reduced binding to the ezrin FERM domain. Additionally, in ND7 cells, the K1147L mutation inhibits retrograde movement of L1 on the cell surface that has been linked to the generation of the traction forces necessary for axon growth. A membrane-permeable peptide consisting of the juxtamembrane region of L1 that can disrupt endogenous L1-ezrin interactions inhibits neurite extension of cerebellar cells on L1 substrates. Moreover, the L1-ezrin interactions can be modulated by tyrosine phosphorylation of the L1 cytoplasmic region, namely, Y1151, possibly through Src-family kinases. Replacement of this tyrosine together with Y1176 with either aspartate or phenylalanine changes ezrin binding and alters colocalization with ezrin in ND7 cells. Collectively, these data suggest that L1-ezrin interactions mediated by the L1 juxtamembrane region are involved in traction-force generation and can be regulated by the phosphorylation of L1. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Effects of sodium bicarbonate concentration on growth, photosynthesis, and carbonic anhydrase activity of macroalgae Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    Zhou, Wei; Sui, Zhenghong; Wang, Jinguo; Hu, Yiyi; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Hong, Hye Ran; Niaz, Zeeshan; Wei, Huihui; Du, Qingwei; Peng, Chong; Mi, Ping; Que, Zhou


    There is potential for bicarbonate to improve crop yields and economic efficiency of marine algae. However, few studies have focused on the effect of bicarbonate on the growth, photosynthesis, and enzyme activity associated with carbon utilization, especially in commercial macroalgae. Here, the addition of bicarbonate (up to 420 mg L(-1)) to macroalgal cultures has been evaluated for Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae with respect to growth rate, photosynthetic activity, carbonic anhydrase activity, and biochemical composition. The results showed that the effects of NaHCO3 on growth, chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, photosynthetic oxygen evolution, photochemical parameters of PSI and PSII, carbonic anhydrase activity, and nitrogen content were significant (P 336 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and >420 mg L(-1) for the other two species). Moreover, species-specific differences induced by supplementation with bicarbonate were discovered during culture. Optimal concentrations of NaHCO3 used in this study were 252 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and 336 mg L(-1) for G. vermiculophylla and G. chouae. These results suggest that an adequate supplementation of sodium bicarbonate is a viable strategy for promoting growth and photosynthetic activity in some macroalgae as well as for improving biochemical composition. The study will help to accelerate the growth rate of algae and improve the quality of thalli, and will also be useful for enhancing the understanding of carbon utilization in macroalgae.

  19. Crescimento de plantas de Salvia officinalis sob ação de reguladores de crescimento vegetal Growth of Salvia officinalis plants under action of plant growth regulators

    Juliana Aparecida Povh


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar os parâmetros da análise de crescimento em função de diferentes reguladores vegetais aplicados na parte aérea de plantas de Salvia officinalis L. Para tanto,o experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Botânica, Instituto de Biociências, da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP. Os tratamentos consistiram na pulverização da solução de 100mg L-1 de ácido giberélico (GA3; 100mg L-1 de benzilaminopurina (BAP; 100mg L-1 de ácido 2-cloroetil-fosfônico (ethephon; Stimulate® a 2% (90mg L-1 de cinetina, 50mg L-1 de ácido giberélico e 50mg L-1 de ácido indolilbutírico e água (testemunha. As aplicações foram realizadas em três épocas, aos 15, 25 e 35 dias após o transplante (d.a.t. e o crescimento foi avaliado em cinco épocas de coletas a intervalos de 21 dias, sendo a primeira realizada aos 47 (d.a.t.. Foram determinados os parâmetros fisiológicos da análise de crescimento: razão de área foliar (RAF, área foliar específica (AFE, taxa assimilatória líquida (TAL e taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR. Os resultados mostram que os reguladores de crescimento vegetal influenciaram os parâmetros fisiológicos da análise de crescimento. As plantas tratadas com BAP apresentaram maiores valores de RAF aos 47 d.a.t., já as plantas tratadas com GA3, a TAL apresentou aumento até o 131 d.a.t. A TCR é decrescente para todos os tratamentos com reguladores de crescimento vegetal testados e a testemunha.The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of different plant regulators on the index growth analysis application of sage plants. An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with controlled temperature and relative humidity, at the Departmento de Botânica, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments containing three replicates. Treatments

  20. Regulation of PD-L1 expression in a high-grade invasive human oral squamous cell carcinoma microenvironment

    Hirai, Mariko; Kitahara, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Kato, Koroku; Bou-Gharios, George; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Kawashiri, Shuichi


    Blockade of the programmed-death 1 receptor (PD-1)/programmed-death ligand (PD-L1) pathway efficiently reduces tumour growth and improves survival. Durable tumour regression with blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint has been demonstrated in recent clinical studies. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is highly immunosuppressive, and PD-L1 expression has been proposed as a potential mechanism responsible for this phenotype. Despite the fact that anti-PD-1 treatment can produce durable responses, such therapy appears to benefit only a subset of patients. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying regulation of PD-L1 expression in the OSCC microenvironment. In this study, we showed that PD-L1 expression in high-grade invasive OSCC cell lines was lower than that in a low-grade invasive OSCC line and found a close correlation between PD-L1 expression and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). PD-L1 expression was upregulated in macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) in high-grade invasive human OSCC tissues or co-cultured with mesenchymal-phenotype OSCC cells in vitro. TLR4-inhibitory peptide successfully suppressed PD-L1 upregulation on macrophages and DCs co-cultured with mesenchymal-phenotype OSCC cells, suggesting that some EMT-induced tumour antigen is critical for PD-L1 induction on tumour-associated macrophages and DCs. Further studies are necessary to explore the impact of EMT on the tumour immune microenvironment and to identify potential biomarkers for selecting patients who might preferentially benefit from PD-1/PD-L1 blockade or immunotherapies more broadly. PMID:27922697

  1. Learners’ L1 Use in a Task-based Classroom

    Bao, Rui; Du, Xiangyun


    In the past two decades, strong theoretical and pedagogical arguments have been made advocating for task-based activities in the language-learning context. However, many teachers have been reluctant to in- corporate task-based activities into their teaching practices due to concerns about learners......, but with only a very small amount oc- curring for off-task talk across tasks. L1 use mainly occurred in learners’ efforts to mediate completion of the tasks. The findings highlight the role of L1 in foreign language learning and suggest that L1 use is associated with a number of factors, such as task types......, learners’ proficiency, and learning context. Implications for lan- guage teachers and task designers are also discussed....

  2. The Total Variation Regularized L1 Model for Multiscale Decomposition


    N00014-03-1- 0514, and DOE Grant GE-FG01-92ER-25126. †Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research, Columbia University, New York, NY...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Columbia University,Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations...2r . THE TV-L1 MODEL FOR MULTISCALE DECOMPOSITION 5 In general the minimizer of the TV-L1 is nonunique . In the above disk example, if λ = 2/r

  3. Parallel Coordinate Descent for L1-Regularized Loss Minimization

    Bradley, Joseph K; Bickson, Danny; Guestrin, Carlos


    We propose Shotgun, a parallel coordinate descent algorithm for minimizing L1-regularized losses. Though coordinate descent seems inherently sequential, we prove convergence bounds for Shotgun which predict linear speedups, up to a problem-dependent limit. We present a comprehensive empirical study of Shotgun for Lasso and sparse logistic regression. Our theoretical predictions on the potential for parallelism closely match behavior on real data. Shotgun outperforms other published solvers on a range of large problems, proving to be one of the most scalable algorithms for L1.

  4. Growth kinetics of an indigenous mixed microbial consortium during phenol degradation in a batch reactor.

    Saravanan, Pichiah; Pakshirajan, K; Saha, Prabirkumar


    Biodegradation of phenol by a mixed microbial culture, isolated from a sewage treatment plant, was investigated in batch shake flasks. A minimum concentration of 100 and a maximum of 800 mg 1(-1) of phenol in the media were adapted in the degradation study. The phenol degradation rate varied largely and was less than 10 mg l(-1)h(-1) at both extremes of the initial concentrations in the media. The degradation rate was maximum 15.7 mg l(-1)h(-1) at 400 mg l(-1) phenol. The culture followed substrate inhibition kinetics and the specific growth rate were fitted to Haldane and Han-Levenspiel models. Between the two models the Han-Levenspiel was found to be a better fit with a root mean square error of 0.0211. The biokinetics constants estimated using these models showed good potential of the mixed microbial culture in phenol degradation.

  5. Expression changes of nerve cell adhesion molecules L1 and semaphorin 3A after peripheral nerve injury

    Qian-ru He; Meng Cong; Qing-zhong Chen; Ya-feng Sheng; Jian Li; Qi Zhang; Fei Ding; Yan-pei Gong


    The expression of nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 in the neuronal growth cone of the central nervous system is strongly associated with the direction of growth of the axon, but its role in the regeneration of the peripheral nerve is still unknown. This study explored the problem in a femoral nerve section model in rats. L1 and semaphorin 3A mRNA and protein expressions were measured over the 4-week recovery period. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that nerve cell adhesion molecul...

  6. Biomass and lipid production of a local isolate Chlorella sorokiniana under mixotrophic growth conditions.

    Juntila, D J; Bautista, M A; Monotilla, W


    A local Chlorella sp. isolate with 97% rbcL sequence identity to Chlorella sorokiniana was evaluated in terms of its biomass and lipid production under mixotrophic growth conditions. Glucose-supplemented cultures exhibited increasing growth rate and biomass yield with increasing glucose concentration. Highest growth rate and biomass yield of 1.602 day(-1) and 687.5 mg L(-1), respectively, were achieved under 2 g L(-1) glucose. Nitrogen starvation up to 75% in the 1.0 g L(-1) glucose-supplemented culture was done to induce lipid accumulation and did not significantly affect the growth. Lipid content ranges from 20% to 27% dry weight. Nile Red staining showed more prominent neutral lipid bodies in starved mixotrophic cultures. C. sorokiniana exhibited enhanced biomass production under mixotrophy and more prominent neutral lipid accumulation under nitrogen starvation with no significant decrease in growth; hence, this isolate could be further studied to establish its potential for biodiesel production.

  7. On the L1 Attrition of the Spanish Present Tense

    Cuza, Alejandro


    This study examines the potential native language (L1) attrition of the ongoing value of the Spanish present tense among long-term Spanish immigrants. Based on the assumption of second-language (L2) transfer and proposals on the permeability of interface-conditioned structures, it is hypothesized that long-term Spanish immigrants will show…

  8. Adaptation is Unnecessary in L1-"Adaptive" Control


    We show in the paper that the, so--called, "new architecture of L_1-Adaptive Control" is, indeed, different from classical model reference adaptive control. Alas, it is not new, since it exactly coincides with a full--state feedback, linear time--invariant proportional plus integral controller (with a decaying additive disturbance).

  9. L1-L2 Sentence Translation in Classroom Grammar Tests

    Salem, Ilana


    L1-L2 translation of separate sentences is one kind of task format used by mainstream EFL teachers to assess their learners' grammatical accuracy. Aimed at improving teacher-written translation items, this study analyses linguistic features potentially causing such decontextualized cues (and their target responses) to sound odd or untypical of…

  10. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul


    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  11. Conceptualising the Potential Role of L1 in CLIL

    Lin, Angel M. Y.


    Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is a rapidly growing area of both research and practice in all parts of the world, especially in Europe and Asia. As a young discipline, CLIL has a good potential of distinguishing itself from monolingual L2 immersion education models by becoming more flexible and balanced about the role of L1 in…

  12. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul


    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  13. Conceptualising the Potential Role of L1 in CLIL

    Lin, Angel M. Y.


    Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is a rapidly growing area of both research and practice in all parts of the world, especially in Europe and Asia. As a young discipline, CLIL has a good potential of distinguishing itself from monolingual L2 immersion education models by becoming more flexible and balanced about the role of L1 in…

  14. Greedy vs. L1 convex optimization in sparse coding

    Ren, Huamin; Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor;


    , such as face and action recognition, a comparative study of codes in abnormal event detection is less studied and hence no conclusion is gained on the effect of codes in detecting abnormalities. We constrict our comparison in two types of the above L0-norm solutions: greedy algorithms and convex L1-norm...

  15. Effects of 600 MeV proton irradiation on nucleation and growth of precipitates and helium bubbles in a high-purity Al-Mg-Si alloy

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Leffers, Torben; Victoria, M.;


    Solution treated specimens of a high-purity Al-0.75%Mg-0.42%Si alloy were irradiated with 600 MeV protons at 150 and 240°C to a dose level of 0.47 and 0.55 dpa, respectively. Mg2Si-type precipitates formed during irradiation at 150 and 240°C; at 240°C, however, a large number of precipitates seem...

  16. Efeito de reguladores de crescimento em uva apirênica, cv. BRS Clara Effect of growth regulators on the seedless grape cv. BRS Clara

    Jair Costa Nachtigal


    Station for Tropical Viticulture in Jales, SP. The bunches were directly sprayed with the plant growth regulators, either individually or combined, in concentrations from 0 to 4mg.L-1 of CPPU; 0 to 10mg.L-1of TDZ and 0 to 90mg.L-1 of AG3. Generally, the application of growth regulators improved the quality of the bunches of the cv. BRS Clara; the use of TDZ and CPPU, combined with AG3, produce a synergistic effect, causing a better response than the isolated use of AG3; the treatments with 60mg.L-1 of AG3, 20mg.L-1 of AG3 + 4mg.L-1 of CPPU and 10mg.L-1 of AG3 + 5mg.L-1 of TDZ provide the best results for increase in the berries diameter; the application of AG3 before flowering cause excessive abortion which reduced the commercial value of the bunches. High concentrations of plant growth regulators decrease the content of total soluble solids.

  17. Redução de sementes do tangor 'Murcote' com a aplicação de biorreguladores durante o florescimento Reduction of seeds in 'Honey' orange by application of plant growth regulators during reproductive stages

    Marcio Christian Serpa Domingues


    Full Text Available O presente ensaio foi conduzido em cultivo comercial do tangor 'Murcote' e teve por objetivo avaliar a atuação dos biorreguladores 2,4-D (auxina, NAA (auxina, GA3 (giberelina e BA (citocinina, na redução do número de sementes, sem afetar a qualidade dos frutos cítricos. Os tratamentos foram: Testemunha; 10 e 20 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D; 100, 150 e 200 mg.L-1 de NAA, 100 e 200 mg.L-1 de GA3 e 20 e 40 mg.L-1 de BA. Verificou-se que nenhum dos reguladores vegetais influenciou na qualidade dos frutos de tangor 'murcote', sem redução de peso, tamanho e teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Já em relação ao número de sementes, nenhum dos reguladores vegetais foi efetivo na redução de sementes inviáveis, porém mostraram efeito na redução de sementes viáveis, conseqüentemente com redução do número total de sementes nos frutos, quando tratados com NAA a 100 e 200 mg.L-1 juntamente com GA3 a 100 mg.L-1, com redução de 30 % do total de sementes.The present experiment was conducted in a commercial tangor 'Murcote' citrus grove in Pratania, São Paulo State, Brazil and had the objective to evaluate the effects of, 2,4-D (auxin, NAA (auxin, GA3 (gibberellin and BA (cytokinin, on the reduction of seed number, without modifications on citrus fruit quality. The treatments sprayed were as follow: control (water; 10 and 20 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D; 100, 150 and 200 mg.L-1 of NAA; 100 and 200 mg.L-1 of GA3 ; 20 and 40 mg.L-1 of BA. The results showed that none of plant growth regulators influenced fruit quality, without weight reduction, diameter or ºBrix. In relation to seed number, none of the plant growth regulators were effective on reduction of seed number, however the reduced of viable seed number and total seed number of fruits, specially with the treatment of 100 and 200 mg.L-1 of NAA and 100 mg.L-1 of GA3, that showed a reduction of 30% of total seed of tangor murcott fruits.

  18. The effect of oil sands process-affected water and model naphthenic acids on photosynthesis and growth in Emiliania huxleyi and Chlorella vulgaris.

    Beddow, Jessica; Johnson, Richard J; Lawson, Tracy; Breckels, Mark N; Webster, Richard J; Smith, Ben E; Rowland, Steven J; Whitby, Corinne


    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are among the most toxic organic pollutants present in oil sands process waters (OSPW) and enter marine and freshwater environments through natural and anthropogenic sources. We investigated the effects of the acid extractable organic (AEO) fraction of OSPW and individual surrogate NAs, on maximum photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) (FV/FM) and cell growth in Emiliania huxleyi and Chlorella vulgaris as representative marine and freshwater phytoplankton. Whilst FV/FM in E. huxleyi and C. vulgaris was not inhibited by AEO, exposure to two surrogate NAs: (4'-n-butylphenyl)-4-butanoic acid (n-BPBA) and (4'-tert-butylphenyl)-4-butanoic acid (tert-BPBA), caused complete inhibition of FV/FM in E. huxleyi (≥10 mg L(-1)n-BPBA; ≥50 mg L(-1)tert-BPBA) but not in C. vulgaris. Growth rates and cell abundances in E. huxleyi were also reduced when exposed to ≥10 mg L(-1)n- and tert-BPBA; however, higher concentrations of n- and tert-BPBA (100 mg L(-1)) were required to reduce cell growth in C. vulgaris. AEO at ≥10 mg L(-1) stimulated E. huxleyi growth rate (p ≤ 0.002), yet had no apparent effect on C. vulgaris. In conclusion, E. huxleyi was generally more sensitive to NAs than C. vulgaris. This report provides a better understanding of the physiological responses of phytoplankton to NAs which will enable improved monitoring of NA pollution in aquatic ecosystems in the future.

  19. Mesenteric lymph node CD11b(-) CD103(+) PD-L1(High) dendritic cells highly induce regulatory T cells.

    Shiokawa, Aya; Kotaki, Ryutaro; Takano, Tomohiro; Nakajima-Adachi, Haruyo; Hachimura, Satoshi


    Dendritic cells (DCs) in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) induce Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells to regulate immune responses to beneficial or non-harmful agents in the intestine, such as commensal bacteria and foods. Several studies in MLN DCs have revealed that the CD103(+) DC subset highly induces regulatory T cells, and another study has reported that MLN DCs from programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) -deficient mice could not induce regulatory T cells. Hence, the present study investigated the expression of these molecules on MLN CD11c(+) cells. Four distinct subsets expressing CD103 and/or PD-L1 were identified, namely CD11b(+) CD103(+) PD-L1(High) , CD11b(-) CD103(+) PD-L1(High) , CD11b(-) CD103(+) PD-L1(Low) and CD11b(+) CD103(-) PD-L1(Int) . Among them, the CD11b(-) CD103(+) PD-L1(High) DC subset highly induced Foxp3(+) T cells. This subset expressed Aldh1a2 and Itgb8 genes, which are involved in retinoic acid metabolism and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activation, respectively. Exogenous TGF-β supplementation equalized the level of Foxp3(+) T-cell induction by the four subsets whereas retinoic acid did not, which suggests that high ability to activate TGF-β is determinant for the high Foxp3(+) T-cell induction by CD11b(-) CD103(+) PD-L1(High) DC subset. Finally, this subset exhibited a migratory DC phenotype and could take up and present orally administered antigens. Collectively, the MLN CD11b(-) CD103(+) PD-L1(High) DC subset probably takes up luminal antigens in the intestine, migrates to MLNs, and highly induces regulatory T cells through TGF-β activation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Compensatory growth of the bloom-forming dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense induced by nitrogen stress

    Honghui Zhu


    Full Text Available Although the phenomenon of compensatory growth has been documented in someanimals and higher plants, little information is available on its manifestation in marinemicroalgae. We have conducted the first study on the compensatory growth of the red tide causative dinoflagellate Prorocentrumdonghaiense after its recovery from different nitrogen concentrations.The results showed that NaNO3 concentrations of 0 and 7.5 mg l-1 significantly reduced thegrowth of P. donghaiense, as compared to 37.5 and 75 mg l-1. When the microalgal cells were returned to 75 mg l-1, they exhibited subsequent compensatory growth. The most significant compensatory growth was found in those cells previously experiencing 0 mg dm3, followed by 7.5 mg dm3, indicating thatcompensatory growth depended on the extent of nitrogen stress they had been subjected to. Our results suggest thatcompensatory growth can be induced in the marine microalga P. donghaiense after its recovery from nitrogen fluctuation, and that this should be taken into consideration in the prevalence of P. donghaiense blooms in coastal waters.

  1. Fabrication of YBCO/YSZ and YBCO/MgO thick films using electrophoretic deposition with top-seeded melt growth process

    Zhu Ya-Bin; Zhou Yue-Liang; Wang Shu-Fang; Liu Zhen; Zhang Qin; Chen Zheng-Hao; Lü Hui-Bin; Yang Guo-Zhen


    Superconducting thick films were grown on single crystals MgO and YSZ by electrophoretic deposition with Y2BaCuOs(Y211) addition. YBCO thick films were then accomplished by sintering the precursor films above the peritectic temperature. Single crystals of MgO (3×3×0.5mm3) were used as top-seed to control crystal structure of the thick films. As shown by scanning electron microscopy, the morphologies of YBCO/YSZ and YBCO/MgO thick films are spherulitic texture and platelet type. The critical temperature is ~89 K for the YBCO/YSZ thick film; the onset transition temperature is 86.4 K and the transition width is ~3 K for YBCO/MgO thick film. The critical current densities (as determined by Bean model) are, in A/cm2, 3870 (77K) for YBCO/YSZ thick films and 2399 (77K) for YBCO/MgO thick films, which are comparable to the best Jc reported of the thick films prepared by the same method.

  2. Growth of MgB2 Thin Films by Chemical Vapour Deposition Using B2H6 as a boron Source

    王淑芳; 朱亚彬; 刘震; 周岳亮; 张芹; 陈正豪; 吕惠宾; 杨国桢


    Superconducting MgB2 thin films were grown on single crystal Al2O3 (0001) by chemical vapour deposition using B2H6 as a boron source. MgB2 film was then accomplished by annealing the boron precursor films in the presence of high-purity magnesium bulk at 890℃ in vacuum. The as-grown MgB2 films are smooth and c-axis-oriented.The films exhibit a zero-resistance transition of about 38K with a narrow transition width of 0.2 K. Magnetic hysteresis measurements yield the critical current density of 1.9 × 107 A/cm2 at 10 K in zero field.

  3. Anti-L1CAM radioimmunotherapy is more effective with the radiolanthanide terbium-161 compared to lutetium-177 in an ovarian cancer model

    Gruenberg, Juergen; Lindenblatt, Dennis; Cohrs, Susan; Fischer, Eliane [Paul Scherrer Institute, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Villigen (Switzerland); Dorrer, Holger [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Villigen (Switzerland); Zhernosekov, Konstantin [ITG Isotope Technologies Garching GmbH, Garching (Germany); Koester, Ulli [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Tuerler, Andreas [Paul Scherrer Institute, Laboratory of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Villigen (Switzerland); University of Bern, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Berne (Switzerland); Schibli, Roger [Paul Scherrer Institute, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Villigen (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Zurich (Switzerland)


    The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is considered a valuable target for therapeutic intervention in different types of cancer. Recent studies have shown that anti-L1CAM radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with {sup 67}Cu- and {sup 177}Lu-labelled internalising monoclonal antibody (mAb) chCE7 was effective in the treatment of human ovarian cancer xenografts. In this study, we directly compared the therapeutic efficacy of anti-L1CAM RIT against human ovarian cancer under equitoxic conditions with the radiolanthanide {sup 177}Lu and the potential alternative {sup 161}Tb in an ovarian cancer therapy model. Tb was produced by neutron bombardment of enriched {sup 160}Gd targets. {sup 161}Tb and {sup 177}Lu were used for radiolabelling of DOTA-conjugated antibodies. The in vivo behaviour of the radioimmunoconjugates (RICs) was assessed in IGROV1 tumour-bearing nude mice using biodistribution experiments and SPECT/CT imaging. After ascertaining the maximal tolerated doses (MTD) the therapeutic impact of 50 % MTD of {sup 177}Lu- and {sup 161}Tb-DOTA-chCE7 was evaluated in groups of ten mice by monitoring the tumour size of subcutaneous IGROV1 tumours. The average number of DOTA ligands per antibody was 2.5 and maximum specific activities of 600 MBq/mg were achieved under identical radiolabelling conditions. RICs were stable in human plasma for at least 48 h. {sup 177}Lu- and {sup 161}Tb-DOTA-chCE7 showed high tumour uptake (37.8-39.0 %IA/g, 144 h p.i.) with low levels in off-target organs. SPECT/CT images confirmed the biodistribution data. {sup 161}Tb-labelled chCE7 revealed a higher radiotoxicity in nude mice (MTD: 10 MBq) than the {sup 177}Lu-labelled counterpart (MTD: 12 MBq). In a comparative therapy study with equitoxic doses, tumour growth inhibition was better by 82.6 % for the {sup 161}Tb-DOTA-chCE7 than the {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-chCE7 RIT. Our study is the first to show that anti-L1CAM {sup 161}Tb RIT is more effective compared to {sup 177}Lu RIT in ovarian cancer xenografts

  4. PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies for melanoma.

    Tsai, Katy K; Zarzoso, Inés; Daud, Adil I


    Melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer. Metastatic melanoma historically carries a poor prognosis and until recently there have been few effective agents available to treat widely disseminated disease. Recognition of the immunogenic nature of melanoma has resulted in the development of various immunotherapeutic approaches, especially with regards to the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor and its ligand (PD-L1). Antibodies targeting the PD-1 axis have shown enormous potential in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Here, we will review the immune basis for the disease and discuss approved immunotherapeutic options for advanced melanoma, as well as the current state of development of PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies and their importance in shaping the future of melanoma treatment.

  5. Ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation via suppressing ERK activation

    Ichikawa, Tomonaga; Li, Jinqing; Dong, Xiaoyu; Potts, Jay D. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Tang, Dong-Qi [Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610-0275 (United States); Li, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: [Hubei Key Laboratory of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Tai He Hospital, Yunyang Medical College, 32 S. Renmin Rd., Shiyan, Hubei 442000 (China); Cui, Taixing, E-mail: [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)


    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) appear to be critical regulators of a multitude of processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and inflammation. We have recently demonstrated that a DUB of ubiquitin carboxyl terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) inhibits vascular lesion formation via suppressing inflammatory responses in vasculature. However, the precise underlying mechanism remains to be defined. Herein, we report that a posttranscriptional up-regulation of UCH-L1 provides a negative feedback to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF{alpha})-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). In rat adult VSMCs, adenoviral over-expression of UCH-L1 inhibited TNF{alpha}-induced activation of ERK and DNA synthesis. In contrast, over-expression of UCH-L1 did not affect platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced VSMC proliferation and activation of growth stimulating cascades including ERK. TNF{alpha} hardly altered UCH-L1 mRNA expression and stability; however, up-regulated UCH-L1 protein expression via increasing UCH-L1 translation. These results uncover a novel mechanism by which UCH-L1 suppresses vascular inflammation.

  6. Performance and Applications of L1B2 Ultrasonic Motors

    Gal Peled; Roman Yasinov; Nir Karasikov


    Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors offer important advantages for motion applications where high speed is coupled with high precision. The advances made in the recent decades in the field of ultrasonic motor based motion solutions allow the construction of complete motion platforms in the fields of semiconductors, aerospace and electro-optics. Among the various motor designs, the L1B2 motor type has been successful in industrial applications, offering high precision, effective control and operat...

  7. On $L^1$ extremal problem for entire functions

    Yuditskii, Peter


    We generalized the Korkin-Zolotarev theorem to the case of entire functions having the smallest $L^1$ norm on a system of intervals $E$. If $\\bbC\\setminus E$ is a domain of Widom type with the Direct Cauchy Theorem we give an explicit formula for the minimal deviation. Important relations between the problem and the theory of canonical systems with reflectionless resolvent functions are shown.

  8. L1 elements, processed pseudogenes and retrogenes in mammalian genomes.

    Ding, Wenyong; Lin, Lin; Chen, Bing; Dai, Jianwu


    Long interspersed nuclear elements 1 (L1 elements or LINE1) are the most active autonomous retrotransposons in mammalian genomes. In addition to L1 elements themselves, other protein-coding mRNAs can also be reverse transcribed and integrated into the genome through the L1-mediated retrotransposition, leading to the formation of processed pseudogenes (PPs) and retrogenes, both of which are characterized by the lack of introns and the presence of a 3' polyA tract and flanking direct repeats. PPs are unable to encode a functional protein and have accumulated frameshift mutations and premature stop codons during evolution. A few of PPs are transcriptionally active. Retrogenes preserve undisrupted coding frames and are capable of encoding a functional protein that is identical or nearly identical to that of the progenitor gene. There is a significant excess of retrogenes that originate from the X chromosome and are retrotransposed into autosomes, and most of these retrogenes are specially expressed in male germ cells, suggesting the inactivation of X-linked genes during male meiosis provides a strong selection pressure on retrogenes originating from the X chromosome.

  9. Salmonella induces PD-L1 expression in B cells.

    Lopez-Medina, Marcela; Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney


    Salmonella persists for a long time in B cells; however, the mechanism(s) through which infected B cells avoid effector CD8 T cell responses has not been characterized. In this study, we show that Salmonella infects and survives within all B1 and B2 cell subpopulations. B cells are infected with a Salmonella typhimurium strain expressing an ovalbumin (OVA) peptide (SIINFEKL) to evaluate whether B cells process and present Salmonella antigens in the context of MHC-I molecules. Our data showed that OVA peptides are presented by MHC class I K(b)-restricted molecules and the presented antigen is generated through proteasomal degradation and vacuolar processing. In addition, Salmonella-infected B cells express co-stimulatory molecules such as CD40, CD80, and CD86 as well as inhibitory molecules such as PD-L1. Thus, the cross-presentation of Salmonella antigens and the expression of activation molecules suggest that infected B cells are able to prime and activate specific CD8(+) T cells. However, the Salmonella infection-stimulated expression of PD-L1 suggests that the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may be involved in turning off the cytotoxic effector response during Salmonella persistent infection, thereby allowing B cells to become a reservoir for the bacteria.

  10. The effect of plant growth regulators on height control in potted Arundina graminifolia orchids (Growth regulators in Arundina graminifolia

    Christina da Silva Wanderley


    Full Text Available Orchids have become an important portion of the international floriculture market.  Arundina graminifolia is a terrestrial orchid that produces attractive flowers, and, although the species could be a potential candidate for the floriculture market, its considerable height makes it difficult to transport and commercialize.  A number of plant growth regulators have been utilized to control plant height in ornamentals and other species.  Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of growth regulators, paclobutrazol and chlormequat chloride on the vegetative development of containerized A. graminifolia orchid aiming at height control.  Paclobutrazol (Cultar was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg L-1, and CCC (Cycocel was applied at 0, 2000, 4000, and 6000 mg L-1. The plants were assessed monthly for the plant height and number of shoots per container. CCC had no effect on the final height of plants at the concentrations applied. In contrast, paclobutrazol was effective in controlling plant height at a concentration of 5 mg L-1, but higher concentrations (10 and 20 mg L-1 proved to be toxic to the plants, causing death to the new shoots. Paclobutrazol at lower concentrations offers a viable means for height control in A. graminifolia.

  11. Use of Adaptive Laboratory Evolution To Discover Key Mutations Enabling Rapid Growth of Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 on Glucose Minimal Medium

    LaCroix, Ryan A.; Sandberg, Troy E.; O'Brien, Edward J.


    and exponential growth, fitness increases up to 1.6-fold were obtained compared to the wild type. These increases are comparable to previously reported maximum growth rates in similar conditions but were obtained over a shorter time frame. Across the eight replicate ALE experiments performed, causal mutations...... using a gene classification system alone. The methods described here represent a powerful combination of technologies to increase the speed and efficiency of ALE studies. The identified mutations can be examined as genetic parts for increasing growth rate in a desired strain and for understanding rapid...... often mutated: the global transcription gene rpoB, an 82-bp deletion between the metabolic pyrE gene and rph, and an IS element between the DNA structural gene hns and tdk. Model-derived classification of gene expression revealed a number of processes important for increased growth that were missed...

  12. Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase activities in winter wheat root plasma membranes as affected by NaCl stress during growth

    Mansour, MMF; van Hasselt, PR; Kuiper, PJC


    Winter wheat seedlings were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution with or without 100 mmol/L NaCl added. Plasma membranes from root cells were prepared by aqueous polymer two phase partitioning and the stimulation of plasma membrane ATPase activity by Mg2+ and Ca2+ was investigated. The enzyme was act

  13. Simulation of epitaxial growth of CeO{sub 2} on YSZ(100) and SrTiO{sub 3} on MgO(100) for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} deposition

    Aguiar, R.; Sanchez, F.; Ferrater, C.; Aguilo, M.; Varela, M. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Aplicada i Electronica]|[Lab. de Cristallografia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Placa Imperial Tarraco 1, Tarragona E-43005 (Spain)


    A simulation based on the optimization of the interaction energy between the atoms at both sides of the different film and film-substrate interfaces has been used to qualitatively predict their relative in-plane positioning and orientation. The method has been applied to YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO), CeO{sub 2} and SrTiO{sub 3} films on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (100) and MgO(100) single crystals. It allows to predict cube-on-cube epitaxial growth of CeO{sub 2} on YSZ(100) and SrTiO{sub 3} on MgO(100). [00h] oriented YBCO epitaxial growth should take place on the buffers with [0h0] axes rotated 45 away from [100] direction of CeO{sub 2}, and parallel to [100] direction on SrTiO{sub 3}. The computed relationships are in agreement to the results obtained in laser ablation deposited YBCO/YSZ(100), YBCO/CeO{sub 2}/YSZ(100), YBCO/MgO(100) and YBCO/SrTiO{sub 3}/MgO structures as well as other reported results. (orig.) 13 refs.

  14. Existence of a Renormalised Solutions for a Class of Nonlinear Degenerated Parabolic Problems with L1 Data



    We study the existence of renormalized solutions for a class of nonlinear degenerated parabolic problem.The Carathéodory function satisfying the coercivity condition,the growth condition and only the large monotonicity.The data belongs to L1(Q).

  15. Tom1L1在细胞信号转导及受体内吞中的研究进展%Progresses and Perspectives on the Role of Tom1L1 in Signal Transduction and Endocytosis Pathways

    李娜; 刘宁生


    Tom1L1(Tom1 like 1)参与并调节细胞信号转导及受体运输通路.在不同细胞中Tom1L1对信号转导具有不同的调节作用.Tom1L1-CHC(clathrin heavy chain)复合物减少Src蛋白在小窝(caveolae)处富集,从而阻碍Src蛋白与血小板衍生因子(platelet derived growth factor,PDGF)受体的结合,抑制PDGF受体介导的有丝分裂和转化信号传导.活化的表皮生长因子受体(epidermal growth factor receptor,EGFR)通过Src家族蛋白激酶(src family kinase,SFK)磷酸化Tom1L1,磷酸化的Tom1L1通过Grb2和Shc的桥梁作用与EGFR结合,介导EGFR的内吞进程.Tom1L1和Hrs(hepatocyte growth factor regulated tyrosine kinase substrate)、TSG101(tumor susceptibility gene 101)的相互作用表明,它也可能参与了泛素化蛋白分选入多泡体的过程.该文就其在细胞信号转导通路及受体内吞/分选过程的作用作一综述.

  16. Expression changes of nerve cell adhesion molecules L1 and semaphorin 3A after peripheral nerve injury

    Qian-ru He


    Full Text Available The expression of nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 in the neuronal growth cone of the central nervous system is strongly associated with the direction of growth of the axon, but its role in the regeneration of the peripheral nerve is still unknown. This study explored the problem in a femoral nerve section model in rats. L1 and semaphorin 3A mRNA and protein expressions were measured over the 4-week recovery period. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 expression was higher in the sensory nerves than in motor nerves at 2 weeks after injury, but vice versa for the expression of semaphorin 3A. Western blot assay results demonstrated that nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 expression was higher in motor nerves than in the sensory nerves at the proximal end after injury, but its expression was greater in the sensory nerves at 2 weeks. Semaphorin 3A expression was higher in the motor nerves than in the sensory nerves at 3 days and 1 week after injury. Nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 and semaphorin 3A expressions at the distal end were higher in the motor nerves than in the sensory nerves at 3 days, 1 and 2 weeks. Immunohistochemical staining results showed that nerve cell adhesion molecule L1 expression at the proximal end was greater in the sensory nerves than in the motor nerves; semaphorin 3A expression was higher in the motor nerves than in the sensory nerves at 2 weeks after injury. Taken together, these results indicated that nerve cell adhesion molecules L1 and semaphorin 3A exhibited different expression patterns at the proximal and distal ends of sensory and motor nerves, and play a coordinating role in neural chemotaxis regeneration.

  17. Growth and Chlorophyll Content of Canola Plants Supplied with Urea and Ammonium Nitrate in Response to Various Nickel Levels

    Ahmad BYBORDI


    Full Text Available Both the beneficial and the adverse effects of various nickel level supplements on growth and chlorophyll content of canola plants were evaluated while either urea or ammonium nitrate was supplied as the sole N source in the nutrient solutions. This study was arranged in completely randomized with three replications. Treatments included nutrient solution cultures containing urea and ammonium nitrate at the rate of 84 mg N L-1 separately as nitrogen sources with four nickel levels as NiSO4.6H2O at the rates of 0, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg Ni L-1. Plants were allowed to grow for 6 weeks then leaves chlorophyll content and shoots and roots fresh and dry weight were determined. Both plant growth and leaves chlorophyll content of the urea-fed plants increased significantly with the increase in nickel content up to 0.1 mg Ni L-1. However, root fresh and dry weight increased up to 0.01 mg Ni L-1 and started to decrease with further increase in solutions nickel content. Nickel did not affect these parameters with plants supplied with ammonium nitrate significantly. In these plants, the optimum nickel level for shoot growth and leaves chlorophyll content was 0.05 mg L-1 and for root fresh and dry weight was 0.01 mg Ni L-1. Further increase in Ni concentration reduced growth. As a whole, plants received urea plus nickel performed better than those received ammonium nitrate plus nickel.

  18. Effects of Dihydroartemisinin and Artemether on the Growth, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, and Extracellular Alkaline Phosphatase Activity of the Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa

    Wang, Shoubing; Xu, Ziran


    Increased eutrophication in the recent years has resulted in considerable research focus on identification of methods for preventing cyanobacterial blooms that are rapid and efficient. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of dihydroartemisinin and artemether on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa and to elucidate its mode of action. Variations in cell density, chlorophyll a, soluble protein, malondialdehyde, extracellular alkaline phosphatase activity (APA), and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, ETR, rapid light curves, fast chlorophyll fluorescence curves on fluorescence intensity, and relative variable fluorescence) were evaluated by lab-cultured experiments. Our results demonstrated that both dihydroartemisinin and artemether inhibited the growth of M.aeruginosa by impairing the photosynthetic center in photosystem II and reducing extracellular APA, with a higher sensitivity exhibited toward artemether. The inhibitory effects of dihydroartemisinin on M.aeruginosa increased with concentration, and the maximum growth inhibitory rate was 42.17% at 24 mg·L-1 after 120h exposure, whereas it was 55.72% at 6 mg·L-1 artemetherafter 120h exposure. Moreover, the chlorophyll fluorescence was significantly inhibited (p<0.05) after 120h exposure to 12 and 24 mg·L-1 dihydroartemisinin. Furthermore, after 120h exposure to 6 mg·L-1 artemether, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, ETR and rETRmax showed a significant decrease (p<0.01) from initial values of 0.490, 0.516, 17.333, and 104.800, respectively, to 0. One-way analysis of variance showed that 6 mg·L-1 artemether and 24 mg·L-1 dihydroartemisinin had significant inhibitory effects on extracellular APA (p<0.01). The results of this study would be useful to further studies to validate the feasibility of dihydroartemisinin and artemether treatment to inhibit overall cyanobacterial growth in water bodies, before this can be put into practice. PMID:27755566

  19. Detection of L1, infectious virions and anti-L1 antibody in domestic rabbits infected with cottontail rabbit papillomavirus.

    Hu, Jiafen; Budgeon, Lynn R; Cladel, Nancy M; Culp, Timothy D; Balogh, Karla K; Christensen, Neil D


    Shope papillomavirus or cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) is one of the first small DNA tumour viruses to be characterized. Although the natural host for CRPV is the cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), CRPV can infect domestic laboratory rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and induce tumour outgrowth and cancer development. In previous studies, investigators attempted to passage CRPV in domestic rabbits, but achieved very limited success, leading to the suggestion that CRPV infection in domestic rabbits was abortive. The persistence of specific anti-L1 antibody in sera from rabbits infected with either virus or viral DNA led us to revisit the questions as to whether L1 and infectious CRPV can be produced in domestic rabbit tissues. We detected various levels of L1 protein in most papillomas from CRPV-infected rabbits using recently developed monoclonal antibodies. Sensitive in vitro infectivity assays additionally confirmed that extracts from these papillomas were infectious. These studies demonstrated that the CRPV/New Zealand White rabbit model could be used as an in vivo model to study natural virus infection and viral life cycle of CRPV and not be limited to studies on abortive infections.

  20. Growth and microstructure of columnar Y-doped SrZrO{sub 3} films deposited on Pt-coated MgO by pulsed laser deposition

    Luo, Sijun, E-mail:; Riggs, Brian C.; Shipman, Joshua T.; Adireddy, Shiva; Sklare, Samuel C.; Chrisey, Douglas B., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States); Zhang, Xiaodong; Koplitz, Brent [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States)


    Direct integration of proton conductor films on Pt-coated substrates opens the way to film-based proton transport devices. Columnar SrZr{sub 0.95}Y{sub 0.05}O{sub 3−δ} (SZY) films with dense microstructure were deposited on Pt-coated MgO(100) substrates at 830 °C by pulsed laser deposition. The optimal window of ambient O{sub 2} pressure for good crystallinity of SZY films is from 400 to 600 mTorr. The ambient O{sub 2} compresses the plasma plume of SZY and increases the deposition rate. The 10 nm thick Ti adhesion layer on MgO(100) greatly affects the orientation of the sputtered Pt layers. Pt deposited directly on MgO shows a highly (111)-preferred orientation and leads to preferentially oriented SZY films while the addition of a Ti adhesion layer makes Pt show a less preferential orientation that leads to randomly oriented SZY films. The RMS surface roughness of preferentially oriented SZY films is larger than that of randomly oriented SZY films deposited under the same ambient O{sub 2} pressure. As the O{sub 2} pressure increased, the RMS surface roughness of preferentially oriented SZY films increased, reaching 45.7 nm (2.61% of film thickness) at 600 mTorr. This study revealed the ambient O{sub 2} pressure and orientation dependent surface roughness of SZY films grown on Pt-coated MgO substrates, which provides the potential to control the surface microstructure of SZY films for electrochemical applications in film-based hydrogen devices.

  1. The FPGA based L1 track finding Tracklet approach

    Kyriacou, Savvas; CMS Collaboration


    The High Luminosity upgraded LHC is expected to deliver proton-proton collisions per 25ns with an estimated 140-200 pile up interactions per bunch crossing. Ultrafast track finding is vital for handling trigger rates in such conditions. An FPGA based road search algorithm is developed, the Tracklet approach one of a few currently under consideration, for the CMS L1 trigger system. Based on low/high transverse momentum track discrimination and designed for the HL upgraded outer tracker, the algorithm achieves microsecond scale track reconstruction in the expected high track multiplicity environment. The Tracklet method overview, implementation, hardware demonstrator and performance results are presented and discussed.


    洪文明; 孙鸿雁


    We consider a random walk on Z in random environment with possible jumps{-L, · · · ,-1, 1}, in the case that the environment{ωi: i∈Z}are i.i.d.. We establish the renewal theorem for the Markov chain of “the environment viewed from the particle” in both annealed probability and quenched probability, which generalize partially the results of Kesten (1977) and Lalley (1986) for the nearest random walk in random environment on Z, respectively. Our method is based on the intrinsic branching structure within the (L, 1)-RWRE formulated in Hong and Wang (2013).

  3. MBE-growth of iron and iron oxide thin films on MgO(100), using NO2, NO, and N2O as oxidising agents

    Voogt, FC; Hibma, T; Smulders, PJM; Niesen, L; Fujii, T; Schlom, DG; Eom, CB; Hawley, ME; Foster, CM; Speck, JS


    We have made a study of the use of NO2 as the source of oxygen in the MBE-growth of iron oxides thin films. It is found that NO2 is a much more efficient oxidising agent than molecular O-2. As indicated by Mossbauer spectroscopy, performed on Fe-57 probe layers, NO2 is not only capable of forming st

  4. Increased CaCl2, MgS04 and KH2P04 improve the growth of micropropagated red raspberries

    The amount of genetic variation in red raspberries makes it difficult to successfully apply a standard in vitro growth medium to all cultivars and selections. Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) is commonly used for commercial red raspberry cultivar micropropagation. However, many cultivars grown on MS ...

  5. Impact of Selenium Supplementation on Growth and Selenium Accumulation on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. Plants



    Full Text Available Selenium (Se has been proved to be an essential element for humans and animals. However, less is known about its effects on plants. A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of selenium on growth, selenium accumulation and some physiological characteristics of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Missouri plants. Plants were grown in Hoagland nutrient solution amended with sodium selenite at 0 (control, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 10 mg.L-1 for 28 days. Growth parameters like shoot and root fresh weight, shoot and root dry weight, total dry weight, shoot and root length increased by 17, 15, 38, 19, 18 and 34 percent in response to the lowest concentration of Se (1 mg L-1, respectively over control. However, application of higher Se concentrations reduced these parameters as compared to control. Selenium up to 1 mg L-1 enhanced the levels of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b by 87 and 165 percent, respectively, while higher levels of Se exert toxic effects. Total phenolic compounds in leaves increased directly by increasing the level of Se and plants treated with 10 mg. L-1 Se had the highest values. Selenium, sodium and calcium content increased, while potassium content decreased, by increasing selenium treatments. The highest amounts of Se in shoots (3.89 mg g-1 DW and roots (4.27 mg g-1 DW were obtained for the highest concentration of Se (10 mg L-1. The present results suggested the beneficial effects of Se on spinach growth and also its contribute ion to improving the nutritional value of spinach for livestock and human nutrition.

  6. Artificial light and growth regulators on the in vitro etiolation of Cattleya labiata

    Antonio Anderson de Jesus Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The technique of etiolation is widely used in the micropropagation of various plant species. The aim of this study was to evaluate growth and development in shoots of Cattleya labiata grown in vitro, as a function of growth regulators and the presence and absence of light. Stem segments, approximately ± 1.0 cm in height, were inoculated in test tubes containing 15.0 mL of MS culture medium supplemented with different concentrations of BAP (0.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg L-1 and NAA (0.0, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1, and in different growth environments (growth room, darkness and a photoperiod of 16 hours in a completely randomised design. At 150 days, the following were evaluated: a number of etiolated shoots; b number of nodes per etiolated shoot; c length of stem segment (cm; d number of roots; and e total seedling dry weight (g. The highest mean values were achieved with the use of 4.0 mg L-1 BAP and 1.0 mg L-1 NAA for the number of etiolated shoots, and 2.0 mg L-1 NAA for the number of nodes per etiolated shoot in the absence of light. The length of stem segment was greater in the absence of light; in contrast, the number of roots and the total seedling dry weight were greater in a bright environment, irrespective of the growth regulator added to the culture medium. The etiolation of stem segments is a viable technique, as it provides features that are advantageous in the in vitro multiplication stage of the species.

  7. Efeito da calagem e da correção dos teores de Ca e Mg do solo sobre o crescimento de mudas de angelim-pedra (Dinizia excelsa Ducke Liming effect and correction of the Ca and Mg contents of the soil on angelim-pedra (Dinizia excelsa Ducke seedling growth

    Juliana dos Santos Sena


    Full Text Available O conhecimento dos requerimentos nutricionais das espécies e de suas respostas à correção do substrato é fundamental para a produção de mudas de qualidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes tipos de calcário e da correção da deficiência de Ca e Mg sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de angelim-pedra (D. excelsa em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se como substrato Latossolo Amarelo. Foram testados três tipos de calcário e fornecimento de Ca e Mg por meio de fontes não-corretivas da acidez em três relações Ca:Mg. Os tratamentos consistiram de T0 & testemunha; T1 & calcário dolomítico; T2 & calcário magnesiano; T3 & calcário calcítico; T4 & Ca e Mg na relação 3:1; T5 & Ca e Mg na relação 9:1; e T6 & Ca e Mg na relação 15:1. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, totalizando 35 parcelas, cada uma delas com 3 mudas. O substrato foi adubado com doses equivalentes a 100-250-150 e 15 kg ha-1 de N, P2O5, K2O e S, respectivamente e com solução de micronutrientes (3 mL de Chelamix L-1 de água destilada. Foram avaliadas: a altura da planta, o diâmetro do colo, matéria seca da parte aérea, matéria seca da raiz, matéria seca total, relação raiz/parte aérea e conteúdos de nutrientes da parte aérea das plantas. De modo geral, a aplicação de calcário favoreceu o crescimento de D. excelsa, sendo os melhores resultados obtidos com a aplicação de calcário magnesiano na relação 9:1.Knowledge of nutritional requirements of the species and their answers to correcting the substratum is fundamental for the production of quality seedlings. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the effect of different limestone types and the correction of Ca and Mg deficiency on the development of angelim-pedra (Dinizia excelsa seedlings, under glasshouse conditions. We tested three types of limestone and three types of Ca:Mg provisioning on a Yellow Oxisol (with non

  8. Acquisition of Japanese contracted sounds in L1 phonology

    Tsurutani, Chiharu


    Japanese possesses a group of palatalized consonants, known to Japanese scholars as the contracted sounds, [CjV]. English learners of Japanese appear to treat them initially as consonant + glide clusters, where there is an equivalent [Cj] cluster in English, or otherwise tend to insert an epenthetic vowel [CVjV]. The acquisition of the Japanese contracted sounds by first language (L1) learners has not been widely studied compared with the consonant clusters in English with which they bear a close phonetic resemblance but have quite a different phonological status. This is a study to investigate the L1 acquisition process of the Japanese contracted sounds (a) in order to observe how the palatalization gesture is acquired in Japanese and (b) to investigate differences in the sound acquisition processes of first and second language (L2) learners: Japanese children compared with English learners. To do this, the productions of Japanese children ranging in age from 2.5 to 3.5 years were transcribed and the pattern of misproduction was observed.

  9. L1 track finding for a time multiplexed trigger

    Cieri, D.; Brooke, J.; Grimes, M.; Newbold, D.; Harder, K.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Tomalin, I.; Vichoudis, P.; Reid, I.; Iles, G.; Hall, G.; James, T.; Pesaresi, M.; Rose, A.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.


    At the HL-LHC, proton bunches will cross each other every 25 ns, producing an average of 140 pp-collisions per bunch crossing. To operate in such an environment, the CMS experiment will need a L1 hardware trigger able to identify interesting events within a latency of 12.5 μs. The future L1 trigger will make use also of data coming from the silicon tracker to control the trigger rate. The architecture that will be used in future to process tracker data is still under discussion. One interesting proposal makes use of the Time Multiplexed Trigger concept, already implemented in the CMS calorimeter trigger for the Phase I trigger upgrade. The proposed track finding algorithm is based on the Hough Transform method. The algorithm has been tested using simulated pp-collision data. Results show a very good tracking efficiency. The algorithm will be demonstrated in hardware in the coming months using the MP7, which is a μTCA board with a powerful FPGA capable of handling data rates approaching 1 Tb/s.

  10. Aspartame downregulates 3T3-L1 differentiation.

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Park, Jeongeun; Kim, Eunjung


    Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used as an alternate for sugar in several foods and beverages. Since aspartame is 200 times sweeter than traditional sugar, it can give the same level of sweetness with less substance, which leads to lower-calorie food intake. There are reports that consumption of aspartame-containing products can help obese people lose weight. However, the potential role of aspartame in obesity is not clear. The present study investigated whether aspartame suppresses 3T3-L1 differentiation, by downregulating phosphorylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (p-PPARγ), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), which are critical for adipogenesis. The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured and differentiated for 6 d in the absence and presence of 10 μg/ml of aspartame. Aspartame reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the PPARγ, FABP4, and C/EBPα mRNA expression was significantly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the induction of p-PPARγ, PPARγ, SREBP1, and adipsin was markedly reduced in the aspartame-treated adipocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that aspartame may be a potent substance to alter adipocyte differentiation and control obesity.

  11. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won


    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity.

  12. L1 Track Finding for a Time Multiplexed Trigger

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2090481; Grimes, M.; Newbold, D.; Harder, K.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Tomalin, I.; Vichoudis, P.; Reid, I.; Iles, G.; Hall, G.; James, T.; Pesaresi, M.; Rose, A.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.


    At the HL-LHC, proton bunches will cross each other every 25 ns, producing an average of 140 p p-collisions per bunch crossing. To operate in such an environment, the CMS experiment will need a L1 hardware trigger able to identify interesting events within a latency of 12.5 us. The future L1 trigger will make use also of data coming from the silicon tracker to control the trigger rate. The architecture that will be used in future to process tracker data is still under discussion. One interesting proposal makes use of the Time Multiplexed Trigger concept, already implemented in the CMS calorimeter trigger for the Phase I trigger upgrade. The proposed track finding algorithm is based on the Hough Transform method. The algorithm has been tested using simulated pp-collision data. Results show a very good tracking efficiency. The algorithm will be demonstrated in hardware in the coming months using the MP7, which is a uTCA board with a powerful FPGA capable of handling data rates approaching 1 Tb/s.

  13. Sparse SAR imaging based on L1/2 regularization

    ZENG JinShan; FANG Jian; XU ZongBen


    In this paper,a novel method for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging is proposed.The approach is based on L1/2 regularization to reconstruct the scattering field,which optimizes a quadratic error term of the SAR observation process subject to the interested scene sparsity. Compared to the conventional SAR imaging technique,the new method implements SAR imaging effectively at much lower sampling rate than the Nyquist rate,and produces high-quality images with reduced sidelobes and increased resolution. Also,over the prevalent greedy pursuit and L1 regularization based SAR imaging methods,there are remarkable performance improvements of the new method.On one hand,the new method significantly reduces the number of measurements needed for reconstruction,as supported by a phase transition diagram study.On the other hand,the new method is more robust to the observation noise.These fundamental properties of the new method are supported and demonstrated both by simulations and real SAR data experiments.

  14. L1 track finding for a time multiplexed trigger

    Cieri, D., E-mail: [University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Brooke, J.; Grimes, M. [University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Newbold, D. [University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Harder, K.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Tomalin, I. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Vichoudis, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Reid, I. [Brunel University, London (United Kingdom); Iles, G.; Hall, G.; James, T.; Pesaresi, M.; Rose, A.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)


    At the HL-LHC, proton bunches will cross each other every 25 ns, producing an average of 140 pp-collisions per bunch crossing. To operate in such an environment, the CMS experiment will need a L1 hardware trigger able to identify interesting events within a latency of 12.5 μs. The future L1 trigger will make use also of data coming from the silicon tracker to control the trigger rate. The architecture that will be used in future to process tracker data is still under discussion. One interesting proposal makes use of the Time Multiplexed Trigger concept, already implemented in the CMS calorimeter trigger for the Phase I trigger upgrade. The proposed track finding algorithm is based on the Hough Transform method. The algorithm has been tested using simulated pp-collision data. Results show a very good tracking efficiency. The algorithm will be demonstrated in hardware in the coming months using the MP7, which is a μTCA board with a powerful FPGA capable of handling data rates approaching 1 Tb/s.

  15. Bacteriocin protein BacL1 of Enterococcus faecalis targets cell division loci and specifically recognizes L-Ala2-cross-bridged peptidoglycan.

    Kurushima, Jun; Nakane, Daisuke; Nishizaka, Takayuki; Tomita, Haruyoshi


    Bacteriocin 41 (Bac41) is produced from clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and consists of two extracellular proteins, BacL1 and BacA. We previously reported that BacL1 protein (595 amino acids, 64.5 kDa) is a bacteriolytic peptidoglycan D-isoglutamyl-L-lysine endopeptidase that induces cell lysis of E. faecalis when an accessory factor, BacA, is copresent. However, the target of BacL1 remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the targeting specificity of BacL1. Fluorescence microscopy analysis using fluorescent dye-conjugated recombinant protein demonstrated that BacL1 specifically localized at the cell division-associated site, including the equatorial ring, division septum, and nascent cell wall, on the cell surface of target E. faecalis cells. This specific targeting was dependent on the triple repeat of the SH3 domain located in the region from amino acid 329 to 590 of BacL1. Repression of cell growth due to the stationary state of the growth phase or to treatment with bacteriostatic antibiotics rescued bacteria from the bacteriolytic activity of BacL1 and BacA. The static growth state also abolished the binding and targeting of BacL1 to the cell division-associated site. Furthermore, the targeting of BacL1 was detectable among Gram-positive bacteria with an L-Ala-L-Ala-cross-bridging peptidoglycan, including E. faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus pneumoniae, but not among bacteria with alternate peptidoglycan structures, such as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus hirae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Listeria monocytogenes. These data suggest that BacL1 specifically targets the L-Ala-L-Ala-cross-bridged peptidoglycan and potentially lyses the E. faecalis cells during cell division.

  16. Handling L2 Input in Phonological STM: The Effect of Non-L1 Phonetic Segments and Non-L1 Phonotactics on Nonword Repetition

    Kovacs, Gabor; Racsmany, Mihaly


    This article reports on an experiment comparing the effects of three discrete types of deviance from native language (L1) phonetics and phonology on verbal short-term memory performance. A nonword repetition task was used to measure the recall of four stimulus types: (a) high-probability L1-sounding nonwords, (b) low-probability L1-sounding…

  17. Handling L2 Input in Phonological STM: The Effect of Non-L1 Phonetic Segments and Non-L1 Phonotactics on Nonword Repetition

    Kovacs, Gabor; Racsmany, Mihaly


    This article reports on an experiment comparing the effects of three discrete types of deviance from native language (L1) phonetics and phonology on verbal short-term memory performance. A nonword repetition task was used to measure the recall of four stimulus types: (a) high-probability L1-sounding nonwords, (b) low-probability L1-sounding…

  18. Isolation, Identification and Growth Characteristics of Four Tribenuron-methyl Degrading Bacterias

    TIAN Shuang


    Full Text Available Four bacterias named B1, B2, B3 and B4 which were able to degrade tribenuron-methyl, were isolated from the soil of long term applied with tribenuron-methyl by enrichment culture. Based on physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence anal-ysis, the strain B1 was identified preliminarily as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the strain B2 was identified preliminarily as Delftia sp., the strain B3 was identified preliminarily as Microbacterium sp., and the strain B4 was identified preliminarily as Alcaligenes sp.The effect of tempera-ture, initial pH, inoculation amount, initial concentration of tribenuron-methyl, medium volume, nitrogen source, carbon source and Mg 2+concentration on growth efficiencies was studied. The results showed that B1 optimal temperature was 35 ℃, the rest were 30 ℃. B3 optimal initial pH was 8.0, the others were 7.0. B1 and B3 optimal inoculation amount were 15%, B2 and B4 optimal inoculation amount were 10%.B3 optimal initial concentration of tribenuron-methyl was 100 mg· L-1, the other three were 200 mg· L -1. The four bacterias optimal medium volume all were 75 mL, optimal nitrogen source were ammonium nitrate and optimal carbon source were glucose. B2 optimal Mg 2+ concentra-tion was 100 mg·L -1, the others were 200 mg·L v. B1 and B4 optimal sodium chloride concentration were 20 g· L -1 while B2 could grow well from 5 g·L -1 to 30 g·L-1, B3 optimal sodium chloride concentration was 50 g·L -1. The results provide theoretical basis for using bacterias in situ bioremediation of soil pollution of tribenuron-methyl.

  19. [Effects of Pb2+ stress on seed germination & seedling growth of Rabdosia rubescens].

    Kong, Si-Xin; Su, He; Zhan, Yan-Ting; Li, Hai-Kui; Cui, Xu-Sheng; Guo, Yu-Hai


    The seeds of Rabdosia rubescens were as the materials to research the impacts of different lead (Pb2+) concentrations(0, 135, 270, 540, 1 080 mg x L(-1)) on seed germination and seedling growth. The results show that: Low concentration of lead had no obvious effect on early germination of the seed, the germination vigor and germination speed were lightly higher but not significantly differed at the level of Pb concentration 135 mg x L(-1) with control group; Mid-high concentration of Pb solution (270-1 080 mg x L(-1)) significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth, which reduced the seed germination rate, germination vigor, germination index, embryo root length and shoot length, growth index with increasing of Pb concentrations. There was a inhibitory effect on embryo shoot length and root length at mid-high lead concentrations stress, and stronger inhibitory effect on root , which was more sensitive than shoot to Pb stress(P germination rate and biomass fresh weight reducing 10%, is 195.18, 101.65 mg x L(-1).

  20. Determination of zinc oxide nanoparticles toxicity in root growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    Prakash, Meppaloor G; Chung, Ill Min


    The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) was studied in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings under in vitro exposure conditions. To avoid precipitation of nanoparticles, the seedlings were grown in half strength semisolid Murashige and Skoog medium containing 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Analysis of zinc (Zn) content showed significant increase in roots. In vivo detection using fluorescent probe Zynpyr-1 indicated accumulation of Zn in primary and lateral root tips. All concentrations of ZnONPs significantly reduced root growth. However, significant decrease in shoot growth was observed only after exposure to 400 and 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. The reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation levels significantly increased in roots. Significant increase in cell-wall bound peroxidase activity was observed after exposure to 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Histochemical staining with phloroglucinol-HCl showed lignification of root cells upon exposure to 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Treatment with propidium iodide indicated loss of cell viability in root tips of wheat seedlings. These results suggest that redox imbalances, lignification and cell death has resulted in reduction of root growth in wheat seedlings exposed to ZnONPs nanoparticles.

  1. Prognostic value and clinicopathologic characteristics of L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) in a large series of vulvar squamous cell carcinomas.

    Trietsch, Marjolijn D; Oonk, Maaike H M; Hawinkels, Lukas J A C; Bor, Rosalie; van Eendenburg, Jaap D H; Ivanova, Zina; Peters, Alexander A W; Nijman, Hans W; Gaarenstroom, Katja N; Bosse, Tjalling


    Vulvar cancer treatment is mostly curative, but also has high morbidity rates. In a search for markers that can identify patients at risk of metastases, we investigated the prognostic value of L1-cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) in large series of vulvar squamous cell carcinomas (VSCCs). L1CAM promotes cell motility and is an emerging prognostic factor for metastasis in many cancer subtypes. L1CAM expression was observed at the invasive front or in spray-patterned parts of 17% of the tumours. L1CAM-positive tumours expressed vimentin more often, but L1CAM expression was not associated with TP53 or CTNNB1 mutations. Five-year survival was worse for patients with L1CAM expression (overall survival 46.1% vs 63.6%, P=.014, disease specific survival 63.8% vs 80.0%, P=.018). Multivariate analysis indicates L1CAM expression as an independent prognostic marker (HR 2.9, 95% CI 1.10-7.68). An in vitro spheroid invasion assay showed decreased invasion of L1CAM-expressing VSCC spindle cells after treatment with L1CAM-neutralising antibodies. Paraffin-embedded tumour tissue from two cohorts (N=103 and 245) of primary VSCCs were stained for L1CAM, vimentin and E-cadherin. Patients of the first cohort were tested for human papilloma virus infection and sequenced for TP53 and CTNNB1 (β-catenin) mutations. The expression of L1CAM was correlated to clinical characteristics and patient survival. This is the first study to show high L1CAM-expression at the infiltrating margin of VSCC's. L1CAM-expressing VSCCs had a significantly worse prognosis compared to L1CAM-negative tumours. The highest expression was observed in spindle-shaped cells, where it might be correlated to their invasive capacity.

  2. Optimization of cultural conditions of Arthrobacter sp. Sphe3 for growth-associated chromate(VI) reduction in free and immobilized cell systems.

    Ziagova, M G; Koukkou, A I; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, M


    The current study aimed to characterize Arthrobacter sp. Sphe3 ability to reduce Cr(VI) in suspended cell cultures as well as in immobilized form using Ca-alginate beads. Adaptation studies in the presence of 5 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) showed a significant increase in specific growth rate from 0.25 to 0.3 h(-1) and bioremoval percentage from 64% to 94% (pexponential growth phase were collected and co-encapsulated with either 1% glucose and 0.5% (NH4)2SO4, or 1% LB medium. Immobilized biocatalyst could be reused up to 6 continuous cycles in the presence of 10 mg L(-1) Cr(VI), but its performance was lowered at higher metal concentrations comparing with free cells that significantly maintained their reducing ability up to 300 mg L(-1) Cr(VI).

  3. Effect of some plant growth regulators on lindane and alpha-endosulfan toxicity to Brassica chinensis.

    Chouychai, Waraporn


    The effect of indolebutyric acid (IBA) and gibberellic acid (GA3), to alleviate the organochlorine phytotoxicity were studied in Brassica chinensis. Presence of organochlorine decreased Brassica chinensis seedlings growth in contaminated alkaline soil. One mg l(-1) IBA could enhance 14 and 26% shoot and root length of B. chinensis seedlings grown at 40 mg kg(-1) lindane contaminated soil, respectively. Ten mg l(-1) IBA also increased 80 and 40% root fresh weight of seedling grown in 40 mg kg(-1) lindane and alpha-endosulfan contaminated soils, respectively. However, IBAhad no effect on shoot and root length of seedlings grown in endosulfan contaminated soil. On the other hand, 10 mg l(-1) GA3 only increased 80% of shoot and root fresh weigh of B. chinensisin 40 mg kg(-1) endosulfan contaminated soil. External auxin addition could increase B. chinensis growth in lindane more than endosulfan contaminated soil. External gibberellin was less effective than external auxin to increase B. chinensis growth in organochlorine contaminated soil. There is possibility that auxin could decrease organochlorine phytotoxicity in plants and hence can be useful for organochlorine phytoremediation.

  4. Tumor Associated Fibroblasts Promote PD-L1 Expression in Lung Cancer Cells

    Haiyang HE


    Full Text Available Background and objective Tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF is an important part of TME, which inhibits the function of immune cells. CD8+ T cells play a significant role in tumor immunity. T-cell membrane possesses a distinct type of molecule with a negative regulatory function. Upon interaction with its corresponding ligand [programmed death factor ligand 1 (PD-L1], programmed death factor 1 (PD-1 is activated and thus inhibits the kinase activity of T cells. This study aims to explore the possible effects of TAF on PD-L1 expression in lung cancer cells. Methods Lung cancer cell lines H1975 and H520 were co-cultured with (experiment or without TAF (control via Transwell assay for through 48 hours under the same culture condition. H1975 and H520 cells were counted using a microscope. The protein and mRNA expression levels of PD-L1 were detected by FCM assay and PCR analysis, respectively. Results The numbers of lung cancer cells in 100 μm2 for H1975 and H520 cells are (46±21 and (38±10 in the experiment group, respectively, and (16±5 and (12±5 in the control group, respectively (P<0.05. The expression levels of the PD-L1 protein in H1975 and H520 cells are (20.93%±3.54% and (19.26%±3.04% in the experiment group, respectively, and (12.58%±2.52% and (11.60%±2.65% in the control group, respectively (P<0.05. The mRNA expression levels in H1975 and H520 cells are (16.45±1.25 and (15.38±2.02 pg/mL in the experiment group, respectively, and (7.78±1.27 and (7.20±1.58 pg/mL (P<0.05 in the control group, respectively (P<0.05. Conclusion TAF promotes the growth and increases the expression of PD-L1 in H1975 and H520 cells.

  5. Oligo-carrageenan kappa increases C, N and S assimilation, auxin and gibberellin contents, and growth in Pinus radiata trees

    Silvia Saucedo; Rodrigo A Contreras; Alejandra Moenne


    Oligo-carrageenans (OCs) obtained from pure carrageenans extracted from marine red algae stimulate growth by enhancing photosynthesis and basal metabolism in tobacco plants and Eucalyptus trees. In addition, OCs stimulate secondary metabolism, increasing the level of metabolites involved in defense against pathogens. In this work, we analyzed the effect of OC kappa on the increase in height, in activities of basal metabolism enzymes in-volved in carbon, nitrogen and sulphur assimilation, ribu-lose 1,5 biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and O-acetylserine thiol-lyase (OASTL), and in the level of growth-promoting hormones, the auxin indole acetic acid (IAA) and the gibberellin GA3, in pine (Pinus radiata) trees treated with OC kappa at concentrations of 1 and 5 mg mL-1 and cultivated for 9 months without additional treatment. Pines treated with OC kappa at 1 mg mL-1 showed a similar increase in height but displayed a higher increased in total chlorophyll, activities of rubisco, GDH and OASTL and level of IAA and GA3 than those treated with OC kappa at 5 mg mL-1. Thus, OC kappa stimulates growth and basal metabolism and increases the level of growth-promoting hormones in pine trees, mainly at 1 mg mL-1.

  6. Biodegradation of 4-nitroaniline by plant-growth promoting Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 and toxicological analysis of its biodegradation metabolites.

    Silambarasan, Sivagnanam; Vangnai, Alisa S


    4-nitroaniline (4-NA) is one of the major priority pollutants generated from industrial productions and pesticide transformation; however very limited biodegradation details have been reported. This work is the first to report 4-NA biodegradation kinetics and toxicity reduction using a newly isolated plant-growth promoting bacterium, Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2. The 4-NA-dependent growth kinetics parameters: μmax, Ks and Ki, were determined to be 0.039 h(-1), 6.623 mg L(-1) and 25.57 mg L(-1), respectively using Haldane inhibition model, while the maximum biodegradation rate (Vmax) of 4-NA was at 0.541 mg L(-1) h(-1) and 0.551 mg L(-1) h(-1), following Michaelis-Menten and Hanes-Woolf models, respectively. Biodegradation pathway of 4-NA by Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 was proposed, and successfully led to the reduction of 4-NA toxicity according to the following toxicity assessments: microbial toxicity using Escherichia coli DH5α, phytotoxicity with Vigna radiata and Crotalaria juncea, and cytogenotoxicity with Allium cepa root-tip cells. In addition, Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 possess important plant-growth promoting traits, both in the presence and absence of 4-NA. This study has provided a new insight into 4-NA biodegradation ability and concurrent plant-growth promoting activities of Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2, which may indicate its potential role for rhizoremediation, while sustaining crop production even under 4-NA stressed environment.

  7. Altering the expression of two chitin synthase genes differentially affects the growth and morphology of Aspergillus oryzae

    Müller, Christian; Hjort, C.M.; Hansen, K.


    , analysis of the cell-wall composition and growth in the presence of Calcofluor white (CFW). The chsB disrupted strain and the uninduced P-niiA,-ChsB strain exhibited hyperbranching, they had a lower level of conidiation than the wild-type and were sensitive to CFW at 50 mg l(-1). When chsB transcription...

  8. Exact recoverability from dense corrupted observations via $L_1$ minimization

    Nguyen, Nam H


    This paper presents a surprising phenomenon: given $m$ highly corrupted measurements $y = A_{\\Omega \\bullet} x^{\\star} + e^{\\star}$, where $A_{\\Omega \\bullet}$ is a submatrix selected uniformly at random from an orthogonal matrix $A$ and $e^{\\star}$ is an unknown sparse error vector whose nonzero entries may be unbounded, we show that with high probability $l_1$-minimization can recover $x^{\\star}$ exactly from only $m = C \\mu^2 k (\\log n)^2$ where $k$ is the number of nonzero components of $x^{\\star}$ and $\\mu = n \\max_{ij} A_{ij}^2$, even if nearly $100 %$ measurements are corrupted. We further guarantee that stable recovery is possible when measurements are polluted by both gross sparse and small dense errors: $y = A_{\\Omega \\bullet} x^{\\star} + e^{\\star}+ \

  9. Greedy vs. L1 Convex Optimization in Sparse Coding

    Ren, Huamin; Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    Sparse representation has been applied successfully in many image analysis applications, including abnormal event detection, in which a baseline is to learn a dictionary from the training data and detect anomalies from its sparse codes. During this procedure, sparse codes which can be achieved...... and action recognition, a comparative study of codes in abnormal event detection is less studied and hence no conclusion is gained on the effect of codes in detecting abnormalities. We constrict our comparison in two types of the above L0-norm solutions: greedy algorithms and convex L1-norm solutions....... Considering the property of abnormal event detection, i.e., only normal videos are used as training data due to practical reasons, effective codes in classification application may not perform well in abnormality detection. Therefore, we compare the sparse codes and comprehensively evaluate their performance...

  10. A new orbit for comet C/1858 L1 (Donati)

    Branham, R. L., Jr.


    A new orbit for comet C/1858 L1 (Donati), based on 1036 observations in α and 971 in δ made between 7 June 1858 and 5 March 1859, is calculated using iteratively reweighted least squares. Residuals were weighted by the Welsch weighting function. The orbit represents a high eccentricity ellipse, {e=0.996265}, with large semi-major axis, a=154.8612 AU, and long period, {P=1927.22} yr. The residuals are relatively random, a 10.7 % chance of being random, but with a slight indication of % possible nongravitational forces influencing the motion. The comet will not return until the year 3759, when it will pass 0.8442 AU from the Earth.

  11. Performance and Applications of L1B2 Ultrasonic Motors

    Gal Peled


    Full Text Available Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors offer important advantages for motion applications where high speed is coupled with high precision. The advances made in the recent decades in the field of ultrasonic motor based motion solutions allow the construction of complete motion platforms in the fields of semiconductors, aerospace and electro-optics. Among the various motor designs, the L1B2 motor type has been successful in industrial applications, offering high precision, effective control and operational robustness. This paper reviews the design of high precision motion solutions based on L1B2 ultrasonic motors—from the basic motor structure to the complete motion solution architecture, including motor drive and control, material considerations and performance envelope. The performance is demonstrated, via constructed motion stages, to exhibit fast move and settle, a repeatability window of tens of nanometers, lifetime into the tens of millions of operational cycles, and compatibility with clean room and aerospace environments. Example stages and modules for semiconductor, aerospace, electro-optical and biomedical applications are presented. The described semiconductor and aerospace solutions are powered by Nanomotion HR type motors, driven by a sine wave up to 80 V/mm rms, having a driving frequency of 39.6 kHz, providing a maximum force up to 4 N per driving element (at 5 W power consumption per element and a maximum linear velocity above 300 mm/s. The described electro-optical modules are powered by small Nanomotion Edge motors driven by voltages up to 11 V AC, providing stall forces up to 0.35 N (power consumption up to 0.75 W and maximum linear velocity above 200 mm/s.

  12. Toxicity of Zinc on Growth of an Aquatic Macrophyte, Ipomoea Aquatica Forsk

    Laitonjam Bedabati Chanu; Abhik Gupta


    The effects of different concentrations of Zn on growth of an aquatic macrophyte, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. were studied. Fresh weight, dry weight, shoot length, root length, number of nodes, development of leaves, and chlorophyll and carotene contents were the different growth parameters considered. Toxicity symptoms like browning and decaying of roots could be observed in plants treated at 22.7 mg L-1 Zn as early as 3rd day of experiment while yellowing of older leaves appeared during the lat...

  13. Inhibition effect on the Allium cepa L. root growth when using hexavalent chromium-doped river waters.

    Espinoza-Quiñones, F R; Szymanski, N; Palácio, S M; Módenes, A N; Rizzutto, M A; Silva, F G; Oliveira, A P; Oro, A C P; Martin, N


    The effect of Cr(6+) on Allium cepa root length was studied using both clean and polluted river waters. Seven series of Cr(6+)-doped polluted and non-polluted river waters were used to grow onions. Chromium concentration (Cr(6+)) of 4.2 mg L(-1)(EC(50) value), doped in clean river water caused a 50% reduction of root length, while in organically polluted samples similar root growth inhibition occurred at 12.0 mg Cr(6+) L(-1). The results suggested that there was a dislocation to higher values in toxic chromium concentration in polluted river water due to the eutrophization level of river water.

  14. Effect of Ganoderma applanatum mycelium extract on the inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Sung-Jin; Yu, Mi-Hee; Lee, Sam-Pin


    Ganoderma applanatum (GA) and related fungal species have been used for over 2000 years in China to prevent and treat various human diseases. However, there is no critical research evaluating the functionality of GA grown using submerged culture technology. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of submerged culture GA mycelium (GAM) and its active components (protocatechualdehyde [PCA]) on preadipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Mouse-derived preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells were treated with differentiation inducers in the presence or absence of GAM extracts. We determined triglyceride accumulations, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activities, and differentiation makers. PCA, the active component of GAM extract, was also used to treat 3T3-L1 cells. The MTT assay showed that the GAM extract (0.01-1 mg/mL) was not toxic to 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. Treatment of cells with GAM extracts and its active components significantly decreased the GPDH activity and lipid accumulation, a marker of adipogenesis, in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis results showed that the protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) were inhibited by the GAM extract. In addition, adipogenic-specific genes such as perilipin, fatty acid synthase (FAS), fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1), and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the GAM extract contained 1.14 mg/g PCA. GAM extracts suppressed differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, in part, through altered regulation of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP1. These results suggest that GAM extracts and PCA may suppress adipogenesis by inhibiting differentiation of preadipocytes.

  15. Meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes de nitrogênio na regulação da calogênese do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Culture media, growth regulators and nitrogen sources in callus formation regulation of Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.

    Elias Terra Werner


    proliferation as determined by fresh weight of callus. The combination of plant growth regulators at 0.5 mg L-1 2,4-D + 5.0 mg L-1 BAP and 0.5 mg L-1 IBA + 5.0 mg L-1 BAP supplemented with 2.4 g L-1 NH4NO3 in MS medium stimulated growth of callus. In general, callus showed friable, non-embryogenic characteristics, with accumulation of phenolics and the presence of meristematic areas (meristems.

  16. Resorbable polymeric scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: the influence of their microstructure on the growth of human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells.

    Pamula, Elzbieta; Filová, Elena; Bacáková, Lucie; Lisá, Vera; Adamczyk, Daniel


    Degradable three-dimensional porous scaffolds applicable as cell carriers for bone tissue engineering were developed by an innovative solvent casting/particulate leaching technique from poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG). Three types of PLG scaffolds were prepared, and these had the same high porosity (83%) but increasing diameter of the pores (180-200 microm, 250-320 microm, and 400-600 microm) and increasing pore interconnectivity. The colonization of the scaffolds with human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells was then studied in vitro in a conventional static cell culture system. The number of cells growing on the scaffolds on days 1 and 7 after seeding was highest in the material with the largest pore diameter, but on day 15, the differences among the scaffolds disappeared. Confocal microscopy revealed that on day 1 after seeding, the cells penetrated to a depth of 490 +/- 100 microm, 720 +/- 170 microm, and 720 +/- 120 microm into the scaffolds of small, medium, and large pore size, respectively. Incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into newly synthesized DNA and the concentration of vinculin, beta-actin, osteopontin, and osteocalcin in cells on the scaffolds of all pore sizes were similar to the values obtained on standard tissue culture polystyrene, which indicated good biocompatibility of the scaffolds. These results suggest that all scaffolds could serve as good carriers for bone cells, although the quickest colonization with cells was found in the scaffolds with the largest pore diameter from 400 to 600 microm.

  17. Iron Concentration-Induced Changes in Growth and Biochemical Compositions of Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum(Bacillariophyceae)%铁浓度诱导的三角褐指藻生长和生化组分变化

    蔡卓平; 黄伟伟; 段舜山


    As long as microalgal growth is not overprolific in the water, marine microalgae are of great benefit to marine ecosystem because they not only form the basis of marine food web, but also consume the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide in the atmosphere during photosynthesis. Sometimes, however, red tides would occur due to the overproliferation or overassemblage of some marine microalgae within a certain short time under some given conditions. The role of iron in the formation of red tides has been a long-standing puzzle before the earlier studies demonstrating that phytoplankton growth in some major nutrient-rich waters was limited by iron deficiency. In order to further investigate the growth characteristics and some important biochemical compositions of marine microalgae induced by iron concentrations, optical density of algal culture, specific growth rate, cell density, cell biomass, chloro-phyll a and protein of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were characterized in a laboratory simulative experiment by employing a range of varying iron concentrations including 3.15 mg·L-1, 6.30 mg·L-1, 9.45 mg·L-1, 18.90 mg·L-1 and 34.65 mg·L-1. Our results indicated that algal growth differed greatly under different iron concentrations set in the present trial. Optical density at 450 nm(OD450) peaked at 0.877 under the iron concentration of 6.30 mg·L-1 in the termination of the experiment, and decreased with continually higher iron concentrations. Specific growth rate and cell density increased obviously with the increasing iron concentrations within the range of iron concentration from 3.15 mg·L-1 to 9.45 mg·L-1, whereas much higher iron concentrations were associated with a decrease in specific growth rate and cell density. While, the cell biomass appeared to be concentration-dependent, which was increased gradually over the entire range of iron concentrations. In addition, iron concentration also induced significant changes in the chlorophyll a content and protein content of

  18. Avaliação da aplicação exógena de poliaminas no crescimento de calos de mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa Gomes Evaluation of exogenous application of polyamines on callus growth of mangaba tree (Hancornia speciosa Gomes

    Chrystiane Borges Fráguas


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o efeito das poliaminas espermidina e espermina no crescimento de calos Hancornia speciosa Gomes. Calos com 0,5 cm de diâmetro foram inoculados em meio Murashige & Skoog (1962 (MS a 50% + 100 mg L-1 de caseína hidrolisada + 200 mg L-1 de levedura de cerveja, variando os tratamentos:A: 1 mmol de espermina + 2 mg L-1 de 2,4-D (ácido 2,4 diclorofenoxiacético + 0,5 mg L-1 de NAA (ácido naftalenoacético; B: 1 mmol de espermidina + 2 mg L-1 de 2,4-D + 0,5 mg L-1 de NAA; C: 2 mg L-1 de 2,4-D + 0,5 mg L-1 de NAA. Não houve influência das poliaminas no crescimento dos calos. observou-se, nos calos tratados com espermidina, maior concentração celular de putrescina (582,37 µg g mf-1 aos 60 dias, maior teor de espermidina (502,54 µg g mf-1 e espermina (868,53 µg g mf-1 aos 40 dias de cultivo, quando se aplicou a própria poliamina. Conclui-se que a aplicação exógena de poliaminas em Hancornia speciosa não proporciona aumento no crescimento de calos. A oxidação promovida por longos períodos de cultivo in vitro induz aumento nos níveis de putrescina.The effect of polyamines spermine and spermidine in the calluses growth of Hancornia speciosa Gomes was studied. Calluses with 0.5 cm diameter were inoculated in Murashige & Skoog (1962 (MS medium 50% + hidrolizated casein 100 mg L-1 + yeast 200 mg L-1, according to the treatments: A: spermine 1 mmol + 2.4-D 2 mg L-1 + NAA 0.5 mg L-1, B: spermidine 1 mmol + 2.4-D 2 mg L-1 + NAA 0.5 mg L-1, C: 2.4-D 2 mg L-1 + NAA 0.5 mg L-1. There was not polyamine influence in the calluses growth. It was observed in the treated calluses with spermidine larger cellular putrescine concentration (582.37 µg g mf-1 at 60 days, larger spermidine concentration (502.54 µg g mf-1 and spermine (868.53 µg g mf-1 at 40 days of cultivation, when the own polyamine was applied. It was concluded that the exogenous polyamine application in Hancornia speciosa does not provide an

  19. L1CAM and its cell-surface mutants: new mechanisms and effects relevant to the physiology and pathology of neural cells.

    Tagliavacca, Luigina; Colombo, Federico; Racchetti, Gabriella; Meldolesi, Jacopo


    The L1 syndrome, a genetic disease that affects 1/30 000 newborn males, is sustained by numerous missense mutations of L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM), an adhesion surface protein active also in transmembrane signaling, essential for the development and function of neurons. To investigate the cell biology of L1CAM, we employed a high RE1-silencing transcription (factor) clone of the pheochromocytoma PC12 line, defective in L1CAM expression and neurite outgrowth. The clone was transfected with wild-type L1CAM and four missense, disease-inducing point mutants encoding proteins distributed to the cell surface. The mutant-expressing cells, defective in adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and in migration, exhibited unchanged proliferation. The nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth was re-established in defective clone cells transfected with the wild-type and the H210Q and I219T L1CAMs mutants, but not in the others. The stimulated outgrowth was confirmed in a second defective PC12 clone over-expressing the NGF receptor TrkA, treated with NGF and/or a recombinant L1CAM chimera. These results revealed a new function of L1CAM, a positive, robust and dose-dependent modulation of the TrkA receptor activated spontaneously or by NGF. The variable effects observed with the different L1CAM mutants suggest that this function contributes to the marked heterogeneity of symptoms and severity observed in the patients affected by the L1 syndrome. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  20. Immunotherapy: Beyond Anti-PD-1 and Anti-PD-L1 Therapies.

    Antonia, Scott J; Vansteenkiste, Johan F; Moon, Edmund


    Advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer are cancers in which chemotherapy produces a survival benefit, although it is small. We now know that anti-PD-1/PD-L1 has substantial clinical activity in both of these diseases, with an overall response rate (ORR) of 15%-20%. These responses are frequently rapid and durable, increase median overall survival (OS) compared with chemotherapy, and produce long-term survivors. Despite these very significant results, many patients do not benefit from anti-PD-1/PD-L1. This is because of the potential for malignancies to co-opt myriad immunosuppressive mechanisms other than aberrant expression of PD-L1. Conceptually, these can be divided into three categories. First, for some patients there is likely a failure to generate sufficient functional tumor antigen-specific T cells. Second, for others, tumor antigen-specific T cells may be generated but fail to enter into the tumor parenchyma. Finally, there are a large number of immunosuppressive mechanisms that have the potential to be operational within the tumor microenvironment: surface membrane immune checkpoint proteins PD-1, CTLA-4, LAG3, TIM3, BTLA, and adenosine A2AR; soluble factors and metabolic alterations interleukin (IL)-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, adenosine, IDO, and arginase; and inhibitory cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and tumor-associated macrophages. In this article, we discuss three strategies to generate more tumor-reactive T cells for patients: anti-CTLA-4, therapeutic tumor vaccination, and adoptive cellular therapy, with T cells redirected to tumor antigens using T-cell receptor (TCR) or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) gene modification. We also review some of the various strategies in development to thwart tumor microenvironment immunosuppressive mechanisms. Strategies to drive more T cells into tumors remain a significant challenge.

  1. Effects of assimilable organic carbon and free chlorine on bacterial growth in drinking water.

    Xiaolu Liu

    Full Text Available Assimilable organic carbon (AOC is one of the most important factors affecting the re-growth of microorganisms in drinking water. High AOC concentrations result in biological instability, but disinfection kills microbes to ensure the safety of drinking water. Free chlorine is an important oxidizing agent used during the disinfection process. Therefore, we explored the combined effects of AOC and free chlorine on bacterial growth in drinking water using flow cytometry (FCM. The initial AOC concentration was 168 μg.L(-1 in all water samples. Without free chlorine, the concentrations of intact bacteria increased but the level of AOC decreased. The addition of sodium hypochlorite caused an increase and fluctuation in AOC due to the oxidation of organic carbon. The concentrations of intact bacteria decreased from 1.1 × 10(5 cells.mL(-1 to 2.6 × 10(4 cells.mL(-1 at an initial free chlorine dose of 0.6 mg.L(-1 to 4.8 × 10(4 cells.mL(-1 at an initial free chlorine dose of 0.3 mg.L(-1 due to free chlorine originating from sodium hypochlorite. Additionally, free chlorine might be more obviously affected AOC concentrations than microbial growth did. These results suggested that AOC and free chlorine might have combined effects on microbial growth. In this study, our results showed concentrations determined by FCM were higher than those by HPC, which indicated that some E. coli detected by FCM might not be detected using HPC in drinking water. The level of free chlorine might restrain the consumption of AOC by inhibiting the growth of E. coli; on the other hand, chlorination might increase the level of AOC, thereby increase the potential for microbial growth in the drinking water network.

  2. Effects of assimilable organic carbon and free chlorine on bacterial growth in drinking water.

    Liu, Xiaolu; Wang, Jingqi; Liu, Tingting; Kong, Weiwen; He, Xiaoqing; Jin, Yi; Zhang, Bolin


    Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is one of the most important factors affecting the re-growth of microorganisms in drinking water. High AOC concentrations result in biological instability, but disinfection kills microbes to ensure the safety of drinking water. Free chlorine is an important oxidizing agent used during the disinfection process. Therefore, we explored the combined effects of AOC and free chlorine on bacterial growth in drinking water using flow cytometry (FCM). The initial AOC concentration was 168 μg.L(-1) in all water samples. Without free chlorine, the concentrations of intact bacteria increased but the level of AOC decreased. The addition of sodium hypochlorite caused an increase and fluctuation in AOC due to the oxidation of organic carbon. The concentrations of intact bacteria decreased from 1.1 × 10(5) cells.mL(-1) to 2.6 × 10(4) cells.mL(-1) at an initial free chlorine dose of 0.6 mg.L(-1) to 4.8 × 10(4) cells.mL(-1) at an initial free chlorine dose of 0.3 mg.L(-1) due to free chlorine originating from sodium hypochlorite. Additionally, free chlorine might be more obviously affected AOC concentrations than microbial growth did. These results suggested that AOC and free chlorine might have combined effects on microbial growth. In this study, our results showed concentrations determined by FCM were higher than those by HPC, which indicated that some E. coli detected by FCM might not be detected using HPC in drinking water. The level of free chlorine might restrain the consumption of AOC by inhibiting the growth of E. coli; on the other hand, chlorination might increase the level of AOC, thereby increase the potential for microbial growth in the drinking water network.

  3. The Differentiation-and Proliferation-Inhibitory Effects of Sporamin from Sweet Potato in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

    XIONG Zhi-dong; LI Peng-gao; MU Tai-hua


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of sporamin on the differentiation and proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes,providing the theoretical basis for the development of food to treat obesity and diabetes.The isolation and purification of sporamin from sweet potato species 55-2 were performed by ammonium sulphate precipitation in combination with ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography.With berberine as a positive control,different concentrations of sporamin (0.000,0.125,0.025,0.250,0.500,and 1.000 mg mL-1) were used to treat 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.Intracellular fat accumulation and the degree of adipogenesis were quantified using Oil Red O staining and colorimetry.Preadipocytes differentiation was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)spectrophotometric assay.Two sporamin proteins,which were separated into sporamin A (31 kD) and sporamin B (22 kD),could be purified by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography.After being treated by different concentrations of sporamin,the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was significantly inhibited,compared with the positive control.When the sporamin solution concentration was 0.500 mg mL-1,the accumulation of lipid droplets within the cells was significantly decreased and the optical density (OD) value of the solution from destained Oil Red O reached to 0.35,which was the lowest value (P < 0.05).The proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was significantly inhibited by treating at higher sporamin concentrations.In addition,the inhibitory effect was more obvious with the prolonged treatment time (P< 0.05).The differentiation and proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes could be inhibited significantly by the addition of higher concentration sporamin.It was,therefore,suggested that the sporamin was potentially effective for weight loss.

  4. Growth, photosynthesis, and defense mechanism of antimony (Sb)-contaminated Boehmeria nivea L.

    Chai, Li-Yuan; Mubarak, Hussani; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Yong, Wang; Tang, Chong-Jian; Mirza, Nosheen


    Ramie (Boehmeria nivea L.) is the oldest cash fiber crop in China and is widely grown in antimony (Sb) mining areas. To evaluate the extent of Sb resistance and tolerance, the growth, tolerance index (TI), Sb content in plant parts and in Hoagland solution, bioaccumulation factor (BF), photosynthesis, and physiological changes in Sb-contaminated B. nivea (20, 40, 80, and 200 mg L(-1) Sb) grown hydroponically were investigated. The Sb tolerance and resistance of ramie were clearly revealed by growth inhibition, a TI between 13 and 99 %, non-significant changes in the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem (F v /F m ), energy-harvesting efficiency (photosystem II (PSII)) and single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) value, a significant increase in Sb in plant parts, BF >1, and an increase in catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) at 200 mg L(-1) Sb. Under increasing Sb stress, nearly the same non-significant decline in the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem (F v /F m ), energy-harvesting efficiency (PSII), relative quantum yield of photosystem II (φPSII), and photochemical quenching (qP), except for F v /F m at 20 mg L(-1) Sb, were recorded. SPAD values for chlorophyll under Sb stress showed an increasing trend, except for a slight decrease, i.e., Sb. With a continuous increase in MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and CAT activities were suppressed under Sb addition up to 40 mg L(-1) Sb and the addition of Sb enhanced enzyme production at 80 and 200 mg L(-1) Sb. A continuous decrease in SOD, POD, and CAT up to 40 mg L(-1) Sb and enhancements at ≥80 mg L(-1), along with the continuous enhancement of MDA activity and inhibited biomass production, clearly reveal the roles of these enzymes in detoxifying Sb stress and the defense mechanism of ramie at 80 mg L(-1) Sb. Thus, B. nivea constitutes a promising candidate for Sb phytoremediation at mining sites.

  5. The degrees of freedom of penalized l1 minimization

    Dossal, Charles; Fadili, Jalal M; Peyré, Gabriel; Chesneau, Christophe


    In this paper, we study the degrees of freedom (df) of penalized l1 minimization (also known as the Lasso) for linear regression models. We give a closed-form expression of the degrees of freedom of the Lasso response. Namely, we show that for any given Lasso regularization parameter \\lambda and any observed data y belongs to a set of full measure, the cardinal of the support of a particular solution of the Lasso problem is an unbiased estimator of the degrees of freedom of the Lasso response. This is achieved without any assumption on the uniqueness of the Lasso solution. Thus, our result remains true for both the underdetermined and the overdetermined case studied originally in Zou et al.. We also prove that a key result in Zou et al. is not true by providing a simple counterexample. An effective estimator of the number of degrees of freedom may have several applications including an objectively guided choice of the regularization parameter in the Lasso through the SURE framework.

  6. Growth and investigation of the Slater-Pauling behavior by X-ray characterization of single crystal bcc FexMn1-x on MgO(001)

    Bhatkar, Harshawardhan Ramesh

    Magnetic memory storage industry is always searching for materials that can store, read, and write data ever so faster, with lower power, with accuracy and on denser packaging. The material research was spurred with discovery and successful implementation of Giant Magnetoresistance phenomena into critical components of devices. GMR devices essentially were multilayered thin films of a set of magnetically ordered metals. Fe-Mn thin films were used to create one of its moment pinning layers. Fcc Fe-Mn thin films were studied enthusiastically for their AFM properties but very little was known about the rare bcc structured single crystals. Bcc Fe-Mn was found to be ferromagnetic in parts of phase diagram of Fe-Mn. The magnetic moment of alloys usually follows a regular linear trend based upon electronic configuration of constituent elements, known as Slater-Pauling curve. While most alloys follow the trend, bcc Fe-Mn binary alloys show a dramatic collapse in the bulk magnetic moment, as concentration of Mn is varied. In this work, we successfully fabricate bcc single crystal thin film of Fe-Mn on MgO(001) substrate by Molecular Beam Epitaxy method. We confirm using Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction that, the bcc phase of Fe-Mn thin film is achieved, albeit being a forced structure, stable up to 35% of Mn concentration. X-ray absorption spectra of individual elements were used to confirm the compositions of Fe-Mn films and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism was used to track the elemental magnetic moment as the composition was varied. We found that the magnetic moment of Fe drops faster than expected and Mn has very small identical moment in all compositions. We also successfully created a compositionally graded Fe-Mn sample in MBE and spatially mapped its Fe moment by around the critical composition. The mechanism for collapse of magnetic moment over a spread of composition of Mn is a very complex problem yet we provide our experimental findings of

  7. Stable high-level expression of truncated human papillomavirus type 16 L1 protein in Drosophila Schneider-2 cells

    Jin Zheng; Xiaofeng Yang; Ying Sun; Baochang Lai; Yili Wang


    To improve the existing human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) virus-like particle (VLP) preparation, the Drosophila inducible/secreted expression system, a highly efficient, economical method, was used to produce HPV16 VLPs. Drosophila Schneider-2 cells were cotransfected with pMT/BiP/V5-His expression vector containing the target gene encoding HPV16L1protein without nucleus localization sequence and the selection vector pCoHygro plasmids at the ratio of 4:1. The stabled hygromycin-resistant cell line was obtained 1 month later, and the protein expression was induced by copper sulfate. The molecular mass of expressed HPV16L1 protein was 66 kDa, as revealed by SDS-PAGE,and confirmed by Western blot analysis. The yield of HPV16L1 protein was 0.554 mg per lxl07 cells. The characteristics of HPV16L1 protein were further analyzed by mouse erythrocyte hemagglutination assay, hemagglutination inhibition assay, and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that the truncated protein was as biologically active as natural HPVLI protein, inducing murine erythrocyte agglutination and VLP formation. These findings indicate that the Drosophila inducible/secreted expression system is promising as a convenient and economical method for the preparation of HPV 16 VLP vaccine.

  8. Protein kinase A suppresses the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    Fuqiang Li; Dongmei Wang; Yiran Zhou; Bo Zhou; Yanan Yang; Hehua Chen; Jianguo Song


    cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) are widely known as signaling molecules that are important for the induction of adipogenesis. Here we show that a strong increase in the amount of cAMP inhibits the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 fibroblast cells. Stimulation of PKA activity suppresses adipogenesis and, in contrast, inhibition of PKA activity markedly accelerates the adipogenic process. As adipogenesis progresses, there is a significant increase in the expression level of PKA regulatory subunits and a corresponding decrease in PKA activity. Moreover, treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates PKA activity and blocks adipogenesis. Inhibition of PKA activity abolishes this suppressive effect of EGF on adipogenesis. Moreover, activation of PKA induces serine/threonine phosphorylation, reduces tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and the association between PKA and IRS-1. Taken together, our study demonstrates that PKA has a pivotal role in the suppression of adipogenesis. cAMP at high concentrations can suppress adipogenesis through PKA activation. These findings could be important and useful for understanding the mechanisms of adipogenesis and the relevant physiological events.

  9. Development of phonological awareness in English-Mandarin bilinguals: a comparison of English-L1 and Mandarin-L1 kindergarten children.

    Yeong, Stephanie H M; Rickard Liow, Susan J


    Phoneme awareness is critical for literacy acquisition in English, but relatively little is known about the early development of phonological awareness in ESL (English as a second language) bilinguals when their two languages have different phonological structures. Using parallel tasks in English and Mandarin, we tracked the development of L1 (first language) and L2 (second language) syllable and phoneme awareness longitudinally in English-L1 and Mandarin-L1 prereaders (n=70, 4- and 5-year-olds) across three 6-month intervals. In English, the English-L1 children's performance was better in phoneme awareness at all three time points, but the Mandarin-L1 children's syllable awareness was equivalent to the English-L1 children's syllable awareness by Time 3. In Mandarin, the English-L1 children's phoneme awareness, but not their syllable awareness, was also significantly better than that of the Mandarin-L1 children at all three time points. Cross-lagged correlations revealed that only the English-L1 children applied their L1 syllable and phoneme awareness to their L2 (Mandarin) processing by Time 2 and that the Mandarin-L1 children seemed to require exposure to English (L2) before they developed phoneme awareness in either language. The data provide further evidence that phonological awareness is a language-general ability but that cross-language application depends on the similarity between the phonological structures of a child's L1 and L2. Implications for classroom teaching are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.




    Full Text Available Results of this study represent the first report of the effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA on the pre and post harvest quality of wax apple fruit. The wax apple trees were spray treated with 0, 5, 10 and 20 mg L-1 NAA under field conditions during 2008 to 2011. The experiments were carried out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six replications. Leaf chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic yield, net photosynthetic rate, drymatter content of leaves and total soluble solids and K+content of wax apple fruits were significantly increased after treatments with 10 mg L-1. Polygalacturonase activity significantly decreased with NAA treatments. The application of 5 mg L-1 NAA increased 27% more bud and reduced 42% less fruit drop compared to the control. In addition, higher protein and phosphate synthase activity of leaves, fruit set, fruit growth, larger fruit size and yield were recorded in NAA treated plants. In storage, treated fruits exhibited higher TSS and firmness and less weight loss, browning, titratable acidity, respiration and ethylene production than the control. It is concluded that spraying with 5 and 10 mg L-1 NAA once a week under field conditions produced better fruit growth and yield of the wax apple and maintained better fruit quality in postharvest storage.

  11. Growth and nutrient removal of three macrophytes in response to concentrations and ratios of N and P.

    Liao, JianXiong; Zhang, DeNan; Mallik, Azim; Huang, YuQing; He, ChengXin; Xu, GuangPing


    Wastewater from different sources show great differences in concentrations and ratios of N and P. In order to choose suitable plant species to remove excess N and/or P from polluted waters, it is important to know the performances of these plants under different N and P concentrations. In this study, we investigated the growth and N and P removal of three macrophytes, Coix lacryma-jobi, Iris wilsonii and Arundo donax under six N and P combination treatments. C. lacryma-jobi preferred higher N and P concentrations (16 mg N L(-1) and 3.2 mg P L(-1)), and increasing N supply could increase its P removal rate. I. wilsonii exhibited a growth preference at a combination of moderate N and P concentrations (8 mg N L(-1) and 0.8 mg P L(-1)). A. donax could grow well at all combinations of N and P and had significantly higher relative growth rate (RGR) and N and P removal rates than the other two species. These results showed A. donax is a promising species to treat various polluted waters and the other two species can be used specifically to treat certain types of wastewater.

  12. Improvement of Vegetative and Reproductive Growth of ‘Camarosa’ Strawberry: Role of Humic Acid, Zn, and B

    Somaye Rafeii


    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted with the aim to improve vegetative and reproductive growth of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv. ‘Camarosa’ using humic acid, zinc sulfate (ZnSO4, and boric acid. We evaluated applications of humic acid at 0, 20 and 40 mg·L-1, ZnSO4 at 0, 50 and 100 mg·L-1, and boric acid at 0, 50 and 100 mg·L-1 at 30 days after planting and blooming stage on growth of strawberry cv. ‘Camarosa’. Results indicated that humic acid, ZnSo4, and boric acid application improved reproductive and vegetative characteristics compared to control treatment. The results showed, that plants treated with humic acid, ZnSO4, and boric acid at higher their concentrations exhibited generally higher dry weight of roots and shoots, number of flowers and inflorescences, leaf area, length of roots and shoots, length of flowering period, yield, weight of primary and secondary fruits and number of their achenes. Total yield was significantly increased by all treatments compared to control treatment at both stages of application, especially at blooming stage. Moreover, conclusion showed that the mentioned materials could have impact on vegetative and reproductive growth of strawberry generally. In this study humic acid at 40 mg L-1 at blooming stage resulted in best effects on development of strawberry cv. ‘Camarosa’.

  13. Effects of tea saponin on growth and antioxidant enzyme system of rape%茶皂素对油菜幼苗生长发育及抗氧化酶系统的影响

    董敬娜; 敬佩; 李光德; 周楠楠; 袁宇飞; 于冲; 张明明


    采用溶液培养的方法研究茶皂素对白菜型油菜东京绿(Brassica rapa L.)幼苗生长发育及抗氧化酶系统的影响.结果表明:在5~200mg·L-1的茶皂素浓度范围内,随浓度增加,油菜幼苗的根长表现出先升高后降低的趋势;在5~100mg·L-1的茶皂素浓度范围内,油菜幼苗的株高表现出与根长相同的趋势,但在茶皂素200mg·L-1时株高显著降低;油菜叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性逐渐降低;过氧化物酶(POD)活性在低于20mg·L-1时低于对照,随后升高;过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性则仅在浓度为50mg·L-1和100mg·L-1时高于对照;油菜叶片中MDA含量先升高后降低.统计分析发现,浓度范围在5~200mg·L-1的茶皂素对油菜幼苗叶片的生长、抗氧化酶系统和MDA含最没有显著影响,而200mg·L-1显著抑制株高.结果说明了培养液中低于200mg·L-1的茶皂素除降低幼苗株高外,对油菜的苗期是安全的.%As a biological surface active agent, tea saponin is used on leaching repair of soil contaminated by heavy metal. The object of this study was to investigate the effect of tea saponin on plant growth and antioxidant enzyme system. Different concentrations of tea saponin were tested in liquid culture using Brassica rapa L. cv Tokyo Green seedlings. Results showed that tea saponin had no significant effect on root length of the seedlings under 200mg · L-1. But when the chemical concentration reached 200 mg · L-1, the plant height was significantly inhibited. The activity of SOD ( superoxide dismutase) in leaves was gradually decreased in tea saponin liquid. The POD (peroxidase) activity was decreased at concentrations lower than 20mg · L-1 and then became higher than no chemical control. On the contrary, the CAT (catalase) activities were higher than control only when tea saponin concentration were 50mg · L-1 and 100mg · L-1. The MDA (malondialdehyde) contents varied in the liquids.Statistically, there was no significant

  14. AnL1 smoothing spline algorithm with cross validation

    Bosworth, Ken W.; Lall, Upmanu


    We propose an algorithm for the computation ofL1 (LAD) smoothing splines in the spacesWM(D), with . We assume one is given data of the formyiD(f(ti) +ɛi, iD1,...,N with {itti}iD1N ⊂D, theɛi are errors withE(ɛi)D0, andf is assumed to be inWM. The LAD smoothing spline, for fixed smoothing parameterλ?;0, is defined as the solution,sλ, of the optimization problem (1/N)∑iD1N yi-g(ti +λJM(g), whereJM(g) is the seminorm consisting of the sum of the squaredL2 norms of theMth partial derivatives ofg. Such an LAD smoothing spline,sλ, would be expected to give robust smoothed estimates off in situations where theɛi are from a distribution with heavy tails. The solution to such a problem is a "thin plate spline" of known form. An algorithm for computingsλ is given which is based on considering a sequence of quadratic programming problems whose structure is guided by the optimality conditions for the above convex minimization problem, and which are solved readily, if a good initial point is available. The "data driven" selection of the smoothing parameter is achieved by minimizing aCV(λ) score of the form .The combined LAD-CV smoothing spline algorithm is a continuation scheme in λ↘0 taken on the above SQPs parametrized inλ, with the optimal smoothing parameter taken to be that value ofλ at which theCV(λ) score first begins to increase. The feasibility of constructing the LAD-CV smoothing spline is illustrated by an application to a problem in environment data interpretation.

  15. High ethanol tolerance of the thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producer Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie Just; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    The low ethanol tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria, generally less than 2% (v/v) ethanol, is one of the main limiting factors for their potential use for second generation fuel ethanol production. In this work, the tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG 1L1...... to exogenously added ethanol was studied in a continuous immobilized reactor system at a growth temperature of 70 degrees C. Ethanol tolerance was evaluated based on inhibition of fermentative performance e.g.. inhibition of substrate conversion. At the highest ethanol concentration tested (8.3% v/v), the strain...... was able to convert 42% of the xylose initially present, indicating that this ethanol concentration is not the upper limit tolerated by the strain. Long-term strain adaptation to high ethanol concentrations (6 - 8.3%) resulted in an improvement of xylose conversion by 25% at an ethanol concentration of 5...

  16. Pharmacokinetics, microscale distribution, and dosimetry of alpha-emitter-labeled anti-PD-L1 antibodies in an immune competent transgenic breast cancer model.

    Nedrow, Jessie R; Josefsson, Anders; Park, Sunju; Bäck, Tom; Hobbs, Robert F; Brayton, Cory; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Sgouros, George


    Studies combining immune checkpoint inhibitors with external beam radiation have shown a therapeutic advantage over each modality alone. The purpose of these works is to evaluate the potential of targeted delivery of high LET radiation to the tumor microenvironment via an immune checkpoint inhibitor. The impact of protein concentration on the distribution of (111)In-DTPA-anti-PD-L1-BC, an (111)In-antibody conjugate targeted to PD-L1, was evaluated in an immunocompetent mouse model of breast cancer. (225)Ac-DOTA-anti-PD-L1-BC was evaluated by both macroscale (ex vivo biodistribution) and microscale (alpha-camera images at a protein concentration determined by the (111)In data. The evaluation of (111)In-DTPA-anti-PD-L1-BC at 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg highlighted the impact of protein concentration on the distribution of the labeled antibody, particularly in the blood, spleen, thymus, and tumor. Alpha-camera images for the microscale distribution of (225)Ac-DOTA-anti-PD-L1-BC showed a uniform distribution in the liver while highly non-uniform distributions were obtained in the thymus, spleen, kidney, and tumor. At an antibody dose of 3 mg/kg, the liver was dose-limiting with an absorbed dose of 738 mGy/kBq; based upon blood activity concentration measurements, the marrow absorbed dose was 29 mGy/kBq. These studies demonstrate that (225)Ac-DOTA-anti-PD-L1-BC is capable of delivering high LET radiation to PD-L1 tumors. The use of a surrogate SPECT agent, (111)In-DTPA-anti-PD-L1-BC, is beneficial in optimizing the dose delivered to the tumor sites. Furthermore, an accounting of the microscale distribution of the antibody in preclinical studies was essential to the proper interpretation of organ absorbed doses and their likely relation to biologic effect.

  17. Antibody fragments directed against different portions of the human neural cell adhesion molecule L1 act as inhibitors or activators of L1 function.

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 plays important roles in neuronal migration and survival, neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis. L1 has also been found in tumors of different origins, with levels of L1 expression correlating positively with the metastatic potential of tumors. To select antibodies targeting the varied functions of L1, we screened the Tomlinson library of recombinant human antibody fragments to identify antibodies binding to recombinant human L1 protein comprising the entire extracellular domain of human L1. We obtained four L1 binding single-chain variable fragment antibodies (scFvs, named I4, I6, I13, and I27 and showed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA that scFvs I4 and I6 have high affinity to the immunoglobulin-like (Ig domains 1-4 of L1, while scFvs I13 and I27 bind strongly to the fibronectin type III homologous (Fn domains 1-3 of L1. Application of scFvs I4 and I6 to human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells reduced proliferation and transmigration of these cells. Treatment of SK-N-SH cells with scFvs I13 and I27 enhanced cell proliferation and migration, neurite outgrowth, and protected against the toxic effects of H(2O(2 by increasing the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. In addition, scFvs I4 and I6 inhibited and scFvs I13 and I27 promoted phosphorylation of src and Erk. Our findings indicate that scFvs reacting with the immunoglobulin-like domains 1-4 inhibit L1 functions, whereas scFvs interacting with the fibronectin type III domains 1-3 trigger L1 functions of cultured neuroblastoma cells.

  18. Do L2 Writing Courses Affect the Improvement of L1 Writing Skills via Skills Transfer from L2 to L1?

    Gonca, Altmisdort


    This study investigates the relationship of second language (L2) writing skills proficiency with the first language (L1) writing skills, in light of the language transfer. The study aims to analyze the positive effects of L2 writing proficiency on L1 writing proficiency. Forty native Turkish-speaking university students participated in the study.…

  19. The L2 Acquisition of Spanish Rhotics by L1 English Speakers: The Effect of L1 Articulatory Routines and Phonetic Context for Allophonic Variation

    Olsen, Michael K.


    This article offers a fine-grained investigation of how first-language (L1) phonetics involving English rhotics affect Spanish rhotic production by second-language (L2) learners. Specifically, this study investigates how different L1 English rhotic articulatory routines (retroflex-like and bunched-like) and the phonetic context that produces…

  20. Effects of exogenous glutathione and cysteine on growth, lead accumulation, and tolerance of Iris lactea var. chinensis.

    Yuan, Haiyan; Zhang, Yongxia; Huang, Suzhen; Yang, Yongheng; Gu, Chunsun


    Effects of exogenous reduced glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) on growth, lead (Pb) accumulation, and nonprotein thiol (NPT) contents of Iris lactea var. chinensis under 100 and 500 mg L(-1) Pb stress were studied. Our results showed that 500 mg L(-1) Pb stress caused a dramatical decline in fresh weights, while the reduction of aboveground biomass was alleviated by exogenous GSH and Cys even though keeping higher Pb contents in roots and shoots. Exogenous GSH and Cys could enhance Pb accumulation in the shoots and roots compared with single Pb treatment. The promoting effect of GSH to Pb accumulation was larger than the effect of Cys, and the Pb contents in the shoots and roots treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + GSH reached 1,712 and 14,603 mg kg(-1), about 4.19 and 2.78 times of single 500 mg L(-1) Pb treatment, respectively. Microscopic imaging of Pb in roots and leaves showed that higher intensive fluorescence was observed in cell wall of root epidermis, stele, vascular tissues of the roots, and sclerenchyma cells of leaves treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + GSH and treated with 500 mg L(-1) Pb + Cys. Exogenous GSH had an apparent promoting effect on root and shoot GSH synthesis, while exogenous Cys reduced the synthesis of cellular GSH in shoot and increased Cys contents. Pb only induced the synthesis of phytochelatin (PC)2 in roots, and the PC2 content declined in GSH- and Cys-treated plant roots. These results suggested that GSH synthesis was a more effective approach to improve Pb accumulation and translocation of I. lactea var. chinensis. Further analysis of protein expression in plants by exogenous GSH and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) application showed that the proteins regulated by GSH and BSO may constitute various enzymes involved in GSH biosynthesis and play certain roles in Pb accumulation and tolerance of I. lactea var. chinensis.

  1. Extensive transduction of nonrepetitive DNA mediated by L1 retrotransposition in cancer genomes

    J.M.C. Tubio (Jose M.); Y. Li (Yilong); Y.S. Ju (Young Seok); I. Martincorena (Inigo); S.L. Cooke (Susanna); M. Tojo (Marta); G. Gundem (Gunes); C.P. Pipinikas (Christodoulos); J. Zamora (Jorge); J.W. Raine (John); D. Menzies; P. Roman-Garcia (Pablo); A. Fullam (Anthony); M. Gerstung (Moritz); A. Shlien (Adam); P.S. Tarpey (Patrick); E. Papaemmanuil (Elli); S. Knappskog (Stian); P. van Loo (Peter); M. Ramakrishna (Manasa); H. Davies (Helen); J. Marshall (John); D.C. Wedge (David); J. Teague (Jon); A. Butler (Adam); S. Nik-Zainal (Serena); L.B. Alexandrov (Ludmil); S. Behjati (Sam); L.R. Yates (Lucy); N. Bolli (Niccolò); L. Mudie (Laura); C. Hardy (Claire); S. Martin (Sandra); S. McLaren (Stuart); S. O'Meara (Sarah); E. Anderson (Elizabeth); M. Maddison (Mark); S. Gamble (Stephen); C. Foster (Christopher); A.Y. Warren (Anne); H.J. Whitaker (Heather); D. Brewer (Daniel); R. Eeles (Rosalind); C. Cooper (Colin); D. Neal (David); A.G. Lynch (Andy); T. Visakorpi (Tapio); W.B. Isaacs (William); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); C. Caldas (Carlos); C. Desmedt (Christine); C. Sotiriou (Christos); S. Aparicio (Sam); J.A. Foekens (John); J. Eyfjord; S. Lakhani (Sunil); G. Thomas (Gilles); O. Myklebost (Ola); P.N. Span (Paul); A.L. Børresen-Dale (Anne Lise); A.L. Richardson (Andrea); M.J. Vijver (Marc ); A. Vincent-Salomon (Anne); G.G. van den Eynden (Gert); A.M. Flanagan (Adrienne); P.A. Futreal (Andrew); H. Janes (Holly); G.S. Bova (G. Steven); M.R. Stratton (Michael); U. McDermott (Ultan); P.J. Campbell (Peter)


    textabstractLong interspersed nuclear element–1 (L1) retrotransposons are mobile repetitive elements that are abundant in the human genome. L1 elements propagate through RNA intermediates. In the germ line, neighboring, nonrepetitive sequences are occasionally mobilized by the L1 machinery, a proces

  2. CALL versus Paper: In Which Context Are L1 Glosses More Effective?

    Taylor, Alan M.


    CALL glossing in first language (L1) or second language (L2) texts has been shown by previous studies to be more effective than traditional, paper-and-pen L1 glossing. Using a pool of studies with much more statistical power and more accurate results, this meta-analysis demonstrates more precisely the degree to which CALL L1 glossing can be more…

  3. A Study of Relationships between L1 Pragmatic Transfer and L2 Proficiency

    Bu, Jiemin


    Studies in interlanguage pragmatics have shown that L2 learners' proficiency has an influence on the occurrences of L1 pragmatic transfer. However, questions remain whether the relationship between L1 pragmatic transfer and L2 proficiency is positive or negative. This paper is designed to study L1 pragmatic transfer in requests made by Chinese…

  4. L1 use during L2 writing: an empirical study of a complex phenomenon

    van Weijen, D.; van den Bergh, H.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Sanders, T.


    This study examined writers’ use of their first language (L1) while writing in their second language (L2). Twenty students each wrote four short argumentative essays in their L1 (Dutch) and four in their L2 (English) under think-aloud conditions. We analysed whether L1 use varied between writers and

  5. The Influence of Schema and Cultural Difference on L1 and L2 Reading

    Yang, Shi-sheng


    Reading in L1 shares numerous basic elements with reading in L2, and the processes also differ greatly. Intriguing questions involve whether there are two parallel cognitive processes at work, or whether there are processing strategies that accommodate both L1 and L2. This paper examines how reading in L1 is different from and similar to reading…

  6. L1 use during L2 writing: an empirical study of a complex phenomenon

    D. van Weijen; H. van den Bergh; G. Rijlaarsdam; T. Sanders


    This study examined writers’ use of their first language (L1) while writing in their second language (L2). Twenty students each wrote four short argumentative essays in their L1 (Dutch) and four in their L2 (English) under think-aloud conditions. We analysed whether L1 use varied between writers and

  7. English Teachers' Use of Learners' L1 (Arabic) in College Classrooms in Kuwait

    Alrabah, Sulaiman; Wu, Shu-hua; Alotaibi, Abdullah M.; Aldaihani, Hussein A.


    This study investigated English teachers' use of learners' L1 (Arabic) in college classrooms in Kuwait. The purpose of the study was three-fold: (1) to describe the functions for which L1 was employed by the teachers, (2) to explore the affective, sociolinguistic, and psycholinguistic factors that may have led teachers to use L1 in L2 teaching,…

  8. Does Reading in Shallow L1 Orthography Slow Attrition of Language-Specific Morphological Structures?

    Zaretsky, Elena; Bar-Shalom, Eva G.


    This study looks at the relationship between L1 (Russian) attrition and L1 reading ability in Russian-English-speaking bilingual children. Ten Russian-English bilingual children and 10 adults participated in this study. Nine out of 10 children participants were born in the US and used L1 as their primary language of interaction within the family,…

  9. PD-L1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer : Correlations with genetic alterations

    Scheel, Andreas H.; Ansen, Sascha; Schultheis, Anne M.; Scheffler, Matthias; Fischer, Rieke N.; Michels, Sebastian; Hellmich, Martin; George, Julie; Zander, Thomas; Brockmann, Michael; Stoelben, Erich; Groen, Harry; Timens, Wim; Perner, Sven; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael; Buettner, Reinhard; Wolf, Juergen


    Inhibition of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may induce anticancer immune responses in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Two PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays have been approved as companion diagnostic tests for therapeutic anti-PD-1 antibodies. However, many aspects of PD-L1 prevalence and associat

  10. DAF-16/FOXO regulates transcription of cki-1/Cip/Kip and repression of lin-4 during C. elegans L1 arrest.

    Baugh, L Ryan; Sternberg, Paul W


    Development is typically studied as a continuous process under laboratory conditions, but wild animals often develop in variable and stressful environments. C. elegans larvae hatch in a developmentally arrested state (L1 arrest) and initiate post-embryonic development only in the presence of food (E. coli in lab). In contrast to the well-studied dauer arrest, L1 arrest occurs without morphological modification, although larvae in L1 arrest are more resistant to environmental stress than developing larvae . Consistent with its role in dauer formation and aging, we show that insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling regulates L1 arrest. daf-2 insulin/IGF receptor mutants have a constitutive-L1-arrest phenotype when fed and extended survival of L1 arrest when starved. Conversely, daf-16/FOXO mutants have a defective-arrest phenotype, failing to arrest development and dying rapidly when starved. We show that DAF-16 is required for transcription of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor cki-1 in stem cells in response to starvation, accounting for the failure of daf-16/FOXO mutants to arrest cell division during L1 arrest. Other developmental events such as cell migration, cell fusion, and expression of the microRNA lin-4, a temporal regulator of post-embryonic development, are also observed in starved daf-16/FOXO mutants. These results suggest that DAF-16/FOXO promotes developmental arrest via transcriptional regulation of numerous target genes that control various aspects of development.

  11. Buffer-layer enhanced crystal growth of BaB{sub 6} (1 0 0) thin films on MgO (1 0 0) substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    Kato, Yushi; Yamauchi, Ryosuke; Arai, Hideki; Tan, Geng [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-J2-46, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Tsuchimine, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Susumu [Toshima Manufacturing Company Limited, 1414 Shimonomoto, Higashimatsuyama-shi, Saitama 355-0036 (Japan); Saeki, Kazuhiko; Takezawa, Nobutaka [Department of Materials Technology, Industrial Technology Center of Tochigi Prefecture, 367-1 Karinuma, Utsunomiya-shi, Tochigi 321-3224 (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Masahiko; Kaneko, Satoru [Kanagawa Industrial Technology Center, Kanagawa Prefectural Government, 705-1 Shimo-Imaizumi, Ebina, Kanagawa 243-0435 (Japan); Yoshimoto, Mamoru, E-mail: [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-J2-46, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Patent Attorney, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-J2-46, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)


    Crystalline BaB{sub 6} (1 0 0) thin films can be fabricated on MgO (1 0 0) substrates by inserting a 2-3 nm-thick epitaxial SrB{sub 6} (1 0 0) buffer layer by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in ultra-high vacuum (i.e., laser molecular beam epitaxy). Reflection high-energy electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction measurements indicated the heteroepitaxial structure of BaB{sub 6} (1 0 0)/SrB{sub 6} (1 0 0)/MgO (1 0 0) with the single domain of the epitaxial relationship. Conversely, BaB{sub 6} thin films without the buffer layer were not epitaxial instead they developed as polycrystalline films with a random in-plane configuration and some impurity phases. As a result, the buffer layer is considered to greatly affect the initial growth of epitaxial BaB{sub 6} thin films; therefore, in this study, buffering effects have been discussed. From the conventional four-probe measurement, it was observed that BaB{sub 6} epitaxial thin films exhibit n-type semiconducting behavior with a resistivity of 2.90 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} {Omega} cm at room temperature.

  12. An L1-script-transfer-effect fallacy: a rejoinder to Wang et al. (2003).

    Yamada, Jun


    Do different L1 (first language) writing systems differentially affect word identification in English as a second language (ESL)? Wang, Koda, and Perfetti [Cognition 87 (2003) 129] answered yes by examining Chinese students with a logographic L1 background and Korean students with an alphabetic L1 background for their phonological and orthographic processing skills on English word identification. Such a conclusion is premature, however. We propose that the L1 phonological system (rather than the L1 writing system) of the learner largely accounts for cognitive processes in learning to read a second language (L2).

  13. A dimeric structure of PD-L1: functional units or evolutionary relics?

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Peipei; Gao, Feng; Cheng, Hao; Qi, Jianxun; Gao, George F


    PD-L1 is a member of the B7 protein family, most of whose members so far were identified as dimers in a solution and crystalline state, either complexed or uncomplexed with their ligand(s). The binding of PD-L1 with its receptor PD-1 (CD279) delivers an inhibitory signal regulating the T cell function. Simultaneously with the Garboczi group, we successfully solved another structure of human PD-L1 (hPD-L1). Our protein crystallized in the space group of C2221 with two hPD-L1 molecules per asym...

  14. L^1 stability of conservation laws for a traffic flow model

    Tong Li


    Full Text Available We establish the $L^1$ well-posedness theory for a system of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws with relaxation arising in traffic flows. In particular, we obtain the continuous dependence of the solution on its initial data in $L^1$ topology. We construct a functional for two solutions which is equivalent to the $L^1$ distance between the solutions. We prove that the functional decreases in time which yields the $L^1$ well-posedness of the Cauchy problem. We thus obtain the $L^1$-convergence to and the uniqueness of the zero relaxation limit.

  15. Optimized expression of the L1 protein of human papillomavirus in Hansenula polymorpha%人乳头瘤病毒16亚型L1蛋白在多形汉逊酵母中的优化表达

    李巍巍; 何秀萍; 郭雪娜; 张振颖; 张博润


    为了实现人乳头瘤病毒(Human papillomavirus,HPV)16亚型衣壳蛋白L1在多形汉逊酵母(Hansenulapolymorpha)中的高效表达,根据L1蛋白的氨基酸序列及多形汉逊酵母的密码子偏爱性,对L1蛋白的编码序列进行优化设计,合成了完整的编码序列,命名为HPV16L1.以甲醇诱导型启动子MOXp和终止子AOXTT为表达调控元件,以尿嘧啶合成相关基因URA3为筛选标记,构建了HPV16L1的重组表达质粒pYMOXU-HPV16.用SacⅡ酶切质粒pYMOXU-HPV16使其线性化,电转化多形汉逊酵母菌株H-ura3,依据营养缺陷互补筛选重组菌株.通过PCR扩增及HPV16 L1蛋白表达量分析表明已获得稳定高表达L1蛋白的重组汉逊酵母菌株HP-U-16L.摇瓶发酵条件的初步优化表明,以YPM(pH 7.0)为基础培养基进行诱导培养,控制接种量使初始培养液OD600为1.0,每隔12 h补加甲醇至终浓度为1%(V/V),37℃、200 r/min条件下诱导培养72 h后,HPV16 L1蛋白的最高表达量为78.6 mg/L.本研究为多形汉逊酵母源HPV16 L1疫苗的研制奠定了基础.%The heterologously expressed L1 protein of human papilomavirus 16 can assembly into virus-like particles (VLPs), which has been used as prophylactic vaccine for cervical carcinoma. To express L1 protein in Hansenula polymorpha, we analyzed the codon usage of the native gene of L1 protein and redesigned the encoding sequence according to the codon bias of H. polymorpha. We used assembly PCR to synthesize the native gene HPV16L1-N and the codon optimized gene HPV16L1. The synthesized genes were cloned into pMOXZα-A vector to generate plasmids pMOXZ-HPV16N and pMOXZ-HPV16. The expression cassettes MOXp-HPV16L1(N)-AOXTT were cloned into YEp352 vector and transferred into H. polymorpha. After methanol inducement, the expression of L1 protein in H. polymorpha was detected from the codon optimized gene HPV16L1 rather than the native gene HPV16L1-N. The parameters for induced cultivation for strain HP-U-16L with HPV16

  16. Physio-anatomic aspects on the initial growth of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. seedlings (Sterculiaceae

    Silvana P. Q Scalon


    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the initial growth of "mutambo" seedlings in different conditions of light intensity and treatments with gibberellic acid (GA. The seedlings were kept under full sun and 50% of shading. Sixty days after the emergence, seedlings were sprayed with: 1 100 mg L-1 GA3; 2 200 mg L-1 GA3; 3 control. At the end of the appraisals, seedlings height under 50% of shading was compared to the height that were growing under full sun with 200 mg L-1 GA. Stem diameter was lower under shading. Leaf area did not vary among the treatments, but the root system growth was higher under full sun and did not vary among GA levels. The number of stomata, trichomes and epidermal cells on adaxial and abaxial sides was higher under full sun. Total dry masses of leaf and root were highe runder full sun and with 200 mg L-1 GA application. "Mutambo" seedlings presented a higher initial growth under full sun, although with a lower height, diameter, and lenght of the largest root and total dry masses of leaf and root were higher. A concentration with 200 mg L-1 promoted a higher growthO objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento inicial das mudas de mutambo em diferentes condições de luminosidade e tratamentos com ácido giberélico (GA. As mudas foram mantidas em sombrite 50% de sombra e a pleno sol e aos 60 dias após a emergência as mudas foram pulverizadas com: 1 ácido giberélico 100 mg L-1; 2 ácido giberélico 200 mg. L-1 e 3 testemunha. Ao final das avaliações a altura sob 50% de sombreamento foi maior comparada com aquelas crescendo a pleno sol com GA 200 mg L-1. O diâmetro de colo foi menor sob sombreamento. A área foliar não variou entre os tratamentos, porém o crescimento do sistema radicular foi maior a pleno sol não variando entre os níveis de GA. O número de estômatos, tricomas e células epidérmicas nas faces adaxial e abaxial foram maiores a pleno sol. As massas secas total, de folha e raiz foi maior a pleno sol

  17. Turkish Tombul hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.). 1. Compositional characteristics.

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Liyanapathirana, Chandrika M; Ohshima, Toshiaki


    The quality of Tombul (Round) hazelnut, grown in the Giresun province of Turkey, was determined by measuring proximate composition, minerals, vitamins, dietary fiber, amino acids, and taste active components (free amino acids, sugars, and organic acids). Fat was the predominant component in Tombul hazelnut (approximately 61%). The major minerals were potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and selenium. Hazelnut was also found to serve as an excellent source of vitamin E (24 mg/100 g) and a good source of water soluble (B complex) vitamins and dietary fiber. The major amino acids were glutamic acid, arginine, and aspartic acid. The three nonessential amino acids and the essential amino acids contributed 44.9 and 30.9% to the total amino acids present, respectively, while lysine and tryptophan were the limiting amino acids in Tombul hazelnut. Twenty-one free amino acids, six sugars, and six organic acids were positively identified; among these, arginine, sucrose, and malic acid predominated, respectively. These taste active components may play a significant role in the taste and flavor characteristics of hazelnut. Thus, the present results suggest that Tombul hazelnut serves as a good source of vital nutrients and taste active components.

  18. PD-L1 expression by neurons nearby tumors indicates better prognosis in glioblastoma patients

    Liu, Yawei; Carlsson, Robert; Ambjørn, Malene


    in GBM patients, better survival in wild-type mice was associated with high neuronal PD-L1 in TABT and downregulation of PD-L1 in tumors, which was defective in Ifnb-/- mice. Our data indicated that neuronal PD-L1 signaling in brain cells was important for GBM patient survival. Reciprocal PD-L1....... To understand the molecular mechanism of PD-L1 signaling in neurons, we investigated PD-L1 function in cerebellar and cortical neurons and its impact on gliomas. We discovered that neuronal PD-L1-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis of glioma cells. Because interferon (IFN)-β induces PD-L1 expression, we studied...... the functional consequences of neuronal Ifnb gene deletion on PD-L1 signaling and function. Ifnb-/- neurons lacked PD-L1 and were defective in inducing glioma cell death; this effect was reversed on PD-L1 gene transfection. Ifnb-/- mice with intracerebral isografts survived poorly. Similar to the observations...

  19. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate (MgHPO4) as an Alternative Phosphorus Source on Growth and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish (Silurus asotus).

    Yoon, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Won, Seung-Gun; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae


    The present study was conducted to investigate a supplemental effect of magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MHP, MgHPO4) as an alternative phosphorus (P) source on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish (Silurus asotus) in comparison with three conventional P additives (monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and tricalcium phosphate [TCP]) as positive controls. A basal diet as a negative control was prepared without P supplementation and four supplemental P sources were added at the level of 2%. Five groups of 450 fish having mean body weight of 11.3 g following 24 h fasting after three week adaptation period were randomly distributed into each of 15 tanks (30 fish/tank). Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiety twice a day for 8 weeks. Fish fed MHP had weight gain (WG), protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate comparable to those fed MCP. Fish fed MHP and MCP had feed efficiency (FE) significantly higher (pDCP. Fish groups fed control and TCP showed the lower FE than the other groups which was significantly different (p0.05) among treatments. Fish fed control had the lowest hematocrit, which was significantly different (pDCP and TCP to MHP were found to be 100.5 and 101.3%, 92.0 and 91.6%, and 79.1 and 80.9% for WG and FE, respectively. P availability was determined to be 88.1%, 75.2%, 8.7%, and 90.9% for MCP, DCP, TCP, and MHP, respectively. Consequently, MHP recovered from wastewater stream showed that as an alternative P source its performance was comparative with MCP on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish.

  20. Growth promotion effect of steelmaking slag on Spirulina platensis

    Nogami, R.; Tam, L. T.; Anh, H. T. L.; Quynh, H. T. H.; Thom, L. T.; Nhat, P. V.; Thu, N. T. H.; Hong, D. D.; Wakisaka, M.


    A growth promotion effect of steelmaking slag on Spirulina platensis M135 was investigated. The growth promotion effect was obtained that was 1.27 times greater than that obtained by the control by adding 500 mg L-1 of steelmaking slag and culturing for 60 days. The lipid content decreased in a concentration-dependent manner with steelmaking slag, whereas the carbohydrate content remained constant. The protein content of S. platensis M135 increased in a concentration-dependent manner with steelmaking slag when cultured at day 45. The superoxide dismutase activity of S. platensis M135 exhibited a decreasing trend in a time-dependent manner and an increasing trend in the control. The superoxide dismutase activity was lower than that of the control at day 1 but was higher at day 30. No genetic damage was observed up to 500 mg L-1 of steelmaking slag at 30 days of culture. Recovery from genetic damage was observed at 1,000 mg L-1 of steelmaking slag but not at higher concentrations.

  1. C3-Luc Cells Are an Excellent Model for Evaluation of Cellular Immunity following HPV16L1 Vaccination.

    Li-Li Li

    Full Text Available C3 and TC-1 are the two model cell lines most commonly used in studies of vaccines and drugs against human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Because C3 cells contain both the HPV16 E and L genes, but TC-1 cells contain only the HPV16 E genes, C3 cells are usually used as the model cell line in studies targeting the HPV16 L protein. However, expression of the L1 protein is difficult to detect in C3 cells using common methods. In our study, Short tandem repeat analysis (STR was used to demonstrate that C3 cells are indeed derived from mice, PCR results show that HPV16 L1, E6 and E7 genes were detected in C3 genomic DNA, and RT-PCR results demonstrated that L1 transcription had occurred in C3 cells. However, the expression of C3 protein was not found in the results of western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC. Growth and proliferation of C3 were inhibited by mice spleen lymphocytes that had been immunized with a vaccine against HPV16L1. The luciferase gene was integrated into C3 cells, and it was confirmed that addition of the exogenous gene had no effect on C3 cells by comparing cell growth and tumor formation with untransformed cells. Cells stably expressing luciferase (C3-luc were screened and subcutaneously injected into the mice. Tumors became established and were observed using a Spectrum Pre-clinical in Vivo Imaging System. Tumor size of mice in the different groups at various time points was calculated by counting photons. The sensitivity of the animals to the vaccine was quantified by statistical comparison. Ten or 30 days following injection of the C3-luc cells, tumor size differed significantly between the PBS and vaccine groups, indicating that C3 cells were susceptible to vaccination even after tumors were formed in vivo.

  2. Influence of the pesticides glyphosate, chlorpyrifos and atrazine on growth parameters of nonochratoxigenic Aspergillus section Nigri strains isolated from agricultural soils.

    Carranza, Cecilia S; Barberis, Carla L; Chiacchiera, Stella M; Magnoli, Carina E


    This investigation was undertake to determine the effect of glyphosate, chlorpyrifos and atrazine on the lag phase and growth rate of nonochratoxigenic A. niger aggregate strains growing on soil extract medium at -0.70, -2.78 and -7.06 MPa. Under certain conditions, the glyphosate concentrations used significantly increased micelial growth as compared to control. An increase of about 30% was observed for strain AN 251 using 5 and 20 mg L(-1) of glyphosate at -2.78 MPa. The strains behaved differently in the presence of the insecticide chlorpyrifos. A significant decrease in growth rate, compared to control, was observed for all strains except AN 251 at -2.78 MPa with 5 mg L(-1). This strain showed a significant increase in growth rate. With regard to atrazine, significant differences were observed only under some conditions compared to control. An increase in growth rate was observed for strain AN 251 at -2.78 MPa with 5 and 10 mg L(-1) of atrazine. By comparison, a reduction of 25% in growth rate was observed at -7.06 MPa and higher atrazine concentrations. This study shows that glyphosate, chlorpyrifos and atrazine affect the growth parameters of nonochratoxigenic A. niger aggregate strains under in vitro conditions.

  3. [Proteomics of rice leaf and grain at late growth stage under different nitrogen fertilization levels].

    Ning, Shu-ju; Zhao, Min; Xiang, Xiao-liang; Wei, Dao-zhi


    Taking super-rice Liangyoupeijiu as test material, and by the method of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), this paper studied the changes in the leaf and grain proteomics of the variety at its late growth stage under different levels of nitrogen fertilization (1/2 times of normal nitrogen level, 20 mg x L(-1); normal nitrogen level, 40 mg x L(-1); 2 times of normal nitrogen level, 80 mg x L(-1)), with the biological functions of 16 leaf proteins, 9 inferior grain proteins, and 4 superior grain proteins identified and analyzed. Nitrogen fertilization could affect and regulate the plant photosynthesis via affecting the activation of photosynthesis-related enzymes and of CO2, the light system unit, and the constitution of electron transfer chain at the late growth stage of the variety. It could also promote the expression of the enzymes related to the energy synthesis and growth in inferior grains. High nitrogen fertilization level was not beneficial to the synthesis of starch in superior grain, but sufficient nitrogen supply was still important for the substance accumulation and metabolism. Therefore, rational nitrogen fertilization could increase the photosynthesis rate of flag leaves, enhance the source function, delay the functional early ageing, and promote the grain-filling at late growth stage.

  4. Effects of ethanol and NAP on cerebellar expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1.

    Devon M Fitzgerald

    Full Text Available The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is critical for brain development and plays a role in learning and memory in the adult. Ethanol inhibits L1-mediated cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs, and these actions might underlie the cerebellar dysmorphology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The peptide NAP potently blocks ethanol inhibition of L1 adhesion and prevents ethanol teratogenesis. We used quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting of extracts of cerebellar slices, CGNs, and astrocytes from postnatal day 7 (PD7 rats to investigate whether ethanol and NAP act in part by regulating the expression of L1. Treatment of cerebellar slices with 20 mM ethanol, 10(-12 M NAP, or both for 4 hours, 24 hours, and 10 days did not significantly affect L1 mRNA and protein levels. Similar treatment for 4 or 24 hours did not regulate L1 expression in primary cultures of CGNs and astrocytes, the predominant cerebellar cell types. Because ethanol also damages the adult cerebellum, we studied the effects of chronic ethanol exposure in adult rats. One year of binge drinking did not alter L1 gene and protein expression in extracts from whole cerebellum. Thus, ethanol does not alter L1 expression in the developing or adult cerebellum; more likely, ethanol disrupts L1 function by modifying its conformation and signaling. Likewise, NAP antagonizes the actions of ethanol without altering L1 expression.

  5. Inverse changes in L1 retrotransposons between blood and brain in major depressive disorder.

    Liu, Shu; Du, Tingfu; Liu, Zeyue; Shen, Yan; Xiu, Jianbo; Xu, Qi


    Long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) is a type of retrotransposons comprising 17% of the human and mouse genome, and has been found to be associated with several types of neurological disorders. Previous post-mortem brain studies reveal increased L1 copy number in the prefrontal cortex from schizophrenia patients. However, whether L1 retrotransposition occurs similarly in major depressive disorder (MDD) is unknown. Here, L1 copy number was measured by quantitative PCR analysis in peripheral blood of MDD patients (n = 105) and healthy controls (n = 105). The results showed that L1 copy number was increased in MDD patients possibly due to its hypomethylation. Furthermore, L1 copy number in peripheral blood and five brain regions (prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus) was measured in the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression in mice. Intriguingly, increased L1 copy number in blood and the decreased L1 copy number in the prefrontal cortex were observed in stressed mice, while no change was found in other brain regions. Our results suggest that the changes of L1 may be associated with the pathophysiology of MDD, but the biological mechanism behind dysfunction of L1 retrotransposition in MDD remains to be further investigated.

  6. Optimizing cultivation strategies for robust algal growth and consequent removal of inorganic nutrients in pretreated livestock effluent.

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Choi, Wook Jin; Ryu, Jun Hee; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Kim, Han Soo; Lee, Byung-Chan; Song, Kyung Guen


    Dilution was employed as a pretreatment strategy to increase light transmittance and decrease ammonia toxicity in piggery effluent prior to the cultivation of microalgae. The dilution effect was quantitatively determined based on both the maximum specific nutrient consumption rate and the maximum growth coefficient to minimize the usage of diluent. The biomass productivity of microalgae was also evaluated to select the best species among the five different candidates examined. A 20-fold dilution of piggery wastewater resulted in decreased chromaticity (584 mg Pt-Co L(-1)) and total nitrogen (76 mg L(-1)), on which the microalgae cultivation was more effective for an algal growth compared to the other dilution factors. If the initial cell concentration of Scenedesmus quadricauda increased, the production of biomass tended to improve. Robust growth and harvesting of S. quadricauda were achieved, and the associated consistent removal of inorganic nutrients was accomplished during the semi-continuous cultivation of the best species.

  7. Effect of Ethanol, Sulfur Dioxide and Glucose on the Growth of Wine Spoilage Yeasts Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Mahesh Chandra

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was used to study the effect of three factors, sulfur dioxide, ethanol and glucose, on the growth of wine spoilage yeast species, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Seventeen central composite rotatable design (CCRD trials were designed for each test yeast using realistic concentrations of the factors (variables in premium red wine. Polynomial regression equations were fitted to experimental data points, and the growth inhibitory conditions of these three variables were determined. The overall results showed Sa. ludwigii as the most resistant species growing under high ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations, i.e., 15% (v/v/20 mg L-1, 14% (v/v/32 mg L-1 and 12.5% (v/v/40 mg L-1, whereas other yeasts did not survive under the same levels of ethanol/free sulfur dioxide concentrations. The inhibitory effect of ethanol was primarily observed during longer incubation periods, compared with sulfur dioxide, which showed an immediate effect. In some CCRD trials, Sa. ludwigii and S. cerevisiae showed growth recovery after a short death period under the exposure of 20-32 mg L-1 sulfur dioxide in the presence of 11% (v/v or more ethanol. However, Sc. pombe and Z. bailii did not show such growth recovery under similar conditions. Up to 10 g L-1 of glucose did not prevent cell death under the sulfur dioxide or ethanol stress. This observation demonstrates that the sugar levels commonly used in wine to sweeten the mouthfeel do not increase wine susceptibility to spoilage yeasts, contrary to the anecdotal evidence.

  8. Co-culture of C2C12 and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells alters the gene expression of calpains, caspases and heat shock proteins.

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Jeong, Dawoon; Amna, Touseef; Van Ba, Hoa; Hwang, Inho


    The present study was carried out to understand the co-culture effect of C2C12 and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells on calpain, caspase, and heat shock protein (Hsp) systems. Calpains, caspases, and heat shock proteins play critical roles in the growth and development of mammalian cells. Cells were co-cultured using transwell inserts with a 0.4-μm porous membrane to separate C2C12 and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells. Each cell type was grown independently on the transwell plates. Following cell differentiation, inserts containing 3T3-L1 cells were transferred to C2C12 plates and inserts containing C2C12 transferred to 3T3-L1 plates. Following co-culture for 24 and 48 h, the cells in the lower well were harvested for analysis. Calpains include μ-calpain, m-calpain, and their specific inhibitor calpastatin. The expression pattern of μ-calpain did not change in the co-cultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells, whereas m-capain mRNA expression significantly reduced in the 48-h co-cultured 3T3-L1 cells. Calpastatin mRNA expression significantly increased in the 48-h co-cultured C2C12 cells. Caspase-7 mRNA expression did not change in the 24- and 48-h co-cultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells. Caspase-3 mRNA expression significantly reduced in the 24- and 48-h co-cultured 3T3-L1 cells; caspase-9 mRNA had a significant reduction only at 48 h, whereas caspase-9 mRNA expression significantly increased in the 48-h co-cultured C2C12 cells. Hsp27 and Hsp90 mRNA expressions are significantly reduced in the 24- and 48-h co-cultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells, whereas Hsp70 mRNA expression significantly increased in the 48-h co-cultured 3T3-L1 cells. The co-culture reflects three-dimensional views of C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cell types as in vivo, which is quite distinct from the one-dimensional monocultured C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells.

  9. Effects of low temperature and selenium application on growth and the physiological changes in sorghum seedlings

    Salwa. M. Abbas


    Full Text Available Cold temperature damage is a common problem for plant in temperate regions. Physiological responses to low temperature were investigated in sorghum to identify mechanisms of tolerance. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. seeds were soaked in different concentrations (0, 3, 6 and 12 mg L-1 of sodium selenate for 6 h before sowing, during the germination period seedlings were exposed to 4 °C or 8 °C for 7 days and allowed to recover at 25 °C for 3 days. Selenate at lower concentrations (3 & 6 mg L-1 enhanced the growth and levels of chlorophylls, anthocyanine, sugar, proline, ascorbic acid and enzymatic activities. However, high level of selenate (12 mg L-1 exert toxic effects. The levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid and carotenoids were increased by selenate. Low selenate (3 & 6 mg L-1 diminished lipid peroxidation as measured by malondialdehyde. The activities of enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase in sorghum seedlings were enhanced by low level of selenate. The results showed that both enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants played significant roles in selenate detoxification.

  10. Effects of different fungal elicitors on growth, total carotenoids and astaxanthin formation by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    Wang, Wenjun; Yu, Longjiang; Zhou, Pengpeng


    Six fungal elicitors prepared from Rhodotorula rubra, Rhodotorula glutinis, Panus conchatus, Coriolus versicolor, Mucor mucedo, Mortieralla alpina M-23 were examined to determine their effects on the growth, total carotenoids and astaxanthin formation by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. The results showed that different fungal elicitor could cause diversely stimulating effects. Among the fungal elicitors tested, the M. mucedo elicitor concentration of 30 mg l(-1) promoted the biomass and total carotenoids yield most remarkably, resulting in 69.81+/-6.00% and 78.87+/-4.15% higher than the control, respectively. At the concentration of 30 mg l(-1), R. glutinis elicitor stimulated the highest astaxanthin yield with a 90.60+/-5.98% increase compared to the control. The R. rubra elicitor concentration of 30 mg l(-1) resulted in the optimal total carotenoids and astaxanthin content to be 42.24+/-0.49% and 69.02+/-0.72% higher than the control, respectively. At the concentration of 30 mg l(-1), R. rubra elicitor gave the highest increase in the ratio of astaxanthin in total carotenoids by 18.85+/-0.11% of the control.

  11. PCB1254暴露致幼年斑马鱼视动反应异常及感光细胞发育相关基因表达变化%Exposure to PCB1254 caused abnormal OMR and photoreceptor cells growth-related gene expressions changes in the zebrafish larvae

    张昕; 洪琴; 杨蕾; 张敏; 郭锡熔; 池霞; 童梅玲


    Objective:To study the optomotor response( OMR) and retinal photoreceptor cell growth-related gene expressions of zebrafish larvae after exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs ) after fertilization. Methods:Zebrafish were exposed to PCB1254 at concentrations of 0. 125, 0. 25, 0. 5 and 1 mg · L-1 . A blank group and 0. 01% methanol group were set up. After exposed for 7 d, the visual behavior of zebrafish was assessed using OMR tests. The photoreceptor cell growth-related gene ( CRX, RHO, SWS1 and SWS2 ) expressions were also detected. Results:(1) when the grating spatial frequency was 0. 20 LP·mm-1 and the moving speed was 25 cm· s-1, the OMR sensitive ratio decreased significantly in 0. 5 mg·L-1 and 1 mg·L-1 groups(P<0. 05). (2) The SWS2 gene expressions declined significantly in all the experimental groups ( P <0. 05 ) . The CRX, RHO and SWS1 gene expressions all decreased significantly in 0. 5 mg · L-1 and 1 mg · L-1 groups ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion:Exposed to 0. 5 mg · L-1 and 1 mg · L-1 concentrations of PCB1254 can cause abnormal OMR and down-regulations of the photoreceptor cells growth-related gene expressions, indicating that it is necessary to strengthen the monitoring and control of adverse influences of environmental toxin on the children eyes development.%目的::研究受精后暴露PCB1254对斑马鱼幼鱼视动反应及视网膜感光细胞发育相关基因表达的影响。方法:对受精后斑马鱼胚胎进行不同质量浓度的PCB1254(0.125、0.25、0.5、1 mg·L-1)暴露处理,同时设立空白对照和0.01%甲醇对照组。暴露7 d后,观察幼年期斑马鱼视动反应及感光细胞发育相关基因CRX、RHO、SWS1、SWS2表达的变化。结果:(1)当条栅空间频率为0.20线· mm-1,移动速度为25 cm · s-1时,0.5 mg·L-1和1 mg·L-1组的幼鱼视动反应敏感比例明显降低(P<0.05)。(2)各实验浓度组的SWS2基因表达均明显下调( P <0.05),0.5 mg · L-1和1 mg · L-1

  12. Subband Adaptive Filtering with l1-Norm Constraint for Sparse System Identification

    Young-Seok Choi


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach of the normalized subband adaptive filter (NSAF which directly exploits the sparsity condition of an underlying system for sparse system identification. The proposed NSAF integrates a weighted l1-norm constraint into the cost function of the NSAF algorithm. To get the optimum solution of the weighted l1-norm regularized cost function, a subgradient calculus is employed, resulting in a stochastic gradient based update recursion of the weighted l1-norm regularized NSAF. The choice of distinct weighted l1-norm regularization leads to two versions of the l1-norm regularized NSAF. Numerical results clearly indicate the superior convergence of the l1-norm regularized NSAFs over the classical NSAF especially when identifying a sparse system.

  13. How Does L1 and L2 Exposure Impact L1 Performance in Bilingual Children? Evidence from Polish-English Migrants to the United Kingdom

    Ewa Haman


    Full Text Available Most studies on bilingual language development focus on children’s second language (L2. Here, we investigated first language (L1 development of Polish-English early migrant bilinguals in four domains: vocabulary, grammar, phonological processing, and discourse. We first compared Polish language skills between bilinguals and their Polish non-migrant monolingual peers, and then investigated the influence of the cumulative exposure to L1 and L2 on bilinguals’ performance. We then examined whether high exposure to L1 could possibly minimize the gap between monolinguals and bilinguals. We analyzed data from 233 typically developing children (88 bilingual and 145 monolingual aged 4;0 to 7;5 (years;months on six language measures in Polish: receptive vocabulary, productive vocabulary, receptive grammar, productive grammar (sentence repetition, phonological processing (non-word repetition, and discourse abilities (narration. Information about language exposure was obtained via parental questionnaires. For each language task, we analyzed the data from the subsample of bilinguals who had completed all the tasks in question and from monolinguals matched one-on-one to the bilingual group on age, SES (measured by years of mother’s education, gender, non-verbal IQ, and short-term memory. The bilingual children scored lower than monolinguals in all language domains, except discourse. The group differences were more pronounced on the productive tasks (vocabulary, grammar, and phonological processing and moderate on the receptive tasks (vocabulary and grammar. L1 exposure correlated positively with the vocabulary size and phonological processing. Grammar scores were not related to the levels of L1 exposure, but were predicted by general cognitive abilities. L2 exposure negatively influenced productive grammar in L1, suggesting possible L2 transfer effects on L1 grammatical performance. Children’s narrative skills benefitted from exposure to two languages

  14. How Does L1 and L2 Exposure Impact L1 Performance in Bilingual Children? Evidence from Polish-English Migrants to the United Kingdom.

    Haman, Ewa; Wodniecka, Zofia; Marecka, Marta; Szewczyk, Jakub; Białecka-Pikul, Marta; Otwinowska, Agnieszka; Mieszkowska, Karolina; Łuniewska, Magdalena; Kołak, Joanna; Miękisz, Aneta; Kacprzak, Agnieszka; Banasik, Natalia; Foryś-Nogala, Małgorzata


    Most studies on bilingual language development focus on children's second language (L2). Here, we investigated first language (L1) development of Polish-English early migrant bilinguals in four domains: vocabulary, grammar, phonological processing, and discourse. We first compared Polish language skills between bilinguals and their Polish non-migrant monolingual peers, and then investigated the influence of the cumulative exposure to L1 and L2 on bilinguals' performance. We then examined whether high exposure to L1 could possibly minimize the gap between monolinguals and bilinguals. We analyzed data from 233 typically developing children (88 bilingual and 145 monolingual) aged 4;0 to 7;5 (years;months) on six language measures in Polish: receptive vocabulary, productive vocabulary, receptive grammar, productive grammar (sentence repetition), phonological processing (non-word repetition), and discourse abilities (narration). Information about language exposure was obtained via parental questionnaires. For each language task, we analyzed the data from the subsample of bilinguals who had completed all the tasks in question and from monolinguals matched one-on-one to the bilingual group on age, SES (measured by years of mother's education), gender, non-verbal IQ, and short-term memory. The bilingual children scored lower than monolinguals in all language domains, except discourse. The group differences were more pronounced on the productive tasks (vocabulary, grammar, and phonological processing) and moderate on the receptive tasks (vocabulary and grammar). L1 exposure correlated positively with the vocabulary size and phonological processing. Grammar scores were not related to the levels of L1 exposure, but were predicted by general cognitive abilities. L2 exposure negatively influenced productive grammar in L1, suggesting possible L2 transfer effects on L1 grammatical performance. Children's narrative skills benefitted from exposure to two languages: both L1 and L2

  15. How Does L1 and L2 Exposure Impact L1 Performance in Bilingual Children? Evidence from Polish-English Migrants to the United Kingdom

    Haman, Ewa; Wodniecka, Zofia; Marecka, Marta; Szewczyk, Jakub; Białecka-Pikul, Marta; Otwinowska, Agnieszka; Mieszkowska, Karolina; Łuniewska, Magdalena; Kołak, Joanna; Miękisz, Aneta; Kacprzak, Agnieszka; Banasik, Natalia; Foryś-Nogala, Małgorzata


    Most studies on bilingual language development focus on children’s second language (L2). Here, we investigated first language (L1) development of Polish-English early migrant bilinguals in four domains: vocabulary, grammar, phonological processing, and discourse. We first compared Polish language skills between bilinguals and their Polish non-migrant monolingual peers, and then investigated the influence of the cumulative exposure to L1 and L2 on bilinguals’ performance. We then examined whether high exposure to L1 could possibly minimize the gap between monolinguals and bilinguals. We analyzed data from 233 typically developing children (88 bilingual and 145 monolingual) aged 4;0 to 7;5 (years;months) on six language measures in Polish: receptive vocabulary, productive vocabulary, receptive grammar, productive grammar (sentence repetition), phonological processing (non-word repetition), and discourse abilities (narration). Information about language exposure was obtained via parental questionnaires. For each language task, we analyzed the data from the subsample of bilinguals who had completed all the tasks in question and from monolinguals matched one-on-one to the bilingual group on age, SES (measured by years of mother’s education), gender, non-verbal IQ, and short-term memory. The bilingual children scored lower than monolinguals in all language domains, except discourse. The group differences were more pronounced on the productive tasks (vocabulary, grammar, and phonological processing) and moderate on the receptive tasks (vocabulary and grammar). L1 exposure correlated positively with the vocabulary size and phonological processing. Grammar scores were not related to the levels of L1 exposure, but were predicted by general cognitive abilities. L2 exposure negatively influenced productive grammar in L1, suggesting possible L2 transfer effects on L1 grammatical performance. Children’s narrative skills benefitted from exposure to two languages: both L1

  16. [8-hydroxy-dihydroberberine ameliorated insulin resistance induced by high FFA and high glucose in 3T3-L1 adipocytes].

    Xu, Li-jun; Lu, Fu-er; Yi, Ping; Wang, Zeng-si; Wei, Shi-chao; Chen, Guang; Dong, Hui; Zou, Xin


    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of 8-hydroxy-dihydroberberine on insulin resistance induced by high free fatty acid (FFA) and high glucose in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and its possible molecular mechanism. Palmic acid or glucose in combination with insulin was used to induce insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 8-Hydroxy-dihydroberberine and berberine were added to the cultured medium separately, which were considered as treated group and positive control group. The rate of glucose uptake was determined by 2-deoxy-[3H]-D-glucose method. The amount of glucose consumption in the medium was measured by glucose oxidase method. Cell growth and proliferation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes were detected with Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. After incubated with palmic acid for 24 hours or glucose with insulin for 18 hours, the rate of glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was inhibited by 67% and 58%, respectively. The amount of glucose consumption in 3T3-L1 adipose cells was decreased by 41% after cells were incubated with palmic acid for 24 h. However, the above changes were reversed by pretreatment with 8-hydroxy-dihydroberberine for 24 and 48 h. Significant difference existed between groups. Insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which is induced by high FFA and high glucose, could be ameliorated by 8-hydroxy-dihydroberberine.

  17. Biomass production and carbohydrate content of Arabidopsis thaliana at atmospheric CO2 concentrations from 390 to 1680 mu l l(-1)

    Van der Kooij, TAW; De Kok, LJ; Stulen, I.


    The concentration dependency of the impact of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on Arabidopsis thaliana L. was studied. Plants were exposed to nearly ambient (390), 560, 810, 1240 and 1680 mu l l(-1) CO2 during the vegetative growth phase for 8 days. Shoot biomass production and dry matter con

  18. The Effects of L2 Reading Skills on L1 Reading Skills through Transfer

    Altmisdort, Gonca


    This study investigated whether transfer from L2 to L1 in reading occurs, and if so, which reading sub-skills are transferred into L1 reading. The aim is to identify the role of second language reading skills in L1 reading skills by means of transfer. In addition, the positive effects of the second language transfer to the first language in the…

  19. In vitro screening for compounds that enhance human L1 mobilization.

    Natsuko Terasaki

    Full Text Available The Long interspersed element 1 (LINE1 or L1 retrotransposon constitutes 17% of the human genome. There are currently 80-100 human L1 elements that are thought to be active in any diploid human genome. These elements can mobilize into new locations of the genome, resulting in changes in genomic information. Active L1s are thus considered to be a type of endogenous mutagen, and L1 insertions can cause disease. Certain stresses, such as gamma radiation, oxidative stress, and treatment with some agents, can induce transcription and/or mobilization of retrotransposons. In this study, we used a reporter gene assay in HepG2 cells to screen compounds for the potential to enhance the transcription of human L1. We assessed 95 compounds including genotoxic agents, substances that induce cellular stress, and commercially available drugs. Treatment with 15 compounds increased the L1 promoter activity by >1.5-fold (p<0.05 after 6 or 24 hours of treatment. In particular, genotoxic agents (benzo[a]pyrene, camptothecin, cytochalasin D, merbarone, and vinblastine, PPARα agonists (bezafibrate and fenofibrate, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diflunisal, flufenamic acid, salicylamide, and sulindac induced L1 promoter activity. To examine their effects on L1 retrotransposition, we developed a high-throughput real-time retrotransposition assay using a novel secreted Gaussia luciferase reporter cassette. Three compounds (etomoxir, WY-14643, and salicylamide produced a significant enhancement in L1 retrotransposition. This is the first study to report the effects of a wide variety of compounds on L1 transcription and retrotransposition. These results suggest that certain chemical- and drug-induced stresses might have the potential to cause genomic mutations by inducing L1 mobilization. Thus, the risk of induced L1 transcription and retrotransposition should be considered during drug safety evaluation and environmental risk assessments of chemicals.

  20. UCH-L1 induces podocyte hypertrophy in membranous nephropathy by protein accumulation.

    Lohmann, Frithjof; Sachs, Marlies; Meyer, Tobias N; Sievert, Henning; Lindenmeyer, Maja T; Wiech, Thorsten; Cohen, Clemens D; Balabanov, Stefan; Stahl, R A K; Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine


    Podocytes are terminally differentiated cells of the glomerular filtration barrier that react with hypertrophy in the course of injury such as in membranous nephropathy (MGN). The neuronal deubiquitinase ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is expressed and activated in podocytes of human and rodent MGN. UCH-L1 regulates the mono-ubiquitin pool and induces accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins in affected podocytes. Here, we investigated the role of UCH-L1 in podocyte hypertrophy and in the homeostasis of the hypertrophy associated "model protein" p27(Kip1). A better understanding of the basic mechanisms leading to podocyte hypertrophy is crucial for the development of specific therapies in MGN. In human and rat MGN, hypertrophic podocytes exhibited a simultaneous up-regulation of UCH-L1 and of cytoplasmic p27(Kip1) content. Functionally, inhibition of UCH-L1 activity and knockdown or inhibition of UCH-L1 attenuated podocyte hypertrophy by decreasing the total protein content in isolated glomeruli and in cultured podocytes. In contrast, UCH-L1 levels and activity increased podocyte hypertrophy and total protein content in culture, specifically of cytoplasmic p27(Kip1). UCH-L1 enhanced cytoplasmic p27(Kip1) levels by nuclear export and decreased poly-ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of p27(Kip1). In parallel, UCH-L1 increased podocyte turnover, migration and cytoskeletal rearrangement, which are associated with known oncogenic functions of cytoplasmic p27(Kip1) in cancer. We propose that UCH-L1 induces podocyte hypertrophy in MGN by increasing the total protein content through altered degradation and accumulation of proteins such as p27(Kip1) in the cytoplasm of podocytes. Modification of both UCH-L1 activity and levels could be a new therapeutic avenue to podocyte hypertrophy in MGN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Adult ESL Korean Readers' Responses about Their Reading in L1 Korean and L2 English

    Kim, Misun


    In this research study I explore: (a) beliefs Korean ESL readers have about reading in L1 and L2 prior to the Retrospective Miscue Analysis (RMA) sessions, (b) how their beliefs about reading affect the way they read in L1 and L2 and their evaluation of themselves as readers in L1 and L2 reading, and (c) change of their beliefs about reading and…

  2. Produção da laranjeira-de-umbigo 'Monte Parnaso' com incisão anelar de ramos e uso de reguladores vegetais Fruit production of 'Monte Parnaso' orange trees following girdling and growth regulator sprays

    Otto Carlos Koller


    'Monte Parnaso' oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck, during the season 2001/2002 orange trees from an 11 years old orchard grafted onto Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. located in Butiá, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were submitted to the following treatments: 1 control (no girdling and no growth regulator sprays; 2 girdling of branches after 10 days of petal drop; 3 girdling of branches after June drop; 4 5 mg.L-1 of GA3 sprayed 10 days after petal drop; 5 15 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D sprayed at the end of June drop; 6 50 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D sprayed at the end of June drop; 7 10 mg.L-1 of GA3 plus 15 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D sprayed on May 14th, 2001 and May 11th, 2002; 8 combination of treatments 2 and 3; 9 combination of treatments 2, 3 and 7. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with 5 replicates and 3 trees as experimental units. The results indicate that spraying 5 mg.L-1 of GA3 10 days after petal drop increase fruit weight production but reduce fruit average weight in relation to other treatments that enhances the fruit production; spraying 15 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D in November after June drop reduce fruit juice content; and to have higher fruit production one of the following procedures are recommended: girdling of branches or spraying 5 mg.L-1 of GA3 10 days after petal drop, spraying 15mg.L-1 or 50 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D in November after June drop or spraying orange trees with 10 mg.L-1 of GA3 plus 15 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D in May.

  3. An adaptive support driven reweighted L1-regularization algorithm for fluorescence molecular tomography.

    Shi, Junwei; Liu, Fei; Pu, Huangsheng; Zuo, Simin; Luo, Jianwen; Bai, Jing


    Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is a promising in vivo functional imaging modality in preclinical study. When solving the ill-posed FMT inverse problem, L1 regularization can preserve the details and reduce the noise in the reconstruction results effectively. Moreover, compared with the regular L1 regularization, reweighted L1 regularization is recently reported to improve the performance. In order to realize the reweighted L1 regularization for FMT, an adaptive support driven reweighted L1-regularization (ASDR-L1) algorithm is proposed in this work. This algorithm has two integral parts: an adaptive support estimate and the iteratively updated weights. In the iteratively reweighted L1-minimization sub-problem, different weights are equivalent to different regularization parameters at different locations. Thus, ASDR-L1 can be considered as a kind of spatially variant regularization methods for FMT. Physical phantom and in vivo mouse experiments were performed to validate the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate that the proposed reweighted L1-reguarization algorithm can significantly improve the performance in terms of relative quantitation and spatial resolution.

  4. The sL1CAM in sera of patients with endometrial and ovarian cancers.

    Wojciechowski, Michał; Głowacka, Ewa; Wilczyński, Miłosz; Pękala-Wojciechowska, Anna; Malinowski, Andrzej


    L1CAM is a cell adhesion molecule suspected to play an important role in carcinogenesis. The objective of the study was to evaluate the level of soluble L1CAM in the sera of patients with endometrial and ovarian carcinomas and verify the feasibility of the sL1CAM as a marker of these carcinomas. 35 endometrial and 18 ovarian cancer patients were enrolled in the study. 43 patients with benign gynecological conditions constituted a control group. The sL1CAM serum level was measured with ELISA test in each patient and it was referred to the data from the surgical staging of the cancers. The sL1CAM serum level was significantly lower in patients with endometrial cancer than in healthy women and slightly lower in the ovarian cancer group than in the control group. In the endometrial cancer group there was no correlation between sL1CAM concentration and cancer histopathology, stage or grade. sL1CAM concentration positively correlated with ovarian cancer stage and (not significantly) with grade. Despite the increasing data about the possible role of L1CAM as a strong prognostic factor of poor outcome in many cancers, we did not find evidence supporting the use of sL1CAM as a marker of endometrial or ovarian cancers.

  5. Negative Transfer of L1 on English Grammar Learning in SLA



    At present,many scholars pay more attention to the positive transfer of native language on the English learning,while ignoring the negative transfer of L1 on English grammar learning.Therefore native transfer of L1 often appears on English grammar learning.This paper aims to point out that the negative transfer of L1 has a profound and vast influence on the English grammar learning,to find out the countermeasures to reduce the influence of negative transfer of L1 and finally to bring the benefits to the following relative studies.

  6. A Study of the Differences Between Children's L1 and Adults'L2 in SLA

    孙岩; 马炳军


    The differences between children's L1 acquisition and adults'L2 acquisition based on a qualitative analysis are dis-cussed and compared.Through systematic review of the relevant literature in light of the theories of L1 and L2 acquisition between children and adults,and analysis of the factors both influencing children's L1 and adults'L2 acquisition.The findings show that two different acquisitions are distinguished in such aspects as in acquisition age,device,mode,environment and motivation,which conclude that children's L1 acquisition is effortless while adults'L2 acquisition is painful.

  7. Effective Structure Learning for Estimation of Distribution Algorithms via L1-Regularized Bayesian Networks

    Hua Xu


    Full Text Available Estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs, as an extension of genetic algorithms, samples new solutions from the probabilistic model, which characterizes the distribution of promising solutions in the search space at each generation. This paper introduces and evaluates a novel estimation of a distribution algorithm, called L1-regularized Bayesian optimization algorithm, L1BOA. In L1BOA, Bayesian networks as probabilistic models are learned in two steps. First, candidate parents of each variable in Bayesian networks are detected by means of L1-regularized logistic regression, with the aim of leading a sparse but nearly optimized network structure. Second, the greedy search, which is restricted to the candidate parent-child pairs, is deployed to identify the final structure. Compared with the Bayesian optimization algorithm (BOA, L1BOA improves the efficiency of structure learning due to the reduction and automated control of network complexity introduced with L1-regularized learning. Experimental studies on different types of benchmark problems show that L1BOA not only outperforms BOA when no prior knowledge about problem structure is available, but also achieves and even exceeds the best performance of BOA that applies explicit controls on network complexity. Furthermore, Bayesian networks built by L1BOA and BOA during evolution are analysed and compared, which demonstrates that L1BOA is able to build simpler, yet more accurate probabilistic models.

  8. Negative Transfer of L1 on English Grammar Learning in SLA



    At present,many scholars pay more attention to the positive transfer of native language on the English learning,while ignoring the negative transfer of L1 on English grammar learning. Therefore native transfer of L1 often appears on English grammar learning.This paper aims to point out that the negative transfer of L1 has a profound and vast influence on the English grammar learning,to find out the countermeasures to reduce the influence of negative transfer of L1 and finally to bring the benefits to the following relative studies.

  9. The ribosomal protein Rpl22 controls ribosome composition by directly repressing expression of its own paralog, Rpl22l1.

    Monique N O'Leary

    Full Text Available Most yeast ribosomal protein genes are duplicated and their characterization has led to hypotheses regarding the existence of specialized ribosomes with different subunit composition or specifically-tailored functions. In yeast, ribosomal protein genes are generally duplicated and evidence has emerged that paralogs might have specific roles. Unlike yeast, most mammalian ribosomal proteins are thought to be encoded by a single gene copy, raising the possibility that heterogenous populations of ribosomes are unique to yeast. Here, we examine the roles of the mammalian Rpl22, finding that Rpl22(-/- mice have only subtle phenotypes with no significant translation defects. We find that in the Rpl22(-/- mouse there is a compensatory increase in Rpl22-like1 (Rpl22l1 expression and incorporation into ribosomes. Consistent with the hypothesis that either ribosomal protein can support translation, knockdown of Rpl22l1 impairs growth of cells lacking Rpl22. Mechanistically, Rpl22 regulates Rpl22l1 directly by binding to an internal hairpin structure and repressing its expression. We propose that ribosome specificity may exist in mammals, providing evidence that one ribosomal protein can influence composition of the ribosome by regulating its own paralog.

  10. Soy pinitol acts partly as an insulin sensitizer or insulin mediator in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    Do, Gyeong-Min; Choi, Myung-Sook; Kim, Hye-Jin; Woo, Myung-Nam; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jeon, Seon-Min


    The blood glucose-lowering property of pinitol is mediated via the insulin signaling pathway. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of soy pinitol on adipogenesis in a 3T3-L1 cell line; 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with pinitol (0-1 mM) together with insulin for 9 days. The regulation of lipid metabolism was assessed by oil-red-O staining of intracellular lipids and real-time PCR of adipogenesis-related factors. The inhibition of cell proliferation was estimated by MTT assay. Pinitol treatment did not inhibit lipid accumulation, nor did it affect expression of adipogenesis-related factors, including ADD1, aP2 and FAS, in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of adiponectin, GLUT4, IRS, C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma mRNAs, however, increased in cells treated with 0.5 mM and/or 1 mM pinitol. Pinitol treatment did not affect the inhibition of cell growth and proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, we suggest that pinitol is nontoxic to this cell line, and that it enhances adipogenesis by acting as an insulin sensitizer or insulin mediator via the upregulation of adiponectin, GLUT4, IRS, C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

  11. miR-142-5p regulates tumor cell PD-L1 expression and enhances anti-tumor immunity.

    Jia, Long; Xi, Qing; Wang, Huafeng; Zhang, Zimu; Liu, Hongkun; Cheng, Yingnan; Guo, Xiangdong; Zhang, Jieyou; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Lijuan; Xue, Zhenyi; Li, Yan; Da, Yurong; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Rongxin


    Cancer immunotherapy has many great achievements in recent years. One of the most promising cancer immunotherapies is PD-1/PD-L1 pathway blockade. miRNAs (MicroRNAs) belongs to small noncoding RNA and can regulate gene expression by binding to the 3'UTR. Many miRNAs can inhibit cancer growth by regulating the PD-L1 expression in cancer cells. Herein, we firstly found that PD-L1 could be the target of miR-142-5p by using bioinformatics methods, then we conduct luciferase activity assay, RT-PCR and western blot experiments to demonstrate that miR-142-5p can regulate PD-L1 expression by binding to its 3'UTR. And in vivo experiments certified that miR-142-5p overexpression can inhibit pancreatic cancer growth. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR experiment demonstrated that miR-142-5p overexpression on tumor cells inhibits the expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells which result in the increase of CD4(+) T lymphocytes and CD8(+) T lymphocytes, the decrease of PD-1(+) T lymphocytes and increase of IFN-γ and TNF-α. So, miR-142-5p overexpression can enhance anti-tumor immunity by blocking PD-L1/PD-1 pathway. Our results identify a novel mechanism by which PD-L1 is regulated by miR-142-5p and overexpression of miR-142-5p could enhance the anti-tumor immunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. B7-H1 (PD-L1, CD274) suppresses host immunity in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders

    Wilcox, Ryan A.; Feldman, Andrew L.; Wada, David A.; Yang, Zhi-Zhang; Comfere, Nneka I.; Dong, Haidong; Kwon, Eugene D.; Novak, Anne J.; Markovic, Svetomir N.; Mark R Pittelkow; Witzig, Thomas E.; Ansell, Stephen M.


    Stromal elements present within the tumor microenvironment may suppress host immunity and promote the growth of malignant lymphocytes in B cell–derived non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In contrast, little is known about the microenvironment's role in T cell–derived NHL. B7-H1 (PD-L1, CD274), a member of the B7 family of costimulatory/coinhibitory ligands expressed by both malignant cells and stromal cells within the tumor microenvironment, has emerged as an important immune modulator capable of su...

  13. Growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes on a Co-Mo-MgO supported catalyst by the CVD of methane in a fixed bed reactor: Model setting and parameter estimation

    Izadi, Nosrat; Rashidi, Ali Morad; Horri, Bahman Amini; Mosoudi, Mohamad Reza; Bozorgzadeh, Hamid Reza; Zeraatkar, Ahmad


    In this work methane was decomposed to hydrogen and carbon to determine its kinetic behavior during reaction over a Co-Mo-MgO supported catalyst using the CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) technique. Decomposition of methane molecules was performed in a continuous fixed bed reactor to obtain data to simulate methane decomposition in a gas phase heterogeneous media. The products and reactants of reaction were analyzed by molecular sieve column followed by GC-analysis of the fractions to determine the amount of product converted or reactant consumed. The synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes was performed at atmospheric pressure, different temperatures and reactant concentrations. The experimental data analyzed to suggest the formula for calculation of the initial specific reaction rate of the carbon nanotubes synthesis, were fitted by several mathematical models derived from different mechanisms based on Longmuir-hinshelwood expression. The suggested mechanism according to dissociation adsorption of methane seems to explain the catalytic performance in the range of operating conditions studied. The apparent activation energy for the growth of SWNTs was estimated according to Arrhenius equation. The as grown SWNTs products were characterized by SEM, TEM and Raman spectroscopy after purification. The catalyst deactivation was found to be dependent on the time, reaction temperature and partial pressure of methane and indicated that the reaction of deactivation can be modeled by a simple apparent second order of reaction.

  14. Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina


    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands.

  15. The specificity and flexibility of l1 reverse transcription priming at imperfect T-tracts.

    Clément Monot


    Full Text Available L1 retrotransposons have a prominent role in reshaping mammalian genomes. To replicate, the L1 ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP first uses its endonuclease (EN to nick the genomic DNA. The newly generated DNA end is subsequently used as a primer to initiate reverse transcription within the L1 RNA poly(A tail, a process known as target-primed reverse transcription (TPRT. Prior studies demonstrated that most L1 insertions occur into sequences related to the L1 EN consensus sequence (degenerate 5'-TTTT/A-3' sites and frequently preceded by imperfect T-tracts. However, it is currently unclear whether--and to which degree--the liberated 3'-hydroxyl extremity on the genomic DNA needs to be accessible and complementary to the poly(A tail of the L1 RNA for efficient priming of reverse transcription. Here, we employed a direct assay for the initiation of L1 reverse transcription to define the molecular rules that guide this process. First, efficient priming is detected with as few as 4 matching nucleotides at the primer 3' end. Second, L1 RNP can tolerate terminal mismatches if they are compensated within the 10 last bases of the primer by an increased number of matching nucleotides. All terminal mismatches are not equally detrimental to DNA extension, a C being extended at higher levels than an A or a G. Third, efficient priming in the context of duplex DNA requires a 3' overhang. This suggests the possible existence of additional DNA processing steps, which generate a single-stranded 3' end to allow L1 reverse transcription. Based on these data we propose that the specificity of L1 reverse transcription initiation contributes, together with the specificity of the initial EN cleavage, to the distribution of new L1 insertions within the human genome.

  16. Clinical Neuropathology mini-review 6-2015: PD-L1: emerging biomarker in glioblastoma?

    Preusser, Matthias; Berghoff, Anna S; Wick, Wolfgang; Weller, Michael


    Programmed death 1 (PD-1, CD279) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1, CD274) are involved in generating tumor-associated immunosuppression by suppression of T-cell proliferation and interleukin 2 (IL-2) production and immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting these molecules are showing compelling activity against a variety of human cancers. PD-L1 expression has shown a positive association with response to PD-1 inhibition in noncentral nervous system (CNS) tumors, e.g., melanoma or non-small cell lung cancer, and is discussed as a potential predictive biomarker for patient selection in these tumor types. This review summarizes current knowledge and potential clinical implications of PD-L1 expression in glioblastoma. At present, the following conclusions are drawn: (a) functional data support a role for PD-1/PD-L1 in tumor-associated immunosuppression in glioblastoma; (b) the incidence of PD-L1-expressing glioblastomas seems to be relatively high in comparison to other tumor types, however, the reported rates of glioblastomas with PD-L1 protein expression vary and range from 61 to 88%; (c) there is considerable variability in the methodology of PD-L1 assessment in glioblastoma across studies with heterogeneity in utilized antibodies, tissue sampling strategies, immunohistochemical staining protocols, cut-off definitions, and evaluated staining patterns; (d) there are conflicting data on the prognostic role and so far no data on the predictive role of PD-L1 gene and protein expression in glioblastoma. In summary, the ongoing clinical studies evaluating the activity of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in glioblastoma need to be complemented with well designed and stringently executed studies to understand the influence of PD-1/PD-L1 expression on therapy response or failure and to develop robust means of PD-L1 assessment for meaningful biomarker development.

  17. L1/2 regularization: a thresholding representation theory and a fast solver.

    Xu, Zongben; Chang, Xiangyu; Xu, Fengmin; Zhang, Hai


    The special importance of L1/2 regularization has been recognized in recent studies on sparse modeling (particularly on compressed sensing). The L1/2 regularization, however, leads to a nonconvex, nonsmooth, and non-Lipschitz optimization problem that is difficult to solve fast and efficiently. In this paper, through developing a threshoding representation theory for L1/2 regularization, we propose an iterative half thresholding algorithm for fast solution of L1/2 regularization, corresponding to the well-known iterative soft thresholding algorithm for L1 regularization, and the iterative hard thresholding algorithm for L0 regularization. We prove the existence of the resolvent of gradient of ||x||1/2(1/2), calculate its analytic expression, and establish an alternative feature theorem on solutions of L1/2 regularization, based on which a thresholding representation of solutions of L1/2 regularization is derived and an optimal regularization parameter setting rule is formulated. The developed theory provides a successful practice of extension of the well- known Moreau's proximity forward-backward splitting theory to the L1/2 regularization case. We verify the convergence of the iterative half thresholding algorithm and provide a series of experiments to assess performance of the algorithm. The experiments show that the half algorithm is effective, efficient, and can be accepted as a fast solver for L1/2 regularization. With the new algorithm, we conduct a phase diagram study to further demonstrate the superiority of L1/2 regularization over L1 regularization.

  18. Transcription Factor CREB3L1 Regulates Vasopressin Gene Expression in the Rat Hypothalamus

    Greenwood, Mingkwan; Bordieri, Loredana; Greenwood, Michael P.; Rosso Melo, Mariana; Colombari, Debora S. A.; Colombari, Eduardo; Paton, Julian F. R.


    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a neurohypophysial hormone regulating hydromineral homeostasis. Here we show that the mRNA encoding cAMP responsive element-binding protein-3 like-1 (CREB3L1), a transcription factor of the CREB/activating transcription factor (ATF) family, increases in expression in parallel with AVP expression in supraoptic nuclei (SONs) and paraventicular nuclei (PVNs) of dehydrated (DH) and salt-loaded (SL) rats, compared with euhydrated (EH) controls. In EH animals, CREB3L1 protein is expressed in glial cells, but only at a low level in SON and PVN neurons, whereas robust upregulation in AVP neurons accompanied DH and SL rats. Concomitantly, CREB3L1 is activated by cleavage, with the N-terminal domain translocating from the Golgi, via the cytosol, to the nucleus. We also show that CREB3L1 mRNA levels correlate with AVP transcription level in SONs and PVNs following sodium depletion, and as a consequence of diurnal rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. We tested the hypothesis that CREB3L1 activates AVP gene transcription. Both full-length and constitutively active forms of CREB3L1 (CREB3L1CA) induce the expression of rat AVP promoter-luciferase reporter constructs, whereas a dominant-negative mutant reduces expression. Rat AVP promoter deletion constructs revealed that CRE-like and G-box sequences in the region between −170 and −120 bp are important for CREB3L1 actions. Direct binding of CREB3L1 to the AVP promoter was shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation both in vitro and in the SON itself. Injection of a lentiviral vector expressing CREB3L1CA into rat SONs and PVNs resulted in increased AVP biosynthesis. We thus identify CREB3L1 as a regulator of AVP transcription in the rat hypothalamus. PMID:24623760

  19. Effects of MAPK and PI3K Pathways on PD-L1 Expression in Melanoma

    Atefi, Mohammad; Avramis, Earl; Lassen, Amanda; Wong, Deborah; Robert, Lidia; Foulad, David; Cerniglia, Michael; Titz, Bjoern; Chodon, Thinle; Graeber, Thomas G.; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Ribas, Antoni


    Purpose PD-L1 is the main ligand for the immune inhibitory receptor PD-1. This ligand is frequently expressed by melanoma cells. In this study we investigated whether PD-L1 expression is controlled by melanoma driver mutations and modified by oncogenic signaling inhibition. Experimental Design Expression of PD-L1 was investigated in a panel of 51 melanoma cell lines containing different oncogenic mutations, including cell lines with innate and acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors. The effects of targeted therapy drugs on expression of PD-L1 by melanoma cells were investigated. Results No association was found between the level of PD-L1 expression and mutations in BRAF, NRAS, PTEN or amplification of AKT. Resistance to vemurafenib due to the activation of alternative signaling pathways was accompanied with the induction of PD-L1 expression, while the resistance due to the reactivation of the MAPK pathway had no effect on PD-L1 expression. In melanoma cell lines the effects of BRAF, MEK and PI3K inhibitors on expression of PD-L1 were variable from reduction to induction, particularly in the presence of INFγ. In PD-L1-exposed lymphocytes, vemurafenib paradoxically restored activity of the MAPK pathway and increased the secretion of cytokines. Conclusions In melanoma cell lines, including BRAF inhibitor-resistant cells, PD-L1 expression is variably regulated by oncogenic signaling pathways. PD-L1-exposed lymphocytes decrease MAPK signaling, which is corrected by exposure to vemurafenib, providing potential benefits of combining this drug with immunotherapies. PMID:24812408

  20. Effects of Methylmercury exposure in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Theresa Vertigan


    Full Text Available Mercury-containing compounds are environmental pollutants that have become increasingly consequential in the Arctic regions of North America due to processes of climate change increasing their release and availability at northern latitudes. Currently, the form of mercury known to be most detrimental to human health is methylmercury, CH3Hg+, which is found in the environment and accumulates in the tissues of piscivores, including those consumed by Alaska Natives through subsistence gathering. Much is known about the neurotoxicity of methylmercury after exposure to high concentrations, but little is known about toxicity to other tissues and cell types, particularly for long-term exposure and the lower concentrations that would occur through fish consumption. Effects of methylmercury exposure on 3T3-L1 adipocytes in culture were assessed using assays for cytotoxicity and an ELISA assay for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, a signaling molecule shown to be important for maintaining metabolic status in adipose tissue. Results showed that exposure to methylmercury leads to significant toxicity in adipocytes at exposures of 100 ng/mL during later stages of differentiation, but lower methylmercury concentrations produced little to no toxicity. Results also showed that VEGF secretion is elevated in adipocytes exposed to methylmercury after the process of differentiating into mature, fat-storing cells. These results provide a basis for further exploration into metabolic consequences of methylmercury exposure on specific cell types and cell models.

  1. Effect of growth rate on microstructure and solute distribution of Al-Zn-Mg alloy%生长速率对Al-Zn-Mg合金显微组织和溶质分布的影响



    An Al-5.3%Zn-5.3%Mg alloy was unidirectionally solidified to determine morphological transition and solute distribution by a modification of the Bridgman technique for crystal growth with growth rates ranging from 4-500μm/s and a temperature gradient of 25 K/cm. It was determined that growth rates from 6.5-9.5μm/s generated a cell morphology, where the lower limit corresponds to the plane front to cellular transition and the upper limit indicates the cellular to columnar dendrite transition. The microstructures of the alloys solidified from 30μm/s to growth rates less than 500μm/s were mainly composed of columnar dendrites, while the microstructures solidified at growth rates greater than 500μm/s were equiaxed. Regarding experimental results on solute distribution, a prediction of the model developed by Rappaz and Boettinger for dendrite solidification of multicomponent alloys was applied with excellent agreement. Results of solute distribution were employed to derive the precipitation fraction ofτ-phase needed to increase the electrochemical properties of the alloy to be used as an Al-sacrificial anode.%定向凝固制备Al-5.3% Zn-5.3%Mg合金,在生长速率为4~500μm/s、温度梯度为25 K/cm的条件下,采用改进的晶体生长 Bridgman 技术研究该合金的形貌转变和溶质分布.结果表明,在生长速率为 6.5~9.5 μm/s的条件下,产生了晶胞.在速率下限时,界面前沿向晶胞组织转变,而在速率上限时晶胞组织转变为柱状枝晶.在30~ 500μm/s速率下凝固的合金,其微观组织主要由柱状枝晶组成,然而在大于500μm/s速率下凝固的合金,其微观组织为等轴晶.多元合金枝晶凝固的溶质分布实验结果与Rappaz和 Boettinger模型预测的相吻合.根据溶质分布结果,可以得到τ相的沉淀分数,采用τ相作为铝牺牲阳极能提高合金的电化学性能.

  2. Calcium, potassium and magnesium treatment of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. "Bi Time" and callogenesis in vitro Tratamento de plantas matrizes de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. "Bi Time" com Ca2+, K+ E Mg2+ e calogênese in vitro

    Fábio Borgatto


    Full Text Available The chemical composition and vegetative vigor of the donor plant are essential for the satisfactory performance of explants in vitro. In order to test the effect of potassium, calcium and magnesium nutritional status of Chrysanthemum morifolium plants on callogenesis in vitro, pot plants growing in sand were irrigated with nutrient solution containing different levels of potassium (0; 58.5; 117 and 234 mg L-1, calcium (0; 50; 100 e 200 mg L-1 and magnesium (0;12; 48 e 96 mg L-1. After 30 and 45 days, explants (shoot segments and leaf discs were collected, desinfected and inoculated on MS solid medium supplemented with 0.1 mg L-1 of kinetin and 5.0 mg L-1 of nafthalene acetic acid for callogenesis induction. Callogenesis evaluated as callus fresh weight was affected by nutrients treatment. Callus growth on leaf explants was inversely proporcional to potassium concentration and directly proportional to magnesium concentration in shoot explants. The calcium effect on callogensis of leaf explants was dependent on treatment duration. For 30 days treatment callogenseis was inversely related to calcium concentration and after 45 days was directly related to calcium concentration.A composição química e o vigor vegetativo de plantas matrizes são essenciais no desenvolvimento de explantes in vitro. Com o objetivo de testar o efeito do estado nutricional de plantas matrizes de Chrysanthemum morifolium no processo de calogênese in vitro, plantas crescendo em vasos contendo areia lavada foram irrigadas com soluções nutritivas contendo diferentes concentrações de cálcio (0, 50, 100 e 200 mg L-1, potássio (0, 58,5, 117 e 234 mg L-1, e magnésio (0,12, 48 e 96 mg L-1. Aos 30 e 45 dias de duração do tratamento com solução nutritiva, explantes (segmento caulinar e foliar das matrizes foram coletados, desinfestados e inoculados em meio de cultura MS sólido suplementado com 0,1 mg L-1 de Kin e 5,0 mg L-1 NAA. A calogênese foi afetada pelos

  3. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circular dichroism studies of L1{sub 0}-Mn-Ga thin films

    Glas, M., E-mail:; Sterwerf, C.; Schmalhorst, J. M.; Reiss, G. [Thin Films and Physics of Nanostructures, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld (Germany); Ebke, D. [Thin Films and Physics of Nanostructures, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Jenkins, C.; Arenholz, E. [ALS Berkeley, California 94720-8229 (United States)


    Tetragonally distorted Mn{sub 3−x}Ga{sub x} thin films with 0.1MgO is problematic due to oxide formation, we examined the influence of a CoFeB interlayer and of two different deposition methods for the MgO barrier on the formation of interfacial Mn-O for Mn{sub 62}Ga{sub 38} by element specific X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). A highly textured L1{sub 0} crystal structure of the Mn-Ga films was verified by X-ray diffraction measurements. For samples with e-beam evaporated MgO barrier no evidence for Mn-O was found whereas in samples with magnetron sputtered MgO, Mn-O was detected, even for the thickest interlayer thickness. Both XAS and XMCD measurements showed an increasing interfacial Mn-O amount with decreasing CoFeB interlayer thickness. Additional element specific full hysteresis loops determined an out-of-plane magnetization axis for the Mn and Co, respectively.

  4. Control of magnetic anisotropy field of (001) oriented L1{sub 0}-Fe(Pd{sub x}Pt{sub 1-x}) films for MRAM application

    Yoshimura, Satoru; Omiya, Shogo; Egawa, Genta; Saito, Hitoshi [Center for Geo-environmental Science, Faculty of Engineering and Resource Science, Akita University, Tegatagakuen-machi 1-1, Akita, 010-8502 (Japan); Bai Jianmin, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, TianShui Road, S 222, LanZhou, GanSu, 730000 (China)


    L1{sub 0}-Fe(Pd,Pt) films which are expected to have tunable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and lower ordering temperature compared with the L1{sub 0}-FePt films were fabricated and investigated in order to realize high-performance Magnetic Random Access Memory (MRAM) with spin-transfer magnetization switching method and Magnetic Domain-Wall Racetrack Memory with current-driven domain wall motion. The main results are as follows: (1) The long-range chemical order degree S for the L1{sub 0}-Fe(Pd,Pt) films with the optimized thermal treatment temperature fabricated on MgO(001) substrate was about 0.8. (2) The perpendicular coercive force and magnetic anisotropy field for the L1{sub 0}-FePd film with the thermal treatment temperature of 600 {sup 0}C were 300 Oe and 14 kOe respectively, whereas the L1{sub 0}-FePt film with the thermal treatment temperature of 800 {sup 0}C were 2000 Oe and 102 kOe, respectively. (3) The optimized ordering temperature to obtain L1{sub 0} single phase decreased continuously from 800{sup 0}C to 600{sup 0}C with the increasing Pd content for the Fe(Pd,Pt) films. (4) The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy field for the L1{sub 0}-Fe(Pd,Pt) films decreased continuously from 102 kOe to 14 kOe with the increasing Pd content. It is found that the Fe(Pd,Pd) films which have tunable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy field is one of suitable ferromagnetic material for high-performance magnetic recording devices.

  5. 黄芩水提液对3T3-L1脂肪细胞增殖、诱导分化及脂联素启动子荧光素酶活性的影响%The Effect of Scutellaria Baicalensis Water Extract on Proliferation, Cytokines mRNA Expressions and Promoter Activity of 3T3-L1 Cells

    崔琳; 路玲玲; 李强; 宰军华; 刘卫红; 王小晓


    目的:本研究旨在观察黄芩水提液(Scutellaria BaicalensisWater Extract,SBWE)对3T3-L1前体细胞增殖、分化,对脂肪细胞因子脂联素表达以及脂联素(Adiponectin,ADP)启动子荧光素酶活性的影响,从分子生物学角度阐述SBWE降脂作用的可能机理.方法:通过体外培养3T3-L1细胞,采用MTT法检测SBWE对3T3-L1细胞增殖能力的影响;通过诱导脂肪细胞分化成为成熟脂肪细胞,观察SBWE对脂肪形成的影响;化学发光法检测脂联素启动子双荧光素酶报告基因活性;荧光定量PCR法检测脂联素mRNA(Adipoq)表达.结果:与正常组相比,给予3T3-L1细胞0.01、0.1、1 mg?mL-1浓度的SBWE 24 h,可显著抑制细胞的增殖活性(P<0.05);0.1、1 mg?mL-1浓度的SBWE能够降低3T3-L1细胞分化为脂肪细胞的数量,并减少细胞内脂滴聚集,但无明显剂量依赖性;0.01、0.1 mg?mL-1浓度SBWE能显著提高脂联素基因启动子荧光素酶活性,与空载体比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);与正常组相比,给予3T3-L1细胞0.1 mg?mL-1SBWE 24 h,诱导前后的脂肪细胞Adipoq表达均明显增加(P<0.05).结论:SBWE可有效抑制3T3-L1脂肪细胞的增殖、分化,同时增加脂联素基因表达,这可能是通过增强脂联素基因启动子荧光素酶活性实现,这些为黄芩水提液减肥的作用机制提供一定的基础.%The study was designed to measure the effect of S.baicalensiswater extract (SBWE) on 3T3-L1 cells and its adiponectin (ADP) mRNA (Adipoq) and promoter luciferase activity.Cell survival rate was determined by MTT assay.The expression of Adipoq was measured by real-time PCR,while the luciferase report systems of Adipoq were used to transfer 3T3-L1 cells.The luciferase activities of the transferred cells were compared by luciferase assay.It was found that the mRNA expression of Adipoq was decreased in comparison with the control group.The luciferase activity showed a stronger ADP promoter activity in 3T3-L1 cells in

  6. Studies on the effects on growth and antioxidant responses of two marine microalgal species to uniconazole

    Mei, Xueqiao; Zheng, Kang; Wang, Lingdong; Li, Yantuan


    Uniconazole, as a plant growth retardant, can enhance stress tolerance in plants, possibly because of improved antioxidation defense mechanisms with higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) enzymes that retard lipid peroxidation and membrane deterioration. These years much attention has been focused on the responses of antioxidant system in plants to uniconazole stress, but such studies on aquatic organism are very few. Moreover, no information is available on growth and antioxidant response in marine microalgae to uniconazole. In this paper, the growth and antioxidant responses of two marine microalgal species, Platymonas helgolandica and Pavlova viridis, at six uniconazole concentrations (0-15 mg L-1) were investigated. The results demonstrated that 3 mg L-1 uniconazole could increase significantly chlorophyll a and carbohydrate contents of P. helgolandica ( P production (MDA) at higher concentrations (≥ 9 mg L-1). The activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were enhanced remarkably at low concentrations of uniconazole. However, significant reduction of SOD and CAT activities was observed at higher concentrations of uniconazole.

  7. Code-Switching: L1-Coded Mediation in a Kindergarten Foreign Language Classroom

    Lin, Zheng


    This paper is based on a qualitative inquiry that investigated the role of teachers' mediation in three different modes of coding in a kindergarten foreign language classroom in China (i.e. L2-coded intralinguistic mediation, L1-coded cross-lingual mediation, and L2-and-L1-mixed mediation). Through an exploratory examination of the varying effects…

  8. Ternary Weighted Function and Beurling Ternary Banach Algebra l1ω(S

    Mehdi Dehghanian


    Full Text Available Let S be a ternary semigroup. In this paper, we introduce our notation and prove some elementary properties of a ternary weight function ω on S. Also, we make ternary weighted algebra l1ω(S and show that l1ω(S is a ternary Banach algebra.

  9. L1 Use in L2 Vocabulary Learning: Facilitator or Barrier

    Liu, Jing


    Based on empirical research and qualitative analysis, this paper aims to explore the effects of L1 use on L2 vocabulary teaching. The results show that, during L2 vocabulary teaching process, the proper application of L1 can effectively facilitate the memorization of new words, and the bilingual method (both English explanation and Chinese…

  10. Positive PD-L1 Expression Predicts Worse Outcome in Cutaneous Angiosarcoma

    Shimizu, Akira; Okubo, Yuko; Utsumi, Daisuke; Yasuda, Masahito; Asao, Takayuki; Nishiyama, Masahiko; Takahashi, Kenzo; Ishikawa, Osamu


    Purpose Programmed death-1 (PD-1) or programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) targeted therapies have shown promising survival outcomes in several human neoplasms. However, it is unclear whether the expression of PD-L1 can be correlated to any clinical and pathologic variables in patients with cutaneous angiosarcoma (CA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of PD-L1 expression in CA patients. Materials and Methods Data from 52 patients with CA were retrospectively reviewed. PD-L1 expression, tumor proliferation determined by Ki-67 index, and immunohistochemical evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, CD4+ and CD8+, were used to determine correlation with clinicopathological variables. Results PD-L1 was positively expressed in 40% of all patients. PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with tumor cell proliferation. Multivariate analysis confirmed that high levels of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were a significant predictor in patients with clinical stage I CA and the positive expression of PD-L1 was an independent prognostic factor in predicting worse outcome. Conclusion PD-L1 expression is a novel pathologic marker for predicting worse outcome in patients with CA. PMID:28831444

  11. From weak to strong L1-convergence by an oscillation restriction criterion of BMO type

    Balder, E.J.


    Recently, Girardi gave acharacterization of relative strong L 1 R-compactness in terms of relative weak L 1 R-compactness and the Bocce criterion [18]. Here this result is generalized and extended by presenting a less stringent oscillation restriction condition (ORC) which enforces the transcendence

  12. L1 English/L2 Spanish: Orthography-Phonology Activation without Contrasts

    Shea, Christine


    We consider how orthography activates sounds that are in a noncontrastive relationship in the second language (L2) and for which only one variant exists in the first language (L1). Participants were L1 English / L2 Spanish and native Spanish listeners. Intervocalically, Spanish graphemes "b d g" correspond phonetically to stops and…

  13. Long-Term Crosslinguistic Transfer of Skills from L1 to L2

    Sparks, Richard; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy


    This study investigated the relationship of first language (L1) skills in elementary school and second language (L2) learning in high school. Students classified as high-, average-, and low-proficiency L2 learners were compared on L1 achievement measures of reading, spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, and listening comprehension…

  14. Modeling the development of L1 and EFL writing proficiency of secondary school students

    Schoonen, R.; van Gelderen, A.; Stoel, R.D.; Hulstijn, J.; de Glopper, K.


    This longitudinal study investigates the development of writing proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL), in contrast to the development of first language (L1) writing proficiency in Dutch L1, in a sample of almost 400 secondary school students in the Netherlands. Students performed severa

  15. Concatenative and Nonconcatenative Plural Formation in L1, L2, and Heritage Speakers of Arabic

    Albirini, Abdulkafi; Benmamoun, Elabbas


    This study compares Arabic L1, L2, and heritage speakers' (HS) knowledge of plural formation, which involves concatenative and nonconcatenative modes of derivation. Ninety participants (divided equally among L1, L2, and heritage speakers) completed two oral tasks: a picture naming task (to measure proficiency) and a plural formation task. The…

  16. Heterologous production of human papillomavirus type-16 L1 protein by a lactic acid bacterium

    Bermúdez-Humarán Luis G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of vaccine antigens in lactic acid bacteria (LAB is a safe and cost-effective alternative to traditional expression systems. In this study, we investigated i the expression of Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16 L1 major capsid protein in the model LAB Lactococcus lactis and ii the ability of the resulting recombinant strain to produce either capsomer-or virus-like particles (VLPs. Results and conclusion HPV-16 L1 gene was cloned into two vectors, pCYT and pSEC, designed for controlled intra- or extracellular heterologous expression in L. lactis, respectively. The capacity of L. lactis harboring either pCYT:L1 or pSEC:L1 plasmid to accumulate L1 in the cytoplasm and supernatant samples was confirmed by Western blot assays. Electron microscopy analysis suggests that, L1 protein produced by recombinant lactococci can self-assemble into structures morphologically similar to VLPs intracellularly. The presence of conformational epitopes on the L. lactis-derived VLPs was confirmed by ELISA using an anti-HPV16 L1 capsid antigen antibody. Our results support the feasibility of using recombinant food-grade LAB, such as L. lactis, for the production of L1-based VLPs and open the possibility for the development of a new safe mucosal vector for HPV-16 prophylactic vaccination.

  17. Effects of Age of L2 Acquisition on L1 Event Conceptualization Patterns

    Bylund, Emanuel


    This study explores the effects that the age of onset (AO) of second language (L2) acquisition exerts on the attrition of first language (L1) event conceptualization patterns. The subjects studied are L1 Spanish-L2 Swedish bilinguals living in Sweden. The specific research questions addressed in the study concern the role of AO in endpoint…

  18. Image reconstruction based on L1 regularization and projection methods for electrical impedance tomography.

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Huaxiang; Zhang, Ronghua; Wang, Jinhai; Zheng, Yu; Cui, Ziqiang; Yang, Chengyi


    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a technique for reconstructing the conductivity distribution by injecting currents at the boundary of a subject and measuring the resulting changes in voltage. Image reconstruction in EIT is a nonlinear and ill-posed inverse problem. The Tikhonov method with L(2) regularization is always used to solve the EIT problem. However, the L(2) method always smoothes the sharp changes or discontinue areas of the reconstruction. Image reconstruction using the L(1) regularization allows addressing this difficulty. In this paper, a sum of absolute values is substituted for the sum of squares used in the L(2) regularization to form the L(1) regularization, the solution is obtained by the barrier method. However, the L(1) method often involves repeatedly solving large-dimensional matrix equations, which are computationally expensive. In this paper, the projection method is combined with the L(1) regularization method to reduce the computational cost. The L(1) problem is mainly solved in the coarse subspace. This paper also discusses the strategies of choosing parameters. Both simulation and experimental results of the L(1) regularization method were compared with the L(2) regularization method, indicating that the L(1) regularization method can improve the quality of image reconstruction and tolerate a relatively high level of noise in the measured voltages. Furthermore, the projected L(1) method can also effectively reduce the computational time without affecting the quality of reconstructed images.

  19. Epigenetic silencing of engineered L1 retrotransposition events in human embryonic carcinoma cells

    Garcia-Perez, Jose L.; Morell, Maria; Scheys, Joshua O.; Kulpa, Deanna A.; Morell, Santiago; Carter, Christoph C.; Hammer, Gary D.; Collins, Kathleen L.; O’Shea, K. Sue; Menendez, Pablo; Moran, John V.


    Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposition continues to impact human genome evolution1,2. L1s can retrotranspose in the germline, during early development, and in select somatic cells3,4,5,6,7,8; however, the host response to L1 retrotransposition remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that reporter genes introduced into the genome of various human embryonic carcinoma-derived cell lines (ECs) by L1 retrotransposition are rapidly and efficiently silenced either during or immediately after their integration. Treating ECs with histone deacetylase inhibitors (IHDACs) rapidly reverses this silencing, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments revealed that reactivation of the reporter gene was correlated with changes in chromatin status at the L1 integration site. Under our assay conditions, rapid silencing also was observed when reporter genes were delivered into ECs by mouse L1s and a zebrafish LINE-2 element, but not when similar reporter genes were delivered into ECs by Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), suggesting these integration events are silenced by distinct mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrate that subjecting ECs to culture conditions that promote differentiation attenuates the silencing of reporter genes delivered by L1 retrotransposition, but that differentiation, per se, is not sufficient to reactivate previously silenced reporter genes. Thus, our data suggest that ECs differ from many differentiated cells in their ability to silence reporter genes delivered by L1 retrotransposition. PMID:20686575

  20. Modeling the Development of L1 and EFL Writing Proficiency of Secondary School Students

    Schoonen, Rob; van Gelderen, Amos; Stoel, Reinoud D.; Hulstijn, Jan; de Glopper, Cornelis


    This longitudinal study investigates the development of writing proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL), in contrast to the development of first language (L1) writing proficiency in Dutch L1, in a sample of almost 400 secondary school students in the Netherlands. Students performed severa

  1. The Impact of L1 Writing System on ESL Knowledge of Vowel and Consonant Spellings

    Martin, Katherine I.


    Orthographic knowledge, the general ability to learn, store, and use information about the orthographic form of words (Stanovich & West, 1989), is a crucial skill for supporting literacy. Although the development of first language (L1) orthographic awareness is impacted by the characteristics of a learner's L1 writing system, relatively little…

  2. The Role of L1 Literacy on L2 Literacy Learning



    A native language can be learned effortlessly, while a second language is always difficult for people to learn. L1 literacy may impede or promote L2 literacy learning. This paper discusses the role L1 Literacy on L2 Literacy Learning.

  3. Does reading in shallow L1 orthography slow attrition of language-specific morphological structures?

    Zaretsky, Elena; Bar-Shalom, Eva G


    This study looks at the relationship between L1 (Russian) attrition and L1 reading ability in Russian-English-speaking bilingual children. Ten Russian-English bilingual children and 10 adults participated in this study. Nine out of 10 children participants were born in the US and used L1 as their primary language of interaction within the family, but the intensity and the length of uninterrupted L1 exposure differed for each child. All participants were tested on perception (grammaticality judgement) and production (narrative) tasks to assess their sensitivity to and retention of the morphosyntactic structure of L1. All children showed some attrition of grammatical morphemes, specifically in the Russian systems of declension and conjugation; however, the degree of attrition correlated with reading ability in L1, i.e. children with L1 reading skills showed a lesser degree of attrition for some language-specific morphosyntactic structures. This finding shows interdependence of oral and reading skills and points to the role reading in language with shallow orthography may play in preservation of L1 grammatical structures in oral language. The implications for the clinical applications are also discussed.

  4. Modeling the Development of L1 and EFL Writing Proficiency of Secondary School Students

    Schoonen, Rob; van Gelderen, Amos; Stoel, Reinoud D.; Hulstijn, Jan; de Glopper, Cornelis


    This longitudinal study investigates the development of writing proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL), in contrast to the development of first language (L1) writing proficiency in Dutch L1, in a sample of almost 400 secondary school students in the Netherlands. Students performed severa

  5. Multilingual Acquisition of Vowels in L1 Polish, L2 Danish and L3 English

    Sypianska, Jolanta


    The aim of this paper is to determine whether all languages in the linguistic repertoire of a multilingual speaker manifest cross-linguistic influence (CLI) and establish the directions of CLI on the basis of chosen vowels from the linguistic repertoire of two groups: the Bilingual group (L1 Polish/L2 Danish) and the Multilingual group (L1

  6. L1 and L2 Distance Effects in Learning L3 Dutch

    Schepens, Job J.; der Slik, Frans; Hout, Roeland


    Many people speak more than two languages. How do languages acquired earlier affect the learnability of additional languages? We show that linguistic distances between speakers' first (L1) and second (L2) languages and their third (L3) language play a role. Larger distances from the L1 to the L3 and from the L2 to the L3 correlate with lower…

  7. X-linked hydrocephalus : A novel missense mutation in the L1CAM gene

    Sztriha, L; Vos, YJ; Verlind, E; Johansen, J; Berg, B


    X-linked hydrocephalus is associated with mutations in the L1 neuronal cell adhesion molecule gene. L1 protein plays a key role in neurite outgrowth, axonal guidance, and pathfinding during the development of the nervous system. A male is described with X-linked hydrocephalus who had multiple small

  8. Perception of Mandarin Tones: The Effect of L1 Background and Training

    Wang, Xinchun


    This study investigates whether native Hmong speakers' first language (L1) lexical tone experience facilitates or interferes with their perception of Mandarin tones and whether training is effective for perceptual learning of second (L2) tones. In Experiment 1, 3 groups of beginning level learners of Mandarin with different L1 prosodic background…

  9. The Impact of L1 Writing System on ESL Knowledge of Vowel and Consonant Spellings

    Martin, Katherine I.


    Orthographic knowledge, the general ability to learn, store, and use information about the orthographic form of words (Stanovich & West, 1989), is a crucial skill for supporting literacy. Although the development of first language (L1) orthographic awareness is impacted by the characteristics of a learner's L1 writing system, relatively little…

  10. Multilingual Acquisition of Vowels in L1 Polish, L2 Danish and L3 English

    Sypianska, Jolanta


    The aim of this paper is to determine whether all languages in the linguistic repertoire of a multilingual speaker manifest cross-linguistic influence (CLI) and establish the directions of CLI on the basis of chosen vowels from the linguistic repertoire of two groups: the Bilingual group (L1 Polish/L2 Danish) and the Multilingual group (L1

  11. Modeling of the structure of ribosomal protein L1 from the archaeon Haloarcula marismortui

    Nevskaya, N. A.; Kljashtorny, V. G.; Vakhrusheva, A. V.; Garber, M. B.; Nikonov, S. V.


    The halophilic archaeon Haloarcula marismortui proliferates in the Dead Sea at extremely high salt concentrations (higher than 3 M). This is the only archaeon, for which the crystal structure of the ribosomal 50S subunit was determined. However, the structure of the functionally important side protuberance containing the abnormally negatively charged protein L1 (HmaL1) was not visualized. Attempts to crystallize HmaL1 in the isolated state or as its complex with RNA using normal salt concentrations (≤500 mM) failed. A theoretical model of HmaL1 was built based on the structural data for homologs of the protein L1 from other organisms, and this model was refined by molecular dynamics methods. Analysis of this model showed that the protein HmaL1 can undergo aggregation due to the presence of a cluster of positive charges unique for proteins L1. This cluster is located at the RNA-protein interface, which interferes with the crystallization of HmaL1 and the binding of the latter to RNA.

  12. Assay for the pattern recognition molecule collectin liver 1 (CL-L1)

    Axelgaard, Esben; Jensenius, Jens Christian; Jensen, Lisbeth;

    Collectin liver 1 (also termed collectin 10 and CL-L1) is a C-type lectin that functions as a pattern recognition molecule (PRM) in the innate immune system1. We have produced antibodies against CL-L1 and have developed a sandwich-type time-resolved immuno-fluorometric assay (TRIFMA...

  13. Application of plant growth regulators, a simple technique for improving the establishment success of plant cuttings in coastal dune restoration

    Balestri, Elena; Vallerini, Flavia; Castelli, Alberto; Lardicci, Claudio


    Exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) may be an effective technique for increasing the rooting ability and the growth of vegetative fragments (cuttings) of plants used in dune restoration programs. Various concentrations (0, 50 and 100 mg l-1) of two auxins, alpha-naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and two cytokinins, 6-furfurylaminopurine (Kinetin) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), were applied separately to cuttings of two widely used species for restoration, Ammophila arenaria and Sporobuls virginicus. Root development and production of new buds in cuttings were examined under laboratory conditions one month after application. Cuttings were also examined one year after transplanting into a sandy substratum under natural conditions, to test for possible long term effects of PGRs on plant establishment success and growth. The response of the two study species to PGRs differed substantially. In A. arenaria the auxin NAA at 100 mg l-1 reduced the time for root initiation and increased the rooting capacity of cuttings, while the cytokinin Kinetin at 50 mg l-1 facilitated root growth. No auxin had effect on rooting or growth of S. virginicus cuttings, but treatment with 100 mg l-1 Kinetin resulted in higher rooting success than the control. One year after planting, the cuttings of A. arenaria treated with 100 mg l-1 NAA showed a higher establishment success (90% vs. 55%) and produced more culms and longer roots than the control; those treated with cytokinins did not differ in the establishment success from the control, but had longer roots, more culms and rhizomes. On the other hand, the cuttings of S. virginicus treated with 100 mg l-1 Kinetin showed a higher establishment success (75% vs. 35%) and had more culms than the control. Therefore, in restoration activities that involved A. arenaria, a pre-treatment of cuttings with NAA would be beneficial, as it allows the production of a higher number of well-developed plants with

  14. L1 retrotransposition in neurons is modulated by MeCP2.

    Muotri, Alysson R; Marchetto, Maria C N; Coufal, Nicole G; Oefner, Ruth; Yeo, Gene; Nakashima, Kinichi; Gage, Fred H


    Long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINE-1 or L1s) are abundant retrotransposons that comprise approximately 20% of mammalian genomes. Active L1 retrotransposons can impact the genome in a variety of ways, creating insertions, deletions, new splice sites or gene expression fine-tuning. We have shown previously that L1 retrotransposons are capable of mobilization in neuronal progenitor cells from rodents and humans and evidence of massive L1 insertions was observed in adult brain tissues but not in other somatic tissues. In addition, L1 mobility in the adult hippocampus can be influenced by the environment. The neuronal specificity of somatic L1 retrotransposition in neural progenitors is partially due to the transition of a Sox2/HDAC1 repressor complex to a Wnt-mediated T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) transcriptional activator. The transcriptional switch accompanies chromatin remodelling during neuronal differentiation, allowing a transient stimulation of L1 transcription. The activity of L1 retrotransposons during brain development can have an impact on gene expression and neuronal function, thereby increasing brain-specific genetic mosaicism. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate L1 expression should provide new insights into the role of L1 retrotransposition during brain development. Here we show that L1 neuronal transcription and retrotransposition in rodents are increased in the absence of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), a protein involved in global DNA methylation and human neurodevelopmental diseases. Using neuronal progenitor cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells and human tissues, we revealed that patients with Rett syndrome (RTT), carrying MeCP2 mutations, have increased susceptibility for L1 retrotransposition. Our data demonstrate that L1 retrotransposition can be controlled in a tissue-specific manner and that disease-related genetic mutations can influence the frequency of neuronal L

  15. Influence of Explant Position on Growth of Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. Adventitious Root in Solid Medium and Enhance Production Biomass in Balloon Type Bubble Bioreactor

    Solim, M. H.; Kristanti, A. N.; Manuhara, Y. S. W.


    Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. is one of traditional medicinal plant in Indonesia as an aphrodisiac. This plant has various compounds which is accumulated in roots. In vitro culture of this plant can enhance production of adventitious roots. The aim of this research was to know the influence of explants position on growth of T. paniculatum Gaertn. adventitious root in MS solid medium and enhance the production of biomass in balloon type bubble bioreactor. Explants from leaf were cultured at abaxial and adaxial positions in solid MS medium supplemented with IBA 2 mgL-1. Adventitious roots were cultured in bioreactor with various treatments (without IBA, supplemented with IBA 2 mgL-1 and supplemented with IBA 2 mgL-1 + buffer NaHCO3). Result showed that the main growth of abaxial root was higher than adaxial, however, the total of adaxial root branch was higher than abaxial. The highest biomass production of adventitious root cultured was achieved by MS medium supplemented with IBA 2 mgL-1 + buffer NaHCO3. This treatment has produced fresh biomass two fold of initial inoculum.

  16. Efeito da toxicidade de Cr (VI e Zn (II no crescimento do fungo filamentoso Aspergillus niger isolado de efluente industrial Toxicity effect of Cr (VI and Zn (II on growth of filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger isolated from industrial effluent

    Maria do Socorro Vale


    Full Text Available Processos convencionais de tratamento de efluentes utilizam microrganismos vivos, o que sugere limitações relativas À toxicidade de metais para os microrganismos. O experimento consistiu em adicionar soluções monoelementares de Cr (VI e Zn(II em diferentes concentrações (0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 mg.L-1 ao meio de crescimento e observar a influência dos metais no crescimento micelial e germinativo do fungo Aspergillus Níger por verificação visual da expansão radial do micélio e da germinação de esporos, seguida de registro fotográfico. Os resultados mostraram que o metabolismo do fungo foi completamente inibido em concentrações acima de 500 mg Zn (II.L-1 e 150 mg Cr (VI.L-1. O ED50 (concentração de ingrediente ativo capaz de inibir 50% do crescimento micelial do fungo para os dois íons metálicos, nas condições estudadas, está na faixa entre 100 e 150 mg.L-1. Palavras-chave: metais pesados; inibição; crescimento micelial; Aspergillus niger; ED50.Many standard processes of wastewater treatment use live microorganisms, which suggests limitations on a metal toxicity to the microorganism. The experiment consisted in adding mono elementary solutions of Cr (VI and Zn (II at different concentrations (0, 20, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 mg.L-1 to the growth mean, and to observe the influence of metals on mycelial and germinative growth of the Aspergillus niger fungus, by means of visual observation of the radial expansion of the mycelius and the germination of spores, followed by photograph registration. The results showed that the metabolism of the fungus was completely inhibited at concentrations above 500 mg Zn (II.L-1 and 150 mg Cr (VI.L-1. The ED50 (concentration of active ingredient capable of inhibiting 50% of mycelial growth of the fungus for both metal ions, under the studied conditions, is in the range between 100 and 150 mg.L-1.

  17. Study on Identification and Degradation Characteristics of An Atrazine-degrading Strain L-1%一株阿特拉津降解菌株L-1的鉴定和降解特性研究

    冉治霖; 朱静


    [Objective] The paper was to identify an atrazine-degrading strain and study its degradation characteristics.[Method] Atrazine-degrading strains were isolated by sludge culture of Municipal sewage treatment plant.The strains were identified by the analysis of physiological and biochemical tests and 16S rDNA gene sequence,and the indoor degradation effects were optimized.[Result] An atrazine-degrading strain L-1 was isolated.The gene of L-1 and Arthrobacter strain were similar with homology more than 99%,and combining with physiological and biochemical methods,the strain was identified as Arthrobacter sp.The best carbon source of the atrazine degradation medium was glucose,and the best adding amount was 3 g/L.Under these conditions,the degradation rate was up to 94.8% 96 h after the L-1 inoculated in atrazine inorganic salts medium (atrazine concentration for 500 mg/L).[Conclusion] The study laid a foundation for the further study of atrazine-degrading strains and the application in the bioremediation of ATZ polluted water.%[目的]鉴定1株阿特拉津(ATZ)降解菌株;并对其降解特性进行研究.[方法]通过对取自城市污水处理厂的污泥进行驯化培养,分离能够降解除草剂ATZ的菌株;通过16S rDNA基因序列分析及生理生化试验对菌株进行鉴定,并对其室内降解效果进行优化.[结果]试验分离到1株能降解ATZ的菌株L-1,该菌株与Arthrobacter菌株基因相似,同源性达99%以上,结合生理生化方法,确定该菌株为节杆菌(Arthrobacter sp.);L-1降解ATZ时培养基的最佳碳源为葡萄糖,最佳加入量为3g/L.在此条件下,将L-1接种于阿特拉津无机盐培养基(ATZ浓度为500 mg/L)96 h后降解率达94.8%.[结论]该研究为进一步研究ATZ降解菌株及其在ATZ微污染水体生物修复中的应用奠定了基础.

  18. PD-1/PD-L1 expression in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: An immunological exception?

    Erlmeier, Franziska; Hartmann, Arndt; Autenrieth, Michael; Wiedemann, Max; Ivanyi, Philipp; Steffens, Sandra; Weichert, Wilko


    Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting the inhibitory cross talk between tumor and immune cells have been approved for therapy in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In contrast to clear cell RCC, little is known on PD-1/PD-L1 expression patterns in rarer RCC subtypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, distribution and prognostic impact of PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in chromophobe (ch)RCC. Patients who underwent renal surgery due to chRCC were retrospectively evaluated. Tumor specimen was analyzed for PD-1 and PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Expression data were correlated with clinic-pathological parameters including patient survival. Eighty-one chRCC patients were eligible for analysis, thereof 25 (30.9 %) and 11 (13.6 %) patients were positive for PD-1(+) tumor-infiltrating mononuclear cells (TIMCs) and tumoral PD-L1(+) expression, respectively. No significant associations were found for PD-1(+) TIMC or tumoral PD-L1(+) expression and clinical attributes. In addition, no differences in 5- and 10-year overall survival for PD-1(-) TIMC compared to PD-1(+) TIMC (90.5 and 72.2 vs. 100 and 75 %; p = 0.41) and for PD-L1(-) tumors compared to PD-L1(+) tumors (91.9 and 76.4 vs. 100 and 50 %; p = 0.48) were observed. In conclusion, to our knowledge this is the first study to evaluate the prognostic impact of PD-1 and PD-L1 in chRCC. PD-L1 does seem to be expressed in a minority of all chRCC, likewise only a minority of chRCC was infiltrated by PD-1-positive inflammatory cells. Neither PD-1(+) TIMC nor tumoral PD-L1(+) expression was associated with parameters of aggressiveness or survival.

  19. Retrofitting the Genome: L1 Extinction Follows Endogenous Retroviral Expansion in a Group of Muroid Rodents▿

    Erickson, Issac K.; Cantrell, Michael A.; Scott, LuAnn; Wichman, Holly A.


    Long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1; L1) retrotransposons are the most common retroelements in mammalian genomes. Unlike individual families of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), they have remained active throughout the mammalian radiation and are responsible for most of the retroelement movement and much genome rearrangement within mammals. They can be viewed as occupying a substantial niche within mammalian genomes. Our previous demonstration that L1s and B1 short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are inactive in a group of South American rodents led us to ask if other elements have amplified to fill the empty niche. We identified a novel and highly active family of ERVs (mysTR). To determine whether loss of L1 activity was correlated with expansion of mysTR, we examined mysTR activity in four South American rodent species that have lost L1 and B1 activity and four sister species with active L1s. The copy number of recent mysTR insertions was extremely high, with an average of 4,200 copies per genome. High copy numbers exist in both L1-active and L1-extinct species, so the mysTR expansion appears to have preceded the loss of both SINE and L1 activity rather than to have filled an empty niche created by their loss. It may be coincidental that two unusual genomic events—loss of L1 activity and massive expansion of an ERV family—occur in the same group of mammals. Alternatively, it is possible that this large ERV expansion set the stage for L1 extinction. PMID:21957310

  20. HPV L1 and P16 Expression in CIN1 to Predict Future CIN2.

    Liu, Chong; Du, Hui; Wang, Chun; Belinson, Jerome L; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Jinlong; Wu, Ruifang


    To use the biomarkers human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 and p16 to develop an algorithm that could triage the individual patient with CIN1 for the risk of progression. A total of 82 patients initially diagnosed with CIN1 at Peking University Shenzhen Hospital in China had their initial and follow-up paraffin-embedded tissue blocks immune-stained for HPV L1 capsid protein and p16. For CIN1, any staining of abnormal epithelium was considered positive. All patients were followed until they developed CIN2+ or for ≥3 years. About 38 patients regressed (HPV-, Cytology-), 17 persisted (CIN1), and 27 progressed (≥CIN2+). At initial diagnosis, HPV L1 capsid protein was expressed in 42.7% of the CIN1 cases. There was no difference in L1 expression among the 3 groups. However, p16-positive staining in the progression group was significantly higher than in the regression group (Pp16- category was significantly higher than that in the progression group. In the progression group, when CIN1 lesions progressed to CIN2+, the L1-positive rate was significantly decreased from 51.9% to 18.5%, the p16+/HPV L1+ rate decreased from the initial (44.4%) to the final diagnosis (14.8%), and the p16+/HPV L1- rate increased from the initial (25.9%) to the final diagnosis (66.7%). P16 expression is a clear risk factor for the progression of CIN1. The p16-/HPV L1- pattern was significantly associated with the regression of CIN1. Moving from CIN1 to CIN2+ over time, p16+/HPV L1+ decreased, and p16+/HPV L1- increased. Unfortunately, our objective of finding a sensitive and specific triage algorithm for the individual patient with CIN1 was still not achieved.

  1. SREBP2 mediates the modulation of intestinal NPC1L1 expression by curcumin.

    Kumar, Pradeep; Malhotra, Pooja; Ma, Ke; Singla, Amika; Hedroug, Omar; Saksena, Seema; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Gill, Ravinder K; Alrefai, Waddah A


    Curcumin, the major phenolic compound in the spice turmeric, exhibits numerous biological effects, including lowering plasma cholesterol and preventing diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. The mechanisms underlying the hypocholesterolemic effect of curcumin are not fully understood. In this regard, intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) cholesterol transporter, the molecular target of intestinal cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe, plays an essential role in the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. The current studies were designed to investigate the effect of curcumin on NPC1L1 function, expression, and promoter activity in intestinal Caco-2 monolayers. NPC1L1 function was evaluated by the measurement of ezetimibe-sensitive [(3)H]cholesterol esterification. Relative abundance of NPC1L1 mRNA and protein was evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Luciferase assays were used to measure NPC1L1 promoter activity. Our results showed that curcumin significantly inhibited ezetimibe-sensitive cholesterol esterification in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum decrease (by 52% compared with control) occurring at 50 μM concentration. Curcumin treatment of Caco-2 monolayers also significantly decreased NPC1L1 mRNA and protein expression. Similarly, the promoter activity of the NPC1L1 gene was inhibited significantly (55%) by 50 μM curcumin. The decrease in NPC1L1 promoter activity by curcumin was associated with a reduction in the expression and the DNA-binding activity of the sterol response element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) transcription factor. Furthermore, the overexpression of active SREBP2 protected NPC1L1 from the inhibitory effect of curcumin. Our studies demonstrate that curcumin directly modulates intestinal NPC1L1 expression via transcriptional regulation and the involvement of SREBP2 transcription factor.

  2. Sekuens Gen Protein Kapsid Mayor L1 Human Papilomavirus 16 dari Isolat Klinik Asal Bandung

    Anandayu Pradita


    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is strongly associated with chronic human papillomavirus (HPV infection. HPV-16 is the most prevalent genotype infecting cervical epithelium. The major coat protein of viral particle (L1 plays a key role in the infection process. Our study aimed to isolate the HPV-16 L1 gene and analyze its sequence. Samples used were samples collected from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung during the period of June to October 2010. In this study, the HPV-16 L1 sequence was analyzed from the viral deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA extracted from biopsy sample of cervical cancer patient biopsy samples.The HPV-16 L1 amplification was performed using the polymerase chain reaction with specific primer. The HPV infection in the cervical tissue was confirmed by commercial HPV genotyping test. The L1 fragment was cloned into plasmid and the insert of the recombinant clone pJET1.2/L1-16 was digested using BamHI and BgIII. The amplicon result showed HPV-16 L1 gene with a length of 1.595 base pairs. The sequence analysis of two samples using software BIOEDIT dan Basic Local Alignment Search Tool revealed a high level of sequence similarity to L1 HPV-16 from Thailand (99% and 97% as registered in GenBank. In conclusion, the L1 HPV-16 gene from Bandung isolates revealed variations from published sequence. Knowledge on L1 gene sequence may give additional information to the development of vaccine. Further study on vaccine development is currently ongoing using this HPV-16 clone that may be specific to Indonesian population.

  3. On-line study of growth kinetics of single hyphae of Aspergillus oryzae in a flow-through cell

    Christiansen, Torben; Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Nielsen, Jens Bredal


    the outgrowth of a hyphal element from a single spore using a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The simulations shows that the observed kinetics for the individual hyphae result in an experimentally verified growth pattern with exponential growth in both total hyphal length and number of tips. (C) 1999 John......Using image analysis the growth kinetics of the single hyphae of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae has been determined on-line in a flow-through cell at different glucose concentrations in the range from 26 mg L-1 to 20 g L-1. The tip extension rate of the individual hyphae can be described...... branching occurs, it is observed that the tip extension rate decreases temporarily. The number of branches formed on a hypha is proportional to the length of the hypha that exceeds a certain minimum length required to support the growth of a new branch. The observed kinetics has been used to simulate...

  4. Gibberellin and cytokinin effects on soybean growth Giberelina e citocinina no crescimento da soja

    Vagner Maximino Leite


    Full Text Available Soybean is an important crop in Brazil. Nonetheless, there are no reports on the use of plant growth regulator potential in relation to this crop in the national literature. To better understand the role of these compounds, a pot experiment was carried out to study effects of GA3 and cytokinin on the vegetative growth of the soybean. GA3 (50 mg L-1 was applied as seed treatment, leaving plants with water application as control. GA3 (100 mg L-1 and cytokinin (30 mg L-1 were sprayed on leaves at the physiological stage V3/V4, and 15 days after, cytokinin (30 mg L-1, also as foliar spray. Seed treatment decreased plant emergence and initial soybean root growth, but as the season progressed, differences in root growth disappeared; plants were shorter, and presented a decrease in the number of nodes, in stem diameter, in leaf area and in dry matter yield. Conversely, foliar application of GA3 led to an increase in plant height, first node height and stem diameter. Leaf area and dry matter production also increased as a result of GA3 foliar application. There was no effect of exogenous gibberellin and cytokinin on the number of soybean leaves, number of stem branches and root dry matter. Joint application of gibberellin and cytokinin tended to inhibit gibberellin effects. Cytokinin applied to leaves during soybean vegetative growth was not effective in modifying any of the evaluated plant growth variables.A soja é uma das principais culturas no Brasil, porém não há relatos do potencial de utilização dos fitorreguladores nessa cultura na literatura nacional. Para saber mais sobre estes compostos, um experimento em vasos foi conduzido para estudar o efeito do GA3 e citocinina (CK sobre o crescimento vegetativo e floração da soja. GA3 (50 mg L-1 foi aplicado como tratamento de sementes. Plantas somente com aplicação de água foram aplicadas como controle. Foram feitas duas aplicações foliares, sendo na primeira aplicado 100 mg L-1 de GA3

  5. Construction of a recombinant adenovirus Vector of human papillomavirus type 16 L1_E7c


    Human papillomaviruses are closely associated with human cervical cancer, especially HPV types 16 and 18. At present, HPV can not be produced in large quantity; it also has tumorgenicity and these properties of HPV have seriously hampered the development of HPV vaccine. HPV type 16 L1 proteins can assembled into virus-like particles (VLP), which are morphologically identical to the nature virion. In order to develop the recombinant adenovirus vectors of HPV, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus shuttle plasmid pCA14 L1-E7c. Methods: Human papillomavirus type 16 L1 open reading frame without terminator codon (TAA) (5559- 7152) and E7c (682- 855) were amplified using PCR. The L1 and E7c fragments were inserted into pGEM-T easy vectors by T- A strategy, named pTAL1 and pTAE7c. pTAL1 was cut with Hind III and BglII, the pTAE7c with BamHI and ClaI. The L1 DNA fragment, E7c and pBluesscript SK were ligated together using T4 DNA ligase. pBSL1-E7c and pBSL1-E7c was digested with Hind III and Xhol. The L1-E7c fragment was inserted into adenovirus shuttle plasmids pCAl4, named pCAl4L1-E7c. DNA sequence results indicated that The L1-E7c DNA fragment can encode the HPV16L1-E7 fusion protein correctly. Results: The L1 and E7c DNA fragments were amplified by PCR and recombinant plasmid pTAL1, pTAE7c, pBSL1-E7c and pCA14L1-E7c were constructed correctly. The pCAl4L1-E7c can be used in the further research work, cotransfected the 293 cell with the parent adenovirus pBHG10. Conclusion: Our results indicated that we have constructed a HPV16L1-E7 fusion DNA fragments and the adenovirus shuttle plasmids pCALl-E7c for the further research.

  6. Structure and magnetization reversal mechanism in L1{sub 0} FePt films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Zhang, S.J. [Surface Physics State Laboratory and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zheng Jianguo [Laboratory for Electron and X-ray Instrumentation, Calit2, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Shi, Z., E-mail: [Surface Physics State Laboratory and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Department of Physics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhou, S.M. [Surface Physics State Laboratory and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Department of Physics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Sun, L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Center for Superconductivity (TcSUH), University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Du, J. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    A series of L1{sub 0} Fe{sub 63}Pt{sub 37} films with controlled thickness (t{sub FM}) were deposited on MgO(100) substrates for microstructure and magnetization reversal mechanism study. X-ray diffraction measurements show that face-centered tetragonal (200) peak also exists in addition to face-centered tetragonal (002) one, and becomes weak for thick films. High resolution electron microscopy study reveals the existence of periodic misfit dislocations at the FePt/MgO interface and other types of defects such as twins and antiphase boundary inside the film. Out-of-plane initial magnetization shows a slow increase responding to the external magnetic field and then follows a steep increase. The out-of-plane coercivity H{sub C} at room temperature decreases with increasing t{sub FM} and increases when the angle {theta}{sub H} between the external magnetic field and the film normal direction increases. H{sub C} at {theta}{sub H} = 0 changes as a linear function of temperature for individual samples and the slope decreases with increasing t{sub FM}. In addition, magnetic viscosity measurements show that the fluctuation field at room temperature decreases with increasing t{sub FM}. These phenomena indicate that the magnetization reversal in the L1{sub 0} FePt films should be realized by the motion of weakly pinned domain wall and thus governed by the thermal activation model. The magnetization reversal thermal activation volume and corresponding energy increase with increasing t{sub FM}, as a result of the interactions between domain walls and structural defects can be attributed to the sample microstructural characteristic evolution with t{sub FM}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A series of L1{sub 0} Fe{sub 63}Pt{sub 37} films with controlled thickness (t{sub FM}) were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Periodic misfit dislocations are observed at the FePt/MgO interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dependence of H{sub C} on t{sub FM} and T is

  7. 人乳头瘤病毒衣壳蛋白L1的相关研究%Relative research on human papillomavirus L1 protein

    卜璋于; 俞小虹


    人乳头瘤病毒(HPY)是引起尖锐湿疣等上皮乳头瘤样增生性疾病的主要病原。HPV衣壳蛋白L1,由于其结构特征及精确的抗原特性,在黏附宿主细胞、识别病毒受体、协助病毒DNA的人胞转运中均发挥重要作用,在HPV感染的临床评估和HPV疫苗的研究中日益受到关注。该文对HPV衣壳蛋白L1的结构和功能及其相关的应用进行了综述。%Human papillomavirus(HPV)is a main pathogen causing epithelial papillomatosis disease like condyloma acuminatum. HPV L1 protein plays an important role in adhering host cell, recognizing virus receptor and trafficking DNA to cellular nucleus due to its structure and antigenic character, and attack great concern is in the clinical evaluations of HPV infectivity and the researches of HPV vac cines. In the article, the structure and function of HPV L1 protein and its application are reviewed.

  8. 反思L1在SLA中的迁移现象%Reflection on the Transference of L1 in SLA




  9. Development of Phonological Awareness in English-Mandarin Bilinguals: A Comparison of English-L1 and Mandarin-L1 Kindergarten Children

    Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.


    Phoneme awareness is critical for literacy acquisition in English, but relatively little is known about the early development of phonological awareness in ESL (English as a second language) bilinguals when their two languages have different phonological structures. Using parallel tasks in English and Mandarin, we tracked the development of L1

  10. Quels changements linguistiques dans l'attrition de la L1 chez le bilingue tardif (What Linguistic Changes in the Attrition of the L1 in Late Bilinguals)?

    Kopke, Barbara


    This article reports on a psycholinguistic study of first language attrition in German first generation immigrants. On the basis of the individual variation in performance evidenced by the data, the study claims that first language (L1) attrition in late bilinguals is not only the consequence of a lack of use. A comparison of the performance of…

  11. Lipid droplets fusion in adipocyte differentiated 3T3-L1 cells: A Monte Carlo simulation

    Boschi, Federico, E-mail: [Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, 37134 Verona (Italy); Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona (Italy); Rizzatti, Vanni; Zamboni, Mauro [Department of Medicine, Geriatric Section, University of Verona, Piazzale Stefani 1, 37126 Verona (Italy); Sbarbati, Andrea [Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, 37134 Verona (Italy)


    Several human worldwide diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis, atherosclerosis and other metabolic pathologies are related to the excessive accumulation of lipids in cells. Lipids accumulate in spherical cellular inclusions called lipid droplets (LDs) whose sizes range from fraction to one hundred of micrometers in adipocytes. It has been suggested that LDs can grow in size due to a fusion process by which a larger LD is obtained with spherical shape and volume equal to the sum of the progenitors’ ones. In this study, the size distribution of two populations of LDs was analyzed in immature and mature (5-days differentiated) 3T3-L1 adipocytes (first and second populations, respectively) after Oil Red O staining. A Monte Carlo simulation of interaction between LDs has been developed in order to quantify the size distribution and the number of fusion events needed to obtain the distribution of the second population size starting from the first one. Four models are presented here based on different kinds of interaction: a surface weighted interaction (R2 Model), a volume weighted interaction (R3 Model), a random interaction (Random model) and an interaction related to the place where the LDs are born (Nearest Model). The last two models mimic quite well the behavior found in the experimental data. This work represents a first step in developing numerical simulations of the LDs growth process. Due to the complex phenomena involving LDs (absorption, growth through additional neutral lipid deposition in existing droplets, de novo formation and catabolism) the study focuses on the fusion process. The results suggest that, to obtain the observed size distribution, a number of fusion events comparable with the number of LDs themselves is needed. Moreover the MC approach results a powerful tool for investigating the LDs growth process. Highlights: • We evaluated the role of the fusion process in the synthesis of the lipid droplets. • We compared the

  12. Implication of combined PD-L1/PD-1 blockade with cytokine-induced killer cells as a synergistic immunotherapy for gastrointestinal cancer

    Geng, Ruixuan; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Tang, Wenbo; Chang, Jinjia; Wu, Zheng; Liu, Xinyang; Lin, Ying; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Jin


    Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells represent a realistic approach in cancer immunotherapy with confirmed survival benefits in the context of metastatic solid tumors. However, therapeutic effects are limited to a fraction of patients. In this study, immune-resistance elements and ideal combination therapies were explored. Initially, phenotypic analysis was performed to document CD3, CD56, NKG2D, DNAM-1, PD-L1, PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3, 2B4, and LAG-3 on CIK cells. Upon engagement of CIK cells with the tumor cells, expression of PD-1 on CIK cells and PD-L1 on both cells were up-regulated. Over-expression of PD-L1 levels on tumor cells via lentiviral transduction inhibited tumoricidal activity of CIK cells, and neutralizing of PD-L1/PD-1 signaling axis could enhance their tumor-killing effect. Conversely, blockade of NKG2D, a major activating receptor of CIK cells, largely caused dysfunction of CIK cells. Functional study showed an increase of NKG2D levels along with PD-L1/PD-1 blockade in the presence of other immune effector molecule secretion. Additionally, combined therapy of CIK infusion and PD-L1/PD-1 blockade caused a delay of in vivo tumor growth and exhibited a survival advantage over untreated mice. These results provide a preclinical proof-of-concept for simultaneous PD-L1/PD-1 pathways blockade along with CIK infusion as a novel immunotherapy for unresectable cancers. PMID:26871284

  13. Increased Oxidative Stress in Cultured 3T3-L1 Cells was Attenuated by Berberine Treatment.

    Dong, Shi-Fen; Yasui, Naomi; Negishb, Hiroko; Kishimoto, Aya; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ikeda, Katsumi


    The 3T3-L1 cell line is one of the most well-characterized and reliable models for studying adipocytes. Increased oxidative stress in accumulated fat was found in 3T3-L1 cells. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, could suppress fat deposition in 3T3-L1 cells; however, whether berberine suppresses increased oxidative stress is not well known. In this study, we observed the effect of berberine on increased oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 cells. 3T3-L1 cells were cultured and treated with berberine (5-20 μM) from day 3 to day 8. We confirmed that berberine markedly inhibited fat accumulation and lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and decreased triglyceride content. Berberine inhibited increased oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 cells by suppressing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) gene expression and GPx activity. Berberine also markedly reduced adipokines secreted by adipocytes, including leptin and resistin.

  14. Mutation in the sixth immunoglobulin domain of L1CAM is associated with migrational brain anomalies

    Shieh, Christine; Moser, Franklin; Graham, John M.; Watiker, Valerie


    Objective: To describe the phenotype of a patient with classical features of X-linked L1 syndrome associated with novel brain malformations. Methods: Diagnostic analysis included physical and dysmorphology examinations, MRI of the brain, and exome sequencing of the family trio. Results: We report a 2.5-year-old boy with developmental delay, dysmorphic facies, and adducted thumbs. MRI of the brain showed a truncated corpus callosum and periventricular heterotopias associated with polymicrogyria (PMG). Variant segregation analysis with exome sequencing discovered a novel maternally derived hemizygous variant in exon 14 of the L1CAM gene (c.1759 G>C; p.G587R). Conclusions: This novel L1CAM mutation was located in the protein's sixth immunoglobin domain and involved glycine-587, a key residue in the structure of L1CAM because of its interactions with lysine-606, which indicates that any mutation at this site would likely affect the secondary structure and function of the protein. The replacement of the small nonpolar glycine residue with a large basic arginine would have an even more dramatic result. The presentation of periventricular nodular heterotopias with overlying PMG is very uncommon, and its association with L1CAM may provide insight into other similar cases. Furthermore, this presentation indicates the important role that L1CAM plays in neuronal migration and brain development and extends the phenotype associated with L1CAM-associated disorders. PMID:27066571

  15. Novel functions for the endocytic regulatory proteins MICAL-L1 and EHD1 in mitosis.

    Reinecke, James B; Katafiasz, Dawn; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve


    During interphase, recycling endosomes mediate the transport of internalized cargo back to the plasma membrane. However, in mitotic cells, recycling endosomes are essential for the completion of cytokinesis, the last phase of mitosis that promotes the physical separation the two daughter cells. Despite recent advances, our understanding of the molecular determinants that regulate recycling endosome dynamics during cytokinesis remains incomplete. We have previously demonstrated that Molecule Interacting with CasL Like-1 (MICAL-L1) and C-terminal Eps15 Homology Domain protein 1 (EHD1) coordinately regulate receptor transport from tubular recycling endosomes during interphase. However, their potential roles in controlling cytokinesis had not been addressed. In this study, we show that MICAL-L1 and EHD1 regulate mitosis. Depletion of either protein resulted in increased numbers of bi-nucleated cells. We provide evidence that bi-nucleation in MICAL-L1- and EHD1-depleted cells is a consequence of impaired recycling endosome transport during late cytokinesis. However, depletion of MICAL-L1, but not EHD1, resulted in aberrant chromosome alignment and lagging chromosomes, suggesting an EHD1-independent function for MICAL-L1 earlier in mitosis. Moreover, we provide evidence that MICAL-L1 and EHD1 differentially influence microtubule dynamics during early and late mitosis. Collectively, our new data suggest several unanticipated roles for MICAL-L1 and EHD1 during the cell cycle.

  16. Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Mediated-UCH-L1 Expression in Podocytes of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Zhang, Hongxia; Luo, Weili; Sun, Yonghong; Qiao, Yanchun; Zhang, Liying; Zhao, Zhilian; Lv, Shijun


    Increasing studies identified podocyte injury as a key early risk factor resulting in diabetic nephropathy (DN). The ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCH-L1) participates in podocyte differentiation and injury, which is elevated in the podocytes of a variety of nephritis. Whether UCH-L1 expression is positively related to podocyte injury of DN remains unclear. In this study, elevated expression of UCH-L1 and its intrinsic mechanism in high glucose (HG)-stimulated murine podocytes were investigated using western blot and real-time quantitative PCR. Kidney biopsies of DN patients and health individuals were stained by immunofluorescence (IF) method. The morphological and functional changes of podocytes were tested by F-actin staining and cell migration assay. Results demonstrated that HG induced upregulation of UCH-L1 and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in podocytes. However, blocking of the Wnt pathway by dickkopf related protein 1 (DKK1) eliminated the above changes. Furthermore, IF staining confirmed that, compared with healthy individuals, the expression of UCH-L1 and β-catenin were obviously increased in kidney biopsy of DN patients. Overexpression of UCH-L1 remodeled its actin cytoskeleton, increased its cell migration and impacted its important proteins. All the findings manifested that Wnt/β-catenin/UCH-L1 may be a new potential therapy method in the treatment of DN in future. PMID:27571062

  17. L1+L2正则化逻辑斯蒂模型分类算法%Logistic Model Classification Algorithm via L1+L2 Regularization

    刘建伟; 付捷; 罗雄麟


    提出一种L1+L2范数正则化逻辑斯蒂模型分类算法.该算法引入L2范数正则化,解决L1正则化逻辑斯蒂算法迭代过程奇异问题,通过引入样本向量的扩展和新的权值向量完成L1范数非平滑问题,最终使用共轭梯度方法求解经过转化的最优化问题.在各种实际数据集上的实验结果表明,该算法优于L2范数、L1范数和Lp范数正则化逻辑斯蒂模型,具有较好的特征选择和分类性能.%This paper proposes an L1+L2 norm regularized logistic model classification algorithm, and the singularity of iterative process in LI norm regularized logistic classification algorithm is solved by using L2 norm regularization. The non-smooth problem is transformed into smooth one via argumentation of vector of samples and introduction of new weight vector, and classification object function is solved using the conjugate gradient method. Performance of classification and feature selection on real datasets shows that the algorithm is better than L2 norm, LI nrom and Lp norm regularized logistic model.

  18. Human Papillomavirus Type16- L1 VLP Production in Insect Cells

    Asghar Abdoli


    Full Text Available   Objective(s:  Infection by high-risk papillomavirus is regarded as the major risk factor in the development of cervical cancer. Recombinant DNA technology allows expression of the L1 major capsid protein of HPV in different expression systems, which has intrinsic capacity to self-assemble into viral-like particles (VLP. VLPS are non-infectious, highly immunogenic and can elicit neutralizing antibodies. VLP-based HPV vaccines can prevent persistent HPV infections and cervical cancer. In this study recombinant HPV-16 L1 protein was produced in Sf9 insect cells and VLP formation was confirmed. Materials and Methods: Complete HPV-16 L1 gene was inserted into pFast HTa plasmid and transformed into DH10BAC Escherichia coli containing bacmid and helper plasmid. The recombinant Bacmid colonies turned to white and non-recombinant colonies harboring L1 gene remained blue in the presence of X-gal and IPTG in colony selection strategy. To confirm the recombinant bacmid production, PCR was applied using specific L1 primers. To produce recombinant baculovirus, the recombinant bacmid DNA was extracted and transfected into Sf9 cells using Cellfectin. The expression of L1 in Sf9 cells was identified through SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis using specific L1 monoclonal antibody. Self-assembled HPV16L-VLPs in Sf9 cells was confirmed by electron microscopy. Results:The recombinant protein L1 was predominantly ~60 KD in SDS-PAGE with distinct immunoreactivity in western blot analysis and formed VLPS as confirmed by electron microscopy. Conclusion:Application of recombinant baculovirus containing HPV-16 L1 gene will certainly prove to be a constructive tool in production of VLPs for prophylactic vaccine development as well as diagnostic tests.

  19. Engineering the vaccinia virus L1 protein for increased neutralizing antibody response after DNA immunization

    Moss Bernard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The licensed smallpox vaccine, comprised of infectious vaccinia virus, has associated adverse effects, particularly for immunocompromised individuals. Therefore, safer DNA and protein vaccines are being investigated. The L1 protein, a component of the mature virion membrane that is conserved in all sequenced poxviruses, is required for vaccinia virus entry into host cells and is a target for neutralizing antibody. When expressed by vaccinia virus, the unglycosylated, myristoylated L1 protein attaches to the viral membrane via a C-terminal transmembrane anchor without traversing the secretory pathway. The purpose of the present study was to investigate modifications of the gene expressing the L1 protein that would increase immunogenicity in mice when delivered by a gene gun. Results The L1 gene was codon modified for optimal expression in mammalian cells and potential N-glycosylation sites removed. Addition of a signal sequence to the N-terminus of L1 increased cell surface expression as shown by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry of transfected cells. Removal of the transmembrane domain led to secretion of L1 into the medium. Induction of binding and neutralizing antibodies in mice was enhanced by gene gun delivery of L1 containing the signal sequence with or without the transmembrane domain. Each L1 construct partially protected mice against weight loss caused by intranasal administration of vaccinia virus. Conclusion Modifications of the vaccinia virus L1 gene including codon optimization and addition of a signal sequence with or without deletion of the transmembrane domain can enhance the neutralizing antibody response of a DNA vaccine.

  20. Active form Notch4 promotes the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    Lai, Peng-Yeh [Institute of Molecular Biology and Department of Life Science, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Chong-Bin [Institute of Molecular Biology and Department of Life Science, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Ophthalmology, Chiayi Christian Hospital, Chiayi 600, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tseng, Min-Jen, E-mail: [Institute of Molecular Biology and Department of Life Science, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan, ROC (China)


    Highlights: ► Notch4IC modulates the ERK pathway and cell cycle to promote 3T3-L1 proliferation. ► Notch4IC facilitates 3T3-L1 differentiation by up-regulating proadipogenic genes. ► Notch4IC promotes proliferation during the early stage of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. ► Notch4IC enhances differentiation during subsequent stages of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue is composed of adipocytes, which differentiate from precursor cells in a process called adipogenesis. Many signal molecules are involved in the transcriptional control of adipogenesis, including the Notch pathway. Previous adipogenic studies of Notch have focused on Notch1 and HES1; however, the role of other Notch receptors in adipogenesis remains unclear. Q-RT-PCR analyses showed that the augmentation of Notch4 expression during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was comparable to that of Notch1. To elucidate the role of Notch4 in adipogenesis, the human active form Notch4 (N4IC) was transiently transfected into 3T3-L1 cells. The expression of HES1, Hey1, C/EBPδ and PPARγ was up-regulated, and the expression of Pref-1, an adipogenic inhibitor, was down-regulated. To further characterize the effect of N4IC in adipogenesis, stable cells expressing human N4IC were established. The expression of N4IC promoted proliferation and enhanced differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells compared with those of control cells. These data suggest that N4IC promoted proliferation through modulating the ERK pathway and the cell cycle during the early stage of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis and facilitated differentiation through up-regulating adipogenic genes such as C/EBPα, PPARγ, aP2, LPL and HSL during the middle and late stages of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis.

  1. Expression of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 L1 Protein in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Hong-Li LIU; Wen-Sheng LI; Ting LEI; Jing ZHENG; Zheng ZHANG; Xiao-Fei YAN; Zhe-Zhi WANG; Yi-Li WANG; Lü-Sheng SI


    To develop a plant expression system for the production of the human papillomavirus type 16(HPV16) vaccine, we investigated whether the HPV16 L1 protein can be expressed in tobacco plants and whether it can be used as the cheapest form of edible vaccine. The HPV16 L1 coding sequence was amplified by PCR using specific primers from the plasmid pGEM-T-HPV16 containing the template sequence, and subcloned into the intermediate vector pUCmT and binary vector pBI121 consecutively to obtain the plant expression plasmid pBI-L1. The T-DNA regions of the pBI-L1 binary vector contained the constitutive Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and the neomycin phosphotransferase npt Ⅱ gene, which allowed the selection of transformed plants using kanamycin. The tobacco plants were transformed by cocultivating them, using the leaf disc method, with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404, which harbored the plant expression plasmid. The regenerated transgenic tobacco plants were selected using kanamycin, and confirmed by PCR. The results of the Southern blot assay also showed that the HPV16 L1 gene was integrated stably into the genome of the transformed tobacco plants. The Western blot analysis showed that the transformed tobacco leaves could express the HPV16 L1 protein. Furthermore, it was demonstrated by ELISA assay that the expressed protein accounted for 0.034%-0.076% of the total soluble leaf protein, was able to form 55 nm virus-like particles compatible with HPV virus-like particle (VLP), and induced mouse erythrocyte hemagglutination in vitro. The present results indicate that the HPV16 L1 protein can be expressed in transgenic tobacco plants and the expressed protein possesses the natural features of the HPV 16L1 protein, implying that the HPV16 L1 transgenic plants can be potentially used as an edible vaccine.


    Liu Yuehua(刘跃华); Liu Wenjun(刘文军); Liu Xiaosong(刘晓松); Ian H.Frazer


    Objective. To test whether intrarnuscular,intranasal, intrarectal and intravaginal administration of HPV 6b L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) could induce immune response in mice and to assess whether intra muscular and mucosal vaccination against HPV is feasible. Methods. HPV6b L1 proteins self-assembled into VLPs in Sf-9 cell in vitro. Mice were immunized on day 0 and 21 with 50 μg HPV 6b L1 VLPs intramuscularly, intranasally, intrarectally and intravagi nally respectively. Sera were collected for testing IgG titer after a further 7 days and 3 months respec tively. Results. After immunizations, all mice developed significant anti-HPV 6b L1 antibody titers in serum by 7 days after the second immunization. The titer of the serum IgG antibody against HPV 6b L1 VLPs in the intramuscularly immunized group was higher than that in the intranasally, intrarectally and intravaginally immunized groups respectively, indicating that both muscular and mucosal administration of HPV 6b L1 VLPs can stimulate a systemic HPV-specific antibody response. Sera of the mice in the in tramuscularly immunized group still maintained a high titer of the serum IgG antibody against HPV 6b L1 VLPs 3 months after the immunization. Conclusion. The results demonstrated that the HPV 6b L1 VLPs maintain strong antigenicity. Immu nization with HPV 6b L1 VLPs via intramuscular and mucosal routes, without adjuvant, can elicit spe cific antibody in sera. These findings suggest that the VLPs are able to induce protective antibodies.

  3. L1/ℓ1-Gain analysis and synthesis of Markovian jump positive systems with time delay.

    Zhang, Junfeng; Zhao, Xudong; Zhu, Fubo; Han, Zhengzhi


    This paper is concerned with stability analysis and control synthesis of Markovian jump positive systems with time delay. The notions of stochastic stability with L1- and ℓ1-gain performances are introduced for continuous- and discrete-time contexts, respectively. Using a stochastic copositive Lyapunov function, sufficient conditions for the stability with L1/ℓ1-gain performance of the systems are established. Furthermore, mode-dependent controllers are designed to achieve the stabilization with L1/ℓ1-gain of the resulting closed-loop systems. All proposed conditions are formulated in terms of linear programming. Numerical examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the findings of theory.

  4. Ins-4 and daf-28 function redundantly to regulate C. elegans L1 arrest.

    Chen, Yutao; Baugh, L Ryan


    Caenorhabditis elegans larvae reversibly arrest development in the first larval stage in response to starvation (L1 arrest or L1 diapause). Insulin-like signaling is a critical regulator of L1 arrest. However, the C. elegans genome encodes 40 insulin-like peptides, and it is unknown which peptides participate in nutritional control of L1 development. Work in other contexts has revealed that insulin-like genes can promote development ("agonists") or developmental arrest ("antagonists"), suggesting that such agonists promote L1 development in response to feeding. We measured mRNA expression dynamics with high temporal resolution for all 40 insulin-like genes during entry into and recovery from L1 arrest. Nutrient availability influences expression of the majority of insulin-like genes, with variable dynamics suggesting complex regulation. We identified thirteen candidate agonists and eight candidate antagonists based on expression in response to nutrient availability. We selected ten candidate agonists (daf-28, ins-3, ins-4, ins-5, ins-6, ins-7, ins-9, ins-26, ins-33 and ins-35) for further characterization in L1 stage larvae. We used destabilized reporter genes to determine spatial expression patterns. Expression of candidate agonists is largely overlapping in L1 stage larvae, suggesting a role of the intestine, chemosensory neurons ASI and ASJ, and the interneuron PVT in control of L1 development. Transcriptional regulation of candidate agonists is most significant in the intestine, as if internal nutrient status is a more important influence on transcription than sensory perception. Phenotypic analysis of single and compound deletion mutants did not reveal effects on L1 developmental dynamics, though simultaneous disruption of ins-4 and daf-28 increases survival of L1 arrest. Furthermore, overexpression of ins-4, ins-6 or daf-28 alone decreases survival and promotes cell division during starvation. These results suggest extensive functional overlap among insulin

  5. AFAP-1L1-mediated actin filaments crosslinks hinder Trypanosoma cruzi cell invasion and intracellular multiplication.

    de Araújo, Karine Canuto Loureiro; Teixeira, Thaise Lara; Machado, Fabrício Castro; da Silva, Aline Alves; Quintal, Amanda Pifano Neto; da Silva, Claudio Vieira


    Host actin cytoskeleton polymerization has been shown to play an important role during Trypanosoma cruzi internalization into mammalian cell. The structure and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in cells are regulated by a vast number of actin-binding proteins. Here we aimed to verify the impact of AFAP-1L1, during invasion and multiplication of T. cruzi. Knocking-down AFAP-1L1 increased parasite cell invasion and intracellular multiplication. Thus, we have shown that the integrity of the machinery formed by AFAP-1L1 in actin cytoskeleton polymerization is important to hinder parasite infection.

  6. Biological effects of TiO2 and CeO2 nanoparticles on the growth, photosynthetic activity, and cellular components of a marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Deng, Xiang-Yuan; Cheng, Jie; Hu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Ling; Li, Da; Gao, Kun


    It is very important to have a good understanding of the biological effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on marine diatoms. In this study, the physiological and biochemical responses of a marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum to titanium dioxide NPs (nano-TiO2) and cerium oxide NPs (nano-CeO2) were compared and evaluated using 96h growth tests in a batch-culture system. At 96h of exposure, the growth inhibition rate (IR, %) of P. tricornutum increased from 5.46 to 27.31% with increasing nano-TiO2 concentrations from 2.5 to 40mgL(-1). The maximum IR of 49.59% occurred in 40mgL(-1) nano-TiO2 treatments at 48h of exposure. Growth of the diatom was increased in low nano-CeO2 treatments (≤5mgL(-1)), but was inhibited in high nano-CeO2 treatments (≥10mgL(-1)). Large aggregates of NPs were attached to the cells of P. tricornutum in 20 and 40mgL(-1) nano-TiO2 and nano-CeO2 treatments. In addition, the effective quantum yields (ΦPSII) of P. tricornutum in 40mgL(-1) nano-TiO2 and nano-CeO2 treatments were 83.33 and 71.13% of that in the controls at 96h of exposure, respectively. Compared with that of the controls at 96h of exposure, chlorophyll a content, soluble sugar content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, SOD and POD activities of P. tricornutum in 40mgL(-1) nano-TiO2 and nano-CeO2 treatments increased by 57.56, 142.97, 373.25, 698.76, 204.85% and 21.43, 89.41, 194.97, 340.05, 502.86%, while soluble protein content decreased by 70.38 and 28.64%, respectively. These findings will be helpful to understand the effect mechanisms of NPs on marine organisms.

  7. Effects of Berberine on Adipose Tissues and Kidney Function in 3T3-L1 Cells and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Kishimoto, Aya; Dong, Shi-Fen; Negishi, Hiroko; Yasui, Naomi; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ikeda, Katsumi


    We aimed to investigate the effect of berberine on adipose tissues, as well as its effect on renal injury in 3T3-L1 cells and spontaneously hypertensive rats. 3T3-L1 cells were cultured and treated with berberine (5-20 pM) from days 3 to 8. Berberine added to the cultured medium could significantly down-regulate transcription factors, including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein a, and peroxisome pro liferator-activated receptor y, and suppress peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor target genes, such as adipocyte fatty acid binding protein and fatty acid synthase, and inhibit 3T3-Ll fibroblast differentiation to adipocytes. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats received either 150 mg/day of berberine or saline orally for 8 weeks. Compared with the control, berberine-treated rats exhibited significant reductions in body weight gain (p Berberine-treated rats significantly decreased urinary albumin excretion, a marker of renal injury (p berberine decreased the adipose tissues weight and attenuated renal injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Based on these results, berberine has an important role in regulating adipose tissues. These results suggest the protective effect of berberine on metabolic syndrome related diseases, such as renal injury.

  8. Catechin and quercetin attenuate adipose inflammation in fructose-fed rats and in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Vazquez Prieto, Marcela A.; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; Soto, Verónica C.; Perdicaro, Diahann J.; Galmarini, Claudio R.; Haj, Fawaz G.; Miatello, Roberto M.; Oteiza, Patricia I.


    Scope This study evaluated the capacity of dietary catechin (C), quercetin (Q) and the combination of both (CQ), to attenuate adipose inflammation triggered by high fructose (HFr) consumption in rats and by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods and results In rats, HFr consumption for 6 wk caused dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, reduced plasma adiponectin, adiposity, and adipose tissue inflammation. Dietary supplementation with 20 mg/kg/d of C, Q and CQ improved all these parameters. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, C and Q attenuated TNFα-induced elevated protein carbonyls, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (MCP-1, resistin), and decreased adiponectin. The protective effects of C and Q on adipose inflammation are in part associated with their capacity to: i) decrease the activation of the mitogen activated kinases (MAPKs) JNK and p38; and ii) prevent the downregulation of PPARγ. In summary, C and Q, and to a larger extent the combination of both, attenuated adipose pro-inflammatory signaling cascades and regulated the balance of molecules that improve (adiponectin) or impair (TNFα, MCP-1, resistin) insulin sensitivity. Conclusion Together, these findings suggest that dietary Q and C may have potential benefits in mitigating MetS associated adipose inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. PMID:25620282

  9. A mutation in signal peptide of rat resistin gene inhibits differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    Xi-rong GUO; Hai-xia GONG; Yan-qin GAO; Li FEI; Yu-hui NI; Rong-hua CHEN


    AIM: To detect the resistin expression of white adipose tissue in diet-induced obese (DIO) versus diet-resistant (DR) rats, and to investigate the relationship of mutated resistin and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiation. METHODS:RT-PCR and Western Blot were used to detect gene/protein expression. 3T3-L1 cells were cultured, transfected,and induced to differentiation using 0.5 mmol/L 3-isobutyl-1-methyxanthine (MIX), 1 mg/L insulin, and 1μmol/Ldexamethasone. Oil red O staining was applied to detect the degree of preadipocytes differentiation. RESULTS:Expression of resistin mRNA was upregulated in DIO rats and downregulated in DR rats. However, the expression levels varied greatly within the groups. Sequencing of the resistin genes from DIO and DR rats revealed a Leu9Val (C25G) missense mutation within the signal peptide in one DR rat. The mutant resistin inhibited preadipocyte differentiation. Local experiments and Western blotting with tagged resistin fusion proteins identified both mutant and wild type proteins in the cytoplasm and secreted into the culture medium. Computer predictions using the Proscan and Subloc programs revealed four putative phosphorylation sites and a possible leucine zipper motif within the rat resistin protein. CONCLUSION: Resistin-increased differentiation may be inhibited by the mutationcontaining precursor protein, or by the mutant non-secretory resistin isoform.

  10. Kefir inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation through down-regulation of adipogenic transcription factor expression.

    Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Choi, Jae-Woo; Lim, Won-Chul; Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Lee, In-Young; Cho, Hong-Yon


    Kefir, a traditional fermented milk composed of microbial symbionts, is reported to have various health benefits such as anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic and pro-digestive effects. In this study, to elucidate the effects of kefir on adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation, three fractions were prepared from kefir culture broth. The inhibitory effects of kefir liquid culture broth fraction (Fr-1), soluble fraction (Fr-2) and insoluble fraction (Fr-3), prepared by sonication of kefir solid culture broth, on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were examined. Fr-3 (0.1 mg mL(-1)) significantly decreased lipid accumulation and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity by 60 and 68% respectively without affecting cell viability. In addition, Fr-3 treatment down-regulated the mRNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors including C/EBPα (32%), PPARγ (46%) and SREBP-1c (34%) during adipocyte differentiation compared with untreated control cells. The mRNA expression of adipocyte-specific genes (aP2, FAS and ACC) was also clearly decreased. The results suggest that the insoluble fraction of kefir (Fr-3) mediates anti-adipogenic effects through the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, partly via suppression of the C/EBPα-, SREBP-1c- and PPARγ-dependent pathways. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. [Impact of high salt stress on Apocynum venetum growth and ionic homeostasis].

    Ning, Jian-Feng; Zheng, Qing-Song; Yang, Shao-Hai; Zou, Xian-Zhong; Sun, Li-Li; Chen, Yong


    A pot experiment was conducted in a net room to study the growth responses and related mechanisms of Apocynum venetum treated with different concentrations (100-400 mmol x L(-1)) of NaCl for 30 days. The biomass accumulation, growth rate, root vigor, salt ion content and mineral ion uptake and distribution were measured. Compared with the control, treatment 100 mmol x L(-1) NaCl had lesser effects on the plant dry mass, but decreased the plant fresh mass and growth rate significantly. With increasing NaCl concentration in the medium, the plant dry mass, fresh mass, and growth rate all decreased significantly. The plant root vigor was obviously higher under 100 and 200 mmol x L(-1) NaCl stress, but decreased significantly under 300-400 mmol x L(-1) NaCl stress. With the increase of NaCl concentration in the medium, the Na+ content in A. venetum roots, stems and leaves increased gradually while the K+ content had a slow decrease, the Ca2+ and Mg2+ contents in leaves decreased obviously, and the Ca2+ content in stems and the Mg2+ content in roots increased in different degree. Under NaCl stress, the K+ /Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ ratios in roots, stems, and leaves decreased markedly, while the selective absorption and transportation of K+ and Ca2+ increased significantly. The stronger ability of salt exclusion and the higher selective absorption and transportation of K+ and Ca2+ were the key adaptive mechanisms of high salt-tolerance of A. venetum.

  12. Existing form and effect of zirconium in pure Mg, Mg-Yb, and Mg-Zn-Yb alloys

    YU Wenbin; HE Hong; LI Chunmei; LI Qing; LIU Zhiyi; QIN Bing


    The existing form and grain refining effects of small zirconium addition in pure Mg, Mg-Yb and Mg-Zn binary alloys, and Mg-Zn-Yb ternary alloy (ZK60-Yb) were investigated. The results show that Zr element exists mainly in single and cluster particles of pure α-Zr or Zn-Zr compounds inside grains and at grain boundaries. Only the particles located in the interior of grains can act as the nucleus for α-Mg growth and effectively promote the formation of Fine equiaxed grains. The broken and dispersed Zr-rich particles produced during the hot extrusion process can form nebulous banded structure in which these free particles may act as obstacles to dislocation motion in wrought magnesium alloys.

  13. Bayesian Network Classifier Based on L1 Regularization%基于L1正则化的贝叶斯网络分类器

    王影; 王浩; 俞奎; 姚宏亮


    Variable order-based Bayesian network classifiers ignore the information of the selected variables in their sequence and their class label, which significantly hurts the classification accuracy. To address this problem, we proposed a simple and efficient LI regularized Bayesian network classifier (Ll-BNC). Through adjusting the constraint value of Lasso and fully taking advantage of the regression residuals of the information, Ll-BNC takes the information of the sequence of selected variables and the class label into account,and then generates an excellent variable ordering sequence (LI regularization path) for constructing a good Bayesian network classifier by the K2 algorithm. Experimental results show that Ll-BNC outperforms existing state-of-the-art Bayesian network classifiers. In addition, in comparison with SVM.Knn and J48 classification algorithms,Ll-BNC is also superior to those algorithms on most datasets.%目前基于节点排序的贝叶斯网络分类器忽略了节点序列中已选变量和类标签之间的信息,导致分类器的准确率很难进一步提高.针对这个问题,提出了一种简单高效的贝叶斯网络分类器的学习算法:L1正则化的贝叶斯网络分类器(L1-BNC).通过调整Lasso方法中的约束值,充分利用回归残差的信息,结合点序列中已选变量和类标签的信息,形成一条优秀的有序变量拓扑序列(L1正则化路径);基于该序列,利用K2算法生成优良的贝叶斯网络分类器.实验表明,L1-BNC在分类精度上优于已有的贝叶斯网络分类器.L1-BNC也与SVM,KNN和J48分类算法进行了比较,在大部分数据集上,L1-BNC优于这些算法.

  14. A Review of Fast l1-Minimization Algorithms for Robust Face Recognition

    Yang, Allen Y; Zhou, Zihan; Sastry, S Shankar; Ma, Yi


    l1-minimization refers to finding the minimum l1-norm solution to an underdetermined linear system b=Ax. It has recently received much attention, mainly motivated by the new compressive sensing theory that shows that under quite general conditions the minimum l1-norm solution is also the sparsest solution to the system of linear equations. Although the underlying problem is a linear program, conventional algorithms such as interior-point methods suffer from poor scalability for large-scale real world problems. A number of accelerated algorithms have been recently proposed that take advantage of the special structure of the l1-minimization problem. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of five representative approaches, namely, Gradient Projection, Homotopy, Iterative Shrinkage-Thresholding, Proximal Gradient, and Augmented Lagrange Multiplier. The work is intended to fill in a gap in the existing literature to systematically benchmark the performance of these algorithms using a consistent experimen...

  15. Polymorphic L1 retrotransposons are frequently in strong linkage disequilibrium with neighboring SNPs.

    Higashino, Saneyuki; Ohno, Tomoyuki; Ishiguro, Koichi; Aizawa, Yasunori


    L1 retrotransposons have been the major driver of structural variation of the human genome. L1 insertion polymorphism (LIP)-mediated genomic variation can alter the transcriptome and contribute to the divergence of human phenotypes. To assess this possibility, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including LIPs is required. Toward this ultimate goal, the present study examined linkage disequilibrium between six LIPs and their neighboring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genomic PCR and sequencing of L1-plus and -minus alleles from different donors revealed that all six LIPs were in strong linkage disequilibrium with at least one SNP. In addition, comparison of syntenic regions containing the identified SNP nucleotides was performed among modern humans (L1-plus and -minus alleles), archaic humans and non-human primates, revealing two different evolutionary schemes that might have resulted in the observed strong SNP-LIP linkage disequilibria. This study provides an experimental framework and guidance for a future SNP-LIP integrative GWAS.

  16. Hydrography - MO 2014 Class L1 Lake Watersheds WQS TableG (SHP)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This feature class contains watersheds for Class L1 lakes listed in Table G - Lake Classifications and Use Designations of the Water Quality Standards rule published...

  17. EX1404L1 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1404L1: Shakedown and Mapping, NE...

  18. Batch gradient method with smoothing L1/2 regularization for training of feedforward neural networks.

    Wu, Wei; Fan, Qinwei; Zurada, Jacek M; Wang, Jian; Yang, Dakun; Liu, Yan


    The aim of this paper is to develop a novel method to prune feedforward neural networks by introducing an L1/2 regularization term into the error function. This procedure forces weights to become smaller during the training and can eventually removed after the training. The usual L1/2 regularization term involves absolute values and is not differentiable at the origin, which typically causes oscillation of the gradient of the error function during the training. A key point of this paper is to modify the usual L1/2 regularization term by smoothing it at the origin. This approach offers the following three advantages: First, it removes the oscillation of the gradient value. Secondly, it gives better pruning, namely the final weights to be removed are smaller than those produced through the usual L1/2 regularization. Thirdly, it makes it possible to prove the convergence of the training. Supporting numerical examples are also provided.

  19. Approximation methods of mixed l 1/H2 optimization problems for MIMO discrete-time systems



    The mixed l1/H2 optimization problem for MIMO (multiple input-multiple output) discrete-time systems is eonsidered. This problem is formulated as minimizing the l1-norm of a dosed-loop transfer matrix while maintaining the H2-norm of another closed-loop transfer matrix at prescribed level. The continuity property of the optimal value in respect to changes in the H2-norm constraint is studied. The existence of the optimal solutions of mixed l1/H2 problem is proved. Becatse the solution of the mixed l1/H2 problem is based on the scaled-Q method, it avoids the zero interpolation difficulties. The convergent upper and lower bounds can be obtained by solving a sequence of finite dimensional nonlinear programming for which many efficient numerical optimization algorithms exist.

  20. Robust L1 filtering with pole constraint in a disk via parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions

    Li Yanhui; Wen Qiyong; Wang Junling; Wang Changhong; Gao Huijun


    The problem of robust L1 filtering with pole constraint in a disk for linear continuous polytopic uncertain systems is discussed. The attention is focused on design a linear asymptotically stable filter such that the filtering error system remains robustly stable, and has a L1 performance constraint and pole constraint in a disk. The new robust L1 performance criteria and regional pole placement condition are obtained via parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions method. Upon the proposed multiobjective performance criteria and by means of LMI technique, both full-order and reducedorder robust L1 filter with suitable dynamic behavior can be obtained from the solution of convex optimization problems.Compared with earlier result in the quadratic framework, this approach turns out to be less conservative. The efficiency of the proposed technique is demonstrated by a numerical example.

  1. EX1504L1 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L1: CAPSTONE NWHI & Johnston...

  2. The effects of Ganoderma lucidum herba pharmacopuncture on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation

    Chea-woo Lee


    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Ganoderma lucidum herba pharmacopuncture (GHP on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Methods : 3T3- L1 preadipocytes were differentiated with adipogenic reagents by incubating for 2 days in the absence or presence of GHP ranging from 1 and 2%. The effect of GHP on cell proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was investigated using MTT assay. The effect of GHP on adipogenesis was examined by Oil red O staining and measuring glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH and intracellular triglyceride (TG content. Results : Following results were obtained from the preadipocyte proliferation and adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1. We observed no effect of GHP on preadipocyte proliferation. GHP inhibited adipogenesis, the activity of GPDH and accumulation of intracellular TG content. Conclusions : These results suggest that GHP inhibit differentiation of preadipocyte.

  3. Crystal structure of lipoate-bound lipoate ligase 1, LipL1, from Plasmodium falciparum.

    Guerra, Alfredo J; Afanador, Gustavo A; Prigge, Sean T


    Plasmodium falciparum lipoate protein ligase 1 (PfLipL1) is an ATP-dependent ligase that belongs to the biotin/lipoate A/B protein ligase family (PFAM PF03099). PfLipL1 is the only known canonical lipoate ligase in Pf and functions as a redox switch between two lipoylation routes in the parasite mitochondrion. Here, we report the crystal structure of a deletion construct of PfLipL1 (PfLipL1Δ243-279 ) bound to lipoate, and validate the lipoylation activity of this construct in both an in vitro lipoylation assay and a cell-based lipoylation assay. This characterization represents the first step in understanding the redox dependence of the lipoylation mechanism in malaria parasites. Proteins 2017; 85:1777-1783. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A study of the universal threshold in the L1 recovery by statistical mechanics

    Takeda, Koujin


    We discuss the universality of the L1 recovery threshold in compressed sensing. Previous studies in the fields of statistical mechanics and random matrix integration have shown that L1 recovery under a random matrix with orthogonal symmetry has a universal threshold. This indicates that the threshold of L1 recovery under a non-orthogonal random matrix differs from the universal one. Taking this into account, we use a simple random matrix without orthogonal symmetry, where the random entries are not independent, and show analytically that the threshold of L1 recovery for such a matrix does not coincide with the universal one. The results of an extensive numerical experiment are in good agreement with the analytical results, which validates our methodology. Though our analysis is based on replica heuristics in statistical mechanics and is not rigorous, the findings nevertheless support the fact that the universality of the threshold is strongly related to the symmetry of the random matrix.

  5. Assay for the pattern recognition molecule collectin liver 1 (CL-L1)

    Axelgaard, Esben; Jensenius, Jens Christian; Thiel, Steffen

    Collectin liver 1 (also termed collectin 10 and CL-L1) is a C-type lectin that functions as a pattern recognition molecule (PRM) in the innate immune system1. We have produced antibodies against CL-L1 and have developed a sandwich-type time-resolved immuno-fluorometric assay (TRIFMA...... to co-purify with MASPs, possibly rendering it a role in complement. CL-L1 showed binding activity towards mannose-TSK beads in a Ca2+-dependent manner. This binding could be inhibited by mannose and glucose, but not by galactose, indicating that CL-L1 binds via its carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD)....

  6. TES/Aura L1B Spectra Special Observation Low Resolution V004

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The L1B Low Resolution granule consists of radiometrically calibrated spectra & associated NESR, observed at 0.1 cm-1 resolution for a Special Observation &...

  7. TES/Aura L1B Spectra Special Observation Low Resolution V003

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The L1B Low Resolution granule consists of radiometrically calibrated spectra & associated NESR, observed at 0.1 cm-1 resolution for a Special Observation &...

  8. TES/Aura L1B Spectra Special Observation Low Resolution V005

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The L1B Low Resolution granule consists of radiometrically calibrated spectra & associated NESR, observed at 0.1 cm-1 resolution for a Special Observation &...

  9. Exactly Recovering Low-Rank Matrix in Linear Time via $l_1$ Filter

    Liu, Risheng; Su, Zhixun


    Recovering a low rank matrix from corrupted data, which is known as Robust PCA, has attracted considerable interests in recent years. This problem can be exactly solved by a combined nuclear norm and $l_1$ norm minimization. However, due to the computational burden of SVD inherent with the nuclear norm minimization, traditional methods suffer from high computational complexity, especially for large scale datasets. In this paper, inspired by digital filtering idea in image processing, we propose a novel algorithm, named $l_1$ Filter, for solving Robust PCA with linear cost. The $l_1$ Filter is defined by a seed, which is a exactly recovered small submatrix of the underlying low rank matrix. By solving some $l_1$ minimization problems in parallel, the full low rank matrix can be exactly recovered from corrupted observations with linear cost. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results exhibit that our method is an efficient way to exactly recovering low rank matrix in linear time.

  10. AMSR/ADEOS-II L1A Raw Observation Counts V002

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Data for the ADEOS-II Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer L1A product contain raw observation counts and conversion factors required to compute the antenna...

  11. EX1004L1 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1004L1: Exploration Indonesia - Guam to...

  12. TES/Aura L1B Spectra Special Observation High Resolution V004

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A L1B High Resolution granule consists of radiometrically calibrated spectra & associated NESR, observed at 0.025 cm-1 resolution for a Special Observation &...

  13. Assessment of catalase activity, lipid peroxidation, chlorophyll-a, and growth rate in the freshwater green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata exposed to copper and zinc Evaluación de la actividad de la catalasa, peroxidación lipídica, clorofila-a y tasa de crecimiento en la alga verde de agua dulce Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata expuesta a cobre y zinc

    Paulina Soto


    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of copper and zinc on green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata was evaluated through catalase activity, lipid peroxidation by TBARS essay, growth rate, and the chlorophyll-a concentration. Catalase activity increased significantly (P En este trabajo, se evaluó el efecto del cobre y zinc en la alga verde Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata a través de la actividad catalasa, peroxidación lipídica por el ensayo TBARS, tasa de crecimiento y concentración de clorofila-a. La actividad catalasa aumentó significativamente (P < 0,05 en comparación al control en 0,1 mg L-1 y 0,075 mg L-1 de cobre y zinc respectivamente, mientras que el daño en la membrana celular expresado en nanomols/10(6 células de malondialdehído aumentó significativamente en 0,025 mg L-1 y 0,1 mg L-1 de cobre y zinc respectivamente. Por otra parte, hubo una disminución significativa (P < 0,05 en la concentración de clorofila-a en ambos metales a 0,075 mgL-1. Los resultados mostrados en actividad catalasa, peroxidación lipídica y concentración de clorofila-a son parámetros más sensibles que la tasa de crecimiento a los metales.

  14. Characterization of an upstream regulatory element of adenovirus L1 poly (A) site.

    Liu, Li


    The transition from early to late stage infection by adenovirus involves a change in mRNA expression from the adenovirus major late transcription unit (AdMLTU). This early to late switch centers around alternative selection of one of five poly (A) sites (L1-L5) that code for the major structural proteins of Adenovirus. During the early stage of infection, steady state mRNA is primarily derived from the L1 poly (A) site. During the late stage of infection, each of the MLTU poly (A) sites is represented in the steady state mRNA pool (Falck-Pedersen, E., Logan, J., 1989. Regulation of poly(A) site selection in adenovirus. J. Virol. 63 (2), 532-541.). Using transient transfection of a plasmid expressing Chloramphenicol Acetyl Transferase with a tandem poly (A) minigene system (L13) (DeZazzo, J.D., Falck-Pedersen, E., Imperiale, M.J., 1991. Sequences regulating temporal poly(A) site switching in the adenovirus major late transcription unit. Mol. Cell. Biol. 11 (12), 5977-5984; Prescott, J., Falck-Pedersen, E., 1994. Sequence elements upstream of the 3' cleavage site confer substrate strength to the adenovirus L1 and L3 polyadenylation sites. Mol. Cell. Biol. 14 (7), 4682-4693.), it has been demonstrated that the promoter-proximal L1 poly (A) site which is poorly recognized by the 3' end processing machinery, contains an upstream repressor element (URE) that influences steady state levels of mRNA (Prescott, J.C., Liu, L., Falck-Pedersen, E., 1997. Sequence-mediated regulation of adenovirus gene expression by repression of mRNA accumulation. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (4), 2207-2216.). In this study, we have further characterized the elements that mediate L1URE function. These studies indicate that the L1 upstream regulatory element (L1 URE) contains a complex RNA architecture that serves to repress gene expression through multiple sub-effectors. The L1URE functions when located upstream of a heterologous poly (A) site, and is able to strongly suppress steady state m

  15. Effects of selected essential oils on the growth and production of ochratoxin A by Penicillium verrucosum.

    Jeršek, Barbara; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Skrt, Mihaela; Gavarić, Neda; Božin, Biljana; Smole Možina, Sonja


    Essential oils from oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), and pine (Abies alba Mill.) needles and cones, and their active substances thymol, carvacrol, menthol, and anisaldehyde were tested for antifungal activity against Penicillium verrucosum. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were achieved for essential oil of oregano, followed by carvacrol, thymol, and menthol. These antifungal components were further investigated, as the main aim of our study was to elucidate the effect of natural antifungals on ochratoxin A production. During 21 days of exposure, the growth of P. verrucosum, and subsequently the production of ochratoxin A, was fully inhibited by thymol at ½ MIC (0.0625 mg mL-1), but menthol at ¼ and ½ MIC (0.1875 and 3750 mg mL-1) showed no growth inhibition. After 21 days of incubation, the greatest inhibitory effect on ochratoxin production (inhibition was 96.9 %) was also achieved with thymol at ¼ MIC (0.0313 mg mL-1). Essential oil of oregano (¼ MIC, 0.2930 μL mL-1) and carvacrol (½ MIC, 0.1953 μL mL-1) stimulate production of ochratoxin A at 13.9 % to 28.8 %, respectively. The observed antifungal effects depended on the agent, the concentration used, and the time of interaction between the agent and P. verrucosum. Our results indicate the possibility of using oregano essential oil as a substitute for artificial preservatives in certain foods, but further research is needed.

  16. L1 Use in EFL Classes with English-only Policy: Insights from Triangulated Data

    Seyyed Hatam Tamimi Sa’d


    Full Text Available This study examines the role of the use of the L1 in EFL classes from the perspective of EFL learners. The triangulated data were collected using class observations, focus group semi-structured interviews and the learners’ written reports of their perceptions and attitudes in a purpose-designed questionnaire. The participants consisted of sixty male Iranian EFL learners who constituted three classes. The results indicated a strong tendency among the participants toward L1 and its positive effects on language learning; while only a minority of the learners favoured an English-only policy, the majority supported the judicious, limited and occasional use of the L1, particularly on the part of the teacher. The participants mentioned the advantages as well as the disadvantages of the use/non-use of the L1. While the major advantage and the main purpose of L1 use was said to be the clarification and intelligibility of instructions, grammatical and lexical items, the main advantages of avoiding it were stated as being the improvement of speaking and listening skills, aximizing learners’ exposure to English and their becoming accustomed to it. The study concludes that, overall and in line with the majority of the previous research studies, a judicious, occasional and limited use of the L1 is a better approach to take in EFL classes than to include or exclude it totally. In conclusion, a re-examination of the English-only policy and a reconsideration of the role of the L1 are recommended. Finally, the commonly held assumption that L1 is a hindrance and an impediment to the learners’ language learning is challenged.

  17. A sensitive RNase protection assay to detect transcripts from potentially functional human endogenous L1 retrotransposons

    Woodcock, D M; Williamson, M R; Doherty, J P


    A high background of read-through transcripts from degenerate human L1 retrotransposons is present in almost all human cell types. This prevents the detection of RNA transcripts from potentially functional elements. To overcome this, we have developed an RNase protection assay based on the recons...... transcripts from divergent L1 families but are either discrete shorter transcripts or specifically processed products from longer initial transcripts....

  18. Intonational differences between L1 and L2 english in South Africa.

    Swerts, Marc; Zerbian, Sabine


    Previous studies have shown that characteristics of a person's first language (L1) may transfer to a second language (L2). The current study looks at the extent to which this holds for aspects of intonation as well. More specifically, we investigate to what extent traces of the L1 can be discerned in the way intonation is used in the L2 for two functions: (1) to highlight certain words by making them sound more prominent and (2) to signal continuation or finality in a list by manipulating the speech melody. To this end, the article presents an explorative study into the way focus and boundaries are marked prosodically in Zulu, and it also compares such prosodic functions in two variants of English in South Africa, i.e., English spoken as an L1, and English spoken as an L2/additional language by speakers who have Zulu as their L1. The latter language is commonly referred to as Black South African English. This comparison is interesting from a typological perspective, as Zulu is intonationally different from English, especially in the way prosody is exploited for signalling informationally important stretches of speech. Using a specific elicitation procedure, we found in a first study that speakers of South African English (as L1) mark focused words and position within a list by intonational means, just as in other L1 varieties of English, whereas Zulu only uses intonation for marking continuity or finality. A second study focused on speakers of Black South African English, and compared the prosody of proficient versus less proficient speakers. We found that the proficient speakers were perceptually equivalent to L1 speakers of English in their use of intonation for marking focus and boundaries. The less proficient speakers marked boundaries in a similar way as L1 speakers of English, but did not use prosody for signalling focus, analogous to what is typical of their native language. Acoustic observations match these perceptual results.

  19. High-dose Resveratrol Inhibits Insulin Signaling Pathway in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Lee, Haemi; Kim, Jae-Woo


    Background Insulin resistance is a major factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and is associated with central obesity and glucose intolerance. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in fruits, has been shown to improve metabolic conditions. Although it has been widely studied how resveratrol affects metabolism, little is known about how resveratrol regulates lipogenesis with insulin signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: We treated differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes with resveratrol to obs...

  20. High-dose Resveratrol Inhibits Insulin Signaling Pathway in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Lee, Haemi; Kim, Jae-Woo


    Background Insulin resistance is a major factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and is associated with central obesity and glucose intolerance. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in fruits, has been shown to improve metabolic conditions. Although it has been widely studied how resveratrol affects metabolism, little is known about how resveratrol regulates lipogenesis with insulin signaling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: We treated differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes with resveratrol to obs...

  1. Uncoupling of 3T3-L1 gene expression from lipid accumulation during adipogenesis

    Temple, Karla A.; Basko, Xheni; Allison, Margaret B.; Brady, Matthew J.


    Adipocyte differentiation comprises altered gene expression and increased triglyceride storage. To investigate the interdependency of these two events, 3T3-L1 cells were differentiated in the presence of glucose or pyruvate. All adipocytic proteins examined were similarly increased between the two conditions. In contrast, 3T3-L1 adipocytes differentiated with glucose exhibited significant lipid accumulation, which was largely suppressed in the presence of pyruvate. Subsequent addition of gluc...

  2. Hypomethylation of L1 retrotransposons in colorectal cancer and adjacent normal tissue.

    Suter, Catherine M; Martin, David I; Ward, Robyn L


    Malignant cells often exhibit perturbations in the pattern of cytosine methylation. Hypermethylation of CpG islands has been extensively documented, but genome-wide hypomethylation is also a common feature of malignant cells. The bulk of cytosine methylation in the mammalian genome occurs on repetitive elements. This study analysed the methylation status of L1 retrotransposons in colorectal cancer. Methylation-sensitive Southern blotting was used to determine L1 promoter methylation in colon tumours, adjacent normal tissue, and normal colonic mucosa from healthy individuals. Hypomethylation of L1 promoter sequences was detected in all tumours but was also detected in the histologically normal colonic mucosa of 6 of 19 cancer patients, even at a considerable distance from the tumour. L1 hypomethylation was not detected in matched normal peripheral blood, lymph node or smooth muscle tissue from cancer patients or in the colonic mucosa of 14 healthy individuals. We also assayed for the total proportion of methylated CpG in normal bowel specimens from normal and colon cancer patients. Normal mucosa from cancer patients exhibited lower levels of genomic methylation than the mucosa from healthy individuals, and levels were significantly lower in those patients exhibiting L1 promoter hypomethylation. These results suggest that genomic hypomethylation is an early event in tumourigenesis. Progressive demethylation of L1 promoter sequences could lead to disturbance of normal gene expression and facilitate the process of neoplastic progression.

  3. Characterization of an RNA aptamer against HPV-16 L1 virus-like particles.

    Leija-Montoya, Ana Gabriela; Benítez-Hess, María Luisa; Toscano-Garibay, Julia Dolores; Alvarez-Salas, Luis Marat


    The human papillomavirus (HPV) capsid is mainly composed of the L1 protein that can self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) that are structurally and immunologically similar to the infectious virions. We report here the characterization of RNA aptamers that recognize baculovirus-produced HPV-16 L1 VLPs. Interaction and slot-blot binding assays showed that all isolated aptamers efficiently bound HPV-16 VLPs, although the Sc5-c3 aptamer showed the highest specificity and affinity (Kd=0.05 pM). Sc5-c3 secondary structure consisted of a hairpin with a symmetric bubble and an unstructured 3'end. Biochemical and genetic analyses showed that the Sc5-c3 main loop is directly involved on VLPs binding. In particular, binding specificity appeared mediated by five non-consecutive nucleotide positions. Experiments using bacterial-produced HPV-16 L1 resulted in low Sc5-c3 binding, suggesting that recognition of HPV-16 L1 VLPs relies on quaternary structure features not present in bacteria-produced L1 protein. Sc5-c3 produced specific and stable binding to HPV-16 L1 VLPs even in biofluid protein mixes and thus it may provide a potential diagnostic tool for active HPV infection.

  4. CHI3L1 nuclear localization in monocyte derived dendritic cells.

    Di Rosa, Michelino; Tibullo, Daniele; Saccone, Salvatore; Distefano, Gisella; Basile, Maria Sofia; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Malaguarnera, Lucia


    Chitinase-3-like-1 protein (CHI3L1) is a glycosyl hydrolase (GH) highly expressed in a variety of inflammatory diseases at infectious and non-infectious etiology. CHI3L1 is produced by a wide variety of cells including monocyte-derived macrophages cell lines such as polarized M1 and M2 type macrophages, osteoclasts and Kupffer cells. In this study we have examined the expression of CHI3L1 during the differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells. Magnetically-isolated peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated toward immature DCs (iDC) and mature DCs (mDCs) through a combination of factors and cytokines. Our result showed, for the first time, that CHI3L1 is expressed during the process of differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells in time dependent manner. Furthermore, the CHI3L1 is evenly distributed in cytoplasm and in the nucleus of both the iDCs and mDCs. These results suggest that CHI3L1 may play crucial role in the DCs immunoresponse.

  5. On the Effects of L2 on Iranian Bilinguals’ L1 Writing Ability

    Hessam Agheshteh


    Full Text Available While the effects of L1 on L2 have been extensively investigated, the effects of L2 on L1 have been largely ignored. The present study attempted to address this issue by investigating the effects of L2 English on Iranian Bilinguals’ L1 writing ability. For this end, 61 participants, 30 bilinguals and 31 monolinguals, were assessed on an essay-writing test in their L1. The gathered data were analyzed using independent samples t-test in which the tobs (2.37 was higher than the critical value (2.00 at the significance level of 0.05. The bilinguals, as indicated by the results of the independent samples t-test, performed better than the monolinguals on their L1 writing ability indicating the positive effects bilingualism, here English, could have even on L1 writing ability, which provides more evidence for cross-linguistic influence. Keywords: Bilingualism, cross-linguistic influence, monolingualism

  6. The Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Method with the Use of l-[1-13C]Leucine Suggests a Higher than Currently Recommended Protein Requirement in Children with Phenylketonuria.

    Turki, Abrar; Ueda, Keiko; Cheng, Barbara; Giezen, Alette; Salvarinova, Ramona; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Elango, Rajavel


    Phenylketonuria is characterized by mutations in the Phe hydroxylase gene that leads to the accumulation of Phe in plasma and the brain. The standard of care for phenylketonuria is nutritional management with dietary restriction of Phe and the provision of sufficient protein and energy for growth and health maintenance. The protein requirement in children with phenylketonuria is empirically determined based upon phenylketonuria nutritional guidelines that are adjusted individually in response to biochemical markers and growth. We determined dietary protein requirements in children with phenylketonuria with the use of the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique, with l-[1-(13)C]Leu as the indicator amino acid. Four children (2 males; 2 females) aged 9-18 y with phenylketonuria [mild hyperphenylalanemia (mHPA); 6-10 mg/dL (360-600 μmol/L)] were recruited to participate in ≥7 separate test protein intakes (range: 0.2-3.2 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1)) with the IAAO protocol with the use of l-[1-(13)C]Leu followed by the collection of breath and urine samples over 8 h. The diets were isocaloric and provided energy at 1.7 times the resting energy expenditure. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on an egg protein pattern, except Phe and Leu, which were maintained at a constant across intakes. Protein requirement was determined with the use of a 2-phase linear-regression crossover analysis of the rate of l-[1-(13)C]Leu tracer oxidation. The mean protein requirement was determined to be 1.85 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1) (R(2) = 0.66; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.33). This result is substantially higher than the 2014 phenylketonuria recommendations (1.14-1.33 g ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ d(-1); based on 120-140% above the current RDA for age). To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly define a quantitative requirement for protein intake in children with mHPA and indicates that current protein recommendations in children with phenylketonuria may be insufficient

  7. Trailing or paradoxical growth of Aspergillus flavus exposed to caspofungin is independent of genotype.

    Hadrich, Inès; Neji, Sourour; Makni, Fattouma; Ayadi, Ali; Elloumi, Moez; Ranque, Stéphane


    There are limited data on in vitro susceptibility testing of echinocandins against Aspergillus species. The objective of this study was to describe the phenotypes of Aspergillus flavus observed on exposure to caspofungin in vitro and to test whether these phenotypes were associated with A. flavus genotypes. The caspofungin MICs of 37 A. flavus clinical isolates collected from 14 patients with invasive aspergillosis were determined using Etest assays. Caspofungin MICs ranged from 0.012 to 0.064 mg l(-1); the modal MIC was 0.023 mg l(-1) and the MIC₅₀ and MIC₉₀ were 0.032 and 0.064 mg l(-1), respectively. A clear end point was noted in 24 (65 %) isolates, whereas seven (19 %) displayed a trailing effect and six (16 %) showed paradoxical growth when exposed to caspofungin. In these A. flavus isolates, the absence of a significant population structure or genetic differentiation indicated that trailing or paradoxical growth phenotypes were independent of microsatellite genotype.

  8. Role of Rhizophagus irregularis in alleviating cadmium toxicity via improving the growth, micro- and macroelements uptake in Phragmites australis.

    Wang, Li; Huang, Xiaochen; Ma, Fang; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Wu, Jieting; Zhu, Shishu


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been used to alleviate heavy metal stress on plant growth and uptake of micro- and macroelements. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to verify the effects of AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis on the growth, physiological characteristics, total Cd, and element uptake of Phragmites australis under different Cd stress (in the range of 0-20 mg L(-1)). The results showed that the symbiosis could effectively alleviate Cd toxicity with greater root biomass, higher photosynthesis rate, and lower levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and proline than non-mycorrhizal plants could. However, reduced transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (g s) indicated R. irregularis protected host plants from Cd stress (≥5 mg L(-1)) via the stomatal closure. Although micro- and macroelements displayed differently in the presence of Cd, higher concentrations were still detected in mycorrhizal plants in contrast to non-mycorrhizal plants. Moreover, step multiple regression significantly demonstrated Pnmax, stem diameter (Sd), and g s were the important factors with regard to total Cd uptake in the symbiosis, but Mn affected to non-mycorrhizal plants. These results suggested R. irregularis could alleviate the competition between Mn and Cd by altering plant physiology. This work clearly demonstrated that R. irregularis can be able to support P. australis growth better even though under high Cd stress (>1 mg L(-1)), suggesting its good potential for practical use in high Cd-contaminated areas.

  9. Illudins C2 and C3 stimulate lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and suppress adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    Kim, Sun-Ok; Sakchaisri, Krisada; Asami, Yukihiro; Ryoo, In-Ja; Choo, Soo-Jin; Yoo, Ick-Dong; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Kim, Young Sang; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Kim, Bo Yeon; Ahn, Jong Seog


    The secondary metabolites illudins C2 (1) and C3 (2), obtained from the culture broth of Coprinus atramentarius, have been shown to possess antimicrobial activity. In the present study, we discovered novel biological activities of 1 and 2 in lipolysis of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit a dose-dependent increase in glycerol release and thereby reduce intracellular lipid accumulation. The stimulatory effects of 1 and 2 on lipolysis are prevented by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitors. Compounds 1 and 2 down-regulated perilipin and also affected the mRNA and protein levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). However, 1 and 2 treatment leads to a significant increase in PKA-mediated phosphorylation of HSL at S563 and S660. In addition, 1 and 2 treatment in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes induces down-regulation of the critical transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α and β (C/EBPα and C/EBPβ), and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), which are required for adipogenesis, and accordingly inhibits adipogenesis. These results suggest that 1 and 2 might be useful for treating obesity due to their modulatory effects on fat by affecting adipocyte differentiation and fat mobilization.

  10. Bioinformatics and molecular dynamics simulation study of L1 stalk non-canonical rRNA elements: kink-turns, loops, and tetraloops.

    Krepl, Miroslav; Réblová, Kamila; Koča, Jaroslav; Sponer, Jiří


    The L1 stalk is a prominent mobile element of the large ribosomal subunit. We explore the structure and dynamics of its non-canonical rRNA elements, which include two kink-turns, an internal loop, and a tetraloop. We use bioinformatics to identify the L1 stalk RNA conservation patterns and carry out over 11.5 μs of MD simulations for a set of systems ranging from isolated RNA building blocks up to complexes of L1 stalk rRNA with the L1 protein and tRNA fragment. We show that the L1 stalk tetraloop has an unusual GNNA or UNNG conservation pattern deviating from major GNRA and YNMG RNA tetraloop families. We suggest that this deviation is related to a highly conserved tertiary contact within the L1 stalk. The available X-ray structures contain only UCCG tetraloops which in addition differ in orientation (anti vs syn) of the guanine. Our analysis suggests that the anti orientation might be a mis-refinement, although even the anti interaction would be compatible with the sequence pattern and observed tertiary interaction. Alternatively, the anti conformation may be a real substate whose population could be pH-dependent, since the guanine syn orientation requires protonation of cytosine in the tertiary contact. In absence of structural data, we use molecular modeling to explore the GCCA tetraloop that is dominant in bacteria and suggest that the GCCA tetraloop is structurally similar to the YNMG tetraloop. Kink-turn Kt-77 is unusual due to its 11-nucleotide bulge. The simulations indicate that the long bulge is a stalk-specific eight-nucleotide insertion into consensual kink-turn only subtly modifying its structural dynamics. We discuss a possible evolutionary role of helix H78 and a mechanism of L1 stalk interaction with tRNA. We also assess the simulation methodology. The simulations provide a good description of the studied systems with the latest bsc0χOL3 force field showing improved performance. Still, even bsc0χOL3 is unable to fully stabilize an essential

  11. [Effect of different plant growth regulators on yield and quality of Angelica dahurica var. formosana development].

    Hou, Kai; Chen, Jun-Wen; Zhai, Juan-Yuan; Shen, Hao; Chen, Li; Wu, Wei


    To investigate the effect of plant growth regulators on the growth and quality of Angelica dahurica var. formosana. Five plant growth regulators: chlormequat chloride (CCC), Mepiquat chloride (PIX), Gibberellic acid (GA3), Paclobutrazol (PP333) and Maleic Hydrazide (MH) were sprayed in rosette stage, the effects of these plant growth regulators (PGRs) on the growth, yield and quality of A. dahurica var. formosanaw were observed. The biological traits were first measured and then imperatorin and isoimperatorin contents in roots were determined by HPLC. Low concentration GA3 increased the yield while not influenced the premature bolting rate and the coumarin content. Spraying of GA3 (30 mg x L(-1)) could guarantee the growth and development of A. dahurica var. formosana to have a higher yield and maintain the active ingredients content in the root as well.

  12. N and P addition inhibits growth of rich fen bryophytes

    Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Riis, Tenna


    vernicosus and paludella squarrosa) rich fen bryophytes were grown in mixed culture and subjected to rainwater or groundwater and three levels of N (0, 1 and 3 mg N L-1) and P (0, 0.05 and 0.1 mg P NL-1). All species responded negatively to higher N-levels and three of four species responded negatively...... to rainwater and higher P-levels. C. cuspidata had highest relative growth rate in all treatments, and the infrequently occurringrare species had lower relative growth rate and were more negatively affected by high levels of N than the frequently occurringcommon species. A negative effect of rainwater seemed...... to be caused by higher background levels of N in rainwater compared to groundwater rather than a pH-effect per se. We found a negative effect of high initial bryophyte density in three of four species indicating density dependent inhibition between species.We suggest that maintenance of oligotrophic conditions...

  13. Highly (001) oriented L1{sub 0}-CoPt/TiN multilayer films on glass substrates with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    An, Hongyu; Sannomiya, Takumi; Muraishi, Shinji; Nakamura, Yoshio; Shi, Ji, E-mail: [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Xie, Qian; Zhang, Zhengjun [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jian [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)


    To obtain strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) based on L1{sub 0} structure for magnetic storage devices, costly single crystalline substrates are generally required to achieve (001) texture. Recently, various studies also have focused on depositing different kinds of seed layers on glass or other amorphous substrates to promote (001) preferred orientation of L1{sub 0} CoPt and FePt. TiN is a very promising seed layer material because of its cubic crystalline structure (similar to MgO) and excellent diffusion barring property even at high temperatures. In the present work, highly (001) oriented L1{sub 0}-CoPt/TiN multilayer films have been successfully deposited on glass substrates. After annealing at 700 °C, the film exhibits PMA, and a strong (001) peak is detected from the x-ray diffraction profiles, indicating the ordering transformation of CoPt layers from fcc (A1) to L1{sub 0} structure. It also is found that alternate deposition of cubic TiN and CoPt effectively improves the crystallinity and (001) preferred orientation of CoPt layers. This effect is verified by the substantial enhancement of (001) reflection and PMA with increasing the period number of the multilayer films.

  14. Depolymerized carrageenan ameliorates growth, physiological attributes, essential oil yield and active constituents of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

    Hashmi, Nadeem; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin; Idrees, Mohd; Khan, Zeba H; Ali, Akbar; Varshney, Lalit


    Irradiated carrageenan (IC) elicits an array of plant defense responses and biological activities in plants. An experiment was carried out in the naturally illuminated conditions of net house in order to assess the effects of foliar spray of IC on agricultural performance of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), which is a high-value essential oil bearing medicinal crop used in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. There were applied four IC concentrations (40, 60, 80 and 100 mg L(-1)) as foliar sprays. Application of IC significantly improved the growth attributes, physiological and biochemical parameters, essential oil yield and the contents of main components of essential oil of fennel. IC applied at 80 mg L(-1) enhanced these parameters maximally. Unirradiated carrageenan and deionized water had no effect on the attributes studied. Moreover, GLC analysis revealed a significant increase in the components of essential oil, viz. fenchone (4.48-7.82%) and anethole (78.38-86.08%) compared to the control.

  15. Microwave-assisted chemical reduction routes for direct synthesis of (fct) L1 phase of Fe-Pt.

    Acharya, Smita; Singh, Kamal


    Microwave-assisted chemical reduction route has been explored for the direct synthesis of fct L1(0) - phase of Fe-Pt nanoparticles in the present work. Effects of microwave power and irradiation time on the growth process are systematically studied. Using this facile and high yield technique we could tune particle size from 7 to 17 nm. Prepared Fe-Pt NPs exhibited ordered face centered tetragonal (fct) L1(0) phase without any post-synthesis treatment. The pa