Sample records for mg kg-1 ip

  1. Rapacuronium 2.0 or 2.5 mg kg(-1) for rapid-sequence induction : comparison with succinylcholine 1.0 mg kg(-1)

    Blobner, M; Mirakhur, RK; Wierda, JMKH; Wright, PMC; Olkkola, KT; Debaene, B; Pendeville, P; Engbaek, J; Rietbergen, H; Sparr, HJ


    The purpose of this nine-centre study in 602 patients was to show that the frequency of acceptable intubating conditions after rapacuronium 2.0 or 2.5 mg kg(-1) is not more than 10% lower than the frequency after succinylcholine 1.0 mg kg(-1) during rapid-sequence induction of anaesthesia with fenta

  2. Sugammadex 4.0 mg kg-1 reversal of deep rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade

    Yu, Buwei; Wang, Xiangrui; Hansen, Søren Helbo


    Objective: Maintenance of deep Neuro Muscular Blockade (NMB) until the end of surgery may be beneficial in some surgical procedures. The selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex rapidly reverses deep levels of rocuronium-induced NMB. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy...... and safety of sugammadex 4.0 mg kg-1 for reversal of deep rocuronium-induced NMB in Chinese and Caucasian patients. Methods: This was an open-label, multicenter, prospective Phase III efficacy study in adult American Society of Anesthesiologists Class 1-3 patients scheduled for surgery under general...... anesthesia and requiring deep NMB. All patients received intravenous propofol and opioids for induction and maintenance of anesthesia, and a single intubation dose of rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg, with maintenance doses of 0.1-0.2 mg/kg as required. Sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg was administered after the last dose...

  3. Efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of sugammadex 4 mg kg-1 for reversal of deep neuromuscular blockade in patients with severe renal impairment.

    Panhuizen, I F; Gold, S J A; Buerkle, C; Snoeck, M M J; Harper, N J N; Kaspers, M J G H; van den Heuvel, M W; Hollmann, M W


    This study evaluated efficacy and safety of sugammadex 4 mg kg(-1) for deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversal in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance [CLCR] Sugammadex 4 mg kg(-1) was administered at 1-2 post-tetanic counts for reversal of rocuronium NMB. Primary efficacy variable was time from sugammadex to recovery to train-of-four (T4/T1) ratio 0.9. Equivalence between groups was demonstrated if two-sided 95% CI for difference in recovery times was within -1 to +1 min interval. Pharmacokinetics of rocuronium and overall safety were assessed. The intent-to-treat group comprised 67 patients (renal n=35; control n=32). Median (95% CI) time from sugammadex to recovery to T4/T1 ratio 0.9 was 3.1 (2.4-4.6) and 1.9 (1.6-2.8) min for renal patients vs controls. Estimated median (95% CI) difference between groups was 1.3 (0.6-2.4) min; thus equivalence bounds were not met. One control patient experienced acceleromyography-determined NMB recurrence, possibly as a result of premature sugammadex (4 mg kg(-1)) administration, with no clinical evidence of NMB recurrence observed. Rocuronium, encapsulated by Sugammadex, was detectable in plasma at day 7 in 6 patients. Bioanalytical data for sugammadex were collected but could not be used for pharmacokinetics. Sugammadex 4 mg kg(-1) provided rapid reversal of deep rocuronium-induced NMB in renal and control patients. However, considering the prolonged sugammadex-rocuronium complex exposure in patients with severe renal impairment, current safety experience is insufficient to support recommended use of sugammadex in this population. NCT00702715. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  4. Postoperative impairment of motor function at train-of-four ratio ≥0.9 cannot be improved by sugammadex (1 mg kg-1).

    Baumüller, E; Schaller, S J; Chiquito Lama, Y; Frick, C G; Bauhofer, T; Eikermann, M; Fink, H; Blobner, M


    A train-of-four ratio (TOFR) ≥0.9 measured by quantitative neuromuscular monitoring is accepted as an indication of sufficient neuromuscular recovery for extubation, even though many postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors may still be inhibited. We investigated whether antagonism with sugammadex after spontaneous recovery to TOFR≥0.9 further improves muscle function or subjective well-being. Following recovery to TOFR≥0.9 and emergence from anaesthesia, 300 patients randomly received either sugammadex 1.0 mg kg(-1) or placebo. Fine motor function (Purdue Pegboard Test) and maximal voluntary grip strength were measured before and after surgery (before and after test drug administration). At discharge from the postanaesthesia care unit, well-being was assessed with numerical analogue scales and the Quality-of-Recovery Score 40 (QoR-40). Patients' fine motor function [6 (sd 4) vs 15 (3) pegs (30 s)(-1), Psugammadex or placebo, motor function was significantly improved in both groups but did not reach the preoperative level. There was no difference between groups at any time. Global well-being was unaffected (QoR-40: placebo, 174 vs 185; sugammadex, 175 vs 186, P>0.05). Antagonizing rocuronium at TOF≥0.9 with sugammadex 1.0 mg kg(-) (1) did not improve patients' motor function or well-being when compared with placebo. Our data support the view that TOFR≥0.9 measured by electromyography signifies sufficient recovery of neuromuscular function. The trial is registered at (NCT01101139). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  5. Children and parental anxiolysis in paediatric ambulatory surgery: a randomized controlled study comparing 0.3 mg kg-1 midazolam to tablet computer based interactive distraction.

    Marechal, C; Berthiller, J; Tosetti, S; Cogniat, B; Desombres, H; Bouvet, L; Kassai, B; Chassard, D; de Queiroz Siqueira, M


    The operating theatre, anaesthesia induction and separation from parents create fear and anxiety in children. Anxiety leads to adverse behavioral changes appearing and sometimes persisting during the postoperative period. Our aim was to compare the effects of midazolam (0.3 mg kg(-)(1): MDZ) for premedication with age-appropriate tablet game apps (TAB) on children anxiety during and after ambulatory surgery. A randomized controlled trial was conducted from May 16th, 2013 to March 25th, 2014 at the Children Hospital of Lyon. The primary outcome of this study was the change in m-YPAS score at the time of anaesthetic mask induction. Anxiety was also assessed in the waiting surgical area, at the time of separation with parents and when back in the ambulatory surgery ward. One hundred and eighteen patients aged four-11 yr were recruited, 60 in the TAB Group and 58 in the MDZ Group. Main endpoint was missing for three patients from the MDZ Group. At the time of mask induction, there was no significant difference between MDZ and TAB Group for the m-YPAS score (40.5 (18.6) vs 41.8 (20.7), P = 0.99). There was no significant correlation between m-YPAS score and its evolution over the four period of time between subjects. We were not able to show whether TAB is superior to MDZ to blunt anxiety in children undergoing ambulatory surgery. TAB is a non-pharmacological tool which has the capacity in reducing perioperative stress without any sedative effect in this population. NCT 02192710. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  6. Single doses of ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg-1: the most effective dosage in bancroftian filariasis.

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, L N; Cartel, J L


    Forty-three Wuchereria bancrofti carriers were given four successive semi-annual single doses of ivermectin 100 (IVER 100). The geometric mean microfilaremia (mf) recurrence percentage as compared to the pre-initial treatment mf level was 35%, 21%, 17% and 17% at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, respectively. However, the recurrence of mf 6 months after the fourth treatment remained high in several individuals: 15 have been considered as 'bad responders' and 28 as 'good responders' individuals. At month 24 (M 24), they were randomly allocated into 2 groups. A first group was treated with a fifty and a sixth dose of IVER 100, at M24 and M30, respectively; the second one was treated, at the same time, with single doses of IVER 400 (IVER 400). At M 36, the mf recurrence percentage (mf M36/mf M0) was significantly higher in patients treated with IVER 100 than IVER 400 (11% vs 1%, p < 10(-4). From the group IVER 100, 6 out of the 8 'bad responders' remained 'bad responders' whereas there were none of the 7 in the group IVER 400. Moreover, there were only 2 more patients in the group IVER 100 showing sustained complete zero mf, whereas they were 13 in the group IVER 400. Single doses of IVER 400 were effective on 'bad responders'; IVER 400 must be recommended for semi-annual mass treatment in bancroftian filariasis.

  7. Effects of the combination of decitabine and homoharringtonine in SKM-1 and Kg-1a cells.

    Geng, Suxia; Yao, Han; Weng, Jianyu; Tong, Jiaqi; Huang, Xin; Wu, Ping; Deng, Chengxin; Li, Minming; Lu, Zesheng; Du, Xin


    The methylation inhibitor decitabine (DAC) has great therapeutic value for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, DAC monotherapy is associated with relatively low rates of overall response and complete remission. Previous studies have shown promising results for combination treatment regimens including DAC. Homoharringtonine (HHT), an alkaloid from Chinese natural plants and Cephalotaxus, has demonstrated potential for leukemia treatment. Our studies have suggested that the combination of DAC and HHT has synergistic effects for inhibiting the viability of SKM-1 and Kg-1a cells. This combination leads to enhanced inhibition of colony formation and apoptosis induction compared with DAC alone in SKM-1 but not Kg-1a cells. Only high-dose DAC and HHT significantly up-regulate caspase-3 and caspase-9 and inhibit BCL-XL in the SKM-1 cell line. The combined effects of DAC plus HHT on apoptosis may not only depend on regulation of the apoptosis-related genes we examined but others as well. HHT had no demethylation effects, and HHT in combination with DAC had no enhanced effects on hypomethylation and DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B mRNA expression in SKM-1 cells. Overall, these results suggest that DAC used in combination with HHT may have clinical potential for MDS treatment.

  8. 白藜芦醇增强TRAIL对人髓系白血病KG-1a细胞的细胞毒作用%Resveratrol enhances cytotoxicity of TRAIL to human promyloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells

    胡亮杉; 孙茂本; 曾雅丽; 李玉华; 邓兰; 郭坤元


    目的:观察白藜芦醇作用前后TRAIL对人髓系白血病KG-1a细胞的细胞毒作用的变化.方法:流式细胞仪检测KG-1a细胞表面CD34 和CD38的表达,二甲氧唑黄(XTT)细胞增殖及细胞毒性检测试剂盒检测白藜芦醇作用前后TRAIL对KG-1a细胞增殖的影响,AnnexinV-FITC/PI染色流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡变化.流式细胞仪检测白藜芦醇作用前后KG-1a细胞表面TRAIL死亡受体表达变化.结果:人髓系白血病KG-1a细胞 CD34+CD38-占(58.67±2.87)%,10~1 000 ng/ml 的TRAIL对KG-1a细胞增殖无明显影响,但对白藜芦醇作用后的KG-1a细胞的增殖有明显抑制作用,白藜芦醇能促进TRAIL诱导KG-1a细胞凋亡,并能上调KG-1a细胞表面TRAIL死亡受体DR5的表达.结论:白藜芦醇能增强TRAIL对人髓系白血病KG-1a细胞的细胞毒作用,其机制可能与白藜芦醇上调KG-1a细胞表面TRAIL死亡受体DR5的表达有关.%Objective :To explore the cytotoxicity of TRAIL to human acute promyeloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells treated with resvera trol .Methods :The expression of CD34 and CD38 on the Surface of KG-1 cells was detected by flow cytometry ;The effects of various concentration TRAIL on proliferation of KG-1a cells treated with or without resveratrol were analyzed by XTT cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assay kit ;The changes of apoptosis in KG-1a cells treated with or without resveratrol induced by TRAIL were detected by flow cytometry through the staining of AnnexinV-FITC /PI ;The effects of resveratrol on the expression of DR4/5 on the surface of KG-1a cells were detected by flow cytometry .Results :The CD34+ CD38- percent age of KG-1a cells was (58 .67±2 .87 )% ;10-1 000 ng/ml of TRAIL had no effects on the proliferation of KG-1a cells ,while could inhibit the proliferation of KG-1a cells treated with resveratrol ;Moreover ,resveratrol could enhance the apoptosis of KG-1a cells induced by TRAIL and up-regulate the expression of TIRAIL death receptors DR5

  9. Mobile IP

    Heijenk, Geert; Sallent, S.; Pras, A.


    The Internet is growing exponentially, both in the amount of traffic carried, and in the amount of hosts connected. IP technology is becoming more and more important, in company networks (Intranets), and also in the core networks for the next generation mobile networks. Further, wireless access to I

  10. Mobile IP

    Heijenk, Gerhard J.; Sallent, S.; Pras, Aiko


    The Internet is growing exponentially, both in the amount of traffic carried, and in the amount of hosts connected. IP technology is becoming more and more important, in company networks (Intranets), and also in the core networks for the next generation mobile networks. Further, wireless access to

  11. TGF-β1对白血病KG-1细胞株Gli1表达的影响%Effect of TGF-β1 on Gli1 expression in KG-1 cell line

    李哲; 潘静


    Objective To prove that there was cross talk between Hh signaling pathway and TGF-β signaling pathway in KG-1 cells line. Methods (1) KG-1 cells were treated with 0. 1 ng/mL,l ng/mL,and 10 ng/mL TGF-β1 for 6 h,12 h,and 24 h respectively. Cells were collected after stimulation. Total mRNA was extracted. Glil expression was detected by real-time PCR. (2) KG-1 cells were treated with 5 ng/mL TGFβ1 and 5 ng/mL TGF-β1 +5 μmol SIS3 respectively for 24h. Cells were collected after stimulation. Total mRNA was extracted. Glil expression was detected. Results (1) When 1- 10 ng/mL TGF-β1 acted on the KG-1 cells respectively for 6 h, 12 h and 24 h, significant reduction of Glil mRNA in response to TGF-β1 was observed in KG-1 cells, emerging at 12 h and lasting at least 24 h,lower than that of the control group. (2) When 5 ng/mL TGF-β1 and 5 ng/mL TGF-β1 +5 μmol SIS3 acted on the KG-1 cells respectively for 24 h respectively,Glil expression of mRNA of control group was higher than that of TGF-β1 group, while much lower than that of TGF-β1 +SIS3 group. Conclusion TGF-β1significantly decreased Glil expression in KG-1 cells. Glil induction in KG-1 cells by TGF-β1 was a Smad3-dependent manner. This effect was independent from the Ptch/Smo axis.%目的 证明在白血病KG-1细胞株中存在TGF-β信号通路对Gli的调控作用.方法 (1)用0.1、1、10 ng/mL TGF-β1分别作用于KG-1细胞,时间分别为6、12、24 h.处理结束后收集细胞,提取mRNA,检测Gli1的表达.(2)5 ng/mL TGF-β1、5 ng/mL TGF-β1联合5 μmol SIS3分别作用于KG-1细胞24 h.处理结束后收集细胞,提取mRNA,检测Gli1的表达.结果 (1)1~10 ng/mL TGF-β1分别作用于KG-1细胞6、12、24 h,从12 h起并至少持续至24 h,其Gli1的mRNA表达较对照组明显减少;(2)5 ng/mL TGF-β1、5ng/mL TGF-β1联合5 μmol SIS3分别作用于KG-1细胞24 h,其Gli1的mRNA表达与对照组比较:5 ng/mL TGF-β1组较对照组降低,而5 ng/mL TGF-β1联合5 μmol SIS3组较

  12. Magnetic gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and its application in the delivery of FITC into KG-1 cells.

    Hao, Yuzhi; Song, Steven; Yang, Xiaoyan; Xing, James; Chen, Jie


    In this article, we report a new method-a sonication method to disperse iron oxide nanoparticles into smaller nanoparticles and make gold ions absorb onto the surface or trapped in the micropores of the iron oxide nanoparticles using sonication action. By using quick reduction of ascorbic acid and post-HCI solution treatment, gold covered magnetic nanoparticles (mGNPs) with spherical morphology and uniform size were synthesized in a water solution. The size of the mGNPs was found to be 20-30 nm. Some ideal mGNPs possessed a core-shell structure. The mGNPs were non-cytotoxic and mGNP-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) can enter KG-1 cells when driven by an external magnetic force, which was confirmed by confocal imaging. The confocal image also showed the FITC inside the KG-1 cells was near the nucleus. The fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) delivery efficiency is about 100% according to the flow cytometry results.

  13. Mobile IP: Security & application

    Tuquerres, Gloria; Salvador, Marcos Rogério; Sprenkels, Ron


    As required in the TGS Mobile IP Advanced Module, this paper presents a survey of common security threats which mobile IP networks are exposed to as well as some proposed solutions to deal with such threats.

  14. Ensuring Software IP Cleanliness

    Mahshad Koohgoli


    Full Text Available At many points in the life of a software enterprise, determination of intellectual property (IP cleanliness becomes critical. The value of an enterprise that develops and sells software may depend on how clean the software is from the IP perspective. This article examines various methods of ensuring software IP cleanliness and discusses some of the benefits and shortcomings of current solutions.

  15. Evaluation of IP Portfolios

    Søberg, Peder Veng


    As a result of an inquiry concerning how to evaluate IP (intellectual property) portfolios in order to enable the best possible use of IP resources within organizations, an IP evaluation approach primarily applicable for patents and utility models is developed. The developed approach is useful...

  16. Salinomycin overcomes ABC transporter-mediated multidrug and apoptosis resistance in human leukemia stem cell-like KG-1a cells

    Fuchs, Dominik [Research Group Molecular Neuro-Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute of Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Daniel, Volker; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Opelz, Gerhard [Institute of Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Naujokat, Cord, E-mail: [Institute of Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)


    Leukemia stem cells are known to exhibit multidrug resistance by expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters which constitute transmembrane proteins capable of exporting a wide variety of chemotherapeutic drugs from the cytosol. We show here that human promyeloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells exposed to the histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate resemble many characteristics of leukemia stem cells, including expression of functional ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein, BCRP and MRP8. Consequently, KG-1a cells display resistance to the induction of apoptosis by various chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance to apoptosis induction by chemotherapeutic drugs can be reversed by cyclosporine A, which effectively inhibits the activity of P-glycoprotein and BCRP, thus demonstrating ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance in KG-1a cells. However, KG-1a are highly sensitive to apoptosis induction by salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to kill human breast cancer stem cell-like cells and to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells displaying multiple mechanisms of drug and apoptosis resistance. Whereas KG-1a cells can be adapted to proliferate in the presence of apoptosis-inducing concentrations of bortezomib and doxorubicin, salinomycin does not permit long-term adaptation of the cells to apoptosis-inducing concentrations. Thus, salinomycin should be regarded as a novel and effective agent for the elimination of leukemia stem cells and other tumor cells exhibiting ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance.

  17. Voice over IP Security

    Keromytis, Angelos D


    Voice over IP (VoIP) and Internet Multimedia Subsystem technologies (IMS) are rapidly being adopted by consumers, enterprises, governments and militaries. These technologies offer higher flexibility and more features than traditional telephony (PSTN) infrastructures, as well as the potential for lower cost through equipment consolidation and, for the consumer market, new business models. However, VoIP systems also represent a higher complexity in terms of architecture, protocols and implementation, with a corresponding increase in the potential for misuse. In this book, the authors examine the

  18. IP Routing Protocols

    Nolasco Pinto, Armando


    Uyless Black is a widely known expert in computer networks and data communications. He is author of more than ten books in the communication technologies field, which puts him in a good position to address this topic. In IP Routing Protocols he starts by providing the background and concepts required for understanding TCP/IP technology. This is done clearly and assumes little prior knowledge of the area. As might be expected, he emphasizes the IP route discovery problem. Later he details several routing protocols.

  19. Long-term efficacy of single-dose treatment with 400 of ivermectin in bancroftian filariasis: results at one year.

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, L N; Chanteau, S; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L


    In April 1992, a safety trial was performed with a single dose of ivermectin 400 (IVER 400). In 37 bancroftian filariasis carriers, 6 and 12 months after IVER 400 treatment, the microfilaremia recurrences were 3.2% and 13.5%, respectively. As compared to results from other studies with diethylcarbamazine and IVER at different dosages and periodicities, the dosage of IVER 400 seems the most effective; but a yearly intake might not be sufficient.

  20. Voice over IP

    Mantula, Juha


    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee Voice over Internet Protocol -tekniikkaa ja sen tuomia mahdollisuuksia yrityselämässä. Teoriaosa käsittelee VoIP:n kannalta tärkeitä pro-tokollia ja standardeja, VoIP:n ominaisuuksia sekä esittelee erilaisia puheohjelmia, jotka käyttävät VoIP-tekniikkaa hyväkseen. Empiirinen osuus tutkii Viestintä Ky Pitkärannan Skype-ohjelman käyttöä. Työn tarkoituksena on selvittää VoIP:n hyviä ja huonoja puolia ja sitä kuinka tek-niikkaa voidaan käyttää hyväksi päivittäisessä ...

  1. Wireless IP Telephony

    Gerami, Mohsen


    The convergence of traditional telecommunications and the Internet is creating new network-based service delivery opportunities for telecommunications companies carriers, service providers, and network equipment providers. Voice over Wireless IP is one of the most exciting new developments emerging within the telephony market. It is set to revolutionize the delivery of mobile voice Services and provide exciting new opportunities for operators and service providers alike. This survey discusses principal of Wireless IP Telephony.

  2. 蝎毒多肽对白血病细胞株KG1a干细胞活性的影响%Study on the effects of PESV on the viability of leukemia stem cells line KG1a

    杨向东; 李红玉; 李德冠; 史哲新; 杨文华; 颜田赅; 闫理想; 王兴丽



  3. IP over DWDM

    Allen, Mark E.


    The industry has been full of many lively debates about exactly how the functions of layer 1 and 2 (physical layer and data-link layer) will be orchestrated to support the growing amount of IP traffic. In effect, this book must simultaneously address layers 1 through 3. Two main strengths of the book are in describing current state-of-the-art research in very-high-speed IP networks and in detailing the standards activities related to net-work management, software, and signaling.

  4. Resistance of Leukemia KG1 a Cells with Positive N-cadherin in Phase G0Against Killing Activity of VP16%N-cadherin阳性白血病KG1a细胞系在G0期抵抗VP16杀伤的作用

    何侃; 于沛; 邢海燕; 李艳; 田征; 王敏; 唐克晶; 饶青


    抗药性是白血病干细胞的重要特征,为探索N-cadherin阳性的白血病细胞耐受化疗药物VP16杀伤作用的机制,本研究以白血病细胞系KGla为研究模型,利用流式细胞术测定N-cadherin阳性和N-cadherin阴性细胞在G0期比例的差异,利用G-CSF诱导KG1a细胞进入细胞周期,观察G0期细胞比例的变化,并测定诱导后KG1a细胞对VP16的敏感性;再利用EGTA抑制N-cadherin介导的细胞间黏附后,观察KG1a细胞耐药性的变化.结果 显示,N-cadherin阳性的KG1a细胞G0期比例高于N-cadherin阴性的细胞;诱导KG1a细胞进入细胞周期后G0期细胞比例明显下降,KG1a细胞对VP16的敏感性显著升高;利用EGTA处理KG1a细胞24小时抑制N-cadherin的作用后,KG1a细胞在G0期比例降低,KG1a细胞对VP16的药物敏感性显著升高.结论:N-cadherin通过介导白血病细胞之间的黏附作用,使白血病细胞处于G0期的静息状态,从而耐受VP16的杀伤作用.%This study was aimed to investigate the methylation status of WTI gene in leukemia cell lines and its relation with expression of WTI gene. The WTI gene was silenced by DNA methylation or histone deacetylation, and the expression of WTI gene was induced by using HDAC inhibitor and/or demethylation agent of DNA. Some leukemia cell lines (U937, HL-60, K562, KG1) were detected by RT-PCR, MS-PCR, restriction analysis, and DNA sequencing. U937 leukemic cells without WTI mRNA expression were incubated with HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) and/or demethylation agent decitabine. The results showed that the U937 cells did not express WTI gene, but HL-60, K562 and KG1 cells hyghly expressed WTI gene; WTI gene was unmethylated in HL-60 cells, but methylated in K562 and U937 cells. WTI expression could be reactivated by co-incubation with TSA and decitabine, but not was observed by using single drug. It is concluded that WTI promoter is methylated in some leukemia cells, however, the methylation can not affect

  5. Mobile IP and protocol authentication extension

    Nguyen, Phuc V


    Mobile IP is an open standard, defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) RFC 3220. By using Mobile IP, you can keep the same IP address, stay connected, and maintain ongoing applications while roaming between IP networks. Mobile IP is scalable for the Internet because it is based on IP - any media that can support IP can support Mobile IP.

  6. Digital signage sobre IP

    Casademont Filella, Albert


    Projecte que versa sobre el disseny i la implementació d'un sistema de Digital Signage (Cartelleria Digital) sobre IP, creant un gestor que permeti controlar de forma remota tot un conjunt de petits dispositius connectats a pantalles que emeten continguts multimèdia com vídeos, imatges, feeds rss...

  7. Study on the Functional Expression of P2X7 Receptor in Human Leukemic Cell Line KG1a%人白血病细胞系KG1a中P2X7受体的表达和功能研究

    张秀军; 孟丽君



  8. IP and ATM Integration

    Mannie, E.; Corridoni, J.; Cremonese, P.; Giordano, Silvia


    The performance limits of the current Internet make the integration of IP with ATM a hotly debated issue in the networking arena, leading to various competing approaches and products. Legitimate technical and market issues are, however, often intertwined with biased views and hype, with vendors competing in the standards arena as well as on the markets. Together with the speed of technical evolution, this causes confusion for purchasers of networking equipment who, usually preferring a single...

  9. IP Phone 综述

    夏华; 陈常嘉


    IP Phone代表下一代电话技术,是目前的热点,它通过分组交换网络来传输话音,是开放式分组业务的一种。本文从IP Phone的出现谈起,简要介绍了IP Phone的优势,工作原理和相关标准,着重分析了IP Phone面临的挑战与机遇,并展望了IP Phone的发展前景。

  10. TCP/IP foundations

    Blank, Andrew G


    The world of IT is always evolving, but in every area there are stable, core concepts that anyone just setting out needed to know last year, needs to know this year, and will still need to know next year. The purpose of the Foundations series is to identify these concepts and present them in a way that gives you the strongest possible starting point, no matter what your endeavor. TCP/IP Foundations provides essential knowledge about the two protocols that form the basis for the Internet, as well as many other networks. What you learn here will benefit you in the short term, as you acquire and

  11. Foundations of hardware IP protection

    Torres, Lionel


    This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the design of security-hardened, hardware intellectual property (IP). Readers will learn how IP can be threatened, as well as protected, by using means such as hardware obfuscation/camouflaging, watermarking, fingerprinting (PUF), functional locking, remote activation, hidden transmission of data, hardware Trojan detection, protection against hardware Trojan, use of secure element, ultra-lightweight cryptography, and digital rights management. This book serves as a single-source reference to design space exploration of hardware security and IP protection. · Provides readers with a comprehensive overview of hardware intellectual property (IP) security, describing threat models and presenting means of protection, from integrated circuit layout to digital rights management of IP; · Enables readers to transpose techniques fundamental to digital rights management (DRM) to the realm of hardware IP security; · Introduce designers to the concept of salutar...

  12. Introduction à TCP/IP

    Archimbaud, Jean-Luc


    • Ce qu'il faut savoir sur les réseaux • Ce qu'il faut savoir sur Ethernet • Généralités sur TCP/IPIP et consort • TCP et consort • Le routage • Interconnexion de réseaux Ethernet et IP • Nommage • Exemples d'applications • Enchaînement des opérations • Daemons et commandes Unix • Glossaire; Engineering school; Cours d'introduction à TCP/IP

  13. Beyond iPS!



    Full Text Available It’s undoubtedly a jubilant moment for scientists and clinicians working in the stem cell arena as Prof. Gurdon and Prof. Shinya Yamanaka have been chosen for the Nobel Prize in Physiology & Medicine this year. The mystery of cell biology is something unfathomable and probably the work of this duo as well as the other scientists, who have put their hands on in- vitro de-differentiation have opened our eyes to a new window or a new paradigm in cell biology. The iPS invention has brought a lot of hope in terms of potential direct benefits to treat several diseases, which have no definite options at the moment. But, we envisage that several spin-offs could come out of this invention and one very significant spin-off finding recently witnessed is the finding by Prof. Masaharu Seno and his team of researchers at the Okayama University, Japan (Chen L, et al. 2012, PLoS ONE 7(4:e33544.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033544. According to Prof. Seno, mouse iPS cells (miPS when cultured in the conditioned medium derived from cancer cell lines, differentiate into cancer stem cells (CSCs. While differentiating into CSCs, they do retain the potential to develop endothelial progenitor cells. Several questions arise here: 1.Are these miPS derived CSCs really pluripotent, even if the terminal differentiation destined to specific phenotypes? 2.Shouldn’t the Cancer Stem Cells be termed as cancer progenitor cells, as till date they are considered to be producing only cancer cells but not pluripotent to yield other types of normal tissues? The spin-offs could be infinite as the process of differentiation and de-differentiation happening due to trillions of signals and pathways, most still remaining not-so-well understood. A special mention should be made to Prof. Shinya Yamanaka as he has several sterling qualities to be a role-model for budding scientists. Apart from his passion for science, which made him shift his career from orthopedics to a cell biologist, his

  14. Identification of a major IP5 kinase in Cryptococcus neoformans confirms that PP-IP5/IP7, not IP6, is essential for virulence.

    Li, Cecilia; Lev, Sophie; Saiardi, Adolfo; Desmarini, Desmarini; Sorrell, Tania C; Djordjevic, Julianne T


    Fungal inositol polyphosphate (IP) kinases catalyse phosphorylation of IP3 to inositol pyrophosphate, PP-IP5/IP7, which is essential for virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. Cryptococcal Kcs1 converts IP6 to PP-IP5/IP7, but the kinase converting IP5 to IP6 is unknown. Deletion of a putative IP5 kinase-encoding gene (IPK1) alone (ipk1Δ), and in combination with KCS1 (ipk1Δkcs1Δ), profoundly reduced virulence in mice. However, deletion of KCS1 and IPK1 had a greater impact on virulence attenuation than that of IPK1 alone. ipk1Δkcs1Δ and kcs1Δ lung burdens were also lower than those of ipk1Δ. Unlike ipk1Δ, ipk1Δkcs1Δ and kcs1Δ failed to disseminate to the brain. IP profiling confirmed Ipk1 as the major IP5 kinase in C. neoformans: ipk1Δ produced no IP6 or PP-IP5/IP7 and, in contrast to ipk1Δkcs1Δ, accumulated IP5 and its pyrophosphorylated PP-IP4 derivative. Kcs1 is therefore a dual specificity (IP5 and IP6) kinase producing PP-IP4 and PP-IP5/IP7. All mutants were similarly attenuated in virulence phenotypes including laccase, urease and growth under oxidative/nitrosative stress. Alternative carbon source utilisation was also reduced significantly in all mutants except ipk1Δ, suggesting that PP-IP4 partially compensates for absent PP-IP5/IP7 in ipk1Δ grown under this condition. In conclusion, PP-IP5/IP7, not IP6, is essential for fungal virulence.

  15. Gevaar VoIP voor telecomsector overdreven

    Deventer, M.O. van; Wegberg, M. van


    Het is een hype Voice-over-IP (VoIP) voor te stellen als een ontwrichtende technologie die de telecomindustrie ingrijpend zal veranderen. Maar hoe ontwrichtend is VoIP eigenlijk? Oskar van Deventer en Marc van Wegberg analyseren drie vormen van VoIP en laten zien dat alleen ‘VoIP-chat’ potentieel

  16. Dynamic IP Reputation from DNS


    management systems for Internet principals and services – E.g., IP addresses, DNS domains/servers, BGP/AS, etc. – Avoid connections to/from malicious...Operational; data sources for dynamic trust management – Dynamic IP reputation using DNS data 11/4/2009 1 Overview and Motivation • Dynamic hosts a few number of bad domains • Ultimate goal: – An on-line dynamic trust/reputation service for IP/Domain 11/4/2009 19 Credits and

  17. Ausência de mutagenicidade e antimutagenicidade do extrato obtido das flores do ipê roxo [Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC. Standl.] Absence of mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of the extract obtained from the flowers of "ipê roxo" Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC. Standl

    J.A. Lourenço


    Full Text Available A Tabebuia impetiginosa, conhecida popularmente como ipê-roxo, é uma planta nativa das florestas tropicais chuvosas da América do Sul e Central. Componentes químicos obtidos da casca têm mostrado efeito terapêutico, como antiinflamatório, antifúngico e antibacteriano. Porém, pela falta de dados na literatura, pouco se sabe sobre os efeitos do extrato das flores. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o potencial mutagênico e antimutagênico do extrato obtido das flores da T. impetiginosa, em três diferentes concentrações (100, 300 e 500 mg kg-1 p.c. pelo teste do micronúcleo. Para o teste de mutagenicidade, a doxorrubicina (DXR, 90 mg kg-1 p.c. foi utilizada como indutor de danos no DNA e para o teste de antimutagenicidade, os tratamentos com o extrato foram realizados simultaneamente com este agente químico. O sangue periférico dos animais foi coletado 24 horas após os tratamentos. A comparação da frequência de eritrócitos policromáticos (PCEs em 400 eritrócitos/animal entre os diferentes grupos não demonstrou qualquer citotoxicidade do extrato. Em relação às frequências de micronúcleos em PCEs (PCEMNs, não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os grupos tratados com as diferentes concentrações de extrato e o controle negativo. Da mesma forma, todos os grupos de animais que receberam os tratamentos simultâneo do extrato (100, 300 ou 500 mg kg-1 p.c. com a DXR, apresentaram valores de PCEMNs muito próximos quando comparados com os dados observados no grupo de animais que recebeu somente a DXR. Esses resultados apresentados indicam ausência de efeito mutagênico e antimutagênico do extrato obtido das flores da T. impetiginosa em sistema teste in vivo.T. impetiginosa, known as "ipê-roxo", is a plant native to tropical rain forests of Central and South Americas. Chemical compounds obtained from its bark have shown anti-inflammatory, antifungal and antibacterial therapeutic effect. However

  18. Qos and Voice Over IP

    Adrian GHENCEA

    Full Text Available As Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP technology matures, companies are increasingly adopting it to cut costs, improve efficiency and enhance customer service. Using the Internet as an existing network for integrating data and telecom systems through intelligent VoIP, a range of benefits results: lower long distance costs, cost cuts in cabling processes and more flexible telephony management. However, as voice over IP services grow in popularity, major threats arise: this rapid growth leads to traffic congestion, security is jeopardizedand the poor quality of calls affects communication. The objective of this article is to present all the elements that can affect voicequality in a VoIP network and to provide methods for solving them. A detailed analysis to minimize the impact of implementation of QoS will be made, and at the end solutions to management strategies will be proposed.

  19. Hardware IP security and trust

    Bhunia, Swarup; Tehranipoor, Mark


    This book provides an overview of current Intellectual Property (IP) based System-on-Chip (SoC) design methodology and highlights how security of IP can be compromised at various stages in the overall SoC design-fabrication-deployment cycle. Readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of the security vulnerabilities of different types of IPs. This book would enable readers to overcome these vulnerabilities through an efficient combination of proactive countermeasures and design-for-security solutions, as well as a wide variety of IP security and trust assessment and validation techniques. This book serves as a single-source of reference for system designers and practitioners for designing secure, reliable and trustworthy SoCs.

  20. VoIP Forensic Analyzer

    M Mohemmed Sha


    Full Text Available People have been utilizing Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP in most of the conventional communication facilities which has been of assistance in the enormous attenuation of operating costs, as well as the promotion of next- generation communication services-based IP. As an intimidating upshot, cyber criminals have correspondingly started interjecting the environment and creating new challenges for the law enforcement system in any Country. This paper presents an idea of a framework for the forensic analysis of the VoIP traffic over the network. This forensic activity includes spotting and scrutinizing the network patterns of VoIP-SIP stream, which is used to initiate a session for the communication, and regenerate the content from VoIP-RTP stream, which is employed to convey the data. Proposed network forensic investigation framework also accentuates on developing an efficient packet restructuring algorithm for tracing the depraved users involved in a conversation. Network forensics is the basis of proposed work, and performs packet level surveillance of VoIP followed by reconstruction of original malicious content or network session between users for their prosecution in the court.

  1. Network Resource Provisioning for IP over Multi-Granular Optical Networks

    SUN Jian-wei; POO Gee-Swee


    In the internet protocol(IP) over multi-granular optical switch network (IP/MG-OXC), the network node is a typical multilayer switch comprising several layers, the IP packet switching (PXC) layer, wavelength switching (WXC) layer and fiber switching (FXC) layer.This network is capable of both IP layer grooming and wavelength grooming in a hierarchical manner.Resource provisioning in the multi-granular network paradigm is called hierarchical grooming problem.An integer linear programming (ILP) model is proposed to formulate the problem.An iterative heuristic approach is developed for solving the problem in large networks.Case study shows that IP/MG-OXC network is much more extendible and can significantly save the overall network cost as compared with IP over wavelength division multiplexing network.

  2. Running TCP/IP over ATM Networks.

    Witt, Michael


    Discusses Internet protocol (IP) and subnets and describes how IP may operate over asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). Topics include TCP (transmission control protocol), ATM cells and adaptation layers, a basic architectural model for IP over ATM, address resolution, mapping IP to a subnet technology, and connection management strategy. (LRW)

  3. Mobility management in mobile IP

    Medidi, Sirisha; Golshani, Forouzan


    There is an emerging interest in integrating mobile wireless communication with the Internet based on the Ipv6 technology. Many issues introduced by the mobility of users arise when such an integration is attempted. This paper addresses the problem of mobility management, i.e., that of tracking the current IP addresses of mobile terminals and sustaining active IP connections as mobiles move. The paper presents some architectural and mobility management options for integrating wireless access to the Internet. We then present performance results for Mobile IPv4, route optimization and Mobile IPv6.

  4. Security Risks in IP Telephony

    Filip Rezac


    Full Text Available This paper deals with VoIP communication security and various techniques of VoIP attacks. We divided these threats in several categories according to their specific behaviour and their impact on the affected system. We also tried to find effective methods to prevent or mitigate these attacks. We focused our work on Spam over Internet Telephony (SPIT as a real threat for the future. We have developed both a tool generating SPIT attacks and AntiSPIT tool defending communication systems against SPIT attacks. AntiSPIT represents an effective protection based on statistical blacklist and works without participation of the called party which is a significant advantage.

  5. Volatile Compounds and Inositol Hexakisphosphate (IP6) Content in Wholemeal Wheat Bread

    Mohd Noor, Nor Qhairul Izzreen B

    stage of bread-making; after mixing, after fermentation and after baking. Around 60 to 70% of the initial value of IP6 in the flour (1002 mg/g) was reduced after dough mixing and additional 10 to 20% after fermentation. No further degradation of IP6 was observed in all bread after baking. Dough added...

  6. Continuously Connected With Mobile IP


    Cisco Systems developed Cisco Mobile Networks, making IP devices mobile. With this innovation, a Cisco router and its connected IP devices can roam across network boundaries and connection types. Because a mobile user is able to keep the same IP address while roaming, a live IP connection can be maintained without interruption. Glenn Research Center jointly tested the technology with Cisco, and is working to use it on low-earth-orbiting research craft. With Cisco's Mobile Networks functionality now available in Cisco IOS Software release 12.2(4)T, the commercial advantages and benefits are numerous. The technology can be applied to public safety, military/homeland security, emergency management services, railroad and shipping systems, and the automotive industry. It will allow ambulances, police, firemen, and the U.S. Coast Guard to stay connected to their networks while on the move. In the wireless battlefield, the technology will provide rapid infrastructure deployment for U.S. national defense. Airline, train, and cruise passengers utilizing Cisco Mobile Networks can fly all around the world with a continuous Internet connection. Cisco IOS(R) Software is a registered trademark of Cisco Systems.

  7. Introduction to IP address management

    Rooney, Tim


    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  8. Direct reduction of N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols: a possible mechanism for chemoprevention against PhIP-DNA adduct formation.

    Lin, Dong-Xin; Thompson, Patricia A; Teitel, Candee; Chen, Jun-Shi; Kadlubar, Fred F


    The chemopreventive effect of tea against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-DNA adduct formation and its mechanism were studied. Rats were exposed to freshly prepared aqueous extracts of green tea (3% (w/v)) as the sole source of drinking water for 10 days prior to administration with a single dose of PhIP (10 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage. PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver, colon, heart, and lung were measured using the 32P-postlabelling technique. Rats pre-treated with tea and given PhIP 20 h before sacrifice had significantly reduced levels of PhIP-DNA adducts as compared with controls given PhIP alone. The possible mechanism of protective effect of tea on PhIP-DNA adduct formation was then examined in vitro. It was found that an aqueous extract of green and black tea, mixtures of green and black tea polyphenols, as well as purified polyphenols could strongly inhibit the DNA binding of N-acetoxy-PhIP, a putative ultimate carcinogen of PhIP formed in vivo via metabolic activation. Among these, epigallocatechin gallate was exceptionally potent. HPLC analyses of these incubation mixtures containing N-acetoxy-PhIP and the tea polyphenols each revealed the production of the parent amine, PhIP, indicating the involvement of a redox mechanism. In view of the presence of relatively high levels of tea polyphenols in rat and human plasma after ingestion of tea, this study suggests that direct reduction of the ultimate carcinogen N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols is likely to be involved in the mechanism of chemoprotection of tea against this carcinogen.

  9. Direct reduction of N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols: a possible mechanism for chemoprevention against PhIP-DNA adduct formation

    Lin Dongxin; Thompson, Patricia A.; Teitel, Candee; Chen Junshi; Kadlubar, Fred F


    The chemopreventive effect of tea against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-DNA adduct formation and its mechanism were studied. Rats were exposed to freshly prepared aqueous extracts of green tea (3% (w/v)) as the sole source of drinking water for 10 days prior to administration with a single dose of PhIP (10 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage. PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver, colon, heart, and lung were measured using the {sup 32}P-postlabelling technique. Rats pre-treated with tea and given PhIP 20 h before sacrifice had significantly reduced levels of PhIP-DNA adducts as compared with controls given PhIP alone. The possible mechanism of protective effect of tea on PhIP-DNA adduct formation was then examined in vitro. It was found that an aqueous extract of green and black tea, mixtures of green and black tea polyphenols, as well as purified polyphenols could strongly inhibit the DNA binding of N-acetoxy-PhIP, a putative ultimate carcinogen of PhIP formed in vivo via metabolic activation. Among these, epigallocatechin gallate was exceptionally potent. HPLC analyses of these incubation mixtures containing N-acetoxy-PhIP and the tea polyphenols each revealed the production of the parent amine, PhIP, indicating the involvement of a redox mechanism. In view of the presence of relatively high levels of tea polyphenols in rat and human plasma after ingestion of tea, this study suggests that direct reduction of the ultimate carcinogen N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols is likely to be involved in the mechanism of chemoprotection of tea against this carcinogen.

  10. On using Mobile IP Protocols

    Fayza A. Nada


    Full Text Available The recent advances in wireless communication technology and the unprecedented growth of the Internet have paved the way for wireless networking and IP mobility. Mobile Internet protocol has been designed within the IETF to support the mobility of users who wish to connect to the Internet and maintain communications as they move from place to place. This study describes and summarizes the current Internet draft for mobile IP (MIPv4 with its major components: agent discovery, registration and tunneling. In addition, we outline the available encapsulation techniques and route optimization procedure. In the end, we describe the design of the new protocol for transparent routing of IPv6 packets to mobile IPv6 nodes operating in the Internet.

  11. Security in VoIP

    Floriana GEREA


    Full Text Available VoIP relies on packet switching, similar to the way that e-mails are sent over the Internet. The technology breaks down a voice call into bite-size information packets. Instead of keeping the switch open all the time, the information is sent and received as needed, allowing excess line capacity to be used to carry other data. When the voice data arrives at its destination, it's reassembled into a voice call. As voice over IP services grow in popularity, the potential for viruses, worms and other security threats aimed at the technology also will grow. The current paper's purpose is presenting several security solutions and applying them to integrated systems at an economical and social level.

  12. Internetworking with TCP/IP

    Comer, Douglas E


    An internationally best-selling, conceptual introduction to the TCP/IP protocols and Internetworking, this book interweaves a clear discussion of fundamentals and scientific principles with details and examples drawn from the latest technologies. Leading author Douglas Comer covers layering and packet formats for all the Internet protocols, includingTCP, IPv4, IPv6, DHCP, and DNS. In addition, the text explains new trends in Internet systems, including packet classification, Software Defined Networking (SDN), and mesh protocols used in The Internet of Things. The text is appropriate for individuals interested in learning more about TCP/IP protocols, Internet architecture, and current networking technologies, as well as engineers who build network systems. It is suitable for junior to graduate-level courses in Computer Networks, Data Networks, Network Protocols, and Internetworking.

  13. OSI and TCP/IP

    Randolph, Lynwood P.


    The Open Systems Interconnection Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (OSI TCP/IP) and the Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) are compared and described in terms of Federal internetworking. The organization and functions of the Federal Internetworking Requirements Panel (FIRP) are discussed and the panel's conclusions and recommendations with respect to the standards and implementation of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) are presented.

  14. IP Rights and Technological Platforms

    Robert P. Merges


    This paper is about intellectual property rights (IPRs) and platform technologies. After a brief introduction explaining some basics of networks, standards and platforms, I turn to three policy issues. The first is the role of IP in what might be termed platform policies, the decisions by courts and regulators concerning whether and how to promote multi-party access to important digital platforms such as media player hardware, cell phones, PCs, and the like. I argue that for the most part the...

  15. Principle analysis of IP wavelength router

    王勇; 殷洪玺; 徐安士; 吴德明


    Combining IP with WDM is an attractive direction for research. WDM will play an important role in IP network in future. Now, an urgent problem is how to introduce wavelength routing in an IP network. We solve this problem by designing IP wavelength router, implementing DPDP (default path and dedicated path) method. We prove the reasonableness and feasibility of this design by a principle experiment. A lot of problems related to this design are also discussed.

  16. IP and Competitiveness of Chinese Telecom Firms

    ZENG Jian-qiu


    Based on the influence, this paper discusses the perspectives of IP technology. It illustrates that IP is changing the service structure of China Telecom and IP is striking traditional telecom networks and changing the competitive structure of telecom markets. IP is one of core technologies in future telecom networks and there is an opportunity for Chinese telecom firms to quicken their network innovation and improve the competitiveness for their sustainable development.

  17. Challenges Regarding IP Core Functional Reliability

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.


    For many years, intellectual property (IP) cores have been incorporated into field programmable gate array (FPGA) and application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design flows. However, the usage of large complex IP cores were limited within products that required a high level of reliability. This is no longer the case. IP core insertion has become mainstream including their use in highly reliable products. Due to limited visibility and control, challenges exist when using IP cores and subsequently compromise product reliability. We discuss challenges and suggest potential solutions to critical application IP insertion.

  18. TCP/IP Network Administration

    Hunt, Craig


    This complete guide to setting up and running a TCP/IP network is essential for network administrators, and invaluable for users of home systems that access the Internet. The book starts with the fundamentals -- what protocols do and how they work, how addresses and routing are used to move data through the network, how to set up your network connection -- and then covers, in detail, everything you need to know to exchange information via the Internet. Included are discussions on advanced routing protocols (RIPv2, OSPF, and BGP) and the gated software package that implements them, a tutorial

  19. Implementasi Sistem IP PBX menggunakan Briker



    Full Text Available Abstrak VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol adalah komunikasi suara jarak jauh yang digunakan melalui jaringan IP. Pada penelitian ini dirancang sistem IP PBX dengan menggunakan teknologi berbasis VoIP. IP PBX adalah perangkat switching komunikasi telepon dan data berbasis teknologi Internet Protocol (IP yang mengendalikan ekstension telepon analog maupun ekstension IP Phone. Software VirtualBox digunakan dengan tujuan agar lebih memudahkan dalam sistem pengoperasian Linux yang dimana program untuk membuat IP PBX adalah menggunakan Briker yang bekerja pada Operating System Linux 2.6. Setelah proses penginstalan Briker pada Virtualbox dilakukan implementasi jaringan IP PBX. Setelah mengimplementasikan jaringan IP PBX sesuai dengan topologi, kemudian melakukan pengujian success call rate dan analisis Quality of Service (QoS. Pengukuran QoS menggunakan parameter jitter, delay, dan packet loss yang dihasilkan dalam sistem IP PBX ini. Nilai jitter sesama user Briker (baik pada smartphone maupun komputer mempunyai rata-rata berada pada nilai 16,77 ms. Sedangkan nilai packetloss yang didapat pada saat terdapat pada saat user 1 sebagai pemanggil telepon adalah 0%. Sedangkan persentase packet loss pada saat user 1 sebagai penerima telepon adalah 0,01%. Nilai delay pada saat berkomunikasi antar user berada pada 11,75 ms. Secara keseluruhan nilai yang didapatkan melalui penelitian ini, dimana hasil pengujian parameter-parameter QOS sesuai dengan standar yang telah direkomendasikan oleh ITU dan didapatkan nilai QoS dengan hasil “baik”. Kata Kunci : Briker, VoIP, QoS, IP PBX, Smartphone. Abstract VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol is a long-distance voice communications over IP networks are used. In this study, IP PBX systems designed using VoIP -based technologies. IP PBX is a telephone switching device and data communication technology-based Internet Protocol (IP which controls the analog phone extensions and IP Phone extensions. VirtualBox software is

  20. Vaccines and IP Rights: A Multifaceted Relationship.

    Durell, Karen


    Just as there are many forms of vaccines and components to vaccines-particular compositions, delivery systems, components, and distribution networks-there are a variety of intellectual property (IP) protections applicable for vaccines. IP rights such as patent, copyright, trademarks, plant breeders' rights, and trade secrets may all be applicable to vaccines. Thus, discussion of IP rights and vaccines should not begin and end with the application of one IP right to a vaccine. The discussion should engage considerations of multiple IP rights applicable to a vaccine and how these can be utilized in an integrated manner in a strategy aimed at supporting the development and distribution of the vaccine. Such an approach to IP rights to vaccines allows for the integrated rights to be considered in light of the justifications for protecting vaccines with IP rights, as well as the issues relating to specific IP rights for vaccines, such as compulsory license regimes, available humanitarian purpose IP credits, etc. To view vaccines as the subject of multiple IP protections involves a refocusing, but the outcome can provide significant benefits for vaccine development and distribution.

  1. Applying a gaming approach to IP strategy.

    Gasnier, Arnaud; Vandamme, Luc


    Adopting an appropriate IP strategy is an important but complex area, particularly in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors, in which aspects such as regulatory submissions, high competitive activity, and public health and safety information requirements limit the amount of information that can be protected effectively through secrecy. As a result, and considering the existing time limits for patent protection, decisions on how to approach IP in these sectors must be made with knowledge of the options and consequences of IP positioning. Because of the specialized nature of IP, it is necessary to impart knowledge regarding the options and impact of IP to decision-makers, whether at the level of inventors, marketers or strategic business managers. This feature review provides some insight on IP strategy, with a focus on the use of a new 'gaming' approach for transferring the skills and understanding needed to make informed IP-related decisions; the game Patentopolis is discussed as an example of such an approach. Patentopolis involves interactive activities with IP-related business decisions, including the exploitation and enforcement of IP rights, and can be used to gain knowledge on the impact of adopting different IP strategies.

  2. Analysis of Handoff Mechanisms in Mobile IP

    Jayaraj, Maria Nadine Simonel; Issac, Biju; Haldar, Manas Kumar


    One of the most important challenges in mobile Internet Protocol (IP) is to provide service for a mobile node to maintain its connectivity to network when it moves from one domain to another. IP is responsible for routing packets across network. The first major version of IP is the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). It is one of the dominant protocols relevant to wireless network. Later a newer version of IP called the IPv6 was proposed. Mobile IPv6 is mainly introduced for the purpose of mobility. Mobility management enables network to locate roaming nodes in order to deliver packets and maintain connections with them when moving into new domains. Handoff occurs when a mobile node moves from one network to another. It is a key factor of mobility because a mobile node can trigger several handoffs during a session. This paper briefly explains on mobile IP and its handoff issues, along with the drawbacks of mobile IP.

  3. [iPS cells in dentistry].

    Egusa, Hiroshi


    The discovery of the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology, which enables us to produce pluripotent stem cells by introducing a few genetic factors, commands considerable attention in the field of dentistry. These iPS cells may be of particular importance for developing innovative technologies to regenerate missing jaw bones and lost teeth, and there are expectations that several types of tissue stem cells and mucosal cells in the oral area can be used as an ideal iPS cell source. We previously reported that the gingiva, which is often resected during general dental treatments and treated as biomedical waste, is a promising source of iPS cells. In this review, the current trends in iPS cell research in dentistry are outlined, and future aspects of potential applications of the iPS cell technologies to dental treatments will be discussed.



    Diplomsko delo obravnava arhitekture sistemov IPTV na IP multimedijskem podsistemu ter pripadajoče storitve in funkcije IPTV na IP multimedijskem podsistemu. Predstavljene arhitekture prinašajo veliko novih funkcionalnosti, ki so podrobneje predstavljene po posameznih enotah. V nalogi je tudi podrobneje opisana arhitektura IP multimedijskega podsistema z ravninami in protokoli. Naloga se zaključuje s storitvami na takšnih arhitekturah.

  5. Universal Space IP Transparent Proxy Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Communications applications are strategically moving toward Internet Protocol-based architectures and technologies. Despite IP's huge potential, (e.g. cost...

  6. Comparing genome-wide chromatin profiles using ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq

    Johannes, Frank; Wardenaar, Rene; Colomé Tatché, Maria; Mousson, Florence; de Graaf, Petra; Mokry, Michal; Guryev, Victor; Timmers, H. Th. Marc; Cuppen, Edwin; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Bateman, Alex


    Motivation: ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq technologies provide genomewide measurements of various types of chromatin marks at an unprecedented resolution. With ChIP samples collected from different tissue types and/ or individuals, we can now begin to characterize stochastic or systematic changes in epigen

  7. Comparing genome-wide chromatin profiles using ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq

    Johannes, F.; Wardenaar, R.; Colome-Tatche, M.; Mousson, F.; de Graaf, P.; Mokry, M.; Guryev, V.; Timmers, H.T.; Cuppen, E.; Jansen, R.


    MOTIVATION: ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq technologies provide genome-wide measurements of various types of chromatin marks at an unprecedented resolution. With ChIP samples collected from different tissue types and/or individuals, we can now begin to characterize stochastic or systematic changes in epigen

  8. 75 FR 13235 - IP-Enabled Services


    ... interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) service the discontinuance obligations that apply to domestic... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 63 IP-Enabled Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission ACTION: Final rule...

  9. Performance of VoIP on HSDPA

    Wang, Bang; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Kolding, Troels E.


    scheduler design incorporating VoIP packet aggregation and user multiplexing is proposed and the VoIP capacity is studied for a macro-cellular environment. Results are obtained for different delay budgets and packet scheduling settings, using either blind round robin or a slightly modified version...

  10. Antiplatelet activity of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6).

    Vucenik, I; Podczasy, J J; Shamsuddin, A M


    Platelet adhesion to endothelial cells, their aggregation and subsequent release of platelet-derived mediators are key steps in the pathogenesis of thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Using impedance technology the effect of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) on platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release were simultaneously measured in whole blood obtained from healthy volunteers (n = 10). The platelets were activated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (10 microM), collagen (2 micrograms/mL), or thrombin (1 U/mL) in the presence or absence of IP6. IP6 significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced with all agonists in a dose-response manner (p IP6 strongly and significantly reduced agonist-induced ATP release (p = 0.00247 for ADP; p = 0.0074 for collagen; p = 0.0069 for thrombin). These data demonstrate that IP6 effectively inhibits human platelet aggregation in vitro, suggesting its potential in reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease.

  11. Securing VoIP keeping your VoIP network safe

    (Bud) Bates, Regis J Jr


    Securing VoIP: Keeping Your VoIP Network Safe will show you how to take the initiative to prevent hackers from recording and exploiting your company's secrets. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and case studies, technology guru Bud Bates discusses the business realities that necessitate VoIP system security and the threats to VoIP over both wire and wireless networks. He also provides essential guidance on how to conduct system security audits and how to integrate your existing IT security plan with your VoIP system and security plans, helping you prevent

  12. Space Network IP Services (SNIS): An Architecture for Supporting Low Earth Orbiting IP Satellite Missions

    Israel, David J.


    The NASA Space Network (SN) supports a variety of missions using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which includes ground stations in White Sands, New Mexico and Guam. A Space Network IP Services (SNIS) architecture is being developed to support future users with requirements for end-to-end Internet Protocol (IP) communications. This architecture will support all IP protocols, including Mobile IP, over TDRSS Single Access, Multiple Access, and Demand Access Radio Frequency (RF) links. This paper will describe this architecture and how it can enable Low Earth Orbiting IP satellite missions.

  13. Comprehensive Comparison of VoIP SIP Protocol Problems and Cisco VoIP System



    Full Text Available Voice over IP (VoIP, use of the packet switched internet for telephony, has improved substantially in the past few years. On the other hand, VoIP has many challenges that do not exist in the public switched telephone network (PSTN, a circuit switched system. VoIP is an application running on the internet, and therefore inherits the internet’s security issues. It is important to realise that VoIP is a relatively young technology, and with any new technology, security typically improves with maturity. This paper provides a comprehensive comparison of a VoIP SIP protocol and CISCO VoIP system. The comparison involves the investigation of the vulnerabilities that target both systems and how secure each system is. With this comparison we present our conclusion on which system is more secure.

  14. Active Network Supports for Mobile IP

    LU Yueming; QIAN Depei; XU Bin; WANG Lei


    The basic mobile IP protocol is difficult to implement on the traditional IP network and not flexible and efficient under certain conditions. For example, firewalls or boundary routers may drop packets sent by mobile nodes for security reasons. Traditional networking devices such as routers cannot dynamically load and unload extended services to achieve different qualities of services. In this paper, a new scheme of using the active network to support the mobile IP is presented. The Softnet, a prototype of active networks based on mobile agents,is introduced. The active network is characterized by the programmability of its intermediatenodes and therefore presents dynamic and flexible behaviors. Special services can be dynamically deployed onto the active nodes in the Softnet. This property is definitely required in implementing the mobile IP protocols. The Softnet supports not only the basic mobile IP protocol but also other extended mobile IP protocols. Virtual networks for mobile IP services are dynamically formed by mobile agents in the Softnet to provide different qualities of services.

  15. What are suspicious VoIP delays?

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof


    Voice over IP (VoIP) is unquestionably the most popular real-time service in IP networks today. Recent studies have shown that it is also a suitable carrier for information hiding. Hidden communication may pose security concerns as it can lead to confidential information leakage. In VoIP, RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol) in particular, which provides the means for the successful transport of voice packets through IP networks, is suitable for steganographic purposes. It is characterised by a high packet rate compared to other protocols used in IP telephony, resulting in a potentially high steganographic bandwidth. The modification of an RTP packet stream provides many opportunities for hidden communication as the packets may be delayed, reordered or intentionally lost. In this paper, to enable the detection of steganographic exchanges in VoIP, we examined real RTP traffic traces to answer the questions, what do the "normal" delays in RTP packet streams look like? and, is it possible to detect the use of know...


    Goršič, Matej


    Diploma opisuje postopen prehod iz klasičnega tipa telefonije na IP (Internet Protocol) telefonijo. To je korak, ki so ga mnoga podjetja v svetu že opravila, veliko jih pa še čaka. Predstavili bomo ozadje klasične in IP telefonije ter osnovne gradnike. Poskušali bomo pojasniti, zakaj je zdaj pravi trenutek za ta prehod ter kaj potrebujemo, morda pa bomo tudi koga opogumili za podoben poseg. Opisan je postopni prehod na IP telefonijo. To pomeni, da v prvem koraku še obdržimo klasično centr...

  17. Voice over IP in Wireless Heterogeneous Networks

    Fathi, Hanane; Chakraborty, Shyam; Prasad, Ramjee

    The convergence of different types of traffic has preceded the convergence of systems and services in a wireless heterogeneous network. Voice and data traffic are usually treated separate in both 2G and 2.5G wireless networks. With advances in packet switching technology and especially......IP communications are difficult to achieve in a time-varying environment due to channel errors and traffic congestion and across different systems. The provision of VoIP in wireless heterogeneous networks requires a set of time-efficient control mechanisms to support a VoIP session with acceptable quality...

  18. IP Address Management Principles and Practice

    Rooney, Timothy


    This book will be the first covering the subject of IP address management (IPAM). The practice of IPAM includes the application of network management disciplines to IP address space and associated network services, namely DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and DNS (Domain Name System). The consequence of inaccurately configuring DHCP is that end users may not be able to obtain IP addresses to access the network. Without proper DNS configuration, usability of the network will greatly suffer as the name-to-address lookup process may fail. Imagine having to navigate to a website or send a

  19. LACK - a VoIP Steganographic Method

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech


    The paper presents a new steganographic method called LACK (Lost Audio PaCKets Steganography) which is intended mainly for VoIP. The method is presented in a broader context of network steganography and of VoIP steganography in particular. The analytical results presented in the paper concern the influence of LACK's hidden data insertion procedure on the method's impact on quality of voice transmission and its resistance to steganalysis.

  20. An Implementation of IP-Phone Gateway


    To implement voice service over packet-based network (Internet) and TDM-based network (PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network), an IP phone gateway is necessary to transform media stream and convert signaling protocols used over both the two networks. In this article, the architecture of the IP-Phone gateway is described firstly. Then the communications mechanism between functional blocks and multi-thread consideration are presented.

  1. Comparative calibration of IP scanning equipment

    Ingenito, F.; Andreoli, P.; Batani, D.; Boutoux, G.; Cipriani, M.; Consoli, F.; Cristofari, G.; Curcio, A.; De Angelis, R.; Di Giorgio, G.; Ducret, J.; Forestier-Colleoni, P.; Hulin, S.; Jakubowska, K.; Rabhi, N.


    Imaging Plates (IP) are diagnostic devices which contain a photostimulable phosphor layer that stores the incident radiation dose as a latent image. The image is read with a scanner which stimulates the decay of electrons, previously excited by the incident radiation, by exposition to a laser beam. This results in emitted light, which is detected by photomultiplier tubes; so the latent image is reconstructed. IPs have the interesting feature that can be reused many times, after erasing stored information. Algorithms to convert signals stored in the detector to Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) counts depend on the scanner and are not available on every model. A comparative cross-calibration of the IP scanner Dürr CR35 BIO, used in ABC laboratory, was performed, using the Fujifilm FLA 7000 scanner as a reference, to find the equivalence between grey-scale values given by the Dürr scanner to PSL counts. Using an IP and a 55Fe β-source, we produced pairs of samples with the same exposition times, which were analysed by both scanners, placing particular attention to fading times of the image stored on IPs. Data analysis led us to the determine a conversion formula which can be used to compare data of experiments obtained in different laboratories and to use IP calibrations available, till now, only for Fujifilm scanners.

  2. Treatment of germinated wheat to increase levels of GABA and IP6 catalyzed by endogenous enzymes.

    Nagaoka, Hiroyuki


    We found that the levels of bioactive products from wheat can be increased dramatically by manipulating germination conditions and taking advantage of the activity of endogenous enzymes. The yield of phytic acid (IP(6)) from wheat germinated in the presence of high, controlled levels of dissolved oxygen (188 +/- 28 mg/100 g wheat) was almost three times greater than that from wheat germinated with no supplemental oxygen (74 +/- 10 mg/100 g wheat). The yield of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from wheat germinated in the presence of uncontrolled levels of dissolved oxygen was 18 +/- 3 times greater than that from nonsupplemented wheat (1 mg/100 g wheat). The concentration of GABA was much greater in wheat germ than in whole wheat, and the yield of GABA from wheat germ processed with supplemental water (163 +/- 7 mg/100 g wheat germ) was notably greater than that from wheat germ processed with no supplemental water (100 +/- 2 mg/100 g wheat germ). In contrast, IP(6) was more concentrated in wheat bran, and the yield of IP(6) from wheat bran processed with supplemental water (3100 +/- 12 mg/100 g wheat bran) was notably higher than that from wheat bran processed with no supplemental water (2420 +/- 13 mg/100 g wheat bran). We conclude that the large amount of GABA extracted from wheat germ is likely due to high glutamate decarboxylase activity and low aminotransferase activity and that the large amount of IP(6) extracted from wheat bran is likely due to high levels of tyrosinase activity. Our findings indicate that bioactive molecules such as GABA and IP(6) can be successfully mass-produced by taking advantage of endogenous enzymatic activities.

  3. IPS in Europe: the EQOLISE trial.

    Burns, Tom; Catty, Jocelyn


    IPS has been demonstrated to increase return to open employment significantly in individuals with mental health problems in the US. Previous experience (e.g. with ACT) has demonstrated the sensitivity of complex community mental health interventions to local social and healthcare cultures. Europe has conditions of generally greater employment security than the US and varying (generally higher) unemployment rates and welfare benefits. Evidence of the effectiveness of IPS in these conditions, and its potential variation across them, would guide local policy and provide possible insights into its mechanism. We conducted an RCT of IPS versus high-quality train-and-place vocational rehabilitation in six European centers with very different labor market and health and social care conditions. A sample of 312 individuals with psychotic illness was randomly allocated (50 per site). Inclusion criteria were a minimum of two years' illness duration, with at least one year of continuous unemployment and six months contact with their current mental health services. Follow-up was 18 months. The primary outcome was any open employment, and secondary outcomes included time to employment, duration of employment and hospital admission. IPS was more effective than the Vocational Services for all vocational outcomes. 85 IPS patients (54.5%) worked for at least one day compared to 43 Vocational Service patients (27.6). They were significantly less likely to be rehospitalized. Local unemployment rates explained a significant amount of the variation in IPS effectiveness and both national economic growth and welfare systems influenced overall employment rates in both services. IPS doubles the access to work of people with psychotic illnesses, without any evidence of increased relapse. Its effectiveness is not independent of external circumstances, particularly local unemployment rates.

  4. RelationshipbetweentheexpressionofIP-10and IP-10mRNAinperipheralbloodandHBVDNA levelinpatientswithcirrhosis

    Jian Wang; Ping-Ping Wang; Gui-Ju Xiang; Xiao-Bin Hu


    BACKGROUND:Post-hepatitic cirrhosis is regarded as common and severe form of liver damage. Interferonγ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), a member of the non-ELR (glutamic-leucine-arginine) motif CXC chemokine family, has recently been shown to recruit and activate speciifc subsets of leukocytes to sites of inlfammation or an immune response during the development of hepatic cirrhosis. However, the effects of IP-10 and IP-10 mRNA on inlfammatory inifltration at local sites and in the peripheral blood of patients with post-hepatitic cirrhosis as well as their relationship with viral load are still poorly deifned. This study aimed to detect the relationship between the expression of IP-10 in serum, IP-10 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and the levels of HBV DNA in the serum of patients, and to explore their role in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis. METHODS:Typical patients with cirrhosis after HBV infection were selected, and their serum IP-10 concentrations were evaluated with ELISA, the content of IP-10 mRNA in PBMCs was measured by real-time PCR, and the load of HBV DNA in serum and PBMCs was assessed by semi-quantitative analysis of gel imaging. RESULTS:The levels of IP-10 in serum and IP-10 mRNA in PBMCs of patients with cirrhosis were 299.9±77.2 pg/ml and 0.7500±0.1495, respectively. They were higher than those of controls (P CONCLUSIONS:The levels of IP-10 and IP-10 mRNA in the peripheral blood of patients with cirrhosis increase are closely correlated with the load of HBV DNA in serum, and play a key role in the progression of post-hepatitic cirrhosis.

  5. Voice over IP in Wireless Heterogeneous Networks

    Fathi, Hanane; Chakraborty, Shyam; Prasad, Ramjee

    The convergence of different types of traffic has preceded the convergence of systems and services in a wireless heterogeneous network. Voice and data traffic are usually treated separate in both 2G and 2.5G wireless networks. With advances in packet switching technology and especially with the d...... and to the discruption caused by the user mobility during the session. Voice over IP in Wireless Hetetrogeneous Networks thus investigates and proposes cross-layer techniques for realizing time-efficient control mechanisms for VoIP: signaling, mobility and security.......The convergence of different types of traffic has preceded the convergence of systems and services in a wireless heterogeneous network. Voice and data traffic are usually treated separate in both 2G and 2.5G wireless networks. With advances in packet switching technology and especially....... The focus of Voice over IP in Wierless Heterogeneous Networks is on mechanisms that affect the VoIP user satisfaction  while not explicitly involved in the media session. This relates to the extra delays introduced by the security and the signaling protocols used to set up an authorized VoIP session...

  6. Discovery of metal line emission from the Red star in IP Peg during outburst maximum

    Harlaftis, E T


    Observations of the eclipsing dwarf nova IP Peg during outburst reveal metal lines in emission, such as Mg II 4481 A. Analysis using Doppler tomography locates emission of helium and metal lines on the inner Roche lobe of the secondary star. Such multi-line Roche-lobe imaging presents a new tool in mapping the red star's ionization structure.

  7. How to Do a Better IP Commercialization in China?

    WU Ming


    1. Status of IP commercialization in China A sound social ecosystem for IP (intellectual property) commercialization will not be established in China overnight because the training of IP professionals and the introducing of IP into management are both a process that takes time.

  8. Simulink based VoIP Analysis

    Singh, Hardeep; Mian, M


    Voice communication over internet not be possible without a reliable data network, this was first available when distributed network topologies were used in conjunction with data packets. Early network used single centre node network in which a single workstation (Server) is responsible for the communication. This posed problems as if there was a fault with the centre node, (workstation) nothing would work. This problem was solved by the distributed system in which reliability increases by spreading the load between many nodes. The idea of packet switching & distributed network were combined, this combination were increased reliability, speed & responsible for voice communication over internet, Voice-over-IP (VoIP)These data packets travel through a packet-switched network such as the Internet and arrive at their destination where they are decompressed using a compatible Codec (audio coder/decoder) and converted back to analogue audio. This paper deals with the Simulink architecture for VoIP network.

  9. Optimization of OSPF Routing in IP Networks

    Bley, Andreas; Fortz, Bernard; Gourdin, Eric; Holmberg, Kaj; Klopfenstein, Olivier; Pióro, Michał; Tomaszewski, Artur; Ümit, Hakan

    The Internet is a huge world-wide packet switching network comprised of more than 13,000 distinct subnetworks, referred to as Autonomous Systems (ASs) autonomous system AS . They all rely on the Internet Protocol (IP) internet protocol IP for transport of packets across the network. And most of them use shortest path routing protocols shortest path routing!protocols , such as OSPF or IS-IS, to control the routing of IP packets routing!of IP packets within an AS. The idea of the routing is extremely simple — every packet is forwarded on IP links along the shortest route between its source and destination nodes of the AS. The AS network administrator can manage the routing of packets in the AS by supplying the so-called administrative weights of IP links, which specify the link lengths that are used by the routing protocols for their shortest path computations. The main advantage of the shortest path routing policy is its simplicity, allowing for little administrative overhead. From the network engineering perspective, however, shortest path routing can pose problems in achieving satisfactory traffic handling efficiency. As all routing paths depend on the same routing metric routing!metric , it is not possible to configure the routing paths for the communication demands between different pairs of nodes explicitly or individually; the routing can be controlled only indirectly and only as a whole by modifying the routing metric. Thus, one of the main tasks when planning such networks is to find administrative link weights that induce a globally efficient traffic routing traffic!routing configuration of an AS. It turns out that this task leads to very difficult mathematical optimization problems. In this chapter, we discuss and describe exact integer programming models and solution approaches as well as practically efficient smart heuristics for such shortest path routing problems shortest path routing!problems .

  10. How to Do a Better IP Commercialization in China?

    WU Ming


    @@ 1.Status of IP commercialization in China A sound social ecosystem for IP (intellectual property) commercialization will not be established in China overnight because the training of IP professionals and the introducing of IP into management are both a process that takes time. In recent years, the CAS has conducted a series of training programs concerning IP management and service as well as IP team building.Over the past three years, more than 70 senior staffs from CAS institutes have received certificates of IP Specialists from the CAS headquarters after successfully completing a training program.

  11. Encapsulado de servicios IP sobre redes DVB

    Chamero Hortelano, Adrián


    La evolución de los servicios IP hacia las aplicaciones de transporte de contenidos en modo de difusión es un campo de explotación e investigación muy activo. Por otro lado, la convergencia de las diferentes redes de transmisión de datos para soportar dichos servicios provenientes de redes IP es un hecho constatable en muchos ejemplos actualmente de los que las redes DVB, inicialmente concebidas para la dfusión de contenidos audiovisuales, forman parte. Las características ofrecidas ...

  12. Secure IP mobility management for VANET

    Taha, Sanaa


    This brief presents the challenges and solutions for VANETs' security and privacy problems occurring in mobility management protocols including Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6), Proxy MIPv6 (PMIPv6), and Network Mobility (NEMO). The authors give an overview of the concept of the vehicular IP-address configurations as the prerequisite step to achieve mobility management for VANETs, and review the current security and privacy schemes applied in the three mobility management protocols. Throughout the brief, the authors propose new schemes and protocols to increase the security of IP addresses within VANETs in

  13. Space-Based Voice over IP Networks

    Nguyen, Sam P.; Okino, Clayton; Walsh, William; Clare, Loren


    In human space exploration missions (e.g. a return to the Moon and for future missions to Mars), there will be a need to provide voice communications services. In this work we focus on the performance of Voice over IP (VoIP) techniques applied to space networks, where long range latencies, simplex links, and significant bit error rates occur. Link layer and network layer overhead issues are examined. Finally, we provide some discussion on issues related to voice conferencing in the space network environment.

  14. Analysis list: Terf2ip [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Terf2ip Embryonic fibroblast + mm9

  15. Deployment of VoIP Technology: QoS Concerns

    Lazzez, Amor; Slimani, Thabet


    Voice over IP (VoIP) is an emerging communication service allowing voice transmission over a private or a public IP network. VoIP allows significant benefits for customers and service providers including cost savings, phone and service portability, mobility, and the integration with other applications. Nevertheless, the deployment of the VoIP technology encounters many challenges such as interoperability issues, security issues, and QoS concerns. Among these disadvantages, QoS issues are cons...

  16. 77 FR 33227 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT)


    ... SECURITY Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY...--Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT). DHS previously...-operators and/or security managers often volunteer to conduct an automated self risk assessment....

  17. 76 FR 81955 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT)


    ... SECURITY Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY... managers often volunteer to conduct an automated self risk assessment. The requested questionnaire...: Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT). OMB Number:...

  18. Presence in the IP Multimedia Subsystem

    Ling Lin


    Full Text Available With an ever increasing penetration of Internet Protocol (IP technologies, the wireless industry is evolving the mobile core network towards all-IP network. The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS is a standardised Next Generation Network (NGN architectural framework defined by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP to bridge the gap between circuit-switched and packet-switched networks and consolidate both sides into on single all-IP network for all services. In this paper, we provide an insight into the limitation of the presence service, one of the fundamental building blocks of the IMS. Our prototype-based study is unique of its kind and helps identifying the factors which limit the scalability of the current version of the presence service (3GPP TS 23.141 version 7.2.0 Release 7 [1], which will in turn dramatically limit the performance of advanced IMS services. We argue that the client-server paradigm behind the current IMS architecture does not suite the requirements of the IMS system, which defies the very purpose of its introduction. We finally elaborate on possible avenues for addressing this problem.

  19. Tracing the spiral arms in IP Pegasi

    Baptista, R.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Harlaftis, E.T.; Marsh, T.R.; Steeghs, D.


    We report the analysis of time-resolved spectroscopy of IP Pegasi in outburst with eclipse mapping techniques to investigate the location and geometry of the observed spiral structures. We were able to obtain an improved view of the spiral structures with the aid of light curves extracted in

  20. IP validation in remote microelectronics testing

    Osseiran, Adam; Eshraghian, Kamran; Lachowicz, Stefan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Jeffery, Roger; Robins, Michael


    This paper presents the test and validation of FPGA based IP using the concept of remote testing. It demonstrates how a virtual tester environment based on a powerful, networked Integrated Circuit testing facility, aimed to complement the emerging Australian microelectronics based research and development, can be employed to perform the tasks beyond the standard IC test. IC testing in production consists in verifying the tested products and eliminating defective parts. Defects could have a number of different causes, including process defects, process migration and IP design and implementation errors. One of the challenges in semiconductor testing is that while current fault models are used to represent likely faults (stuck-at, delay, etc.) in a global context, they do not account for all possible defects. Research in this field keeps growing but the high cost of ATE is preventing a large community from accessing test and verification equipment to validate innovative IP designs. For these reasons a world class networked IC teletest facility has been established in Australia under the support of the Commonwealth government. The facility is based on a state-of-the-art semiconductor tester operating as a virtual centre spanning Australia and accessible internationally. Through a novel approach the teletest network provides virtual access to the tester on which the DUT has previously been placed. The tester software is then accessible as if the designer is sitting next to the tester. This paper presents the approach used to test and validate FPGA based IPs using this remote test approach.

  1. ChIP-chip versus ChIP-seq: Lessons for experimental design and data analysis

    Karchenko Peter V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP followed by microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip or high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq allows genome-wide discovery of protein-DNA interactions such as transcription factor bindings and histone modifications. Previous reports only compared a small number of profiles, and little has been done to compare histone modification profiles generated by the two technologies or to assess the impact of input DNA libraries in ChIP-seq analysis. Here, we performed a systematic analysis of a modENCODE dataset consisting of 31 pairs of ChIP-chip/ChIP-seq profiles of the coactivator CBP, RNA polymerase II (RNA PolII, and six histone modifications across four developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster. Results Both technologies produce highly reproducible profiles within each platform, ChIP-seq generally produces profiles with a better signal-to-noise ratio, and allows detection of more peaks and narrower peaks. The set of peaks identified by the two technologies can be significantly different, but the extent to which they differ varies depending on the factor and the analysis algorithm. Importantly, we found that there is a significant variation among multiple sequencing profiles of input DNA libraries and that this variation most likely arises from both differences in experimental condition and sequencing depth. We further show that using an inappropriate input DNA profile can impact the average signal profiles around genomic features and peak calling results, highlighting the importance of having high quality input DNA data for normalization in ChIP-seq analysis. Conclusions Our findings highlight the biases present in each of the platforms, show the variability that can arise from both technology and analysis methods, and emphasize the importance of obtaining high quality and deeply sequenced input DNA libraries for ChIP-seq analysis.


    Hamidi Rasyid


    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini mendeskripsikan tentang (1 mengetahui konstruksi sosial guru IPS, (2 Implementasi pembelajaran guru di Kelas, (3 Paradigma kepala sekolah tentang pembelajaran IPS.Metode penelitian menggunakan kualitatif, tujuan utama dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menggali substansi mendasar dibalik fakta yang terjadi pada guru IPS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa guru IPS mengkonstruksikan IPS menjadi empat konstruksi, (1 IPS adalah ilmu pengetahuan sosial yang peserta didik diharuskan bisa bersikap sosial yang baik sebagai perwujudan dari ilmu pengetahuan sosial, (2 IPS adalah mengkaji kehidupan sehari-hari dan masalah sosial yang ada dalam masyarakat, (3 IPS adalah mengkaji tentang hubungan manusia baik individu dengan individu, individu dengan kelompok maupun kelompok dengan kelompok, (4 IPS adalah mata pelajaran yang di dalamnya ada mata pelajaran sejarah, geografi, sosiologi dan ekonomi. This study describes the purpose of (1 determine the social construction of social studies teachers, (2 Implementation of teacher learning in class, (3 the principal of the learning paradigm of social studies. Using qualitative research methods, the main purpose of this study was to explore the fundamental substance behind the facts that occurred in social studies teacher. The results showed that teachers of social studies constructs into four construction, (1 social studies is a social studies that students are required to be good social as the embodiment of social studies, (2 social studies is reviewing everyday life and social problems that exist in the community, (3 social studies is to examine whether individual human relationships with individuals, groups of individuals and groups with the group, (4 social studiess are subjects in which there is the eye the lessons of history, geography, sociology and economics

  3. IP-Switch网络通信业务%Communication Services of IP-Switch Network

    马泽旭; 邢兆宏



  4. Opportunities for IP  in Communications Beyond 3G

    Nielsen, Thomas Toftegaard; Jacobsen, Rune H.


    Future communication will be based on TCP/IP as common network and transport layers to provide global connectivity to users and applications. IP is used to provide ubiquitous access across different access networks and exploits the benefits of a common connectivity layer while reducing the cost...... of operation and maintenance of the network. This paper discusses the opportunities for IP in the evolution towards a future broadband, all-IP mobile communication network. In particular, we argue for three opportunities for the future: Interworking access technologies over IP, IP layer transparency...

  5. Stimulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 receptor subtypes by analogues of IP3.

    Huma Saleem

    Full Text Available Most animal cells express mixtures of the three subtypes of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3R encoded by vertebrate genomes. Activation of each subtype by different agonists has not hitherto been examined in cells expressing defined homogenous populations of IP(3R. Here we measure Ca(2+ release evoked by synthetic analogues of IP(3 using a Ca(2+ indicator within the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum of permeabilized DT40 cells stably expressing single subtypes of mammalian IP(3R. Phosphorylation of (1,4,5IP(3 to (1,3,4,5IP(4 reduced potency by ~100-fold. Relative to (1,4,5IP(3, the potencies of IP(3 analogues modified at the 1-position (malachite green (1,4,5IP(3, 2-position (2-deoxy(1,4,5IP(3 or 3-position (3-deoxy(1,4,5IP(3, (1,3,4,5IP(4 were similar for each IP(3R subtype. The potency of an analogue, (1,4,6IP(3, in which the orientations of the 2- and 3-hydroxyl groups were inverted, was also reduced similarly for all three IP(3R subtypes. Most analogues of IP(3 interact similarly with the three IP(3R subtypes, but the decrease in potency accompanying removal of the 1-phosphate from (1,4,5IP(3 was least for IP(3R3. Addition of a large chromophore (malachite green to the 1-phosphate of (1,4,5IP(3 only modestly reduced potency suggesting that similar analogues could be used to measure (1,4,5IP(3 binding optically. These data provide the first structure-activity analyses of key IP(3 analogues using homogenous populations of each mammalian IP(3R subtype. They demonstrate broadly similar structure-activity relationships for all mammalian IP(3R subtypes and establish the potential utility of (1,4,5IP(3 analogues with chromophores attached to the 1-position.

  6. Effect of Various Concentrations of Inhibitors on the Expression of Chemokine Ip-10/Mob-1

    A Dickson


    Full Text Available Introduction: Chemokines are low molecular weight proteins (8-17kDa with the main role of immune cells recruitment to injured tissues. IP-10/Mob-1 is a CXC chemokine and different cell systems in response to external stimulation produce this chemokine. Various signaling pathways are used by cell and tissue systems to regulate production of proteins e.g. chemokines. Therefore we have investigated some of these pathways leading to production of IP-10/Mob-1 by primary cultured hepatocytes. Methods: In the present study, hepatocyts were isolated from male Sprague Dawley rats and cultured on Waymouth medium in presence and absence of different inhibitors such as SB203580, MG132, KN62 and Staurosporine for indicated time points. Supernatant medium of culture was centrifuged and proteins were isolated by SDS-PAGE and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes, then membranes were incubated with IP-10/Mob-1 antibody overnight and followed by incubation with secondary antibody and then IP-10/Mob-1 was detected by ECL. Results: We showed that the expression of IP-10/Mob-1 has been decreased in presence of Staurosporine (10 and 50μM, SB203580(50μM MG132 (20μM and KN62 (10 and 20μM but did not change in absence or lower concentrations of these inhibitors. Conclusion: Hence, these in vitro data may aid to a better understanding of the pathways in chronic liver injuries and identify clinical studies that may aid in treatment or prevention of these conditions. Furthermore, there may be further potential to prevent changes to hepatocyte phenotype and allow isolation of hepatocytes with a greater physiological phenotype. Therefore it could be concluded that all of these pathways are used by hepatocytes regarding expression of IP-10/Mob-1.

  7. Adjusting the IP $\\beta$ Functions in RHIC

    Wittmer, W; Pilat, F; Ptitsyn, V; Van Zeijts, J


    The beta functions at the IP can be adjusted without perturbation of other optics functions via several approaches. In this paper we describe a scheme based on a vector knob, which assigns fixed values to the different tuning quadrupoles and scales them by a common multiplier. The values for the knob vector were calculated for a lattice without any errors using MADX. Previous studies for the LHC [1] have shown that this approach can meet the design goals. A specific feature of the RHIC lattice is the nested power supply system. To cope with the resulting problems a detailed response matrix analysis has been carried out and different sets of knobs were calculated and compared. The knobs were tested at RHIC during the 2004 run and preliminary results are discussed. Simultaneously a new approach to measure the beam sizes of both colliding beams at the IP, based on the tunability provided by the knobs, was developed and tested.

  8. Steganography of VoIP streams

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech


    In this paper, we circumscribe available steganographic techniques that can be used for creating covert channels for VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) streams. Apart from characterizing existing steganographic methods we provide new insights by presenting two new techniques. First one is network steganography solution and exploits free/unused fields of the RTCP (Real-Time Control Protocol) and RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol) protocols. The second method provides hybrid storage-timing covert channel by utilizing delayed audio packets. The results of the experiment, that was performed, regardless of steganalysis, to estimate a total amount of data that can be covertly transferred in VoIP RTP stream during the typical call, are also included in this article.

  9. Automatic Classification of Attacks on IP Telephony

    Jakub Safarik


    Full Text Available This article proposes an algorithm for automatic analysis of attack data in IP telephony network with a neural network. Data for the analysis is gathered from variable monitoring application running in the network. These monitoring systems are a typical part of nowadays network. Information from them is usually used after attack. It is possible to use an automatic classification of IP telephony attacks for nearly real-time classification and counter attack or mitigation of potential attacks. The classification use proposed neural network, and the article covers design of a neural network and its practical implementation. It contains also methods for neural network learning and data gathering functions from honeypot application.

  10. Fast Echo Canceller in IP Telephony Gateway

    黄永峰; 李星


    The length of the echo path in the IP telephony system is very long. Generally, the echo canceller is implemented on the IP telephony gateway which needs to perform concurrently multi-channel echo cancellation and voice compression. Hence, the most key technique to design the echo canceller is to reduce greatly the computational requirement. For this reason a number of innovative features to implement a fast echo canceller are presented. The key components of this canceller include: the separation of adaptive and cancel filters, non-real-time adaptation and real-time cancellation, sharing VAD algorithms with the speech codec, the incorporation of delay indexing with zero coefficients, and windowing the adaptive filter coefficients to reduce the cost of DSP during the cancellation. Finally, the performance of the echo canceller is summarized; the results of evaluation show that the performance gains for echo cancellation are significant.

  11. Content Distribution over IP : Developments and Challenges

    Popescu, Adrian; Kouvatsos, Demetres; Remondo, David; Giordano, Stefano


    This chapter focuses on the multimedia distribution over Internet IP under the auspices of the NoE Euro-NGI research project "Routing in Overlay Networks (ROVER)". The multimedia distribution is supported by several components such as services, content distribution chain, protocols and standards whilst Internet is used for content, acquisition, management and delivery as well as an Internet; Protocol Television (IPTV) infrastructure with QoS facilities. As the convergence between fi...

  12. Research study on IPS digital controller design

    Kuo, B. C.; Folkerts, C.


    The performance is investigated of the simplified continuous-data model of the Instrument Pointing System (IPS). Although the ultimate objective is to study the digital model of the system, knowledge on the performance of the continuous-data model is important in the sense that the characteristics of the digital system should approach those of the continuous-data system as the sampling period approaches zero.

  13. iPS cells and personalized medicine


    iPS cells and personalized medicine Personalized medicine uses patient's genotype and/or level of gene expression for selection of medication, therapy or preventative measures. One of the best approaches for developing patient specific therapy is to use patient specific cells as in vitro drug testing model. Furthermore, patent specific cells in vitro enriched and modified can be used for autologous cell transplantation for treating numerous degenerative conditions.

  14. Controlling IP Falsifying Using Realistic Simulation

    Govindavaram Madhusri


    Full Text Available The study of Internet-scale events such as worm proliferation, distributed denial-of-service attacks (DDoS,flash crowds, routing volatilities, and DNS attacks depend on the formation of all the networks thatgenerate or forward valid and malevolent traffic,The Distributed Denial of Services (DDoS attack is aserious threat to the valid use of the Internet. Forestalling mechanisms are disappointed by the ability ofattackers to steal, or spoof, the source addresses in IP packets. IP falsifying is still widespread in networkscanning and investigates, as well as denial of service floods.IDPFs can limit the falsifying capability ofattackers. Moreover, it works on a small number of candidate networks easily traceable, thus simplifyingthe reactive IP trace back process. However, this technique does not allow large number of networks,which is a common misapprehension for those unfamiliar with the practice. Current network simulatorscannot be used to study Internet-scale events. They are general-purpose, packet-level simulators thatreproduce too many details of network communication, which limits scalability. We propose to develop adistributed Internet simulator, with the following novel features. It will provide a built-in Internet model,including the topology, routing, link bandwidths and delays, Instead of being a general-purpose simulator,it will provide a common simulation core for traffic generation and message passing, on top of which wewill build separate modules that customize messages and level of simulation details for the event of interest.Customization modules will ensure that all and only the relevant details of the event of interest aresimulated, cutting down the simulation time. We will also provide an interface for new modulespecification, and for existing module modification, this will bring the Internet event simulation at thefingertips of all interested researchers. The simulator will promote research in worm detection and defense,IP

  15. IP Network Management Model Based on NGOSS

    ZHANG Jin-yu; LI Hong-hui; LIU Feng


    This paper addresses a management model for IP network based on Next Generation Operation Support System (NGOSS). It makes the network management on the base of all the operation actions of ISP, It provides QoS to user service through the whole path by providing end-to-end Service Level Agreements (SLA) management through whole path. Based on web and coordination technology, this paper gives an implement architecture of this model.

  16. A native IP satellite communications system

    Koudelka, O.; Schmidt, M.; Ebert, J.; Schlemmer, H.; Kastner-Puschl, S.; Riedler, W.


    ≪ In the framework of ESA's ARTES-5 program the Institute of Applied Systems Technology (Joanneum Research) in cooperation with the Department of Communications and Wave Propagation has developed a novel meshed satellite communications system which is optimised for Internet traffic and applications (L*IP—Local Network Interconnection via Satellite Systems Using the IP Protocol Suite). Both symmetrical and asymmetrical connections are supported. Bandwidth on demand and guaranteed quality of service are key features of the system. A novel multi-frequency TDMA access scheme utilises efficient methods of IP encapsulation. In contrast to other solutions it avoids legacy transport network techniques. While the DVB-RCS standard is based on ATM or MPEG transport cells, the solution of the L*IP system uses variable-length cells which reduces the overhead significantly. A flexible and programmable platform based on Linux machines was chosen to allow the easy implementation and adaptation to different standards. This offers the possibility to apply the system not only to satellite communications, but provides seamless integration with terrestrial fixed broadcast wireless access systems. The platform is also an ideal test-bed for a variety of interactive broadband communications systems. The paper describes the system architecture and the key features of the system.

  17. Safeguarding nonhuman primate iPS cells with suicide genes.

    Zhong, Bonan; Watts, Korashon L; Gori, Jennifer L; Wohlfahrt, Martin E; Enssle, Joerg; Adair, Jennifer E; Kiem, Hans-Peter


    The development of technology to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells constitutes one of the most exciting scientific breakthroughs because of the enormous potential for regenerative medicine. However, the safety of iPS cell-related products is a major concern for clinical translation. Insertional mutagenesis, possible oncogenic transformation of iPS cells or their derivatives, or the contamination of differentiated iPS cells with undifferentiated cells, resulting in the formation of teratomas, have remained considerable obstacles. Here, we demonstrate the utility of suicide genes to safeguard iPS cells and their derivatives. We found suicide genes can control the cell fate of iPS cells in vitro and in vivo without interfering with their pluripotency and self-renewal capacity. This study will be useful to evaluate the safety of iPS cell technology in a clinically highly relevant, large animal model and further benefit the clinical use of human iPS cells.

  18. ChIP-Enrich: gene set enrichment testing for ChIP-seq data.

    Welch, Ryan P; Lee, Chee; Imbriano, Paul M; Patil, Snehal; Weymouth, Terry E; Smith, R Alex; Scott, Laura J; Sartor, Maureen A


    Gene set enrichment testing can enhance the biological interpretation of ChIP-seq data. Here, we develop a method, ChIP-Enrich, for this analysis which empirically adjusts for gene locus length (the length of the gene body and its surrounding non-coding sequence). Adjustment for gene locus length is necessary because it is often positively associated with the presence of one or more peaks and because many biologically defined gene sets have an excess of genes with longer or shorter gene locus lengths. Unlike alternative methods, ChIP-Enrich can account for the wide range of gene locus length-to-peak presence relationships (observed in ENCODE ChIP-seq data sets). We show that ChIP-Enrich has a well-calibrated type I error rate using permuted ENCODE ChIP-seq data sets; in contrast, two commonly used gene set enrichment methods, Fisher's exact test and the binomial test implemented in Genomic Regions Enrichment of Annotations Tool (GREAT), can have highly inflated type I error rates and biases in ranking. We identify DNA-binding proteins, including CTCF, JunD and glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα), that show different enrichment patterns for peaks closer to versus further from transcription start sites. We also identify known and potential new biological functions of GRα. ChIP-Enrich is available as a web interface ( and Bioconductor package. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Generation of iPS Cells from Granulosa Cells.

    Mao, Jian; Liu, Lin


    Various types of somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Somatic stem cells may generate iPS cells more efficiently than do differentiated cells. We show that granulosa cells exhibit characteristic of somatic stem cells and can be reprogrammed to iPS cells more efficiently or with few factors. Here, we describe generation of mouse and pig iPS cells from granulosa cells with high efficiency.

  20. Dynamic Mobile IP routers in ad hoc networks

    Kock, B.A.; Schmidt, J.R.


    This paper describes a concept combining mobile IP and ad hoc routing to create a robust mobile network. In this network all nodes are mobile and globally and locally reachable under the same IP address. Essential for implementing this network are the dynamic mobile IP routers. They act as gateways

  1. A Survey of Voice over IP Security Research

    Keromytis, Angelos D.

    We present a survey of Voice over IP security research. Our goal is to provide a roadmap for researchers seeking to understand existing capabilities and, and to identify gaps in addressing the numerous threats and vulnerabilities present in VoIP systems. We also briefly discuss the implications of our findings with respect to actual vulnerabilities reported in a variety VoIP products.

  2. Covert Channels in SIP for VoIP Signalling

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    In this paper, we evaluate available steganographic techniques for SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) that can be used for creating covert channels during signaling phase of VoIP (Voice over IP) call. Apart from characterizing existing steganographic methods we provide new insights by introducing new techniques. We also estimate amount of data that can be transferred in signalling messages for typical IP telephony call.

  3. A Conjoint Analysis of Voice Over IP Attributes.

    Zubey, Michael L.; Wagner, William; Otto, James R.


    Managers need to understand the tradeoffs associated with voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) networks as compared to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). This article measures the preference structures between IP telephony and PSTN services using conjoint analysis. The purpose is to suggest VoIP technology attributes that best meet…

  4. Dynamic Mobile IP routers in ad hoc networks

    Kock, B.A.; Schmidt, J.R.


    This paper describes a concept combining mobile IP and ad hoc routing to create a robust mobile network. In this network all nodes are mobile and globally and locally reachable under the same IP address. Essential for implementing this network are the dynamic mobile IP routers. They act as gateways

  5. Covert Channels in SIP for VoIP signalling

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech


    In this paper, we evaluate available steganographic techniques for SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) that can be used for creating covert channels during signaling phase of VoIP (Voice over IP) call. Apart from characterizing existing steganographic methods we provide new insights by introducing new techniques. We also estimate amount of data that can be transferred in signalling messages for typical IP telephony call.

  6. On Principles of IP Phone Technology and Its Future%IP Phone的技术原理及展望

    张祖良; 杨佩林; 陈刚


    This paper introduces principles of IP Phone technology. The basic communication model of IP Phone and the framework of connecting PSTN and Internet are presented. It also describes the hardware and software of an IP Phone gateway as well as protocols involving IP Phone core technology. Finally, it makes an analysis on the prospects.%本文介绍了IP Phone技术的发展及技术原理。IP Phone的基本通信模式,与现存的电话网络及国际互联网的连接框架结构。介绍了IP网关的构成所涉及的软硬件技术以及IP Phone的核心技术及涉及的协议规范。最后对IP Phone技术的发展前景进行了科学的分析。

  7. Impact of genome assembly status on ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET data mapping

    Sachs Laurent


    Full Text Available Abstract Background ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET can potentially be used with any genome for genome wide profiling of protein-DNA interaction sites. Unfortunately, it is probable that most genome assemblies will never reach the quality of the human genome assembly. Therefore, it remains to be determined whether ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET are practicable with genome sequences other than a few (e.g. human and mouse. Findings Here, we used in silico simulations to assess the impact of completeness or fragmentation of genome assemblies on ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET data mapping. Conclusions Most currently published genome assemblies are suitable for mapping the short sequence tags produced by ChIP-Seq or ChIP-PET.

  8. How can we integrate IP strategy with corporate strategy? Combining IP strategy with management strategy making process

    田中, 義敏; Tanaka, Yoshitoshi


    Intellectual property systems have been introduced and used in manycountries as a global standard. However, its practical utilisation is still not yetmature because of the lack of IP strategy. Each enterprise has to define aunique IP strategy and be differentiated by other enterprises because the outsideenvironment and internal resource are different. IP people have to havebetter understandings on strategy making process, which is fundamental to themanagement field. In addition, IP strategy s...

  9. IP Broadcasting Network Communications Security%浅谈 IP 广电网络的通信安全



    The IP digital broadcasting system is a fully digital audio-broadcasting system based on the IP net-works.Its physical structure completely syncretize with the IP networks,it breaks through the function limit of the traditional broadcasting.The IP digital broadcasting system has the security problems of communication,as it base on the IP networks.This paper discusses the security issues about the IP digital broadcasting system.%IP 数字广电网络是一套基于 IP 网络的纯数字化广播系统,基于 IP 网络的数字化广播、直播、点播,推送功能强大,灵活性强,并突破了传统模拟广播系统的局限性。但 IP 数字广电网络系统也继承了IP 网络安全的问题,主要分析 IP 广电网络所面对的安全问题,并提出解决方法。

  10. Impact of artefact removal on ChIP quality metrics in ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo data.

    Thomas Samuel Carroll


    Full Text Available With the advent of ChIP-seq multiplexing technologies and the subsequent increase in ChIP-seq throughput, the development of working standards for the quality assessment of ChIP-seq studies has received significant attention. The ENCODE consortium’s large scale analysis of transcription factor binding and epigenetic marks as well as concordant work on ChIP-seq by other laboratories has established a new generation of ChIP-seq quality control measures. The use of these metrics alongside common processing steps has however not been evaluated. In this study, we investigate the effects of blacklisting and removal of duplicated reads on established metrics of ChIP-seq quality and show that the interpretation of these metrics is highly dependent on the ChIP-seq preprocessing steps applied. Further to this we perform the first investigation of the use of these metrics for ChIP-exo data and make recommendations for the adaptation of the NSC statistic to allow for the assessment of ChIP-exo efficiency.

  11. Impact of artifact removal on ChIP quality metrics in ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo data.

    Carroll, Thomas S; Liang, Ziwei; Salama, Rafik; Stark, Rory; de Santiago, Ines


    With the advent of ChIP-seq multiplexing technologies and the subsequent increase in ChIP-seq throughput, the development of working standards for the quality assessment of ChIP-seq studies has received significant attention. The ENCODE consortium's large scale analysis of transcription factor binding and epigenetic marks as well as concordant work on ChIP-seq by other laboratories has established a new generation of ChIP-seq quality control measures. The use of these metrics alongside common processing steps has however not been evaluated. In this study, we investigate the effects of blacklisting and removal of duplicated reads on established metrics of ChIP-seq quality and show that the interpretation of these metrics is highly dependent on the ChIP-seq preprocessing steps applied. Further to this we perform the first investigation of the use of these metrics for ChIP-exo data and make recommendations for the adaptation of the NSC statistic to allow for the assessment of ChIP-exo efficiency.

  12. Analysis list: ATF7IP [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ATF7IP Epidermis + hg19 ...

  13. An attacker-defender model for IP-based networks

    Barkley, Timothy R.


    The Internet Protocol (IP) has emerged as the dominant technology for determining how data is routed across the Internet. Because IP flows are defined essentially in terms of origin-destination (O-D) pairs, we represent IP traffic engineering as a multi-commodity flow problem in which each O-D pair is treated as a separate commodity. We account for the diversity in IP routing by modeling opposite extremes of traffic engineering: "naive" traffic engineering where the IP routes data between...

  14. Analysis list: Atf7ip [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Atf7ip Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 ...



    The present invention relates to an immunological method and, more particularly, a method for measuring cell-mediated immune reactivity (CMI) in mammals based on the production of IP-10.The invention further discloses an assay and a kit for measuring CMI to an antigen using whole blood or other...... suitable biological samples. The methods of the present invention are useful in therapeutic and diagnostic protocols for human, livestock and veterinary and wild life applications, thus the invention further relates to a method for diagnosing an infection in a mammal....


    Jiao Li; Cui Yidong; Lin Yu; Wang Wendong; Cheng Shiduan


    Based on the analysis of current Quality of Service (QoS) management on IP network, new generation of QoS architecture QoSAF is proposed. QoSAF is divided into three layers: resource control layer, network service layer and business layer. QoS management is accomplished by interactivity of layers. In this architecture, mechanism of feedback control enhances the functions of resource management and system monitoring. The principle of design and logical architecture of system is discussed in detail.

  17. Cell Reprogramming, IPS Limitations, and Overcoming Strategies in Dental Bioengineering

    Gaskon Ibarretxe


    Full Text Available The procurement of induced pluripotent stem cells, or IPS cells, from adult differentiated animal cells has the potential to revolutionize future medicine, where reprogrammed IPS cells may be used to repair disease-affected tissues on demand. The potential of IPS cell technology is tremendous, but it will be essential to improve the methodologies for IPS cell generation and to precisely evaluate each clone and subclone of IPS cells for their safety and efficacy. Additionally, the current state of knowledge on IPS cells advises that research on their regenerative properties is carried out in appropriate tissue and organ systems that permit a safe assessment of the long-term behavior of these reprogrammed cells. In the present paper, we discuss the mechanisms of cell reprogramming, current technical limitations of IPS cells for their use in human tissue engineering, and possibilities to overcome them in the particular case of dental regeneration.

  18. Effects of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4, 5-b] pyridine (PhIP) on histopathology, oxidative stress, and expression of c-fos, c-jun and p16 in rat stomachs.

    Li, Ruijin; Tian, Jingjing; Li, Wanqing; Xie, Jingfang


    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4, 5-b] pyridine (PhIP) is one of the most abundant heterocyclic amines (HCAs) generated from overcooking meat at high temperatures. To understand the possible mechanism of PhIP-associated stomach cancer, the effects of PhIP on morphology, oxidative stress, gene expression of c-fos, c-jun and p16 in rat stomachs were investigated. The results showed that (1) 15mg/kg body weight PhIP induced obvious histopathological changes in gastric mucosa; (2) PhIP (10 and/or 15mg/kg) significantly decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathioneperoxidase (GPx) activities, while increased catalase (CAT) activity compared with the control. With the elevated doses of PhIP, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, protein carbonyl (PCO) contents and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC) coefficients were significantly raised in a dose-dependent manner; (3) PhIP at the doses of 10mg/kg and/or 15mg/kg significantly inhibited p16 mRNA and protein expression, whereas enhanced c-fos and c-jun expression relative to control. The data indicated that PhIP could cause stomach injury, oxidative stress in rat stomachs as well as the activation of c-fos and c-jun and inactivation of p16, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of PhIP-associated stomach cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Discovering Attack Path Oriented-IP Traceback

    Fu Jianming(傅建明); Zhu Fuxi; Peng Guojun


    The technique of IP traceback may effectively block DOS (Denial Of Service) and meet the requirement of the computer forensic, but its accuracy depends upon that condition that each node in the Internet must support IP packet marking or detected agents. So far, this requirement is not satisfied. On the basis of traditional traceroute,this paper investigates the efficiency of discovering path methods from aspects of the size and order of detecting packets, and the length of paths.It points out that the size of padding in probed packets has a slight effect on discovering latency, and the latency with the method of bulk sending-receiving is much smaller than one with the traditional traceroute. Moreover, the loss rate of packets with the technique of TTL (Time To Live) which increases monotonously is less than that with the technique of TTL which decreases monotonously. Lastly,OS (Operating System) passive fingerprint is used as heuristic to predict the length of the discovered path so as to reduce disturbance in network traffic.

  20. Live Video and IP-TV

    Merani, Maria Luisa; Saladino, Daniela

    This Chapter aims at providing a comprehensive insight into the most recent advances in the field of P2P architectures for video broadcasting, focusing on live video streaming P2P live video streaming . After introducing a classification of P2P video solutions, the first part of the Chapter provides an overview of the most interesting P2P IP-TV P2P IP-TV systems currently available over the Internet. It also concentrates on the process of data diffusion within the P2P overlay and complements this view with some measurements that highlight the most salient features of P2P architectures. The second part of the Chapter completes the view, bringing up the modeling efforts to capture the main characteristics and limits of P2P streaming systems, both analytically and numerically. The Chapter is closed by a pristine look at some challenging, open questions, with a specific emphasis on the adoption of network coding in P2P streaming solutions.

  1. IPS - a vision aided navigation system

    Börner, Anko; Baumbach, Dirk; Buder, Maximilian; Choinowski, Andre; Ernst, Ines; Funk, Eugen; Grießbach, Denis; Schischmanow, Adrian; Wohlfeil, Jürgen; Zuev, Sergey


    Ego localization is an important prerequisite for several scientific, commercial, and statutory tasks. Only by knowing one's own position, can guidance be provided, inspections be executed, and autonomous vehicles be operated. Localization becomes challenging if satellite-based navigation systems are not available, or data quality is not sufficient. To overcome this problem, a team of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) developed a multi-sensor system based on the human head and its navigation sensors - the eyes and the vestibular system. This system is called integrated positioning system (IPS) and contains a stereo camera and an inertial measurement unit for determining an ego pose in six degrees of freedom in a local coordinate system. IPS is able to operate in real time and can be applied for indoor and outdoor scenarios without any external reference or prior knowledge. In this paper, the system and its key hardware and software components are introduced. The main issues during the development of such complex multi-sensor measurement systems are identified and discussed, and the performance of this technology is demonstrated. The developer team started from scratch and transfers this technology into a commercial product right now. The paper finishes with an outlook.

  2. TNF receptor inhibitor therapy for the treatment of children with idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS)

    Yanik, Gregory A.; Grupp, Stephan A.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Levine, John E.; Schultz, Kirk R.; Wall, Donna A.; Langholz, Bryan; Dvorak, Christopher C.; Alangaden, Keith; Goyal, Rakesh K.; White, Eric S.; Collura, Jennifer M.; Skeens, Micah A.; Eid, Saada; Pierce, Elizabeth M; Cooke, Kenneth R.


    Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is an acute, non-infectious lung disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality following hematopoietic cell transplantation. Previous studies have suggested a role for TNFα in the pathogenesis of IPS. We report a multi-center phase II trial investigating a soluble TNF binding protein, etanercept (Enbrel®, Amgen) for the treatment of pediatric patients with IPS. Eligible patients were patients underwent a pre-therapy broncho-alveolor lavage (BAL) to establish the diagnosis of IPS. Systemic corticosteroids (2.0 mg/kg/day) plus etanercept (0.4 mg/kg twice weekly × 8 doses) were administered. Response was defined as survival and discontinuation of supplemental oxygen support by day 28 of study. Thirty-nine patients (median age 11y, range 1–17y) were enrolled, with 11 of 39 patients non-evaluable due to identification of pathogens from their pre-therapy BAL. In the remaining 28 patients, the median FiO2 at study entry was 45%, with 17 of 28 requiring mechanical ventilation. Complete responses were seen in 20 (71%) patients, with a median time to response 10 days (range 1–24). Response rates were higher for patients not requiring mechanical ventilation at study entry (100% vs. 53%,p=0.01). Overall survival at 28 days and 1-year post-therapy were 89% (95% CI:70–96) and 63% (95% CI:42–79) respectively. Plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly increased at onset of therapy, subsequently decreasing in responding patients. The addition of etanercept to high dose corticosteroids was associated with high response rates and survival in children with IPS. PMID:25270958

  3. Relationship between Interplanetary (IP) Parameters and Geomagnetic Indices during IP Shock Events of 2005

    Jatin Rathod; Girija Rajaram; Radharani Alyana; A. Chandrasekhar Reddy; D. S. Misra; C. G. Patil; M. Y. S. Prasad; A. G. Ananth


    In the present study, we investigate the possible relationship of IP parameters of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field with ground-based geomagnetic indices. To carry out the study, we take all the IP shock events listed by Proton Monitor onboard Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) during 2005, and plot the time variations of all the IP parameters and geomagnetic parameters (±5 days), centered at the shock arrival time. Next, we obtain scatter plots of absolute values of solar wind parameters such as Vsw, Nsw and Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) components Bx, By, Bz and total B with the values of geomagnetic parameters such as Dst, Kp indices, dayside Magnetopause (MP) distance and Cosmic-Ray Neutron Monitor count (CRNM). The scatter plots show that before the IP shock, the pattern is random with no clear relationship. Following the shock, a clear pattern emerges with a type of relationship being seen – clear for SHARP shocks and less clear for DIFFUSE shocks. A total of 10 shock events for 2005 have been studied. Typical examples of this behaviour are the shock events of January 21, 2005 and May 15, 2005. Our study suggests a definite correlation between changes in the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field parameters and ground-based geomagnetic response. We are trying to obtain quantitative relationships between these for shock events of 2005.

  4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of plant transcription factors followed by sequencing (ChIP-SEQ) or hybridization to whole genome arrays (ChIP-CHIP)

    Kaufmann, K.; Muiño, J.M.; Østerås, M.; Farinelli, L.; Krajewski, P.; Angenent, G.C.


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful technique to study interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and DNA in vivo. For genome-wide de novo discovery of TF-binding sites, the DNA that is obtained in ChIP experiments needs to be processed for sequence identification. The sequences

  5. In vitro synthesis and purification of PhIP-deoxyguanosine and PhIP-DNA oligomer covalent complexes

    Freeman, J.


    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a heterocyclic amine compound formed when meats are cooked at high temperatures. PhIP damages DNA by forming covalent complexes with DNA carcinogen. In an effort to understand how the binding of PhIP to DNA may cause cancer, it is important to characterize the structures of PhIP-damaged DNA molecules. Our HPLC data support fluorescence and {sup 32}P Post-labeling studies which indicate the formation of several species of 2{prime}deoxyguanosine-(dG) or oligodeoxynucleotide-PhIP adducts. The reaction of PhIP with dG resulted in a reddish precipitate that was likely the major adduct, N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-PhIP (dG-C8-PhIP) adduct, with a more polar adduct fraction remaining in the supernatant. Reversed-phase HPLC analysis of the adducts in the supernatant revealed the existence of species of much shorter retention times than the dG-C8-PhIP adduct, confirming that these species are more polar than dG-C8-PhIP. At least four adducts were formed in the reaction of PhIP with DNA oligomer. HPLC analysis of the PhIP-DNA oligomer supernatant after butanol extractions revealed four unresolved peaks which spectra had maximum wavelengths between 340 and 360 nm. Though adduct peaks were not completely resolved, there was {approximately}3 minutes interval between the DNA oligomer peak and the adduct peaks. Furthermore, fluorescence emission data of the DNA oligomer-PhIP adduct solution show heterogeneous binding. The more polar PhIP adducts were fraction-collected and their structures will be solved by nuclear magnetic resonance or x-ray crystallography.


    Masagus Zainuri


    Full Text Available AbstractInduced Pluripotent Stemcell (iPS are adult cells which the genetic information in the nucleus of those cells being reprogrammed (reprogram by inserting exogenous pluripotential genes. The exogenous gene transduction is using vectors, such as lentivirus, retrovirus, or adenovirus, which suppressed the gene expression of the original cells, so they will express the transduced exogenous gene. Viral vectors are then used to reprogramming and producing iPS clones that are pluripotent. iPS derived from adult cells of patient with certain diseases will be used as a tool to study the mechanisms of those specific diseases and the effects of selected drugs against the diseases. Several previous studies have shown that iPS clones developed from specific genetic disease have its original genotype and retain the character of the response to the drug that similar as the original adult cells. Opportunities for the utilization of autologous iPS cell therapy in the future is wide open as expected iPS transplant will not be rejected when transplanted back to the patient. Behind all its potential, iPS production is still facing some problems to be applicable clinically. The use of viruses as vectors may cause problems due to virus gene sequences may be integrated into the genome of the DNA donor cell, thereby causing mutations of the iPS clones. Several subsequent studies have succeeded in replacing the use of viruses as vectors, but the level of efficiency obtained is still very low. Another problem that arises is that epigenetic changes may occur in iPS cultures. Many advanced research related to iPS may be developed in Indonesia and is necessary to improve the production efficiency of iPS and solve iPS clones epigenetic changes problems in the future.Keywords: iPS, pluripotency, transduction, transfection.AbstrakInduced Pluripotent Stemcell (iPS adalah sel somatic dewasa yang informasi genetika dalam inti selnyadiprogram ulang (reprogram dengan cara

  7. Optimal Filtering of Malicious IP Sources

    Soldo, Fabio; Argyraki, Katerina


    How can we protect the network infrastructure from malicious traffic, such as scanning, malicious code propagation, and distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks? One mechanism for blocking malicious traffic is filtering: access control lists (ACLs) can selectively block traffic based on fields of the IP header. Filters (ACLs) are already available in the routers today but are a scarce resource because they are stored in the expensive ternary content addressable memory (TCAM). In this paper, we develop, for the first time, a framework for studying filter selection as a resource allocation problem. Within this framework, we study five practical cases of source address/prefix filtering, which correspond to different attack scenarios and operator's policies. We show that filter selection optimization leads to novel variations of the multidimensional knapsack problem and we design optimal, yet computationally efficient, algorithms to solve them. We also evaluate our approach using data from and dem...

  8. 解密家用VoIP



    对一个计算机从业者,人们经常期望他了解所有VoIP技术——如同期望他能恢复硬盘、杀除病毒、组建家庭网络、让用不同语言写的程序兼容运行等等。而事实上,尽管一位计算机从业者可能读过许多行业杂志,或在实验室研究过Asterisk(开放源代码的软件VoIP PBX系统)和SIP网关之类的东西,但真正要在家庭动手实践时,那些理论不一定能解决问题。

  9. TCP/IP Over SpaceWire

    Mills, S.; Parkes, S.

    The SpaceWire standard defines a network designed for handling payload data and control information onboard a spacecraft. Among the goals of SpaceWire are re-usability and reliability. The use of network protocols on top of SpaceWire is expected to enhance the already rich re-usability and reliability characteristics of SpaceWire. The Space Systems Research Group at the University of Dundee have developed software to allow data to be sent over SpaceWire using standard network protocols such as TCP/IP, as part of a program of work looking at network protocols for SpaceWire. This paper describes network protocols and their relationship to SpaceWire, introduces software written to allow network protocols to be layered on to SpaceWire, describes the research behind the development of this software, and gives results of some tests and observations made using the software.

  10. Implementation of a Prototype VoIP System

    刘喜成; 李仲同


    VoIP (Voice over IP) is a rapidly growing area with great market potential. To promote it for both commercial and research purposes, a prototype VoIP system based on state-of-the-art Motorola communication techniques has been developed. It is a gateway system integrating a PBX and a VoIP module. All com ponents that H.323 defines to support VoIP are implemented in the VoIP module, though in a simplified manner. As an embedded system, the system features real timeness and task distributiveness. A number of additional techniques are used to improve the performance, including noise suppression, zero copy, and buffer structure optimization. When refined in interoperability, the system will also readily serve as a product.

  11. IP Telephony Interconnection Reference Challenges, Models, and Engineering

    Boucadair, Mohamed; Neves, Pedro Miguel; Einarsson, Olafur Pall


    Addressing the growth of IP telephony service offerings within the corporate and residential realm, IP Telephony Interconnection Reference: Challenges, Models, and Engineering examines the technical and regulatory issues related to IP telephony interconnection at the large scale. It describes business and interconnection models, reviews emerging architectures such as IMS and TISPAN, identifies commonly-encountered issues, and supplies solutions to technical issues. The authors offer a detailed overview of SPEERMINT activity and proposed architecture, the current work undertaken in i3 Forum, an

  12. ATF2 Ultra-Low IP Betas Proposal

    Bambade, P; Bai, S; Braun, H; Delahaye, J P; Marin, E; Schulte, D; Tomás, R; Zimmermann, F; Gao, J; Wang, D; Zhu, XW; Honda, Y; Kuroda, S; Okugi, T; Tauchi, T; Terunuma, N; Urakawa, J; Seryi, A; White, G; Woodley, M; Angal-Kalinin, D; Jones, J; Scarfe, A


    The CLIC Final Focus System has considerably larger chromaticity than those of ILC and its scaled test machine ATF2. We propose to reduce the IP betas of ATF2 to reach a CLIC-like chromaticity. This would also allow to study the FFS tuning difficulty as function of the IP beam spot size. Both the ILC and CLIC projects will largely benefit from the ATF2 experience at these ultra-low IP betas.

  13. Mobility and QoS Support in Mobile IP Networks

    DUAN Lian; WU Wei-ling


    This paper presents the state of the art of the Quality of Service (QoS) and mobility support mechanisms for mobile IP networks, which includes the issues and challenges in QoS support, an overview of the Mobile IP protocol, a general description of the QoS and Mobility framework, and the End-To-End QoS architecture in the next-generation all-IP mobile network.

  14. Improvement on QoS of VoIP

    HUANGYongfeng; LIXing; RUANFang


    This paper first introduces some factors affecting QoS of VoIP System, and presents some strategies to improve VoIP speech quality. Studies are concentrated on an adaptive algorithms based on IP telephony gateway, which includes adopting buffer to smooth the jitter, low bit rate redundancy packet sending mechanism to recover the packet loss, a delay and loss measurement mechanism based on RTP (Real-time transmit protocol), and an adaptive scheme algorithm according to the loss ratio and end to end delay. Finally, the results of testing have denoted that these adaptive mechanisms applied in gateway can improve greatly QoS of VoIP.

  15. Strategies Towords Next Generation IP Over Optical Networks


    A consensus is emerging in industry on utilizing an IP-Centric control plane within optical networks to support dynamic provisioning and restoration of lightpaths. At the same time, there are divergent views of how IP routers interact with optical core networks to achieve end-to-end connectivity. This paper describes the strategies of optical communication's future development towards next generation IP over Optical Networks. The desirable extent of network transparency in advanced all-optical network architecture is studied. Architectural alternatives for interconnecting IP routers over optical networks, and the concerned routing and signaling issues are described.

  16. Implementation of direct routing mobile IP for solving triangular routing

    Jang, Jongwook; Jang, SeongHo; Park, Miri; Lee, Dae-bong


    Mobility support on the network layer is of special importance, as the network layer holds together the huge Internet with common protocol IP. Although based on possibility different wireless or wired technologies, all nodes of the network should be able to communicate. Therefore, mobile IP(an extension of the classical IP) has been designed which enablemobility in the Internet without changing existing wired systems. However, mobile IP leaves some points unsolved. Especially, if it comes to security, efficiency of the packet flow that is called triangular routing. Especially triangular routing can cause unnecessary overhead for the network. Furthermore latency can increase dramatically. This is particularly unfortunate if two communicating hosts are separated by transatlantic links. In order to this problem, many methods like IPv6 and ROMIP are proposed. But these methods have limitation. In other words, they have not compatibility because of needing modification of original IP scheme. Especially ROMIP is very complex and the overhead of control message and processing are serious. The problem of inconsistency of Binding caches may occur too. We therefore propose and analyze the performance of the DRMIP (Direct Routing Mobile IP) which do not modify IP source needed in the sender, is compatible with IP and Mobile IP.

  17. Design and performance evaluation of direct routing mobile IP

    Jang, Jongwook; Jang, SeongHo; Kim, Kilyeun; Lee, Jung-Tae


    Mobility support on the network layer is of special importance, as the network layer holds together the huge Internet with common protocol IP. Although based on possibility different wireless or wired technologies, all nodes of the network should be able to communicate. Therefore, mobile IP (an extension of the classical IP) has been designed which enables mobility in the Internet without changing existing wired systems. However, mobile IP leaves some points unsolved. Especially, if it comes to security, efficient of the packet flow that is called triangular routing. Especially triangular routing can cause unnecessary overhead for the network. Furthermore latency can increase dramatically. This is particularly unfortunate if two communicating hosts are separated by transatlantic links. In order to this problem, many methods like IPv6 and ROMIP are proposed. But these methods have limitation. In other words, they have not compatibility because of needing modification or original IP scheme. Especially ROMIP is very complex and the overhead of control message and processing are serious. The problem of inconsistency of Binding caches may occur tool. We therefore propose and analyze the DRMIP (Direct Routing Mobile IP) which do not modify IP source needed in the sender, is compatible with IP and Mobile IP.

  18. Distinct iPS Cells Show Different Cardiac Differentiation Efficiency.

    Ohno, Yohei; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Egashira, Toru; Seki, Tomohisa; Hashimoto, Hisayuki; Tohyama, Shugo; Saito, Yuki; Kunitomi, Akira; Shimoji, Kenichiro; Onizuka, Takeshi; Kageyama, Toshimi; Yae, Kojiro; Tanaka, Tomofumi; Kaneda, Ruri; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Murata, Mitsushige; Kimura, Kensuke; Fukuda, Keiichi


    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by introducing transcription factors that are highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells into somatic cells. This opens up new possibilities for cell transplantation-based regenerative medicine by overcoming the ethical issues and immunological problems associated with ES cells. Despite the development of various methods for the generation of iPS cells that have resulted in increased efficiency, safety, and general versatility, it remains unknown which types of iPS cells are suitable for clinical use. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess (1) the differentiation potential, time course, and efficiency of different types of iPS cell lines to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and (2) the properties of the iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We found that high-quality iPS cells exhibited better cardiomyocyte differentiation in terms of the time course and efficiency of differentiation than low-quality iPS cells, which hardly ever differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Because of the different properties of the various iPS cell lines such as cardiac differentiation efficiency and potential safety hazards, newly established iPS cell lines must be characterized prior to their use in cardiac regenerative medicine.

  19. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6): a novel treatment for pancreatic cancer.

    Somasundar, Ponnandai; Riggs, Dale R; Jackson, Barbara J; Cunningham, Cynthia; Vona-Davis, Linda; McFadden, David W


    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate found in food sources high in fiber content. IP6 has been reported to have significant inhibitory effects against a variety of primary tumors including breast and colon. The effects of IP6 have not been evaluated in pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized that IP6 would significantly inhibit cell growth and increase the apoptotic rate of pancreatic cancer in vitro. Two pancreatic cancer cell lines (MIAPACA and PANC1) were cultured using standard techniques and treated with IP6 at doses of 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mm. Cell viability was measured by MTT at 24 and 72 h. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC and results calculated using FACS analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. Significant reductions (P IP6 concentrations tested in both cell lines and at both time points. Reductions in cell proliferation ranged from 37.1 to 91.5%. IP6 increased early and late apoptotic activity (P IP6 significantly decreased cellular growth and increased apoptosis. Our findings suggest that IP6 has the potential to become an effective adjunct for pancreatic cancer treatment. Further in vivo and human studies are needed to evaluate safety and clinical utility of this agent in patients with pancreatic cancer.

  20. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) inhibits cellular proliferation in melanoma.

    Rizvi, Irfan; Riggs, Dale R; Jackson, Barbara J; Ng, Alex; Cunningham, Cynthia; McFadden, David W


    Inositol Hexaphosphate (IP6) is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate found in food sources high in fiber content. We have previously reported IP6 to have significant inhibitory effects against pancreatic cancer in vitro. We hypothesized that the IP6 would significantly inhibit cell growth of cutaneous melanoma in vitro. The melanoma line HTB68 was cultured using standard techniques and treated with IP6 at doses ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 mM/well. Cell viability was measured by MTT at 72 h. VEGF production was measured in the cell supernatants by ELISA. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC and results calculated using FACS analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA. Significant reductions (P IP6. Overall, IP6 exhibited a mean inhibition of cell growth of 52.1 +/- 11.5% (range, 1.6-83.0%) at 72 h of incubation. VEGF production was significantly reduced (P IP6 (7.5 pg/ml) compared to control (40.9 pg/ml). IP6 significantly increased (P = 0.029) late apoptosis from 5.3 to 7.0% gated events. No changes in necrosis or early apoptosis were observed. Adjuvant treatment of melanoma continues to challenge clinicians and patients. Our findings that IP6 significantly decreased cellular growth, VEGF production and increased late apoptosis in melanoma suggest its potential therapeutic value. Further in vivo studies are planned to evaluate safety and clinical utility of this agent.

  1. Diffusion of IP Telephony in Undergraduate Private Colleges

    Patrick C. Olson, PhD


    Full Text Available Over the summer of 2000 Menlo College implemented enterprise wide Internet Protocol (IP Telephony (Voice over Internet Protocol [VoIP]. More than five years have passed, and analysts are predicting that in the near future the only available Private Branch Exchange (PBX solutions will be VoIP [4]. In view of this market trend, the diffusion of this technology in these institutions seems slow. The Menlo College implementation is very successful, but has the concept diffused to other institutions? What factors influence the diffusion of this technology to other institutions? This paper examines the status of VoIP at these institutions.

  2. Distinct iPS Cells Show Different Cardiac Differentiation Efficiency

    Yohei Ohno


    Full Text Available Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells can be generated by introducing transcription factors that are highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES cells into somatic cells. This opens up new possibilities for cell transplantation-based regenerative medicine by overcoming the ethical issues and immunological problems associated with ES cells. Despite the development of various methods for the generation of iPS cells that have resulted in increased efficiency, safety, and general versatility, it remains unknown which types of iPS cells are suitable for clinical use. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess (1 the differentiation potential, time course, and efficiency of different types of iPS cell lines to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and (2 the properties of the iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We found that high-quality iPS cells exhibited better cardiomyocyte differentiation in terms of the time course and efficiency of differentiation than low-quality iPS cells, which hardly ever differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Because of the different properties of the various iPS cell lines such as cardiac differentiation efficiency and potential safety hazards, newly established iPS cell lines must be characterized prior to their use in cardiac regenerative medicine.

  3. Maintaining high-quality IP audio services in lossy IP network environments

    Barton, Robert J., III; Chodura, Hartmut


    In this paper we present our research activities in the area of digital audio processing and transmission. Today's available teleconference audio solutions are lacking in flexibility, robustness and fidelity. There was a need for enhancing the quality of audio for IP-based applications to guarantee optimal services under varying conditions. Multiple tests and user evaluations have shown that a reliable audio communication toolkit is essential for any teleconference application. This paper summarizes our research activities and gives an overview of developed applications. In a first step the parameters, which influence the audio quality, were evaluated. All of these parameters have to be optimized in order to result into the best achievable quality. Therefore it was necessary to enhance existing schemes or develop new methods. Applications were developed for Internet-Telephony, broadcast of live music and spatial audio for Virtual Reality environments. This paper describes these applications and issues of delivering high quality digital audio services over lossy IP networks.

  4. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells.

    Ji, Guangzhen; Ruan, Weimin; Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Sakellariou, Despoina; Chen, Jijun; Yang, Yang; Okuka, Maja; Han, Jianyong; Liu, Zhonghua; Lai, Liangxue; Gagos, Sarantis; Xiao, Lei; Deng, Hongkui; Li, Ning; Liu, Lin


    Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  5. Protection against cancer by dietary IP6 and inositol.

    Vucenik, Ivana; Shamsuddin, AbulKalam M


    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP(6)) is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate, abundantly present in many plant sources and in certain high-fiber diets, such as cereals and legumes. In addition to being found in plants, IP(6) is contained in almost all mammalian cells, although in much smaller amounts, where it is important in regulating vital cellular functions such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, and differentiation. For a long time IP(6) has been recognized as a natural antioxidant. Recently IP(6) has received much attention for its role in cancer prevention and control of experimental tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. In addition, IP(6) possesses other significant benefits for human health, such as the ability to enhance immune system, prevent pathological calcification and kidney stone formation, lower elevated serum cholesterol, and reduce pathological platelet activity. In this review we show the efficacy and discuss some of the molecular mechanisms that govern the action of this dietary agent. Exogenously administered IP(6) is rapidly taken up into cells and dephosphorylated to lower inositol phosphates, which further affect signal transduction pathways resulting in cell cycle arrest. A striking anticancer action of IP(6) was demonstrated in different experimental models. In addition to reducing cell proliferation, IP(6) also induces differentiation of malignant cells. Enhanced immunity and antioxidant properties also contribute to tumor cell destruction. Preliminary studies in humans show that IP(6) and inositol, the precursor molecule of IP(6), appear to enhance the anticancer effect of conventional chemotherapy, control cancer metastases, and improve quality of life. Because it is abundantly present in regular diet, efficiently absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and safe, IP(6) + inositol holds great promise in our strategies for cancer prevention and therapy. There is clearly enough evidence to justify the

  6. The Effect of Cancer Chemopreventive Agents on DNA Adduct Formation by the Dietary Prostate Carcinogen PhIP


    significantly different from 5-mc scores of UBM (0.61 OC induced DNA damage that subsequently triggered apoptosis in a ± 0.08) and EH (0.54 ± 0.14...the genotoxic effects of PhIP and may be useful in the prevention of PhIP- induced prostate cancer. Consequently, this work has provided further evidence...8217,5,7-pentahyroxyflavone/kg ( quercetin ), 906mg 1-isothiocyanato- (4R,S)-(methylsulfinyl) butane/kg (sulforaphane), or the de-alcoholized-dehydrated


    Lisna Handayani


    Full Text Available Tujuan  penelitian adalah menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran IPS dengan Pendekatan Inquiry. Penelitian pengembangan ini menggunakan langkah-langkah Borg and Gall yang terdiri dari tiga tahapan utama yaitu pendahuluan, pengembangan dan validasi. Data yang diperoleh adalah hasil belajar, aktivitas diskusi dan respon peserta didik. Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis deskriptif dan uji t. Penggunaan pendekatan inquiry sebagai salah satau strategi pembelajaran IPS dapat dilakukan dengan mempersiapkan terlebih dahulu perangkat pembelajarannya. Hasil pengembangan divalidasi oleh pakar, diujicobakan pada kelas terbatas dan selanjutnya dilakukan ujicoba pada kelas eksperimen yang dibandingkan hasilnya dengan kelas kontrol. Perangkat pembelajaran tergolong efektif untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar peserta didik di kelas VII SMP Negeri 2 Jepara, terbukti dari adanya peningkatan yang nyata terbukti dari hasil uji paired sampel t-test dengan nilai signifikansi 0,000 <0,05, dan terjadi peningkatan yang tinggi (gain > 0,7, serta hasil belajar yang dicapai berbeda secara signifikan dengan kelompok kontrol. Di samping hasil belajar, pembelajaran yang dilakukan juga berdampak pada proses belajar yang membawa tingginya aktivitas peserta didik dalam memberikan gagasan, kerjasama, inisiatif, keaktifan dan kedisiplinan. The purpose of this research is creating Social Lesson Material with Inquiry Approach.This developing of the research is used of  the steps of Borg and Gall. They are Introducing, developing and evaluating. Learning materials are developed and validity by expert. Datas are gooten by study result, discussion activity and students, respone. Analizing datas are used descriptive analize and t- try out. The use of inquiry approach as one of learning strategy on Social Lesson Material can be done by preparing those. The result of  developing are being validity by expert,  try out on limited group and experiment group ad compare with control group

  8. Special rights for the development of Indigenous Peoples (IPS) in ...

    Special rights for the development of Indigenous Peoples (IPS) in Africa: Any need in a democratic society with ... Journal Home > Vol 4 (2013) > ... Globalization and efforts to link human, cultural and social rights to the IPs remain blurred and ...

  9. Field Test Results on Natural Field IP Method


    In this paper the authors propose the natural field induced polarization (IP) method and present the way to pick up IP effect. The relations between the object and anomaly are studied by taking field experiments as examples. The effectiveness and usability of the method are testified.

  10. Evolutionary Programming for IP/MIP Problems with Linear Constraints


    In this paper, we propose a modified evolutionary programming with dynamic domain for solving nonlinear IP/MIP problems with linear constraints, without involving penalty function or any transformation for the problem to a linear model or others. The numerical results show that the new algorithm gives a satisfactory performance in which it works of high speed and accuracy in IP/MIP problems.

  11. Fair Scheduling for Delay-Sensitive VoIP Traffic

    Ahmed, Shawish; Jiang, Xiaohong; Horiguchi, Susumu

    With the wide expansion of voice services over the IP networks (VoIP), the volume of this delay sensitive traffic is steadily growing. The current packet schedulers for IP networks meet the delay constraint of VoIP traffic by simply assigning its packets the highest priority. This technique is acceptable as long as the amount of VoIP traffic is relatively very small compared to other non-voice traffic. With the notable expansion of VoIP applications, however, the current packet schedulers will significantly sacrifice the fairness deserved by the non-voice traffic. In this paper, we extend the conventional Deficit Round-Robin (DRR) scheduler by including a packet classifier, a Token Bucket and a resource reservation scheme and propose an integrated packet scheduler architecture for the growing VoIP traffic. We demonstrate through both theoretical analysis and extensive simulation that the new architecture makes it possible for us to significantly improve the fairness to non-voice traffic while still meeting the tight delay requirement of VoIP applications.

  12. In silico pooling of ChIP-seq control experiments.

    Sun, Guannan; Srinivasan, Rajini; Lopez-Anido, Camila; Hung, Holly A; Svaren, John; Keleş, Sündüz


    As next generation sequencing technologies are becoming more economical, large-scale ChIP-seq studies are enabling the investigation of the roles of transcription factor binding and epigenome on phenotypic variation. Studying such variation requires individual level ChIP-seq experiments. Standard designs for ChIP-seq experiments employ a paired control per ChIP-seq sample. Genomic coverage for control experiments is often sacrificed to increase the resources for ChIP samples. However, the quality of ChIP-enriched regions identifiable from a ChIP-seq experiment depends on the quality and the coverage of the control experiments. Insufficient coverage leads to loss of power in detecting enrichment. We investigate the effect of in silico pooling of control samples within multiple biological replicates, multiple treatment conditions, and multiple cell lines and tissues across multiple datasets with varying levels of genomic coverage. Our computational studies suggest guidelines for performing in silico pooling of control experiments. Using vast amounts of ENCODE data, we show that pairwise correlations between control samples originating from multiple biological replicates, treatments, and cell lines/tissues can be grouped into two classes representing whether or not in silico pooling leads to power gain in detecting enrichment between the ChIP and the control samples. Our findings have important implications for multiplexing samples.

  13. Last Tribute to Professor Zheng Chengsi, Renowned IP Law Scholar


    On 10 September 2006, Professor Zheng Chengsi, the renowned Chinese IP law scholar, Chairman of the IP Law Society of the China Law Society, Vice-President of the Copyright Society of China, and member of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, passed away in Beijing at the age of 62.

  14. IP-10 release assays in the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection

    Ruhwald, Morten; Aabye, Martine G; Ravn, Pernille


    The current state-of-the-art tests for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis - the IFN-γ release assays - rely on accurate measurement of the cytokine IFN-γ. Many other potential biomarkers are expressed in concert with IFN-γ, and IP-10 in particular has shown promising results. IP-10...

  15. Probabilistic Route Selection Algorithm for IP Traceback

    Yim, Hong-Bin; Jung, Jae-Il

    DoS(Denial of Service) or DDoS(Distributed DoS) attack is a major threaten and the most difficult problem to solve among many attacks. Moreover, it is very difficult to find a real origin of attackers because DoS/DDoS attacker uses spoofed IP addresses. To solve this problem, we propose a probabilistic route selection traceback algorithm, namely PRST, to trace the attacker's real origin. This algorithm uses two types of packets such as an agent packet and a reply agent packet. The agent packet is in use to find the attacker's real origin and the reply agent packet is in use to notify to a victim that the agent packet is reached the edge router of the attacker. After attacks occur, the victim generates the agent packet and sends it to a victim's edge router. The attacker's edge router received the agent packet generates the reply agent packet and send it to the victim. The agent packet and the reply agent packet is forwarded refer to probabilistic packet forwarding table (PPFT) by routers. The PRST algorithm runs on the distributed routers and PPFT is stored and managed by routers. We validate PRST algorithm by using mathematical approach based on Poisson distribution.

  16. Performance Comparison of IP-Networked Storage

    JU Dapeng; LIU Chuanyi; WANG Dongsheng; LIU Hong; TANG Zhizhong


    Dramatically increasing amounts of digital data are placing huge requirements on storage systems.IP-networked storage systems,such as the network file system (NFS)-based network-attached storage (NAS) systems and the iSCSI-storage area network (SAN) systems,have become increasingly common in today's local area network (LAN) environments.The emergence of new storage techniques,such as object-based storage (OBS) and content aware storage (CAS),significantly improves the functionality of storage devices to meet further needs for storage sub-systems.However,these may impact system performance.This paper compares the performance of NFS,iSCSI storage,object-based storage devices (OSDs),and CAS-based storage systems in an environment with no data sharing across host machines.A gigabit ethernet network is used as the storage network.Test results demonstrate that the performances of these systems are comparable with CAS being much better than the others for write operations.The performance bottlenecks in these systems are analyzed to provide insight into how future storage systems may be improved and possible optimization methods.The analysis shows how the I/O interfaces in these systems affect the application performance and that network-based storage systems require optimized I/O latency and reduced network and buffer processing in the servers.

  17. Heterogeneous IP Ecosystem enabling Reuse (HIER)


    lot • For even a 90% yield, per‐chip  costs  would at least be   $2.2M / (48,000 * 0.90) = $51 – Chiplet  price  would be based on this  cost   plus  some...There are not industry‐wide  pricing  models for IP, e.g. • CHIPS users will need to determine fabrication  costs • But also will need to determine ‘value...incidental  management  costs   plus  some markup to incentivize DoD contractors to  participate – The markup value is key to the model maintaining

  18. Perfection of Recent Attacks using IP



    Full Text Available The Internet threat monitoring (ITM systems have been deployed to detect widespread attacks on the Internet in recent years. However, the effectiveness of ITM systems critically depends on the confidentiality of the location of their monitors. If adversaries learn the monitor locations of an ITM system, they can bypass the monitors and focus on the uncovered IP address space without being detected. In this paper, we study a new class of attacks, the invisible LOCalization (iLOC attack. The iLOC attack can accurately and invisibly localize monitors of ITM systems. In the iLOC attack, the attacker launches low-rate port-scan traffic, encoded with a selected pseudo noise code (PN-code, to targeted networks. While the secret PN-code is invisible to others, the attacker can accurately determine the existence of monitors in the targeted networks based on whether the PN-code is embedded in the report data queried from the data center of the ITM system. We formally analyze the impact of various parameters on attack effectiveness. We implement the iLOC attack and conduct the performance evaluation on a real-world ITM system to demonstrate the possibility of such attacks. We also conduct extensive simulations on the iLOC attack using real-world traces. Our data show that the iLOC attack can accurately identify monitors while being invisible to ITM systems. Finally, we present a set of guidelines to counteract the iLOC attack.


    Emil Kuriakose John


    Full Text Available In this age of gigabit Ethernet and broadband internet, network security has been the top priority for most of the researchers. Technology advancements have advantages as well as disadvantages. Most of the communication of present world, the e-world, takes place online, through the internet. Thus the context of network intrusions and attacks to hack into servers also came into existence. A technique to perform this activity is made possible by preventing the discovery of the sender’s identity through IP Spoofing [7]. Many popular internet sites have been hacked and attackers try to forge or spoof the source addresses in IP packets. Using spoofing detection technique, the user can retrieve the list of IP addresses and able to identify the malicious IP addresses.Hence mechanisms must be designed to prevent hacking. This paper proposes a novel technique to detect IP spoofing based on traffic verification and filtering.

  20. Audio CAPTCHA for SIP-Based VoIP

    Soupionis, Yannis; Tountas, George; Gritzalis, Dimitris

    Voice over IP (VoIP) introduces new ways of communication, while utilizing existing data networks to provide inexpensive voice communications worldwide as a promising alternative to the traditional PSTN telephony. SPam over Internet Telephony (SPIT) is one potential source of future annoyance in VoIP. A common way to launch a SPIT attack is the use of an automated procedure (bot), which generates calls and produces audio advertisements. In this paper, our goal is to design appropriate CAPTCHA to fight such bots. We focus on and develop audio CAPTCHA, as the audio format is more suitable for VoIP environments and we implement it in a SIP-based VoIP environment. Furthermore, we suggest and evaluate the specific attributes that audio CAPTCHA should incorporate in order to be effective, and test it against an open source bot implementation.

  1. COPAR: A ChIP-Seq Optimal Peak Analyzer

    Binhua Tang


    Full Text Available Sequencing data quality and peak alignment efficiency of ChIP-sequencing profiles are directly related to the reliability and reproducibility of NGS experiments. Till now, there is no tool specifically designed for optimal peak alignment estimation and quality-related genomic feature extraction for ChIP-sequencing profiles. We developed open-sourced COPAR, a user-friendly package, to statistically investigate, quantify, and visualize the optimal peak alignment and inherent genomic features using ChIP-seq data from NGS experiments. It provides a versatile perspective for biologists to perform quality-check for high-throughput experiments and optimize their experiment design. The package COPAR can process mapped ChIP-seq read file in BED format and output statistically sound results for multiple high-throughput experiments. Together with three public ChIP-seq data sets verified with the developed package, we have deposited COPAR on GitHub under a GNU GPL license.

  2. SPECT imaging with the serotonin transporter radiotracer [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT in nonhuman primate brain

    Cosgrove, Kelly P., E-mail: kelly.cosgrove@yale.ed [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Staley, Julie K.; Baldwin, Ronald M.; Bois, Frederic [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Plisson, Christophe [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Al-Tikriti, Mohammed S. [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Seibyl, John P. [Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Goodman, Mark M. [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Tamagnan, Gilles D. [Yale University School of Medicine, VA Connecticut HCS (116A6), West Haven, CT 06516 (United States); Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)


    Introduction: Serotonin dysfunction has been linked to a variety of psychiatric diseases; however, an adequate SPECT radioligand to probe the serotonin transporter system has not been successfully developed. The purpose of this study was to characterize and determine the in vivo selectivity of iodine-123-labeled 2{beta}-carbomethoxy-3{beta}-(4'-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl)nortropane, [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT, in nonhuman primate brain. Methods: Two ovariohysterectomized female baboons participated in nine studies (one bolus and eight bolus to constant infusion at a ratio of 9.0 h) to evaluate [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT. To evaluate the selectivity of [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT, the serotonin transporter blockers fenfluramine (1.5, 2.5 mg/kg) and citalopram (5 mg/kg), the dopamine transporter blocker methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg) and the norepinephrine transporter blocker nisoxetine (1 mg/kg) were given at 8 h post-radiotracer injection. Results: In the bolus to constant infusion studies, equilibrium was established by 4-8 h. [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT was 93% and 90% protein bound in the two baboons and there was no detection of lipophilic radiolabeled metabolites entering the brain. In the high-density serotonin transporter regions (diencephalon and brainstem), fenfluramine and citalopram resulted in 35-71% and 129-151% displacement, respectively, whereas methylphenidate and nisoxetine did not produce significant changes (<10%). Conclusion: These findings suggest that [{sup 123}I]p ZIENT is a favorable compound for in vivo SPECT imaging of serotonin transporters with negligible binding to norepinephrine and dopamine transporters.

  3. Anti-angiogenic activity of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6).

    Vucenik, Ivana; Passaniti, Antonino; Vitolo, Michele I; Tantivejkul, Kwanchanit; Eggleton, Paul; Shamsuddin, Abulkalam M


    A significant anticancer activity of the naturally occurring carbohydrate inositol hexaphosphate (IP(6)) has been reported against numerous cancer models. Since tumors require angiogenesis for growth and metastasis, we hypothesize that IP(6) reduces tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis. Because angiogenesis depends on the interaction between endothelial and tumor cells, we investigated the effect of IP(6) on both. IP(6) inhibited the proliferation and induced the differentiation of endothelial cells in vitro; the growth of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) evaluated by MTT proliferation assay was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner (IC(50) = 0.74 mM). The combination of IP(6) and vasostatin, a calreticulin fragment with anti-angiogenic activity, was synergistically superior in growth inhibition than either compound. IP(6) inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation (in vitro capillary differentiation) on a reconstituted extracellular matrix, Matrigel, and disrupted pre-formed tubes. IP(6) significantly reduced basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced vessel formation (P < 0.01) in vivo in Matrigel plug assay. Exposure of HepG2, a human hepatoma cell line, to IP(6) for 8 h, resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), as assessed by RT-PCR. IP(6) treatment of HepG2 cells for 24 h also significantly reduced the VEGF protein levels in conditioned medium, in a concentration-dependent manner (P = 0.012). Thus, IP(6) has an inhibitory effect on induced angiogenesis.

  4. Pentoxifylline attenuates cigarette smoke-induced overexpression of CXCR3 and IP-10 in mice

    WANG Zheng; CHEN Yan-wei; ZHANG Jin-nong; HU Xiao-fei; PENG Mei-jun


    Background Cigarette smoke-induced emphysema is associated with overexpression of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands.Previously,we have demonstrated that pentoxifylline (PTX) alleviated cigarette smoke-induced emphysema.The aim of this study was to determine if the overexpression of CXCR3 and its ligand interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) that was elicited by smoke exposure were attenuated by PTX.Methods (1) The study in vitro:a given number of RAW264.7 macrophages with decreasing concentrations of PTX in the culture medium were challenged with cigarette smoke extract (CSE); (2) The study in vivo:male BALB/c mice were randomized into four groups,i.e.,sham-smoke,smoke only,smoke with 2 mg/kg PTX,and smoke with 10 mg/kg PTX.The smoke exposure time was 90 minutes once a day,6 days a week for 16 weeks.PTX was given intraperitoneally before each episode of smoke exposure.Interferon (IFN)-y and IP-10 in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in culture medium were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).IP-10 mRNA in lung tissue was assessed by RT-PCR.CXCR3 positive cells in lung sections were visualized by immunochemistry staining.Results Up-regulation of IFN-y and IP-10 in the culture medium of macrophages elicited by CSE was inhibited by PTX in a dose-dependent manner.Chronic cigarette smoke exposure led to overexpression of IFN-y and IP-10 in BALF,upregulation of IP-10 mRNA and increased infiltration of CXCR3+ cells into lung parenchyma.Administration of PTX decreased the level of IFN-y from (6.26±1.38) ng/ml to (4.43±0.66) ng/ml by low dose PTX or to (1.74±0.28) ng/ml by high dose PTX.IP-10 was reduced from (10.35±1.49) ng/ml to (8.19±0.79) ng/ml by low dose PTX or to (7.51±0.60)ng/ml by high dose PTX.The expression of IP-10 mRNA was also down-regulated (P <0.05).But only with a high dose of PTX was the ratio of CXCR3+ cells decreased; 15.2±7.3 vs.10.4±1.8 (P <0.05).Conclusion PTX attenuates cigarette smoke

  5. Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) generated by IP5K mediates cullin-COP9 signalosome interactions and CRL function.

    Scherer, Paul C; Ding, Yan; Liu, Zhiqing; Xu, Jing; Mao, Haibin; Barrow, James C; Wei, Ning; Zheng, Ning; Snyder, Solomon H; Rao, Feng


    The family of cullin-RING E3 Ligases (CRLs) and the constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 (COP9) signalosome (CSN) form dynamic complexes that mediate ubiquitylation of 20% of the proteome, yet regulation of their assembly/disassembly remains poorly understood. Inositol polyphosphates are highly conserved signaling molecules implicated in diverse cellular processes. We now report that inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is a major physiologic determinant of the CRL-CSN interface, which includes a hitherto unidentified electrostatic interaction between the N-terminal acidic tail of CSN subunit 2 (CSN2) and a conserved basic canyon on cullins. IP6, with an EC50 of 20 nM, acts as an intermolecular "glue," increasing cullin-CSN2 binding affinity by 30-fold, thereby promoting assembly of the inactive CRL-CSN complexes. The IP6 synthase, Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 2-kinase (IPPK/IP5K) binds to cullins. Depleting IP5K increases the percentage of neddylated, active Cul1 and Cul4A, and decreases levels of the Cul1/4A substrates p27 and p21. Besides dysregulating CRL-mediated cell proliferation and UV-induced apoptosis, IP5K depletion potentiates by 28-fold the cytotoxic effect of the neddylation inhibitor MLN4924. Thus, IP5K and IP6 are evolutionarily conserved components of the CRL-CSN system and are potential targets for cancer therapy in conjunction with MLN4924.

  6. DAB2IP 基因的研究进展%Progress on DAB2IP gene

    袁妍; 陈海滨


    Human DAB2 interaction protein (DAB2IP) is a novel member of Ras GTPase-activating protein family. It interacts directly with disabled-2 protein (DAB2/DOC2) which suppresses growth of cancers derived from different tissues, including mammary, prostate and ovarian cancers. DAB2IP was identified as an immediate downstream effector mediated by DAB2/DOC2. DAB2IP and DAB2/DOC2 form a unique protein complex that has a negative regulatory effect on the Ras-mediated signal pathway. It is demonstrated that DAB2IP is a tumor suppressor gene inactivated by methylation in several cancers. This article reviews the structure and biological functions of DAB2IP gene as well as its potential roles in carcinogenesis and evolution.

  7. IP VPN及Internet VPN分类研究%A methodology of IP and internet virtual private network classification



    关于IP VPN的分类目前已经有很多研究,但目前还没有一个统一的说法,而对于Inter-net VPN的分类研究目前还没有见到.因此,PN和VPN,以及IP VPN和Internet VPN的区别和联系很容易被混淆,本文尝试给出了VPN、IP VPN及Internet VPN的一个准确定义,并在定义的基础上对IP VPN和Internet VPN提出了一种分类方法,最后给出了IP VPN和Internet VPN的比较及研究结果.

  8. [IPS an ethical paradigm for biomedical research].

    Gámez Escalona, José Antonio


    One of the greatest advances in molecular and cell biology was the discovery of the Induced Pluripotent Stem cells (iPS) in mice, by Shinya Yamanka and his team in 2006. The possibility that these cells can be generated also in humans opens up unexpected ways of development for biomedicine. Its main contribution is the creation of a strong protocol that takes into account three major advances in biology such as; nuclear transfer techniques, the discovery of transcription factors associated with pluripotency and the isolation of mouse embryonic stem cells. A protocol that can be easily replicated in other laboratories to have the oportunity to design tests that allow modeling of many incurable diseases, drug testing for human cells or explore the possibilities of autologous transplants of tissues or organs. Yamanaka ethical motivation to find an alternative to embryonic stem cells (ES) and prevent the destruction of embryos produced by In Vitro Fertilization techniques (IVF), has proved to be a research model, in which the intuition of the ethical principles and its application in advanced biotechnology projects, has meant the opening of a whole new way of understanding the biology of embryonic development. It is clear that development, biologically understood (puede ser también ″treated″; tratado), is not a one-way street. The possibilities to deepen into the foundations of molecular biology and genetics, along with the expectations of its clinical applications have earned Yamanka the Nobel Prize in Medicine 2012, along with another great scholar Sir John Gurdon, discoverer of nuclear transfer techniques.

  9. Adubação mineral do ipê-roxo (tabebuia impetiginosa

    Patrícia Aparecida De Souza


    Full Text Available In order to study nutritional aspects and lack of nutrients on the development of plants, a greenhouse experiment was carried out with seedlings of ipê-roxo (Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Sandwith. As substrate, an oxisol with low nutrients availability was used and distributed in 10 treatments: a complete one (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B and Zn, the others lacking one element in each treatment (-N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -B and –Zn and a control (natural substrate. The following characteristics were assessed: diameter growth, plant height and dry matter production. Based on the results, it was conclude that: a the N and P nutrients must be priority in mineral fertilization of this species; b sequence of demand nutrition presented by the Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Sandwith seedlings in relation to the complete treatment, considering the production of dry matter of the aerial part in decreasing order was: P> N> S> B> Zn> Mg> Ca> K.

  10. IP3 receptors regulate vascular smooth muscle contractility and hypertension

    Lin, Qingsong; Zhao, Guiling; Fang, Xi; Peng, Xiaohong; Tang, Huayuan; Wang, Hong; Jing, Ran; Liu, Jie; Ouyang, Kunfu


    Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor–mediated (IP3R-mediated) calcium (Ca2+) release has been proposed to play an important role in regulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contraction for decades. However, whether and how IP3R regulates blood pressure in vivo remains unclear. To address these questions, we have generated a smooth muscle–specific IP3R triple-knockout (smTKO) mouse model using a tamoxifen-inducible system. In this study, the role of IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release in adult VSMCs on aortic vascular contractility and blood pressure was assessed following tamoxifen induction. We demonstrated that deletion of IP3Rs significantly reduced aortic contractile responses to vasoconstrictors, including phenylephrine, U46619, serotonin, and endothelin 1. Deletion of IP3Rs also dramatically reduced the phosphorylation of MLC20 and MYPT1 induced by U46619. Furthermore, although the basal blood pressure of smTKO mice remained similar to that of wild-type controls, the increase in systolic blood pressure upon chronic infusion of angiotensin II was significantly attenuated in smTKO mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate an important role for IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release in VSMCs in regulating vascular contractility and hypertension.


    Nina S. Nikolova


    Full Text Available Introduction: IP-10 it has been studied as a predictor of treatment response in chronic HCV infected patients. The data for the HBV infection are not enough.Aim: To compare IP-10 levels in patients with chronic HBV /CHB/ and HCV infection /CHC/ and their relation to liver disease and treatment response. Material and methods: 20 patients - with CHC genotype 1 infection /on standard bi-therapy/ and 32 patients with CHB /21 pts - NUC; 11 pts - IFN/. Results: The IP-10 did not correlate with sex, age, ALT and liver fibrosis. The basal IP-10 were lower in patients with CHB (p=0,017. There was a difference in IP-10 baseline levels among the HCV patients with or without RVR (p=0,007. A negative correlation was found between basal IP-10 and RVR (r= -0,508; p=0,008. Conclusion: IP-10 could predict virological response in patients with CHC on standard bi-therapy, but not in HBV infected patients on standard therapy.

  12. Reviewing ChIPS, The Chandra Imaging and Plotting System

    Miller, J.; Burke, D. J.; Evans, I. N.; Evans, J. D.; McLaughlin, W.


    The Chandra Imaging and Plotting System (ChIPS) is a 2D plotting system designed to allow users to easily create, manipulate, and produce publication quality visualizations. ChIPS has a simple but very powerful interactive interface that allows users to dynamically modify the contents and layout of their plots quickly and efficiently, with the results of any changes being immediately visible. ChIPS allows users to construct their plots fully interactively, and then save the final plot commands as a Python script. This bypasses the need to iteratively edit and rerun the script when developing the plot. Features such as undo and redo commands allow users to easily step backwards and forwards through previous commands, while the ability so save ChIPS sessions in a platform-independent state file allows the session to be restored at any time, even on another machine. Because ChIPS offers a Python interface, users can analyze their data using the broad array of modules offered in Python, and visualize the information in ChIPS at the same time. In this paper we explore the design decisions behind the development of ChIPS and some of the lessons learned along the way.

  13. A decentralized software bus based on IP multicas ting

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd


    We describe decentralized reconfigurable implementation of a conference management system based on the low-level Internet Protocol (IP) multicasting protocol. IP multicasting allows low-cost, world-wide, two-way transmission of data between large numbers of conferencing participants through the Multicasting Backbone (MBone). Each conference is structured as a software bus -- a messaging system that provides a run-time interconnection model that acts as a separate agent (i.e., the bus) for routing, queuing, and delivering messages between distributed programs. Unlike the client-server interconnection model, the software bus model provides a level of indirection that enhances the flexibility and reconfigurability of a distributed system. Current software bus implementations like POLYLITH, however, rely on a centralized bus process and point-to-point protocols (i.e., TCP/IP) to route, queue, and deliver messages. We implement a software bus called the MULTIBUS that relies on a separate process only for routing and uses a reliable IP multicasting protocol for delivery of messages. The use of multicasting means that interconnections are independent of IP machine addresses. This approach allows reconfiguration of bus participants during system execution without notifying other participants of new IP addresses. The use of IP multicasting also permits an economy of scale in the number of participants. We describe the MULITIBUS protocol elements and show how our implementation performs better than centralized bus implementations.

  14. MACE: model based analysis of ChIP-exo.

    Wang, Liguo; Chen, Junsheng; Wang, Chen; Uusküla-Reimand, Liis; Chen, Kaifu; Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Young, Edwin J; Zimmermann, Michael T; Yan, Huihuang; Sun, Zhifu; Zhang, Yuji; Wu, Stephen T; Huang, Haojie; Wilson, Michael D; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A; Li, Wei


    Understanding the role of a given transcription factor (TF) in regulating gene expression requires precise mapping of its binding sites in the genome. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-exo, an emerging technique using λ exonuclease to digest TF unbound DNA after ChIP, is designed to reveal transcription factor binding site (TFBS) boundaries with near-single nucleotide resolution. Although ChIP-exo promises deeper insights into transcription regulation, no dedicated bioinformatics tool exists to leverage its advantages. Most ChIP-seq and ChIP-chip analytic methods are not tailored for ChIP-exo, and thus cannot take full advantage of high-resolution ChIP-exo data. Here we describe a novel analysis framework, termed MACE (model-based analysis of ChIP-exo) dedicated to ChIP-exo data analysis. The MACE workflow consists of four steps: (i) sequencing data normalization and bias correction; (ii) signal consolidation and noise reduction; (iii) single-nucleotide resolution border peak detection using the Chebyshev Inequality and (iv) border matching using the Gale-Shapley stable matching algorithm. When applied to published human CTCF, yeast Reb1 and our own mouse ONECUT1/HNF6 ChIP-exo data, MACE is able to define TFBSs with high sensitivity, specificity and spatial resolution, as evidenced by multiple criteria including motif enrichment, sequence conservation, direct sequence pileup, nucleosome positioning and open chromatin states. In addition, we show that the fundamental advance of MACE is the identification of two boundaries of a TFBS with high resolution, whereas other methods only report a single location of the same event. The two boundaries help elucidate the in vivo binding structure of a given TF, e.g. whether the TF may bind as dimers or in a complex with other co-factors. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. MEME-ChIP: motif analysis of large DNA datasets.

    Machanick, Philip; Bailey, Timothy L


    Advances in high-throughput sequencing have resulted in rapid growth in large, high-quality datasets including those arising from transcription factor (TF) ChIP-seq experiments. While there are many existing tools for discovering TF binding site motifs in such datasets, most web-based tools cannot directly process such large datasets. The MEME-ChIP web service is designed to analyze ChIP-seq 'peak regions'--short genomic regions surrounding declared ChIP-seq 'peaks'. Given a set of genomic regions, it performs (i) ab initio motif discovery, (ii) motif enrichment analysis, (iii) motif visualization, (iv) binding affinity analysis and (v) motif identification. It runs two complementary motif discovery algorithms on the input data--MEME and DREME--and uses the motifs they discover in subsequent visualization, binding affinity and identification steps. MEME-ChIP also performs motif enrichment analysis using the AME algorithm, which can detect very low levels of enrichment of binding sites for TFs with known DNA-binding motifs. Importantly, unlike with the MEME web service, there is no restriction on the size or number of uploaded sequences, allowing very large ChIP-seq datasets to be analyzed. The analyses performed by MEME-ChIP provide the user with a varied view of the binding and regulatory activity of the ChIP-ed TF, as well as the possible involvement of other DNA-binding TFs. MEME-ChIP is available as part of the MEME Suite at

  16. Architecture of fast IP forwarding engine in gigabit ethernet system

    Do, Han C.; Lee, Hyeong H.; Cha, Kyoon Hyun


    In recent years, Internet traffic has been increased rapidly as a result of the Internet which accommodates multimedia traffic such as IP telephony and video conference. Gigabit routing technology is one possible approach to handle such internet traffic. This paper presents an efficient IP forwarding architecture adequate for Gigabit Ethernet switching system. The presented IP forwarding architecture is based upon distributed and pipelined process, which can effectively facilitate searching, editing, traffic classification, forwarding, and traffic management in parallel. Additionally, it can also process packets at full wire-speed in the ASIC level.




    A novel mechanism was specified by which a node in ad hoc network may autoconfigure an IP address which is unique throughout the mobile ad hoc network. This new algorithm imposes less and constant overhead and delay in obtaining an IP address, and fully utilizes the available addresses space of an ad hoc network, and independent of the existing routing protocol, and less prone to security threats. Moreover, a new Join/Leave mechanism was proposed as an enhancement to the new IP address autoconfiguration algorithm, to support the overall operation of the existing routing protocol of wireless ad hoc networks.

  18. UTN VoIP test bed (Voice over Internet Protocol)

    Clérigo, Patricia; Mercado, Gustavo; Lima, Armando; Gosetto, Gerardo


    La tecnología Voice over IP permite transmitir paquetes de voz usando los protocolos de Internet. Esto es el basamento de la convergencia de video, voz y datos en una sola red y bajo el mismo protocolo; metodología que promete confiabilidad, accesibilidad y por sobre todo bajos costos. La UTN VoIP es un servicio de Telefonía que usa los protocolos VoIP de Internet y es montado sobre la Red Universitaria Tecnológica II. Cuando esté implementada conectará todas las Facultades Regionales y la Un...

  19. A Novel Smart Meter Controlling System with Dynamic IP Addresses

    Manembu, Pinrolinvic; Welang, Brammy; Kalua Lapu, Aditya


    Smart meters are the electronic devices for measuring energy consumption in real time. Usually, static public IP addresses are allocated to realize the point-to-point (P2P) communication and remote controlling for smart metering systems. This, however, restricts the wide deployment of smart meters......, due to the deficiency of public IP resources. This paper proposes a novel subscription-based communication architecture for the support of dynamic IP addresses and group controlling of smart meters. The paper evaluates the proposed architecture by comparing the traditional P2P architecture......, and validate its effectiveness to interact with smart meters....

  20. DNA adducts induced by food mutagen PhIP in a mouse model expressing human sulfotransferases 1A1 and 1A2.

    Høie, Anja Hortemo; Monien, Bernhard Hans; Glatt, Hansruedi; Hjertholm, Hege; Husøy, Trine


    Food processing contaminant 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) has previously been shown to induce formation of DNA adducts in vivo. In a previous study the adduct levels were found to increase in a mouse model expressing human (h) sulfotransferases (SULTs) 1A1 and 1A2 after PhIP exposure, detected by (32)P-postlabelling. Isotope dilution ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) is emerging as the method of choice for selective and reproducible detection of known DNA adducts. In the present study we investigated the level and distribution of PhIP induced DNA adducts in male FVB mice 9-11 weeks of age with hSULT mice or wild-type mice (wt) using UPLC-MS/MS. Mice received a single administration of 75 mg/kg bw PhIP by oral gavage, and DNA was analysed 3h after exposure. C8-(2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine- N(2)-yl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (C8-PhIP-dG) adduct levels are significantly higher in PhIP exposed hSULT mice compared with PhIP exposed wt mice. The liver was the least affected organ in wild-type mice, whereas it was the most affected organ in hSULT mice with a 14-fold higher adduct level.


    Edi Sutrisna


    Full Text Available Application of KTSP as a curriculum based on competency requires the implementation of strategies and methods that can deliver a number of learners achieving a particular competence. IPS as a subject who has a noble purpose, namely to prepare students to be good citizens, should be taught to students through appropriate strategies and methods by utilizing various media sources and learning. Most social studies teachers still promote the use of expository strategies in presenting lessons of Social Science education and the use of resources and learning media are minimal. Environment, as a laboratory of IPS is not utilized properly.The study shows that most teachers still tend to use expository teaching strategies, use of resources and learning media that are less varied, and integrated approaches to teaching social studies can not be realized by the teachers due to various constraints.   Keywords: learning, IPS, junior school, KTSP   Penerapan KTSP sebagai kurikulum berbasis kompetensi membutuhkan penerapan strategi dan metode yang dapat memberikan sejumlah peserta didik mencapai kompetensi tertentu. IPS sebagai subjek yang memiliki tujuan mulia, yaitu untuk mempersiapkan siswa untuk menjadi warga negara yang baik, harus diajarkan kepada siswa melalui strategi yang tepat dan metode dengan memanfaatkan berbagai sumber media dan pembelajaran. Kebanyakan guru IPS masih menggunakan strategi ekspositori dalam menyajikan meteri pelajaran IPS dengan menggunakan sumber daya dan media pembelajaran yang minimal. Lingkungan sekitar, sebagai laboratorium IPS tidak digunakan menunjukkan pembelajaran yang baik. Kebanyakan guru masih cenderung untuk menggunakan strategi pengajaran ekspositori, penggunaan sumber daya dan media pembelajaran yang kurang bervariasi, dan pendekatan terpadu untuk mengajar IPS, sehingga tidak dapat direalisasikan oleh para guru karena berbagai kendala.   Kata kunci: pembelajaran, IPS, SMP, KTSP  

  2. Efficient Integration of Pipelined IP Blocks into Automatically Compiled Datapaths

    Andreas Koch


    Full Text Available Compilers for reconfigurable computers aim to generate problem-specific optimized datapaths for kernels extracted from an input language. In many cases, however, judicious use of preexisting manually optimized IP blocks within these datapaths could improve the compute performance even further. The integration of IP blocks into the compiled datapaths poses a different set of problems than stitching together IPs to form a system-on-chip; though, instead of the loose coupling using standard busses employed by SoCs, the one between datapath and IP block must be much tighter. To this end, we propose a concise language that can be efficiently synthesized using a template-based approach for automatically generating lightweight data and control interfaces at the datapath level.

  3. Efficient Integration of Pipelined IP Blocks into Automatically Compiled Datapaths

    Koch Andreas


    Full Text Available Compilers for reconfigurable computers aim to generate problem-specific optimized datapaths for kernels extracted from an input language. In many cases, however, judicious use of preexisting manually optimized IP blocks within these datapaths could improve the compute performance even further. The integration of IP blocks into the compiled datapaths poses a different set of problems than stitching together IPs to form a system-on-chip; though, instead of the loose coupling using standard busses employed by SoCs, the one between datapath and IP block must be much tighter. To this end, we propose a concise language that can be efficiently synthesized using a template-based approach for automatically generating lightweight data and control interfaces at the datapath level.

  4. HST/FOS Eclipse mapping of IP Pegasi in outburst

    Saitô, R; Horne, K


    We report the results of a time-resolved eclipse mapping of the dwarf nova IP Pegasi during the decline of its May 1993 outburst from HST/FOS fast spectroscopy covering 3 eclipses in the ultraviolet spectral range.

  5. Growth and symptomatological aspects in the acclimatization of ipê roxo

    João Paulo Rodrigues Martins


    Full Text Available This work evaluated the influence of seal type and substrate type on pre-acclimatization, and symptomatological aspects relating to acclimatization of ipê-roxo. For the pre-acclimatization, ipê-roxo plants obtained through an in vitro zygotic embryo culture were aseptically inoculated in test tubes with different types of seal (cotton plug, plastic cap + parafilm and plastic lid and different substrates (agar, vermiculite and Plantmax® supplemented with a WPM culture medium with 1 gL-1 of activated charcoal, 10 mgL-1 of citric acid and 30 gL-1 of sucrose added. For the acclimatization, in vitro ipê-roxo plants were transplanted into 56-cm3 plastic tubes containing vermiculite and Plantmax® at a 2:1 ratio which had been previously autoclaved at 121oC and 1 atm for 20 minutes. Once transplanted, the plants were irrigated with different concentrations of the MS medium (25%, 50%, 75%, 100% and 150%, using distilled water as control. After 30 days, the effects of seal type and substrate type on pre-acclimatization were examined. Cotton can be recommended where Plantmax® or vermiculite is used as substrate. In the acclimatization it was noted that where plants were irrigated with distilled water and concentrations < 50% they showed symptoms of nutritional deficiency. Similar symptoms were observed when using MS medium at a concentration equal to or greater than 100%. The 75% MS concentration was found to be the most effective at maintaining the nutritional vigor of ipê-roxo seedlings in the process of acclimatization.

  6. Novel Node Structures for IP over WDM Networks


    IP over WDM is being envisioned as one of the most attractive architectures for the next generation Internet. This paper introduces two novel backbone node structures for IP over WDM networks. These node structures can be used as improvement approaches to DPDP (default path and dedicated path) method. The flow classifiers, which are the main components of these node structures, and the performance metrics of these structures, are also discussed.

  7. IPS Classic. Science, art and nature: a case report.

    Culp, L; Roach, R R


    The ceramo-metal restoration still forms the backbone of modern restorative dentistry, despite many new systems. This article discusses a unique ceramo-metal system, its advantages, and clinical and technical applications; teamwork between the dentist and the technician is emphasized. IPS Classic (Ivoclar Williams) is a ceramic system with several exclusive features. It encompasses Color Visions, a computer-generated shade system, and the IPS Impulse modifier system allows the ceramist unlimited creativity in color development.

  8. Towards Multi-Stage Intrusion Detection using IP Flow Records

    Muhammad Fahad Umer; Muhammad Sher; Imran Khan


    Traditional network-based intrusion detection sys-tems using deep packet inspection are not feasible for modern high-speed networks due to slow processing and inability to read encrypted packet content. As an alternative to packet-based intrusion detection, researchers have focused on flow-based intrusion detection techniques. Flow-based intrusion detection systems analyze IP flow records for attack detection. IP flow records contain summarized traffic information. However, flow data is very ...

  9. Identifying IP Blocks with Spamming Bots by Spatial Distribution

    Yun, Sangki; Kim, Byungseung; Bahk, Saewoong; Kim, Hyogon

    In this letter, we develop a behavioral metric with which spamming botnets can be quickly identified with respect to their residing IP blocks. Our method aims at line-speed operation without deep inspection, so only TCP/IP header fields of the passing packets are examined. However, the proposed metric yields a high-quality receiver operating characteristics (ROC), with high detection rates and low false positive rates.

  10. TCP-IP Model in Data Communication and Networking

    Pranab Bandhu Nath; Md.Mofiz Uddin


    The Internet protocol suite is the computer networking model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP, because it’s most important protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), were the first networking protocols defined in this standard. Often also called the Internet model, it was originally also known as the DoD model, because the development of the networking mode...

  11. Survivable IP/MPLS-Over-WSON Multilayer Network Optimization

    Ruiz M.; Pedrola O.; Velasco L.; Careglio D.; Fernandez-Palacios J.; Junyent G.


    Network operators are facing the problem of dimensioning their networks for the expected huge IP traffic volumes while keeping constant or even reducing the connectivity prices. Therefore, new architectural solutions able to cope with the expected traffic increase in a more cost-effective way are needed. In this work, we study the survivable IP/multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) over wavelength switched optical network (WSON) multilayer network problem as a capital expenditure (CAPEX...

  12. [Application for Lifestyle disease by iPS cells technologies].

    Takashima, Yasuhiro


    Currently it is less advanced to understand the pathology of lifestyle disease by using iPS cells because there is partly less direct connection between life style disease and iPS cells. So much more scientists focus on regenerative medicine such as beta cells therapy using iPS cells technologies. It will be indeed a powerful tool to generate beta cells from iPS cells as even in type2 diabetes patients, hyposecretion of insulin from beta cells in pancreas is one of causes. Another reason is complexity of the pathology of life style disease. There are a lot of reasons to cause lifestyle disease. Lifestyle diseases include cancer, chronic liver disease, Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal failure, stroke, and obesity. Since obesity is one of major causes of lifestyle diseases, we want to focus on adipogenesis from iPS cells in this review. We analysed and established the differentiation protocol into adipocytes from mouse ES cells and human iPS cells. The other point in this review is the starting pluripotent cells for differentiation. Quality of pluripotent stem cells are one of most critical factors to succeed in getting well-differentiated cells. Recently, we have developed new naive human pluripotent stem cells (PSC),"Reset cells". Naive PSC have more similar to human epibast cells than conventional human PSC. They will be more ideal cells for differentiation because of their hypomethylated status and earlier stage of development.

  13. CATCHprofiles: clustering and alignment tool for ChIP profiles.

    Fiona G G Nielsen

    Full Text Available Chromatin Immuno Precipitation (ChIP profiling detects in vivo protein-DNA binding, and has revealed a large combinatorial complexity in the binding of chromatin associated proteins and their post-translational modifications. To fully explore the spatial and combinatorial patterns in ChIP-profiling data and detect potentially meaningful patterns, the areas of enrichment must be aligned and clustered, which is an algorithmically and computationally challenging task. We have developed CATCHprofiles, a novel tool for exhaustive pattern detection in ChIP profiling data. CATCHprofiles is built upon a computationally efficient implementation for the exhaustive alignment and hierarchical clustering of ChIP profiling data. The tool features a graphical interface for examination and browsing of the clustering results. CATCHprofiles requires no prior knowledge about functional sites, detects known binding patterns "ab initio", and enables the detection of new patterns from ChIP data at a high resolution, exemplified by the detection of asymmetric histone and histone modification patterns around H2A.Z-enriched sites. CATCHprofiles' capability for exhaustive analysis combined with its ease-of-use makes it an invaluable tool for explorative research based on ChIP profiling data. CATCHprofiles and the CATCH algorithm run on all platforms and is available for free through the CATCH website: User support is available by subscribing to the mailing list

  14. CATCHprofiles: Clustering and Alignment Tool for ChIP Profiles

    G. G. Nielsen, Fiona; Galschiøt Markus, Kasper; Møllegaard Friborg, Rune


    Chromatin Immuno Precipitation (ChIP) profiling detects in vivo protein-DNA binding, and has revealed a large combinatorial complexity in the binding of chromatin associated proteins and their post-translational modifications. To fully explore the spatial and combinatorial patterns in ChIP-profil......Chromatin Immuno Precipitation (ChIP) profiling detects in vivo protein-DNA binding, and has revealed a large combinatorial complexity in the binding of chromatin associated proteins and their post-translational modifications. To fully explore the spatial and combinatorial patterns in Ch......IP-profiling data and detect potentially meaningful patterns, the areas of enrichment must be aligned and clustered, which is an algorithmically and computationally challenging task. We have developed CATCHprofiles, a novel tool for exhaustive pattern detection in ChIP profiling data. CATCHprofiles is built upon...... a computationally efficient implementation for the exhaustive alignment and hierarchical clustering of ChIP profiling data. The tool features a graphical interface for examination and browsing of the clustering results. CATCHprofiles requires no prior knowledge about functional sites, detects known binding patterns...

  15. A Distributed IP-Based Telecommunication System using SIP

    Carlton Andre Thompson


    Full Text Available Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP technologies are integral to modern telecommunications because oftheir advanced features, flexibility, and economicbenefits. Internet Service Providers initially promotedthese technologies by providing low cost local andinternational calling. At present, there is also agreatdeal of interest in using IP-based technologies toreplace traditional small and large office telephonesystems that use traditional PBX’s (Private BrancheXchange. Unfortunately, the large majority of theemerging VoIP based office telephone systems have followed the centralized design of traditional publicand private telephone systems in which all the intelligence in the system is at the core, with quite expensivehardware and software components and appropriate redundancy for adequate levels of reliability. In thispaper, it is argued that a centralized model for anIP-based telecommunications system fails to exploit thefull capabilities of Internet-inspired communications and that, very simple, inexpensive, elegant andflexible solutions are possible by deliberately avoiding the centralized approach. This paper describes thedesign, philosophy and implementation of a prototype for a fully distributed IP-based TelecommunicationSystem (IPTS that provides the essential feature set for office and home telecommunications, including IP-based long-distance and local calling, and with thesupport for video as well as data and text. Theprototype system was implemented with an Internet-inspired distributed design using open source software,with appropriate customizations and configurations.

  16. Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) generated by IP5K mediates cullin-COP9 signalosome interactions and CRL function

    Paul C. Scherer; Yan Ding; Zhiqing Liu; Jing Xu; Haibin Mao; James C. Barrow; Ning Wei; Ning Zheng; Solomon H. Snyder; Feng Rao


    .... We now report that inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is a major physiologic determinant of the CRL-CSN interface, which includes a hitherto unidentified electrostatic interaction between the N-terminal acidic tail of CSN subunit 2 (CSN2...

  17. ChIPpeakAnno: a Bioconductor package to annotate ChIP-seq and ChIP-chip data

    Pagès Hervé


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq or ChIP followed by genome tiling array analysis (ChIP-chip have become standard technologies for genome-wide identification of DNA-binding protein target sites. A number of algorithms have been developed in parallel that allow identification of binding sites from ChIP-seq or ChIP-chip datasets and subsequent visualization in the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC Genome Browser as custom annotation tracks. However, summarizing these tracks can be a daunting task, particularly if there are a large number of binding sites or the binding sites are distributed widely across the genome. Results We have developed ChIPpeakAnno as a Bioconductor package within the statistical programming environment R to facilitate batch annotation of enriched peaks identified from ChIP-seq, ChIP-chip, cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE or any experiments resulting in a large number of enriched genomic regions. The binding sites annotated with ChIPpeakAnno can be viewed easily as a table, a pie chart or plotted in histogram form, i.e., the distribution of distances to the nearest genes for each set of peaks. In addition, we have implemented functionalities for determining the significance of overlap between replicates or binding sites among transcription factors within a complex, and for drawing Venn diagrams to visualize the extent of the overlap between replicates. Furthermore, the package includes functionalities to retrieve sequences flanking putative binding sites for PCR amplification, cloning, or motif discovery, and to identify Gene Ontology (GO terms associated with adjacent genes. Conclusions ChIPpeakAnno enables batch annotation of the binding sites identified from ChIP-seq, ChIP-chip, CAGE or any technology that results in a large number of enriched genomic regions within the statistical programming environment R. Allowing users to pass their

  18. Proposal of Secure VoIP System Using Attribute Certificate

    Kim, Jin-Mook; Jeong, Young-Ae; Hong, Seong-Sik

    VoIP is a service that changes the analogue audio signal into a digital signal and then transfers the audio information to the users after configuring it as a packet; and it has an advantage of lower price than the existing voice call service and better extensibility. However, VoIP service has a system structure that, compared to the existing PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network), has poor call quality and is vulnerable in the security aspect. To make up these problems, TLS service was introduced to enhance the security. In practical system, however, since QoS problem occurs, it is necessary to develop the VoIP security system that can satisfy QoS at the same time in the security aspect. In this paper, a user authentication VoIP system that can provide a service according to the security and the user through providing a differential service according to the approach of the users by adding AA server at the step of configuring the existing VoIP session is suggested. It was found that the proposed system of this study provides a quicker QoS than the TLS-added system at a similar level of security. Also, it is able to provide a variety of additional services by the different users.

  19. Security of IP Telephony in Ecuador: Online Analysis

    José Estrada


    Full Text Available Telephony is a global service and thus telephone networks have been a coveted target for criminals. Now that voice can be transported over IP and that multiple services are integrated in a convergent model through Internet, there are more incentives to attack and more attackers. Moreover, the development of open source telephone applications has encouraged the massive use of IP telephony, but not an increased awareness about embedded security risks. Due to the current and intensive adoption of IP telephony systems in Ecuador, we conducted an exploration based on public information to obtain statistics about telephone systems connected to Internet in Ecuador. Additionally, using a deliberately vulnerable IP telephony system, we collected more data to do a preliminary analysis of threats to such systems. We found that hundreds of telephone systems were publicly available on the Internet and using outdated versions of Asterisk-based applications. We also found thousands of malicious interactions on the IP telephony system we deployed on the Internet.

  20. Modeling ChIP sequencing in silico with applications.

    Zhengdong D Zhang

    Full Text Available ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq is a new method for genomewide mapping of protein binding sites on DNA. It has generated much excitement in functional genomics. To score data and determine adequate sequencing depth, both the genomic background and the binding sites must be properly modeled. To develop a computational foundation to tackle these issues, we first performed a study to characterize the observed statistical nature of this new type of high-throughput data. By linking sequence tags into clusters, we show that there are two components to the distribution of tag counts observed in a number of recent experiments: an initial power-law distribution and a subsequent long right tail. Then we develop in silico ChIP-seq, a computational method to simulate the experimental outcome by placing tags onto the genome according to particular assumed distributions for the actual binding sites and for the background genomic sequence. In contrast to current assumptions, our results show that both the background and the binding sites need to have a markedly nonuniform distribution in order to correctly model the observed ChIP-seq data, with, for instance, the background tag counts modeled by a gamma distribution. On the basis of these results, we extend an existing scoring approach by using a more realistic genomic-background model. This enables us to identify transcription-factor binding sites in ChIP-seq data in a statistically rigorous fashion.

  1. Towards Multi-Stage Intrusion Detection using IP Flow Records

    Muhammad Fahad Umer


    Full Text Available Traditional network-based intrusion detection sys-tems using deep packet inspection are not feasible for modern high-speed networks due to slow processing and inability to read encrypted packet content. As an alternative to packet-based intrusion detection, researchers have focused on flow-based intrusion detection techniques. Flow-based intrusion detection systems analyze IP flow records for attack detection. IP flow records contain summarized traffic information. However, flow data is very large in high-speed networks and cannot be processed in real-time by the intrusion detection system. In this paper, an efficient multi-stage model for intrusion detection using IP flows records is proposed. The first stage in the model classifies the traffic as normal or malicious. The malicious flows are further analyzed by a second stage. The second stage associates an attack type with malicious IP flows. The proposed multi-stage model is efficient because the majority of IP flows are discarded in the first stage and only malicious flows are examined in detail. We also describe the implementation of our model using machine learning techniques.

  2. An effective dynamic reconfiguration algorithm for IP over WDM networks

    Yu, Hongfang; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Sheng; Li, Lemin


    WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) technology can provide multiple wavelengths on a fiber. IP directly over WDM (or IP over WDM) has become the hot topic of industry. A promising approach for building an IP over WDM network is that a logical network consisting of the wavelength channels (lightpaths) is built on the physical WDM network. Then, IP traffic is carried on the logical topology, by utilizing the MPLS (Multiple Protocol Label Switching) or GMPLS (Generalized MPLS). When the traffic demand pattern changes in the IP layer, the network performance may become poor. In order to improve the network performance, the virtual topology can be reconfigured to suit the changing traffic patterns. In this paper, dynamic slowly-adaptation scheme (e.g. tearing down a lightpath that is lightly loaded or setting up a new lightpath when congestion occurs) is adopted. How to select the source and the destination nodes of the new lightpath to be added and the underutilized lightpath to be deleted if it is necessary to do so is our key issue. Four selection ways are developed. These ways are evaluated through detail simulations and various performances are investigated.

  3. Research on Performance between IP and Vector Forwarding

    Aqun Zhao


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of network size and great increase of Internet traffic, it has become a crucial work to improve the forwarding performance of the core devices of Internet or the routers. In this study, the analysis and comparison of instruction cycles occupied by the machine in the process of route lookup in IP forwarding and vector forwarding were carried out which may determine the forwarding performance of a router. The simulation experiments were also made to study the forwarding efficiency of IP forwarding and vector forwarding. The theoretical and experimental results prove that the vector forwarding method is more efficient than IP forwarding which can provide powerful evidence to the application of vector network in the Internet.

  4. Mobile location services over the next generation IP core network

    Thongthammachart, Saowanee; Olesen, Henning


    network is changing from circuit-switched to packet-switched technology and evolving to an IP core network based on IPv6. The IP core network will allow all IP devices to be connected seamlessly. Due to the movement detection mechanism of Mobile IPv6, mobile terminals will periodically update......Mobile communication networks are evolving towards smaller cells, higher throughput, better security and provision of better services. Wireless short-range technologies, such as the WLAN 802.11 standards family and Bluetooth, are expected to play a major role in future networks. The mobile core...... their current point of attachment to the network and hence provide the current location of the mobile user automatically. The convergence of wireless short-range networks, mobile networks and Internet technology will provide the mobile user's location without any add-in equipment for location measurement...

  5. Firewall for Dynamic IP Address in Mobile IPv6

    Qiu, Ying; Bao, Feng; Zhou, Jianying

    Mobile communication is becoming the mainstream with the rapid growth of mobile devices penetrating our daily life. More and more mobile devices such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, notebooks etc, are capable of Internet access. Mobile devices frequently change their communication IP addresses in mobile IPv6 network following its current attached domain. This raises a big challenge for building firewall for mobile devices. The conventional firewalls are primarily based on IPv4 networks where the security criteria are specified only to the fixed IP addresses or subnets, which apparently do not apply to mobile IPv6. In this paper we propose three solutions for mobile IPv6 firewall. Our approaches make the firewall adaptive to dynamic IP addresses in mobile IPv6 network. They have different expense and weight corresponding to different degree of universality. The paper focuses the study more from practical aspect.

  6. Congestion Avoidance in IP Based CDMA Radio Access Network

    Syed Shakeel Hashmi


    Full Text Available CDMA is an important air interface technologies for cellular wireless networks. As CDMAbasedcellular networks mature, the current point-to-point links will evolve to an IP-based Radio AccessNetwork (RAN. mechanisms must be designed to control the IP Radio Access Network congestion.This Paper implements a congestion control mechanism using Router control and channelcontrol method for IP-RAN on CDMA cellular network. The Router control mechanism uses the featuresof CDMA networks using active Queue Management technique to reduce delay and to minimize thecorrelated losses. The Random Early Detection Active Queue Management scheme (REDAQM is to berealized for the router control for data transmission over the radio network using routers as the channel.The channel control mechanism control the congestion by bifurcating the access channel into multiplelayer namely RACH, BCCH and DCH for data accessing. The proposed paper work is realized usingMatlab platform.

  7. Capturing value from Intellectual Property (IP) in a global environment

    Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno


    Globalization should provide firms with an opportunity to leverage their know-how and reputation across countries to create value. However, it remains challenging for them to actually capture that value using traditional Intellectual Property (IP) tools. In this paper, we document the strong growth...... are causing backlogs and delays in numerous Patent and Trademarks Offices and litigation over IP rights is expensive, with an uncertain outcome. Moreover, local governments can succeed in transferring value to local firms and influencing global market positions by using IP laws and other regulations...... discuss in our concluding section. Global companies will need to organize cross-functional value capture teams focused on appropriating value from their know-how and reputation by combining different institutional, market, and nonmarket tools, depending on the institutional and business environment...

  8. Load characterization and anomaly detection for voice over IP traffic.

    Mandjes, Michel; Saniee, Iraj; Stolyar, Alexander L


    We consider the problem of traffic anomaly detection in IP networks. Traffic anomalies typically arise when there is focused overload or when a network element fails and it is desired to infer these purely from the measured traffic. We derive new general formulae for the variance of the cumulative traffic over a fixed time interval and show how the derived analytical expression simplifies for the case of voice over IP traffic, the focus of this paper. To detect load anomalies, we show it is sufficient to consider cumulative traffic over relatively long intervals such as 5 min. We also propose simple anomaly detection tests including detection of over/underload. This approach substantially extends the current practice in IP network management where only the first-order statistics and fixed thresholds are used to identify abnormal behavior. We conclude with the application of the scheme to field data from an operational network.

  9. Generation and application of human iPS cells

    CUI Ghun; RAO LingJun; CHENG LinZhao; XIAO Lei


    Human embryonic stem (ES) cells are capable of unlimited proliferation and maintenance of pluripo-tency in vitro; these properties may lead to potential applications in regenerative medicine.However,immune rejection hampers the allogenic application of human ES cells.Over-expression of several specific transcription factors has been used to reprogram human adult cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells,which are similar to hESCs in many aspects.The iPS technique makes it possible to produce patient-specific pluripotent stem cells for transplantation therapy without immune rejection.However,some challenges remain,including viral vector integration into the genome,the existence of exogenous oncogenic factors,and low induction efficiency.Here,we review recent advances in human iPS methodology,as well as remaining challenges and its potential applications.

  10. Integrated Differentiated Survivability in IP over WDM Networks

    Wei Wei; Qing-Ji Zeng


    The problem of differentiated Multi-Layer Integrated Survivability (MLIS) in IP over WDM networks is studied, which is decomposed into three sub-problems: survivable strategies design (SSD), spare capacity dimensioning (SCD), and dynamic survivable routing (DSR). A related work of network survivability in IP over WDM networks is firstly provided, and adaptive survivable strategies are also designed. A new Integrated Shared Pool (ISP) approach for SCD is then proposed, which is formulated by using integer-programming theory. Moreover, a novel survivable routing scheme called Differentiated Integrated Survivability Algorithm (DISA) for DSR is developed. Simulation results show that the proposed integrated survivability scheme performs much better than other solutions (e.g., "highest layer recovery" and "lowest layer recovery" schemes) in terms of traffic blocking ratio, spare resource requirement, and average traffic recovery ratio in IP over WDM networks.

  11. Capturing value from IP in a global environment

    Alcacer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    of patenting globally. For trademarks and industrial designs, globalization has created more potential infringers and an increase in piracy, as evidenced by a significant increase in customs seizures. The problems with IP even go beyond individual firms, as when governments use IP policies to favor local firms...... section. Global companies will need to organize cross-functional value capture teams focused on appropriating value from their know-how and reputation by combining different institutional, market, and non-market tools, depending on the institutional and business environment in a particular region.......This paper documents the strong growth in tools used by firms to protect their intellectual property (IP), develop their know-how, and build and maintain their reputation globally. We focus on three tools that have become increasingly important in the last several decades: patents, trademarks...

  12. [The genetic safety of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells].

    Chen, Qian; Shi, Qing-Hua


    Since Takahashi and Yamanaka first generated induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse fibroblasts successfully in 2006, iPS cells have rapidly become a new hotspot in the field of stem cells research because of their broad potential application prospects. Meanwhile, more and more attentions are paid to the genetic safety of iPS cells. This article summarizes recent findings on genetic safety of iPS cells and reviews the possible causes leading to genetic instability of iPS cells. Hopefully, this review is helpful to improve the induction of iPS cells and obtain genetically safe iPS cells.

  13. The Verb Always Leaves IP in V2 Clauses

    Schwartz, Bonnie D.; Vikner, Sten


    The verb second (V2) phenomenon, as it is found in the Germanic languages, has been the focus of much attention within recent syntactic research. In most of the literature on V2, it is assumed that the verb in all V2 clauses has moved to a head position outside IP, e.g. Cº. In Schwartz & Vikner...... analysis in which the verb moves into an Xº which is the sister of IP may be compatible with what we say here. Various alternatives to this analysis have been explored in the literature, and here we will address two in particular: One alternative is that there is an asymmetry between subject...

  14. VoIP Steganography and Its Detection - A Survey

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech


    Steganography is an ancient art that encompasses various techniques of information hiding, the aim of which is to secret information into a carrier message. Steganographic methods are usually aimed at hiding the very existence of the communication. Due to the rise in popularity of IP telephony, together with the large volume of data and variety of protocols involved, it is currently attracting the attention of the research community as a perfect carrier for steganographic purposes. This paper is a survey of the existing VoIP steganography (steganophony) methods and their countermeasures.

  15. IP Lookup as a Critical Functionality of Packet Processors

    Z. G. Čiča


    Full Text Available Packet processing represents the most significant part of a router’s data plane and has a large impact on router’s scalability. Packet processing consists of many functions and some of them can become critical for the future router’s scalability. In this paper, the IP lookup as one of the most critical packet processing functions is analyzed to determine its impact on the Internet router’s scalability. Also, in this paper we propose a new modification of our previously proposed IP lookup algorithm BPFL.

  16. Voice over IP for Sony Ericsson Cellular Phones

    Theander, Petter; Hultgren, Thomas


    This report presents an investigation of the possibilities to implement voice over IP (VoIP) in Sony Ericsson cellular phones. The results from this investigation show that it is partially possible to implement such a solution. The best option for doing so is to make use of the support for the Session Initiation Protocol and the Real-time Transport Protocol offered by the architecture. Another goal is to evaluate if Bluetooth is able to handle the requirements needed for the solution. The who...

  17. USB Dual-Mode Function IP Core Development


    This paper describes the specification and implement of a Universal Serial Bus (USB) dual-mode function IP core used for embedded system. Controlled by micro controller/CPU, the novel IP core can function as a USB host controller or USB peripheral controller. When configured as a USB host controller, it supports all USB 1.1 transaction types; supports automatic preamble insertion, and automatic SOF generation and transmission. Otherwise, when it is configured as a USB device by a microprocessor, it operates as a USB peripheral controller compliant with USB2.0 specification.

  18. Interfacing the Controllogics PLC over Ethernet/IP.

    Kasemir, K. U. (Kay-Uwe); Dalesio, L. R. (Leo R.)


    The Allen-Bradley ControlLogix [1] line of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) offers several interfaces: Ethernet, ControlNet, DeviceNet, RS-232 and others. The ControlLogix Ethernet interface module 1756-ENET uses EtherNet/IP, the ControlNet protocol [2], encapsulated in Ethernet packages, with specific service codes [3]. A driver for the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been developed that utilizes this EtherNet/IP protocol for controllers running the vxWorks RTOS as well as a Win32 and Unix/Linux test program. Features, performance and limitations of this interface are presented.

  19. 浅析IP-SAN和FC-SAN解决方案



    存储技术发展日新月异,SAN可说是DAS网络化发展趋势下的产物.本文简介绍IP SAN和FC SAN,对IP SAN和FC SAN的架构以及构建成本、可扩展性、易用性、兼容性、稳定性和速度等的比较,认为各有千秋,两者之间应取长补短,互相共存.

  20. Estrogenicity of food-associated estrogenic compounds in the fetuses of female transgenic mice upon oral and IP maternal exposure.

    Ter Veld, Marcel G R; Zawadzka, E; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J


    The present study investigated to what extent seven food-associated in vitro estrogenic compounds can induce estrogenic effects in the fetuses of pregnant female mice with an estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated luciferase (luc) reporter gene system. The luc-induction was determined either 8h after maternal dosing with a single intraperitoneal (IP) dose or 24h after the last of a series of 8 daily oral dosages. Three known estrogens, 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE) and 17beta-estradiol 3,17-dipropionate (EP) were used as positive controls at 1mg/kgbw and DMSO as solvent control. The food-associated estrogenic compounds tested were: bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP) both at 50mg/kgbw, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) at 50mg/kgbw, quercetin at 16.6 mg/kgbw, and di-isoheptyl phthalate (DIHP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) all at 100mg/kgbw. Exposure to E(2), EE and EP resulted in significant luc inductions upon both oral and/or IP dosing in a variety of tissues including liver, tibia and femurs, and upon IP dosing also in fetuses. BPA, NP, DEHA, DEHP, DIHP, DDE and quercetin were unable to significantly induce luc activity in fetuses. However, after maternal oral exposure during gestation to NP, BPA and DIHP placental luc activity was significantly lowered. The results indicate that at the current levels of exposure to food-associated estrogenic compounds, estrogenic effects to the fetus are not expected. The significant luc reduction in the placenta, should be further studied for its significance for fetal development and relevance for the human situation.

  1. A Study of the Next Generation Intelligent Networks Interworking with IP Networks


    In the past three years, the author has participated in several projects involved in Intelligent Network (IN). In 1997, we started our research on the project “The Integration of IN and B-ISDN” supported by National Science Foundation. Since 1999, the author has engaged in the project “the Next Generation IN Based Service Platform Interworking with IP Networks” supported by the National 863 Project. While working on the project, the author made a deep research on the architecture and the key technology of the next generation IN defined by ITU-T IN CS3 and CS4. In the following parts. 1. I conclude the research work and the innovation in my dissertation. The early research on the interworking of IN and Internet, despite the shortage of materials, the interworking architecture by means of IAF is analyzed. Some key techniques like triggering intelligent service and reporting dynamic IP address are solved. Some new SIBs and INAPs are added, and the dial-up software of users is enhanced, too. The incoming call notification service is designed. What we have done paves the way for the future research. 2. The gateway based architecture for the interworking of IN and Internet is described. Considering the research results from ITU, PINT work group and TIPHON work group, we emphasize that the interworking scenario through MG,SCG and C/BG is promising. Based on the CIN software developed by ourselves, we provide the scenario to enhance the function entities and signaling protocol. We address the function of entities and the interaction of signaling with an example like ICW service. 3. With the introduction of mobile agent technology, the author proposes the distributed IN which can be integrated with IP networks. According to the drawbacks of the centralized IN, we address the architecture and conceptual model of distributed IN to support advanced service in IP Telephony. We try to illustrate the role and relationship between function entities. We also present a

  2. Adubação mineral do ipê-roxo (Tabebuia impetiginosa.

    Patrícia Aparecida de Souza


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os aspectos nutricionais e os efeitos da omissão de nutrientes no desenvolvimento de plântulas de ipê-roxo (Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Sandwith, foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação, em substrato de Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo de baixa fertilidade. Foram utilizados dez tratamentos dispostos em delineamento de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com cinco repetições e uma planta por vaso; usando-se a técnica do nutriente faltante. Foi aplicado um tratamento completo com (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B e Zn, outros oitos com omissão de um nutriente por vez (-N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -S, -B e -Zn e um como testemunha (substrato natural. Foram avaliadas as seguintes característica aos 110 dias do plantio: altura da parte aérea, diâmetro de colo e produção de matéria seca. Os resultados obtidos nas condições do presente estudo permitiram concluir que: a os nutrientes P e N devem ser prioritários aos estudos de fertilização mineral da espécie; b seqüência de exigência nutricional apresentada pelas mudas de ipê-roxo em relação ao tratamento completo, considerando a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea em ordem decrescente foi: P> N> S> B> Zn> Mg> Ca> K.

  3. PeakXus: comprehensive transcription factor binding site discovery from ChIP-Nexus and ChIP-Exo experiments.

    Hartonen, Tuomo; Sahu, Biswajyoti; Dave, Kashyap; Kivioja, Teemu; Taipale, Jussi


    Transcription factor (TF) binding can be studied accurately in vivo with ChIP-exo and ChIP-Nexus experiments. Only fraction of TF binding mechanisms are yet fully understood and accurate knowledge of binding locations and patterns of TFs is key to understanding binding that is not explained by simple positional weight matrix models. ChIP-exo/Nexus experiments can also offer insight on the effect of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at TF binding sites on expression of the target genes. This is an important mechanism of action for disease-causing SNPs at non-coding genomic regions. We describe a peak caller PeakXus that is specifically designed to leverage the increased resolution of ChIP-exo/Nexus and developed with the aim of making as few assumptions of the data as possible to allow discoveries of novel binding patterns. We apply PeakXus to ChIP-Nexus and ChIP-exo experiments performed both in Homo sapiens and in Drosophila melanogaster cell lines. We show that PeakXus consistently finds more peaks overlapping with a TF-specific recognition sequence than published methods. As an application example we demonstrate how PeakXus can be coupled with unique molecular identifiers (UMIs) to measure the effect of a SNP overlapping with a TF binding site on the in vivo binding of the TF. Source code of PeakXus is available at or © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  4. Internet Connection of a Broadband Wireless IP Network Based on a Fast Mobile IP Algorithm with Link Layer Support

    XIONGYan; MIAOFuyou; HUABei; WANGXingfu


    Commercialized wireless LANs (local area networks) are emerging one after another. Because a lot of useful information and resources are residing in the wired network, Internet, the strong requirement to access In-ternet for mobile hosts in wireless LANs is growing more and more. In this paper, we simply describe the topoi-ogy and feature of a broadband wireless Internet protocol network (BWIPN) in which data transmitted on wireless link is encapsulated within Internet protocol (IP) packets.To connect to Internet, there is an Internet connecting server (ICS) which is also a router within every BWIPN.A fast mobile IP hand-offalgorithm with link layer supportto reduce handoff overhead has been proposed to providemobility support for wireless terminals (WTs, i.e. note-book computers) roaming among BWIPNs without chang-ing their IP addresses. An indirect TCP (transfer control protocol) scheme is used to improve the performance ofwireless TCP. To match data transmission rate on the wire-less link with that on the wired link, an adaptive wireless congestion control algorithms are added at IP layers in the WT and the ICS. Both performance analysis and experi-mental result have shown that the fast mobile IP hand-off algorithm reduces the hand-off delay by about 10 times and TCP disconnection times is reduced greatly, compared with the three known mobile IP hand-off algorithms. By our work, users on WTs can explore Internet using Web browser, File Transfer Protocol, Telnet and Ping utilities while moving among different BWIPNs very well.

  5. The effect of Schisandra chinensis extracts on depression by noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems in the forced swim test in mice.

    Yan, Tingxu; Xu, Mengjie; Wu, Bo; Liao, Zhengzheng; Liu, Zhi; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying


    Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill., as a Chinese functional food, has been widely used in neurological disorders including insomnia and Alzheimer's disease. The treatment of classical neuropsychiatric disorder depression is to be developed from Schisandra chinensis. The antidepressant-like effects of the Schisandra chinensis extracts (SCE), and their probable involvement in the serotonergic, noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems were investigated by the forced swim test (FST). Acute administration of SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.), a combination of SCE (300 mg kg(-1), i.g.) and reboxetine (a noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor, 2.5 mg kg(-1), i.p.) or imipramine (a TCA, 2 mg kg(-1), i.p.) reduced the immobility time in the FST. Pretreatment with N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP-4, a selective noradrenergic neurotoxin, 50 mg kg(-1), i.p., 4 days), haloperidol (a non-selective D2 receptor antagonist, 0.2 mg kg(-1), i.p.), SCH 23390 (a selective D1 receptor antagonist, 0.03 mg kg(-1), i.p.), bicuculline (a competitive GABA antagonist, 4 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA, an agonist at the glutamate site, 75 mg kg(-1), i.p.) effectively reversed the antidepressant-like effect of SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.). However, p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA, an inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis, 100 mg kg(-1), i.p., 4 days,) did not eliminate the reduced immobility time induced by SCE (600 mg kg(-1), i.g.). Moreover, the treatments did not change the locomotor activity. Altogether, these results indicated that SCE produced antidepressant-like activity, which might be mediated by the modification of noradrenergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems.

  6. Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Nanoparticles for Better Survival and Growth of the Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii Post-larvae.

    Srinivasan, Veeran; Bhavan, Periyakali Saravana; Rajkumar, Gopalan; Satgurunathan, Thangavelu; Muralisankar, Thirunavukkarasu


    This study was performed to assess the growth-promoting potential of dietary magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) in Macrobrachium rosenbergii post-larvae (PL). MgO NPs were supplemented at 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg kg(-1) with the basal diet (containing 0.95 g Mg kg(-1)); the concentrations of Mg in MgO NP-supplemented diets were increased correspondingly (1.07, 1.15, 1.24, 1.37 and 1.46 g Mg kg(-1) respectively). MgO NP-supplemented diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL (initial weight 0.11 ± 0.04 g) for a period of 90 days. In the carcasses of experimental prawns, the content of Mg was found to be elevated significantly with respect to the individual diet (102.14, 183.29, 205.46, 221.03, 237.10 and 254.36 μg Mg g(-1) respectively) when compared with that of the control. The contents of Cu, Zn, Fe, Ca, Na and K levels were also found to be elevated in the carcasses of experimental prawns. Significant (P MgO NP-supplemented-feed-fed PL. There were no significant elevations recorded in activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)], lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metabolic enzymes [glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)] recorded in any of the MgO NP-supplemented-feed-fed PL when compared with the control. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed increases in the staining intensity of polypeptide bands resolved in 500 mg kg(-1) MgO NP-supplemented-feed-fed PL when compared with the control. Based on the gradual improvement in attaining survival, growth, FCR, biochemical constituents and haemocyte population, this study recommends MgO NP supplementation of 500 mg kg(-1) for sustainable maintenance of M. rosenbergii PL. As the studied highest concentration of MgO NPs showed the best performance, it is necessary to study with beyond 500 mg kg(-1) of MgO NPs to optimize the actual concentration.

  7. A New Luminous Outburst from SN 2009ip

    Drake, A. J.; Howerton, S.; McNaught, R.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, A. A.; Graham, M. J.; Williams, R.; Prieto, J.; Catelan, M.; Christensen, E.; Larson, S.


    Further to Drake et al. (2010, Atel#2897), we report the discovery of a new bright outburst from spectroscopically confirmed LBV (Supernova Impostor) SN 2009ip (Maza et al. 2009; CBET#1928, Berger et al. 2009, ATEL#2184; Smith et al. 2010; Foley et al. 2011) in images taken by the Siding Spring Survey (rmn/>SSS).

  8. An Overview of the IP Enforcement System in China

    Wu Yuhe


    @@ For more than two decades after the Trademark Law of the People's Republic of China entered into force in 1983,China has formulated a series of IP-related laws and regulations, including among other things, the Patent Law, Trademark Law, Copyright Law and Unfair Competition Law. Besides, it has acceded to many international IP treaties and established an adequate system for IP protection. In particular, China has drawn more on the mature practices of the Western countries with respect to the conditions and requirements for grant of the intellectual property rights, which has made the legal system for the protection of the intellectual property rights in China readily understandable and acceptable to foreign interested parties. By contrast, China has mostly followed the existing civil, administrative and criminal liability system in its construction of the IP-related enforcement system, thus rendering it more "characteristic of China". In fact, this "unique"system provides interested parties with more opportunities and approaches for them to enforce their rights.

  9. IPS Space Weather Research: Korea-Japan-UCSD


    systems. c) The potential for using heliospheric Faraday rotation for measuring Bz remotely. To make headway on these items in the allotted time...workshop where this information will be presented. To make headway on the analysis of IPS g-level data as a proxy for heliospheric density, we wish


    Vinay Kumar Nigam


    Full Text Available The recent advances in wireless communication technology and the unprecedented growth of the Internet have paved the way for wireless networking and IP mobility. Mobile Internet protocol[1,2] has been designed within the IETF to support the mobility[2] of users who wish to connect to the internet and maintain communications as they move from place to place. Mobile IPV6 allows a mobile node to talk directly to its peers while retaining the ability to move around and change the currently used IP addresses. This mode of operation is called Route Optimization[7,10].In this approach, the correspondent node learns a binding between the Mobile nodes permanent home address and its current temporary care-of-address. This introduces several security vulnerabilities to Mobile IP, among them the most important one is the authentication and authorization of binding updates. This paper describes the Route optimization by the introduction of mobility. In this paper , we proposed a new efficient technique for route optimization in mobile IP for smoothly communication while MN moving from one network domain to other without losing the connection. Our technique will also be improve the path in intra-network communication[9].

  11. Crosslayer Survivability in Overlay-IP-WDM Networks

    Pacharintanakul, Peera


    As the Internet moves towards a three-layer architecture consisting of overlay networks on top of the IP network layer on top of WDM-based physical networks, incorporating the interaction between and among network layers is crucial for efficient and effective implementation of survivability. This dissertation has four major foci as follows:…

  12. IP-Based TV Technologies, Services and Multidisciplinary Applications

    Bonastre, O.M.; Montpetit, M.J.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.


    The move to Internet Protocol (IP)-based content delivery services has challenged the television industry by allowing high-quality television content to be delivered using the Internet, wired and wireless, private and public. The new convergence paradigm is already playing out its disruptive role as

  13. Credibility and validation of simulation models for tactical IP networks

    Boltjes, B.; Thiele, F.; Diaz, I.F.


    The task of TNO is to provide predictions of the scalability and performance of the new all-IP tactical networks of the Royal Netherlands Army (RNLA) that are likely to be fielded. The inherent properties of fielded tactical networks, such as low bandwidth and Quality of Service (QoS) policies

  14. Performance Comparison and Analysis of IP and MPLS Networks


    With the increasing need for Quality of Service(QoS),the traditional IP network is becoming less competitive. In order to give readers quantitative and convictive performance comparisons between IP and MPLS network,we choose Berkeleys NS-2 simulator[1] in our research on network throughput and end-to-end TCP behavior. Using NS-2 simulator,we analyze the performance of a network with MPLS Traffic Engineering(MPLS-TE).Specifically,the throughput and TCP end-to-end delay time under two different queuing algorithms are obtained and compared between the MPLS network and traditional IP network. We find that in the IP network using SFQ queuing algorithm will help traffic balance compared to the simple FIFO scheme,but it still can not utilize the available bandwidth,which in turn leads to the poor performance as in the FIFO case.With MPLS-TE, the throughput will be higher and the end-to-end TCP delay time remains almost the same even in heavy load case.We notice that if flows are isolated partially,using SFQ scheme will have a comparable performance as the fully isolation case using FIFO scheme in a MPLS network,and that if flows are isolated fully for FIFO and SFQ schemes,both will have the same result.Finally,we conclude that a better queuing algorithm will help reduce the label space requirement.

  15. Performance Comparison and Analysis of IP and MPLS Networks

    LIUEr-wu; CAOMing-cui; 等


    With the increasing need for Quality of Service(QoS), the traditional IP network is becoming less com-petitive.In order to give readers quantitative and convictive performance comparisons between IP and MPLS net-work, we choose Berkeley's NS-2 simulator[1] in our research on network throughput and end-to-end TCP behavior.Using NS-2 simulator,we analyze the performance of a network with MPLS Traffic Engineering (MPLS-TE).Specifically, the throughput and TCP end-to-end delay time under two different queuing algorithms are obtained and compared between the MPLS network and traditional IP network .We find that in the IP network using SFQ queuing algorithm will help traffic balance compared to the simple FIFO scheme,but it still can ont utilize the available bandwidth,which in turn leads to the poor performance as in the FIFO case.With MPLS-TE,the throughput will be higher and the end-to-end TCP delay time remains almost the same even in heavy load case.We notice that if flows are isolated partially,using SFQ scheme will have a comparable performance as the fully isola-tion case using FIFO scheme in a MPLS network, and that if flows are isolated fully for FIFO and SFQ schemes, both will have the same result.Finally,we conclude that a better queuing algorithm will help reduce the label space requirement.

  16. TCP-IP Model in Data Communication and Networking

    Pranab Bandhu Nath


    Full Text Available The Internet protocol suite is the computer networking model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP, because it’s most important protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP and the Internet Protocol (IP, were the first networking protocols defined in this standard. Often also called the Internet model, it was originally also known as the DoD model, because the development of the networking model was funded by DARPA, an agency of the United States Department of Defense. TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the destination. This functionality is organized into four abstraction layers which are used to sort all related protocols according to the scope of networking involved. From lowest to highest, the layers are the link layer, containing communication technologies for a single network segment (link; the internet layer, connecting hosts across independent networks, thus establishing internetworking; the transport layer handling host-to-host communication; and the application layer, which provides process-to-process application data exchange. Our aim is describe operation & models of TCP-IP suite in data communication networking

  17. Capturing value from IP in a global environment

    Alcacer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    will need to combine different institutional, market and non-market mechanisms. The precise combination of tools will depend on the local and regional institutional and market conditions. Abstract: This paper documents the strong growth in tools used by firms to protect their intellectual property (IP...

  18. VoIP makes voice heard--functionality is up.

    Wade, Phil; Wakelam, Mathew


    Phil Wade, sales and marketing director, and Mathew Wakelam, VoIP product manager, at alarm and communication specialist Static Systems Group, discuss wireless VoLP's potential in healthcare establishments and examine how, in particular, the technology can be successfully integrated with nurse call systems.

  19. Managing wireless IP-Connectivity Experience as Mobile Social Media

    Rigolin Ferreira Lopes, R.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; dos Santos Moreira, Edson


    Social media is the meaningful digital content that results from interaction or collaboration between users through web-based applications, e.g. blogs and virtual communities. While on the move, people can create or consume mobile social media using portable devices with IP-connectivity. Our

  20. IP over optical multicasting for large-scale video delivery

    Jin, Yaohui; Hu, Weisheng; Sun, Weiqiang; Guo, Wei


    In the IPTV systems, multicasting will play a crucial role in the delivery of high-quality video services, which can significantly improve bandwidth efficiency. However, the scalability and the signal quality of current IPTV can barely compete with the existing broadcast digital TV systems since it is difficult to implement large-scale multicasting with end-to-end guaranteed quality of service (QoS) in packet-switched IP network. China 3TNet project aimed to build a high performance broadband trial network to support large-scale concurrent streaming media and interactive multimedia services. The innovative idea of 3TNet is that an automatic switched optical networks (ASON) with the capability of dynamic point-to-multipoint (P2MP) connections replaces the conventional IP multicasting network in the transport core, while the edge remains an IP multicasting network. In this paper, we will introduce the network architecture and discuss challenges in such IP over Optical multicasting for video delivery.

  1. Load characterization and anomaly detection for voice over IP traffic

    M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel); I. Saniee; A. Stolyar


    textabstractWe consider the problem of traffic anomaly detection in IP networks. Traffic anomalies typically arise when there is focused overload or when a network element fails and it is desired to infer these purely from the measured traffic. We derive new general formulae for the variance of the

  2. Voice over IP - Eine Einführung

    Fey, Marcus


    Eine kurze Einführung zu "Voice over IP" (dem Telefonieren über Datennetze). Es wird ein Überblick über technische Anforderungen und Lösungen geben. Behandelte Gebiete sind Audio-Codecs, das Transportprotokoll RTP sowie die Signalisierungsdienste SIP und H.323.

  3. Pine Engraver, Ips pini, in the Western United States (FIDL)

    Sandra J. Kegley; R. Ladd Livingston; Kenneth E. Gibson


    The pine engraver, Ips pini (Say), is one of the most common and widely distributed bark beetles in North America. It occurs from southern Appalachia north to Maine and Quebec, westward across the northern United States and Canada, into the interior of Alaska, throughout the Pacific Coast States and the Rocky Mountain region, to northern Mexico. In the western United...

  4. Multicast and IP Multicast Support in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Jorge Sá Silva


    Full Text Available Multicast potentially optimises bandwidth consumption and node resources, when several users simultaneously participate in a communication session. Nevertheless, contrary to the expectations, IP multicast has not experienced widespread deployment, with the exception of IPTV. On the other hand, emerging Wireless Sensor Network (WSN applications could greatly benefit from multicast and constitute another field where multicast can be an effective and efficient technique. The questions are: do multicast advantages hold in WSN scenarios? Can we use IP Multicast functionality in WSNs? This paper discusses and evaluates the use of multicast in WSNs. Specifically, we evaluate the use of Source-Specific Multicast, as it is one of the most promising paradigms for IP networking, considering both IPv4 and IPv6 in WSNs. A sensor platform with IP and multicast support that is being developed in our lab is presented. Concurrently, simulation studies were performed in order to assess the usefulness of multicast in WSNs. The results clearly point to the benefits of the use of this technique in processing and energy-restricted environments such as this one.

  5. Extending Tactical Fleet Communications Through VoIP


    configurations and led to the following list of configuration recommendations: change to the least used wireless channel in your operating area; find a space...31 a. ADNS QoS ...............................................................................31 b. ADNS UDP and...VoIP QoS .....................................................31 c. ADNS QoS between LANs ......................................................32 d

  6. Strategies for analyzing highly enriched IP-chip datasets

    Tavaré Simon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation on tiling arrays (ChIP-chip has been employed to examine features such as protein binding and histone modifications on a genome-wide scale in a variety of cell types. Array data from the latter studies typically have a high proportion of enriched probes whose signals vary considerably (due to heterogeneity in the cell population, and this makes their normalization and downstream analysis difficult. Results Here we present strategies for analyzing such experiments, focusing our discussion on the analysis of Bromodeoxyruridine (BrdU immunoprecipitation on tiling array (BrdU-IP-chip datasets. BrdU-IP-chip experiments map large, recently replicated genomic regions and have similar characteristics to histone modification/location data. To prepare such data for downstream analysis we employ a dynamic programming algorithm that identifies a set of putative unenriched probes, which we use for both within-array and between-array normalization. We also introduce a second dynamic programming algorithm that incorporates a priori knowledge to identify and quantify positive signals in these datasets. Conclusion Highly enriched IP-chip datasets are often difficult to analyze with traditional array normalization and analysis strategies. Here we present and test a set of analytical tools for their normalization and quantification that allows for accurate identification and analysis of enriched regions.

  7. Crosslayer Survivability in Overlay-IP-WDM Networks

    Pacharintanakul, Peera


    As the Internet moves towards a three-layer architecture consisting of overlay networks on top of the IP network layer on top of WDM-based physical networks, incorporating the interaction between and among network layers is crucial for efficient and effective implementation of survivability. This dissertation has four major foci as follows:…

  8. Construction of a nuclear data server using TCP/IP

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Sakai, Osamu [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)


    We construct a nuclear data server which provides data in the evaluated nuclear data library through the network by means of TCP/IP. The client is not necessarily a user but a computer program. Two examples with a prototype server program are demonstrated, the first is data transfer from the server to a user, and the second is to a computer program. (author)

  9. Analysis of two competing TCP/IP connections

    Altman, E.; Jiménez, T.; Núñez Queija, R.


    Many mathematical models exist for describing the behavior of TCP/IP under an exogenous loss process that does not depend on the window size. The goal of this paper is to present a mathematical analysis of two asymmetric competing TCP connections where loss probabilities are directly related to thei

  10. Displaying digital video over ethernet TCP-IP

    Foster, John; Jackson, Paul


    Transmission and playback of digital audio and video via TCP/IP has been successfully completed with the use of typical low-end UNIX workstations. In addition, attempts have been made to increase the frame rate by sending only sections of a frame that varied the most.

  11. VLBI data transmission system using multiple IP streams

    Uose, Hisao

    We have developed an IP-based data transmission system which can directly replace K4 (ID1) VLBI data recorder. It employs multiple TCP data steams and individual buffers to cope with variable usable bandwidth we encouter when we use shared academic networks. This paper describes the outline of the system and preliminary testing results.

  12. Voice over IP phone calls from your smartphone


    All CERN users do have a Lync account (see here) and can use Instant Messaging, presence and other features. In addition, if your number is activated on Lync IP Phone(1) system then you can make standard phone calls from your computer (Windows/Mac).   Recently, we upgraded the infrastructure to Lync 2013. One of the major features is the possibility to make Voice over IP phone calls from a smartphone using your CERN standard phone number (not mobile!). Install Lync 2013 on iPhone/iPad, Android or Windows Phone, connect to WiFi network and make phone calls as if you were in your office. There will be no roaming charges because you will be using WiFi to connect to CERN phone system(2). Register here to the presentation on Tuesday 29 April at 11 a.m. in the Technical Training Center and see the most exciting features of Lync 2013.   Looking forward to seeing you! The Lync team (1) How to register on Lync IP Phone system:

  13. A VoIP Privacy Mechanism and its Application in VoIP Peering for Voice Service Provider Topology and Identity Hiding

    Shen, Charles


    Voice Service Providers (VSPs) participating in VoIP peering frequently want to withhold their identity and related privacy-sensitive information from other parties during the VoIP communication. A number of existing documents on VoIP privacy exist, but most of them focus on end user privacy. By summarizing and extending existing work, we present a unified privacy mechanism for both VoIP users and service providers. We also show a case study on how VSPs can use this mechanism for identity and topology hiding in VoIP peering.

  14. The backup and technology research base on IP-SAN%基于IP-SAN的备份及技术研究




  15. CtIP Mutations Cause Seckel and Jawad Syndromes.

    Per Qvist


    Full Text Available Seckel syndrome is a recessively inherited dwarfism disorder characterized by microcephaly and a unique head profile. Genetically, it constitutes a heterogeneous condition, with several loci mapped (SCKL1-5 but only three disease genes identified: the ATR, CENPJ, and CEP152 genes that control cellular responses to DNA damage. We previously mapped a Seckel syndrome locus to chromosome 18p11.31-q11.2 (SCKL2. Here, we report two mutations in the CtIP (RBBP8 gene within this locus that result in expression of C-terminally truncated forms of CtIP. We propose that these mutations are the molecular cause of the disease observed in the previously described SCKL2 family and in an additional unrelated family diagnosed with a similar form of congenital microcephaly termed Jawad syndrome. While an exonic frameshift mutation was found in the Jawad family, the SCKL2 family carries a splicing mutation that yields a dominant-negative form of CtIP. Further characterization of cell lines derived from the SCKL2 family revealed defective DNA damage induced formation of single-stranded DNA, a critical co-factor for ATR activation. Accordingly, SCKL2 cells present a lowered apoptopic threshold and hypersensitivity to DNA damage. Notably, over-expression of a comparable truncated CtIP variant in non-Seckel cells recapitulates SCKL2 cellular phenotypes in a dose-dependent manner. This work thus identifies CtIP as a disease gene for Seckel and Jawad syndromes and defines a new type of genetic disease mechanism in which a dominant negative mutation yields a recessively inherited disorder.

  16. CtIP Mutations Cause Seckel and Jawad Syndromes.

    Per Qvist


    Full Text Available Seckel syndrome is a recessively inherited dwarfism disorder characterized by microcephaly and a unique head profile. Genetically, it constitutes a heterogeneous condition, with several loci mapped (SCKL1-5 but only three disease genes identified: the ATR, CENPJ, and CEP152 genes that control cellular responses to DNA damage. We previously mapped a Seckel syndrome locus to chromosome 18p11.31-q11.2 (SCKL2. Here, we report two mutations in the CtIP (RBBP8 gene within this locus that result in expression of C-terminally truncated forms of CtIP. We propose that these mutations are the molecular cause of the disease observed in the previously described SCKL2 family and in an additional unrelated family diagnosed with a similar form of congenital microcephaly termed Jawad syndrome. While an exonic frameshift mutation was found in the Jawad family, the SCKL2 family carries a splicing mutation that yields a dominant-negative form of CtIP. Further characterization of cell lines derived from the SCKL2 family revealed defective DNA damage induced formation of single-stranded DNA, a critical co-factor for ATR activation. Accordingly, SCKL2 cells present a lowered apoptopic threshold and hypersensitivity to DNA damage. Notably, over-expression of a comparable truncated CtIP variant in non-Seckel cells recapitulates SCKL2 cellular phenotypes in a dose-dependent manner. This work thus identifies CtIP as a disease gene for Seckel and Jawad syndromes and defines a new type of genetic disease mechanism in which a dominant negative mutation yields a recessively inherited disorder.

  17. IP Eri: A surprising long-period binary system hosting a He white dwarf

    Merle, T; Masseron, T; Van Eck, S; Siess, L; Van Winckel, H


    We determine the orbital elements for the K0 IV + white dwarf (WD) system IP Eri, which appears to have a surprisingly long period of 1071 d and a significant eccentricity of 0.25. Previous spectroscopic analyses of the WD, based on a distance of 101 pc inferred from its Hipparcos parallax, yielded a mass of only 0.43 M$_\\odot$, implying it to be a helium-core WD. The orbital properties of IP Eri are similar to those of the newly discovered long-period subdwarf B star (sdB) binaries, which involve stars with He-burning cores surrounded by extremely thin H envelopes, and are therefore close relatives to He WDs. We performed a spectroscopic analysis of high-resolution spectra from the HERMES/Mercator spectrograph and concluded that the atmospheric parameters of the K0 component are $T_{\\rm eff} = 4960$ K, $\\log{g} = 3.3$, [Fe/H] = 0.09 and $\\xi = 1.5$ km/s. The detailed abundance analysis focuses on C, N, O abundances, carbon isotopic ratio, light (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti) and s-process (Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, N...

  18. 中小型IP PBX系统结构的研究%Research on Medium and Small IP PBX Architecture

    章仁龙; 周宇


    IP PBX(PBX over IP)是VoIP(Voice over IP)领域内的一个研究热点.IP PBX将企业内部现有的数据网与电话网融合,是企业与公共交换电话网PSTN(Public Switched Telephone Network)、IP网等外部网络通信的桥梁.本文基于现有的多个IP PBX系统抽象出两种最常见的模型,并在此基础上改进后,提出了一种适合中小型IP PBX系统的结构模型.




    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the security issues in the IP-PBX (IP Private Branch Exchange .The Traces are taken on the live environment using Vendor ‘X’ CDMA MSC. The traces are also taken at SBC (Session Boarder Controller. The PBX services can be provided over IP via a SIP (session initiation protocol trunk provided by network operator. The SIP trunk is connected to a switch i.e. MSC. Thus IP connectivity is available at IP-PBX end. Now calls can be originated from IP-PBX which is terminating on a mobile handset registered with MSC. The problem arises when a dummy/blank/fake CLI (caller line identification is configured at IP-PBX. As MSC isdoing only part of routing depending upon called party number, such calls with fake CLI pass through MSC without any intervention. So called party and even MSC are unaware of real number of calling party. Similar security issue arises when IP-PBX sends dummy IP addresses of IP phones connected to IP-PBX. Thus conflict of IP addresses and or called party numbers creates a major security concern. These are important issues for interfacing IP with traditional wire line or wireless network. Such a security issue can be resolved by registering IP-PBX and its extension numbers with MSC. This paper describes the probable methods to resolve above issues.

  20. KSR-Based Medium Improves the Generation of High-Quality Mouse iPS Cells


    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from somatic cells have great potential for regenerative medicine. The efficiency in generation of iPS cells has been significantly improved in recent years. However, the generation of high-quality iPS cells remains of high interest. Consistently, we demonstrate that knockout serum replacement (KSR)-based medium accelerates iPS cell induction and improves the quality of iPS cells, as confirmed by generation of chimeras and all iPS cell-derived offspring wi...

  1. [Retinal Cell Therapy Using iPS Cells].

    Takahashi, Masayo


    Progress in basic research, starting with the work on neural stem cells in the middle 1990's to embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells at present, will lead the cell therapy (regenerative medicine) of various organs, including the central nervous system to a big medical field in the future. The author's group transplanted iPS cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell sheets to the eye of a patient with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 2014 as a clinical research. Replacement of the RPE with the patient's own iPS cell-derived young healthy cell sheet will be one new radical treatment of AMD that is caused by cellular senescence of RPE cells. Since it was the first clinical study using iPS cell-derived cells, the primary endpoint was safety judged by the outcome one year after surgery. The safety of the cell sheet has been confirmed by repeated tumorigenisity tests using immunodeficient mice, as well as purity of the cells, karyotype and genetic analysis. It is, however, also necessary to prove the safety by clinical studies. Following this start, a good strategy considering cost and benefit is needed to make regenerative medicine a standard treatment in the future. Scientifically, the best choice is the autologous RPE cell sheet, but autologous cell are expensive and sheet transplantation involves a risky part of surgical procedure. We should consider human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched allogeneic transplantation using the HLA 6 loci homozyous iPS cell stock that Prof. Yamanaka of Kyoto University is working on. As the required forms of donor cells will be different depending on types and stages of the target diseases, regenerative medicine will be accomplished in a totally different manner from the present small molecule drugs. Proof of concept (POC) of photoreceptor transplantation in mouse is close to being accomplished using iPS cell-derived photoreceptor cells. The shortest possible course for treatment

  2. DM235 (sunifiram): a novel nootropic with potential as a cognitive enhancer.

    Ghelardini, C; Galeotti, N; Gualtieri, F; Romanelli, M N; Bucherelli, C; Baldi, E; Bartolini, A


    DM235 (sunifiram), a new compound structurally related to piracetam, prevented the amnesia induced by scopolamine (1.5 mg kg(-1) i.p.), after intraperitoneal (0.001-0.1 mg kg(-1)) or oral (0.01-0.1 mg kg(-1)) administration, as shown by a passive avoidance test in mice. The antiamnesic effect of DM235 was comparable to that of well-known nootropic drugs such as piracetam (30-100 mg kg(-1) i.p.), aniracetam (100 mg kg(-1) p.o.) or rolipram (30 mg kg(-1) p.o.). DM235 also prevented mecamylamine (20 mg kg(-1) i.p.)-, baclofen (2 mg kg(-1) i.p.)- and clonidine (0.125 mg kg(-1) i.p.)-induced amnesia in the same test. In the Morris water maze test with rats, scopolamine (0.8 mg kg(-1) i.p.) inhibited the reduction of escape latency in both acquisition and retention/retraining tests. DM235 (0.1 mg kg(-1) i.p.), 20 min before each daily acquisition training, prevented the scopolamine-induced memory impairment. DM235 (1 mg kg(-1) i.p.) also reduced the duration of pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis in mice without modifying the induction time of hypnosis. At the highest effective doses, the investigated compound neither impaired motor coordination (rota-rod test), nor modified spontaneous motility and inspection activity (Animex and hole board tests). These results indicate that DM235, a compound structurally related to piracetam, is a novel nootropic endowed with the capability to prevent cognitive deficits at very low doses. Indeed, its potency is about 1,000 times higher than that of the most active piracetam-like compounds.

  3. Effectiveness of Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) in Fast Networks

    Shafi, Muhammad Imran; Hayat, Sikandar; Sohail, Imran


    Computer systems are facing biggest threat in the form of malicious data which causing denial of service, information theft, financial and credibility loss etc. No defense technique has been proved successful in handling these threats. Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (IDPSs) being best of available solutions. These techniques are getting more and more attention. Although Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPSs) show a good level of success in detecting and preventing intrusion attempts to networks, they show a visible deficiency in their performance when they are employed on fast networks. In this paper we have presented a design including quantitative and qualitative methods to identify improvement areas in IPSs. Focus group is used for qualitative analysis and experiment is used for quantitative analysis. This paper also describes how to reduce the responding time for IPS when an intrusion occurs on network, and how can IPS be made to perform its tasks successfully without effecting network speed nega...

  4. Congested Link Inference Algorithms in Dynamic Routing IP Network

    Yu Chen


    Full Text Available The performance descending of current congested link inference algorithms is obviously in dynamic routing IP network, such as the most classical algorithm CLINK. To overcome this problem, based on the assumptions of Markov property and time homogeneity, we build a kind of Variable Structure Discrete Dynamic Bayesian (VSDDB network simplified model of dynamic routing IP network. Under the simplified VSDDB model, based on the Bayesian Maximum A Posteriori (BMAP and Rest Bayesian Network Model (RBNM, we proposed an Improved CLINK (ICLINK algorithm. Considering the concurrent phenomenon of multiple link congestion usually happens, we also proposed algorithm CLILRS (Congested Link Inference algorithm based on Lagrangian Relaxation Subgradient to infer the set of congested links. We validated our results by the experiments of analogy, simulation, and actual Internet.

  5. Service Model for Multi-Provider IP Service Management

    YU Cheng-zhi; SONG Han-tao; LIU Li


    In order to solve the problems associated with Internet IP services management, a generic service model for multi-provider IP service management is proposed, which is based on a generalization of the bandwidth broker idea introduced in the differentiated services (DiffServ) environment. This model consists of a hierarchy of service brokers, which makes it fit into providing end-to-end Internet services with QoS support. A simple and scalable mechanism is used to communicate with other cooperative domains to enable customers to dynamically setup services connections over multiple DiffServ domains. The simulation results show that the proposed model is real-time, which can deal with many flow requests in a short period of time, so that it is fit for the service management in a reasonably large network.

  6. Topology-aware Overlay Multicast over IP Multicast Networks

    CHEN Xiao; SHAO Hua-gang; WANG Wei-nong


    Most existing overlay multicast approaches refuse to consider any network layer support no matter whether it is available or not. This design principle greatly increases the complexity of the routing algorithms and makes the overlay topologies incompatible with the underlying network. To address these issues, topology-aware overlay multicast over IP multicast networks (TOMIMN) was proposed as a novel overlay multicast protocol, which exploits the cooperation between end-hosts and IP multicast routers to construct a topology-aware overlay tree. Through a little modification to protocol independent multicast sparse mode (PIM-SM),a multicast router is able to receive registration from nearby group members and redirect passing-by join re-quests to them. Due to the multicast router's support, TOMIMN organizes its group members into an overlay multicast tree efficiently, which matches the physical network topology well.

  7. Chaos Based Secure IP Communications over Satellite DVB

    Caragata, Daniel; El Assad, Safwan; Tutanescu, Ion; Sofron, Emil


    The Digital Video Broadcasting—Satellite (DVB-S) standard was originally conceived for TV and radio broadcasting. Later, it became possible to send IP packets using encapsulation methods such as Multi Protocol Encapsulation, MPE, or Unidirectional Lightweight Encapsulation, ULE. This paper proposes a chaos based security system for IP communications over DVB-S with ULE encapsulation. The proposed security system satisfies all the security requirements while respecting the characteristics of satellite links, such as the importance of efficient bandwidth utilization and high latency time. It uses chaotic functions to generate the keys and to encrypt the data. The key management is realized using a multi-layer architecture. A theoretical analysis of the system and a simulation of FTP and HTTP traffic are presented and discussed to show the cost of the security enhancement and to provide the necessary tools for security parameters setup.

  8. Ionospheric Disturbances and their Impact on IPS Using MEXART Observations

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Mario; Carrillo-Vargas, Armando; López-Montes, Rebeca; Araujo-Pradere, Eduardo A; Casillas-Pérez, Gilberto A; Cruz-Abeyro, José A L


    We study the impact of ionospheric disturbances on the Earth's environment caused by the solar events that occurred from 20 April to 31 May 2010, using observations from the Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART). During this period of time, several astronomical sources presented fluctuations in their radio signals. Wavelet analysis, together with complementary information such as the vertical total electron content (vTEC) and the Dst index, were used to identify and understand when the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) could be contaminated by ionospheric disturbances (IOND). We find that radio signal perturbations were sometimes associated with IOND and/or IPS fluctuations; however, in some cases, it was not possible to clearly identify their origin. Our Fourier and wavelet analyses showed that these fluctuations had frequencies in the range $\\approx$ 0.01 Hz -- $\\approx$ 1.0 Hz (periodicities of 100 s to 1 s).

  9. Fault Tolerant Distributed and Fixed Hierarchical Mobile IP

    Paramesh C. Upadhyay


    Full Text Available To several mobility management protocols proposed for IP-based mobile networks, faulttolerance aspect of mobility agents is a primary requirement to sustain continuous service availability to themobile hosts. For a localized or micro- mobility management solution, the local mobility agent i.e. gateway isa single point of failure because it is responsible for enforcing the signaling and data packets in its domain.Such failures may severely disrupt the communications among the failure-affected users. The problembecomes even more severe for mobility agents in a distributed mobility management scheme with overlappingregistration areas.This paper proposes a fault tolerance scheme for Distributed and Fixed Hierarchical Mobile IP(DFHMIP and evaluates its performance in terms of data transmission cost and blocking probability.

  10. Real-time services in IP network architectures

    Gilardi, Antonella


    The worldwide internet system seems to be the success key for the provision of real time multimedia services to both residential and business users and someone says that in such a way broadband networks will have a reason to exist. This new class of applications that use multiple media (voice, video and data) impose constraints to the global network nowadays consisting of subnets with various data links. The attention will be focused on the interconnection of IP non ATM and ATM networks. IETF and ATM forum are currently involved in the developing specifications suited to adapt the connectionless IP protocol to the connection oriented ATM protocol. First of all the link between the ATM and the IP service model has to be set in order to match the QoS and traffic requirements defined in the relative environment. A further significant topic is represented by the mapping of IP resource reservation model onto the ATM signalling and in the end it is necessary to define how the routing works when there are QoS parameters associated. This paper, considering only unicast applications, will examine the above issues taking as a starting point the situation where an host launches as call set up request with the relevant QoS and traffic descriptor and at some point a router at the edge of the ATM network has to decide how forwarding and request in order to establish an end to end link with the right capabilities. The aim is to compare the proposals emerging from different standard bodies to point out convergency or incompatibility.

  11. A Multimedia over IP Integrated System for Military Communications


    Alessandro Cignoni, Carlo Roatta *Istituto per le Telecomunicazioni e l’Elettronica “Giancarlo Vallauri” Telecommunications Department Viale Italia n°72...for a real battlefield scenario. Cignoni, A.; Garroppo, R.G.; Martucci, A.; Roatta , C. (2006) A Multimedia over IP Integrated System for Military...October 2003. Rome, 18-19 April 2005 RTO-IST-054 Paper 14 Alessandro CIGNONI, Rosario G. GARROPPO, Alessandro MARTUCCI, Carlo ROATTA A Multimedia

  12. Implementation of Cloud Computing into VoIP

    Floriana GEREA


    Full Text Available This article defines Cloud Computing and highlights key concepts, the benefits of using virtualization, its weaknesses and ways of combining it with classical VoIP technologies applied to large scale businesses. The analysis takes into consideration management strategies and resources for better customer orientation and risk management all for sustaining the Service Level Agreement (SLA. An important issue in cloud computing can be security and for this reason there are several security solution presented.

  13. At-Speed Logic BIST for IP Cores

    Cheon, B; Wang, L -T; Wen, X; Hsu, P; Cho, J; Park, J; Chao, H; Wu, S


    This paper describes a flexible logic BIST scheme that features high fault coverage achieved by fault-simulation guided test point insertion, real at-speed test capability for multi-clock designs without clock frequency manipulation, and easy physical implementation due to the use of a low-speed SE signal. Application results of this scheme to two widely used IP cores are also reported.

  14. Performance analysis of IP QoS provision model

    SUN Danning; Moonsik Kang


    The Performance of a heterogeneous IP QoS provision service model was analyzed. This model utilized RSVP technique to set up dynamic resource reservation interface between the user and the network, meanwhile, DiffServ technique was utilized to transmit class-based packets in different per hop behaviors. Furthermore, accordingly queue management and packets scheduling mechanisms were presented for end-to-end QoS guarantees and appropriate cooperation of network elements.

  15. TCP/IP Security%TCP/IP协议安全

    张少中; 唐毅谦; 赵悦; 聂铁铸; 刘丽华


    TCP/IP协议是Internet上网络互连的基础,TCP/IP 协议的安全直接关系到网络和系统的安全.本文通过分析TCP/IP的工作机制,讨论了网络入侵的基本途径,并阐述了一些改进和提高TCP/IP协议安全性的方法.

  16. TCP/IP Sockets in C# Practical Guide for Programmers

    Makofske, David; Calvert, Kenneth L


    "TCP/IP sockets in C# is an excellent book for anyone interested in writing network applications using Microsoft .Net frameworks. It is a unique combination of well written concise text and rich carefully selected set of working examples. For the beginner of network programming, it''s a good starting book; on the other hand professionals could also take advantage of excellent handy sample code snippets and material on topics like message parsing and asynchronous programming."Adarsh Khare, SDT, .Net Frameworks Team, Microsoft CorporationThe popularity of the C# language and the .NET framework is ever rising due to its ease of use, the extensive class libraries available in the .NET Framework, and the ubiquity of the Microsoft Windows operating system, to name a few advantages. TCP/IP Sockets in C# focuses on the Sockets API, the de facto standard for writing network applications in any programming language. Starting with simple client and server programs that use TCP/IP (the Internet protocol suite), students ...

  17. A Framework for an IP-Based DVB Transmission Network

    Nimbe L. Ewald-Arostegui


    Full Text Available One of the most important challenges for next generation all-IP networks is the convergence and interaction of wireless and wired networks in a smooth and efficient manner. This challenge will need to be faced if broadcast transmission networks are to converge with IP infrastructure. The 2nd generation of DVB standards supports the Generic Stream, allowing the direct transmission of IP-based content using the Generic Stream Encapsulation (GSE, in addition to the native Transport Stream (TS. However, the current signalling framework is based on MPEG-2 Tables that rely upon the TS. This paper examines the feasibility of providing a GSE signalling framework, eliminating the need for the TS. The requirements and potential benefits of this new approach are described. It reviews prospective methods that may be suitable for network discovery and selection and analyses different options for the transport and syntax of this signalling metadata. It is anticipated that the design of a GSE-only signalling system will enable DVB networks to function as a part of the Internet.

  18. IP Pegasi in outburst: Echelle spectroscopy & Modulation Doppler Tomography

    Papadaki, C; Steeghs, D


    We analyse a unique set of time-resolved echelle spectra of the dwarf nova IP Peg, obtained at ESO's NTT with EMMI. The dataset covers the wavelength range of 4000-7500A and shows Balmer, HeI, HeII and heavier elements in emission. IP Peg was observed one day after the peak of an outburst. The trailed spectra, spectrograms and Doppler maps show characteristics typical of IP Pegasi during the early stages of its outburst. The high-ionisation line of HeII 4686A is the most centrally located line and has the greatest radial extension compared to the HeI lines. The Balmer lines extend from close to the white dwarf up to approximately 0.45 times R_L, with the outer radius gradually increasing when moving from H delta to H alpha. The application, for the first time, of the modulation Doppler tomography technique, maps any harmonically varying components present in the system configuration. We find, as expected, that part of the strong secondary star emission in Balmer and HeI lines is modulated predominantly with t...

  19. On the implementation of IP protection using biometrics based information hiding and firewall

    Basu, Abhishek; Nandy, Kingshuk; Banerjee, Avishek; Giri, Supratick; Sarkar, Souvik; Sarkar, Subir Kumar


    System-on-chip-based design style creates a revolution in very large scale integration industry with design efficiency, operating speed and development time. To support this process, reuse and exchange of components are essential in electronic form called intellectual property (IP). This, however, increases the possibility of encroachment of IP of the design. So copyright protection of IP against piracy is the most important concern for IP vendors. The existing solutions for IP protection are still not secure enough with flexibility, cost, etc. This paper proposes an information-hiding-based solution for IP protection by embedding a biometric copyright information and firewall inside an IP in the form of a finite state machine with unique configuration. The scheme first introduces biometric signature-based copyright as ownership proof. Second, firewall interrupts the normal functionality of IP at the end of the user time period. The experimental outcomes of field-programmable-gate-array implementation illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  20. Download - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us ChIP-Atla...tory of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive ...

  1. High-Temperature CO2 Sorption on Hydrotalcite Having a High Mg/Al Molar Ratio.

    Kim, Suji; Jeon, Sang Goo; Lee, Ki Bong


    Hydrotalcites having a Mg/Al molar ratio between 3 and 30 have been synthesized as promising high-temperature CO2 sorbents. The existence of NaNO3 in the hydrotalcite structure, which originates from excess magnesium nitrate in the precursor, markedly increases CO2 sorption uptake by hydrotalcite up to the record high value of 9.27 mol kg(-1) at 240 °C and 1 atm CO2.

  2. PARP1 genomics: chromatin immunoprecipitation approach using anti-PARP1 antibody (ChIP and ChIP-seq).

    Lodhi, Niraj; Tulin, Alexei V


    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase1 (PARP1) is a global regulator of different cellular mechanisms, ranging from DNA damage repair to control of gene expression. Since PARP1 protein and pADPr have been shown to persist in chromatin through cell cycle, they may both act as epigenetic markers. However, it is not known how many loci are occupied by PARP1 protein during mitosis genome-wide. To reveal the genome-wide PARP1 binding sites, we used the ChIP-seq approach, an emerging technique to study genome-wide PARP1 protein interaction with chromatin. Here, we describe how to perform ChIP-seq in the context of PARP1 binding sites identification in chromatin, using human embryonic kidney cell lines.

  3. Genomic imprinting is variably lost during reprogramming of mouse iPS cells


    Derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is mainly an epigenetic reprogramming process. It is still quite controversial how genomic imprinting is reprogrammed in iPS cells. Thus, we derived multiple iPS clones from genetically identical mouse somatic cells. We found that parentally inherited imprint was variably lost among these iPS clones. Concurrent with the loss of DNA methylation imprint at the corresponding Snrpn and Peg3 imprinted regions, parental origin-specific expression o...

  4. Internetworking with Internet Protocol (IP) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) within the Military

    Eikenberg, Bruce R.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The backbone of the internetworking technology widely used by the military, as well as many civilian installations, is commonly referred to as TCP/IP. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) are the two standard communication protocols from which TCP/IP receives its name. By utilizing TCP/IP, the majority of technical issues of interconnecting various computer technologies have become transparent to the user. Th...

  5. Investigation of Viral and Host Chromatin by ChIP-PCR or ChIP-Seq Analysis.

    Günther, Thomas; Theiss, Juliane M; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam


    Complex regulation of viral transcription patterns and DNA replication levels is a feature of many DNA viruses. This is especially true for those viruses which establish latent or persistent infections (e.g., herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, or adenovirus), as long-term persistence often requires adaptation of gene expression programs and/or replication levels to the cellular milieu. A key factor in the control of such processes is the establishment of a specific chromatin state on promoters or replication origins, which in turn will determine whether or not the underlying DNA is accessible for other factors that mediate downstream processes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful technique to investigate viral chromatin, in particular to study binding patterns of modified histones, transcription factors or other DNA-/chromatin-binding proteins that regulate the viral lifecycle. Here, we provide protocols that are suitable for performing ChIP-PCR and ChIP-Seq studies on chromatin of large and small viral genomes.

  6. Genomic imprinting is variably lost during reprogramming of mouse iPS cells.

    Takikawa, Sachiko; Ray, Chelsea; Wang, Xin; Shamis, Yulia; Wu, Tien-Yuan; Li, Xiajun


    Derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is mainly an epigenetic reprogramming process. It is still quite controversial how genomic imprinting is reprogrammed in iPS cells. Thus, we derived multiple iPS clones from genetically identical mouse somatic cells. We found that parentally inherited imprint was variably lost among these iPS clones. Concurrent with the loss of DNA methylation imprint at the corresponding Snrpn and Peg3 imprinted regions, parental origin-specific expression of the Snrpn and Zim1 imprinted genes was also lost in these iPS clones. This loss of parental genomic imprinting in iPS cells was likely caused by the reprogramming process during iPS cell derivation because extended culture of iPS cells did not lead to significant increase in the loss of genomic imprinting. Intriguingly, one to several paternal chromosomes appeared to have acquired de novo methylation at the Snrpn and Zac1 imprinted regions in a high percentage of iPS clones. These results might have some implications for future therapeutic applications of iPS cells. Since DNA methylation imprint can be completely erased in some iPS clones at multiple imprinted regions, iPS cell reprogramming may also be employed to dissect the underlying mechanisms of erasure, reacquisition and maintenance of genomic imprinting in mammals.

  7. Antigen list - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us ChIP-Atla...Description of data contents A list of all antigen names of data provided on ChIP-Atlas. See details here: h...story of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Antigen list - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive ...

  8. Evaluating the Effectiveness of IP Hopping via an Address Routing Gateway


    70 6.3 Future Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 6.3.1 IPv6 Support...4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 IPv6 IP version their header. Appendix A displays the format for both IP version 4 (IPv4) and IP version 6 ( IPv6 ) packets. IPv4 uses 32-bit addresses to uniquely

  9. Single-tube linear DNA amplification (LinDA) for robust ChIP-seq

    Shankaranarayanan, P.; Mendoza-Parra, M.A.; Walia, M.; Wang, L.; Li, N.; Trindade, L.M.; Gronemeyer, H.


    Genome-wide profiling of transcription factors based on massive parallel sequencing of immunoprecipitated chromatin (ChIP-seq) requires nanogram amounts of DNA. Here we describe a high-fidelity, single-tube linear DNA amplification method (LinDA) for ChIP-seq and reChIP-seq with picogram DNA amounts

  10. ELISA-based assay for IP-10 detection from filter paper samples

    Drabe, Camilla Heldbjerg; Blauenfeldt, Thomas; Ruhwald, Morten


    IP-10 is a small pro-inflammatory chemokine secreted primarily from monocytes and fibroblasts. Alterations in IP-10 levels have been associated with inflammatory conditions including viral and bacterial infections, immune dysfunction, and tumor development. IP-10 is increasingly recognized as a b...

  11. ChIP-PIT: Enhancing the Analysis of ChIP-Seq Data Using Convex-Relaxed Pair-Wise Interaction Tensor Decomposition.

    Zhu, Lin; Guo, Wei-Li; Deng, Su-Ping; Huang, De-Shuang


    In recent years, thanks to the efforts of individual scientists and research consortiums, a huge amount of chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) experimental data have been accumulated. Instead of investigating them independently, several recent studies have convincingly demonstrated that a wealth of scientific insights can be gained by integrative analysis of these ChIP-seq data. However, when used for the purpose of integrative analysis, a serious drawback of current ChIP-seq technique is that it is still expensive and time-consuming to generate ChIP-seq datasets of high standard. Most researchers are therefore unable to obtain complete ChIP-seq data for several TFs in a wide variety of cell lines, which considerably limits the understanding of transcriptional regulation pattern. In this paper, we propose a novel method called ChIP-PIT to overcome the aforementioned limitation. In ChIP-PIT, ChIP-seq data corresponding to a diverse collection of cell types, TFs and genes are fused together using the three-mode pair-wise interaction tensor (PIT) model, and the prediction of unperformed ChIP-seq experimental results is formulated as a tensor completion problem. Computationally, we propose efficient first-order method based on extensions of coordinate descent method to learn the optimal solution of ChIP-PIT, which makes it particularly suitable for the analysis of massive scale ChIP-seq data. Experimental evaluation the ENCODE data illustrate the usefulness of the proposed model.

  12. Mitochondrial heteroplasmy in vertebrates using ChIP-sequencing data.

    Rensch, Thomas; Villar, Diego; Horvath, Julie; Odom, Duncan T; Flicek, Paul


    Mitochondrial heteroplasmy, the presence of more than one mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variant in a cell or individual, is not as uncommon as previously thought. It is mostly due to the high mutation rate of the mtDNA and limited repair mechanisms present in the mitochondrion. Motivated by mitochondrial diseases, much focus has been placed into studying this phenomenon in human samples and in medical contexts. To place these results in an evolutionary context and to explore general principles of heteroplasmy, we describe an integrated cross-species evaluation of heteroplasmy in mammals that exploits previously reported NGS data. Focusing on ChIP-seq experiments, we developed a novel approach to detect heteroplasmy from the concomitant mitochondrial DNA fraction sequenced in these experiments. We first demonstrate that the sequencing coverage of mtDNA in ChIP-seq experiments is sufficient for heteroplasmy detection. We then describe a novel detection method for accurate detection of heteroplasmies, which also accounts for the error rate of NGS technology. Applying this method to 79 individuals from 16 species resulted in 107 heteroplasmic positions present in a total of 45 individuals. Further analysis revealed that the majority of detected heteroplasmies occur in intergenic regions. In addition to documenting the prevalence of mtDNA in ChIP-seq data, the results of our mitochondrial heteroplasmy detection method suggest that mitochondrial heteroplasmies identified across vertebrates share similar characteristics as found for human heteroplasmies. Although largely consistent with previous studies in individual vertebrates, our integrated cross-species analysis provides valuable insights into the evolutionary dynamics of mitochondrial heteroplasmy.

  13. VoIP attacks detection engine based on neural network

    Safarik, Jakub; Slachta, Jiri


    The security is crucial for any system nowadays, especially communications. One of the most successful protocols in the field of communication over IP networks is Session Initiation Protocol. It is an open-source project used by different kinds of applications, both open-source and proprietary. High penetration and text-based principle made SIP number one target in IP telephony infrastructure, so security of SIP server is essential. To keep up with hackers and to detect potential malicious attacks, security administrator needs to monitor and evaluate SIP traffic in the network. But monitoring and following evaluation could easily overwhelm the security administrator in networks, typically in networks with a number of SIP servers, users and logically or geographically separated networks. The proposed solution lies in automatic attack detection systems. The article covers detection of VoIP attacks through a distributed network of nodes. Then the gathered data analyze aggregation server with artificial neural network. Artificial neural network means multilayer perceptron network trained with a set of collected attacks. Attack data could also be preprocessed and verified with a self-organizing map. The source data is detected by distributed network of detection nodes. Each node contains a honeypot application and traffic monitoring mechanism. Aggregation of data from each node creates an input for neural networks. The automatic classification on a centralized server with low false positive detection reduce the cost of attack detection resources. The detection system uses modular design for easy deployment in final infrastructure. The centralized server collects and process detected traffic. It also maintains all detection nodes.

  14. PICS: probabilistic inference for ChIP-seq.

    Zhang, Xuekui; Robertson, Gordon; Krzywinski, Martin; Ning, Kaida; Droit, Arnaud; Jones, Steven; Gottardo, Raphael


    ChIP-seq combines chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel short-read sequencing. While it can profile genome-wide in vivo transcription factor-DNA association with higher sensitivity, specificity, and spatial resolution than ChIP-chip, it poses new challenges for statistical analysis that derive from the complexity of the biological systems characterized and from variability and biases in its sequence data. We propose a method called PICS (Probabilistic Inference for ChIP-seq) for identifying regions bound by transcription factors from aligned reads. PICS identifies binding event locations by modeling local concentrations of directional reads, and uses DNA fragment length prior information to discriminate closely adjacent binding events via a Bayesian hierarchical t-mixture model. It uses precalculated, whole-genome read mappability profiles and a truncated t-distribution to adjust binding event models for reads that are missing due to local genome repetitiveness. It estimates uncertainties in model parameters that can be used to define confidence regions on binding event locations and to filter estimates. Finally, PICS calculates a per-event enrichment score relative to a control sample, and can use a control sample to estimate a false discovery rate. Using published GABP and FOXA1 data from human cell lines, we show that PICS' predicted binding sites were more consistent with computationally predicted binding motifs than the alternative methods MACS, QuEST, CisGenome, and USeq. We then use a simulation study to confirm that PICS compares favorably to these methods and is robust to model misspecification.

  15. Instalación de una oficina con infraestructura IP

    Castillo Cabrera, Jose Manuel


    Se dota a una oficina en estado de ampliación de una infraestructura IP más actualizada modernizando su infraestructura de red cableada mediante el cambio de electrónica, se mejoran velocidades, topología, enlaces. La red inalámbrica, se le dota de un mayor control, seguridad y escalabilidad. Se proponen servidores redundantes vitalizados, con un sistema de copia en NAS. Se estructuran los servicios y ofrecen directrices claras hacia la virtualización de aplicaciones como futuro i...

  16. Embedded TCP/IP Chip Based on DW8051 Core


    As remote control for electric home appliances thro ug h the Internet becomes more common, many compannies today launched a new corpora te initiative to develop advanced embedded solutions for Internet connectivity t hat can be applied to a boundless number of products such as information applian ces and non-PC devices. The most representative products are CMX-MicroNet which provides true TCP/IP ca pabilities for 8-bit and 16-bit microprocessors and eZ80Internet Engine which provides easy Internet connect...

  17. IP over ATM Implementation with Local Switch Mode


    In classical IPOA, the communication of two users between local Asynchronous Transfer Mode(ATM) ports needs a VCC, however, it is not an elegant solution to the ATM access equipments design when the performance of the whole system is considered. Thus, we investigate the way to provide the improved IPOA protocol that uses switching way in local ports. And it is fully compatible with the CIPOA by using the same protocol for ARP and IP forwarding. In addition, we also present the design of one 10/100 Mbit/s auto adaptive IPOA client board with local switch ability idea and CAM mechanism for our project.




    Problems of the current IGMP mechanism were identified, such as unnecessary periodic probing of hosts and leave latency, which wastes bandwidth and cause more traffic and overhead. Alternative mechanism that preserve the IP multicast model but employ join/leave messages to track local group membership for broadcast LANs (shared medium LANs) was proposed in this paper. We describe the implementation requirements of the new mechanism and compare it to existing one, demonstrating that join/leave approach is uniformly superior for the environment of broadcast LANs.

  19. IP, ethernet and MPLS networks resource and fault management

    Perez, André


    This book summarizes the key Quality of Service technologies deployed in telecommunications networks: Ethernet, IP, and MPLS. The QoS of the network is made up of two parts: fault and resource management. Network operation quality is among the functions to be fulfilled in order to offer QoS to the end user. It is characterized by four parameters: packet loss, delay, jitter or the variation of delay over time, and availability. Resource management employs mechanisms that enable the first three parameters to be guaranteed or optimized. Fault management aims to ensure continuity of service.

  20. Origin of wide-band IP type II bursts

    Pohjolainen, S.; Allawi, H.; Valtonen, E.


    Context. Different types of interplanetary (IP) type II bursts have been observed, where the more usual ones show narrow-band and patchy emissions, sometimes with harmonics, and which at intervals may disappear completely from the dynamic spectrum. The more unusual bursts are wide-band and diffuse, show no patches or breaks or harmonic emission, and often have long durations. Type II bursts are thought to be plasma emission, caused by propagating shock waves, but a synchrotron-emitting source has also been proposed as the origin for the wide-band type IIs. Aims: Our aim is to find out where the wide-band IP type II bursts originate and what is their connection to particle acceleration. Methods: We analyzed in detail 25 solar events that produced well-separated, wide-band IP type II bursts in 2001-2011. Their associations to flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and solar energetic particle events (SEPs) were investigated. Results: Of the 25 bursts, 18 were estimated to have heights corresponding to the CME leading fronts, suggesting that they were created by bow shocks ahead of the CMEs. However, seven events were found in which the burst heights were significantly lower and which showed a different type of height-time evolution. Almost all the analyzed wide-band type II bursts were associated with very high-speed CMEs, originating from different parts of the solar hemisphere. In terms of SEP associations, many of the SEP events were weak, had poor connectivity due to the eastern limb source location, or were masked by previous events. Some of the events had precursors in specific energy ranges. These properties and conditions affected the intensity-time profiles and made the injection-time-based associations with the type II bursts difficult to interpret. In several cases where the SEP injection times could be determined, the radio dynamic spectra showed other features (in addition to the wide-band type II bursts) that could be signatures of shock fronts

  1. Cooperative treatment planning in creating IPS Empress SMILES.

    Dickerson, W G


    With the continued increase in patient expectations for appearance-related restorations, the final result may be deficient in aesthetic qualities, such as color, contour, and shape. This is generally due to a breakdown in communication among the patient, dentist, and laboratory technician with regard to basic smile design principles prior to fabrication of the restoration. With the introduction of advanced porcelain systems (IPS Empress System, Ivoclar Williams, Amherst, NY), the clinician and technician can produce restorations that mimic the optical characteristics and color vitality of natural teeth. This article presents methods to improve communication, effectively evaluate smile design principles, and fabricate aesthetic all-ceramic restorations.

  2. Securing Internet Protocol (IP) Storage: A Case Study

    Somayaji, Siva Rama Krishnan; 10.5121/ijngn.2010.2102


    Storage networking technology has enjoyed strong growth in recent years, but security concerns and threats facing networked data have grown equally fast. Today, there are many potential threats that are targeted at storage networks, including data modification, destruction and theft, DoS attacks, malware, hardware theft and unauthorized access, among others. In order for a Storage Area Network (SAN) to be secure, each of these threats must be individually addressed. In this paper, we present a comparative study by implementing different security methods in IP Storage network.

  3. Capturing value from IP in a global environment

    Alcacer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    in the near future due to the complexity of crafting new treaties across countries. We discuss how multinational firms are dealing with the challenges of capturing value from their know-how and reputation in the existing global IP system, and review mechanisms, both market and non-market, that have been...... section. Global companies will need to organize cross-functional value capture teams focused on appropriating value from their know-how and reputation by combining different institutional, market, and non-market tools, depending on the institutional and business environment in a particular region....

  4. The CASCAM network control system based on TCP/IP

    Ren, S. B.; Yao, Y. Q.; Yao, D. Z.


    The paper presents the CASCAM network control system based on the TCP/IP protocol. In order to realize the Client/Server model in network communication between the workstation and personal computer efficiently, two C++ classes, client and server, were developed in the system. The script language Tcl/Tk was used in programming the system control pane in the Client. With loading the dynamic library, the Client sends the request to the Server through the network, then the Server analyzes the request and controls the camera system.

  5. IP lookup with low memory requirement and fast update

    Berger, Michael Stübert


    The paper presents an IP address lookup algorithm with low memory requirement and fast updates. The scheme, which is denoted prefix-tree, uses a combination of a trie and a tree search, which is efficient in memory usage because the tree contains exactly one node for each prefix in the routing...... table. The time complexity for update operations is low for the prefix-tree. The lookup operation for the basic binary prefix-tree may require that a high number of nodes be traversed. The paper presents improvements to decrease lookup time, including shortcut tables and multi-bit trees. The prefix...

  6. Comparative study of myocytes from normal and mdx mice iPS cells.

    Chen, Fei; Cao, Jiqing; Liu, Qiang; Qin, Jie; Kong, Jie; Wang, Yanyun; Li, Yaqin; Geng, Jia; Li, Qiuling; Yang, Liqing; Xiang, Andy Peng; Zhang, Cheng


    Recently, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) have been derived from various techniques and show great potential for therapy of human diseases. Furthermore, the iPS technique can be used to provide cell models to explore pathological mechanisms of many human diseases in vitro, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is a severe recessive X-linked form of muscular dystrophy without effective treatment. In this study, we try to determine whether there are different characteristics of myocytes from mdx iPS cells and C57BL/10 iPS cells. Our results showed that both of mdx and C57BL/10 cells could be induced into iPS cells in vitro, whereas colony-forming ability of mdx iPS cells was much weaker than that of C57BL/10 iPS cells. Meanwhile, mdx iPS cells could be induced to differentiate into myocytes, whereas their differentiation efficiency was much lower than that of C57BL/10 iPS cells. And, the number of apoptotic cells in differentiated myocytes from mdx iPS cells was significantly higher than that from C57BL/10 iPS cells. More importantly, treatment of a pan-caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD) produced a significant decrease in apoptotic cells. This study might add some insight to the biology study of dystrophin gene.

  7. [Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell - issues for clinical application - ].

    Aoi, Takashi


    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from somatic cells by introducing small sets of transcription factors. iPS cells demonstrate pluripotency and the ability to self-renew. In addition, iPS cells can be generated from donor individuals with particular characteristics. Based on these features, iPS cells are expected to be applicable in drug discovery, the study of disease mechanisms and cell therapy. From a technical point of view, "diversity" is the key word. At present, iPS cells can be derived using various techniques, resulting in diversity in the quality of iPS cells generated. Therefore, optimization of the derivation technology is one of the most important issues. Another "diversity" is in the propensities amongst iPS cell lines derived using similar techniques. Thus, strategies for selecting good quality lines remain to be established. Considering such technical hurdles, establishment of an iPS cell bank consisting of high quality and versatile iPS lines is a promising idea because of the merits of cost and quality control. Now, we are exploring relevant parameters for the quality control of banked cells. The challenges facing clinical application of iPS cells are new but not unprecedented. To realize clinical applications of iPS cells, we need to make these challenges clear and overcome them through partnership not only with industry, governments and universities, but also patients and society at large.

  8. TRPV-1-mediated elimination of residual iPS cells in bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues.

    Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Seta, Hiroyoshi; Haraguchi, Yuji; Alsayegh, Khaled; Sekine, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Yamazaki, Kenji; Okano, Teruo


    The development of a suitable strategy for eliminating remaining undifferentiated cells is indispensable for the use of human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells in regenerative medicine. Here, we show for the first time that TRPV-1 activation through transient culture at 42 °C in combination with agonists is a simple and useful strategy to eliminate iPS cells from bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues. When human iPS cells were cultured at 42 °C, almost all cells disappeared by 48 hours through apoptosis. However, iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts maintained transcriptional and protein expression levels, and cardiac cell sheets were fabricated after reducing the temperature. TRPV-1 expression in iPS cells was upregulated at 42 °C, and iPS cell death at 42 °C was TRPV-1-dependent. Furthermore, TRPV-1 activation through thermal or agonist treatment eliminated iPS cells in cardiac tissues for a final concentration of 0.4% iPS cell contamination. These findings suggest that the difference in tolerance to TRPV-1 activation between iPS cells and iPS cell-derived cardiac cells could be exploited to eliminate remaining iPS cells in bioengineered cell sheet tissues, which will further reduce the risk of tumour formation.

  9. Development and Performance Analysis of a Lossless Data Reduction Algorithm for VoIP

    Syed Misbahuddin


    Full Text Available VoIP (Voice Over IP is becoming an alternative way of voice communications over the Internet. To better utilize voice call bandwidth, some standard compression algorithms are applied in VoIP systems. However, these algorithms affect the voice quality with high compression ratios. This paper presents a lossless data reduction technique to improve VoIP data transfer rate over the IP network. The proposed algorithm exploits the data redundancies in digitized VFs (Voice Frames generated by VoIP systems. Performance of proposed data reduction algorithm has been presented in terms of compression ratio. The proposed algorithm will help retain the voice quality along with the improvement in VoIP data transfer rates.

  10. IP address management : augmenting Sandia's capabilities through open source tools.

    Nayar, R. Daniel


    Internet Protocol (IP) address management is an increasingly growing concern at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the networking community as a whole. The current state of the available IP addresses indicates that they are nearly exhausted. Currently SNL doesn't have the justification to obtain more IP address space from Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). There must exist a local entity to manage and allocate IP assignments efficiently. Ongoing efforts at Sandia have been in the form of a multifunctional database application notably known as Network Information System (NWIS). NWIS is a database responsible for a multitude of network administrative services including IP address management. This study will explore the feasibility of augmenting NWIS's IP management capabilities utilizing open source tools. Modifications of existing capabilities to better allocate available IP address space are studied.

  11. Generation of Partially Reprogrammed Cells and Fully Reprogrammed iPS Cells by Plasmid Transfection.

    Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Hyun Woo; Hong, Yean Ju; Do, Jeong Tae


    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be directly generated from somatic cells by overexpression of defined transcription factors. iPS cells can perpetually self-renew and differentiate into all cell types of an organism. iPS cells were first generated through infection with retroviruses that contain reprogramming factors. However, development of an exogene-free iPS cell generation method is crucial for future therapeutic applications, because integrated exogenes result in the formation of tumors in chimeras and regain pluripotency after differentiation in vitro. Here, we describe a method to generate iPS cells by transfection of plasmid vectors and to convert partially reprogrammed cells into fully reprogrammed iPS cells by switching from mouse ESC culture conditions to KOSR-based media with bFGF. We also describe basic methods used to characterize fully reprogrammed iPS cells.

  12. BaalChIP: Bayesian analysis of allele-specific transcription factor binding in cancer genomes.

    de Santiago, Ines; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Ke; O'Reilly, Martin; Chilamakuri, Chandra Sekhar Reddy; Ponder, Bruce A J; Meyer, Kerstin B; Markowetz, Florian


    Allele-specific measurements of transcription factor binding from ChIP-seq data are key to dissecting the allelic effects of non-coding variants and their contribution to phenotypic diversity. However, most methods of detecting an allelic imbalance assume diploid genomes. This assumption severely limits their applicability to cancer samples with frequent DNA copy-number changes. Here we present a Bayesian statistical approach called BaalChIP to correct for the effect of background allele frequency on the observed ChIP-seq read counts. BaalChIP allows the joint analysis of multiple ChIP-seq samples across a single variant and outperforms competing approaches in simulations. Using 548 ENCODE ChIP-seq and six targeted FAIRE-seq samples, we show that BaalChIP effectively corrects allele-specific analysis for copy-number variation and increases the power to detect putative cis-acting regulatory variants in cancer genomes.

  13. Hyperaccumulation of metals by Thlaspi caerulescens as affected by root development and Cd-Zn/Ca-Mg interactions.

    Saison, Carine; Schwartz, Christophe; Morel, Jean-Louis


    The aim of this work was to study, in a rhizobox experiment, the phytoextraction of metals by the hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens in relation to the heterogeneity of metal pollution. Six treatments were designed with soils containing various levels of metals. Homogeneous soils and inclusions of soils in other soil matrices were prepared in order to vary metal concentration and localization. Growth parameters of the plant (rosette diameter and shoot biomass) and localization of roots and shoot uptake of Zn, Cd, Ca, and Mg were determined after 10 weeks of growth. The plants grown on the polluted industrial soils provided a larger biomass and had lower mortality rates than those grown on the agricultural soil. Moreover, these plants accumulated more Zn and Cd (up to 17,516 and 375 mg kg(-1) DM, respectively) than plants grown on the agricultural soil (up to 7300 mg Zn kg(-1) and 83 mg Cd kg(-1) DM). The roots preferentially explored metal-contaminated areas. The exploration of polluted soil inclusions by the roots was associated with a higher extraction of metals. Zinc and Cd in the shoots of Thlaspi caerulescens were negatively correlated with Ca and Mg concentrations; however, the soil supply for these two elements was identical. This suggests that there is competition for the uptake of these elements and that Zn is preferentially accumulated.

  14. Fish the ChIPs: a pipeline for automated genomic annotation of ChIP-Seq data

    Minucci Saverio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput sequencing is generating massive amounts of data at a pace that largely exceeds the throughput of data analysis routines. Here we introduce Fish the ChIPs (FC, a computational pipeline aimed at a broad public of users and designed to perform complete ChIP-Seq data analysis of an unlimited number of samples, thus increasing throughput, reproducibility and saving time. Results Starting from short read sequences, FC performs the following steps: 1 quality controls, 2 alignment to a reference genome, 3 peak calling, 4 genomic annotation, 5 generation of raw signal tracks for visualization on the UCSC and IGV genome browsers. FC exploits some of the fastest and most effective tools today available. Installation on a Mac platform requires very basic computational skills while configuration and usage are supported by a user-friendly graphic user interface. Alternatively, FC can be compiled from the source code on any Unix machine and then run with the possibility of customizing each single parameter through a simple configuration text file that can be generated using a dedicated user-friendly web-form. Considering the execution time, FC can be run on a desktop machine, even though the use of a computer cluster is recommended for analyses of large batches of data. FC is perfectly suited to work with data coming from Illumina Solexa Genome Analyzers or ABI SOLiD and its usage can potentially be extended to any sequencing platform. Conclusions Compared to existing tools, FC has two main advantages that make it suitable for a broad range of users. First of all, it can be installed and run by wet biologists on a Mac machine. Besides it can handle an unlimited number of samples, being convenient for large analyses. In this context, computational biologists can increase reproducibility of their ChIP-Seq data analyses while saving time for downstream analyses. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Gavin Huttley, George

  15. A parametric study of the effects of the noradrenaline neurotoxin DSP4 on avoidance acquisition and noradrenaline neurones in the CNS of the rat.

    Archer, T.; G Jonsson; Ross, S. B.


    The effects of various doses of DSP4 on two-way active avoidance acquisition in rats and on central noradrenaline neurones were compared. Doses of DSP4 from 3 mg kg-1 i.p. and upwards injected one week before the onset of the avoidance trials significantly impaired two-way avoidance learning. The learning impairment caused by DSP4 (50 mg kg-1 i.p.) lasted for at least 10 weeks. Desipramine (20 mg kg-1) injected either 30 or 60 min before DSP4 (50 mg kg-1) antagonized the active avoidance impa...


    Amin Hidayat


    Full Text Available Banyumas culture can be used as a source of learning for junior high students in the region Banyumas. In addition to contributing significantly to the maintenance and preservation of local culture as an integral part of national culture, learning the IPS will be more meaningful for students. Banyumas have the kinds of art, unique cultural traditions, and historical sites with very high philosophical and educational value.The types of art, tradition and history as a component or element of Banyumas Culture which is prominent and important to be appointed are: History of Banyumas, Tradition of Banyumas, Arts and Heritage of Banyumas . Various alternative learning strategies can be chosen and applied social studies teacher in utilizing Banyumas Culture as a source of learning, one of them is, by applying contextual lear-ning model. It is possible to still refer to the applicable curriculum, namely KTSP.   Key words: culture, banyumas, IPS, SMP  

  17. Iconographic Professional Interests Inventory (3IP): A New Validation Study.

    Boerchi, Diego; Magnano, Paola


    Interests have been a central focus of counselling psychology (and vocational psychology in particular) for over 100 years. The awareness of professional interests increases self-knowledge and provides occupational information. In career counselling, vocational interests are assessed more frequently than any other vocational construct, though early evaluations (before 13 years old) of professional interests are very rare. The aim of this research is to examine the 3IP construct (Iconographic Professional Interests Inventory; an inventory composed of 65 stylised pictures that represent people in the act of performing a job) in depth, testing more models in addition to the 19 vocational areas proposed in the 3IP manual. Results show that most of the vocational areas can be grouped into 4 second-level areas ("things", "people", "leisure", and "culture"). Moreover, Holland's RIASEC model is tested; an accurate selection of items reveals that this model works well using 24 specific jobs. The research concludes that the inventory has good psychometric qualities which can grow further by mean of the increasing, in a targeted way, of the number of jobs.

  18. Evaluation of impact of backbone outages in IP networks

    Kogan, Yaakov; Choudhury, Gagan L.; Tarapore, Percy


    Nationwide IP networks typically include nodes in major cities and the following elements: customer equipment, access routers, backbone routers, peering routers, access links connecting customer equipment to access routers, access routers to backbone routers, and backbone links interconnecting backbone routers. The part of this network consisting of backbone routers and related interconnecting links is referred to as the "backbone". We develop a new approach for accurately computing the Availability measure of IP networks by directly simulating each type of backbone outage event and its impact on traffic loss. We use this approach to quantify availability improvement as a result of introducing various technological changes in the network such as IGP tuning, high availability router architecture, MPLS-TE and Fast Reroute. A situation, where operational backbone links do not have enough spare capacity to carry additional traffic during the outage time, is referred to as bandwidth loss. We concentrate on one unidirectional backbone link and derive asymptotic approximations for the expected bandwidth loss in the framework of generalized Erlang and Engset models when the total number of resource units and request arrival rates are proportionally large. Simulation results demonstrate good accuracy of the approximations.

  19. Mel-cepstrum-based steganalysis for VoIP steganography

    Kraetzer, Christian; Dittmann, Jana


    Steganography and steganalysis in VoIP applications are important research topics as speech data is an appropriate cover to hide messages or comprehensive documents. In our paper we introduce a Mel-cepstrum based analysis known from speaker and speech recognition to perform a detection of embedded hidden messages. In particular we combine known and established audio steganalysis features with the features derived from Melcepstrum based analysis for an investigation on the improvement of the detection performance. Our main focus considers the application environment of VoIP-steganography scenarios. The evaluation of the enhanced feature space is performed for classical steganographic as well as for watermarking algorithms. With this strategy we show how general forensic approaches can detect information hiding techniques in the field of hidden communication as well as for DRM applications. For the later the detection of the presence of a potential watermark in a specific feature space can lead to new attacks or to a better design of the watermarking pattern. Following that the usefulness of Mel-cepstrum domain based features for detection is discussed in detail.

  20. An Early Fire Detection Algorithm Using IP Cameras

    Hector Perez-Meana


    Full Text Available The presence of smoke is the first symptom of fire; therefore to achieve early fire detection, accurate and quick estimation of the presence of smoke is very important. In this paper we propose an algorithm to detect the presence of smoke using video sequences captured by Internet Protocol (IP cameras, in which important features of smoke, such as color, motion and growth properties are employed. For an efficient smoke detection in the IP camera platform, a detection algorithm must operate directly in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT domain to reduce computational cost, avoiding a complete decoding process required for algorithms that operate in spatial domain. In the proposed algorithm the DCT Inter-transformation technique is used to increase the detection accuracy without inverse DCT operation. In the proposed scheme, firstly the candidate smoke regions are estimated using motion and color smoke properties; next using morphological operations the noise is reduced. Finally the growth properties of the candidate smoke regions are furthermore analyzed through time using the connected component labeling technique. Evaluation results show that a feasible smoke detection method with false negative and false positive error rates approximately equal to 4% and 2%, respectively, is obtained.

  1. Iconographic Professional Interests Inventory (3IP: A New Validation Study

    Diego Boerchi


    Full Text Available Interests have been a central focus of counselling psychology (and vocational psychology in particular for over 100 years. The awareness of professional interests increases self-knowledge and provides occupational information. In career counselling, vocational interests are assessed more frequently than any other vocational construct, though early evaluations (before 13 years old of professional interests are very rare. The aim of this research is to examine the 3IP construct (Iconographic Professional Interests Inventory; an inventory composed of 65 stylised pictures that represent people in the act of performing a job in depth, testing more models in addition to the 19 vocational areas proposed in the 3IP manual. Results show that most of the vocational areas can be grouped into 4 second-level areas (“things”, “people”, “leisure”, and “culture”. Moreover, Holland’s RIASEC model is tested; an accurate selection of items reveals that this model works well using 24 specific jobs. The research concludes that the inventory has good psychometric qualities which can grow further by mean of the increasing, in a targeted way, of the number of jobs.

  2. Performance Evaluation of IP Based Multimedia Services in UMTS

    Riri Fitri SARI


    Full Text Available This paper presents our work in the performance evaluation of UMTS network based on simulation. Enhanced UMTS Radio Access Network Extensions for NS-2 (EURANE developed by SEACORN has brought us to the higher phase of UMTS simulation in third generation wireless telecommunication system. Wireless 3G is designed to be able to deliver various kind of multimedia package through an IP network for the purpose of easier interconnection with fixed network with various existing multimedia services. Multimedia services with their bandwidth consumption characteristics are able to be sent through a UMTS network with the existence of High Speed Data Packet Access (HSPDA in Release 5. Quality of Service (QoS is a major concern in multimedia services. This paper shows the performance analysis of a number of multimedia services and their QoS using HSDPA in UMTS. The experiments were based on EURANE extension for NS-2. From the simulation conducted, we found that Unacknowledged Mode (UM in Radio Link Control (RLC will perform better for QoS class number 1 (VoIP and 2 (Video Streaming, while Acknowledged Mode (AM mode are more suitable for QoS class number 3 (web server and 4 (FTP.

  3. iPS cells: a source of cardiac regeneration.

    Yoshida, Yoshinori; Yamanaka, Shinya


    For the treatment of heart failure, a new strategy to improve cardiac function and inhibit cardiac remodeling needs to be established. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are pluripotent cells that can differentiate into cell types from all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic effect of ES/iPS cell-derived progeny was reported in animal model. Mouse and human somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by the transduction of four transcription factors, Oct 3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. However, the low induction efficiency hinders the clinical application of iPS technology, and efforts have been made to improve the reprogramming efficiency. There are variations in the characteristics in ES/iPS cell lines, and the further understanding is necessary for the applications of ES/iPS cell technology. Some improvements were also made in the methods to induce cardiomyocytes from ES/iPS cells efficiently. This review article is focused on generation of iPS cells, cardiomyocyte differentiation from ES/iPS cells, and transplantation of derived cardiomyocytes.This article is part of a special issue entitled, "Cardiovascular Stem Cells Revisited".

  4. Dbp5, Gle1-IP6 and Nup159

    Folkmann, Andrew W.; Noble, Kristen N.; Cole, Charles N.


    Gene expression is a stepwise process involving distinct cellular processes including transcription, mRNA (mRNA) processing, mRNA export, and translation. As mRNAs are being synthesized, proteins associate with the RNA to form messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs). Previous studies have demonstrated that the RNA-binding protein composition of these mRNPs is dynamic, changing as the mRNP moves through the different steps of gene expression, and playing a critical role in these events. An important step during this maturation process occurs at the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) where the export protein Gle1 bound to inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) spatially activates the ATP-hydrolysis and mRNP-remodeling activity of the DEAD-box protein Dbp5. Recent work from our laboratory and others has provided important insights into the function and regulation of Dbp5. These include a more detailed explanation of the mechanism of Dbp5 RNP remodeling, the role of Gle1-IP6 in stimulating Dbp5 ATPase activity, and the identification of a novel paradigm for regulation of Dbp5 by Nup159. Based on in vitro biochemical assays, X-ray crystallography, and corresponding in vivo phenotypes, we propose here an updated model of the Dbp5 cycle during mRNP export through the NPC. This takes into account all available data and provides a platform for future studies. PMID:22064466

  5. Low latency IP mobility management: protocol and analysis

    Guo Xiaobing


    Full Text Available Abstract Mobile IP is one of the dominating protocols that enable a mobile node to remain reachable while moving around in the Internet. However, it suffers from long handoff latency and route inefficiency. In this article, we present a novel distributed mobility management architecture, ADA (Asymmetric Double-Agents, which introduces double mobility agents to serve one end-to-end communication. One mobility agent is located close to the MN and the other close to the CN. ADA can achieve both low handoff latency and low transmission latency, which is crucial for improvement of user perceived QoS. It also provides an easy-to-use mechanism for MNs to manage and control each traffic session with a different policy and provide specific QoS support. We apply ADA to MIPv6 communications and present a detailed protocol design. Subsequently, we propose an analytical framework for systematic and thorough performance evaluation of mobile IP-based mobility management protocols. Equipped with this model, we analyze the handoff latency, single interaction delay and total time cost under the bidirectional tunneling mode and the route optimization mode for MIPv6, HMIPv6, CNLP, and ADA. Through both quantitative analysis and NS2-based simulations, we show that ADA significantly outperforms the existing mobility management protocols.

  6. Monitoring VoIP Traffic Using OnePK Technology

    Spišiak, Matej


    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá novou proprietární technologií od Cisco Systems zvanou OnePK (One Platform Kit). Soustřeďuje se na možnosti použití v oblasti zberu statistických dat o VoIP provozu. Používá DataPath service set, ktorý zabezpečuje sběr paketů ze síťových zařízení firmy Cisco. DataPath service set posílá pakety na vstup aplikace, která tvoří VoIP statistiku z příchozích SIP paketů. Tato aplikace a provedené testy na technologii OnePK jsou výsledky této práce. This bachelor's ...

  7. The elite and stochastic model for iPS cell generation: multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells are readily reprogrammable into iPS cells.

    Wakao, Shohei; Kitada, Masaaki; Dezawa, Mari


    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have attracted a great deal of attention, although the mechanism by which they are generated is still not fully understood. Currently, two theories, the stochastic and elite models, have been proposed. Some reports provide theoretical support for the stochastic model. Other reports, however, support the elite model. For example, some human fibroblasts, such as Multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells, are reported to be pluripotent and a primary source of iPS cells. Thus, the mechanism of iPS cell generation continues to be debated. In this review, we discuss the properties of the original cell source, such as the components of the original populations and the potential of each population to become iPS cells, and further discuss the implications of the two theories for iPS cell research.

  8. 基于QoS的IP VPN的研究%A QoS-Based IP VPN Architecture Research

    李振东; 谢立


    Constructing Virtual Private Network (VPN) over public network infrastructure (Internet) is becoming the foundation of the next generation network service. At present, VPN mainly focuses on the security property, while it is lack of consideration of QoS. On the basis of analyzing the Differentiated Services (Diffserv) and IPsec, we put forward a QoS-based IP VPN Architecture Model which is a tri-tier model that is composed of ESN, ISN and VPN node. It combines encrypted channel mechanism of IPsec and the edge-and-core-model of Diffserv. It provides end-to-end QoS while assures security.

  9. In vitro (α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition) and in vivo antidiabetic property of phytic acid (IP6) in streptozotocin- nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in rats.

    Kuppusamy, Asokkumar; Muthusamy, Umamaheswari; Thirumalaisamy, Sivashanmugam Andichetiar; Varadharajan, Subhadradevi; Ramasamy, Kalyanasubramaniam; Ramanathan, Sambathkumar


    Phytic acid, inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) a natural plant constituent and antioxidant exhibits protective action in carcinogenesis, Alzheimer's, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and inflammations when taken in diet. The aim of this study is to evaluate effect of phytic acid in streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetes in rats. The STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats were orally treated with vehicle (2%w/v Tween 80), glimepiride (2.5 mg/kg) and IP6 (650 mg/kg) for 28 days. The blood glucose level, body weight, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C), lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status (liver and small intestine) was measured and compared with control. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine (XO) activity was measured in small intestine of diabetic rats. In vitro inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) was also determined. IP6, significantly (PIP6 possess promising in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic activity.

  10. A Redetermination of the Dissociation Energy of MgO(+)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry


    In 1986, we reported a dissociation energy (D(sub 0) of 2.31 eV for the X(sup 2)Pi ground state of MgO(+). This value was determined by computing the dissociation energy to the Mg(2+) + O(-) limit and adjusting the value to the Mg(+) + O limit using the experimental Ionization Potential (IP) of Mg(+) and the Electron Affinity (EA) of O. The success of this method relies on the assumption that there is little covalent contribution to the bonding. The very small (0.04 eV) correlation contribution to the binding energy was taken as corroboration for the validity of this approach. Our earlier theoretical value was estimated to be accurate to at least 0.2 eV. It is in excellent agreement with the subsequent value of 2.30 +/- 0.13 eV determined by Freiser and co-workers from photodissociation experiments. It is also consistent with the upper (less than 3.1 eV) and lower (greater than 1.1 eV) bounds determined by Rowe obtained by studying the reactions of Mg(+) with 03 and NO2. However, it is inconsistent with an upper bound of 1.7 eV reported by Kappes and Staley based on their failure to observe MgO(+) in the reaction of Mg(+) with N2O. The picture became somewhat clouded, however, by the recent guided-ion beam mass spectrometric studies of Dalleska and Armentrout. Their initial analysis of the reaction data for Mg(+) + O2 lead to a bond dissociation energy of 2.92 +/- 0.25 eV, which is considerably larger than the value of 2.47 +/- 0.06 eV deduced from their studies of the Mg(+)+NO2 reaction.

  11. Complexes of myo-Inositol-Hexakisphosphate (IP6) with Zinc or Lanthanum for the Decorporation of Radiocesium.

    Ogawa, Kazuma; Aoki, Miho; Fukuda, Tadahisa; Kadono, Sumi; Kiwada, Tatsuto; Odani, Akira


    Radioactive nuclides leak into the surrounding environment after nuclear power plant disasters, such as the Chernobyl accident and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster. Cesium-137 ((137)Cs) (t1/2=30.1 year), a water-soluble radionuclide with a long physical half-life, contaminates aquatic ecosystems and food products. In humans, (137)Cs concentrates in muscle tissue and has a long biological half-life, indicating it may be harmful. myo-Inositol-hexakisphosphate (IP6) is a compound found in grain, beans, and oil seeds. IP6 has the ability to form insoluble complexes with metals, including lanthanum (La) and zinc (Zn). We hypothesized that La-IP6 and Zn-IP6 may promote the elimination of (137)Cs from the body through the adsorption of La-IP6 and Zn-IP6 to (137)Cs in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the adsorptive capacity of La-IP6 and Zn-IP6 complexes with (137)Cs in vitro and in vivo. La-IP6 and Zn-IP6 complexes were stable in acidic solution (pH 1.2) at 37°C. In vitro binding assays indicated that La-IP6 and Zn-IP6 complexes adsorbed (137)Cs, with the adsorption capacity of Zn-IP6 to (137)Cs greater than that of La-IP6. To evaluate the usefulness of La-IP6 and Zn-IP6 in vivo, La-IP6 or Zn-IP6 was administrated to mice after intravenous injection of (137)Cs. However, the biodistribution of (137)Cs in the La-IP6 treated group and the Zn-IP6 treated group was nearly identical to the non-treated control group, indicating that La-IP6 and Zn-IP6 were not effective at promoting the elimination of (137)Cs in vivo.

  12. Enabling IP Header Compression in COTS Routers via Frame Relay on a Simplex Link

    Nguyen, Sam P.; Pang, Jackson; Clare, Loren P.; Cheng, Michael K.


    NASA is moving toward a networkcentric communications architecture and, in particular, is building toward use of Internet Protocol (IP) in space. The use of IP is motivated by its ubiquitous application in many communications networks and in available commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology. The Constellation Program intends to fit two or more voice (over IP) channels on both the forward link to, and the return link from, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) during all mission phases. Efficient bandwidth utilization of the links is key for voice applications. In Voice over IP (VoIP), the IP packets are limited to small sizes to keep voice latency at a minimum. The common voice codec used in VoIP is G.729. This new algorithm produces voice audio at 8 kbps and in packets of 10-milliseconds duration. Constellation has designed the VoIP communications stack to use the combination of IP/UDP/RTP protocols where IP carries a 20-byte header, UDP (User Datagram Protocol) carries an 8-byte header, and RTP (Real Time Transport Protocol) carries a 12-byte header. The protocol headers total 40 bytes and are equal in length to a 40-byte G.729 payload, doubling the VoIP latency. Since much of the IP/UDP/RTP header information does not change from IP packet to IP packet, IP/UDP/RTP header compression can avoid transmission of much redundant data as well as reduce VoIP latency. The benefits of IP header compression are more pronounced at low data rate links such as the forward and return links during CEV launch. IP/UDP/RTP header compression codecs are well supported by many COTS routers. A common interface to the COTS routers is through frame relay. However, enabling IP header compression over frame relay, according to industry standard (Frame Relay IP Header Compression Agreement FRF.20), requires a duplex link and negotiations between the compressor router and the decompressor router. In Constellation, each forward to and return link from the CEV in space is treated

  13. Design of IP Camera Access Control Protocol by Utilizing Hierarchical Group Key

    Jungho Kang


    Full Text Available Unlike CCTV, security video surveillance devices, which we have generally known about, IP cameras which are connected to a network either with or without wire, provide monitoring services through a built-in web-server. Due to the fact that IP cameras can use a network such as the Internet, multiple IP cameras can be installed at a long distance and each IP camera can utilize the function of a web server individually. Even though IP cameras have this kind of advantage, it has difficulties in access control management and weakness in user certification, too. Particularly, because the market of IP cameras did not begin to be realized a long while ago, systems which are systematized from the perspective of security have not been built up yet. Additionally, it contains severe weaknesses in terms of access authority to the IP camera web server, certification of users, and certification of IP cameras which are newly installed within a network, etc. This research grouped IP cameras hierarchically to manage them systematically, and provided access control and data confidentiality between groups by utilizing group keys. In addition, IP cameras and users are certified by using PKI-based certification, and weak points of security such as confidentiality and integrity, etc., are improved by encrypting passwords. Thus, this research presents specific protocols of the entire process and proved through experiments that this method can be actually applied.

  14. Identification of the Alternative Promoters of the KChIP4 Subfamily

    Xiao-Yun DENG; Jia-Hui XIA; Fang CAI; Kun XIA; Qian PAN; Zhi-Gao LONG; Ling-Qian WU; De-Sheng LIANG; He-Ping DAI; Zhuo-Hua ZHANG


    The subfamily of voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channel interacting protein 4 (KChIP4)is made up of the auxiliary interacting protein of voltage-dependent potassium channels. In this study, the structure of four splicing variants of the human KChIP4 gene was analyzed. Three of the four isoforms of the KChIP4 gene, KChIP4.1, KChIP4.2 and KChIP4.4, were amplified from mouse and human fetal brain tissues by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and then identified. Based on the bioinformatics analysis of the genomic sequences of the gene, we cloned and characterized two promoter fragments from the KChIP4 gene. One was a 325 bp fragment upstream of the 5' end of the KChIP4.1 mRNA sequence and the other was an 818 bp fragment located immediately at the 5' end of the KChIP4.4 variant. Both of them can initiate the transcription of the reporter gene in HT1080 cells and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat fetal brain neurons, and they contain C+G islands, except typical TATA boxes and CAAT boxes. This shows that the KChIP4 gene expression is regulated by an alternative promoter.

  15. Smurf1 regulation of DAB2IP controls cell proliferation and migration

    Wan, Lixin; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Sun, Liankun; North, Brian J.


    Tumor cell proliferation, survival and migration are regulated by the deletion of ovarian carcinoma 2/disabled homolog 2 (DOC-2/DAB2) interacting protein (DAB2IP), a tumor suppressor that serves as a scaffold protein for H-Ras and TRAF2. Importantly, the oncogenic histone methyl-transferase EZH2 epigenetically down-regulates DAB2IP in a variety of tumors. Recently, we demonstrated that DAB2IP is negatively regulated by Akt-dependent phosphorylation and SCFFbw7-mediated degradation. Here, we further identify the oncoprotein Smurf1, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, as a novel negative regulator of DAB2IP. Smurf1-mediated cellular proliferation and migration are largely dependent on the presence of DAB2IP, suggesting that DAB2IP is a key effector molecule of Smurf1 oncogenic function. Additionally, we identify that similar to DAB2IP, Smurf1 is also a target of phosphorylation by both Akt1 and Akt2 kinases, which enhances Smurf1 abundance, leading to a reduction in DAB2IP. Given the role of DAB2IP in tumorigenesis and metastasis, our data identify Smurf1 as an upstream oncogenic factor that negatively regulates DAB2IP to govern aberrant cell growth and migration. PMID:27036023

  16. Analyzing of MOS and Codec Selection for Voice over IP Technology

    Mohd Nazri Ismail


    Full Text Available In this research, we propose an architectural solution to implement the voice over IP (VoIP service in campus environment network. Voice over IP (VoIP technology has become a discussion issue for this time being. Today, the deployment of this technology on an organization truly can give a great financial benefit over traditional telephony. Therefore, this study is to analyze the VoIP Codec selection and investigate the Mean Opinion Score (MOS performance areas evolved with the quality of service delivered by soft phone and IP phone. This study focuses on quality of voice prediction such as i accuracy of MOS between automated system and human perception and ii different types of codec performance measurement via human perception using MOS technique. In this study, network management system (NMS is used to monitor and capture the performance of VoIP in campus environment. In addition, the most apparent of implementing soft phone and IP phone in campus environment is to define the best codec selection that can be used in operational environment. Based on the finding result, the MOS measurement through automated and manual system is able to predict and evaluate VoIP performance. In addition, based on manual MOS measurement, VoIP conversations over LAN contribute more reliability and availability performance compare to WAN.

  17. annoPeak: a web application to annotate and visualize peaks from ChIP-seq/ChIP-exo-seq.

    Tang, Xing; Srivastava, Arunima; Liu, Huayang; Machiraju, Raghu; Huang, Kun; Leone, Gustavo


    We developed annoPeak, a web application to annotate, visualize and compare predicted protein-binding regions derived from ChIP-seq/ChIP-exo-seq experiments using human and mouse cells. Users can upload peak regions from multiple experiments onto the annoPeak server to annotate them with biological context, identify associated target genes and categorize binding sites with respect to gene structure. Users can also compare multiple binding profiles intuitively with the help of visualization tools and tables provided by annoPeak. In general, annoPeak will help users identify patterns of genome wide transcription factor binding profiles, assess binding profiles in different biological contexts and generate new hypotheses. The web service is freely accessible through URL: . Source code is available at . or Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  18. Linear Collider Test Facility: Twiss Parameter Analysis at the IP/Post-IP Location of the ATF2 Beam Line

    Bolzon, Benoit; /Annecy, LAPP; Jeremie, Andrea; /Annecy, LAPP; Bai, Sha; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Bambade, Philip; /KEK, Tsukuba; White, Glen; /SLAC


    At the first stage of the ATF2 beam tuning, vertical beam size is usually bigger than 3 {micro}m at the IP. Beam waist measurements using wire scanners and a laser wire are usually performed to check the initial matching of the beam through to the IP. These measurements are described in this paper for the optics currently used ({beta}{sub x} = 4cm and {beta}{sub y} = 1mm). Software implemented in the control room to automate these measurements with integrated analysis is also described. Measurements showed that {beta} functions and emittances were within errors of measurements when no rematching and coupling corrections were done. However, it was observed that the waist in the horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) plane was abnormally shifted and simulations were performed to try to understand these shifts. They also showed that multiknobs are needed in the current optics to correct simultaneously {alpha}{sub x}, {alpha}{sub y} and the horizontal dispersion (D{sub x}). Such multiknobs were found and their linearity and orthogonality were successfully checked using MAD optics code. The software for these multiknobs was implemented in the control room and waist scan measurements using the {alpha}{sub y} knob were successfully performed.

  19. Comparison of rizatriptan 5 mg and 10 mg tablets and sumatriptan 25 mg and 50 mg tablets.

    Kolodny, A; Polis, A; Battisti, W P; Johnson-Pratt, L; Skobieranda, F


    This randomized, double-blind, two-attack, placebo-controlled, crossover study explored the efficacy and tolerability of rizatriptan 10 mg compared with sumatriptan 50 mg as well as rizatriptan 5 mg compared with sumatriptan 25 mg in the acute treatment of migraine. Following randomization to one of six possible treatment sequences, patients (n = 1447) treated two sequential attacks, of moderate or severe intensity, separated by at least 5 days. Patients assessed pain severity, migraine-associated symptoms, and functional disability at 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 h post treatment. Compared with placebo, all treatments were effective. On the primary endpoint of time to pain relief, rizatriptan 10 mg was not statistically different from sumatriptan 50 mg [odds ratio (OR) 1.10, P = 0.161], and rizatriptan 5 mg was statistically superior to sumatriptan 25 mg (OR 1.22, P = 0.007). In general, rizatriptan 10 mg and 5 mg treatment resulted in improvement compared with the corresponding doses of sumatriptan on measures of pain severity, migraine symptoms, and functional disability and the 5-mg dose reached statistical significance on almost all measures. All treatments were generally well tolerated.

  20. Substitution of Mn for Mg in MgB_2*

    Fitzpatrick, Michael D.; Johnston, David C.; Miller, Lance L.; Hill, Julienne M.


    The study of solid solutions in which the Mg in MgB2 is partially replaced by magnetic 3d or 4f atoms can potentially reveal important information on the superconducting state of MgB_2. As an end-member of the hypothetical Mg_1-xMn_xB2 system, MnB2 is isostructural with MgB2 and is an antiferromagnet below TN = 760 K which becomes canted at 157 K. A previous study by Moritomo et al.[1] examined the structure and properties of multi-phase samples with 0.01J. Phys. Soc. Japan b70, 1889 (2001).; “Effects of transition metal doping in MgB2 superconductor", Y. Moritomo at al. arXiv:cond-mat/0104568.

  1. ChIP on chip and ChIP-Seq assays: genome-wide analysis of transcription factor binding and histone modifications.

    Pillai, Smitha; Chellappan, Srikumar P


    Deregulation of transcriptional activity of many genes has been causatively linked to human diseases including cancer. Altered patterns of gene expression in normal and cancer cells are the result of inappropriate expression of transcription factors and chromatin modifying proteins. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay is a well-established tool for investigating the interactions between regulatory proteins and DNA at distinct stages of gene activation. ChIP coupled with DNA microarrays, known as ChIP on chip, or sequencing of DNA associated with the factors (ChIP-Seq) allow us to determine the entire spectrum of in vivo DNA binding sites for a given protein. This has been of immense value because ChIP on chip assays and ChIP-Seq experiments can provide a snapshot of the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms on a genome-wide scale. This chapter outlines the general strategies used to carry out ChIP-chip assays to study the differential recruitment of regulatory molecules based on the studies conducted in our lab as well as other published protocols; these can be easily modified to a ChIP-Seq analysis.

  2. ChIP-BIT: Bayesian inference of target genes using a novel joint probabilistic model of ChIP-seq profiles.

    Chen, Xi; Jung, Jin-Gyoung; Shajahan-Haq, Ayesha N; Clarke, Robert; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Yue; Magnani, Luca; Wang, Tian-Li; Xuan, Jianhua


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) has greatly improved the reliability with which transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) can be identified from genome-wide profiling studies. Many computational tools are developed to detect binding events or peaks, however the robust detection of weak binding events remains a challenge for current peak calling tools. We have developed a novel Bayesian approach (ChIP-BIT) to reliably detect TFBSs and their target genes by jointly modeling binding signal intensities and binding locations of TFBSs. Specifically, a Gaussian mixture model is used to capture both binding and background signals in sample data. As a unique feature of ChIP-BIT, background signals are modeled by a local Gaussian distribution that is accurately estimated from the input data. Extensive simulation studies showed a significantly improved performance of ChIP-BIT in target gene prediction, particularly for detecting weak binding signals at gene promoter regions. We applied ChIP-BIT to find target genes from NOTCH3 and PBX1 ChIP-seq data acquired from MCF-7 breast cancer cells. TF knockdown experiments have initially validated about 30% of co-regulated target genes identified by ChIP-BIT as being differentially expressed in MCF-7 cells. Functional analysis on these genes further revealed the existence of crosstalk between Notch and Wnt signaling pathways.

  3. Pheromone-Based Ant Routing System for IP Networks

    张林; 任勇; 山秀明


    The pheromone-based ant routing algorithm is a distributed routing algorithm with good scalability and robustness. A 2-D cellular automata (CA) model of the computer network was presented to analyze the algorithm. The results show that the procedure of establishing a stable route is self-organized towards the attractive peculiar state, and the duration of time for the routing establishment is power-law distributed. A practical ant routing protocol over an IP network was also presented, and two simulations were done to compare the performance dynamic and the load balancing performance between this protocol and the open shortest path first (OSPF) protocol. The results show that the ant routing protocol out-performs OSPF in these aspects.

  4. ChIP-seq Identification of Weakly Conserved Heart Enhancers

    Blow, Matthew J.; McCulley, David J.; Li, Zirong; Zhang, Tao; Akiyama, Jennifer A.; Holt, Amy; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Shoukry, Malak; Wright, Crystal; Chen, Feng; Afzal, Veena; Bristow, James; Ren, Bing; Black, Brian L.; Rubin, Edward M.; Visel, Axel; Pennacchio, Len A.


    Accurate control of tissue-specific gene expression plays a pivotal role in heart development, but few cardiac transcriptional enhancers have thus far been identified. Extreme non-coding sequence conservation successfully predicts enhancers active in many tissues, but fails to identify substantial numbers of heart enhancers. Here we used ChIP-seq with the enhancer-associated protein p300 from mouse embryonic day 11.5 heart tissue to identify over three thousand candidate heart enhancers genome-wide. Compared to other tissues studied at this time-point, most candidate heart enhancers are less deeply conserved in vertebrate evolution. Nevertheless, the testing of 130 candidate regions in a transgenic mouse assay revealed that most of them reproducibly function as enhancers active in the heart, irrespective of their degree of evolutionary constraint. These results provide evidence for a large population of poorly conserved heart enhancers and suggest that the evolutionary constraint of embryonic enhancers can vary depending on tissue type.

  5. Packet flow analysis in IP networks via abstract interpretation

    Komondoor, Raghavan; Seetharam, Deva P; Balodia, Sudha


    Static analysis (aka offline analysis) of a model of an IP network is useful for understanding, debugging, and verifying packet flow properties of the network. There have been static analysis approaches proposed in the literature for networks based on model checking as well as graph reachability. Abstract interpretation is a method that has typically been applied to static analysis of programs. We propose a new, abstract-interpretation based approach for analysis of networks. We formalize our approach, mention its correctness guarantee, and demonstrate its flexibility in addressing multiple network-analysis problems that have been previously solved via tailor-made approaches. Finally, we investigate an application of our analysis to a novel problem -- inferring a high-level policy for the network -- which has been addressed in the past only in the restricted single-router setting.

  6. 浅谈入侵防御系统IPS

    吴穷; 崔升广; 乔英久


    本文主要针对网络安全风险系数不断提高,传统的安全解决方案已难抵御,曾经作为最主要的安全防范手段的防火墙,已经不能满足人们对网络安全的需求,作为对防火墙、入侵检测系统IDS及其有益的补充,从而引入一种全新的安全防御技术--入侵防御系统(Intrusion Prevention System, IPS),并对其分类、技术特征、缺陷及其发展进行了深入的探讨.

  7. IP-Sat: Impact-Parameter dependent Saturation model; revised

    Rezaeian, Amir H; Van de Klundert, Merijn; Venugopalan, Raju


    In this talk, we present a global analysis of available small-x data on inclusive DIS and exclusive diffractive processes, including the latest data from the combined HERA analysis on reduced cross sections within the Impact-Parameter dependent Saturation (IP-Sat) Model. The impact-parameter dependence of dipole amplitude is crucial in order to have a unified description of both inclusive and exclusive diffractive processes. With the parameters of model fixed via a fit to the high-precision reduced cross-section, we compare model predictions to data for the structure functions, the longitudinal structure function, the charm structure function, exclusive vector mesons production and Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS). Excellent agreement is obtained for the processes considered at small x in a wide range of Q^2.

  8. Stochastic TCO minimization for Video Transmission over IP Networks

    Goudarzi, Pejman


    From the viewpoint of service operators the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) for developing a communication service comprises from two parts; CAPital EXpenditure (CAPEX) and OPerational EXpenditure (OPEX). These two types of costs are interrelated and affect any service provider's deployment strategy. In many traditional methods, selection of critical elements of a new service is performed in a heuristic manner aimed at reducing only the OPEX part of the TCO which is not necessarily optimal. Furthermore, exact cost modeling for such services is not always possible and contains some uncertainties. In the current work, after cost modeling of each video streaming element by capturing the effect of the model uncertainties, the TCO optimization problem for video streaming over IP networks is formulated as a stochastic optimization problem. The solution of the proposed optimization problem can cope with the cost modeling uncertainties and track the dynamism in the TCO and lead to a time-varying optimal solution. Numer...

  9. Optimal design of an IP/MPLS over DWDM network

    Eduardo Canale


    Full Text Available Different approaches for deploying resilient optical networks of low cost constitute a traditional group of NP-Hard problems that have been widely studied. Most of them are based on the construction of low cost networks that fulfill connectivity constraints. However, recent trends to virtualize optical networks over the legacy fiber infrastructure, modified the nature of network design problems and turned inappropriate many of these models and algorithms. In this paper we study a design problem arising from the deployment of an IP/MPLS network over an existing DWDM infrastructure. Besides cost and resiliency, this problem integrates traffic and capacity constraints. We present: an integer programming formulation for the problem, theoretical results, and describe how several metaheuristics were applied in order to find good quality solutions, for a real application case of a telecommunications company.

  10. A Novel Switching Architecture for IP Over WDM Networks


    Integrating IP and WDM is an attractive direction for research.Many solutions have been presented but it is noted that the existing switching technologies still need more concern. Since optical packet switching is not practical yet, there are just two possible solutions left. One is wavelength routing(WR), which is circuit switching in essence and the other is newly proposed optical burst switching (OBS). In this paper, characteristics of WR and OBS are first described, then, compared in several aspects. It is notice that in many aspects, the wavelength routing and burst switching are complement. This stimulates us to propose a new switching architecture, which may be considered as “mixture” of WR and OBS. We beleve the network built on new switching structure can accommodate the requirements of practicability, flexibility, robustness, effciency and etc. simultaneously. However, many related problems still need to be further researched.

  11. Integrated Control Plane for IP Enabled Optical Networks

    LIZhengbin; YINHongxi; YUDeming; XUAnshi


    With the exponential growth of the Internet traffle for the intense demand for broadband services,providing bandwidth and connectivity on demand has risen to be a hot topic involving establishing connections from client ent systems to another through the optical backbone.So that,control plane and signaling in the optical network seems to be a critical component.This paper proposes and integrated control plane(ICP)and signaling related in IP enabled optical networks.Signaling processing for ensuring dynamic end-to-end lightpath setup has also been presented.Path provisioning comprises a string of operations like service & neighbor discovery,route computation,signaling requests,and path setup.

  12. Objective Assessment of IP Video Calls with Asterisk

    Lukas Kapicak


    Full Text Available The paper deals with an objective assessment of IP video calls transmission over GSM and UMTS networks. Video transmission is affected by many factors in mobile network. Among these factors belong packet loss, latency and transmission rate of the mobile network. Network properties were simulated by Simena network simulator. Our team have developed a unique technique for finding defects in video appearing in video calls. This technique is built on modified Asterisk SW PBX with enabled video recording and playback functions. Transmitted video files are compared with original video file by means of size of transmitted video file and in-video-defects. We are using MSU VQMT software for finding in video defects; more precisely we are using VQM method for comparing two video sources.

  13. A Framework for Optimizing IP over Ethernet Naming System

    Waleed Alzubaidi


    Full Text Available Due to the rapid expansion of the technology field. Developing the Internet has become more urgent to meet the needs of the expansion. TCP/IP is the most protocol used in the Internet. It consists from layers, Each layer done its job separately. However these layers susceptible to different attacks and data link layer one of the most layers targeted by attacker, Attack at lower layer may lead to more sophisticated attacks to upper layers like Man in The Middle (MiTM, DNS spoofing and Denial of Service (DoS. Even with encrypted protocols such as HTTPS and SSL. In this paper we discuss security at the Data Link Layer and the attacks depend on the Address resolution protocol (ARP. Moreover proposed an approach to prevent address resolution protocol attacks, finally, we conclude at section 5.

  14. Matching references with MEDLINE via TCP/IP.

    Guidi, J N


    Bibliographic references are an important part of databases and information resources used by clinicians and biomedical researchers. In addition to the obvious clerical advantages of standard references, bibliographic references can also be used as links to related items in different data sets. This paper describes an effort that involved matching references from a variety of disparate databases to canonical MEDLINE references. The references matched were those involved in a database unification project which is part of the Mouse Genome Informatics effort at The Jackson Laboratory. Software was developed to take advantage of a commercially available retrieval engine which accesses MEDLINE on CD-ROM disks. The software permits client programs on UNIX/C, and potentially other environments, to access unabridged MEDLINE via networks supporting the TCP/IP protocols. The matching process described can be used as a model for similar efforts with different research or clinical data sets, as well as different hardware or software environments.

  15. Competition Law and IP Rights in Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology (forthcoming)

    Lundqvist, Björn; Minssen, Timo; Pierce, Justin

    , the misuse of courts (or vexatious litigation) and, in general, the pharma companies alleged misuse of the regulatory system will be scrutinized. In addition, the growing phenomena co-marketing, co-promotion and co-branding will be analysed from an antitrust perspective. The parallel trade case law under EU.......g. on pricing and whom to supply and license, and not to supply and license. In practice the rules involve complicated assessments of, for example, market power and market effects. Therefore, pharma companies may find the lines between the legal and the illegal licensing practices and life cycle management...... of practitioners, researcher and students alike. It will address important competition law issues that arise where IP rights are acquired and utilised in Europe. It will contain a comprehensive analysis of EU case law, EU legislation and European Commission notices. A comparison will also be made with developments...

  16. IP-STG隐性故障排查

    梁增强; 牛宇



  17. Identifying differential transcription factor binding in ChIP-seq

    Dai-Ying eWu


    Full Text Available ChIP seq is a widely used assay to measure genome-wide protein binding. The decrease in costs associated with sequencing has led to a rise in the number of studies that investigate protein binding across treatment conditions or cell lines. In addition to the identification of binding sites, new studies evaluate the variation in protein binding between conditions. A number of approaches to study differential transcription factor binding have recently been developed. Several of these methods build upon established methods from RNA-seq to quantify differences in read counts. We compare how these new approaches perform on different data sets from the ENCODE project to illustrate the impact of data processing pipelines under different study designs. The performance of normalization methods for differential ChIP-seq depends strongly on the variation in total amount of protein bound between conditions, with total read count outperforming effective library size, or variants thereof, when a large variation in binding was studied. Use of input subtraction to correct for non-specific binding showed a relatively modest impact on the number of differential peaks found and the fold change accuracy to biological validation, however a larger impact might be expected for samples with more extreme copy number variations between them. Still, it did identify a small subset of novel differential regions while excluding some differential peaks in regions with high background signal.These results highlight proper scaling for between-sample data normalization as critical for differential transcription factor binding analysis and suggest bioinformaticians need to know about the variation in level of total protein binding between conditions to select the best analysis method. At the same time, validation using fold-change estimates from qRT-PCR suggests there is still room for further method improvement.

  18. Identifying differential transcription factor binding in ChIP-seq.

    Wu, Dai-Ying; Bittencourt, Danielle; Stallcup, Michael R; Siegmund, Kimberly D


    ChIP seq is a widely used assay to measure genome-wide protein binding. The decrease in costs associated with sequencing has led to a rise in the number of studies that investigate protein binding across treatment conditions or cell lines. In addition to the identification of binding sites, new studies evaluate the variation in protein binding between conditions. A number of approaches to study differential transcription factor binding have recently been developed. Several of these methods build upon established methods from RNA-seq to quantify differences in read counts. We compare how these new approaches perform on different data sets from the ENCODE project to illustrate the impact of data processing pipelines under different study designs. The performance of normalization methods for differential ChIP-seq depends strongly on the variation in total amount of protein bound between conditions, with total read count outperforming effective library size, or variants thereof, when a large variation in binding was studied. Use of input subtraction to correct for non-specific binding showed a relatively modest impact on the number of differential peaks found and the fold change accuracy to biological validation, however a larger impact might be expected for samples with more extreme copy number variations between them. Still, it did identify a small subset of novel differential regions while excluding some differential peaks in regions with high background signal. These results highlight proper scaling for between-sample data normalization as critical for differential transcription factor binding analysis and suggest bioinformaticians need to know about the variation in level of total protein binding between conditions to select the best analysis method. At the same time, validation using fold-change estimates from qRT-PCR suggests there is still room for further method improvement.

  19. 10th anniversary of iPS cells: the challenges that lie ahead.

    Aoi, Takashi


    In 2006, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated by Yamanaka and Takahashi for the first time from a mouse fibroblast culture by introducing four factors. In the 10 years since then, this breakthrough discovery has been making waves in the fields of biology and medical science. For example, various technologies for generating iPS cells have been developed, and we have cultivated a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in reprogramming. In addition, many researchers have explored the applications of iPS cells, such as drug discovery, the study of disease mechanisms and regenerative medicine, and the development of advanced technologies for the differentiation and qualification of the cells. Furthermore, the concept of iPS cell generation has inspired a number of studies that do not use iPS cells. We herein review and discuss the past, present and future of iPS cells and their related issues.

  20. A policy-based billing management architecture for the next generation IP-based network

    Cheng Lu; Qiu Xuesong; Meng Luoming


    IP billing is not only a basic functionality to operate IP services, but also it is fundamental to offer customers with a stable and QoS-enabled network environment. As IP-based network has been widely agreed to be the core network of NGN, and existing IP billing system is too simple to fulfill the emerging requirements, the next generation IP billing has become an interesting topic in recent years. Policy-based management brings flexibility and scalability to systems by describing management logic and functions through policies, and thus reduces the complexity of the management of large-scale systems. Working on existing efforts, this paper proposed an improved IETF policy framework based upon which a policy-based billing management architecture for the next generation IP-based network was presented. Then a prototype with some basic functionalities was developed. The results of the experiment validated the expected improvements specified in this paper.

  1. IP-10 can be measured in dried plasma spots in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

    Morten Ruhwald

    Full Text Available The chemokine IP-10 (CXCL10 is a candidate marker for hepatitis C virus (HCV fibrosis monitoring. The aim of this proof-of-concept study is to assess if IP-10 measurements from dried plasma spots (DPS are accurate in HCV-infected patients with either minimal or significant fibrosis. We measured IP-10 levels in plasma and DPS of 21 HCV-infected patients with cirrhosis and 19 patients with no/little fibrosis (determined with FibroScan. Cirrhotic patients had significantly higher levels of IP-10 compared to patients with minimal fibrosis. DPS and plasma measurements of IP-10 are comparable and the correlation was excellent (r(2 = 0.97, p<0.0001. The DPS based method for IP-10 detection performs well in HCV-infected patients with either minimal or significant fibrosis.

  2. Evaluation of algorithm performance in ChIP-seq peak detection.

    Elizabeth G Wilbanks

    Full Text Available Next-generation DNA sequencing coupled with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq is revolutionizing our ability to interrogate whole genome protein-DNA interactions. Identification of protein binding sites from ChIP-seq data has required novel computational tools, distinct from those used for the analysis of ChIP-Chip experiments. The growing popularity of ChIP-seq spurred the development of many different analytical programs (at last count, we noted 31 open source methods, each with some purported advantage. Given that the literature is dense and empirical benchmarking challenging, selecting an appropriate method for ChIP-seq analysis has become a daunting task. Herein we compare the performance of eleven different peak calling programs on common empirical, transcription factor datasets and measure their sensitivity, accuracy and usability. Our analysis provides an unbiased critical assessment of available technologies, and should assist researchers in choosing a suitable tool for handling ChIP-seq data.

  3. Mesoporous carbon stabilized MgO nanoparticles synthesized by pyrolysis of MgCl2 preloaded waste biomass for highly efficient CO2 capture.

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Jiang, Hong; Tian, Ke; Ding, Yan-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing


    Anthropogenic CO2 emission makes significant contribution to global climate change and CO2 capture and storage is a currently a preferred technology to change the trajectory toward irreversible global warming. In this work, we reported a new strategy that the inexhaustible MgCl2 in seawater and the abundantly available biomass waste can be utilized to prepare mesoporous carbon stabilized MgO nanoparticles (mPC-MgO) for CO2 capture. The mPC-MgO showed excellent performance in the CO2 capture process with the maximum capacity of 5.45 mol kg(-1), much higher than many other MgO based CO2 trappers. The CO2 capture capacity of the mPC-MgO material kept almost unchanged in 19-run cyclic reuse, and can be regenerated at low temperature. The mechanism for the CO2 capture by the mPC-MgO was investigated by FTIR and XPS, and the results indicated that the high CO2 capture capacity and the favorable selectivity of the as-prepared materials were mainly attributed to their special structure (i.e., surface area, functional groups, and the MgO NPs). This work would open up a new pathway to slow down global warming as well as resolve the pollution of waste biomass.


    张骏; 周宇; 管海兵; 白英彩


    软交换是下一代网络的核心,IP PBX是软交换技术在用户驻地端的实现,媒体处理是IP PBX的核心功能.本文在分析了著名的IP PBX系统Asterisk后,对其中的媒体处理单元体系结构提出了一种改进方案.该方案显著优点是高可扩展性,适合多处理器的环境.

  5. IP móvil protocolo TCP/IP para redes móviles pruebas de funcionamiento y conectividad con windows NT

    Donoso Meisel, Yezid Enrique; Rendon Gallón, Álvaro; Acosta, Diego Andrés


    Hasta el momento la versión actual de TCP/IP, proporciona unos mecanismo para soportar los enrutamientos y ubicaciones de hosts por medio de direcciones IP estáticas; es decir para que un equipo sea encontrado en la red (Internet) debe tener siempre su dirección IP. Ahora, cuando se requiere que equipos se conecten a otra redes es necesario reconfigurar su dirección a una nueva del estilo de la nueva red donde se encuentra conectado. Nuevas tendencias están tratando de mejorar y adecuar a las...

  6. Fungal Inositol Pyrophosphate IP7 Is Crucial for Metabolic Adaptation to the Host Environment and Pathogenicity

    Lev, Sophie; Li, Cecilia; Desmarini, Desmarini; Saiardi, Adolfo; Fewings, Nicole L.; Schibeci, Stephen D.; Sharma, Raghwa; Sorrell, Tania C.


    ABSTRACT Inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IPs) comprising inositol, phosphate, and pyrophosphate (PP) are essential for multiple functions in eukaryotes. Their role in fungal pathogens has never been addressed. Cryptococcus neoformans is a model pathogenic fungus causing life-threatening meningoencephalitis. We investigate the cryptococcal kinases responsible for the production of PP-IPs (IP7/IP8) and the hierarchy of PP-IP importance in pathogenicity. Using gene deletion and inositol polyphosphate profiling, we identified Kcs1 as the major IP6 kinase (producing IP7) and Asp1 as an IP7 kinase (producing IP8). We show that Kcs1-derived IP7 is the most crucial PP-IP for cryptococcal drug susceptibility and the production of virulence determinants. In particular, Kcs1 kinase activity is essential for cryptococcal infection of mouse lungs, as reduced fungal burdens were observed in the absence of Kcs1 or when Kcs1 was catalytically inactive. Transcriptome and carbon source utilization analysis suggested that compromised growth of the KCS1 deletion strain (Δkcs1 mutant) in the low-glucose environment of the host lung is due to its inability to utilize alternative carbon sources. Despite this metabolic defect, the Δkcs1 mutant established persistent, low-level asymptomatic pulmonary infection but failed to elicit a strong immune response in vivo and in vitro and was not readily phagocytosed by primary or immortalized monocytes. Reduced recognition of the Δkcs1 cells by monocytes correlated with reduced exposure of mannoproteins on the Δkcs1 mutant cell surface. We conclude that IP7 is essential for fungal metabolic adaptation to the host environment, immune recognition, and pathogenicity. PMID:26037119

  7. KSR-based medium improves the generation of high-quality mouse iPS cells.

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Ye, Xiaoying; Wang, Lingling; Yang, Jiao; Zhang, Jingzhuo; Liu, Lin


    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from somatic cells have great potential for regenerative medicine. The efficiency in generation of iPS cells has been significantly improved in recent years. However, the generation of high-quality iPS cells remains of high interest. Consistently, we demonstrate that knockout serum replacement (KSR)-based medium accelerates iPS cell induction and improves the quality of iPS cells, as confirmed by generation of chimeras and all iPS cell-derived offspring with germline transmission competency. Both alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity assay and expression of Nanog have been used to evaluate the efficiency of iPS cell induction and formation of ES/iPS cell colonies; however, appropriate expression of Nanog frequently indicates the quality of ES/iPS cells. Interestingly, whereas foetal bovine serum (FBS)-based media increase iPS cell colony formation, as revealed by AP activity, KSR-based media increase the frequency of iPS cell colony formation with Nanog expression. Furthermore, inhibition of MAPK/ERK by a specific inhibitor, PD0325901, in KSR- but not in FBS-based media significantly increases Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. In contrast, addition of bFGF in KSR-based media decreases proportion of Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. Remarkably, PD can rescue Nanog-GFP+ deficiency caused by bFGF. These data suggest that MAPK/ERK pathway influences high quality mouse iPS cells and that KSR- and PD-based media could enrich homogeneous authentic pluripotent stem cells.

  8. Evaluation and Investigation of the Delay in VoIP Networks

    V. Janata


    Full Text Available The paper is focused mainly on the delay problems, which considerably influence the final quality of connections in VoIP (Voice over IP networks. The paper provides a detailed exploration of the nature and mechanisms of the delay. The main purpose of the investigation was an attempt to formulate a mathematical model of delay in the VoIP network and its subsequent analysis by laboratory data.

  9. Analysis list - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us ChIP-Atla...3 Description of data contents A list of metadata to generate file paths of analysis provided on ChIP-Atlas,...e class. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Analysis list - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive ...

  10. License - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us ChIP-Atla...n-Share Alike 4.0 International . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as follows: ChIP-Atlas...t be changed without notice. About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us License - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive ...

  11. Cell type list - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us ChIP-Atla...005 Description of data contents A list of all cell type names of data provided on ChIP-Atlas. See details h...License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Cell type list - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive ...

  12. A Statistical Framework for the Analysis of ChIP-Seq Data

    Kuan, Pei Fen; Chung, Dongjun; Pan, Guangjin; Thomson, James A.; Stewart, Ron; Keleş, Sündüz


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-Seq) has revolutionalized experiments for genome-wide profiling of DNA-binding proteins, histone modifications, and nucleosome occupancy. As the cost of sequencing is decreasing, many researchers are switching from microarray-based technologies (ChIP-chip) to ChIP-Seq for genome-wide study of transcriptional regulation. Despite its increasing and well-deserved popularity, there is little work that investigates and accounts for sources...

  13. The ChIP-exo Method: Identifying Protein-DNA Interactions with Near Base Pair Precision.

    Perreault, Andrea A; Venters, Bryan J


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is an indispensable tool in the fields of epigenetics and gene regulation that isolates specific protein-DNA interactions. ChIP coupled to high throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) is commonly used to determine the genomic location of proteins that interact with chromatin. However, ChIP-seq is hampered by relatively low mapping resolution of several hundred base pairs and high background signal. The ChIP-exo method is a refined version of ChIP-seq that substantially improves upon both resolution and noise. The key distinction of the ChIP-exo methodology is the incorporation of lambda exonuclease digestion in the library preparation workflow to effectively footprint the left and right 5' DNA borders of the protein-DNA crosslink site. The ChIP-exo libraries are then subjected to high throughput sequencing. The resulting data can be leveraged to provide unique and ultra-high resolution insights into the functional organization of the genome. Here, we describe the ChIP-exo method that we have optimized and streamlined for mammalian systems and next-generation sequencing-by-synthesis platform.

  14. LMIP/AAA: Local Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA) Protocol for Mobile IP

    Chenait, Manel

    Mobile IP represents a simple and scalable global mobility solution. However, it inhibits various vulnerabilities to malicious attacks and, therefore, requires the integration of appropriate security services. In this paper, we discuss two authentication schemes suggested for Mobile IP: standard authentication and Mobile IP/AAA authentication. In order to provide Mobile IP roaming services including identity verication, we propose an improvement to Mobile/AAA authentication scheme by applying a local politic key management in each domain, hence we reduce hando latency by avoiding the involvement of AAA infrastructure during mobile node roaming.

  15. Deploying a simple voice over IP network using a simulation tool

    Limbu, Prajil


    Voice over IP is a major advancement in the field of IP communications systems technology since the advent of Internet. It is a communication technology which enables a device to transmit and receive voice traffic with the help of an IP-based network such as the Internet. Various types and deployments of Voice over IP are prevailing due to its popularity since its origin. Since its advent, it has managed to evolve and has given a platform to be benefited with its numerous advantages not only ...

  16. Update History of This Database - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us ChIP-Atla...ed and updated. 2016/10/18 Data is added and updated. 2016/08/01 Data is added and updated. 2016/06/24 ChIP-Atlas... English archive site is opened. 2015/12/01 ChIP-Atlas ( http://chip-atlas.o...ite Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive ...

  17. Mapping Protein-DNA Interactions Using ChIP-exo and Illumina-Based Sequencing.

    Barfeld, Stefan J; Mills, Ian G


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) provides a means of enriching DNA associated with transcription factors, histone modifications, and indeed any other proteins for which suitably characterized antibodies are available. Over the years, sequence detection has progressed from quantitative real-time PCR and Southern blotting to microarrays (ChIP-chip) and now high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq). This progression has vastly increased the sequence coverage and data volumes generated. This in turn has enabled informaticians to predict the identity of multi-protein complexes on DNA based on the overrepresentation of sequence motifs in DNA enriched by ChIP with a single antibody against a single protein. In the course of the development of high-throughput sequencing, little has changed in the ChIP methodology until recently. In the last three years, a number of modifications have been made to the ChIP protocol with the goal of enhancing the sensitivity of the method and further reducing the levels of nonspecific background sequences in ChIPped samples. In this chapter, we provide a brief commentary on these methodological changes and describe a detailed ChIP-exo method able to generate narrower peaks and greater peak coverage from ChIPped material.

  18. Impact of time-domain IP pulse length on measured data and inverted models

    Olsson, P. I.; Fiandaca, G.; Dahlin, T.;


    The duration of time domain (TD) induced polarization (IP) current injections has significant impact on the acquired IP data as well as on the inversion models, if the standard evaluation procedure is followed. However, it is still possible to retrieve similar inversion models if the waveform...... of the injected current and the IP response waveform are included in the inversion. The on-time also generally affects the signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) where an increased on-time gives higher SNR for the IP data....

  19. QoS-guaranteed burst transmission for VoIP service over optical burst switching networks

    Tachibana, Takuji; Kasahara, Shoji


    We propose a burst transmission method that guarantees the voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) service. The proposed method consists of three techniques: round-robin burst assembly with slotted scheduling, priority control with void filling, and hop-based preemption. Each technique is utilized so that the burst loss probability and the burst transmission delay satisfy VoIP quality of service (QoS). We evaluate by simulation the performance of the proposed method in NSFNET with 14 nodes. Numerical examples show that our proposed method is effective for guaranteeing the VoIP QoS while accommodating a large number of VoIP users.

  20. A comparison of interferon-γ and IP-10 for the diagnosis of tuberculosis

    Holm, Line Lindebo; Rose, Michala Vaaben; Kimaro, Godfather


    OBJECTIVE: Interferon-γ and IP-10 release assays are diagnostic tests for tuberculosis infection. We have compared the accuracy of IP-10 and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube [QFT-IT] in Tanzanian children suspected of having active tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: Hospitalized Tanzanian children with sympt......OBJECTIVE: Interferon-γ and IP-10 release assays are diagnostic tests for tuberculosis infection. We have compared the accuracy of IP-10 and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube [QFT-IT] in Tanzanian children suspected of having active tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: Hospitalized Tanzanian children...

  1. Architecture and Engineering Issues in Building an IP over WDM Networks


    The technologies of IP over WDM have presently received increasing attention owing to the rapid growth in Internet traffic and the need for next-generation Internet technologies. The challenge now is how to integrate the services of IP over WDM optical networks to take full advantages of WDM technologies and IP technologies, and yield a high-throughput optical platform directly underpinning next generation data networks. This article discusses some of the architecture and technology issues for the design of IP over WDM optical networks.

  2. Split degenerate states and stable p+ip phases from holography

    Nie, Zhang-Yu; Zeng, Hui [Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming (China); Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Pan, Qiyuan [Hunan Normal Univ., Key Lab. of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Dept. of Physics, Changsha (China); Zeng, Hua-Bi [Yangzhou University, College of Physics Science and Technology, Yangzhou, Jiangsu (China); National Central University, Department of Physics, Chungli (China)


    In this paper, we investigate the p+ip superfluid phases in the complex vector field holographic p-wave model. We find that in the probe limit, the p+ip phase and the p-wave phase are equally stable, hence the p and ip orders can be mixed with an arbitrary ratio to form more general p+λip phases, which are also equally stable with the p-wave and p+ip phases. As a result, the system possesses a degenerate thermal state in the superfluid region. We further study the case on considering the back-reaction on the metric, and we find that the degenerate ground states will be separated into p-wave and p+ip phases, and the p-wave phase is more stable. Finally, due to the different critical temperature of the zeroth order phase transitions from p-wave and p+ip phases to the normal phase, there is a temperature region where the p+ip phase exists but the p-wave phase does not. In this region we find the stable holographic p+ip phase for the first time. (orig.)

  3. Cancer inhibition by inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) and inositol: from laboratory to clinic.

    Vucenik, Ivana; Shamsuddin, AbulKalam M


    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that is present in substantial amounts in almost all plant and mammalian cells. It was recently recognized to possess multiple biological functions. A striking anticancer effect of IP6 was demonstrated in different experimental models. Inositol is also a natural constituent possessing moderate anticancer activity. The most consistent and best anticancer results were obtained from the combination of IP6 plus inositol. In addition to reducing cell proliferation, IP6 increases differentiation of malignant cells, often resulting in a reversion to normal phenotype. Exogenously administered IP6 is rapidly taken into the cells and dephosphorylated to lower-phosphate inositol phosphates, which further interfere with signal transduction pathways and cell cycle arrest. Enhanced immunity and antioxidant properties can also contribute to tumor cell destruction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this anticancer action are not fully understood. Because it is abundantly present in regular diet, efficiently absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and safe, IP6 holds great promise in our strategies for the prevention and treatment of cancer. IP6 plus inositol enhances the anticancer effect of conventional chemotherapy, controls cancer metastases, and improves the quality of life, as shown in a pilot clinical trial. The data strongly argue for the use of IP6 plus inositol in our strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. However, the effectiveness and safety of IP6 plus inositol at therapeutic doses needs to be determined in phase I and phase II clinical trials in humans.

  4. An Internet content overview and implementation on an IP based set-top box

    Widborg, Linus


    This thesis covers the investigation of different content sources on the Internet and the analysis of the requirements they put on a set-top box. It also covers the adaptation of the set-top box to one of these sources. An IP based set-top box (IP-STB) is mainly constructed for access to TV and video distributed over a high speed network. The IP-STB is also connected to the Internet and it potentially has access to all of the Internet based content. This could provide the user of the IP-STB ...

  5. Avaliação de contaminação por mercúrio em Descoberto, MG Evaluation of mercury contamination in Descoberto, MG

    Ana Amélia Paulino Tinôco


    Full Text Available O mercúrio, elemento químico considerado não essencial a qualquer processo metabólico, é facilmente acumulado na maioria dos organismos. Ocorre naturalmente em formas orgânicas e inorgânicas, nos estados sólido, dissolvido e gasoso. Seu ciclo biogeoquímico envolve processos que ocorrem no solo, na água e na atmosfera. Em 2002, descobriu-se mercúrio elementar na zona rural do município de Descoberto, Minas Gerais, onde moram cerca de 70 famílias, e sua origem parece estar associada à exploração de ouro, que existiu na região no século 19. Neste trabalho, foram escolhidas três áreas para identificar possível contaminação da água, solo, sedimento e peixes por mercúrio, bem como para estabelecer valores de referência local e contraprova de resultados obtidos anteriormente. Verificaram-se elevadas concentrações no solo (0,26 a 0,55, sedimentos (0,13 a 0,61 e água (Mercury is a chemical element considered unessential to any metabolic process; however, it is easily accumulated in most organisms. It is naturally found in both organic and inorganic forms in solid, liquid and vapor states. Its biogeochemical cycle involves processes occurring in the soil, water and the atmosphere. In 2002, elementary mercury was found in the city of Descoberto, Minas Gerais, Brazil, where 70 families live, and its origin may be related to gold exploration that happened in this region in the 19th century. In this work, three areas were chosen to identify a possible mercury contamination of water, soil, sediment and fish samples and to establish local reference values and counter-evidence of the data previously obtained. Based on the results, high mercury concentrations in soil (0.26 to 0.55, sediments (0.13 to 0.61 and water (< 0.2 to 2,10 µg.L-1 were verified.

  6. Energy star compliant voice over internet protocol (VoIP) telecommunications network including energy star compliant VoIP devices

    Kouchri, Farrokh Mohammadzadeh


    A Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communications system, a method of managing a communications network in such a system and a program product therefore. The system/network includes an ENERGY STAR (E-star) aware softswitch and E-star compliant communications devices at system endpoints. The E-star aware softswitch allows E-star compliant communications devices to enter and remain in power saving mode. The E-star aware softswitch spools messages and forwards only selected messages (e.g., calls) to the devices in power saving mode. When the E-star compliant communications devices exit power saving mode, the E-star aware softswitch forwards spooled messages.

  7. Functional role of EF-hands 3 and 4 in membrane-binding of KChIP1

    Yan-Shun Liao; Ku-Chung Chen; Long-Sen Chang


    The aim of the present study is to explore whether membrane targeting of K+ channel-interacting protein 1 (KChIP1) is associated with its EF-hand motifs and varies with specific phospholipids. Truncated KChIP1, in which the EF-hands 3 and 4 were deleted, retained the -helix structure, indicating that the N-terminal half of KChIP1 could fold appropriately. Compared with wild-type KChIP1, truncated KChIP1 exhibited lower lipid-binding capability. Compared with wild-type KChIP1, increasing membrane permeability by the use of digitonin caused a marked loss of truncated KChIP1, suggesting that intact EF-hands 3 and 4 were crucial for the anchorage of KChIP1 on membrane. KChIP1 showed a higher binding capability with phosphatidylserine (PS) than truncated KChIP1. Unlike that of truncated KChIP1, the binding of wild-type KChIP1 with membrane was enhanced by increasing the PS content. Moreover, the binding of KChIP1 with phospholipid vesicles induced a change in the structure of KChIP1 in the presence of PS. Taken together, our data suggest that EF-hands 3 and 4 of KChIP1 are functionally involved in a specific association with PS on the membrane.

  8. MicroRNA expression profiles of human iPS cells, retinal pigment epithelium derived from iPS, and fetal retinal pigment epithelium.

    Greene, Whitney A; Muñiz, Alberto; Plamper, Mark L; Kaini, Ramesh R; Wang, Heuy-Ching


    The objective of this report is to describe the protocols for comparing the microRNA (miRNA) profiles of human induced-pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) derived from human iPS cells (iPS-RPE), and fetal RPE. The protocols include collection of RNA for analysis by microarray, and the analysis of microarray data to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed among three cell types. The methods for culture of iPS cells and fetal RPE are explained. The protocol used for differentiation of RPE from human iPS is also described. The RNA extraction technique we describe was selected to allow maximal recovery of very small RNA for use in a miRNA microarray. Finally, cellular pathway and network analysis of microarray data is explained. These techniques will facilitate the comparison of the miRNA profiles of three different cell types.

  9. ChIP-enriched in silico targets (ChEST), a ChIP-on-chip approach applied to analyzing skeletal muscle genes.

    Junion, Guillaume; Jagla, Krzysztof


    Mapping the cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) to which bind myogenic transcription factors is an -obligatory step towards understanding gene regulatory networks governing muscle development and function. This can be achieved in silico or by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) approaches. We have developed a ChIP-enriched in silico targets (ChEST) strategy designed for mapping the CRMs by combining in silico and ChIP methods. ChEST involves a software-assisted prediction of transcription factor (TF) - specific CRMs, which are spotted to produce a computed genomic CRM microarray. In parallel, the in vivo pool of targets of a given TF is isolated by ChIP and used as a probe for hybridization with the array generated. Here we describe ChEST strategy applied to identify direct targets of Myogenic Enhancer Factor, Dmef2 in Drosophila embryos.

  10. WE-MQS-VoIP Priority: An enhanced LTE Downlink Scheduler for voice services with the integration of VoIP priority mode

    Duy-Huy Nguyen


    Full Text Available The Long Term Evolution (LTE is a high data rates and fully All-IP network. It is developed to support well to multimedia services such as Video, VoIP, Gaming, etc. So that, the real-time services such as VoIP, video, etc. need to be optimized. Nevertheless, the deployment of such live stream services having many challenges. Scheduling and allocating radio resource are very important in LTE network, especially with multimedia services such as VoIP. When voice service transmitted over LTE network, it is affected by many network impairments where there are three main factors including packet loss, delay, and jitter. This study proposes a new scheduler which is based on VoIP priority mode,Wideband (WB E-model, QoS- and Channel-Aware (called WE-MQS-VoIP Priority scheduler for voice services in LTE downlink direction. The proposed scheduling scheme is built based on the WB E-model and Maximum Queue Size (MQS. In addition, we integrate the VoIP priority mode into our scheduling scheme. Since the proposed scheduler considers the VoIP priority mode and user perception, thus, it improves significantly the system performance. The results demonstrate that the proposed scheduler not only meets QoS demands of voice calls but also outperforms Modified Largest Weighted Delay First (M-LWDF in terms of delay, Packet Loss Rate (PLR for all number of user (NU and excepting NU equals 30, respectively. For Fairness Index (FI, cell throughput, and Spectral Efficiency (SE, the difference among the packet schedulers is not significant. The performance evaluation is compared in terms of Delay, PLR, Throughput, FI, and SE.


    Rudy Adipranata


    Full Text Available This day, computer networking has become important necessity for data exchange between computers. And along with the growing of number of computer in a network, the difficulty for managing that network also increased. Because of that reality, in this paper will be build application for remote controlling computer using TCP/IP protocol. This application build using Delphi 5.0 programming language and dWinsock 2.75, component interface for Windows Socket API which is created especially for Delphi language, and separate to two sub applications, namely server application, which run on computer to be controlled and the secondly is client application, run on controller computer. In this application, data text or binary will be send, so two pair components will be used : TTextServer - TTextClient and TBinaryServer- TBinaryClient. The functions which implemented in this applications are : lock and unlock computer, reboot, shutdown, execute remote program, send message, capture screen and view remote programs. Test is doing on internal network and internet network, and the result of that test for internal network, all of functions can be activated perfectly without significant delay (less than 1 second. But for internet network, there is delay, which the number variable depend on data traffic at that moment. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sekarang ini jaringan komputer sudah menjadi suatu kebutuhan yang sangat penting untuk mempermudah pertukaran data antar komputer. Dan seiring dengan makin berkembangnya jumlah komputer pada suatu jaringan, maka makin bertambah pula tingkat kesulitan untuk mengelola jaringan tersebut. Oleh sebab itu pada penelitian ini akan dibuat aplikasi untuk mengendalikan komputer secara jarak jauh dengan menggunakan protokol TCP/IP. Aplikasi ini dibuat dengan menggunakan bahasa pemrograman Delphi 5.0 dan dWinsock 2.75 yang merupakan komponen antar muka Windows Socket API yang dikhususkan untuk bahasa pemrograman Delphi, dan terdiri

  12. Secretion of biologically active interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10 by Lactococcus lactis

    Saucedo-Cardenas Odila


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemokines are a large group of chemotactic cytokines that regulate and direct migration of leukocytes, activate inflammatory responses, and are involved in many other functions including regulation of tumor development. Interferon-gamma inducible-protein-10 (IP-10 is a member of the C-X-C subfamily of the chemokine family of cytokines. IP-10 specifically chemoattracts activated T lymphocytes, monocytes, and NK cells. IP-10 has been described also as a modulator of other antitumor cytokines. These properties make IP-10 a novel therapeutic molecule for the treatment of chronic and infectious diseases. Currently there are no suitable live biological systems to produce and secrete IP-10. Lactococcus lactis has been well-characterized over the years as a safe microorganism to produce heterologous proteins and to be used as a safe, live vaccine to deliver antigens and cytokines of interest. Here we report a recombinant strain of L. lactis genetically modified to produce and secrete biologically active IP-10. Results The IP-10 coding region was isolated from human cDNA and cloned into an L. lactis expression plasmid under the regulation of the pNis promoter. By fusion to the usp45 secretion signal, IP-10 was addressed out of the cell. Western blot analysis demonstrated that recombinant strains of L. lactis secrete IP-10 into the culture medium. Neither degradation nor incomplete forms of IP-10 were detected in the cell or supernatant fractions of L. lactis. In addition, we demonstrated that the NICE (nisin-controlled gene expression system was able to express IP-10 "de novo" even two hours after nisin removal. This human IP-10 protein secreted by L. lactis was biological active as demonstrated by Chemotaxis assay over human CD3+T lymphocytes. Conclusion Expression and secretion of mature IP-10 was efficiently achieved by L. lactis forming an effective system to produce IP-10. This recombinant IP-10 is biologically active as

  13. Computational insights into the selectivity mechanism of APP-IP over matrix metalloproteinases

    Geng, Lingling; Gao, Jian; Cui, Wei; Tang, Yancheng; Ji, Mingjuan; Chen, Bozhen


    In this work, selectivity mechanism of APP-IP inhibitor (β-amyloid precursor protein-derived inhibitory peptide) over matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs including MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 and MMP-14) was investigated by molecular modeling methods. Among MMPs, MMP-2 is the most favorable one for APP-IP interacting based on our calculations. The predicted binding affinities can give a good explanation of the activity difference of inhibitor APP-IP. In Comparison with MMP-2/APP-IP complex, the side chain of Tyr214MMP-7 makes the binding pocket so shallow that the whole side chain of Tyr3APP-IP can not be fully embraced, thus unfavorable for the N-terminal of APP-IP binding to MMP-7. The poor selectivity of APP-IP toward MMP-9 is mainly related with the decrease of interaction between the APP-IP C-terminal and MMP-9 due to the bulky side chains of Pro193 and Gln199, which is in agreement with experiment. The mutations at residues P193A and Q199G of MMP-9 alternate the binding pattern of the C-terminal of APP-IP by forming two new hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with MMP-9. The mutants favor the binding affinity of MMP-9 largely. For MMP-14/APP-IP, the large steric effect of Phe204MMP-14 and the weak contributions of the polar residues Asn231MMP-14 and Thr190MMP-14 could explain why MMP-14 is non-selective for APP-IP interacting. Here, the molecular modeling methods were successfully employed to explore the selective inhibitor of MMPs, and our work gives valuable information for future rational design of selective peptide inhibitors toward individual MMP.

  14. Extraction Of Electronic Evidence From VoIP: Identification & Analysis Of Digital Speech

    David Irwin


    Full Text Available The Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP is increasing in popularity as a cost effective and efficient means of making telephone calls via the Internet. However, VoIP may also be an attractive method of communication to criminals as their true identity may be hidden and voice and video communications are encrypted as they are deployed across the Internet. This produces in a new set of challenges for forensic analysts compared with traditional wire-tapping of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN infrastructure, which is not applicable to VoIP. Therefore, other methods of recovering electronic evidence from VoIP are required.  This research investigates the analysis and recovery of digitised human, which persists in computer memory after a VoIP call.This paper proposes a proof of concept how remnants of digitised human speech from a VoIP call may be identified within a forensic memory capture based on how the human voice is detected via a microphone and encoded to a digital format using the sound card of your personal computer. This digital format is unencrypted whist processed in Random Access Memory (RAM before it is passed to the VoIP application for encryption and  transmission over the Internet. Similarly, an incoming encrypted VoIP call is decrypted by the VoIP application and passes through RAM unencrypted in order to be played via the speaker output.A series of controlled tests were undertaken whereby RAM captures were analysed for remnants of digital speech after a VoIP audio call with known conversation. The identification and analysis of digital speech from RAM attempts to construct an automatic process for the identification and subsequent reconstruction of the audio content of a VoIP call.

  15. ExpressionofCXCchemokineIP-10in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Jian Wang; Jin-Hong Zhao; Ping-Ping Wang; Gui-Ju Xiang


    BACKGROUND:Chemokines have strong chemoattractant effects and are involved in a variety of immune and inlfammatory reactions, such as attracting activated T lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and natural killer cells via the pathway of G protein-coupled receptors to sites of inlfammatory injury and contribute to wound repair. This investigation was designed to assess the levels of chemokine interferon-γ inducible protein-10 (IP-10) and IP-10 mRNA, and the relationship between IP-10 mRNA and HBV-DNA and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in patients with chronic hepatitis B. METHODS:The levels of IP-10 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were kinetically detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The rate of chemokine/GAPDH was regarded as the extreme level of chemokine. The level of IP-10 in serum was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the expression of IP-10 in hepatic biopsy tissue was detected by streptavidin-peroxidase (SP) immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:The level of IP-10 mRNA in the PBMCs of patients was 0.7387±0.0768 (lg cDNA/lg GAPDH); it was signiifcantly higher in patients with chronic hepatitis B than that in normal controls (P CONCLUSIONS:The expression of IP-10 mRNA in PBMCs, IP-10 plasma concentration and the expression of IP-10 in sinusoidal endothelium are all high in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Chemokine IP-10 may play an important role in trafifcking inlfammatory cells to the local focus in the liver and induce the development of the chronicity of hepatitis B.

  16. Comparison of gating dynamics of different IP3R channels with immune algorithm searching for channel parameter distributions

    Cai, Xiuhong; Li, Xiang; Qi, Hong; Wei, Fang; Chen, Jianyong; Shuai, Jianwei


    The gating properties of the inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R) are determined by the binding and unbinding capability of Ca2+ ions and IP3 messengers. With the patch clamp experiments, the stationary properties have been discussed for Xenopus oocyte type-1 IP3R (Oo-IP3R1), type-3 IP3R (Oo-IP3R3) and Spodoptera frugiperda IP3R (Sf-IP3R). In this paper, in order to provide insights about the relation between the observed gating characteristics and the gating parameters in different IP3Rs, we apply the immune algorithm to fit the parameters of a modified DeYoung-Keizer model. By comparing the fitting parameter distributions of three IP3Rs, we suggest that the three types of IP3Rs have the similar open sensitivity in responding to IP3. The Oo-IP3R3 channel is easy to open in responding to low Ca2+ concentration, while Sf-IP3R channel is easily inhibited in responding to high Ca2+ concentration. We also show that the IP3 binding rate is not a sensitive parameter for stationary gating dynamics for three IP3Rs, but the inhibitory Ca2+ binding/unbinding rates are sensitive parameters for gating dynamics for both Oo-IP3R1 and Oo-IP3R3 channels. Such differences may be important in generating the spatially and temporally complex Ca2+ oscillations in cells. Our study also demonstrates that the immune algorithm can be applied for model parameter searching in biological systems.

  17. 基于FPGA的IP over CCSDS设计与实现%Design and Implementation of FPGA-based IP over CCSDS

    周海; 卞春江; 孟新; 张磊; 陈宇


    首先介绍了TCP/IP(传输控制协议/网际协议)技术和CCSDS(空间数据系统咨询委员会)建议的应用背景,从天地网络一体化和未来空间站与地面交互式通信系统需求的角度出发,提出了一种基于FPGA(现场可编程门阵列)的IP over CCSDS处理方法.详细描述了IP over CCSDS软件的实现方案和技术特点,并对其进行了测试和结果分析.%Extensive applications of TCP/IP technology and CCSDS recommendations are introduced. To extend the Internet to space and to meet the requirements of an interactive communication system between ground stations and a space station in the future, a gateway device based on TCP-TP protocol converter and IP over CCSDS technology is proposed. The methodology and implementation of IP over CCSDS FPGA software are introduced in detail and test results are analyzed.

  18. Data exploration, quality control and statistical analysis of ChIP-exo/nexus experiments.

    Welch, Rene; Chung, Dongjun; Grass, Jeffrey; Landick, Robert; Keles, Sündüz


    ChIP-exo/nexus experiments rely on innovative modifications of the commonly used ChIP-seq protocol for high resolution mapping of transcription factor binding sites. Although many aspects of the ChIP-exo data analysis are similar to those of ChIP-seq, these high throughput experiments pose a number of unique quality control and analysis challenges. We develop a novel statistical quality control pipeline and accompanying R/Bioconductor package, ChIPexoQual, to enable exploration and analysis of ChIP-exo and related experiments. ChIPexoQual evaluates a number of key issues including strand imbalance, library complexity, and signal enrichment of data. Assessment of these features are facilitated through diagnostic plots and summary statistics computed over regions of the genome with varying levels of coverage. We evaluated our QC pipeline with both large collections of public ChIP-exo/nexus data and multiple, new ChIP-exo datasets from Escherichia coli. ChIPexoQual analysis of these datasets resulted in guidelines for using these QC metrics across a wide range of sequencing depths and provided further insights for modelling ChIP-exo data. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Internetiside VoIP sobib ka ettevõtteile / Valdur Laid

    Laid, Valdur, 1969-


    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 8. juuni lk. 19. Kommunikatsiooni liikumisest internetti ehk IP-võrku ning selle võimalustest ettevõtjaile. Vt. samas: Väikefirmade IP-lahendus jõuab aasta lõpus massturule

  20. Evaluating the potential of IP-10 and MCP-2 as biomarkers for the diagnosis of TB

    Ruhwald, Morten; Bodmer, T; Maier, C


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of diagnostic tests based on IP-10 and MCP-2, and compare the performance with the Quantiferon-Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT) test.IP-10 and MCP-2 were determined in supernatants from whole blood stimulated with M.tuberculosis-specific antigens. Samples...

  1. A simple method to quantitate IP-10 in dried blood and plasma spots

    Aabye, Martine G; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Werlinrud, Anne Marie


    Antigen specific release of IP-10 is an established marker for infection with M.tuberculosis. Compared to IFN-γ, IP-10 is released in 100-fold higher concentrations enabling the development of novel assays for detection. Dried blood spots are a convenient sample for high throughput newborn...

  2. VoIP interconnection ; between Internet, Cable, Mobile and Fixed Worlds

    Deventer, M.O. van; Keesmaat, I.


    Four worlds on their own that hardly interconnect; All use SIP, but differently - Internet world - Mobile world - Cable world - Fixed world - At most, only basic voice service will interoperate between those worlds In recent years, VoIP/multimedia services (VoIP: Voice over Internet Protocol) have d

  3. ERP44 inhibits human lung cancer cell migration mainly via IP3R2.

    Huang, Xue; Jin, Meng; Chen, Ying-Xiao; Wang, Jun; Zhai, Kui; Chang, Yan; Yuan, Qi; Yao, Kai-Tai; Ji, Guangju


    Cancer cell migration is involved in tumour metastasis. However, the relationship between calcium signalling and cancer migration is not well elucidated. In this study, we used the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line to examine the role of endoplasmic reticulum protein 44 (ERP44), which has been reported to regulate calcium release inside of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in cell migration. We found that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs/ITPRs) inhibitor 2-APB significantly inhibited A549 cell migration by inhibiting cell polarization and pseudopodium protrusion, which suggests that Ca2+ is necessary for A549 cell migration. Similarly, the overexpression of ERP44 reduced intracellular Ca2+ release via IP3Rs, altered cell morphology and significantly inhibited the migration of A549 cells. These phenomena were primarily dependent on IP3R2 because wound healing in A549 cells with IP3R2 rather than IP3R1 or IP3R3 siRNA was markedly inhibited. Moreover, the overexpression of ERP44 did not affect the migration of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, which mainly expresses IP3R1. Based on the above observations, we conclude that ERP44 regulates A549 cell migration mainly via an IP3R2-dependent pathway.

  4. On Tuning the Knobs of Distribution-Based Methods for Detecting VoIP Covert Channels


    for use, because of the high bandwidth provided by the channels. However, Huang et al. [16] present a VoIP covert channel using steganography that...approximation theory. In Proc. of 49th IEEE FOCS, 2008. [16] Y F Huang, S Tang, and J Yuan. Steganography in inactive frames of VoIP streams encoded by

  5. Host-tree monoterpenes and biosynthesis of aggregation pheromones in the bark beetle ips paraconfusus

    In the 1970-80s, vapors of the common conifer tree monoterpenes, myrcene and a-pinene, were shown to serve as precursors of ipsenol, ipsdienol and cis-verbenol, aggregation pheromone components of Ips paraconfusus. A paradigm developed that Ips bark beetles utilize pre-formed monoterpene precursors ...

  6. Reducing handover latency in future IP-based wireless networks: Fast Proxy Mobile IPv6

    Heijenk, Geert; Bargh, Mortaza S.; Laganier, Julien; Prasad, Anand R.


    Current IP-level mobility protocols have difficulties meeting the stringent handover delay requirements of future wireless networks. At the same time they do not give sufficient control to the network to control the handover process. This paper presents an extension to Proxy Mobile IP, which is the

  7. Effects of hypoxia on pluripotency in murine iPS cells.

    Sugimoto, Kouji; Yoshizawa, Yuu; Yamada, Shizuka; Igawa, Kazunari; Hayashi, Yoshihiko; Ishizaki, Hidetaka


    Retroviral transduction of four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc) or three factors, excluding c-Myc, has been shown to initiate a reprogramming process that results in the transformation of murine fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, and there has been a rapid increase in the number of iPS cell-based preclinical trials. In this study, the effects of these transcription factors were evaluated regarding the growth and differentiation of murine iPS cells under hypoxia. Based on the results of RT-PCR and alizarin red S staining, there were no statistical differences in the growth and differentiation of iPS cells or the induction of iPS cells to osteoblasts under hypoxia between the transcription factor groups. Furthermore, the function of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) in murine iPS cells under hypoxia was investigated in relation to the morphology and expression of transcription factors using RT-PCR and Western blotting. The HIF-2α knockdown group exhibited a decrease in the colony size of the iPS cells. The HIF-2α or -3α knockdown group demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in the transcription factor expression compared to that observed in the control group. These results demonstrate that HIF-2α among HIFs is the most influential candidate for the maintenance of the pluripotency of murine iPS cells.

  8. [Differentiation of functional cells from iPS cells by efficient gene transfer].

    Kawabata, Kenji; Tashiro, Katsuhisa; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki


    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which are generated from somatic cells by transducing four genes, are expected to have broad application to regenerative medicine. Although establishment of an efficient gene transfer system for iPS cells is considered to be essential for differentiating them into functional cells, the detailed transduction characteristics of iPS cells have not been examined. By using an adenovirus (Ad) vector containing the cytomegalovirus enhancer/beta-actin (CA) promoters, we have developed an efficient transduction system for mouse mesenchymal stem cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Also, we applied our transduction system to mouse iPS cells and investigated whether efficient differentiation could be achieved by Ad vector-mediated transduction of a functional gene. As in the case of ES cells, the Ad vector could efficiently transduce transgenes into mouse iPS cells. We found that the CA promoter had potent transduction ability in iPS cells. Moreover, exogenous expression of a PPARγ gene or a Runx2 gene into mouse iPS cells by an optimized Ad vector enhanced adipocyte or osteoblast differentiation, respectively. These results suggest that Ad vector-mediated transient transduction is sufficient to promote cellular differentiation and that our transduction methods would be useful for therapeutic applications based on iPS cells.

  9. Structural Basis and IP6 Requirement for Pds5-Dependent Cohesin Dynamics

    Ouyang, Zhuqing; Zheng, Ge; Tomchick, Diana R; Luo, Xuelian; Yu, Hongtao


    .... The structure further reveals that Pds5 can bind inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6). The IP6-binding segment of Pds5B is shaped like the jaw of a plier lever and inhibits the binding of Scc1 to Smc3. We propose that Pds5 stabilizes a transient, open state of cohesin to promote its release from chromosomes.

  10. Joint modeling of ChIP-seq data via a Markov random field model

    Bao, Yanchun; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst; 't Hoen, Peter A C


    Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments have now become routine in biology for the detection of protein-binding sites. In this paper, we present a Markov random field model for the joint analysis of multiple ChIP-seq experiments. The proposed model naturally accounts for spat

  11. 78 FR 14701 - Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services...


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications... Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services...) 418-0530 (voice), (202) 418-0432 (TTY). Synopsis As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995...

  12. File list - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us ChIP-Atla...License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us File list - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive ...

  13. Increasing supported VoIP flows in WMNs through link-based aggregation

    Olwal, T


    Full Text Available . This paper introduces VoIP over WMNs and uses a link based packet aggregation scheme to improve VoIP performance in IEEE 802.11 based WMNs operating under distributed coordinate function (DCF). Simulation results show that the proposed aggregation scheme...

  14. Myricetin stimulates the absorption of the pro-carcinogen PhIP

    Schutte, M.E.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Alink, G.M.; Groten, J.P.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.


    The effect of the flavonoid myricetin on the transport of the pro-carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) through differentiated Caco-2 monolayers, a model for the intestinal epithelium, is described. Myricetin causes an increase of the transport of PhIP from the apical to

  15. Data directory - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Full Text Available List Contact us ChIP-Atlas Data directory Data detail Data name Data directory DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc01558-...abase Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Data directory - ChIP-Atlas | LSDB Archive ...

  16. Internetiside VoIP sobib ka ettevõtteile / Valdur Laid

    Laid, Valdur, 1969-


    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 8. juuni lk. 19. Kommunikatsiooni liikumisest internetti ehk IP-võrku ning selle võimalustest ettevõtjaile. Vt. samas: Väikefirmade IP-lahendus jõuab aasta lõpus massturule

  17. Default Path and Dedicated Path: A New Approach to Realize IP Directly Over WDM


    Combining IP and WDM is an attractive direction for research. Instead the point to point linking method, this paper proposes a new approach to realize IP directly over WDM, called DPDP (default path and dedicated path), presents a conceivable architecture in detail and explains its working procedure. A lot of problems related with this design are also discussed.

  18. Multi-wavelength Observations of the Enduring Type IIn Supernovae 2005ip and 2006jd

    Stritzinger, Maximilian; Taddia, Francesco; Fransson, Claes;


    We present an observational study of the Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) 2005ip and 2006jd. Broadband UV, optical, and near-IR photometry, and visual-wavelength spectroscopy of SN 2005ip complement and extend upon published observations to 6.5 years past discovery. Our observations of SN 2006jd ext...

  19. The battle between standards: TCP/IP vs OSI victory through path dependency or by quality?

    Maathuis, I.J.H.; Smit, W.A.; Egyedi, T.M.; Krechmer, K.; Jakobs, K.


    Between the end of the 1970s and 1994 a fierce competition existed between two possible standards, TCP/IP and OSI, to solve the problem of interoperability of computer networks. Around 1994 it became evident that TCP/IP and not OSI had become the dominant standard. We specifically deal with the ques

  20. Life History and Biology of Ips latidens (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)\\t

    D.R. Miller; J.H. Borden


    The life history and biology of Ips latidens (LeConte) were investigated using bark-sandwich and whole-log rearing methods. In contrast with other Ips spp., some females initiated galleries under conditions of female-biased sex ratios, and sometimes 2 or more males were present in a gallery. In general, however, I....

  1. IP-10 Can Be Measured in Dried Plasma Spots in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Infection

    Ruhwald, Morten; Andersen, Ellen Sloth; Christensen, Peer Brehm;


    The chemokine IP-10 (CXCL10) is a candidate marker for hepatitis C virus (HCV) fibrosis monitoring. The aim of this proof-of-concept study is to assess if IP-10 measurements from dried plasma spots (DPS) are accurate in HCV-infected patients with either minimal or significant fibrosis. We measured...

  2. A Voice Priority Queue (VPQ Fair Scheduler for the VoIP over WLANs

    Kashif Nisar


    Full Text Available Transmission of VoIP over packet switching networks is one of the rapidly emerging real-time Internet Protocol. The real-time application of the Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP is growing rapidly for it is more flexible than the traditional Public Switched Telephone Networks systems (PSTN. Meanwhile, the VoIP deployment on Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs, which is based on IEEE 802.11 standards, is increasing. Currently, many schedulers have been introduced such as Weighted Fair Queueing (WFQ, Strict Priority (SP General processor sharing (GPS, Deficit Round Robin (DRR, andContention-Aware Temporally fair Scheduling (CATS. Unfortunately, the current scheduling techniques have some drawbacks on real-time applications and therefore will not be able to handle the VoIP packetsin a proper way. The objective of this research is to propose a new scheduler system model for the VoIP application named Voice Priority Queue (VPQ scheduler. The scheduler system model is to ensureefficiency by producing a higher throughput and fairness for VoIP packets. In this paper, only the First Stage of the VPQ packet scheduler and its algorithm are presented. Simulation topologies for VoIP traffic were implemented and analyzed using the Network Simulator (NS-2. The results show that this method can achieve a better and more accurate VoIP quality throughput and fairness index.

  3. Using Transcoding for Hidden Communication in IP Telephony

    Mazurczyk, Wojciech; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof


    The paper presents a new steganographic method for IP telephony called TranSteg (Transcoding Steganography). Typically, in steganographic communication it is advised for covert data to be compressed in order to limit its size. In TranSteg it is the overt data that is compressed to make space for the steganogram. The main innovation of TranSteg is to, for a chosen voice stream, find a codec that will result in a similar voice quality but smaller voice payload size than the originally selected. Then, the voice stream is transcoded. At this step the original voice payload size is intentionally unaltered and the change of the codec is not indicated. Instead, after placing the transcoded voice payload, the remaining free space is filled with hidden data. TranSteg proof of concept implementation was designed and developed. The obtained experimental results are enclosed in this paper. They prove that the proposed method is feasible and offers a high steganographic bandwidth. TranSteg detection is difficult to perfor...

  4. MD#1182: Calibration of diamond particle detectors in IP6

    Valette, Matthieu; Lindstrom, Bjorn Hans Filip; Wiesner, Christoph


    In case of an asynchronous beam dump with a fully filled LHC machine it is expected that all standard ionisation chamber Beam Loss Monitors (IC BLM) around the LHC dumping region in IP6 will be saturated. Diamond Beam Loss Monitors (dBLM) were therefore installed next to the movable dump protection absorber (TCDQ) downstream of the extraction kickers. These detectors allow resolving losses at a nanosecond timescale and with an dynamic range of several orders of magnitude; thus, allowing to know the number of nominal bunches impacting the TCDQ. After a first series of calibrations using asynchronous beam dump tests, an experiment was conducted during MD#1182 to demonstrate the possibility of resolving a nominal bunch hitting the TCDQ. The impact parameter of the bunches on the TCDQ was first scanned using probe bunches with lower intensity then tests were done with nominal bunches (1.1e11 p/bunch) at injection energy. High energy calibration of the losses was also attempted unsuccessfully. Due to different beh...

  5. ChIP-Seq identification of weakly conserved heart enhancers.

    Blow, Matthew J; McCulley, David J; Li, Zirong; Zhang, Tao; Akiyama, Jennifer A; Holt, Amy; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Shoukry, Malak; Wright, Crystal; Chen, Feng; Afzal, Veena; Bristow, James; Ren, Bing; Black, Brian L; Rubin, Edward M; Visel, Axel; Pennacchio, Len A


    Accurate control of tissue-specific gene expression plays a pivotal role in heart development, but few cardiac transcriptional enhancers have thus far been identified. Extreme noncoding-sequence conservation has successfully predicted enhancers that are active in many tissues but has failed to identify substantial numbers of heart-specific enhancers. Here, we used ChIP-Seq with the enhancer-associated protein p300 from mouse embryonic day 11.5 heart tissue to identify over 3,000 candidate heart enhancers genome wide. Compared to enhancers active in other tissues we studied at this time point, most candidate heart enhancers were less deeply conserved in vertebrate evolution. Nevertheless, transgenic mouse assays of 130 candidate regions revealed that most function reproducibly as enhancers active in the heart, irrespective of their degree of evolutionary constraint. These results provide evidence for a large population of poorly conserved heart enhancers and suggest that the evolutionary conservation of embryonic enhancers can vary depending on tissue type.

  6. SINET3: advanced optical and IP hybrid network

    Urushidani, Shigeo


    This paper introduces the new Japanese academic backbone network called SINET3, which has been in full-scale operation since June 2007. SINET3 provides a wide variety of network services, such as multi-layer transfer, enriched VPN, enhanced QoS, and layer-1 bandwidth on demand (BoD) services to create an innovative and prolific science infrastructure for more than 700 universities and research institutions. The network applies an advanced hybrid network architecture composed of 75 layer-1 switches and 12 high-performance IP routers to accommodate such diversified services in a single network platform, and provides sufficient bandwidth using Japan's first STM256 (40 Gbps) lines. The network adopts lots of the latest networking technologies, such as next-generation SDH (VCAT/GFP/LCAS), GMPLS, advanced MPLS, and logical-router technologies, for high network convergence, flexible resource assignment, and high service availability. This paper covers the network services, network design, and networking technologies of SINET3.

  7. Improving Quality of Service from TCP/IP Performance Degradation



    Full Text Available TCP is currently the dominate congestion control protocol for the Internet. However, as the Internet evolves into a high-speed wired-cum-wireless hybrid network, performance degradation problems of TCP have appeared, such as underutilizing high-speed links, regarding wireless loss as congestion signal, and unfairness among flows with different RTTs. In order to improve the quality of service for such highspeed hybrid networks, we propose a router-assisted congestion control protocol called Quick Flow Control Protocol (QFCP. The convergence of many traditional services over IPbased infrastructures drastically increases the amount of IP data traffic to be delivered to user clients, thus raising questions about the management of quality of service in such networks. Quality of service will be of primary importance in order to ensure right operation, and to face the occurrence of congestion conditions, due to bandwidth demandingmultimedia services. in this paper, shows that QFCP can significantly shorten flow completion time, fairly allocate bandwidth resource, and be robust to non-congestion related loss. Also we consider a possible scenarios in which multiple multimedia and control streams are conveyed over the same HAN, and study a possible solution for the implementation of an easily manageable QoS framework, that relies on a QoS router based on open source software.

  8. Scalable Fault-Tolerant Location Management Scheme for Mobile IP

    JinHo Ahn


    Full Text Available As the number of mobile nodes registering with a network rapidly increases in Mobile IP, multiple mobility (home of foreign agents can be allocated to a network in order to improve performance and availability. Previous fault tolerant schemes (denoted by PRT schemes to mask failures of the mobility agents use passive replication techniques. However, they result in high failure-free latency during registration process if the number of mobility agents in the same network increases, and force each mobility agent to manage bindings of all the mobile nodes registering with its network. In this paper, we present a new fault-tolerant scheme (denoted by CML scheme using checkpointing and message logging techniques. The CML scheme achieves low failure-free latency even if the number of mobility agents in a network increases, and improves scalability to a large number of mobile nodes registering with each network compared with the PRT schemes. Additionally, the CML scheme allows each failed mobility agent to recover bindings of the mobile nodes registering with the mobility agent when it is repaired even if all the other mobility agents in the same network concurrently fail.

  9. A Survey of DDOS Attacks in TCP/IP Stack

    P.C. Senthil Mahesh


    Full Text Available The aim of study is to discuss DDOS attack in TCP/IP layer. A Denial-of-Service (DoS or Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS attack is an attempt to make a device or network source not available to its designed customers. The purposes and objectives of a DoS attack may differ, it usually includes initiatives to momentarily or consistently disrupt or hold solutions of a variety linked with the Online. As explanation, DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service attack are sent by two or more individuals, or bots. DoS (Denial of Service attack are sent by one person or system. DoS attack typically focus on sites or solutions organized on high-profile web or web servers such as financial institutions, bank card payment gateways and even main name servers. This technique has now seen comprehensive use in certain activities, used by server owners, or dissatisfied opponents on activities. Progressively, DoS attack have also been used as a way of level of resistance.

  10. Buffer Planning for IP Placement Using Sliced-LFF

    Ou He


    Full Text Available IP cores are widely used in modern SOC designs. Hierarchical design has been employed for the growing design complexity, which stimulates the need for fixed-outline floorplanning. Meanwhile, buffer insertion is usually adopted to meet the timing requirement. In this paper, buffer insertion is considered with a fixed-outline constraint using Less Flexibility First (LFF algorithm. Compared with Simulated Annealing (SA, our work is able to distinguish geometric differences between two floorplan candidates, even if they have the same topological structure. This is helpful to get a better result for buffer planning since buffer insertion is quite sensitive to a geometric change. We also extend the previous LFF to a more robust version called Sliced-LFF to improve buffer planning. Moreover, a 2-staged LFF framework and a post-greedy procedure are introduced based on our net-classing strategy and finally achieve a significant improvement on the success rate of buffer insertion (40.7% and 37.1% in different feature sizes. Moreover, our work is much faster than SA, since it is deterministic without iterations.

  11. TCP I-Vegas in Mobile-IP Network

    Nitin Jain


    Full Text Available Mobile Internet Protocol (Mobile-IP or MIP provides hosts with the ability to change their point of attachment to the network without compromising their ability to communicate. However, when TCP Vegas is used over a MIP network, its performance degrades because it may respond to a handoff by invoking its congestion control algorithm. TCP Vegas is sensitive to the change of Round-Trip Time (RTT and it may recognize the increased RTT as a result of network congestion. This is because TCP Vegas could not differentiate whether the increased RTT is due to route change or network congestion. This paper presents a new and improved version of conventional TCP Vegas, which we named as TCP I-Vegas (where “I”, stands for Improved. Vegas performs well when compared to Reno but when sharing bandwidth with Reno its performance degrades. I-Vegas has been designed keeping in mind that whenever TCP variants like Reno has to share the bandwidth with Vegas then instead of using Vegas, if we use I-Vegas then the loss which Vegas would have to bear will not be more. We compared the performance of I-Vegas with Vegas in MIP environment using Network Simulator (NS-2. Simulation results show that I-Vegas performs better than Vegas in terms of providing better throughput and congestion window behavior.

  12. Removing Ambiguities of IP Telephony Traffic Using Protocol Scrubbers

    Bazara I. A. Barry


    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs face the serious challenge of attacks such as insertion and evasion attacks that are caused by ambiguous network traffic. Such ambiguity comes as a result of the nature of network traffic which includes protocol implementation variations and errors alongside legitimate network traffic. Moreover, attackers can intentionally introduce further ambiguities in the traffic. Consequently, NIDSs need to be aware of these ambiguities when detection is performed and make sure to differentiate between true attacks and protocol implementation variations or errors; otherwise, detection accuracy can be affected negatively. In this paper we present the design and implementation of tools that are called protocol scrubbers whose main functionality is to remove ambiguities from network traffic before it is presented to the NIDS. The proposed protocol scrubbers are designed for session initiation and data transfer protocols in IP telephony systems. They guarantee that the traffic presented to NIDSs is unambiguous by eliminating ambiguous behaviors of protocols using well-designed protocol state machines, and walking through packet headers of protocols to make sure packets will be interpreted in the desired way by the NIDS. The experimental results shown in this paper demonstrate the good quality and applicability of the introduced scrubbers.

  13. Acute ethanol administration reduces the antidote effect of N-acetylcysteine after acetaminophen overdose in mice

    Dalhoff, K; Hansen, P B; Ott, P


    1. The combined antidote effect of N-acetylcysteine and ethanol on the toxicity of acetaminophen was investigated. 2. Fed male mice were given acetaminophen i.p. (600 mg kg-1) and after 5 min in addition ethanol i.p. (0.2 ml, 19% v/v), N-acetylcysteine i.p. (1.2 g kg-1, 0.2 ml), N-acetylcysteine ...

  14. Conservação de sementes de ipê Conservation of "ipê" seeds

    Jocely Andreuccetti Maeda


    Full Text Available Sementes de algumas espécies de ipê foram submetidas a diferentes temperaturas de armazenamento, determinando-se a sua porcentagem de germinação a cada quarenta dias, por um período de trinta meses. Nas condições fornecidas de 10 ºC, 29 ºC e 30 ºC em embalagem hermeticamente fechada, e em saco de papel, a condições ambienteis foram avaliadas as seguintes espécies: Tabebuia avellanedae var. paulensis Tol., Tabebuia chrysotricha (Mart. ex-DC. Standley, Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Standley, Tabebuia rosea (Bertol. DC. e Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Tol. Dentre as condições de armazenamento, o tratamento a 10ºC em vidro hermético foi o que manteve a viabilidade da semente por maior tempo, sendo 20 °C também em vidro hermético o segundo melhor resultado. A germinação das sementes armazenadas em saco de papel a temperatura ambiente foi melhor do que a das que foram armazenadas em vidro hermético a 30 °C, sendo esta a pior condição de armazenagem. A comparação entre as espécies mostrou que Tabebuia heptaphylla, apresenta, além de sementes de maior longevidade, maior resistência às condições adversas de armazenamento.Seeds of some species of "ipê" were stored at different temperatures and the germination percentage was determined at forty-day intervals during thirty months. Seeds were subjected to the following conditions: storage in sealed flasks at 10ºC, 20ºC and 30ºC, and in paper bags at room temperature. The following species were evaluated: Tabebuia avellanedae var. paulensis Tol., Tabebuia chrysotricha (Mart. ex DC. Standley, Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. Standley, Tabebuia rosea (Bertol. DC. e Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Tol. Among the treatments studied, storing seeds in sealed flasks at 10°C maintained seed viability for the longest period of time. The second best result was obtained when seeds were kept in sealed flasks at 20ºC. The germination of seeds stored in paper bags at room temperature was higher

  15. Aviation-oriented Mobility Management Method in IP/LEO Satellite Networks

    Guo Xin; Zhang Jun; Zhang Tao; Ding Yanwen


    Taking into chief consideration the features of aviation nodes in satellite networks,such as high moving speed,long communication distance,and high connection frequency,this article proposes an aviatiun-oriented mobility management method for IP/low earth orbit (LEO) satellite networks.By introducing the concept of ground station real-time coverage area,the proposed method uses ground-station-based IP addressing method and cell paging scheme to decrease the frequency of IP binding update requests as well as the paging cost.In comparison with the paging mobile IP (P-MIP) method and the handover-independent IP mobility management method,as is verified by the mathematical analysis and simulation,the proposed method could decrease the management cost.It also possesses better ability to support the aviation nodes because it is subjected to fewer influences from increased node speeds and newly coming connection rates.

  16. Clinical grade iPS cells: need for versatile small molecules and optimal cell sources.

    Wu, Yan-Ling; Pandian, Ganesh N; Ding, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Wen; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Sugiyama, Hiroshi


    Adult mammals possess limited ability to regenerate their lost tissues or organs. The epoch-making strategy of inducing pluripotency in somatic cells incorporates multiple applications in regenerative medicine. However, concerns about the clinical translation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells still exist because of the occurrence of aberrancies, even in genome integration-free methods. As cellular reprogramming is multi-gene-oriented, versatile, bioactive small molecules could concomitantly modulate the transcriptional machinery and aid the generation of clinical grade iPS cells. The availability of optimal cell sources has additional influence on the clinical translation of iPS cells. Herein we provide a critical overview of methods and cell sources available for iPS cell production. We think the review will be a useful resource for researchers who aim to develop small molecules for speeding up the journey of iPS cells from the laboratory to the clinic.

  17. Mesodermal and hematopoietic differentiation from ES and iPS cells.

    Inoue-Yokoo, Tomoko; Tani, Kenzaburo; Sugiyama, Daisuke


    Embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can differentiate into any type of tissue when grown in a suitable culture environment and are considered valuable tools for regenerative medicine. In the field of hematology, generation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mature hematopoietic cells (HCs) from ES and iPS cells through mesodermal cells, the ancestors of HCs, can facilitate transplantation and transfusion therapy. Several studies report generation of functional HCs from both mouse and human ES and iPS cells. This approach will likely be applied to individual patient-derived iPS cells for regenerative medicine approaches and drug screening in the future. Here, we summarize current studies of HC-generation from ES and iPS cells.

  18. All-IP-Ethernet architecture for real-time sensor-fusion processing

    Hiraki, Kei; Inaba, Mary; Tezuka, Hiroshi; Tomari, Hisanobu; Koizumi, Kenichi; Kondo, Shuya


    Serendipter is a device that distinguishes and selects very rare particles and cells from huge amount of population. We are currently designing and constructing information processing system for a Serendipter. The information processing system for Serendipter is a kind of sensor-fusion system but with much more difficulties: To fulfill these requirements, we adopt All IP based architecture: All IP-Ethernet based data processing system consists of (1) sensor/detector directly output data as IP-Ethernet packet stream, (2) single Ethernet/TCP/IP streams by a L2 100Gbps Ethernet switch, (3) An FPGA board with 100Gbps Ethernet I/F connected to the switch and a Xeon based server. Circuits in the FPGA include 100Gbps Ethernet MAC, buffers and preprocessing, and real-time Deep learning circuits using multi-layer neural networks. Proposed All-IP architecture solves existing problem to construct large-scale sensor-fusion systems.

  19. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Kinase 1 (IP6K1) Regulates Inositol Synthesis in Mammalian Cells.

    Yu, Wenxi; Ye, Cunqi; Greenberg, Miriam L


    myo-Inositol, the precursor of all inositol compounds, has pivotal roles in cell metabolism and signaling pathways. Although physiological studies indicate a strong correlation between abnormal intracellular inositol levels and neurological disorders, very little is known about the regulation of inositol synthesis in mammalian cells. In this study, we report that IP6K1, an inositol hexakisphosphate kinase that catalyzes the synthesis of inositol pyrophosphate, regulates inositol synthesis in mammalian cells. Ip6k1 ablation led to profound changes in DNA methylation and expression of Isyna1 (designated mIno1), which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme inositol-3-phosphate synthase. Interestingly, IP6K1 preferentially bound to the phospholipid phosphatidic acid, and this binding was required for IP6K1 nuclear localization and the regulation of mIno1 transcription. This is the first demonstration of IP6K1 as a novel negative regulator of inositol synthesis in mammalian cells.

  20. Efficient IP Traffic over Optical Network Based on Wavelength Translation Switching

    Jha, Vikas; Kalia, Kartik; Chowdhary, Bhawani Shankar;


    With the advent of TCP/IP protocol suite the overall era of communication technologies had been redefined. Now, we can’t ignore the presence of huge amount of IP traffic; data, voice or video increasing day by day creating more pressure on existing communicating media and supporting back bone....... With the humongous popularity of Internet the overall traffic on Internet has the same story. Focusing on transmission of IP traffic in an optical network with signals remaining in their optical nature generated at particular wavelength, proposed is the switching of optically generated IP packets through optical...... cross connects based on translation of wavelength when an IP packet is crossing the optical cross connect. Adding the concepts of layer 3 routing protocols along with the wavelength translation scheme, will help in spanning the overall optical network for a larger area....

  1. [Current status and perspective on regenerative medicine for spinal cord injury using iPS cell].

    Nakamura, Masaya; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki


    Stimulated by the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine awarded for Shinya Yamanaka and Sir John Gurdon, there is an increasing interest in the iPS cells and reprogramming technologies in medical science. While iPS cells are expected to open new era providing enormous opportunities in the biomedical sciences in terms of cell therapies for regenerative medicine, safety-related concerns for iPS cell-based cell therapy should be resolved prior to the clinical application of iPS cells. In this symposium, the pre-clinical investigations of cell therapy for SCI using neural stem/progenitor cells derived from iPS cells, and their safety issues in vivo are outlined.

  2. Analyzing ChIP-seq data: preprocessing, normalization, differential identification, and binding pattern characterization.

    Taslim, Cenny; Huang, Kun; Huang, Tim; Lin, Shili


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) is a high-throughput antibody-based method to study genome-wide protein-DNA binding interactions. ChIP-seq technology allows scientist to obtain more accurate data providing genome-wide coverage with less starting material and in shorter time compared to older ChIP-chip experiments. Herein we describe a step-by-step guideline in analyzing ChIP-seq data including data preprocessing, nonlinear normalization to enable comparison between different samples and experiments, statistical-based method to identify differential binding sites using mixture modeling and local false discovery rates (fdrs), and binding pattern characterization. In addition, we provide a sample analysis of ChIP-seq data using the steps provided in the guideline.

  3. P2X7 Receptor Mediated Growth-Inhibitory Effect in KG1 a Cell Line

    Xiujun Zhang; Lijun Meng


    This study was conducted to investigate ATP-induced growth inhibition in human leukemic cells KGla.METHoDS ATP inhibited cell growth was analyzed by MTSassay.Extemalization of phosphatidylserine could be detected byAnnexin-V-FITC apoptosis staining after activation of the P2X7 re-ceptor.P2X7 mediated pore formation was detected in KGla cellsby Yo-Pro-1 uptake assay.RESUlTS ATP inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent man-ner.The cytotoxic effect could be blocked by P2X7 antagonists,oxidized ATP(OATP)and KN62.Externalization of phosphatidyl-serine could be detected in a time-dependent manner.P2X7 medi-ated pore forigation could be detected in KGla cells.These effectscould not be observed in P2X7 null Ramos cells.CONCLUSIoN The results and our previously reports thatmRNA,protein expression and calcium response of the P2X7receptor in KGla cells,suggested that extracellular ATP effectivelyinduces growth inhibition through apoptosis in KGla cells byactivation of P2X7 receptor,and that may be mediated by extracel-lular Ca2+ineux and pore formation.

  4. Myocardial KChIP2 Expression in Guinea Pig Resolves an Expanded Electrophysiologic Role.

    Nassal, Drew M; Wan, Xiaoping; Liu, Haiyan; Deschênes, Isabelle


    Cardiac ion channels and their respective accessory subunits are critical in maintaining proper electrical activity of the heart. Studies have indicated that the K+ channel interacting protein 2 (KChIP2), originally identified as an auxiliary subunit for the channel Kv4, a component of the transient outward K+ channel (Ito), is a Ca2+ binding protein whose regulatory function does not appear restricted to Kv4 modulation. Indeed, the guinea pig myocardium does not express Kv4, yet we show that it still maintains expression of KChIP2, suggesting roles for KChIP2 beyond this canonical auxiliary interaction with Kv4 to modulate Ito. In this study, we capitalize on the guinea pig as a system for investigating how KChIP2 influences the cardiac action potential, independent of effects otherwise attributed to Ito, given the endogenous absence of the current in this species. By performing whole cell patch clamp recordings on isolated adult guinea pig myocytes, we observe that knock down of KChIP2 significantly prolongs the cardiac action potential. This prolongation was not attributed to compromised repolarizing currents, as IKr and IKs were unchanged, but was the result of enhanced L-type Ca2+ current due to an increase in Cav1.2 protein. In addition, cells with reduced KChIP2 also displayed lowered INa from reduced Nav1.5 protein. Historically, rodent models have been used to investigate the role of KChIP2, where dramatic changes to the primary repolarizing current Ito may mask more subtle effects of KChIP2. Evaluation in the guinea pig where Ito is absent, has unveiled additional functions for KChIP2 beyond its canonical regulation of Ito, which defines KChIP2 as a master regulator of cardiac repolarization and depolarization.

  5. Inhibition by salmeterol and cilomilast of fluticasone-enhanced IP-10 release in airway epithelial cells.

    Reddy, P J; Aksoy, Mark O; Yang, Yi; Li, Xiu Xia; Ji, Rong; Kelsen, Steven G


    The CXC chemokines, IP-10/CXCL10 and IL-8/CXCL8, play a role in obstructive lung disease by attracting Th1/Tc1 lymphocytes and neutrophils, respectively. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long acting beta 2-agonists (LABA) are widely used. However, their effect(s) on the release of IP-10 and IL-8 by airway epithelial cells are poorly understood. This study examined the effects of fluticasone, salmeterol, and agents which raise intracellular cAMP (cilomilast and db-cAMP) on the expression of IP-10 and IL-8 protein and mRNA. Studies were performed in cultured human airway epithelial cells during cytokine-stimulated IP-10 and IL-8 release. Cytokine treatment (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IFN-gamma) increased IP-10 and IL-8 protein and mRNA levels. Fluticasone (0.1 nM to 1 microM) increased IP-10 but reduced IL-8 protein release without changing IP-10 mRNA levels assessed by real time RT-PCR. The combination of salmeterol (1 micro M) and cilomilast (1-10 mu M) reduced IP-10 but had no effect on IL-8 protein. Salmeterol alone (1 micro M) and db-cAMP alone (1 mM) antagonised the effects of fluticasone on IP-10 but not IL-8 protein. In human airway epithelial cells, inhibition by salmeterol of fluticasone-enhanced IP-10 release may be an important therapeutic effect of the LABA/ICS combination not present when the two drugs are used separately.

  6. Dab2ip regulates neuronal migration and neurite outgrowth in the developing neocortex.

    Gum Hwa Lee

    Full Text Available Dab2ip (DOC-2/DAB2 interacting protein is a member of the Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP family that has been previously shown to function as a tumor suppressor in several systems. Dab2ip is also highly expressed in the brain where it interacts with Dab1, a key mediator of the Reelin pathway that controls several aspects of brain development and function. We found that Dab2ip is highly expressed in the developing cerebral cortex, but that mutations in the Reelin signaling pathway do not affect its expression. To determine whether Dab2ip plays a role in brain development, we knocked down or over expressed it in neuronal progenitor cells of the embryonic mouse neocortex using in utero electroporation. Dab2ip down-regulation severely disrupts neuronal migration, affecting preferentially late-born principal cortical neurons. Dab2ip overexpression also leads to migration defects. Structure-function experiments in vivo further show that both PH and GRD domains of Dab2ip are important for neuronal migration. A detailed analysis of transfected neurons reveals that Dab2ip down- or up-regulation disrupts the transition from a multipolar to a bipolar neuronal morphology in the intermediate zone. Knock down of Dab2ip in neurons ex-vivo indicates that this protein is necessary for proper neurite development and for the expression of several major neuronal microtubule associated proteins (MAPs, which are important for neurite growth and stabilization. Thus, our study identifies, for the first time, a critical role for Dab2ip in mammalian cortical development and begins to reveal molecular mechanisms that underlie this function.

  7. 基于IPSec的移动IP安全体系框架%IPSec-based Mobile IP Security Architecture

    顾国飞; 朱光宇; 张世永; 刘松鹏


    Mobile IP is one of the key technologies to implement mobile computing. But its security still needs furtherresearch. After an introduction to mobile IP, IPSec and the threat to mobile IP security,an IPSec-based mobile IP se-curity architecture is presented in the article. This architecture combines IPSec and some other secure measures withmobile IP so as to give mobile IP stronger security. In the article this architecture is discussed in detail and a methodis proposed to traverse firewall using IKE.

  8. IP over DVB-S2的数据封装研究%Research on encapsulation analysis of IP over DVB-S2

    栗彪; 黄焱; 张白愚


    This paper analyses the transmission of IP over DVB-S2, and gives a particular discussion on the available encapsulation protocols for DVB-S2. Multi-protocol encapsulation (MPE), unidirectional lightweight encapsulation (ULE) and generic stream encapsulation (GSE) are the available encapsulation protocols for DVB-S2. Then combining with the IP datagram of the real satellite traffic, the encapsulation efficiency and performance of the available encapsulation protocols are compared. The tests demonstrate that GSE and ULE are more efficient than MPE. GSE is more flexible than others. The IP encapsulation analysis of DVB-S2 provides important references for the IP transmission design of the future DVB systems.%对 DVB-S2中 IP 数据的传输进行了分析,详细讨论了多协议封装,单向轻量封装以及普通流封装各自的封装过程,并结合 DVB-S2系统实际网络环境中的 IP 数据,比较了这3种封装协议的封装性能。理论分析和实验结果表明, GSE、ULE 的封装效率较 MPE 更高效, GSE 封装更灵活,扩展性更好,为下一代及未来 DVB 标准中 IP 封装协议的选择和优化提供了参考和依据。

  9. The first reported generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) and iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes in the Netherlands.

    Freund, C; Davis, R P; Gkatzis, K; Ward-van Oostwaard, D; Mummery, C L


    One of the recent breakthroughs in stem cell research has been the reprogramming of human somatic cells to an embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like state (induced pluripotent stem cells, iPS cells). Similar to ESCs, iPS cells can differentiate into derivatives of the three germ layers, for example cardiomyocytes, pancreatic cells or neurons. This technique offers a new approach to investigating disease pathogenesis and to the development of novel therapies. It may now be possible to generate iPS cells from somatic cells of patients who suffer from vascular genetic diseases, such as hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). The iPS cells will have a similar genotype to that of the patient and can be differentiated in vitro into the cell type(s) that are affected in the patient. Thus they will serve as excellent models for a better understanding of mechanisms underlying the disease. This, together with the ability to test new drugs, could potentially lead to novel therapeutic concepts in the near future. Here we report the first derivation of three human iPS cell lines from two healthy individuals and one HHT patient in the Netherlands. The iPS cells resembled ESCs in morphology and expressed typical ESC markers. In vitro, iPS cells could be differentiated into cells of the three germ layers, including beating cardiomyocytes and vascular cells. With this technique it will be possible to establish human cardiovascular disease models from patient biopsies provided by the principal hospitals in the Netherlands. (Neth Heart J 2010;18:51-4.).

  10. New-generation security network with synergistic IP sensors

    Peshko, Igor


    Global Dynamic Monitoring and Security Network (GDMSN) for real-time monitoring of (1) environmental and atmospheric conditions: chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear hazards, climate/man-induced catastrophe areas and terrorism threats; (2) water, soil, food chain quantifiers, and public health care; (3) large government/public/ industrial/ military areas is proposed. Each GDMSN branch contains stationary or mobile terminals (ground, sea, air, or space manned/unmanned vehicles) equipped with portable sensors. The sensory data are transferred via telephone, Internet, TV, security camera and other wire/wireless or optical communication lines. Each sensor is a self-registering, self-reporting, plug-and-play, portable unit that uses unified electrical and/or optical connectors and operates with IP communication protocol. The variant of the system based just on optical technologies cannot be disabled by artificial high-power radio- or gamma-pulses or sunbursts. Each sensor, being supplied with a battery and monitoring means, can be used as a separate portable unit. Military personnel, police officers, firefighters, miners, rescue teams, and nuclear power plant personnel may individually use these sensors. Terminals may be supplied with sensors essential for that specific location. A miniature "universal" optical gas sensor for specific applications in life support and monitoring systems was designed and tested. The sensor is based on the physics of absorption and/or luminescence spectroscopy. It can operate at high pressures and elevated temperatures, such as in professional and military diving equipment, submarines, underground shelters, mines, command stations, aircraft, space shuttles, etc. To enable this capability, the multiple light emitters, detectors and data processing electronics are located within a specially protected chamber.

  11. Research on DDS IP Core Based on FPGA%基于 FPGA 的 DDS IP 核的研究与设计



      针对传统的用单片机和 DDS 芯片设计高频信号发生器的方法具有的硬件结构复杂、人机交互性差和低可移植性等问题,提出了一种实现高频信号发生器功能的直接数字频率合成器(DDS)IP 软核的设计方法。本设计首先通过加权的方法实现十进制向二进制的转换,提高 IP 核的人机交互性,并引入 streamlined 算法在 FPGA 上实现频率控制字产生单元,解决传统设计中硬件结构复杂的问题。然后,在 ISE 设计平台上采用 Verilog HDL 硬件描述语言进行 DDS 行为描述,连接频率控制字产生单元,实现一个可重载的 DDS IP 软核。最后,在 XILINX SEED XDTK V5实验平台上对 IP 核进行板级验证。验证结果表明,此 IP 核具有良好的人机交互性和可移植性,能够很好的满足实际应用。%According to the complexity of hardware structure , the poor human‐computer interaction and low portability in designing a high frequency signal generator by MCU and DDS chip ,a direct digital frequency synthesis (DDS) IP soft‐core which has a function of high‐frequency signal generator is designed .In order to improve the human‐computer interaction , we convert decimal to binary by the method of weighted , and use streamlined algorithm to create the frequency control word so that we can solve the complexity of hardware structure in the traditional way . Meanwhile , Verilog HDL hardware desiption language is applied to realize the DDS behavior description and achieve an overloaded DDS IP core on the ISE platform .At last ,the board‐level verification of the IP core is developed on the XILINX SEED XDTK V5 platform .It is demonstrated experimentally that the IP core can satisfy the practical application with a good human‐computer interaction and high portability .

  12. Novel sequential ChIP and simplified basic ChIP protocols for promoter co-occupancy and target gene identification in human embryonic stem cells

    Elayaperumal Anuratha


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying transcriptional regulation, particularly in embryonic stem cells, has received increasing attention and involves the systematic identification of target genes and the analysis of promoter co-occupancy. High-throughput approaches based on chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP have been widely used for this purpose. However, these approaches remain time-consuming, expensive, labor-intensive, involve multiple steps, and require complex statistical analysis. Advances in this field will greatly benefit from the development and use of simple, fast, sensitive and straightforward ChIP assay and analysis methodologies. Results We initially developed a simplified, basic ChIP protocol that combines simplicity, speed and sensitivity. ChIP analysis by real-time PCR was compared to analysis by densitometry with the ImageJ software. This protocol allowed the rapid identification of known target genes for SOX2, NANOG, OCT3/4, SOX17, KLF4, RUNX2, OLIG2, SMAD2/3, BMI-1, and c-MYC in a human embryonic stem cell line. We then developed a novel Sequential ChIP protocol to investigate in vivo promoter co-occupancy, which is basically characterized by the absence of antibody-antigen disruption during the assay. It combines centrifugation of agarose beads and magnetic separation. Using this Sequential ChIP protocol we found that c-MYC associates with the SOX2/NANOG/OCT3/4 complex and identified a novel RUNX2/BMI-1/SMAD2/3 complex in BG01V cells. These two TF complexes associate with two distinct sets of target genes. The RUNX2/BMI-1/SMAD2/3 complex is associated predominantly with genes not expressed in undifferentiated BG01V cells, consistent with the reported role of those TFs as transcriptional repressors. Conclusion These simplified basic ChIP and novel Sequential ChIP protocols were successfully tested with a variety of antibodies with human embryonic stem cells, generated a number of novel

  13. Novel characteristics of CtIP at damage-induced foci following the initiation of DNA end resection

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fujimori, Akira [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Okayasu, Ryuichi [International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Uesaka, Mitsuru [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Yajima, Hirohiko, E-mail: [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); International Open Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)


    Highlights: • CtIP becomes hyperphosphorylated and forms foci following cell irradiation. • CtIP accumulates in foci subsequent to the peak of hyperphosphorylation. • CtIP is maintained in a hypophosphorylated state at later times. • CtIP is continuously recruited to DNA double strand breaks downstream of resection. • CtIP presumably have a distinct role following the initiation of resection. - Abstract: Homologous recombination (HR) is a major repair pathway for DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and end resection, which generates a 3′-single strand DNA tail at the DSB, is an early step in the process. Resection is initiated by the Mre11 nuclease together with CtIP. Here, we describe novel characteristics of CtIP at DSBs. At early times following exposure of human cells to ionizing radiation, CtIP localized to the DSB, became hyperphosphorylated and formed foci in an ATM-dependent manner. At later times, when the initiation of resection had occurred, CtIP foci persist but CtIP is maintained in a hypophosphorylated state, which is dependent on ATM and ATR. Exposure to cycloheximide revealed that CtIP turns over at DSB sites downstream of resection. Our findings provide strong evidence that CtIP is continuously recruited to DSBs downstream of both the initiation and extension step of resection, strongly suggesting that CtIP has functions in addition to promoting the initiation of resection during HR.

  14. Analisis Unjuk Kerja Aplikasi VoIP Call Android di Jaringan MANET [Performance Analysis of VoIP Call Application Android in MANET (Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Ryan Ari Setyawan


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis kinerja aplikasi  VoIP call android di jaringan MANET (mobile ad hoc network.  Hasil pengujian menunjukan bahwa aplikasi VoIP call android dapat digunakan di jaringan MANET. Delay yang dihasilkan paling besar di pengujian indoor dengan jarak 11-15 meter yakni sebesar 0,014624811 seconds. Packet loss yang dihasilkan pada range 1%-2% sedangkan standar packet loss yang ditetapkan oleh CISCO untuk layanan aplikasi VoIP adalah < 5%. Jitter yang dihasilkan yakni antara 0,01-0,06 seconds sedangkan standar yang ditetapkan oleh CISCO adalah ≤ 30 ms atau 0,03 seconds. Throughput yang dihasilkan pada proses pengujian yakni antar 161 kbps-481 kbps. *****This study aims to analyze the performance of VOIP call android application in the MANET (mobile ad hoc network. The results showed that VoIP applications could be implemented in MANET network. The highest  delay is produced in indoor testing  with distance of 11-15 meters,  which is equal to 0.014624811 seconds. Packet loss is generated in the range of 1% -2%, while packet loss standards set by Cisco for VoIP application services are <5%. The jitter is between 0.01 to 0.06 seconds, while the standard set by CISCO is ≤ 30 ms or 0.03 seconds. Throughput generated in the testing process is between 161 kbps-481 kbps.

  15. 家用路由型IP-PBX的一种设计方案%Design of home-based routing IP-PBX

    宋欣; 廉明欢


    为了使家庭用户享受到电信网络和IP网络融合的益处,提出了一种家用路由型IP-PBX的设计方案,该方案基于VoIP的软交换软件Astersik,采用了SoC加DSP的硬件架构和嵌入式Linux系统,实现了IP网络服务、传统电话服务、Web服务、E-mail服务的整合.并且给出了该设备在智能家居系统中的一种应用场景.%In order to enable families to enjoy the benefits of the integration of traditional telecommunications network and IP network, a design of routing IP-PBX based household was proposed, which used VoIP's soft switch software Asterisk, embedded Linux system, and SoC plus DSP hardware architecture. This design integrated the IP network services, traditional telephone services, Web service and E-mail service. A usage scenario at intelligent home system was also proposed.

  16. Application Oriented Flow Routing Algorithm for VoIP Overlay Networks

    Wipusitwarakun, Komwut; Chimmanee, Sanon

    Overlay networks which are dynamically created over underlying IP networks are becoming widely used for delivering multimedia contents since they can provide several additional user-definable services. Multiple overlay paths between a source-destination overlay node pair are designed to improve service robustness against failures and bandwidth fluctuation of the underlying networks. Multimedia traffic can be distributed over those multiple paths in order to maximize paths' utilization and to increase application throughputs. Most of flow-based routing algorithms consider only common metrics such as paths' bandwidth or delay, which may be effective for data applications but not for real-time applications such as Voice over IP (VoIP), in which different levels of such performance metrics may give the same level of the performance experienced by end users. This paper focuses on such VoIP overlay networks and proposes a novel alternative path based flow routing algorithm using an application-specific traffic metric, i.e. “VoIP Path Capacity (VPCap), ” to calculate the maximum number of QoS satisfied VoIP flows which may be distributed over each available overlay path at a moment. The simulation results proved that more QoS-satisfied VoIP sessions can be established over the same multiple overlay paths, comparing to traditional approaches.

  17. CMT: a constrained multi-level thresholding approach for ChIP-Seq data analysis.

    Iman Rezaeian

    Full Text Available Genome-wide profiling of DNA-binding proteins using ChIP-Seq has emerged as an alternative to ChIP-chip methods. ChIP-Seq technology offers many advantages over ChIP-chip arrays, including but not limited to less noise, higher resolution, and more coverage. Several algorithms have been developed to take advantage of these abilities and find enriched regions by analyzing ChIP-Seq data. However, the complexity of analyzing various patterns of ChIP-Seq signals still needs the development of new algorithms. Most current algorithms use various heuristics to detect regions accurately. However, despite how many formulations are available, it is still difficult to accurately determine individual peaks corresponding to each binding event. We developed Constrained Multi-level Thresholding (CMT, an algorithm used to detect enriched regions on ChIP-Seq data. CMT employs a constraint-based module that can target regions within a specific range. We show that CMT has higher accuracy in detecting enriched regions (peaks by objectively assessing its performance relative to other previously proposed peak finders. This is shown by testing three algorithms on the well-known FoxA1 Data set, four transcription factors (with a total of six antibodies for Drosophila melanogaster and the H3K4ac antibody dataset.

  18. Hybrid single-packet IP traceback with low storage and high accuracy.

    Yang, Ming Hour


    Traceback schemes have been proposed to trace the sources of attacks that usually hide by spoofing their IP addresses. Among these methods, schemes using packet logging can achieve single-packet traceback. But packet logging demands high storage on routers and therefore makes IP traceback impractical. For lower storage requirement, packet logging and packet marking are fused to make hybrid single-packet IP traceback. Despite such attempts, their storage still increases with packet numbers. That is why RIHT bounds its storage with path numbers to guarantee low storage. RIHT uses IP header's ID and offset fields to mark packets, so it inevitably suffers from fragment and drop issues for its packet reassembly. Although the 16-bit hybrid IP traceback schemes, for example, MORE, can mitigate the fragment problem, their storage requirement grows up with packet numbers. To solve the storage and fragment problems in one shot, we propose a single-packet IP traceback scheme that only uses packets' ID field for marking. Our major contributions are as follows: (1) our fragmented packets with tracing marks can be reassembled; (2) our storage is not affected by packet numbers; (3) it is the first hybrid single-packet IP traceback scheme to achieve zero false positive and zero false negative rates.

  19. RIDES: Robust Intrusion Detection System for IP-Based Ubiquitous Sensor Networks

    Sungwon Lee


    Full Text Available TheIP-based Ubiquitous Sensor Network (IP-USN is an effort to build the “Internet of things”. By utilizing IP for low power networks, we can benefit from existing well established tools and technologies of IP networks. Along with many other unresolved issues, securing IP-USN is of great concern for researchers so that future market satisfaction and demands can be met. Without proper security measures, both reactive and proactive, it is hard to envisage an IP-USN realm. In this paper we present a design of an IDS (Intrusion Detection System called RIDES (Robust Intrusion DEtection System for IP-USN. RIDES is a hybrid intrusion detection system, which incorporates both Signature and Anomaly based intrusion detection components. For signature based intrusion detection this paper only discusses the implementation of distributed pattern matching algorithm with the help of signature-code, a dynamically created attack-signature identifier. Other aspects, such as creation of rules are not discussed. On the other hand, for anomaly based detection we propose a scoring classifier based on the SPC (Statistical Process Control technique called CUSUM charts. We also investigate the settings and their effects on the performance of related parameters for both of the components.

  20. Automation of Library Preparation for High-resolution ChIP-seq Profiling

    Henry, Isabelle M.; Cotterman, Rebecca; Knoepfler, Paul; Comai, Luca; Kim, Ryan W.; O'Geen, Henriette


    The dynamic modification of DNA and histones plays a key role in transcriptional regulationthrough altering the packaging of DNA and modifying the nucleosome surface. These chromatin states, also referred to as the epigenome, are distinctive for different tissues, developmental stages, and disease states and can also be altered by environmental influences. New technologies allow the genome-wide visualization of the information encoded in theepigenome. For example, the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay allows investigators to characterize DNA–protein interactions in vivo. ChIP followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) is a powerful tool to identify genome-wide profiles of transcription factors, histone modifications, DNA methylation, and nucleosome positioning. The low yield of ChIP assays presents a challenge for reproducible and high quality library preparation for high throughput sequencing. Using the automated library preparation system from IntegenX, we prepared ChIP-seq libraries from as little as 1 ng ChIP DNA material. Sequencing of biological replicates on the Illumina platform confirmed a 95%-98% overlap of identified binding sites. Progress of ChIP experiments using limited tissue amounts from rice seedlings as well as other applications of the library automation system will be discussed.

  1. The generation of iPS cells using non-viral magnetic nanoparticle based transfection.

    Lee, Chang Hyun; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Joo; Jeon, Kilsoo; Lim, HyeJin; Choi, Hye yeon; Lee, Eung-Ryoung; Park, Seung Hwa; Park, Jae-Yong; Hong, Sunghoi; Kim, Soonhag; Cho, Ssang-Goo


    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been generated from various somatic cells; however, a major restriction of the technology is the use of potentially harmful genome-integrating viral DNAs. Here, without a viral vector, we generated iPS cells from fibroblasts using a non-viral magnetic nanoparticle-based transfection method that employs biodegradable cationic polymer PEI-coated super paramagnetic nanoparticles (NP). Our findings support the possible use of transient expression of iPS genes in somatic cells by magnet-based nanofection for efficient generation of iPS cells. Results of dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis and TEM analyses demonstrated efficient conjugation of NP with iPS genes. After transfection, nanofection-mediated iPS cells showed ES cell-like characteristics, including expression of endogenous pluripotency genes, differentiation of three germ layer lineages, and formation of teratomas. Our results demonstrate that magnet-based nanofection may provide a safe method for use in generation of virus-free and exogenous DNA-free iPS cells, which will be crucial for future clinical applications in the field of regenerative medicine.

  2. Reprogramming in vivo produces teratomas and iPS cells with totipotency features.

    Abad, María; Mosteiro, Lluc; Pantoja, Cristina; Cañamero, Marta; Rayon, Teresa; Ors, Inmaculada; Graña, Osvaldo; Megías, Diego; Domínguez, Orlando; Martínez, Dolores; Manzanares, Miguel; Ortega, Sagrario; Serrano, Manuel


    Reprogramming of adult cells to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) has opened new therapeutic opportunities; however, little is known about the possibility of in vivo reprogramming within tissues. Here we show that transitory induction of the four factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc in mice results in teratomas emerging from multiple organs, implying that full reprogramming can occur in vivo. Analyses of the stomach, intestine, pancreas and kidney reveal groups of dedifferentiated cells that express the pluripotency marker NANOG, indicative of in situ reprogramming. By bone marrow transplantation, we demonstrate that haematopoietic cells can also be reprogrammed in vivo. Notably, reprogrammable mice present circulating iPS cells in the blood and, at the transcriptome level, these in vivo generated iPS cells are closer to embryonic stem cells (ES cells) than standard in vitro generated iPS cells. Moreover, in vivo iPS cells efficiently contribute to the trophectoderm lineage, suggesting that they achieve a more plastic or primitive state than ES cells. Finally, intraperitoneal injection of in vivo iPS cells generates embryo-like structures that express embryonic and extraembryonic markers. We conclude that reprogramming in vivo is feasible and confers totipotency features absent in standard iPS or ES cells. These discoveries could be relevant for future applications of reprogramming in regenerative medicine.

  3. Integrating QoS and security functions in an IP-VPN gateway

    Fan, Kuo-Pao; Chang, Shu-Hsin; Lin, Kuan-Ming; Pen, Mau-Jy


    IP-based Virtual Private Network becomes more and more popular. It can not only reduce the enterprise communication cost but also increase the revenue of the service provider. The common IP-VPN application types include Intranet VPN, Extranet VPN, and remote access VPN. For the large IP-VPN market, some vendors develop dedicated IP-VPN devices; while some vendors add the VPN functions into their existing network equipment such as router, access gateway, etc. The functions in the IP-VPN device include security, QoS, and management. The common security functions supported are IPSec (IP Security), IKE (Internet Key Exchange), and Firewall. The QoS functions include bandwidth control and packet scheduling. In the management component, policy-based network management is under standardization in IETF. In this paper, we discuss issues on how to integrate the QoS and security functions in an IP-VPN Gateway. We propose three approaches to do this. They are (1) perform Qos first (2) perform IPSec first and (3) reserve fixed bandwidth for IPSec. We also compare the advantages and disadvantages of the three proposed approaches.

  4. A chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocol for use in whole human adipose tissue.

    Haim, Yulia; Tarnovscki, Tanya; Bashari, Dana; Rudich, Assaf


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) has become a central method when studying in vivo protein-DNA interactions, with the major challenge being the hope to capture "authentic" interactions. While ChIP protocols have been optimized for use with specific cell types and tissues including adipose tissue-derived cells, a working ChIP protocol addressing the challenges imposed by fresh whole human adipose tissue has not been described. Utilizing human paired omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue obtained during elective abdominal surgeries, we have carefully identified and optimized individual steps in the ChIP protocol employed directly on fresh tissue fragments. We describe a complete working protocol for using ChIP on whole adipose tissue fragments. Specific steps required adaptation of the ChIP protocol to human whole adipose tissue. In particular, a cross-linking step was performed directly on fresh small tissue fragments. Nuclei were isolated before releasing chromatin, allowing better management of fat content; a sonication protocol to obtain fragmented chromatin was optimized. We also demonstrate the high sensitivity of immunoprecipitated chromatin from adipose tissue to freezing. In conclusion, we describe the development of a ChIP protocol optimized for use in studying whole human adipose tissue, providing solutions for the unique challenges imposed by this tissue. Unraveling protein-DNA interaction in whole human adipose tissue will likely contribute to elucidating molecular pathways contributing to common human diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  5. Is IP-10 a better biomarker for active and latent tuberculosis in children than IFNgamma?

    Elizabeth Whittaker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The blood based interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA for the diagnosis of tuberculosis do not discriminate between active TB disease and latent TB infection (LTBI. The search for distinguishing biomarkers therefore continues, as the accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis is particularly challenging in children. IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10 has recently been evaluated as a marker for active TB in adults with promising results. AIM: To investigate this new biomarker for active TB and LTBI in paediatrics. METHOD: We measured IP-10 levels using ELISA in supernatants of whole blood samples stimulated with TB-specific-antigens and negative control antigen. RESULTS: IP-10 is produced in high levels following mycobacterial antigen stimulation in active TB (n = 17 and LTBI (n = 16 compared to controls (n = 16 and to IFN-gamma. The baseline levels of IP-10 are increased in active TB and in LTBI, but there is no significant difference of stimulated levels of IP-10 between active TB and LTBI. CONCLUSIONS: IP-10 is a biomarker for tuberculosis in children. However like IFNgamma, IP-10 also does not distinguish between active TB and LTBI.

  6. A Methodology to Counter DoS Attacks in Mobile IP Communication

    Sazia Parvin


    Full Text Available Similar to wired communication, Mobile IP communication is susceptible to various kinds of attacks. Of these attacks, Denial of Service (DoS attack is considered as a great threat to mobile IP communication. The number of approaches hitherto proposed to prevent DoS attack in the area of mobile IP communication is much less compared to those for the wired domain and mobile ad hoc networks. In this work, the effects of Denial of Service attack on mobile IP communication are analyzed in detail. We propose to use packet filtering techniques that work in different domains and base stations of mobile IP communication to detect suspicious packets and to improve the performance. If any packet contains a spoofed IP address which is created by DoS attackers, the proposed scheme can detect this and then filter the suspected packet. The proposed system can mitigate the effect of Denial of Service (DoS attack by applying three methods: (i by filtering in the domain periphery router (ii by filtering in the base station and (iii by queue monitoring at the vulnerable points of base-station node. We evaluate the performance of our proposed scheme using the network simulator NS-2. The results indicate that the proposed scheme is able to minimize the effects of Denial of Service attacks and improve the performance of mobile IP communication.

  7. ChIP-on-chip analysis methods for Affymetrix tiling arrays.

    Yoder, Sean J


    Although the ChIP-sequencing has gained significant attraction recently, ChIP analysis using microarrays is still an attractive option due to the low cost, ease of analysis, and access to legacy and public data sets. The analysis of ChIP-Chip data entails a multistep approach that requires several different applications to progress from the initial stages of raw data analysis to the identification and characterization of ChIP binding sites. There are multiple approaches to data analysis and there are several applications available for each stage of the analysis pipeline. Each application must be evaluated for its suitability for the particular experiment as well as the investigator's background with computational tools. This chapter is a review of the commonly available applications for Affymetrix ChIP-Chip data analysis, as well as the general workflow of a ChIP-Chip analysis approach. The purpose of the chapter is to allow the researcher to better select the appropriate applications and provide them with the direction necessary to proceed with a ChIP-Chip analysis.

  8. Standardizing chromatin research: a simple and universal method for ChIP-seq.

    Arrigoni, Laura; Richter, Andreas S; Betancourt, Emily; Bruder, Kerstin; Diehl, Sarah; Manke, Thomas; Bönisch, Ulrike


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) is a key technique in chromatin research. Although heavily applied, existing ChIP-seq protocols are often highly fine-tuned workflows, optimized for specific experimental requirements. Especially the initial steps of ChIP-seq, particularly chromatin shearing, are deemed to be exceedingly cell-type-specific, thus impeding any protocol standardization efforts. Here we demonstrate that harmonization of ChIP-seq workflows across cell types and conditions is possible when obtaining chromatin from properly isolated nuclei. We established an ultrasound-based nuclei extraction method (NEXSON: Nuclei EXtraction by SONication) that is highly effective across various organisms, cell types and cell numbers. The described method has the potential to replace complex cell-type-specific, but largely ineffective, nuclei isolation protocols. By including NEXSON in ChIP-seq workflows, we completely eliminate the need for extensive optimization and sample-dependent adjustments. Apart from this significant simplification, our approach also provides the basis for a fully standardized ChIP-seq and yields highly reproducible transcription factor and histone modifications maps for a wide range of different cell types. Even small cell numbers (∼10,000 cells per ChIP) can be easily processed without application of modified chromatin or library preparation protocols.

  9. ChIP-Seq to Analyze the Binding of Replication Proteins to Chromatin.

    Ostrow, A Zachary; Viggiani, Christopher J; Aparicio, Jennifer G; Aparicio, Oscar M


    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a widely used method to study interactions between proteins and discrete chromosomal loci in vivo. ChIP was originally developed for in vivo analysis of protein associations with candidate DNA sequences known or suspected to bind the protein of interest. The advent of DNA microarrays enabled the unbiased, genome-scale identification of all DNA sequences enriched by ChIP, providing a genomic map of a protein's chromatin binding. This method, termed ChIP-chip, is broadly applicable and has been particularly valuable in DNA replication studies to map potential replication origins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other organisms based on the specific association of certain replication proteins with these chromosomal elements, which are distributed throughout the genome. More recently, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies have replaced microarrays as the preferred method for genomic analysis of ChIP experiments, and this combination is termed ChIP-Seq. We present a detailed ChIP-Seq protocol for S. cerevisiae that can be adapted for different HTS platforms and for different organisms. We also outline general schemes for data analysis; however, HTS data analyses usually must be tailored specifically for individual studies, depending on the experimental design, data characteristics, and the genome being analyzed.

  10. Integration-free iPS cells engineered using human artificial chromosome vectors.

    Masaharu Hiratsuka

    Full Text Available Human artificial chromosomes (HACs have unique characteristics as gene-delivery vectors, including episomal transmission and transfer of multiple, large transgenes. Here, we demonstrate the advantages of HAC vectors for reprogramming mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs into induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells. Two HAC vectors (iHAC1 and iHAC2 were constructed. Both carried four reprogramming factors, and iHAC2 also encoded a p53-knockdown cassette. iHAC1 partially reprogrammed MEFs, and iHAC2 efficiently reprogrammed MEFs. Global gene expression patterns showed that the iHACs, unlike other vectors, generated relatively uniform iPS cells. Under non-selecting conditions, we established iHAC-free iPS cells by isolating cells that spontaneously lost iHAC2. Analyses of pluripotent markers, teratomas and chimeras confirmed that these iHAC-free iPS cells were pluripotent. Moreover, iHAC-free iPS cells with a re-introduced HAC encoding Herpes Simplex virus thymidine kinase were eliminated by ganciclovir treatment, indicating that the HAC safeguard system functioned in iPS cells. Thus, the HAC vector could generate uniform, integration-free iPS cells with a built-in safeguard system.

  11. Threshold-based generic scheme for encrypted and tunneled Voice Flows Detection over IP Networks

    M. Mazhar U. Rathore


    Full Text Available VoIP usage is rapidly growing due to its cost effectiveness, dramatic functionality over the traditional telephone network and its compatibility with public switched telephone network (PSTN. In some countries, like Pakistan, the commercial usage of VoIP is prohibited. Internet service providers (ISPs and telecommunication authorities are interested in detecting VoIP calls to either block or prioritize them. So detection of VoIP calls is important for both types of authorities. Signature-based, port-based, and pattern-based VoIP detection techniques are inefficient due to complex and confidential security and tunneling mechanisms used by VoIP. In this paper, we propose a generic, robust, efficient, and practically implementable statistical analysis-based solution to identify encrypted, non-encrypted, or tunneled VoIP media (voice flows using threshold values of flow statistical parameters. We have made a comparison with existing techniques and evaluated our system with respect to accuracy and efficiency. Our system has 97.54% direct rate and .00015% false positive rate.

  12. Ainooson et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2012) 9(1):8 ...


    100 and 300 mg kg-1, p.o.) diclofenac (10, 30 and 100 mg kg-1, i.p.) ... intraplantar injection with 0.1 ml Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) into the right hind ..... important actions of low-dose MTX are its effects in increasing adenosine level and.

  13. Molecular mechanisms for the antitumor activity of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6).

    Bozsik, Anikó; Kökény, Szabolcs; Olah, Edith


    Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), a naturally occurring polyphosphorylated carbohydrate, has been reported to have significant in vivo and in vitro anticancer activity against numerous tumors. However, the molecular mechanism of the anticancer effect of IP6 has not been fully elucidated. Using K-562 human leukemia cells we analysed the induction of the erythroid differentiation program, as well as modulation of the gene expression profile of K-562 leukemia cells treated with IP6. A single treatment with IP6 (0.75 or 5.0 mM) resulted in a time- and dose-dependent growth inhibition of K-562 cells and also activation of the erythroid differentiation program. K-562 cells expressed a concomitant differentiation after 12 hours of exposure. Possible molecular mechanisms and key signaling pathways, as well as gene expression behind this anticancer effect were examined using oligonucleotide microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR. Treatment with IP6 (750 microM, 5 mM) had a marked impact, resulting in early (60 min) and late (12 h) modulation of expression of about 1800 and 1200 transcripts (at pIP6 in K-562 was found to be associated with the modulation of multiple genes involved in immunity, Wnt and IGF pathways, PI3 kinase signaling and apoptosis. Using selected subsets of genes, the microarray hits could be validated by Q-PCR. A 2-fold upregulation of the apoptosis pathway, measured using the BAX/BCL-2 ratio was observed for 12 hours. IP6 (5 mM) induced up to 6-fold increases in differentiation measured by hemoglobin synthesis, yielding up to 70% of benzidine-positive cells at 120 hours. The results of this study show that IP6 is a strong inducer of differentiation (cytostatic effect) and a moderately strong inducer of apoptosis (cytotoxic effect). Evidence has been provided to show that the growth inhibitory effects of IP6 are mediated through the modulation of key signaling pathways.

  14. Limitations and possibilities of low cell number ChIP-seq

    Gilfillan Gregor D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq offers high resolution, genome-wide analysis of DNA-protein interactions. However, current standard methods require abundant starting material in the range of 1–20 million cells per immunoprecipitation, and remain a bottleneck to the acquisition of biologically relevant epigenetic data. Using a ChIP-seq protocol optimised for low cell numbers (down to 100,000 cells / IP, we examined the performance of the ChIP-seq technique on a series of decreasing cell numbers. Results We present an enhanced native ChIP-seq method tailored to low cell numbers that represents a 200-fold reduction in input requirements over existing protocols. The protocol was tested over a range of starting cell numbers covering three orders of magnitude, enabling determination of the lower limit of the technique. At low input cell numbers, increased levels of unmapped and duplicate reads reduce the number of unique reads generated, and can drive up sequencing costs and affect sensitivity if ChIP is attempted from too few cells. Conclusions The optimised method presented here considerably reduces the input requirements for performing native ChIP-seq. It extends the applicability of the technique to isolated primary cells and rare cell populations (e.g. biobank samples, stem cells, and in many cases will alleviate the need for cell culture and any associated alteration of epigenetic marks. However, this study highlights a challenge inherent to ChIP-seq from low cell numbers: as cell input numbers fall, levels of unmapped sequence reads and PCR-generated duplicate reads rise. We discuss a number of solutions to overcome the effects of reducing cell number that may aid further improvements to ChIP performance.

  15. Synthesis of an inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) affinity probe to study the interactome from a colon cancer cell line.

    Yin, Meng-Xin; Catimel, Bruno; Gregory, Mark; Condron, Melanie; Kapp, Eugene; Holmes, Andrew B; Burgess, Antony W


    Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6 or IP6) is an important signalling molecule in vesicular trafficking, neurotransmission, immune responses, regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases, activation of ion channels, antioxidant functions and anticancer activities. An IP6 probe was synthesised from myo-inositol via a derivatised analogue, which was immobilised through a terminal amino group onto Dynabeads. Systematic analysis of the IP6 interactome has been performed using the IP6 affinity probe using cytosolic extracts from the LIM1215 colonic carcinoma cell line. LC/MS/MS analysis identified 77 proteins or protein complexes that bind to IP6 specifically, including AP-2 complex proteins and β-arrestins as well as a number of novel potential IP6 interacting proteins. Bioinformatic enrichment analysis of the IP6 interactome reinforced the concept that IP6 regulates a number of biological processes including cell cycle and division, signal transduction, intracellular protein transport, vesicle-mediated transport and RNA splicing.

  16. Mg spin affects adenosinetriphosphate activity

    Tulub, Alexander A


    The Schlegel-Frisch ab initio molecular dynamics (ADMP) (DFT:B3LYP), T = 310 K, is used to study complexation between adenosinetriphosphate (ATP), ATP subsystem, and magnesium cofactor [Mg(H2O)6]2+, Mg subsystem, in a water pool, modeled with 78 water molecules, in singlet (S) and triplet (T) states. The computations prove that the way of ATP cleavage is governed by the electron spin of Mg. In the S state Mg prefers chelation of \\gamma-\\beta-phosphate oxygens (O1-O2), whereas in the T state it chelates \\beta-\\alpha-phosphate oxygens (O2-O3) or produces a single-bonded intermediate. Unlike the chelates, which initiate ionic reaction paths, the single-bonded intermediate starts off a free-radical path of ATP cleavage, yielding a highly reactive adenosinemonophosphate ion-radical, .AMP-, earlier observed in the CIDNP (Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization) experiment (A.A. Tulub, 2006). The free-radical path is highly sensitive to Mg nuclear spin, which through a hyperfine interaction favors the produc...

  17. Hydrolysis of phytic acid by intrinsic plant and supplemented microbial phytase (Aspergillus niger) in the stomach and small intestine of minipigs fitted with re-entrant cannulas. 3. Hydrolysis of phytic acid (IP6) and occurrence of hydrolysis products (IP5, IP4, IP3 and IP2).

    Rapp, C; Lantzsch, H J; Drochner, W


    Hydrolysis of phytate in the stomach and the small intestine as influenced by intrinsic plant (wheat) and supplemented microbial phytase (Aspergillus niger) were investigated with six minipigs (40-50 kg initial body weight) fitted with re-entrant cannulas in the duodenum, 30 cm posterior to the pylorus (animals 1, 4, 5 and 6) and ileocecal re-entrant cannulas, 5 cm prior the ileocecal junction (animals 1, 2 and 3), respectively. Dietary treatments were as follows: (1) diet 1, a corn-based diet [43 U phytase/kg dry matter (DM)]; (2) diet 2, diet 1 supplemented with microbial phytase (818 U/kg DM); and (3) diet 3, a wheat-based diet (1192 U/kg DM). At 07 30 h and 19 30 h, each animal was fed 350 g diet mixed with 1050 ml de-ionized water. Digesta were collected continuously and completely during a 12-h period after feeding. Mean hydrolysis rates of IP6 in the stomach as measured at the proximal duodenum of animals 1, 4, 5 and 6 were 9.0, 77.2 and 66.2% for diet 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Microbial phytase was much more effective in phytate hydrolysis than wheat phytase. Mean IP6 hydrolysis rates of the respective diets in the stomach and small intestine as measured at the distal ileum of animals 1, 2 and 3 were 19.0, 62.6 and 64.6% and were lower than treatment means of the stomach only. Differences existed between experimental animals with respect to their ability to hydrolyse IP6 in the stomach independent of the presence and source of dietary phytase. Considerable amounts of hydrolysis products occurred in both the duodenal and ileal digesta when diets 2 and 3 were fed; however, only traces were determined after ingestion of diet 1. Independent of dietary treatment, four IP5 isomers were detected, but in different amounts.

  18. Managing the PSTN transformation a blueprint for a successful migration to IP-based networks

    Dornheim, Sandra


    While there are many scholarly books and papers that cover the technical issues behind the public switched telephone network (PSTN) migration, few books describe exactly how to manage the migration process economically. Filling this need, Managing the PSTN Transformation: A Blueprint for a Successful Migration to IP-Based Networks reflects the latest understanding of the challenges behind migrating customers from the old PSTN network to an IP infrastructure. The IP transformation blueprint described in this book is not a theoretical cookbook that describes how this could work. Instead, the boo

  19. Thermostability of IFN-γ and IP-10 release assays for latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Blauenfeldt, Thomas; Wagner, Dirk; Aabye, Martine Grosos;


    INTRODUCTION: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) inducible protein 10kD (IP-10) and IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs) are immunodiagnostic tests aiming to identify the presence of specific cellular immune responses, interpreted as markers for latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Incubation at higher...... accuracy of IP-10 release assay and IGRAs. RESULTS: We included 65 patients with confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis and 160 healthy controls from 6 European centres collaborating in the TBnet. In patients, IP-10 responses increased 1.07 (IQR 0.90-1.36) fold and IFN-γ responses decreased 0.88 (IQR 0...

  20. Efficient IP Traffic over Optical Network Based on Wavelength Translation Switching

    Jha, Vikas; Kalia, Kartik; Chowdhary, Bhawani Shankar


    With the advent of TCP/IP protocol suite the overall era of communication technologies had been redefined. Now, we can’t ignore the presence of huge amount of IP traffic; data, voice or video increasing day by day creating more pressure on existing communicating media and supporting back bone...... cross connects based on translation of wavelength when an IP packet is crossing the optical cross connect. Adding the concepts of layer 3 routing protocols along with the wavelength translation scheme, will help in spanning the overall optical network for a larger area....