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Sample records for mg g-1 dry

  1. The M/G/1 queue with permanent customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Cohen, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examine an M/G/1 FCFS (first come, first served) queue with two types of customers: ordinary customers, who arrive according to a Poisson process, and permanent customers, who immediately return to the end of the queue after having received a service. The influence of the permanent

  2. Nonparametric inference from the M/G/1 workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    Consider an M/G/1 queue with unknown service-time distribution and unknown traffic intensity ρ. Given systematically sampled observations of the workload, we construct estimators of ρ and of the service-time distribution function, and we study asymptotoic properties of these estimators....

  3. Nonparametric inference from the M/G/1 workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.

    Consider an M/G/1 queue with unknown service-time distribution and unknown traffic intensity $\\rho$. Given systematically sampled observations of the workload, we construct estimators of $\\rho$ and of the service-time distribution function, and we study asymptotic properties of these estimators....

  4. Triangular M/G/1-type and tree-like QBD Markov chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Houdt, B.; Leeuwaarden, van J.S.H.

    2009-01-01

    In applying matrix-analytic methods to M/G/1-type and tree-like QBD Markov chains, it is crucial to determine the solution to a (set of) nonlinear matrix equation(s). This is usually done via iterative methods. We consider the highly structured subclass of triangular M/G/1-type and tree-like QBD

  5. Global and local asymptotics for the busy period of an M/G/1 queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisov, D.E.; Shneer, V.

    2010-01-01

    We consider an M/G/1 queue with subexponential service times. We give a simple derivation of the global and local asymptotics for the busy period. Our analysis relies on the explicit formula for the joint distribution for the number of customers and the length of the busy period of an M/G/1 queue.

  6. Modelling M/G/1 queueing systems with server vacations using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the func- ... M/G/1/N queueing systems with server vacations under a limited service discipline ...... system contents in a discrete-time non-preemptive priority queue with general service.

  7. Sojourn times in the M/G/1 FB queue with light-tailed service times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel); M. Nuyens

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe asymptotic decay rate of the sojourn time of a customer in the stationary M/G/1 queue under the Foreground-Background (FB) service discipline is studied. The FB discipline gives service to those customers that have received the least service so far. We prove that for light-tailed

  8. The Remaining Service Time Upon Reaching a High Level in M/G/1 Queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Nicola, V.F.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    The distribution of the remaining service time upon reaching some target level in an M/G/1 queue is of theoretical as well as practical interest. In general, this distribution depends on the initial level as well as on the target level, say, B. Two initial levels are of particular interest, namely,

  9. Analysis of an M/G/1 queue with customer impatience and an adaptive arrival process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Prabhu, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    We study an M/G/1 queue with impatience and an adaptive arrival process. The rate of the arrival process changes according to whether an incoming customer is accepted or rejected. We analyse two different models for impatience : (i) based on workload, and (ii) based on queue length. For the

  10. The M/G/1 queue with quasi-restricted accessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Perry, D.; Stadje, W.; Zacks, S.

    2009-01-01

    We consider single-server queues of the M/G/1 kind with a special kind of partial customer rejection called quasi-restricted accessibility (QRA). Under QRA, the actual service time assigned to an arriving customer depends on his service requirement, say x, the current workload, say w, and a

  11. Sojourn times in the M/G/1 FB queue with light-tailed service times.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.R.H.; Nuijens, M.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT The asymptotic decay rate of the sojourn time of a customer in the stationary M/G/1 queue under the Foreground-Background (FB) service discipline is studied. The FB discipline gives service to those customers that have received the least service so far. We prove that for lighttailed service

  12. Sojourn time asymptotics in the M/G/1 processor sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Zwart (Bert); O.J. Boxma (Onno)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe show for the M/G/1 processor sharing queue that the service time distribution is regularly varying of index $-nu$, $nu$ non-integer, iff the sojourn time distribution is regularly varying of index $-nu $. This result is derived from a new expression for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform

  13. Nonparametric estimation of the stationary M/G/1 workload distribution function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2005-01-01

    In this paper it is demonstrated how a nonparametric estimator of the stationary workload distribution function of the M/G/1-queue can be obtained by systematic sampling the workload process. Weak convergence results and bootstrap methods for empirical distribution functions for stationary associ...

  14. Multilevel processor-sharing algorithm for M/G/1 systems with priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassouridis, A.; Koller, R.

    1983-01-01

    The well-known multilevel processor-sharing algorithm for M/G/1 systems without priorities is extended to M/G/1 systems with priority classes. The average response time t/sub j/(x) and the average waiting time w/sub j/(x) for a j-class job, which requires a total service of x sec, are analytically calculated. Some figures demonstrate how the priority classes and the total number of different levels affect the behaviour of the functions t/sub j/(x) and w/sub j/(x). In addition, the foreground-background algorithm with priorities, which is not yet covered in the literature, is treated as a special case of the multilevel processor-sharing algorithm. 8 references.

  15. The MAP, M/G1,G2/1 queue with preemptive priority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Dae Choi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the MAP, M/G1,G2/1 queue with preemptive resume priority, where low priority customers arrive to the system according to a Markovian arrival process (MAP and high priority customers according to a Poisson process. The service time density function of low (respectively: high priority customers is g1(x (respectively: g2(x. We use the supplementary variable method with Extended Laplace Transforms to obtain the joint transform of the number of customers in each priority queue, as well as the remaining service time for the customer in service in the steady state. We also derive the probability generating function for the number of customers of low (respectively, high priority in the system just after the service completion epochs for customers of low (respectively, high priority.

  16. M/G/1/K system with push-out scheme under vacation policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Kasahara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider an M/G/1/K system with push-out scheme and multiple vacations. This model is particularly important in situations where it is essential to provide short waiting times to messages which are selected for service. We analyze the behavior of two types of messages: one that succeeds in transmission and the other that fails. We derive the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of the waiting time distribution for the message which is eventually served. Finally, we show some numerical results including the comparisons between the push-out and the ordinary blocking models.

  17. Modelling M/G/1 queueing systems with server vacations using stochastic Petri nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ramanath

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of non-Markovian stochastic Petri nets is employed in this paper to derive an alternative method for studying the steady state behaviour of the M/G/1 vacation queueing system with a limited service discipline. Three types of vacation schemes are considered, and sytems with both a finite population and those with an infinite population (but finite capacity are considered. Simple numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the functionality of the methods and some useful performance measures for the system are obtained.

  18. Modeling and Optimization of M/G/1-Type Queueing Networks: An Efficient Sensitivity Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for M/G/1-type queueing networks with multiple user applications and limited resources is established. The goal is to develop a dynamic distributed algorithm for this model, which supports all data traffic as efficiently as possible and makes optimally fair decisions about how to minimize the network performance cost. An online policy gradient optimization algorithm based on a single sample path is provided to avoid suffering from a “curse of dimensionality”. The asymptotic convergence properties of this algorithm are proved. Numerical examples provide valuable insights for bridging mathematical theory with engineering practice.

  19. Strategies for a centralized single product multiclass M/G/1 make-to-stock queue

    OpenAIRE

    Abouee-Mehrizi, Hossein; Balcıoğlu, Ahmet Barış; Balcioglu, Ahmet Baris; Baron, Opher

    2012-01-01

    Make-to-stock queues are typically investigated in the M/M/1 settings. For centralized single-item systems with backlogs, the multilevel rationing (MR) policy is established as optimal and the strict priority (SP) policy is a practical compromise, balancing cost and ease of implementation. However, the optimal policy is unknown when service time is general, i.e., for M/G/1 queues. Dynamic programming, the tool commonly used to investigate the MR policy in make-to-stock queues, is less practic...

  20. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; Berg, J.L. van den; Boucherie, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue, in particular the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not suitable for computational purposes. This paper

  1. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue and the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not applicable for computational purposes. This paper derives

  2. The transient M/G/1/0 queue: some bounds and approximations for light traffic with application to reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ben Atkinson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the transient analysis of the M/G/1/0 queue, for which Pn(t denotes the probability that there are no customers in the system at time t, given that there are n(n=0,1 customers in the system at time 0. The analysis, which is based upon coupling theory, leads to simple bounds on Pn(t for the M/G/1/0 and M/PH/1/0 queues and improved bounds for the special case M/Er/1/0. Numerical results are presented for various values of the mean arrival rate λ to demonstrate the increasing accuracy of approximations based upon the above bounds in light traffic, i.e., as λ→0. An important area of application for the M/G/1/0 queue is as a reliability model for a single repairable component. Since most practical reliability problems have λ values that are small relative to the mean service rate, the approximations are potentially useful in that context. A duality relation between the M/G/1/0 and GI/M/1/0 queues is also described.

  3. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue, in particular the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not suitable for computational purposes. This paper

  4. Joint distribution of sojourn time and queue length in the M/G/1 queue with (in)finite capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.

    1984-01-01

    For the M/G/1 queue we study the joint distribution of the number of customers x present immediately before an arrival epoch and of the residual service time ¿ of the customer in service at this epoch. The correlation coefficient (x, ¿) is shown to be positive (negative) when the service time

  5. Approximation of the steady state system state distribution of the M/G/1 retrial queue with impatient customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stihi Nadjet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For M/G/1 retrial queues with impatient customers, we review the results, concerning the steady state distribution of the system state, presented in the literature. Since the existing formulas are cumbersome (so their utilization in practice becomes delicate or the obtaining of these formulas is impossible, we apply the information theoretic techniques for estimating the above mentioned distribution. More concretely, we use the principle of maximum entropy which provides an adequate methodology for computing a unique estimate for an unknown probability distribution based on information expressed in terms of some given mean value constraints.

  6. A Fast Newton-Shamanskii Iteration for a Matrix Equation Arising from M/G/1-Type Markov Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chang Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the nonlinear matrix equations arising in the analysis of M/G/1-type and GI/M/1-type Markov chains, the minimal nonnegative solution G or R can be found by Newton-like methods. We prove monotone convergence results for the Newton-Shamanskii iteration for this class of equations. Starting with zero initial guess or some other suitable initial guess, the Newton-Shamanskii iteration provides a monotonically increasing sequence of nonnegative matrices converging to the minimal nonnegative solution. A Schur decomposition method is used to accelerate the Newton-Shamanskii iteration. Numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the Newton-Shamanskii iteration.

  7. A study on M/G/1 retrial G - queue with two phases of service, immediate feedback and working vacations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varalakshmi, M.; Chandrasekaran, V. M.; Saravanarajan, M. C.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we discuss about the steady state behaviour of M/G/1 retrial queueing system with two phases of services and immediate feedbacks under working vacation policy where the regular busy server is affected due to the arrival of negative customers. Upon arrival if the customer finds the server busy, breakdown or on working vacation it enters an orbit; otherwise the customer enters into the service area immediately. After service completion, the customer is allowed to make finite number of immediate feedback. The feedback service also consists of two phases. At the service completion epoch of a positive customer, if the orbit is empty the server goes for a working vacation. The server works at a lower service rate during working vacation (WV) period. Using the supplementary variable technique, we found out the steady state probability generating function for the system and in orbit. System performance measures and reliability measures are discussed. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to validate the analyticalresults.

  8. Conformational changes induced by Mg2+ on the multiple forms of glutamine synthetase from Bacillus brevis Bb G1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suja Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conformational changes play an important role in the function of proteins. Glutamine synthetase, an important enzyme of nitrogen metabolism, was purified under sporulating (GSala and non-sporulating (GSpyr conditions and the effect of Mg2+ on these multiple forms was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy to detect possible conformational changes that occur in the presenceof Mg2+. The substantial changes in the fluorescence emission maximum, fluorescence intensity and lifetime that occur in the presence of different concentrations of Mg2+, indicated major changes in molecular conformations in both forms of this enzyme. The fluorescent changes produced by the effect of Mg2+ in GSala was much more prominent than in GSpyr. These observations strongly support the possibility that GSala and GSpyr undergoes a conformational change on binding with Mg2+.

  9. Analysis of an M|G|1|R queue with batch arrivals and two hysteretic overload control policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaidamaka Yuliya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hysteretic control of arrivals is one of the most easy-to-implement and effective solutions of overload problems occurring in SIP-servers. A mathematical model of an SIP server based on the queueing system M[X]|G|1(L,H|(H,R with batch arrivals and two hysteretic loops is being analyzed. This paper proposes two analytical methods for studying performance characteristics related to the number of customers in the system. Two control policies defined by instants when it is decided to change the system’s mode are considered. The expression for an important performance characteristic of each policy (the mean time between changes in the system mode is presented. Numerical examples that allow comparison of the efficiency of both policies are given

  10. Wiener-Hopf analysis of an M/G/1 queue with negative customers and of a related class of random walks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Bayer; O.J. Boxma (Onno)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractTwo variants of an M/G/1 queue with negative customers lead to the study of a random walk $bmsX_{n+1=ppart{bmsX_n+bmsxi_n$ where the integer-valued $bmsxi_n$ are not bounded from below or from above, and are distributed differently in the interior of the state-space and on the boundary.

  11. Analysis of an M/G/1 Queue with Multiple Vacations, N-policy, Unreliable Service Station and Repair Facility Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Wu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies an M/G/1 repairable queueing system with multiple vacations and N-policy, in which the service station is subject to occasional random breakdowns. When the service station breaks down, it is repaired by a repair facility. Moreover, the repair facility may fail during the repair period of the service station. The failed repair facility resumes repair after completion of its replacement. Under these assumptions, applying a simple method, the probability that the service station is broken, the rate of occurrence of breakdowns of the service station, the probability that the repair facility is being replaced and the rate of occurrence of failures of the repair facility along with other performance measures are obtained. Following the construction of the long-run expected cost function per unit time, the direct search method is implemented for determining the optimum threshold N* that minimises the cost function.

  12. Final report of AFRIMETS.M.M-S6: supplementary comparison of 100 mg, 100 g 500 g, 1 kg and 5 kg stainless steel mass standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautjana, R. T.; Molefe, P. T.; Mayindu, N. F.; Armah, M. N.; Ramasawmy, V.; Albasini, G. L.; Matali, S.; Richmond, H.; Rusimbi, V.; Kiwanuka, J.; Mutale, D. M.; Mutsimba, F.

    2018-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of AFRIMETS.M.M-S6 mass standards comparison conducted between eleven participating laboratories/countries. Two sets of five weights with nominal values 100 mg, 100 g, 500 g, 1 kg and 5 kg were used as the traveling standards. These nominal values were decided from the needs of participating laboratories submitted to the pilot laboratory through a questionnaire and agreed upon by all participants. The traveling standards were hand carried between laboratories starting from February 2014 and were received from the last participants in October 2014. The programme was coordinated by National Metrology Institute of South Africa (NMISA), who provided the travelling standards and reference values for the comparison. The corrections to the BIPM as-maintained mass unit [5] have insignificant influence on the results of this comparison. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Dry cryomagnetic system with MgB2 coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abin, D. A.; Mineev, N. A.; Osipov, M. A.; Pokrovskii, S. V.; Rudnev, I. A.

    2017-12-01

    MgB2 may be the future superconducting wire material for industrial magnets due to it’s higher operation temperature and potentially lower cost than low temperature superconductors (LTS) have. We designed a compact cryomagnetic system with the use of MgB2. The possibility of creating a magnet with a central field of 5 T from a commercial MgB2 wire by the “react and wound” method was investigated. The magnetic system is cooled by a cryocooler through a copper bus. The magnet has a warm bore diameter of 4 cm. The design of a magnet consisting of three concentric solenoids is proposed: an internal one of high-temperature superconductor (HTS), an average of MgB2, and an external of NbTi. The operating current of the system is 100 A. Two pairs of current leads are used. A separate pair of current leads for power supplying NbTi coil allows testing of MgB2 and HTS coils in an external field. The load curves for each of the magnets are calculated.

  14. Catalytic performance of Ni/MgO catalyst in methane dry reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Swai, Basem M.; Osman, N. B.; Abdullah, Bawadi

    2017-10-01

    Methane dry reforming to synthesis gas over nickel catalysts supported on magnesium oxide has been studied. The support was prepared via co-precipitation method using ammonia solution (20 wt% in water) as the precipitating agent. 10 wt% of Ni metal was impregnated to form Ni/MgO catalyst. The prepared catalyst was characterized by different techniques, such as XRD, BET, SEM, and TGA analysis. The effect of reaction conditions on the conversions of CH4 and CO2, selectivity of H2 and CO, and carbon deposition were investigated in a tabular furnace reactor. The catalyst afforded as high as 93% CH4 conversion at 900 °C. The catalyst has also shown excellent stability during reaction at relatively higher space velocity (1.8×104 ml g-1 h-1) and 800 °C reaction temperature. TGA characterization of spent catalyst has shown lesser magnitude of carbon deposition on the surface of the catalyst at 900 °C.

  15. [Biological contamination by micromycetes in dried Boletus edulis: research of aflatoxin B1, B2 G1, G2 and ochratoxin A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorini, C; Rossetti, F; Palazzoni, S; Comodo, N; Bonaccorsi, G

    2008-01-01

    Aim of this survey is to identify those filamentous fungi which parasite Boletus edulis and its group and check the potential presence of secondary metabolites, specifically aflatoxin B1, total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, in order to assess the risk to consumers' health. Forty samples of dried Boletus edulis, collected by two food industries which distribute the product in many Italian regions, have been analysed. The sampling plan has been conducted from November 2005 to March 2006, collecting 50 g from each commercial category of dried Boletus edulis available in the factory at the time of sampling. All the samples have been tested by visual macroscopic and stereoscopic assays; for some samples--those referred to commercial category presumably at higher risk--we have performed cultural assays as well, typization of isolated micromycetes, extraction and quantification of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. Mycotoxin detection has been made by HPLC, using the UNI EN 14123 and UNI EN 14132 standard methods, respectively applied to aflatoxins determination in peanuts, pistachios, figs and paprika and to ochratoxin A in barley and coffee. Non pathogenic micromycetes, common in food products, have been frequently observed in cultural assays, while Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger have been found in some samples. However the concentration of aflatoxins was always under the quantification limit. The survey confirm that, if the cold chain is kept throughout the process and the distribution, Boletus edulis and analogue mycetes are not a favourable substratum for the growth and the development of moulds.

  16. Contribution to the development of dry R and W MgB2 superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquet, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the majority of superconducting magnets, including MRI, are cooled by a bath of liquid helium at atmospheric pressure. Nevertheless, this type of cooling is expensive and imposes significant security constraints for large volumes. For these reasons, the cooling of superconducting magnets is desirable without liquid helium. Cryo-cooler provides dry cooling to 4 K without any liquid helium. However, the power available is low and dry cooling is difficult. In these conditions, it is complicate to use NbTi with dry cooling. But if we increase the operating temperature to 10 K, the power of cryo-cooler increases by a factor of ten. Nevertheless in this case, it is necessary to use of a high critical temperature superconductor. We choose to use MgB 2 R and W conductors because it is relatively low cost but it has the handicap to be sensible at mechanical stress. It is therefore necessary to be careful during their winding to not degrade their superconducting performance. As part of this thesis, we have developed a dry test facility to measure the critical current of MgB 2 R and W conductors as well as mock-ups. To do this, a new type of thermal contact based on aluminum nitride has been developed. In addition to this development, we designed two MgB 2 R and W magnet mock-ups: a solenoid and a double pancake. The double pancake was manufactured (with a new patented winding method) and it has been successfully tested. (author) [fr

  17. Self-healing of drying shrinkage cracks in cement-based materials incorporating reactive MgO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, T. S.; Al-Tabbaa, A.

    2016-08-01

    Excessive drying shrinkage is one of the major issues of concern for longevity and reduced strength performance of concrete structures. It can cause the formation of cracks in the concrete. This research aims to improve the autogenous self-healing capacity of traditional Portland cement (PC) systems, adding expansive minerals such as reactive magnesium oxide (MgO) in terms of drying shrinkage crack healing. Two different reactive grades (high ‘N50’and moderately high ‘92-200’) of MgO were added with PC. Cracks were induced in the samples with restraining end prisms through natural drying shrinkage over 28 days after casting. Samples were then cured under water for 28 and 56 days, and self-healing capacity was investigated in terms of mechanical strength recovery, crack sealing efficiency and improvement in durability. Finally, microstructures of the healing materials were investigated using FT-IR, XRD, and SEM-EDX. Overall N50 mixes show higher expansion and drying shrinkage compared to 92-200 mixes. Autogenous self-healing performance of the MgO containing samples were much higher compared to control (only PC) mixes. Cracks up to 500 μm were sealed in most MgO containing samples after 28 days. In the microstructural investigations, highly expansive Mg-rich hydro-carbonate bridges were found along with traditional calcium-based, self-healing compounds (calcite, portlandite, calcium silicate hydrates and ettringite).

  18. Dry sliding wear behaviour of Al-12Si-4Mg alloy with cerium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anasyida, A.S.; Daud, A.R.; Ghazali, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to understand the effect of cerium addition on wear resistance behaviour of as-cast alloys. Al-12Si-4 Mg alloys with 1-5 wt% cerium addition were prepared using the casting technique. A sliding wear test was carried out under applied loads of 10 N, 30 N and 50 N at a fixed sliding speed of 1 m/s using a pin-on-disc configuration. The wear test was conducted in dry conditions at room temperature of ∼25 o C. Detailed analysis of the microstructure, worn surface, collected debris and microhardness was undertaken in order to investigate the differences between the as-cast alloys with different levels of cerium addition. The addition of 1-5 wt% cerium was found to lead to the precipitation of intermetallic phases (Al-Ce), resulting a needle-like structures. Increasing cerium content up to 2 wt% improved both wear resistance and microhardness of as-cast alloys. Addition of more than 2 wt% cerium, however, led to a decrease in microhardness, resulting in lower wear resistance of the alloys. Moderate wear was observed at all loads, with specific wear rates (K') ranging from 6.82 x 10 -5 with 2 wt% Ce at applied load of 50 N to 21.48 x 10 -5 mm 3 /N m without added Ce at an applied load of 10 N. Based on K' ranges, the as-cast alloys exhibited moderate wear regimes, and the mechanism of wear is a combination of abrasion and adhesion. Alloy containing 2 wt% Ce, with the highest hardness and lowest K' value, showed the greatest wear resistance.

  19. High Coke-Resistance Pt/Mg1-xNixO Catalyst for Dry Reforming of Methane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris A J Al-Doghachi

    Full Text Available A highly active and stable nano structured Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalysts was developed by a simple co-precipitation method. The obtained Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalyst exhibited cubic structure nanocatalyst with a size of 50-80 nm and realized CH4 and CO2 conversions as high as 98% at 900°C with excellent stability in the dry reforming of methane. The characterization of catalyst was performed using various kinds of analytical techniques including XRD, BET, XRF, TPR-H2, TGA, TEM, FESEM, FT-IR, and XPS analyses. Characterization of spent catalyst further confirms that Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalyst has high coke-resistance for dry reforming. Thus, the catalyst demonstrated in this study, offers a promising catalyst for resolving the dilemma between dispersion and reducibility of supported metal, as well as activity and stability during high temperature reactions.

  20. Understanding the performance and mechanism of Mg-containing oxides as support catalysts in the thermal dry reforming of methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairudin, Nor Fazila; Sukri, Mohd Farid Fahmi; Khavarian, Mehrnoush; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Dry reforming of methane (DRM) is one of the more promising methods for syngas (synthetic gas) production and co-utilization of methane and carbon dioxide, which are the main greenhouse gases. Magnesium is commonly applied in a Ni-based catalyst in DRM to improve catalyst performance and inhibit carbon deposition. The aim of this review is to gain better insight into recent developments on the use of Mg as a support or promoter for DRM catalysts. Its high basicity and high thermal stability make Mg suitable for introduction into the highly endothermic reaction of DRM. The introduction of Mg as a support or promoter for Ni-based catalysts allows for good metal dispersion on the catalyst surface, which consequently facilitates high catalytic activity and low catalyst deactivation. The mechanism of DRM and carbon formation and reduction are reviewed. This work further explores how different constraints, such as the synthesis method, metal loading, pretreatment, and operating conditions, influence the dry reforming reactions and product yields. In this review, different strategies for enhancing catalytic activity and the effect of metal dispersion on Mg-containing oxide catalysts are highlighted.

  1. Microstructural evolution during dry wear test in magnesium and Mg-Y alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somekawa, Hidetoshi, E-mail: SOMEKAWA.Hidetoshi@nims.go.jp [Research Center for Strategic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Maeda, Shunsuke; Hirayama, Tomoko; Matsuoka, Takashi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Miyakodani, Tatara, Kyotanabe 610-0321 (Japan); Inoue, Tadanobu [Research Center for Strategic Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Mukai, Toshiji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Kobe, 657-8501 (Japan)

    2013-01-20

    The friction and wear properties of pure magnesium and the Mg-Y alloy were investigated using the pin-on-disk configuration. The friction and wear resistance of the Mg-Y alloy was superior to those of pure magnesium. The wear mechanism was abrasion under all the conditions. The deformed microstructural evolutions near the surface region were observed by transmission electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. The stress and strain states were also evaluated by finite element analysis (FEA). The deformed microstructures of both alloys consisted of the {l_brace}10-12{r_brace} twinning formation and the FEA results showed the occurrence of plastic deformation even at the beginning of the test. The formation of low angle grain boundaries was also confirmed with an increase in the applied load in the Mg-Y alloy. On the other hand, grain refinement due to dynamic recrystallization was observed in pure magnesium as the wear test progressed. The different microstructures resulted from difference in the surface temperature during the wear test, which was estimated to be around 393 K and 363 K for pure magnesium and the Mg-Y alloy, respectively. The high increment temperature in the fine-grained alloys brought about the occurrence of grain boundary sliding, i.e., material softening, which led to a decrease in the friction and wear properties. The present results indicated that one of the methods for enhancing the friction and wear properties is to increase the dynamic recrystallization temperature.

  2. Dry etching of MgCaO gate dielectric and passivation layers on GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlad, M.; Voss, L.; Gila, B.P.; Abernathy, C.R.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.

    2006-01-01

    MgCaO films grown by rf plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and capped with Sc 2 O 3 are promising candidates as surface passivation layers and gate dielectrics on GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and metal-oxide semiconductor HEMTs (MOS-HEMTs), respectively. Two different plasma chemistries were examined for etching these thin films on GaN. Inductively coupled plasmas of CH 4 /H 2 /Ar produced etch rates only in the range 20-70 A/min, comparable to the Ar sputter rates under the same conditions. Similarly slow MgCaO etch rates (∼100 A/min) were obtained with Cl 2 /Ar discharges under the same conditions, but GaN showed rates almost an order of magnitude higher. The MgCaO removal rates are limited by the low volatilities of the respective etch products. The CH 4 /H 2 /Ar plasma chemistry produced a selectivity of around 2 for etching the MgCaO with respect to GaN

  3. The influence of incorporating MgO into Ni-based cermets by plasma spraying on anode microstructural and chemical stability in dry methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, E.; Metcalfe, C.; Kesler, O.

    2012-11-01

    The Solution Precursor Plasma Spray (SPPS) process was successfully used to deposit cermet coatings that exhibit fine microstructures with high surface area. MgO addition in Ni-YSZ and Ni-SDC cermets results in (Ni,Mg)O solid solution formation, and nickel particles after reduction are finer than in coatings without magnesia. The influence of MgO on the chemical stability of cermets in anodic operating conditions is discussed. It was found that a sufficient amount of magnesia addition (Ni0.9(MgO)0.1) helps to reduce carbon deposition in dry methane.

  4. Rapid biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by Stenotrophomonas sp. G1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Shuyan; Chen, Yao; Wang, Daosheng; Shi, Taozhong; Wu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin; Li, Xiangqiong; Hua, Rimao; Tang, Xinyun; Li, Qing X.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Stenotrophomonas sp. G1 was isolated from chlorpyrifos contaminated sludge. • Strain G1 is closest to Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila. • Strain G1 can efficiently degrade 8 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). • Intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase is responsible for the OP degradation. • Three factors were orthogonally optimized for degradation of methyl parathion. - Abstract: Organophosphorus insecticides have been widely used, which are highly poisonous and cause serious concerns over food safety and environmental pollution. A bacterial strain being capable of degrading O,O-dialkyl phosphorothioate and O,O-dialkyl phosphate insecticides, designated as G1, was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain G1 belongs to the genus Stenotrophomonas. At an initial concentration of 50 mg/L, strain G1 degraded 100% of methyl parathion, methyl paraoxon, diazinon, and phoxim, 95% of parathion, 63% of chlorpyrifos, 38% of profenofos, and 34% of triazophos in 24 h. Orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum conditions were an inoculum volume of 20% (v/v), a substrate concentration of 50 mg/L, and an incubation temperature in 40 °C. p-Nitrophenol was detected as the metabolite of methyl parathion, for which intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase was responsible. Strain G1 can efficiently degrade eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and is a very excellent candidate for applications in OP pollution remediation

  5. Rapid biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by Stenotrophomonas sp. G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Shuyan; Chen, Yao [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Wang, Daosheng [School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Shi, Taozhong; Wu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin; Li, Xiangqiong [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Hua, Rimao, E-mail: rimaohua@ahau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Tang, Xinyun [School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Li, Qing X. [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1955 East–West Road, Honolulu, HI 957822 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Stenotrophomonas sp. G1 was isolated from chlorpyrifos contaminated sludge. • Strain G1 is closest to Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila. • Strain G1 can efficiently degrade 8 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). • Intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase is responsible for the OP degradation. • Three factors were orthogonally optimized for degradation of methyl parathion. - Abstract: Organophosphorus insecticides have been widely used, which are highly poisonous and cause serious concerns over food safety and environmental pollution. A bacterial strain being capable of degrading O,O-dialkyl phosphorothioate and O,O-dialkyl phosphate insecticides, designated as G1, was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain G1 belongs to the genus Stenotrophomonas. At an initial concentration of 50 mg/L, strain G1 degraded 100% of methyl parathion, methyl paraoxon, diazinon, and phoxim, 95% of parathion, 63% of chlorpyrifos, 38% of profenofos, and 34% of triazophos in 24 h. Orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum conditions were an inoculum volume of 20% (v/v), a substrate concentration of 50 mg/L, and an incubation temperature in 40 °C. p-Nitrophenol was detected as the metabolite of methyl parathion, for which intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase was responsible. Strain G1 can efficiently degrade eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and is a very excellent candidate for applications in OP pollution remediation.

  6. Effect of Drying Conditions on the Catalytic Performance, Structure, and Reaction Rates over the Fe-Co-Mn/MgO Catalyst for Production of Light Olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Abdouss

    2018-01-01

    How to Cite: Abdouss, M., Arsalanfar, M., Mirzaei, N., Zamani, Y. (2018. Effect of Drying Conditions on the Catalytic Performance, Structure, and Reaction Rates over the Fe-Co-Mn/MgO Catalyst for Production of Light Olefins. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1: 97-112 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.1.1222.97-112

  7. Effect of magnesium content on the microstructure and dry sliding wear behavior of centrifugally cast functionally graded A356-Mg2Si in situ composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Subhash Chandra; Chattopadhyay, K.; Chakrabarty, I.

    2018-04-01

    Functionally graded A356 alloy (Al–7.2Si–0.3Mg) –Mg2Si in situ composites have been synthesized via centrifugal casting route. Mg2Si particles tend to migrate towards the core of the tubular product by centrifugal force. The in situ formed Mg2Si particles in composites are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), Optical, Scanning Electron and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Apart from primary blocky Mg2Si particles the matrix contains other phases viz. Al-Si eutectic, pseudo-binary Al-Mg2Si eutectic and Al-Fe-Si intermetallics. Density is found to decrease and %porosity is increased with increase in volume fraction of Mg2Si. Maximum hardness was observed at the inner core region due to maximum segregation of Mg2Si particles and gradually decreases towards the outer periphery region. The dry sliding wear was evaluated with varying parameters such as normal loads (N) and sliding distances (m). A substantial increase in wear resistance at the inner core region is observed. From the worn surface characterization, the wear mechanisms have been explained.

  8. Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of A356 Alloy/Mg2Sip Functionally Graded in-situ Composites: Effect of Processing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Ram

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the effect of dry sliding wear conditions of A356 alloy/Mg2Sip functionally graded in-situ composites developed by centrifugal casting method has been studied. A pure commercial A356 alloy (Al–7.5Si–0.3Mg was selected to be the matrix of the composites and primary Mg2Sip reinforcing particles were formed by in-situ chemical reaction with an average grain size of 40-47.8 µm. The Al–(Mg2Sip functionally graded metal matrix composites (FGMMC’s were synthesized by centrifugal casting technique with radial geometry, using two different mould rotating speeds ( 1200 and 1600 rpm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD characterization technique was carried out to confirm the in-situ formed Mg2Si particles in composites. Optical microscopy examination was carried out to reveals the grain refinement of Al-rich grains due to in-situ formed Mg2Si particles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS techniques were carried out to reveal the distribution of phases, morphological characteristics and confirmation of primary Mg2Si particles in the matrix. The sliding wear behavior was studied using a Pin-on-Disc set-up machine with sliding wear parameters: effect of loads (N, effect of sliding distances (m and effect of Mg on wear at room temperature with a high-carbon chromium steel disc (HRC-64 as counter surfaces. A good correlation was evidenced between the dry sliding behaviour of functionally graded in-situ composites and the distribution of Mg2Si reinforcing particles. Beside the above processing conditions, the dominant wear mechanisms of functionally graded in-situ composites have been correlated with the microstructures. The hardness and wear resistance properties of these composites increase with increasing volume percent of reinforced primary Si/Mg2Si particles toward inner zone of cast cylindrical shapes. The objective of this works was to study the tribological characteristics under dry sliding

  9. Rational design of Mg-Al mixed oxide-supported bimetallic catalysts for dry reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganok, Andrey I. [Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation, Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, D' Iorio Hall, 10 Marie Curie Street, Ottawa, Ont. (Canada); Inaba, Mieko [Natural Gas Technology Development Team, Teikoku Oil Co., 9-23-30 Kitakarasuyama, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-0061 (Japan); Tsunoda, Tatsuo; Uchida, Kunio; Suzuki, Kunio; Hayakawa, Takashi [Institute for Materials and Chemical Process, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 5, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan); Takehira, Katsuomi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)

    2005-09-18

    A novel synthetic strategy for preparing bimetallic Ru-M (M=Cr, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) catalysts, supported on Mg-Al mixed oxide, has been introduced. It was based on a 'memory effect', i.e. on the ability of Mg-Al mixed oxide to reconstruct a layered structure upon rehydration with an aqueous solution. By repeated calcinations-rehydration cycles, layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors of catalysts containing two different metals were synthesized. Bimetallic catalysts were then generated (1) in situ from LDH under methane reforming reaction conditions and (2) from mixed metal oxides obtained by preliminary LDH calcination. Among all the LDH-derived catalysts, a Ru{sup 0.1%}-Ni{sup 5.0%}/MgAlO{sub x} sample revealed the highest activity and selectivity to syngas, a suitable durability and a low coking capacity. A promoting effect of ruthenium on catalytic function of supported nickel was demonstrated. Preliminary LDH calcination was shown to markedly affect the catalytic activity of the derived catalysts and especially their coking properties.

  10. Measurements of reactivity of reactor G1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernot, J.; Koechlin, J.C.; Portes, L.; Teste du Bailler, A.

    1957-01-01

    The various methods used during the physical study of the reactor G1 to determine the variations of the effective multiplication factor consecutive to a given change in the geometry of the multiplying medium, are presented and discussed. The comparison of the results obtained by these various methods has allowed their validity to be tested and precise conditions of use to be given. In the first part are presented the principles used and their ranges of validity. In the second part the experimental results are given, together with some indications on their comparison with theoretical estimations. (author) [fr

  11. A note on negative customers, GI/G/1 workload, and risk processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Boucherie; O.J. Boxma (Onno); K. Sigman

    1996-01-01

    textabstractRecently the workload distribution in the M/G/1 queue with work removal has been analysed, and has been shown to exhibit a generalized Pollaczek-Khintchine form. The latter result is explained in this note by transforming the model into a standard GI/G/1 queue. Some extensions are also

  12. Reactor G1: high power experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laage, F. de; Teste du Baillet, A.; Veyssiere, A.; Wanner, G.

    1957-01-01

    The experiments carried out in the starting-up programme of the reactor G1 comprised a series of tests at high power, which allowed the following points to be studied: 1- Effect of poisoning by Xenon (absolute value, evolution). 2- Temperature coefficients of the uranium and graphite for a temperature distribution corresponding to heating by fission. 3- Effect of the pressure (due to the coiling system) on the reactivity. 4- Calibration of the security rods as a function of their position in the pile (1). 5- Temperature distribution of the graphite, the sheathing, the uranium and the air leaving the canals, in a pile running normally at high power. 6- Neutron flux distribution in a pile running normally at high power. 7- Determination of the power by nuclear and thermodynamic methods. These experiments have been carried out under two very different pile conditions. From the 1. to the 15. of August 1956, a series of power increases, followed by periods of stabilisation, were induced in a pile containing uranium only, in 457 canals, amounting to about 34 tons of fuel. A knowledge of the efficiency of the control rods in such a pile has made it possible to measure with good accuracy the principal effects at high temperatures, that is, to deal with points 1, 2, 3, 5. Flux charts giving information on the variations of the material Laplacian and extrapolation lengths in the reflector have been drawn up. Finally the thermodynamic power has been measured under good conditions, in spite of some installation difficulties. On September 16, the pile had its final charge of 100 tons. All the canals were loaded, 1,234 with uranium and 53 (i.e. exactly 4 per cent of the total number) with thorium uniformly distributed in a square lattice of 100 cm side. Since technical difficulties prevented the calibration of the control rods, the measurements were limited to the determination of the thermodynamic power and the temperature distributions (points 5 and 7). This report will

  13. Measurements of reactivity of reactor G1; Mesures de reactivite sur reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernot, J; Koechlin, J C; Portes, L; Teste du Bailler, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The various methods used during the physical study of the reactor G1 to determine the variations of the effective multiplication factor consecutive to a given change in the geometry of the multiplying medium, are presented and discussed. The comparison of the results obtained by these various methods has allowed their validity to be tested and precise conditions of use to be given. In the first part are presented the principles used and their ranges of validity. In the second part the experimental results are given, together with some indications on their comparison with theoretical estimations. (author) [French] Nous exposons et discutons diverses methodes utilisees, lors de l'etude physique du reacteur G1, pour determiner les variations du facteur de multiplication effectif consecutives a un changement donne dans la geometrie du milieu multiplicateur. La comparaison des resultats obtenus par diverses methodes nous a permis de tester leur validite et d'en preciser les conditions d'emploi. Dans une premiere partie, nous exposons les principes utilises et leurs domaines de validite. Dans une seconde partie nous donnons les resultats experimentaux obtenus avec quelques indications sur leur comparaison avec les estimations theoriques. (auteur)

  14. Reduced hepatic tumor incidence in cyclin G1-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Rugaard; Factor, Valentina M; Fantozzi, Anna

    2003-01-01

    found that the p53 levels in the cyclin G1-deficient mice are 2-fold higher that in wild-type mice. Moreover, we showed that treatment of mice with the alkylating agent 1,4-bis[N,N'-di(ethylene)-phosphamide]piperazine (Dipin), followed by partial hepatectomy, decreased G1-S transition in cyclin G1-null...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6503(g)-1 - Suspension pending correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension pending correction. 301.6503(g)-1 Section 301.6503(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Collection § 301.6503(g)-1 Suspension pending correction. The running of the periods of limitations provided...

  16. Evaluation of the hydrometer for testing immunoglobulin G1 concentrations in Holstein colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, L C; Gay, C C; Hancock, D D; Besser, T E

    1994-06-01

    Hydrometer measurement in globulin and IgG1 concentration measured by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared for 915 samples of first milking colostrum from Holstein cows. Least squares analysis of the relationship between hydrometer measurement and IgG1 concentration was improved by log transformation of IgG1 concentration and resulted in a significant linear relationship between hydrometer measurement and log10 IgG1 concentration; r2 = .469. At 50 mg of globulin/ml of colostrum, the recommended hydrometer cutoff point for colostrum selection, the sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 concentration in Holstein colostrum was 26%, and the negative predictive value was 67%. The negative predictive value and sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 in Holstein colostrum was improved, and the cost of misclassification of colostrum was minimized, when the cutoff point for colostrum selection was increased above the recommended 50 mg/ml.

  17. An M/G/1 queue with multiple types of feedback and gated vacations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.J. Boxma (Onno); U. Yechiali

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers a single-server queue with Poisson arrivals and multiple customer feedbacks. If the first service attempt of a newly arriving customer is not successful, he returns to the end of the queue for another service attempt, with a different service time distribution. He

  18. The M/G/1 queue with heavy-tailed service time distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, O.J.; Cohen, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    In modern teletraffic applications of queueing theory, service time distributions B(t) with a heavy tail occur, i.e., 1-B(t)~Ct-v for t¿8 with v>1. For such service time distributions, not much explicit information is available concerning the tail probabilities of the corresponding waiting time

  19. Nickel catalyst supported on magnesium and zinc aluminates (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) spinels for dry reforming of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, L.C.B. de; Melo, D.M. de A.; Melo, M.A. de F.; Barros, J.M. de F.; Braga, R.M.; Costa, C. de C.; Rodrigues, G., E-mail: ieda.garcia@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (LACOM/UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2017-01-15

    Materials such as MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} assessed in the reaction of dry reforming of methane to produce syngas were synthesized by microwave-assisted combustion method using urea as fuel. Samples of synthesized oxides were calcined at 800 °C for 2 h and impregnated with 5% nickel. The impregnated samples were calcined at 850 °C for 4 h to obtain the desired phases. The results of the catalytic tests showed that the catalysts are active for the reaction of dry reforming of methane, and the catalyst that showed the best performance for methane conversion was 5% Ni/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} calcined at 850 °C/4 h. (author)

  20. 26 CFR 1.514(g)-1 - Business lease indebtedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....514(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(g)-1... to cases such as the following: Example 1. A university pledges some of its investment securities...

  1. Selected chemical compounds in firm and mellow persimmon fruit before and after the drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senica, Mateja; Veberic, Robert; Grabnar, Jana Jurhar; Stampar, Franci; Jakopic, Jerneja

    2016-07-01

    Persimmon is a seasonal fruit and only available in fresh form for a short period of each year. In addition to freezing, drying is the simplest substitute for the fresh fruit and accessible throughout the year. The effect of mellowing and drying was evaluated in 'Tipo' persimmon, an astringent cultivar. 'Tipo' firm fruit contained high levels of tannins (1.1 mg g(-1) DW), which were naturally decreased to 0.2 mg g(-1) DW after mellowing. The drying process greatly impacted the contents of carotenoids, total phenols, individual phenolics, tannins, organic acids, sugars and colour parameters in firm and mellow fruit. The reduction of tannins, phenolic compounds and organic acids were accompanied by the increase of sugars and carotenoids, improving the colour of the analysed samples. These results showed that the drying process improved the quality of persimmon products and extended their shelf life. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Bla g 1 allergen levels in Zagreb area household dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena

    2011-03-01

    Cockroach allergy is a health problem in many parts of the world. In urban environments, indoor exposure to cockroach allergens involves a risk of asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the mass fraction of Bla g 1, a major allergen of the German cockroach (Blatella germanica) in 30 house samples, collected at random from Zagreb area households, Croatia. Dust samples were collected on cellulose filters by vacuuming living rooms floors. After extraction, Bla g 1 was detected using the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the thirty households had detectable Bla g 1 levels, and only in one was its concentration higher than 2.0 U g(-1), the threshold associated with sensitisation. The Bla g 1 ELISA proved highly sensitive, with the detection limit of 0.12 U g(-1). The within- and between-assay imprecision was 8.9 % and 14.4 %, respectively, and accuracy 85 % to 120 %. Low Bla g 1 levels in the household dust support previously reported low prevalence of skin sensitisation to B. germanica among Zagreb residents. Further monitoring should reveal if there are differences in cockroach allergen exposure and sensitisation between households from other geographic areas in Croatia.

  3. Semigroup Method on a MX/G/1 Queueing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Mijit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the Hille-Yosida theorem, Phillips theorem, and Fattorini theorem in functional analysis we prove that the MX/G/1 queueing model with vacation times has a unique nonnegative time-dependent solution.

  4. 20% Efficient Zn0.9Mg0.1O:Al/Zn0.8Mg0.2O/Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Solar Cell Prepared by All-Dry Process through a Combination of Heat-Light-Soaking and Light-Soaking Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantana, Jakapan; Kato, Takuya; Sugimoto, Hiroki; Minemoto, Takashi

    2018-04-04

    Development of Cd-free Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se) 2 (CIGSSe)-based thin-film solar cells fabricated by an all-dry process is intriguing to minimize optical loss at a wavelength shorter than 520 nm owing to absorption of the CdS buffer layer and to be easily integrated into an in-line process for cost reduction. Cd-free CIGSSe solar cells are therefore prepared by the all-dry process with a structure of Zn 0.9 Mg 0.1 O:Al/Zn 0.8 Mg 0.2 O/CIGSSe/Mo/glass. It is demonstrated that Zn 0.8 Mg 0.2 O and Zn 0.9 Mg 0.1 O:Al are appropriate as buffer and transparent conductive oxide layers with large optical band gap energy values of 3.75 and 3.80 eV, respectively. The conversion efficiency (η) of the Cd-free CIGSSe solar cell without K-treatment is consequently increased to 18.1%. To further increase the η, the Cd-free CIGSSe solar cell with K-treatment is next fabricated and followed by posttreatment called the heat-light-soaking (HLS) + light-soaking (LS) process, including HLS at 110 °C followed by LS under AM 1.5G illumination. It is disclosed that the HLS + LS process gives rise to not only the enhancement of carrier density but also the decrease in the carrier recombination rate at the buffer/absorber interface. Ultimately, the η of the Cd-free CIGSSe solar cell with K-treatment prepared by the all-dry process is enhanced to the level of 20.0%.

  5. 26 CFR 1.167(g)-1 - Basis for depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis for depreciation. 1.167(g)-1 Section 1.167... for depreciation. The basis upon which the allowance for depreciation is to be computed with respect... property at that time, is the basis for computing depreciation. [T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11402, Nov. 26, 1960...

  6. Quality of pomegranate pomace as affected by drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Lamadrid, Marina; Lech, Krzysztof; Calín-Sánchez, Ángel; Rosas-Burgos, Ema Carina; Figiel, Adam; Wojdyło, Aneta; Wasilewska, Malwina; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2018-03-01

    During the industrial manufacturing of pomegranate juice, large amounts of pomace are produced. The aim of this work was to find the effective method to dry pomegranate pomace to open new commercial applications for this co-product. The effects of three drying methods: (i) convective drying (CD) at 50, 60, and 70 °C; (ii) vacuum microwave drying (VMD) at 240, 360, and 480 W, and (iii) a combined method (CPD-VMFD); convective pre-drying (60 °C) followed by vacuum microwave finish drying (360 W), on drying kinetics and quality of PomP (pomegranate pomace obtained after preparing pomegranate juice by squeezing only arils) were evaluated. The shortest treatments were VMD at 240 and 360 W (52 and 33 min, respectively); besides, these treatments led to interesting values of the green-red coordinate, a *, (12.2 and 4.1, respectively), total phenolic content (4.0 and 4.1 mg eq gallic acid g -1  dry weight, respectively), and antioxidant activity (30.8 and 29.0 µmol g -1  dry weight, respectively). On the other hand, this study demonstrated that this co-product is a rich source of punicic acid (average value = 66.4%), being a good opportunity for the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. Moreover, no significant changes in the fatty acid profile was observed as affected by the drying treatments, and no off-flavors were generated by any of the drying methods.

  7. Design principles of the yeast G1/S switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Yang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of the G1/S transition in budding yeast cell cycle is the proteolytic degradation of the B-type cyclin-Cdk stoichiometric inhibitor Sic1. Deleting SIC1 or altering Sic1 degradation dynamics increases genomic instability. Certain key facts about the parts of the G1/S circuitry are established: phosphorylation of Sic1 on multiple sites is necessary for its destruction, and both the upstream kinase Cln1/2-Cdk1 and the downstream kinase Clb5/6-Cdk1 can phosphorylate Sic1 in vitro with varied specificity, cooperativity, and processivity. However, how the system works as a whole is still controversial due to discrepancies between in vitro, in vivo, and theoretical studies. Here, by monitoring Sic1 destruction in real time in individual cells under various perturbations to the system, we provide a clear picture of how the circuitry functions as a switch in vivo. We show that Cln1/2-Cdk1 sets the proper timing of Sic1 destruction, but does not contribute to its destruction speed; thus, it acts only as a trigger. Sic1's inhibition target Clb5/6-Cdk1 controls the speed of Sic1 destruction through a double-negative feedback loop, ensuring a robust all-or-none transition for Clb5/6-Cdk1 activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the degradation of a single-phosphosite mutant of Sic1 is rapid and switch-like, just as the wild-type form. Our mathematical model confirms our understanding of the circuit and demonstrates that the substrate sharing between the two kinases is not a redundancy but a part of the design to overcome the trade-off between the timing and sharpness of Sic1 degradation. Our study provides direct mechanistic insight into the design features underlying the yeast G1/S switch.

  8. Bone regeneration: in vitro evaluation of the behaviour of osteoblast-like MG63 cells placed in contact with polylactic-co-glycolic acid, deproteinized bovine bone and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, S; Mastrangelo, F; Reale Marroccia, D; Cappello, V; Ciampoli, C; Carlino, V; Tanteri, L; Costanzo, M; Sinatra, F; Tetè, S

    2008-01-01

    Insufficient bone density of the alveolar crests, caused by loss of the dental elements, sometimes impedes the primary stability of an integrated bone implant. The techniques of bone regeneration allow to obtain a sufficient quantity of alveolar bone to permit the implant rehabilitation of the edentulous crests. Today several grafting materials are available and they have different characteristics, according to their structure, which influence the different behaviour of the grafting materials to the bone and the implant surface. The aim of this study is to evaluate the interaction between a human osteosarcoma MG63 cell line and three different biomaterials: polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLAGA), deproteinized bovine bone and demineralised freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA). From this study a different behaviour emerges of the osteoblast-like MG63 cells in relation to the sublayer on which these cells were placed in culture. The results of the study, in fact, demonstrate that the most osteoconductive material of the three analysed is the DFDBA, followed by DPBB. On the contrary, the PLGA, because of its roughness, does not seem to represent a valid support for cell growth, and does not encourage any morphologic modification in tumor cells. Furthermore, deproteinized bovine bone shows a differentiating effect which could lead to hypothesise an osteoconductive capacity of this biomaterial. Further studies should be carried out with the aim of explaining the results obtained.

  9. Measurement of the proton spin structure function g1p

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pussieux, T.

    1994-10-01

    In order to check the Bjorken sum rule and confirm the EMC surprising conclusion on the spin structure of the proton, the measurement of the spin structure function of the proton has been performed by the Spin Muon Collaboration via the polarized muon nucleon deep inelastic scattering. The results of the 1993 run are presented within a kinematical range of 0.003 2 = 10 GeV 2 . The first moment of the polarized spin structure function g 1 p is found to be two standard deviations below the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule. Assuming SU(3) for hyperons β decays, the quark spin contribution to the proton spin is extracted. Combining all available data on proton, neutron and deuton, The Bjorken sum rule is confirmed within 10%. (author). 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Produção de matéria seca e eficiência nutricional para P, Ca e Mg em leguminosas herbáceas Dry matter production and nutritional efficiency for P, Ca and Mg in herbaceous legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodrigues Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As leguminosas para adubação verde têm sido introduzidas nos sistemas agrícolas para a recuperação de solos desgastados pelo uso intensivo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de leguminosas herbáceas à aplicação de calcário e fósforo sobre a produção de biomassa e eficiência nutricional para o P, Ca e Mg. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, utilizando-se um Latossolo Amarelo distrófico coletado na profundidade de 0 - 20 cm, em Belém, PA. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com arranjo de tratamentos em um fatorial 3³, onde foram comparadas três espécies de leguminosas: mucuna preta (Stizolobium atterrimum, mucuna cochinchinensis (Stilozobium cochinchinensis e feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformes; três níveis de calagem: de calcário dolomítico (0, 4 e 8 t.ha-1 e de fósforo (0, 25 e 45 mg.dm-3, com quatro repetições cada um. Mucuna cochinchinensis e o feijão de porco produziram maiores quantidades de biomassa vegetal do que a mucuna preta, sendo que a primeira espécie acumulou maior quantidade de P e a segunda maior quantidade de Ca. Mucuna cochinchinensis apresentou maior eficiência de utilização de P, Ca e Mg na ausência da calagem. Nos solos intemperizados com baixa concentração de P, Ca e Mg, o feijão-de-porco e a mucuna cochinchinensis poderão ter melhor desempenho do que a mucuna preta, visto que apresentaram maior eficiência de translocação e de utilização desses nutrientes, respectivamente.The legumes used for green manure have been introduced in agricultural systems for recovering degraded soils by intensive use. The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of herbaceous legumes to liming and P application on dry matter and its nutritional efficiency. The experiment was developed in greenhouse at the Soil Science Department of the Federal University

  11. ATP binding cassette G1-dependent cholesterol efflux during inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Maria C; Ji, Ailing; Jahangiri, Anisa; Vaughan, Ashley M; de Beer, Frederick C; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R; Webb, Nancy R

    2011-02-01

    ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) mediates the transport of cellular cholesterol to HDL, and it plays a key role in maintaining macrophage cholesterol homeostasis. During inflammation, HDL undergoes substantial remodeling, acquiring lipid changes and serum amyloid A (SAA) as a major apolipoprotein. In the current study, we investigated whether remodeling of HDL that occurs during acute inflammation impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux. Our data indicate that lipid free SAA acts similarly to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in mediating sequential efflux from ABCA1 and ABCG1. Compared with normal mouse HDL, acute phase (AP) mouse HDL containing SAA exhibited a modest but significant 17% increase in ABCG1-dependent efflux. Interestingly, AP HDL isolated from mice lacking SAA (SAAKO mice) was even more effective in promoting ABCG1 efflux. Hydrolysis with Group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-IIA) significantly reduced the ability of AP HDL from SAAKO mice to serve as a substrate for ABCG1-mediated cholesterol transfer, indicating that phospholipid (PL) enrichment, and not the presence of SAA, is responsible for alterations in efflux. AP human HDL, which is not PL-enriched, was somewhat less effective in mediating ABCG1-dependent efflux compared with normal human HDL. Our data indicate that inflammatory remodeling of HDL impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux independent of SAA.

  12. Paper-based microfluidic system for tear electrolyte analysis† †We declare no competing financial interests. ‡ ‡Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Microscopic images of G1 paper and G41 paper under brightfield; optimization of CO2 laser radiation fluence and beam speed for ablating filter paper-G1; photographs of DI water diffusion in microfluidic channels with different lengths, different widths, different viscosities of fluid and different numbers of channels; fluorescence intensity readouts of Na+ and K+ ions with varied concentrations of fluorescent probes; effect of variations in temperature on fluorescence intensity; photographs of DMSO on G1 paper dried in the air; calibration curves of electrolyte sensing on G1 paper using microplate reader measurement; calculation of sensitivity of the fluorescent sensors based on International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) guidelines; quantification of ion interference in buffer solution and artificial tear fluid; light attenuation of LED lights using different optical filters; the design of the sample collection device and its potential clinical use; calibration curves of electrolyte sensors using the paper-based microfluidic system; quantifications of evaporation effect on sampling process; design of the sample collection device and its potential clinical use; batch-to-batch variation experiments; equation for background subtraction; movies of sample collection and measurements. See DOI: 10.1039/c6lc01450j Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Tamayol, Ali; Ruiz-Esparza, Guillermo U.; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Medina-Pando, Sofía; Gupta, Aditi; Wolffsohn, James S.; Butt, Haider; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of tear constituents at point-of-care settings has a potential for early diagnosis of ocular disorders such as dry eye disease, low-cost screening, and surveillance of at-risk subjects. However, current minimally-invasive rapid tear analysis systems for point-of-care settings have been limited to assessment of osmolarity or inflammatory markers and cannot differentiate between dry eye subclassifications. Here, we demonstrate a portable microfluidic system that allows quantitative analysis of electrolytes in the tear fluid that is suited for point-of-care settings. The microfluidic system consists of a capillary tube for sample collection, a reservoir for sample dilution, and a paper-based microfluidic device for electrolyte analysis. The sensing regions are functionalized with fluorescent crown ethers, o-acetanisidide, and seminaphtorhodafluor that are sensitive to mono- and divalent electrolytes, and their fluorescence outputs are measured with a smartphone readout device. The measured sensitivity values of Na+, K+, Ca2+ ions and pH in artificial tear fluid were matched with the known ion concentrations within the physiological range. The microfluidic system was tested with samples having different ionic concentrations, demonstrating the feasibility for the detection of early-stage dry eye, differential diagnosis of dry eye sub-types, and their severity staging. PMID:28207920

  13. [Optimization of vacuum belt drying process of Gardeniae Fructus in Reduning injection by Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dao-sheng; Shi, Wei; Han, Lei; Sun, Ke; Chen, Guang-bo; Wu Jian-xiong; Xu, Gui-hong; Bi, Yu-an; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-06-01

    To optimize the belt drying process conditions optimization of Gardeniae Fructus extract from Reduning injection by Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology, on the basis of single factor experiment, a three-factor and three-level Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to optimize the drying technology of Gardeniae Fructus extract from Reduning injection. With drying temperature, drying time, feeding speed as independent variables and the content of geniposide as dependent variable, the experimental data were fitted to a second order polynomial equation, establishing the mathematical relationship between the content of geniposide and respective variables. With the experimental data analyzed by Design-Expert 8. 0. 6, the optimal drying parameter was as follows: the drying temperature was 98.5 degrees C , the drying time was 89 min, the feeding speed was 99.8 r x min(-1). Three verification experiments were taked under this technology and the measured average content of geniposide was 564. 108 mg x g(-1), which was close to the model prediction: 563. 307 mg x g(-1). According to the verification test, the Gardeniae Fructus belt drying process is steady and feasible. So single factor experiments combined with response surface method (RSM) could be used to optimize the drying technology of Reduning injection Gardenia extract.

  14. Reactor G1: high power experiments; Experiences a forte puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laage, F de; Teste du Baillet, A; Veyssiere, A; Wanner, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Retel, H [Societe Rateau, D.E.A. (France)

    1957-07-01

    The experiments carried out in the starting-up programme of the reactor G1 comprised a series of tests at high power, which allowed the following points to be studied: 1- Effect of poisoning by Xenon (absolute value, evolution). 2- Temperature coefficients of the uranium and graphite for a temperature distribution corresponding to heating by fission. 3- Effect of the pressure (due to the coiling system) on the reactivity. 4- Calibration of the security rods as a function of their position in the pile (1). 5- Temperature distribution of the graphite, the sheathing, the uranium and the air leaving the canals, in a pile running normally at high power. 6- Neutron flux distribution in a pile running normally at high power. 7- Determination of the power by nuclear and thermodynamic methods. These experiments have been carried out under two very different pile conditions. From the 1. to the 15. of August 1956, a series of power increases, followed by periods of stabilisation, were induced in a pile containing uranium only, in 457 canals, amounting to about 34 tons of fuel. A knowledge of the efficiency of the control rods in such a pile has made it possible to measure with good accuracy the principal effects at high temperatures, that is, to deal with points 1, 2, 3, 5. Flux charts giving information on the variations of the material Laplacian and extrapolation lengths in the reflector have been drawn up. Finally the thermodynamic power has been measured under good conditions, in spite of some installation difficulties. On September 16, the pile had its final charge of 100 tons. All the canals were loaded, 1,234 with uranium and 53 (i.e. exactly 4 per cent of the total number) with thorium uniformly distributed in a square lattice of 100 cm side. Since technical difficulties prevented the calibration of the control rods, the measurements were limited to the determination of the thermodynamic power and the temperature distributions (points 5 and 7). This report will

  15. Mean time for the development of large workloads and large queue lengths in the GI/G/1 queue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Knessl

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the GI/G/1 queue described by either the workload U(t (unfinished work or the number of customers N(t in the system. We compute the mean time until U(t reaches excess of the level K, and also the mean time until N(t reaches N0. For the M/G/1 and GI/M/1 models, we obtain exact contour integral representations for these mean first passage times. We then compute the mean times asymptotically, as K and N0→∞, by evaluating these contour integrals. For the general GI/G/1 model, we obtain asymptotic results by a singular perturbation analysis of the appropriate backward Kolmogorov equation(s. Numerical comparisons show that the asymptotic formulas are very accurate even for moderate values of K and N0.

  16. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  17. Buffer and throughput trade-offs in M/G/1/K queueing networks : a bi-criteria approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz, F.R.B.; Woensel, van T.; MacGregor Smith, J.

    2010-01-01

    The optimal design of real-life systems modeled as finite queueing networks is a difficult stochastic optimization problem. Besides being non-linear and including integer variables, different objectives often conflict with each other. For example, one conflicting pair of objectives includes first

  18. Markov-modulated M/G/1-type queue in heavy traffic and its application to time-sharing disciplines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Thorsdottir (Halldora); I.M. Verloop (Maaike)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with a single-server queue with modulated arrivals, service requirements and service capacity. In our first result, we derive the mean of the total workload assuming generally distributed service requirements and any service discipline which does not depend on the

  19. The impact of geoengineering on vegetation in experiment G1 of the GeoMIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glienke, Susanne; Irvine, Peter J.; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2015-10-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) has been proposed as a mean to partly counteract global warming. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) has simulated the climate consequences of a number of SRM techniques. Thus far, the effects on vegetation have not yet been thoroughly analyzed. Here the vegetation response to the idealized GeoMIP G1 experiment from eight fully coupled Earth system models (ESMs) is analyzed, in which a reduction of the solar constant counterbalances the radiative effects of quadrupled atmospheric CO2 concentrations (abrupt4 × CO2). For most models and regions, changes in net primary productivity (NPP) are dominated by the increase in CO2, via the CO2 fertilization effect. As SRM will reduce temperatures relative to abrupt4 × CO2, in high latitudes this will offset increases in NPP. In low latitudes, this cooling relative to the abrupt4 × CO2 simulation decreases plant respiration while having little effect on gross primary productivity, thus increasing NPP. In Central America and the Mediterranean, generally dry regions which are expected to experience increased water stress with global warming, NPP is highest in the G1 experiment for all models due to the easing of water limitations from increased water use efficiency at high-CO2 concentrations and the reduced evaporative demand in a geoengineered climate. The largest differences in the vegetation response are between models with and without a nitrogen cycle, with a much smaller CO2 fertilization effect for the former. These results suggest that until key vegetation processes are integrated into ESM predictions, the vegetation response to SRM will remain highly uncertain.

  20. Analysis of the G1 arrest position of senescent WI38 cells by quinacrine dihydrochloride nuclear fluorescence: evidence for a late G1 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, S.D.; Cristofalo, V.J.

    1986-01-01

    Senescence of the human diploid fibroblast-like cell line, W138, is characterized by a loss of proliferative activity and an arrest of cells with a 2C DNA content (G1 or G0). To examine the specific region within G1 in which senescent cells arrest, senescent cells were stained with quinacrine dihydrochloride (QDH) and their nuclear fluorescence was compared with that of young cultures arrested in early and late G1 by serum deprivation and hydroxyurea exposure, respectively. Release of these G1-arrested young cultures from their blocking conditions and timing the kinetics of their entry into the S phase by autoradiographic detection of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation revealed that serum-deprived cells entered the S phase within 15-18h, whereas hydroxyurea-exposed cells entered the S phase within 1.5h, thus confirming their relative G1-arrest positions. QDH-stained, serum-deprived and hydroxyurea-exposed young cells exhibited relative nuclear fluorescence intensities of 51.7 and 23.9, respectively. Senescent cells exhibited a relative nuclear fluorescence intensity of 17.4, closely resembling the fluorescence of young cultures arrested in late G1 by hydroxyurea exposure. These data support the concept that senescent cells are arrested from further progression in the cell cycle in late G1

  1. Formulation development of the biocontrol agent Bacillus subtilis strain CPA-8 by spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yánez-Mendizábal, V; Viñas, I; Usall, J; Torres, R; Solsona, C; Abadias, M; Teixidó, N

    2012-05-01

    To prepare commercially acceptable formulations of Bacillus subtilis CPA-8 by spray-drying with long storage life and retained efficacy to control peach and nectarine brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. CPA-8 24-h- and 72-h-old cultures were spray dried using 10% skimmed milk, 10% skimmed milk plus 10% MgSO(4) , 10% MgSO(4) and 20% MgSO(4) as carriers/protectants. All carriers/protectants gave good percentages of powder recovery (28-38%) and moisture content (7-13%). CPA-8 survival varied considerably among spray-dried 24-h- and 72-h-old cultures. Seventy-two hours culture spray dried formulations showed the highest survival (28-32%) with final concentration products of 1·6-3·3 × 10(9) CFU g(-1) , while viability of 24-h-old formulations was lower than 1%. Spray-dried 72-h-old formulations were selected to subsequent evaluation. Rehydration of cells with water provided a good recovery of CPA-8 dried cells, similar to other complex rehydration media tested. Spray-dried formulations stored at 4 ± 1 and 20 ± 1°C showed good shelf life during 6 months, and viability was maintained or slightly decreased by 0·2-0·3-log. CPA-8 formulations after 4- and 6 months storage were effective in controlling brown rot caused by Monilinia spp. on nectarines and peaches resulting in a 90-100% reduction in disease incidence. Stable and effective formulations of biocontrol agent B. subtilis CPA-8 could be obtained by spray-drying. New shelf-stable and effective formulations of a biocontrol agent have been obtained by spray-drying to control brown rot on peach. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Dry socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveolar osteitis; Alveolitis; Septic socket ... You may be more at risk for dry socket if you: Have poor oral health Have a ... after having a tooth pulled Have had dry socket in the past Drink from a straw after ...

  3. The protein source in embryo culture media influences birthweight: a comparative study between G1 v5 and G1-PLUS v5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinliang; Li, Ming; Chen, Lixue; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2014-07-01

    Does protein source or human serum albumin (HSA) in embryo culture media influence the subsequent birthweight? A significant difference was observed in gestational age- and gender-adjusted birthweight (Z scores) and the proportion of large-for-gestational age (LGA) babies between embryos cultured in G1 v5 and those cultured in G1-PLUS v5 media. It has been reported that the birthweights of singletons born from embryos cultured in Vitrolife are significantly higher than those cultured in the Cook group of media, and that G1-PLUS (Vitrolife, Gothenburg, Sweden) is associated with increased birth and placenta weights compared with Medicult ISMI. This study was a retrospective analysis of neonatal birthweights, and included 1097 singletons born from fresh embryo transfer cycles at the Center for Reproductive Medicine of Peking University Third Hospital between January 2011 and August 2012. The number of singletons born from G1 v5 culture media was 489, and the number of singletons born from G1-PLUS v5 media was 608. Patients media groups. The absolute birthweights for singletons resulting from G1-PLUS v5 were not different from singletons resulting from G1 v5 (3375.9 ± 479.6 g versus 3333.2 ± 491.6 g, respectively; P = 0.14). However the Z scores for singletons from embryos cultured in G1-PLUS v5 were significantly higher than for singletons cultured in G1 v5 (0.28 ± 1.12 versus 0.09 ± 1.15, respectively; P = 0.04), and more LGA babies were born from G1-PLUS v5 culture compared with G1 v5 (16.8 versus 12.1%, respectively; P = 0.03) culture. Finally, multiple linear regression analysis suggested that female weight (P = 0.00), male height (P = 0.04), gestational age at birth (P = 0.00), infant gender (P = 0.00) and culture media (P = 0.04) all had significant effects on the birthweights of singleton newborns. This study was limited by its retrospective design. Our study suggests that protein source/HSA has a significant effect on birthweights of singleton newborns

  4. Cytometry of chromatin bound Mcm6 and PCNA identifies two states in G1 that are separated functionally by the G1 restriction point1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobberger James W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytometric measurements of DNA content and chromatin-bound Mcm2 have demonstrated bimodal patterns of expression in G1. These patterns, the replication licensing function of Mcm proteins, and a correlation between Mcm loading and cell cycle commitment for cells re-entering the cell cycle, led us to test the idea that cells expressing a defined high level of chromatin-bound Mcm6 in G1 are committed - i.e., past the G1 restriction point. We developed a cell-based assay for tightly-bound PCNA (PCNA* and Mcm6 (Mcm6*, DNA content, and a mitotic marker to clearly define G1, S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle. hTERT-BJ1, hTERT-RPE-1, and Molt4 cells were extracted with Triton X-100 followed by methanol fixation, stained with antibodies and DAPI, then measured by cytometry. Results Bivariate analysis of cytometric data demonstrated complex patterns with distinct clustering for all combinations of the 4 variables. In G1, cells clustered in two groups characterized by low and high Mcm6* expression. Serum starvation and release experiments showed that residence in the high group was in late G1, just prior to S phase. Kinetic experiments, employing serum withdrawal, and stathmokinetic analysis with aphidicolin, mimosine or nocodazole demonstrated that cells with high levels of Mcm6* cycled with the committed phases of the cell cycle (S, G2, and M. Conclusions A multivariate assay for Mcm6*, PCNA*, DNA content, and a mitotic marker provides analysis capable of estimating the fraction of pre and post-restriction point G1 cells and supports the idea that there are at least two states in G1 defined by levels of chromatin bound Mcm proteins.

  5. Observations on the electronic equipment employed for making measurements on the pile G1; Observations sur le materiel electronique utilise pour les mesures sur la pile G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailloud, J; Belin, P; Meunier, A; Tarabella, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The electronic apparatus employed during the manipulations carried out on the pile G1 is briefly described, with the aim of putting on record the inconveniences encountered in the course of the operation of this equipment. (author) [French] On decrit succinctement l'appareillage electronique utilise durant les manipulations effectuees sur la pile G1, dans le but de noter les inconvenients rencontres au cours de l'exploitation de cet appareillage. (auteur)

  6. Identification, expression and phylogenetic analysis of EgG1Y162 from Echinococcus granulosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengbo; Ma, Xiumin; Zhu, Yuejie; Wang, Hongying; Liu, Xianfei; Zhu, Min; Ma, Haimei; Wen, Hao; Fan, Haining; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was to clone, identify and analyze the characteristics of egG1Y162 gene from Echinococcus granulosus. Methods: Genomic DNA and total RNAs were extracted from four different developmental stages of protoscolex, germinal layer, adult and egg of Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. Fluorescent quantitative PCR was used for analyzing the expression of egG1Y162 gene. Prokaryotic expression plasmid of pET41a-EgG1Y162 was constructed to express recombinant His-EgG1Y162 antigen. Western blot analysis was performed to detect antigenicity of EgG1Y162 antigen. Gene sequence, amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree of EgG1Y162 were analyzed by BLAST, online Spidey and MEGA4 software, respectively. Results: EgG1Y162 gene was expressed in four developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus. And, egG1Y162 gene expression was the highest in the adult stage, with the relative value of 19.526, significantly higher than other three stages. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed that EgG1Y162 recombinant protein had good reaction with serum samples from Echinococcus granulosus infected human and dog. Moreover, EgG1Y162 antigen was phylogenetically closest to EmY162 antigen, with the similarity over 90%. Conclusion: Our study identified EgG1Y162 antigen in Echinococcus granulosus for the first time. EgG1Y162 antigen had a high similarity with EmY162 antigen, with the genetic differences mainly existing in the intron region. And, EgG1Y162 recombinant protein showed good antigenicity. PMID:25337206

  7. Identification, expression and phylogenetic analysis of EgG1Y162 from Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengbo; Ma, Xiumin; Zhu, Yuejie; Wang, Hongying; Liu, Xianfei; Zhu, Min; Ma, Haimei; Wen, Hao; Fan, Haining; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-01-01

    This study was to clone, identify and analyze the characteristics of egG1Y162 gene from Echinococcus granulosus. Genomic DNA and total RNAs were extracted from four different developmental stages of protoscolex, germinal layer, adult and egg of Echinococcus granulosus, respectively. Fluorescent quantitative PCR was used for analyzing the expression of egG1Y162 gene. Prokaryotic expression plasmid of pET41a-EgG1Y162 was constructed to express recombinant His-EgG1Y162 antigen. Western blot analysis was performed to detect antigenicity of EgG1Y162 antigen. Gene sequence, amino acid alignment and phylogenetic tree of EgG1Y162 were analyzed by BLAST, online Spidey and MEGA4 software, respectively. EgG1Y162 gene was expressed in four developmental stages of Echinococcus granulosus. And, egG1Y162 gene expression was the highest in the adult stage, with the relative value of 19.526, significantly higher than other three stages. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed that EgG1Y162 recombinant protein had good reaction with serum samples from Echinococcus granulosus infected human and dog. Moreover, EgG1Y162 antigen was phylogenetically closest to EmY162 antigen, with the similarity over 90%. Our study identified EgG1Y162 antigen in Echinococcus granulosus for the first time. EgG1Y162 antigen had a high similarity with EmY162 antigen, with the genetic differences mainly existing in the intron region. And, EgG1Y162 recombinant protein showed good antigenicity.

  8. Application and expression of HSV gG1 protein from a recombinant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hua; Yan, Huishen; Huang, Tao; Li, Guocai; Gong, Weijuan; Jiao, Hongmei; Chen, Hongju; Ji, Mingchun

    2010-11-01

    According to the homologous sequence of glycoprotein G1 (gG1) genes from different strains of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a pair of primers was designed to amplify the gG1 gene fragment by PCR. Both the PCR product and the pGEX-4T-1 vector were digested with EcoR I and Sal I. The gG1 gene fragment was subcloned into the digested pGEX-4T-1 vector to construct a recombinant plasmid (pGEX-4T-1-gG1). The resultant plasmid was identified by dual-enzyme digestion and sequence analysis, and then transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 for expression under the induction of isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactoside (IPTG). The expressed GST-gG1 fragment was detected by SDS-PAGE and purified by affinity chromatography. The properties of GST-gG1 fragment were evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on the GST-gG1 fragment were used for determining IgG or IgM to HSV-1. The GST-gG1 fragment-specific ELISA was also compared with ELISA with whole-HSV-1 antigen and commercial ELISA kits. The gG1-specific IgG and IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells were induced in mice immunized with the GST-gG1 fragment. These results indicated that the GST-gG1 fragment could be used for replacing whole-virus antigen to detect IgM and IgG to HSV-1 in human sera, which provided a strategy for developing vaccines to protect HSV-1 infection using gG1 fragment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The DNA Replication Checkpoint Directly Regulates MBF-Dependent G1/S Transcription▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Chaitali; Patel, Prasanta K.; Rosebrock, Adam; Oliva, Anna; Leatherwood, Janet; Rhind, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The DNA replication checkpoint transcriptionally upregulates genes that allow cells to adapt to and survive replication stress. Our results show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the replication checkpoint regulates the entire G1/S transcriptional program by directly regulating MBF, the G1/S transcription factor. Instead of initiating a checkpoint-specific transcriptional program, the replication checkpoint targets MBF to maintain the normal G1/S transcriptional program du...

  10. Immunoglobulin G1 Allotype Influences Antibody Subclass Distribution in Response to HIV gp140 Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kratochvil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibody subclasses exhibit extensive polymorphisms (allotypes that could potentially impact the quality of HIV-vaccine induced B cell responses. Allotypes of immunoglobulin (Ig G1, the most abundant serum antibody, have been shown to display altered functional properties in regard to serum half-life, Fc-receptor binding and FcRn-mediated mucosal transcytosis. To investigate the potential link between allotypic IgG1-variants and vaccine-generated humoral responses in a cohort of 14 HIV vaccine recipients, we developed a novel protocol for rapid IgG1-allotyping. We combined PCR and ELISA assays in a dual approach to determine the IgG1 allotype identity (G1m3 and/or G1m1 of trial participants, using human plasma and RNA isolated from PBMC. The IgG1-allotype distribution of our participants mirrored previously reported results for caucasoid populations. We observed elevated levels of HIV gp140-specific IgG1 and decreased IgG2 levels associated with the G1m1-allele, in contrast to G1m3 carriers. These data suggest that vaccinees homozygous for G1m1 are predisposed to develop elevated Ag-specific IgG1:IgG2 ratios compared to G1m3-carriers. This elevated IgG1:IgG2 ratio was further associated with higher FcγR-dimer engagement, a surrogate for potential antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP function. Although preliminary, these results suggest that IgG1 allotype may have a significant impact on IgG subclass distribution in response to vaccination and associated Fc-mediated effector functions. These results have important implications for ongoing HIV vaccine efficacy studies predicated on engagement of FcγR-mediated cellular functions including ADCC and ADCP, and warrant further investigation. Our novel allotyping protocol provides new tools to determine the potential impact of IgG1 allotypes on vaccine efficacy.

  11. Infrared Drying as a Quick Preparation Method for Dried Tangerine Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish the most convenient and effective method to dry tangerine peels, different methods (sun drying, hot-air drying, freeze drying, vacuum drying, and medium- and short-wave infrared drying were exploited. Our results indicated that medium- and short-wave infrared drying was the best method to preserve nutraceutical components; for example, vitamin C was raised to 6.77 mg/g (D.W. from 3.39 mg/g (sun drying. Moreover, the drying time can be shortened above 96% compared with sun drying. Importantly, the efficiency of DPPH radical scavenging was enhanced from 26.66% to 55.92%. These findings would provide a reliable and time-saving methodology to produce high-quality dried tangerine peels.

  12. Experience gained in two years operation of G1; Experience acquise au cours de deux ans de fonctionnement du reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de, Rouville; Pascal, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Scalliet, [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1958-07-01

    Technical specifications in respect of the first plutonium generating graphite reactor, the G1 at Marcoule, were stated in a paper read at the first Geneva Conference in 1955. We shall not therefore deal further with the technical characteristics of G1 in the present note, but rather propose to define - in the characteristic fields we think will be of major interest to foreign specialists - the results obtained in two and a half years operation since G1 first became critical on january 7, 1956. (author)Fren. [French] Les caracteristiques techniques du premier reacteur plutonigene, au graphite, de Marcoule, G1, ont ete donnees dans une communication presentee a la premiere conference de Geneve, en 1955. Nous n'y reviendrons donc pas dans la presente note qui a pour objet de faire le point, dans quelques domaines caracteristiques, qui nous ont paru les plus susceptibles d'interesser les specialistes etrangers, des resultats obtenus et des experiences faites au cours des deux annees et demi de fonctionnement du reacteur qui ont suivi sa divergence, le 7 janvier 1956. (auteur)

  13. Natural uranium-graphite system. Critial experiments on the G1 reactor; Systeme uranium naturel-graphite. Experiences critiques sur le reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A P; Tanguy, P; Teste du Bailler, A; Zaleski, C P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    A number of experiments have been performed during the start up period of the G1 (1956) and G2 (1958) reactors in Marcoule, both on their lattices and on different lattices (hollow rods, clusters, under moderated lattices). The first chapter gives a thorough description of the two reactors. The second chapter deals with buckling measurements, both absolute (flux plots) and relative by the method of progressive substitution. The experimental results are summarised in Table VI. The third chapter contains a number of other measurements performed on G1. (author)Fren. [French] Le demarrage des reacteurs G1 (1956) et G2 (1958) de Marcoule nous a permis d'effectuer une serie d'experiences tant sur les reseaux de ces piles que sur des reseaux differents (elements tubulaires ou divises, reseaux sous-moderes, etc...). Dans une premiere partie, nous donnons une description detaillee des deux reacteurs. Dans la deuxieme partie, relative aux mesures de laplaciens, nous decrivons d'abord les mesures absolues de laplaciens (cartes de flux), puis les mesures relatives effectuees par la methode originale de remplacement progressif. Les resultats experimentaux sont rassembles dans le tableau VI. Dans la troisieme partie, nous rappelons un certain nombre d'autres mesures effectuees sur G1. (auteur)

  14. A hyperactive transcriptional state marks genome reactivation at the mitosis–G1 transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Chris C.-S.; Bartman, Caroline R.; Huang, Peng; Ginart, Paul; Stonestrom, Aaron J.; Keller, Cheryl A.; Face, Carolyne; Jahn, Kristen S.; Evans, Perry; Sankaranarayanan, Laavanya; Giardine, Belinda; Hardison, Ross C.; Raj, Arjun; Blobel, Gerd A.

    2016-01-01

    During mitosis, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and many transcription factors dissociate from chromatin, and transcription ceases globally. Transcription is known to restart in bulk by telophase, but whether de novo transcription at the mitosis–G1 transition is in any way distinct from later in interphase remains unknown. We tracked Pol II occupancy genome-wide in mammalian cells progressing from mitosis through late G1. Unexpectedly, during the earliest rounds of transcription at the mitosis–G1 transition, ∼50% of active genes and distal enhancers exhibit a spike in transcription, exceeding levels observed later in G1 phase. Enhancer–promoter chromatin contacts are depleted during mitosis and restored rapidly upon G1 entry but do not spike. Of the chromatin-associated features examined, histone H3 Lys27 acetylation levels at individual loci in mitosis best predict the mitosis–G1 transcriptional spike. Single-molecule RNA imaging supports that the mitosis–G1 transcriptional spike can constitute the maximum transcriptional activity per DNA copy throughout the cell division cycle. The transcriptional spike occurs heterogeneously and propagates to cell-to-cell differences in mature mRNA expression. Our results raise the possibility that passage through the mitosis–G1 transition might predispose cells to diverge in gene expression states. PMID:27340175

  15. A hyperactive transcriptional state marks genome reactivation at the mitosis-G1 transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Chris C-S; Bartman, Caroline R; Huang, Peng; Ginart, Paul; Stonestrom, Aaron J; Keller, Cheryl A; Face, Carolyne; Jahn, Kristen S; Evans, Perry; Sankaranarayanan, Laavanya; Giardine, Belinda; Hardison, Ross C; Raj, Arjun; Blobel, Gerd A

    2016-06-15

    During mitosis, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and many transcription factors dissociate from chromatin, and transcription ceases globally. Transcription is known to restart in bulk by telophase, but whether de novo transcription at the mitosis-G1 transition is in any way distinct from later in interphase remains unknown. We tracked Pol II occupancy genome-wide in mammalian cells progressing from mitosis through late G1. Unexpectedly, during the earliest rounds of transcription at the mitosis-G1 transition, ∼50% of active genes and distal enhancers exhibit a spike in transcription, exceeding levels observed later in G1 phase. Enhancer-promoter chromatin contacts are depleted during mitosis and restored rapidly upon G1 entry but do not spike. Of the chromatin-associated features examined, histone H3 Lys27 acetylation levels at individual loci in mitosis best predict the mitosis-G1 transcriptional spike. Single-molecule RNA imaging supports that the mitosis-G1 transcriptional spike can constitute the maximum transcriptional activity per DNA copy throughout the cell division cycle. The transcriptional spike occurs heterogeneously and propagates to cell-to-cell differences in mature mRNA expression. Our results raise the possibility that passage through the mitosis-G1 transition might predispose cells to diverge in gene expression states. © 2016 Hsiung et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  17. Inhibition of G1-phase arrest induced by ionizing radiation in hematopoietic cells by overexpression of genes involved in the G1/S-phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperly, M.; Berry, L.; Halloran, A.; Greenberger, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    D-type cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk-4) are likely involved in regulating passage of cells through the G 1 phase of the cell cycle. A decrease in the proportion of cells in G 1 , a relatively radiation-sensitive phase of the cell cycle, should result in increased resistance to ionizing radiation; however, the effect of such overexpression on X-ray-induced G 1 -phase arrest is not known. Radiation survival curves were obtained at a dose rate of either 8 cGy/min or 1 Gy/min for subclones of the IL-3-dependent hematopoietic progenitor cell line 32D cl 3 expressing transgenes for either cyclin-D1, D2 or D3 or cdk-4. We compared the results to those with overexpression of the transgene for Bcl-2, whose expression enhances radiation survival and delays apoptosis. Cells overexpressing transgenes for each D-type cyclin or Bcl-2 had an increased number of cells in S phase compared to parent line 32D cl 3; however, overexpression of cdk-4 had no effect on cell cycle distribution. Cell death resulting from withdrawal of IL-3 was not affected by overexpression of D2, cdk-4 or Bcl-2. Flow cytometry 24 h after 5 Gy irradiation demonstrated that overexpression of each G 1 -phase regulatory transgene decreased the proportion of cells at the G 1 /S-phase border. Western analysis revealed induction of cyclin-D protein levels by irradiation, but no change in the D O , but a significant increase in the rvec n for cyclin-D or cdk-4 transgene-overexpressing clones at 1 Gy/min (P 1 /S-phase arrest. 31 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Role of HLA-G1 in trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Feng, E-mail: jiangfeng1161@163.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Zhao, Hongxi [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Wang, Li [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853 (China); Guo, Xinyu [Assisted Reproductive Center, General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou 510010 (China); Wang, Xiaohong; Yin, Guowu [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Hu, Yunsheng [Department of Orthopedics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Li, Yi [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 569 Xinsi Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an 710038 (China); Yao, Yuanqing, E-mail: yuanqingyaoxa@163.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2015-02-27

    Trophoblast cells are important in embryo implantation and fetomaternal tolerance. HLA-G is specifically expressed at the maternal–fetal interface and is a regulator in pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to detect the effect of HLA-G1 on trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. Human trophoblast cell lines (JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells) were infected with HLA-G1-expressing lentivirus. After infection, HLA-G1 expression of the cells was detected by western blotting. Cell proliferation was detected by the BrdU assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis of JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). The invasion of the cells under different conditions was detected by the transwell invasion chamber assay. HLA-G1 didn't show any significant influence on the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, and invasion of trophocytes in normal culture conditions. However, HLA-G1 inhibited JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells invasion induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) under normal oxygen conditions. In conditions of hypoxia, HLA-G1 couldn't inhibit the induction of cell invasion by HGF. HLA-G1 is not an independent factor for regulating the trophocytes. It may play an indirect role in embryo implantation and formation of the placenta. - Highlights: • HLA-G1 could not influence trophocytes under normal conditions. • HLA-G1 inhibited cell invasion induced by HGF under normal oxygen condition. • HLA-G1 could not influence cell invasion under hypoxia conditions.

  19. Global phylogeography and genetic diversity of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto genotype G1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkar, Liina; Laurimäe, Teivi; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Andresiuk, Vanessa; Balkaya, Ibrahim; Casulli, Adriano; Gasser, Robin B; van der Giessen, Joke; González, Luis Miguel; Haag, Karen L; Zait, Houria; Irshadullah, Malik; Jabbar, Abdul; Jenkins, David J; Kia, Eshrat Beigom; Manfredi, Maria Teresa; Mirhendi, Hossein; M'rad, Selim; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; Pierangeli, Nora Beatriz; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Rehbein, Steffen; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Simsek, Sami; Soriano, Silvia Viviana; Sprong, Hein; Šnábel, Viliam; Umhang, Gérald; Varcasia, Antonio; Saarma, Urmas

    2018-05-19

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is the major cause of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide and is listed among the most severe parasitic diseases of humans. To date, numerous studies have investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus s.s. in various geographic regions. However, there has been no global study. Recently, using mitochondrial DNA, it was shown that E. granulosus s.s. G1 and G3 are distinct genotypes, but a larger dataset is required to confirm the distinction of these genotypes. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate the distinction of genotypes G1 and G3 using a large global dataset; and (ii) analyse the genetic diversity and phylogeography of genotype G1 on a global scale using near-complete mitogenome sequences. For this study, 222 globally distributed E. granulosus s.s. samples were used, of which 212 belonged to genotype G1 and 10 to G3. Using a total sequence length of 11,682 bp, we inferred phylogenetic networks for three datasets: E. granulosus s.s. (n = 222), G1 (n = 212) and human G1 samples (n = 41). In addition, the Bayesian phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were performed. The latter yielded several strongly supported diffusion routes of genotype G1 originating from Turkey, Tunisia and Argentina. We conclude that: (i) using a considerably larger dataset than employed previously, E. granulosus s.s. G1 and G3 are indeed distinct mitochondrial genotypes; (ii) the genetic diversity of E. granulosus s.s. G1 is high globally, with lower values in South America; and (iii) the complex phylogeographic patterns emerging from the phylogenetic and geographic analyses suggest that the current distribution of genotype G1 has been shaped by intensive animal trade. Copyright © 2018 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of HLA-G1 in trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Feng; Zhao, Hongxi; Wang, Li; Guo, Xinyu; Wang, Xiaohong; Yin, Guowu; Hu, Yunsheng; Li, Yi; Yao, Yuanqing

    2015-01-01

    Trophoblast cells are important in embryo implantation and fetomaternal tolerance. HLA-G is specifically expressed at the maternal–fetal interface and is a regulator in pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to detect the effect of HLA-G1 on trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. Human trophoblast cell lines (JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells) were infected with HLA-G1-expressing lentivirus. After infection, HLA-G1 expression of the cells was detected by western blotting. Cell proliferation was detected by the BrdU assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis of JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). The invasion of the cells under different conditions was detected by the transwell invasion chamber assay. HLA-G1 didn't show any significant influence on the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, and invasion of trophocytes in normal culture conditions. However, HLA-G1 inhibited JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells invasion induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) under normal oxygen conditions. In conditions of hypoxia, HLA-G1 couldn't inhibit the induction of cell invasion by HGF. HLA-G1 is not an independent factor for regulating the trophocytes. It may play an indirect role in embryo implantation and formation of the placenta. - Highlights: • HLA-G1 could not influence trophocytes under normal conditions. • HLA-G1 inhibited cell invasion induced by HGF under normal oxygen condition. • HLA-G1 could not influence cell invasion under hypoxia conditions

  1. Synthesis and characterization of supramolecule self-assembly polyami-doamine (PAMAM G1-G1 NH2, CO2H end group Megamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Louie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Supramolecule self-assembly polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendrimer refers to the chemical sys-tems made up of a discrete number of assembled molecular subunits or components. These strat-egies involve the covalent assembly of hierarchical components reactive monomers, branch cells or dendrons around atomic or molecular cores according to divergent/convergent dendritic branching principles, systematic filling of space around a core with shells (layers of branch cells. The polydispersity index (PDI for the supramolecule megamer are pretty closed to one, are in agreement with the Poisson probability distribution. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM den-drimer G1-G1 that it was PAMAM Megamer NH2, COOH end groupsynthesized and character-ized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMRspectra and GelPermeation Chromatography (GPC.

  2. Final COMPASS results on the spin-dependent structure functions $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ in the deep-inelastic and nonperturbative regions

    CERN Document Server

    Badelek, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    This paper summarizes the COMPASS Collaboration legacy on measurements of the proton and deuteron spin-dependent structure functions, $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ at $Q^2 1$ (GeV/c)$^2$. In both regions and at the lowest measured $x, g^d_1 (x)$ is consistent with zero while $g^p_1 (x)$ is positive. This is the first time that the spin effects are observed at such low values of $x$. The NLO QCD fit of $g_1$ world data gives well constrained quark helicity distributions; gluons are poorly determined. Quark helicity contribution to nucleon spin is $0.26 < \\Delta \\Sigma < 0.36$. From the COMPASS data alone the Bjorken sum rule is verified to $9\\%$ accuracy and the extracted flavour-singlet axial charge is $a_0 (Q^2 = 3 (\\text{GeV/}c)^2) = 0.32 \\pm 0.02_{stat.} \\pm 0.04_{syst.} \\pm 0.05_{evol.}$.

  3. Moments of the Spin Structure Functions g1p and g1d for 0.05 < Q2 < 3.0 GeV2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prok, Yelena; Bosted, Peter; Burkert, Volker; Deur, Alexandre; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Dodge, Gail; Griffioen, Keith; Kuhn, Sebastian; Minehart, Ralph; Adams, Gary; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Anghinolfi, Marco; Asryan, G.; Audit, Gerard; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Barrow, Steve; Battaglieri, Marco; Beard, Kevin; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bektasoglu, Mehmet; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Biselli, Angela; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bonner, Billy; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Bultmann, S.; Bueltmann, Stephen; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Casey, Liam; Cazes, Antoine; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Cords, Dieter; Corvisiero, Pietro; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Cummings, John; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Denizli, Haluk; Dennis, Lawrence; Dhuga, Kalvir; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Doughty, David; Dugger, Michael; Dytman, Steven; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Egiyan, Kim; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fatemi, Renee; Fedotov, Gleb; Feldman, Gerald; Fersch, Robert; Feuerbach, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Funsten, Herbert; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Golovach, Evgeny; Gothe, Ralf; Guidal, Michel; Guillo, Matthieu; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hadjidakis, Cynthia; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hardie, John; Hassall, Neil; Heddle, David; Hersman, F.; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Huertas, Marco; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keith, Christopher; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Kui; Kim, Kyungmo; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Klusman, Mike; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kramer, Laird; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, Dave; Lima, Ana; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; Lukashin, K.; MacCormick, Marion; Marchand, Claude; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McAleer, Simeon; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Mirazita, Marco; Miskimen, Rory; Mokeev, Viktor; Morand, Ludyvine; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Mueller, James; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; O' Rielly, Grant; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kijun; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Philips, Sasha; Pierce, J.; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pocanic, Dinko; Pogorelko, Oleg; Popa, Iulian; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Preedom, Barry; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Protopopescu, Dan; Qin, Liming; Raue, Brian; Riccardi, Gregory; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Rowntree, David; Rubin, Philip; Sabatie, Franck; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Schumacher, Reinhard; Seely, Mikell; Serov, Vladimir; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shaw, Jeffrey; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Skabelin, Alexander; Smith, Elton; Smith, Lee; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinskiy, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Suleiman, Riad; Taiuti, Mauro; Tedeschi, David; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Todor, Luminita; Ungaro, Maurizio; V

    2009-02-01

    The spin structure functions $g_1$ for the proton and the deuteron have been measured over a wide kinematic range in $x$ and \\Q2 using 1.6 and 5.7 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons incident upon polarized NH$_3$ and ND$_3$ targets at Jefferson Lab. Scattered electrons were detected in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, for $0.05 < Q^2 < 5 $\\ GeV$^2$ and $W < 3$ GeV. The first moments of $g_1$ for the proton and deuteron are presented -- both have a negative slope at low \\Q2, as predicted by the extended Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule. The first result for the generalized forward spin polarizability of the proton $\\gamma_0^p$ is also reported, and shows evidence of scaling above $Q^2$ = 1.5 GeV$^2$. Although the first moments of $g_1$ are consistent with Chiral Perturbation Theory (\\ChPT) calculations up to approximately $Q^2 = 0.06$ GeV$^2$, a significant discrepancy is observed between the $\\gamma_0^p$ data and \\ChPT\\ for $\\gamma_0^p$,even at the lowest \\Q2.

  4. Final COMPASS results on the spin-dependent structure functions $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ in the deep-inelastic and nonperturbative regions

    CERN Document Server

    Badelek, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the COMPASS Collaboration legacy on measurements of the proton and deuteron spin-dependent structure functions, $g_1^p$ and $g_1^d$ at $Q^2 1$ (GeV/c)$^2$. In both regions and at the lowest measured $x, g^d_1 (x)$ is consistent with zero while $g^p_1 (x)$ is positive. This is the first time that the spin effects are observed at such low values of $x$. The NLO QCD fit of $g_1$ world data gives well constrained quark helicity distributions; gluons are poorly determined. Quark helicity contribution to nucleon spin is $0.26 < \\Delta \\Sigma < 0.36$. From the COMPASS data alone the Bjorken sum rule is verified to $9\\%$ accuracy and the extracted flavour-singlet axial charge is $a_0 (Q^2 = 3 (\\text{GeV/}c)^2) = 0.32 \\pm 0.02_{stat.} \\pm 0.04_{syst.} \\pm 0.05_{evol.}$.

  5. Crescimento , produção de matéria seca e acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S na parte aérea de mudas de andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl. cultivadas em solo de várzea, em função de diferentes doses de fósforo Growth, dry matter yield and N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S accumulation in andiroba seedling shoots (Carapa guianensis Aubl. cultivated in lowland soil, in function of phosphorus doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Sílvio Caires Neves

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de fósforo no crescimento e produção de matéria seca e acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S na parte aérea de mudas de andiroba, cultivadas em solo de várzea, foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Ciências do Solo (DCS da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com cinco repetições e quatro doses de fósforo (0, 150, 300 e 450 mg dm-3 de P. Foram avaliados diâmetro do caule (mm, altura de plantas (cm, matéria seca de raiz, caule, folha e total (g planta-1. A partir dos teores dos elementos, determinou-se o acúmulo dos nutrientes com base na matéria seca. A máxima resposta física da planta de andiroba à adubação fosfatada foi obtida na faixa de 239 a 265 mg dm-3 de P. O máximo acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S foi atingido com as doses de 254; 287,5; 244,5; 254; 241; e 275 mg dm-3 de P, respectivamente. Os elementos em estudo que mais acumularam na parte aérea das mudas de andiroba seguem a seguinte ordem decrescente: N > Ca > K > Mg > S > P.To evaluate the effect of phosphorus application on growth, dry matter yield and N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S accumulation in "andiroba" seedling shoots, cultivated in lowland soil, an experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Soil Science Department (DCS of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with five replications and four phosphorus doses (0, 150, 300 and 450 mg dm-3 of P. Stem diameter (mm, plant height (cm, root dry matter, stem, leafs and total (g plant-1 were evaluated and the accumulation of the nutrients based on dry matter was determined. The maximum physical response of andiroba to phosphorus was obtained between 239 to 265 mg dm-3 of P. The maximum accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S was observed with the doses 254, 287,5, 244,5, 254, 241 and 275 mg dm-3 of P, respectively

  6. Redox-mediated bypass of restriction point via skipping of G1pm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene James J

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that cancer cells bypass the restriction point, R, and undergo uncontrolled cell proliferation. Hypothesis and evidence We suggest here that fibrosarcoma cells enter G1ps directly from M, skipping G1pm, hence bypassing R, in response to redox modulation. Evidence is presented from the published literature that demonstrate a shortening of the cycle period of transformed fibroblasts (SV-3T3 compared to the nontransformed 3T3 fibroblasts, corresponding to the duration of G1pm in the 3T3 fibroblasts. Evidence is also presented that demonstrate that redox modulation can induce the CUA-4 fibroblasts to bypass R, resulting in a cycle period closely corresponding to the cycle period of fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080. Conclusion The evidence supports our hypothesis that a low internal redox potential can cause fibrosarcoma cells to skip the G1pm phase of the cell cycle.

  7. The regulation of ras-raf signaling pathway on G1 phase of the irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dehuang; Dong Bo; Liu Nongle; Wen Gengyun; Luo Qingliang; Mao Bingzhi

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the way of ras-raf signaling pathway which regulate the G 1 phase in irradiated KG-1 cells. Methods: Blocked the GM-CSF signaling pathway by transfected DN-ras and then momentary transfected cyclin D1 into irradiated KG-1 cells, the effects of cyclin D1 on G 1 phase was examined. Results: The irradiated KG-1 cells transfected DN-ras can't recover form G 1 phase arrest even though the GM-CSF was given,momentary transfected cyclin D1 promote the irradiated KG-1 cells from G 1 arrest. Conclusion: Activation of ras-raf signaling pathway regulate the cell cycle of the irradiated KG-1 cells through promotion the expression of the cyclin D1

  8. Measurement of the Proton and Deuteron Spin Structure Function g1 in the Resonance Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Akagi, T.; Perry Anthony; Antonov, R.; Arnold, R.G.; Todd Averett; Band, H.R.; Bauer, J.M.; Borel, H.; Peter Bosted; Vincent Breton; Button-Shafer, J.; Jian-Ping Chen; T.E. Chupp; J. Clendenin; C. Comptour; K.P. Coulter; G. Court; Donald Crabb; M. Daoudi; Donal Day; F.S. Dietrich; James Dunne; H. Dutz; R. Erbacher; J. Fellbaum; Andrew Feltham; Helene Fonvieille; Emil Frlez; D. Garvey; R. Gearhart; Javier Gomez; P. Grenier; Keith Griffioen; S. Hoeibraten; Emlyn Hughes; Charles Hyde-Wright; J.R. Johnson; D. Kawall; Andreas Klein; Sebastian Kuhn; M. Kuriki; Richard Lindgren; T.J. Liu; R.M. Lombard-Nelsen; Jacques Marroncle; Tomoyuki Maruyama; X.K. Maruyama; James Mccarthy; Werner Meyer; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Ralph Minehart; Joseph Mitchell; J. Morgenstern; Gerassimos Petratos; R. Pitthan; Dinko Pocanic; C. Prescott; R. Prepost; P. Raines; Brian Raue; D. Reyna; A. Rijllart; Yves Roblin; L. Rochester; Stephen Rock; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Ingo Sick; Lee Smith; Tim Smith; M. Spengos; F. Staley; P. Steiner; S. St. Lorant; L.M. Stuart; F. Suekane; Z.M. Szalata; Huabin Tang; Y. Terrien; Tracy Usher; Dieter Walz; Frank Wesselmann; J.L. White; K. Witte; C. Young; Brad Youngman; Haruo Yuta; G. Zapalac; Benedikt Zihlmann; Zimmermann, D.

    1997-01-01

    We have measured the proton and deuteron spin structure functions g 1 p and g 1 d in the region of the nucleon resonances for W 2 2 and Q 2 ≅ 0.5 and Q 2 ≅ 1.2 GeV 2 by inelastically scattering 9.7 GeV polarized electrons off polarized 15 NH 3 and 15 ND 3 targets. We observe significant structure in g 1 p in the resonance region. We have used the present results, together with the deep-inelastic data at higher W 2 , to extract Γ(Q 2 ) (triple b ond) ∫ 0 1 g 1 (x,Q 2 ) dx. This is the first information on the low-Q 2 evolution of Gamma toward the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn limit at Q 2 = 0

  9. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  10. Determination of iridium at low levels (sub ng g-1) in geological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcelli, Claudia Petronilho Ribeiro

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of the platinum group elements (PGE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir and Pt) in geological materials is difficult, due to the low concentrations of these elements (ng g -1 or sub ng g -1 ) and their heterogeneous distribution in many geological matrices. The determination of PGE has attracted great interest due not only to the increasing utilization of these elements in modern industry, but also to the information that these elements can provide on mantle processes. The determination of very low amounts of iridium is particularly important on account of some anomalous concentrations of iridium in sedimentary rock samples, related to the impact of an extraterrestrial object responsible for extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. In the present paper, a radiochemical neutron activation method for the determination of iridium in geological materials is presented. The procedure consisted of thermal neutron irradiation of about 500 mg of the sample, followed by sintering with sodium peroxide, precipitation with tellurium and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with a hyper-pure Ge detector. The accuracy and precision of the procedure were evaluated by analysis of the certified reference material SARM-7 (South Africa Bureau of Standards) and W-1 (USGS). The detection limit for the analytical conditions employed was 0.004 ng g -1 . The procedure was applied to the reference materials TDB-1 and WGB-1 (CANMET), which present provisional values for Ir, and to the reference materials GXR-3, GXR-5 and GXR- 6 (USGS), which do not present information values for Ir. This work is a contribution to Ir values in these reference materials. As an example of application of the method to real samples, the developed procedure was employed in the determination of iridium in basalts from Parana basin, collected in Bom Guara do Sul, Santa Catarina, provided by the Geosciences Institute of the University of Campinas. (author)

  11. Cyclin G1 inhibits the proliferation of mouse endometrial stromal cell in decidualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Qian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine stromal cell decidualization is a dynamic physiological process in which cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis are orchestrated and occur in a temporal and cell-specific manner. This process is important for successful embryo implantation. Many cell-cycle regulators are involved in decidualization. The protein cyclin G1 is a unique regulator of the cell cycle with dual functions in cell proliferation. It was reported that cyclin G1 is expressed in mouse uterine stromal cells during the period of peri-implantation. To prove the function of cyclin G1 in mouse uterine stromal cells during this period, immunohistochemistry was used to stain mouse uterine tissues on days 4-8 of pregnancy. The results showed obvious spatial and temporal expression of cyclin G1 in uterine stromal cells, and that it is expressed in the cells of the primary decidual zone (PDZ on day 5 and secondary decidual zone (SDZ on days 6 and 7, when the stromal cells experienced active proliferation and differentiation was initiated. Applying the decidualization model of cultured primary stromal cells in vitro, we further revealed that the expression of cyclin G1 is associated with decidualization of stromal cells induced by medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and estradiol-17β (E2. RNA interference was used for the knockdown of cyclin G1 in the induced decidual cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the proportion of cells in the S stage was increased, and decreased in the G2/M phase. Our study indicates that cyclin G1, as a negative regulator of the cell cycle, plays an important role in the process of decidualization in mouse uterine stromal cells by inhibiting cell-cycle progression.

  12. Prussian Blue Mg-Li Hybrid Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Duffort, Victor; Nazar, Linda F

    2016-08-01

    The major advantage of Mg batteries relies on their promise of employing an Mg metal negative electrode, which offers much higher energy density compared to graphitic carbon. However, the strong coulombic interaction of Mg 2+ ions with anions leads to their sluggish diffusion in the solid state, which along with a high desolvation energy, hinders the development of positive electrode materials. To circumvent this limitation, Mg metal negative electrodes can be used in hybrid systems by coupling an Li + insertion cathode through a dual salt electrolyte. Two "high voltage" Prussian blue analogues (average 2.3 V vs Mg/Mg 2+ ; 3.0 V vs Li/Li + ) are investigated as cathode materials and the influence of structural water is shown. Their electrochemical profiles, presenting two voltage plateaus, are explained based on the two unique Fe bonding environments. Structural water has a beneficial impact on the cell voltage. Capacities of 125 mAh g -1 are obtained at a current density of 10 mA g -1 (≈C/10), while stable performance up to 300 cycles is demonstrated at 200 mA g -1 (≈2C). The hybrid cell design is a step toward building a safe and high density energy storage system.

  13. Measurement of the thermal utilisation factor of the reactor G1; Mesure du facteur d'utilisation thermique du reacteur G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roullier, F; Schmitt, A P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The thermal utilisation factor of the lattice of the reactor G1 has been measured by applying the autoradiographic technique to thin detectors irradiated in the cell. The experimental apparatus is described, and the results compared with those obtained by calculation based on various formulae. The results of the study of the thermal flux distribution in a cell containing a thorium rod of the same diameter as the uranium rods in the lattice are also given. The precision of the measurements is discussed. Value found: f diameter 26 = 0.8949 {+-} 0,005. (author) [French] Le facteur d'utilisation thermique du reseau du reacteur G1 a ete mesure en appliquant la technique de l'autoradiographie a des detecteurs minces irradies dans la cellule. Les dispositifs experimentaux sont decrits et les resultats sont compares a ceux obtenus par le calcul a partir de diverses formules. Les resultats de l'etude de la distribution du flux thermique dans une cellule contenant une barre de thorium de meme diametre que les barres d'uranium du reseau sont egalement indiques. La precision des mesures est discutee. Valeur trouvee: f diametre 26 = 0,8949 {+-} 0,005. (author)

  14. Arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaitili, Aisha; Shu, Zunhua; Cheng, Xiaojiang; Kaheerman, Kadeer; Sikandeer, Alifu; Li, Weimin

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the anticancer potential of arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, in malignant gliomas. The U87MG and T98G human glioma cell lines were treated with various concentrations of arctigenin for 48 h and the effects of arctigenin on the aggressive phenotypes of glioma cells were assessed. The results demonstrated that arctigenin dose-dependently inhibited the growth of U87MG and T98G cells, as determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays. Arctigenin exposure also induced a 60-75% reduction in colony formation compared with vehicle-treated control cells. However, arctigenin was not observed to affect the invasiveness of glioma cells. Arctigenin significantly increased the proportion of cells in the G 0 /G 1 phase and reduced the number of cells in the S phase, as compared with the control group (Parctigenin increased the expression levels of p21, retinoblastoma and p53 proteins, and significantly decreased the expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 proteins. Additionally, arctigenin was able to induce apoptosis in glioma cells, coupled with increased expression levels of cleaved caspase-3 and the pro-apoptotic BCL2-associated X protein. Furthermore, arctigenin-induced apoptosis was significantly suppressed by the pretreatment of cells with Z-DEVD-FMK, a caspase-3 inhibitor. In conclusion, the results suggest that arctigenin is able to inhibit cell proliferation and may induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the G 0 /G 1 phase in glioma cells. These results warrant further investigation of the anticancer effects of arctigenin in animal models of gliomas.

  15. Selection of G1 Phase Yeast Cells for Synchronous Meiosis and Sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, David T

    2017-01-01

    Centrifugal elutriation is a procedure that allows the fractionation of cell populations based upon their size and shape. This allows cells in distinct cell cycle stages can be captured from an asynchronous population. The technique is particularly helpful when performing an experiment to monitor the progression of cells through the cell cycle or meiosis. Yeast sporulation like gametogenesis in other eukaryotes initiates from the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Conveniently, S. cerevisiae arrest in G1 phase when starved for nutrients and so withdrawal of nitrogen and glucose allows cells to abandon vegetative growth in G1 phase before initiating the sporulation program. This simple starvation protocol yields a partial synchronization that has been used extensively in studies of progression through meiosis and sporulation. By using centrifugal elutriation it is possible to isolate a homogeneous population of G1 phase cells and induce them to sporulate synchronously, which is beneficial for investigating progression through meiosis and sporulation. An additionally benefit of this protocol is that cell populations can be isolated based upon size and both large and small cell populations can be tested for progression through meiosis and sporulation. Here we present a protocol for purification of G1 phase diploid cells for examining synchronous progression through meiosis and sporulation.

  16. The amount of food ingested in a single meal by rainbow trout offered chopped herring, dry and wet diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohonen; Grove; McIlroy

    1997-07-01

    Two-year-old 1·5-kg rainbow trout were held in cages and conditioned by feeding either on low-fat chopped herring (H trout) or dry pellets (P trout) for 15 weeks. Their satiation amounts were then determined under standard conditions. On a wet weight basis H trout ate 2·5-3·5 times more food than P trout; this was sufficient to compensate for the high water content of herring and thereby maintain the dry matter intake. When P trout were offered herring (PH trout) they consumed more food than when offered dry pellets but not as much as H trout. Stomach capacity restricted the intake and their dry matter intake was reduced by c. 40%. When H trout were offered dry pellets (HP trout) they adjusted their intake immediately close to the level of P trout although their larger stomachs could have accommodated more than twice this volume of dry food. The return of appetite after a satiation meal was almost linear with time. Appetite increased at c. 556 mg g-1 body weight h-1 for H trout and at 142 mg g-1 bw h-1 for P trout. The return of appetite in PH trout was significantly slower (c. 370 mg g-1 bw h-1) than in H trout; the previous dietary history of the PH trout limited their capacity to process larger volumes of wet food in a single meal. Fish offered dry diet (P and HP trout) had similar rates of appetite return despite their previous feeding history suggesting that the property of the dry feed itself might limit meal size. The total gastric emptying time of diets of similar dry matter content (with and without large amounts of water) was similar, but the delay time before gastric emptying starts tended to be longer for dry diets. Dry pellets appear to impose a demand for water that prolongs the gastric delay. This water demand is met partly by drinking since the trout fed on dry pellets drank significantly more (436±189 mg kg-1 h-1) than unfed and herring-fed trout which drank little or not at all (65±113 and 70±66 mg kg-1 h-1 respectively). Dietary water

  17. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang-Jin; Deng, Liang-Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan-Hui

    2015-04-01

    A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644L · (Ld)(-1) and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g(-)(1)VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L(-1). Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L(-1). The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L ·(Ld)(-1) and biogas yield of 0.649 L g(-1)VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25°C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s(-1) when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  19. Is there a hard gluonic contribution to the first moment of g1?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodwin, G.T.; Qiu, Jianwei

    1990-01-01

    We show that the size of the hard gluonic contribution to the first moment of the proton's spin-dependent structure function g 1 is entirely a matter of the convention used in defining the quark distributions. If the UV regulator for the spin-dependent quark distributions respects the gauge invariance of Green's functions (allows shifts of loop momenta) and respects the analyticity structure of the unregulated distributions, then the hard gluonic contribution to the first moment of g 1 vanishes. This is the case, for example, in dimensional regularization. By relaxing the requirement that the regulator allow shifts of loop moments, we are able to obtain a nonvanishing hard gluonic contribution to the first moment of g 1 . However, the first moments of the resulting quark distributions correspond to matrix elements that are either gauge variant or involve nonlocal operators and, hence, have no analogue in the standard operator-product expansion. 11 refs., 2 figs

  20. Cdk phosphorylation of the Ste11 transcription factor constrains differentiation-specific transcription to G1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, Søren; Andersen, Nicoline Resen; Borup, Mia Trolle

    2007-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells normally differentiate from G(1); here we investigate the mechanism preventing expression of differentiation-specific genes outside G(1). In fission yeast, induction of the transcription factor Ste11 triggers sexual differentiation. We find that Ste11 is only active in G(1) when...... Cdk activity is low. In the remaining part of the cell cycle, Ste11 becomes Cdk-phosphorylated at Thr 82 (T82), which inhibits its DNA-binding activity. Since the ste11 gene is autoregulated and the Ste11 protein is highly unstable, this Cdk switch rapidly extinguishes Ste11 activity when cells enter...... S phase. When we mutated T82 to aspartic acid, mimicking constant phosphorylation, cells no longer underwent differentiation. Conversely, changing T82 to alanine rendered Ste11-controlled transcription constitutive through the cell cycle, and allowed mating from S phase with increased frequency...

  1. Hydroxyurea does not prevent synchronized G1 Chinese hamster cells from entering the DNA synthetic period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, R.A.; Tobey, R.A.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Using very high concentrations of radioactively labeled thymidine, we show that synchronized G 1 cells treated with hydroxyurea entered the DNA synthetic period at a time and rate indistinguishable from that of untreated cells, although the rate of DNA synthesis was greatly reduced in the drug-treated cultures. The DNA synthesized in the presence of hydroxyurea was less than or equal to 1 x 10 7 daltons, all of which could be chased into bulk DNA of approximately 3.5 x 10 8 daltons within 3 hr after removal of hydroxyurea. Hydroxyurea synchronized cells are apparently not blocked at the G 1 /S boundary but in the S phase itself

  2. Measurement of the temperature of the neutrons in reactor G1; Mesure de la temperature des neutrons dans la pile G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raievski, V; Sautiez, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    A precise experimental method has been adapted to the analysis of the spectrum of neutrons in the thermal region. This method uses the technique of modulation applied to a beam of neutrons issuing from a characteristic point in the pile. The analysis of the spectrum is made by adjusting, by the method of least squares, an analytical form to the experimental results. In this report are given the results obtained with a beam from the centre of the moderator of G1. The spectrum of this beam essentially represents the spectrum of the neutrons in the moderator. The most probable velocity was determined by means of Maxwell's functions. The measurements were made of different moderator temperatures between 304 deg. K and 435 deg. K. (author) [French] Une methode experimentale precise a ete mise au point pour l'analyse du spectre des neutrons dans le domaine thermique. Cette methode utilise la technique de la modulation appliquee a un faisceau de neutrons issu d'un point caracteristique de la pile. L'analyse du spectre est faite en ajustant par la methode des moindres carres une forme analytique aux resultats experimentaux. Dans ce rapport, on donne les resultats obtenus sur un faisceau du centre du moderateur de G1. Le spectre de ce faisceau represente convenablement le spectre des neutrons dans le moderateur. On s'est limite ici a une fonction de Maxwell dont on a recherche la vitesse la plus probable. Les mesures ont ete faites avec une temperature du moderateur variant entre 304 deg. K et 435 deg. K. (auteur)

  3. The DNA replication checkpoint directly regulates MBF-dependent G1/S transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Chaitali; Patel, Prasanta K; Rosebrock, Adam; Oliva, Anna; Leatherwood, Janet; Rhind, Nicholas

    2008-10-01

    The DNA replication checkpoint transcriptionally upregulates genes that allow cells to adapt to and survive replication stress. Our results show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the replication checkpoint regulates the entire G(1)/S transcriptional program by directly regulating MBF, the G(1)/S transcription factor. Instead of initiating a checkpoint-specific transcriptional program, the replication checkpoint targets MBF to maintain the normal G(1)/S transcriptional program during replication stress. We propose a mechanism for this regulation, based on in vitro phosphorylation of the Cdc10 subunit of MBF by the Cds1 replication-checkpoint kinase. Replacement of two potential phosphorylation sites with phosphomimetic amino acids suffices to promote the checkpoint transcriptional program, suggesting that Cds1 phosphorylation directly regulates MBF-dependent transcription. The conservation of MBF between fission and budding yeast, and recent results implicating MBF as a target of the budding yeast replication checkpoint, suggests that checkpoint regulation of the MBF transcription factor is a conserved strategy for coping with replication stress. Furthermore, the structural and regulatory similarity between MBF and E2F, the metazoan G(1)/S transcription factor, suggests that this checkpoint mechanism may be broadly conserved among eukaryotes.

  4. The spin dependent structure function g1 of the deuteron and the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klostermann, L.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis presents a study on the spin structure of the nucleon, via deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of polarised nuons on polarised proton and deuterium targets. The work was done in the Spin Muon Collaboration (SMC) at CERN in Geneva. From the asymmetry in the scattering cross section for nucleon and lepton spins parallel and anti-parallel, one con determine the spin dependent structure function g 1 , which contains information on the quark and gluon spin distribution functions. The interpretation in the frame work of the quark parton model (QPM) of earlier results on g 1 p by the European Muon Collaboration (EMC), gave an indication that only a small fraction of the proton spin, compatible with zero, is carried by the spins of the constituent quarks. The SMC was set up to check this unexpected result with improved accuracy, and to combine measurements of g 1 p and g 1 d to test a fundamental sum rule in quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the Bjorken sum rule. (orig./WL)

  5. Solid-phase synthesis and biological activity of a thioether analogue of conotoxin G1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Jon; Grunnet, Morten; Jespersen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    of two isomers, which were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the muscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The two isomers were found to have IC(50) values (inhibitory activities) of 144 microM and 48 microM, compared to 0.18 microM for native conotoxin G1....

  6. 26 CFR 1.430(g)-1 - Valuation date and valuation of plan assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the adjusted fair market value of plan assets, assets that are added to a plan as a result of a plan... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Certain Stock Options § 1.430(g)-1 Valuation date and.... Paragraph (c) of this section describes rules regarding the determination of the asset value for purposes of...

  7. Apparatus of irradiation of steel test pieces in the Marcoule pile G 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinot, R.; Wallet, Ph.

    1960-01-01

    Test pieces of steel were irradiated in the reactor G1 at Marcoule, in convectors replacing fuel elements, and in vertical channels in furnace-heated containers. The apparatus designed for this irradiation is described: containers, converter-rods, suspension fixtures and clamps, temperature measurement devices, lead castles and unloading set-ups. (author) [fr

  8. Human IgG1 antibodies suppress angiogenesis in a target-independent manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanovich, Sasha; Kim, Younghee; Mizutani, Takeshi; Yasuma, Reo; Tudisco, Laura; Cicatiello, Valeria; Bastos-Carvalho, Ana; Kerur, Nagaraj; Hirano, Yoshio; Baffi, Judit Z; Tarallo, Valeria; Li, Shengjian; Yasuma, Tetsuhiro; Arpitha, Parthasarathy; Fowler, Benjamin J; Wright, Charles B; Apicella, Ivana; Greco, Adelaide; Brunetti, Arturo; Ruvo, Menotti; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Nozaki, Miho; Ijima, Ryo; Kaneko, Hiroki; Ogura, Yuichiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Ambati, Balamurali K; Leusen, Jeanette HW; Langdon, Wallace Y; Clark, Michael R; Armour, Kathryn L; Bruhns, Pierre; Verbeek, J Sjef; Gelfand, Bradley D; De Falco, Sandro; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant angiogenesis is implicated in diseases affecting nearly 10% of the world's population. The most widely used anti-angiogenic drug is bevacizumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets human VEGFA. Although bevacizumab does not recognize mouse Vegfa, it inhibits angiogenesis in

  9. The Hot Stellar Content and HB morphology of the massive globular cluster G1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, R.

    2010-09-01

    We propose to obtain deep WFC3 imagery of the Local Group's most luminous globular cluster, G1. Our primary aim is to define the hot stellar content and the extent of what appears to be a multimodal horizontal branch, analogous to those known in Omega Cen and NGC 2808. G1 is 40 kpc distant in the M31, and it would have been highly unlikely that collision with a giant molecular clould would be responsible for the complex populations which must therefore be the result of self-enrichment. We will obtain data very similar to those obtained for the known Galactic multimodal globular clusters NGC 6388 and 6441, and compare the stellar distribution on the horizontal branch with models. We can constrain the fraction of helium-enriched stars, if present, and search for supra-horizontal branch and other anomalous hot, evolved, stars. Parallel ACS observations will be the deepest ever obtained in the adjacnt field to G1, and will help to constrain whether G1 was the nucleus of a now disrupted galaxy.

  10. 26 CFR 1.45G-1 - Railroad track maintenance credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.45G-1 Railroad track... extensions) Federal income tax return for the taxable year the RTMC is claimed. Paragraph (b) of this section..., accounting and bookkeeping, marketing, legal services; janitorial services; office building rental; banking...

  11. Heavy-traffic analysis for the GI/G/1 queue with heavy-tailed distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.J. Boxma (Onno); J.W. Cohen

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a $GI/G/1$ queue in which the service time distribution and/or the interarrival time distribution has a heavy tail, i.e., a tail behaviour like $t^{-nu$ with $1

  12. Cdk2 Inhibition Prolongs G1 Phase Progression in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koledová, Z.; Rašková-Kafková, L.; Calábková, L.; Kryštof, Vladimír; Doležel, P.; Divoký, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2010), s. 181-193 ISSN 1547-3287 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : embryonic stem cells * cell cycle * G1 phase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.791, year: 2010

  13. The DNA Replication Checkpoint Directly Regulates MBF-Dependent G1/S Transcription▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Chaitali; Patel, Prasanta K.; Rosebrock, Adam; Oliva, Anna; Leatherwood, Janet; Rhind, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    The DNA replication checkpoint transcriptionally upregulates genes that allow cells to adapt to and survive replication stress. Our results show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the replication checkpoint regulates the entire G1/S transcriptional program by directly regulating MBF, the G1/S transcription factor. Instead of initiating a checkpoint-specific transcriptional program, the replication checkpoint targets MBF to maintain the normal G1/S transcriptional program during replication stress. We propose a mechanism for this regulation, based on in vitro phosphorylation of the Cdc10 subunit of MBF by the Cds1 replication-checkpoint kinase. Replacement of two potential phosphorylation sites with phosphomimetic amino acids suffices to promote the checkpoint transcriptional program, suggesting that Cds1 phosphorylation directly regulates MBF-dependent transcription. The conservation of MBF between fission and budding yeast, and recent results implicating MBF as a target of the budding yeast replication checkpoint, suggests that checkpoint regulation of the MBF transcription factor is a conserved strategy for coping with replication stress. Furthermore, the structural and regulatory similarity between MBF and E2F, the metazoan G1/S transcription factor, suggests that this checkpoint mechanism may be broadly conserved among eukaryotes. PMID:18662996

  14. Energy transport, polar amplification, and ITCZ shifts in the GeoMIP G1 ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Russotto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The polar amplification of warming and the ability of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ to shift to the north or south are two very important problems in climate science. Examining these behaviors in global climate models (GCMs running solar geoengineering experiments is helpful not only for predicting the effects of solar geoengineering but also for understanding how these processes work under increased carbon dioxide (CO2. Both polar amplification and ITCZ shifts are closely related to the meridional transport of moist static energy (MSE by the atmosphere. This study examines changes in MSE transport in 10 fully coupled GCMs in experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP, in which the solar constant is reduced to compensate for the radiative forcing from abruptly quadrupled CO2 concentrations. In G1, poleward MSE transport decreases relative to preindustrial conditions in all models, in contrast to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5 abrupt4xCO2 experiment, in which poleward MSE transport increases. We show that since poleward energy transport decreases rather than increases, and local feedbacks cannot change the sign of an initial temperature change, the residual polar amplification in the G1 experiment must be due to the net positive forcing in the polar regions and net negative forcing in the tropics, which arise from the different spatial patterns of the simultaneously imposed solar and CO2 forcings. However, the reduction in poleward energy transport likely plays a role in limiting the polar warming in G1. An attribution study with a moist energy balance model shows that cloud feedbacks are the largest source of uncertainty regarding changes in poleward energy transport in midlatitudes in G1, as well as for changes in cross-equatorial energy transport, which are anticorrelated with ITCZ shifts.

  15. Abnormal G1 arrest in the cell lines from LEC strain rats after X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, M.; Uehara, K.; Kirisawa, R.; Endoh, D.; Arai, S.; Okui, T.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of X-irradiation of cell lines from LEC and WKAH strain rats on a progression o cell cycle was investigated. When WKAH rat ells were exposed to 5 Gy of X-rays and their cell cycle distribution was determined by a flow cytometer, the proportion of S-phase cells decrease and that of G2/M-phase cells in creased at 8 hr post-irradiation. At 18 and 24 hr post-irradiation, approximately 80% of the cells appeared in the G1 phase. On the contrary, the proportion of S-phase cells increased and that of G1-phase cells decreased in LEC rats during 8-24 hr post-irradiation, compared with that at 0 hr post-irradiation. Thus, radiation-induced delay in the progression from the G1 phase to S phase (G1 arrest) was observed inWKAH rat cells but not in LEC rat cells. In the case of WKAH rat cells, the intensities of the bands of p53 protein increased at 1 and 2 hr after X-irradiation at 5 Gy, compared with those of un-irradiated cells and at 0 hr post-irradiation. In contrast, the intensities of the bands were faint and did not significantly increase in LEC rat ells during 0-6 hr incubation after X-irradiation. Present results suggested that the radioresistant DNA synthesis in LEC rat cells is thought to be due to the abnormal G1 arrest following X-irradiation

  16. Effect of microwave freeze drying on quality and energy supply in drying of barley grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaohuang; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Zhong, Qifeng; Wang, Zhushang

    2018-03-01

    Young barley grass leaves are well-known for containing the antioxidant substances flavonoid and chlorophyll. However, low product quality and energy efficiency exist with respect to the dehydration of barley grass leaves. To improve energy supply and the quality of barley grass, microwave heating instead of contact heat was applied for the freeze drying of barley grass at a pilot scale at 1, 1.5 and 2 W g -1 , respectively; After drying, energy supply and quality parameters of color, moisture content, chlorophyll, flavonoids, odors of dried barley grass were determined to evaluate the feasibility of the study. Microwave freeze drying (MFD) allowed a low energy supply and high contents of chlorophyll and flavonoids. A lightness value of 60.0, a green value of -11.5 and an energy supply of 0.61 kW h -1  g -1 were observed in 1.5 W g -1 MFD; whereas drying time (7 h) decreased by 42% compared to contact heating. Maximum content of flavonoid and chlorophyll was 11.7 and 12.8 g kg -1 barley grass. Microwave heating leads to an odor change larger than that for contact heating observed for the freeze drying of barley grass. MFD retains chlorophyll and flavonoids, as well as colors and odors of samples, and also decreases energy consumption in the freeze drying of barley grass. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The influence of lysozyme on mannitol polymorphism in freeze-dried and spray-dried formulations depends on the selection of the drying process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohganz, Holger; Lee, Yan-Ying; Rantanen, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Freeze-drying and spray-drying are often applied drying techniques for biopharmaceutical formulations. The formation of different solid forms upon drying is often dependent on the complex interplay between excipient selection and process parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate...... the influence of the chosen drying method on the solid state form. Mannitol-lysozyme solutions of 20mg/mL, with the amount of lysozyme varying between 2.5% and 50% (w/w) of total solid content, were freeze-dried and spray-dried, respectively. The resulting solid state of mannitol was analysed by near......-dried formulations an increase in protein concentration resulted in a shift from ß-mannitol to a-mannitol. An increase in final drying temperature of the freeze-drying process towards the temperature of the spray-drying process did not lead to significant changes. It can thus be concluded that it is the drying...

  18. Modifying effect of 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine and thymidine at G1 phase on radiation and chemically induced chromosome rearrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azatyan, R.A.; Voskanyan, A.Z.; Avakyan, V.A.; Akif'ev, A.P.

    1978-01-01

    The yield of structural chromosome mutations induced in Crepis capillaris seeds by X-rays and nitrogen mustard was studied as a function of treatment (at G 1 phase) with an inhibitor of unscheduled DNA synthesis, 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine (FdU), and its antagonist, thymidine. Air-dry seeds were irradiated at 10 krad and immediately placed in aqueous solutions of FdU, thymidine, or FdU + thymidine. Ionizing radiation induced only chromosome exchanges in the seeds. When EdU was used, the number of chromosome exchanges was the same although the fraction of simple and isolocus deletions was significantly greater than additive. The effect of FdU was manifested only after 10-hour incubation of the cells. Thymidine alone did not appreciably alter the frequency of radiation-induced aberrations. At the same time, the FdU + thymidine combination decreased the mutation yield i.e. was protective. Frequencies of the chromosome aberration in this experiment were the same as in the control

  19. The spin-dependent structure function g1 of the deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueltmann, S.

    1996-01-01

    Results on the spin-dependent structure function g 1 d of the deuteron measured by the Spin Muon Collaboration at CERN are presented. They are based on deep-inelastic scattering of 190 GeV polarized muons off a polarized deuteron target in the kinematic range of 0.003 ≤ x Bj ≤ 0.7 and 1 GeV 2 ≤ Q 2 ≤ 60 GeV 2 . The structure function is found to be negative for small values of x Bj , while the proton structure function g 1 p measured earlier by the SMC is positive over the whole x Bj -range. The Bjorken sum rule is in good agreement with the first moments of the structure functions, while the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule is violated by more than three standard deviations for the deuteron measurement. (author)

  20. Rare Coumarins Induce Apoptosis, G1 Cell Block and Reduce RNA Content in HL60 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widelski Jarosław

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The rare coumarins stenocarpin, stenocarpin isobutyrate, oficinalin, oficinalin isobutyrate, 8-methoxypeucedanin and the known xanthotoxin, isoimperatorin, bergapten, peucedanin and 8–methoxyisoimperatorin were isolated from Peucedanum luxurians Tamamsch. (Apiaceae and identified by means of spectral data (1D and 2D NMR. Their immunomodulating activity was evaluated by flow cytometry and their influence on HL60 cells as well as on PHA-stimulated PBLs was tested. All tested coumarins induce apoptosis (maximal in the 48 h culture and decrease cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, especially in HL60 cells. They also induce partial G1 block, but only in HL60 cells (at 100 µM concentrations. Dose-dependent reduction of RNA content was also found in G1 cells treated by the coumarins. All of the tested coumarins also possessed immunomodulatory activities. Bergapten and xanthotoxin were found to be the best candidates for further evaluation as anti-cancer drugs.

  1. Recuperation of the energy released in the G-1, an air-cooled graphite reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambadal, P.; Pascal, M.

    1955-01-01

    The CEA (in his five-year setting plan) has objective among others, the realization of the two first french reactors moderated with graphite. The construction of the G-1 reactor in Marcoule, first french plutonic core, is achieved so that it will diverge in the beginning of 1956 and reach its full power in the beginning of the second semester of the same year. In this report we will detail the specificities of the reactor and in particular its cooling and energy recuperation system. The G-1 reactor being essentially intended to allow the french technicians to study the behavior of an energy installation supply taking its heat in a nuclear source as early as possible. (M.B.) [fr

  2. Differential regulation of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks in G1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, Jacqueline H; Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    -induced breaks are recognized by Rfa1 only after the cell enters S phase. This difference is dependent on the DNA end-binding Yku70/Yku80 complex. Cell-cycle regulation is also observed in the DNA damage checkpoint response. Specifically, the 9-1-1 complex is required in G1 cells to recruit the Ddc2 checkpoint...... protein to damaged DNA, while, upon entry into S phase, the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28 and the 9-1-1 complex both serve to recruit Ddc2 to foci. Together, these results demonstrate that the DNA repair machinery distinguishes between different types of damage in G1, which translates into different modes...

  3. Beta1 integrins regulate chondrocyte rotation, G1 progression, and cytokinesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aszodi, Attila; Hunziker, Ernst B; Brakebusch, Cord

    2003-01-01

    Beta1 integrins are highly expressed on chondrocytes, where they mediate adhesion to cartilage matrix proteins. To assess the functions of beta1 integrin during skeletogenesis, we inactivated the beta1 integrin gene in chondrocytes. We show here that these mutant mice develop a chondrodysplasia...... of various severity. beta1-deficient chondrocytes had an abnormal shape and failed to arrange into columns in the growth plate. This is caused by a lack of motility, which is in turn caused by a loss of adhesion to collagen type II, reduced binding to and impaired spreading on fibronectin, and an abnormal F......-actin organization. In addition, mutant chondrocytes show decreased proliferation caused by a defect in G1/S transition and cytokinesis. The G1/S defect is, at least partially, caused by overexpression of Fgfr3, nuclear translocation of Stat1/Stat5a, and up-regulation of the cell cycle inhibitors p16 and p21...

  4. Measurement of the Polarized Structure Function $g_1^p$ at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R.D.; Forte, S.; Hughes, V.W.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Ridolfi, G.; Ball, Richard D.; Deshpande, Abhay; Forte, Stefano; Hughes, Vernon W.; Lichtenstadt, Jechiel; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1996-01-01

    We present estimates of possible data on spin-dependent asymmetries in inclusive scattering of high energy polarized electrons by high energy polarized protons at HERA, including statistical errors, and discuss systematic uncertainties. We show that these data would shed light on the small x behaviour of the polarized structure function g_1, and would reduce substantially the uncertainty on the determination of the polarized gluon distribution.

  5. Temperature duality on Riemann surface and cosmological solutions for genus g = 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jun; Wang Shunjin

    1999-01-01

    A bosonic string model at finite temperature on the gravitation g μν and the dilaton φ background field is examined. Moreover, the duality relation of energy momentum tensor on high genus Riemann surface is derived. At the same time, the temperature duality invariance for the action of string gas matter is proved in 4-D Robertson-Walker metric, the string cosmological solutions and temperature duality of the equations of motion for genus g = 1 and 2 are also investigated

  6. The MX/G/1 queue with queue length dependent service times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Dae Choi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We deal with the MX/G/1 queue where service times depend on the queue length at the service initiation. By using Markov renewal theory, we derive the queue length distribution at departure epochs. We also obtain the transient queue length distribution at time t and its limiting distribution and the virtual waiting time distribution. The numerical results for transient mean queue length and queue length distributions are given.

  7. NONUNIFORM EXPANSION OF THE YOUNGEST GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G1.9+0.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Green, David A.; Hwang, Una; Petre, Robert; Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We report measurements of the X-ray expansion of the youngest Galactic supernova remnant, G1.9+0.3, using Chandra observations in 2007, 2009, and 2011. The measured rates strongly deviate from uniform expansion, decreasing radially by about 60% along the X-ray bright SE-NW axis from 0.84% ± 0.06% yr –1 to 0.52% ± 0.03% yr –1 . This corresponds to undecelerated ages of 120-190 yr, confirming the young age of G1.9+0.3 and implying a significant deceleration of the blast wave. The synchrotron-dominated X-ray emission brightens at a rate of 1.9% ± 0.4% yr –1 . We identify bright outer and inner rims with the blast wave and reverse shock, respectively. Sharp density gradients in either the ejecta or ambient medium are required to produce the sudden deceleration of the reverse shock or the blast wave implied by the large spread in expansion ages. The blast wave could have been decelerated recently by an encounter with a modest density discontinuity in the ambient medium, such as may be found at a wind termination shock, requiring strong mass loss in the progenitor. Alternatively, the reverse shock might have encountered an order-of-magnitude density discontinuity within the ejecta, such as may be found in pulsating delayed-detonation Type Ia models. We demonstrate that the blast wave is much more decelerated than the reverse shock in these models for remnants at ages similar to G1.9+0.3. Similar effects may also be produced by dense shells possibly associated with high-velocity features in Type Ia spectra. Accounting for the asymmetry of G1.9+0.3 will require more realistic three-dimensional Type Ia models

  8. A next-to-leading order QCD analysis of the spin structure function $g_1$

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067425; Arik, E; Badelek, B; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Birsa, R; De Botton, N R; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Eichblatt, S; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Görtz, S; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiselev, Yu F; Krämer, Dietrich; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kukhtin, V V; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Litmaath, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Pereira, H; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Rädel, G; Rijllart, A; Reicherz, G; Roberts, J; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Willumeit, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Ylöstalo, J; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zhao, J

    1998-01-01

    We present a next-to-leading order QCD analysis of the presently available data on the spin structure function $g_1$ including the final data from the Spin Muon Collaboration (SMC). We present resu lts for the first moments of the proton, deuteron and neutron structure functions, and determine singlet and non-singlet parton distributions in two factorization schemes. We also test the Bjor ken sum rule and find agreement with the theoretical prediction at the level of 10\\%.

  9. Repairability during G 1 phase of inducting lesions of sister chromatid exchange produced by mitomycin C in salivary gland cells of mice In Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Vallejo, V.L.

    1991-01-01

    The repairability of the injuries that lead to the formation of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) produced by mitomycin C (MMC) with a dose of 2.1 mg/g in vivo, during the G 1 phase in the first cycle of cellular division (before the incorporation of BrdU [5-bromo-2 deoxyurine] to the DNA), as well as during the G 1 phase of the second cycle of cellular division (after the incorporation of BrdU) were analyzed. A 35.1% decrease in the frequency of SCE produced by Mitomycin C was observed, in the early G 1 phase of the first division, with respect to the frequency of SCE induced in the later G 1 phase. When Mitomycin C is given to cells whose DNA is substituted with BrdU in only one of the chain's filaments such decrease is not observed. The results suggest that the injuries caused by MMC, which give place to the SCE, in cells of the salivary glands of the mouse in vivo, are partially repaired only when induced in DNA which has not been substituted with BrdU. (Author)

  10. Irradiated graphite studies prior to decommissioning of G1, G2 and G3 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonal, J.P.; Vistoli, J.Ph.; Combes, C.

    2005-01-01

    G1 (46 MW th ), G2 (250 MW th ) and G3 (250 MW th ) are the first French plutonium production reactors owned by CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique). They started to be operated in 1956 (G1), 1959 (G2) and 1960 (G3); their final shutdown occurred in 1968, 1980 and 1984 respectively. Each reactor used about 1200 tons of graphite as moderator, moreover in G2 and G3, a 95 tons graphite wall is used to shield the rear side concrete from neutron irradiation. G1 is an air cooled reactor operated at a graphite temperature ranging from 30 C to 230 C; G2 and G3 are CO 2 cooled reactors and during operation the graphite temperature is higher (140 C to 400 C). These reactors are now partly decommissioned, but the graphite stacks are still inside the reactors. The graphite core radioactivity has decreased enough so that a full decommissioning stage may be considered. Conceming this decommissioning, the studies reported here are: (i) stored energy in graphite, (ii) graphite radioactivity measurements, (iii) leaching of radionuclide ( 14 C, 36 Cl, 63 Ni, 60 Co, 3 H) from graphite, (iv) chlorine diffusion through graphite. (authors)

  11. Tet1 is required for Rb phosphorylation during G1/S phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shengsong; Zhu, Ziqi; Wang, Yiqin; Wang, Yanru; Xu, Longxia; Chen, Xuemei; Xu, Qing; Zhang, Qimin; Zhao, Xin; Yu, Yi; Wu, Denglong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Tet1 was required for NIT3T3 proliferation. •Tet1 depletion inhibited G1-S entry. •Cyclin D1 accumulation and Rb phosphorylation was blocked by Tet1 knockdown. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays an important role in many biological processes, including regulation of gene expression, maintenance of chromatin conformation and genomic stability. TET-family proteins convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which indicates that these enzymes may participate in DNA demethylation. The function of TET1 has not yet been well characterized in somatic cells. Here, we show that depletion of Tet1 in NIH3T3 cells inhibits cell growth. Furthermore, Tet1 knockdown blocks cyclin D1 accumulation in G1 phase, inhibits Rb phosphorylation and consequently delays entrance to G1/S phase. Taken together, this study demonstrates that Tet1 is required for cell proliferation and that this process is mediated through the Rb pathway

  12. Control of G1 in the developing Drosophila eye: rca1 regulates Cyclin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zavitz, K H; Thomas, B J; Lin, M; Campbell, S; Zipursky, S L

    1997-01-01

    In the developing eye of Drosophila melanogaster, cells become synchronized in the G1 phase of the cell cycle just prior to the onset of cellular differentiation and morphogenesis. In roughex (rux) mutants, cells enter S phase precociously because of ectopic activation of a Cyclin A/Cdk complex in early G1. This leads to defects in cell fate and pattern formation, and results in abnormalities in the morphology of the adult eye. A screen for dominant suppressors of the rux eye phenotype led to the identification of mutations in cyclin A, string (cdc25), and new cell cycle genes. One of these genes, regulator of cyclin A (rca1), encodes a novel protein required for both mitotic and meiotic cell cycle progression. rca1 mutants arrest in G2 of embryonic cell cycle 16 with a phenotype very similar to cyclin A loss of function mutants. Expression of rca1 transgenes in G1 or in postmitotic neurons promotes Cyclin A protein accumulation and drives cells into S phase in a Cyclin A-dependent fashion.

  13. Dux4 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through upregulation of p21 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Zhaoxia; Jin, Suqin; Hao, Hongjun; Zheng, Lemin; Zhou, Boda; Zhang, Wei; Lv, He; Yuan, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dux4 induced TE671 cell proliferation defect and G1 phase arrest. • Dux4 upregulated p21 expression without activating p53. • Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. • Sp1 binding site was required for Dux4-induced p21 promoter activation. - Abstract: It has been implicated that Dux4 plays crucial roles in development of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. But the underlying myopathic mechanisms and related down-stream events of this retrogene were far from clear. Here, we reported that overexpression of Dux4 in a cell model TE671 reduced cell proliferation rate, and increased G1 phase accumulation. We also determined the impact of Dux4 on p53/p21 signal pathway, which controls the checkpoint in cell cycle progression. Overexpression of Dux4 increased p21 mRNA and protein level, while expression of p53, phospho-p53 remained unchanged. Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrated that enhanced Dux4 expression increased p21 promoter activity and elevated expression of Sp1 transcription factor. Mutation of Sp1 binding site decreased dux4 induced p21 promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the Dux4-induced binding of Sp1 to p21 promoter in vivo. These results suggest that Dux4 might induce proliferation inhibition and G1 phase arrest through upregulation of p21

  14. Preferential radiosensitization of G1 checkpoint--deficient cells by methylxanthines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Kenneth J.; Wiens, Linda W.; Demers, G. William; Galloway, Denise A.; Le, Tiep; Rice, Glenn C.; Bianco, James A.; Singer, Jack W.; Groudine, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a checkpoint-based strategy for preferential radiosensitization of human tumors with deficient and/or mutant p53. Methods and Materials: A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines differing in their expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene were produced by transduction with the E6 oncogene from human papilloma virus type 16. The cells expressing E6 (E6+) lack a G1 arrest in response to ionizing radiation, are deficient in p53 and p21 expression, and exhibit a fivefold greater clonogenic survival following 10 Gy radiation. Results: Postirradiation incubation with millimolar concentrations of the methylxanthine pentoxifylline (PTX) results in preferential radiosensitization of the E6+ cells compared to the LXSN+ vector transduced controls. There is a threefold sensitization of the LXSN+ cells and a 15-fold sensitization of the E6+ cells, which results in equal clonogenic survival of the two lines. Flow cytometry reveals PTX abrogation of the radiation induced G2 arrest for both cell lines. PTX also prolongs G1 transit for both cell lines. Preliminary results are presented using a novel methylxanthine, lisofylline (LSF), which has similar cell cycle effects on G1 and G2 and achieves differential radiosensitization at micromolar concentrations that are sustainable in humans. Conclusions: This checkpoint-based strategy is a promising approach for achieving preferential radiosensitization of p53- tumors relative to p53+ normal tissues

  15. Influence of Thermal Treatment on the Characteristics of Major Oyster Allergen Cra g 1 (Tropomyosin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei; Li, Guoming; Gu, Ruizeng; Cai, Muyi; Lu, Jun

    2018-04-15

    Shellfish, including oysters, often cause allergic reactions in adults. Thermal treatment is one of the most common technologies to deal with seafood, which may affect biological properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of heating on conformation and potential allergenicity of oyster-derived tropomyosin (Cra g 1). SDS-PAGE showed that there was an apparent band at 35KD of raw tropomyosin after purification and more significant polymers appeared in heated protein. Interestingly, the obviously changes in the intensity of CD signal and ANS-binding fluorescence were observed especially in the case of roasted form, which was associated with an increase in antibody reactivity. The degree of IgE binding of this treatment was demonstrated in the order roasted>boiled > raw. Furthermore, sequence alignment and amino acid composition revealed that Cra g 1 shared relatively high homology to tropomyosins from other shellfish and was abundant in lysine that was apt to be modified by reducing sugars during heating. Heated Cra g 1 produces higher IgE reactivity than raw one, owing to denaturation and formation of polymers. These findings will benefit more diagnosis and management of potential allergenicity due to shellfish. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Two pathways of DNA double-strand break repair in G1 cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazunov, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    The G1 cells of the diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevislae are known to be capable of a slow repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) during holding the cells in a non-nutrient medium. In the present paper, it has been shown that S. cerevislae cells γ-irradiated in the G1 phase of cell cycle are capable of fast repair of DNA DSB; this process is completed within 30-40 min of holding the cells in water at 28 deg C. For this reason, the kinetics of DNA DSB repair during holding the cells in a non-nutrient medium are biphasic, i.e., the first, ''fast'' phase is completed within 30-40 min; wheras the second, ''slow'' one, within 48 h. Mutations rad51, rad52, rad54 and rad55 inhibit the fast repair of DNA DSB, whereas mutations rad50, rad53 and rad57 do not practically influence this process. It has been shown that the observed fast and slow repair of DNA DSB in the G1 diploid cells of S, cerevislae are separate pathways of DNA DSB repair in yeast

  17. Clinical reactivity of celery cultivars in allergic patients: Role of Api g 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dölle, S; Welter, S; Ruppel, E; Lehmann, K; Schwarz, D; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Zieglmayer, P; Franken, P; Worm, M

    2018-04-01

    Celery (Apium graveolens L.) is a vegetable consumed world-wide. Celery stalks and celeriac roots are often ingredients in convenient food products like spice blends and soups. In this study, we examined the allergenicity of distinct celeriac cultivars. Sixteen celery-allergic patients were identified using a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Ten different celeriac cultivars were used for skin prick testing in the patients. Two cultivars were further applied for oral food challenges; their protein composition was analysed by immunoblotting, and contents of major allergen Api g 1 were quantified. From the 10 investigated celeriac cultivars, two cultivars elicited significantly different skin reactivity ("Anita": 5.0 [2.0-12.0] mm vs "Prinz": 7.0 [3.0-9.5] mm; P = .047). Moreover, "Anita" induced fewer symptoms after a controlled oral-celeriac challenge in 14 patient (P Api g 1 in "Prinz" than in "Anita." Taken together, the data from this study suggest that cultivar Anita is better tolerated in celery-allergic patients than "Prinz." Differences in the protein expression profile between the cultivars, particularly the different content of Api g 1, could cause the different allergenicity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Measurement of the form factor ratio g1/f1 in LAMBDA beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innes, W.R.

    1974-01-01

    The beta decay of 306 polarized lambdas was observed. The lambdas, which had a mean polarization of 70 percent, were produced by a 1.06 GeV/c π minus beam incident on a CH 2 target. The lambda decay particle trajectories were measured with a solenoidal magnetic spectrometer utilizing spark chambers with magnetostrictive readout. The beta decays were differentiated from other decay modes with an isobutane threshold Cherenkov counter. Using only information which depended upon the polarization, g 1 /f 1 was found to be 0.44- 0 . 13 +0 . 20 . Using only information independent of the polarization, g 1 /f 1 was found to be 0.62- 0 . 13 +0 . 17 . Combining all information yielded a value for g 1 /f 1 of 0.56- 0 . 11 +0 . 13 . Although these results taken by themselves are consistent with the Cabbibo theory prediction of 0.69, when combined with previous experiments there is a possibly significant discrepancy in the polarization dependent results. (U.S.)

  19. Dux4 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through upregulation of p21 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Zhaoxia; Jin, Suqin; Hao, Hongjun [Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China); Zheng, Lemin [The Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Education Ministry, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides of Health Ministry, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhou, Boda [The Department of Cardiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Wei; Lv, He [Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China); Yuan, Yun, E-mail: yuanyun2002@sohu.com [Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034 (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Dux4 induced TE671 cell proliferation defect and G1 phase arrest. • Dux4 upregulated p21 expression without activating p53. • Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. • Sp1 binding site was required for Dux4-induced p21 promoter activation. - Abstract: It has been implicated that Dux4 plays crucial roles in development of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. But the underlying myopathic mechanisms and related down-stream events of this retrogene were far from clear. Here, we reported that overexpression of Dux4 in a cell model TE671 reduced cell proliferation rate, and increased G1 phase accumulation. We also determined the impact of Dux4 on p53/p21 signal pathway, which controls the checkpoint in cell cycle progression. Overexpression of Dux4 increased p21 mRNA and protein level, while expression of p53, phospho-p53 remained unchanged. Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrated that enhanced Dux4 expression increased p21 promoter activity and elevated expression of Sp1 transcription factor. Mutation of Sp1 binding site decreased dux4 induced p21 promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the Dux4-induced binding of Sp1 to p21 promoter in vivo. These results suggest that Dux4 might induce proliferation inhibition and G1 phase arrest through upregulation of p21.

  20. 17 CFR 270.17g-1 - Bonding of officers and employees of registered management investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employees of registered management investment companies. 270.17g-1 Section 270.17g-1 Commodity and... ACT OF 1940 § 270.17g-1 Bonding of officers and employees of registered management investment companies. (a) Each registered management investment company shall provide and maintain a bond which shall...

  1. Annex I.G. Demolition of the G1 stack at Marcoule by toppling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The G1 stack at Marcoule was constructed during the first half of 1956 as a ventilation outlet for the G1 reactor, which is cooled by air. After the G1 reactor was decommissioned, the G1 stack served as a ventilation outlet for two new nuclear facilities on the site. Being no longer in compliance with regulations and having many inadequacies and uncertainties in terms of the prestressed concrete, the stack posed a potential damage risk in extreme wind or in the event of an earthquake. In 1994 it was decided that a new stack would be built to act as an outlet for the existing nuclear facilities, and that the old one would be demolished. The G1 stack was 100 m in height, 10 m in diameter and constructed with 24 vertically stacked concrete rings consisting of nine prefabricated sections, each 3.6 m in height. It was capped by a metal deflector (about 6 m in height and weighing 50 t). The inside consisted of nine semicircular tubes constructed of steel sheet metal weighing 120 t. The base of the stack consisted of the foundation, a plate and a base plate which were constructed at the site. The barrel sections were prefabricated. Construction lasted from January 1956 to June 1956. At the base, the cylindrical portion of the stack widened to form three feet extending to a depth of 7.5 m. The base plate of the stack was formed onsite to the height of 16.7 m and then prestressed using cables. A repair carried out in 1964 included adding a concrete lining of the initial rings of the cylinder up to a level of 22.1 m. Additional prestressing with the base plate and repair of the horizontal and vertical prestressing of the barrel were also carried out, leaving only 22 rings and 43 visible cables. The total mass of the stack was 2170 t, including: - Concrete: cylinder 800 t, base plate 1200 t; - Steel: internal structures 120 t, deflector 50 t. The main radiological risk was the presence of traces of tritium. The radioactive inventory for the entire stack was estimated in 2000

  2. Identification of herpesvirus proteins that contribute to G1/S arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladino, Patrick; Marcon, Edyta; Greenblatt, Jack; Frappier, Lori

    2014-04-01

    Lytic infection by herpesviruses induces cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition. This appears to be a function of multiple herpesvirus proteins, but only a minority of herpesvirus proteins have been examined for cell cycle effects. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the viral proteins that contribute to G1/S arrest, we screened a library of over 200 proteins from herpes simplex virus type 1, human cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) for effects on the G1/S interface, using HeLa fluorescent, ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) cells in which G1/S can be detected colorimetrically. Proteins from each virus were identified that induce accumulation of G1/S cells, predominantly tegument, early, and capsid proteins. The identification of several capsid proteins in this screen suggests that incoming viral capsids may function to modulate cellular processes. The cell cycle effects of selected EBV proteins were further verified and examined for effects on p53 and p21 as regulators of the G1/S transition. Two EBV replication proteins (BORF2 and BMRF1) were found to induce p53 but not p21, while a previously uncharacterized tegument protein (BGLF2) was found to induce p21 protein levels in a p53-independent manner. Proteomic analyses of BGLF2-interacting proteins identified interactions with the NIMA-related protein kinase (NEK9) and GEM-interacting protein (GMIP). Silencing of either NEK9 or GMIP induced p21 without affecting p53 and abrogated the ability of BGLF2 to further induce p21. Collectively, these results suggest multiple viral proteins contribute to G1/S arrest, including BGLF2, which induces p21 levels likely by interfering with the functions of NEK9 and GMIP. Most people are infected with multiple herpesviruses, whose proteins alter the infected cells in several ways. During lytic infection, the viral proteins block cell proliferation just before the cellular DNA replicates. We used a novel screening method to identify proteins

  3. The H,G_1,G_2 photometric system with scarce observational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, A.; Granvik, M.; Muinonen, K.; Wilkman, O.

    2014-07-01

    The H,G_1,G_2 photometric system was officially adopted at the IAU General Assembly in Beijing, 2012. The system replaced the H,G system from 1985. The 'photometric system' is a parametrized model V(α; params) for the magnitude-phase relation of small Solar System bodies, and the main purpose is to predict the magnitude at backscattering, H := V(0°), i.e., the (absolute) magnitude of the object. The original H,G system was designed using the best available data in 1985, but since then new observations have been made showing certain features, especially near backscattering, to which the H,G function has troubles adjusting to. The H,G_1,G_2 system was developed especially to address these issues [1]. With a sufficient number of high-accuracy observations and with a wide phase-angle coverage, the H,G_1,G_2 system performs well. However, with scarce low-accuracy data the system has troubles producing a reliable fit, as would any other three-parameter nonlinear function. Therefore, simultaneously with the H,G_1,G_2 system, a two-parameter version of the model, the H,G_{12} system, was introduced [1]. The two-parameter version ties the parameters G_1,G_2 into a single parameter G_{12} by a linear relation, and still uses the H,G_1,G_2 system in the background. This version dramatically improves the possibility to receive a reliable phase-curve fit to scarce data. The amount of observed small bodies is increasing all the time, and so is the need to produce estimates for the absolute magnitude/diameter/albedo and other size/composition related parameters. The lack of small-phase-angle observations is especially topical for near-Earth objects (NEOs). With these, even the two- parameter version faces problems. The previous procedure with the H,G system in such circumstances has been that the G-parameter has been fixed to some constant value, thus only fitting a single-parameter function. In conclusion, there is a definitive need for a reliable procedure to produce

  4. Evaluation of drying methods with respect to drying parameters, some nutritional and colour characteristics of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Derya; Ozcan, M. Musa; Menges, Hakan Okyay

    2010-01-01

    Peppermint leaves (Mentha x piperita L.) were dried by using sun, oven (50 deg. C) and microwave oven (700 W) drying methods. Page, Modified page, Midilli and Kuecuek models adequately described the oven, sun and microwave oven drying behaviours of peppermint leaves. The drying process was explicated through the diffusional model in order to obtain effective diffusivity values, which were determined as 3.10 x 10 -12 , 2.68 x 10 -12 and 4.09 x 10 -10 for the sun, oven and microwave oven drying process, respectively. Fresh and dried herbs had high amounts of K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe and Al minerals. Microwave oven drying method leaded to the lowest increase in Ag, Al, B, Na, Mn, Mg and Zn values than the other drying methods. Microwave oven drying shortened the drying time, revealed the highest phenolic content and optimum colour values.

  5. Partial combustion of a fuel cartridge in reactor G1; Combustion partielle d'une cartouche de combustible dans le reacteur G 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Rouville; Leduc,; Segot, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    On the 26 october 1956, after having stopped a few days, the G1 reactor was started up again. The burst slug system gave a first warning at 19 h 07 on loading side, a second one at 19 h 13 on unloading side, and so on others. Ath 15 the Control Engineer ordered a quick decrease of power and then, made it rise again from 2 to 5 MW, to find out, with accuracy, the failing channel. Soon after, in order to avoid any exterior contamination, scanning had to be stopped and a {gamma} ray detecting system outside the burst slug piping system, found out the damaged element in the channel 19-13. The health stations recording showed that the highest experienced measures were still notably lower than the maxima permissible levels. The methodical examination and the unloading of the damaged channel lasted three weeks. On the loading side, bare uranium billets could be seen on a magnesia powder bed. On the unloading side, the can was undamaged, but the element's end was hanging inside the gap of the inlet air. Pushed back, about 30 cm (12 in.), on the loading side, the element got blocked up. After several tests, while argon was still being injected, working staff being kept under strict protection conditions, a countersink tube was operating like the one used for drilling. The channel was cleaned up by sucking up, without, however, avoiding slight contamination in the building of the reactor. On the 7 december 1956, the reactor had a divergence at 2 MW, the first since the fault. A hundred or so channels were still giving a background, therefore making the burst slug system inefficient for those channels. Systematical brushing and sucking up were not able to reduce it beyond a certain level. It forced the reactor to operate during several months with 56 unloaded semi-channels. At last, in june 1957, two handling allowed the reactor to operate in a satisfactory way: removal of 1 mm-thickness of graphite, by re-reaming 54 semi-channels and setting on the burst slug detection

  6. Caffeine inhibits cell proliferation by G0/G1 phase arrest in JB6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takashi; He, Zhiwei; Ma, Wei-Ya; Schmid, Patricia C; Bode, Ann M; Yang, Chung S; Dong, Zigang

    2004-05-01

    Caffeine is a major biologically active constituent in coffee and tea. Because caffeine has been reported to inhibit carcinogenesis in UVB-exposed mice, the cancer-preventing effect of caffeine has attracted considerable attention. In the present study, the effect of caffeine in quiescent (G0 phase) cells was investigated. Pretreatment with caffeine suppressed cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner 36 h after addition of fetal bovine serum as a cell growth stimulator. Analysis by flow cytometry showed that caffeine suppressed cell cycle progression at the G0/G1 phase, i.e., 18 h after addition of fetal bovine serum, the percentages of cells in G0/G1 phase in 1 mM caffeine-treated cells and in caffeine-untreated cells were 61.7 and 29.0, respectively. The percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase at 0 h was 75.5. Caffeine inhibited phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein at Ser780 and Ser807/Ser811, the sites where retinoblastoma protein has been reported to be phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4). Furthermore, caffeine inhibited the activation of the cyclin D1-cdk4 complex in a dose-dependent manner. However this compound did not directly inhibit the activity of this complex. In addition, caffeine did not affect p16INK4 or p27Kip1 protein levels, but inhibited the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta. Our results showed that caffeine suppressed the progression of quiescent cells into the cell cycle. The inhibitory mechanism may be due to the inhibition of cell growth signal-induced activation of cdk4, which may be involved in the inhibition of carcinogenesis in vivo.

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  9. Inhibition of Rac1 activity induces G1/S phase arrest through the GSK3/cyclin D1 pathway in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linna; Zhang, Hongmei; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Wenjuan; Yuan, Juanli; Chen, Xiang; Liu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhipeng

    2014-10-01

    Rac1 has been shown to regulate the cell cycle in cancer cells. Yet, the related mechanism remains unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the mechanism involved in the regulation of G1/S phase transition by Rac1 in cancer cells. Inhibition of Rac1 by inhibitor NSC23766 induced G1/S phase arrest and inhibited the proliferation of A431, SW480 and U2-OS cells. Suppression of GSK3 by shRNA partially rescued G1/S phase arrest and inhibition of proliferation. Incubation of cells with NSC23766 reduced p-AKT and inactivated p-GSK3α and p-GSK3β, increased p-cyclin D1 expression and decreased the level of cyclin D1 protein. Consequently, cyclin D1 targeting transcriptional factor E2F1 expression, which promotes G1 to S phase transition, was also reduced. In contrast, constitutive active Rac1 resulted in increased p-AKT and inactivated p-GSK3α and p-GSK3β, decreased p-cyclin D1 expression and enhanced levels of cyclin D1 and E2F1 expression. Moreover, suppression of GSK3 did not alter p-AKT or Rac1 activity, but decreased p-cyclin D1 and increased total cyclin D1 protein. However, neither Rac1 nor GSK3 inhibition altered cyclin D1 at the RNA level. Moreover, after inhibition of Rac1 or GSK3 following proteasome inhibitor MG132 treatment, cyclin D1 expression at the protein level remained constant, indicating that Rac1 and GSK3 may regulate cyclin D1 turnover through phosphorylation and degradation. Therefore, our findings suggest that inhibition of Rac1 induces cell cycle G1/S arrest in cancer cells by regulation of the GSK3/cyclin D1 pathway.

  10. THE ABSENCE OF RADIO EMISSION FROM THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER G1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller-Jones, J. C. A. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Wrobel, J. M. [NRAO Domenici Science Operations Center, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Sivakoff, G. R.; Heinke, C. O.; Miller, R. E. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Room 238 CEB, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G7 (Canada); Plotkin, R. M. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Di Stefano, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Greene, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 71712 (United States); Ho, L. C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Joseph, T. D.; Maccarone, T. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield SO17 IBJ (United Kingdom); Kong, A. K. H., E-mail: james.miller-jones@curtin.edu.au [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-10

    The detections of both X-ray and radio emission from the cluster G1 in M31 have provided strong support for existing dynamical evidence for an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) of mass (1.8 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} at the cluster center. However, given the relatively low significance and astrometric accuracy of the radio detection, and the non-simultaneity of the X-ray and radio measurements, this identification required further confirmation. Here we present deep, high angular resolution, strictly simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of G1. While the X-ray emission (L{sub X} = 1.74{sup +0.53}{sub -0.44} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} (d/750 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.5-10 keV band) remained fully consistent with previous observations, we detected no radio emission from the cluster center down to a 3{sigma} upper limit of 4.7 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1}. Our favored explanation for the previous radio detection is flaring activity from a black hole low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB). We performed a new regression of the 'Fundamental Plane' of black hole activity, valid for determining black hole mass from radio and X-ray observations of sub-Eddington black holes, finding log M{sub BH} = (1.638 {+-} 0.070)log L{sub R} - (1.136 {+-} 0.077)log L{sub X} - (6.863 {+-} 0.790), with an empirically determined uncertainty of 0.44 dex. This constrains the mass of the X-ray source in G1, if a black hole, to be <9.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} at 95% confidence, suggesting that it is a persistent LMXB. This annuls what was previously the most convincing evidence from radiation for an IMBH in the Local Group, though the evidence for an IMBH in G1 from velocity dispersion measurements remains unaffected by these results.

  11. Analysis of Rca1 function at the G1-S transition in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Querings, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Tight control of APC/C-Cdh1Fzr activity is essential for progression through mitosis and establishment of the G1 phase. Rca1 is a nuclear protein that inhibits the APC/C-Cdh1Fzr complex during G2 to allow cyclin accumulation and subsequent entry into mitosis. In this thesis, a localisation study of Rca1 was performed revealing that a nuclear localisation sequence (NLS) and other domains in the protein mediate efficient nuclear accumulation. Besides its function in G2, Rca1 expression can prom...

  12. The kernel G1(x,x') and the quantum equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccatto, H.; Foussats, A.; Giacomini, H.; Zandron, O.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, it is re-examined the formulation of the quantum equivalence principle (QEP) and its compatibility with the conditions which must be fulfilled by the kernel G 1 (x,x') is discussed. It is also determined the base of solutions which give the particle model in a curved space-time in terms of Cauchy's data for such a kernel. Finally, it is analyzed the creation of particles in this model by studying the time evolution of creation and annihilation operators. This method is an alternative to one that uses Bogoliubov's transformation as a mechanism of creation. (author)

  13. Cellular shear stiffness reflects progression of arsenic-induced transformation during G1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Eldridge, Will J; Jakobsen, Nina Munkholt

    2017-01-01

    epithelial cells were exposed to sodium arsenite to initiate early stages of transformation. Exposed cells were cultured in soft agar to further transformation and select for clonal populations exhibiting anchorage independent growth. Shear stiffness of various cell populations in G1 was assessed using...... reduced stiffness relative to control clonal lines, which were cultured in soft agar but did not receive arsenic treatment. The relative standard deviation of the stiffness of Arsenic clones was reduced compared to control clones, as well as to the arsenic exposed cell population. Cell stiffness...

  14. Analysis of Repairable Geo/G/1 Queues with Negative Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Ho Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider discrete-time Geo/G/1 queues with negative customers and a repairable server. The server is subject to failure due to a negative customer arrival. As soon as a negative customer arrives at a system, the server fails and one positive (ordinary customer is forced to leave. At a failure instant, the server is turned off and the repair process immediately begins. We construct the mathematical model and present the probability generating functions of the system size distribution and the FCFS sojourn time distribution. Finally, some numerical examples are given to show the influence of negative customer arrival on the performance measures of the system.

  15. Imaging Potential Evaluation of Fab Derived from the Anti-EGFRvIII Monoclonal Antibody 4G1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Shen; He, Yujia; He, Yanqiong; Wang, Liang; Jia, Jianhua; Shan, Xiaomin; Liu, Shuang; Tang, Min; Peng, Zhiping; Liu, Xujie

    2018-05-31

    As one of the most crucial epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) variants, EGFRvIII can be detected in various tumors but rarely in normal tissues, making it an ideal target for prognosis, diagnosis or immune therapy. The recently developed anti-EGFRvIII monoclonal antibody (mAb), 4G1, has been validated as a promising molecular probe to detect EGFRvIII expression in tumors by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging. To overcome shortcomings associated with the whole antibody, including long-term retention, circulation and enhanced permeability and retention effects, the Fab fragment of 4G1 (Fab-4G1) was generated, labeled with 131 I and evaluated in vitro and in vivo to test its potential application in molecular imaging. Whole mAb 4G1 was first digested by immobilized ficin and then purified through a protein A column to generate the Fab fragment, Fab-4G1. Next, SDS-PAGE, Western blot, indirect fluorescence assay, flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed to verify molecular weight, specificity and affinity of Fab-4G1. Finally, biodistribution planar gamma imaging was performed by injection of 131 I-labeled Fab-4G1 into xenografted EGFRvIII-overexpressed tumors in nude mice. Parallel studies were also performed with intact 4G1. The molecular weight of Fab was determined to be 35-40 kDa by SDS-PAGE. In vitro tests confirmed both intact 4G1 and Fab-4G1 specifically bound EGFRvIII but not wild-type EGFR, and Fab-4G1 showed decreased affinity. Compared to 131 I-4G1, biodistribution studies showed lower tumor uptake of 131 I-Fab-4G1 at all time points, but much faster elimination in all normal organs. As for planar gamma imaging, 131 I-Fab-4G1 and 31 I-4G1 showed similar imaging effect at 2 h after injection of tracer, while 131 I-Fab-4G1 was eliminated more quickly with time, suggesting radiolabeled Fab-4G1 could be potentially used for imaging of EGFRvIII-positive tumors at early time points. Radiolabeled

  16. Solution structures of α-conotoxin G1 determined by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardi, A.; Galdes, A.; Florance, J.; Maniconte, D.

    1989-01-01

    Two-dimensional NMR data have been used to generate solution structures of α-conotoxin G1, a potent peptide antagonist of the acetylcholine receptor. Structural information was obtained in the form of proton-proton internuclear distance constraints, and initial structures were produced with a distance geometry algorithm. Energetically more favorable structures were generated by using the distance geometry structures as input for a constrained energy minimization program. The results of both of these calculations indicate that the overall backbone conformation of the molecule is well-defined by the NMR data whereas the side-chain conformations are generally less well-defined. The main structural features derived from the NMR data were the presence of tight turns centered on residues Pro 5 and Arg 9 . The solution structures are compared with previous proposed models of conotoxin G1, and the NMR data are interpreted in conjunction with chemical modification studies and structural properties of other antagonists of the acetylcholine receptor to gain insight into structure-activity relationships in these peptide toxins

  17. The importance of G1/S-border and mitosis in the fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.; Nuesse, M.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of synchronized Ehrlich ascites tumour cells to repair PLD was measured by introducing delays in their progression through the cell cycle either in the same phase as that where the irradiation was given or in a subsequent phase. Cells were incubated for this purpose either in balanced salt solution which nonspecifically delayed progression in all cell cycle phases or with 0.5 μg/ml aphidicolin which delayed cells in S-phase. Cells which had been delayed in their progression through the cell cycle were able to repair PLD irrespective of the phase at which they were held. In cases where the delay in the progression through the cell cycle was introduced in a phase subsequent to that of the exposure to irradiation, repair of PLD was observed only if the cells had not passed the G1/S-border or mitosis. Based on these results, the importance of G1/S-border and mitosis in the fixation of PLD is suggested. (orig.)

  18. A study on an M/G/1 retrial G-queue with unreliable server under variant working vacations policy and vacation interruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakkirisami Rajadurai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider a single server retrial queueing system with variant working vacations and vacation interruption where the regular busy server is subjected to breakdown due to the arrival of negative customers. As soon as the orbit becomes empty at the time of regular service completion for a positive customer, the server takes at most J number working vacations until at least one customer is received in the orbit when the server returns from a working vacation. During the working vacation period, the server serves at a lower speed service rate (µv<µb. Using the method of supplementary variable technique, we determined the steady state probability generating function for the system and its orbit. We also obtained some analytical expressions for various performance measures such as system state probabilities, the mean orbit size, the mean system size, and reliability measures of this model. Finally, some numerical examples are presented.

  19. Application of isotope-dilution laser ablation ICP-MS for direct determination of Pu concentrations in soils at pg g(-1) levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, Sergei F; Tibi, Markus; Heumann, Klaus G

    2004-01-01

    The methods available for determination of environmental contamination by plutonium at ultra-trace levels require labor-consuming sample preparation including matrix removal and plutonium extraction in both nuclear spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In this work, laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was applied for direct analysis of Pu in soil and sediment samples. Application of a LINA-Spark-Atomizer system (a modified laser ablation system providing high ablation rates) coupled with a sector-field ICP-MS resulted in detection limits as low as 3x10(-13) g g(-1) for Pu isotopes in soil samples containing uranium at a concentration of a few microg g(-1). The isotope dilution (ID) technique was used for quantification, which compensated for matrix effects in LA-ICP-MS. Interferences by UH+ and PbO2+ ions and by the peak tail of 238U+ ions were reduced or separated by use of dry plasma conditions and a mass resolution of 4000, respectively. No other effects affecting measurement accuracy, except sample inhomogeneity, were revealed. Comparison of results obtained for three contaminated soil samples by use of alpha-spectrometry, ICP-MS with sample decomposition, and LA-ICP-IDMS showed, in general, satisfactory agreement of the different methods. The specific activity of (239+240)Pu (9.8 +/- 3.0 mBq g(-1)) calculated from LA-ICP-IDMS analysis of SRM NIST 4357 coincided well with the certified value of 10.4 +/- 0.2 mBq g(-1). However, the precision of LA-ICP-MS for determination of plutonium in inhomogeneous samples, i.e. if "hot" particles are present, is limited. As far as we are aware this paper reports the lowest detection limits and element concentrations yet measured in direct LA-ICP-MS analysis of environmental samples.

  20. Application of isotope-dilution laser ablation ICP-MS for direct determination of Pu concentrations in soils at pg g-1 levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, Sergei F.; Tibi, Markus; Heumann, Klaus G.

    2004-01-01

    The methods available for determination of environmental contamination by plutonium at ultra-trace levels require labor-consuming sample preparation including matrix removal and plutonium extraction in both nuclear spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In this work, laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was applied for direct analysis of Pu in soil and sediment samples. Application of a LINA-Spark-Atomizer system (a modified laser ablation system providing high ablation rates) coupled with a sector-field ICP-MS resulted in detection limits as low as 3 x 10 -13 g g -1 for Pu isotopes in soil samples containing uranium at a concentration of a few μg g -1 . The isotope dilution (ID) technique was used for quantification, which compensated for matrix effects in LA-ICP-MS. Interferences by UH + and PbO 2 + ions and by the peak tail of 238 U + ions were reduced or separated by use of dry plasma conditions and a mass resolution of 4000, respectively. No other effects affecting measurement accuracy, except sample inhomogeneity, were revealed. Comparison of results obtained for three contaminated soil samples by use of α-spectrometry, ICP-MS with sample decomposition, and LA-ICP-IDMS showed, in general, satisfactory agreement of the different methods. The specific activity of 239+240 Pu (9.8±3.0 mBq g -1 ) calculated from LA-ICP-IDMS analysis of SRM NIST 4357 coincided well with the certified value of 10.4±0.2 mBq g -1 . However, the precision of LA-ICP-MS for determination of plutonium in inhomogeneous samples, i.e. if ''hot'' particles are present, is limited. As far as we are aware this paper reports the lowest detection limits and element concentrations yet measured in direct LA-ICP-MS analysis of environmental samples. (orig.)

  1. Cell cycle arrest in plants: what distinguishes quiescence, dormancy and differentiated G1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velappan, Yazhini; Signorelli, Santiago; Considine, Michael J

    2017-10-17

    Quiescence is a fundamental feature of plant life, which enables plasticity, renewal and fidelity of the somatic cell line. Cellular quiescence is defined by arrest in a particular phase of the cell cycle, typically G1 or G2; however, the regulation of quiescence and proliferation can also be considered across wider scales in space and time. As such, quiescence is a defining feature of plant development and phenology, from meristematic stem cell progenitors to terminally differentiated cells, as well as dormant or suppressed seeds and buds. While the physiology of each of these states differs considerably, each is referred to as 'cell cycle arrest' or 'G1 arrest'. Here the physiology and molecular regulation of (1) meristematic quiescence, (2) dormancy and (3) terminal differentiation (cell cycle exit) are considered in order to determine whether and how the molecular decisions guiding these nuclear states are distinct. A brief overview of the canonical cell cycle regulators is provided, and the genetic and genomic, as well as physiological, evidence is considered regarding two primary questions: (1) Are the canonical cell cycle regulators superior or subordinate in the regulation of quiescence? (2) Are these three modes of quiescence governed by distinct molecular controls? Meristematic quiescence, dormancy and terminal differentiation are each predominantly characterized by G1 arrest but regulated distinctly, at a level largely superior to the canonical cell cycle. Meristematic quiescence is intrinsically linked to non-cell-autonomous regulation of meristem cell identity, and particularly through the influence of ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis, in partnership with reactive oxygen species, abscisic acid and auxin. The regulation of terminal differentiation shares analogous features with meristematic quiescence, albeit with specific activators and a greater role for cytokinin signalling. Dormancy meanwhile appears to be regulated at the level of chromatin

  2. The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector HopG1 targets mitochondria, alters plant development, and suppresses plant innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Anna; Guo, Ming; Li, Guangyong; Elowsky, Christian; Clemente, Thomas E.; Alfano, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae uses a type III protein secretion system to inject type III effectors into plant cells. Primary targets of these effectors appear to be effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). The type III effector HopG1 is a suppressor of ETI that is broadly conserved in bacterial plant pathogens. Here we show that HopG1 from P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 also suppresses PTI. Interestingly, HopG1 localizes to plant mitochondria, suggesting that its suppression of innate immunity may be linked to a perturbation of mitochondrial function. While HopG1 possesses no obvious mitochondrial signal peptide, its N-terminal two-thirds was sufficient for mitochondrial localization. A HopG1-GFP fusion lacking HopG1’s N-terminal 13 amino acids was not localized to the mitochondria reflecting the importance of the N-terminus for targeting. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) dramatically alters plant development resulting in dwarfism, increased branching and infertility. Constitutive expression of HopG1 in planta leads to reduced respiration rates and an increased basal level of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that HopG1’s target is mitochondrial and that effector/target interaction promotes disease by disrupting mitochondrial functions. PMID:19863557

  3. A Discrete-Time Geo/G/1 Retrial Queue with Two Different Types of Vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze a discrete-time Geo/G/1 retrial queue with two different types of vacations and general retrial times. Two different types of vacation policies are investigated in this model, one of which is nonexhaustive urgent vacation during serving and the other is normal exhaustive vacation. For this model, we give the steady-state analysis for the considered queueing system. Firstly, we obtain the generating functions of the number of customers in our model. Then, we obtain the closed-form expressions of some performance measures and also give a stochastic decomposition result for the system size. Moreover, the relationship between this discrete-time model and the corresponding continuous-time model is also investigated. Finally, some numerical results are provided to illustrate the effect of nonexhaustive urgent vacation on some performance characteristics of the system.

  4. Disruption of Netrin G1 by a balanced chromosome translocation in a girl with Rett syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Isabella; Freude, Kristine; Kübart, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    with different C-termini: one membrane bound through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and the other soluble. The membrane-bound protein isoform would be affected by the breakpoint, whereas the soluble form would remain intact. Our results suggest that the central nervous system is sensitive to NTNG1...... hybridisations, utilizing probes derived from breakpoint spanning BACs, detected several aberrant fragments specific for the patient. Sequence analysis of the cloned junction fragment indicated that on chromosome 1 the predominantly brain-expressed Netrin G1 (NTNG1) gene is disrupted, whereas on chromosome 7...... there was no indication for a truncated gene. The chromosome 1 breakpoint lies within the 3' part of NTNG1 and affects alternatively spliced transcripts, suggesting that the phenotype in this patient is the result of disturbed NTNG1 expression. In silico translation of the NTNG1 splice variants predicted protein isoforms...

  5. Simulation Research on Vehicle Active Suspension Controller Based on G1 Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gen; Li, Hang; Zhang, Shuaiyang; Luo, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Based on the order relation analysis method (G1 method), the optimal linear controller of vehicle active suspension is designed. The system of the main and passive suspension of the single wheel vehicle is modeled and the system input signal model is determined. Secondly, the system motion state space equation is established by the kinetic knowledge and the optimal linear controller design is completed with the optimal control theory. The weighting coefficient of the performance index coefficients of the main passive suspension is determined by the relational analysis method. Finally, the model is simulated in Simulink. The simulation results show that: the optimal weight value is determined by using the sequence relation analysis method under the condition of given road conditions, and the vehicle acceleration, suspension stroke and tire motion displacement are optimized to improve the comprehensive performance of the vehicle, and the active control is controlled within the requirements.

  6. Parafibromin inhibits cancer cell growth and causes G1 phase arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chun; Kong Dong; Tan, M.-H.; Pappas, Donald L.; Wang, P.-F.; Chen, Jindong; Farber, Leslie; Zhang Nian; Koo, H.-M.; Weinreich, Michael; Williams, Bart O.; Teh, B.T.

    2006-01-01

    The HRPT2 (hereditary hyperparathyroidism type 2) tumor suppressor gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed 531 amino acid protein termed parafibromin. Inactivation of parafibromin predisposes one to the development of HPT-JT syndrome. To date, the role of parafibromin in tumorigenesis is largely unknown. Here, we report that parafibromin is a nuclear protein that possesses anti-proliferative properties. We show that overexpression of parafibromin inhibits colony formation and cellular proliferation, and induces cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Moreover, HPT-JT syndrome-derived mutations in HRPT2 behave in a dominant-negative manner by abolishing the ability of parafibromin to suppress cell proliferation. These findings suggest that parafibromin has a critical role in cell growth, and mutations in HRPT2 can directly inhibit this role

  7. Flavor singlet contribution to the structure function g1 at small-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Ryskin, M.G.

    1996-02-01

    The singlet contribution to the g 1 (x, Q 2 ) structure function are calculated in the double-logarithmic approximation of perturbative QCD in the region x s ln 2 (1/x)) k which are not included in the GLAP evolution equations are shown to give a power-like rise at small-x which is much stronger than the extrapolation of the GLAP expressions. The dominant contribution is due to the gluons which, in contrast to the unpolarized case, mix with the fermions also in the region x<<1. The two main reasons why the small-x behavior of the double logarithmic approximation is so much stronger than the usual GLAP evolution are: the larger kinematical region of integration (in particular, no ordering in transverse momentum) and the contributions from non-ladder diagrams. (orig.)

  8. Phytotoxic eremophilane sesquiterpenes from the coprophilous fungus Penicillium sp. G1-a14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, Paulina; Figueroa, Mario; Mata, Rachel

    2015-02-27

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of an extract from the grain-based culture of the coprophilous fungus Penicillium sp. G1-a14 led to the isolation of a new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene, 3R,6R-dihydroxy-9,7(11)-dien-8-oxoeremophilane (1), along with three known analogues, namely, isopetasol (2), sporogen AO-1 (3), and dihydrosporogen AO-1 (4). The structure of 1 was elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Assignment of absolute configuration at the stereogenic centers of 1 was achieved using ECD spectroscopy combined with time-dependent density functional theory calculations. Sporogen AO-1 (3) and dihydrosporogen AO-1 (4) caused significant inhibition of radicle growth against Amaranthus hypochondriacus (IC50 = 0.17 mM for both compounds) and Echinochloa crus-galli (IC50 = 0.17 and 0.30 mM, respectively).

  9. Human anti-rhesus D IgG1 antibody produced in transgenic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouquin, Thomas; Thomsen, Mads; Nielsen, Leif Kofoed

    2002-01-01

    antigen, which is responsible for alloimmunization of RhD- mothers carrying an RhD+ fetus. Anti-RhD extracted from plants specifically reacted with RhD+ cells in antiglobulin technique, and elicited a respiratory burst in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Plant-derived antibody had equivalent......Transgenic plants represent an alternative to cell culture systems for producing cheap and safe antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic use. To evaluate the functional properties of a 'plantibody', we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing full-length human IgG1 against the Rhesus D...... properties to CHO cell-produced anti-RhD antibody, indicating its potential usefulness in diagnostic and therapeutic programs....

  10. Investigations on the discrete Gi(G)1 queue with and without loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gergely, T.; Toeroek, T.L.

    1975-12-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the method for investigating queuing systems characterized by random variables of integer values is given. Specially the discrete GI(G)1 queuing systems are considered. The first part of the paper takes a short summary on the theory of discrete stochastic processes. In the second part the properties of the fundamental characteristics of the queuing system as the busy period, the waiting time and the output processes are discussed. In the last section some remarks are added to show the direction of further investigations. To demonstrated the simplicity of the relations verified in the paper some computed examples are presented in the appendix. The computations were performed with a mini-computer of 8K words memory. (Sz.Z.)

  11. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, A.C.; Carroll, P.R.

    1981-11-01

    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima's zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff

  12. First detection of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in dogs in central Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Rihab Ali; Daugschies, Arwid; Gawlowska, Sandra; Elnahas, Ayman; Kern, Peter; Bashir, Sofia; Ali, Mohammed Sir Alkhatim; Osman, Amin; Romig, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Eighty-four stray dogs shot as a part of a governmental rabies control program in two neighboring towns of central Sudan were examined for the presence of Echinococcus spp. and other intestinal helminths. Echinococcus worms were identified to species level by PCR and gene sequencing. For comparative reasons, rectal content of the necropsied dogs was examined for helminth eggs and subjected to copro-PCR for Echinococcus. At necropsy, 51.2% (43/84) of the dogs harbored Echinococcus canadensis (G6/7) worms with worm burdens ranging from 22,000 to 80,000. Dipylidiun caninum was found in 53.6% of the dogs. At coproscopy, taeniid eggs were found in 37 of the 43 dogs which were positive for Echinococcus at necropsy, but none in the 41 necropsy-negative dogs. In addition, 58% of the rectal samples contained eggs of Toxocara spp., 34.5% eggs of Trichuris spp. (34.5%), and 26% eggs of Ancylostoma caninum. Copro-PCR gave positive results for E. canadensis with 97.5% (39/40) of nonhibiting samples from the necropsy positive dogs; the one remaining dog tested positive for E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1), whose partial cox1 and nad1 sequences showed a 100% identity with various reference sequences of the G1 genotype. 100% of 38 non-inhibited samples taken from the necropsy-negative dogs were also negative in copro-PCR. This is the first study which combines prevalence and genetic identification of Echinococcus spp. in dogs of Sudan. Together with a recent report from cattle, it confirms the autochthonous presence, at low level, of E. granulosus sensu stricto in Central Sudan.

  13. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, A.C.; Carroll, P.R. (eds.)

    1981-11-01

    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima`s zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff.

  14. Visible and Near-IR Reflectance Spectra for Smectite, Sulfate And Perchlorate under Dry Conditions for Interpretation of Martian Surface Mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R.V.; Ming, W.; Golden, D.C.; Arvidson, R.E.; Wiseman, S.M.; Lichtenberg, K.A.; Cull, S.; Graff, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectral data for the martian surface obtained from orbit by the MRO-CRISM and OMEGA instruments are interpreted as having spectral signatures of H2O/OH-bearing phases, including smectites and other phyllosilicates, sulfates, and high-SiO2 phases [e.g., 1-4]. Interpretations of martian spectral signatures are based on and constrained by spectra that are obtained in the laboratory on samples with known mineralogical compositions and other physicochemical characteristics under, as appropriate, Mars-like environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, and humidity). With respect to environmental conditions, differences in the absolute concentration of atmospheric H2O can effect the hydration state and therefore the spectra signatures of smectite phyllosilicates (solvation H2O) and certain sulfates (hydration H2O) [e.g., 5-7]. We report VNIR spectral data acquired under humid (laboratory air) and dry (dry N2 gas) environments for two natural smectites (nontronite API-33A and saponite SapCa-1) to characterize the effect of solvation H2O on spectral properties. We also report spectral data for the thermal dehydration products of (1) melanterite (FeSO4.7H2O) in both air and dry N2 gas and (2) Mg-perchlorate (Mg(ClO4)2.6H2O) in dry N2 environments. Spectral measurements for samples dehydrated in dry N2 were made without exposing them to humid laboratory air.

  15. Evaluation of drying methods with respect to drying kinetics, mineral content and colour characteristics of rosemary leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Derya; Musa Ozcan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lamiaceae) were dried by using sun, oven (50 deg. C) and microwave oven (700 W, 2450 MHz) drying methods. Microwave oven drying shortened the drying time more than 99% when compared to the sun and oven drying methods. K, Ca, Na, Mg and P were the most abundant elements in the rosemary samples. The mineral content of oven dried rosemary leaves was higher than that of the sun and microwave dried samples. The logarithmic and Midilli and Kuecuek models were shown to give a good fit to the sun and oven drying. The Page, Modified Page and Midilli and Kuecuek models have shown a better fit to the experimental microwave oven drying data of rosemary leaves. Microwave oven drying revealed optimum colour values. Oven drying resulted in a considerable decrease in the colour quality of the rosemary leaves

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  18. Engineering of EPA/DHA omega-3 fatty acid production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri-Jami, Mitra; Lapointe, Gisele; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2014-04-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been shown to be of major importance in human health. Therefore, these essential polyunsaturated fatty acids have received considerable attention in both human and farm animal nutrition. Currently, fish and fish oils are the main dietary sources of EPA/DHA. To generate sustainable novel sources for EPA and DHA, the 35-kb EPA/DHA synthesis gene cluster was isolated from a marine bacterium, Shewanella baltica MAC1. To streamline the introduction of the genes into food-grade microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria, unnecessary genes located upstream and downstream of the EPA/DHA gene cluster were deleted. Recombinant Escherichia coli harboring the 20-kb gene cluster produced 3.5- to 6.1-fold more EPA than those carrying the 35-kb DNA fragment coding for EPA/DHA synthesis. The 20-kb EPA/DHA gene cluster was cloned into a modified broad-host-range low copy number vector, pIL252m (4.7 kb, Ery) and expressed in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363. Recombinant L. lactis produced DHA (1.35 ± 0.5 mg g(-1) cell dry weight) and EPA (0.12 ± 0.04 mg g(-1) cell dry weight). This is believed to be the first successful cloning and expression of EPA/DHA synthesis gene cluster in lactic acid bacteria. Our findings advance the future use of EPA/DHA-producing lactic acid bacteria in such applications as dairy starters, silage adjuncts, and animal feed supplements.

  19. 26 CFR 1.1402(g)-1 - Treatment of certain remuneration erroneously reported as net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reported as net earnings from self-employment. 1.1402(g)-1 Section 1.1402(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... self-employment. (a) General rule. If an amount is erroneously paid as self-employment tax, for any... self-employment income on a return filed on or before the due date prescribed for filing such return...

  20. The Drosophila mitochondrial translation elongation factor G1 contains a nuclear localization signal and inhibits growth and DPP signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Trivigno

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the human mitochondrial elongation factor G1 (EF-G1 are recessive lethal and cause death shortly after birth. We have isolated mutations in iconoclast (ico, which encodes the highly conserved Drosophila orthologue of EF-G1. We find that EF-G1 is essential during fly development, but its function is not required in every tissue. In contrast to null mutations, missense mutations exhibit stronger, possibly neomorphic phenotypes that lead to premature death during embryogenesis. Our experiments show that EF-G1 contains a secondary C-terminal nuclear localization signal. Expression of missense mutant forms of EF-G1 can accumulate in the nucleus and cause growth and patterning defects and animal lethality. We find that transgenes that encode mutant human EF-G1 proteins can rescue ico mutants, indicating that the underlying problem of the human disease is not just the loss of enzymatic activity. Our results are consistent with a model where EF-G1 acts as a retrograde signal from mitochondria to the nucleus to slow down cell proliferation if mitochondrial energy output is low.

  1. The Drosophila mitochondrial translation elongation factor G1 contains a nuclear localization signal and inhibits growth and DPP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivigno, Catherine; Haerry, Theodor E

    2011-02-25

    Mutations in the human mitochondrial elongation factor G1 (EF-G1) are recessive lethal and cause death shortly after birth. We have isolated mutations in iconoclast (ico), which encodes the highly conserved Drosophila orthologue of EF-G1. We find that EF-G1 is essential during fly development, but its function is not required in every tissue. In contrast to null mutations, missense mutations exhibit stronger, possibly neomorphic phenotypes that lead to premature death during embryogenesis. Our experiments show that EF-G1 contains a secondary C-terminal nuclear localization signal. Expression of missense mutant forms of EF-G1 can accumulate in the nucleus and cause growth and patterning defects and animal lethality. We find that transgenes that encode mutant human EF-G1 proteins can rescue ico mutants, indicating that the underlying problem of the human disease is not just the loss of enzymatic activity. Our results are consistent with a model where EF-G1 acts as a retrograde signal from mitochondria to the nucleus to slow down cell proliferation if mitochondrial energy output is low.

  2. Recombinant IgG1 Fc hexamers block cytotoxicity and pathological changes in experimental in vitro and rat models of neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Felix, Christian M; Spirig, Rolf; Morelli, Adriana Baz; Verkman, A S

    2018-05-01

    Intravenous human immunoglobulin G (IVIG) may have therapeutic benefit in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (herein called NMO), in part because of the anti-inflammatory properties of the IgG Fc region. Here, we evaluated recombinant Fc hexamers consisting of the IgM μ-tailpiece fused with the Fc region of human IgG1. In vitro, the Fc hexamers prevented cytotoxicity in aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expressing cells and in rat spinal cord slice cultures exposed to NMO anti-AQP4 autoantibody (AQP4-IgG) and complement, with >500-fold greater potency than IVIG or monomeric Fc fragments. Fc hexamers at low concentration also prevented antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity produced by AQP4-IgG and natural killer cells. Serum from rats administered a single intravenous dose of Fc hexamers at 50 mg/kg taken at 8 h did not produce complement-dependent cytotoxicity when added to AQP4-IgG-treated AQP4-expressing cell cultures. In an experimental rat model of NMO produced by intracerebral injection of AQP4-IgG, Fc hexamers at 50 mg/kg administered before and at 12 h after AQP4-IgG fully prevented astrocyte injury, complement activation, inflammation and demyelination. These results support the potential therapeutic utility of recombinant IgG1 Fc hexamers in AQP4-IgG seropositive NMO. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ... Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of ...

  4. Altered G1 checkpoint control determines adaptive survival responses to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothman, David A.; Meyers, Mark; Odegaard, Eric; Wang, Meizhi

    1996-01-01

    Adaptive survival responses (ASRs) are observed when cells become more resistant to a high dose of a cytotoxic agent after repeated low dose exposures to that agent or another genotoxic agent. Confluent (G 0 /G 1 ) human normal (GM2936B, GM2937A, AG2603, IMR-90), cancer-prone (XPV2359), and neoplastic (U1-Mel, HEp-2, HTB-152) cells were primed with repeated low doses of X-rays (ranging from 0.05-10 cGy/day for 4 days), then challenged with a high dose (290-450 cGy) on day 5. U1-Mel and HEp-2 cells showed greater than 2-fold transient survival enhancement when primed with 1-10 cGy. ASRs in U1-Mel or HEp-2 cells were blocked by cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Increases in cyclins A and D1 mRNAs were noted in primed compared to unirradiated U1-Mel and HEp-2 cells; however, only cyclin A protein levels increased. Cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein levels were constitutively elevated in HEp-2 and U1-Mel cells, compared to the other human normal and neoplastic cells examined, and were not altered by low or high doses of radiation. Low dose primed U1-Mel cells entered S-phase 4-6 h faster than unprimed U1-Mel cells upon low-density replating. Similar responses in terms of survival recovery, transcript and protein induction, and altered cell cycle regulation were not observed in the other human normal, cancer-prone or neoplastic cells examined. We hypothesize that only certain human cells can adapt to ionizing radiation by progressing to a point later in G 1 (the A point) where DNA repair processes and radioresistance can be induced. ASRs in human cells correlated well with constitutively elevated levels of PCNA and cyclin D1, as well as inducibility of cyclin A. We propose that a protein complex composed of cyclin D1, PCNA, and possibly cyclin A may play a role in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair, which determine ASRs in human cells

  5. Lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition in salt-dried yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena polyactis) during processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiuxing; Wu, Yanyan; Li, Laihao; Wang, Yueqi; Yang, Xianqing; Zhao, Yongqiang

    2017-10-01

    Lipid oxidation in salt-dried yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena polyactis) was evaluated during processing with commonly used analytical indices, such as the peroxide value (POV), the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, and oxidative-relative lipoxygenase (LOX) activity. Additionally, fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both POV and TBARS increased significantly ( P acids were identified. Combined eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n3) content varied between (19.20 ± 0.37) mg g-1 and (23.45 ± 1.05) mg g-1. The polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid (PUFA/SFA) ratio in yellow croaker was 0.73-1.10, and the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was approximately 0.13-0.20. The contents of most fatty acids varied significantly ( P acids are potential markers for evaluating lipid oxidation in fish muscle because there was a significant correlation between these markers and TBARS and LOX activity ( P 0.931.

  6. Intragenic origins due to short G1 phases underlie oncogene-induced DNA replication stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheret, Morgane; Halazonetis, Thanos D

    2018-03-01

    Oncogene-induced DNA replication stress contributes critically to the genomic instability that is present in cancer. However, elucidating how oncogenes deregulate DNA replication has been impeded by difficulty in mapping replication initiation sites on the human genome. Here, using a sensitive assay to monitor nascent DNA synthesis in early S phase, we identified thousands of replication initiation sites in cells before and after induction of the oncogenes CCNE1 and MYC. Remarkably, both oncogenes induced firing of a novel set of DNA replication origins that mapped within highly transcribed genes. These ectopic origins were normally suppressed by transcription during G1, but precocious entry into S phase, before all genic regions had been transcribed, allowed firing of origins within genes in cells with activated oncogenes. Forks from oncogene-induced origins were prone to collapse, as a result of conflicts between replication and transcription, and were associated with DNA double-stranded break formation and chromosomal rearrangement breakpoints both in our experimental system and in a large cohort of human cancers. Thus, firing of intragenic origins caused by premature S phase entry represents a mechanism of oncogene-induced DNA replication stress that is relevant for genomic instability in human cancer.

  7. Echinococcus canadensis (G7) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in swine of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D U; Botton, S A; Tonin, A A; Azevedo, M I; Graichen, D A S; Noal, C B; de la Rue, M L

    2014-05-28

    The cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus spp. In Brazil, this parasite is present in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) state, border with Argentina and Uruguay, causing several damages to human and animal health. This study aimed to identify Echinococcus spp. in hydatid cysts of swine and evaluate the similarity of the genotypes through the phylogenetic analysis. A total of 3,101,992 swine were slaughtered in the central/northern region of RS/Brazil, during 2008-2012. Five isolates were characterized as hydatid cyst by molecular analysis, based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-I). The genotypes E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1) (n=2) and E. canadensis (G7) (n=3) were identified in the hydatid cysts. The swine represents a potential intermediate host for different genotypes of Echinococcus spp., besides it can contribute to the perpetuation of the parasite's life cycle in rural areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Serum-induced G0/G1 transition in chemically transformed 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, H.E.; Buchou, T.; Mester, J.

    1987-01-01

    Quiescent, chemically transformed (benzo-a-pyrene) BALB/c 3T3 cells (BP A31) enter the cell division cycle when exposed to complete medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS); the number of cells recruited is a function of the duration of serum exposure. The recruitment of cells by short (<4 h) serum pulses is not inhibited by simultaneous exposure to cycloheximide (CH), and therefore the initial commitment does not require protein synthesis. The cells enter S phase with a constant delay following the removal of CH, even if CH exposure has been continued for as long as 20 h after the end of the serum pulse. The cell recruitment by serum pulses was inhibited by 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB), an inhibitor of cytoplasmic mRNA accumulation. These data suggest that serum exposure produces a stable memory that is necessary and sufficient for the eventual progression through G1 to S phase that occurs when protein synthesis is resumed after the removal of CH; this memory probably consists of mRNA species that are induced by serum and that are stable in the absence of protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, pretreatment of quiescent BP A31 cells with CH (8-24 h) dramatically increased the fraction of the total cell population that is recruited by a serum pulse of fixed duration

  9. Screening of recombinant glycosyltransferases reveals the broad acceptor specificity of stevia UGT-76G1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Griet; Walmagh, Maarten; Diricks, Margo; Lepak, Alexander; Gutmann, Alexander; Nidetzky, Bernd; Desmet, Tom

    2016-09-10

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are a promising class of biocatalysts that offer a sustainable alternative for chemical glycosylation of natural products. In this study, we aimed to characterize plant-derived UGTs from the GT-1 family with an emphasis on their acceptor promiscuity and their potential application in glycosylation processes. Recombinant expression in E. coli provided sufficient amounts of enzyme for the in-depth characterization of the salicylic acid UGT from Capsella rubella (UGT-SACr) and the stevia UGT from Stevia rebaudiana (UGT-76G1Sr). The latter was found to have a remarkably broad specificity with activities on a wide diversity of structures, from aliphatic and branched alcohols, over small phenolics to larger flavonoids, terpenoids and even higher glycoside compounds. As an example for its industrial potential, the glycosylation of curcumin was thoroughly evaluated. Under optimized conditions, 96% of curcumin was converted within 24h into the corresponding curcumin β-glycosides. In addition, the reaction was performed in a coupled system with sucrose synthase from Glycine max, to enable the cost-efficient (re)generation of UDP-Glc from sucrose as abundant and renewable resource. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. TGFβ lengthens the G1 phase of stem cells in aged mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daynac, Mathieu; Pineda, Jose R; Chicheportiche, Alexandra; Gauthier, Laurent R; Morizur, Lise; Boussin, François D; Mouthon, Marc-André

    2014-12-01

    Neurogenesis decreases during aging causing a progressive cognitive decline but it is still controversial whether proliferation defects in neurogenic niches result from a loss of neural stem cells or from an impairment of their progression through the cell cycle. Using an accurate fluorescence-activated cell sorting technique, we show that the pool of neural stem cells is maintained in the subventricular zone of middle-aged mice while they have a reduced proliferative potential eventually leading to the subsequent decrease of their progeny. In addition, we demonstrate that the G1 phase is lengthened during aging specifically in activated stem cells, but not in transit-amplifying cells, and directly impacts on neurogenesis. Finally, we report that inhibition of TGFβ signaling restores cell cycle progression defects in stem cells. Our data highlight the significance of cell cycle dysregulation in stem cells in the aged brain and provide an attractive foundation for the development of anti-TGFβ regenerative therapies based on stimulating endogenous neural stem cells. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  11. Data fitting by G1 rational cubic Bézier curves using harmony search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najihah Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A metaheuristic algorithm, called Harmony Search (HS is implemented for data fitting by rational cubic Bézier curves. HS is a derivative-free real parameter optimization algorithm, and draws an inspiration from the musical improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. HS is suitable for multivariate non-linear optimization problem. It is mainly achieved by data fitting using rational cubic Bézier curves with G1 continuity for every joint of segments of the whole data sets. This approach has significant contributions in making the technique automated. HS is used to optimize positions of middle points and values of the shape parameters. Test outline images and comparative experimental analysis are presented to show effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. Statistical testing between HS and two other different metaheuristic algorithms is used in the analysis on several outline images. All of the algorithms improvised a near optimal solution but the result that is obtained by the HS is better than the results of the other two algorithms.

  12. Antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis C (G1 in Russia: cost and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotype 1 HCV treatment in Russia assume as bitherapy (pegylated interferon – PG plus ribavirin – RBV as three therapy based on HCV protease inhibitor such as telaprevir (TLV, boceprevir (BCV or simeprevir (SMV plus PG/RBV. Medical technologies characterize neither clinical effectiveness, safety profile nor cost-effectiveness so it’s crucial to assess different costs related antiviral regimens. Three therapy costs for naïve patients including TLV, BCV, SMV are higher bitherapy 2,6; 2,5; 3,1 times accordingly. Similar TLV and BCV effectiveness for naïve patients defines TLV or BCV as the preferable 1-st line regimen, depending on regional features of pricing. SMV and TLV efficacy is similar among naïve patients and ralapsers but SMV is affordable for partially responders and non-responders after previous bitherapy. SMV cost is 1,4 times higher vs TLV but SMV has improved tolerability, less drug-drug interactions and shorter course. Insufficient bitherapy effectiveness for G1 HCV (SVR 24 – 39%-55% is required repeated course of three therapy for half of patient population. The first line regimen based on innovation will improve clinical outcomes for more patients and provide cost saving vs previous bitherapy based on PG/RBV. 

  13. Extracellular matrix-dependent myosin dynamics during G1-S phase cell cycle progression in hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadriraju, Kiran; Hansen, Linda K.

    2004-01-01

    Cell spreading and proliferation are tightly coupled in anchorage-dependent cells. While adhesion-dependent proliferation signals require an intact actin cytoskeleton, and some of these signals such as ERK activation have been characterized, the role of myosin in spreading and cell cycle progression under different extracellular matrix (ECM) conditions is not known. Studies presented here examine changes in myosin activity in freshly isolated hepatocytes under ECM conditions that promote either proliferation (high fibronectin density) or growth arrest (low fibronectin density). Three different measures were obtained and related to both spreading and cell cycle progression: myosin protein levels and association with cytoskeleton, myosin light chain phosphorylation, and its ATPase activity. During the first 48 h in culture, corresponding with transit through G1 phase, there was a six-fold increase in both myosin protein levels and myosin association with actin cytoskeleton. There was also a steady increase in myosin light chain phosphorylation and ATPase activity with spreading, which did not occur in non-spread, growth-arrested cells on low density of fibronectin. Myosin-inhibiting drugs blocked ERK activation, cyclin D1 expression, and S phase entry. Overexpression of the cell cycle protein cyclin D1 overcame both ECM-dependent and actomyosin-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that cyclin D1 is a key event downstream of myosin-dependent cell cycle regulation

  14. Barium ionization mechanisms in the CRRES G-1 and G-11b releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunton, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The G-11b chemical release experiment form the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) was conducted in darkness below the solar UV terminator to test the Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) hypothesis. The Quadrupole Ion Mass Spectrometer (QIMS) aboard CRRES measured fluxes of barium ions from this darkness release that were only a factor of ten smaller than the G-1 release measurements in full sunlight. Possible mechanisms for this significant barium ionization in darkness include CIV, charge exchange with O + , collisional ionization and associative ionization. The authors have evaluated the relative contributions of the collisional mechanisms by constructing a simple model of barium ions from the darkness release seem to be consistent with recent measurements of the charge transfer cross section. A collective plasma ionization mechanism such as CIV does not seem to necessary in order to explain the large barium ion fluxes observed. However, QIMS could only detect barium ions formed several seconds after the initial detonation of the release canister. A CIV process could still have occurred very early in the expansion of the barium neutral cloud and the mass spectrometer would not have detected these ions

  15. Inhibition of G0/G1 Switch 2 Ameliorates Renal Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Matsunaga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a global health problem, and novel therapies to treat CKD are urgently needed. Here, we show that inhibition of G0/G1 switch 2 (G0s2 ameliorates renal inflammation in a mouse model of CKD. Renal expression of chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (Ccl2 was increased in response to p65 activation in the kidneys of wild-type 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx mice. Moreover, 5/6Nx Clk/Clk mice, which carry homozygous mutations in the gene encoding circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK, did not exhibit aggravation of apoptosis or induction of F4/80-positive cells. The renal expression of G0s2 in wild-type 5/6Nx mice was important for the transactivation of Ccl2 by p65. These pathologies were ameliorated by G0s2 knockdown. Furthermore, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of G0s2 expression was identified by high-throughput chemical screening, and the inhibitor suppressed renal inflammation in 5/6Nx mice. These findings indicated that G0s2 inhibitors may have applications in the treatment of CKD.

  16. Heterofermentative process in dry fermented sausages - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Kameník

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In certain circumstances the fermentation process in dry fermented sausages converts to heterofermentation pathway leading to acetic acid and carbon dioxide beside lactic acid. The study describes two cases of undesirable heterofermentation in dry sausages from two different producers. In the sausage samples (n = 7 the pH value and the content of lactic and acetic acids were measured. Microbial analysis focused on quantitative and qualitative detection of lactic acid bacteria. The acetic acid content varied from 24.28 to 67.41 µmol·g-1 dry matter, in the case of samples from the second producer the content of acetic acid (48.45 to 67.41 µmol·g-1 dry matter was higher than the lactic acid content (20.98 to 29.02 µmol·g-1 dry matter. The lactobacilli strains from the sausages were assigned to the corresponding species by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization – Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and classified to three groups according to the sugar fermentation pattern (obligately homofermentative, facultatively heterofermentative and obligately heterofermentative and they caused the heterofermentation process in the samples of dry fermented sausages. The description of the case of heterofermentation process in dry sausages is unique and there is little information about this topic.

  17. Disrupted G1 to S phase clearance via cyclin signaling impairs liver tissue repair in thioacetamide-treated type 1 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Sachin S.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2005-01-01

    Previously we reported that a nonlethal dose of thioacetamide (TA, 300 mg/kg) causes 90% mortality in type 1 diabetic (DB) rats because of irreversible acute liver injury owing to inhibited hepatic tissue repair, primarily due to blockage of G 0 to S phase progression of cell division cycle. On the other hand, DB rats receiving 30 mg TA/kg exhibited equal initial liver injury and delayed tissue repair compared to nondiabetic (NDB) rats receiving 300 mg TA/kg, resulting in a delay in recovery from liver injury and survival. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that impaired cyclin-regulated progression of G 1 to S phase of the cell cycle may explain inhibited liver tissue repair, hepatic failure, and death, contrasted with delayed liver tissue repair but survival observed in the DB rats receiving 300 in contrast to 30 mg TA/kg. In the TA-treated NDB rats sustained MAPKs and cyclin expression resulted in higher phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (pRb), explaining prompt tissue repair and survival. In contrast, DB rats receiving the same dose of TA (300 mg/kg) exhibited suppressed MAPKs and cyclin expression that led to inhibition of pRb, inhibited tissue repair, and death. On the other hand, DB rats receiving 30 mg TA/kg exhibited delayed up regulation of MAPK signaling that delayed the expression of CD1 and pRb, explaining delayed stimulation of tissue repair observed in this group. In conclusion, the hepatotoxicant TA has a dose-dependent adverse effect on cyclin-regulated pRb signaling: the lower dose causes a recoverable delay, whereas the higher dose inhibits it with corresponding effect on the ultimate outcomes on hepatic tissue repair; this dose-dependent adverse effect is substantially shifted to the left of the dose response curve in diabetes

  18. SUN1 silencing inhibits cell growth through G0/G1 phase arrest in lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang W

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Weiyi Huang,* Haihua Huang,* Lei Wang, Jiong Hu, Weifeng Song Department of Oncology, The First People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Cytoskeleton is critical for carcinoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Sad-1 and UNC-84 domain containing 1 (SUN1 is one of the core linkers of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton. However, the functions of SUN1 in lung adenocarcinoma are largely unknown.Methods: In this study, we first transduced the lentivirus delivering the short hairpin RNA (shRNA against SUN1 to lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 and 95D cells with high efficiency. After lentivirus infection, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to detect the expressions of SUN1 mRNA and protein. The cell proliferation and colony formation were detected by MTT assay and colony formation assay, respectively. The cell distribution in the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry.Results: Both mRNA and protein levels of SUN1 were significantly decreased in A549 and 95D cells after lentivirus infection, as indicated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Next, we found that cell proliferation and colony formation were markedly reduced in SUN1 silenced cells. Moreover, suppression of SUN1 led to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, Cyclin D1, CDK6, and CDK2 expressions were obviously reduced in A549 cells after SUN1 silencing.Conclusion: These results suggest that SUN1 plays an essential role in proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and may be used as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma in the future. Keywords: SUN1, lung cancer, proliferation

  19. The impact of geoengineering on vegetation in experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Peter; Glienke, Susanne; Lawrence, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Solar Radiation Management (SRM) has been proposed as a means to partly counteract global warming. The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) simulated the climate consequences of a number of SRM techniques, but the effects on vegetation have not yet been thoroughly studied. Here, the vegetation response to the idealized GeoMIP G1 experiment is analyzed, in which a reduction of the solar constant counterbalances the radiative effects of quadrupled atmospheric CO2 concentrations; the results from eight fully coupled earth system models (ESMs) are included. For most models and regions, changes in net primary productivity (NPP) are dominated by the increase in CO2, via the CO2 fertilization effect. As SRM will lower temperatures, in high latitudes this will reverse gains in NPP from the lifting of temperature limitations. In low latitudes this cooling relative to the 4xCO2 simulation decreases plant respiration whilst having little effect on gross primary productivity, increasing NPP. Despite reductions in precipitation in most regions in response to SRM, runoff and NPP increase in many regions including those previously highlighted as potentially being at risk of drought under SRM. This is due to simultaneous reductions in evaporation and increases in water use efficiency by plants due to higher CO2 concentrations. The relative differences between models in the vegetation response are substantially larger than the differences in their climate responses. The largest differences between models are for those with and without a nitrogen-cycle, with a much smaller CO2 fertilization effect for the former. These results suggest that until key vegetation processes are integrated into ESM predictions, the vegetation response to SRM will remain highly uncertain.

  20. An Immunoglobulin G1 Monoclonal Antibody Highly Specific to the Wall of Cryptosporidium Oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, C.; Vesey, G.; Slade, M.; Ferrari, B.; Veal, D. A.; Williams, K.

    2000-01-01

    The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking water is critically dependent on the quality of immunofluorescent reagents. Experiments were performed to develop a method for producing highly specific antibodies to Cryptosporidium oocysts that can be used for water testing. BALB/c mice were immunized with six different antigen preparations and monitored for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM responses to the surface of Cryptosporidium oocysts. One group of mice received purified oocyst walls, a second group received a soluble protein preparation extracted from the outside of the oocyst wall, and the third group received whole inactivated oocysts. Three additional groups were immunized with sequentially prepared oocyst extracts to provide for a comparison of the immune response. Mice injected with the soluble protein extract demonstrated an IgG response to oocysts surface that was not seen in the whole-oocyst group. Mice injected with whole oocysts showed an IgM response only, while mice injected with purified oocyst walls showed little increase in IgM or IgG levels. Of the additional reported preparations only one, BME (2-mercaptoethanol treated), produced a weak IgM response to the oocyst wall. A mouse from the soluble oocyst extract group yielding a high IgG response was utilized to produce a highly specific IgG1 monoclonal antibody (Cry104) specific to the oocyst surface. Comparative flow cytometric analysis indicated that Cry104 has a higher avidity and specificity to oocysts in water concentrates than other commercially available antibodies. PMID:10973448

  1. Modelling of aflatoxin G1 reduction by kefir grain using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Farzaneh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Rezaei, Karamatollah; Rahmani, Anosheh

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) is one of the main toxic contaminants in pistachio nuts and causes potential health hazards. Hence, AFG1 reduction is one of the main concerns in food safety. Kefir-grains contain symbiotic association of microorganisms well known for their aflatoxin decontamination effects. In this study, a central composite design (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to develop a model in order to predict AFG1 reduction in pistachio nuts by kefir-grain (already heated at 70 and 110°C). The independent variables were: toxin concentration (X1: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ng/g), kefir-grain level (X2: 5, 10, 20, 10 and 25%), contact time (X3: 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h), and incubation temperature (X4: 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°C). There was a significant reduction in AFG1 (p kefir-grain used. The variables including X1, X3 and the interactions between X2-X4 as well as X3-X4 have significant effects on AFG1 reduction. The model provided a good prediction of AFG1 reduction under the assay conditions. Optimization was used to enhance the efficiency of kefir-grain on AFG1 reduction. The optimum conditions for the highest AFG1 reduction (96.8%) were predicted by the model as follows: toxin concentration = 20 ng/g, kefir-grain level = 10%, contact time = 6 h, and incubation temperature = 30°C which validated practically in six replications.

  2. The g0/g1 switch gene 2 is an important regulator of hepatic triglyceride metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinfang; Zhang, Yahui; Qian, Hang; Lu, Juan; Zhang, Zhifeng; Min, Xinwen; Lang, Mingjian; Yang, Handong; Wang, Nanping; Zhang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Factors that regulate the disposal of hepatic triglycerides contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis. G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) is a target of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and plays an important role in regulating lipolysis in adipocytes. Therefore, we investigated whether G0S2 plays a role in hepatic lipid metabolism. Adenovirus-mediated expression of G0S2 (Ad-G0S2) potently induced fatty liver in mice. The liver mass of Ad-G0S2-infected mice was markedly increased with excess triglyceride content compared to the control mice. G0S2 did not change cellular cholesterol levels in hepatocytes. G0S2 was found to be co-localized with adipose triglyceride lipase at the surface of lipid droplets. Hepatic G0S2 overexpression resulted in an increase in plasma Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/Very-Low-density (VLDL) lipoprotein cholesterol level. Plasma High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and ketone body levels were slightly decreased in Ad-G0S2 injected mice. G0S2 also increased the accumulation of neutral lipids in cultured HepG2 and L02 cells. However, G0S2 overexpression in the liver significantly improved glucose tolerance in mice. Livers expressing G0S2 exhibited increased 6-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1-3-diazol-4-yl) amino)-6-deoxyglucose uptake compared with livers transfected with control adenovirus. Taken together, our results provide evidence supporting an important role for G0S2 as a regulator of triglyceride content in the liver and suggest that G0S2 may be a molecular target for the treatment of insulin resistance and other obesity-related metabolic disorders.

  3. Nanofibrillated cellulose (CNF) from eucalyptus sawdust as a dry strength agent of unrefined eucalyptus handsheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, María Evangelina; Felissia, Fernando Esteban; Area, María Cristina; Ehman, Nanci Vanesa; Tarrés, Quim; Mutjé, Pere

    2016-03-30

    Nanofibrillated cellulose has been obtained from the cellulosic fraction of eucalyptus sawdust. The fractionation process involved the partial removal of hemicelluloses and lignin. CNF was obtained using TEMPO oxidation with NaOCl in basic medium followed by mechanical homogenization. The obtained CNF was subsequently used as a dry strength agent on unbleached unrefined eucalyptus pulp. The addition of 3, 6 and 9 wt.% of CNF increased lineally the tensile index of handsheets to about 55 N mg(-1) at 35°SR, compatible with papermachine runnability. The other mechanical properties also increased substantially, and porosity decreased moderately. The estimated specific surface and average diameter of these CNF were 60 m(2)g(-1), and of 41.0 nm, respectively. The addition of 9 wt.% of CNF produced an increase in mechanical strength, equivalent to that produced by PFI refining at 1600 revolutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  5. Drying of building lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washimi, Hiroshi

    1988-08-20

    Dried lumber is classified into air dried and kiln-dried lumber. The water content of kiln-dried lumber is specified by the Japan Agricultural Standards. However, since building lumber varies in such factors as the location where it was growing, species and shape, the standards, though relaxed, are not being observed. In fact, lumbered products which are not ''Kiln-dried'' frequently bear ''kiln-dried lumber'' marks. In an attempt to correct the situation, the Forestry Agency has set up voluntary standards, but problems still remain. The conventional drying method consists of first subjecting the lumber to optimum drying, then letting bending and deformations to freely and fully appear, and follow this with corrective sawing to produce planks straight from end to end. Compared with air dried lumber in terms of moisture content, kiln-dried lumber remains much with same with minimal shrinkage and expansion. For oil-containing resin, such normal treatments as drying by heating, steaming and boiling seem to be quite effective. Kiln drying, which is becoming more and more important with changes in the circulation system, consists of the steaming-drying-heating method and the dehumidizing type drying method. The major factor which determines the drying cost is the number of days required for drying, which depends largely on the kind of lumber and moisture content. The Forestry Angency is promoting production of defoiled lumber. (2 figs, 2 tables)

  6. Investigation of equilibrium and kinetics of Cr(VI) adsorption by dried Bacillus cereus using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Tao; Wang, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) based on three-variable-five-level central composite rotatable design was used to analyze the effects of combined and individual operating parameters (biomass dose, initial concentration of Cr(VI) and pH) on the Cr(VI) adsorption capacity of dried Bacillus cereus. A quadratic polynomial equation was obtained to predict the adsorbed Cr(VI) amount. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of biomass dose was the key factor in the removal of Cr(VI). The maximum adsorbed Cr(VI) amount (30.93 mg g(-1)) was found at 165.30 mg L(-1), 2.96, and 3.01 g L(-1) for initial Cr(VI) concentration, pH, and biosorbent dosage, respectively. The surface chemical functional groups and microstructure of unloaded and Cr(VI)-loaded dried Bacillus cereus were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Besides, the results gained from these studies indicated that Langmuir isotherm and the second-order rate expression were suitable for the removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater. The results revealed RSM was an effective method for optimizing biosorption process, and dried Bacillus cereus had a remarkable performance on the removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater.

  7. Activity in mice of recombinant BCG-EgG1Y162 vaccine for Echinococcus granulosus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiumin; Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Fengbo; Zhu, Yuejie; Peng, Shanshan; Ma, Haimei; Cao, Chunbao; Xin, Yan; Yimiti, Delixiati; Wen, Hao; Ding, Jianbing

    2016-01-01

    Cystic hydatid disease is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus which is distributed worldwide. The disease is difficult to treat with surgery removal is the only cure treatment. In the high endemic areas, vaccination of humans is believed a way to protect communities from the disease. In this study we vaccinated BALB/c mice with rBCG-EgG1Y162, and then detected the level of IgG and IgE specifically against the recombinant protein by ELISA, rBCG-EgG1Y162 induced strong and specific cellular and humoral immune responses. In vitro study showed that rBCG-EgG1Y162 vaccine not only promote splenocytes proliferation but also active T cell. In addition, the rBCG-EgG1Y162 induced a protection in the mice against secondary infection of Echinococcus granulosus.

  8. Endothelial ATP-binding cassette G1 in mouse endothelium protects against hemodynamic-induced atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Shanshan [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Department of Pediatrics, Baodi District People’s Hospital of Tianjin City, Tianjin, 301800 (China); Wang, Jiaxing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191 (China); Zhang, Xu; Shi, Ying; Li, Bochuan; Bao, Qiankun [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Pang, Wei [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191 (China); Ai, Ding [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Zhu, Yi [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China); Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, 100191 (China); He, Jinlong, E-mail: hejinlong@tmu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300070 (China)

    2016-08-19

    Activated vascular endothelium inflammation under persistent hyperlipidemia is the initial step of atherogenesis. ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) is a crucial factor maintaining sterol and lipid homeostasis by transporting cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of ABCG1 in endothelial inflammation activation during early-stage atherogenesis in mice and the underlying mechanisms. Endothelial cell (EC)-specific ABCG1 transgenic (EC-ABCG1-Tg) mice were generated and cross-bred with low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient (Ldlr{sup −/−}) mice. After a 4-week Western-type diet, the mice were sacrificed for assessing atherosclerosis. Human umbilical vein ECs were treated with different flows, and ABCG1 was adenovirally overexpressed to investigate the mechanism in vitro. Compared with Ldlr{sup −/−} mouse aortas, EC-ABCG1-Tg/Ldlr{sup −/−} aortas showed decreased early-stage lesions. Furthermore, the lesion area in the EC-ABCG1-Tg/Ldlr{sup −/−} mouse aortic arch but not thoracic aorta was significantly reduced, which suggests a protective role of ABCG1 under atheroprone flow. In vitro, overexpression of ABCG1 attenuated EC activation caused by oscillatory shear stress. Overexpression of ABCG1 blunted cholesterol-activated ECs in vitro. In exploring the mechanisms of ABCG1 attenuating endothelial inflammation, we found that ABCG1 inhibited oscillatory flow-activated nuclear factor kappa B and NLRP3 inflammasome in ECs. ABCG1 may play a protective role in early-stage atherosclerosis by reducing endothelial activation induced by oscillatory shear stress via suppressing the inflammatory response. - Highlights: • EC-ABCG1-Tg mice in a Ldlr{sup −/−} background showed decreased atherosclerosis. • Overexpression of ABCG1 in ECs decreased OSS-induced EC activation. • NLRP3 and NF-κB might be an underlying mechanism of ABCG1 protective role.

  9. On the electronic structure of 5g1 complexes of element 125: a quasi - relativistic MS-Xα study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhyoun, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Quasi-relativistic SCF Xα calculations are reported for the hypothetical complexes E0 2 2+ , EF 6 (E = element 125) and the 5f 1 ion Np0 2 2 + . The calculations indicate that the E complexes have a 5g 1 outer electronic configuration with good agreement with previous predictions. The ligand field energy diagram for G 1 system in 0 h symmetry in discussed in relation to the obtained X α results

  10. Final COMPASS results on the deuteron spin-dependent structure function g1d and the Bjorken sum rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Final results are presented from the inclusive measurement of deep-inelastic polarised-muon scattering on longitudinally polarised deuterons using a 6LiD target. The data were taken at 160 GeV beam energy and the results are shown for the kinematic range 1(GeV/c24GeV/c2 in the mass of the hadronic final state. The deuteron double-spin asymmetry A1d and the deuteron longitudinal-spin structure function g1d are presented in bins of x and Q2. Towards lowest accessible values of x, g1d decreases and becomes consistent with zero within uncertainties. The presented final g1d values together with the recently published final g1p values of COMPASS are used to again evaluate the Bjorken sum rule and perform the QCD fit to the g1 world data at next-to-leading order of the strong coupling constant. In both cases, changes in central values of the resulting numbers are well within statistical uncertainties. The flavour-singlet axial charge a0, which is identified in the MS‾ renormalisation scheme with the total contribution of quark helicities to the nucleon spin, is extracted at next-to-leading order accuracy from only the COMPASS deuteron data: a0(Q2=3(GeV/c2=0.32±0.02stat±0.04syst±0.05evol. Together with the recent results on the proton spin structure function g1p, the results on g1d constitute the COMPASS legacy on the measurements of g1 through inclusive spin-dependent deep inelastic scattering.

  11. On the measurability of the structure function g1(x,Q2) in ep collisions at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.

    1995-08-01

    The possibility is investigated to measure the polarized structure function g 1 (x, Q 2 ) in the collider mode of HERA operating with a polarized lepton and proton beam. The x dependence of g 1 can be measured at a statistical precision of ∝15% to 70% in the range 0.0005 2 > 2 at beam polarizations λ p ∝λ e =0.8 and L int =60 pb -1 . (orig.)

  12. Estimating the small-x exponent of the structure function g1NS from the Bjorken sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauf, Anke; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Soff, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    We present a new estimate of the exponent governing the small-x behavior of the nonsinglet structure function g 1 p-n derived under the assumption that the Bjorken sum rule is valid. We use the world wide average of α s and the NNNLO QCD corrections to the Bjorken sum rule. The structure function g 1 NS is found to be clearly divergent for small x

  13. FACT prevents the accumulation of free histones evicted from transcribed chromatin and a subsequent cell cycle delay in G1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Morillo-Huesca

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The FACT complex participates in chromatin assembly and disassembly during transcription elongation. The yeast mutants affected in the SPT16 gene, which encodes one of the FACT subunits, alter the expression of G1 cyclins and exhibit defects in the G1/S transition. Here we show that the dysfunction of chromatin reassembly factors, like FACT or Spt6, down-regulates the expression of the gene encoding the cyclin that modulates the G1 length (CLN3 in START by specifically triggering the repression of its promoter. The G1 delay undergone by spt16 mutants is not mediated by the DNA-damage checkpoint, although the mutation of RAD53, which is otherwise involved in histone degradation, enhances the cell-cycle defects of spt16-197. We reveal how FACT dysfunction triggers an accumulation of free histones evicted from transcribed chromatin. This accumulation is enhanced in a rad53 background and leads to a delay in G1. Consistently, we show that the overexpression of histones in wild-type cells down-regulates CLN3 in START and causes a delay in G1. Our work shows that chromatin reassembly factors are essential players in controlling the free histones potentially released from transcribed chromatin and describes a new cell cycle phenomenon that allows cells to respond to excess histones before starting DNA replication.

  14. Convective, vacuum and microwave drying kinetics of mallow leaves and comparison of color and ascorbic acid values of three drying methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Alibas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mallow leaves (Malva sylvestris L. with initial moisture of 5.02±0.003 on dry basis (82.5% on wet basis were dried using three different drying methods, microwave, convective and vacuum. The leaves that weigh 75 g each were dried until their moisture fell down to 0.10±0.005 on dry basis (approximately 9% on wet basis. The following drying levels were used in each of the drying processes: 6.67, 8.67, 10, 11.33 W g-1 microwave power density; 50, 75, 100 and 125 °C for convective drying; and 3, 7 kPa at 50 and 75 °C for vacuum drying. Drying periods ranged from 6-10, 26-150 and 38-130 min. for microwave, convective and vacuum drying, respectively. Effective moisture diffisuvities ranged from 2.04403 10-10-3.63996 10-12 m2 s-1, 1.70182 10-11-1.10084 10-10 m2 s-1 and 1.85599 10-11-5.94559 10-10 m2 s-1 for microwave, convective and vacuum drying, respectively. According to ascorbic acid content and color parameters, the best microwave power density was found 10 W g-1 with a drying period of 6.5 min.

  15. Sorption of Cu(II) Ions on Chitosan-Zeolite X Composites: Impact of Gelling and Drying Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelad, Amal; Morsli, Amine; Robitzer, Mike; Bengueddach, Abdelkader; di Renzo, Francesco; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-01-19

    Chitosan-zeolite Na-X composite beads with open porosity and different zeolite contents were prepared by an encapsulation method. Preparation conditions had to be optimised in order to stabilize the zeolite network during the polysaccharide gelling process. Composites and pure reference components were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD); scanning electron microscopy (SEM); N₂ adsorption-desorption; and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). Cu(II) sorption was investigated at pH 6. The choice of drying method used for the storage of the adsorbent severely affects the textural properties of the composite and the copper sorption effectiveness. The copper sorption capacity of chitosan hydrogel is about 190 mg·g(-1). More than 70% of this capacity is retained when the polysaccharide is stored as an aerogel after supercrititcal CO₂ drying, but nearly 90% of the capacity is lost after evaporative drying to a xerogel. Textural data and Cu(II) sorption data indicate that the properties of the zeolite-polysaccharide composites are not just the sum of the properties of the individual components. Whereas a chitosan coating impairs the accessibility of the microporosity of the zeolite; the presence of the zeolite improves the stability of the dispersion of chitosan upon supercritical drying and increases the affinity of the composites for Cu(II) cations. Chitosan-zeolite aerogels present Cu(II) sorption properties.

  16. Studies of nontarget-mediated distribution of human full-length IgG1 antibody and its FAb fragment in cardiovascular and metabolic-related tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Pia; Söderling, Ann-Sofi; Svensson, Lena; Ahnmark, Andrea; Flodin, Christine; Wanag, Ewa; Screpanti-Sundqvist, Valentina; Gennemark, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics (PK) of full-length nontargeted antibody and its antigen-binding fragment (FAb) were evaluated for a range of tissues primarily of interest for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Mice were intravenously injected with a dose of 10 mg/kg of either human IgG1or its FAb fragment; perfused tissues were collected at a range of time points over 3 weeks for the human IgG1 antibody and 1 week for the human FAb antibody. Tissues were homogenized and antibody concentrations were measured by specific immunoassays on the Gyros system. Exposure in terms of maximum concentration (Cmax ) and area under the curve was assessed for all nine tissues. Tissue exposure of full-length antibody relative to plasma exposure was found to be between 1% and 10%, except for brain (0.2%). Relative concentrations of FAb antibody were the same, except for kidney tissue, where the antibody concentration was found to be ten times higher than in plasma. However, the absolute tissue uptake of full-length IgG was significantly higher than the absolute tissue uptake of the FAb antibody. This study provides a reference PK state for full-length whole and FAb antibodies in tissues related to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases that do not include antigen or antibody binding. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  17. Histone H1 interphase phosphorylation becomes largely established in G1 or early S phase and differs in G1 between T-lymphoblastoid cells and normal T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gréen Anna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone H1 is an important constituent of chromatin, and is involved in regulation of its structure. During the cell cycle, chromatin becomes locally decondensed in S phase, highly condensed during metaphase, and again decondensed before re-entry into G1. This has been connected to increasing phosphorylation of H1 histones through the cell cycle. However, many of these experiments have been performed using cell-synchronization techniques and cell cycle-arresting drugs. In this study, we investigated the H1 subtype composition and phosphorylation pattern in the cell cycle of normal human activated T cells and Jurkat T-lymphoblastoid cells by capillary electrophoresis after sorting of exponentially growing cells into G1, S and G2/M populations. Results We found that the relative amount of H1.5 protein increased significantly after T-cell activation. Serine phosphorylation of H1 subtypes occurred to a large extent in late G1 or early S phase in both activated T cells and Jurkat cells. Furthermore, our data confirm that the H1 molecules newly synthesized during S phase achieve a similar phosphorylation pattern to the previous ones. Jurkat cells had more extended H1.5 phosphorylation in G1 compared with T cells, a difference that can be explained by faster cell growth and/or the presence of enhanced H1 kinase activity in G1 in Jurkat cells. Conclusion Our data are consistent with a model in which a major part of interphase H1 phosphorylation takes place in G1 or early S phase. This implies that H1 serine phosphorylation may be coupled to changes in chromatin structure necessary for DNA replication. In addition, the increased H1 phosphorylation of malignant cells in G1 may be affecting the G1/S transition control and enabling facilitated S-phase entry as a result of relaxed chromatin condensation. Furthermore, increased H1.5 expression may be coupled to the proliferative capacity of growth-stimulated T cells.

  18. The spin-dependent structure function $g_1(x)$ of the proton from polarized deep-inelastic muon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067425; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Birsa, R; De Botton, N R; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Eichblatt, S; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; Görtz, S; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiselev, Yu F; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kukhtin, V V; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Litmaath, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Pereira, H; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Rädel, G; Rijllart, A; Reicherz, G; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Roscherr, B; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Ylöstalo, J; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K

    1997-01-01

    We present a new measurement of the virtual photon proton asymmetry $A_1^{\\rm p}$ from deep inelastic scattering of polarized muons on polarized protons in the kinematic range $0.0008 1$ GeV$^{2}$. A perturbative QCD evolution in next-to-leading order is used to determine $g_1^{\\rm p}(x)$ at a constant $Q^2$. At $Q^{2} = 10$ GeV$^{2}$ we find, in the measured range, $\\int_{0.003}^{0.7} g_{1}^{\\rm p}(x){\\rm d}x = 0.139 \\pm 0.006~({\\rm stat})\\pm 0.008~({\\rm syst)} \\pm 0.006~({\\rm evol})$. The value of the first moment $\\Gamma_{1}^{\\rm p} = \\int_{0}^{1} g_{1}^{\\rm p}(x){\\rm d}x$ of $g_{1}^{\\rm p}$ depends on the approach used to describe the behaviour of $g_{1}^{\\rm p}$ at low $x$. We find that the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule is violated. With our published result for $\\Gamma_{1}^{\\rm d}$ we confirm the Bjorken sum rule with an accuracy of $\\approx 15\\%$ at the one standard deviation level.

  19. The spin structure function g1p of the proton and a test of the Bjorken sum rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available New results for the double spin asymmetry A1p and the proton longitudinal spin structure function g1p are presented. They were obtained by the COMPASS Collaboration using polarised 200 GeV muons scattered off a longitudinally polarised NH3 target. The data were collected in 2011 and complement those recorded in 2007 at 160 GeV, in particular at lower values of x. They improve the statistical precision of g1p(x by about a factor of two in the region x≲0.02. A next-to-leading order QCD fit to the g1 world data is performed. It leads to a new determination of the quark spin contribution to the nucleon spin, ΔΣ, ranging from 0.26 to 0.36, and to a re-evaluation of the first moment of g1p. The uncertainty of ΔΣ is mostly due to the large uncertainty in the present determinations of the gluon helicity distribution. A new evaluation of the Bjorken sum rule based on the COMPASS results for the non-singlet structure function g1NS(x,Q2 yields as ratio of the axial and vector coupling constants |gA/gV|=1.22±0.05 (stat.±0.10 (syst., which validates the sum rule to an accuracy of about 9%.

  20. The Spin Structure Function $g_1^{\\rm p}$ of the Proton and a Test of the Bjorken Sum Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chang, W.C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse-Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; von Harrach, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.Yu; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.C.; Pereira, F.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rocco, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Selyunin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2016-02-10

    New results for the double spin asymmetry $A_1^{\\rm p}$ and the proton longitudinal spin structure function $g_1^{\\rm p}$ are presented. They were obtained by the COMPASS collaboration using polarised 200 GeV muons scattered off a longitudinally polarised NH$_3$ target. The data were collected in 2011 and complement those recorded in 2007 at 160\\,GeV, in particular at lower values of $x$. They improve the statistical precision of $g_1^{\\rm p}(x)$ by about a factor of two in the region $x\\lesssim 0.02$. A next-to-leading order QCD fit to the $g_1$ world data is performed. It leads to a new determination of the quark spin contribution to the nucleon spin, $\\Delta \\Sigma$ ranging from 0.26 to 0.36, and to a re-evaluation of the first moment of $g_1^{\\rm p}$. The uncertainty of $\\Delta \\Sigma$ is mostly due to the large uncertainty in the present determinations of the gluon helicity distribution. A new evaluation of the Bjorken sum rule based on the COMPASS results for the non-singlet structure function $g_1^{\\rm...

  1. Radiosensitization of NSCLC cells by EGFR inhibition is the result of an enhanced p53-dependent G1 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriegs, Malte; Gurtner, Kristin; Can, Yildiz; Brammer, Ingo; Rieckmann, Thorsten; Oertel, Reinhard; Wysocki, Marek; Dorniok, Franziska; Gal, Andreas; Grob, Tobias J.; Laban, Simon; Kasten-Pisula, Ulla; Petersen, Cordula; Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild; Dikomey, Ekkehard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: How EGF receptor (EGFR) inhibition induces cellular radiosensitization and with that increase in tumor control is still a matter of discussion. Since EGFR predominantly regulates cell cycle and proliferation, we studied whether a G1-arrest caused by EGFR inhibition may contribute to these effects. Materials and methods: We analyzed human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines either wild type (wt) or mutated in p53 (A549, H460, vs. H1299, H3122) and HCT116 cells (p21 wt and negative). EGFR was inhibited by BIBX1382BS, erlotinib or cetuximab; p21 was knocked down by siRNA. Functional endpoints analyzed were cell signaling, proliferation, G1-arrest, cell survival as well as tumor control using an A549 tumor model. Results: When combined with IR, EGFR inhibition enhances the radiation-induced permanent G1 arrest, though solely in cells with intact p53/p21 signaling. This increase in G1-arrest was always associated with enhanced cellular radiosensitivity. Strikingly, this effect was abrogated when cells were re-stimulated, suggesting the initiation of dormancy. In line with this, only a small non-significant increase in tumor control was observed for A549 tumors treated with fractionated RT and EGFR inhibition. Conclusion: For NSCLC cells increase in radiosensitivity by EGFR inhibition results from enhanced G1-arrest. However, this effect does not lead to improved tumor control because cells can be released from this arrest by re-stimulation

  2. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding Dental Care Home Health Info Health Topics Dry Mouth Saliva, or spit, is made by the salivary ... help keep teeth strong and fight tooth decay. Dry mouth, also called xerostomia (ZEER-oh-STOH-mee-ah), ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes ...

  4. The influence of lysozyme on mannitol polymorphism in freeze-dried and spray-dried formulations depends on the selection of the drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohganz, Holger; Lee, Yan-Ying; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi

    2013-04-15

    Freeze-drying and spray-drying are often applied drying techniques for biopharmaceutical formulations. The formation of different solid forms upon drying is often dependent on the complex interplay between excipient selection and process parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the chosen drying method on the solid state form. Mannitol-lysozyme solutions of 20mg/mL, with the amount of lysozyme varying between 2.5% and 50% (w/w) of total solid content, were freeze-dried and spray-dried, respectively. The resulting solid state of mannitol was analysed by near-infrared spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis and further, results were verified with X-ray powder diffraction. It was seen that the prevalence of the mannitol polymorphic form shifted from β-mannitol to δ-mannitol with increasing protein concentration in freeze-dried formulations. In spray-dried formulations an increase in protein concentration resulted in a shift from β-mannitol to α-mannitol. An increase in final drying temperature of the freeze-drying process towards the temperature of the spray-drying process did not lead to significant changes. It can thus be concluded that it is the drying process in itself, rather than the temperature, that leads to the observed solid state changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Precision measurements of g1 of the proton and of the deuteron with 6 GeV electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prok, Y.; Bosted, P.; Kvaltine, N.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brock, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Bültmann, S.; Burkert, V. D.; Carlin, C.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crabb, D.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Garçon, M.; Garillon, B.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Girod, F. X.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guler, N.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalkar, S.; Jiang, X.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Kalantarians, N.; Keith, C.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Meekins, D.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Peng, P.; Phillips, J. J.; Pierce, J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Raue, B. A.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Smith, C.; Smith, G.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2014-08-01

    The inclusive polarized structure functions of the proton and deuteron, g1p and g1d, were measured with high statistical precision using polarized 6 GeV electrons incident on a polarized ammonia target in Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory. Electrons scattered at laboratory angles between 18 and 45 degrees were detected using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). For the usual deep inelastic region kinematics, Q2>1 GeV2 and the final-state invariant mass W >2 GeV, the ratio of polarized to unpolarized structure functions g1/F1 is found to be nearly independent of Q2 at fixed x. Significant resonant structure is apparent at values of W up to 2.3 GeV. In the framework of perturbative quantum chromodynamics, the high-W results can be used to better constrain the polarization of quarks and gluons in the nucleon, as well as high-twist contributions.

  6. Precision measurements of g1 of the proton and the deuteron with 6 GeV electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prok, Yelena; Bosted, Peter; Kvaltine, Nicholas; Adhikari, Krishna; Adikaram-Mudiyanselage, Dasuni; Aghasyan, Mher; Amaryan, Moskov; Anderson, Mark; Anefalos Pereira, Sergio; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Battaglieri, Marco; Biselli, Angela; Bono, Jason; Briscoe, William; Brock, Joseph; Brooks, William; Bueltmann, Stephen; Burkert, Volker; Carlin, Christopher; Carman, Daniel; Celentano, Andrea; Chandavar, Shloka; Colaneri, Luca; Cole, Philip; Contalbrigo, Marco; Cortes, Olga; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; D' Angelo, Annalisa; Dashyan, Natalya; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Deur, Alexandre; Djalali, Chaden; Dodge, Gail; Doughty, David; Dupre, Raphael; El Alaoui, Ahmed; El Fassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Fedotov, Gleb; Fegan, Stuart; Fersch, Robert; Fleming, Jamie; Forest, Tony; Garcon, Michel; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Ghandilyan, Yeranuhi; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Girod-Gard, Francois-Xavier; Giovanetti, Kevin; Goetz, John; Gohn, Wesley; Gothe, Ralf; Griffioen, Keith; Guegan, Baptiste; Guler, Nevzat; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hanretty, Charles; Harrison, Nathan; Hattawy, Mohammad; Hicks, Kenneth; Ho, Dao; Holtrop, Maurik; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Jawalkar, Sucheta; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Joo, Kyungseon; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keith, Christopher; Keller, Daniel; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Andrey; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Koirala, Suman; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Sebastian; Kuleshov, Sergey; Lenisa, Paolo; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; MacGregor, Ian; Markov, Nikolai; Mayer, Michael; McKinnon, Bryan; Meekins, David; Mineeva, Taisiya; Mirazita, Marco; Mokeev, Viktor; Montgomery, Rachel; MOUTARDE, Herve; Movsisyan, Aram; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Munoz Camacho, Carlos; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Pappalardo, Luciano; Paremuzyan, Rafayel; Park, K; Peng, Peng; Phillips, J J; Pierce, Joshua; Pisano, Silvia; Pogorelko, Oleg; Pozdniakov, Serguei; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Protopopescu, Dan; Puckett, Andrew; Raue, Brian; Rimal, Dipak; Ripani, Marco; Rizzo, Alessandro; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Roy, Priyashree; Sabatie, Franck; Saini, Mukesh; Salgado, Carlos; Schott, Diane; Schumacher, Reinhard; Seder, Erin; Sharabian, Youri; Simonyan, Ani; Smith, Claude; Smith, Gregory; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stepanyan, Samuel; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Sytnik, Valeriy; Taiuti, Mauro; Tang, Wei; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Ungaro, Maurizio; Vernarsky, Brian; Vlasov, Alexander; Voskanyan, Hakob; Voutier, Eric; Walford, Natalie; Watts, Daniel; Weinstein, Lawrence; Zachariou, Nicholas; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhang, Jixie; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Zhiwen; Zonta, Irene

    2014-08-01

    The inclusive polarized structure functions of the proton and deuteron, g1p and g1d, were measured with high statistical precision using polarized 6 GeV electrons incident on a polarized ammonia target in Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory. Electrons scattered at lab angles between 18 and 45 degrees were detected using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). For the usual DIS kinematics, Q^2>1 GeV^2 and the final-state invariant mass W>2 GeV, the ratio of polarized to unpolarized structure functions g1/F1 is found to be nearly independent of Q^2 at fixed x. Significant resonant structure is apparent at values of W up to 2.3 GeV. In the framework of perturbative QCD, the high-W results can be used to better constrain the polarization of quarks and gluons in the nucleon, as well as high-twist contributions.

  7. Association of pKi-67 with satellite DNA of the human genome in early G1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, J M; Kill, I R; Lichter, P

    1998-01-01

    pKi-67 is a nucleolar antigen that provides a specific marker for proliferating cells. It has been shown previously that pKi-67's distribution varies in a cell cycle-dependent manner: it coats all chromosomes during mitosis, accumulates in nuclear foci during G1 phase (type I distribution) and localizes within nucleoli in late G1 S and G2 phase (type II distribution). Although no function has as yet been ascribed to pKi-67, it has been found associated with centromeres in G1. In the present study the distribution pattern of pKi-67 during G1 in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) was analysed in more detail. Synchronization experiments show that in very early G1 cells pKi-67 coincides with virtually all satellite regions analysed, i.e. with centromeric (alpha-satellite), telomeric (minisatellite) and heterochromatic blocks (satellite III) on chromosomes 1 and Y (type Ia distribution). In contrast, later in the G1 phase, a smaller fraction of satellite DNA regions are found collocalized with pKi-67 foci (type Ib distribution). When all pKi-67 becomes localized within nucleoli, even fewer satellite regions remain associated with the pKi-67 staining. However, all centromeric and short arm regions of the acrocentric chromosomes, which are in very close proximity to or even contain the rRNA genes, are collocalized with anti-pKi-67 staining throughout the remaining interphase of the cell cycle. Thus, our data demonstrate that during post-mitotic reformation and nucleogenesis there is a progressive decline in the fraction of specific satellite regions of DNA that remain associated with pKi-67. This may be relevant to nucleolar reformation following mitosis.

  8. Improvement of vascular function by acute and chronic treatment with the GPR30 agonist G1 in experimental diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-lin Li

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30 is a seven-transmembrane domain receptor that mediates rapid estrogen responses in a wide variety of cell types. This receptor is highly expressed in the cardiovascular system, and exerts vasodilatory effects. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of GPR30 on vascular responsiveness in diabetic ovariectomized (OVX rats and elucidate the possible mechanism involved. The roles of GPR30 were evaluated in the thoracic aorta and cultured endothelial cells. The GPR30 agonist G1 induced a dose-dependent vasodilation in the thoracic aorta of the diabetic OVX rats, which was partially attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor, nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME and the GPR30-selective antagonist G15. Dose-dependent vasoconstrictive responses to phenylephrine were attenuated significantly in the rings of the thoracic aorta following the acute G1 administration in the diabetic OVX rats. This effect of G1 was abolished partially by L-NAME and G15. The acute administration of G1 increased significantly the eNOS activity and the concentration of NO in the endothelial cells exposed to high glucose. G1 treatment induced an enhanced endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (Ach in the diabetic OVX rats. Further examination revealed that G1 induced vasodilation in the diabetic OVX rats by increasing the phosphorylation of eNOS. These findings provide preliminary evidence that GPR30 activation leads to eNOS activation, as well as vasodilation, to a certain degree and has beneficial effects on vascular function in diabetic OVX rats.

  9. A novel single virus infection system reveals that influenza virus preferentially infects cells in g1 phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Ueda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza virus attaches to sialic acid residues on the surface of host cells via the hemagglutinin (HA, a glycoprotein expressed on the viral envelope, and enters into the cytoplasm by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The viral genome is released and transported in to the nucleus, where transcription and replication take place. However, cellular factors affecting the influenza virus infection such as the cell cycle remain uncharacterized. METHODS/RESULTS: To resolve the influence of cell cycle on influenza virus infection, we performed a single-virus infection analysis using optical tweezers. Using this newly developed single-virus infection system, the fluorescence-labeled influenza virus was trapped on a microchip using a laser (1064 nm at 0.6 W, transported, and released onto individual H292 human lung epithelial cells. Interestingly, the influenza virus attached selectively to cells in the G1-phase. To clarify the molecular differences between cells in G1- and S/G2/M-phase, we performed several physical and chemical assays. Results indicated that: 1 the membranes of cells in G1-phase contained greater amounts of sialic acids (glycoproteins than the membranes of cells in S/G2/M-phase; 2 the membrane stiffness of cells in S/G2/M-phase is more rigid than those in G1-phase by measurement using optical tweezers; and 3 S/G2/M-phase cells contained higher content of Gb3, Gb4 and GlcCer than G1-phase cells by an assay for lipid composition. CONCLUSIONS: A novel single-virus infection system was developed to characterize the difference in influenza virus susceptibility between G1- and S/G2/M-phase cells. Differences in virus binding specificity were associated with alterations in the lipid composition, sialic acid content, and membrane stiffness. This single-virus infection system will be useful for studying the infection mechanisms of other viruses.

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  11. Recuperation of the energy released in the G-1, an air-cooled graphite reactor core; Recuperation de l'energie degagee dans G 1 pile a graphite refroidie a l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambadal, P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Pascal, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The CEA (in his five-year setting plan) has objective among others, the realization of the two first french reactors moderated with graphite. The construction of the G-1 reactor in Marcoule, first french plutonic core, is achieved so that it will diverge in the beginning of 1956 and reach its full power in the beginning of the second semester of the same year. In this report we will detail the specificities of the reactor and in particular its cooling and energy recuperation system. The G-1 reactor being essentially intended to allow the french technicians to study the behavior of an energy installation supply taking its heat in a nuclear source as early as possible. (M.B.) [French] Le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (dans le cadre du plan quinquennal) a entre autres objectifs, la realisation des deux premiers reacteurs francais moderes au graphite. La construction du reacteur G-1 a Marcoule, premiere pile plutonigene francaise, est realise afin qu'il puisse diverger au debut de 1956 et atteindre sa pleine puissance au debut du second semestre de la meme annee. Dans ce rapport nous detaillerons les specificites du reacteur et en particulier son systeme de refroidissement et de recuperation d'energie. Le reacteur G-1 etant essentielement destine a permettre aux techniciens francais d'etudier le plus tot possible le comportement d'une installation productrice d'energie empruntant sa chaleur a une source nucleaire. (M.B.)

  12. Base substitution mutations in uridinediphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferase 76G1 gene of Stevia rebaudiana causes the low levels of rebaudioside A: mutations in UGT76G1, a key gene of steviol glycosides synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Heng; Huang, Su-Zhen; Han, Yu-Lin; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Gu, Chun-Sun; Zhao, Yan-Hai

    2014-07-01

    Steviol glycosides, extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert) Bertoni, are calorie-free sugar substitute of natural origin with intensely sweet (Boileau et al., 2012). Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the two main kinds of the diterpenic glycosides. We analyzed the concentration of stevioside and rebaudioside A in Stevia leaves of about 500 samples (hybrid progenies) and discovered a mutation plant "Z05" with very low levels of rebaudioside A. Because UGT76G1, a uridinediphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferases, is responsible for the conversion from stevioside to rebaudioside A (Richman et al., 2005), so mutation identification was done by sequencing the candidate gene, UGT76G1. In this study molecular analysis of two strains revealed a heterozygotic nonsense mutation of c.389T > G (p.L121X) in UGT76G1. Meanwhile, we found some amino acid substitutions significant change the protein structure. And the difference of enzyme activity between two strains proved the lack of functionality of UGT76G1 of the mutation "Z05". So the nonsense mutation and amino acid substitution mutation resulted in the low levels of rebaudioside A. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Low x Double ln2(1/x) Resummation Effects at the Sum Rules for Nucleon Structure Function g1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziaja, B.

    2001-01-01

    We have estimated the contributions to the moments of polarized nucleon structure function g 1 (x,Q 2 ) coming from the region of the very low x (10 -5 2 (1/x) resummation. The Q 2 evolution of g 1 was described by the unified evolution equations incorporating both the leading order Altarelli-Parisi evolution at large and moderate x, and the double ln 2 (1/x) resummation at small x. The moments were obtained by integrating out the extrapolated nucleon structure function in the region 10 -5 < x<1. (author)

  14. Evaluation of Palm PCRTM G1-12 System: a portable battery-operated PCR thermal cycler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aminah Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the basis of recombinant and other molecular biological techniques. Availability of cheap and robust PCR platforms enables the tests to be performed easily, even in resource constrained settings. Herein we compared the efficacy of a portable thermal cycler ( Palm PCRTM G1-12 System for rapid DNA amplification against the standard Peltier-based thermal cycler using plasmid DNA and genomic DNA in single and multiplex PCR experiments. Our study revealed that the Palm PCRTM G1-12 System could be a portable DNA amplification system to conduct various molecular techniques, especially in places where resources are limited.

  15. Detection of IgG1 and IgG4 subtypes reactive against potato apyrase in schistosomiasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Faria-Pinto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we showed for the first time that the conserved domains within Schistosoma mansoni ATP diphosphohydrolase isoforms, shared with potato apyrase, possess epitopes for the IgG1 and IgG4 subtypes, as 24 (80% of the 30 schistosomiasis patients were seropositive for this vegetable protein. The analyses for each patient cured (n = 14 after treatment (AT with praziquantel revealed variable IgG1 and IgG4 reactivity against potato apyrase. Different antigenic epitopes shared between the vegetable and parasite proteins could be involved in susceptibility or resistance to S. mansoni AT with praziquantel and these possibilities should be explored.

  16. Drying-induced physico-chemical changes in cranberry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Honke, Joanna; Ciska, Ewa; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2018-02-01

    Sugar-free cranberry juice (XAD) and juice with 15% of maltodextrin were dried by freeze-, vacuum and spray drying methods. Total phenolics (589-6435mg/kg dry matter) including 5 flavonols, 3 phenolic acids, 2 procyanidins and 5 anthocyanins were stronger affected by juice formulation than by drying methods. Spray drying of juice, regardless of its formulation, was competitive to freeze drying in terms of polyphenols' retention. Increase in temperature up to 100°C during vacuum drying of XAD extracts resulted in degradation of polyphenolics (down to 4%), except chlorogenic acid. Its content increased with rise in temperature and accelerated hydroxymethylfurfural formation. The stronger the impact of drying, the more chlorogenic acid is present in cranberry products. In all powders analysed, formation of furoylmethyl amino acids was noted. Antioxidant capacity of cranberry products was influenced by juice formulation and was linked to content of polyphenols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dry and Semi-Dry Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of dynamics in our real moist atmosphere is strongly informed by idealized dry models. It is widely believed that tropical cyclones (TCs) are an intrinsically moist phenomenon - relying fundamentally on evaporation and latent heat release - yet recent numerical modeling work has found formation of dry axisymmetric tropical cyclones from a state of dry radiative-convective equilibrium. What can such "dry hurricanes" teach us about intensity, structure, and size of real moist tropical cyclones in nature? Are dry TCs even stable in 3D? What about surfaces that are nearly dry but have some latent heat flux - can they also support TCs? To address these questions, we use the SAM cloud-system resolving model to simulate radiative-convective equilibrium on a rapidly rotating f-plane, subject to constant tropospheric radiative cooling. We use a homogeneous surface with fixed temperature and with surface saturation vapor pressure scaled by a factor 0-1 relative to that over pure water - allowing for continuous variation between moist and dry limits. We also explore cases with surface enthalpy fluxes that are uniform in space and time, where partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes is specified directly. We find that a completely moist surface yields a TC-world where multiple vortices form spontaneously and persist for tens of days. A completely dry surface can also yield a parallel dry TC-world with many vortices that are even more stable and persistent. Spontaneous cyclogenesis, however, is impeded for a range of low to intermediate surface wetness values, and by the combination of large rotation rates and a dry surface. We discuss whether these constraints on spontaneous cyclogenesis might arise from: 1) rain evaporation in the subcloud layer limiting the range of viable surface wetness values, and 2) a natural convective Rossby number limiting the range of viable rotation rates. Finally, we discuss simulations with uniform surface enthalpy

  18. Aflatoxin status of some commercial dry dog foods in Ibadan, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in commercial dry dog foods in the city of Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria, was investigated. Dry dog food samples from 6 producers were purchased on five different occasions from retail outlets in Ibadan, Nigeria. High performance liquid chromatography was used for separation ...

  19. Dry vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuet, R

    2008-01-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R and D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed

  20. The TCP4 transcription factor of Arabidopsis blocks cell division in yeast at G1 → S transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Pooja; Padmanabhan, Bhavna; Bhat, Abhay; Sarvepalli, Kavitha; Sadhale, Parag P.; Nath, Utpal

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → TCP4 is a class II TCP transcription factor, that represses cell division in Arabidopsis. → TCP4 expression in yeast retards cell division by blocking G1 → S transition. → Genome-wide expression studies and Western analysis reveals stabilization of cell cycle inhibitor Sic1, as possible mechanism. -- Abstract: The TCP transcription factors control important aspects of plant development. Members of class I TCP proteins promote cell cycle by regulating genes directly involved in cell proliferation. In contrast, members of class II TCP proteins repress cell division. While it has been postulated that class II proteins induce differentiation signal, their exact role on cell cycle has not been studied. Here, we report that TCP4, a class II TCP protein from Arabidopsis that repress cell proliferation in developing leaves, inhibits cell division by blocking G1 → S transition in budding yeast. Cells expressing TCP4 protein with increased transcriptional activity fail to progress beyond G1 phase. By analyzing global transcriptional status of these cells, we show that expression of a number of cell cycle genes is altered. The possible mechanism of G1 → S arrest is discussed.

  1. The spin-dependent structure function $g_{1}(x)$ of the deuteron from polarized deep-inelastic muon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D; Adeva, B; Akdogan, T; Arik, E; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Ballintijn, M K; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Bird, I G; Birsa, R; Björkholm, P; Bonner, B E; De Botton, N R; Boutemeur, M; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Cavata, C; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Dyring, A; Eichblatt, S; Faivre, Jean-Claude; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gaussiran, T; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Gómez, F; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Kalinovskaya, L V; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kishi, A; Kiselev, Yu F; Klostermann, L; Krämer, Dietrich; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kukhtin, V V; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindqvist, T; Litmaath, M; Loewe, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nagaitsev, A P; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Parks, D P; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegaia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Polec, J; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Pussieux, T; Pyrlik, J; Rädel, G; Rijllart, A; Roberts, J B; Rock, S E; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Rosado, A; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schüler, K P; Seitz, R; Semertzidis, Y K; Sever, F; Shanahan, P; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Steigler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Teichert, K M; Tessarotto, F; Tlaczala, W; Trentalange, S; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Weinstein, R; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Willumeit, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Yañez, A; Ylöstalo, J; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zhao, J

    1997-01-01

    We present a new measurement of the spin-dependent structure function $g_{1}^{\\rm d}$ of the deuteron from deep inelastic scattering of 190 GeV polarized muons on polarized deuterons. The results are combined with our previous measurements of $g_{1}^{\\rm d}$. A perturbative QCD evolution in next-to-leading order is used to compute $g_{1}^{\\rm d}(x)$ at a constant $Q^{2}$. At $Q^{2} = 10$ GeV$^{2}$, we obtain a first moment $\\Gamma_{1}^{\\rm d} = \\int_{0}^{1} g_{1}^{\\rm d}{\\rm d}x = 0.041 \\pm 0.008$, a flavour-singlet axial charge of the nucleon $a_{0} = 0.30 \\pm 0.08$, and an axial charge of the strange quark $a_{s} = -0.09 \\pm 0.03$. Using our earlier determination of $\\Gamma_{1}^{\\rm p}$, we obtain $\\Gamma_1^{\\rm p} - \\Gamma_1^{\\rm n} = 0.183 \\pm 0.035$ at $Q^2 = 10\\,\\mbox{GeV}^2$. This result is in agreement with the Bjorken sum rule which predicts $\\Gamma_1^{\\rm p} - \\Gamma_1^{\\rm n} = 0.186 \\pm 0.002$ at the same $Q^2$.

  2. Overexpression of DOC-1R inhibits cell cycle G1/S transition by repressing CDK2 expression and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Liu, Xing; Gao, Jinlan; Shi, Xiuyan; Hu, Xihua; Wang, Shusen; Luo, Yang

    2013-01-01

    DOC-1R (deleted in oral cancer-1 related) is a novel putative tumor suppressor. This study investigated DOC-1R antitumor activity and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Cell phenotypes were assessed using flow cytometry, BrdU incorporation and CDK2 kinase assays in DOC-1R overexpressing HeLa cells. In addition, RT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to detect underlying molecular changes in these cells. The interaction between DOC-1R and CDK2 proteins was assayed by GST pull-down and immunoprecipitation-Western blot assays. The data showed that DOC-1R overexpression inhibited G1/S phase transition, DNA replication and suppressed CDK2 activity. Molecularly, DOC-1R inhibited CDK2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels, and there were decreased levels of G1-phase cyclins (cyclin D1 and E) and elevated levels of p21, p27, and p53 proteins. Meanwhile, DOC-1R associated with CDK2 and inhibited CDK2 activation by obstructing its association with cyclin E and A. In conclusion, the antitumor effects of DOC-1R may be mediated by negatively regulating G1 phase progression and G1/S transition through inhibiting CDK2 expression and activation.

  3. G0/G1 switch gene-2 regulates human adipocyte lipolysis by affecting activity and localization of adipose triglyceride lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweiger, M.; Paar, M.; Eder, C.; Brandis, J.; Moser, E.; Gorkiewisz, G.; Grond, S.; Radner, F.P.W.; Cerk, I.; Cornaciu, I.; Oberer, M.; Kersten, A.H.; Zechner, R.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Lass, A.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrolysis of triglycerides in adipocytes, termed lipolysis, provides free fatty acids as energy fuel. Murine lipolysis largely depends on the activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)5, which is regulated by two proteins annotated as comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) and G0/G1

  4. A heavy-traffic theorem for the GI/G/1 queue with a Pareto-type service time distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Cohen

    1997-01-01

    textabstractFor the $GI/G/1$-queueing model with traffic load $a<1$, service time distribution $B(t)$ and interarrival time distribution $A(t)$ holds, whenever for $t rightarrow infty$: $$ quad 1-B(t) sim frac{c{(t/ beta)^nu + {rm O ( {rm e^{-delta t ), quad c>0, quad 1< nu < 2, quad delta >

  5. Diagonal K-matrices and transfer matrix eigenspectra associated with the G(1)2 R-matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, C.M.; Batchelor, M.T.

    1995-01-01

    We find all the diagonal K-matrices for the R-matrix associated with the minimal representation of the exceptional affine algebra G (1) 2 . The corresponding transfer matrices are diagonalized with a variation of the analytic Bethe ansatz. We find many similarities with the case of the Izergin-Korepin R-matrix associated with the affine algebra A (2) 2 . ((orig.))

  6. The effects of Echinacea purpurea dried extract on humoral immune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    edoja

    however, some of the poultry farms are being encountered with this disease because the available vaccines ... For six weeks, various doses of dry extract (17, 21, 25, 29 mg/kg) ... producing institute, were used as eye drop and subcutaneous.

  7. Piperine causes G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in melanoma cells through checkpoint kinase-1 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neel M Fofaria

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the cytotoxic effects of piperine, a major constituent of black and long pepper in melanoma cells. Piperine treatment inhibited the growth of SK MEL 28 and B16 F0 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. The growth inhibitory effects of piperine were mediated by cell cycle arrest of both the cell lines in G1 phase. The G1 arrest by piperine correlated with the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and induction of p21. Furthermore, this growth arrest by piperine treatment was associated with DNA damage as indicated by phosphorylation of H2AX at Ser139, activation of ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related protein (ATR and checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1. Pretreatment with AZD 7762, a Chk1 inhibitor not only abrogated the activation of Chk1 but also piperine mediated G1 arrest. Similarly, transfection of cells with Chk1 siRNA completely protected the cells from G1 arrest induced by piperine. Piperine treatment caused down-regulation of E2F1 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb. Apoptosis induced by piperine was associated with down-regulation of XIAP, Bid (full length and cleavage of Caspase-3 and PARP. Furthermore, our results showed that piperine treatment generated ROS in melanoma cells. Blocking ROS by tiron protected the cells from piperine mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These results suggest that piperine mediated ROS played a critical role in inducing DNA damage and activation of Chk1 leading to G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  8. Apparatus of irradiation of steel test pieces in the Marcoule pile G 1; Dispositifs d'irradiation d'eprouvettes d'acier dans la pile G 1 de Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinot, R.; Wallet, Ph. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Test pieces of steel were irradiated in the reactor G1 at Marcoule, in convectors replacing fuel elements, and in vertical channels in furnace-heated containers. The apparatus designed for this irradiation is described: containers, converter-rods, suspension fixtures and clamps, temperature measurement devices, lead castles and unloading set-ups. (author) [French] Des eprouvettes d'acier ont ete irradiees dans le reacteur G1 de Marcoule dans des convertisseurs mis a la place d'elements combustibles, et dans des canaux verticaux, en conteneurs chauffes par four. Nous decrivons l'appareillage etudie pour cette irradiation: conteneurs, barreaux-convertisseurs, dispositifs de suspension et d'amarrage, dispositifs de regulation et de mesure de temperature, chateaux de plomb et montages de defournement. (auteur)

  9. Apparatus of irradiation of steel test pieces in the Marcoule pile G 1; Dispositifs d'irradiation d'eprouvettes d'acier dans la pile G 1 de Marcoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinot, R; Wallet, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Test pieces of steel were irradiated in the reactor G1 at Marcoule, in convectors replacing fuel elements, and in vertical channels in furnace-heated containers. The apparatus designed for this irradiation is described: containers, converter-rods, suspension fixtures and clamps, temperature measurement devices, lead castles and unloading set-ups. (author) [French] Des eprouvettes d'acier ont ete irradiees dans le reacteur G1 de Marcoule dans des convertisseurs mis a la place d'elements combustibles, et dans des canaux verticaux, en conteneurs chauffes par four. Nous decrivons l'appareillage etudie pour cette irradiation: conteneurs, barreaux-convertisseurs, dispositifs de suspension et d'amarrage, dispositifs de regulation et de mesure de temperature, chateaux de plomb et montages de defournement. (auteur)

  10. Antibacterial effect of citrus press-cakes dried by high speed and far-infrared radiation drying methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarakoon, Kalpa; Senevirathne, Mahinda; Lee, Won-Woo; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Jae-Il; Oh, Myung-Cheol

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the antibacterial effect was evaluated to determine the benefits of high speed drying (HSD) and far-infrared radiation drying (FIR) compared to the freeze drying (FD) method. Citrus press-cakes (CPCs) are released as a by-product in the citrus processing industry. Previous studies have shown that the HSD and FIR drying methods are much more economical for drying time and mass drying than those of FD, even though FD is the most qualified drying method. The disk diffusion assay was conducted, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined with methanol extracts of the dried CPCs against 11 fish and five food-related pathogenic bacteria. The disk diffusion results indicated that the CPCs dried by HSD, FIR, and FD prevented growth of all tested bacteria almost identically. The MIC and MBC results showed a range from 0.5-8.0 mg/mL and 1.0-16.0 mg/mL respectively. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the extracts changed the morphology of the bacteria cell wall, leading to destruction. These results suggest that CPCs dried by HSD and FIR showed strong antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and are more useful drying methods than that of the classic FD method in CPCs utilization. PMID:22808341

  11. Single droplet drying step characterization in microsphere preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zaitone, Belal; Lamprecht, Alf

    2013-05-01

    Spray drying processes are difficult to characterize since process parameters are not directly accessible. Acoustic levitation was used to investigate microencapsulation by spray drying on one single droplet facilitating the analyses of droplet behavior upon drying. Process parameters were simulated on a poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/ethyl acetate combination for microencapsulation. The results allowed quantifying the influence of process parameters such as temperature (0-40°C), polymer concentration (5-400 mg/ml), and droplet size (0.5-1.37 μl) on the drying time and drying kinetics as well as the particle morphology. The drying of polymer solutions at temperature of 21°C and concentration of 5 mg/ml, shows that the dimensionless particle diameter (Dp/D0) approaches 0.25 and the particle needs 350 s to dry. At 400 mg/ml, Dp/D0=0.8 and the drying time increases to one order of magnitude and a hollow particle is formed. The study demonstrates the benefit of using the acoustic levitator as a lab scale method to characterize and study the microparticle formation. This method can be considered as a helpful tool to mimic the full scale spray drying process by providing identical operational parameters such as air velocity, temperature, and variable droplet sizes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  13. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  14. Fungal Presence in Selected Tree Nuts and Dried Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Tournas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four tree nut samples (almonds, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts and 50 dried fruit samples (apricots, cranberries, papaya, pineapple, and raisins were purchased from local supermarkets and analyzed for fungal contamination using conventional culture as well as molecular methods. The results of our study showed that the highest yeast and mold (YM counts (5.34 log 10 CFU g -1 were found in walnuts and the lowest in pecans. The most common mold in nuts was Aspergillus niger , relatively low numbers of A. flavus were found across the board, while Penicillium spp. were very common in pine nuts and walnuts. Low levels (2.00–2.84 log 10 CFU g -1 of yeasts were recovered from only two pine nut samples. Fungal contamination in dried fruits was minimal (ranging from <2.00 to 3.86 log 10 CFU g -1 . The highest fungal levels were present in raisins. All papaya samples and the majority of cranberry, pineapple, and apricot samples were free of live fungi. The most common mold in dried fruits was A. niger followed by Penicillium spp. One apricot sample also contained low levels (2.00 log 10 CFU g -1 of yeasts.

  15. Formation of Mg2C3 phase in N220 nanocarbon containing low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-08-18

    Aug 18, 2017 ... Chinese supplier, Magus Marketing, India) with size fractions. 3.0–1.0 mm ... Total mixing time was 45 min, ... by taking the oxygen from the MgO and leaving the Mg (g) .... [1] Mohoamed E and Ewais M 2004 J. Ceram. Soc.

  16. Adsorption of heavy metals from aqueous solutions by Mg-Al-Zn mingled oxides adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Mona; Eshaq, Gh; ElMetwally, A E

    2016-10-01

    In our study, Mg-Al-Zn mingled oxides were prepared by the co-precipitation method. The structure, composition, morphology and thermal stability of the synthesized Mg-Al-Zn mingled oxides were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, N 2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Batch experiments were performed to study the adsorption behavior of cobalt(II) and nickel(II) as a function of pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and adsorbent dose. The maximum adsorption capacity of Mg-Al-Zn mingled oxides for cobalt and nickel metal ions was 116.7 mg g -1 , and 70.4 mg g -1 , respectively. The experimental data were analyzed using pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models in linear and nonlinear regression analysis. The kinetic studies showed that the adsorption process could be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Experimental equilibrium data were well represented by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Also, the maximum monolayer capacity, q max , obtained was 113.8 mg g -1 , and 79.4 mg g -1 for Co(II), and Ni(II), respectively. Our results showed that Mg-Al-Zn mingled oxides can be used as an efficient adsorbent material for removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater samples.

  17. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  18. Inflammation in dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael E; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-04-01

    Dry eye is a condition of altered tear composition that results from a diseased or dysfunctional lacrimal functional unit. Evidence suggests that inflammation causes structural alterations and/or functional paralysis of the tear-secreting glands. Changes in tear composition resulting from lacrimal dysfunction, increased evaporation and/or poor clearance have pro-inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. This inflammation is responsible in part for the irritation symptoms, ocular surface epithelial disease, and altered corneal epithelial barrier function in dry eye. Anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye target one or more of the inflammatory mediators/pathways that have been identified in dry eye.

  19. Drying hardwood lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, A T

    1988-11-14

    Dried lumber is a high-value-added product, especially when it is of high quality. Lumber damaged during the drying operation can represent substantial lost revenue. It has been demonstrated that dehumidification kilns can improve lumber quality, and reduce energy consumption over conventional drying methods. A summary of the literature on drying hardwood lumber, particularly using heat pump dehumidification, has been prepared to allow the information to be readily accessible to Ontario Hydro personnel who work with customers in the lumber industry. For that purpose, this summary has been prepared from the perspective of the customer, a dry kiln operator. Included are brief descriptions of drying schedules, precautions needed to minimize drying defects in the lumber, and rules-of-thumb for selecting and estimating the capital cost of the drying equipment. A selection of drying schedules and moisture contents of green lumber, a glossary of lumber defects and brief descriptions of the possible preventive measures are also included. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. G1/S-regulated E2F-containing protein complexes bind to the mouse thymidine kinase gene promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Q P; Zhao, S; Levin, A H

    1994-01-01

    report that MT2 includes an E2F-like binding site (GTTCGCGGGCAAA), as shown by the following evidence. (i) MT2 bound specifically to an affinity-purified fusion human E2F protein. (ii) Both MT2 and an authentic E2F site (TTTCGCGCGCTTT) bound specifically to similar or identical nuclear protein complexes...... complexes were also investigated. Studies using specific antibodies revealed that p107, a retinoblastoma-like protein, was present in both E2F-G0/G1 and E2F.S, whereas cyclin E.cyclin A.cdk2 were only present in E2F.S complex(es). These data suggest that removal of the p107-containing E2F.G0/G1 complex...

  1. Evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Apontic controls the G1/S progression by inducing cyclin e during eye development

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Qingxin; Wang, Xianfeng; Ikeo, Kazuho; Hirose, Susumu; Gehring, Walter Jakob; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    During Drosophila eye development, differentiation initiates in the posterior region of the eye disk and progresses anteriorly as a wave marked by the morphogenetic furrow (MF), which demarcates the boundary between anterior undifferentiated cells and posterior differentiated photoreceptors. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of gene expression immediately before the onset of differentiation remains unclear. Here, we show that Apontic (Apt), which is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, is expressed in the differentiating cells posterior to the MF. Moreover, it directly induces the expression of cyclin E and is also required for the G1-to-S phase transition, which is known to be essential for the initiation of cell differentiation at the MF. These observations identify a pathway crucial for eye development, governed by a mechanism in which Cyclin E promotes the G1-to-S phase transition when regulated by Apt.

  2. Mainstream cigarette smoke exposure alters cytochrome P4502G1 expression in F344 rat olfactory mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkiss, J.A.; Nikula, K.J.; Lewis, J.L.; Finch, G.L.; Belinsky, S.A.; Dahl, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Inhalation of mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) by rats results in multifocal rhinitis, mucous hypersecretion, nasal epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia, and focal olfactory mucosal atrophy. In humans, cigarette smoking causes long-term, dose-related alterations in olfactory function in both current and former smokers. An olfactory-specific cytochrome P450 has been identified in rabbits and rats. The presence of olfactory-specific P450s, as well as relatively high levels of other biotransformation enzymes, such as NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase, in the olfactory neuroepithelium suggest that these enzyme systems may play a role in olfaction. This hypothesis is strengthened by the observation that, in rats, the temporal gene activation of P4502G1 coincides with the postnatal increase in the sensitivity of olfactory response to odorants. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of MCS exposure on P4502G1 protein expression

  3. A novel peptide sansalvamide analogue inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth through G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujiki, Michael B.; Milam, Ben; Ding Xianzhong; Roginsky, Alexandra B.; Salabat, M. Reza; Talamonti, Mark S.; Bell, Richard H.; Gu Wenxin; Silverman, Richard B.; Adrian, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    Patients with pancreatic cancer have little hope for cure because no effective therapies are available. Sansalvamide A is a cyclic depsipeptide produced by a marine fungus. We investigated the effect of a novel sansalvamide A analogue on growth, cell-cycle phases, and induction of apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. The sansalvamide analogue caused marked time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation of two human pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1 and S2-013). The analogue induced G0/G1 phase cell-cycle arrest and morphological changes suggesting induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by annexin V binding. This novel sansalvamide analogue inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells through G0/G1 arrest and induces apoptosis. Sansalvamide analogues may be valuable for the treatment of pancreatic cancer

  4. Molecular characterization of cystic echinococcosis: First record of G7 in Egypt and G1 in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam-Eldin, Yosra H; Abdel Aaty, Heba E; Ahmed, Mona A

    2015-12-01

    Few molecular studies have identified the current status of cystic echinococcosis in Egypt. The present study aimed to ascertain the genotype(s) of Echinococcus granulosus responsible for human hydatidosis in different Egyptian governorates (regions). Animal isolates were collected from 40 camels, 5 pigs and 44 sheep. 27 human isolates were included in the present study. Specific PCR was performed and followed by DNA sequencing for mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene and BLAST analysis.The sheep cysts were not hydatid cysts. G6 genotype (camel starin) predominates in human, camel and pig isolates. G7 genotype (pig strain) was detected in two human isolates and one pig isolate. G1 genotype (sheep strain) was detected in one human isolate from Yemen and in no animal isolates. This is the first record of G7 in Egypt and G1 in Yemen.

  5. Evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Apontic controls the G1/S progression by inducing cyclin e during eye development

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Qingxin

    2014-06-16

    During Drosophila eye development, differentiation initiates in the posterior region of the eye disk and progresses anteriorly as a wave marked by the morphogenetic furrow (MF), which demarcates the boundary between anterior undifferentiated cells and posterior differentiated photoreceptors. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of gene expression immediately before the onset of differentiation remains unclear. Here, we show that Apontic (Apt), which is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, is expressed in the differentiating cells posterior to the MF. Moreover, it directly induces the expression of cyclin E and is also required for the G1-to-S phase transition, which is known to be essential for the initiation of cell differentiation at the MF. These observations identify a pathway crucial for eye development, governed by a mechanism in which Cyclin E promotes the G1-to-S phase transition when regulated by Apt.

  6. TopBP1 is required at mitosis to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Kruse, Thomas; Nilsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    mitotic entry. In early mitosis, TopBP1 marks sites of and promotes unscheduled DNA synthesis. Moreover, TopBP1 is required for focus formation of the structure-selective nuclease and scaffold protein SLX4 in mitosis. Persistent TopBP1 foci transition into 53BP1 nuclear bodies (NBs) in G1 and precise...... temporal depletion of TopBP1 just before mitotic entry induced formation of 53BP1 NBs in the next cell cycle, showing that TopBP1 acts to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells. Based on these results, we propose that TopBP1 maintains genome integrity in mitosis by controlling chromatin...

  7. Crystal Structures of Glycosyltransferase UGT78G1 Reveal the Molecular Basis for Glycosylation and Deglycosylation of (Iso)flavonoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modolo, Luzia V.; Li, Lenong; Pan, Haiyun; Blount, Jack W.; Dixon, Richard A.; Wang, Xiaoqiang; (SRNF)

    2010-09-21

    The glycosyltransferase UGT78G1 from Medicago truncatula catalyzes the glycosylation of various (iso)flavonoids such as the flavonols kaempferol and myricetin, the isoflavone formononetin, and the anthocyanidins pelargonidin and cyanidin. It also catalyzes a reverse reaction to remove the sugar moiety from glycosides. The structures of UGT78G1 bound with uridine diphosphate or with both uridine diphosphate and myricetin were determined at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution, revealing detailed interactions between the enzyme and substrates/products and suggesting a distinct binding mode for the acceptor/product. Comparative structural analysis and mutagenesis identify glutamate 192 as a key amino acid for the reverse reaction. This information provides a basis for enzyme engineering to manipulate substrate specificity and to design effective biocatalysts with glycosylation and/or deglycosylation activity.

  8. Long-Term Effects of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene on Microbial Communities in Dry Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yuan; Priester, John H; Mortimer, Monika; Chang, Chong Hyun; Ji, Zhaoxia; Schimel, Joshua P; Holden, Patricia A

    2016-04-05

    Little is known about the long-term effects of engineered carbonaceous nanomaterials (ECNMs) on soil microbial communities, especially when compared to possible effects of natural or industrial carbonaceous materials. To address these issues, we exposed dry grassland soil for 1 year to 1 mg g(-1) of either natural nanostructured material (biochar), industrial carbon black, three types of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), or graphene. Soil microbial biomass was assessed by substrate induced respiration and by extractable DNA. Bacterial and fungal communities were examined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Microbial activity was assessed by soil basal respiration. At day 0, there was no treatment effect on soil DNA or T-RFLP profiles, indicating negligible interference between the amended materials and the methods for DNA extraction, quantification, and community analysis. After a 1-year exposure, compared to the no amendment control, some treatments reduced soil DNA (e.g., biochar, all three MWCNT types, and graphene; P graphene); however, there were no significant differences across the amended treatments. These findings suggest that ECNMs may moderately affect dry soil microbial communities but that the effects are similar to those from natural and industrial carbonaceous materials, even after 1-year exposure.

  9. An inhibitor of polyamine synthesis arrests cells at an earlier stage of G1 than does calcium deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheetham, B F

    1983-01-01

    Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) completely inhibits the induction of thymidine kinase after serum stimulation of quiescent fibroblasts only if added within 3 h after serum, whereas calcium deprivation blocks this induction up to 12 h after serum stimulation. Experiments in which one of these blocks was imposed as the other was released confirmed that cells blocked by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) are arrested at an earlier stage in G1 than cells blocked by calcium deprivation.

  10. An inhibitor of polyamine synthesis arrests cells at an earlier stage of G1 than does calcium deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, B F

    1983-01-01

    Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) completely inhibits the induction of thymidine kinase after serum stimulation of quiescent fibroblasts only if added within 3 h after serum, whereas calcium deprivation blocks this induction up to 12 h after serum stimulation. Experiments in which one of these blocks was imposed as the other was released confirmed that cells blocked by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) are arrested at an earlier stage in G1 than cells blocked by calcium deprivation. PMID:6843551

  11. Role of polyamines at the G1/S boundary and G2/M phase of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tomoko; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Saiki, Ryotaro; Okudaira, Hiroyuki; Tome, Mayuko; Higashi, Kyohei; Nakamura, Mizuho; Terui, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Kunio; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2013-06-01

    The role of polyamines at the G1/S boundary and in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle was studied using synchronized HeLa cells treated with thymidine or with thymidine and aphidicolin. Synchronized cells were cultured in the absence or presence of α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, plus ethylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (EGBG), an inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. When polyamine content was reduced by treatment with DFMO and EGBG, the transition from G1 to S phase was delayed. In parallel, the level of p27(Kip1) was greatly increased, so its mechanism was studied in detail. Synthesis of p27(Kip1) was stimulated at the level of translation by a decrease in polyamine levels, because of the existence of long 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) in p27(Kip1) mRNA. Similarly, the transition from the G2/M to the G1 phase was delayed by a reduction in polyamine levels. In parallel, the number of multinucleate cells increased by 3-fold. This was parallel with the inhibition of cytokinesis due to an unusual distribution of actin and α-tubulin at the M phase. Since an association of polyamines with chromosomes was not observed by immunofluorescence microscopy at the M phase, polyamines may have only a minor role in structural changes of chromosomes at the M phase. In general, the involvement of polyamines at the G2/M phase was smaller than that at the G1/S boundary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) loads in cattle from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbinotti, Helier; Santos, Guilherme B; Badaraco, Jeferson; Arend, Ana C; Graichen, Daniel Ângelo S; Haag, Karen L; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2012-09-10

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) are haplotypes of the parasite formerly known as Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, which in its larval stage causes cystic hydatid disease, endemic in Southern Brazil. Epidemiological and molecular knowledge about the haplotypes occurring in a region is essential to control the spread of the disease. The aim of this work was to analyze the haplotype frequency and fertility of hydatid cysts in cattle from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Cysts were collected and classified according to their fertility status. DNA was extracted from protoscoleces and germinal layers and then used as template for the amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene by PCR. Amplicons were purified and sequenced, and the sequences were analyzed for haplotype identification. A total of 638 fertile cysts collected in the last ten years were genotyped. On average, G1 (56.6%) was more frequent than G5 (43.4%). In lungs, the G5 haplotype exhibited a higher parasite load (52.8%), whereas in the liver, G1 was more frequent (90.4%). The analysis revealed an increase in the frequency of G5 haplotype cysts during the period of sampling, and an increase in the abundance of fertile cysts has also been observed in the last several years. Most infertile cysts were genotyped as G1. The possible factors involved in the increase in the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) and the consequences of this increase are discussed. This study suggests that the proportion of E. ortleppi (G5) loads in cattle may be increasing overtime. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The hard X-ray view of the young supernova remnant G1.9+0.3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoglauer, Andreas; Reynolds, Stephen P.; An, Hongjun

    2015-01-01

    NuSTAR observed G1.9+0.3, the youngest known supernova remnant in the Milky Way, for 350 ks and detected emission up to ~30 keV. The remnant's X-ray morphology does not change significantly across the energy range from 3 to 20 keV. A combined fit between NuSTAR and Chandra shows that the spectrum...

  14. Isolation and characterization of a monoclonal anti CK-2 alpha subunit antibody of the IgG1 subclass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Spaniol, I; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1992-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was produced against the recombinant human alpha subunit of CK-2. The antibody was of the IgG1 subclass and it was isolated from serum-free cell culture media and purified by affinity chromatography on Protein G Sepharose. The antibody can be used to detect specifically the CK......-2 alpha subunit in immunoblots from tissue extracts. An ELISA detection test was also established which also allows the identification of the CK-2 alpha subunit....

  15. Detailed petrographic descriptions and microprobe data for tertiary silicic volcanic rocks in drill hole USW G-1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, F.A.; Warren, R.G.; Broxton, D.E.

    1985-12-01

    This report contains detailed petrographic descriptions of 74 thin sections from drill hole USW G-1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These descriptions are keyed to the distinctions between devitrified, vitrophyre, vitric, and zeolitized intervals below the Topopah Spring Member repository horizon. The petrographic features of the zeolitized intervals down through the Crater Flat tuff, as well as the sorption properties determined from these intervals, suggest that these zeolite occurrences may each have comparable sorptive capability.

  16. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus through p53-dependent pathway causes cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pei; Wu, Haoyang; Huang, Jiali; Xu, Ying; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Qi; Xu, Xingang

    2018-05-22

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteropathogenic Alphacoronavirus, has caused enormous economic losses in the swine industry. p53 protein exists in a wide variety of animal cells, which is involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell differentiation and other biological functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of PEDV infection on the cell cycle of Vero cells and p53 activation. The results demonstrated that PEDV infection induces cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in Vero cells, while UV-inactivated PEDV does not cause cell cycle arrest. PEDV infection up-regulates the levels of p21, cdc2, cdk2, cdk4, Cyclin A protein and down-regulates Cyclin E protein. Further research results showed that inhibition of p53 signaling pathway can reverse the cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase induced by PEDV infection and cancel out the up-regulation of p21 and corresponding Cyclin/cdk mentioned above. In addition, PEDV infection of the cells synchronized in various stages of cell cycle showed that viral subgenomic RNA and virus titer were higher in the cells released from G0/G1 phase synchronized cells than that in the cells released from the G1/S phase and G2/M phase synchronized or asynchronous cells after 18 h p.i.. This is the first report to demonstrate that the p53-dependent pathway plays an important role in PEDV induced cell cycle arrest and beneficially contributes to viral infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. MKP1 phosphatase mediates G1-specific dephosphorylation of H3Serine10P in response to DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ajit K.; Khan, Shafqat A.; Sharda, Asmita; Reddy, Divya V; Gupta, Sanjay, E-mail: sgupta@actrec.gov.in

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Reversible reduction of H3S10 phosphorylation after DNA damage is G1 phase specific. • Dynamic balance between MAP kinases, MKP1 and MSK1 regulate H3S10P during DDR. • MKP1 associates with chromatin bearing γH2AX in response to DNA damage. • Inhibition of MKP1 activity with specific inhibitor promotes radiation-induced cell death. - Abstract: Histone mark, H3S10 phosphorylation plays a dual role in a cell by maintaining relaxed chromatin for active transcription in interphase and condensed chromatin state in mitosis. The level of H3S10P has also been shown to alter on DNA damage; however, its cell cycle specific behavior and regulation during DNA damage response is largely unexplored. In the present study, we demonstrate G1 cell cycle phase specific reversible loss of H3S10P in response to IR-induced DNA damage is mediated by opposing activities of phosphatase, MKP1 and kinase, MSK1 of the MAP kinase pathway. We also show that the MKP1 recruits to the chromatin in response to DNA damage and correlates with the decrease of H3S10P, whereas MKP1 is released from chromatin during recovery phase of DDR. Furthermore, blocking of H3S10 dephosphorylation by MKP1 inhibition impairs DNA repair process and results in poor survival of WRL68 cells. Collectively, our data proposes a pathway regulating G1 cell cycle phase specific reversible reduction of H3S10P on IR induced DNA damage and also raises the possibility of combinatorial modulation of H3S10P with specific inhibitors to target the cancer cells in G1-phase of cell cycle.

  18. Expression of CAR in SW480 and HepG2 cells during G1 is associated with cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osabe, Makoto; Sugatani, Junko; Takemura, Akiko; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Ikari, Akira; Kitamura, Naomi; Negishi, Masahiko; Miwa, Masao

    2008-01-01

    Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a transcription factor to regulate the expression of several genes related to drug-metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that CAR protein accumulates during G1 in human SW480 and HepG2 cells. After the G1/S phase transition, CAR protein levels decreased, and CAR was hardly detected in cells by the late M phase. CAR expression in both cell lines was suppressed by RNA interference-mediated suppression of CDK4. Depletion of CAR by RNA interference in both cells and by hepatocyte growth factor treatment in HepG2 cells resulted in decreased MDM2 expression that led to p21 upregulation and repression of HepG2 cell growth. Thus, our results demonstrate that CAR expression is an early G1 event regulated by CDK4 that contributes to MDM2 expression; these findings suggest that CAR may influence the expression of genes involved in not only the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous substances but also in the cell proliferation

  19. The Spin-dependent Structure Function of the Proton $g_{1}^p$ and a Test of the Bjorken Sum Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, M.G.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.P.; Chaberny, D.; Cotic, D.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Efremov, A.; El Alaoui, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Friedrich, J.M.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hermann, R.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hoppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ilgner, C.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jasinski, P.; Jegou, G.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kafer, W.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konopka, R.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kowalik, K.; Kramer, M.; Kral, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Le Goff, J.M.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Maximov, A.N.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nassalski, J.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Pretz, J.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmitt, L.; Schluter, T.; Schopferer, S.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Siebert, H.W.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takekawa, S.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Vossen, A.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhao, J.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2010-01-01

    The inclusive double-spin asymmetry, $A_{1}^{p}$, has been measured at COMPASS in deepinelastic polarised muon scattering off a large polarised NH3 target. The data, collected in the year 2007, cover the range Q2 > 1 (GeV/c)^2, 0.004 < x < 0.7 and improve the statistical precision of g_{1}^{p}(x) by a factor of two in the region x < 0.02. The new proton asymmetries are combined with those previously published for the deuteron to extract the non-singlet spin-dependent structure function g_1^NS(x,Q2). The isovector quark density, Delta_q_3(x,Q2), is evaluated from a NLO QCD fit of g_1^NS. The first moment of Delta_q3 is in good agreement with the value predicted by the Bjorken sum rule and corresponds to a ratio of the axial and vector coupling constants g_A/g_V = 1.28+-0.07(stat)+-0.10(syst).

  20. Effect of different seawater Mg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mewes, A.; Langer, G.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Bijma, J.; Reichart, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium, incorporated in foraminiferal calcite (Mg/CaCC), is used intensively to reconstruct past seawater temperatures but, in addition to temperature, the Mg/CaCC of foraminiferal tests also depends on the ratio of Mg and Ca in seawater (Mg/CaSW). The physiological mechanisms responsible for

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  2. Dry eye syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000426.htm Dry eye syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, ... second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye can also be caused by: Heat or ... Symptoms may include: Blurred vision Burning, itching, ...

  3. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouth Trouble chewing, swallowing, tasting, or speaking A burning feeling in the mouth A dry feeling in the throat Cracked lips ... Food and Drug Administration provides information on dry mouth and offers advice for ... Syndrome Clinic NIDCR Sjogren’s Syndrome Clinic develops new therapies ...

  4. A Novel Type of Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid Device with Highly Switchable Dual Performances Based on a Carbon Skeleton/Mg2Ni Free-Standing Hydrogen Storage Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Du, Yi; Feng, Qing-Ping; Huang, Gui-Wen; Xiao, Hong-Mei; Fu, Shao-Yun

    2017-12-27

    The sharp proliferation of high power electronics and electrical vehicles has promoted growing demands for power sources with both high energy and power densities. Under these circumstances, battery-supercapacitor hybrid devices are attracting considerable attention as they combine the advantages of both batteries and supercapacitors. Here, a novel type of hybrid device based on a carbon skeleton/Mg 2 Ni free-standing electrode without the traditional nickel foam current collector is reported, which has been designed and fabricated through a dispersing-freeze-drying method by employing reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a hybrid skeleton. As a result, the Mg 2 Ni alloy is able to deliver a high discharge capacity of 644 mAh g -1 and, more importantly, a high cycling stability with a retention of over 78% after 50 charge/discharge cycles have been achieved, which exceeds almost all the results ever reported on the Mg 2 Ni alloy. Simultaneously, the electrode could also exhibit excellent supercapacitor performances including high specific capacities (296 F g -1 ) and outstanding cycling stability (100% retention after 100 cycles). Moreover, the hybrid device can switch between battery and supercapacitor modes immediately as needed during application. These features make the C skeleton/alloy electrode a highly promising candidate for battery-supercapacitor hybrid devices with high power/energy density and favorable cycling stability.

  5. TEAD4-YAP interaction regulates tumoral growth by controlling cell-cycle arrest at the G1 phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shin; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Yamatoji, Masanobu; Nakashima, Dai; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Koide, Nao; Takahara, Toshikazu; Shimizu, Toshihiro; Iyoda, Manabu; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    TEA domain transcription factor 4 (TEAD4), which has critical functions in the process of embryonic development, is expressed in various cancers. However, the important role of TEAD4 in human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) remain unclear. Here we investigated the TEAD4 expression level and the functional mechanism in OSCC using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, TEAD4 knockdown model was used to evaluate cellular proliferation, cell-cycle analysis, and the interaction between TEAD4 and Yes-associated protein (YAP) which was reported to be a transcription coactivator of cellular proliferation. In the current study, we found that TEAD4 expression increased significantly in vitro and in vivo and correlated with tumoral size in OSCC patients. TEAD4 knockdown OSCC cells showed decreased cellular proliferation resulting from cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase by down-regulation of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and up-regulation of CDK inhibitors. We also found that the TEAD4-YAP complex in the nuclei may be related closely to transcriptions of G1 arrest-related genes. Taken together, we concluded that TEAD4 might play an important role in tumoral growth and have potential to be a therapeutic target in OSCCs. - Highlights: • TEAD4 contributes to tumor progression in OSCCs. • TEAD4 knockdown results in cell-cycle arrest at the G1phase in OSCC cells. • In TEAD4 knockdown cells, the amount of YAP in the nucleus decreases. • Activation of the TEAD4-YAP complex is an important factor in OSCC tumor growth. • TEAD4 might be a critical biomarker and a therapeutic target for OSCCs.

  6. ABT-263 induces G1/G0-phase arrest, apoptosis and autophagy in human esophageal cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing-Huan; Que, Fu-Chang; Gu, Chun-Ping; Zhong, De-Sheng; Zhou, Dan; Kong, Yi; Yu, Le; Liu, Shu-Wen

    2017-12-01

    Both the anti- and pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family are regulated by a conserved Bcl-2 homology (BH3) domain. ABT-263 (Navitoclax), a novel BH3 mimetic and orally bioavailable Bcl-2 family inhibitor with high affinity for Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and Bcl-w has entered clinical trials for cancer treatment. But the anticancer mechanisms of ABT-263 have not been fully elucidated. In this study we investigated the effects of ABT-263 on human esophageal cancer cells in vitro and to explore its anticancer mechanisms. Treatment with ABT-263 dose-dependently suppressed the viability of 3 human esophageal cancer cells with IC 50 values of 10.7±1.4, 7.1±1.5 and 8.2±1.6 μmol/L, in EC109, HKESC-2 and CaES-17 cells, respectively. ABT-263 (5-20 μmol/L) dose-dependently induced G 1 /G 0 -phase arrest in the 3 cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis evidenced by increased the Annexin V-positive cell population and elevated levels of cleaved caspase 3, cleaved caspase 9 and PARP. We further demonstrated that ABT-263 treatment markedly increased the expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1 and decreased the expression of cyclin D1 and phospho-Rb (retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein) (Ser780) proteins that contributed to the G 1 /G 0 -phase arrest. Knockdown of p21 Waf1/Cip1 attenuated ABT-263-induced G 1 /G 0 -phase arrest. Moreover, ABT-263 treatment enhanced pro-survival autophagy, shown as the increased LC3-II levels and decreased p62 levels, which counteracted its anticancer activity. Our results suggest that ABT-263 exerts cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on human esophageal cancer cells in vitro and enhances pro-survival autophagy, which counteracts its anticancer activity.

  7. Dry well cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki.

    1997-01-01

    A plurality of blowing ports with introduction units are disposed to a plurality of ducts in a dry well, and a cooling unit comprising a cooler, a blower and an isolating valve is disposed outside of the dry well. Cooling air and the atmosphere in the dry well are mixed to form a cooling gas and blown into the dry well to control the temperature. Since the cooling unit is disposed outside of the dry well, the maintenance of the cooling unit can be performed even during the plant operation. In addition, since dampers opened/closed depending on the temperature of the atmosphere are disposed to the introduction units for controlling the temperature of the cooling gas, the temperature of the atmosphere in the dry well can be set to a predetermined level rapidly. Since an axial flow blower is used as the blower of the cooling unit, it can be contained in a ventilation cylinder. Then, the atmosphere in the dry well flowing in the ventilation cylinder can be prevented from leaking to the outside. (N.H.)

  8. Highly stable carbon coated Mg2Si intermetallic nanoparticles for lithium-ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamirat, Andebet Gedamu; Hou, Mengyan; Liu, Yao; Bin, Duan; Sun, Yunhe; Fan, Long; Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is an ideal candidate anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). However, it suffers from rapid capacity fading due to large volume expansion upon lithium insertion. Herein, we design and fabricate highly stable carbon coated porous Mg2Si intermetallic anode material using facile mechano-thermal technique followed by carbon coating using thermal vapour deposition (TVD), toluene as carbon source. The electrode exhibits an excellent first reversible capacity of 726 mAh g-1 at a rate of 100 mA g-1. More importantly, the electrode demonstrates high rate capability (380 mAh g-1 at high rate of 2 A g-1) as well as high cycle stability, with capacity retentions of 65% over 500 cycles. These improvements are attributable to both Mg supporting medium and the uniform carbon coating, which can effectively increase the conductivity and electronic contact of the active material and protects large volume alterations during the electrochemical cycling process.

  9. On the Discrete-Time GeoX/G/1 Queues under N-Policy with Single and Multiple Vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung J. Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the discrete-time GeoX/G/1 queue under N-policy with single and multiple vacations. In this queueing system, the server takes multiple vacations and a single vacation whenever the system becomes empty and begins to serve customers only if the queue length is at least a predetermined threshold value N. Using the well-known property of stochastic decomposition, we derive the stationary queue-length distributions for both vacation models in a simple and unified manner. In addition, we derive their busy as well as idle-period distributions. Some classical vacation models are considered as special cases.

  10. Waiting time analysis for MX/G/1 priority queues with/without vacations under random order of service discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norikazu Kawasaki

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We study MX/G/1 nonpreemptive and preemptive-resume priority queues with/without vacations under random order of service (ROS discipline within each class. By considering the conditional waiting times given the states of the system, which an arbitrary message observes upon arrival, we derive the Laplace-Stieltjes transforms of the waiting time distributions and explicitly obtain the first two moments. The relationship for the second moments under ROS and first-come first-served disciplines extends the one found previously by Takacs and Fuhrmann for non-priority single arrival queues.

  11. Molecular basis for vulnerability to mitochondrial and oxidative stress in a neuroendocrine CRI-G1 cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Chandiramani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many age-associated disorders (including diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases are linked to mitochondrial dysfunction, which leads to impaired cellular bioenergetics and increased oxidative stress. However, it is not known what genetic and molecular pathways underlie differential vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction observed among different cell types.Starting with an insulinoma cell line as a model for a neuronal/endocrine cell type, we isolated a novel subclonal line (named CRI-G1-RS that was more susceptible to cell death induced by mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitors than the parental CRI-G1 line (renamed CRI-G1-RR for clarity. Compared to parental RR cells, RS cells were also more vulnerable to direct oxidative stress, but equally vulnerable to mitochondrial uncoupling and less vulnerable to protein kinase inhibition-induced apoptosis. Thus, differential vulnerability to mitochondrial toxins between these two cell types likely reflects differences in their ability to handle metabolically generated reactive oxygen species rather than differences in ATP production/utilization or in downstream apoptotic machinery. Genome-wide gene expression analysis and follow-up biochemical studies revealed that, in this experimental system, increased vulnerability to mitochondrial and oxidative stress was associated with (1 inhibition of ARE/Nrf2/Keap1 antioxidant pathway; (2 decreased expression of antioxidant and phase I/II conjugation enzymes, most of which are Nrf2 transcriptional targets; (3 increased expression of molecular chaperones, many of which are also considered Nrf2 transcriptional targets; (4 increased expression of β cell-specific genes and transcription factors that specify/maintain β cell fate; and (5 reconstitution of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.The molecular profile presented here will enable identification of individual genes or gene clusters that shape vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction and

  12. Arrest of irradiated G1, S, or G2 cells at mitosis using nocodazole promotes repair of potentially lethal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.; Nuesse, M.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of synchronized Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, irradiated in G1, S, and G2 phases, to repair potentially lethal damage when arrested at mitosis by using 0.4 μg/ml nocodazole, a specific inhibitor of microtubule polymerization, has been studied. Cells irradiated in these phases were found to repair potentially lethal damage at mitosis. The extent of this repair was similar to that observed for cells irradiated at the same stages in the cell cycle but allowed to repair potentially lethal damage by incubating in balanced salt solution for 6 hr after X irradiation

  13. Thermal analyses for a nuclear-waste repository in tuff using USW-G1 borehole data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1982-10-01

    Thermal calculations using properties of tuffs obtained from the USW-G1 borehole, located near the SW margin of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), have been completed for a nuclear waste repository sited in welded tuff below the water table. The analyses considered two wasteforms, high level waste and spent fuel, emplaced at two different, gross thermal loadings, 50 and 75 kW/Acre (20.24 and 30.36 kW/ha). Calculations were made assuming that no boiling of the groundwater occurs; i.e., that the hydrostatic head potential was reestablished soon after waste emplacement. 23 figures, 2 tables

  14. Radiation data input for the design of dry or semi-dry U tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvasnicka, J.

    1986-01-01

    Before discussion of design criteria for the handling of dry or semi-dry tailings, it is necessary to obtain an insight into the radiation levels associated with the tailings particles and to study the basic physical properties of dry tailings. This article presents the experimental results of assessing Ra and specific alpha-activity distribution with respect to particle size of the Ranger (RUM) and Nabarlek (QML) uranium mines dry tailings samples. The variation of Rn emanation coefficient versus particle size of dry tailings has also been measured. The nuclear-track detection technique, gamma spectrometry and alpha counting were used for the above measurements. Surface Rn flux from the hypothetical Nabarlek semi-infinite dry tailings pile is 32 Bq m -2 s -1 and the Rn flux for Ranger is 10 Bq m -2 s -1 . The theoretical exposure rates for 1 m above these hypothetical tailings piles are 0.95 microC kg -1 h -1 and 0.28 microC kg -1 h -1 , respectively. The derived air alpha-contamination limits (DAAC) for the tailings dust were calculated to be 1.2 Bq m -3 for workers and 0.034 Bq m -3 for a member of the public. The limit for workers corresponds to the air tailings dust concentration of 0.79 mg m -3 for QML tailings and 2.2 mg m -3 for RUM tailings. The DAAC limit for the public corresponds to the air tailings dust concentration of 0.022 mg m -3 for QML tailings and 0.064 mg m -3 for RUM tailings

  15. Characteristics of Timbers Dried Using Kiln Drying and Radio Frequency-Vacuum Drying Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rabidin Zairul Amin; Seng Gan Kee; Wahab Mohd Jamil Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Heavy hardwoods are difficult-to-dry timbers as they are prone to checking and internal stresses when dried using a conventional kiln drying system. These timbers are usually dried naturally to reach 15% to 19% moisture content with an acceptable defects. Besides long drying time, timbers at these moisture contents are not suitable for indoor applications since they will further dry and causing, for example, jointing and lamination failures. Drying to a lower moisture content could only be ac...

  16. Comparative Diagnosis of Serum IgG1 and Coproantigen ELISA for Fasciolosis Detection of Goats in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Mendoza, Pedro; Hernández-Guzmán, Karina; Olivares-Pérez, Jaime; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Zumaquero-Ríos, José

    2016-01-01

    The objective of present study was to determine the prevalence of natural caprine fasciolosis in the Mixteca region of Mexico using coproantigen and serum IgG1 ELISA tests for comparative purposes. A total of 1070 serum and faecal samples were analyzed for IgG1 antibodies and coproantigens, using ELISA with E/S products as antigen and a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA. Prevalence of 73.46% was found using the serological ELISA and a percentage of 77.20 was found for coproantigen ELISA. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for serum ELISA were 86.7% and 96.4%, and for the coproantigen ELISA they were 93.1% and 97.8%, respectively. The seropositive samples were further categorized as low, medium, or high positivity. Results show a great proportion of low and medium positive goats when the serum ELISA test was used. Correlation coefficients between coproantigens and seropositivity were statistically significant (P < 0.01) for low seropositivity (r = 0.93) and medium seropositivity (r = 0.84). The accuracy of faecal antigen ELISA was higher compared to indirect ELISA serological test. Two ELISAs were shown to be useful for demonstrating the current status of F. hepatica infection in the endemic areas and can be employed in studies on epidemiology as well as anthelmintics treatment for preventing economic loss and the risk of transmission to humans. PMID:27563665

  17. Detection of patent infections of Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep-strain", G1) in naturally infected dogs in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherifi, Kurtesh; Rexhepi, Agim; Hamidi, Afrim; Behluli, Behlul; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Mathis, Alexander; Deplazes, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A survey was carried out to assess the occurrence of canine echinococcosis in naturally infected dogs in Kosovo. Using the flotation-ovassay technique, taeniid eggs were found in 23 (7.5%) out of a total of 305 dogs. Eggs from other helminths were detected as well: hookworms 139 (45.5%), Trichuris sp. 87 (28.5%), Toxocara sp. 42 (13.7%), Toxascaris leonina 21 (6.8%) and Dipylidium caninum eight (2.6%). From 21 of the 305 samples (6.9%), taeniids eggs could be collected. Using PCR primers specific for Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep strain", G1), four of these samples (1.3%) resulted positive. The E. granulosus isolates originated from each one stray dog, hunting dog, sheepdog and pet dog. A semi-quantitative analysis showed low to moderate egg counts (2-10 per 1 g faeces) in dogs positive for E. granulosus ("sheep strain", G1) whereas specimens with high (11-20) or very high numbers (> 20) of taeniid eggs were negative in the E. granulosus PCR. Using specific primers for the detection of E. multilocularis, all samples containing taeniid eggs were negative. This is the first report on identification of E. granulosus in dogs from Kosovo where human cystic echinococcosis is a significant medical problem.

  18. The polarised photon g1γ sum rule at the linear collider and high luminosity B factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The sum rule for the first moment of the polarised (virtual) photon structure function g 1 γ (x,Q 2 ;K 2 ) is revisited in the light of proposals for future e + e - colliders. The sum rule exhibits an array of phenomena characteristic of QCD: for real photons (K 2 =0) electromagnetic gauge invariance constrains the first moment to vanish; the limit for asymptotic photon virtuality (m ρ 2 -bar K 2 -bar Q 2 ) is governed by the electromagnetic U A (1) axial anomaly and the approach to asymptopia by the gluonic anomaly; for intermediate values of K 2 , it reflects the realisation of chiral symmetry and is determined by the off-shell radiative couplings of the pseudoscalar mesons; finally, like many polarisation phenomena in QCD, the first moment of g 1 γ involves the gluon topological susceptibility. In this paper, we review the original sum rule proposed by Narison, Shore and Veneziano and extend the relation with pseudoscalar mesons. The possibility of measuring the sum rule in future polarised e + e - colliders is then considered in detail, focusing on the International Linear Collider (ILC) and high luminosity B factories. We conclude that all the above features of the sum rule should be accessible at a polarised collider with the characteristics of SuperKEKB

  19. YOUNG REMNANTS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR PROGENITORS: A STUDY OF SNR G1.9+0.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Childs, Francesca; Soderberg, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    SNe Ia, with their remarkably homogeneous light curves and spectra, have been used as standardizable candles to measure the accelerating expansion of the universe. Yet, their progenitors remain elusive. Common explanations invoke a degenerate star (white dwarf) that explodes upon almost reaching the Chandrasekhar limit, by either steadily accreting mass from a companion star or violently merging with another degenerate star. We show that circumstellar interaction in young Galactic supernova remnants can be used to distinguish between these single and double degenerate (DD) progenitor scenarios. Here we propose a new diagnostic, the surface brightness index, which can be computed from theory and compared with Chandra and Very Large Array (VLA) observations. We use this method to demonstrate that a DD progenitor can explain the decades-long flux rise and size increase of the youngest known galactic supernova remnant (SNR), G1.9+0.3. We disfavor a single degenerate scenario for SNR G1.9+0.3. We attribute the observed properties to the interaction between a steep ejecta profile and a constant density environment. We suggest using the upgraded VLA, ASKAP, and MeerKAT to detect circumstellar interaction in the remnants of historical SNe Ia in the Local Group of galaxies. This may settle the long-standing debate over their progenitors

  20. Iso-suillin isolated from Suillus luteus, induces G1 phase arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Ying; Yan, Yong-Xin; Zhao, Jun-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Iso-suillin, a natural product isolated from Suillus luteus, has been shown to inhibit the growth of some cancer cell lines. However, the molecular mechanisms of action of this compound are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate how iso-suillin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in a human hepatoma cell line (SMMC-7721). We demonstrated the effects of iso-suillin on cell proliferation and apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells, with no apparent toxicity in normal human lymphocytes, using colony formation assays and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) analysis. Western blotting was used to examine the expression of G1 phase-regulated and apoptosis-associated protein levels in iso-suillin treated SMMC-7721 cells. The results indicated that iso-suillin significantly decreased viability, induced G1 phase arrest and triggered apoptosis in SMMC-7721cells. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of iso-suillin as a candidate for liver cancer treatment.

  1. Betulinic Acid Inhibits Growth of Cultured Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells In Vitro by Inducing G1 Arrest and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Kumar Vadivelu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Betulinic acid is a widely available plant-derived triterpene which is reported to possess selective cytotoxic activity against cancer cells of neuroectodermal origin and leukemia. However, the potential of betulinic acid as an antiproliferative and cytotoxic agent on vascular smooth muscle (VSMC is still unclear. This study was carried out to demonstrate the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid on VSMCs using 3-[4,5-dimethylthizol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, flow cytometry cell cycle assay, BrdU proliferation assay, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and comet assay. Result from MTT and BrdU assays indicated that betulinic acid was able to inhibit the growth and proliferation of VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 of 3.8 μg/mL significantly (P<0.05. Nevertheless, betulinic acid exhibited G1 cell cycle arrest in flow cytometry cell cycle profiling and low level of DNA damage against VSMC in acridine orange/propidium iodide and comet assay after 24 h of treatment. In conclusion, betulinic acid induced G1 cell cycle arrest and dose-dependent DNA damage on VSMC.

  2. TopBP1 is required at mitosis to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rune Troelsgaard; Kruse, Thomas; Nilsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Genome integrity is critically dependent on timely DNA replication and accurate chromosome segregation. Replication stress delays replication into G2/M, which in turn impairs proper chromosome segregation and inflicts DNA damage on the daughter cells. Here we show that TopBP1 forms foci upon mitotic entry. In early mitosis, TopBP1 marks sites of and promotes unscheduled DNA synthesis. Moreover, TopBP1 is required for focus formation of the structure-selective nuclease and scaffold protein SLX4 in mitosis. Persistent TopBP1 foci transition into 53BP1 nuclear bodies (NBs) in G1 and precise temporal depletion of TopBP1 just before mitotic entry induced formation of 53BP1 NBs in the next cell cycle, showing that TopBP1 acts to reduce transmission of DNA damage to G1 daughter cells. Based on these results, we propose that TopBP1 maintains genome integrity in mitosis by controlling chromatin recruitment of SLX4 and by facilitating unscheduled DNA synthesis. PMID:26283799

  3. p27Kip1 Is Required to Mediate a G1 Cell Cycle Arrest Downstream of ATM following Genotoxic Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica K Cassimere

    Full Text Available The DNA damage response (DDR is a coordinated signaling network that ensures the maintenance of genome stability under DNA damaging stress. In response to DNA lesions, activation of the DDR leads to the establishment of cell cycle checkpoints that delay cell-cycle progression and allow repair of the defects. The tumor suppressor p27Kip1 is a cyclin-CDK inhibitor that plays an important role in regulating quiescence in a variety of tissues. Several studies have suggested that p27Kip1 also plays a role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Here we demonstrate that p27Kip1 is essential for the establishment of a G1 checkpoint arrest after DNA damage. We also uncovered that ATM phosphorylates p27Kip1 on a previously uncharacterized residue (Ser-140, which leads to its stabilization after induction of DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of this stabilization by replacing endogenous p27Kip1 with a Ser-140 phospho-mutant (S140A significantly sensitized cells to IR treatments. Our findings reveal a novel role for p27Kip1 in the DNA damage response pathway and suggest that part of its tumor suppressing functions relies in its ability to mediate a G1 arrest after the induction of DNA double strand breaks.

  4. BDE-47 and BDE-209 inhibit proliferation of Neuro-2a cells via inducing G1-phase arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongmei; Tang, Xuexi; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Ningning; Zhou, Zhongyuan; Fang, Kuan; Wang, You

    2017-03-01

    Cell proliferation is closely related to cell cycle which is strictly regulated by genes and regulatory proteins. In the present study, we comparatively analyzed the toxic effects of BDE-47 and BDE-209 on cell proliferation of Neuro-2a cells, and the possible mechanism was discussed. The results indicated that BDE-47 significantly inhibited the cell proliferation and the cell cycle were arrest at G1 phase, while BDE-209 had little effects on either cell proliferation or cell cycle. qRT-PCR and Western blot assay presented that BDE-47 up-regulated the gene expressions of p53 and p21, which down-regulated the expresseion of cyclinD1 and CDK2, and inhibited retinoblastoma protein (pRb) phosphorylation. This process could effectively arrest the cell cycle at G1 phase, which finally caused the inhibition on Neuro-2a cell proliferation. However, BDE-209 was only up-regulated the gene expressions of p53, also suggested to be involved in the inhibition on Neuro-2a cell proliferation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Mitotic catastrophe occurs in the absence of apoptosis in p53-null cells with a defective G1 checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Fragkos

    Full Text Available Cell death occurring during mitosis, or mitotic catastrophe, often takes place in conjunction with apoptosis, but the conditions in which mitotic catastrophe may exhibit features of programmed cell death are still unclear. In the work presented here, we studied mitotic cell death by making use of a UV-inactivated parvovirus (adeno-associated virus; AAV that has been shown to induce a DNA damage response and subsequent death of p53-defective cells in mitosis, without affecting the integrity of the host genome. Osteosarcoma cells (U2OSp53DD that are deficient in p53 and lack the G1 cell cycle checkpoint respond to AAV infection through a transient G2 arrest. We found that the infected U2OSp53DD cells died through mitotic catastrophe with no signs of chromosome condensation or DNA fragmentation. Moreover, cell death was independent of caspases, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF, autophagy and necroptosis. These findings were confirmed by time-lapse microscopy of cellular morphology following AAV infection. The assays used readily revealed apoptosis in other cell types when it was indeed occurring. Taken together the results indicate that in the absence of the G1 checkpoint, mitotic catastrophe occurs in these p53-null cells predominantly as a result of mechanical disruption induced by centrosome overduplication, and not as a consequence of a suicide signal.

  6. Inhibition of PI3K by ZSTK474 suppressed tumor growth not via apoptosis but G0/G1 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Shingo; Yoshimi, Hisashi; Okamura, Mutsumi; Mukai, Yumiko; Yamori, Takao

    2009-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is a potential target in cancer therapy. Inhibition of PI3K is believed to induce apoptosis. We recently developed a novel PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 with antitumor efficacy. In this study, we have examined the underlying mode of action by which ZSTK474 exerts its antitumor efficacy. In vivo, ZSTK474 effectively inhibited the growth of human cancer xenografts. In parallel, ZSTK474 treatment suppressed the expression of phospho-Akt, suggesting effective PI3K inhibition, and also suppressed the expression of nuclear cyclin D1 and Ki67, both of which are hallmarks of proliferation. However, ZSTK474 treatment did not increase TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells. In vitro, ZSTK474 induced marked G 0 /G 1 arrest, but did not increase the subdiploid cells or activate caspase, both of which are hallmarks of apoptosis. These results clearly indicated that inhibition of PI3K by ZSTK474 did not induce apoptosis but rather induced strong G 0 /G 1 arrest, which might cause its efficacy in tumor cells.

  7. Mineralogy of drill holes J-13, UE-25A No. 1, and USW G-1 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1986-09-01

    The mineralogy of drill holes J-13, UE-25A No. 1, and USW G-1 was previously determined using qualitative and semiquantitative techniques, and most of the available data were neither complete nor accurate. New quantitative x-ray diffraction data were obtained for rocks from all three of these drill holes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These quantitative analyses employed both external and internal standard x-ray powder diffraction methods and permitted the precise determination of all phases commonly found in the tuffs at Yucca Mountain, including glass and opal-CT. These new data supplant previous analyses and include numerous additional phases. New findings of particular importance include better constraints on the distribution of the more soluble silica polymorphs, cristobalite and opal-CT. Opal-CT was associated solely with clinoptilolite-bearing horizons, and cristobalite disappearance coincided with the appearance of analcime in USW G-1. Unlike previous analyses, we identified significant amounts of smectite in drill hole J-13. We found no evidence to support previous reports of the occurrence of erionite or phillipsite in these drill holes

  8. An APC/C-Cdh1 Biosensor Reveals the Dynamics of Cdh1 Inactivation at the G1/S Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondracka, Andrej; Robbins, Jonathan A; Cross, Frederick R

    2016-01-01

    B-type cyclin-dependent kinase activity must be turned off for mitotic exit and G1 stabilization. B-type cyclin degradation is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C); during and after mitotic exit, APC/C is dependent on Cdh1. Cdh1 is in turn phosphorylated and inactivated by cyclin-CDK at the Start transition of the new cell cycle. We developed a biosensor to assess the cell cycle dynamics of APC/C-Cdh1. Nuclear exit of the G1 transcriptional repressor Whi5 is a known marker of Start; APC/C-Cdh1 is inactivated 12 min after Whi5 nuclear exit with little measurable cell-to-cell timing variability. Multiple phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 act in a redundant manner to repress its activity. Reducing the number of phosphorylation sites on Cdh1 can to some extent be tolerated for cell viability, but it increases variability in timing of APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation. Mutants with minimal subsets of phosphorylation sites required for viability exhibit striking stochasticity in multiple responses including budding, nuclear division, and APC/C-Cdh1 activity itself. Multiple cyclin-CDK complexes, as well as the stoichiometric inhibitor Acm1, contribute to APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation; this redundant control is likely to promote rapid and reliable APC/C-Cdh1 inactivation immediately following the Start transition.

  9. YOUNG REMNANTS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR PROGENITORS: A STUDY OF SNR G1.9+0.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Childs, Francesca; Soderberg, Alicia, E-mail: schakraborti@post.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    SNe Ia, with their remarkably homogeneous light curves and spectra, have been used as standardizable candles to measure the accelerating expansion of the universe. Yet, their progenitors remain elusive. Common explanations invoke a degenerate star (white dwarf) that explodes upon almost reaching the Chandrasekhar limit, by either steadily accreting mass from a companion star or violently merging with another degenerate star. We show that circumstellar interaction in young Galactic supernova remnants can be used to distinguish between these single and double degenerate (DD) progenitor scenarios. Here we propose a new diagnostic, the surface brightness index, which can be computed from theory and compared with Chandra and Very Large Array (VLA) observations. We use this method to demonstrate that a DD progenitor can explain the decades-long flux rise and size increase of the youngest known galactic supernova remnant (SNR), G1.9+0.3. We disfavor a single degenerate scenario for SNR G1.9+0.3. We attribute the observed properties to the interaction between a steep ejecta profile and a constant density environment. We suggest using the upgraded VLA, ASKAP, and MeerKAT to detect circumstellar interaction in the remnants of historical SNe Ia in the Local Group of galaxies. This may settle the long-standing debate over their progenitors.

  10. Corrosion analysis of AlMg2 and AlMgSi using electrochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dian A; Maman Kartaman; Rosika K; Yanlinastuti

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion test of cladding materials and structures of research reactor fuel, AlMgSi and AlMg2 have been performed in demineralized water of pH 2 and 6.7 using an electrochemical method. Corrosion phenomenon is affected by several factor such as composition and condition of solution. The purpose of this activity is to investigate the corrosion phenomena through the determination of the parameters of corrosion and polarization curve. The materials used are AlMg2 and AlMgSi alloy in circular dish shape with an area of 1 Cm"2. Preparation of the test sample is performed through several stages polishing, cleaning and drying procedures followed ASTM G3. The electrochemical method is done by measuring the open circuit potential (OCP), polarization resistance and potentiodynamic in demineralized water of pH 2 and pH 6.7 at temperature of 25°C. The results of the OCP is the corrosion potential (Ecorr) of AlMg2 and AlMgSi each of -906.1 mV and -619.8 mV at pH 2 and -868.6 and -756.7 mV at pH 6.7 mV. The results of measurements by polarization resistance technique showed that the corrosion rate of AlMg2 and AlMgSi in safe category (<2 mpy) at pH 6.7 and at pH 2 corrosion rate increased significantly, but still in the lightweight category (<20 mpy). Potentiodynamic curves showed that the passivation at pH 6.7 is very low while the passivation at pH 2 occurs within a relatively short range potential and followed events corroded. (author)

  11. Human IgG1 Responses to Surface Localised Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 Family Members Drop following Praziquantel Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain W Chalmers

    Full Text Available The heptalaminate-covered, syncytial tegument is an important anatomical adaptation that enables schistosome parasites to maintain long-term, intravascular residence in definitive hosts. Investigation of the proteins present in this surface layer and the immune responses elicited by them during infection is crucial to our understanding of host/parasite interactions. Recent studies have revealed a number of novel tegumental surface proteins including three (SmCD59a, SmCD59b and Sm29 containing uPAR/Ly6 domains (renamed SmLy6A SmLy6B and SmLy6D in this study. While vaccination with SmLy6A (SmCD59a and SmLy6D (Sm29 induces protective immunity in experimental models, human immunoglobulin responses to representative SmLy6 family members have yet to be thoroughly explored.Using a PSI-BLAST-based search, we present a comprehensive reanalysis of the Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 family (SmLy6A-K. Our examination extends the number of members to eleven (including three novel proteins and provides strong evidence that the previously identified vaccine candidate Sm29 (renamed SmLy6D is a unique double uPAR/Ly6 domain-containing representative. Presence of canonical cysteine residues, signal peptides and GPI-anchor sites strongly suggest that all SmLy6 proteins are cell surface-bound. To provide evidence that SmLy6 members are immunogenic in human populations, we report IgG1 (as well as IgG4 and IgE responses against two surface-bound representatives (SmLy6A and SmLy6B within a cohort of S. mansoni-infected Ugandan males before and after praziquantel treatment. While pre-treatment IgG1 prevalence for SmLy6A and SmLy6B differs amongst the studied population (7.4% and 25.3% of the cohort, respectively, these values are both higher than IgG1 prevalence (2.7% for a sub-surface tegumental antigen, SmTAL1. Further, post-treatment IgG1 levels against surface-associated SmLy6A and SmLy6B significantly drop (p = 0.020 and p < 0.001, respectively when compared to rising IgG

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part ... Name: Member ID: * Phone Number: * Email: * Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... month dissolvable punctal plug be removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  14. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin lighteners Skin of color Summer skin problems ... condition, such as eczema. Additional related information Dermatologists' top tips for relieving dry skin FIND A DERMATOLOGIST ...

  15. Dry process potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugeras, P.

    1997-01-01

    Various dry processes have been studied and more or less developed in order particularly to reduce the waste quantities but none of them had replaced the PUREX process, for reasons departing to policy errors, un-appropriate demonstration examples or too late development, although realistic and efficient dry processes such as a fluoride selective volatility based processes have been demonstrated in France (CLOVIS, ATILA) and would be ten times cheaper than the PUREX process. Dry processes could regain interest in case of a nuclear revival (following global warming fears) or thermal wastes over-production. In the near future, dry processes could be introduced in complement to the PUREX process, especially at the end of the process cycle, for a more efficient recycling and safer storage (inactivation)

  16. Freeze drying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppa, N.V.; Stewart, P.; Renzi, E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Why ... Eye from Jennifer Aniston Sep 02, 2016 The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, ...

  18. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  19. 部件串联的Geometric/G/1可修排队系统费用模型%Parts Series' Geometric/G/1 Repairable Queueing System Cost Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石天林

    2008-01-01

    研究一个部件串联的离散时间Geometric/G/1可修排队系统的费用优化策略.考虑服务台的服务率是可控制的,顾客的到达时间和服务时间均服从几何分布,给出系统的费用参数模型,并结合数值计算实例分析了系统的各参数对系统的最优平均服务时间和最优费用的影响.

  20. Variation of the material laplacian of G1 with the radius of the uranium bar; Variation du laplacien matiere de G1 avec le rayon du barreau d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    In this report are described and interpreted some experiments, carried out in the pile G1 during a period of shut-down, which have made it possible to measure the variation of the material Laplacian of the lattice with the radius of the uranium bar. The variation of the reactivity of the pile is measured when an increasing number of fuel elements are progressively replaced in the central region by fuel elements of greater diameter; it is shown that, starting from measurements based on less than ten per cent of the total number of elements, the variation of reactivity corresponding to the replacement of all the elements can be determined; it is then easy to deduce the variations of the Laplacian. Results: the variations of the Laplacian with the uranium rod diameter are 0 (d. 26 mm), +0.065 {+-} 0.004 m{sup -2} (d. 28 mm) and +0.080 {+-} 0.008 m{sup -2} (d. 32 mm). (author) [French] Dans ce rapport sont decrites et interpretees des experiences realisees sur la pile G1 'froide', experiences qui ont permis de mesurer la variation du Laplacien matiere du reseau avec le rayon du barreau d'uranium. On mesure la variation de reactivite de la pile lorsqu'on remplace progressivement dans la region centrale un nombre croissant de cartouches par des cartouches de plus gros diametre; on montre qu'a partir de mesures portant sur moins de dix pour cent du nombre total de cartouches, on peut determiner la variation de reactivite qui correspondrait au remplacement de toutes les cartouches; il est facile d'en deduire les variations du Laplacien. Resultats: les variations du Laplacien en fonction du diametre du barreau d'uranium sont: 0 (d. 26 mm), +0.065 {+-} 0.004 m{sup -2} (d. 28 mm) and +0.080 {+-} 0.008 m{sup -2} (d. 32 mm). (auteur)

  1. In vivo Confocal Microscopy Evaluation of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Dry Eye Patients with Different Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: IVCM application provides a strong support to differentiate dry eye patients with different symptoms: meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD plays a pivotal role in dry eye aggravation, and using IVCM to observe MG fibrosis, changes in size and density of MG as well as status of inflammation cells can help not only correctly diagnose the type and severity of dry eye, but also possibly prognosticate in routine eye examination in the occurrence of MGD.

  2. Relative stabilities of IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains: Influence of the light–heavy interchain disulfide bond architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heads, James T; Adams, Ralph; D'Hooghe, Lena E; Page, Matt J T; Humphreys, David P; Popplewell, Andrew G; Lawson, Alastair D; Henry, Alistair J

    2012-01-01

    The stability of therapeutic antibodies is a prime pharmaceutical concern. In this work we examined thermal stability differences between human IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains containing the same variable regions using the thermofluor assay. It was found that the IgG1 Fab domain is up to 11°C more stable than the IgG4 Fab domain containing the same variable region. We investigated the cause of this difference with the aim of developing a molecule with the enhanced stability of the IgG1 Fab and the biological properties of an IgG4 Fc. We found that replacing the seven residues, which differ between IgG1 CH1 and IgG4 CH1 domains, while retaining the native IgG1 light-heavy interchain disulfide (L–H) bond, did not affect thermal stability. Introducing the IgG1 type L–H interchain disulfide bond (DSB) into the IgG4 Fab resulted in an increase in thermal stability to levels observed in the IgG1 Fab with the same variable region. Conversely, replacement of the IgG1 L–H interchain DSB with the IgG4 type L–H interchain DSB reduced the thermal stability. We utilized the increased stability of the IgG1 Fab and designed a hybrid antibody with an IgG1 CH1 linked to an IgG4 Fc via an IgG1 hinge. This construct has the expected biophysical properties of both the IgG4 Fc and IgG1 Fab domains and may therefore be a pharmaceutically relevant format. PMID:22761163

  3. Arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human glioma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Maimaitili, Aisha; Shu, Zunhua; Cheng, Xiaojiang; Kaheerman, Kadeer; Sikandeer, Alifu; Li, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the anticancer potential of arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, in malignant gliomas. The U87MG and T98G human glioma cell lines were treated with various concentrations of arctigenin for 48 h and the effects of arctigenin on the aggressive phenotypes of glioma cells were assessed. The results demonstrated that arctigenin dose-dependently inhibited the growth of U87MG and T98G cells, as determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphen...

  4. CyclinG1 Amplification Enhances Aurora Kinase Inhibitor-Induced Polyploid Resistance and Inhibition of Bcl-2 Pathway Reverses the Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: CyclinG1 (CycG1 is frequently overexpressed in solid tumors and overexpression of CycG1 promotes cell survival upon paclitaxel exposure by inducing polyploidy. Whether and how CycG1 regulates polyploidization caused by small molecular targeted inhibitors remains unclear. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting were utilized to examine protein expression. Cell proliferation was measured by ATPlite assay, and cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry and/or DNA fragmentation assays. Results: Overexpression of CycG1 in breast cancer cells caused apoptosis-resistant polyploidy upon treatment with Aurora kinase inhibitor, ZM447439 (ZM. Addition of ABT-263, a small-molecule BH3 mimetic, to ZM, produced a synergistic loss of cell viability with greater sustained tumor growth inhibition in breast cancer cell lines. Decrease of Mcl-1 and increase of NOXA caused by ZM treatment, were responsible for the synergy. Furthermore, CycG1 was highly expressed in Triple-Negative-Breast-Cancer patients treated with paclitaxel and was paralleled by decreased cell survival. Conclusion: CycG1 is a crucial factor in ZM-induced polyploidy resistance, and ABT-263/ZM combination hold therapeutic utility in the CycG1-amplified subset of breast cancer and CycG1, thus, is a promising target in breast cancer.

  5. On the Two-Moment Approximation of the Discrete-Time GI/G/1 Queue with a Single Vacation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Ho Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a discrete-time GI/G/1 queue in which the server takes exactly one vacation each time the system becomes empty. The interarrival times of arriving customers, the service times, and the vacation times are all generic discrete random variables. Under our study, we derive an exact transform-free expression for the stationary system size distribution through the modified supplementary variable technique. Utilizing obtained results, we introduce a simple two-moment approximation for the system size distribution. From this, approximations for the mean system size along with the system size distribution could be obtained. Finally, some numerical examples are given to validate the proposed approximation method.

  6. A short G1 phase imposes constitutive replication stress and fork remodelling in mouse embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahuja, Akshay K.; Jodkowska, Karolina; Teloni, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) represent a transient biological state, where pluripotency is coupled with fast proliferation. ESCs display a constitutively active DNA damage response (DDR), but its molecular determinants have remained elusive. Here we show in cultured ESCs and mouse embryos that H2AX...... these marks of replication stress do not impair the mitotic process and are rapidly lost at differentiation onset. Delaying the G1/S transition in ESCs allows formation of 53BP1 nuclear bodies and suppresses ssDNA accumulation, fork slowing and reversal in the following S-phase. Genetic inactivation of fork...... slowing and reversal leads to chromosomal breakage in unperturbed ESCs. We propose that rapid cell cycle progression makes ESCs dependent on effective replication-coupled mechanisms to protect genome integrity....

  7. Detailed mineralogical characterization of the Bullfrog and Tram members USW-G1, with emphasis on clay mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bish, D.L.

    1981-10-01

    The detailed mineralogy of the Bullfrog and Tram Members of the Crater Flat Tuff from drill hole USW-G1 has been examined, primarily to characterize fully the amounts and types of clay minerals in the tuffs and the possible effects clay minerals have on rock properties. Results of bulk sample x-ray diffraction analyses agree closely with previous determinations, although slightly higher clay mineral contents were found in this study. X-ray diffraction analysis of fine fractions revealed that the clay minerals in the tuffs are sodium-saturated montmorillonite-beidellites with typical layer charges and no high-charge layers. These smectites are found in virtually all samples of the Bullfrog and Tram, and there is no correlation between the amounts of smectites and the amounts of zeolite, quartz, and feldspar. Smectites are present in both welded and nonwelded horizons and are scarce in some zones with slight-to-absent welding

  8. Phylogenetic relationships among Brazilian howler monkeys, genus Alouatta (Platyrrhini, Atelidae, based on g1-globin pseudogene sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Meireles

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Alouatta (howler monkeys is the most widely distributed of New World primates, and has been arranged in three species groups: the Central American Alouatta palliata group and the South American Alouatta seniculus and Alouatta caraya groups. While the latter is monotypic, the A. seniculus group encompasses at least three species (A. seniculus, A. belzebul and A. fusca. In the present study, approximately 600 base pairs of the g1-globin pseudogene were sequenced in the four Brazilian species (A. seniculus, A. belzebul, A. fusca and A. caraya. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods yielded phylogenetic trees with the same arrangement: {A. caraya [A. seniculus (A. fusca, A. belzebul]}. The most parsimonious tree had bootstrap values greater than 82% for all groupings, and strength of grouping values of at least 2, supporting the sister clade of A. fusca and A. belzebul. The study also confirmed the presence of a 150-base pair Alu insertion element and a 1.8-kb deletion in the g1-globin pseudogene in A. fusca, features found previously in the remaining three species. The cladistic classification based on molecular data agrees with those of morphological studies, with the monospecific A. caraya group being clearly differentiated from the A. seniculus group.Os guaribas, do gênero Alouatta, que são os primatas do Novo Mundo com maior distribuição geográfica, têm sido colocados em três grupos de espécies: o grupo Alouatta palliata da América central, e os grupos sulamericanos Alouatta seniculus e Alouatta caraya. Este último é monotípico, mas o grupo A. seniculus inclui pelo menos três espécies (A. seniculus, A. belzebul e A. fusca. Neste estudo, foram seqüenciados aproximadamente 600 pares de base do pseudogene globina g1 nas quatro espécies brasileiras (A. seniculus, A. belzebul, A. fusca e A. caraya. Os métodos de máxima parcimônia e máxima verossimilhança produziram árvores filogenéticas com o mesmo arranjo

  9. Age of G-1 PLUS v5 embryo culture medium is inversely associated with birthweight of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijkers, Sander H M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Smits, Luc J M; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Evers, Johannes L H; Dumoulin, John C M

    2015-06-01

    Does age of G-1 PLUS v5 embryo culture medium affect IVF outcome? Birthweight of singletons born after IVF showed an inverse association with age of the embryo culture medium, while no association was found between age of culture medium and fertilization rate, embryonic development or ongoing pregnancy. It has been reported that IVF culture media can deteriorate during storage, which suggests that the capacity of culture media to support optimal embryo development decreases over time. Some animal studies showed an effect of storage time on embryo development, in contrast to other studies, while the effect of aging culture medium on IVF outcome in humans is unknown. We used data on outcome of 1832 IVF/ICSI cycles with fresh embryo transfer, performed in the period 2008-2012 to evaluate the association of fertilization rate, embryonic development, ongoing pregnancy and birthweight of singletons with age of the culture medium (Vitrolife AB G-1 PLUS v5). Age of the culture medium was calculated by subtracting the production date from the date of ovum retrieval. Data analysis included linear regression and logistic regression on continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. Age of the culture medium was not associated with fertilization rate (P = 0.543), early cleavage rate (P = 0.155), percentage of embryos containing four or more cells on Day 2 (P = 0.401), percentage of embryos containing eight or more cells on Day 3 (P = 0.175), percentage of embryos with multinucleated blastomeres (P = 0.527), or ongoing pregnancy (P = 0.729). However, birthweight of the newborn was inversely associated with age of the medium (β = -3.6 g, SE: 1.5 g, P = 0.021), after controlling for possible confounders (day of embryo transfer, number of transferred embryos, child's gender, gestational age at birth, parity, pregnancy complications, maternal smoking, height and weight, and paternal height and weight) and the association was not biased by year of treatment, time since first

  10. Quasicrystal-reinforced Mg alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyun Kim, Young; Tae Kim, Won; Hyang Kim, Do

    2014-04-01

    The formation of the icosahedral phase (I-phase) as a secondary solidification phase in Mg-Zn-Y and Mg-Zn-Al base systems provides useful advantages in designing high performance wrought magnesium alloys. The strengthening in two-phase composites (I-phase + α -Mg) can be explained by dispersion hardening due to the presence of I-phase particles and by the strong bonding property at the I-phase/matrix interface. The presence of an additional secondary solidification phase can further enhance formability and mechanical properties. In Mg-Zn-Y alloys, the co-presence of I and Ca 2 Mg 6 Zn 3 phases by addition of Ca can significantly enhance formability, while in Mg-Zn-Al alloys, the co-presence of the I-phase and Mg 2 Sn phase leads to the enhancement of mechanical properties. Dynamic and static recrystallization are significantly accelerated by addition of Ca in Mg-Zn-Y alloy, resulting in much smaller grain size and more random texture. The high strength of Mg-Zn-Al-Sn alloys is attributed to the presence of finely distributed Mg 2 Sn and I-phase particles embedded in the α -Mg matrix.

  11. The measurement of g1n polarized structure of the neutron by the E154 experiment at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incerti, Sebastien

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents the precision measurement of the neutron polarized structure g 1 n performed by the E154 collaboration at the Standford Linear Accelerator Center, USA, in autumn 1995, using a 48.3 GeV polarized electron beam scattered off a polarized Helium 3 target. The scattered electrons were detected using two spectrometer arms, covering the deep inelastic scattering range: 0.0134 2 2 2 at an average value of Q 2 = 5 GeV 2 . Two electromagnetic calorimeters have been designed by the LPC in Clermont-Ferrand and the SphN-CEA in Saclay to measure the scattered electron energy and to eject the contaminating hadron background using, a cellular automaton and a neural network, widely described in this thesis. The analysis performed in Clermont-Ferrand and presented in this document led us to the integral on the measurement region of g 1 n equaling: - 0.34 ± 0.003 STAT ± 0.004 SYST ± 0.001 EVOL at Q 2 = 5 GeV 2 , where our data have been evolved to Q 2 = 5 GeV 2 using the next-to-leading order DGLAP evolution equations and a world parametrization of the polarized parton distributions. The Ellis and Jaffe sum rule is clearly violated. Using different low x extrapolations, our integral is compatible with the Bjorken sum rule. The quark contribution to the nucleon spin is ΔΣ = 29 ± 6 % in the M S-bar scheme and ΔΣ = 37 ± 7% in the AB scheme, at Q 2 = 5 GeV 2 . The gluon contribution seems to be positive and within the range: 0 < ΔG < 2. (author)

  12. Correlating the Impact of Well-Defined Oligosaccharide Structures on Physical Stability Profiles of IgG1-Fc Glycoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Apurva S; Toprani, Vishal M; Okbazghi, Solomon Z; Kim, Jae H; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Middaugh, C Russell; Tolbert, Thomas J; Volkin, David B

    2016-02-01

    As part of a series of articles in this special issue describing 4 well-defined IgG1-Fc glycoforms as a model system for biosimilarity analysis (high mannose-Fc, Man5-Fc, GlcNAc-Fc and N297Q-Fc aglycosylated), the focus of this work is comparisons of their physical properties. A trend of decreasing apparent solubility (thermodynamic activity) by polyethylene glycol precipitation (pH 4.5, 6.0) and lower conformational stability by differential scanning calorimetry (pH 4.5) was observed with reducing size of the N297-linked oligosaccharide structures. Using multiple high-throughput biophysical techniques, the physical stability of the Fc glycoproteins was then measured in 2 formulations (NaCl and sucrose) across a wide range of temperatures (10°C-90°C) and pH (4.0-7.5) conditions. The data sets were used to construct 3-index empirical phase diagrams and radar charts to visualize the regions of protein structural stability. Each glycoform showed improved stability in the sucrose (vs. salt) formulation. The HM-Fc and Man5-Fc displayed the highest relative stability, followed by GlcNAc-Fc, with N297Q-Fc being the least stable. Thus, the overall physical stability profiles of the 4 IgG1-Fc glycoforms also show a correlation with oligosaccharide structure. These data sets are used to develop a mathematical model for biosimilarity analysis (as described in a companion article by Kim et al. in this issue). Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. cAMP promotes the synthesis in early G1 of gp115, a yeast glycoprotein containing glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandori, R; Popolo, L; Vai, M; Alberghina, L

    1990-08-25

    The glycoprotein gp115 (Mr = 115,000, pI 4.8-5) is localized in the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and maximally expressed during G1 phase. To gain insight on the mechanism regulating its synthesis, we have examined various conditions of cell proliferation arrest. We used pulse-labeling experiments with [35S]methionine and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis, which allow the detection of the well characterized 100-kDa precursor of gp115 (p100). In the cAMP-requiring mutant cyr1, p100 synthesis is active during exponential growth, shut off by cAMP removal, and induced when growth is restored by cAMP readdition. The inhibition of p100 synthesis also occurs in TS1 mutant cells (ras1ras2-ts1) shifted from 24 to 37 degrees C. During nitrogen starvation of rca1 cells, a mutant permeable to cAMP, p100 synthesis is also inhibited. cAMP complements the effect of ammonium deprivation, promoting p100 synthesis, even when added to cells which have already entered G0. Experiments with the bcy1 and cyr1bcy1 mutants have indicated the involvement of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases in the control of p100 synthesis. Moreover, the synthesis of p100 was unaffected in A364A cells, terminally arrested at START B by alpha-factor. These results indicate that the switch operating on p100 synthesis is localized in early G1 (START A) and is one of the multiple events controlled by the cAMP pathway.

  14. Modeling ERBB receptor-regulated G1/S transition to find novel targets for de novo trastuzumab resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thieffry Denis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In breast cancer, overexpression of the transmembrane tyrosine kinase ERBB2 is an adverse prognostic marker, and occurs in almost 30% of the patients. For therapeutic intervention, ERBB2 is targeted by monoclonal antibody trastuzumab in adjuvant settings; however, de novo resistance to this antibody is still a serious issue, requiring the identification of additional targets to overcome resistance. In this study, we have combined computational simulations, experimental testing of simulation results, and finally reverse engineering of a protein interaction network to define potential therapeutic strategies for de novo trastuzumab resistant breast cancer. Results First, we employed Boolean logic to model regulatory interactions and simulated single and multiple protein loss-of-functions. Then, our simulation results were tested experimentally by producing single and double knockdowns of the network components and measuring their effects on G1/S transition during cell cycle progression. Combinatorial targeting of ERBB2 and EGFR did not affect the response to trastuzumab in de novo resistant cells, which might be due to decoupling of receptor activation and cell cycle progression. Furthermore, examination of c-MYC in resistant as well as in sensitive cell lines, using a specific chemical inhibitor of c-MYC (alone or in combination with trastuzumab, demonstrated that both trastuzumab sensitive and resistant cells responded to c-MYC perturbation. Conclusion In this study, we connected ERBB signaling with G1/S transition of the cell cycle via two major cell signaling pathways and two key transcription factors, to model an interaction network that allows for the identification of novel targets in the treatment of trastuzumab resistant breast cancer. Applying this new strategy, we found that, in contrast to trastuzumab sensitive breast cancer cells, combinatorial targeting of ERBB receptors or of key signaling intermediates does not

  15. Effect of different drying methods on the composition of steviol glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-González, Irma; Betancur-Ancona, David; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Moguel-Ordóñez, Yolanda

    2017-01-01

    Drying techniques can modify the composition of certain plant compounds. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the effect of different drying methods on steviol glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves. Four different drying methods were applied to Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves, which were then subjected to aqueous extraction. Radiation or convection drying was performed in stoves at 60°C, whereas shade or sun drying methods were applied at 29.7°C and 70% of relative humidity. Stevioside, rebaudioside A, rebaudioside B, rebaudioside C, rebaudioside D, dulcoside A, and steviolbioside were quantified by a validated HPLC method. Among steviol glycosides, the content (g 100 g-1 dry basis) of stevioside, rebaudioside A, rebaudioside B, and rebaudioside C varied according to the drying method. The total glycoside content was higher in sun-dried samples, with no significant differences compared to shade or convection drying, whereas radiation drying adversely affected the content of rebaudioside A and rebaudioside C (p <0.01) and was therefore a method lowering total glycoside content. The effect of the different drying methods was also reflected in the proportion of the sweetener profile. Convection drying could be suitable for modern food processing industries while shadow or sun drying may be a low-cost alternative for farmers.

  16. Tuning the composition of metastable CoxNiyMg100−xy(OH)(OCH3) nanoplates for optimizing robust methane dry reforming catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Xiaoli; Liu, Zhiting; Zhu, Yi-An

    2015-01-01

    of the metastable precursor CoxNiyMg100−x−y(OH)(OCH3) derived from solvothermal synthesis. The catalyst composition and reaction conditions have been modulated to achieve maximum coke resistance and catalyst stability. Long-term stability for 1000 h time on stream at 800°C has been achieved for the optimized Co0.......075Ni7.425Mg92.5O catalyst. The role of Co in the catalyst has been disclosed through kinetic measurements and detailed characterization of the spent catalysts. Co is enriched on the Co–Ni alloy surface under reforming conditions and accelerates the gasification of coke intermediates. Co also enhances...

  17. DISSOLUTION BEHAVIOR OF BIOACTIVE GLASS CERAMICS WITH DIFFERENT CaO/MgO RATIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD USMAN HASHMI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, powders of three different compositions, each having 34 SiO2-14.5 P2O5-1 CaF2-0.5 MgF (% wt and ratio of CaO/MgO varying from 11.5:1 to 1:11.5 were thoroughly mixed and melted under oxy-acetylene flame in a fire clay crucible that made the glass formation cheaper in time and cost. The melt of each composition was quenched in water to form three different glasses. Every glass was sintered at 950°C to form three glass ceramics named G1, G2 and G3 respectively. To study the dissolution behavior, each sample was immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF for 2, 5, 10, 20 and 25 days at room temperature. Thin film XRD analysis revealed that the samples with larger CaO/MgO ratio exhibited better bioactivity. pH of SBF increased efficiently in case of G1 whereas in case of G2 and G3, this increase was slower due to greater amount of MgO. The concentrations of Ca, P, Mg and Si ions were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. EDS analysis showed the increase in P and Ca ions and presence of C in G1 after 5 days immersion and after 10 days, in case of G2 indicating the higher formation rate of hydroxycarbonate Apatite layer in G1 as compared to G2 due to greater CaO/MgO ratio whereas in G3 Mg-hydroxycarbonate apatite (Ca(Mg5(CO3(PO43(OH (heneuite layer was recognized after 20 days showing the least bioactivity due to very large amount of Mg and the least CaO/MgO ratio.

  18. The wet destruction of dry organic material in a closed quartz tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Das, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative, rapid destruction of dry organic materials is necessary in many cases. The application of wet mineralization in a closed quartz tube and the optimization of destruction conditions are described. The procedure takes approximately 3.5 hours for 20 samples. The method was checked by radiotracer and activation experiments. The ratio of the Hg-203 count-rates of spiked and destructed samples to that of standards is 0.991+-0.014. The results of the instrumental analysis for tobacco and standard kale are: tobacco (84+-13) ng.g -1 , standard kale (155+-7)ng.g -1 . The average of the data for kale, reported in literature, is (150+-8)ng.g -1 . Results after destruction are: tobacco (82+-6)ng.g -1 , standard kale (158+-16)ng.g -1 . (N.L.Gy.)

  19. Prolonged early G1 arrest by selective CDK4/CDK6 inhibition sensitizes myeloma cells to cytotoxic killing through cell cycle–coupled loss of IRF4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangao; Di Liberto, Maurizio; Jayabalan, David; Liang, Jun; Ely, Scott; Bretz, Jamieson; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Louie, Tracey; Chen, Isan; Randolph, Sophia; Hahn, William C.; Staudt, Louis M.; Niesvizky, Ruben; Moore, Malcolm A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and CDK6 by gain of function or loss of inhibition is common in human cancer, including multiple myeloma, but success in targeting CDK with broad-spectrum inhibitors has been modest. By selective and reversible inhibition of CDK4/CDK6, we have developed a strategy to both inhibit proliferation and enhance cytotoxic killing of cancer cells. We show that induction of prolonged early-G1 arrest (pG1) by CDK4/CDK6 inhibition halts gene expression in early-G1 and prevents expression of genes programmed for other cell-cycle phases. Removal of the early-G1 block leads to S-phase synchronization (pG1-S) but fails to completely restore scheduled gene expression. Consequently, the IRF4 protein required to protect myeloma cells from apoptosis is markedly reduced in pG1 and further in pG1-S in response to cytotoxic agents, such as the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. The coordinated loss of IRF4 and gain of Bim sensitize myeloma tumor cells to bortezomib-induced apoptosis in pG1 in the absence of Noxa and more profoundly in pG1-S in cooperation with Noxa in vitro. Induction of pG1 and pG1-S by reversible CDK4/CDK6 inhibition further augments tumor-specific bortezomib killing in myeloma xenografts. Reversible inhibition of CDK4/CDK6 in sequential combination therapy thus represents a novel mechanism-based cancer therapy. PMID:22718837

  20. Prolonged early G(1) arrest by selective CDK4/CDK6 inhibition sensitizes myeloma cells to cytotoxic killing through cell cycle-coupled loss of IRF4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangao; Di Liberto, Maurizio; Jayabalan, David; Liang, Jun; Ely, Scott; Bretz, Jamieson; Shaffer, Arthur L; Louie, Tracey; Chen, Isan; Randolph, Sophia; Hahn, William C; Staudt, Louis M; Niesvizky, Ruben; Moore, Malcolm A S; Chen-Kiang, Selina

    2012-08-02

    Dysregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and CDK6 by gain of function or loss of inhibition is common in human cancer, including multiple myeloma, but success in targeting CDK with broad-spectrum inhibitors has been modest. By selective and reversible inhibition of CDK4/CDK6, we have developed a strategy to both inhibit proliferation and enhance cytotoxic killing of cancer cells. We show that induction of prolonged early-G(1) arrest (pG1) by CDK4/CDK6 inhibition halts gene expression in early-G(1) and prevents expression of genes programmed for other cell-cycle phases. Removal of the early-G(1) block leads to S-phase synchronization (pG1-S) but fails to completely restore scheduled gene expression. Consequently, the IRF4 protein required to protect myeloma cells from apoptosis is markedly reduced in pG1 and further in pG1-S in response to cytotoxic agents, such as the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. The coordinated loss of IRF4 and gain of Bim sensitize myeloma tumor cells to bortezomib-induced apoptosis in pG1 in the absence of Noxa and more profoundly in pG1-S in cooperation with Noxa in vitro. Induction of pG1 and pG1-S by reversible CDK4/CDK6 inhibition further augments tumor-specific bortezomib killing in myeloma xenografts. Reversible inhibition of CDK4/CDK6 in sequential combination therapy thus represents a novel mechanism-based cancer therapy.

  1. Drying of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Geiker, Mette Rica; Nygaard, Peter Vagn

    2002-01-01

    Estimated and measured relative humidity (RH) change during drying are compared for two concretes, 1: w/c=0.46 and 2: w/(c+0.5fa+2sf)=0.50. The estimations were undertaken by means of the Swedish program TorkaS 1.0. Measurements were performed by RH-sensors type Humi-Guard. Drying of 150 mm thick...... samples from sides at 60% RH and 22 °C took place from 4 to 56 days after casting. At the end of the drying period the measured RH was about 4% lower than the estimated RH at 1/5th depth from the exposed surface for both concretes. In the middle of the samples, the measured RH of concretes 1 and 2 were 2...

  2. Pecan drying with silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, S.R.; Chhinnan, M.S.

    1983-07-01

    High moisture in-shell pecans were dried by keeping them in direct and indirect contact with silica gel to investigate their drying characteristics. In-shell pecans were also dried with ambient air from a controlled environment chamber and with air dehumidified by silica gel. Direct contact and dehumidified air drying seemed feasible approaches.

  3. QRLs for tomato powdery mildew resisance (Oidium lycopersici) in Lycopersicon parviflorum G1.1601 colocalize with two qualitative powdery mildew resistance genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Y.; Huang, C.C.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Meijer-Dekens, R.G.; Bonnema, A.B.; Lindhout, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is susceptible to the powdery mildew Oidium lycopersici, but several wild relatives such as Lycopersicon parviflorum G1.1601 are completely resistant. An F-2 population from a cross of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Moneymaker x Lycopersicon parviflorum G1.1601 was used

  4. Effect of sterilization process on surface characteristics and biocompatibility of pure Mg and MgCa alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.L.; Zhou, W.R.; Wu, Y.H.; Cheng, Y.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of various sterilization methods on surface characteristics and biocompatibility of MgCa alloy, with pure Mg as a comparison, including steam autoclave sterilization (SA), ethylene oxide steam sterilization (EO), glutaraldehyde sterilization (GD), dry heat sterilization (DH) and Co60 γ ray radiation sterilization (R) technologies. The surface characterizations were performed by environmental scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, water contact angle and surface free energy measurement, whereas the cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility were evaluated by cellular adhesive experiment, platelet adhesion and hemolysis test. The results showed that the five sterilization processes caused more changes on the surface of MgCa alloy than that on the surface of pure Mg. The GD sterilization caused the most obvious changes on the surface of the pure Mg, and the SA sterilization made the largest alteration on the MgCa alloy surface. The GD and DH sterilization processes could cause increases on surface free energy for both pure Mg and MgCa alloys, while the other three sterilization processes reduced the surface free energy. The DH and GD sterilization processes caused the least alteration on the cell adhesion on pure Mg surface, whereas the EO sterilization performed the greatest impact on the cell adhesion on the Mg–Ca alloy surface. The hemolysis percentage of pure Mg and MgCa alloys were reduced by SA sterilization, meanwhile the other four sterilization processes increased their hemolysis percentages significantly, especially for the EO sterilization. - Highlights: • The effect of sterilization on surface chemistry and biocompatibility was studied. • Sterilization caused more surface changes on MgCa alloy than pure Mg. • Co60 γ ray radiation is the most appropriate sterilization process

  5. Characteristics of Timbers Dried Using Kiln Drying and Radio Frequency-Vacuum Drying Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabidin Zairul Amin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy hardwoods are difficult-to-dry timbers as they are prone to checking and internal stresses when dried using a conventional kiln drying system. These timbers are usually dried naturally to reach 15% to 19% moisture content with an acceptable defects. Besides long drying time, timbers at these moisture contents are not suitable for indoor applications since they will further dry and causing, for example, jointing and lamination failures. Drying to a lower moisture content could only be achieved in artificial drying kilns such as conventional kiln, dehumidification kiln, solar kiln, radio frequency-vacuum, etc. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of 30 mm and 50 mm thick kekatong (Cynometra spp. timber dried using kiln drying (KD and radio frequency-vacuum drying (RFV system. The investigation involved drying time, moisture content (MC variations between and within boards, drying defects, shrinkage, and drying stress. Drying defects include checks (surface, end, and internal checks and warping (bowing, cuping, spring, and twisting. The results showed that RFV drying time was reduced to 50% compared to the KD. RFV dried boards demonstrated a more uniform MC between and within boards. Shrinkage in width and thickness, as well as tangential/radial and volumetric shrinkages were substantially less in RFV boards. The amount of cupping, bowing and spring were very low and negligible in all drying runs. There was no twisting observed in all drying methods. The number of stress-free RFV board was higher than KD. With proper procedure, the RFV technology could be used for drying heavy hardwoods which are difficult to dry in conventional kilns due to excessive drying times and degradation.

  6. NBPF1, a tumor suppressor candidate in neuroblastoma, exerts growth inhibitory effects by inducing a G1 cell cycle arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andries, Vanessa; Vandepoele, Karl; Staes, Katrien; Berx, Geert; Bogaert, Pieter; Van Isterdael, Gert; Ginneberge, Daisy; Parthoens, Eef; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Gevaert, Kris; Roy, Frans van

    2015-01-01

    NBPF1 (Neuroblastoma Breakpoint Family, member 1) was originally identified in a neuroblastoma patient on the basis of its disruption by a chromosomal translocation t(1;17)(p36.2;q11.2). Considering this genetic defect and the frequent genomic alterations of the NBPF1 locus in several cancer types, we hypothesized that NBPF1 is a tumor suppressor. Decreased expression of NBPF1 in neuroblastoma cell lines with loss of 1p36 heterozygosity and the marked decrease of anchorage-independent clonal growth of DLD1 colorectal carcinoma cells with induced NBPF1 expression further suggest that NBPF1 functions as tumor suppressor. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved. Expression of NBPF was analyzed in human skin and human cervix by immunohistochemistry. The effects of NBPF1 on the cell cycle were evaluated by flow cytometry. We investigated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR the expression profile of a panel of genes important in cell cycle regulation. Protein levels of CDKN1A-encoded p21 CIP1/WAF1 were determined by western blotting and the importance of p53 was shown by immunofluorescence and by a loss-of-function approach. LC-MS/MS analysis was used to investigate the proteome of DLD1 colon cancer cells with induced NBPF1 expression. Possible biological interactions between the differentially regulated proteins were investigated with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. We show that NBPF is expressed in the non-proliferative suprabasal layers of squamous stratified epithelia of human skin and cervix. Forced expression of NBPF1 in HEK293T cells resulted in a G1 cell cycle arrest that was accompanied by upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 CIP1/WAF1 in a p53-dependent manner. Additionally, forced expression of NBPF1 in two p53-mutant neuroblastoma cell lines also resulted in a G1 cell cycle arrest and CDKN1A upregulation. However, CDKN1A upregulation by NBPF1 was not observed in the DLD1 cells, which demonstrates that NBPF1 exerts cell

  7. FREEZE DRYING PROCESS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Soham Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Among the various methods of drying, this article has mentioned only one most important method, “Freeze drying”. This method is mainly used for the drying of thermo labile materials. This method works on the principle of sublimation. This method is divided into 3 steps for its better understanding; these are Freezing, Primary drying, and secondary drying. There are many advantages and disadvantages of this method, but still this is the most useful drying method nowadays.

  8. Comparison of carrot (Daucus carota drying in microwave and in vacuum microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Béttega

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying is a single operation employed to prolong the life of a large quantity of vegetables. Carrot (Daucus carota drying has been the subject of many studies. This plant has been highlighted in the human diet for having high nutritional value, mainly due to the high content of β-carotene. In this work, carrot drying behavior was studied in a regular microwave dryer and a vacuum microwave dryer. A vacuum of 450 mmHg was applied for drying of carrot in different geometrical shapes (cubes, discs and sticks. The samples were dried at power ratings of 1.0 W/g, 1.5 W/g and 2.0 W/g for both methods of drying. The evolution of physical properties such as density, volume and porosity was monitored and related to the moisture content of the sample and to the method of drying and power rating used. The geometric shape of the sample influenced the drying kinetics and it was verified that the cubic form was responsible for a slower drying. The application of vacuum showed no major changes in the drying kinetics in microwave but influenced the physical properties of the material. The influence of power ratings on the content of β-carotene was also evaluated and discussed. The main difference observed was the lower shrinkage of the samples dried in the vacuum microwave compared to those dried only in microwave.

  9. Volatile composition and sensory profile of shiitake mushrooms as affected by drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politowicz, Joanna; Lech, Krzysztof; Lipan, Leontina; Figiel, Adam; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2018-03-01

    One of the best preservation method for long-term storage is drying. In this work, the influence of different drying methods on aroma and sensory profile of shiitake mushroom was evaluated. The drying methods tested were: convective drying (CD), freeze-drying (FD), vacuum-microwave drying (VMD), and a combination of convective pre-drying and vacuum-microwave finish-drying (CPD-VMFD). The volatile composition of fresh and dried shiitake mushrooms was analysed by SPME, GC-MS and GC-FID, and showed the presence of 71 volatile compounds, most of them present in all dried samples but with quantitative variation. The major volatile compounds in fresh shiitake were 1-octen-3-ol (20.2%), 2-octanone (20.7%), 1,2,4-trithiolane (9.8%), and 1,2,3,5,6-pentathiepane (8.2%). Drying of shiitake mushrooms caused significant losses of C8 compounds and cyclic sulfur compounds, such as 1,2,4-trithiolane (V31) and 1,2,4,5-tetrathiane (V57). Samples dried at CD 80 °C implied a relative short drying time (120 min), had the highest contents of total volatiles (1594 μg 100 g -1 ) and cyclic sulfur compounds (e.g. V57 126 μg 100 g -1 ), and the highest intensity of most of the key positive sensory attributes, such as inner colour (7.0), fresh shiitake flavour (6.7), and sponginess (6.2). The best dehydration methods, resulting in the highest total concentrations of volatile compounds and high intensity of key sensory attributes were FD (if vacuum and liquid nitrogen facilities are available) and CD at 80 °C (for companies with vacuum and liquid nitrogen facilities). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Dry piston coal feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  11. Dry Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination of heredity and environmental factors, including smoking and diet. The condition develops as the eye ages. Dry ... nonsmokers. Ask your doctor for help to stop smoking. Maintain a ... controlling your diet. Choose a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. ...

  12. Essays on Dry Ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G. Chandrakant (Gujar)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDue to several reasons, currently the global supply chains are getting stretched further away into the hinterlands from the gateway seaports. This single fact enhances the importance of dry ports. It would not be against logic, to state that in coming times, as a result of ever-growing

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bloodshot when I wake up? Jun 26, 2016 Why are my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Can light sensitivity from Parkinson’s ...

  14. Direct radiocarbon dates for Vindija G1 and Velika Pećina Late Pleistocene hominid remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred H.; Trinkaus, Erik; Pettitt, Paul B.; Karavanić, Ivor; Paunović, Maja

    1999-01-01

    New accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates taken directly on human remains from the Late Pleistocene sites of Vindija and Velika Pećina in the Hrvatsko Zagorje of Croatia are presented. Hominid specimens from both sites have played critical roles in the development of current perspectives on modern human evolutionary emergence in Europe. Dates of ≈28 thousand years (ka) before the present (B.P.) and ≈29 ka B.P. for two specimens from Vindija G1 establish them as the most recent dated Neandertals in the Eurasian range of these archaic humans. The human frontal bone from Velika Pećina, generally considered one of the earliest representatives of modern humans in Europe, dated to ≈5 ka B.P., rendering it no longer pertinent to discussions of modern human origins. Apart from invalidating the only radiometrically based example of temporal overlap between late Neandertal and early modern human fossil remains from within any region of Europe, these dates raise the question of when early modern humans first dispersed into Europe and have implications for the nature and geographic patterning of biological and cultural interactions between these populations and the Neandertals. PMID:10535913

  15. The G1/S Specific Cyclin D2 Is a Regulator of HIV-1 Restriction in Non-proliferating Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Roger; Pujantell, Maria; Riveira-Muñoz, Eva; Puig, Teresa; Torres-Torronteras, Javier; Martí, Ramón; Clotet, Bonaventura; Ampudia, Rosa M.; Ballana, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population strongly influenced by differentiation stimuli that become susceptible to HIV-1 infection after inactivation of the restriction factor SAMHD1 by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). Here, we have used primary human monocyte-derived macrophages differentiated through different stimuli to evaluate macrophage heterogeneity on cell activation and proliferation and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Stimulation of monocytes with GM-CSF induces a non-proliferating macrophage population highly restrictive to HIV-1 infection, characterized by the upregulation of the G1/S-specific cyclin D2, known to control early steps of cell cycle progression. Knockdown of cyclin D2, enhances HIV-1 replication in GM-CSF macrophages through inactivation of SAMHD1 restriction factor by phosphorylation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that cyclin D2 forms a complex with CDK4 and p21, a factor known to restrict HIV-1 replication by affecting the function of the downstream cascade that leads to SAMHD1 deactivation. Thus, we demonstrate that cyclin D2 acts as regulator of cell cycle proteins affecting SAMHD1-mediated HIV-1 restriction in non-proliferating macrophages. PMID:27541004

  16. Ponatinib promotes a G1 cell-cycle arrest of merlin/NF2-deficient human schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Alejandra M; Garcia, Jeanine; Bott, Marga; Klingeman Plati, Stephani; Dinh, Christine T; Bracho, Olena R; Yan, Denise; Zou, Bing; Mittal, Rahul; Telischi, Fred F; Liu, Xue-Zhong; Chang, Long-Sheng; Welling, D Bradley; Copik, Alicja J; Fernández-Valle, Cristina

    2017-05-09

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a genetic syndrome that predisposes individuals to multiple benign tumors of the central and peripheral nervous systems, including vestibular schwannomas. Currently, there are no FDA approved drug therapies for NF2. Loss of function of merlin encoded by the NF2 tumor suppressor gene leads to activation of multiple mitogenic signaling cascades, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and SRC in Schwann cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether ponatinib, an FDA-approved ABL/SRC inhibitor, reduced proliferation and/or survival of merlin-deficient human Schwann cells (HSC). Merlin-deficient HSC had higher levels of phosphorylated PDGFRα/β, and SRC than merlin-expressing HSC. A similar phosphorylation pattern was observed in phospho-protein arrays of human vestibular schwannoma samples compared to normal HSC. Ponatinib reduced merlin-deficient HSC viability in a dose-dependent manner by decreasing phosphorylation of PDGFRα/β, AKT, p70S6K, MEK1/2, ERK1/2 and STAT3. These changes were associated with decreased cyclin D1 and increased p27Kip1levels, leading to a G1 cell-cycle arrest as assessed by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Ponatinib did not modulate ABL, SRC, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), or paxillin phosphorylation levels. These results suggest that ponatinib is a potential therapeutic agent for NF2-associated schwannomas and warrants further in vivo investigation.

  17. The APC/C Coordinates Retinal Differentiation with G1 Arrest through the Nek2-Dependent Modulation of Wingless Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Torcato; Meghini, Francesco; Florio, Francesca; Kimata, Yuu

    2017-01-09

    The cell cycle is coordinated with differentiation during animal development. Here we report a cell-cycle-independent developmental role for a master cell-cycle regulator, the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), in the regulation of cell fate through modulation of Wingless (Wg) signaling. The APC/C controls both cell-cycle progression and postmitotic processes through ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis. Through an RNAi screen in the developing Drosophila eye, we found that partial APC/C inactivation severely inhibits retinal differentiation independently of cell-cycle defects. The differentiation inhibition coincides with hyperactivation of Wg signaling caused by the accumulation of a Wg modulator, Drosophila Nek2 (dNek2). The APC/C degrades dNek2 upon synchronous G1 arrest prior to differentiation, which allows retinal differentiation through local suppression of Wg signaling. We also provide evidence that decapentaplegic signaling may posttranslationally regulate this APC/C function. Thus, the APC/C coordinates cell-fate determination with the cell cycle through the modulation of developmental signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  19. Characterization of the Expression of the RNA Binding Protein eIF4G1 and Its Clinicopathological Correlation with Serous Ovarian Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfang Li

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most lethal type of malignant tumor in gynecological cancers and is associated with a high percentage of late diagnosis and chemotherapy resistance. Thus, it is urgent to identify a tumor marker or a molecular target that allows early detection and effective treatment. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs are crucial in various cellular processes at the post-transcriptional level. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma, 1(eIF4G1, an RNA-binding protein, facilitates the recruitment of mRNA to the ribosome, which is a rate-limiting step during the initiation phase of protein synthesis. However, little is known regarding the characteristics of eIF4G1 expression and its clinical significance in ovarian cancer. Therefore, we propose to investigate the expression and clinicopathological significance of eIF4G1 in ovarian cancer patients.We performed Real-time PCR in 40 fresh serous ovarian cancer tissues and 27 normal ovarian surface epithelial cell specimens to assess eIF4G1mRNA expression. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was used to examine the expression of eIF4G1 at the protein level in 134 patients with serous ovarian cancer and 18 normal ovarian tissues. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine the correlation of the eIF4G1 protein levels with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis in ovarian cancer.The expression of eIF4G1 was upregulated in serous ovarian cancer tissues at both the mRNA (P = 0.0375 and the protein (P = 0.0007 levels. The eIF4G1 expression was significantly correlated with the clinical tumor stage (P = 0.0004 and omentum metastasis (P = 0.024. Moreover, patients with low eIF4G1 protein expression had a longer overall survival time (P = 0.026.These data revealed that eIF4G1 is markedly expressed in serous ovarian cancer and that upregulation of the eIF4G1 protein expression is significantly associated with an advanced tumor stage. Besides, the patients with lower expression of eIF4G1 tend

  20. Stabilization of Reactive MgO Surfaces by Ni Doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazheika, Aliaksei; Levchenko, Sergey V.

    Ni-MgO solid solutions are promising materials for catalytic reduction of CO2 and dry reforming of CH4. To explain the catalytic activity, an ab initio study of Ni-substitutional defects in MgO (NiMg) has been performed. At first, the validation of the theory level was done. We compared results of CCSD(T) embedded-cluster calculations of NiMg formation energies and adsorption energies of CO, CO2 and H2 on them to the HSE(α) hybrid DFT functional with the fraction of the exact exchange α varied between 0 and 1. HSE(0.3) was found to be the best compromise in this study. Our periodic HSE(0.3) calculations show that NiMg defects are most stable at corner sites, followed by steps, and are least stable at (001) terraces. Thus, Ni-doping stabilizes stepped MgO surfaces. The dissociative adsorption of H2 on the terrace is found to be endothermic (+ 1 . 1 eV), whereas on (110) surface with NiMg it is highly exothermic (- 1 . 6 eV). Adsorbed CO2 is also significantly stabilized (- 0 . 6 vs. - 2 . 2 eV). These findings explain recent microcalorimetry measurements of H2 and CO2 adsorption at doped Ni-MgO samples. partially supported by UniCat (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft).

  1. Loss of lysosomal membrane protein NCU-G1 in mice results in spontaneous liver fibrosis with accumulation of lipofuscin and iron in Kupffer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Y. Kong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human kidney predominant protein, NCU-G1, is a highly conserved protein with an unknown biological function. Initially described as a nuclear protein, it was later shown to be a bona fide lysosomal integral membrane protein. To gain insight into the physiological function of NCU-G1, mice with no detectable expression of this gene were created using a gene-trap strategy, and Ncu-g1gt/gt mice were successfully characterized. Lysosomal disorders are mainly caused by lack of or malfunctioning of proteins in the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. The clinical symptoms vary, but often include liver dysfunction. Persistent liver damage activates fibrogenesis and, if unremedied, eventually leads to liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and death. We demonstrate that the disruption of Ncu-g1 results in spontaneous liver fibrosis in mice as the predominant phenotype. Evidence for an increased rate of hepatic cell death, oxidative stress and active fibrogenesis were detected in Ncu-g1gt/gt liver. In addition to collagen deposition, microscopic examination of liver sections revealed accumulation of autofluorescent lipofuscin and iron in Ncu-g1gt/gt Kupffer cells. Because only a few transgenic mouse models have been identified with chronic liver injury and spontaneous liver fibrosis development, we propose that the Ncu-g1gt/gt mouse could be a valuable new tool in the development of novel treatments for the attenuation of fibrosis due to chronic liver damage.

  2. Metabolism of methoxychlor by the P450-monooxygenase CYP6G1 involved in insecticide resistance of Drosophila melanogaster after expression in cell cultures of Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussen, Nicole; Schuphan, Ingolf; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2010-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP6G1 of Drosophila melanogaster was heterologously expressed in a cell suspension culture of Nicotiana tabacum. This in vitro system was used to study the capability of CYP6G1 to metabolize the insecticide methoxychlor (=1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane, 1) against the background of endogenous enzymes of the corresponding non-transgenic culture. The Cyp6g1-transgenic cell culture metabolized 96% of applied methoxychlor (45.8 microg per assay) within 24 h by demethylation and hydroxylation mainly to trishydroxy and catechol methoxychlor (16 and 17%, resp.). About 34% of the metabolism and the distinct formation of trishydroxy and catechol methoxychlor were due to foreign enzyme CYP6G1. Furthermore, methoxychlor metabolism was inhibited by 43% after simultaneous addition of piperonyl butoxide (458 microg), whereas inhibition in the non-transgenic culture amounted to 92%. Additionally, the rate of glycosylation was reduced in both cultures. These results were supported by the inhibition of the metabolism of the insecticide imidacloprid (6; 20 microg, 24 h) in the Cyp6g1-transgenic culture by 82% in the presence of piperonyl butoxide (200 microg). Due to CYP6G1 being responsible for imidacloprid resistance of Drosophila or being involved in DDT resistance, it is likely that CYP6G1 conveys resistance to methoxychlor (1). Furthermore, treating Drosophila with piperonyl butoxide could weaken the observed resistance phenomena.

  3. Improved hydrogen sorption kinetics in wet ball milled Mg hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Li

    2011-05-04

    In this work, wet ball milling method is used in order to improve hydrogen sorption behaviour due to its improved microstructure of solid hydrogen materials. Compared to traditional ball milling method, wet ball milling has benefits on improvement of MgH{sub 2} microstructure and further influences on its hydrogen sorption behavior. With the help of solvent tetrahydrofuran (THF), wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder has much smaller particle size and its specific surface area is 7 times as large as that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder. Although after ball milling the grain size is decreased a lot compared to as-received MgH{sub 2} powder, the grain size of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is larger than that of dry ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder due to the lubricant effect of solvent THF during wet ball milling. The improved particle size and specific surface area of wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder is found to be determining its hydrogen sorption kinetics especially at relatively low temperatures. And it also shows good cycling sorption behavior, which decides on its industrial applicability. With three different catalysts MgH{sub 2} powder shows improved hydrogen sorption behavior as well as the cyclic sorption behavior. Among them, the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst is found to be the most effective one in this work. Compared to the wet ball milled MgH{sub 2} powder, the particle size and specific surface area of the MgH{sub 2} powder with catalysts are similar to the previous ones, while the grain size of the MgH{sub 2} with catalysts is much finer. In this case, two reasons for hydrogen sorption improvement are suggested: one is the reduction of the grain size. The other may be as pointed out in some literatures that formation of new oxidation could enhance the hydrogen sorption kinetics, which is also the reason why its hydrogen capacity is decreased compared to without catalysts. After further ball milling, the specific surface area of wet ball milled Mg

  4. Disease-associated extracellular loop mutations in the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G1 (ADGRG1; GPR56) differentially regulate downstream signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Ayush; Hall, Randy A

    2017-06-09

    Mutations to the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor ADGRG1 (G1; also known as GPR56) underlie the neurological disorder bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria. Disease-associated mutations in G1 studied to date are believed to induce complete loss of receptor function through disruption of either receptor trafficking or signaling activity. Given that N-terminal truncation of G1 and other adhesion G protein-coupled receptors has been shown to significantly increase the receptors' constitutive signaling, we examined two different bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria-inducing extracellular loop mutations (R565W and L640R) in the context of both full-length and N-terminally truncated (ΔNT) G1. Interestingly, we found that these mutations reduced surface expression of full-length G1 but not G1-ΔNT in HEK-293 cells. Moreover, the mutations ablated receptor-mediated activation of serum response factor luciferase, a classic measure of Gα 12/13 -mediated signaling, but had no effect on G1-mediated signaling to nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) luciferase. Given these differential signaling results, we sought to further elucidate the pathway by which G1 can activate NFAT luciferase. We found no evidence that ΔNT activation of NFAT is dependent on Gα q/11 -mediated or β-arrestin-mediated signaling but rather involves liberation of Gβγ subunits and activation of calcium channels. These findings reveal that disease-associated mutations to the extracellular loops of G1 differentially alter receptor trafficking, depending on the presence of the N terminus, and differentially alter signaling to distinct downstream pathways. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. The Post-periapsis Evolution of Galactic Center Source G1: The Second Case of a Resolved Tidal Interaction with a Supermassive Black Hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzel, G.; Sitarski, B. N.; Ghez, A. M.; Morris, M. R.; Hees, A.; Do, T.; Naoz, S.; Boehle, A.; Martinez, G.; Chappell, S.; Meyer, L.; Yelda, S.; Becklin, E. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Lu, J. R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Schödel, R. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia S/N, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Matthews, K., E-mail: witzel@astro.ucla.edu [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We present new adaptive optics (AO) imaging and spectroscopic measurements of Galactic center source G1 from W. M. Keck Observatory. Our goal is to understand its nature and relationship to G2, which is the first example of a spatially resolved object interacting with a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Both objects have been monitored with AO for the past decade (2003–2014) and are comparatively close to the black hole ( a {sub min} ∼ 200–300 au) on very eccentric orbits ( e {sub G1} ∼ 0.99; e {sub G2} ∼ 0.96). While G2 has been tracked before and during periapsis passage ( T {sub 0} ∼ 2014.2), G1 has been followed since soon after emerging from periapsis ( T {sub 0} ∼ 2001.3). Our observations of G1 double the previously reported observational time baseline, which improves its orbital parameter determinations. G1's orbital trajectory appears to be in the same plane as that of G2 but with a significantly different argument of periapsis (Δ ω = 21° ± 4°). This suggests that G1 is an independent object and not part of a gas stream containing G2, as has been proposed. Furthermore, we show for the first time that (1) G1 is extended in the epochs closest to periapsis along the direction of orbital motion, and (2) it becomes significantly smaller over time (450 au in 2004 to less than 170 au in 2009). Based on these observations, G1 appears to be the second example of an object tidally interacting with an SMBH. G1's existence 14 yr after periapsis, along with its compactness in epochs further from the time of periapsis, suggest that this source is stellar in nature.

  6. The Rts1 regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A is required for control of G1 cyclin transcription and nutrient modulation of cell size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Artiles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The key molecular event that marks entry into the cell cycle is transcription of G1 cyclins, which bind and activate cyclin-dependent kinases. In yeast cells, initiation of G1 cyclin transcription is linked to achievement of a critical cell size, which contributes to cell-size homeostasis. The critical cell size is modulated by nutrients, such that cells growing in poor nutrients are smaller than cells growing in rich nutrients. Nutrient modulation of cell size does not work through known critical regulators of G1 cyclin transcription and is therefore thought to work through a distinct pathway. Here, we report that Rts1, a highly conserved regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, is required for normal control of G1 cyclin transcription. Loss of Rts1 caused delayed initiation of bud growth and delayed and reduced accumulation of G1 cyclins. Expression of the G1 cyclin CLN2 from an inducible promoter rescued the delayed bud growth in rts1Delta cells, indicating that Rts1 acts at the level of transcription. Moreover, loss of Rts1 caused altered regulation of Swi6, a key component of the SBF transcription factor that controls G1 cyclin transcription. Epistasis analysis revealed that Rts1 does not work solely through several known critical upstream regulators of G1 cyclin transcription. Cells lacking Rts1 failed to undergo nutrient modulation of cell size. Together, these observations demonstrate that Rts1 is a key player in pathways that link nutrient availability, cell size, and G1 cyclin transcription. Since Rts1 is highly conserved, it may function in similar pathways in vertebrates.

  7. Live imaging-based model selection reveals periodic regulation of the stochastic G1/S phase transition in vertebrate axial development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayu Sugiyama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In multicellular organism development, a stochastic cellular response is observed, even when a population of cells is exposed to the same environmental conditions. Retrieving the spatiotemporal regulatory mode hidden in the heterogeneous cellular behavior is a challenging task. The G1/S transition observed in cell cycle progression is a highly stochastic process. By taking advantage of a fluorescence cell cycle indicator, Fucci technology, we aimed to unveil a hidden regulatory mode of cell cycle progression in developing zebrafish. Fluorescence live imaging of Cecyil, a zebrafish line genetically expressing Fucci, demonstrated that newly formed notochordal cells from the posterior tip of the embryonic mesoderm exhibited the red (G1 fluorescence signal in the developing notochord. Prior to their initial vacuolation, these cells showed a fluorescence color switch from red to green, indicating G1/S transitions. This G1/S transition did not occur in a synchronous manner, but rather exhibited a stochastic process, since a mixed population of red and green cells was always inserted between newly formed red (G1 notochordal cells and vacuolating green cells. We termed this mixed population of notochordal cells, the G1/S transition window. We first performed quantitative analyses of live imaging data and a numerical estimation of the probability of the G1/S transition, which demonstrated the existence of a posteriorly traveling regulatory wave of the G1/S transition window. To obtain a better understanding of this regulatory mode, we constructed a mathematical model and performed a model selection by comparing the results obtained from the models with those from the experimental data. Our analyses demonstrated that the stochastic G1/S transition window in the notochord travels posteriorly in a periodic fashion, with doubled the periodicity of the neighboring paraxial mesoderm segmentation. This approach may have implications for the characterization of

  8. Evolutionary changes in gene expression, coding sequence and copy-number at the Cyp6g1 locus contribute to resistance to multiple insecticides in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W R Harrop

    Full Text Available Widespread use of insecticides has led to insecticide resistance in many populations of insects. In some populations, resistance has evolved to multiple pesticides. In Drosophila melanogaster, resistance to multiple classes of insecticide is due to the overexpression of a single cytochrome P450 gene, Cyp6g1. Overexpression of Cyp6g1 appears to have evolved in parallel in Drosophila simulans, a sibling species of D. melanogaster, where it is also associated with insecticide resistance. However, it is not known whether the ability of the CYP6G1 enzyme to provide resistance to multiple insecticides evolved recently in D. melanogaster or if this function is present in all Drosophila species. Here we show that duplication of the Cyp6g1 gene occurred at least four times during the evolution of different Drosophila species, and the ability of CYP6G1 to confer resistance to multiple insecticides exists in D. melanogaster and D. simulans but not in Drosophila willistoni or Drosophila virilis. In D. virilis, which has multiple copies of Cyp6g1, one copy confers resistance to DDT and another to nitenpyram, suggesting that the divergence of protein sequence between copies subsequent to the duplication affected the activity of the enzyme. All orthologs tested conferred resistance to one or more insecticides, suggesting that CYP6G1 had the capacity to provide resistance to anthropogenic chemicals before they existed. Finally, we show that expression of Cyp6g1 in the Malpighian tubules, which contributes to DDT resistance in D. melanogaster, is specific to the D. melanogaster-D. simulans lineage. Our results suggest that a combination of gene duplication, regulatory changes and protein coding changes has taken place at the Cyp6g1 locus during evolution and this locus may play a role in providing resistance to different environmental toxins in different Drosophila species.

  9. Microencapsulação do agente quelante sulfoxina em microesferas de quitosana preparadas por spray drying como novo adsorvente para íons metálicos Microencapsulation of the chelating agent sulfoxine into microspheres of chitosan prepared by spray drying as a new adsorbent for metalic ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Vitali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new adsorbent was prepared by microencapsulation of sulfoxine into chitosan microspheres by the spray drying technique. The new adsorbent was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis of energy dispersive X-rays. The Cu(II adsorption was studied as a function of pH, time and concentration. The optimum pH was found to be 6.0. The kinetic and equilibrium data showed that the adsorption process followed the pseudo second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model over the entire concentration range. An increase of 8.0% in the maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent (53.8 mg g-1 was observed as compared to chitosan glutaraldehyde cross-linked microspheres.

  10. Microwave energy-assisted formation of bioactive CaO–MgO–SiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ogun State, South-west, Nigeria); MgO was obtained from. Mg(NO3)2·6H2O ... 2.3 Extraction of Ca from chicken eggshells. The chicken eggshells were washed with deionized water, oven-dried at .... There is no carbon peak observed .... present in critical concentrations could be biologically active. [28]. .... Solids 354 722.

  11. Turn stability in beta-hairpin peptides: Investigation of peptides containing 3:5 type I G1 bulge turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandl, Tamas; Cochran, Andrea G; Skelton, Nicholas J

    2003-02-01

    The turn-forming ability of a series of three-residue sequences was investigated by substituting them into a well-characterized beta-hairpin peptide. The starting scaffold, bhpW, is a disulfide-cyclized 10-residue peptide that folds into a stable beta-hairpin with two antiparallel strands connected by a two-residue reverse turn. Substitution of the central two residues with the three-residue test sequences leads to less stable hairpins, as judged by thiol-disulfide equilibrium measurements. However, analysis of NMR parameters indicated that each molecule retains a significant folded population, and that the type of turn adopted by the three-residue sequence is the same in all cases. The solution structure of a selected peptide with a PDG turn contained an antiparallel beta-hairpin with a 3:5 type I + G1 bulge turn. Analysis of the energetic contributions of individual turn residues in the series of peptides indicates that substitution effects have significant context dependence, limiting the predictive power of individual amino acid propensities for turn formation. The most stable and least stable sequences were also substituted into a more stable disulfide-cyclized scaffold and a linear beta-hairpin scaffold. The relative stabilities remained the same, suggesting that experimental measurements in the bhpW context are a useful way to evaluate turn stability for use in protein design projects. Moreover, these scaffolds are capable of displaying a diverse set of turns, which can be exploited for the mimicry of protein loops or for generating libraries of reverse turns.

  12. California serogroup GC (G1) glycoprotein is the principal determinant of pH-dependent cell fusion and entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plassmeyer, Matthew L.; Soldan, Samantha S.; Stachelek, Karen M.; Martin-Garcia, Julio; Gonzalez-Scarano, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Members of the California serogroup of orthobunyaviruses, particularly La Crosse (LAC) and Tahyna (TAH) viruses, are significant human pathogens in areas where their mosquito vectors are endemic. Previous studies using wild-type LAC and TAH181/57, a highly neurovirulent strain with low neuroinvasiveness (Janssen, R., Gonzalez-Scarano, F., Nathanson, N., 1984. Mechanisms of bunyavirus virulence. Comparative pathogenesis of a virulent strain of La Crosse and an avirulent strain of Tahyna virus. Lab. Invest. 50 (4), 447-455), have demonstrated that the neuroinvasive phenotype maps to the M segment, the segment that encodes the two viral glycoproteins GN (G2) and GC (G1), as well as a non-structural protein NSm. To further define the role of GN and GC in fusion and entry, we prepared a panel of recombinant M segment constructs using LAC, TAH181/57, and V22F, a monoclonal-resistant variant of LAC with deficient fusion function. These M segment constructs were then tested in two surrogate assays for virus entry: a cell-to-cell fusion assay based on T7-luciferase expression, and a pseudotype transduction assay based on the incorporation of the bunyavirus glycoproteins on an MLV backbone. Both assays demonstrated that GC is the principal determinant of virus fusion and cell entry, and furthermore that the region delineated by amino acids 860-1442, corresponding to the membrane proximal two-thirds of GC, is key to these processes. These results, coupled with structural modeling suggesting homologies between the carboxy region of GC and Sindbis virus E1, suggest that the LAC GC functions as a type II fusion protein

  13. Stratigraphy and structure of volcanic rocks in drill hole USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, R.W.; Byers, F.M. Jr.; Warner, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    Detailed subsurface studies in connection with the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations program are being conducted to investigate the stratigraphic and structural features of volcanic rocks underlying Yucca Mountain, a volcanic highland situated along the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. As part of this continuing effort, drill hole USW-G1 was cored from 292 ft to a depth of 6000 ft from March to August 1980. The stratigraphic section is composed of thick sequences of ash-flow tuff and volcanic breccia interbedded with subordinate amounts of fine- to coarse-grained volcaniclastic rocks. All rocks are of Tertiary age and vary in composition from rhyolite to dacite. The 3005-ft level in the drill hole represents a significant demarcation between unaltered and altered volcanic rocks. For the most part, tuff units above 3005 ft appear devitrified and show little secondary alteration except within tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills, where the rock contains 60 to 80% zeolites. Below 3005 ft, most rocks show intermittent to pervasive alteration to clay minerals and zeolites. Examination of core for structural features revealed the presence of 61 shear fractures, 528 joints, and 4 conspicuous fault zones. Shear fractures mainly occurred in the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, flow breccia, and near fault zones. Nearly 88% of shear and joint surfaces show evidence of coatings. Approximately 40% of the fractures were categorized as completely healed. Rock quality characteristics as defined by the core index indicate that greater amounts of broken and lost core are commonly associated with (1) the densely welded zone of the Topopah Spring, (2) highly silicified zones, and (3) fault zones

  14. Novel mutation in forkhead box G1 (FOXG1) gene in an Indian patient with Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhanjit Kumar; Jadhav, Vaishali; Ghattargi, Vikas C; Udani, Vrajesh

    2014-03-15

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the progressive loss of intellectual functioning, fine and gross motor skills and communicative abilities, deceleration of head growth, and the development of stereotypic hand movements, occurring after a period of normal development. The classic form of RTT involves mutation in MECP2 while the involvement of CDKL5 and FOXG1 genes has been identified in atypical RTT phenotype. FOXG1 gene encodes for a fork-head box protein G1, a transcription factor acting primarily as transcriptional repressor through DNA binding in the embryonic telencephalon as well as a number of other neurodevelopmental processes. In this report we have described the molecular analysis of FOXG1 gene in Indian patients with Rett syndrome. FOXG1 gene mutation analysis was done in a cohort of 34 MECP2/CDKL5 mutation negative RTT patients. We have identified a novel mutation (p. D263VfsX190) in FOXG1 gene in a patient with congenital variant of Rett syndrome. This mutation resulted into a frameshift, thereby causing an alteration in the reading frames of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. The start position of the frameshift (Asp263) and amino acid towards the carboxyl terminal end of the protein was found to be well conserved across species using multiple sequence alignment. Since the mutation is located at forkhead binding domain, the resultant mutation disrupts the secondary structure of the protein making it non-functional. This is the first report from India showing mutation in FOXG1 gene in Rett syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Selumetinib suppresses cell proliferation, migration and trigger apoptosis, G1 arrest in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Lin, Shuchen; Tseng, Kuo-Fu; Han, Kun; Wang, Yaling; Gan, Zhi-Hua; Min, Da-Liu; Hu, Hai-Yan

    2016-10-21

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has aggressive progression with poor prognosis and ineffective treatments. Selumetinib is an allosteric, ATP-noncompetitive inhibitor of MEK1/2, which has benn known as effective antineoplastic drugs for several malignant tumors. We hypothesized that Selumetinib might be potential drug for TNBC and explore the mechanism. After treated with Selumetinib, the viability and mobility of HCC1937 and MDA-MB-231 were detected by MTT, tunnel, wound-healing assay, transwell assay and FCM methods. MiR array was used to analysis the change of miRs. We predicted and verified CUL1 is the target of miR-302a using Luciferase reporter assay. We also silenced the CUL1 by siRNA, to clarify whether CUL1 take part in the cell proliferation, migration and regulated its substrate TIMP1 and TRAF2. Moreover, after transfection, the antagomir of miR-302a and CUL1 over-expressed plasmid into HCC1937 and MDA-MB-231 cell accompanied with the Selumetinib treatment, we detected the proliferation and migration again. Selumetinib reduce the proliferation, migration, triggered apoptosis and G1 arrest in TNBC cell lines. In this process, the miR-302a was up-regulated and inhibited the CUL1 expression. The later negatively regulated the TIMP1 and TRAF2. As soon as we knockdown miR-302a and over-expression CUL1 in TNBC cells, the cytotoxicity of Selumetinib was reversed. MiR-302a targeted regulated the CUL1 expression and mediated the Selumetinib-induced cytotoxicity of triple-negative breast cancer.

  16. A haploid genetic screen identifies the G1/S regulatory machinery as a determinant of Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijink, Anne Margriet; Blomen, Vincent A; Bisteau, Xavier; Degener, Fabian; Matsushita, Felipe Yu; Kaldis, Philipp; Foijer, Floris; van Vugt, Marcel A T M

    2015-12-08

    The Wee1 cell cycle checkpoint kinase prevents premature mitotic entry by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinases. Chemical inhibitors of Wee1 are currently being tested clinically as targeted anticancer drugs. Wee1 inhibition is thought to be preferentially cytotoxic in p53-defective cancer cells. However, TP53 mutant cancers do not respond consistently to Wee1 inhibitor treatment, indicating the existence of genetic determinants of Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity other than TP53 status. To optimally facilitate patient selection for Wee1 inhibition and uncover potential resistance mechanisms, identification of these currently unknown genes is necessary. The aim of this study was therefore to identify gene mutations that determine Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity. We performed a genome-wide unbiased functional genetic screen in TP53 mutant near-haploid KBM-7 cells using gene-trap insertional mutagenesis. Insertion site mapping of cells that survived long-term Wee1 inhibition revealed enrichment of G1/S regulatory genes, including SKP2, CUL1, and CDK2. Stable depletion of SKP2, CUL1, or CDK2 or chemical Cdk2 inhibition rescued the γ-H2AX induction and abrogation of G2 phase as induced by Wee1 inhibition in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines. Remarkably, live cell imaging showed that depletion of SKP2, CUL1, or CDK2 did not rescue the Wee1 inhibition-induced karyokinesis and cytokinesis defects. These data indicate that the activity of the DNA replication machinery, beyond TP53 mutation status, determines Wee1 inhibitor sensitivity, and could serve as a selection criterion for Wee1-inhibitor eligible patients. Conversely, loss of the identified S-phase genes could serve as a mechanism of acquired resistance, which goes along with development of severe genomic instability.

  17. Fc receptors for mouse IgG1 on human monocytes: polymorphism and role in antibody-induced T cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tax, W J; Hermes, F F; Willems, R W; Capel, P J; Koene, R A

    1984-09-01

    In previous studies, it was shown that there is polymorphism in the mitogenic effect of mouse IgG1 monoclonal antibodies against the T3 antigen of human T cells. This polymorphism implies that IgG1 anti-T3 antibodies are not mitogenic for T cells from 30% of healthy individuals. The present results demonstrate that this polymorphism is caused by polymorphism of an Fc receptor for mouse IgG1, present on human monocytes. The Fc receptor for murine IgG1 could be detected by a newly developed rosetting assay on monocytes from all individuals responsive to the mitogenic effect of IgG1 anti-T3 antibodies. This Fc receptor was not detectable on monocytes from those individuals exhibiting no mitogenic responses to IgG1 anti-T3 monoclonal antibodies. Cross-linking of T3 antigens appears to be essential for antibody-induced mitosis of T cells, because mononuclear cells that did not proliferate in response to WT 31 (an IgG1 antibody against T3 antigen) showed a proliferative response to Sepharose beads coated with WT 31. The Fc receptor--if functionally present--may be involved in the cross-linking of T3 antigens through anti-T3 antibodies. Further evidence for the involvement of this Fc receptor in antibody-induced T cell proliferation was provided by inhibition studies. Immune complexes containing IgG1 antibodies were able to inhibit the proliferative response to IgG1 anti-T3 antibodies. This inhibition by immune complexes appears to be mediated through the monocyte Fc receptor for mouse IgG1. These findings are important for the interpretation of previously described inhibitory effects of anti-T cell monoclonal antibodies on T cell proliferation, and show that such inhibitory effects may be monocyte-mediated (via immune complexes) rather than caused by a direct involvement of the respective T cell antigens in T cell mitosis. The Fc receptor for mouse IgG1 plays a role in antibody-induced T cell proliferation. Its polymorphism may have important implications for the

  18. Physicochemical properties of whole fruit plum powders obtained using different drying technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Lech, Krzysztof; Łysiak, Grzegorz P; Figiel, Adam

    2016-09-15

    Physicochemical quality parameters of plum powders obtained by applying conventional drying methods and their combination devised to process plums were evaluated. The effect of freeze-drying (FD), vacuum drying (VD), convective drying (CD), microwave-vacuum drying (MVD) and combination of convective pre-drying and microwave finish-drying (CPD-MVFD) affected physical (bulk density, porosity, colour, solubility) and chemical (polyphenolic compounds determined by UPLC and antioxidant capacity by TEAC ABTS and FRAP methods) properties of plum powders. The MVD at 1.2 W g(-1) and a novel combination for plum powders production - CPD-MVFD at 70 °C/1.2 W g(-1) allowed the best preservation of phenolic compounds and increased the efficiency of production. Results obtained support the use of MVD and its combination for better quality of dried plum products. The study proved that the determination of the browning index and HMF level (formed via Maillard reaction) might be good tool for monitoring the thermal processing of plum powders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  20. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional processing methods that include ... The traditional sun drying method is very inefficient as the product can take 2-. 3 days to dry. .... using a digital balance (Ohaus Corporation type). The same applied .... preservation and marketing.

  1. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  2. Stabilization of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines by Freeze Drying, Spray Drying, and Foam Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovalenti, Phillip M; Anderl, Jeff; Yee, Luisa; Nguyen, Van; Ghavami, Behnaz; Ohtake, Satoshi; Saxena, Atul; Voss, Thomas; Truong-Le, Vu

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this research is to develop stable formulations for live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) by employing the drying methods freeze drying, spray drying, and foam drying. Formulated live attenuated Type-A H1N1 and B-strain influenza vaccines with a variety of excipient combinations were dried using one of the three drying methods. Process and storage stability at 4, 25 and 37°C of the LAIV in these formulations was monitored using a TCID50 potency assay. Their immunogenicity was also evaluated in a ferret model. The thermal stability of H1N1 vaccine was significantly enhanced through application of unique formulation combinations and drying processes. Foam dried formulations were as much as an order of magnitude more stable than either spray dried or freeze dried formulations, while exhibiting low process loss and full retention of immunogenicity. Based on long-term stability data, foam dried formulations exhibited a shelf life at 4, 25 and 37°C of >2, 1.5 years and 4.5 months, respectively. Foam dried LAIV Type-B manufactured using the same formulation and process parameters as H1N1 were imparted with a similar level of stability. Foam drying processing methods with appropriate selection of formulation components can produce an order of magnitude improvement in LAIV stability over other drying methods.

  3. Myasthenia Gravis (MG): Medical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take effect, prior to surgery or for myasthenic crisis. However, some people receive regular plasmapheresis or IVIg as a supplement to immunosuppressant drugs. Pregnancy In rare cases, pregnancy appears to trigger the onset of MG. ...

  4. G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 controls adipose triglyceride lipase activity and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Laurens

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recent data suggest that adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL plays a key role in providing energy substrate from triglyceride pools and that alterations of its expression/activity relate to metabolic disturbances in skeletal muscle. Yet little is known about its regulation. We here investigated the role of the protein G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 (G0S2, recently described as an inhibitor of ATGL in white adipose tissue, in the regulation of lipolysis and oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle. Methods: We first examined G0S2 protein expression in relation to metabolic status and muscle characteristics in humans. We next overexpressed and knocked down G0S2 in human primary myotubes to assess its impact on ATGL activity, lipid turnover and oxidative metabolism, and further knocked down G0S2 in vivo in mouse skeletal muscle. Results: G0S2 protein is increased in skeletal muscle of endurance-trained individuals and correlates with markers of oxidative capacity and lipid content. Recombinant G0S2 protein inhibits ATGL activity by about 40% in lysates of mouse and human skeletal muscle. G0S2 overexpression augments (+49%, p < 0.05 while G0S2 knockdown strongly reduces (−68%, p < 0.001 triglyceride content in human primary myotubes and mouse skeletal muscle. We further show that G0S2 controls lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in a strictly ATGL-dependent manner. These metabolic adaptations mediated by G0S2 are paralleled by concomitant changes in glucose metabolism through the modulation of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 4 (PDK4 expression (5.4 fold, p < 0.001. Importantly, downregulation of G0S2 in vivo in mouse skeletal muscle recapitulates changes in lipid metabolism observed in vitro. Conclusion: Collectively, these data indicate that G0S2 plays a key role in the regulation of skeletal muscle ATGL activity, lipid content and oxidative metabolism. Keywords: Lipid metabolism, Skeletal muscle, Lipolysis, Adipose triglyceride lipase

  5. Oleanolic acid induces mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest in gallbladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li HF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Huai-Feng Li,1–3,* Xu-An Wang,1–3,* Shan-Shan Xiang,1–3,* Yun-Ping Hu,1–3 Lin Jiang,1–3 Yi-Jun Shu,1–3 Mao-Lan Li,1–3 Xiang-Song Wu,1–3 Fei Zhang,1–3 Yuan-Yuan Ye,1–3 Hao Weng,1–3 Run-Fa Bao,1–3 Yang Cao,1–3 Wei Lu,1–3 Qian Dong,1–3 Ying-Bin Liu1–3 1Department of General Surgery, 2Laboratory of General Surgery, 3Institute of Biliary Tract Disease, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Oleanolic acid (OA, a naturally occurring triterpenoid, exhibits potential antitumor activity in many tumor cell lines. Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, and is a highly aggressive tumor with an extremely poor prognosis. Unfortunately, the effects of OA on gallbladder carcinoma are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of OA on gallbladder cancer cells and the underlying mechanism. The results showed that OA inhibits proliferation of gallbladder cancer cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner on MTT and colony formation assay. A flow cytometry assay revealed apoptosis and G0/G1 phase arrest in GBC-SD and NOZ cells. Western blot analysis and a mitochondrial membrane potential assay demonstrated that OA functions through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Moreover, this drug inhibited tumor growth in nude mice carrying subcutaneous NOZ tumor xenografts. These data suggest that OA inhibits proliferation of gallbladder cancer cells by regulating apoptosis and the cell cycle process. Thus, OA may be a promising drug for adjuvant chemotherapy in gallbladder carcinoma. Keywords: oleanolic acid, gallbladder carcinoma, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial pathway

  6. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000032.htm Dry mouth during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some cancer treatments and medicines can cause dry mouth. Symptoms you ...

  7. Nitramine Drying & Fine Grinding Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nitramine Drying and Fine Grinding Facility provides TACOM-ARDEC with a state-of-the-art facility capable of drying and grinding high explosives (e.g., RDX and...

  8. Genetic diversity and phylogeography of highly zoonotic Echinococcus granulosus genotype G1 in the Americas (Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico) based on 8279bp of mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurimäe, Teivi; Kinkar, Liina; Andresiuk, Vanessa; Haag, Karen Luisa; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Garate, Teresa; Gonzàlez, Luis Miguel; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-11-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is a taeniid cestode and the etiological agent of an infectious zoonotic disease known as cystic echinococcosis (CE) or hydatid disease. CE is a serious public health concern in many parts of the world, including the Americas, where it is highly endemic in many regions. Echinococcus granulosus displays high intraspecific genetic variability and is divided into multiple genotypes (G1-G8, G10) with differences in their biology and etiology. Of these, genotype G1 is responsible for the majority of human and livestock infections and has the broadest host spectrum. However, despite the high significance to the public and livestock health, the data on genetic variability and regional genetic differences of genotype G1 in America are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability and phylogeography of G1 in several countries in America by sequencing a large portion of the mitochondrial genome. We analysed 8279bp of mtDNA for 52 E. granulosus G1 samples from sheep, cattle and pigs collected in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico, covering majority of countries in the Americas where G1 has been reported. The phylogenetic network revealed 29 haplotypes and a high haplotype diversity (Hd=0.903). The absence of phylogeographic segregation between different regions in America suggests the importance of animal transportation in shaping the genetic structure of E. granulosus G1. In addition, our study revealed many highly divergent haplotypes, indicating a long and complex evolutionary history of E. granulosus G1 in the Americas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of the partial NaCl substitution by other chloride salts on the volatile profile during the ripening of dry-cured lacón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of three salting treatments (treatment II: 50% NaCl-50% KCl; III: 45% NaCl-25% KCl-20% CaCl2-10% MgCl2; IV: 30% NaCl-50% KCl-15% CaCl2-5% MgCl2 on the formation of volatile compounds throughout the process was studied and compared to those of a control “lacón” (treatment I: 100% NaCl. There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing, particularly during the dry-ripening stage. The most abundant chemical family in all the formulations, in the final product was hydrocarbons followed by aldehydes. The total volatile compound release was more intense in the control “lacóns” (1164 AU_106·g-1dry matter than in “lacóns” from formulations II, III and IV (817-891 AUx106·g-1dry matter. The “lacóns” from formulation I showed the highest amounts of aldehydes. The “lacóns” from formulations I and II presented the highest amounts of hydrocarbons. The main conclusion is that the replacement of NaCl produces changes in the volatile profile and could be affect the aroma of “lacón”.Se estudió la influencia de tres tratamientos de salado (tratamiento II: 50 % NaCl-50 % KCl; III: 45 % NaCl-25 % KCl-20 % CaCl2-10 % MgCl2; IV: 30 % NaCl-50 % KCl-15 % CaCl2-5 % MgCl2 en la formación de compuestos volátiles durante la elaboración de lacón, en comparación con un control (tratamiento I: 100 % NaCl. Hubo una intensa formación de compuestos volátiles durante el procesado, principalmente durante la fase de secado-maduración. La familia química más abundante en el producto final fueron los hidrocarbonos, seguidos por los aldehídos. La liberación de volátiles fue más intensa en los lacones control (1164 AU_106·g-1 materia seca que en los otros lacones (817-891 AUx106· g-1 materia seca. Los lacones de la formulación I mostraron las mayores cantidades de aldehídos, y los lacones de las formulaciones I y II presentaron los mayores contenidos de hidrocarburos. La principal conclusi

  10. Nucleotide mismatches between the VP7 gene and the primer are associated with genotyping failure of a specific lineage from G1 rotavirus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinola Emilio E

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years it was reported that the accumulation of point mutations in VP4 and VP7 genes of rotavirus strains was the main cause of the failure of the G or P-typing. Failures in the correct genotyping of G1, G2, G8, G9 and G10 rotavirus strains were reported in the most commonly used reverse transcription (RT-PCR strategies. Collecting VP7 gene sequences of G1 rotavirus strains from databases we found that 74 (61.2 % out of 121 G1 strains from lineage I showed the four specific mismatches at the 5' end of the 9T1-1 primer, previously associated with the failure of G1-typing. Thus, a great percentage of the G1 strains from lineage I worldwide reported could not have been typed if the Das's RT-PCR strategy were used. This analysis shows that the failure on the detection of the G1 strains could be due to the diversification of rotavirus strains in phylogenetic lineages. Therefore, the use of different RT-PCR strategies with different primer binding locations on the VP7 gene or new typing methodologies -like microarrays procedures- could be a better option to avoid the failure of the G-typing of rotavirus strains detected during surveillance programs.

  11. Analysis of Drying Process Quality in Conventional Dry-Kilns

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlar Tomislav; Pervan Stjepan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents testing results of drying quality in a conventional dry kiln. Testing is based on a new methodology that will show the level of success of the drying process management by analyzing the quality of drying process in a conventional dry kiln, using a scientifi cally improved version of the check list in everyday practical applications. A company that specializes in lamel and classic parquet production was chosen so as to verify the new testing methodology. A total of 56 m3 of...

  12. Fluid flow in drying drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, Hanneke

    2013-01-01

    When a suspension drop evaporates, it leaves behind a drying stain. Examples of these drying stains encountered in daily life are coffee or tea stains on a table top, mineral rings on glassware that comes out of the dishwasher, or the salt deposits on the streets in winter. Drying stains are also

  13. Behavior of methyl orange and orange 10 (orange G) in the presence of hydrotalcite type compounds of Mg/Al and Mg/Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz N, G.

    2015-01-01

    This work is focused on studying the sorption capacity of methyl orange dye (Nm) and orange 10 (N-10) in the presence of hydrotalcite type compounds of Mg/Al and Mg/Fe uncalcined and calcined previously at 500 degrees Celsius. Sorption isotherms were determined and the study of the kinetics of sorption was performed. The materials were characterized before and after sorption processes of these dyes by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, the specific surface area determination by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, thermogravimetry coupled to mass and infrared spectrometry. The hydrotalcite type compounds reported in this paper were prepared in the laboratory and their acronyms are: HTMgAlG1, HTMgAlMO, HTMgFeG1 and HTMgFeG2. Note that in this work the best conditions for preparing compounds of Mg/Fe were found. From patterns of X-ray diffraction was identified the typical crystal structure of the hydrotalcite type compounds. By scanning electron microscopy the morphology could be determined in the form of flakes characteristics of these compounds. Likewise with elemental analysis of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy the presence of Mg, Al, Fe and C, elements of interest for this study was determined. The compounds presented a specific surface area relatively high from 80 to 120 m 2 /g. Thermogravimetry results presented spectra of mass loss very characteristic associated to water losses, dehydroxylation and decarboxylation. The characteristic bands of water and carbonate were assigned by infrared spectroscopy and the bands corresponding to the dyes sulfonates were identified only for the calcined materials. The sorption capacities found of these compounds were as follows: for Nm in the compound HTMgAlG1 uncalcined was 17.82 mg/g for an initial concentration of 200 mg/L and for calcined (HTMgAlMOcal) of 99.8 mg/g with and initial concentration of 1000 mg/L. Moreover, the sorption capacity of the dye N-10 in this same material was 17.92 mg/g and 99.4 mg

  14. Hypoglycemic activity of dried extracts of Bauhinia forficata Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, A M; Menon, S; Menon, R; Couto, A G; Bürger, C; Biavatti, M W

    2010-01-01

    Leaves of the pantropical genus Bauhinia (Fabaceae) are known popularly as cow's foot, due to their unique characteristic bilobed aspect. The species Bauhinia forficata (Brazilian Orchid-tree) is widely used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic. The present work investigates the hypoglycemic activity of the dried extracts of Bauhinia forficata leaves in vivo, as well as the influence of the drying and granulation processes on this activity. The fluid extract was dried to generate oven-dried (ODE), spray-dried (SDE) and wet granulation (WGE) extracts, with the aid of colloidal silicon dioxide and/or cellulose:lactose mixture. The dried extracts were characterized by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and photo microscopy image analysis. 200 mg/kg body wt., p.o. of each dried product were administered orally to male Wistar rats over 7 days old, for biomonitoring of the hypoglycemic activity profile. The effect of the extracts was studied in STZ-induced diabetic rats. After 7 days of treatment, fasting glucose was determined, and the livers were removed, dried on tissue paper, weighed, and stored at -20 degrees C to estimate hepatic glycogen. Our results show that spray-drying or oven-drying processes applied to B. forficata extracts did not significantly alter its flavonoid profile or its hypoglycemic activity. Indeed, the dried extracts of B. forficata act differently from glibenclamide. Despite the lower active content in WGE, because of the higher concentration of adjuvants, the use of the granulation process improved the manufacturing properties of the ODE, making this material more appropriate for use in tablets or capsules.

  15. Effects of drying on caffeoylquinic acid derivative content and antioxidant capacity of sweet potato leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toong Long Jeng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA derivatives are known to possess antioxidative potential and have many beneficial effects on human health. The present study compared the CQA contents and antioxidant activities of aerial parts of sweet potato plants. The effects of drying methods (freeze drying, and drying at 30°C, 70°C, and 100°C on these two parameters of the first fully expanded leaves were also assessed. The results indicated that the CQA derivatives were detectable in leaves, stem, and flowers of sweet potato plants (varied from 39.34 mg/g dry weight to 154.05 mg/g dry weight, with the leaves (particularly expanding and first fully expanded leaves containing more CQA derivatives than other aerial plant parts. The expanding and first fully expanded leaves also exhibited greater antioxidant activities than other aerial plant parts, possibly due to their higher contents of CQA derivatives. Drying method significantly affected the content of CQA derivatives in dried sweet potato leaf tissues. Drying treatments at both 70°C and 100°C significantly reduced the CQA derivative content and antioxidant activity in the first fully expanded leaves. Among the tested drying methods, the freeze-drying method demonstrated the preservation of the highest amount of CQA derivatives (147.84 mg/g and antioxidant property. However, 30°C cool air drying was also a desirable choice (total CQA derivative content was reduced to only 129.52 mg/g, compared to 70°C and 100°C hot air drying, for commercial-scale processing of sweet potato leaves, if the higher operation cost of freeze drying was a major concern.

  16. Effects of drying on caffeoylquinic acid derivative content and antioxidant capacity of sweet potato leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Toong Long; Lai, Chia Chi; Liao, Ting Chen; Lin, Su Yue; Sung, Jih Min

    2015-12-01

    Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives are known to possess antioxidative potential and have many beneficial effects on human health. The present study compared the CQA contents and antioxidant activities of aerial parts of sweet potato plants. The effects of drying methods (freeze drying, and drying at 30°C, 70°C, and 100°C) on these two parameters of the first fully expanded leaves were also assessed. The results indicated that the CQA derivatives were detectable in leaves, stem, and flowers of sweet potato plants (varied from 39.34 mg/g dry weight to 154.05 mg/g dry weight), with the leaves (particularly expanding and first fully expanded leaves) containing more CQA derivatives than other aerial plant parts. The expanding and first fully expanded leaves also exhibited greater antioxidant activities than other aerial plant parts, possibly due to their higher contents of CQA derivatives. Drying method significantly affected the content of CQA derivatives in dried sweet potato leaf tissues. Drying treatments at both 70°C and 100°C significantly reduced the CQA derivative content and antioxidant activity in the first fully expanded leaves. Among the tested drying methods, the freeze-drying method demonstrated the preservation of the highest amount of CQA derivatives (147.84 mg/g) and antioxidant property. However, 30°C cool air drying was also a desirable choice (total CQA derivative content was reduced to only 129.52 mg/g), compared to 70°C and 100°C hot air drying, for commercial-scale processing of sweet potato leaves, if the higher operation cost of freeze drying was a major concern. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. A review of dry ports

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta Roso; Kent Lumsden

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the previous research on the dry port concept and to review the world's existing dry ports, that is freight terminals that use the term ‘dry port’ in their name. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to clarify the concept by showing potential discrepancies or agreements between theory and practice. Starting from a literature review on the dry port concept, this article presents a review of existing dry ports in the world. A number of qualitativ...

  18. Drying and decontamination of pistachios with sequential infrared drying, tempering and hot air drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pistachio industry is in need of improved drying technology as the current hot air drying has low energy efficiency and drying rate and high labor cost and also does not produce safe products against microbial contamination. In the current study, dehulled and water- sorted pistachios with a mois...

  19. Effect of paddy drying depth using open-sun drying on drying time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The smallholder rice farmers in the Uganda dry their paddy using open-sun drying method. In most cases the paddy is badly dried and has very high fissure levels. Such paddy on milling contributes to low levels of mill recovery and whole grain in the milled rice. This study was therefore done to find a recommendable ...

  20. Syntheses and modulations in the chromatin contents of histones H1/sup o/ and H1 during G1 and S phases in Chinese hamsters cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Anna, J.A.; Gurley, L.R.; Tobey, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Flow cytometry, conventional autoradiography, and autoradiography employing high concentrations of high specific activity [ 3 H]thymidine indicate that (1) treatment of Chinese hamster ovary (line CHO) cells with butyrate truly blocks cells in G 1 and (2) cells blocked in G 1 by isoleucine deprivation remain blocked in G 1 when they are released into complete medium containing butyrate. Measurements of H1/sup o/ content relative to core histones and H1/sup o/:H1 ratios indicate that H1/sup o/ is enhanced somewhat in G 1 cells arrested by isoleucine deprivation; however, (1) treatment with butyrate greatly increases the H1/sup o/ content in G 1 -blocked cells, and (2) the enhancement is very sensitive to butyrate concentration. Measurements of relative histone contents in the isolated chromatin of synchronized cultures also suggest that the acid-soluble content of histone H1 (relative to core histones) becomes greatly depleted in the isolated chromatin when synchronized cells are blocked in early S phase by sequential use of isoleucine deprivation and hydroxyurea blockade. We also have measured [ 3 H]lysine incorporation, various protein ratios, and relative rates of deposition of newly synthesized H1/sup o/, H1, and H4 onto chromatin during G 1 and S in the absence of butyrate. The results suggest a dynamic picture of chromatin organization in which (1) newly synthesized histone H1/sup o/ binds to chromatin during traverse of G 1 and S phases and (2) histone H1 dissociates from (or becomes loosely bound to) chromatin during prolonged early S-phase block with hydroxyurea

  1. Estimated Bioaccessibility to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from Frequently Consumed Dried Fruits in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Rahimzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine levels of oral bioaccessibility of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF from frequently consumed dried fruits in Iran. Fifty samples from frequently consumed types of dried fruits were analyzed for moisture, acidity and HMF content before and after in vitro digestion. Besides, bioaccessibility of HMF in dried fruits using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestive model and HMF intake from dried fruits based on consumption of each dried fruit groups wasdetermined. The mean estimated intake of HMF was 72.90 mg/kg and the maximum intake was 240.23 mg/kg for fruit bread. The mean bioaccessibility was 60.26%. There was a correlation between HMF and acid content of fruit bread (r= 0.98, P<0.05. In conclusion, the HMF levels in dried fruits remains high even after the in vitro digestion.

  2. Cycling G1 CD34+/CD38+ cells potentiate the motility and engraftment of quiescent G0 CD34+/CD38-/low severe combined immunodeficiency repopulating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Tamara; Kahn, Joy; Kollet, Orit; Petit, Isabelle; Samira, Sarit; Shivtiel, Shoham; Ben-Hur, Herzl; Peled, Amnon; Piacibello, Wanda; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2005-04-01

    The mechanism of human stem cell expansion ex vivo is not fully understood. Furthermore, little is known about the mechanisms of human stem cell homing/repopulation and the role that differentiating progenitor cells may play in these processes. We report that 2- to 3-day in vitro cytokine stimulation of human cord blood CD34(+)-enriched cells induces the production of short-term repopulating, cycling G1 CD34(+)/CD38(+) cells with increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 secretion as well as increased migration capacity to the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and homing to the bone marrow of irradiated nonobese diabetic severe/combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice. These cycling G1 cells enhance SDF-1-mediated in vitro migration and in vivo homing of quiescent G0 CD34(+) cells, which is partially abrogated after inhibition of MMP-2/-9 activity. Moreover, the engraftment potential of quiescent G0 SCID repopulating cells (SRCs) is also increased by the cycling G1 CD34(+)/CD38(+) cells. This effect is significantly abrogated after incubation of cycling G1 cells with a neutralizing anti-CXCR4 antibody. Our data suggest synergistic interactions between accessory cycling G1 CD34(+)/CD38(+) committed progenitor cells and quiescent, primitive G0 CD34(+)/CD38(-/low) SRC/stem cells, the former increasing the motility and engraftment potential of the latter, partly via secretion of MMP-9.

  3. Influence of drying method on steviol glycosides and antioxidants in Stevia rebaudiana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periche, Angela; Castelló, María Luisa; Heredia, Ana; Escriche, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    The application of different drying conditions (hot air drying at 100 °C and 180 °C, freeze drying and shade drying) on steviol glycosides (stevioside, dulcoside A, rebaudioside A and rebaudioside C) and antioxidants in Stevia leaves was evaluated. Stevioside, the major glycoside found in fresh leaves (81.2mg/g), suffered an important reduction in all cases, although shade drying was the least aggressive treatment. Considering the antioxidant parameters (total phenols, flavonoids and total antioxidants), the most suitable drying method was hot air at 180 °C, since it substantially increased all of them (76.8 mg gallic acid, 45.1mg catechin and 126 mg Trolox, all equivalent/g Stevia, respectively), with respect to those present in fresh leaves (44.4, 2.5 and 52.9 mg equivalent/g). Therefore, the ideal method for drying Stevia leaves depends on their final use (sweetener or antioxidant), although, hot air at 180 °C is the most recommendable if only one treatment has to be chosen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Successful Treatment of Dry Mouth and Dry Eye Symptoms in Sjögren's Syndrome Patients With Oral Pilocarpine: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Adjustment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Athena S; Sherrer, Yvonne S; Charney, Michael; Golden, Harvey E; Medsger, Thomas A; Walsh, Bridget T; Trivedi, Madhu; Goldlust, Barry; Gallagher, Susan C

    2004-08-01

    : Sjögren's syndrome is characterized by the presence of xerostomia and/or xerophthalmia. Pilocarpine, a muscarinic cholinergic agonist, has been proven to be efficacious in treating radiation-induced xerostomia (up to 30 mg/day) and symptoms of dry mouth in Sjögren's patients (up to 20 mg/day). : To compare the safety and efficacy of oral pilocarpine (dose-adjusted) versus placebo in the treatment of dry eye and dry mouth symptoms in Sjögren's syndrome at 6 and 12 weeks. : In this 11-center, 256-patient placebo-controlled study, the safety and efficacy of oral pilocarpine (20 mg to 30 mg daily) for relief of Sjögren's-related dry mouth and dry eye symptoms was assessed. Changes in symptoms and salivary flow were measured over 12 weeks. : Compared with placebo, salivary flow was significantly increased in the pilocarpine group (Pdry mouth (Poral symptoms (Pdry eyes (Pdry mouth symptoms was noted at 20 mg/day, and significant relief in ocular symptoms, including lower artificial tear requirement, was noted after the dose was increased to 30 mg/day.

  5. Emergence of Double- and Triple-Gene Reassortant G1P[8] Rotaviruses Possessing a DS-1-Like Backbone after Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jere, Khuzwayo C; Chaguza, Chrispin; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Lowe, Jenna; Peno, Chikondi; Kumwenda, Benjamin; Nakagomi, Osamu; Tate, Jacqueline E; Parashar, Umesh D; Heyderman, Robert S; French, Neil; Cunliffe, Nigel A; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren

    2018-02-01

    To combat the high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis, multiple African countries have introduced rotavirus vaccines into their childhood immunization programs. Malawi incorporated a G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix) into its immunization schedule in 2012. Utilizing a surveillance platform of hospitalized rotavirus gastroenteritis cases, we examined the phylodynamics of G1P[8] rotavirus strains that circulated in Malawi before (1998 to 2012) and after (2013 to 2014) vaccine introduction. Analysis of whole genomes obtained through next-generation sequencing revealed that all randomly selected prevaccine G1P[8] strains sequenced ( n = 32) possessed a Wa-like genetic constellation, whereas postvaccine G1P[8] strains ( n = 18) had a DS-1-like constellation. Phylodynamic analyses indicated that postvaccine G1P[8] strains emerged through reassortment events between human Wa- and DS-1-like rotaviruses that circulated in Malawi from the 1990s and hence were classified as atypical DS-1-like reassortants. The time to the most recent common ancestor for G1P[8] strains was from 1981 to 1994; their evolutionary rates ranged from 9.7 × 10 -4 to 4.1 × 10 -3 nucleotide substitutions/site/year. Three distinct G1P[8] lineages chronologically replaced each other between 1998 and 2014. Genetic drift was the likely driver for lineage turnover in 2005, whereas replacement in 2013 was due to reassortment. Amino acid substitution within the outer glycoprotein VP7 of G1P[8] strains had no impact on the structural conformation of the antigenic regions, suggesting that it is unlikely that they would affect recognition by vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies. While the emergence of DS-1-like G1P[8] rotavirus reassortants in Malawi was therefore likely due to natural genotype variation, vaccine effectiveness against such strains needs careful evaluation. IMPORTANCE The error-prone RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the segmented RNA genome predispose rotaviruses to genetic mutation and

  6. Design of solar drying-plant for bulk material drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Horbaj

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A generally well-known high energy requirement for technological processes of drying and the fact that the world’s supplyof the conventional energy sources has considerably decreased are the decisive factors forcing us to look for some new, if possible,renewable energy sources for this process by emphasising their environmental reliability. One of the possibilities how to replace, atleast partly, the conventional energy sources – heat in a drying process is solar energy.Air-drying of bulk materials usually has a series of disadvantages such as time expenditure, drying defects in the bulk materialand inadequate final moisture content. A method that obviates or reduces the disadvantages of air-drying and, at the same time, reducesthe costs of kiln drying, is drying with solar heat. Solar energy can replace a large part of this depletable energy since solar energy cansupply heat at the temperatures most often used to dry bulk material. Solar drying-plant offer an attractive solution.

  7. The transcription factor Swi4 is target for PKA regulation of cell size at the G1 to S transition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigoni, Loredana; Colombo, Sonia; Belotti, Fiorella; Alberghina, Lilia; Martegani, Enzo

    2015-08-03

    To investigate the specific target of PKA in the regulation of cell cycle progression and cell size we developed a new approach using the yeast strain GG104 bearing a deletion in adenylate cyclase gene and permeable to cAMP ( cyr1Δ, pde2Δ, msn2Δ, msn4Δ). In this strain the PKA activity is absent and can be activated by addition of cAMP in the medium, without any other change of the growth conditions. In the present work we show that the activation of PKA by exogenous cAMP in the GG104 strain exponentially growing in glucose medium caused a marked increase of cell size and perturbation of cell cycle with a transient arrest of cells in G1, followed by an accumulation of cells in G2/M phase with a minimal change in the growth rate. Deletion of CLN1 gene, but not of CLN2, abolished the transient G1 phase arrest. Consistently we found that PKA activation caused a transcriptional repression of CLN1 gene. Transcription of CLN1 is controlled by SBF and MBF dual-regulated promoter. We found that also the deletion of SWI4 gene abolished the transient G1 arrest suggesting that Swi4 is a target responsible for PKA modulation of G1/S phase transition. We generated a SWI4 allele mutated in the consensus site for PKA (Swi4(S159A)) and we found that expression of Swi4(S159A) protein in the GG104-Swi4Δ strain did not restore the transient G1 arrest induced by PKA activation, suggesting that Swi4 phosphorylation by PKA regulates CLN1 gene expression and G1/S phase transition.

  8. Cytokinetically quiescent (G0/G1) human multiple myeloma cells are susceptible to simultaneous inhibition of Chk1 and MEK1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xin-Yan; Dai, Yun; Youssefian, Leena E; Chen, Shuang; Bodie, Wesley W; Takabatake, Yukie; Felthousen, Jessica; Almenara, Jorge A; Kramer, Lora B; Dent, Paul; Grant, Steven

    2011-11-10

    Effects of Chk1 and MEK1/2 inhibition were investigated in cytokinetically quiescent multiple myeloma (MM) and primary CD138(+) cells. Coexposure to the Chk1 and MEK1/2 inhibitors AZD7762 and selumetinib (AZD6244) robustly induced apoptosis in various MM cells and CD138(+) primary samples, but spared normal CD138(-) and CD34(+) cells. Furthermore, Chk1/MEK1/2 inhibitor treatment of asynchronized cells induced G(0)/G(1) arrest and increased apoptosis in all cell-cycle phases, including G(0)/G(1). To determine whether this regimen is active against quiescent G(0)/G(1) MM cells, cells were cultured in low-serum medium to enrich the G(0)/G(1) population. G(0)/G(1)-enriched cells exhibited diminished sensitivity to conventional agents (eg, Taxol and VP-16) but significantly increased susceptibility to Chk1 ± MEK1/2 inhibitors or Chk1 shRNA knock-down. These events were associated with increased γH2A.X expression/foci formation and Bim up-regulation, whereas Bim shRNA knock-down markedly attenuated lethality. Immunofluorescent analysis of G(0)/G(1)-enriched or primary MM cells demonstrated colocalization of activated caspase-3 and the quiescent (G(0)) marker statin, a nuclear envelope protein. Finally, Chk1/MEK1/2 inhibition increased cell death in the Hoechst-positive (Hst(+)), low pyronin Y (PY)-staining (2N Hst(+)/PY(-)) G(0) population and in sorted small side-population (SSP) MM cells. These findings provide evidence that cytokinetically quiescent MM cells are highly susceptible to simultaneous Chk1 and MEK1/2 inhibition.

  9. Influence of Freeze-Drying and Oven-Drying Post Blanching on the Nutrient Composition of the Edible Insect Ruspolia differens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fombong, Forkwa Tengweh; Van Der Borght, Mik; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2017-09-16

    The longhorn grasshopper, Ruspolia differens (Serville), plays an important role as a food source across Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is consumed as a delicacy in both rural and urban areas. The effect of two drying methods (freeze-drying and oven-drying), employed after blanching, on the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of the two most common morphs was determined. Ruspolia differens grasshoppers were harvested in Uganda and Kenya from wild swarms during the rainy periods of November-December 2016. Based on cuticular coloration, we identified three morphs, green, brown and purple, which occurred at a ratio of 65:33:2, respectively. Results indicated that these insects have a high lipid content of 36%, as well as significant protein levels ranging between 33% and 46% dry matter. Oleic acid (44%) and palmitic acid (28%) were the two most abundant fatty acids; while the presence of arachidonic acid (0.6%) and docosahexaenoic acid (0.21%) suggests that Ruspolia differens is also a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The observed amino acid profile showed similar trends in all morphs, and all essential amino acids were present. Calcium (896-1035 mg/100 g), potassium (779-816 mg/100 g) and phosphorus (652-685 mg/100 g) were quite high among the minerals. The presence of the trace elements iron (217-220 mg/100 g), zinc (14.2-14.6 mg/100 g), manganese (7.4-8.3 mg/100 g) and copper (1.66 mg/100 g) suggests that inclusion of these grasshoppers in human diets may aid in combatting micronutrient deficiencies. Oven-drying Ruspolia differens delivered the same nutritional quality as freeze-drying. Hence, both drying approaches can be adequately used to formulate insect-based food products without noticeable nutritional changes.

  10. Influence of Freeze-Drying and Oven-Drying Post Blanching on the Nutrient Composition of the Edible Insect Ruspolia differens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forkwa Tengweh Fombong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The longhorn grasshopper, Ruspolia differens (Serville, plays an important role as a food source across Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is consumed as a delicacy in both rural and urban areas. The effect of two drying methods (freeze-drying and oven-drying, employed after blanching, on the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of the two most common morphs was determined. Ruspolia differens grasshoppers were harvested in Uganda and Kenya from wild swarms during the rainy periods of November–December 2016. Based on cuticular coloration, we identified three morphs, green, brown and purple, which occurred at a ratio of 65:33:2, respectively. Results indicated that these insects have a high lipid content of 36%, as well as significant protein levels ranging between 33% and 46% dry matter. Oleic acid (44% and palmitic acid (28% were the two most abundant fatty acids; while the presence of arachidonic acid (0.6% and docosahexaenoic acid (0.21% suggests that Ruspolia differens is also a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The observed amino acid profile showed similar trends in all morphs, and all essential amino acids were present. Calcium (896–1035 mg/100 g, potassium (779–816 mg/100 g and phosphorus (652–685 mg/100 g were quite high among the minerals. The presence of the trace elements iron (217–220 mg/100 g, zinc (14.2–14.6 mg/100 g, manganese (7.4–8.3 mg/100 g and copper (1.66 mg/100 g suggests that inclusion of these grasshoppers in human diets may aid in combatting micronutrient deficiencies. Oven-drying Ruspolia differens delivered the same nutritional quality as freeze-drying. Hence, both drying approaches can be adequately used to formulate insect-based food products without noticeable nutritional changes.

  11. Measurement of the Deuteron Spin Structure Function g_1^d(x) for 1 (GeV/c)^2 < Q^2 < 40 (GeV/c)^2

    OpenAIRE

    E155 Collaboration

    1999-01-01

    New measurements are reported on the deuteron spin structure function g_1^d. These results were obtained from deep inelastic scattering of 48.3 GeV electrons on polarized deuterons in the kinematic range 0.01 < x < 0.9 and 1 < Q^2 < 40 (GeV/c)^2. These are the first high dose electron scattering data obtained using lithium deuteride (6Li2H) as the target material. Extrapolations of the data were performed to obtain moments of g_1^d, including Gamma_1^d, and the net quark polarization Delta Si...

  12. Comparison of drying characteristic and uniformity of banana cubes dried by pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying, freeze drying and microwave freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Lim, Rui-Xin

    2014-07-01

    To overcome the flaws of high energy consumption of freeze drying (FD) and the non-uniform drying of microwave freeze drying (MFD), pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying (PSMVD) was developed. The results showed that the drying time can be dramatically shortened if microwave was used as the heating source. In this experiment, both MFD and PSMVD could shorten drying time by 50% as compared to the FD process. Depending on the heating method, MFD and PSMVD dried banana cubes showed trends of expansion while FD dried samples demonstrated trends of shrinkage. Shrinkage also brought intensive structure and highest fracturability of all three samples dried by different methods. The residual ascorbic acid content of PSMVD dried samples can be as high as in FD dried samples, which were superior to MFD dried samples. The tests confirmed that PSMVD could bring about better drying uniformity than MFD. Besides, compared with traditional MFD, PSMVD can provide better extrinsic feature, and can bring about improved nutritional features because of the higher residual ascorbic acid content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Neuropathic pain and dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Moein, Hamid-Reza; Lee, Charity; Rodriguez, Adriana; Felix, Elizabeth R; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Levitt, Roy C

    2018-01-01

    Dry eye is a common, multifactorial disease currently diagnosed by a combination of symptoms and signs. Its epidemiology and clinical presentation have many similarities with neuropathic pain outside the eye. This review highlights the similarities between dry eye and neuropathic pain, focusing on clinical features, somatosensory function, and underlying pathophysiology. Implications of these similarities on the diagnosis and treatment of dry eye are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Post-LASIK dry eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M

    2011-01-01

    Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a frequently performed corneal refractive surgery with excellent refractive outcomes. The most common complication of LASIK is dry eyes, with virtually all patients developing some degree of dryness in the immediate postoperative period. Identifying preoperative dry eyes, and conscientious attention and treatment in the perioperative time period, can lead to enhanced patient satisfaction and more accurate visual outcomes. Improved understanding of the development of dry eyes after LASIK will advance our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of dry eye disease. PMID:22174730

  15. Quality of dry chemistry testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Tatsumi, N

    1999-01-01

    Since the development of the qualitative test paper for urine in 1950s, several kinds of dry-state-reagents and their automated analyzers have been developed. "Dry chemistry" has become to be called since the report on the development of quantitative test paper for serum bilirubin with reflectometer in the end of 1960s and dry chemistry has been world widely known since the presentation on the development of multilayer film reagent for serum biochemical analytes by Eastman Kodak Co at the 10th IFCC Meeting in the end of 1970s. We have reported test menu, results in external quality assessment, merits and demerits, and the future possibilities of dry chemistry.

  16. Theoretical study on the gas adsorption capacity and selectivity of CPM-200-In/Mg and CPM-200-In/Mg-X (-X = -NH2, -OH, -N, -F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-le; Chen, Guang-Hui; Wang, Xiu-Jun; Li, Peng; Song, Yi-Bing; Li, Rui-Yan

    2017-11-15

    The adsorption capacities of a heterometallic metal-organic framework (CPM-200-In/Mg) to VOCs (HCHO, C 2 H 4 , CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , C 3 H 8 , C 2 H 6 , C 2 H 3 Cl, C 2 H 2 Cl 2 , CH 2 Cl 2 and CHCl 3 ) and some inorganic gas molecules (HCN, SO 2 , NO, CO 2 , CO, H 2 S and NH 3 ), as well as its selectivity in ternary mixture systems of natural gas and post-combustion flue gas are theoretically explored at the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) and density functional theory (DFT) levels. It is shown that CPM-200-In/Mg is suitable for the adsorption of VOCs, particularly for HCHO (up to 0.39 g g -1 at 298 K and 1 bar), and the adsorption capacities of some inorganic gas molecules such as SO 2 , H 2 S and CO 2 match well with the sequence of their polarizability (SO 2 > H 2 S > CO 2 ). The large adsorption capacities of HCN and HCHO in the framework result from the strong interaction between adsorbates and metal centers, based on analyzing the radial distribution functions (RDF). Comparing C 2 H 4 and CH 4 molecules interacting with CPM-200-In/Mg by VDW interaction, we speculate that the high adsorption capacities of their chlorine derivatives in the framework could be due to the existence of halogen bonding or strong electrostatic and VDW interactions. It is found that the basic groups, including -NH 2 , -N and -OH, can effectively improve both the adsorption capacities and selectivity of CPM-200-In/Mg for harmful gases. Note that the adsorption capacity of CPM-200-In/Mg-NH 2 (site 2) (245 cm 3 g -1 ) for CO 2 exceeded that of MOF-74-Mg (228 cm 3 g -1 ) at 273 K and 1 bar and that for HCHO can reach 0.41 g g -1 , which is almost twice that of 438-MOF and nearly 45 times of that in active carbon. Moreover, for natural gas mixtures, the decarburization and desulfurization abilities of CPM-200-In/Mg-NH 2 (site 2) have exceeded those of the MOF-74 series, while for post-combustion flue gas mixtures, the desulfurization ability of CPM-200-In/Mg-NH 2 (site 2) is still

  17. Synthesis and mechanical properties of stabilized zirconia ceramics: MgO-ZrO_2 and Y_2O_3-MgO- ZrO_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, C.; Mello-Castanho, S.R.H.; Paschoal, J.O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Precursor MgO-ZrO_2 and Y_2O_3-MgO-ZrO_2 ceramic powders were synthesized by the method of co-precipitation and characterized by techniques such as laser diffraction, QELS (Quasi Elastic Light Scattering), XRD, BET, and SEM. Nanoscale powders with specific surface area higher than 60 m"2. g"-"1 was achieved. Sintered ceramic obtained from the synthesized powders, were characterized to mechanical tests using Vickers indentation technique. The addition of Y_2O_3 promoted an increase in hardness of the ceramics and total cubic crystalline phase stabilization. (author)

  18. Microparticles obtained by complex coacervation: influence of the type of reticulation and the drying process on the release of the core material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Dutra Alvim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Microparticles obtained by complex coacervation were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde or with transglutaminase and dried using freeze drying or spray drying. Moist samples presented Encapsulation Efficiency (%EE higher than 96%. The mean diameters ranged from 43.7 ± 3.4 to 96.4 ± 10.3 µm for moist samples, from 38.1 ± 5.36 to 65.2 ± 16.1 µm for dried samples, and from 62.5 ± 7.5 to 106.9 ± 26.1 µm for rehydrated microparticles. The integrity of the particles without crosslinking was maintained when freeze drying was used. After spray drying, only crosslinked samples were able to maintain the wall integrity. Microparticles had a round shape and in the case of dried samples rugged walls apparently without cracks were observed. Core distribution inside the particles was multinuclear and homogeneous and core release was evaluated using anhydrous ethanol. Moist particles crosslinked with glutaraldehyde at the concentration of 1.0 mM.g-1 protein (ptn, were more efficient with respect to the core retention compared to 0.1 mM.g-1 ptn or those crosslinked with transglutaminase (10 U.g-1 ptn. The drying processes had a strong influence on the core release profile reducing the amount released to all dry samples

  19. Dehydrated olive-waste cake as a source of high value-added bioproduct: Drying kinetics, physicochemical properties, and bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Uribe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. oil processing produces significant amount of waste that can be utilized for the production of high value-added ingredients for various industrial applications. In this work, the effects of temperature on drying kinetics and quality indexes of the olive-waste cake during convective dehydration (40-90 °C were investigated. Results on effective moisture diffusivity, physicochemical parameters, fatty acid profile, total phenolic, flavonoid, and flavanol contents as well as antioxidant capacity are also reported. Most of the fatty acids increased their content with respect to control sample with a temperature increase, i.e. oleic and linoleic acids increased 48% and 43% at 70 and 40 °C, respectively. Total flavanol content increased with temperature (48-62 mg catechin equivalents [CTE] 100 g-1 DM except for 80 °C. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were highly correlated to antioxidant capacity (0.923 < r < 0.992, except for 70 and 80 °C, the rest of the samples maintained their initial antioxidant capacity by ORAC analysis. Thus, these parameters show that dried olive-waste cake has a high bioactive compounds with potential use as additives for the food or other industries.

  20. a comparative study of the drying rate constant, drying efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drying rate constants for the solar dryer and open- air sun dried bitter leaf were 0.8 and ... of cost benefit but the poorest when other considerations ... J. I. Eze, National Centre for Energy Research and Development (NCERD), University of ...

  1. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  2. Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Sasongko, S.B.; Prasetyaningrum, Aji A A.A.; Jin, X.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Applying dehumidified air is considered as an option to retain quality in carrageenan drying. This work concerns the effects of operational temperature, air velocity, and carrageenan thickness on the progress of drying and product quality when using dehumidified air. Final product quality and

  3. The antisickling effects of dried fish (tilapia) And dried prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antisickling effect of dried fish (Tilapia) and dried prawn (Astacus red) were investigated to ascertain the ability of the extracts of these samples to inhibit polymerisation of sickle cell haemoglobin (HbS), improve the Fe 2+/Fe 3+ ratio and lower the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in blood plasma. The samples ...

  4. Optimization of frozen wild blueberry vacuum drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to optimize the vacuum drying of frozen blueberries in order to preserve health benefits phytochemicals using response surface methodology. The drying was performed in a new design of vacuum dryer equipment. Investigated range of temperature was 46-74°C and of pressure 38-464 mbar. Total solids, total phenolics, vitamin C, anthocyanin content and total color change were used as quality indicators of dried blueberries. Within the experimental range of studied variables, the optimum conditions of 60 °C and 100 mbar were established for vacuum drying of blueberries. Separate validation experiments were conducted at optimum conditions to verify predictions and adequacy of the second-order polynomial models. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted amount of total phenolics was 3.70 mgCAE/100dw, vitamin C 59.79 mg/100gdw, anthocyanin content 2746.33 mg/100gdw, total solids 89.50% and total color change 88.83. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  5. Mycotoxin risks and toxigenic fungi in date, prune and dried apricot among Mediterranean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin OZER

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dried fruit is fruit that is preserved by removing the original water content naturally, through sun drying or artificially, by the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia and is prized because of its sweet taste, nutritive value and long shelf life. Traditional dried fruits such as raisins, figs, dates, apricots and prunes have been a staple of Mediterranean diets for millennia. The Mediterranean region is very favourable for production of dried fruits, not only with its climatic conditions, but also its exceptional fertile lands. Additionally, proximity to trade routes historically has allowed Mediterranean countries more access to dried fruits than landlocked countries. Today, dried fruit consumption is widespread. Nearly half of the dried fruits sold throughout the world are raisins, followed by dates, prunes (dried plums, figs, apricots, peaches, apples and pears. Dates, prunes, apricots, figs and raisins are the major dried fruits produced in the Mediterranean area. Dried fruits are not perishable but can support mold growth, some of which can produce mycotoxins. Occurence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on these dried fruits can be a problem in the Mediterranean basin, as in the other parts of the world, being a health hazard to the population as well as a trade issue for the export of local products. Although the most important mycotoxins occuring in Mediterranean crops are aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2 and ochratoxin A, the type and level of mycotoxins and toxigenic molds vary by crop and also by country and in some cases geographic location within a country. In this review mycotoxin risks and toxigenic fungi in date, prune and dried apricot among Mediterranean crops are reported and discussed.

  6. Behavior of methyl orange and orange 10 (orange G) in the presence of hydrotalcite type compounds of Mg/Al and Mg/Fe; Comportamiento de naranja de metilo y naranja 10 (orange G) en presencia de compuestos tipo hidrotalcita de mg/Al y Mg/Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz N, G.

    2015-07-01

    This work is focused on studying the sorption capacity of methyl orange dye (Nm) and orange 10 (N-10) in the presence of hydrotalcite type compounds of Mg/Al and Mg/Fe uncalcined and calcined previously at 500 degrees Celsius. Sorption isotherms were determined and the study of the kinetics of sorption was performed. The materials were characterized before and after sorption processes of these dyes by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, the specific surface area determination by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, thermogravimetry coupled to mass and infrared spectrometry. The hydrotalcite type compounds reported in this paper were prepared in the laboratory and their acronyms are: HTMgAlG1, HTMgAlMO, HTMgFeG1 and HTMgFeG2. Note that in this work the best conditions for preparing compounds of Mg/Fe were found. From patterns of X-ray diffraction was identified the typical crystal structure of the hydrotalcite type compounds. By scanning electron microscopy the morphology could be determined in the form of flakes characteristics of these compounds. Likewise with elemental analysis of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy the presence of Mg, Al, Fe and C, elements of interest for this study was determined. The compounds presented a specific surface area relatively high from 80 to 120 m{sup 2}/g. Thermogravimetry results presented spectra of mass loss very characteristic associated to water losses, dehydroxylation and decarboxylation. The characteristic bands of water and carbonate were assigned by infrared spectroscopy and the bands corresponding to the dyes sulfonates were identified only for the calcined materials. The sorption capacities found of these compounds were as follows: for Nm in the compound HTMgAlG1 uncalcined was 17.82 mg/g for an initial concentration of 200 mg/L and for calcined (HTMgAlMOcal) of 99.8 mg/g with and initial concentration of 1000 mg/L. Moreover, the sorption capacity of the dye N-10 in this same material was 17.92 mg/g and 99

  7. Generalized drying curves in conductive/convective paper drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.C. Motta Lima

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study related to conductive/convective drying of paper (cellulose sheets over heated surfaces, under natural and forced air conditions. The experimental apparatus consists in a metallic box heated by a thermostatic bath containing an upper surface on which the paper samples (about 1 mm thick are placed. The system is submitted to ambient air under two different conditions: natural convection and forced convection provide by an adjustable blower. The influence of initial paper moisture content, drying (heated surface temperature and air velocity on drying curves behavior is observed under different drying conditions. Hence, these influence is studied through the proposal of generalized drying curves. Those curves are analyzed individually for each air condition exposed above and for both together. A set of equations to fit them is proposed and discussed.

  8. Optimization of chromatographic conditions for determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 by using liquid chromatography-mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhaningtyas, Dillani Putri; Aryana, Nurhani; Aristiawan, Yosi; Styarini, Dyah

    2017-11-01

    The optimization of instrument condition and chromatographic separation for analysis of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 using liquid chromatography tandem with mass spectrometer detector was conducted in the aim to provide more accurate and reliable analysis results. The aflatoxin known to be serious threat for human health as it is classified as the carcinogenic compounds. The aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 were selected due to its extensive contamination in various agricultural commodities. The best chromatographic separation was obtained using C-18 column with gradient elution of solvent 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in methanol at 7 minutes runtime analysis. The linearity of the detector showed satisfied results as the coefficient determination found to be 0.9994, 0.9996, 0.9998 and 0.9987 for aflatoxin B1, G1, B2, and G2 respectively in the range concentration from 1 to 20 ng/g. The quantifier ion selected for the aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 was m/z 285.1, 259, 243 and 313 respectively. The instrument precision at these quantifier ions also showed satisfied result with %RSD was around 3.4 to 6.8%. The optimized method present in this study can be used for further sample analysis.

  9. Operational behavior of the MAP/G/1 queue under N-policy with a single vacation and set-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Woo Lee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the MAP/G/1 queue under N-policy with a single vacation and set-up. We derive the vector generating functions of the queue length at an arbitrary time and at departures in decomposed forms. We also derive the Laplace-Stieltjes transform of the waiting time. Computation algorithms for mean performance measures are provided.

  10. Synthesis of protected peptides from the human IgG1 hinge region on PEG support using disulfide bond synthons and alkaline or enzymatic detachment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederhafner, Petr; Šafařík, Martin; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Gut, Vladimír; Maloň, Petr; Hlaváček, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2006), s. 1023-1025 ISSN 0040-4039 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/1362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : peptide synthesis * IgG1 hinge peptide * PEG carrier Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.509, year: 2006

  11. Situation analysis of physical independence of the equipment and safety circuits of Almaraz NPP regarding R.G. 1.75 rev.3 (2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seijas Portela, S.

    2010-01-01

    Situation analysis of physical independence of the electrical equipment and circuits CN safety Almaraz about R.G. 1.75 rev. 3. (2005) The aim of this paper is to present the work done in the analysis of the physical separation of redundant safety electrical equipment (emergency diesel generators, medium voltage, electrical cabinets, etc.) and physical separation of circuits and electrical conduits.

  12. Physical stability comparisons of IgG1-Fc variants: effects of N-glycosylation site occupancy and Asp/Gln residues at site Asn 297.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Okbazghi, Solomon Z; Kim, Jae Hyun; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Middaugh, C Russell; Tolbert, Thomas J; Volkin, David B

    2014-06-01

    The structural integrity and conformational stability of various IgG1-Fc proteins produced from the yeast Pichia pastoris with different glycosylation site occupancy (di-, mono-, and nonglycosylated) were determined. In addition, the physical stability profiles of three different forms of nonglycosylated Fc molecules (varying amino-acid residues at site 297 in the CH 2 domain due to the point mutations and enzymatic digestion of the Fc glycoforms) were also examined. The physical stability of these IgG1-Fc glycoproteins was examined as a function of pH and temperature by high-throughput biophysical analysis using multiple techniques combined with data visualization tools (three index empirical phase diagrams and radar charts). Across the pH range of 4.0-6.0, the di- and monoglycosylated forms of the IgG1-Fc showed the highest and lowest levels of physical stability, respectively, with the nonglycosylated forms showing intermediate stability depending on solution pH. In the aglycosylated Fc proteins, the introduction of Asp (D) residues at site 297 (QQ vs. DN vs. DD forms) resulted in more subtle changes in structural integrity and physical stability depending on solution pH. The utility of evaluating the conformational stability profile differences between the various IgG1-Fc glycoproteins is discussed in the context of analytical comparability studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  13. Characterization of Fusobacterium varium Fv113-g1 isolated from a patient with ulcerative colitis based on complete genome sequence and transcriptome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Sekizuka

    Full Text Available Fusobacterium spp. present in the oral and gut flora is carcinogenic and is associated with the risk of pancreatic and colorectal cancers. Fusobacterium spp. is also implicated in a broad spectrum of human pathologies, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC. Here we report the complete genome sequence of Fusobacterium varium Fv113-g1 (genome size, 3.96 Mb isolated from a patient with UC. Comparative genome analyses totally suggested that Fv113-g1 is basically assigned as F. varium, in particular, it could be reclassified as notable F. varium subsp. similar to F. ulcerans because of partial shared orthologs. Compared with the genome sequences of F. varium ATCC 27725 (genome size, 3.30 Mb and other strains of Fusobacterium spp., Fv113-g1 possesses many accessary pan-genome sequences with noteworthy multiple virulence factors, including 44 autotransporters (type V secretion system, T5SS and 13 Fusobacterium adhesion (FadA paralogs involved in potential mucosal inflammation. Indeed, transcriptome analysis demonstrated that Fv113-g1-specific accessary genes, such as multiple T5SS and fadA paralogs, showed notably increased expression with D-MEM cultivation than with brain heart infusion broth. This implied that growth condition may enhance the expression of such potential virulence factors, leading to remarkable survival against other gut microorganisms and to the pathogenicity to human intestinal epithelium.

  14. An Analytical Study of the Nonsinglet Spin Structure Function g1NS(x,t) Up to NLO in the DGLAP Approach at Small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borah, Neelakshi N. K.; Choudhury, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    A next-to-leading order QCD calculation of nonsinglet spin structure function g 1 NS (x,t) at small x is presented using the analytical methods: Lagrange’s method and method of characteristics. The compatibility of these analytical approaches is tested by comparing the analytical solutions with the available polarized global fits

  15. High-resolution phylogeography of zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto genotype G1 with an emphasis on its distribution in Turkey, Italy and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkar, Liina; Laurimäe, Teivi; Simsek, Sami; Balkaya, Ibrahim; Casulli, Adriano; Manfredi, Maria Teresa; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Varcasia, Antonio; Lavikainen, Antti; González, Luis Miguel; Rehbein, Steffen; VAN DER Giessen, Joke; Sprong, Hein; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-11-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis. The disease is a significant global public health concern and human infections are most commonly associated with E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.) genotype G1. The objectives of this study were to: (i) analyse the genetic variation and phylogeography of E. granulosus s. s. G1 in part of its main distribution range in Europe using 8274 bp of mtDNA; (ii) compare the results with those derived from previously used shorter mtDNA sequences and highlight the major differences. We sequenced a total of 91 E. granulosus s. s. G1 isolates from six different intermediate host species, including humans. The isolates originated from seven countries representing primarily Turkey, Italy and Spain. Few samples were also from Albania, Greece, Romania and from a patient originating from Algeria, but diagnosed in Finland. The analysed 91 sequences were divided into 83 haplotypes, revealing complex phylogeography and high genetic variation of E. granulosus s. s. G1 in Europe, particularly in the high-diversity domestication centre of western Asia. Comparisons with shorter mtDNA datasets revealed that 8274 bp sequences provided significantly higher phylogenetic resolution and thus more power to reveal the genetic relations between different haplotypes.

  16. Ethanol extract of Kilkyung-baeksan, a traditional herbal formula, induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in human lung cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhee Kim

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: EE-KKBS exerted its cytostatic activity through regulating G1 cell cycle checkpoint in lung cancer cells, and this activity is mainly mediated by one of its component herbs, seeds of Croton tiglium. Collectively, our data suggest that EE-KKBS could be a novel candidate for adjuvant therapy for lung cancer.

  17. X-ray induction of 6-thioguanine-resistant mutants in division arrested, G0/G1 phase Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, J.P.; Flint, K.B.

    The cytotoxic and mutagenic effect of X-irradiation was determined with Chinese hamster ovary cells arrested in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle through 9 days incubation in serum-free medium. In comparison with exponential phase cultures, the arrested cells showed increased cytotoxicity and mutation induction over the dose range of 50-800 rad. Exponential cultures showed a linear mutant frequency-survival relationship while the arrested cells showed a biphasic linear relationship. A post irradiation holding period 24 h does not result in any change in the mutant frequency. The increased sensitivity of the arrested cells to the mutagenic effects of X-rays appears to be a cell-cycle phase phenomenon. Upon readdition of serum, the arrested cells re-enter the cell cycle in a synchronous manner, reaching S phase at 10-12 h. Cells irradiated at 5 h after serum addition, i.e. in G1, show a similar dose response for mutant frequency, while those irradiated at 10 h or later, i.e. in late G1, S or G2, show lower mutation induction. These observations are consistent with a chromosome interchange mechanism of mutation induction by X-rays, possibly through interactions between repairing regions of the DNA. Irradiation of cells in the G0/G1 phase allow more time for such interactions in the absence of semiconservative DNA replication. (orig.).

  18. 11 CFR 105.1 - Place of filing; House candidates and their authorized committees (2 U.S.C. 432(g)(1)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Place of filing; House candidates and their authorized committees (2 U.S.C. 432(g)(1)). 105.1 Section 105.1 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL DOCUMENT FILING (2 U.S.C. 432(g)) § 105.1 Place of filing; House candidates and their authorized...

  19. MiR-7 triggers cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition by targeting multiple genes including Skp2 and Psme3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Sanchez

    Full Text Available MiR-7 acts as a tumour suppressor in many cancers and abrogates proliferation of CHO cells in culture. In this study we demonstrate that miR-7 targets key regulators of the G1 to S phase transition, including Skp2 and Psme3, to promote increased levels of p27(KIP and temporary growth arrest of CHO cells in the G1 phase. Simultaneously, the down-regulation of DNA repair-specific proteins via miR-7 including Rad54L, and pro-apoptotic regulators such as p53, combined with the up-regulation of anti-apoptotic factors like p-Akt, promoted cell survival while arrested in G1. Thus miR-7 can co-ordinate the levels of multiple genes and proteins to influence G1 to S phase transition and the apoptotic response in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. This work provides further mechanistic insight into the role of miR-7 as a regulator of cell growth in times of cellular stress.

  20. Regulation of the G1/S Transition in Hepatocytes: Involvement of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Cdk1 in the DNA Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Corlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A singular feature of adult differentiated hepatocytes is their capacity to proliferate allowing liver regeneration. This review emphasizes the literature published over the last 20 years that established the most important pathways regulating the hepatocyte cell cycle. Our article also aimed at illustrating that many discoveries in this field benefited from the combined use of in vivo models of liver regeneration and in vitro models of primary cultures of human and rodent hepatocytes. Using these models, our laboratory has contributed to decipher the different steps of the progression into the G1 phase and the commitment to S phase of proliferating hepatocytes. We identified the mitogen dependent restriction point located at the two-thirds of the G1 phase and the concomitant expression and activation of both Cdk1 and Cdk2 at the G1/S transition. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these two Cdks contribute to the DNA replication. Finally, we provided strong evidences that Cdk1 expression and activation is correlated to extracellular matrix degradation upon stimulation by the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα leading to the identification of a new signaling pathway regulating Cdk1 expression at the G1/S transition. It also further confirms the well-orchestrated regulation of liver regeneration via multiple extracellular signals and pathways.

  1. Direct analysis of site-specific N-glycopeptides of serological proteins in dried blood spot samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Na Young; Hwang, Heeyoun; Ji, Eun Sun; Park, Gun Wook; Lee, Ju Yeon; Lee, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2017-08-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) samples have a number of advantages, especially with respect to ease of collection, transportation, and storage and to reduce biohazard risk. N-glycosylation is a major post-translational modification of proteins in human blood that is related to a variety of biological functions, including metastasis, cell-cell interactions, inflammation, and immunization. Here, we directly analyzed tryptic N-glycopeptides from glycoproteins in DBS samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) without centrifugation of blood samples, depletion of major proteins, desalting of tryptic peptides, and enrichment of N-glycopeptides. Using this simple method, we identified a total of 41 site-specific N-glycopeptides from 16 glycoproteins in the DBS samples, from immunoglobulin gamma 1 (IgG-1, 10 mg/mL) down to complement component C7 (50 μg/mL). Of these, 32 N-glycopeptides from 14 glycoproteins were consistently quantified over 180 days stored at room temperature. The major abundant glycoproteins in the DBS samples were IgG-1 and IgG-2, which contain nine asialo-fucosylated complex types of 16 different N-glycopeptide isoforms. Sialo-non-fucosylated complex types were primarily detected in the other glycoproteins such as alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1, 2, alpha-1-antitypsin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, Ig alpha 1, 2 chain C region, kininogen-1, prothrombin, and serotransferrin. We first report the characterization of site-specific N-glycoproteins in DBS samples by LC-MS/MS with minimal sample preparation.

  2. Market opportunities for solar drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskens, R.G.J.H.; Out, P.G.; Schulte, B.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most promising applications for solar heating is the drying of agricultural products. The drying of agricultural products requires large quantities of low temperature air, in many cases, on a year-round basis. Low cost air-based collectors can provide heated air at solar collection efficiencies of 30 to 70%. In 1998/1999 a study was commissioned to better understand the technical and economic potential for solar drying of agricultural products in the world. The practical potential for solar drying was then determined for 59 crops and 22 regions. The world market for solar drying can be divided into three market segments: 1) mechanical drying T 50 deg. C; 3) sun drying. The most promising market for solar drying is generally market segment 1. For this segment the potential amount of energy displaced by solar is in between 216 770 PJ (World-wide). For Western Europe this potential is estimated between 23 88 PJ and for Eastern Europe between 7 and 13 PJ. A different market introduction strategy is required for each market segment. A total of 13 combinations of crops and regions are selected that appear to have the highest practical potential for solar drying. In the Netherlands a programme of activities was carried out by Ecofys and other organisations, to identify and develop the market potential for solar (assisted) drying of agricultural products. A promotional campaign for the use of renewable energy in the (promising) flower bulb sector is planned on a short-term basis to speed up market developments. It can be concluded that there is a large market for solar drying in the World as well as in Europe. (au)

  3. Dry wall Kras 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Zupančič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the modesty of hiska, they show a simple understanding of corbelling technique. One could say they are all examples of human landscape cultivation. Although there is no evident common line when comparing all types of hiska, the cunning eye may observe one shared feature: the positioning of the entrance. More or less all the documented shelters have south or south-western facing entrances. The burja is a cold northerly wind; from the south (Adriatic Sea the winds are warmer. When resting, the setting sun is taken as a sign of the ending of the working day and a reward for the whole day’s efforts. Entrances are the only openings to these structures, and they should serve as well as possible - to watch over the crops, to wait when hunting, to enjoy the calm of evening light, to breathe the sea wind.The syntax of the architectural language of layering stone and shaping the pattern of the landscape remain an inventive realisation of spatial ideas from the past until today. Not only ideas of shaping space - these ideas are basic interventions in the natural habitat which contribute to survival. Culture and an awareness of its values are the origins of local development and reasonable heritage preservation. The next step are tutorial days with workshops on how to build dry stone structures, walls and other stone architecture, as the DSWA organisation in the UK is doing.

  4. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  5. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our lessons learned from evaluations, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  6. Direct determination of platinum group elements and their distributions in geological and environmental samples at the ng g(-1) level using LA-ICP-IDMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, Sergei F; Heumann, Klaus G

    2005-10-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-IDMS) was applied to the direct and simultaneous determination of the platinum group elements (PGEs) Pt, Pd, Ru, and Ir in geological and environmental samples. A special laser ablation system with high ablation rates was used, along with sector field ICP-MS. Special attention was paid to deriving the distributions of PGEs in the pulverized samples. IDMS could not be applied to the (mono-isotopic) Rh, but the similar ablation behavior of Ru and Rh allowed Rh to be simultaneously determined via relative sensitivity coefficients. The laser ablation process produces hardly any oxide ions (which usually cause interference in PGE analysis with liquid sample injection), so the ICP-MS can be run in its low mass resolution but high-sensitivity mode. The detection limits obtained for the geological samples were 0.16 ng g(-1), 0.14 ng g(-1), 0.08 ng g(-1), 0.01 ng g(-1) and 0.06 ng g(-1) for Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt, respectively. LA-ICP-IDMS was applied to different geological reference materials (TDB-1, WGB-1, UMT-1, WMG-1, SARM-7) and the road dust reference material BCR-723, which are only certified for some of the PGEs. Comparisons with certified values as well as with indicative values from the literature demonstrated the validity of the LA-ICP-IDMS method. The PGE concentrations in subsamples of the road dust reference material correspond to a normal distribution, whereas the distributions in the geological reference materials TDB-1, WGB-1, UMT-1, WMG-1, and SARM-7 are more complex. For example, in the case of Ru, a logarithmic normal distribution best fits the analyzed concentrations in TDB-1 subsamples, whereas a pronounced nugget effect was found for Pt in most geological samples.

  7. Neisseria meningitidis Group A IgG1 and IgG2 Subclass Immune Response in African Children Aged 12–23 Months Following Meningococcal Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Daniel; Findlow, Helen; Sow, Samba O.; Idoko, Olubukola T.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Carlone, George; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Borrow, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Background. A group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT, was licensed in 2010 and was previously studied in a phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate its safety and immunogenicity in African children 12–23 months of age. Methods. Subjects received either PsA-TT; meningococcal group A, C, W, Y polysaccharide vaccine (PsACWY); or Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (Hib-TT). Forty weeks following primary vaccination, the 3 groups were further randomized to receive either PsA-TT, one-fifth dose of PsACWY, or Hib-TT. Group A–specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass response was characterized using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. The predominant IgG subclass response, regardless of vaccine, was IgG1. One month following primary vaccination, the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of IgG1 and IgG2 in the PsA-TT group were 21.73 µg/mL and 6.27 µg/mL, whereas in the PsACWY group the mean GMCs were 2.01 µg/mL and 0.97 µg/mL, respectively (P Group A–specific IgG1 and IgG2 GMCs remained greater in the PsA-TT group than in the PsACWY group 40 weeks following primary vaccination (P vaccines. Conclusions. Vaccination of African children aged 12–24 months with either PsA-TT or PsACWY elicited a predominantly IgG1 response. The IgG1:IgG2 mean ratio decreased following successive vaccination with PsACWY, indicating a shift toward IgG2, suggestive of the T-cell–independent immune response commonly associated with polysaccharide antigens. Clinical Trials Registration. SRCTN78147026. PMID:26553689

  8. Genetic characterization of human hydatid cysts shows coinfection by Echinococcus canadensis G7 and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto G1 in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debiaggi, María Florencia; Soriano, Silvia Viviana; Pierangeli, Nora Beatriz; Lazzarini, Lorena Evelina; Pianciola, Luis Alfredo; Mazzeo, Melina Leonor; Moguillansky, Sergio; Farjat, Juan Angel Basualdo

    2017-09-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a highly endemic disease in the province of Neuquén, Patagonia, Argentina. Human infections with E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) G1 and Echinococcus canadensis G6 were reported in Neuquén in previous studies, whereas four genotypes were identified in livestock: G1, G3, G6, and G7. The aim of this study was to identify the genotypes of E. granulosus s.l. isolates from humans of Neuquén province, Patagonia, Argentina, through the 2005-2014 period. Twenty six hydatid cysts were obtained from 21 patients. The most frequent locations were the liver and lungs. Single cysts were observed in 81.0% of patients, and combined infection of liver and lungs was detected in 9.5% of cases. Partial sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes identified the presence of E. granulosus s.s. G1 (n = 11; 42.3%) including three different partial sequences; E. canadensis G6 (n = 14; 53.8%) and E. canadensis G7 (n = 1; 3.9%). Coinfection with G1 and G7 genotypes was detected in one patient who harbored three liver cysts. Most of the liver cysts corresponded to G1 and G6 genotypes. This study presents the first report in the Americas of a human infection with E. canadensis G7 and the second worldwide report of a coinfection with two different species and genotypes of E. granulosus s.l in humans. The molecular diversity of this parasite should be considered to redesign or improve the control program strategies in endemic regions.

  9. Wogonin induced G1 cell cycle arrest by regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and inactivating CDK8 in human colorectal cancer carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Licheng; Lu, Na; Dai, Qinsheng; Zhao, Yue; Zhao, Li; Wang, Hu; Li, Zhiyu; You, Qidong; Guo, Qinglong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Wogonin inhibited HCT116 cells growth and arrested at G1 phase of the cell cycle. • Wogonin down-regulated the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. • Wogonin interfered in the combination of β-catenin and TCF/Lef. • Wogonin limited the kinase activity of CDK8. - Abstract: Wogonin, a naturally occurring mono-flavonoid, has been reported to have tumor therapeutic potential and good selectivity both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we investigated the anti-proliferation effects and associated mechanisms of wogonin in human colorectal cancer in vitro. The flow-cytometric analysis showed that wogonin induced a G1 phase cell cycle arrest in HCT116 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the cell cycle-related proteins, such as cyclin A, E, D1, and CDK2, 4 were down-regulated in wogonin-induced G1 cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we showed that the anti-proliferation and G1 arrest effect of wogonin on HCT116 cells was associated with deregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Wogonin-treated cells showed decreased intracellular levels of Wnt proteins, and activated degradation complex to phosphorylated and targeted β-catenin for proteasomal degradation. Wogonin inhibited β-catenin-mediated transcription by interfering in the transcriptional activity of TCF/Lef, and repressing the kinase activity of CDK8 which has been considered as an oncogene involving in the development of colorectal cancers. Moreover, CDK8 siRNA-transfected HCT116 cells showed similar results to wogonin treated cells. Thus, our data suggested that wogonin induced anti-proliferation and G1 arrest via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and it can be developed as a therapeutic agent against human colorectal cancer

  10. Presence or absence of ocular surface inflammation directs clinical and therapeutic management of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambursky, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The presence of clinically significant inflammation has been confirmed in the tears of 40%-65% of patients with symptoms of dry eye. Ocular surface inflammation may lead to tear film instability, epithelial cell irregularities, and permeability, resulting in chronic symptomatic pain and fluctuating vision as well as negative surgical outcomes. A retrospective single center medical chart review of 100 patients was conducted. All patients were tested with the InflammaDry test to determine if patients exhibited elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). InflammaDry-positive patients were started on a combination of cyclosporine 0.05% twice daily, 2,000-4,000 mg oral omega-3 fatty acids, and frequent artificial tear replacement. InflammaDry-negative patients were started on 2,000-4,000 mg of oral omega-3 fatty acids and frequent artificial tear replacement. Each patient was retested at ~90 days. A symptom questionnaire was performed at the initial visit and at 90 days. 60% of the patients with dry eye symptoms tested positive for elevated MMP-9 at the initial visit. 78% of all patients returned for follow-up at ~90 days including 80% (48/60) of the previously InflammaDry-positive patients and 75% (30/40) of the previously InflammaDry-negative patients. A follow-up symptom questionnaire reported at least 75% symptomatic improvement in 65% (31/48) of the originally InflammaDry-positive patients and in 70% (21/30) of the initially InflammaDry-negative patients. Symptomatic improvement of at least 50% was reported in 85% (41/48) of previously InflammaDry-positive patients and 86% (26/30) of previously InflammaDry-negative patients. Following treatment, 54% (26/48) of previously InflammaDry-positive patients converted to a negative InflammaDry result. Identifying which symptomatic dry eye patients have underlying inflammation may predict patient responses to treatment and influence clinical management strategies.

  11. Energy cost of seed drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachet Jittanit

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the energy costs of drying corn, rice and wheat seeds between 3 drying options were compared. They consisted of 1 two-stage drying by using fluidised bed dryer (FBD in the 1st stage and in-store dryer (ISD in the 2nd stage, 2 single-stage drying by fixed bed dryer (FXD and 3 two-stage drying by using FXD in the 1st  stage and ISD in the 2nd  stage. The drying conditions selected for comparison were proved to be safe for seed viability by the previous studies. The results showed that the drying options 2 and 3 consumed less energy than option 1. However, the benefits from lower energy cost must be weighed against some advantages of using FBD. Furthermore, it appeared that running the burners of FXD and ISD for warming up the ambient air during humid weather condition could shorten drying time significantly with a little higher energy cost.

  12. Sorption of phosphates and thiocyanates on isomorphic substituted Mg/Zn–Al-type hydrotalcites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA PODE

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The sorption equilibriums of phosphate and thiocyanate anions on isomorphic substituted Mg/Zn–Al-type hydrotalcites were investigated in this study. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to interpret the equilibrium data for phosphate. The sorption equilibriums of phosphate on Mg3Al, Mg2ZnAl and Mg1.5Zn1.5Al hydrotalcites were well described by the Langmuir isotherm. The highest maximum sorption capacities for these adsorbents were as follows: 111, 101 and 95 mg g-1. The equilibrium constant and standard Gibbs energy changes were also calculated from the sorption data. Standard Gibbs energy changes of about –20 kJ mol-1 indicated that the process might be considered as physical adsorption. The sorption equilibriums of phosphate on isomorphic substituted samples of MgZn2Al and Zn3Al were well described by the Freundlich isotherm. Thiocyanate showed a relative low affinity for the studied materials, as indicated by both the “S”-shaped isotherms and low sorption capacities. The sorption of phosphate and thiocyanate on the investigated hydrotalcites showed a continuous decrease of the sorption capacity in the following order: Mg3Al > Mg2ZnAl > Mg1.5Zn1.5Al > MgZn2Al > Zn3Al.

  13. Drying effect on flavonoid composition and antioxidant activity of immature kumquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shyi-Neng; Lai, Yi-Chun; Huang, Jia-De; Ho, Chi-Tang; Ferng, Lin-Huei A; Chang, Yung-Chung

    2015-03-15

    A seven flavonoids in hot water extract of immature kumquat (Citrus japonica var. margarita) were identified and quantified (mg/100g fresh fruit): 3',5'-di-C-β-glucopyranosylphloretin (DGPP, 285.9 ± 2.9 mg/100g), acacetin 8-C-neohesperidoside (margaritene, 136.2 ± 2.6 mg/100g), acacetin 6-C-neohesperidoside (isomargaritene, 119.1 ± 1.8 mg/100g), fortunellin (acacetin 7-O-neohesperidoside, 28.5 ± 0.7 mg/100g), apigenin 8-C-neohesperidoside (16.9 ± 0.1mg/100g), poncirin (isosakuranetin 7-O-neohesperidoside, 5.1 ± 0.1mg/100g), and rhoifolin (apigenin 7-O-neohesperidoside, 2.0 ± 0.1mg/100g). When immature kumquat was dried at 110 and 130°C for 0.5h, the antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and identified flavonoids increased. The UV absorbance of browning products of immature kumquat dried at 130°C for 1.5h increased dramatically, while the identified flavonoids decreased. Therefore, it was concluded that drying below 130°C for 1.0 h, could release phenolic compounds, which resulted in the increasing antioxidant activity. Drying at 130°C for 1.5h, it might be due to the effect of formed browning products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dry eyes: etiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkany, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Until recently, the cause of dry eye syndrome was uncertain and the treatment was palliative. Since discovering that dry eyes are caused by inflammation, there has been an abundance of research focusing on anti-inflammatory therapies, other contributing causes, and better diagnostic testing. This review summarizes some of the interesting published research on ocular surface disease over the past year. The definition of dry eye now highlights the omnipresent symptom of blurry vision. The re-evaluation of ocular surface staining, tear meniscus height, and visual change will allow for a better diagnosis and understanding of dry eyes. Punctal plugs, and oral and topical anti-inflammatory use will strengthen our arsenal against ocular surface disease. Major progress has occurred in the past few years in gaining a better understanding of the etiology of dry eye syndrome, which will inevitably lead to more effective therapeutic options.

  15. Drying kinetics of atemoya pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plúvia O. Galdino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted in order to obtain drying curves of whole atemoya pulp through the foam-mat drying method. The suspension was prepared with whole atemoya pulp mixed with 2% of Emustab® and 2% of Super Liga Neutra® with mixing time of 20 min, and dried in a forced-air oven at different temperatures (60; 70 and 80 °C and thicknesses of the foam layer (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm. The drying rate curves were plotted against the water content ratio and the semi-theoretical models of Henderson & Pabis, Page and Midilli were used. All tested models showed coefficient of determination (R2 above 0.993, and the Midilli model showed the best fit for all conditions. Drying curves were affected by temperature and layer thickness.

  16. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  17. Spray-dried powders improve the controlled release of antifungal tioconazole-loaded polymeric nanocapsules compared to with lyophilized products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Roseane Fagundes; Motta, Mariana Heldt; Härter, Andréia Pisching Garcia; Flores, Fernanda Cramer; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Schaffazick, Scheila Rezende

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to obtain solid formulations from polymeric nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing tioconazole, a broad spectrum antifungal drug. Two dehydration methods were used: spray-drying and freeze-drying, using lactose as adjuvant (10%, w/v). The liquid formulations had a mean particle size around 206 nm and 182 nm for nanocapsules and nanoemulsions, respectively, and an adequate polydispersity index. Tioconazole content was close to the theoretical amount (1.0 mg/mL). After drying, the content ranged between 98 and 102% with a mean nanometric size of the dried products after redispersion. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the particles are rounded, sphere-shaped for the dried products obtained by spray-drying, and shapeless and irregular shapes for those obtained by freeze-drying. In the microbiological evaluation, all dried products remained active against the yeast Candida albicans when compared to the original systems. The dried products obtained by spray-drying from nanocapsules presented better control of the tioconazole release when compared to the freeze-drying products. - Highlights: • Polymeric nanocapsule suspensions containing tioconazole were submitted to spray-drying and freeze-drying. • Dried products from nanocapsule suspensions were stable for 30 days. • Release studies showed that the dried products presented greater control of drug release compared to the original suspension.

  18. Spray-dried powders improve the controlled release of antifungal tioconazole-loaded polymeric nanocapsules compared to with lyophilized products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Roseane Fagundes [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); Motta, Mariana Heldt [Curso de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); Härter, Andréia Pisching Garcia; Flores, Fernanda Cramer [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, Porto Alegre, RS, 90610-000 (Brazil); Schaffazick, Scheila Rezende [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); and others

    2016-02-01

    This work aimed to obtain solid formulations from polymeric nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing tioconazole, a broad spectrum antifungal drug. Two dehydration methods were used: spray-drying and freeze-drying, using lactose as adjuvant (10%, w/v). The liquid formulations had a mean particle size around 206 nm and 182 nm for nanocapsules and nanoemulsions, respectively, and an adequate polydispersity index. Tioconazole content was close to the theoretical amount (1.0 mg/mL). After drying, the content ranged between 98 and 102% with a mean nanometric size of the dried products after redispersion. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the particles are rounded, sphere-shaped for the dried products obtained by spray-drying, and shapeless and irregular shapes for those obtained by freeze-drying. In the microbiological evaluation, all dried products remained active against the yeast Candida albicans when compared to the original systems. The dried products obtained by spray-drying from nanocapsules presented better control of the tioconazole release when compared to the freeze-drying products. - Highlights: • Polymeric nanocapsule suspensions containing tioconazole were submitted to spray-drying and freeze-drying. • Dried products from nanocapsule suspensions were stable for 30 days. • Release studies showed that the dried products presented greater control of drug release compared to the original suspension.

  19. Dry needling in lateral epicondylitis: a prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygur, Esat; Aktaş, Birol; Özkut, Afşar; Erinç, Samet; Yilmazoglu, Emime Gül

    2017-11-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (LE), a common disease, especially in middle age, causes decreased productivity and economic losses. The first-line treatment for LE is conservative and consists of topical and oral anti-inflammatory drugs, ice application, and brace use. If the first-line treatment fails, second-line treatment modalities, which are generally invasive, are offered. Second-line therapeutic regimens include saline, corticosteroid, or platelet-rich plasma injections. Dry needling is relatively new. We hypothesized that dry needling would be at least as effective as first-line treatment for LE. We compared the outcomes of first-line treatment and dry needling. The study allocated 110 patients into groups using online randomization software. After completing the Patient-rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), patients in group I received dry needling, whereas those in group II received first-line treatment, consisting of ibuprofen 100 mg twice a day and a proximal forearm brace. The patients were evaluated after three weeks and six months. The study ultimately analyzed 92 patients. Although both treatment methods were effective at three weeks, dry needling was significantly more effective than the first-line treatment at six months. Because of the low complication rate, dry needling is a safe method, and it might be an effective treatment option for LE.

  20. Drying of α-amylase by spray drying and freeze-drying - a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. de Jesus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at comparing two traditional methods of drying of enzymes and at verifying the efficiency of each one and their advantages and disadvantages. The experiments were performed with a laboratory spray dryer and freeze-dryer using α-amylase as the model enzyme. An experimental design in star revealed that spray drying is mainly influenced by the inlet air temperature and feed flow rate, which were considered to be the main factors influencing the enzymatic activity and water activity; the long period of material exposure to high temperatures causes a partial activity loss. In the experiments of freeze drying, three methods of freezing were used (freezer, acetone and dry ice, and liquid nitrogen and samples subsequently freeze-dried for times ranging between 0-24 hours. The product obtained from the two techniques showed high enzymatic activity and low water activity. For the drying of heat-resistant enzymes, in which the product to be obtained does not have high added value, spray drying may be more economically viable because, in the freeze drying process, the process time can be considered as a limiting factor when choosing a technique.

  1. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  2. Dry Mouth Treatment: Tips for Controlling Dry Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouthwashes that contain alcohol because they can be drying. Stop all tobacco use if you smoke or ... also help your condition: Avoid sugary or acidic foods and drinks because they increase your risk of ...

  3. Human Schistosoma haematobium antifecundity immunity is dependent on transmission intensity and associated with immunoglobulin G1 to worm-derived antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Jones, Frances M.; van Dam, Govert J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunity that reduces worm fecundity and, in turn, reduces morbidity is proposed for Schistosoma haematobium, a parasite of major public health importance. Mathematical models of epidemiological trends suggest that antifecundity immunity is dependent on antibody responses to adult......-worm-derived antigen. METHODS: For a Malian cohort (age, 5-29 years) residing in high-transmission fishing villages or a moderate-transmission village, worm fecundity was assessed using the ratio of urinary egg excretion to levels of circulating anodic antigen, a Schistosoma-specific antigen that is steadily secreted......, host age and transmission were negatively associated with worm fecundity. A significant interaction term between host age and transmission indicates that antifecundity immunity develops earlier in high-transmission areas. SWA immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) levels explained the effect of transmission...

  4. Measurement of the electrical resistivity of liquid 32G2 and 32G1 steels by the rotating magnetic field method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovykh, M. A.; Chikova, O. A.; Tsepelev, V. S.; V'yukhin, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    The resistivity of liquid 32G2 and 32G1 steels are measured using the rotating magnetic field method to obtain information on their liquid structures. The technique of measurements is described and the influence of self-induction and viscosity on the resistivity is estimated. The results are discussed in the framework of a microheterogeneous structure of a metallic melt. A conclusion is made about the character of the influence of slag inclusions detected by magnetic powder and ultrasonic methods on the temperature dependences of the resistivities of liquid 32G2 and 32G1 steels. The change in the temperature coefficient of the resistivity of the melt on heating to 1700°C is interpreted using the Nagel-Tauc model.

  5. Development and results of a test program to demonstrate compliance with IEEE STD 384 and R.G. 1.75 electrical separation requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, G.P.; Heneberry, E.F.; Walker, F.P.; Konkus, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The IEEE Std 384-1974, entitled ''Criteria for Separation of Class 1E Equipment and Circuits,'' contains criteria to ensure the independence of redundant Class 1E equipment when designing electrical systems in nuclear plants. The NRC, in R.G. 1.75 Rev. 2, 1978, endorses, with comments, IEEE-384, as the means of achieving independence. One method given in IEEE-384, is that of maintaining a specified separation between components; another method utilizes a combination of separation and barriers. The standard also allows alternative methods to be used when justified by test-based analyses. This paper is a report of a test program undertaken to provide a basis for analysis in the development of alternative methods of achieving separation. The test parameters developed and used, and the results obtained, should prove useful in determining alternative methods of complying with R.G. 1.75 requirements

  6. A measurement of the spin asymmetry and determination of the structure function g1 in deep inelastic muon-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashman, J.; Combley, F.; Salmon, D.; Wheeler, S.; Baum, G.; Caputo, M.C.; Hughes, V.W.; Oppenheim, R.F.; Papavassiliou, V.; Piegaia, R.; Schueler, K.P.; Bee, C.P.; Brown, S.C.; Court, G.; Francis, D.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hayman, P.; Holt, J.R.; Jones, T.; Matthews, M.; Wimpenny, S.J.; Coignet, G.; Windmolders, R.

    1988-01-01

    The spin asymmetry in deep inelastic scattering of longitudinally polarised muons by longitudinally polarised protons has been measured over a large x range (0.01 1 (x) for the proton has been determined and its integral over x found to be 0.114±0.012±0.026, in disagreement with the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule. Assuming the validity of the Bjorken sum rule, this result implies a significant negative value for the integral of g 1 for the neutron. These values for the integrals of g 1 lead to the conclusion that the total quark spin constitutes a rather small fraction of the spin of the nucleon. (orig.)

  7. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  8. Characterization of pH dependent Mn(II) oxidation strategies and formation of a bixbyite-like phase by Mesorhizobium australicum T-G1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohu, Tsing; Santelli, Cara M; Akob, Denise M.; Neu, Thomas R; Ciobota, Valerian; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Nietzsche, Sándor; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of Mn oxides in natural environments, there are only a few observations of biological Mn(II) oxidation at pH < 6. The lack of low pH Mn-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) isolates limits our understanding of how pH influences biological Mn(II) oxidation in extreme environments. Here, we report that a novel MOB isolate, Mesorhizobium australicum strain T-G1, isolated from an acidic and metalliferous uranium mining area, can oxidize Mn(II) at both acidic and neutral pH using different enzymatic pathways. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that T-G1 initiated bixbyite-like Mn oxide formation at pH 5.5 which coincided with multi-copper oxidase expression from early exponential phase to late stationary phase. In contrast, reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly superoxide, appeared to be more important for T-G1 mediated Mn(II) oxidation at neutral pH. ROS was produced in parallel with the occurrence of Mn(II) oxidation at pH 7.2 from early stationary phase. Solid phase Mn oxides did not precipitate, which is consistent with the presence of a high amount of H2O2 and lower activity of catalase in the liquid culture at pH 7.2. Our results show that M. australicum T-G1, an acid tolerant MOB, can initiate Mn(II) oxidation by varying its oxidation mechanisms depending on the pH and may play an important role in low pH manganese biogeochemical cycling.

  9. β2-adrenoceptor blockage induces G1/S phase arrest and apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells via Ras/Akt/NFκB pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking and stress, pancreatic cancer (PanCa risk factors, stimulate nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK and catecholamines production respectively. NNK and catecholamine bind the β-adrenoceptors and induce PanCa cell proliferation; and we have previously suggested that β-adrenergic antagonists may suppress proliferation and invasion and stimulate apoptosis in PanCa. To clarify the mechanism of apoptosis induced by β2-adrenergic antagonist, we hypothesize that blockage of the β2-adrenoceptor could induce G1/S phase arrest and apoptosis and Ras may be a key player in PanCa cells. Results The β1 and β2-adrenoceptor proteins were detected on the cell surface of PanCa cells from pancreatic carcinoma specimen samples by immunohistochemistry. The β2-adrenergic antagonist ICI118,551 significantly induced G1/S phase arrest and apoptosis compared with the β1-adrenergic antagonist metoprolol, which was determined by the flow cytometry assay. β2-adrenergic antagonist therapy significantly suppressed the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Akt, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, and cyclin E and induced the activation of caspase-3, caspase-9 and Bax by Western blotting. Additionally, the β2-adrenergic antagonist reduced the activation of NFκB in vitro cultured PanCa cells. Conclusions The blockage of β2-adrenoceptor markedly induced PanCa cells to arrest at G1/S phase and consequently resulted in cell death, which is possibly due to that the blockage of β2-adrenoceptor inhibited NFκB, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and Akt pathways. Therefore, their upstream molecule Ras may be a key factor in the β2-adrenoceptor antagonist induced G1/S phase arrest and apoptosis in PanCa cells. The new pathway discovered in this study may provide an effective therapeutic strategy for PanCa.

  10. ATR- and ATM-Mediated DNA Damage Response Is Dependent on Excision Repair Assembly during G1 but Not in S Phase of Cell Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Alo; Blevins, Chessica; Wani, Gulzar; Wani, Altaf A

    2016-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoint is mediated by ATR and ATM kinases, as a prompt early response to a variety of DNA insults, and culminates in a highly orchestrated signal transduction cascade. Previously, we defined the regulatory role of nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors, DDB2 and XPC, in checkpoint and ATR/ATM-dependent repair pathway via ATR and ATM phosphorylation and recruitment to ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced damage sites. Here, we have dissected the molecular mechanisms of DDB2- and XPC- mediated regulation of ATR and ATM recruitment and activation upon UVR exposures. We show that the ATR and ATM activation and accumulation to UVR-induced damage not only depends on DDB2 and XPC, but also on the NER protein XPA, suggesting that the assembly of an active NER complex is essential for ATR and ATM recruitment. ATR and ATM localization and H2AX phosphorylation at the lesion sites occur as early as ten minutes in asynchronous as well as G1 arrested cells, showing that repair and checkpoint-mediated by ATR and ATM starts early upon UV irradiation. Moreover, our results demonstrated that ATR and ATM recruitment and H2AX phosphorylation are dependent on NER proteins in G1 phase, but not in S phase. We reasoned that in G1 the UVR-induced ssDNA gaps or processed ssDNA, and the bound NER complex promote ATR and ATM recruitment. In S phase, when the UV lesions result in stalled replication forks with long single-stranded DNA, ATR and ATM recruitment to these sites is regulated by different sets of proteins. Taken together, these results provide evidence that UVR-induced ATR and ATM recruitment and activation differ in G1 and S phases due to the existence of distinct types of DNA lesions, which promote assembly of different proteins involved in the process of DNA repair and checkpoint activation.

  11. Characterization of pH dependent Mn(II oxidation strategies and formation of a bixbyite-like phase by Mesorhizobium australicum T-G1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsing eBohu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ubiquity of Mn oxides in natural environments, there are only a few observations of biological Mn(II oxidation at pH < 6. The lack of low pH Mn-oxidizing bacteria (MOB isolates limits our understanding of how pH influences biological Mn(II oxidation in extreme environments. Here, we report that a novel MOB isolate, Mesorhizobium australicum strain T-G1, isolated from an acidic and metalliferous uranium mining area, can oxidize Mn(II at both acidic and neutral pH using different enzymatic pathways. X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS revealed that T-G1 initiated bixbyite-like Mn oxide formation at pH 5.5 which coincided with multi-copper oxidase (MCO expression from early exponential phase to late stationary phase. In contrast, reactive oxygen species (ROS, particularly superoxide, appeared to be more important for T-G1 mediated Mn(II oxidation at neutral pH. ROS was produced in parallel with the occurrence of Mn(II oxidation at pH 7.2 from early stationary phase. Solid phase Mn oxides did not precipitate, which is consistent with the presence of a high amount of H2O2 and lower activity of catalase in the liquid culture at pH 7.2. Our results show that M. australicum T-G1, an acid tolerant MOB, can initiate Mn(II oxidation by varying its oxidation mechanisms depending on the pH and may play an important role in low pH manganese biogeochemical cycling.

  12. Characterization of pH dependent Mn(II) oxidation strategies and formation of a bixbyite-like phase by Mesorhizobium australicum T-G1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohu, Tsing; Santelli, Cara M; Akob, Denise M.; Neu, Thomas R; Ciobota, Valerian; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Nietzsche, Sándor; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of Mn oxides in natural environments, there are only a few observations of biological Mn(II) oxidation at pH MOB) isolates limits our understanding of how pH influences biological Mn(II) oxidation in extreme environments. Here, we report that a novel MOB isolate, Mesorhizobium australicum strain T-G1, isolated from an acidic and metalliferous uranium mining area, can oxidize Mn(II) at both acidic and neutral pH using different enzymatic pathways. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that T-G1 initiated bixbyite-like Mn oxide formation at pH 5.5 which coincided with multi-copper oxidase expression from early exponential phase to late stationary phase. In contrast, reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly superoxide, appeared to be more important for T-G1 mediated Mn(II) oxidation at neutral pH. ROS was produced in parallel with the occurrence of Mn(II) oxidation at pH 7.2 from early stationary phase. Solid phase Mn oxides did not precipitate, which is consistent with the presence of a high amount of H2O2 and lower activity of catalase in the liquid culture at pH 7.2. Our results show that M. australicum T-G1, an acid tolerant MOB, can initiate Mn(II) oxidation by varying its oxidation mechanisms depending on the pH and may play an important role in low pH manganese biogeochemical cycling.

  13. A fully human IgG1 anti-PD-L1 MAb in an in vitro assay enhances antigen-specific T-cell responses

    OpenAIRE

    Grenga, Italia; Donahue, Renee N; Lepone, Lauren M; Richards, Jacob; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that interfere with checkpoint molecules are being investigated for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer, with the aim of enhancing the function of an impaired immune system. Avelumab (MSB0010718C) is a fully human IgG1 MAb targeting programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), which differs from other checkpoint-blocking antibodies in its ability to mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. These studies were conducted to define whether avelumab cou...

  14. Evaluation of past and future alterations in tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, based on the clay mineralogy of drill cores USW G-1, G-2, and G-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bish, D.L.

    1989-03-01

    The tuffs at Yucca Mountain in south-central Nevada are being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to determine their suitability for a high-level radioactive waste repository. For predictive purposes, it is important to understand the alteration history of Yucca Mountain and to know how the minerals in Yucca Mountain tuffs respond to changing conditions such as elevated temperatures. The clay mineralogy of these tuffs has been examined using x-ray powder diffraction, and approximation temperatures of alteration have been determined using available clay mineral data and fluid inclusion analyses. Also, several illites from drill holes USW G-1 and G-2 have been dated using K/Ar techniques, yielding ages of about 11 Myr. The clay mineral in Yucca Mountain tuffs are predominantly interstratified illite/smectites, with minor amounts of chloride, kaolinite, and interstratified chlorite/smectite at depth in USW G-1 and G-2. The reactions observed for these illite/smectites are similar to those observed in pelitic rocks. With depths, the illite/smectites transform from random interstratifications (R = 0) through ordered intermediates (R = 1) to illite in USW G-2 and to Kalkberg (R ≥ 3) interstratifications in USW G-1. The illite/smectites in USW G-3 have not significantly transformed. It appears that the illites in deeper rock results from hydrothermal and diagenetic reactions of earlier-formed smectites. These data demonstrate that the rocks at depth in the northern end of Yucca Mountain were significantly altered about 11 Myr ago. Both clay mineralogy and fluid inclusions suggest that the rocks at depth in USW G-2 have been subjected to postdepositional temperatures of at least 275/degree/C, those in USW G-1 have reached 200/degree/C, and USW G-3 rocks probably have not exceeded 100/degree/C. 64 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Viral control in chronic HIV-1 subtype C infection is associated with enrichment of p24 IgG1 with Fc effector activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Amy; Makuba, Jenniffer M; Ndlovu, Bongiwe; Licht, Anna; Robinson, Hannah; Ramlakhan, Yathisha; Ghebremichael, Musie; Reddy, Tarylee; Goulder, Philip; Walker, Bruce; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Alter, Galit

    2018-04-03

    Postinfection HIV viral control and immune correlates analysis of the RV144 vaccine trial indicate a potentially critical role for Fc receptor-mediated antibody functions. However, the influence of functional antibodies in clade C infection is largely unknown. Plasma samples from 361 chronic subtype C-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve participants were tested for their HIV-specific isotype and subclass distributions, along with their Fc receptor-mediated functional potential. Total IgG, IgG subclasses and IgA binding to p24 clade B/C and gp120 consensus C proteins were assayed by multiplex. Antibody-dependent uptake of antigen-coated beads and Fc receptor-mediated natural killer cell degranulation were evaluated as surrogates for antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), respectively. p24 IgG1 was the only subclass associated with viral control (P = 0.01), with higher p24-specific ADCP and ADCC responses detected in individuals with high p24 IgG1. Although p24 IgG1 levels were enriched in patients with elevated Gag-specific T-cell responses, these levels remained an independent predictor of low-viral loads (P = 0.04) and high CD4 counts (P = 0.004) after adjusting for Gag-specific T-cell responses and for protective HLA class I alleles. p24 IgG1 levels independently predict viral control in HIV-1 clade C infection. Whether these responses contribute to direct antiviral control via the recruited killing of infected cells via the innate immune system or simply mark a qualitatively superior immune response to HIV, is uncertain, but highlights the role of p24-specific antibodies in control of clade C HIV-1 infection.

  16. Effects of dietary CLA supplementation, parity and different concentrate levels before calving on immunoglobulin G1, G2 and M concentrations in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Melanie; Horn, Jana; Hussen, Jamal; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Scharf, Maria; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Bostedt, Hartwig; Breves, Gerhard

    2017-10-01

    Peripartal dairy cows exhibit a higher susceptibility for infectious diseases, which might be linked to the negative energy balance occurring at the onset of lactation. A dietary supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) may reduce milk fat yield and subsequently lower the energy deficit. The utilization of immunoglobulins (Ig) for colostrogenesis might impair humoral immunity in peripartal dairy cows; therefore this study investigated the effects of a CLA supplement, parity and different dietary energy levels on plasma and colostrum IgG1, IgG2 and IgM levels in dairy cows and their calves. Blood samples were collected from 64 cows from 21days before until 56days after parturition and colostrum samples for the first 3days of lactation. Plasma immunoglobulin concentrations of 19 calves were determined before colostrum uptake. Neither plasma IgG1, nor IgG2 levels were affected by CLA or dietary energy level. However, immunoglobulin levels were affected by parity. Heifers possessed the lowest IgG1 concentrations. IgG2 concentrations were highest in cows with 2 lactations prior to parturition and in heifers after parturition. Plasma IgM levels were characterized by a sharp decrease 3days prior to parturition and were scarcely affected by the feeding regimen or parity. Generally, immunoglobulin levels appear to be mostly independent from the peripartal energy balance of the cows and are not influenced by dietary CLA. However, pronounced differences among parities for IgG1 and IgG2 were revealed which should be further evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Spent fuel drying system test results (second dry-run)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks have been detected in the basins and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the second dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. With the concurrence of project management, the test protoc